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Sample records for aminobutyric acid

  1. Production of gaba (γ - aminobutyric acid) by microorganisms: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Radhika Dhakal; Bajpai, Vivek K.; Kwang-Hyun Baek

    2012-01-01

    GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is a four carbon non-protein amino acid that is widely distributed in plants, animals and microorganisms. As a metabolic product of plants and microorganisms produced by the decarboxylation of glutamic acid, GABA functions as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain that directly affects the personality and the stress management. A wide range of traditional foods produced by microbial fermentation contain GABA, in which GABA is safe and eco-friendly, and als...

  2. Production of gaba (γ - aminobutyric acid) by microorganisms: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Radhika Dhakal; Bajpai, Vivek K.; Kwang-Hyun Baek

    2012-01-01

    GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is a four carbon non-protein amino acid that is widely distributed in plants, animals and microorganisms. As a metabolic product of plants and microorganisms produced by the decarboxylation of glutamic acid, GABA functions as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain that directly affects the personality and the stress management. A wide range of traditional foods produced by microbial fermentation contain GABA, in which GABA is safe and eco-friendly, and also has...

  3. Gamma-aminobutyric acid promotes human hepatocellular carcinoma growth through overexpressed gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor α3 subunit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression pattern of gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptors in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and indicate the relationship among gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), gamrna-aminobutyric acid A receptor α3 subunit (GABRA3) and HCC.METHODS: HCC cell line Chang, HepG2, normal liver cell line L-02 and 8 samples of HCC tissues and paired non-cancerous tissues were analyzed with semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the expression of GABAA receptors. HepG2 cells were treated with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at serial concentrations (0, 1, 10, 20, 40 and 60 μmol/L), and their proliferating abilities were analyzed with the 3-(4, 5-methylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, cell doubling time test, colon formation assay, cell cycle analysis and tumor planted in nude mice. Small interfering RNA was used for knocking down the endogenous GABRA3 in HepG2. oliferating abilities of these cells treated with or without GABA were analyzed.RESULTS: We identified the overexpression of GABRA3 in HCC cells. Knockdown of endogenous GABRA3 expression in HepG2 attenuated HCC cell growth, suggesting its role in HCC cell viability. We determined the in vitro and in vivo effect of GABA in the proliferation of GABRA3-positive cell lines, and found that GABA increased HCC growth in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, the addition of GABA into the cell culture medium promoted the proliferation of GABRA3-expressing HepG2 cells, but not GABRA3-knockdown HepG2 cells. This means that GABA stimulates HepG2 cell growth through GABRA3. CONCLUSION: GABA and GABRA3 play important roles in HCC development and progression and can be a promising molecular target for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for HCC.

  4. gamma-Aminobutyric acid stimulates ethylene biosynthesis in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), a nonprotein amino acid, is often accumulated in plants following environmental stimuli that can also cause ethylene production. We have investigated the relationship between GABA and ethylene production in excised sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) tissues. Exogenous GABA causes up to a 14-fold increase in the ethylene production rate after about 12 h. Cotyledons fed with [14C]GABA did not release substantial amounts of radioactive ethylene despite its chemical similarity to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), indicating that GABA is not likely to be an alternative precursor for ethylene. GABA causes increases in ACC synthase mRNA accumulation, ACC levels, ACC oxidase mRNA levels, and in vitro ACC oxidase activity. In the presence of aminoethoxyvinylglycine or alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, GABA did not stimulate ethylene production. We therefore conclude that GABA stimulates ethylene biosynthesis mainly by promoting ACC synthase transcript abundance. Possible roles of GABA as a signal transducer are suggested

  5. The four human ¿-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Trine; Christiansen, Bolette; Jensen, Anders Asbjørn;

    2009-01-01

    The neurotransmission mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the mammalian brain is terminated by a family of four GABA transporters (GATs). Inhibition of GATs is currently used in the treatment of epilepsy and these proteins are generally considered as important drug targets. In this study......, we perform the first elaborate pharmacological characterization of all four human GAT subtypes. We conduct the experiments in parallel in a [3H]GABA uptake assay using 14 standard GAT substrates and inhibitors. This setup enables direct comparison of the absolute values of inhibitory activities of...... subtype, no subtype selective ligands have been reported for the three remaining GATs. Given the potential therapeutic relevance of the individual GAT subtypes, a search for novel structures displaying selectivities for specific GAT subtypes is important. In this study, we validate our [3H]GABA uptake...

  6. Production of gamma-aminobutyric acid by Lactobacillus brevis NCL912 using fed-batch fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Guidong

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gamma-aminobutyric acid is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in mammalian brains, and has several well-known physiological functions. Lactic acid bacteria possess special physiological activities and are generally regarded as safe. Therefore, using lactic acid bacteria as cell factories for gamma-aminobutyric acid production is a fascinating project and opens up a vast range of prospects for making use of GABA and LAB. We previously screened a high GABA-producer Lactobacillus brevis NCL912 and optimized its fermentation medium composition. The results indicated that the strain showed potential in large-scale fermentation for the production of gamma-aminobutyric acid. To increase the yielding of GABA, further study on the fermentation process is needed before the industrial application in the future. In this article we investigated the impacts of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, pH, temperature and initial glutamate concentration on gamma-aminobutyric acid production by Lactobacillus brevis NCL912 in flask cultures. According to the data obtained in the above, a simple and effective fed-batch fermentation method was developed to highly efficiently convert glutamate to gamma-aminobutyric acid. Results Pyridoxal-5'-phosphate did not affect the cell growth and gamma-aminobutyric acid production of Lb. brevis NCL912. Temperature, pH and initial glutamate concentration had significant effects on the cell growth and gamma-aminobutyric acid production of Lb. brevis NCL912. The optimal temperature, pH and initial glutamate concentration were 30-35°C, 5.0 and 250-500 mM. In the following fed-batch fermentations, temperature, pH and initial glutamate concentration were fixed as 32°C, 5.0 and 400 mM. 280.70 g (1.5 mol and 224.56 g (1.2 mol glutamate were supplemented into the bioreactor at 12 h and 24 h, respectively. Under the selected fermentation conditions, gamma-aminobutyric acid was rapidly produced at the first 36 h and almost not

  7. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA in cerebrospinal fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuroda,Hiroo

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available Levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF were measured by radioreceptor assay (RRA in 25 normal controls and in 121 patients with various central nervous system disorders. CSF-GABA levels could be measured down to 5 pmoles/ml reliably by this assay. In normal controls, the mean (+/- SEM GABA level in CSF was 127 +/- 5.2 pmoles/ml. There was no correlation between age, sex and the CSF-GABA level in normal controls. The lowest CSF-GABA level, which was 60 +/- 6.0 pmoles/ml, was observed in alcoholic patients suffering from cerebellar ataxia. The CSF-GABA levels were quite low in patients with Alzheimer's disease, late cortical cerebellar atrophy, neuro-Behcet's syndrome, olivopontocerebellar atrophy, Huntington's chorea, Parkinson's disease and cerebral hemorrhage. On the other hand, the CSF-GABA levels of meningitis patients were significantly increased. These findings suggest that measuring the CSF-GABA level is quite beneficial in the diagnosis and pathophysiological determinations of some diseases.

  8. Transgenic mice overexpressing γ-aminobutyric acid transporter subtype I develop obesity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Transgenic mice ubiquitously overexpressing murine γaminobutyric acid transporter subtype I were created. Unexpectedly, these mice markedly exhibited heritable obesity,which features significantly increased body weight and fat deposition. Behavioral examination revealed that transgenic mice have slightly reduced spontaneous locomotive capacity and altered feeding pattern. This preliminary finding indicates that the inappropriate level of γ-aminobutyric acid transporters may be directly or indirectly involved in the pathogenic mechanism underlying certain types of obesity.

  9. Transgenic mice overexpressing γ—aminobutyric acid transporter subtype I develop obesity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAYINGHUA; ZHENTONGMEI; 等

    2000-01-01

    Transgenic mice ubiquitously overexpressing murine γ-aminobutyric acid transporter subtype I were created.Unexpectedly,these mice markedly exhibited heritable obesity,which features significantly increased body weight and fat deposition.Behavioral examination revealed that transgenic mice have slightly reduced spontaneous locomotive capacity and altered feeding pattern.This preliminary finding indicates that the inappropriate level of γ-aminobutyric acid transporters may be directly or indirectly involved in the pathogenic mechanism underlying certain types of obesity.

  10. Submerged fermentation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9 for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production

    OpenAIRE

    Qian Lin

    2013-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in central nervous system, and its application in drugs and functional foods has attracted great attention. To enhance production of y-aminobutyric acid, Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9, a strain isolated from Chinese traditional fermented food pickled vegetable, was grown under submerged fermentation. Its cultivation conditions were investigated. When culture pH condition was adjusted to the optimal pH of glutamate decarboxyl...

  11. Submerged fermentation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9 for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production

    OpenAIRE

    Qian Lin

    2013-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in central nervous system, and its application in drugs and functional foods has attracted great attention. To enhance production of y-aminobutyric acid, Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9, a strain isolated from Chinese traditional fermented food pickled vegetable, was grown under submerged fermentation. Its cultivation conditions were investigated. When culture pH condition was adjusted to the optimal pH of glutamate decarboxylase a...

  12. Submerged fermentation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9 for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in central nervous system, and its application in drugs and functional foods has attracted great attention. To enhance production of y-aminobutyric acid, Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9, a strain isolated from Chinese traditional fermented food pickled vegetable, was grown under submerged fermentation. Its cultivation conditions were investigated. When culture pH condition was adjusted to the optimal pH of glutamate decarboxylase activity, culture of Lb. rhamnosus YS9 in medium supplemented with 200 mM of monosodium glutamate and 200 µM of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP, produced 187 mM of GABA.

  13. Reduced gamma-aminobutyric acid concentration is associated with physical disability in progressive multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, Niamh; Solanky, Bhavana S; Muhlert, Nils; Tur, Carmen; Edden, Richard A E; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Miller, David H; Thompson, Alan J; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2015-09-01

    Neurodegeneration is thought to be the major cause of ongoing, irreversible disability in progressive stages of multiple sclerosis. Gamma-aminobutyric acid is the principle inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. The aims of this study were to investigate if gamma-aminobutyric acid levels (i) are abnormal in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis compared with healthy controls; and (ii) correlate with physical and cognitive performance in this patient population. Thirty patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and 17 healthy control subjects underwent single-voxel MEGA-PRESS (MEscher-GArwood Point RESolved Spectroscopy) magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 T, to quantify gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in the prefrontal cortex, right hippocampus and left sensorimotor cortex. All subjects were assessed clinically and underwent a cognitive assessment. Multiple linear regression models were used to compare differences in gamma-aminobutyric acid concentrations between patients and controls adjusting for age, gender and tissue fractions within each spectroscopic voxel. Regression was used to examine the relationships between the cognitive function and physical disability scores specific for these regions with gamma-aminobuytric acid levels, adjusting for age, gender, and total N-acetyl-aspartate and glutamine-glutamate complex levels. When compared with controls, patients performed significantly worse on all motor and sensory tests, and were cognitively impaired in processing speed and verbal memory. Patients had significantly lower gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in the hippocampus (adjusted difference = -0.403 mM, 95% confidence intervals -0.792, -0.014, P = 0.043) and sensorimotor cortex (adjusted difference = -0.385 mM, 95% confidence intervals -0.667, -0.104, P = 0.009) compared with controls. In patients, reduced motor function in the right upper and lower limb was associated with lower gamma-aminobutyric acid concentration in the

  14. The gamma-aminobutyric acid shunt contributes to closing the tricarboxylic acid cycle in Synechocystis sp PCC 6803

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, W; Brune, D; Vermaas, WFJ

    2014-07-16

    A traditional 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex is missing in the cyanobacterial tricarboxylic acid cycle. To determine pathways that convert 2-oxoglutarate into succinate in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, a series of mutant strains, Delta sll1981, Delta slr0370, Delta slr1022 and combinations thereof, deficient in 2-oxoglutarate decarboxylase (Sll1981), succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (Slr0370), and/or in gamma-aminobutyrate metabolism (Slr1022) were constructed. Like in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, N-acetylornithine aminotransferase, encoded by slr1022, was shown to also function as gamma-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, catalysing gamma-aminobutyrate conversion to succinic semialdehyde. As succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase converts succinic semialdehyde to succinate, an intact gamma-aminobutyrate shunt is present in Synechocystis. The Delta sll1981 strain, lacking 2-oxoglutarate decarboxylase, exhibited a succinate level that was 60% of that in wild type. However, the succinate level in the Delta slr1022 and Delta slr0370 strains and the Delta sll1981/Delta slr1022 and Delta sll1981/Delta slr0370 double mutants was reduced to 20-40% of that in wild type, suggesting that the gamma-aminobutyrate shunt has a larger impact on metabolite flux to succinate than the pathway via 2-oxoglutarate decarboxylase. C-13-stable isotope analysis indicated that the gamma-aminobutyrate shunt catalysed conversion of glutamate to succinate. Independent of the 2-oxoglutarate decarboxylase bypass, the gamma-aminobutyrate shunt is a major contributor to flux from 2-oxoglutarate and glutamate to succinate in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

  15. Thermophysical property characterization of aqueous amino acid salt solutions containing α-aminobutyric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Thermophysical properties of aqueous potassium and sodium salt solutions of α-aminobutyric acid were studied. • Density, electrolytic conductivity, refractive index, and viscosity of the solution were measured. • The concentrations of amino acid salt ranges from x1 = 0.009 to 0.06. • The temperature range studied was (303.15 to 343.15) K. • The measured data were represented satisfactorily by using the applied correlations. - Abstract: In this study, density, electrical conductivity, refractive index and viscosity of aqueous potassium and sodium salt solutions of α-aminobutyric acid were presented. Measurements were done over the temperature range (303.15 to 343.15) K and atmospheric pressure for salt compositions from x1 = 0.009 to 0.062. A modified Graber et al. equation was used to correlate the density, electrical conductivity, and refractive index with temperature and composition leading to average absolute deviations (AAD) between the predicted and calculated values of 0.04%, 0.7%, and 0.01%, respectively. The viscosity data were represented as a function of temperature and composition via Vogel–Tamman–Fulcher (VTF) type equation at an AAD of 0.6%

  16. γ-Aminobutyric acid transporter (GAT1) overexpression in mouse affects the testicular morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid and GABAergic receptors were previously reported to be distributed in reproductive sys tems besides CNS and predicted to participate in the mod ulation of testicular function. γ-Aminobutyric acid trans porter was implicated to be involved in this process. How ever, the potential role of γ-aminobutyric transporter in testis has not been explored. In this study, we investi gated the existence of mouse γ-aminobutyric acid trans porter subtype I (mGAT1) in testis. Wild-type and trans genic mice, which overexpressing mGAT1 in a variety of tissues, especially in testis, were primarily studied to ap proach the profile of mGAT1 in testis. Mice with overex pressed mGAT1 develop normally but with reduced mass and size of testis as compared with wild-type. Testicu lar morphology of transgenic mice exhibited overt abnor malities including focal damage of the spermatogenic ep ithelium accompanied by capillaries proliferation and in creased diameter of seminiferous tubules lumen. Reduced number of spermatids was also found in some seminiferous tubules. Our results clearly demonstrate the presence of GAT1 in mouse testis and imply that GAT1 is possibly involved in testicular function.

  17. gamma-Aminobutyric acid antagonists decrease junctional communication between L-horizontal cells of the retina.

    OpenAIRE

    Piccolino, M; Neyton, J; Witkovsky, P; Gerschenfeld, H M

    1982-01-01

    The antagonists of gamma-aminobutyric acid, bicuculline and picrotoxin, were found to narrow the receptive field profile of the large field horizontal cell (L1HC) in the turtle retina when added to the perfusion medium in micromolar concentrations. The coupling resistance between neighboring L1HCs was increased by bicuculline or picrotoxin. Under control conditions, the dye Lucifer yellow injected into one L1HC diffused into a large number of neighboring L1HCs; bicuculline or picrotoxin great...

  18. Synthesis of biobased N-methylpyrrolidone by one-pot cyclization and methylation of c-aminobutyric acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, T.M.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    N-Methylpyrrolidone (NMP) is an industrial solvent that is currently based on fossil resources. In order to prepare it in a biobased way, the possibility to synthesize NMP from -aminobutyric acid (GABA) was investigated, since GABA can be obtained from glutamic acid, an amino acid that is present in

  19. CHANGES IN SELECTIVITY OF GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID FORMATION EFFECTED BY FERMENTATION CONDITIONS AND MICROORGANISMS RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Kamila Kovalovská; Róbert Mazur; Jozef Hudec

    2011-01-01

    In this study we observe the effect of fermentation conditions and resources of microorganisms for production of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The content of produced GABA depends on various conditions such as the amount of precursor, an addition of salt, enzyme and the effect of pH. The highest selectivity of GABA (74.0 %) from the precursor (L-monosodium glutamate) has been determinate in the follow conditions: in the presence of pre-cultured microorganisms from Encián cheese in amount 1.66 %...

  20. Gamma-aminobutyric-acid-B receptor antibodies in limbic encephalitis with small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Qin Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Encephalitis associated with antibodies to gamma-aminobutyric-acid B (GABA-B is a subgroup of autoimmune synaptic encephalitis with typical features of limbic encephalitis and small cell lung cancer (SCLC. We report a case of anti-GABA-B receptor encephalitis in a 57-year-old man who presented with seizures, memory loss, and abnormal behavior. He developed partially neurological responses to immunotherapy, but refused comprehensive tumor screening. The symptoms were aggravated again 4 months later. Workup showed antibodies to GABA-B receptors and tumor screening revealed SCLC. It highlights the importance of early screening of underlying tumor and anti-tumor treatment in paraneoplastic cases.

  1. Gama-aminobutyric acid accumulation in Elsholtzia splendens in response to copper toxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-e; PENG Hong-yun; TIAN Sheng-ke

    2005-01-01

    A solution with different Cu supply levels was cultured to investigate gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation in Elsholtzia splendens, a native Chinese Cu-tolerant and accumulating plant species. Increasing Cu from 0.25 to 500 ?mol/L significantly enhanced levels of GABA and histidine (His), but considerably decreased levels of aspartate (Asp) and glutamate (Glu) in the leaves. The leaf Asp level negatively correlated with leaf Cu level, while leaf GABA level positively correlated with leaf Cu level. The leaf Glu level negatively correlated with leaf GABA level in Elsholtzia splendens. The depletion of leaf Glu may be related to the enhanced synthesis ofleafGABA under Cu stress.

  2. Application of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A-benzodiazepine receptor imaging for study of neuropsychiatric disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A-benzodiazepine receptors are heterogeneous polypeptide pentamers widely spread in the central nervous system on the neuron membrane. Different subunit combinations educe various neuro-inhibitory pharmacological effects such as sedative, hypnosis, anticonvulsion and anxiolysis. PET can be utilized to study the binding of the receptors in vivo. PET radioligands of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A-benzodiazepine receptors can be classified into 3 types: antagonists,agonists and reverse agonists, of which antagonist radiotracer 11C-flumazenil is the most commonly applied in epilepsy, anxiety disorders, depression, vegetative state,addiction and other neuro-psychiatric disorders. (authors)

  3. Regional selectivity of a gamma-aminobutyric acid-induced (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine release sensitive to inhibitors of gamma-aminobutyric acid uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanno, G.; Raiteri, M.

    1987-05-01

    The effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the release of (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine ((/sup 3/H)ACh) were studied in synaptosomes prepared from rat hippocampus, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, and striatum and prelabelled with (/sup 3/H)choline. When synaptosomes were exposed in superfusion to exogenous GABA (0.01-0.3 mM) the basal release of newly synthesized (/sup 3/H)ACh was increased in a concentration-dependent way in hippocampus, cortex, and hypothalamus nerve endings. In contrast, the release of (/sup 3/H)ACh was not significantly affected by GABA in striatal synaptosomes. The effect of GABA was not antagonized significantly by bicuculline or picrotoxin. Muscimol caused only a slight not significant increase of (/sup 3/H)ACh release when tested at 0.3 mM whereas, at this concentration, (-)-baclofen was totally inactive. The GABA-induced release of (/sup 3/H)ACh was counteracted by SKF 89976A, SKF 100561, and SKF 100330A, three strong and selective GABA uptake inhibitors. The data suggest that, in selective areas of the rat brain, GABA causes release of (/sup 3/H)ACh following penetration into cholinergic nerve terminals through a GABA transport system.

  4. Effect of brain-derived neurotropic factor released from hypoxic astrocytes on gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor function in normal hippocampal neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongliang Liu; Tijun Dai

    2011-01-01

    Astrocytes can release increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor during cerebral ischemia, but it is unclear whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor affects γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor function in normal neurons. Results from this study demonstrated that γ-aminobutyric acid at 100 μmol/L concentration raised the intracellular calcium level in neurons treated with medium from cultured hypoxic astrocytes, and the rise in calcium level could be inhibited by γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor antagonist bicuculline or brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor antagonist k252a. Γ-aminobutyric acid type A-gated current induced by 100 μmol/L γ-aminobutyric acid was in an inward direction in physiological conditions, but shifted to the outward direction in neurons when treated with the medium from cultured hypoxic astrocytes, and this effect could be inhibited by k252a. The reverse potential was shifted leftward to -93 Mv, which could be inhibited by k252a and Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporter inhibitor bumetanide. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor was released from hypoxic astrocytes at a high level. It shifted the reverse potential of γ-aminobutyric acid type A-gated currents leftward in normal neurons by enhancing the function of Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporter, and caused γ-aminobutyric acid to exert an excitatory effect by activating γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor.

  5. Succinic semialdehyde as a substrate for the formation of gamma-aminobutyric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Bemmelen, F.J.; Schouten, M.J.; Fekkes, D.; Bruinvels, J.

    1985-11-01

    The conversion of succinic semialdehyde into gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by GABA-transaminase was measured in rat brain homogenate in the presence of different concentrations of the cosubstrate glutamate. The calculated kinetic parameters of succinic semialdehyde for GABA-transaminase were a limiting Km value of 168 microM and a limiting Vmax value of 38 mumol g-1 h-1. Combination with previously obtained data for the conversion of GABA into succinic semialdehyde revealed a kEq value of 0.04, indicating that equilibrium of GABA-transaminase is biased toward the formation of GABA. The increased formation of GABA in the presence of succinic semialdehyde was not due to an increased conversion of glutamate into GABA by glutamic acid decarboxylase. Therefore these results indicate that succinic semialdehyde can act as a precursor for GABA synthesis.

  6. Succinic semialdehyde as a substrate for the formation of gamma-aminobutyric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bemmelen, F J; Schouten, M J; Fekkes, D; Bruinvels, J

    1985-11-01

    The conversion of succinic semialdehyde into gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by GABA-transaminase was measured in rat brain homogenate in the presence of different concentrations of the cosubstrate glutamate. The calculated kinetic parameters of succinic semialdehyde for GABA-transaminase were a limiting Km value of 168 microM and a limiting Vmax value of 38 mumol g-1 h-1. Combination with previously obtained data for the conversion of GABA into succinic semialdehyde revealed a kEq value of 0.04, indicating that equilibrium of GABA-transaminase is biased toward the formation of GABA. The increased formation of GABA in the presence of succinic semialdehyde was not due to an increased conversion of glutamate into GABA by glutamic acid decarboxylase. Therefore these results indicate that succinic semialdehyde can act as a precursor for GABA synthesis. PMID:2864395

  7. Beta-aminobutyric acid priming of plant defense: the role of ABA and other hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccelli, Ivan; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte

    2016-08-01

    Plants are exposed to recurring biotic and abiotic stresses that can, in extreme situations, lead to substantial yield losses. With the changing environment, the stress pressure is likely to increase and sustainable measures to alleviate the effect on our crops are sought. Priming plants for better stress resistance is one of the sustainable possibilities to reach this goal. Here, we report on the effects of beta-aminobutyric acid, a priming agent with an exceptionally wide range of action and describe its way of preparing plants to defend themselves against various attacks, among others through the modulation of their hormonal defense signaling, and highlight the special role of abscisic acid in this process. PMID:26584561

  8. Effects of Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii extracts on gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha 1 subunit brain expression during development in a recurrent seizure rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liqun Liu; Ding'an Mao; Keqiang Chi; Xingfang Li; Tao Bo; Jinming Guo; Zhuwen Yi

    2011-01-01

    Extracts from Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii (Grassleaf Sweetflag Rhizome, Shichangpu) have been shown to improve learning and memory, reduce anxiety, allay excitement, and suppress seizures. Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii extracts interact with γ-aminobutyric acid and activate the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor, although few studies have addressed the precise effects of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor α1 subunit. In the present study, γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor α1 subunit protein expression in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and pathological scores of brain injury, were significantly greater following recurrent seizures, but significantly decreased following treatment with Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii extracts. These results indicated that Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii extracts down-regulated γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor α1 subunit protein expression in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus and protected seizure-induced brain injury during development.

  9. Conformational basis for the Li(+)-induced leak current in the rat gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacAulay, Nanna; Zeuthen, Thomas; Gether, Ulrik

    The rat gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter-1 (GAT-1) was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and the substrate-independent Li(+)-induced leak current was examined using two-electrode voltage clamp. The leak current was not affected by the addition of GABA and was not due to H(+) permeation. The Li...

  10. Dendritic Assembly of Heteromeric γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type B Receptor Subunits in Hippocampal NeuronsS⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez, Omar A.; Vidal, René L.; Tello, Judith A.; Vargas, Karina J.; Kindler, Stefan; Härtel, Steffen; Couve, Andrés

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that control synaptic efficacy through the availability of neurotransmitter receptors depends on uncovering their specific intracellular trafficking routes. γ-Aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB) receptors (GABABRs) are obligatory heteromers present at dendritic excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic sites. It is unknown whether synthesis and assembly of GABABRs occur in the somatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) followed by vesicular transport to ...

  11. Cloning and characterization of a functional human ¿-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter, human GAT-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Bolette; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Jensen, Anders A.;

    2007-01-01

    aim of this study therefore was to search for this fourth missing human transporter. Using a bioinformatics approach, we successfully identified and cloned the full-length cDNA of a so far uncharacterized human GABA transporter (GAT). The predicted protein displays high sequence similarity to rat GAT...... dependent on both Na(+) and Cl(-). Pharmacologically the transporter is distinct from the other human GABA transporters and similar to rat GAT-2 and mouse GAT3 with high sensitivity toward GABA and beta-alanine. Furthermore the GABA transport inhibitor (S)-SNAP-5114 displayed some inhibitory activity at the......Plasma membrane gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporters act to terminate GABA neurotransmission in the mammalian brain. Intriguingly four distinct GABA transporters have been cloned from rat and mouse, whereas only three functional homologs of these transporters have been cloned from human. The...

  12. Chronic caffeine or theophylline exposure reduces gamma-aminobutyric acid/benzodiazepine receptor site interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, D J; Schiller, G D; Farb, D H

    1988-05-01

    Methylxanthines, such as caffeine and theophylline, are adenosine receptor antagonists that exert dramatic effects upon the behavior of vertebrate animals by increasing attentiveness, anxiety, and convulsive activity. Benzodiazepines, such as flunitrazepam, generally exert behavioral effects that are opposite to those of methylxanthines. We report the finding that chronic exposure of embryonic brain neurons to caffeine or theophylline reduces the ability of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to potentiate the binding of [3H]flunitrazepam to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor. This theophylline-induced "uncoupling" of GABA- and benzodiazepine-binding site allosteric interactions is blocked by chloroadenosine, an adenosine receptor agonist, indicating that the chronic effects of theophylline are mediated by a site that resembles an adenosine receptor. We speculate that adverse central nervous system effects of long-term exposure to methylxanthines such as in caffeine-containing beverages or theophylline-containing medications may be exerted by a cell-mediated modification of the GABAA receptor. PMID:2835648

  13. Detection of Glutamate and γ-aminobutyric Acid in Vitreous of Patients with Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Deng; De-Zheng Wu; Rulong Gao

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To study the levels of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in vitreous of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR) and to investigate their roles in retinal ischemia.Method: Vitreous samples were collected from 25 patients (27 eyes) with PDR and 14patients ( 14 eyes) with idiopathic macular hole. Glutamate and GABA detection were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).Results: Patients with PDR had significantly higher concentrations of glutamate and GABA than the control group. The glutamate level has a significantly positive correlation with GABA level.Conclusion: Detection of glutamate and GABA in vitreous provides biochemical support for the mechanism and treatment of ischemic retinal damage in patients with PDR.

  14. Optimization of γ-Aminobutyric Acid Production by Lactobacillus plantarum Taj-Apis362 from Honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Tajabadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dominant strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from honey bees were evaluated for their γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-producing ability. Out of 24 strains, strain Taj-Apis362 showed the highest GABA-producing ability (1.76 mM in MRS broth containing 50 mM initial glutamic acid cultured for 60 h. Effects of fermentation parameters, including initial glutamic acid level, culture temperature, initial pH and incubation time on GABA production were investigated via a single parameter optimization strategy. The optimal fermentation condition for GABA production was modeled using response surface methodology (RSM. The results showed that the culture temperature was the most significant factor for GABA production. The optimum conditions for maximum GABA production by Lactobacillus plantarum Taj-Apis362 were an initial glutamic acid concentration of 497.97 mM, culture temperature of 36 °C, initial pH of 5.31 and incubation time of 60 h, which produced 7.15 mM of GABA. The value is comparable with the predicted value of 7.21 mM.

  15. Effects of the gamma-aminobutyrate transaminase inhibitors gabaculine and gamma-vinyl GABA on gamma-aminobutyric acid release from slices of rat cerebral cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of [3H]gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from pre-loaded slices of rat cerebral cortex was investigated in the presence and absence of the GABA-transaminase inhibitors gabaculine and gamma-vinyl GABA. In the experiments carried out without an inhibitor, an ion-exchange column chromatographic technique was used to separate [3H]GABA from tritiated metabolites released with it into the superfusate. The presence of gabaculine (5 microM) substantially reduced the Ca2+-dependence of the release of [3H]GABA evoked by a 4 min 30 mM K+ pulse, whereas this was not appreciably reduced by the presence of gamma-vinyl GABA (2 mM or 10 mM). Nevertheless, the characteristics of [3H]GABA release were not identical in the presence and absence of either inhibitor

  16. Current Perspective on the Location and Function of Gamma- Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) and its Metabolic Partners in the Kidney.

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Kadeshia; Peppiatt-Wildman, Claire M.; Kelley, Stephen P; Wildman, Scott S.P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter located in the mammalian central nervous system, which binds to GABAA and GABAB receptors to mediate its neurological effects. In addition to its role in the CNS, an increasing number of publications have suggested that GABA might also play a role in the regulation of renal function. All three enzymes associated with GABA metabolism; glutamic acid decarboxylase, GABA α-oxoglutarate transaminase (GABA-T) and succinic se...

  17. An autocrine γ-aminobutyric acid signaling system exists in pancreatic β-cell progenitors of fetal and postnatal mice

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Mary M; Xiang, Yun-Yan; Wang, Shuanglian; Lu, Wei-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is produced and secreted by adult pancreatic β-cells, which also express GABA receptors mediating autocrine signaling and regulating β-cell proliferation. However, whether the autocrine GABA signaling involves in β-cell progenitor development or maturation remains uncertain. By means of immunohistochemistry we analyzed the expression profiles of the GABA synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and the α1-subunit of type-A GABA receptor (GABAARα1) i...

  18. A validated method for gas chromatographic analysis of gamma-aminobutyric acid in tall fescue herbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Isabelle A; Coe, Brenda L; Smith, Lori L; Huo, Cheng-Jun; Dougherty, Charles T; Strickland, James R

    2008-07-23

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in animals that is also found in plants and has been associated with plant responses to stress. A simple and relatively rapid method of GABA separation and quantification was developed from a commercially available kit for serum amino acids (Phenomenex EZ:faast) and validated for tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Extraction in ethanol/water (80:20, v/v) at ambient temperature yielded detectable amounts of GABA. Clean separation from other amino acids in 28 min was achieved by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection (FID), using a 30 m, 5% phenyl/95% dimethylpolysiloxane column. The identity of the putative GABA peak was confirmed by GC with mass spectrometric (MS) detection. The relatively small effects of the sample matrix on GABA measurement were verified by demonstrating slope parallelism of GABA curves prepared in the presence and absence of fescue extracts. Limits of quantification and detection were 2.00 and 1.00 nmol/100 microL, respectively. Method recoveries at two different spike levels were 96.4 and 94.2%, with coefficients of variation of 7.3 and 7.2%, respectively. PMID:18558696

  19. Evolution of neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid,glutamate and their receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiheng GOU; Xiao WANG; Wen WANG

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate are two important amino acid neurotransmitters widely present in the nervous systems of ammals,insects,round worm,and platyhelminths,while their receptors are quite diversified across different animal phyla.However,the evolutionary mechanisms between the two conserved neurotransmitters and their diversified receptors remain elusive,and antagonistic interactions between GABA and glutamate signal transduction systems,in particular,have begun to attract significant attention.In this review,we summarize the extant results on the origin and evolution of GABA and glutamate,as well as their receptors,and analyze possible evolutionary processes and phylogenetic relationships of various GABAs and glutamate receptors.We further discuss the evolutionary history of Excitatory/Neutral Amino Acid Transporter (EAAT),a transport protein,which plays an important role in the GABA-glutamate "yin and yang" balanced regulation.Finally,based on current advances,we propose several potential directions of future research.

  20. Evaluation of improved γ-aminobutyric acid production in yogurt using Lactobacillus plantarum NDC75017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Y; Man, C X; Han, X; Li, L; Guo, Y; Deng, Y; Li, T; Zhang, L W; Jiang, Y J

    2015-04-01

    Most γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing microorganisms are lactic acid bacteria (LAB), but the yield of GABA is limited in most of these GABA-producing strains. In this study, the production of GABA was carried out by using Lactobacillus plantarum NDC75017, a strain screened from traditional fermented dairy products in China. Concentrations of substrate (l-monosodium glutamate, L-MSG) and coenzyme (pyridoxal-5-phosphate, PLP) of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and culture temperature were investigated to evaluate their effects on GABA yield of Lb. plantarum NDC75017. The results indicated that GABA production was related to GAD activity and biomass of Lb. plantarum NDC75017. Response surface methodology was used to optimize conditions of GABA production. The optimal factors for GABA production were L-MSG at 80 mM, PLP at 18 μM, and a culture temperature of 36 °C. Under these conditions, production of GABA was maximized at 314.56 mg/100 g. Addition of Lb. plantarum NDC75017 to a commercial starter culture led to higher GABA production in fermented yogurt. Flavor and texture of the prepared yogurt and the control yogurt did not differ significantly. Thus, Lb. plantarum NDC75017 has good potential for manufacture of GABA-enriched fermented milk products. PMID:25622870

  1. Effects of traditionally used anxiolytic botanicals on enzymes of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, R; Levac, D; Cybulska, P; Merali, Z; Trudeau, V L; Arnason, J T

    2007-09-01

    In Canada, the use of botanical natural health products (NHPs) for anxiety disorders is on the rise, and a critical evaluation of their safety and efficacy is required. The purpose of this study was to determine whether commercially available botanicals directly affect the primary brain enzymes responsible for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism. Anxiolytic plants may interact with either glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) or GABA transaminase (GABA-T) and ultimately influence brain GABA levels and neurotransmission. Two in vitro rat brain homogenate assays were developed to determine the inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of aqueous and ethanolic plant extracts. Approximately 70% of all extracts that were tested showed little or no inhibitory effect (IC50 values greater than 1 mg/mL) and are therefore unlikely to affect GABA metabolism as tested. The aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) exhibited the greatest inhibition of GABA-T activity (IC50 = 0.35 mg/mL). Extracts from Centella asiatica (gotu kola) and Valeriana officinalis (valerian) stimulated GAD activity by over 40% at a dose of 1 mg/mL. On the other hand, both Matricaria recutita (German chamomile) and Humulus lupulus (hops) showed significant inhibition of GAD activity (0.11-0.65 mg/mL). Several of these species may therefore warrant further pharmacological investigation. The relation between enzyme activity and possible in vivo mode of action is discussed. PMID:18066140

  2. The synthesis and biodistribution of 3-(4'-[125I]-iodophenyl)-4-aminobutyric acid, a radioiodinated analogue of baclofen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baclofen has been found to bind to receptors in the central nervous system that are specific for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a well known inhibitory neurotransmitter. This paper describes the synthesis of a radioiodinated analog of baclofen as part of an effort to develop receptor probes useful in single photon emission computed tomography. Preliminary biodistribution studies showed the radioiodinationed analog to be essentially stable to in vivo deiodination and have a distribution profile similar to that of baclofen. (Author)

  3. Synaptic and extrasynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor clusters in rat hippocampal cultures during development

    OpenAIRE

    Scotti, Alessandra L.; Reuter, Harald

    2001-01-01

    We have simultaneously measured the expression of postsynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor clusters and of presynaptic boutons in neonatal rat hippocampal cultures between days 1 and 30. GABAA receptors were labeled with antibodies recognizing the extracellular domains of β2/3 and γ2 subunits. Boutons were visualized by activity-dependent uptake of the styryl dye FM4-64, or by antibodies against the presynaptic vesicular protein SV2 or the GABA-synt...

  4. Association of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid A Receptor α2 Gene (GABRA2) with Alcohol Use Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dawei.; Sulovari, Arvis; Cheng, Chao; Zhao, Hongyu; Henry R Kranzler; Gelernter, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in mammalian brain. GABA receptor are involved in a number of complex disorders, including substance abuse. No variants of the commonly studied GABA receptor genes that have been associated with substance dependence have been determined to be functional or pathogenic. To reconcile the conflicting associations with substance dependence traits, we performed a meta-analysis of variants in the GABAA receptor genes (GABRB2, GABR...

  5. Impaired reproduction in transgenic mice overexpressing γ-aminobutyric acid transporter I (GAT1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Hua HU; Jin Fu ZHANG; Ying Hua MA; Jie JIANG; Na YANG; Xin Bo LI; Zhi Guang YU CHI; Jian FEI; Li He GUO

    2004-01-01

    It is well documented that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system existed in reproductive organs. Recent researches showed that GABAA and GABAB receptors were present in testis and sperm,and might mediate the acrosome reaction induced by GABA and progesterone. GABA transporter I (GAT1) also existed in testis and sperm,but its physiological function was unknown. In the present study,we used GAT1 overexpressing mice to explore GAT1 function in male reproductive system. We found that the expression level of GAT1 continuously increased in wild-type mouse testis from 1 month to 2 months after birth. GAT1 overexpression in mouse affected testis development,which embodied reduced testis mass and slowed spermatogenesis in transgenic mice. Moreover,transgenic mice showed increase of the percentage of broken sperm. The further study revealed that the reproductive capacity was impaired in GAT1 overexpressing mice. In addition,testosterone level was significantly low in transgenic mice compared with that in wild-type mice. Our findings provided the first evidence that abnormal expression of GAT1 could result in dysgenesis,and indicated that GAT1 might be therapeutically targeted for contraception or dysgenesis treatment.

  6. Effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid on neurally mediated contraction of guinea pig trachealis smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaoki, J; Graf, P D; Nadel, J A

    1987-10-01

    To determine whether gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) affects the contractile properties of airway smooth muscle and, if so, what the mechanism of action is, the authors studied guinea pig tracheal rings under isometric conditions in vitro. GABA and related substances, baclofen and muscimol, had no effect on the resting tension but reversibly depressed contractions induced by electrical field stimulation in a dose-dependent fashion, IC50 values (mean +/- S.E.) being 5.6 +/- 1.4 X 10(-6) M, 6.8 +/- 0.9 X 10(-6) M and 8.5 +/- 1.5 X 10(-5) M, respectively. In contrast, GABA did not alter the response to exogenous acetylcholine or the nonadrenergic noncholinergic inhibitory component. Pretreatment of tissues with bicuculline antagonized the inhibitory effect of GABA as well as that of baclofen. This inhibitory effect was not modified by propranolol, phentolamine, hemicholinium-3 or naloxone, but it was blocked by the Cl channel blocker furosemide and by the substitution of external Cl. These results suggest that GABA decreases the contractile response of airway smooth muscle to cholinergic nerve stimulation by inhibiting the evoked release of acetylcholine and that this effect is exerted by activating Cl-dependent, bicuculline-sensitive GABA receptors. PMID:3668869

  7. [Interactions between dopamine receptor and NMDA/type A γ-aminobutyric acid receptors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Ying; Wei, Ting-Jia; Weng, Jing-Jin; Qin, Jiang-Yuan; Huang, Xi; Su, Ji-Ping

    2016-04-25

    Type A γ-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAAR) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) are the major inhibitory and excitatory receptors in the central nervous system, respectively. Co-expression of the receptors in the synapse may lead to functional influence between receptors, namely receptor interaction. The interactions between GABAAR and NMDAR can be either positive or negative. However, the mechanisms of interaction between the two receptors remain poorly understood, and potential mechanisms include (1) through a second messenger; (2) by receptors trafficking; (3) by direct interaction; (4) by a third receptor-mediation. Dopamine is the most abundant catecholamine neurotransmitter in the brain, and its receptors, dopamine receptors (DR) can activate multiple signaling pathways. Earlier studies on the interaction between DR and GABAAR/NMDAR have shown some underlying mechanisms, suggesting that DR could mediate the interaction between GABAAR and NMDAR. This paper summarized some recent progresses in the studies of the interaction between DR and NMDAR/GABAAR, providing a further understanding on the interaction between NMDAR and GABAAR mediated by DR. PMID:27108906

  8. Potentiation of gamma aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAAR by Ethanol: How are inhibitory receptors affected?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eFörstera

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increase in the understanding of ethanol actions on the type A -aminobutyric acid chloride channel (GABAAR, a member of the pentameric ligand gated ion channels (pLGICs. However, the mechanism by which ethanol potentiates the complex is still not fully understood and a number of publications have shown contradictory results. Thus many questions still remain unresolved requiring further studies for a better comprehension of this effect. The present review concentrates on the involvement of GABAAR in the acute actions of ethanol and specifically focuses on the immediate, direct or indirect, synaptic and extra-synaptic modulatory effects. To elaborate on the immediate, direct modulation of GABAAR by acute ethanol exposure, electrophysiological studies investigating the importance of different subunits, and data from receptor mutants will be examined. We will also discuss the nature of the putative binding sites for ethanol based on structural data obtained from other members of the pLGICs family. Finally, we will briefly highlight the glycine gated chloride channel (GlyR, another member of the pLGIC family, as a suitable target for the development of new pharmacological tools.

  9. Production of gamma-aminobutyric acid by Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus Y2 under submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S-Y; Lü, F-X; Lu, Z-X; Bie, X-M; Jiao, Y; Sun, L-J; Yu, B

    2008-04-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, has several well-known physiological functions and has been applied to the production of many drugs and functional foods. The technology of GABA production via submerged fermentation by Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus Y2 was investigated in this paper. It indicated that the GABA production was related to the biochemical characteristics of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) of S. salivarius subsp. thermophilus Y2. After 24 h of fermentation at 37 degrees C, which is the suitable culture conditions for GAD-production, then the culture condition were adjusted to the optimal temperature (40 degrees C) and pH (4.5) for the GAD reaction activity in biotransformation of cells and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (0.02 mmol/l) were added to the broth at the 48 h, the GABA production was increased up to 1.76-fold, reaching 7984.75 +/- 293.33 mg/l. The strain shows great potential use as a starter for GABA-containing yoghurt, cheese and other functional fermented food productions. PMID:17514494

  10. γ-aminobutyric acid secreted from islet β-cells modulates exocrine secretion in rat pancreas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Deuk Park; Zheng-Yun Cui; Guang Wu; Hyung-Seo Park; Hyoung-Jin Park

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of endogenous γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in pancreatic exocrine secretion.METHODS: The isolated, vascularly perfused rat pancreas was employed in this study to eliminate the possible influences of extrinsic nerves and hormones.Cholecystokinin (CCK; 10 pmol/L) was intra-arterially given to stimulate exocrine secretion of the pancreas.RESULTS: Glutamine, a major precursor of GABA, which was given intra-arterially at concentrations of 1, 4 and 10 mmol/L, dose-dependently elevated the CCK-stimulated secretions of fluid and amylase in the normal pancreas.Bicuculline (10 μmol/L), a GABAA receptor antagonist,blocked the enhancing effect of glutamine (4 mmol/L) on the CCK-stimulated exocrine secretions. Glutamine, at concentrations of 1, 4 and 10 mmol/L, dose-dependently increased the GABA concentration in portal effluent of the normal pancreas. The effects of glutamine on the CCK-stimulated exocrine secretion as well as the GABA secretion were markedly reduced in the streptozotocintreated pancreas.CONCLUSION: GABA could be secreted from β-cells into the islet-acinar portal system after administration of glutainine, and could enhance the CCK-stimulated exocrine secretion through GABAA receptors. Thus,GABA in islet β-cells is a hormone modulating pancreatic exocrine secretion.

  11. Effects of Aeration Treatment on γ-Aminobutyric Acid Accumulation in Germinated Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanxin Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the optimum condition of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA accumulation in germinated tartary buckwheat, effects of some factors including aeration treatment, physiological indexes, air flow rate, culture temperature, and pH value of cultivating solution under hypoxia on GABA in germinated tartary buckwheat were investigated. The results showed that the dark cultures with distilled water at 30°C, 2 days, and aeration stress with 1.0 L/min air flow rate at 30°C were optimal for GABA accumulation. Under these conditions, the predicted content of GABA was up to 371.98 μg/g DW. The analysis of correlation indicated that there was a significant correlation (P<0.01 between GABA accumulation and physiological indexes. Box-Behnken experimental analysis revealed that optimal conditions with aeration treatment for GABA accumulation in germinated tartary buckwheat were air flow rate of 1.04 L/min, culture temperature of 31.25°C, and a pH value of 4.21. Under these conditions, the GABA content was predicted as high as 386.20 μg/g DW, which was close to the measured value (379.00±9.30 μg/g DW. The variance analysis and validation test suggested that this established regression model could predict GABA accumulation in tartary buckwheat during germination.

  12. The ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid receptor gene family of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lin-Lin; Cui, Ying-Jun; Lang, Guo-Jun; Zhang, Ming-Yan; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2010-09-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a very important inhibitory neurotransmitter in both vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems. GABA receptors (GABARs) are known to be the molecular targets of a class of insecticides. Members of the GABAR gene family of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, a model insect of Lepidoptera, have been identified and characterized in this study. All putative silkworm GABAR cDNAs were cloned using the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Bombyx mori appears to have the largest insect GABAR gene family known to date, including three RDL, one LCCH3, and one GRD subunit. The silkworm RDL1 gene has RNA-editing sites, and the RDL1 and RDL3 genes possess alternative splicing. These mRNA modifications enhance the diversity of the silkworm's GABAR gene family. In addition, truncated transcripts were found for the RDL1 and LCCH3 genes. In particular, the three RDL subunits may have arisen from two duplication events. PMID:20924418

  13. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and neuropeptides in neural areas mediating motion-induced emesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damelio, F.; Daunton, Nancy G.; Fox, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    Immunocytochemical methods were employed to localize the neurotransmitter amino acid gamma-aminobutyric acid and the neuropeptides substance P and Met-enkephalin in the area postrema (AP), area subpostrema (ASP), nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS), dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMNV), and lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN). Glutamic acid decarboxylase immunoreactive (GAD-IR) terminals and fibers were observed in the AP and particularly in the ASP. A gradual decrease in the density of terminals was seen towards the solitary complex. The DMNV revealed irregularly scattered GAD-IR terminals within the neuropil or closely surrounding neuronal cell bodies. The LVN, particularly the dorsal division, showed numerous axon terminals which were mostly localize around large neurons and their proximal dendrites. Substance P immunoreactive (SP-IR) terminals and fibers showed high density in the solitary complex, in particular within the lateral division. The ASP showed medium to low density of SP-IR fibers and terminals. The AP exhibited a small number of fibers and terminals irregularly distributed. The DMNV revealed a high density of SP-IR terminals and fibers that were mainly concentrated in the periphery. Very few terminals were detected in the LVN. Met-enkephalin immunoreactive (Met-Enk-IR) fibers and terminals showed high density and uniform distribution in the DMNV. Scattered terminals and fibers were observed in the AP, ASP, and NTS (particularly the lateral division). The very few fibers were observed in the LVN surrounded the neuronal cell bodies. The present report is part of a study designed to investigate the interaction between neuropeptides and conventional neurotransmitters under conditions producing motion sickness and in the process of sensory-motor adaptation.

  14. Soil drench treatment with ß-aminobutyric acid increases drought tolerance of potato.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Sós-Hegedűs

    Full Text Available The non-protein amino acid β-aminobutyric acid (BABA is known to be a priming agent for a more efficient activation of cellular defence responses and a potent inducer of resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. Nevertheless, most of the studies on priming have been carried out in Arabidopsis. In potato, the effect of BABA was demonstrated only on biotic stress tolerance. We investigated the effect of BABA on the drought tolerance of potato and found that soil drenched with BABA at a final concentration of 0.3 mM improves the drought tolerance of potato. Water loss from the leaves of the primed plants is attenuated and the yield is increased compared to the unprimed drought-stressed plants. The metabolite composition of the tubers of the BABA-treated plants is less affected by drought than the tuber composition of the non-treated plants. Nitric oxide and ROS (reactive oxygen species production is increased in the BABA-treated roots but not in the leaves. In the leaves of the BABA-treated plants, the expression of the drought-inducible gene StDS2 is delayed, but the expression of ETR1, encoding an ethylene receptor, is maintained for a longer period under the drought conditions than in the leaves of the non-treated, drought-stressed control plants. This result suggests that the ethylene-inducible gene expression remains suppressed in primed plants leading to a longer leaf life and increased tuber yield compared to the non-treated, drought-stressed plants. The priming effect of BABA in potato, however, is transient and reverts to an unprimed state within a few weeks.

  15. Effects of Frequency Drift on the Quantification of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Using MEGA-PRESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shang-Yueh; Fang, Chun-Hao; Wu, Thai-Yu; Lin, Yi-Ru

    2016-04-01

    The MEGA-PRESS method is the most common method used to measure γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain at 3T. It has been shown that the underestimation of the GABA signal due to B0 drift up to 1.22 Hz/min can be reduced by post-frequency alignment. In this study, we show that the underestimation of GABA can still occur even with post frequency alignment when the B0 drift is up to 3.93 Hz/min. The underestimation can be reduced by applying a frequency shift threshold. A total of 23 subjects were scanned twice to assess the short-term reproducibility, and 14 of them were scanned again after 2–8 weeks to evaluate the long-term reproducibility. A linear regression analysis of the quantified GABA versus the frequency shift showed a negative correlation (P GABA signal was found. When a frequency shift threshold of 0.125 ppm (15.5 Hz or 1.79 Hz/min) was applied, the linear regression showed no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). Therefore, a frequency shift threshold at 0.125 ppm (15.5 Hz) can be used to reduce underestimation during GABA quantification. For data with a B0 drift up to 3.93 Hz/min, the coefficients of variance of short-term and long-term reproducibility for the GABA quantification were less than 10% when the frequency threshold was applied.

  16. β-aminobutyric acid mediated drought stress alleviation in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Arun K; Bhardwaj, Pardeep K; Ghosh, Supriya; Roy, Sankhajit; Saha, Suman; Sherpa, Ang R; Saha, Samir K; Hossain, Zahed

    2016-02-01

    The present study highlights the role of β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) in alleviating drought stress effects in maize (Zea mays L.). Chemical priming was imposed by pretreating 1-week-old plants with 600 μM BABA prior to applying drought stress. Specific activities of key antioxidant enzymes and metabolites (ascorbate and glutathione) levels of ascorbate-glutathione cycle were studied to unravel the priming-induced modulation of plant defense system. Furthermore, changes in endogenous ABA and JA concentrations as well as mRNA expressions of key genes involved in their respective biosynthesis pathways were monitored in BABA-primed (BABA+) and non-primed (BABA-) leaves of drought-challenged plants to better understand the mechanistic insights into the BABA-induced hormonal regulation of plant response to water-deficit stress. Accelerated stomatal closure, high relative water content, and less membrane damage were observed in BABA-primed leaves under water-deficit condition. Elevated APX and SOD activity in non-primed leaves found to be insufficient to scavenge all H2O2 and O2 (·-) resulting in oxidative burst as evident after histochemical staining with NBT and DAB. A higher proline accumulation in non-primed leaves also does not give much protection against drought stress. Increased GR activity supported with the enhanced mRNA and protein expressions might help the BABA-primed plants to maintain a high GSH pool essential for sustaining balanced redox status to counter drought-induced oxidative stress damages. Hormonal analysis suggests that in maize, BABA-potentiated drought tolerance is primarily mediated through JA-dependent pathway by the activation of antioxidant defense systems while ABA biosynthesis pathway also plays an important role in fine-tuning of drought stress response. PMID:26416125

  17. The inhibitory role of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on immunomodulation of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meijia; Qiu, Limei; Wang, Lingling; Wang, Weilin; Xin, Lusheng; Li, Yiqun; Liu, Zhaoqun; Song, Linsheng

    2016-05-01

    γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter to suppress the immune-mediated pro-inflammatory reactions, and it has been used in the treatment of many inflammation-related diseases in vertebrates, while its immunomodulatory role in invertebrates has never been reported. In the present study, GABA was found to exist in the hemolymph of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, and its concentration decreased slightly from 8.00 ± 0.37 μmol L(-1) at normal condition to 7.73 ± 0.15 μmol L(-1) at 6 h after LPS stimulation, and then increased to 9.34 ± 0.15 μmol L(-1), 8.86 ± 0.68 μmol L(-1) at 12 h and 48 h, respectively. After LPS stimulation, the mRNA expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines (CgIL-17 and CgTNF) and immune effectors (CgSOD and CgBPI), and the protein expression of NOS increased significantly, and these increased trends were remarkably inhibited by GABA stimulation. At the same time, the phagocytosis rate and apoptosis rate of immunocytes also increased obviously after LPS stimulation, whereas the increase was repressed with the addition of GABA. The results collectively demonstrated that GABA was an indispensable inhibitory agent for both humoral and cellular immune response, which mainly functioned at the late phase of immune response to avoid the excess immune reactions and maintain the immune homeostasis. PMID:26975413

  18. Seed treatment with beta-aminobutyric acid protects Pennisetum glaucum systemically from Sclerospora graminicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shailasree, S; Sarosh, B R; Vasanthi, N S; Shetty, H S

    2001-08-01

    beta-Aminobutyric acid (BABA) treatment of pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L) R Br] seeds influenced seedling vigour and protected the seedlings from downy mildew disease caused by the oomycetous biotropic fungus Sclerospora graminicola (Sacc) Schroet. Of the different concentrations of BABA tested, viz 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM, seeds treated with 50 mM for 6 h resulted in the maximum of 1428 seedling vigour and showed 23% disease incidence in comparison with the control which recorded a seedling vigour of 1260 and 98% disease incidence i.e. 75% protection from disease. Seeds treated with BABA when challenged for downy mildew disease using zoospores of S graminicola required 48 h after inducer treatment to develop maximum resistance. Durability of induced resistance was also tested in plants raised from seeds treated with the inducer and identified as resistant, by second challenge inoculation with the downy mildew pathogen at tillers and inflorescence axes. Reduced disease incidence of only 10 and 12% in these plants, compared with 71 and 76% disease in control plants inoculated at the tillers and inflorescence axes, respectively, suggested that resistance induced in seeds with BABA remained operative through vegetative and reproductive growth of pearl millet plants. Induction of resistance by seed treatment with BABA enhanced vegetative growth, viz height, fresh weight, leaf area and tillering, and reproductive growth, viz early flowering, number of productive ear heads and 1000 seed weight. Studies on induction of resistance in different cultivars of pearl millet with varying resistance reaction to downy mildew indicated that the protection offered by BABA is independent of the nature of cultivars used and not dependent on their constitutive resistance. PMID:11517726

  19. Lactic Acid Bacterial Starter Culture with Antioxidant and γ-Aminobutyric Acid Biosynthetic Activities Isolated from Flatfish-Sikhae Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Yeong Geol; Yu, Hyun-Hee; Chang, Young-Hyo; Hwang, Han-Joon

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to select a lactic acid bacterial strain as a starter culture for flatfish-Sikhae fermentation and to evaluate its suitability for application in a food system. Four strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from commercial flatfish-Sikhae were identified and selected as starter culture candidates through investigation of growth rates, salt tolerance, food safety, and functional properties such as antioxidative and antimicrobial activities. The fermentation properties of the starter candidates were also examined in food systems prepared with these strains (candidate batch) in comparison with a spontaneous fermentation process without starter culture (control batch) at 15°C. The results showed that the candidate YG331 batch had better fermentation properties such as viable cell count, pH, and acidity than the other experimental batches, including the control batch. The results are expressed according to selection criteria based on a preliminary sensory evaluation and physiochemical investigation. Also, only a small amount of histamine was detected with the candidate YG331 batch. The radical scavenging activity of the candidate batches was better compared with the control batch, and especially candidate YG331 batch showed the best radical scavenging activity. Also, we isolated another starter candidate (identified as Lactobacillus brevis PM03) with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing activity from commercial flatfish-Sikhae products. The sensory scores of the candidate YG331 batch were better than those of the other experimental batches in terms of flavor, color, and overall acceptance. In this study, we established selection criteria for the lactic acid bacterial starter for the flatfish-Sikhae production and finally selected candidate YG331 as the most suitable starter. PMID:26348620

  20. Enzymatic synthesis of radioactive (-)-carnitine from γ-butyrobetaine prepared by the methylation of γ-aminobutyric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive γ-butyrobetaine was prepared by quaternization of γ-aminobutyric acid with tritiated methyl iodide under conditions giving high yields with respect to both the above precursors. Part of the product was passed through a column of ion-retardation resin and gave radioactive γ-butyrobetaine of good purity. The remainder was converted to (-)-carnitine stoichiometrically by employing a 50-60% ammonium sulfate fraction of rat liver supernatant as the source of γ-butyrobetaine hydroxylase (EC 1,14,11,1) Successive column chromatographies on a cation exchanger and ion-retardation resins then gave radioactive (-)-carnitine of good purity in high yield

  1. Gamma-aminobutyric acid and 5-hydroxytryptamine in the nervous system of an annelid worm (Nereis diversicolor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autoradiographic techniques have been employed to define the cellular elements involved in the elaboration of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the nervous system of Nereis. This procedure is described. Results concerning the distribution of 5-HT and GABA in Nereis are still incomplete. Nevertheless, as a result of these initial autoradiographic data, it seems possible to postulate an effect of 5-HT and GABA in the neuropil and in the peripheral nerves. 5-HT would also act in certain endplates located in the pharynx of Nereis, for instance. This monoamine, however, probably does not act the level of the infracerebral complex

  2. Comparison of gamma-aminobutyric acid effects in different parts of the cat ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencheva, N; Itzev, D; Milanov, P

    1999-02-26

    The effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and those of a GABA(A) (muscimol) and a GABA(B) (baclofen) receptor agonists were determined on the spontaneous activity of longitudinally or circularly oriented preparations (segments) isolated from terminal, proximal and distal parts of the cat ileum. GABA applied at 1 microM to 2 mM caused dose-dependent biphasic changes (relaxation and contraction) in spontaneous activity of the longitudinal and circular layers in the terminal and distal parts of the cat ileum and monophasic changes (contraction) in the proximal part. The potency of GABA to elicit relaxant and/or contractile effects in different parts of the ileum showed a proximal-to-terminal increasing pattern. In the longitudinal layer of the distal and terminal ileum, muscimol (100 microM) mimicked the relaxation phase of the GABA effect, while baclofen (100 microM) simulated the contractile phase. Bicuculline, atropine and tetrodotoxin abolished GABA- and muscimol-induced relaxation and suppressed, but failed to prevent GABA- and baclofen-induced contractions. In addition, 2-hydroxysaclofen antagonized the baclofen-induced contractile effect, reduced the GABA-induced contractile phase but failed to prevent GABA- and muscimol-induced relaxation. In the circular layer of the same regions, muscimol mimicked the biphasic GABA effects, while baclofen was without effect. Bicuculline, atropine and tetrodotoxin completely prevented the GABA- and muscimol effects, while 2-hydroxysaclofen failed to antagonize them. In the longitudinal and circular layers of the proximal ileum, muscimol (100 microM) exerted a 'GABA-like' transient contractile effect, while baclofen (100 microM) did not elicit any response. Bicuculline, atropine and tetrodotoxin antagonized the GABA- and muscimol-induced contractile responses of longitudinal and circular layers, while 2-hydroxysaclofen was ineffective. The results suggested that the inhibitory and/or excitatory action of GABA on

  3. Metabolic pathways regulated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contributing to heat tolerance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhou; Yu, Jingjin; Peng, Yan; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid is a non-protein amino acid involved in various metabolic processes. The objectives of this study were to examine whether increased GABA could improve heat tolerance in cool-season creeping bentgrass through physiological analysis, and to determine major metabolic pathways regulated by GABA through metabolic profiling. Plants were pretreated with 0.5 mM GABA or water before exposed to non-stressed condition (21/19 °C) or heat stress (35/30 °C) in controlled growth chambers for 35 d. The growth and physiological analysis demonstrated that exogenous GABA application significantly improved heat tolerance of creeping bentgrass. Metabolic profiling found that exogenous application of GABA led to increases in accumulations of amino acids (glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, threonine, serine, and valine), organic acids (aconitic acid, malic acid, succinic acid, oxalic acid, and threonic acid), sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose, galactose, and maltose), and sugar alcohols (mannitol and myo-inositol). These findings suggest that GABA-induced heat tolerance in creeping bentgrass could involve the enhancement of photosynthesis and ascorbate-glutathione cycle, the maintenance of osmotic adjustment, and the increase in GABA shunt. The increased GABA shunt could be the supply of intermediates to feed the tricarboxylic acid cycle of respiration metabolism during a long-term heat stress, thereby maintaining metabolic homeostasis. PMID:27455877

  4. γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptor Subunit α-6 (GABRA6 Gene Polymorphism and Anxiety Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa I. Barliana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorder caused by environmental factor and individual genetic variations. Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors Subunit α-6 (GABRA6 is γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA receptor. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP of GABRA6 gene at rs3219151 (T1521C affected individual response of stress. The aim of present study was to identify GABRA6 genotype variations in Bandung city population and its correlation with stress condition. Samples were collected from 112 respondents who filled The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10 questionnaire for stress condition. Blood samples were collected and identification of GABRA6 gene was analyzed using Polymerase Chain Reaction‑Refractory Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP by AlwN1 restriction enzyme digestion. The result of present study showed that 84 respondents (75% have CC genotype, 14 respondents (12.5% have CT genotype, and other 14 respondents (12.5% have TT genotype. Most of respondents have CC genotype but the data did not meet the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and showed no correlation between GABRA6 gene variations and stress condition using bivariate analysis (Chi-Square.

  5. Effects of inhibitors of protein synthesis and intracellular transport on the gamma-aminobutyric acid agonist-induced functional differentiation of cultured cerebellar granule cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belhage, B; Hansen, Gert Helge; Meier, E;

    1990-01-01

    The effect of inhibitors of protein synthesis (actinomycin D, cycloheximide), proteases (leupeptin), and intracellular transport (colchicine, monensin) on the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist [4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP)]-induced changes in morphological differenti......The effect of inhibitors of protein synthesis (actinomycin D, cycloheximide), proteases (leupeptin), and intracellular transport (colchicine, monensin) on the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist [4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP)]-induced changes in morphological...

  6. Effect of glycine, DL-alanine and DL-2-aminobutyric acid on the temperature of maximum density of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Effect of α-amino acids on the temperature of maximum density of water is presented. • The addition of α-amino acids decreases the temperature of maximum density of water. • Despretz constants suggest that the amino acids behave as water structure breakers. • Despretz constants decrease as the number of CH2 groups of the amino acid increase. • Solute disrupting effect becomes smaller as its hydrophobic character increases. - Abstract: The effect of glycine, DL-alanine and DL-2-aminobutyric acid on the temperature of maximum density of water was determined from density measurements using a magnetic float densimeter. Densities of aqueous solutions were measured within the temperature range from T = (275.65 to 278.65) K at intervals of T = 0.50 K over the concentration range between (0.0300 and 0.1000) mol · kg−1. A linear relationship between density and concentration was obtained for all the systems in the temperature range considered. The temperature of maximum density was determined from the experimental results. The effect of the three amino acids is to decrease the temperature of maximum density of water and the decrease is proportional to molality according to Despretz equation. The effect of the amino acids on the temperature of maximum density decreases as the number of methylene groups of the alkyl chain becomes larger. The results are discussed in terms of (solute + water) interactions and the effect of amino acids on water structure

  7. EXTRACELLULAR GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC-ACID IN THE SUBSTANTIA-NIGRA RETICULATA MEASURED BY MICRODIALYSIS IN AWAKE RATS - EFFECTS OF VARIOUS STIMULANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TIMMERMAN, W; WESTERINK, BHC

    1995-01-01

    The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic system in the substantia nigra reticulata (SNR) was challenged by local infusion of various receptor-specific agents to obtain additional information on the physiological significance of extracellular GABA levels as measured by microdialysis in awake rats. No

  8. Formation of [b3 - 1 + cat]+ ions from metal-cationized tetrapeptides containing beta-alanine, gamma-aminobutyric acid or epsilon-aminocaproic acid residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osburn, Sandra M; Ochola, Sila O; Talaty, Erach R; Van Stipdonk, Michael J

    2008-11-01

    The presence and position of a single beta-alanine (betaA), gamma-aminobutyric acid (gammaABu) or epsilon-aminocaproic acid (Cap) residue has been shown to have a significant influence on the formation of b(n)+ and y(n)+ product ions from a series of model, protonated peptides. In this study, we examined the effect of the same residues on the formation of analogous [b3 - 1 + cat]+ products from metal (Li+, Na+ and Ag+)-cationized peptides. The larger amino acids suppress formation of b3+ from protonated peptides with general sequence AAXG (where X = beta-alanine, gamma-aminobutyric acid or epsilon-aminocaproic acid), presumably because of the prohibitive effect of larger cyclic intermediates in the 'oxazolone' pathway. However, abundant [b3 - 1 + cat]+ products are generated from metal-cationized versions of AAXG. Using a group of deuterium-labeled and exchanged peptides, we found that formation of [b3 - 1 + cat]+ involves transfer of either amide or alpha-carbon position H atoms, and the tendency to transfer the atom from the alpha-carbon position increases with the size of the amino acid in position X. To account for the transfer of the H atom, a mechanism involving formation of a ketene product as [b3 - 1 + cat]+ is proposed. PMID:18449851

  9. Baclofen (β-p-chlorophenyl-γ-aminobutyric acid) enhances [3H]γ-aminobutyric acid (3H-GABA) release from rat globus pallidus in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rat globus pallidus has been investigated as a possible model in which to study pre-synaptic GABA mechanisms in vitro. (+ -)-Baclofen (300μM-1 mM) significantly enhanced the release of radioactivity from superfused slices of rat globus pallidus prelabelled with 3H-GABA in vitro. This releasing action was specific to the (+)-isomer of baclofen. Neither the (-)-isomer nor another neuronal depressant DL-α-upsilon-diaminopimelic acid had any significant effect. The releasing effect of baclofen appeared unrelated to the phenethylamine moiety of its structure as neither β-phenethylamine nor dopamine evoked release of 3H-GABA from pallidal slices. Baclofen increased the efflux of radioactivity from pallidal slices prelabelled with either [3H]β-alanine or 3H diaminobutric acid in vitro. The use of specific glial and neuronal GABA uptake blocking compounds (β-alanine and (+ -)-cis-1,3-aminocyclohexanecarboxylic acid) did not permit resolution of the elements from which baclofen was evoking [3H]GABA release. Baclofen also inhibited uptake of [3H]GABA into pallidal slices with an IC50 value of 6 x 10-4m. The GABA-like properties of baclofen may be related to the (+)-isomer while non-specific neuronal depressant actions are an effect of the (-)-isomer. The potential of the (+)-isomer as an antipyschotic agent while (-)-baclofen remains the effective antispastic drug free from unwanted side-effects is discussed. (author)

  10. Gamma-aminobutyric acid and GABAA receptors are involved in directional selectivity of pretectal neurons in pigeons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The present study describes the effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and itsantagonists, bicuculline and 2-hydroxysaclofen, on visual responses of neurons in the pigeon nucleuslentiformis mesencephali (nLM). The results indicate that GABA significantly reduces bothspontaneous activity and visual responsiveness, and GABAA antagonist bicuculline but not GABABantagonist 2-hydroxysaclofen enhances visual responses of nLM cells examined. Furthermore,inhibition produced by motion in the null-direction of pretectal neurons is diminished by bicucullinebut not by 2-hydroxysaclofen. It is therefore concluded that the null-direction inhibition of directionalcells in the pigeon nLM is predominantly mediated by GABA and GABAA receptors. This inhibitionmay at least in part underlie directional asymmetry of optokinetic responses.

  11. Gamma-aminobutyric acid and GABA_A receptors are involved in directional selectivity of pretectal neurons in pigeons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖泉; 付煜西; 胡婧; 高洪峰; 王书荣

    2000-01-01

    The present study describes the effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and its antagonists, bicuculline and 2-hydroxysaclofen, on visual responses of neurons in the pigeon nucleus lentiformis mesencephali (nLM). The results indicate that GABA significantly reduces both spontaneous activity and visual responsiveness, and GABAA antagonist bicuculline but not GABAB antagonist 2-hydroxysaclofen enhances visual responses of nLM cells examined. Furthermore, inhibition produced by motion in the null-direction of pretectal neurons is diminished by bicuculline but not by 2-hydroxysaclofen. It is therefore concluded that the null-direction inhibition of directional cells in the pigeon nLM is predominantly mediated by GABA and GABAA receptors. This inhibition may at least in part underlie directional asymmetry of optokinetic responses.

  12. How Imaging Glutamate, γ-Aminobutyric Acid, and Dopamine Can Inform the Clinical Treatment of Alcohol Dependence and Withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmer, Ansel T; Mason, Graeme F; Fucito, Lisa M; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Cosgrove, Kelly P

    2015-12-01

    Neuroimaging studies have dramatically advanced our understanding of the neurochemical basis of alcohol dependence, a major public health issue. In this paper, we review the research generated from neurochemical specific imaging modalities including magnetic resonance spectroscopy, positron emission tomography, and single-photon emission computed tomography in studies of alcohol dependence and withdrawal. We focus on studies interrogating γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate, and dopamine, as these are prominent neurotransmitter systems implicated in alcohol dependence. Highlighted findings include diminished dopaminergic functioning and modulation of the GABA system by tobacco smoking during alcohol withdrawal. Then, we consider how these findings impact the clinical treatment of alcohol dependence and discuss directions for future experiments to address existing gaps in the literature, for example, sex differences and smoking comorbidity. These and other considerations provide opportunities to build upon the current neurochemistry imaging literature of alcohol dependence and withdrawal, which may usher in improved therapeutic and relapse prevention strategies. PMID:26510169

  13. Silencing gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor alpha 1 subunit expression and outward potassium current in developing cortical neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Bo; Jiang Li; Jian Li; Xingfang Li; Kaihui Xing

    2011-01-01

    We used RNA interference (RNAi) to disrupt synthesis of the cortical neuronal γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABAAR) α1 in rats during development, and measured outward K+ currents during neuronal electrical activity using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. Three pairs of small interfering RNA (siRNA) for GABAAR α1 subunit were designed using OligoEngine RNAi software. This siRNA was found to effectively inhibited GABAAR α1 mRNA expression in cortical neuronal culture in vitro, but did not significantly affect neuronal survival. Outward K+ currents were decreased, indicating that GABAAR α1 subunits in developing neurons participate in neuronal function by regulating outward K+ current.

  14. First molecular genotyping of A302S mutation in the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor in Aedes albopictus from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, V L; Vinnie-Siow, W Y; Lim Y, A L; Tan, T K; Leong, C S; Chen, C D; Azidah, A A; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2015-09-01

    Given the lack of molecular evidence in altered target-site insecticide resistance mechanism in Aedes albopictus (Skuse) worldwide, the present study aims to detect the presence of A302S mutation in the gene encoding the gamma aminobutyric acid receptor resistant to dieldrin (Rdl) in Ae. albopictus for the first time from its native range of South East Asia, namely Malaysia. World Health Organization (WHO) adult susceptibility bioassay indicated a relatively low level of dieldrin resistance (two-fold) in Ae. albopictus from Petaling Jaya, Selangor. However, PCR-RFLP and direct sequencing methods revealed the presence of the A302S mutation with the predomination of heterozygous genotype (40 out of 82 individuals), followed by the resistant genotype with 11 individuals. This study represents the first field evolved instance of A302S mutation in Malaysian insect species. PMID:26695218

  15. Gamma aminobutyric acid transporter subtype 1 gene knockout mice: a new model for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Yang; Guoqiang Cai; Youqing Cai; Jian Fei; Guoxiang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by hyperactivity,impaired sustained attention,impulsivity,and is usually accompanied by varying degrees of learning difficulties and lack of motor coordination.However,the pathophysiology and etiology of ADHD remain inconclusive so far.Our previous studies have demonstrated that the gamma aminobutyric acid transporter subtype 1 (GAT1) gene knockout (ko) mouse (gat1-/-)is hyperactive and exhibited impaired memory performance in the Morris water maze.In the current study,we found that the gat1-/-mice showed low levels of attentional focusing and increased impulsivity.In addition,the gat1-/-mice displayed ataxia characterized by defects in motor coordination and balance skills.The hyperactivity in the ko mice was reduced by both methylphenidate and amphetamine.Collectively,these results suggest that GAT1 ko mouse is a new animal model for ADHD studying and GAT1 may be a new target to treat ADHD.

  16. Individual variability in verbal fluency correlates with γ-aminobutyric acid concentration in the left inferior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Tomoya; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2016-09-01

    A particular feature of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), which is considered a central region for language processing, is leftward functional/anatomical asymmetry. However, previous studies have not clearly shown lateralization of neurotransmitters in the cortical regions. Using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we measured γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations in the bilateral IFG. To evaluate individual variability in linguistic performance, we further used a verbal fluency test. Although GABA+/creatine (Cr) values were not different between the left and the right IFG, we found a significant correlation between category fluency scores and GABA+/Cr values in the left IFG. No correlation was found between letter fluency scores and GABA+/Cr values. We also confirmed that the result was independent of the references used (Cr and H2O). Our results show a new physiological basis of linguistic performance as well as leftward asymmetry of the IFG. PMID:27454241

  17. Quantification of γ-Aminobutyric Acid in Cerebrospinal Fluid Using Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arning, Erland; Bottiglieri, Teodoro

    2016-01-01

    We describe a simple stable isotope dilution method for accurate and precise measurement of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as a clinical diagnostic test. Determination of GABA in CSF (50 μL) was performed utilizing high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray positive ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Analysis of free and total GABA requires two individual sample preparations and mass spectrometry analyses. Free GABA in CSF is determined by a 1:2 dilution with internal standard (GABA-D2) and injected directly onto the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system. Determination of total GABA in CSF requires additional sample preparation in order to hydrolyze all the bound GABA in the sample to the free form. This requires hydrolyzing the sample by boiling in acidic conditions (hydrochloric acid) for 4 h. The sample is then further diluted 1:10 with a 90 % acetonitrile/0.1 % formic acid solution and injected into the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system. Each assay is quantified using a five-point standard curve and is linear from 6 nM to 1000 nM and 0.63 μM to 80 μM for free and total GABA, respectively. PMID:26602123

  18. Establishing an Ion Pair Interaction in the Homomeric {rho}1 {gamma}-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptor That Contributes to the Gating Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jinti; Lester, Henry A.; Dougherty, Dennis A.

    2007-01-01

    {gamma}-Aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors are members of the Cys-loop superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels. Upon agonist binding, the receptor undergoes a structural transition from the closed to the open state, but the mechanism of gating is not well understood. Here we utilized a combination of conventional mutagenesis and the high precision methodology of unnatural amino acid incorporation to study the gating interface of the human homopentameric {rho}1 GABAA receptor. We have...

  19. Activation of γ-aminobutyric Acid (A) Receptor Protects Hippocampus from Intense Exercise-induced Synapses Damage and Apoptosis in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Ding; Lan Xie; Cun-Qing Chang; Zhi-Min Chen; Hua Ai

    2015-01-01

    Background: Our previous study has confirmed that one bout of exhaustion (Ex) can cause hippocampus neurocyte damage, excessive apoptosis, and dysfunction. Its initial reason is intracellular calcium overload in hippocampus triggered by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) over-activation. NMDAR activation can be suppressed by γ-aminobutyric acid (A) receptor (GABAAR). Whether GABAAR can prevent intense exercise-induced hippocampus apoptosis, damage, or dysfunction will be studied in thi...

  20. Effect of propofol on the reactivity of acetylcholinesterase, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors in the hippocampus of aged rats after chronic cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Chen; Jiangbei Cao; Weidong Mi

    2011-01-01

    We induced ischemic brain injury in aging rats to examine the effects of varying doses of propofol on hippocampal activities of acetylcholinesterase, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, and γ-aminobutyric acid receptors. Propofol exhibited no obvious impact on acetylcholinesterase activity, but directly activated the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor. The neuroprotective function of propofol on the hippocampus of aging rats following cerebral ischemic injury may be related to altered activities of γ-aminobutyric acid receptors and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors.

  1. Novel fermented chickpea milk with enhanced level of γ-aminobutyric acid and neuroprotective effect on PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Wei, Mingming; Wu, Junjun; Rui, Xin; Dong, Mingsheng

    2016-01-01

    In this study, novel fermented chickpea milk with high γ -aminobutyric acid (GABA) content and potential neuroprotective activity was developed. Fermentation starter that can produce GABA was selected from 377 strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Chinese fermented foods. Among the screened strains, strain M-6 showed the highest GABA-producing capacity in De Man-Rogosa and Sharp (MRS) broth and chickpea milk. M-6 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum based on Gram staining, API carbohydrate fermentation pattern testing, and 16s rDNA sequencing. The complete gene encoding glutamate decarboxylase was cloned to confirm the presence of the gene in L. plantarum M-6. The fermentation condition was optimized by response surface methodology. Results demonstrated that L. plantarum M-6 produced the highest GABA content of 537.23 mg/L. The optimal condition included an inoculum concentration of 7%, presence of 0.2% (m/v) monosodium glutamate and 55 µ M pyridoxal-5-phosphate, incubation temperature of 39 °C and fermentation time of 48 h . GABA-enriched chickpea milk exerted protective effects on PC12 cells against MnCl2 -induced injury. GABA-enriched chickpea milk improved cell viability and markedly attenuated the release of lactate dehydrogenase compared with the impaired cells. PMID:27602272

  2. Novel fermented chickpea milk with enhanced level of γ-aminobutyric acid and neuroprotective effect on PC12 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Wei, Mingming; Wu, Junjun; Rui, Xin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, novel fermented chickpea milk with high γ -aminobutyric acid (GABA) content and potential neuroprotective activity was developed. Fermentation starter that can produce GABA was selected from 377 strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Chinese fermented foods. Among the screened strains, strain M-6 showed the highest GABA-producing capacity in De Man–Rogosa and Sharp (MRS) broth and chickpea milk. M-6 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum based on Gram staining, API carbohydrate fermentation pattern testing, and 16s rDNA sequencing. The complete gene encoding glutamate decarboxylase was cloned to confirm the presence of the gene in L. plantarum M-6. The fermentation condition was optimized by response surface methodology. Results demonstrated that L. plantarum M-6 produced the highest GABA content of 537.23 mg/L. The optimal condition included an inoculum concentration of 7%, presence of 0.2% (m/v) monosodium glutamate and 55 µ M pyridoxal-5-phosphate, incubation temperature of 39 °C and fermentation time of 48 h . GABA-enriched chickpea milk exerted protective effects on PC12 cells against MnCl2 -induced injury. GABA-enriched chickpea milk improved cell viability and markedly attenuated the release of lactate dehydrogenase compared with the impaired cells. PMID:27602272

  3. Resistance to Citrus Canker in Key/Mexican Lime Induced by β-Aminobutyric Acid and Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Beheshti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus bacterial canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc, is a destructive disease. So far used chemicals to control this pathogen are either not effective or have harmful effects on the environment. To improve control of this disease, lime (Citrus aurantifolia plants inoculated with Xcc were treated with β-Aminobutyric Acid (BABA, ascorbic acid (vitamin C, thiamin (vitamin B1, green tea (Camellia sinensis, copper oxychloride and distilled water. Lesion diameters of inoculated leaves were evaluated twenty days after treatment. The results showed that BABA and green tea had inhibitory effects on disease development. None of the agents used for plant treatment had direct antimicrobial activity on Xcc, except copper oxychloride. This indicated that the inhibitory effects of BABA and green tea resulted from strengthening the defense capacities of the plant. To support this claim, partial coding sequences of Pathogenesis-Related (PR genes from lime were cloned and sequenced. Analysis of PR gene expression showed increased mRNA levels of β-1,3-glucanase and chitinase, during disease development. Reduction in lesion size and lack of antimicrobial activity indicate that BABA and green tea might be useful treatments against Xcc infection.

  4. Studies on high γ-aminobutyric acid-producing monascus purpureus which breeding with heavy ion beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) is a kind of nonprotein amino acid, which is reported to antihypertension, tranquilization, improve liver function, prevent obesity and avoid senile dementia, etc., and is an important effective component in health products. In this study, Monascus Purpureus spores were radiated with 96 MeV/u, LET=28.12 keV/μm 12C6+ ion beams. Doses were set as 20, 50 and 80 Gy, respectively. The experiments were run as follows: preparation of monospore suspension → irradiated with heavy ion beam → diluted and spread on dish → screening and stored in inclined plane → shaking culture → GABA extraction → GABA concentration determined by paper chromatography. One stable high productive strain HQ06 was obtained in this study. The content of GABA in HQ06 was 2.50±0.04 mg/ml, 3.7±1.7% higher than that in control (which was 2.41±0.03 mg/ml). Results showed that it is feasible for breeding high GABA producing strains with heavy ion beam radiation, and the heavy ion beam is a kind of effective mutation source. Further studies should be done for breeding much higher productive strains to satisfy the demands of industry. (authors)

  5. Dorsal column inhibition of nociceptive thalamic cells mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid mechanisms in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olausson, B; Xu, Z Q; Shyu, B C

    1994-11-01

    Cells in posterior parts of the cat thalamus were investigated. Responses in single units excited by electrical stimulation in the lateral funiculus (LF), the dorsal column nucleus (DCN) or the canine tooth pulp (TP) were analysed. All cells had a spontaneous resting activity which could be increased by extracellular iontophoretic application of DL-homocysteic acid (DLH) and decreased by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). No effect on the spontaneous firing rate was observed following iontophoresis of the selective GABA-antagonists, picrotoxin (GABA-A receptor antagonist) or saclofen (GABA-B receptor antagonist). However, the decreased firing following GABA application was partially blocked by picrotoxin but not by saclofen. A phasic inhibition induced by DCN stimulation in nociceptive thalamic cells is indicated since simultaneous administration of picrotoxin increased the evoked response. This type of inhibitory mechanism could not be detected following LF or TP stimulation. The extracellular activity evoked by electrical stimulation of LF or TP was significantly depressed by preceding electrical stimulation in the DCN. This inhibition was reversed by simultaneous administration of picrotoxin, indicating an involvement of GABA-A receptors. The reversal of the DCN-induced depression of the late responses following LF stimulation occurred after application of saclofen. It is suggested that this effect is partly mediated via GABA-B receptors. Results from the present study indicate an interaction in the thalamus between presumed low-threshold (DCN) and presumed nociceptive afferents (LF and TP) similar to that previously described in the spinal cord. PMID:7872001

  6. Collision-induced dissociation of protonated tetrapeptides containing beta-alanine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, epsilon-aminocaproic acid or 4-aminomethylbenzoic acid residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaty, Erach R; Cooper, Travis J; Osburn, Sandra; Van Stipdonk, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    The influence of the presence and position of a single beta-alanine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, epsilon-aminocaproic acid or 4-aminomethylbenzoic acid residue on the tendency to form b(n)+ -and y(n)+ -type product ions was determined using a group of protonated tetrapeptides with general sequence XAAG, AXAG and AAXG (where X refers to the position of amino acid substitution). The hypothesis tested was that the 'alternative' amino acids would influence product ion signal intensities by inhibiting or suppressing either the nucleophilic attack or key proton transfer steps by forcing the adoption of large cyclic intermediates or blocking cyclization altogether. We found that specific b ions are diminished or eliminated completely when betaA, gammaAbu, Cap or 4AMBz residues are positioned such that they should interfere with the intramolecular nucleophilic attack step. In addition, differences in the relative proton affinities of the alternative amino acids influence the competition between complementary b(n) and y(n) ions. For both the AXAG and the XAAG series of peptides, collision-induced dissociation (CID) generated prominent b ions despite potential inhibition or suppression of intramolecular proton migration by the betaA, gammaAbu, Cap or 4AMBz residues. The prominent appearance of b ions from the AXAG and XAAG peptide is noteworthy, and suggests either that proton migration occurs through larger, 'whole' peptide cyclic intermediates or that fragmentation proceeds through a population of [M+H]+ isomers that are initially protonated at amide O atoms. PMID:17066369

  7. GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) production, antioxidant activity in some germinated dietary seeds and the effect of cooking on their GABA content

    OpenAIRE

    Kasarin TIANSAWANG; Pairoj LUANGPITUKSA; Warunee VARANYANOND; Chanida HANSAWASDI

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Germinated grains have been known as sources of Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that provide beneficial effects for human health. This study was aimed to investigate GABA production, dietary fiber, antioxidant activity, and the effect of cooking on GABA loss in germinated legumes and sesame. The highest GABA content was found in germinated mung bean, (0.8068 g kg-1, 24 h incubation) followed by germinated soybean, germinated black bean and soaked sesame. Beside GABA, dietary fiber con...

  8. Suppression of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Transaminases Induces Prominent GABA Accumulation, Dwarfism and Infertility in the Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Koike, Satoshi; Matsukura, Chiaki; Takayama, Mariko; Asamizu, Erika; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Tomatoes accumulate γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at high levels in the immature fruits. GABA is rapidly converted to succinate during fruit ripening through the activities of GABA transaminase (GABA-T) and succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH). Although three genes encoding GABA-T and both pyruvate- and α-ketoglutarate-dependent GABA-T activities have been detected in tomato fruits, the mechanism underlying the GABA-T-mediated conversion of GABA has not been fully understood. In this wor...

  9. The synthesis and biodistribution of 3-(4'-[[sup 125]I]-iodophenyl)-4-aminobutyric acid, a radioiodinated analogue of baclofen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakita, Y.; Kojima, M. (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Div. of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry); Schwendner, S.W.; McConnell, D.; Counsell, R.E. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). School of Medicine)

    1990-02-01

    Baclofen has been found to bind to receptors in the central nervous system that are specific for [gamma]-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a well known inhibitory neurotransmitter. This paper describes the synthesis of a radioiodinated analog of baclofen as part of an effort to develop receptor probes useful in single photon emission computed tomography. Preliminary biodistribution studies showed the radioiodinationed analog to be essentially stable to in vivo deiodination and have a distribution profile similar to that of baclofen. (Author).

  10. Site-Specific Enhancement of γ-Aminobutyric Acid-Mediated Inhibition of Neural Activity by Ethanol in the Rat Medial Septal Area1

    OpenAIRE

    GIVENS, BENNET S.; Breese, George R.

    1990-01-01

    Because of uncertainty concerning the interaction of ethanol with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor-mediated events, the present work was designed to investigate the effect of ethanol on GABA transmission in the rat septal area using behavioral and electrophysiological techniques. Microinjection of the GABAA agonist muscimol into the medial septal area (MSA) enhanced, and bicuculline administration antagonized, ethanol-induced impairment of the aerial righting reflex. Microinjection of thes...

  11. Overexpression of γ-aminobutyric acid transporter subtype I leads to susceptibility to kainic acid-induced seizure in transgenic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter,and the GABAergic synaptic transmission is normally terminated by the rapid uptake through GABA transporters.With transgenic mice ubiquitously overexpressing GABA transporter subtype I (GAT1),the present study explored the pathophysiological role of GAT1 in epileptogenesis.Though displaying no spontaneous seizure activity,these mice exhibit altered electroencephalographic patterns and increased susceptibility to seizure induced by kainic acid.In addition,the GABAA receptor and glutamate transporters are up-regulated in transgenic mice,which perhaps reflects a compensatory or corrective change to the elevated level of GAT1.These preliminary findings support the hypothesis that excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission,and seizure susceptibility can be altered by neurotransmitter transporters.

  12. Progress in studies on the role of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor in convulsion: a short review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xing-fang; LIU Li-qun

    2012-01-01

    Convulsion is the medical condition where body muscles contract and relax rapidly and repeatedly,resulting in an uncontrolled shaking of the body.The impaired inhibition of electrical activity in the brain is one of leading causes of convulsion.y-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS).GABA acts at inhibitory synapses in the brain by binding to specific transmembrane receptors in the plasma membrane of both pre- and post-synaptic neuronal processes.GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is the most important inhibitory receptor,and is the target receptor of anticonvulsant drugs in the clinic.In this review,we describe GABAergic signaling mediated by GABAAR,the mechanisms of GABAAR and their expression,and the progress being made on understanding the role of GABAAR in convulsion with emphasis on the association between GABAAR mutations or GABAAR subunit expression and convulsion.We also describe progress of anticonvulsant drugs based on the GABAAR.

  13. Genotoxic and mutagenic effects of vigabatrin, a γ-aminobutyric acid transaminase inhibitor, in Wistar rats submitted to rotarod task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, V R; Sousa, K; Pires, T R; Papke, Dkm; Vieira, C G; de Souza, L P; Leal, M B; Schunck, Rva; Picada, J N; Pereira, P

    2016-09-01

    Vigabatrin (VGB) is an antiepileptic drug thatincreases brain γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels through irreversible inhibition of GABA transaminase. The aim of this study was to evaluate neurotoxicological effects of VGB measuring motor activity and genotoxic and mutagenic effects after a single and repeated administration. Male Wistar rats received saline, VGB 50, 100, or 250 mg/kg by gavage for acute and subchronic (14 days) treatments and evaluated in the rotarod task. Genotoxicity was evaluated using the alkaline version of the comet assay in samples of blood, liver, hippocampus, and brain cortex after both treatments. Mutagenicity was evaluated using the micronucleus test in bone marrow of the same animals that received subchronic treatment. The groups treated with VGB showed similar performance in rotarod compared with the saline group. Regarding the acute treatment, it was observed that only higher VGB doses induced DNA damage in blood and hippocampus. After the subchronic treatment, VGB did not show genotoxic or mutagenic effects. In brief, VGB did not impair motor activities in rats after acute and subchronic treatments. It showed a repairable genotoxic potential in the central nervous system since genotoxicity was observed in the acute treatment group. PMID:26500220

  14. Negative regulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor on free calcium ion levels following facial nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fugao Zhu; Dawei Sun; Yanqing Wang; Rui Zhou; Junfeng Wen; Xiuming Wan; Yanjun Wang; Banghua Liu

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that muscarinic, and nicotinic receptors increase free Ca2+ levels in the facial nerve nucleus via various channels following facial nerve injury. However, intracellular Ca2+ overload can trigger either necrotic or apoptotic cell death. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, exists in the facial nerve nucleus. It is assumed that GABA negatively regulates free Ca2+ levels in the facial nerve nucleus. The present study investigated GABA type A (GABAA) receptor expression in the facial nerve nucleus in a rat model of facial nerve injury using immunohistochemistry and laser confocal microscopy, as well as the regulatory effects of GABAA receptor on nicotinic receptor response following facial nerve injury. Subunits α1, α3, α5, β1, β2, δ, and γ3 of GABAA receptors were expressed in the facial nerve nucleus following facial nerve injury. In addition, GABAA receptor expression significantly inhibited the increase in nicotinic receptor-mediated free Ca2+ levels in the facial nerve nucleus following facial nerve injury in a concentration-dependent fashion. These results suggest that GABAA receptors exhibit negative effects on nicotinic receptor responses following facial nerve injury.

  15. Postharvest Treatment with β-Aminobutyric Acid Induces Resistance Against Dry Rot Caused by Fusarium sulphureum in Potato Tuber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Yan; LI Yong-cai; BI Yang; CHEN Song-jiang; LI Ying-chao; YUAN Li; WANG Yi; WANG Di

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of postharvest β-aminobutyric acid(BABA)treatment was studied for inducing resistance against dry rot caused by Fusarium sulphureum in tubers and slices of two potato cultivars(resistant cultivar Shepody and susceptible cultivar Xindaping).The results showed that BABA at 100 mmol L-1 significantly reduced lesion diameter in inoculated both tubers and slices.The chemical at 100 mmol L-1 showed an effective reduction in infection ability of F.sulphureum inoculated 48 and 72 h after treatment in slices of resistant cultivar,and 72 and 96 h in susceptible ones.BABA increased the activitives of peroxidase(POD),polyphenoloxidase(PPO)and phenylalanine ammonialyase(PAL),and accumulated the contents of lignin,flavonoids and phenolics in slices.The resistant cultivar had a stronger resistant response than the susceptible one.These findings suggest that the BABA treatment can induce the resistance in potato tubers,however,the inducing degree depends on the original level of resistance present in each cultivar.

  16. γ-Aminobutyric acid induces resistance against Penicillium expansum by priming of defence responses in pear fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chen; Zeng, Lizhen; Sheng, Kuang; Chen, Fangxia; Zhou, Tao; Zheng, Xiaodong; Yu, Ting

    2014-09-15

    The results from this study showed that treatment with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), at 100-1000 μg/ml, induced strong resistance against blue mould rot caused by Penicillium expansum in pear fruit. Moreover, the activities of five defence-related enzymes (including chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase, phenylalnine ammonialyase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase) and the expression of these corresponding genes were markedly and/or promptly enhanced in the treatment with GABA and inoculation with P. expansum compared with those that were treated with GABA or inoculated with pathogen alone. In addition, the treatment of pear with GABA had little adverse effect on the edible quality of the fruit. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that GABA can effectively reduce fungal disease of harvested fruit. Its mechanisms may be closely correlated with the induction of fruit resistance by priming activation and expression of defence-related enzymes and genes upon challenge with pathogen. PMID:24767023

  17. Dependence of gamma-aminobutyric acid modulation of cholinergic transmission on nitric oxide and purines in cat terminal ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencheva, N

    1997-11-27

    The possible involvement of purines and/or nitric oxide (NO) in the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor-mediated effects on the spontaneous activity of isolated preparations from longitudinal and circular muscles of cat terminal ileum was investigated. GABA had biphasic effects, which were neurogenic and muscarinic. ATP and adenosine dose dependently inhibited the activity of the muscles. A contractile response evoked by the nucleotide only was also observed. The effects of the purines were equipotent and resistant to Nomega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), tetrodotoxin and to desensitization by alpha,beta-methylene adenosine 5'-triphosphate (alpha,beta-meATP), except for the contractile effect of ATP, which was abolished by alpha,beta-meATP. Pretreatment of the preparations with ATP or adenosine produced: (i) desensitization to the effects of the respective purinoceptor agonist only; and (ii) suppression of the GABA-induced responses of longitudinal and circular muscles. Hemoglobin and L-NNA greatly reduced or completely blocked the GABA(A)-induced relaxation and decreased the GABA(A)-induced contraction. Our results indicate that purines and NO, to a different extent, mediate the relaxant phase of the GABA effects in both layers. Interactions between muscarinic cholinoceptors and GABA-nitrergic pathway and a concomitant activation of postjunctional P1 and P2y purinoceptors are suggested to explain the prejunctional biphasic effects of GABA. PMID:9473135

  18. Extraction, purification and anti-fatigue activity of γ-aminobutyric acid from mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hengwen; He, Xuanhui; Liu, Yan; Li, Jun; He, Qingyong; Zhang, Cuiying; Wei, Benjun; Zhang, Ye; Wang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is a tree species of Moraceae widely distributed in Southern China. In the present study, the white crystal of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was purified from mulberry leaves, and its bioactivity was also investigated. The main results were as follows: first, the crude GABA was extracted from mulberry leaves by using biochemical methods. Then, the crude was purified by chromatography over an S-8 macroporous resin, Sephadex G-10, and 732 cation exchange resin to yield a white crystal. Lavage administration and exposure of GABA to male NIH mice showed no adverse effects on their growth and development. In an endurance capacity test, the average loaded-swimming time of medium dose was 111.60% longer than the control (P < 0.01). Further investigations showed that relative to that of model control, the respective blood lactate (BL) concentrations of low- and medium-dose were 28.52% and 28.81% lower (P < 0.05), whereas the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were 36.83% and 40.54% lower (P < 0.05), and that of liver glycogen (LG) levels were 12.81% and 17.22% lower (P < 0.05). The results indicated that GABA has an advantage over taurine of anti-fatigue effect. These findings were indicative of the anti-fatigue activity of GABA.

  19. Pyridoxine Supplementation Improves the Activity of Recombinant Glutamate Decarboxylase and the Enzymatic Production of Gama-Aminobutyric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Su, Lingqia; Wu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) catalyzes the irreversible decarboxylation of L-glutamate to the valuable food supplement γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In this study, GAD from Escherichia coli K12, a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme, was overexpressed in E. coli. The GAD produced in media supplemented with 0.05 mM soluble vitamin B6 analog pyridoxine hydrochloride (GAD-V) activity was 154.8 U mL-1, 1.8-fold higher than that of GAD obtained without supplementation (GAD-C). Purified GAD-V exhibited increased activity (193.4 U mg-1, 1.5-fold higher than that of GAD-C), superior thermostability (2.8-fold greater than that of GAD-C), and higher kcat/Km (1.6-fold higher than that of GAD-C). Under optimal conditions in reactions mixtures lacking added PLP, crude GAD-V converted 500 g L-1 monosodium glutamate (MSG) to GABA with a yield of 100%, and 750 g L-1 MSG with a yield of 88.7%. These results establish the utility of pyridoxine supplementation and lay the foundation for large-scale enzymatic production of GABA. PMID:27438707

  20. beta-aminobutyric acid primes an NADPH oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species production during grapevine-triggered immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil-Maurizi, Carole; Trouvelot, Sophie; Frettinger, Patrick; Pugin, Alain; Wendehenne, David; Poinssot, Benoît

    2010-08-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the process of priming are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the early signaling events triggered by beta-aminobutyric acid (BABA), a well-known priming-mediated plant resistance inducer. Our results indicate that, in contrast to oligogalacturonides (OG), BABA does not elicit typical defense-related early signaling events nor defense-gene expression in grapevine. However, in OG-elicited cells pretreated with BABA, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and expression of the respiratory-burst oxidase homolog RbohD gene were primed. In response to the causal agent of downy mildew Plasmopara viticola, a stronger ROS production was specifically observed in BABA-treated leaves. This process was correlated with an increased resistance. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) abolished this primed ROS production and reduced the BABA-induced resistance (BABA-IR). These results suggest that priming of an NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production contributes to BABA-IR in the Vitis-Plasmopara pathosystem. PMID:20615112

  1. Brain infection with Staphylococcus aureus leads to high extracellular levels of glutamate, aspartate, γ-aminobutyric acid, and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, Bjørnar; Dahlberg, Daniel; Mariussen, Espen; Goverud, Ingeborg Løstegaard; Antal, Ellen-Ann; Tønjum, Tone; Maehlen, Jan

    2014-12-01

    Staphylococcal brain infections may cause mental deterioration and epileptic seizures, suggesting interference with normal neurotransmission in the brain. We injected Staphylococcus aureus into rat striatum and found an initial 76% reduction in the extracellular level of glutamate as detected by microdialysis at 2 hr after staphylococcal infection. At 8 hr after staphylococcal infection, however, the extracellular level of glutamate had increased 12-fold, and at 20 hr it had increased >30-fold. The extracellular level of aspartate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) also increased greatly. Extracellular Zn(2+) , which was estimated at ∼2.6 µmol/liter in the control situation, was increased by 330% 1-2.5 hr after staphylococcal infection and by 100% at 8 and 20 hr. The increase in extracellular glutamate, aspartate, and GABA appeared to reflect the degree of tissue damage. The area of tissue damage greatly exceeded the area of staphylococcal infiltration, pointing to soluble factors being responsible for cell death. However, the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 ameliorated neither tissue damage nor the increase in extracellular neuroactive amino acids, suggesting the presence of neurotoxic factors other than glutamate and aspartate. In vitro staphylococci incubated with glutamine and glucose formed glutamate, so bacteria could be an additional source of infection-related glutamate. We conclude that the dramatic increase in the extracellular concentration of neuroactive amino acids and zinc could interfere with neurotransmission in the surrounding brain tissue, contributing to mental deterioration and a predisposition to epileptic seizures, which are often seen in brain abscess patients. PMID:25043715

  2. Promoters inducible by aromatic amino acids and γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) for metabolic engineering applications in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sujin; Lee, Kyusung; Bae, Sang-Jeong; Hahn, Ji-Sook

    2015-03-01

    A wide range of promoters with different strengths and regulatory mechanisms are valuable tools in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. While there are many constitutive promoters available, the number of inducible promoters is still limited for pathway engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we constructed aromatic amino-acid-inducible promoters based on the binding sites of Aro80 transcription factor, which is involved in the catabolism of aromatic amino acids through transcriptional activation of ARO9 and ARO10 genes in response to aromatic amino acids. A dynamic range of tryptophan-inducible promoter strengths can be obtained by modulating the number of Aro80 binding sites, plasmid copy numbers, and tryptophan concentrations. Using low and high copy number plasmid vectors and different tryptophan concentrations, a 29-fold range of fluorescence intensities of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter could be achieved from a synthetic U4C ARO9 promoter, which is composed of four repeats of Aro80 binding half site (CCG) and ARO9 core promoter element. The U4C ARO9 promoter was applied to express alsS and alsD genes from Bacillus subtilis for acetoin production in S. cerevisiae, resulting in a gradual increase in acetoin titers depending on tryptophan concentrations. Furthermore, we demonstrated that γ-aminobutyrate (GABA)-inducible UGA4 promoter, regulated by Uga3, can also be used in metabolic engineering as a dose-dependent inducible promoter. The wide range of controllable expression levels provided by these tryptophan- and GABA-inducible promoters might contribute to fine-tuning gene expression levels and timing for the optimization of pathways in metabolic engineering. PMID:25573467

  3. Asymmetric synthesis of -aminophosphonates: The bio-isosteric analogs of -aminobutyric acid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kalisankar Bera; Dwayaja Nadkarni; Iirishi N N Namboothiri

    2013-05-01

    The properties of aminophosphonates as transition state analogs of amino acids, and as antibacterial, antifungal and antiHIV agents attracted considerable attention in recent years. Although many reviews appeared in the literature covering - and -aminophosphonates, -aminophosphonates did not receive sufficient attention despite the fact that parent -aminophosphonic acid and its derivatives are bio-isosteric analogs of GABA (-amino butyric acid). This review provides a critical summary of the significance of -aminophosphonates and various approaches to their synthesis, with particular emphasis to asymmetric versions.

  4. On-line near-infrared spectroscopy optimizing and monitoring biotransformation process of γ-aminobutyric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyu Ding

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS with its fast and nondestructive advantages can be qualified for the real-time quantitative analysis. This paper demonstrates that NIRS combined with partial least squares (PLS regression can be used as a rapid analytical method to simultaneously quantify l-glutamic acid (l-Glu and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA in a biotransformation process and to guide the optimization of production conditions when the merits of NIRS are combined with response surface methodology. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC reference analysis was performed by the o-phthaldialdehyde pre-column derivatization. NIRS measurements of two batches of 141 samples were firstly analyzed by PLS with several spectral pre-processing methods. Compared with those of the HPLC reference analysis, the resulting determination coefficients (R2, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP and residual predictive deviation (RPD of the external validation for the l-Glu concentration were 99.5%, 1.62 g/L, and 11.3, respectively. For the GABA concentration, R2, RMSEP, and RPD were 99.8%, 4.00 g/L, and 16.4, respectively. This NIRS model was then used to optimize the biotransformation process through a Box-Behnken experimental design. Under the optimal conditions without pH adjustment, 200 g/L l-Glu could be catalyzed by 7148 U/L glutamate decarboxylase (GAD to GABA, reaching 99% conversion at the fifth hour. NIRS analysis provided timely information on the conversion from l-Glu to GABA. The results suggest that the NIRS model can not only be used for the routine profiling of enzymatic conversion, providing a simple and effective method of monitoring the biotransformation process of GABA, but also be considered to be an optimal tool to guide the optimization of production conditions.

  5. Phosphatase inhibitors remove the run-down of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in the human epileptic brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, E.; Ragozzino, D. A.; Di Angelantonio, S.; Spinelli, G.; Trettel, F.; Martinez-Torres, A.; Torchia, G.; Arcella, A.; Di Gennaro, G.; Quarato, P. P.; Esposito, V.; Cantore, G.; Miledi, R.; Eusebi, F.

    2004-01-01

    The properties of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptors (GABAA receptors) microtransplanted from the human epileptic brain to the plasma membrane of Xenopus oocytes were compared with those recorded directly from neurons, or glial cells, in human brains slices. Cell membranes isolated from brain specimens, surgically obtained from six patients afflicted with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) were injected into frog oocytes. Within a few hours, these oocytes acquired GABAA receptors that generated GABA currents with an unusual run-down, which was inhibited by orthovanadate and okadaic acid. In contrast, receptors derived from membranes of a nonepileptic hippocampal uncus, membranes from mouse brain, or recombinant rat α1β2γ2-GABA receptors exhibited a much less pronounced GABA-current run-down. Moreover, the GABAA receptors of pyramidal neurons in temporal neocortex slices from the same six epileptic patients exhibited a stronger run-down than the receptors of rat pyramidal neurons. Interestingly, the GABAA receptors of neighboring glial cells remained substantially stable after repetitive activation. Therefore, the excessive GABA-current run-down observed in the membrane-injected oocytes recapitulates essentially what occurs in neurons, rather than in glial cells. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses from the same TLE neocortex specimens revealed that GABAA-receptor β1, β2, β3, and γ2 subunit mRNAs were significantly overexpressed (8- to 33-fold) compared with control autopsy tissues. Our results suggest that an abnormal GABA-receptor subunit transcription in the TLE brain leads to the expression of run-down-enhanced GABAA receptors. Blockage of phosphatases stabilizes the TLE GABAA receptors and strengthens GABAergic inhibition. It may be that this process can be targeted to develop new treatments for intractable epilepsy. PMID:15218107

  6. On-line near-infrared spectroscopy optimizing and monitoring biotransformation process ofγ-aminobutyric acid$

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoyu Ding; Yuanyuan Hou; Jiamin Peng; Yunbing Shen; Min Jiang; Gang Bai

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with its fast and nondestructive advantages can be qualified for the real-time quantitative analysis. This paper demonstrates that NIRS combined with partial least squares (PLS) regression can be used as a rapid analytical method to simultaneously quantify L-glutamic acid (L-Glu) andγ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in a biotransformation process and to guide the optimization of production conditions when the merits of NIRS are combined with response surface methodology. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) reference analysis was performed by the o-phthaldialdehyde pre-column derivatization. NIRS measurements of two batches of 141 samples were firstly analyzed by PLS with several spectral pre-processing methods. Compared with those of the HPLC reference analysis, the resulting determination coefficients (R2), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and residual predictive deviation (RPD) of the external validation for the L-Glu concentration were 99.5%, 1.62 g/L, and 11.3, respectively. For the GABA concentration, R2, RMSEP, and RPD were 99.8%, 4.00 g/L, and 16.4, re-spectively. This NIRS model was then used to optimize the biotransformation process through a Box-Behnken experimental design. Under the optimal conditions without pH adjustment, 200 g/L L-Glu could be catalyzed by 7148 U/L glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) to GABA, reaching 99%conversion at the fifth hour. NIRS analysis provided timely information on the conversion from L-Glu to GABA. The results suggest that the NIRS model can not only be used for the routine profiling of enzymatic conversion, providing a simple and effective method of monitoring the biotransformation process of GABA, but also be considered to be an optimal tool to guide the optimization of production conditions.

  7. An analysis of [3H]gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) binding in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, K G; Dreksler, S

    1979-03-01

    The binding of [3H]GABA to membranes prepared from human brains obtained post morten was examined. This binding was independent of patient sex, age (16--80 years), postmortem interval (4--33 h) or storage time when frozen (0-64 months). In preparations from cerebellar cortex various compounds displaced [3H]GABA binding with the following order of potency: muscimol greater than 3-aminopropanesulfonic acid greater than GABA greater than imidazoleacet acid greater than delta-amino-n-valeric acid greater than 3-hydroxyGABA greater than bicuculline. Other compounds active 'in vitro' included strychnine, homocarnosine and some (e.g. clozapine, thioridazine, pimozide) but not all (chlorpromazine, haloperiodol) neuroleptics. Compounds inactive 'in vitro' included aminooxyacetic acid, baclofen, picrotoxin, anticholinergics, metrazole, anticonvulsants and naloxone. Triton X-100 augmented the [3H]GABA binding (25 nM) by about 10--20-fold in most brain regions. [3H]GABA binding (IC50) was altered in Huntington's chorea and Reye's syndrome, but not in schizophrenics (4-neuroleptic-treated patients) or sudden infant death syndrome. The data presented strongly support the proposal that the measurement of [3H]GABA binding in postmortem human brain offers a reflection of the state of the physiologically relevant GABA receptor. PMID:218679

  8. Development of early-born γ-Aminobutyric acid hub neurons in mouse hippocampus from embryogenesis to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villette, Vincent; Guigue, Philippe; Picardo, Michel Aimé; Sousa, Vitor Hugo; Leprince, Erwan; Lachamp, Philippe; Malvache, Arnaud; Tressard, Thomas; Cossart, Rosa; Baude, Agnès

    2016-08-15

    Early-born γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons (EBGNs) are major components of the hippocampal circuit because at early postnatal stages they form a subpopulation of "hub cells" transiently supporting CA3 network synchronization (Picardo et al. [2011] Neuron 71:695-709). It is therefore essential to determine when these cells acquire the remarkable morphofunctional attributes supporting their network function and whether they develop into a specific subtype of interneuron into adulthood. Inducible genetic fate mapping conveniently allows for the labeling of EBGNs throughout their life. EBGNs were first analyzed during the perinatal week. We observed that EBGNs acquired mature characteristics at the time when the first synapse-driven synchronous activities appeared in the form of giant depolarizing potentials. The fate of EBGNs was next analyzed in the adult hippocampus by using anatomical characterization. Adult EBGNs included a significant proportion of cells projecting selectively to the septum; in turn, EBGNs were targeted by septal and entorhinal inputs. In addition, most EBGNs were strongly targeted by cholinergic and monoaminergic terminals, suggesting significant subcortical innervation. Finally, we found that some EBGNs located in the septum or the entorhinal cortex also displayed a long-range projection that we traced to the hippocampus. Therefore, this study shows that the maturation of the morphophysiological properties of EBGNs mirrors the evolution of early network dynamics, suggesting that both phenomena may be causally linked. We propose that a subpopulation of EBGNs forms into adulthood a scaffold of GABAergic projection neurons linking the hippocampus to distant structures. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2440-2461, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26779909

  9. Alpha-thujone (the active component of absinthe): gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor modulation and metabolic detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höld, K M; Sirisoma, N S; Ikeda, T; Narahashi, T; Casida, J E

    2000-04-11

    Alpha-thujone is the toxic agent in absinthe, a liqueur popular in the 19th and early 20th centuries that has adverse health effects. It is also the active ingredient of wormwood oil and some other herbal medicines and is reported to have antinociceptive, insecticidal, and anthelmintic activity. This study elucidates the mechanism of alpha-thujone neurotoxicity and identifies its major metabolites and their role in the poisoning process. Four observations establish that alpha-thujone is a modulator of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptor. First, the poisoning signs (and their alleviation by diazepam and phenobarbital) in mice are similar to those of the classical antagonist picrotoxinin. Second, a strain of Drosophila specifically resistant to chloride channel blockers is also tolerant to alpha-thujone. Third, alpha-thujone is a competitive inhibitor of [(3)H]ethynylbicycloorthobenzoate binding to mouse brain membranes. Most definitively, GABA-induced peak currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons are suppressed by alpha-thujone with complete reversal after washout. alpha-Thujone is quickly metabolized in vitro by mouse liver microsomes with NADPH (cytochrome P450) forming 7-hydroxy-alpha-thujone as the major product plus five minor ones (4-hydroxy-alpha-thujone, 4-hydroxy-beta-thujone, two other hydroxythujones, and 7,8-dehydro-alpha-thujone), several of which also are detected in the brain of mice treated i.p. with alpha-thujone. The major 7-hydroxy metabolite attains much higher brain levels than alpha-thujone but is less toxic to mice and Drosophila and less potent in the binding assay. The other metabolites assayed are also detoxification products. Thus, alpha-thujone in absinthe and herbal medicines is a rapid-acting and readily detoxified modulator of the GABA-gated chloride channel. PMID:10725394

  10. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 Inhibits γ-Aminobutyric Acid-Activated Current in Hippocampal Pyramidal Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zhiwen; Tian, Yujing; Qi, Mengwen; Li, Yingchun; Du, Yimei; Chen, Lei; Liu, Wentao; Chen, Ling

    2016-01-01

    The balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter systems is crucial for the modulation of neuronal excitability in the central nervous system (CNS). The activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is reported to enhance the response of hippocampal glutamate receptors, but whether the inhibitory neurotransmitter system can be regulated by TRPV4 remains unknown. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS. Here, we show that application of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) synthetic (GSK1016790A or 4α-PDD) or endogenous agonist (5,6-EET) inhibited GABA-activated current (IGABA) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, which was blocked by specific antagonists of TRPV4 and of GABAA receptors. GSK1016790A increased the phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) and decreased the phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt) protein levels, which was attenuated by removing extracellular calcium or by a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-β antagonist. GSK1016790A-induced decrease of p-Akt protein level was sensitive to an AMPK antagonist. GSK1016790A-inhibited IGABA was blocked by an AMPK antagonist or a phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase (PI3K) agonist. GSK1016790A-induced inhibition of IGABA was also significantly attenuated by a protein kinase C (PKC) antagonist but was unaffected by protein kinase A or calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II antagonist. We conclude that activation of TRPV4 inhibits GABAA receptor, which may be mediated by activation of AMPK and subsequent down-regulation of PI3K/Akt signaling and activation of PKC signaling. Inhibition of GABAA receptors may account for the neuronal hyperexcitability caused by TRPV4 activation.

  11. Targeting the γ-Aminobutyric Acid A Receptor α4 Subunit in Airway Smooth Muscle to Alleviate Bronchoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yocum, Gene T; Gallos, George; Zhang, Yi; Jahan, Rajwana; Stephen, Michael Rajesh; Varagic, Zdravko; Puthenkalam, Roshan; Ernst, Margot; Cook, James M; Emala, Charles W

    2016-04-01

    We previously demonstrated that airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells express γ-aminobutyric acid A receptors (GABAARs), and that GABAAR agonists acutely relax ASM. Among the GABAAR α subunits, human ASM cells express only α4 and α5, providing the opportunity for selective pharmacologic targeting. Novel GABAAR-positive allosteric modulators designed for enhanced α4/α6 subunit selectivity were synthesized using iterative computational analyses (CMD-45 and XHe-III-74). Studies using oocyte heterologous expression systems confirmed that CMD-45 and XHe-III-74 led to significantly greater augmentation of currents induced by a 3% maximal effective concentration (EC3) of GABA [EC3]-induced currents in oocytes expressing α4 or α6 subunits (along with β3 and γ2) compared with other α subunits. CMD-45 and XHe-III-74 also led to greater ex vivo relaxation of contracted wild-type mouse tracheal rings compared with tracheal rings from GABAAR α4 subunit (Gabra4) knockout mice. Furthermore, CMD-45 and XHe-III-74 significantly relaxed precontracted human ASM ex vivo, and, at a low concentration, both ligands led to a significant leftward shift in albuterol-mediated ASM relaxation. In vivo, inhaled XHe-III-74 reduced respiratory system resistance in an asthmatic mouse model. Pretreatment of human ASM cells with CMD-45 and XHe-III-74 inhibited histamine-induced increases in intracellular calcium concentrations in vitro, an effect that was lost when calcium was omitted from the extracellular buffer, suggesting that inhibition of calcium influx due to alterations in plasma membrane potential may play a role in the mechanism of ASM relaxation. Selective targeting of the GABAAR α4 subunit with inhaled ligands may be a novel therapeutic pathway to treat bronchoconstriction, while avoiding sedative central nervous system effects, which are largely mediated by α1-3 subunit-containing GABAARs in the brain. PMID:26405827

  12. Carbon dioxide solubility in aqueous potassium salt solutions of L-proline and DL-α-aminobutyric acid at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • CO2 solubility in aqueous potassium salt solutions of L-proline and DL-α-aminobutyric acid were studied. • The CO2 partial pressures studied was up to 1000 kPa. • The temperatures studied were (313.2, 333.2, 353.2) K. • The measured data were represented satisfactorily by using the applied correlations. • The CO2 absorption capacity of the studied systems was high and comparable with monoethanolamine. - Abstract: In the present work, the solubility of CO2 in aqueous solutions of potassium prolinate (KPr) and potassium α-aminobutyrate (KAABA) was measured at temperatures (313.2, 333.2, and 353.2) K and CO2 partial pressures up to 1000 kPa for amino acid salt concentrations: KPr, w = (7.5, 14.5, and 27.4 wt%) and KAABA, w = (6.9, 13.4, and 25.6 wt%). It was found that the CO2 absorption capacities of the studied amino acid salt systems were considerably high and comparable with that of industrially important alkanolamines including monoethanolamine. The CO2 loadings in aqueous potassium α-aminobutyrate at high pressures were also found to be generally higher than the loadings in aqueous potassium prolinate. A modified Kent–Eisenberg model was applied to correlate the CO2 solubility in the amino acid salt solution as function of CO2 partial pressure, temperature, and concentration. The model gave good representation of the (vapour + liquid) equilibrium data obtained for the amino acid salt systems studied, and provided accurate predictions of the solubility

  13. β-Aminobutyric acid increases abscisic acid accumulation and desiccation tolerance and decreases water use but fails to improve grain yield in two spring wheat cultivars under soil drying

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Yan-Lei; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Fan, Jing-Wei; Turner, Neil C.; Wang, Tao; Li, Feng-Min

    2012-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of the non-protein amino acid, β-aminobutyric acid (BABA), on the homeostasis between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defence during progressive soil drying, and its relationship with the accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA), water use, grain yield, and desiccation tolerance in two spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars released in different decades and with different yields under drought. Drenching the soil with 100...

  14. DL-β-aminobutyric acid-induced resistance in soybean against Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Zhong

    Full Text Available Priming can improve plant innate capability to deal with the stresses caused by both biotic and abiotic factors. In this study, the effect of DL-β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA against Aphis glycines Matsumura, the soybean aphid (SA was evaluated. We found that 25 mM BABA as a root drench had minimal adverse impact on plant growth and also efficiently protected soybean from SA infestation. In both choice and non-choice tests, SA number was significantly decreased to a low level in soybean seedlings drenched with 25 mM BABA compared to the control counterparts. BABA treatment resulted in a significant increase in the activities of several defense enzymes, such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, peroxidase (POX, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, chitinase (CHI, and β-1, 3-glucanase (GLU in soybean seedlings attacked by aphid. Meanwhile, the induction of 15 defense-related genes by aphid, such as AOS, CHS, MMP2, NPR1-1, NPR1-2, and PR genes, were significantly augmented in BABA-treated soybean seedlings. Our study suggest that BABA application is a promising way to enhance soybean resistance against SA.

  15. Influence of cold stress on contents of soluble sugars, vitamin C and free amino acids including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in spinach (Spinacia oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Young-Eun; Kuppusamy, Saranya; Cho, Kye Man; Kim, Pil Joo; Kwack, Yong-Bum; Lee, Yong Bok

    2017-01-15

    The contents of soluble sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose, maltose and raffinose), vitamin C and free amino acids (34 compounds, essential and non-essential) were quantified in open-field and greenhouse-grown spinaches in response to cold stress using liquid chromatography. In general, greenhouse cultivation produced nutritionally high value spinach in a shorter growing period, where the soluble sugars, vitamin C and total amino acids concentrations, including essential were in larger amounts compared to those grown in open-field scenarios. Further, low temperature exposure of spinach during a shorter growth period resulted in the production of spinach with high sucrose, ascorbate, proline, gamma-aminobutyric acid, valine and leucine content, and these constitute the most important energy/nutrient sources. In conclusion, cultivation of spinach in greenhouse at a low temperature (4-7°C) and exposure for a shorter period (7-21days) before harvest is recommended. This strategy will produce a high quality product that people can eat. PMID:27542466

  16. Binding interaction of a gamma-aminobutyric acid derivative with serum albumin: an insight by fluorescence and molecular modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Uttam; Pramanik, Sumit Kumar; Bhattacharya, Baisali; Banerji, Biswadip; C Maiti, Nakul

    2016-01-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a naturally occurring inhibitory neurotransmitter and some of its derivatives showed potential to act as neuroprotective agents. With the aim of developing potential leads for anti-Alzheimer's drugs, in this study we synthesized a novel GABA derivative, methyl 4-(4-((2-(tert-butoxy)-2-oxoethyl)(4-methoxyphenyl)amino)benzamido)butanoate by a unique method of Buchwald-Hartwig cross coupling synthesis; with some modification the yield was significant (97 %) and spectroscopic analysis confirmed that the compound was highly pure (98.8 % by HPLC). The druglikeness properties such as logP, logS, and polar surface area were 3.87, -4.86 and 94.17 Å(2) respectively and it satisfied the Lipinski's rule of five. We examined the binding behavior of the molecule to human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) which are known as universal drug carrier proteins. The molecule binds to the proteins with low micromolar efficiency and the calculated binding constants were 3.85 and 2.75 micromolar for BSA and HSA, respectively. Temperature dependent study using van't Hoff equation established that the binding was thermodynamically favorable and the changes in the Gibb's free energy, ΔG for the binding process was negative. However, the binding of the molecule to HSA was enthalpy driven and the change of enthalpy (ΔH) was -10.63 kJ/mol, whereas, the binding to BSA was entropy driven and the change in entropy ΔS was 222 J/mol. The molecular docking analysis showed that the binding sites of the molecule lie in the groove between domain I and domain III of BSA, whereas it is within the domain I in case of HSA, which also supported the different thermodynamic nature of binding with HSA and BSA. Molecular dynamics analysis suggested that the binding was stable with time and provided further details of the binding interaction. Molecular dynamics study also highlighted the effect of this ligand binding on the serum albumin structure. PMID

  17. Limbic Encephalitis Associated with Anti-γ-aminobutyric Acid B Receptor Antibodies: A Case Series from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Zhi Guan; Hai-Tao Ren; Xun-Zhe Yang; Qiang Lu; Bin Peng; Yi-Cheng Zhu; Xiao-Qiu Shao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Autoimmune encephalitis associated with antibodies against γ-aminobutyric acid B receptor (GABABR) in patients with limbic encephalitis (LE) was first described in 2010.We present a series of Han Chinese patients for further clinical refinement.Methods: Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients referred to the program of encephalitis and paraneoplastic syndrome of Peking Union Medical College Hospital were tested with indirect immunofluorescence.Clinical information of patients with anti-GABABR antibody positivity was retrospectively reviewed, and descriptive statistical analysis was performed.Results: All eighteen anti-GABABR antibody-positive cases had limbic syndromes, and electroencephalogram (EEG) or neuroimaging evidence fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of LE.Four patients had additional antibodies against Hu in serum and one had anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antibody in both sera and CSE Seventeen (17/18) patients presented with new-onset refractory seizure or status epileptics.Twelve (12/18) patients had memory deficits, 11 (11/18) patients had personality change, 7 (7/18) patients had disturbance of consciousness, and 3 (3/18) patients showed cerebellar dysfunction.One patient with LE had progressive motor and sensory polyneuropathy.Lung cancer was detected in 6 (6/18) patients.Ten (10/18) patients showed abnormality in bilateral or unilateral mediotemporal region on magnetic resonance imaging.Ten (10/18) patients had temporal lobe epileptic activity with or without general slowing on EEG.Seventeen patients received immunotherapy and 15 of them showed neurological improvement.Four patients with lung cancer died within 1-12 months due to neoplastic complications.Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that most Han Chinese patients with anti-GABABR antibody-associated LE have prominent refractory epilepsy and show neurological improvement on immunotherapy.Patients with underlying lung tumor have a relatively poor prognosis

  18. Peripartum neuroactive steroid and γ-aminobutyric acid profiles in women at-risk for postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligiannidis, Kristina M; Kroll-Desrosiers, Aimee R; Mo, Shunyan; Nguyen, Hien P; Svenson, Abby; Jaitly, Nina; Hall, Janet E; Barton, Bruce A; Rothschild, Anthony J; Shaffer, Scott A

    2016-08-01

    Neuroactive steroids (NAS) are allosteric modulators of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system. NAS and GABA are implicated in depression. The peripartum period involves physiologic changes in NAS which may be associated with peripartum depression and anxiety. We measured peripartum plasma NAS and GABA in healthy comparison subjects (HCS) and those at-risk for postpartum depression (AR-PPD) due to current mild depressive or anxiety symptoms or a history of depression. We evaluated 56 peripartum medication-free subjects. We measured symptoms with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-State (STAI-S). Plasma NAS and GABA were quantified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We examined the associations between longitudinal changes in NAS, GABA and depressive and anxiety symptoms using generalized estimating equation methods. Peripartum GABA concentration was 1.9±0.7ng/mL (p=0.004) lower and progesterone and pregnanolone were 15.8±7.5 (p=0.04) and 1.5±0.7ng/mL (p=0.03) higher in AR-PPD versus HCS, respectively. HAM-D17 was negatively associated with GABA (β=-0.14±0.05, p=0.01) and positively associated with pregnanolone (β=0.16±0.06, p=0.01). STAI-S was positively associated with pregnanolone (β=0.11±0.04, p=0.004), allopregnanolone (β=0.13±0.05, p=0.006) and pregnenolone (β=0.02±0.01, p=0.04). HAM-A was negatively associated with GABA (β=-0.12±0.04, p=0.004) and positively associated with pregnanolone (β=0.11±0.05, p=0.05). Altered peripartum NAS and GABA profiles in AR-PPD women suggest that their interaction may play an important role in the pathophysiology of peripartum depression and anxiety. PMID:27209438

  19. Association of gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor α2 gene (GABRA2) with alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dawei; Sulovari, Arvis; Cheng, Chao; Zhao, Hongyu; Kranzler, Henry R; Gelernter, Joel

    2014-03-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in mammalian brain. GABA receptor are involved in a number of complex disorders, including substance abuse. No variants of the commonly studied GABA receptor genes that have been associated with substance dependence have been determined to be functional or pathogenic. To reconcile the conflicting associations with substance dependence traits, we performed a meta-analysis of variants in the GABAA receptor genes (GABRB2, GABRA6, GABRA1, and GABRG2 on chromosome 5q and GABRA2 on chromosome 4p12) using genotype data from 4739 cases of alcohol, opioid, or methamphetamine dependence and 4924 controls. Then, we combined the data from candidate gene association studies in the literature with two alcohol dependence (AD) samples, including 1691 cases and 1712 controls from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment (SAGE), and 2644 cases and 494 controls from our own study. Using a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of 0.007, we found strong associations between GABRA2 and AD (P=9 × 10(-6) and odds ratio (OR) 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.27 (1.15, 1.4) for rs567926, P=4 × 10(-5) and OR=1.21 (1.1, 1.32) for rs279858), and between GABRG2 and both dependence on alcohol and dependence on heroin (P=0.0005 and OR=1.22 (1.09, 1.37) for rs211014). Significant association was also observed between GABRA6 rs3219151 and AD. The GABRA2 rs279858 association was observed in the SAGE data sets with a combined P of 9 × 10(-6) (OR=1.17 (1.09, 1.26)). When all of these data sets, including our samples, were meta-analyzed, associations of both GABRA2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms remained (for rs567926, P=7 × 10(-5) (OR=1.18 (1.09, 1.29)) in all the studies, and P=8 × 10(-6) (OR=1.25 (1.13, 1.38)) in subjects of European ancestry and for rs279858, P=5 × 10(-6) (OR=1.18 (1.1, 1.26)) in subjects of European ancestry. Findings from this extensive meta-analysis of five GABAA receptor genes and substance abuse support

  20. The gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB receptor agonist baclofen inhibits morphine sensitization by decreasing the dopamine level in rat nucleus accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Zhenyu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeated morphine exposure can induce behavioral sensitization. There are evidences have shown that central gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA system is involved in morphine dependence. However, the effect of a GABAB receptor agonist baclofen on morphine-induced behavioral sensitization in rats is unclear. Methods We used morphine-induced behavioral sensitization model in rat to investigate the effects of baclofen on behavioral sensitization. Moreover, dopamine release in the shell of the nucleus accumbens was evaluated using microdialysis assay in vivo. Results The present study demonstrated that morphine challenge (3 mg/kg, s.c. obviously enhanced the locomotor activity following 4-day consecutive morphine administration and 3-day withdrawal period, which indicated the expression of morphine sensitization. In addition, chronic treatment with baclofen (2.5, 5 mg/kg significantly inhibited the development of morphine sensitization. It was also found that morphine challenge 3 days after repeated morphine administration produced a significant increase of extracellular dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. Furthermore, chronic treatment with baclofen decreased the dopamine release induced by morphine challenge. Conclusions Our results indicated that gamma-aminobutyric acid system plays an important role in the morphine sensitization in rat and suggested that behavioral sensitization is a promising model to study the mechanism underlying drug abuse.

  1. Straightforward and effective synthesis of γ-aminobutyric acid transporter subtype 2-selective acyl-substituted azaspiro[4.5]decanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaofeng; Lubin, Hodney; Ioja, Enikő; Kékesi, Orsolya; Simon, Ágnes; Apáti, Ágota; Orbán, Tamás I; Héja, László; Kardos, Julianna; Markó, István E

    2016-01-15

    Supply of major metabolites such as γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), β-alanine and taurine is an essential instrument that shapes signalling, proper cell functioning and survival in the brain and peripheral organs. This background motivates the synthesis of novel classes of compounds regulating their selective transport through various fluid-organ barriers via the low-affinity γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter subtype 2 (GAT2). Natural and synthetic spirocyclic compounds or therapeutics with a range of structures and biological activity are increasingly recognised in this regard. Based on pre-validated GABA transport activity, straightforward and efficient synthesis method was developed to provide an azaspiro[4.5]decane scaffold, holding a variety of charge, substituent and 3D constrain of spirocyclic amine. Investigation of the azaspiro[4.5]decane scaffold in cell lines expressing the four GABA transporter subtypes led to the discovery of a subclass of a GAT2-selective compounds with acyl-substituted azaspiro[4.5]decane core. PMID:26706177

  2. Proteomic analysis of B-aminobutyric acid priming and aba-induction of drought resistance in crabapple (Malus pumila): effect on general metabolism, the phenylpropanoid pathway and cell wall enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a variety of annual crops and model plants, the xenobiotic compound, DL-beta-aminobutyric acid (BABA), has been shown to enhance disease resistance and increase salt, drought, and thermotolerance. BABA does not activate stress genes directly but rather sensitizes plants to respond more quickly a...

  3. Differential interactions of 5-(4-piperidyl)-3-isoxazolol analogues with insect γ-aminobutyric acid receptors leading to functional selectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Genyan; Frølund, Bente; Ozoe, Fumiyo;

    2015-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors (GABARs) mediate fast inhibitory synaptic transmission and are also targets for drugs and insecticides. To better understand the molecular interactions of ligands with the orthosteric sites of GABARs, we examined 4-aryl/arylalkyl-5-(4-piperidyl)-3-isoxazolol, 4......-aryl-5-(4-piperidyl)-3-isothiazolol, and 5-aryl-4-(4-piperidyl)-1-hydroxypyrazole for their antagonism with regard to three insect GABARs. The 3-isoxazolol was preferable to the 3-isothiazolol and 1-hydroxypyrazole in antagonism to common cutworm and housefly GABARs. Of the tested analogues, 4...... small brown planthopper GABARs. These findings provide important insights into designing and developing novel drugs and insecticides....

  4. Effects of inhibitors of protein synthesis and intracellular transport on the gamma-aminobutyric acid agonist-induced functional differentiation of cultured cerebellar granule cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belhage, B; Hansen, G H; Meier, E; Schousboe, A

    1990-01-01

    membrane preparations. This indicates that the low-affinity receptors were not located in the plasma membrane. This is in good agreement with the corresponding morphological findings, that monensin treatment led to an intense vacuolization of the Golgi apparatus, thereby preventing intracellular transport......The effect of inhibitors of protein synthesis (actinomycin D, cycloheximide), proteases (leupeptin), and intracellular transport (colchicine, monensin) on the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist [4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP)]-induced changes in morphological...... transport as well as the protease inhibitor did not affect this parameter. However, studies of effects of GABA on transmitter release from monensin-treated cultures showed that transmitter release could not be inhibited by GABA in these cells in spite of the presence of low-affinity GABA receptors in the...

  5. DEVIATIONS IN MENTAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE OFFSPRING OF RATS WITH EXPERIMENTAL PREECLAMPSIA AND THEIR CORRECTION BY NEW DERIVATIVE OF GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Tyurenkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of investigation was to study the effect of a gamma-aminobutyric acid´s derivative – a compound RGPU-242 – on the mental development of the rat´s offspring with experimental preeclampsia. Famels’s preeclampsia was modeled    by    replacing    the    drinking    water    of 1.8%    sodium    chloride solution from 7th to the 21th day of gestation. Locomotion, indicative and emotional activity and cognitive functions in progeny were recorded on “Open field”, “One-way step-down inhibitory (“passive” avoidance”, “Elevated plus maze” and “Test of extrapolative escape” tests in different periods of postnatal development. Found that the compound RGPU-242 has gravidoprotective effect, improves formation and development of mental functions in the offspring.

  6. Heterotrimeric guanosine triphosphate-binding protein-coupled modulatory actions of motilin on K+ channels and postsynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid receptors in mouse medial vestibular nuclear neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todaka, Hiroshi; Tatsukawa, Tetsuya; Hashikawa, Tsutomu; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Shibuki, Katsuei; Nagao, Soichi

    2013-02-01

    Some central nervous system neurons express receptors of gastrointestinal hormones, but their pharmacological actions are not well known. Previous anatomical and unit recording studies suggest that a group of cerebellar Purkinje cells express motilin receptors, and motilin depresses the spike discharges of vestibular nuclear neurons that receive direct cerebellar inhibition in rats or rabbits. Here, by the slice-patch recording method, we examined the pharmacological actions of motilin on the mouse medial vestibular nuclear neurons (MVNs), which play an important role in the control of ocular reflexes. A small number of MVNs, as well as cerebellar floccular Purkinje cells, were labeled with an anti-motilin receptor antibody. Bath application of motilin (0.1 μm) decreased the discharge frequency of spontaneous action potentials in a group of MVNs in a dose-dependent manner (K(d) , 0.03 μm). The motilin action on spontaneous action potentials was blocked by apamin (100 nm), a blocker of small-conductance Ca(2+) -activated K(+) channels. Furthermore, motilin enhanced the amplitudes of inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) and miniature IPSCs, but did not affect the frequencies of miniature IPSCs. Intracellular application of pertussis toxin (PTx) (0.5 μg/μL) or guanosine triphosphate-γ-S (1 mm) depressed the motilin actions on both action potentials and IPSCs. Only 30% of MVNs examined on slices obtained from wild-type mice, but none of the GABAergic MVNs that were studied on slices obtained from vesicular γ-aminobutyric acid transporter-Venus transgenic mice, showed such a motilin response on action potentials and IPSCs. These findings suggest that motilin could modulate small-conductance Ca(2+) -activated K(+) channels and postsynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid receptors through heterotrimeric guanosine triphosphate-binding protein-coupled receptor in a group of glutamatergic MVNs. PMID:23136934

  7. In Silico Prediction of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Type-A Receptors Using Novel Machine-Learning-Based SVM and GBDT Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhijun; Huang, Yong; Yue, Xiaodong; Lu, Huijuan; Xuan, Ping; Ju, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid type-A receptors (GABAARs) belong to multisubunit membrane spanning ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) which act as the principal mediators of rapid inhibitory synaptic transmission in the human brain. Therefore, the category prediction of GABAARs just from the protein amino acid sequence would be very helpful for the recognition and research of novel receptors. Based on the proteins' physicochemical properties, amino acids composition and position, a GABAAR classifier was first constructed using a 188-dimensional (188D) algorithm at 90% cd-hit identity and compared with pseudo-amino acid composition (PseAAC) and ProtrWeb web-based algorithms for human GABAAR proteins. Then, four classifiers including gradient boosting decision tree (GBDT), random forest (RF), a library for support vector machine (libSVM), and k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) were compared on the dataset at cd-hit 40% low identity. This work obtained the highest correctly classified rate at 96.8% and the highest specificity at 99.29%. But the values of sensitivity, accuracy, and Matthew's correlation coefficient were a little lower than those of PseAAC and ProtrWeb; GBDT and libSVM can make a little better performance than RF and k-NN at the second dataset. In conclusion, a GABAAR classifier was successfully constructed using only the protein sequence information. PMID:27579307

  8. Cloning of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) ρ1 cDNA: A GABA receptor subunit highly expressed in the retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Type A γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors are a family of ligand-gated chloride channels that are the major inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the nervous system. Molecular cloning has revealed diversity in the subunits that compose this heterooligomeric receptor, but each previously elucidated subunit displays amino acid similarity in conserved structural elements. The authors have used these highly conserved regions to identify additional members of this family by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One PCR product was used to isolate a full-length cDNA from a human retina cDNA library. The mature protein predicted from this cDNA sequence is 458 amino acids long and displays between 30 and 38% amino acid similarity to the previously identified GABAA subunits. This gene is expressed primarily in the retina but transcripts are also detected in the brain, lung, and thymus. Injection of Xenopus oocytes with RNA transcribed in vitro produces a GABA-responsive chloride conductance and expression of the cDNA in COS cells yields GABA-displaceable muscimol binding. These features are consistent with our identification of a GABA subunit, GABA ρ1, with prominent retinal expression that increases the diversity and tissue specificity of this ligand-gated ion-channel receptor family

  9. Sensitive determination of taurine, γ-aminobutyric acid and ornithine in wolfberry fruit and cortex lycii by HPLC with fluorescence detection and online mass spectrometry identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangming; You, Jinmao; Suo, Yourui; Fan, Baolei

    2015-04-01

    A new, simple and highly sensitive method for the determination of taurine, γ-aminobutyric acid and ornithine using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection is described. Three non-protein amino acids were derivatized by a novel precolumn derivatization reagent 2-[2-(dibenzocarbazol)-ethoxy]ethyl chloroformate before injected. Optimum derivatization was obtained at 40°C for 5 min in the presence of sodium borate buffer (pH 9.0). Derivatives were sufficiently stable to be efficiently analyzed by HPLC without pretreatment. On a reversed-phase Hypersil BDS C8 column, the amino acids were separated in conjunction with a gradient elution with a good baseline resolution. The identification of derivatives was carried out by online postcolumn mass spectrometry with an electrospray ionization source in positive ion mode. Excellent linear responses were observed with the correlation coefficients of >0.9996, and instrument detection limits (at a signal to noise of 3 : 1) were in the range of 0.30-0.33 nmol/L. The proposed method is sensitive and reproducible for the precise determination of the amino acids from wolfberry fruit and cortex lycii samples. PMID:24996656

  10. A functional assay to measure postsynaptic gamma-aminobutyric acidB responses in cultured spinal cord neurons: Heterologous regulation of the same K+ channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamatchi, G.L.; Ticku, M.K. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio (USA))

    1991-02-01

    The stimulation of postsynaptic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)B receptors leads to slow inhibitory postsynaptic potentials due to the influx of K(+)-ions. This was studied biochemically, in vitro in mammalian cultured spinal cord neurons by using 86Rb as a substitute for K+. (-)-Baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist, produced a concentration-dependent increase in the 86Rb-influx. This effect was stereospecific and blocked by GABAB receptor antagonists like CGP 35 348 (3-aminopropyl-diethoxymethyl-phosphonic acid) and phaclofen. Apart from the GABAB receptors, both adenosine via adenosine1 receptors and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) via 5-HT1 alpha agonists also increased the 86Rb-influx. These agonists failed to show any additivity between them when they were combined in their maximal concentration. In addition, their effect was antagonized specifically by their respective antagonists without influencing the others. These findings suggest the presence of GABAB, adenosine1 and 5-HT1 alpha receptors in the cultured spinal cord neurons, which exhibit a heterologous regulation of the same K(+)-channel. The effect of these agonists were antagonized by phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, an activator of protein kinase C, and pretreatment with pertussis toxin. This suggests that these agonists by acting on their own receptors converge on the same K(+)-channel through the Gi/Go proteins. In summary, we have developed a biochemical functional assay for studying and characterizing GABAB synaptic pharmacology in vitro, using spinal cord neurons.

  11. A functional assay to measure postsynaptic gamma-aminobutyric acidB responses in cultured spinal cord neurons: Heterologous regulation of the same K+ channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stimulation of postsynaptic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)B receptors leads to slow inhibitory postsynaptic potentials due to the influx of K(+)-ions. This was studied biochemically, in vitro in mammalian cultured spinal cord neurons by using 86Rb as a substitute for K+. (-)-Baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist, produced a concentration-dependent increase in the 86Rb-influx. This effect was stereospecific and blocked by GABAB receptor antagonists like CGP 35 348 (3-aminopropyl-diethoxymethyl-phosphonic acid) and phaclofen. Apart from the GABAB receptors, both adenosine via adenosine1 receptors and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) via 5-HT1 alpha agonists also increased the 86Rb-influx. These agonists failed to show any additivity between them when they were combined in their maximal concentration. In addition, their effect was antagonized specifically by their respective antagonists without influencing the others. These findings suggest the presence of GABAB, adenosine1 and 5-HT1 alpha receptors in the cultured spinal cord neurons, which exhibit a heterologous regulation of the same K(+)-channel. The effect of these agonists were antagonized by phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, an activator of protein kinase C, and pretreatment with pertussis toxin. This suggests that these agonists by acting on their own receptors converge on the same K(+)-channel through the Gi/Go proteins. In summary, we have developed a biochemical functional assay for studying and characterizing GABAB synaptic pharmacology in vitro, using spinal cord neurons

  12. A fluorescence-coupled assay for gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA reveals metabolic stress-induced modulation of GABA content in neuroendocrine cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E Ippolito

    Full Text Available Pathways involved in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA have been implicated in the pathogenesis of high grade neuroendocrine (NE neoplasms as well as neoplasms from a non-NE lineage. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas, overexpression of the GABA synthetic enzyme, glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD1, was found to be associated with decreased disease free-survival in prostate adenocarcinoma and decreased overall survival in clear cell renal cell carcinomas. Furthermore, GAD1 was found to be expressed in castrate-resistant prostate cancer cell lines, but not androgen-responsive cell lines. Using a novel fluorescence-coupled enzymatic microplate assay for GABA mediated through reduction of resazurin in a prostate neuroendocrine carcinoma (PNEC cell line, acid microenvironment-induced stress increased GABA levels while alkaline microenvironment-induced stress decreased GABA through modulation of GAD1 and glutamine synthetase (GLUL activities. Moreover, glutamine but not glucose deprivation decreased GABA through modulation of GLUL. Consistent with evidence in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms that GABA synthesis mediated through GAD1 may play a crucial role in surviving stress, GABA may be an important mediator of stress survival in neoplasms. These findings identify GABA synthesis and metabolism as a potentially important pathway for regulating cancer cell stress response as well as a potential target for therapeutic strategies.

  13. Effect of Application of β-aminobutyric Acid on Maintaining Quality of Crimson Seedless Grape and Controlling Postharvest Diseases under Cold Storage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. EL-Metwally

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of application β-Aminobutyric Acid (BABA on Crimson Seedless grape vine was studied in 2012 and 2013 seasons, as an alternative to traditional chemical compounds that are harmful to the environment to control the pre and postharvest diseases. The vines were dipped in three levels of BABA (200, 250, 300 ppm two weeks before harvest. The linear growth and dry weight of Botrytis cinerea isolated from Crimson Seedless grape were greatly influenced by the increase in BABA concentration up to 300 ppm. In both seasons, prolonging the marketing stage resulted in decreased in disease infection with the increase in concentrations, at 300 ppm concentration, BABA gave the maximum reduction in disease infection caused by Botrytis cinerea, in addition to the improvement of fruit quality at harvest and during cold storage (for 60 days at 0±1°C with 90-95% RH, as well as 3 days marketing period at room temperature. Clusters treated with 300 ppm BABA developed less decay shatter and total loss. Moreover, it was more effective in rising SSC, titratable acidity, total sugar and anthocyanin accumulation in the skin of berry during cold storage conditions and marketing period compared with the other treatments. While, BABA 250 ppm showed high berry firmness and adherence strength.

  14. [Response of reactive oxygen metabolism in melon chloroplasts to short-term salinity-alkalinity stress regulated by exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Li-xia; Hu, Li-pan; Hu, Xiao-hui; Pan, Xiong-bo; Ren, Wen-qi

    2015-12-01

    The regulatory effect of exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in melon chloroplasts under short-term salinity-alkalinity stress were investigated in melon variety 'Jinhui No. 1', which was cultured with deep flow hydroponics. The result showed that under salinity-alkalinity stress, the photosynthetic pigment content, MDA content, superoxide anion (O₂·) production rate and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) content in chloroplast increased significantly, the contents of antioxidants ascorbic acid (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) increased, and the activities of H⁺-ATPase and H⁺-PPiase were inhibited obviously. With exogenous GABA application, the accumulations of O₂·, MDA and H₂O₂ induced by salinity-alkalinity stress were inhibited. Exogenous GABA alleviated the increase of photosynthetic pigment content, improved the activity of SOD, enzymes of AsA-GSH cycle, total AsA and total GSH while decreased the AsA/DHA ratio and GSH/GSSH ratio. Foliar GABA could enhance the H⁺-ATPase and H⁺-PPiase activities. Our results suggested that the exogenous GABA could accelerate the ROS metabolism in chloroplast, promote the recycle of AsA-GSH, and maintain the permeability of cell membrane to improve the ability of melon chloroplast against salinity-alkalinity stress. PMID:27112014

  15. Use of sourdough fermentation and pseudo-cereals and leguminous flours for the making of a functional bread enriched of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coda, Rossana; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Gobbetti, Marco

    2010-02-28

    Lactobacillus plantarum C48 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis PU1, previously selected for the biosynthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), were used for sourdough fermentation of cereal, pseudo-cereal and leguminous flours. Chickpea, amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat were the flours most suitable to be enriched of GABA. The parameters of sourdough fermentation were optimized. Addition of 0.1mM pyridoxal phosphate, dough yield of 160, inoculum of 5 x 10(7)CFU/g of starter bacteria and fermentation for 24h at 30 degrees C were found to be the optimal conditions. A blend of buckwheat, amaranth, chickpea and quinoa flours (ratio 1:1:5.3:1) was selected and fermented with baker's yeast (non-conventional flour bread, NCB) or with Lb. plantarum C48 sourdough (non-conventional flour sourdough bread, NCSB) and compared to baker's yeast started wheat flour bread (WFB). NCSB had the highest concentration of free amino acids and GABA (ca. 4467 and 504 mg/kg, respectively). The concentration of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of NCSB bread was the highest, as well as the rate of in vitro starch hydrolysis was the lowest. Texture analysis showed that sourdough fermentation enhances several characteristics of NCSB with respect to NCB, thus approaching the features of WFB. Sensory analysis showed that sourdough fermentation allowed to get good palatability and overall taste appreciation. PMID:20071045

  16. Mutations in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transaminase genes in plants or Pseudomonas syringae reduce bacterial virulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H. Park; R. Mirabella; P.A. Bronstein; G.M. Preston; M.A. Haring; C.K. Lim; A. Collmer; R.C. Schuurink

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 is a bacterial pathogen of Arabidopsis and tomato that grows in the apoplast. The non-protein amino acid γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) is produced by Arabidopsis and tomato and is the most abundant amino acid in the apoplastic fluid of tomato. The DC3000 genome h

  17. [Comparative analysis of action of beta-phenyl derivatives of glutamic and gamma-aminobutyric acid on cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular endothelium after irreversible occlusion of the common carotid artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volotova, E V; Kurkin, D V; Mazina, N V; Berestovitskaia, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2013-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the effect of phenyl derivatives of glutamic (RGPU-135) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (Phenibut) on cerebral blood flow, vasodilatory endothelial function and the number of circulating endothelial cells desquamated in animals after irreversible occlusion of the common carotid arteries. It was found that animals treated prophylactically by RGPU-135, after occlusion of the common carotid arteries have higher cerebral blood flow and lower the severity of endothelial dysfunction than in animals treated with Phenibut. PMID:24003482

  18. The Antidotal Effects of High-dosage γ-Aminobutyric Acid on Acute Tetramine Poisoning as Compared with Sodium Dimercaptopropane Sulfonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Peng; HAN Jiyuan; WENG Yuying

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effect of high-dosage γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on acute tetramine (TET) poisoning, 50 Kunming mice were divided into 5 groups at random and the antidotal effects of GABA or sodium dimercaptopropane sulfonate (Na-DMPS) on poisoned mice in different groups were observed in order to compare the therapeutic effects of high-dosage GABA with those of Na-DMPS. Slices of brain tissue of the poisoned mice were made to examine pathological changes of cells. The survival analysis was employed. Our results showed that both high-dosage GABA and Na-DMPS could obviously prolong the survival time, delay onset of convulsion and muscular twitch, and ameliorate the symptoms after acute tetramine poisoning in the mice.Better effects could be achieved with earlier use of high dosage GABA or Na-DMPS. There was no significant difference in prolonging the survival time between high-dose GABA and Na-DMPS used immediately after poisioning. It is concluded that high-dosage GABA can effectively antagonize acute toxicity of teramine in mice. And it is suggested that high-dosage GABA may be used as an excellent antidote for acute TET poisoning in clinical practice. The indications and correct dosage for clinical use awaits to be further studied.

  19. Impact of Precooling and Controlled-Atmosphere Storage on γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Accumulation in Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Molin; Ndeurumio, Kessy H; Zhao, Lei; Hu, Zhuoyan

    2016-08-24

    Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) fruit cultivars 'Chuliang' and 'Shixia' were analyzed for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation after precooling and in controlled-atmosphere storage. Fruit were exposed to 5% O2 plus 3%, 5%, or 10% CO2 at 4 °C, and GABA and associated enzymes, aril firmness, and pericarp color were measured. Aril softening and pericarp browning were delayed by 5% CO2 + 5% O2. GABA concentrations and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD; EC 4.1.1.15) activities declined during storage at the higher-CO2 treatments. However, GABA aminotransferase (GABA-T; EC 2.6.1.19) activities in elevated CO2-treated fruit fluctuated during storage. GABA concentrations increased after precooling treatments. GAD activity and GABA-T activity were different between cultivars after precooling. GABA concentrations in fruit increased after 3 days of 10% CO2 + 5% O2 treatment and then declined as storage time increased. GABA accumulation was associated with stimulation of GAD activity rather than inhibition of GABA-T activity. PMID:27412947

  20. Feeding rumen-protected gamma-aminobutyric acid enhances the immune response and antioxidant status of heat-stressed lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianbo; Zheng, Nan; Sun, Xianzhi; Li, Songli; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhang, Yangdong

    2016-08-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of rumen-protected gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on immune function and antioxidant status in heat-stressed dairy cows. Sixty Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments according to a completely randomized block design. The treatments consisted of 0 (control), 40, 80, or 120mg of GABA/kg DM from rumen-protected GABA. The trial lasted 10 weeks. The average temperature-humidity indices at 0700, 1400 and 2200h were 78.4, 80.2 and 78.7, respectively. Rectal temperatures decreased linearly at 0700, 1400, and 2200h with increasing GABA. As the GABA increased, the immunoglobulin (Ig) A and IgG contents and the proportions of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes increased linearly (PAOC) increased linearly (P<0.05), whereas malondialdehyde (MDA) content decreased linearly (P<0.05) with increasing GABA. These results indicate that rumen-protected GABA supplementation to heat-stressed dairy cows can improve their immune function and antioxidant activity. PMID:27503722

  1. GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid production, antioxidant activity in some germinated dietary seeds and the effect of cooking on their GABA content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasarin TIANSAWANG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Germinated grains have been known as sources of Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA that provide beneficial effects for human health. This study was aimed to investigate GABA production, dietary fiber, antioxidant activity, and the effect of cooking on GABA loss in germinated legumes and sesame. The highest GABA content was found in germinated mung bean, (0.8068 g kg-1, 24 h incubation followed by germinated soybean, germinated black bean and soaked sesame. Beside GABA, dietary fiber content also increased in all grains during germination where the insoluble dietary fiber fractions were always found in higher proportions to soluble dietary fiber fractions. Our results also confirmed that germinated mung bean is a rich source of GABA and dietary fibers. Microwave cooking resulted in the smallest loss of GABA in mung bean and sesame, while steaming led to the least GABA content loss in soybean and black bean. Therefore microwave cooking and steaming are the most recommended cooking processes to preserve GABA in germinated legumes and sesame.

  2. Effect of “Jian-Pi-Zhi-Dong Decoction” on Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid in a Mouse Model of Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the positive effects of Jian-Pi-Zhi-Dong Decoction (JPZDD on Tourette syndrome (TS by investigating the expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA and its type A receptor (GABAAR in the striatum of a TS mice model. The model was induced by 3,3′-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN treatment; then mice were divided into 4 groups (n=22, each; control and IDPN groups were gavaged with saline and the remaining 2 groups were gavaged with tiapride and JPZDD. We recorded the stereotypic behaviors of TS mice and measured the content of GABA in striatum by HPLC and GABAAR expression by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. Our results showed that JPZDD inhibited the abnormal behaviors of TS model mice and decreased GABA levels and GABAAR protein and mRNA expression in the striatum of TS model mice. In brief, the mechanism by which JPZDD alleviates TS symptoms may be associated with GABAAR expression downregulation in striatum which may regulate GABA metabolism.

  3. Alternate cadmium exposure differentially affects the content of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine within the hypothalamus, median eminence, striatum and prefrontal cortex of male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquifino, A.I. [Dept. de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular III, Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Seara, R.; Fernandez-Rey, E.; Lafuente, A. [Lab. de Toxicologia, Universidad de Vigo, Orense (Spain)

    2001-05-01

    This work examines changes of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine contents in the hypothalamus, striatum and prefrontal cortex of the rat after an alternate schedule of cadmium administration. Age-associated changes were also evaluated, of those before puberty and after adult age. In control rats GABA content decreased with age in the median eminence and in anterior, mediobasal and posterior hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex and the striatum. Taurine content showed similar results with the exception of mediobasal hypothalamus and striatum, where no changes were detected. In pubertal rats treated with cadmium from 30 to 60 days of life, GABA content significantly decreased in all brain regions except in the striatum. When cadmium was administered from day 60 to 90 of life, GABA content was significantly changed in prefrontal cortex only compared with the age matched controls. Taurine content showed similar results in pubertal rats, with the exception of the median eminence and the mediobasal hypothalamus, neither of which showed a change. However, when cadmium was administered to rats from day 60 to 90 of life, taurine content only changed in prefrontal cortex compared with the age matched controls. These results suggest that cadmium differentially affects GABA and taurine contents within the hypothalamus, median eminence, striatum and prefrontal cortex as a function of age. (orig.)

  4. Dietary supplementation with glutamine and γ-aminobutyric acid improves growth performance and serum parameters in 22- to 35-day-old broilers exposed to hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H; Bai, X; Shah, A A; Wen, A Y; Hua, J L; Che, C Y; He, S J; Jiang, J P; Cai, Z H; Dai, S F

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed using 360 21-day-old chicks to determine the influences of diet supplementation with glutamine (5 g/kg), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 100 mg/kg) or their combinations on performance and serum parameters exposed to cycling high temperatures. From 22 to 35 days, the experimental groups (2 × 2) were subjected to circular heat stress by exposing them to 30-34 °C cycling, while the positive control group was exposed to 23 °C constant. The blood of broilers was collected to detect serum parameters on days 28 and 35. Compared with the positive control group, the cycling high temperature decreased (p Diet supplemented with GABA also increased (p < 0.05) weight gain and the serum levels of TP, T4, ALP, GABA and glutamine. In addition, the significant interactions (p < 0.05) between glutamine and GABA were found in the feed consumption, weight gain and the serum ALP, CK, LDH, GABA, T3 and T4 levels of heat-stressed chickens. This research indicated that dietary glutamine and GABA improved the antistress ability in performance and serum parameters of broilers under hot environment. PMID:25980810

  5. Knockdown of the ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAR) RDL gene decreases fipronil susceptibility of the small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qi; Wu, Shun-Fan; Niu, Chun-Dong; Yu, Hua-Yang; Dong, Yao-Xue; Gao, Cong-Fen

    2015-04-01

    Insect γ-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABARs) are important molecular targets of cyclodiene and phenylpyrazole insecticides. Previously GABARs encoding rdl (resistant to dieldrin) genes responsible for dieldrin and fipronil resistance were identified in various economically important insect pests. In this study, we cloned the open reading frame cDNA sequence of rdl gene from fipronil-susceptible and fipronil-resistant strains of Laodelphax striatellus (Lsrdl). Sequence analysis confirmed the presence of a previously identified resistance-conferring mutation. Different alternative splicing variants of Lsrdl were noted. Injection of dsLsrdl reduced the mRNA abundance of Lsrdl by 27-82%, and greatly decreased fipronil-induced mortality of individuals from both susceptible and resistant strains. These data indicate that Lsrdl encodes a functional RDL subunit that mediates susceptibility to fipronil. Additionally, temporal and spatial expression analysis showed that Lsrdl was expressed at higher levels in eggs, fifth-instar nymphs, and female adults than in third-instar and fourth-instar nymphs. Lsrdl was predominantly expressed in the heads of 2-day-old female adults. All these results provide useful background knowledge for better understanding of fipronil resistance related ionotropic GABA receptor rdl gene expressed variants and potential functional differences in insects. PMID:25808850

  6. Alternate cadmium exposure differentially affects the content of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine within the hypothalamus, median eminence, striatum and prefrontal cortex of male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work examines changes of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine contents in the hypothalamus, striatum and prefrontal cortex of the rat after an alternate schedule of cadmium administration. Age-associated changes were also evaluated, of those before puberty and after adult age. In control rats GABA content decreased with age in the median eminence and in anterior, mediobasal and posterior hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex and the striatum. Taurine content showed similar results with the exception of mediobasal hypothalamus and striatum, where no changes were detected. In pubertal rats treated with cadmium from 30 to 60 days of life, GABA content significantly decreased in all brain regions except in the striatum. When cadmium was administered from day 60 to 90 of life, GABA content was significantly changed in prefrontal cortex only compared with the age matched controls. Taurine content showed similar results in pubertal rats, with the exception of the median eminence and the mediobasal hypothalamus, neither of which showed a change. However, when cadmium was administered to rats from day 60 to 90 of life, taurine content only changed in prefrontal cortex compared with the age matched controls. These results suggest that cadmium differentially affects GABA and taurine contents within the hypothalamus, median eminence, striatum and prefrontal cortex as a function of age. (orig.)

  7. Post-endocytotic Deubiquitination and Degradation of the Metabotropic γ-Aminobutyric Acid Receptor by the Ubiquitin-specific Protease 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahaie, Nicolas; Kralikova, Michaela; Prézeau, Laurent; Blahos, Jaroslav; Bouvier, Michel

    2016-03-25

    Mechanisms controlling the metabotropic γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAB) cell surface stability are still poorly understood. In contrast with many other G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), it is not subject to agonist-promoted internalization, but is constitutively internalized and rapidly down-regulated. In search of novel interacting proteins regulating receptor fate, we report that the ubiquitin-specific protease 14 (USP14) interacts with the GABAB(1b)subunit's second intracellular loop. Probing the receptor for ubiquitination using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET), we detected a constitutive and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced ubiquitination of the receptor at the cell surface. PMA also increased internalization and accelerated receptor degradation. Overexpression of USP14 decreased ubiquitination while treatment with a small molecule inhibitor of the deubiquitinase (IU1) increased receptor ubiquitination. Treatment with the internalization inhibitor Dynasore blunted both USP14 and IU1 effects on the receptor ubiquitination state, suggesting a post-endocytic site of action. Overexpression of USP14 also led to an accelerated degradation of GABABin a catalytically independent fashion. We thus propose a model whereby cell surface ubiquitination precedes endocytosis, after which USP14 acts as an ubiquitin-binding protein that targets the ubiquitinated receptor to lysosomal degradation and promotes its deubiquitination. PMID:26817839

  8. Multiple propofol-binding sites in a γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR) identified using a photoreactive propofol analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakar, Selwyn S; Zhou, Xiaojuan; Chiara, David C; Dostalova, Zuzana; Savechenkov, Pavel Y; Bruzik, Karol S; Dailey, William P; Miller, Keith W; Eckenhoff, Roderic G; Cohen, Jonathan B

    2014-10-01

    Propofol acts as a positive allosteric modulator of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs), an interaction necessary for its anesthetic potency in vivo as a general anesthetic. Identifying the location of propofol-binding sites is necessary to understand its mechanism of GABAAR modulation. [(3)H]2-(3-Methyl-3H-diaziren-3-yl)ethyl 1-(phenylethyl)-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (azietomidate) and R-[(3)H]5-allyl-1-methyl-5-(m-trifluoromethyl-diazirynylphenyl)barbituric acid (mTFD-MPAB), photoreactive analogs of 2-ethyl 1-(phenylethyl)-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (etomidate) and mephobarbital, respectively, have identified two homologous but pharmacologically distinct classes of intersubunit-binding sites for general anesthetics in the GABAAR transmembrane domain. Here, we use a photoreactive analog of propofol (2-isopropyl-5-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-3H-diazirin-3-yl]phenol ([(3)H]AziPm)) to identify propofol-binding sites in heterologously expressed human α1β3 GABAARs. Propofol, AziPm, etomidate, and R-mTFD-MPAB each inhibited [(3)H]AziPm photoincorporation into GABAAR subunits maximally by ∼ 50%. When the amino acids photolabeled by [(3)H]AziPm were identified by protein microsequencing, we found propofol-inhibitable photolabeling of amino acids in the β3-α1 subunit interface (β3Met-286 in β3M3 and α1Met-236 in α1M1), previously photolabeled by [(3)H]azietomidate, and α1Ile-239, located one helical turn below α1Met-236. There was also propofol-inhibitable [(3)H]AziPm photolabeling of β3Met-227 in βM1, the amino acid in the α1-β3 subunit interface photolabeled by R-[(3)H]mTFD-MPAB. The propofol-inhibitable [(3)H]AziPm photolabeling in the GABAAR β3 subunit in conjunction with the concentration dependence of inhibition of that photolabeling by etomidate or R-mTFD-MPAB also establish that each anesthetic binds to the homologous site at the β3-β3 subunit interface. These results establish that AziPm as well as propofol bind to the homologous

  9. Interactive effects of glutamine and gamma-aminobutyric acid on growth performance and skeletal muscle amino acid metabolism of 22-42-day-old broilers exposed to hot environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hong; Bai, Xi; Shah, Assar Ali; Dai, Sifa; Wang, Like; Hua, Jinling; Che, Chuanyan; He, Shaojun; Wen, Aiyou; Jiang, Jinpeng

    2016-06-01

    The present experiment was conducted to investigate the interactive effects between dietary glutamine (Gln, 0 and 5 g/kg) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 0 and 100 mg/kg) on growth performance and amino acid (AA) metabolism of broilers under hot environment. A total of 360 22-day-old Arbor Acres male chickens were randomly assigned to five treatment groups under thermoneutral chamber (PC, 23 °C) and cyclic heat stress (HS, 30-34 °C cycling) conditions. Compared with the PC group, cyclic HS decreased ( P glutamine synthetase (GS) and gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T) at 28, 35, and 42 days. Dietary Gln and GABA improved ( P < 0.05) DWG and DFC of broilers under cyclic HS during 28-42 days. In breast muscle, the Gln supplementation increased ( P < 0.05) the concentrations of Gln (28, 35, and 42 days), Glu (28, 35, and 42 days), and GABA (42 days) and the activities of glutaminase (28, 35, and 42 days) and GAD (28, 35, and 42 days) but decreased ( P < 0.05) GS activities at 28, 35, and 42 days and GABA-T activities at 28 days. The addition of GABA increased ( P < 0.05) the concentrations of Gln and Glu and activities of glutaminase and GAD, while it decreased ( P < 0.05) GABA-T activities at 28, 35, and 42 days. Significant interactions ( P < 0.05) between Gln and GABA were found on breast skeletal muscle Gln concentrations, glutaminase activities, GS activities at 28 and 35 days, and DWG, GABA concentrations, and GABA-T activities at 28, 35, and 42 days in broilers under cyclic HS. In conclusion, the present results indicated that the interactions of exogenous Gln and GABA could offer a potential nutritional strategy to prevent HS-related depression in skeletal muscle Gln and GABA metabolism of broilers.

  10. Interactive effects of glutamine and gamma-aminobutyric acid on growth performance and skeletal muscle amino acid metabolism of 22-42-day-old broilers exposed to hot environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hong; Bai, Xi; Shah, Assar Ali; Dai, Sifa; Wang, Like; Hua, Jinling; Che, Chuanyan; He, Shaojun; Wen, Aiyou; Jiang, Jinpeng

    2015-10-01

    The present experiment was conducted to investigate the interactive effects between dietary glutamine (Gln, 0 and 5 g/kg) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 0 and 100 mg/kg) on growth performance and amino acid (AA) metabolism of broilers under hot environment. A total of 360 22-day-old Arbor Acres male chickens were randomly assigned to five treatment groups under thermoneutral chamber (PC, 23 °C) and cyclic heat stress (HS, 30-34 °C cycling) conditions. Compared with the PC group, cyclic HS decreased (P glutamine synthetase (GS) and gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T) at 28, 35, and 42 days. Dietary Gln and GABA improved (P < 0.05) DWG and DFC of broilers under cyclic HS during 28-42 days. In breast muscle, the Gln supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the concentrations of Gln (28, 35, and 42 days), Glu (28, 35, and 42 days), and GABA (42 days) and the activities of glutaminase (28, 35, and 42 days) and GAD (28, 35, and 42 days) but decreased (P < 0.05) GS activities at 28, 35, and 42 days and GABA-T activities at 28 days. The addition of GABA increased (P < 0.05) the concentrations of Gln and Glu and activities of glutaminase and GAD, while it decreased (P < 0.05) GABA-T activities at 28, 35, and 42 days. Significant interactions (P < 0.05) between Gln and GABA were found on breast skeletal muscle Gln concentrations, glutaminase activities, GS activities at 28 and 35 days, and DWG, GABA concentrations, and GABA-T activities at 28, 35, and 42 days in broilers under cyclic HS. In conclusion, the present results indicated that the interactions of exogenous Gln and GABA could offer a potential nutritional strategy to prevent HS-related depression in skeletal muscle Gln and GABA metabolism of broilers.

  11. Oral treatment with γ-aminobutyric acid improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity by inhibiting inflammation in high fat diet-fed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jide Tian

    Full Text Available Adipocyte and β-cell dysfunction and macrophage-related chronic inflammation are critical for the development of obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which can be negatively regulated by Tregs. Our previous studies and those of others have shown that activation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA receptors inhibits inflammation in mice. However, whether GABA could modulate high fat diet (HFD-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance has not been explored. Here, we show that although oral treatment with GABA does not affect water and food consumption it inhibits the HFD-induced gain in body weights in C57BL/6 mice. Furthermore, oral treatment with GABA significantly reduced the concentrations of fasting blood glucose, and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in the HFD-fed mice. More importantly, after the onset of obesity and T2DM, oral treatment with GABA inhibited the continual HFD-induced gain in body weights, reduced the concentrations of fasting blood glucose and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in mice. In addition, oral treatment with GABA reduced the epididymal fat mass, adipocyte size, and the frequency of macrophage infiltrates in the adipose tissues of HFD-fed mice. Notably, oral treatment with GABA significantly increased the frequency of CD4(+Foxp3(+ Tregs in mice. Collectively, our data indicated that activation of peripheral GABA receptors inhibited the HFD-induced glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and obesity by inhibiting obesity-related inflammation and up-regulating Treg responses in vivo. Given that GABA is safe for human consumption, activators of GABA receptors may be valuable for the prevention of obesity and intervention of T2DM in the clinic.

  12. Proteomic Characterization of Inhibitory Synapses Using a Novel pHluorin-tagged γ-Aminobutyric Acid Receptor, Type A (GABAA), α2 Subunit Knock-in Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yasuko; Morrow, Danielle H; Modgil, Amit; Huyghe, Deborah; Deeb, Tarek Z; Lumb, Michael J; Davies, Paul A; Moss, Stephen J

    2016-06-01

    The accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAARs) at the appropriate postsynaptic sites is critical for determining the efficacy of fast inhibitory neurotransmission. Although we know that the majority of synaptic GABAAR subtypes are assembled from α1-3, β, and γ2 subunits, our understanding of how neurons facilitate their targeting to and stabilization at inhibitory synapses is rudimentary. To address these issues, we have created knock-in mice in which the pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the Myc epitope were introduced to the extracellular domain of the mature receptor α2 subunit (pHα2). Using immunoaffinity purification and mass spectroscopy, we identified a stable complex of 174 proteins that were associated with pHα2, including other GABAAR subunits, and previously identified receptor-associated proteins such as gephyrin and collybistin. 149 of these proteins were novel GABAAR binding partners and included G-protein-coupled receptors and ion channel subunits, proteins that regulate trafficking and degradation, regulators of protein phosphorylation, GTPases, and a number of proteins that regulate their activity. Notably, members of the postsynaptic density family of proteins that are critical components of excitatory synapses were not associated with GABAARs. Crucially, we demonstrated for a subset of these novel proteins (including cullin1, ephexin, potassium channel tetramerization domain containing protein 12, mitofusin2, metabotropic glutamate receptor 5, p21-activated kinase 7, and Ras-related protein 5A) bind directly to the intracellular domains of GABAARs, validating our proteomic analysis. Thus, our experiments illustrate the complexity of the GABAAR proteome and enhance our understanding of the mechanisms neurons use to construct inhibitory synapses. PMID:27044742

  13. Colocalization of gamma-aminobutyric acid and acetylcholine in neurons in the laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei in the cat: a light and electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hong-Ge; Yamuy, Jack; Sampogna, Sharon; Morales, Francisco R; Chase, Michael H

    2003-12-01

    Cholinergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) mechanisms in the dorsolateral pontomesencephalic tegmentum have been implicated in the control of active (REM) sleep and wakefulness. To determine the relationships between neurons that contain these neurotransmitters in this region of the brainstem in adult cats, combined light and electron microscopic immunocytochemical procedures were employed. Light microscopic analyses revealed that choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and GABA immunoreactive neurons were distributed throughout the laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei (LDT and PPT). Surprisingly, approximately 50% of the ChAT immunoreactive neurons in these nuclei also contained GABA. Using electron microscopic pre-embedding immunocytochemistry, GABA immunoreactivity was observed in somas, dendrites and axon terminals in both the LDT and PPT. Most of the GABA immunoreactive terminals formed symmetrical synapses with non-immunolabeled dendrites. Electron microscopic double-immunolabeling techniques revealed that ChAT and GABA were colocalized in axon terminals in the LDT/PPT. Approximately 30% of the ChAT immunoreactive terminals were also GABA immunoreactive, whereas only 6-8% of the GABA immunoreactive terminals were ChAT immunoreactive. Most of the ChAT/GABA immunoreactive terminals formed symmetrical synapses with non-immunolabeled dendrites; however, ChAT/GABA immunoreactive terminals were also observed that contacted ChAT immunoreactive dendrites. With respect to ChAT immunoreactive postsynaptic profiles, approximately 40% of the somas and 50% of the dendrites received synaptic contact from GABA immunoreactive terminals in both the LDT and PPT. These findings (a) indicate that there are fundamental interactions between cholinergic and GABAergic neurons within the LDT/PPT that play an important role in the control of active sleep and wakefulness and (b) provide an anatomical basis for the intriguing possibility that a mechanism of acetylcholine and

  14. Dual orexin receptor antagonists show distinct effects on locomotor performance, ethanol interaction and sleep architecture relative to gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres D. Ramirez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs are a potential treatment for insomnia that function by blocking both the orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptors. The objective of the current study was to further confirm the impact of therapeutic mechanisms targeting insomnia on locomotor coordination and ethanol interaction using DORAs and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA-A receptor modulators of distinct chemical structure and pharmacologic properties in the context of sleep-promoting potential. The current study compared rat motor co-ordination after administration of DORAs, DORA-12 and almorexant, and GABA-A receptor modulators, zolpidem, eszopiclone and diazepam, alone or each in combination with ethanol. Motor performance was assessed by measuring time spent walking on a rotarod apparatus. Zolpidem, eszopiclone and diazepam (0.3–30 mg/kg administered orally [PO] impaired rotarod performance in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, all three GABA-A receptor modulators potentiated ethanol- (0.25–1.25 g/kg induced impairment on the rotarod. By contrast, neither DORA-12 (10–100 mg/kg, PO nor almorexant (30–300 mg/kg, PO impaired motor performance alone or in combination with ethanol. In addition, distinct differences in sleep architecture were observed between ethanol, GABA-A receptor modulators (zolpidem, eszopiclone and diazepam and DORA-12 in electroencephalogram studies in rats. These findings provide further evidence that orexin receptor antagonists have an improved motor side-effect profile compared with currently available sleep-promoting agents based on preclinical data and strengthen the rationale for further evaluation of these agents in clinical development.

  15. Modulation of the release of norepinephrine by gamma-aminobutyric acid and morphine in the frontal cerebral cortex of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peoples, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Agents that enhance gamma-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, neurotransmission modulate certain effects of opioids, such as analgesia. Opioid analgesia is mediated in part by norepinephrine in the forebrain. In this study, the interactions between morphine and GABAergic agents on release of ({sup 3}H) norepinephrine from rat frontal cerebral cortical slices were examined. GABA, 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}-10{sup {minus}3} M, enhanced potassium stimulated ({sup 3}H) norepinephrine release and reversed the inhibitory effect of morphine in a noncompetitive manner. GABA did not enhance release of ({sup 3}H) norepinephrine stimulated by the calcium ionophore A23187. The effect of GABA was reduced by the GABA{sub A} receptor antagonists bicuculline methiodide or picrotoxin, and by the selective inhibitor of GABA uptake SKF 89976A, but was blocked completely only when bicuculline methiodide and SKF 89976A were used in combination. The GABA{sub A} agonist muscimol, 10{sup {minus}4} M, mimicked the effect of GABA, but the GABA{sub B} agonist ({plus minus})baclofen, 10{sup {minus}4} M, did not affect the release of ({sup 3}H) norepinephrine in the absence or the presence of morphine. Thus GABA appears to produce this effect by stimulating GABA uptake and GABA{sub A}, but not GABA{sub B}, receptors. In contrast to the results that would be predicted for an event involving GABA{sub A} receptors, however, the effect of GABA did not desensitize, and benzodiazepine agonists did not enhance the effect of GABA at any concentration tested between 10{sup {minus}8} and 10{sup {minus}4} M. Thus these receptors may constitute a subclass of GABA{sub A} receptors. These results support a role of GABA uptake and GABA{sub A} receptors in enhancing the release of norepinephrine and modulating its inhibition by opioids in the frontal cortex of the rat.

  16. Modulation of the release of norepinephrine by gamma-aminobutyric acid and morphine in the frontal cerebral cortex of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agents that enhance gamma-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, neurotransmission modulate certain effects of opioids, such as analgesia. Opioid analgesia is mediated in part by norepinephrine in the forebrain. In this study, the interactions between morphine and GABAergic agents on release of [3H] norepinephrine from rat frontal cerebral cortical slices were examined. GABA, 5 x 10-5-10-3 M, enhanced potassium stimulated [3H] norepinephrine release and reversed the inhibitory effect of morphine in a noncompetitive manner. GABA did not enhance release of [3H] norepinephrine stimulated by the calcium ionophore A23187. The effect of GABA was reduced by the GABAA receptor antagonists bicuculline methiodide or picrotoxin, and by the selective inhibitor of GABA uptake SKF 89976A, but was blocked completely only when bicuculline methiodide and SKF 89976A were used in combination. The GABAA agonist muscimol, 10-4 M, mimicked the effect of GABA, but the GABAB agonist (±)baclofen, 10-4 M, did not affect the release of [3H] norepinephrine in the absence or the presence of morphine. Thus GABA appears to produce this effect by stimulating GABA uptake and GABAA, but not GABAB, receptors. In contrast to the results that would be predicted for an event involving GABAA receptors, however, the effect of GABA did not desensitize, and benzodiazepine agonists did not enhance the effect of GABA at any concentration tested between 10-8 and 10-4 M. Thus these receptors may constitute a subclass of GABAA receptors. These results support a role of GABA uptake and GABAA receptors in enhancing the release of norepinephrine and modulating its inhibition by opioids in the frontal cortex of the rat

  17. Effect of γ-Aminobutyric Acid-producing Lactobacillus Strain on Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Serum Enzyme Activity in Hy-Line Brown Hens under Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y. Z.; Cheng, J. L.; Ren, M.; Yin, L.; Piao, X. S.

    2015-01-01

    Heat-stress remains a costly issue for animal production, especially for poultry as they lack sweat glands, and alleviating heat-stress is necessary for ensuring animal production in hot environment. A high γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producer Lactobacillus strain was used to investigate the effect of dietary GABA-producer on laying performance and egg quality in heat-stressed Hy-line brown hens. Hy-Line brown hens (n = 1,164) at 280 days of age were randomly divided into 4 groups based on the amount of freeze-dried GABA-producer added to the basal diet as follows: i) 0 mg/kg, ii) 25 mg/kg, iii) 50 mg/kg, and iv) 100 mg/kg. All hens were subjected to heat-stress treatment through maintaining the temperature and the relative humidity at 28.83±3.85°C and 37% to 53.9%, respectively. During the experiment, laying rate, egg weight and feed intake of hens were recorded daily. At the 30th and 60th day after the start of the experiment, biochemical parameters, enzyme activity and immune activity in serum were measured. Egg production, average egg weight, average daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio and percentage of speckled egg, soft shell egg and misshaped egg were significantly improved (phens fed GABA-producing strain supplemented diet was significantly higher (phens fed the basal diet, whereas cholesterol level was decreased. Compared with the basal diet, GABA-producer strain supplementation increased serum level of glutathione peroxidase (p = 0.009) and superoxide dismutase. In conclusion, GABA-producer played an important role in alleviating heat-stress, the isolated GABA-producer strain might be a potential natural and safe probiotic to use to improve laying performance and egg quality in heat-stressed hens. PMID:26104406

  18. Co-existence of calcium-binding proteins and γ-aminobutyric acid or glycine in neurons of the rat medullary dorsal horn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文; 武胜昔; 李云庆

    2004-01-01

    Background We investigated the co-expression of calbindin-D28k (CB), calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV, a combination of the three is referred to as CaBPs) with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or glycine in neurons of the rat medullary dorsal horn (MDH).Methods Immunofluorescence histochemical double-staining for CaBPs and GABA or glycine was performed on the sections from rat MDH.Results CB-, CR-, PV-, GABA- and glycine-like immunoreactive (LI) neurons were differentially observed in all layers of the MDH, but particularly in lamina Ⅱ. Neurons that exhibited immunoreactivity for both CaBPs and GABA or glycine were also observed mainly in lamina Ⅱ. A few of them were found in laminae I and III. The percentages of neurons which co-expressed CB/GABA or CB/glycine out of the total numbers of CB- and GABA-LI neurons or CB- and glycine-LI neurons were 5.3% and 12.1% or 4.1% and 10.0%, respectively. The ratios of CR/GABA or CR/glycine co-existing neurons out of the total numbers of CR- and GABA-LI neurons or CR- and glycine-LI neurons were 5.8% and 7.6% or 4.4% and 7.1%, respectively. The rates of PV/GABA or PV/glycine co-localized neurons out of the total numbers of PV- and GABA-LI neurons or PV- and glycine-LI neurons were 11.1% and 5.1% or 9.9% and 5.1%, respectively. Conclusion The results indicate that some neurons in the MDH contain both CaBPs and GABA or glycine.

  19. The novel isoxazoline ectoparasiticide fluralaner: selective inhibition of arthropod γ-aminobutyric acid- and L-glutamate-gated chloride channels and insecticidal/acaricidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassel, Michael; Wolf, Christian; Noack, Sandra; Williams, Heike; Ilg, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Isoxazolines are a novel class of parasiticides that are potent inhibitors of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channels (GABACls) and L-glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls). In this study, the effects of the isoxazoline drug fluralaner on insect and acarid GABACl (RDL) and GluCl and its parasiticidal potency were investigated. We report the identification and cDNA cloning of Rhipicephalus (R.) microplus RDL and GluCl genes, and their functional expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The generation of six clonal HEK293 cell lines expressing Rhipicephalus microplus RDL and GluCl, Ctenocephalides felis RDL-A285 and RDL-S285, as well as Drosophila melanogaster RDLCl-A302 and RDL-S302, combined with the development of a membrane potential fluorescence dye assay allowed the comparison of ion channel inhibition by fluralaner with that of established insecticides addressing RDL and GluCl as targets. In these assays fluralaner was several orders of magnitude more potent than picrotoxinin and dieldrin, and performed 5-236 fold better than fipronil on the arthropod RDLs, while a rat GABACl remained unaffected. Comparative studies showed that R. microplus RDL is 52-fold more sensitive than R. microplus GluCl to fluralaner inhibition, confirming that the GABA-gated chloride channel is the primary target of this new parasiticide. In agreement with the superior RDL on-target activity, fluralaner outperformed dieldrin and fipronil in insecticidal screens on cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), yellow fever mosquito larvae (Aedes aegypti) and sheep blowfly larvae (Lucilia cuprina), as well as in acaricidal screens on cattle tick (R. microplus) adult females, brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) adult females and Ornithodoros moubata nymphs. These findings highlight the potential of fluralaner as a novel ectoparasiticide. PMID:24365472

  20. The A2'N mutation of the RDL gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor conferring fipronil resistance in Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Toshifumi; Kawase, Ayumi; Kinoshita, Ayako; Abe, Reiko; Hama, Masako; Kawahara, Nobuyuki; Hirase, Kangetsu

    2011-04-01

    The planthopper Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) is a serious insect pest of rice, Oryza sativa L., and has developed resistance to fipronil in Japan. Sequence analysis of L. striatellus RDL gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor subunit (LS-RDL) genes from a fipronil-resistant population and a fipronil-susceptible strain identified the A2'N mutation (index number for M2 membrane-spanning region), that was previously implicated in fipronil resistance in the planthopper Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). Nineteen of 21 fipronil-resistant L. striatellus individuals were genotyped as heterozygous for the A2'N mutation, suggesting that this mutation is associated with fipronil resistance and that most fipronil-resistant L. striatellus express wild-type and A2'N mutant LS-RDL simultaneously. To confirm the role of the A2'N mutation of LS-RDL, Drosophila Mel-2 cells were transfected with wild-type and A2'N mutant LS-RDL genes, either individually or together. A membrane potential assay showed that fipronil had no inhibitory effect at 10 microM on cells transfected with the A2'N mutant LS-RDL gene with or without the wild-type LS-RDL gene. By contrast, the IC50 value of fipronil for wild-type LS-RDL homomers was 14 nM. These results suggest that the A2'N mutation of the RDL GABA receptor subunit confers fipronil resistance in L. striatellus as well as S. furcifera. PMID:21510217

  1. Bipotential precursors of putative fibrous astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in rat cerebellar cultures express distinct surface features and neuron-like γ-aminobutyric acid transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When postnatal rat cerebellar cells were cultured in a chemically defined, serum-free medium, the only type of astrocyte present was unable to accumulate γ-[3H]aminobutyric acid (GABA), did not express surface antigens recognized by two monoclonal antibodies, A2B5 and LB1, and showed minimal proliferation. In these cultures, nonneuronal A2B5+, LB1+ stellate cells exhibiting neuron-like [3H]GABA uptake formed cell colonies of increasing size and were GFAP-. After about one week of culturing, the A2B5+, LB1+, GABA-uptake positive cell groups became galactocerebroside (GalCer) positive. Immunocytolysis of the A2B5+ cells at 3 and 4 days in vitro prevented the appearance of the A2B5+, LB1+, GABA-uptake positive cell colonies, and also of the GalCer+ cell groups. If 10% (vol/vol) fetal calf serum was added to 6-day cultures, the A2B5+, LB1+, GABA-uptake positive cell groups expressed GFAP and not GalCer. If the serum was added to the cultures 2 days after lysing the A2B5+ cells, only A2B5-, LB1-, GABA-uptake negative astrocytes proliferated. It is concluded that the putative fibrous astrocytes previously described in serum-containing cultures derive from bipotential precursors that differentiate into oligodendrocytes (GalCer+) in serum-free medium or into astrocytes (GFAP+) in the presence of serum, while the epithelioid A2B5-, LB1-, GABA-uptake negative astrocytes originate from a different precursor not yet identified

  2. Activation of γ-aminobutyric Acid (A) Receptor Protects Hippocampus from Intense Exercise-induced Synapses Damage and Apoptosis in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Ding; Lan Xie; Cun-Qing Chang; Zhi-Min Chen; Hua Ai

    2015-01-01

    Background:Our previous study has confirmed that one bout of exhaustion (Ex) can cause hippocampus neurocyte damage,excessive apoptosis,and dysfunction.Its initial reason is intracellular calcium overload in hippocampus triggered by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) over-activation.NMDAR activation can be suppressed by γ-aminobutyric acid (A) receptor (GABAAR).Whether GABAAR can prevent intense exercise-induced hippocampus apoptosis,damage,or dysfunction will be studied in this study.Methods:According to dose test,rats were randomly divided into control (Con),Ex,muscimol (MUS,0.l mg/kg) and bicuculline (BIC,0.5 mg/kg) groups,then all rats underwent once swimming Ex except ones in Con group only underwent training.Intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was measured by Fura-2-acetoxymethyl ester;glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and synaptophysin (SYP) immunofluorescence were also performed;apoptosis were displayed by dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) stain;endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis pathway was detected by Western blotting analysis;Morris water maze was used to detect learning ability and spatial memory.Results:The appropriate dose was 0.1 mg/kg for MUS and 0.5 mg/kg for BIC.Ex group showed significantly increased [Ca2+]i and astrogliosis;TUNEL positive cells and levels of GFAP,B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) associated X protein (Bax),caspase-3,caspase-12 cleavage,CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP),and p-Jun amino-terminal kinase (p-JNK) in Ex group also raised significantly compared to Con group,while SYP,synapse plasticity,and Bcl-2 levels in Ex group were significantly lower than those in Con group.These indexes were back to normal in MUS group.BIC group had the highest levels of [Ca2+]i,astrogliosis,TUNEL positive cell,GFAP,Bax,caspase-3,caspase-12 cleavage,CHOP,and p-JNK,it also gained the lowest SYP,synapse plasticity,and Bcl-2 levels among all groups.Water maze test showed that Ex group had longer

  3. Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing affects trafficking of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Chammiran; Wahlstedt, Helene; Ohlson, Johan; Björk, Petra; Ohman, Marie

    2011-01-21

    Recoding by adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing plays an important role in diversifying proteins involved in neurotransmission. We have previously shown that the Gabra-3 transcript, coding for the α3 subunit of the GABA(A) receptor is edited in mouse, causing an isoleucine to methionine (I/M) change. Here we show that this editing event is evolutionarily conserved from human to chicken. Analyzing recombinant GABA(A) receptor subunits expressed in HEK293 cells, our results suggest that editing at the I/M site in α3 has functional consequences on receptor expression. We demonstrate that I/M editing reduces the cell surface and the total number of α3 subunits. The reduction in cell surface levels is independent of the subunit combination as it is observed for α3 in combination with either the β2 or the β3 subunit. Further, an amino acid substitution at the corresponding I/M site in the α1 subunit has a similar effect on cell surface presentation, indicating the importance of this site for receptor trafficking. We show that the I/M editing during brain development is inversely related to the α3 protein abundance. Our results suggest that editing controls trafficking of α3-containing receptors and may therefore facilitate the switch of subunit compositions during development as well as the subcellular distribution of α subunits in the adult brain. PMID:21030585

  4. Adenosine-to-Inosine RNA Editing Affects Trafficking of the γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A (GABAA) Receptor*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Chammiran; Wahlstedt, Helene; Ohlson, Johan; Björk, Petra; Öhman, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Recoding by adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing plays an important role in diversifying proteins involved in neurotransmission. We have previously shown that the Gabra-3 transcript, coding for the α3 subunit of the GABAA receptor is edited in mouse, causing an isoleucine to methionine (I/M) change. Here we show that this editing event is evolutionarily conserved from human to chicken. Analyzing recombinant GABAA receptor subunits expressed in HEK293 cells, our results suggest that editing at the I/M site in α3 has functional consequences on receptor expression. We demonstrate that I/M editing reduces the cell surface and the total number of α3 subunits. The reduction in cell surface levels is independent of the subunit combination as it is observed for α3 in combination with either the β2 or the β3 subunit. Further, an amino acid substitution at the corresponding I/M site in the α1 subunit has a similar effect on cell surface presentation, indicating the importance of this site for receptor trafficking. We show that the I/M editing during brain development is inversely related to the α3 protein abundance. Our results suggest that editing controls trafficking of α3-containing receptors and may therefore facilitate the switch of subunit compositions during development as well as the subcellular distribution of α subunits in the adult brain. PMID:21030585

  5. Rescue of deficient amygdala tonic γ-aminobutyric acidergic currents in the Fmr(-/y) mouse model of fragile X syndrome by a novel γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor-positive allosteric modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brandon S; Martinez-Botella, Gabriel; Loya, Carlos M; Salituro, Francesco G; Robichaud, Albert J; Huntsman, Molly M; Ackley, Mike A; Doherty, James J; Corbin, Joshua G

    2016-06-01

    Alterations in the ratio of excitatory to inhibitory transmission are emerging as a common component of many nervous system disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Tonic γ-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) transmission provided by peri- and extrasynaptic GABA type A (GABAA ) receptors powerfully controls neuronal excitability and plasticity and, therefore, provides a rational therapeutic target for normalizing hyperexcitable networks across a variety of disorders, including ASDs. Our previous studies revealed tonic GABAergic deficits in principal excitatory neurons in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in the Fmr1(-/y) knockout (KO) mouse model fragile X syndrome. To correct amygdala deficits in tonic GABAergic neurotransmission in Fmr1(-/y) KO mice, we developed a novel positive allosteric modulator of GABAA receptors, SGE-872, based on endogenously active neurosteroids. This study shows that SGE-872 is nearly as potent and twice as efficacious for positively modulating GABAA receptors as its parent molecule, allopregnanolone. Furthermore, at submicromolar concentrations (≤1 μM), SGE-872 is selective for tonic, extrasynaptic α4β3δ-containing GABAA receptors over typical synaptic α1β2γ2 receptors. We further find that SGE-872 strikingly rescues the tonic GABAergic transmission deficit in principal excitatory neurons in the Fmr1(-/y) KO BLA, a structure heavily implicated in the neuropathology of ASDs. Therefore, the potent and selective action of SGE-872 on tonic GABAA receptors containing α4 subunits may represent a novel and highly useful therapeutic avenue for ASDs and related disorders involving hyperexcitability of neuronal networks. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26308557

  6. Effect of Jian-Pi-Zhi-Dong Decoction on striatal glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid levels detected using microdialysis in a rat model of Tourette syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang W

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Wen Zhang,1,* Li Wei,2,* Wenjing Yu,1 Xia Cui,1 Xiaofang Liu,2 Qian Wang,1 Sumei Wang2 1Department of Pediatrics, The Third Affiliated Hospital, 2Department of Pediatrics, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Jian-Pi-Zhi-Dong Decoction (JPZDD is a dedicated treatment of Tourette syndrome (TS. The balance of neurotransmitters in the cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical network is crucial to the occurrence of TS and related to its severity. This study evaluated the effect of JPZDD on glutamate (Glu and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA and their receptors in a TS rat model.Materials and methods: Rats were divided into four groups (n=12 each. TS was induced in three of the groups by injecting them with 3,3'-iminodipropionitrile for 7 consecutive days. Two model groups were treated with tiapride (Tia or JPZDD, while the control and the remaining model group were gavaged with saline. Behavior was assessed by stereotypic score and autonomic activity. Striatal Glu and GABA contents were detected using microdialysis. Expressions of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 and GABAA receptor (GABAAR were observed using Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction.Results: Tia and JPZDD groups had decreased stereotypy compared with model rats; however, the JPZDD group showed a larger decrease in stereotypy than the Tia group at a 4-week time point. In a spontaneous activity test, the total distance of the JPZDD and Tia groups was significantly decreased compared with the model group. The Glu levels of the model group were higher than the control group and decreased with Tia or JPZDD treatment. The GABA level was higher in the model group than the control group. Expressions of GABAAR protein in the model group were higher than in the control group. Treatment with Tia or JPZDD reduced the expression of GABAAR protein. In the case of the m

  7. Site-specific enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid-mediated inhibition of neural activity by ethanol in the rat medial septal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, B S; Breese, G R

    1990-08-01

    Because of uncertainty concerning the interaction of ethanol with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor-mediated events, the present work was designed to investigate the effect of ethanol on GABA transmission in the rat septal area using behavioral and electrophysiological techniques. Microinjection of the GABAA agonist muscimol into the medial septal area (MSA) enhanced, and bicuculline administration antagonized, ethanol-induced impairment of the aerial righting reflex. Microinjection of these drugs into the lateral septum (LSi) did not influence this measure of ethanol-induced sedation. Furthermore, intraseptal injections of muscimol or bicuculline in saline-treated rats had no effect on the aerial righting reflex. These data suggest that the MSA plays a critical modulatory role in the sedative actions of ethanol. To assess the effect of ethanol on muscimol responses in the MSA and LSi at the cellular level, GABA was applied by iontophoresis to rhythmically bursting neurons of the MSA and to cells in the LSi. The magnitude of the resultant inhibition by GABA on these cells was assessed before and after systemic administration of ethanol. Ethanol enhanced GABA-mediated inhibition of MSA neural activity, but did not alter GABA-mediated inhibition of cellular activity in the LSi. In contrast, the inhibition of cellular activity in the MSA, caused by a maximally effective concentration of the benzodiazepine flurazepam, was not altered by ethanol. Other work in the MSA demonstrated that electrical stimulation of the fimbria caused an inhibition of ongoing single unit activity that was reduced by concurrent application of bicuculline. The duration of this electrically elicited inhibition in the MSA was enhanced after ethanol injection and then recovered to base-line levels. In addition, ethanol (1.5 mg/kg) caused an enhancement of the inhibition induced by nipecotic acid, a GABA uptake inhibitor. These findings demonstrate that GABA-mediated neural inhibition is

  8. A phase transition from monoclinic C2 with Z' = 1 to triclinic P1 with Z' = 4 for the quasiracemate L-2-aminobutyric acid-D-methionine (1/1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görbitz, Carl Henrik; Wragg, David S; Bakke, Ingrid Marie Bergh; Fleischer, Christian; Grønnevik, Gaute; Mykland, Maria; Park, Yoomin; Trovik, Kristian Wiedicke; Serigstad, Halvard; Sundsli, Bård Edgar Vestheim

    2016-07-01

    Racemates of hydrophobic amino acids with linear side chains are known to undergo a unique series of solid-state phase transitions that involve sliding of molecular bilayers upon heating or cooling. Recently, this behaviour was shown to extend also to quasiracemates of two different amino acids with opposite handedness [Görbitz & Karen (2015). J. Phys. Chem. B, 119, 4975-4984]. Previous investigations are here extended to an L-2-aminobutyric acid-D-methionine (1/1) co-crystal, C4H9NO2·C5H11NO2S. The significant difference in size between the -CH2CH3 and -CH2CH2SCH3 side chains leads to extensive disorder at room temperature, which is essentially resolved after a phase transition at 229 K to an unprecedented triclinic form where all four D-methionine molecules in the asymmetric unit have different side-chain conformations and all three side-chain rotamers are used for the four partner L-2-aminobutyric acid molecules. PMID:27377274

  9. Interactive effects of glutamine and gamma-aminobutyric acid on growth performance and skeletal muscle amino acid metabolism of 22-42-day-old broilers exposed to hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hong; Bai, Xi; Shah, Assar Ali; Dai, Sifa; Wang, Like; Hua, Jinling; Che, Chuanyan; He, Shaojun; Wen, Aiyou; Jiang, Jinpeng

    2016-06-01

    The present experiment was conducted to investigate the interactive effects between dietary glutamine (Gln, 0 and 5 g/kg) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 0 and 100 mg/kg) on growth performance and amino acid (AA) metabolism of broilers under hot environment. A total of 360 22-day-old Arbor Acres male chickens were randomly assigned to five treatment groups under thermoneutral chamber (PC, 23 °C) and cyclic heat stress (HS, 30-34 °C cycling) conditions. Compared with the PC group, cyclic HS decreased (P consumption (DFC), the concentrations of Gln, glutamate (Glu), and GABA, and the activities of glutaminase and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in breast muscle at 28, 35, and 42 days, while it increased (P < 0.05) the activities of glutamine synthetase (GS) and gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T) at 28, 35, and 42 days. Dietary Gln and GABA improved (P < 0.05) DWG and DFC of broilers under cyclic HS during 28-42 days. In breast muscle, the Gln supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the concentrations of Gln (28, 35, and 42 days), Glu (28, 35, and 42 days), and GABA (42 days) and the activities of glutaminase (28, 35, and 42 days) and GAD (28, 35, and 42 days) but decreased (P < 0.05) GS activities at 28, 35, and 42 days and GABA-T activities at 28 days. The addition of GABA increased (P < 0.05) the concentrations of Gln and Glu and activities of glutaminase and GAD, while it decreased (P < 0.05) GABA-T activities at 28, 35, and 42 days. Significant interactions (P < 0.05) between Gln and GABA were found on breast skeletal muscle Gln concentrations, glutaminase activities, GS activities at 28 and 35 days, and DWG, GABA concentrations, and GABA-T activities at 28, 35, and 42 days in broilers under cyclic HS. In conclusion, the present results indicated that the interactions of exogenous Gln and GABA could offer a potential nutritional strategy to prevent HS-related depression in skeletal muscle Gln and GABA

  10. Investigation of the neutral loss of a full amino acid mass during collision-induced dissociation of the b(3)+ ion derived from a model peptide containing a 4-aminobutyric acid residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaty, Erach R; Chueachavalit, Chawalee; Osburn, Sandra; Van Stipdonk, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    In a previous study we found that a dominant fragmentation pathway observed for collision-induced dissociation (CID) of b(3)+ derived from peptides with sequence AXAG, where X is gamma-aminobutyric acid (gammaAbu) or epsilon-aminocaproic acid (Cap), involved the loss of 89 mass units (u). A neutral loss of 89 u corresponded to the free acid mass of an alanine (A) residue. This specific pathway was studied in greater detail here using a series of A(gammaAbu)AG peptides with strategic positioning of (15)N, (13)C and (2)H isotope labels. Based on the extensive labeling, several possible routes to the net elimination of 89 u are proposed. One is based on initial elimination of either aziridinone or imine and CO, followed by opening of an oxazolinone, tautomerization and elimination of H2O. Another involves formation of an aziridinone by cleavage of the N-terminal amide bond, and transfer of O and H atoms to this fragment via an H-bonded ion-molecule complex to complete the loss of 89 u. Both types of pathway include the transfer/migration of H atoms from the alpha-carbon position of gammaAbu or A residues. PMID:17610213

  11. γ-氨基丁酸受体基因的系统性调控网络%Systematic regulatory network of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云燕; 李中; 陈丹妮; 雷清锋; 何露; 韦睿

    2015-01-01

    提出一种多学科交叉结合的策略,试图初步获得系统性调控γ-氨基丁酸( gamma-aminobutyric acid, GABA)受体基因的转录因子线索。利用基于功能基因组学方法的DNA元件百科全书计划已发表的数据,系统性地获得GABA受体基因的开放染色质序列,并以此作为固相化探针,捕获与其特异性相互作用的蛋白质分子,并利用质谱分析鉴定蛋白。结果发现,对不同脑区获得的核蛋白,探针都能捕获到同样的特异性条带,然而,作为对照的天门冬氨酸( N-methyl-D-aspartate, NMDA)受体基因相关的开放染色质探针,在不同脑区中并未检获上述特异信号,说明结合蛋白是特异的。质谱分析表明,与GABA受体基因相关的开放染色质特异相互作用的蛋白是核膜血影重复蛋白-1( nuclear envelop spectrin repeatprotein-1, Nesprin-1),又称synaptic nuclear envelope-1(SYNE-1)。进一步的调控网络生物信息学分析表明, Nesprin-1可能与MAFA、 IRX2、 BCL6、 CEBPA 以及 RP58等转录因子形成复合物,并与 GABA 受体基因 GABRA5、GABRA6、 GABBR1和GABBR2等共表达。表明GABA受体基因在不同脑区是通过相同的转录调控机制进行表达的, Nesprin-1可能与 MAFA、 IRX2、 BCL6、 CEBPA 以及 RP58等转录因子形成复合物进而调控GABA受体基因表达,该特异的转录因子调控网络有望用于诱导多能干细胞或是前体细胞直接分化为GABA能神经元。%By using a multidisciplinary strategy, we try to systematically find out the transcription factors that regu-late gamma-aminobutyric acid ( GABA) receptor expression. Based on the published data in the encyclopedia of DNA elements ( ENCODE ) , we obtain open chromatin sequences of GABA receptor genes. These sequences are used as solid phase probes to capture the specific proteins that could interact with the sequences directly. The cap-tured protein is identified with mass spectrometry for further regulatory network

  12. Effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid A-receptor antagonist on sleep-wakefulness cycles following lesion to the ventrolateral preoptic area in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Zhang; Yina Sun; Peng Xie; Xuguang Yang; Yiping Hou

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neurons expressing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) play an important role in the regulation of wakefulness to sleep, as well as the maintenance of sleep. However, the role of GABAergic neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMn), with regard to the sleep-wakefulness cycle, is poorly understood.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of GABAergic neurons in the TMn on the sleep-wakefulness cycle.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized controlled study, performed at the Laboratory of Neurobiology, Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University from July 2007 to February 2008.MATERIALS: Fifteen healthy, adult, male, Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups(n = 5): control, ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) lesion, and VLPO lesion plus GABAA receptor antagonist-treated. Ibotenic acid and bicuculline were provided by Sigma (St. Louis, USA). METHODS: Four electroencephalogram screw electrodes were implanted into the skull at a frontal region (two) and parietal bones (two) on each side. Three flexible electromyogram wire electrodes were placed into the nuchal muscles. On day 8, a fine glass micropipette (10-20 mm tip diameter) containing ibotenic acid solution (10 nmol/L) was injected into the VLPO in both hemispheres following bone wax removal under anesthesia. One week after the second surgery, sleep-wakefulness states were recorded in rats from the VLPO lesion group. On day 10 after VLPO lesion, bicuculline (10 nmol/L), a GABAA-receptor antagonist, was microinjected into the TMn and sleep-wakefulness states were recorded for 24 hours.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Duration of the sleep-wakefulness cycle in each group using a Data acquisition unit (Micro1 401 mk2) and Data collection software (Spike Ⅱ). RESULTS: VLPO lesion induced an increased duration of wakefulness (W, 13.17%) and light slow-wave sleep (SWS1, 28.9%), respectively. Deep slow-wave sleep (SWS2, 43.74%) and paradoxical sleep (PS

  13. γ-氨基丁酸与孤独症谱系障碍%Gamma-aminobutyric acid and autism spectrum disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 单玲; 杜琳; 贾飞勇; 王伟

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of diseases characterized by social interaction and communication defects and repeat stereotyped behaviors, and the etiology is not clear now. In recent years, the study found that in the ASD animal model of childbirth and early postnatal the time of expression of Na+-K+-2Cl-transporter 1 (NKCC1) and K+-2Cl- (KCC2) had changed, and the accumulation of chlorine ion neurons within the hippocampus, lead to the conversion of excitatory and inhibitory mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was damaged. Application of bumetanide, as a NKCC1 inhibitor, in animal models’ matrix may correct their neurological development order, improve autistic behaviors. And the existing research by applying bumetanide improved symptoms in patients with ASD. So GABA signaling pathway provides a new direction of the pathogenesis of ASD, may become a new target in the treatment of ASD. In this paper, the research was about the relationship of GABA and ASD.%孤独症谱系障碍是一组以社会交往、交流障碍和重复刻板性行为为主要特征的疾病,病因尚不明确。近年研究发现在孤独症谱系障碍动物模型中分娩时及生后早期Na+-K+-2Cl-共转运体1(NKCC1)与K+-2Cl-共转运体2(KCC2)的表达时相发生改变,造成海马神经元细胞内氯离子堆积,致使γ-氨基丁酸介导的神经兴奋性与抑制性的转换被破坏。应用 NKCC1抑制剂布美他尼对模型动物母体进行干预后纠正了它们的神经发育顺序,改善了其孤独症样行为,并且已有研究应用布美他尼改善了孤独症患者的症状。故而γ-氨基丁酸信号通路为孤独症谱系障碍发病机制的研究提供了新的方向,可能成为治疗孤独症谱系障碍新的靶点。本文对γ-氨基丁酸与孤独症谱系障碍关系的研究现状作一综述。

  14. The γ-aminobutyric acid-producing ability under low pH conditions of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional fermented foods of Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, with a strong ability to produce ACE-inhibitory peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Barla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Many traditional fermented products are onsumed in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, such as kaburazushi, narezushi, konkazuke, and ishiru. Various kinds of lactic acid bacteria (LAB are associated with their fermentation, however, characterization of LAB has not yet been elucidated in detail. In this study, we evaluated 53 isolates of LAB from various traditional fermented foods by taxonomic classification at the species level by analyzing the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA sequences and carbohydrate assimilation abilities. We screened isolates that exhibited high angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activities in skim milk or soy protein media and produced high γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA concentrations in culture supernatants when grown in de Man Rogosa Sharpe broth in the presence of 1% (w/v glutamic acid. The results revealed that 10 isolates, i.e., Lactobacillus buchneri (2 isolates, Lactobacillus brevis (6 isolates, and Weissella hellenica (2 isolates had a high GABA-producing ability of >500 mg/100 ml after 72 h of incubation at 35 °C. The ACE inhibitory activity of the whey cultured with milk protein by using L. brevis (3 isolates, L. buchneri (2 isolates, and W. hellenica (2 isolates was stronger than that of all whey cultured with soy protein media, and these IC50 were < 1 mg protein/ml. Three of 10 isolates had high GABA-producing activities at pH 3, suggesting that they could be powerful candidates for use in the fermentation of food materials having low pH.

  15. Effect of soaking treatment withγ-aminobutyric acid on potato germination%γ-氨基丁酸浸种处理对马铃薯萌发的效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖惠瑗; 朱昌华; 甘立军; 夏凯

    2016-01-01

    以马铃薯克新13号为材料,采用γ-氨基丁酸(0.2~5.0 mmol/L)浸种处理,通过测定种薯淀粉酶活性的变化、淀粉含量、还原糖含量、芽条长度和地上地下部干鲜重等生理指标,研究了γ-氨基丁酸对马铃薯萌发的作用效应。结果表明,γ-氨基丁酸可能通过提高淀粉酶活性,促进淀粉分解,提高还原糖含量,促进幼芽伸长及地上地下部干鲜重等生理指标,促进马铃薯萌发和干物质的积累。当γ-氨基丁酸处理浓度为1.0 mmol/L时,促进萌发效果最佳。%In this study, potato (Kexin No.13) was used as the material to study the effect of soaking application of γ-aminobutyric acid ( from 0.2 to 5.0 mmol/L) on the potato germination .The changes of amylase activity , starch content , reducing sugar content , bud length , fresh and dry weight of shoot and root in seed potatoes were measured and determined in the experiment .The results showed that appropriate amount of γ-aminobutyric acid may improve the germination of potato and dry matter accumulation of buds by elevating the activity of starch enzyme , promoting the decomposition of starch , increasing reducing sugar content , facilitating the plu-mule elongation and improving the dry and fresh weight of shoot and root .γ-aminobutyric acid at the concentration of 1.0 mmol/L showed the optimal effect on potato germination .

  16. 7T Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid, Glutamate, and Glutamine Reveals Altered Concentrations in Patients With Schizophrenia and Healthy Siblings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thakkar, Katharine N; Rösler, Lara; Wijnen, Jannie P;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction model of schizophrenia predicts dysfunction in both glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) transmission. We addressed this hypothesis by measuring GABA, glutamate, glutamine, and the sum of glutamine plus glutamate...... concentrations in vivo in patients with schizophrenia using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7T, which allows separation of metabolites that would otherwise overlap at lower field strengths. In addition, we investigated whether altered levels of GABA, glutamate, glutamine, and the sum of glutamine plus......, and 24 healthy nonrelatives. Glutamate, glutamine, and GABA were measured cortically and subcortically in bilateral basal ganglia and occipital cortex. RESULTS: Patients with schizophrenia had reduced cortical GABA compared with healthy relatives and the combined sample of healthy relatives and...

  17. High-resolution mapping of the [gamma]-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit [beta]3 and [alpha]5 gene cluster on chromosome 15q11-q13, and localization of breakpoints in two Angelman syndrome patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinnett, D.; Wagstaff, J.; Woolf, E. (Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States) Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)); Glatt, K. (Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)); Kirkness, E.J. (National Inst. of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Rockville, MD (United States))Lalande, M. (Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States) Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States) Howard Hughes Medical Inst., Boston, MA (United States))

    1993-06-01

    The [gamma]-aminobutyric acid (GABA[sub A]) receptors are a family of ligand-gated chloride channels constituting the major inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the nervous system. In order to determine the genomic organization of the GABA[sub A] receptor [beta]3 subunit gene (GABRB3) and [alpha]5 subunit gene (GABRA5) in chromosome 15q11-q13, the authors have constructed a high-resolution physical map using the combined techniques of field-inversion gel electrophoresis and phage genomic library screening. This map, which covers nearly 1.0 Mb, shows that GABRB3 and GABRA5 are separated by less than 100 kb and are arranged in a head-to-head configuration. GABRB3 encompasses approximately 250 kb, while GABRA5 is contained within 70 kb. This difference in size is due in large part to an intron of 150 kb within GABRB3. The authors have also identified seven putative CpG islands within a 600-kb interval. Chromosomal rearrangement breakpoints -- in one Angelman syndrome (AS) patient with an unbalanced translocation and in another patient with a submicroscopic deletion -- are located within the large GABRB3 intron. These findings will facilitate chromosomal walking strategies for cloning the regions disrupted by the DNA rearrangements in these AS patients and will be valuable for mapping new genes to the AS chromosomal region. 64 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Effect of Gamma Aminobutyric Acid B Receptor on Brain Damage Induced by Recurrent Febrile Seizures%γ-氨基丁酸B受体在反复热性惊厥脑损伤中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩颖; 秦炯; 卜定方; 常杏芝; 杨志仙

    2005-01-01

    目的探讨γ-氨基丁酸B受体(γ-aminobutyric acid B receptor,GABABR)对反复热性惊厥(febrile seizures,FS)脑损伤的影响.方法SD大鼠随机分为对照组、FS组、FS+氯苯氨丁酸(baclofen)组、FS+法克罗芬(phaclofen)组.采用热水浴诱导大鼠FS,隔日诱导1次,共10次.记录大鼠惊厥潜伏期、持续时间及强度;用原位杂交和免疫组织化学方法分别观察c-fos基因和Fos蛋白表达情况.结果与FS组相比,FS+baclofen组大鼠惊厥潜伏期延长、惊厥持续时间缩短、惊厥强度减轻;而FS+phaclofen组大鼠惊厥潜伏期缩短、惊厥持续时间延长、惊厥强度加重.baclofen干预使c-fos基因和Fos蛋白表达降低,而phaclofen 干预使其表达增强.结论应用GABABR激动剂baclofen和抑制剂phaclofen干预研究表明,GABABR与热性惊厥脑损伤的发生、发展密切相关.

  19. Determination of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) in Rambutan Fruit cv. Rongrian by HPLC-ELSD and Separation of GABA from Rambutan Fruit Using Dowex 50W-X8 Column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeploy, Maneerat; Deewatthanawong, Rujira

    2016-03-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) was validated for the determination of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in rambutan fruit without any sample pretreatment or derivatization. In the concentration range of 0.05-1.0 mg/mL GABA, the ELSD response was linear with a correlation coefficient (r) >0.999. Limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 0.7 and 2.0 µg/mL, respectively. The method enabled the complete separation of GABA in the aqueous extract of rambutan flesh from the impurity peaks at 45.7 min. The recoveries of sample added GABA were obtained in the range of 92.0-99.3%. Intraday and interday relative standard deviations were flesh, 0.71 ± 0.23 mg of GABA was found in 1 g fresh weight. The recovery of GABA after passing through the Dowex 50W-X8 column was 96.65%. The analytical methodology could be potentially applied to the detection and quantification of GABA in other fruits and complex matrices when a sufficient quantity is available. PMID:26590236

  20. Perinatal exposure to germinated brown rice and its gamma amino-butyric acid-rich extract prevents high fat diet-induced insulin resistance in first generation rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiza Altine Adamu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence suggests perinatal environments influence the risk of developing insulin resistance. Objective: The present study was aimed at determining the effects of intrauterine exposure to germinated brown rice (GBR and GBR-derived gamma (γ aminobutyric acid (GABA extract on epigenetically mediated high fat diet–induced insulin resistance. Design: Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were fed high-fat diet (HFD, HFD+GBR, or HFD+GABA throughout pregnancy until 4 weeks postdelivery. The pups were weighed weekly and maintained on normal pellet until 8 weeks postdelivery. After sacrifice, biochemical markers of obesity and insulin resistance including oral glucose tolerance test, adiponectin, leptin, and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4 were measured. Hepatic gene expression changes and the global methylation and histone acetylation levels were also evaluated. Results: Detailed analyses revealed that mothers given GBR and GABA extract, and their offspring had increased adiponectin levels and reduced insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, leptin, oxidative stress, and RBP4 levels, while their hepatic mRNA levels of GLUT2 and IPF1 were increased. Furthermore, GBR and GABA extract lowered global DNA methylation levels and modulated H3 and H4 acetylation levels. Conclusions: These results showed that intrauterine exposure to GBR-influenced metabolic outcomes in offspring of rats with underlying epigenetic changes and transcriptional implications that led to improved glucose homeostasis.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of tridentate Schiff base derived from vanillin and DL-α-aminobutyric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, M. Sivasankaran; Joseyphus, R. Selwin

    2008-09-01

    Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of the Schiff base derived from vanillin and DL-α-aminobutyric acid were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, electronic spectra, conductance measurements, magnetic measurements, powder XRD and biological activity. The analytical data show the composition of the metal complex to be [ML(H 2O)], where L is the Schiff base ligand. The conductance data indicate that all the complexes are non-electrolytes. IR results demonstrate the tridentate binding of the Schiff base ligand involving azomethine nitrogen, phenolic oxygen and carboxylato oxygen atoms. The IR data also indicate the coordination of a water molecule with the metal ion in the complex. The electronic spectral measurements show that Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes have tetrahedral geometry, while Cu(II) complex has square planar geometry. The powder XRD studies indicate that Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes are amorphous, whereas Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes are crystalline in nature. Magnetic measurements show that Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes have paramagnetic behaviour. Antibacterial results indicated that the metal complexes are more active than the ligand.

  2. Functional modulation of cerebral gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex with ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate: Presence of independent binding site for ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, J.; Kuriyama, K. (Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan))

    1990-05-01

    Effect of ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-CCE) on the function of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex was studied. Beta-CCE noncompetitively and competitively inhibited (3H)flunitrazepam binding to benzodiazepine receptor, but not (3H)muscimol binding to GABAA receptor as well as t-(3H)butylbicycloorthobenzoate (( 3H) TBOB) binding to chloride ion channel, in particulate fraction of the mouse brain. Ro15-1788 also inhibited competitively (3H) flunitrazepam binding. On the other hand, the binding of beta-(3H)CCE was inhibited noncompetitively and competitively by clonazepam and competitively by Ro15-1788. In agreement with these results, benzodiazepines-stimulated (3H)muscimol binding was antagonized by beta-CCE and Ro15-1788. Gel column chromatography for the solubilized fraction from cerebral particulate fraction by 0.2% sodium deoxycholate (DOC-Na) in the presence of 1 M KCl indicated that beta-(3H)CCE binding site was eluted in the same fraction (molecular weight, 250,000) as the binding sites for (3H)flunitrazepam, (3H)muscimol and (3H)TBOB. GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx into membrane vesicles prepared from the bovine cerebral cortex was stimulated and attenuated by flunitrazepam and beta-CCE, respectively. These effects of flunitrazepam and beta-CCE on the GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx were antagonized by Ro15-1788. The present results suggest that the binding site for beta-CCE, which resides on GABAA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex, may be different from that for benzodiazepine. Possible roles of beta-CCE binding site in the allosteric inhibitions on benzodiazepine binding site as well as on the functional coupling between chloride ion channel and GABAA receptor are also suggested.

  3. Functional modulation of cerebral gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex with ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate: Presence of independent binding site for ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-CCE) on the function of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex was studied. Beta-CCE noncompetitively and competitively inhibited [3H]flunitrazepam binding to benzodiazepine receptor, but not [3H]muscimol binding to GABAA receptor as well as t-[3H]butylbicycloorthobenzoate [( 3H] TBOB) binding to chloride ion channel, in particulate fraction of the mouse brain. Ro15-1788 also inhibited competitively [3H] flunitrazepam binding. On the other hand, the binding of beta-[3H]CCE was inhibited noncompetitively and competitively by clonazepam and competitively by Ro15-1788. In agreement with these results, benzodiazepines-stimulated [3H]muscimol binding was antagonized by beta-CCE and Ro15-1788. Gel column chromatography for the solubilized fraction from cerebral particulate fraction by 0.2% sodium deoxycholate (DOC-Na) in the presence of 1 M KCl indicated that beta-[3H]CCE binding site was eluted in the same fraction (molecular weight, 250,000) as the binding sites for [3H]flunitrazepam, [3H]muscimol and [3H]TBOB. GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx into membrane vesicles prepared from the bovine cerebral cortex was stimulated and attenuated by flunitrazepam and beta-CCE, respectively. These effects of flunitrazepam and beta-CCE on the GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx were antagonized by Ro15-1788. The present results suggest that the binding site for beta-CCE, which resides on GABAA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex, may be different from that for benzodiazepine. Possible roles of beta-CCE binding site in the allosteric inhibitions on benzodiazepine binding site as well as on the functional coupling between chloride ion channel and GABAA receptor are also suggested

  4. Brain γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) detection in vivo with the J-editing (1) H MRS technique: a comprehensive methodological evaluation of sensitivity enhancement, macromolecule contamination and test-retest reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shungu, Dikoma C; Mao, Xiangling; Gonzales, Robyn; Soones, Tacara N; Dyke, Jonathan P; van der Veen, Jan Willem; Kegeles, Lawrence S

    2016-07-01

    Abnormalities in brain γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) have been implicated in various neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders. However, in vivo GABA detection by (1) H MRS presents significant challenges arising from the low brain concentration, overlap by much stronger resonances and contamination by mobile macromolecule (MM) signals. This study addresses these impediments to reliable brain GABA detection with the J-editing difference technique on a 3-T MR system in healthy human subjects by: (i) assessing the sensitivity gains attainable with an eight-channel phased-array head coil; (ii) determining the magnitude and anatomic variation of the contamination of GABA by MM; and (iii) estimating the test-retest reliability of the measurement of GABA with this method. Sensitivity gains and test-retest reliability were examined in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), whereas MM levels were compared across three cortical regions: DLPFC, the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and the occipital cortex (OCC). A three-fold higher GABA detection sensitivity was attained with the eight-channel head coil compared with the standard single-channel head coil in DLPFC. Despite significant anatomical variation in GABA + MM and MM across the three brain regions (p correlation coefficient of test vs. retest for GABA/W was 0.98 (R(2)  = 0.96, p = 0.0007), the percentage coefficient of variation (CV) was 1.25% and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.98. Similar reliability was also found for the co-edited resonance of combined glutamate and glutamine (Glx) for both coils. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27173449

  5. Cloning, expression analysis, and molecular modeling of the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor alpha2 subunit gene from the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Hongliang; Gao, Lu; Hu, Zhen; Liu, Haiyuan; Zhong, Guohua

    2013-01-01

    Intensive research on the molecule structures of the gamma-nminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor in agricultural pests has great significance to the mechanism investigation, resistance prevention, and molecular design of novel pesticides. The GABA receptor a2 (SlGABARα2) subunit gene in Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was cloned using the technologies of reverse transcription PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The gemonic DNA sequence of SlGABARα2 has 5164 bp with 8 exons and 7 introns that were in accordance with the GT-AG splicing formula. The complete mRNA sequence of SlGABARα2 was 1965 bp, with an open reading frame of 1500 bp encoding a protein of 499 amino acids. The GABA receptor is highly conserved among insects. The conserved regions include several N-glycosylation, Oglycosylation, and phosphorylation sites, as well as 4 transmembrane domains. The identities that SlGABARα2 shared with the GABA receptor a2 subunit of Spodoptera exigua, Heliothis virescens, Chilo suppressalis, Plutella xylostella, Bombyx mori ranged from 99.2% to 87.2% at the amino acid level. The comparative 3-dimensional model of SlGABARα2 showed that its tertiary structure was composed of 4 major α-helixes located at the 4 putative transmembrane domains on one side, with some β-sheets and 1 small α-helix on the other side. SlGABARα2 may be attached to the membrane by 4 α-helixes that bind ions in other conserved domains to transport them through the membrane. The results of quantitative real time PCR demonstrated that SlGABARα2 was expressed in all developmental stages of S. litura. The relative expression level of SlGABARα2 was the lowest in eggs and increased with larval growth, while it declined slightly in pupae and reached the peak in adults. The expressions of SlGABARα2 in larvae varied among different tissues; it was extremely high in the brain but was low in the midgut, epicuticle, Malpighian tube, and fat body. PMID:23909412

  6. Immunohistochemical evidence for colocalization of gamma-aminobutyric acid and serotonin in neurons of the ventral medulla oblongata projecting to the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millhorn, D E; Hökfelt, T; Seroogy, K; Oertel, W; Verhofstad, A A; Wu, J Y

    1987-04-28

    Fluorescence immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the medulla oblongata of colchicine-treated rats that had been incubated with guinea pig antibodies to serotonin (5-HT) and either rabbit or sheep antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). Numerous cells in the rostral ventrolateral medulla in the region of nucleus raphe magnus were immunostained for either 5-HT or GAD. A substantial number of neurons showed positive immunoreactivity for both substances, and were most frequently observed in the lateral aspect of nucleus raphe magnus. In addition, a number of the 5-HT/GAD-containing neurons were retrogradely labelled with Fast blue dye that had been injected into the thoracic spinal cord. This work provides evidence for colocalization of the classical neurotransmitters 5-HT and GABA in single cells of the ventral medulla oblongata, some of which project to the spinal cord. PMID:3555707

  7. Positive and Negative Allosteric Modulation of an α1β3γ2 γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A (GABAA) Receptor by Binding to a Site in the Transmembrane Domain at the γ+-β- Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakar, Selwyn S; Zhou, Xiaojuan; Savechenkov, Pavel Y; Chiara, David C; Desai, Rooma; Bruzik, Karol S; Miller, Keith W; Cohen, Jonathan B

    2015-09-18

    In the process of developing safer general anesthetics, isomers of anesthetic ethers and barbiturates have been discovered that act as convulsants and inhibitors of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs) rather than potentiators. It is unknown whether these convulsants act as negative allosteric modulators by binding to the intersubunit anesthetic-binding sites in the GABAAR transmembrane domain (Chiara, D. C., Jayakar, S. S., Zhou, X., Zhang, X., Savechenkov, P. Y., Bruzik, K. S., Miller, K. W., and Cohen, J. B. (2013) J. Biol. Chem. 288, 19343-19357) or to known convulsant sites in the ion channel or extracellular domains. Here, we show that S-1-methyl-5-propyl-5-(m-trifluoromethyl-diazirynylphenyl) barbituric acid (S-mTFD-MPPB), a photoreactive analog of the convulsant barbiturate S-MPPB, inhibits α1β3γ2 but potentiates α1β3 GABAAR responses. In the α1β3γ2 GABAAR, S-mTFD-MPPB binds in the transmembrane domain with high affinity to the γ(+)-β(-) subunit interface site with negative energetic coupling to GABA binding in the extracellular domain at the β(+)-α(-) subunit interfaces. GABA inhibits S-[(3)H]mTFD-MPPB photolabeling of γ2Ser-280 (γM2-15') in this site. In contrast, within the same site GABA enhances photolabeling of β3Met-227 in βM1 by an anesthetic barbiturate, R-[(3)H]methyl-5-allyl-5-(m-trifluoromethyl-diazirynylphenyl)barbituric acid (mTFD-MPAB), which differs from S-mTFD-MPPB in structure only by chirality and two hydrogens (propyl versus allyl). S-mTFD-MPPB and R-mTFD-MPAB are predicted to bind in different orientations at the γ(+)-β(-) site, based upon the distance in GABAAR homology models between γ2Ser-280 and β3Met-227. These results provide an explanation for S-mTFD-MPPB inhibition of α1β3γ2 GABAAR function and provide a first demonstration that an intersubunit-binding site in the GABAAR transmembrane domain binds negative and positive allosteric modulators. PMID:26229099

  8. Research and Application Status on Physiologic Functions ofγ-Aminobutyric Acid and Its Receptors%γ-氨基丁酸及其受体功能的研究与应用现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁臣; 陈忠

    2015-01-01

    γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA),both a natural functional amino acid and a major inhibitory neurotransmit-ter,shows its biological and regulation roles by binding with GABA receptors.In this paper,the physiological char-acteristics of GABA and its receptors,its regulation of the postoperative cognitive dysfunction,its treatment of dis-eases,its effects on alcohol and drug addiction as well as its application in practice were reviewed,and meanwhile some issues to be noted in the future were also proposed.With the gradual deepening of research on GABA,its functions have found extensive application in various fields.The development and application of GABA-rich food and fodders in animal production have become one of hot topics of research in the food and animal husbandry in particular.Therefore,the research on GABA has a more promising future.%γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)是一种功能性非蛋白质氨基酸,是重要的抑制性神经递质。GABA 通过与其受体结合从而具有多种功能及调节作用。随着对 GABA 研究的逐渐深入,其功能已经在各个领域得到了广泛的应用,尤其在食品及畜牧业中,对富含 GABA 的食品、饲料的开发及在动物生产中的应用已成为国内外研究的热点之一,因此,对 GABA 的研究具有较广阔的前景。论文从 GABA 及其受体的生理特性,对认知功能障碍的调节、对疾病的治疗及缓解、对酒精和药物成瘾作用等生理功能及 GABA 在实际中的应用进行了综述,并提出了今后应重视的问题。

  9. DNA Methylation at the Neonatal State and at the Time of Diagnosis: Preliminary Support for an Association with the Estrogen Receptor 1, Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid B Receptor 1, and Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein in Female Adolescent Patients with OCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Judith Becker; Hansen, Christine Søholm; Starnawska, Anna; Mattheisen, Manuel; Børglum, Anders Dupont; Buttenschøn, Henriette Nørmølle; Hollegaard, Mads

    2016-01-01

    Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder. Non-genetic factors and their interaction with genes have attracted increasing attention. Epigenetics is regarded an important interface between environmental signals and activation/repression of genomic responses. Epigenetic mechanisms have not previously been examined in OCD in children and adolescents. The aim of the present study was to examine the DNA methylation profile of selected genes in blood spots from neonates later diagnosed with OCD and in the same children/adolescents at the time of diagnosis compared with age- and sex-matched controls. Furthermore, we wanted to characterize the association of the differential methylation profiles with the severity of OCD and treatment outcome. Dried and new blood spot samples were obtained from 21 female children/adolescents with verified OCD and 12 female controls. The differential methylation was analyzed using a linear model and the correlation with the severity of OCD and treatment outcome was analyzed using the Pearson correlation. We evaluated selected Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip probes within and up to 100,000 bp up- and downstream of 14 genes previously associated with OCD (SLC1A1, SLC25A12, GABBR1, GAD1, DLGAP1, MOG, BDNF, OLIG2, NTRK2 and 3, ESR1, SL6A4, TPH2, and COMT). The study found no significantly differential methylation. However, preliminary support for a difference was found for the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor 1 (cg10234998, cg17099072) in blood samples at birth and for the estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) (cg10939667), the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) (cg16650906), and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (cg14080521) in blood samples at the time of diagnosis. Preliminary support for an association was observed between the methylation profiles of GABBR1 and MOG and baseline severity, treatment effect, and responder status; and between the methylation profile of ESR1 and baseline

  10. Substrate-Na{sup +} complex formation: Coupling mechanism for {gamma}-aminobutyrate symporters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallo, Anna; Simon, Agnes [Department of Neurochemistry, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungary); Bencsura, Akos [Department of Theoretical Chemistry, Institute of Structural Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Heja, Laszlo [Department of Neurochemistry, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungary); Kardos, Julianna, E-mail: jkardos@chemres.hu [Department of Neurochemistry, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungary)

    2009-07-24

    Crystal structures of transmembrane transport proteins belonging to the important families of neurotransmitter-sodium symporters reveal how they transport neurotransmitters across membranes. Substrate-induced structural conformations of gated neurotransmitter-sodium symporters have been in the focus of research, however, a key question concerning the mechanism of Na{sup +} ion coupling remained unanswered. Homology models of human glial transporter subtypes of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter {gamma}-aminobutyric acid were built. In accordance with selectivity data for subtype 2 vs. 3, docking and molecular dynamics calculations suggest similar orthosteric substrate (inhibitor) conformations and binding crevices but distinguishable allosteric Zn{sup 2+} ion binding motifs. Considering the occluded conformational states of glial human {gamma}-aminobutyric acid transporter subtypes, we found major semi-extended and minor ring-like conformations of zwitterionic {gamma}-aminobutyric acid in complex with Na{sup +} ion. The existence of the minor ring-like conformation of {gamma}-aminobutyric acid in complex with Na{sup +} ion may be attributed to the strengthening of the intramolecular H-bond by the electrostatic effect of Na{sup +} ion. Coupling substrate uptake into cells with the thermodynamically favorable Na{sup +} ion movement through substrate-Na{sup +} ion complex formation may be a mechanistic principle featuring transmembrane neurotransmitter-sodium symporter proteins.

  11. γ-氨基丁酸在氯胺酮抗抑郁中的作用%Role of gamma-aminobutyric acid in the antidepressant effects of ketamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘向六; 刘文学; 邱丽丽; 张广芬; 周志强

    2015-01-01

    action mechanisms are not yet fully understood .The aim of this study was to investigate the role of gamma-aminobutyric acid ( GABA) in the antidepressant effects of ketamine . Methods Thirty-two male Wistar rats were e-qually randomized into four groups: saline, ketamine, GABA, and GABA+ketamine.All the animals were implanted with a guide cannula into the lateral ventricle and on the eighth day after operation subjected to a 15 min forced swimming test (FST) for the estab-lishment of a depression model .At 24 h after modeling , the rats of the saline and ketamine groups were treated intracerebroventricularly with 2μL isotonic saline solution, and those of the GABA and GABA +ketamine groups with 50μg (2μL) GABA, followed by intrap-eritoneal administration of 1 mL saline in the former two groups and 10 mg/kg (1 mL) ketamine in the latter two groups 10 min later.At 30 min after treatment , the open field test ( OFT) was carried out for crossing and rearing scores and a 6-min FST was performed to re-cord the immobility time in the last 5 minutes.The content of GABA in the prefrontal cortex of the rats was measured following behav -ioral tests. Results The immobility time was significantly decreased in the ketamine group ([107.5 ±21.2]sec) as compared with the saline, GABA, and GABA+ketamine groups ([167.2 ±22.1], [159.8 ±17.5], and [143.8 ±22.1]sec) (P0.05).The level of GABA in the prefrontal cortex was remarkably lower in the ketamine group ([12.4 ±3.4]ng/mg prot) than in the saline, GABA, and GABA+ketamine groups ([23.3 ± 6.3], [27.3 ±5.7], and [18.0 ±5.4]ng/mg prot) (P0.05 ). Conclusion The antidepressant effects of ketamine are related to the decreased GABA level in the prefrontal cortex in rats receiving FST .

  12. γ-aminobutyric acid B receptor (GABABR)ameliorated liver fibrosis by inhibiting hepatic cell migration%γ-氨基丁酸B受体抑制大鼠肝细胞迁移并改善肝纤维化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊文梅; 石炳毅; 冯凯; 马锡慧; 魏红山; 黄海燕; 何秀云

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of r-aminobutyric acid B receptor in the development of liver fibrosis.Methods Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups including a control group,a model group,a baclofen group,and a CGP35348 group.Liver fibrosis was then induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4).Baclofen and CGP35348 treatment were carried out after the formation of liver fibrosis,followed by complete extraction of the eyeball to obtain blood sample to test liver function.Liver tissue specimens were cut and stored for histological staining,histochemistry,real-time polymerase chain-reaction (RT-PCR),and western blot analysis.Results Histological staining indicated that the degree of liver fibrosis was more severe in the CGP35348 group than in the baclofen group (P<0.001).The levels of alanine transaminase (ALT),aspartate aminotransferase (AST),gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT),total bilirubin (TBil),and direct bilirubin (DBil) were significantly lower in the baclofen group than in the CGP35348 group (P<0.01).The levels of ALT,AST,GGT,TBil,and DBil were significantly higher in the CGP35348 group than in the model group (P<0.05).Immunofluorescence results show that the hepatic cell migration was inhibited in the baclofen group.Western blot results showed that the expression levels of α-SMA protein were significantly lowered in the baclofen group when compared to that of the CGP35348 group and model group (P<0.01).Conclusion GABAB receptor might play a role in the liver protection by inhibition of migration of hepatic cells in liver fibrosis.Further studies into the mechanism behind this function are further needed and may be a potential source of future anti-fibrotic treatment.%目的 探讨发现γ-氨基丁酸B(GABAB)受体对肝纤维化的调控作用.方法 32只SD 大鼠分为4组,每组8只,分别为对照组、模型组、baclofen处理组和CGP35348处理组.用四氯化碳(CCl4)溶液诱导肝纤维化,baclofen和CGP35348处

  13. EFFECTS OF γ-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID ON BLOOD LIPIDS IN RATS UNDER EMOTIONAL STRESS%γ-氨基丁酸对情绪应激大鼠血脂的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳俊彦; 胡卓炎; 褚玥; 梁添; 赖玉婷; 枷春红

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)对情绪应激大鼠血脂代谢的调节作用.方法 利用不确定性空瓶刺激的方法建立焦虑应激大鼠模型,将40只雄性SD大鼠随机分为对照组、模型组、GABA 0.5 (L)、1.0(M)和2.0 mg/kg(H)组,应激前分别给予大鼠灌服生理盐水或相应剂量的GABA,14d后采用高架十字迷宫实验(EPM)检测大鼠行为,然后采集血样,测定大鼠血浆甘油三酯(TG)、总胆固醇(TC)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)和高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)水平,并计算非高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(non-HDL-C)含量、TG/HDL-C、LDL-C/HDL-C比值.结果:应激后对照组体重和食物利用率极显著高于其余各组(P<0.01);模型组进入开放臂的时间百分比极显著低于对照组和GABA 2 mg/kg组(P<0.01),进入开放臂的次数百分比则显著低于对照组(P<0.05);各组大鼠的入臂总次数差异不显著(P>0.05).血脂水平分析显示模型组血浆中TC含量显著高于GABA 2 mg/kg组(P<0.05),non-HDL-C含量则显著高于对照组(P<0.05),极显著高于GABA 2 mg/kg组(P<0.01),模型组的LDL-C/HDL-C比值显著高于对照组和GABA 2 mg/kg组(P<0.05). 结论 2 mg/kg GABA能明显增加EPM中进入开放臂的时间百分比,降低TC与non-HDL-C含量并下调LDL-C/HDL-C比值,有效缓解焦虑情绪并改善血脂代谢.%Objective To observe the modulation effects of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on blood lipids in rats under emotional stress.Methods Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups randomly (n=8 each):control group,model group,GABA 0.5,1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg group.Animal model of emotional stress was induced by empty water bottles stimulation method.The rats were administered with saline or different doses of GABA orally before they suffered from emotional stress.14 d later,animal behaviors were assessed in the elevated plus maze test (EPM),and plasma levels of triglyceride (TG),total cholesterol (TC),low density

  14. The γ-aminobutyric acid-producing ability under low pH conditions of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional fermented foods of Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, with a strong ability to produce ACE-inhibitory peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Barla; Takashi Koyanagi; Naoko Tokuda; Hiroshi Matsui; Takane Katayama; Hidehiko Kumagai; Toshihide Michihata; Tetsuya Sasaki; Atsushi Tsuji; Toshiki Enomoto

    2016-01-01

    Many traditional fermented products are onsumed in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, such as kaburazushi, narezushi, konkazuke, and ishiru. Various kinds of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are associated with their fermentation, however, characterization of LAB has not yet been elucidated in detail. In this study, we evaluated 53 isolates of LAB from various traditional fermented foods by taxonomic classification at the species level by analyzing the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) sequences and carbohydr...

  15. A Study on Design, Synthesis and Anti-hypoxia Activity of Nitronyl Nitroxide-γ-aminobutyric Acid Conjugate%氮氧自由基与γ-氨基丁酸偶联物的设计合成与抗缺氧活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景临林; 马慧萍; 樊鹏程; 何蕾; 贾正平

    2015-01-01

    目的 设计合成一种新型氮氧自由基与γ-氨基丁酸偶联物并研究其抗缺氧活性. 方法 以对羟基苯甲醛、溴乙酸乙酯、γ-氨基丁酸甲酯盐酸盐和2 ,3-二甲基-2 ,3-二羟氨基丁烷为原料,经醚化、酰胺化、缩合和氧化反应得到一种氮氧自由基与γ-氨基丁酸的偶联物(化合物3),并通过小鼠常压密闭耐缺氧实验对其抗缺氧活性进行评价.结果 3组在常压密闭缺氧实验下,与缺氧模型组比较,乙酰唑胺组和化合物3组存活时间均明显延长,差异有统计学意义(P<0. 01),化合物3组与乙酰唑胺组比较存活时间延长(P<0. 01). 与正常对照组比较,缺氧模型组中LD含量显著升高(P<0. 01),LDH活性显著降低(P<0. 01);与缺氧模型组比较,化合物3组小鼠血浆中LD含量差异无统计学意义,但是LD累积速率明显降低,差异有统计学意义( P<0. 01 ). 结论 氮氧自由基与γ-氨基丁酸偶联物的设计路线合理,合成方法简便,产率较高,并且表现出了较高的抗缺氧活性.%Objective To design the synthesis of a nitronyl nitroxide-γ-aminobutyric acid conjugate and to inves-tigate its anti-hypoxia activity. Methods A nitronyl nitroxide-γ-aminobutyric acid conjugate ( compound 3 ) was a-chieved via etherification, amidation, condensation and oxidizing reaction using 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, ethyl bromoace-tate, methyl 4-aminobutyrate hydrochloride and 2, 3-dimethyl-2, 3-dihydroxylamino butane as starting materials. The an-ti-hypoxic activities of the compound were evaluated using the normobaric hypoxia experiment of mice. Results Com-pared with those in the hypoxia model group, Acetazolamide and compound 3 groups had significantly prolonged survival time in the three groups under normobaric hypoxia experiment, and the differences were statistically significant ( P <0. 01). The survival time of mice in compound 3 group was significantly longer than that in Acetazolamide group (P<0. 01). Compared with

  16. 308.15 K、313.15 K和318.15K下4-氨基丁酸在硫酸沙丁胺醇水溶液中的体积和黏度研究%Volumetric and Viscometric Studies of 4-Aminobutyric Acid in Aqueous Solutions of Salbutamol Sulphate at 308.15,313.15 and 318.15 K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Rajagopal; S.S. Jayabalakrishnan

    2009-01-01

    Density (ρ) and viscosity (η) measurements were carried out for 4-aminobutyric acid in 0.0041, 0.0125 and 0.0207 mol·L~(-1) aqueous salbutamol sulphate at T= 308.15, 313.15 and 318.15 K.. The measured values of density and viscosity were used to estimate some important parameters such as apparent molar volume V_φ, limiting apparent molar volume V_φ~0, transfer volume ΔV_φ~0, hydration number nH , second derivative of infinite dilution of partial molar volume with temperature (e)~2V_φ~0 /(e)T~2 , viscosity B-coefficients, variation of B with temperature dB/dT, free energy of activation per mole of solvent Δμ_1~(0*) and solute Δμ_2~(0*), activation entropy ΔS_2~(0*) and activation enthalpy ΔH_2~(0*) of the amino acids. These parameters have been interpreted in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions and structure making/breaking ability of solutes in the given solution.

  17. Syntheses of γ-aminobutyric-1-14C and of α-aminoadipic-6-14C acid from methoxy-3 chloropropyl-magnesium and marked carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonation of γ-methoxypropyl-magnesium chloride by CO2 gives γ-methoxy-butyric carboxylic-14C acid with a yield of about 95 per cent. When the latter is treated successively with anhydrous HBr and with diazomethane, methyl carboxylic γ-bromobutyrate-14C is formed. This in turn gives γ-amino-butyric carboxylic-14C acid with an overall yield of 66 per cent with respect to Ba14CO3, when it is condensed with potassium phthalimide and hydrolyzed by acid. By reacting methyl-γ-bromobutyrate-14C with the sodium derivative of ethyl cyanacetamido-acetate in ethanol, followed by an acid hydrolysis, α-aminoadipic-6-14C acid is obtained with an overall yield of 46 per cent with respect to Ba14CO3. (author)

  18. Dynamic Changes of Glutamic Acid and γ-Aminobutyric Acid in Rat Striatum in Vivo before and after Exhaustive Exercise%力竭运动前后活体大鼠纹状体谷氨酸和γ-氨基丁酸水平的动态变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔德才; 李许贞; 杨东升; 刘晓莉

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察一次性力竭运动过程中大鼠纹状体内神经递质谷氨酸(Glu)和γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)含量及其比值的动态变化,探讨运动疲劳后纹状体神经元电活动改变的可能机制.方法:8周龄雄性Wistar大鼠8只,通过手术预先将透析套管定植入左侧纹状体(P:0.2,L:3,H:3.2).采用活体微透析与高效液相色谱(HPLC)检测联用技术,动态观察一次性力竭运动过程中及恢复期纹状体内神经递质Glu和GABA含量及其比值的变化规律.结果:Glu含量及Glu/GABA比值从运动即刻开始上升,力竭期前60 min达到最高水平,随后开始回降,并在恢复期30min降到最低点,之后又开始回升;GABA水平在运动开始后缓慢下降,力竭期前30 min达到最低点,之后上升并在力竭期后又回降.结论:运动疲劳时纹状体内Glu和GABA浓度变化是导致神经元兴奋性改变以及大鼠运动能力降低的重要原因之一.%Purpose To investigate the dynamic changes in levels of glutamate (Glu) acid and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in rat striatum in vivo during exhaustive exercise and 90 minutes after exhaustion. Methods Eight male Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were used in the experiment. A cannula with replaceable inner guide was inserted into the left striatum (P: 0.2, L: 3, H: 3.2) . Microdialy-sis and high pressure liquid chromatography techniques were used to detect the changes of the Glu and GABA in vivo during the exhaustive exercise and 90 minutes after exhaustion. The Glu/GABA ratio in rat striatum was also calculated. Results The level of Glu and Glu/GABA ratio rose at the beginning of the exercise, and reached their peak 60 minutes after exercise. The level of GABA began to drop after the beginning of the exercise, and reached the minimum 30 minutes before exhaustion. Conclusion The changes in Glu and GABA concentrations in rat striatum during exhaustive exercise is one of the most important reasons for altering neurons activity and thus impair

  19. Effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid B receptor on nitric oxide/nitric oxide synthase system during recurrent febrile seizures%反复热性惊厥过程中γ-氨基丁酸B受体对一氧化氮/一氧化氮合酶体系的调节作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩颖; 秦炯; 卜定方; 杨志仙; 常杏芝; 杜军保

    2006-01-01

    目的:探讨γ-氨基丁酸B受体(γ-aminobutyric acid B receptor,GABABR)对热性惊厥(febrile seizure,FS)大鼠一氧化氮(nitric oxide,NO)/一氧化氮合酶(nitric oxide synthase,NOS)体系表达的影响.方法:将21 d龄SD大鼠随机分为对照组、FS组、FS+巴氯芬(baclofen)组和FS+法克罗芬(phaclofen)组.采用热水浴诱导大鼠FS,隔日诱导1次,共10次.采用分光光度计法测定大鼠血浆中NO含量;用原位杂交方法观察神经元型一氧化氮合酶(neuronal nitric oxide synthase,nNOS)mRNA表达情况;用免疫组化方法观察nNOS蛋白表达情况.结果:FS+baclofen组NO含量低于FS组[(19.02±9.31)μmol/L比(40.03±9.12)μmol/L],同时nNOS蛋白和mRNA表达也较FS组减弱;而FS+phaclofen组NO含量高于FS组[(66.46±8.15)μmol/L比(40.03±9.12)μmol/L],同时nNOS蛋白和mRNA表达也较FS组增强.结论:反复热性惊厥过程中,GABABR的改变可影响NO/NOS体系的表达.

  20. Research Progress in Determination of γ-Aminobutyric Acid in the Germinated Brown Rice%γ-氨基丁酸在发芽糙米中检测方法综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐瑞萍; 贾成莉; 吕庆銮; 李秀娟

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviewed nutritional value and research status of germinated brown rice, introduced determination methods of γ-arninobutyric acid, for explore high pressure liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography -mass spectrometry, paper chromatography method and colorimetry.%综述了发芽糙米的营养价值和研究状况,介绍γ-氨基丁酸检测方法,如:高效液相法、LC—MS、纸层析法、比色法等。

  1. Preparation of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Using Streptococcus salivarius subsp.thermophilus Y-2 Cells%唾液链球菌嗜热亚种Y-2细胞转化法制备γ-氨基丁酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨胜远; 陆兆新; 吕凤霞; 别小妹

    2011-01-01

    研究反应pH值、反应温度、重金属盐、表面活性剂、底物浓度、菌体质最浓度和磷酸吡哆醛添加量对Streptococcus salivarius subsp.thermophilus Y-2细胞转化法生产γ-氨基丁酸的影响.获得反应体系的最佳组成为:湿菌体25g/L、BaCl2 40mmol/L、Triton X-100体积分数0.02%、L-谷氨酸单钠盐(L-monosodium glutamate,MSG)47.5g/L和L-谷氨酸(L-glutamic acid,L-Glu)90.0g/L.该体系在40℃、pH4.5和搅拌速度100r/min的最适转化条件下进行反应72h,转化液GABA产量达到了(87.16±4.33)g/L,细胞平均生产力为(48.42±2.41)mg/(h·g),摩尔转化率为(97.60±4.71)%.

  2. Specificity of intersubunit general anesthetic-binding sites in the transmembrane domain of the human α1β3γ2 γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiara, David C; Jayakar, Selwyn S; Zhou, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Xi; Savechenkov, Pavel Y; Bruzik, Karol S; Miller, Keith W; Cohen, Jonathan B

    2013-07-01

    GABA type A receptors (GABAAR), the brain's major inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors, are the targets for many general anesthetics, including volatile anesthetics, etomidate, propofol, and barbiturates. How such structurally diverse agents can act similarly as positive allosteric modulators of GABAARs remains unclear. Previously, photoreactive etomidate analogs identified two equivalent anesthetic-binding sites in the transmembrane domain at the β(+)-α(-) subunit interfaces, which also contain the GABA-binding sites in the extracellular domain. Here, we used R-[(3)H]5-allyl-1-methyl-5-(m-trifluoromethyl-diazirynylphenyl) barbituric acid (R-mTFD-MPAB), a potent stereospecific barbiturate anesthetic, to photolabel expressed human α1β3γ2 GABAARs. Protein microsequencing revealed that R-[(3)H]mTFD-MPAB did not photolabel the etomidate sites at the β(+)-α(-) subunit interfaces. Instead, it photolabeled sites at the α(+)-β(-) and γ(+)-β(-) subunit interfaces in the transmembrane domain. On the (+)-side, α1M3 was labeled at Ala-291 and Tyr-294 and γ2M3 at Ser-301, and on the (-)-side, β3M1 was labeled at Met-227. These residues, like those in the etomidate site, are located at subunit interfaces near the synaptic side of the transmembrane domain. The selectivity of R-etomidate for the β(+)-α(-) interface relative to the α(+)-β(-)/γ(+)-β(-) interfaces was >100-fold, whereas that of R-mTFD-MPAB for its sites was >50-fold. Each ligand could enhance photoincorporation of the other, demonstrating allosteric interactions between the sites. The structural heterogeneity of barbiturate, etomidate, and propofol derivatives is accommodated by varying selectivities for these two classes of sites. We hypothesize that binding at any of these homologous intersubunit sites is sufficient for anesthetic action and that this explains to some degree the puzzling structural heterogeneity of anesthetics. PMID:23677991

  3. Inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-gated chloride currents by noradrenaline in rat spiral ganglion neuron%去甲肾上腺素抑制大鼠耳蜗螺旋神经元γ氨基丁酸门控氯通道电流

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查定军; 薛涛; 乔莉; 卢连军; 林颖; 王智明; 李云庆; 邱建华

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究去甲肾上腺素(noradrenaline,NA)对培养大鼠耳蜗螺旋神经元γ氨基丁酸(gamma-aminobutyric acid,GABA)诱发电流的作用.方法分离培养大鼠耳蜗螺旋神经元,采用制霉菌素穿孔膜片钳全细胞记录技术,记录NA对GABA诱发电流的作用.结果 大鼠螺旋神经元GABA诱发反应的反转电位为(-0.78±0.05)mV(n=8),与Cl-平衡电位一致.GABA在钳制电位为-50 mV时,可引起内向电流,EC50为(5.2±0.5)μmol/L,Hill系数为1.03(n=26),该电流可被GABA-A受体拮抗剂荷包牡丹碱抑制,NA对该电流具有抑制作用.结论 NA可以抑制螺旋神经元GABA-A受体介导的门控氯通道电流,该作用可能与交感神经系统对听觉的调控有关.%Objective To investigate the pharmacological modulatory properties of noradrenaline in the rat spiral ganglion neuron.Methods Nystain perforated patch recording technique under voltage-clamp conditions was used to record the modulatory effect of noradrenaline on the current evoked by gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) in the spiral ganglion neuron.Results The reversal potential of the GABA response was about(-0.78±0.05)mV(n=8),which was almost identical to the theoretical Cl- equilibrium potential.At the holding potential of -50 mV,GABA evoked inward current (IGABA) over the concentration range of 0.3 to 1μmol/L The EC50 and Hill coefficient for GABA were (5.2±0.5)μmol/L and 1.03(n=26).The IGABA was suppressed by bicuculline,the selective GABA-A receptor antagonist,and the chloride currents evoked by GABA was inhibited by noradrenaline.Conclusions The result indicates that noradrenaline depressed GABA-A receptor-gated chloride currents,which may contribute to the modulatory effect of sympathetic system on auditory transmission.

  4. 反复热性惊厥过程中γ-氨基丁酸B受体对硫化氢的调节作用%Gamma-aminobutyric acid B receptor regulates the expression of hydrogen sulfide /cystathionine-β-synthase system in recurrent febrile seizures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩颖; 秦炯; 卜定方; 常杏芝; 杨志仙; 杜军保

    2006-01-01

    目的热性惊厥(febrile seizure,FS)是婴幼儿时期最常见的惊厥性疾患之一,阐明其发生机制一直是该领域的重要研究课题.该课题前期的研究证明,γ-氨基丁酸B受体(γ-aminobutyric acid B receptor,GABABR)亚基和气体信号分子硫化氢(H2S)均在反复热性惊厥中发挥了重要作用.该文使用GABABR激动剂ba-clofen,抑制剂Phaclofen,探讨GABABR对FS大鼠硫化氢/胱硫醚-β-合成酶(cystathionine-β-synthase,CBS)体系表达的影响.方法大鼠随机分为对照组,FS组,FS+baclofen组,FS+phaclofen组.采用热水浴诱导大鼠FS,隔日诱导1次,共10次.采用分光光度计法测定大鼠血浆中H2S含量;用原位杂交方法观察CBS mRNA表达情况;用免疫组化方法观察CBS蛋白表达情况.结果FS+baclofen组H2S含量较FS组升高427.45±15.91μmoL/L vs362.14±19.71 μmol/L,同时CBS表达也较FS组增强;而FS+phaclofen组H2S含量较FS组降低189.72±21.53μmol/L vs 362.14±19.71 μmol/L,同时CBS表达也较FS组减弱.结论反复热性惊厥过程中,GABABR的改变可影响H2S/CBS体系的表达.

  5. Effect of Shuyu Capsule Contained Serum on the Expression of γ-aminobutyric Acid B2 Receptor in Primary Cultured Rat Hippocampus Neurons%舒郁胶囊含药血清对大鼠海马神经元γ氨基丁酸B2受体蛋白表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜英凤; 高杰; 魏盛; 薛玲; 葛庆芳

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Our aim was to investigate the protein changes of the expression of γ-aminobutyric acid B2 (GABABR2) receptor in primary cultured rat hippocampus neurons, to explore the intervention mechanism of Shuyu capsule for treating depression emotion preliminarily. Method; We used the chronic mild stress (CMS) to establish the depression emotion ( DE) model in rats, and then the rats were evaluated by sucrose intake, the body weight and open-field from beginning to the end for the model. Serum of rats in each group was collected and then added into the medium of vitro cultured hippocampus primary neurons. At last the expression of "y-aminobutyric acid B2 receptor was detected with Western blot respectively. Result: Compared with the normal group, the weight, the total score of open field test and the sucrose intake of preference test of rats in depression emotion model group lessened significantly (P <0. 01 ) . On the other hand, compared with the depression emotion model group, the weight, the total score of open field test and the sucrose intake of preference test of rats in Shuyu capsule , bupleurum and fluoxetine treatment groups increased significantly ( P < 0. 05 or P < 0. 01 ). Western blot demonstrated that the serum of model group rats obviously increased the protein levels of GABABR2 (P <0. 01 ) , compared with the normal control group. While serum of the Shuyu capsule and fluoxetine treatment groups markedly decreased the protein levels of GABABR2 (P <0. 05) , the bupleurum group had no difference with the model group, but the trendhad improved. Conclusion; The serum of rats with depression emotion could induce the high expression of GABABR2, the Shuyu capsule may play antidepressants by reducing the expression of GABABR2 in primary cultured rat hippocampus neurons. The bupleurum also has a good antidepressant effect, but the effect is less than Shuyu capsule.%目的:观察抑郁情绪大鼠模型给药血清对离体海马神经元γ氨基丁酸B2

  6. Study on the Changes and Correlation of Physiological Activities,γ-aminobutyric Acid and Other Essential Substances in Germinating Soybean%发芽过程中大豆生理活性和GABA等物质含量变化及相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭元新; 宋玉; 杨润强; 陈惠; 顾振新

    2011-01-01

    研究了大豆发芽过程中生理活性和γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)等物质含量的变化,并对指标间的相关性进行了分析。结果表明:随着培养温度的升高和时间的延长,大豆芽菜的生长加快,呼吸作用增强,可溶性糖含量下降,还原糖、可溶性蛋白、游离氨基酸和GABA含量升高,干物质含量随发芽时间的延长呈下降趋势。相关性分析表明,GABA的富集量与芽长(r=0.888)、呼吸强度(r=0.917),可溶性蛋白(r=0.878)和游离氨基酸(r=0.943)具有极显著的正相关,但是和干物质含量具有极显著的负相关(r=-0.915)。综合考虑大豆芽菜品质和GABA累积量等因素,大豆在30℃避光发芽5 d,是生产富含GABA豆芽的合适条件。%The changes and correlation of physiological activities,γ-aminobutyric acid(GABA) and other essential substances in germinating soybean in germinating soybean were investigated in this study.It is indicated from the result that with the increase of culture temperature and time,the shoot growth and respiration rate of the germinating soybean are enhanced,the contents of soluble sugar decrease and the content of reducing sugar,soluble protein,free amino acids and GABA increased.The content of dry matter presented the downward trend along with culture time.Correlation analysis revealed,on the one hand,that the GABA accumulation has a significant positive correlation(P0.01) with sprout length(r=0.888),respiratory rate(r=0.917),soluble protein(r=0.878),free amino acid(r=0.943),on the other hand,has a negative correlation with content of dry matter(r=–0.915).By comprehensive consideration of quality and GABA accumulation of germinated soybean,the suitable germinating condition for high GABA germinated soybean was dark culture for 5 d at 30 °C.

  7. Effect of activation of γ-aminobutyric acid B receptors on glutamate release in spinal dorsal horn neurons in rats with diabetic neuropathic pain%激活γ-氨基丁酸B受体对糖尿病神经痛大鼠脊髓背角神经元谷氨酸递质释放的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀丽; 吴川; 郭跃先; 王秋筠; 刘飞飞; 曹倩倩; 张兆龙

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨激活γ-氨基丁酸B(γ-aminobutyric acid B,GABAB)受体对糖尿病神经痛大鼠脊髓背角谷氨酸能神经元递质释放中的影响.方法 30只(4周龄,150 g~170 g)雄性Sprague-Dawley( SD)大鼠,采用随机数字表法随机分为2组(每组15只):正常对照组(N组)、糖尿病神经痛组(D组).D组通过腹腔注射链脲佐菌素(streptozotocin,STZ)50 mg/kg制备糖尿病神经痛模型,N组腹腔给予等量生理盐水,两组分别于腹腔注射后第3~4周测定空腹血糖、机械缩足阈值(paw withdrawal mechanical threshold,PWMT);然后处死大鼠取腰1~5脊髓,制备脊髓薄片,采用全细胞膜片钳技术,记录脊髓Ⅱ板层单突触神经元谷氨酸能诱发兴奋性突触后电流(evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents,eEPSCs).细胞封接后稳定5 min开始记录,灌流液中加入终浓度为1、10、20、50μmol/L的Baclofen(GABAB受体特异性激动剂),于给药前对照、给予上述浓度药后各时点及洗脱后5 min,记录上述各时点eEPSCs的波幅变化,比较Baclofen对两组大鼠eEPSCs波幅的抑制率,并观察CGP55845 (GABAB 受体特异性阻断剂,1 μmol/L)对Baclofen(50 μmol/L)eEPSCs作用的影响.结果 与N组比较,D组大鼠血糖显著增高,PWT明显降低(P<0.05).电生理共记录30个神经元(每组15个),1 μmol/L~50 μmol/L的Baclofen均以剂量依赖方式降低两组大鼠eEPSCs波幅(P<0.05),N、D两组在1、10、20、50 μmol/L Baclofen时点波幅抑制率均明显下降(P<0.05),两组上述时点比较,D组显著低于N组(P<0.05),分别为:(47±7)vs(21±7),(55±6)vs(50±6),(92±6)vs(72±9),(95±8)vs(88±8),1μmol/LCGP55845可完全去除50 μmol/L Baclofen对两组神经元(每组12个)eEPSCs的作用.结论 激活GABAB受体可明显抑制脊髓背角神经元谷氨酸递质释放,但对糖尿病神经痛大鼠其抑制作用减弱.%Objective To explore the effect of activation of γ-aminobutyric acid B (GABAB) receptors on glutamate

  8. Neurochemical correlates of. gamma. -aminobutyrate (GABA) inhibition in cat visual cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcar, V.J.; Dreher, B. (Univ. of Sydney (Australia))

    1990-01-01

    High affinity binding of ({sup 3}H){gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to neuronal membranes from different parts of cat visual cortex was tested for sensitivity to GABA{sub A} agonists isoguvacine and THIP, GABA{sub A} antagonist SR95531 and GABA{sub B} agonist baclofen. Some of the GABA{sub A}-binding sites were found to have a very low affinity for THIP, suggesting the presence and, possibly, uneven distribution of non-synaptic GABA{sub A} receptors in cat visual cortex. There were no differences in K{sub m} and V{sub max} values of high affinity uptake of GABA and in the potency of K{sup +}-stimulated release of GABA, between primary and association cortices. Consequently, the present results indicate that despite the anatomical and physiological differences between the primary and association feline visual cortices the neurochemical characteristics of GABAergic inhibition are very similar in the two regions.

  9. Neurochemical correlates of γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) inhibition in cat visual cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High affinity binding of [3H]γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to neuronal membranes from different parts of cat visual cortex was tested for sensitivity to GABAA agonists isoguvacine and THIP, GABAA antagonist SR95531 and GABAB agonist baclofen. Some of the GABAA-binding sites were found to have a very low affinity for THIP, suggesting the presence and, possibly, uneven distribution of non-synaptic GABAA receptors in cat visual cortex. There were no differences in Km and Vmax values of high affinity uptake of GABA and in the potency of K+-stimulated release of GABA, between primary and association cortices. Consequently, the present results indicate that despite the anatomical and physiological differences between the primary and association feline visual cortices the neurochemical characteristics of GABAergic inhibition are very similar in the two regions

  10. 大鼠杏仁体基底外侧核中含D2受体的γ-氨基丁酸神经元受多巴胺能末梢支配%γ-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID NEURONS BEARING D2 RECEPTORS ARE INNERVATED BY DOPAMINERGIC TERMINALS IN THE BASOLATERAL NUCLEUS OF RAT AMYGDALA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞锡; 彭裕文; 沈馨亚; 大谷修; 西条 寿夫; 小野 武年

    2005-01-01

    Although both dopamine (DA) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) systems in the amygdala (AM) are involved in schizophrenia which is generally treated by administration of D2 receptor antagonists, it is not clear what is the collocation relationship between GABA and D2 receptors and what are the synaptic relationships between the dopaminergic terminals and GABAergic neurons in AM. Present study examined the coexistence of GABA and D2 receptors and synapses formed between dopaminergic terminals and GABAergic neurons in a key nucleus, the basolateral nucleus (BL), of rat AM by means of double labeling immunofluorescent confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and immunoelectron microscopy (IEM). CLSM revealed that the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) immunolabeled GABAergic neurons were exclusively immunoreactive (IR) to D2 receptors. This indicates that all of the GABAergic interneurons bear D2receptors. IEM revealed that 45% of the DA synapses ( n = 980) were formed between the DA-IR terminals and GAD-IR neurons, and 55% of that formed between DA-IR terminals and unlabeled neuronal elements. In the DA-GABA synapses, the DA-IR terminals targeted either directly (36%) or indirectly (by serial synapse, 9% ) on GAD-IR dendritic structures. Furthermore, the direct DA-GABA synapses could be classified into single ( 16% ) , convergent ( 14% ) and axoaxonic (6%) types according to the number of synapses and the synaptic compositions. In the indirect case, the connection was a synaptic complex, in which a DA-IR terminal formed a synapse on another terminal that form the synapse on the GAD-IR dendrite. In the synapses of DA-unlabeled neuronal elements, the DA-IR terminals targeted on unlabeled perikarya (4%), dendrites (42%), and axons or terminals (9%). Interestingly, all of the DA synapses were exclusively symmetric. The present results suggest that D2 receptor antagonists might act on GABAergic neurons to weaken the DA neurotransmission in AM for clinical effects in

  11. The basolateral amygdala γ-aminobutyric acidergic system in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, Eric M; Bergstrom, Hadley C; Wynn, Gary H; Braga, Maria F M

    2016-06-01

    The brain comprises an excitatory/inhibitory neuronal network that maintains a finely tuned balance of activity critical for normal functioning. Excitatory activity in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), a brain region that plays a central role in emotion and motivational processing, is tightly regulated by a relatively small population of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibitory neurons. Disruption in GABAergic inhibition in the BLA can occur when there is a loss of local GABAergic interneurons, an alteration in GABAA receptor activation, or a dysregulation of mechanisms that modulate BLA GABAergic inhibition. Disruptions in GABAergic control of the BLA emerge during development, in aging populations, or after trauma, ultimately resulting in hyperexcitability. BLA hyperexcitability manifests behaviorally as an increase in anxiety, emotional dysregulation, or development of seizure activity. This Review discusses the anatomy, development, and physiology of the GABAergic system in the BLA and circuits that modulate GABAergic inhibition, including the dopaminergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, and cholinergic systems. We highlight how alterations in various neurotransmitter receptors, including the acid-sensing ion channel 1a, cannabinoid receptor 1, and glutamate receptor subtypes, expressed on BLA interneurons, modulate GABAergic transmission and how defects of these systems affect inhibitory tonus within the BLA. Finally, we discuss alterations in the BLA GABAergic system in neurodevelopmental (autism/fragile X syndrome) and neurodegenerative (Alzheimer's disease) diseases and after the development of epilepsy, anxiety, and traumatic brain injury. A more complete understanding of the intrinsic excitatory/inhibitory circuit balance of the amygdala and how imbalances in inhibitory control contribute to excessive BLA excitability will guide the development of novel therapeutic approaches in neuropsychiatric diseases. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26586374

  12. Identification, Purification, and Characterization of a Novel Amino Acid Racemase, Isoleucine 2-Epimerase, from Lactobacillus Species

    OpenAIRE

    Mutaguchi, Yuta; Ohmori, Taketo; Wakamatsu, Taisuke; Doi, Katsumi; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of d-leucine, d-allo-isoleucine, and d-valine was observed in the growth medium of a lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus otakiensis JCM 15040, and the racemase responsible was purified from the cells and identified. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme was GKLDKASKLI, which is consistent with that of a putative γ-aminobutyrate aminotransferase from Lactobacillus buchneri. The putative γ-aminobutyrate aminotransferase gene from L. buchneri JCM 1115 was expres...

  13. Proteolysis and bioconversion of cereal proteins to glutamate and γ-Aminobutyrate (GABA) in Rye malt sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromeck, Achim; Hu, Ying; Chen, Lingyun; Gänzle, Michael G

    2011-02-23

    This study aimed to achieve the conversion of cereal proteins to the alternative end products glutamate or γ-aminobutyrate (GABA). Rye malt, fungal proteases, and lactobacilli were employed to convert wheat gluten or barley proteins. Glutamate and GABA formations were strain-dependent. Lactobacillus reuteri TMW1.106 and Lactobacillus rossiae 34J accumulated glutamate; L. reuteri LTH5448 and LTH5795 accumulated GABA. Glutamate and GABA accumulation by L. reuteri TMW1.106 and LTH5448 increased throughout fermentation time over 96 h, respectively. Peptides rather than amino acids were the main products of proteolysis in all doughs, and barley proteins were more resistant to degradation by rye malt proteases than wheat gluten. However, addition of fungal protease resulted in comparable degradation of both substrates. Glutamate and GABA accumulated to concentrations up to 63 and 90 mmol kg(-1) DM, respectively. Glutamate levels obtained through bioconversion of cereal proteins enable the use of hydrolyzed cereal protein as condiment. PMID:21271723

  14. Effect of γ-aminobutyric acid B receptors on the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in hippocampus of rats with diabetic neuropathic pain with depression%γ-氨基丁酸B型受体对糖尿病神经痛合并抑郁大鼠海马脑源性神经生长因子表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白惠萍; 刘朋; 杨淑红; 吴川; 任伟; 郭跃先; 王秀丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect γ-aminobutyric acid B (GABAB) receptors on the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in rats with diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) with depression by using GABAB receptors agonist (baclofen) and antagonists (CGP55845).Methods 100 male SD rats were randomly divided into two groups:normal control group (C group) and DNP with depression model group (D group),in which the rats were intraperitonealy injected with saline or streptozocin (STZ) respectively.The DNP with depression models were established in 80 rats three weeks after the forced swimming test (FST),and 80 rats were randomly divided into 4 subgroups (n =20,each group) according to the given medicines:saline 10 μl + saline 10 μl injected intrathecally in D1 group,baclofen 0.5 μg + saline 10 μl in D2 group,CGP55845 10 μg + saline 10 μl in D3 group,and CGP55845 10 μg +baclofen 0.5 μg in D4 group.Saline 10 μl + saline 10 μl were injected intrathecally in 20 normal rats (C group).There was an interval of 15 min between twice intrathecal injections in five groups for 4 days.The paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) and immobility time of FST (IMFST) were measured two h (T1) and two weeks after intrathecal injection (T2) respectively.The hippocampi of rats were removed after measurements of PWT and IMFST for detection of BDNF expression.Results As compared with C group,the PWT was significantly reduced [(13.02 ± 1.68) g vs.(3.46 ±0.84) g,P <0.05],the IMFST was significantly prolonged [(47.14 ±3.65) s vs.(178.12 ± 12.49) s,P <0.05],and the expression of BDNF was decreased (P < 0.05) in D group.As compared with D1 group,the IMFST was significantly shortened (P < 0.05) in D2 and D3 groups,the expression of BDNF was increased (P < 0.05) in D2 and D3 groups,and the PWT was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in D2 group but showed no significant change in D3 group.The PWT,IMFST and expression of BDNF showed no significant change in D4 group as

  15. Gamma-aminobutyric acid-modulated benzodiazepine binding sites in bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzodiazepine binding sites, which were once considered to exist only in higher vertebrates, are here demonstrated in the bacteria E. coli. The bacterial [3H]diazepam binding sites are modulated by GABA; the modulation is dose dependent and is reduced at high concentrations. The most potent competitors of E.Coli [3H]diazepam binding are those that are active in displacing [3H]benzodiazepines from vertebrate peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites. These vertebrate sites are not modulated by GABA, in contrast to vertebrate neuronal benzodiazepine binding sites. The E.coli benzodiazepine binding sites therefore differ from both classes of vertebrate benzodiazepine binding sites; however the ligand spectrum and GABA-modulatory properties of the E.coli sites are similar to those found in insects. This intermediate type of receptor in lower species suggests a precursor for at least one class of vertebrate benzodiazepine binding sites may have existed

  16. The anticonvulsant gabapentin (neurontin) does not act through gamma-aminobutyric acid-B receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders A.; Mosbacher, Johannes; Elg, Susanne;

    2002-01-01

    (B) receptor agonist baclofen, gabapentin was unable to inhibit transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations in dogs. Because of high levels of GABA(B(1a)) in the canine nodose ganglion, this finding indirectly supports the inactivity of gabapentin on the GABA(B(1a,2)) heterodimer demonstrated in various...

  17. CPP-115, a Potent γ-Aminobutyric Acid Aminotransferase Inactivator for the Treatment of Cocaine Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Yue; Gerasimov, Madina R.; Kvist, Trine; Wellendorph, Petrine; Madsen, Karsten K.; Pera, Elena; Lee, Hyunbeom; Schousboe, Arne; Chebib, Mary; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Craft, Cheryl M.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Schiffer, Wynne K.; Dewey, Stephen L; Miller, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Vigabatrin, a GABA aminotransferase (GABA-AT) inactivator, is used to treat infantile spasms and refractory complex partial seizures and is in clinical trials to treat addiction. We evaluated a novel GABA-AT inactivator (CPP-115) and observed that it does not exhibit other GABAergic or off-target activities and is rapidly and completely orally absorbed and eliminated. Using in vivo microdialysis techniques in freely moving rats and micro-PET imaging techniques, CPP-115 produced similar inhibi...

  18. CPP-115, a Potent γ-Aminobutyric Acid Aminotransferase Inactivator for the Treatment of Cocaine Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yue; Gerasimov, Madina R.; Kvist, Trine; Wellendorph, Petrine; Madsen, Karsten K.; Pera, Elena; Lee, Hyunbeom; Schousboe, Arne; Chebib, Mary; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Craft, Cheryl M.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Schiffer, Wynne K.; Dewey, Stephen L.; Miller, Steven R.; Silverman, Richard B.

    2011-01-01

    Vigabatrin, a GABA aminotransferase (GABA-AT) inactivator, is used to treat infantile spasms and refractory complex partial seizures and is in clinical trials to treat addiction. We evaluated a novel GABA-AT inactivator (CPP-115) and observed that it does not exhibit other GABAergic or off-target activities and is rapidly and completely orally absorbed and eliminated. Using in vivo microdialysis techniques in freely moving rats and micro-PET imaging techniques, CPP-115 produced similar inhibition of cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine and in synaptic dopamine in the nucleus accumbens at 1/300–1/600th the dose of vigabatrin. It also blocks expression of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference at a dose 1/300th that of vigabatrin. Electroretinographic (ERG) responses in rats treated with CPP-115, at doses 20–40 times higher than those needed to treat addiction in rats, exhibited reductions in ERG responses, which were less than the reductions observed in rats treated with vigabatrin at the same dose needed to treat addiction in rats. In conclusion, CPP-115 can be administered at significantly lower doses than vigabatrin, which suggests a potential new treatment for addiction with a significantly reduced risk of visual field defects. PMID:22128851

  19. Comparison of Nootropic and Neuroprotective Features of Aryl-Substituted Analogs of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyurenkov, I N; Borodkina, L E; Bagmetova, V V; Berestovitskaya, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2016-02-01

    GABA analogs containing phenyl (phenibut) or para-chlorophenyl (baclofen) substituents demonstrated nootropic activity in a dose of 20 mg/kg: they improved passive avoidance conditioning, decelerated its natural extinction, and exerted antiamnestic effect on the models of amnesia provoked by scopolamine or electroshock. Tolyl-containing GABA analog (tolibut, 20 mg/kg) exhibited antiamnestic activity only on the model of electroshock-induced amnesia. Baclofen and, to a lesser extent, tolibut alleviated seizures provoked by electroshock, i.e. both agents exerted anticonvulsant effect. All examined GABA aryl derivatives demonstrated neuroprotective properties on the maximum electroshock model: they shortened the duration of coma and shortened the period of spontaneous motor activity recovery. In addition, these agents decreased the severity of passive avoidance amnesia and behavioral deficit in the open field test in rats exposed to electroshock. The greatest neuroprotective properties were exhibited by phenyl-containing GABA analog phenibut. PMID:26906198

  20. Does gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA influence the development of chronic inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridges S Louis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have demonstrated a role for spinal p38 MAP kinase (MAPK in the development of chronic inflammation and peripheral arthritis and a role for GABA in the inhibition of p38 MAPK mediated effects. Integrating these data suggests that GABA may play a role in downregulating mechanisms that lead to the production of proinflammatory agents such as interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and matrix metalloproteinase 3 – agents implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Genetic studies have also associated RA with members of the p38 MAPK pathway. Hypothesis We propose a hypothesis for an inefficient GABA signaling system that results in unchecked proinflammatory cytokine production via the p38 MAPK pathway. This model also supports the need for increasing research in the integration of immunology and neuroscience.

  1. Phenylacetic acids and the structurally related non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac bind to specific gamma-hydroxybutyric acid sites in rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Høg, Signe; Skonberg, Christian; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a proposed neurotransmitter or neuromodulator with a yet unresolved mechanism of action. GHB binds to both specific high-affinity GHB binding sites and to gamma-aminobutyric acid subtype B (GABA(B)) receptors in the brain. To separate specific GHB effects from G...

  2. Role of taurine on acid secretion in the rat stomach

    OpenAIRE

    Ho Jau-Der; Chang Chia-Chieh; Huang Kai-Han; Lu Ruey-Hwa; Tsai Li Hsueh

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Taurine has chemical structure similar to an inhibitory neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Previous studies on GABA in the stomach suggest GABAergic neuron is involved in acid secretion, but the effects of taurine are poor understood. Methods The effects of taurine on acid secretion, signal transduction, and localization of taurinergic neurons were determined in the rat stomach using everted whole stomach, RIA kit and immunohistochemical methods. Results We used...

  3. Effect of activating γ-aminobutyric acid B receptors on the expression of phosphorylated cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B in the spinal dorsal horn in rats with diabetic neuropathic pain%激活γ-氨基丁酸B型受体对糖尿病神经痛大鼠脊髓背角磷酸化环磷酸腺苷反应元件结合蛋白和N-甲基-D-天冬氨酸受体2B亚基表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘朋; 郭闻亚; 赵晓南; 吕艳霞; 魏淑明; 王秀丽

    2013-01-01

    目的 利用γ-氨基丁酸B型受体(GABAR)受体激动剂(巴氯芬)和拮抗剂(CGP55845),探讨激活GABAB受体对糖尿病神经痛大鼠脊髓背角磷酸化环磷酸腺苷反应元件结合蛋白(p-CREB)和N-甲基-D-天冬氨酸受体2B亚基(NMDA-2B、NR2B)表达的影响.方法 62只SD雄性大鼠随机分为两组:正常对照组(C组)和糖尿病神经痛模型组(D组),腹腔分别注射生理盐水或链脲佐菌素(STZ,60 mg/kg).50只大鼠腹腔注射STZ,4周后36只大鼠成功制备成糖尿病神经痛(DNP)模型并鞘内置管,根据鞘内给药(共20μ1)随机分为3组(n=12):DNP对照组(D1组):生理盐水10 μl+生理盐水10μ;巴氯芬组(D2组):生理盐水10 μ1+巴氯芬0.5μg;CGP55845+巴氯芬组(D3组):CGP55845 10 μg+巴氯芬0.5 μg;12只同周龄正常大鼠腹腔注射生理盐水并鞘内置管作为C组,鞘内注射生理盐水10μl+生理盐水10μl.4组大鼠两次鞘内注射间隔15 min,连续4d,每天鞘内注射前、后30 min测定大鼠50%机械缩足阈值(PWT),各时点分别为:T1、T2、T3、T4,最后1次测完后取大鼠脊髓背角,采用分子生物学方法测定p-CREB、环磷酸腺苷反应元件结合蛋白(CREB)和NR2B受体表达变化.结果 与C组比较,D1、D3两组大鼠T1-T4各时点PWT明显降低(P<0.05),p-CREB和NR2B蛋白表达及NR2B mRNA表达明显增多(P<0.05);与D1组比较,D2组大鼠各时点PWT显著升高(P<0.05);与D1组p-CREB(0.76 ±0.13)、NR2B(1.28 ±0.14)蛋白表达、NR2B mRNA表达(0.83±0.10)比较,D2组p-CREB (0.45±0.08)和NR2B(0.88 0.13)蛋白表达及NR2B mRNA表达(0.53±0.08)显著降低(P<0.05).4组间比较,CREB蛋白表达差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 激活GABAB受体可使糖尿病神经痛大鼠脊髓背角p-CREB、NR2B蛋白表达下调,抑制糖尿病神经痛.%Objective To investigate the effect of activating γ-aminobutyric acid(GABAB) receptors on the expression of phosphorylated cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element

  4. 3-Aminopropylphosphinic acid--a potent, selective GABAB receptor agonist in the guinea-pig ileum and rat anococcygeus muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Hills, J. M.; Dingsdale, R. A.; Parsons, M.E.; Dolle, R. E.; Howson, W.

    1989-01-01

    1. 3-Aminopropylphosphinic acid, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogue, was tested for activity on guinea-pig isolated ileum and rat isolated anococcygeus muscle preparations. The effects of 3-aminopropylphosphinic acid were compared with those of GABA and baclofen. 2. In the electrically stimulated ileum, 3-aminopropylphosphinic acid, like GABA and baclofen, caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of the cholinergic twitch contraction, the IC50 value being 1.84 +/- 0.23 microM (n = 1...

  5. Transmembrane topology, subcellular distribution and turnover of the gamma-aminobutyric acid/benzodizaepine receptor in chick brain cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were performed utilizing trypsinization of the GABA/BZD-R in intact cells to determine (1) the subcellular distribution of membrane-associated GABA/BZD-Rs and (2) aspects of the transmembrane topology of the BZD-R. Additionally, R07-0213, a positively charged benzodiazepine, was used to distinguish between cell surface and intracellular BZD-Rs. Following trypsin treatment of intact cells a cleaved receptor fragment of Mr = 24,000 (xRF24) is generated. It remains anchored in the plasma membrane and not only retains the ability to bind [3H]flunitrazepan reversibly and irreversibly but also retains the ability to be modulated by GABA. xRF24 is not observed following trypsinization of saponin-treated cells or cell homogenates, indicating that it has a cytoplasmic domain as well as a cell surface domain, as expected for a transmembrane fragment of the BZD-R. By utilizing [3H]flunitrazepam as an irreversible photoaffinity label, BZD-R turnover was also investigated

  6. Neuronal gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptors undergo cognate ligand chaperoning in the endoplasmic reticulum by endogenous GABA

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ping; Eshaq, Randa S.; Meshul, Charles K.; Moore, Cynthia; Hood, Rebecca L; Leidenheimer, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    GABAA receptors mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain. Dysfunction of these receptors is associated with various psychiatric/neurological disorders and drugs targeting this receptor are widely used therapeutic agents. Both the efficacy and plasticity of GABAA receptor-mediated neurotransmission depends on the number of surface GABAA receptors. An understudied aspect of receptor cell surface expression is the post-translational regulation of receptor biogenesis within the endo...

  7. Molecular basis of the γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor α3 subunit interaction with the clustering protein gephyrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tretter, Verena; Kerschner, Bernd; Milenkovic, Ivan;

    2011-01-01

    The multifunctional scaffolding protein gephyrin is a key player in the formation of the postsynaptic scaffold at inhibitory synapses, clustering both inhibitory glycine receptors (GlyRs) and selected GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)R) subtypes. We report a direct interaction between the GABA(A)R α3...... gephyrin E domain. GABA(A)R α3 gephyrin binding-site mutants were unable to co-localize with endogenous gephyrin in transfected hippocampal neurons, despite being able to traffic to the cell membrane and form functional benzodiazepine-responsive GABA(A)Rs in recombinant systems. Interestingly, motifs...... mixed glycinergic/GABAergic synapses....

  8. Gephyrin-mediated γ-aminobutyric acid type A and glycine receptor clustering relies on a common binding site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maric, Hans-Michael; Mukherjee, Jayanta; Tretter, Verena;

    2011-01-01

    that are central for gephyrin binding. Consistent with the biochemical data, mutations of the corresponding residues within the cytoplasmic domain of α2 subunit-containing GABA(A)Rs attenuated clustering of these receptors at postsynaptic sites in hippocampal neurons. Taken together, our experiments...

  9. α-Thujone (the active component of absinthe): γ-Aminobutyric acid type A receptor modulation and metabolic detoxification

    OpenAIRE

    Höld, Karin M.; Sirisoma, Nilantha S.; Ikeda, Tomoko; Narahashi, Toshio; Casida, John E

    2000-01-01

    α-Thujone is the toxic agent in absinthe, a liqueur popular in the 19th and early 20th centuries that has adverse health effects. It is also the active ingredient of wormwood oil and some other herbal medicines and is reported to have antinociceptive, insecticidal, and anthelmintic activity. This study elucidates the mechanism of α-thujone neurotoxicity and identifies its major metabolites and their role in the poisoning process. Four observations establish that α-thujone is a modulator of th...

  10. The effect of two lipophilic gamma-aminobutyric acid uptake blockers in CA1 of the rat hippocampal slice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rekling, J C; Jahnsen, H; Mosfeldt Laursen, A

    1990-01-01

    the blood. 2. We have investigated the effect of these two uptake inhibitors on the responses to exogenous GABA and on GABA-mediated inhibitory synaptic potentials in pyramidal neurones of the CA1 region in the rat hippocampal slice. 3. We found that both drugs increased the amplitude and duration of...... responses to exogenous GABA. Furthermore, the inhibitory synaptic potentials increased in amplitude. This increase was seen in both early and late phases of the synaptic potentials. We conclude that NO-05-0328 and NO-05-0329, at least in vitro, are more effective than older GABA uptake inhibitors such as...

  11. Gamma-aminobutyric acid and benzodiazepine receptor changes induced by unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the medial forebrain bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, H.S.; Penney, J.B.; Young, A.B.

    1985-11-01

    Quantitative autoradiography was used to ascertain alterations in (TH)muscimol, (TH)flunitrazepam (FLU), (TH)naloxone, (TH)D-alanine-D-leucine-enkephalin (DADL), and (TH)spiroperidol binding in basal ganglia 1 week, 4 weeks, and 5 months after unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) in the rat. At 1 and 4 weeks following lesions, (TH)spiroperidol binding increased 33% in striatum. At 5 months, (TH)spiroperidol was only nonsignificantly increased above control. At 1 week, (TH)muscimol binding decreased 39% in ipsilateral globus pallidus (GP), but increased 41% and 11% in entopeduncular nucleus (EPN) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), respectively. At 4 weeks, (TH)muscimol binding was reduced 19% in striatum and 44% in GP and remained enhanced by 32% in both EPN and SNr. These changes in (TH)muscimol binding persisted at 5 months. (TH)FLU binding was altered in the same direction as (TH)muscimol binding; however, changes were slower in onset and became significant (and remained so) only at 4 weeks after lesions. Decreases in (TH)naloxone and (TH)DADL binding were seen in striatum, GP, EPN, and SNr. Scatchard analyses revealed that only receptor numbers were altered. This study provides biochemical evidence for differential regulation of striatal GABAergic output to GP and EPN/SNr.

  12. beta-aminobutyric acid protects Brassica napus plants from infection by Leptosphaeria maculans. Resistance induction or a direct antifungal effect?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šašek, Vladimír; Nováková, Miroslava; Dobrev, Petre; Valentová, O.; Burketová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 133, č. 1 (2012), s. 279-289. ISSN 0929-1873 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/08/1581; GA MZe QH72117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Antimicrobial * BTH * Gene expression Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 1.610, year: 2012

  13. Effect of pressure on the release of radioactive glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid from spinal cord synaptosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, S.C.; Colton, J.S.; Dutka, A.J.

    1987-11-01

    Exposure to high hydrostatic pressure produces neurological changes referred to as the high-pressure nervous syndrome (HPNS). Manifestations of HPNS include tremor, EEG changes, and convulsions. These symptoms suggest an alteration in synaptic transmission, particularly with inhibitory neural pathways. Because spinal cord transmission has been implicated in HPNS, this study investigated inhibitory neurotransmitter function in the cord at high pressure. Guinea pig spinal cord synaptosome preparations were used to study the effect of compression to 67.7 atmospheres. This study suggest that decreased tonic inhibitory regulation at the level of the spinal cord contributes to the hyperexcitability observed in animals with compression to high pressure.

  14. DISC1 Protein Regulates γ-Aminobutyric Acid, Type A (GABAA) Receptor Trafficking and Inhibitory Synaptic Transmission in Cortical Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jing; Graziane, Nicholas M; Gu, Zhenglin; Yan, Zhen

    2015-11-13

    Association studies have suggested that Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) confers a genetic risk at the level of endophenotypes that underlies many major mental disorders. Despite the progress in understanding the significance of DISC1 at neural development, the mechanisms underlying DISC1 regulation of synaptic functions remain elusive. Because alterations in the cortical GABA system have been strongly linked to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, one potential target of DISC1 that is critically involved in the regulation of cognition and emotion is the GABAA receptor (GABAAR). We found that cellular knockdown of DISC1 significantly reduced GABAAR-mediated synaptic and whole-cell current, whereas overexpression of wild-type DISC1, but not the C-terminal-truncated DISC1 (a schizophrenia-related mutant), significantly increased GABAAR currents in pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex. These effects were accompanied by DISC1-induced changes in surface GABAAR expression. Moreover, the regulation of GABAARs by DISC1 knockdown or overexpression depends on the microtubule motor protein kinesin 1 (KIF5). Our results suggest that DISC1 exerts an important effect on GABAergic inhibitory transmission by regulating KIF5/microtubule-based GABAAR trafficking in the cortex. The knowledge gained from this study would shed light on how DISC1 and the GABA system are linked mechanistically and how their interactions are critical for maintaining a normal mental state. PMID:26424793

  15. The effect of γ-aminobutyric acid on the input conductance and membrane potential of Ascaris muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    1 Twin intracellular recordings were made from the bag region of Ascaris muscle in order to make conductance measurements. The preparation was bathed in a cool (22°C) Ringer solution to abolish the large spontaneous depolarizing potentials and to improve stability for recording.

  16. Transmembrane topology, subcellular distribution and turnover of the gamma-aminobutyric acid/benzodizaepine receptor in chick brain cell cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czajkowski, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were performed utilizing trypsinization of the GABA/BZD-R in intact cells to determine (1) the subcellular distribution of membrane-associated GABA/BZD-Rs and (2) aspects of the transmembrane topology of the BZD-R. Additionally, R07-0213, a positively charged benzodiazepine, was used to distinguish between cell surface and intracellular BZD-Rs. Following trypsin treatment of intact cells a cleaved receptor fragment of M{sub r} = 24,000 (xRF24) is generated. It remains anchored in the plasma membrane and not only retains the ability to bind ({sup 3}H)flunitrazepan reversibly and irreversibly but also retains the ability to be modulated by GABA. xRF24 is not observed following trypsinization of saponin-treated cells or cell homogenates, indicating that it has a cytoplasmic domain as well as a cell surface domain, as expected for a transmembrane fragment of the BZD-R. By utilizing ({sup 3}H)flunitrazepam as an irreversible photoaffinity label, BZD-R turnover was also investigated.

  17. Modulation of y-aminobutyric acid (GABA) uptake by P2Y1 metabotropic purinergic receptor in rat cortical astrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Joaquim Pedro Faria, 1980-

    2011-01-01

    Os astrócitos expressam uma variedade de receptores purinérgicos (P2), envolvidos na comunicação entre astrócitos e indutores de aumentos rápidos na [Ca2+]i. Os receptores metabatrópicos do ATP (P2Y) regulam o Ca2+ citoplasmático através da via de sinalização PLC-PKC, a qual está, também, envolvida na regulação da actividade dos transportadores de GABA, nomeadamente GAT-1 e GAT-3. No presente estudo foi analisada, a modulação dos transportadores de GABA nos astrócitos pela b...

  18. Novel high-affinity and selective biaromatic 4-substituted ¿-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) analogues as GHB ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Signe; Wellendorph, Petrine; Nielsen, Birgitte; Frydenvang, Karla; Dahl, Ivar F; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Brehm, Lotte; Frølund, Bente; Clausen, Rasmus P

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a metabolite of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and has been proposed to function as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. GHB is used in the treatment of narcolepsy and is a drug of abuse. GHB binds to both GABA(B) receptors and specific high-affinity GHB sites in...

  19. The effect of delta-aminolevulinic acid on the synthesis and metabolism of GABA in rabbit brain homogenates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The porphyrin precursor delta-aminolevulinic acid (delta-ALA) is a structural analogue of the putative amino acid neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This study has demonstrated that delta-ALA has no effect on glutamate decarboxylase activity and only a small inhibitory effect on GABA aminotransferase activity. This would suggest that if accumulation of delta-ALA is related to development of the acute attack of porphyria, it is not via an effect on GABA synthesis and metabolism

  20. Effect of borneol, moschus, storax, and acorus tatarinowii on expression levels of four amino acid neurotransmitters in the rat corpus striatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Zhang; Ping Liu; Xinrong He

    2012-01-01

    The present study collected cerebrospinal fluid samples from the corpus striatum in rats treated with borneol, moschus, storax, and acorus tatarinowii using brain microdialysis technology. Levels of excitatory neurotransmitters aspartic acid and glutamate, as well as inhibitory neurotransmitters glycine and ?-aminobutyric acid, were measured in samples using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, phosphate gradient elution, and fluorescence detection. Results showed that concentrations of all four amino acid neurotransmitters significantly increased in the corpus striatum following treatment with borneol or moschus, but effects due to borneol were more significant than moschus. Acorus tatarinowii treatment increased ?-aminobutyric acid expression, but decreased glutamate concentrations. Storax increased aspartic acid concentrations and decreased glycine expression. Results demonstrated that borneol and moschus exhibited significant effects on con amino acid neurotransmitter expression; storax exhibited excitatory effects, and acorus tatarinowii resulted in inhibitory effects.

  1. Butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids increase the rate of lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Rumberger, John M.; Jonathan R.S. Arch; Allan Green

    2014-01-01

    We determined the effect of butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) on rates of lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Prolonged treatment with butyrate (5 mM) increased the rate of lipolysis approximately 2–3-fold. Aminobutyric acid and acetate had little or no effect on lipolysis, however propionate stimulated lipolysis, suggesting that butyrate and propionate act through their shared activity as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Consistent with this, the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin...

  2. (1S, 3S)-3-amino-4-difluoromethylenyl-1-cyclopentanoic acid (CPP-115), a potent gamma-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase inactivator for the treatment of cocaine addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Yue; Gerasimov, Madina R; Kvist, Trine;

    2012-01-01

    Vigabatrin, a GABA aminotransferase (GABA-AT) inactivator, is used to treat infantile spasms and refractory complex partial seizures and is in clinical trials to treat addiction. We evaluated a novel GABA-AT inactivator (CPP-115) and observed that it does not exhibit other GABAergic or off......-target activities and is rapidly and completely orally absorbed and eliminated. Using in vivo microdialysis techniques in freely moving rats and micro-PET imaging techniques, CPP-115 produced similar inhibition of cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine and in synaptic dopamine in the nucleus accumbens...... at 1/300-1/600th the dose of vigabatrin. It also blocks expression of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference at a dose 1/300th that of vigabatrin. Electroretinographic (ERG) responses in rats treated with CPP-115, at doses 20-40 times higher than those needed to treat addiction in rats...

  3. Nigella sativa L. Seed Extract Modulates the Neurotransmitter Amino Acids Release in Cultured Neurons In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Tarek El-Naggar; María Pilar Gómez-Serranillos; Olga María Palomino; Carmen Arce; María Emilia Carretero

    2010-01-01

    Nigella sativa L. (NS) has been used for medicinal purposes since ancient times. This study aimed to investigate the cytotoxicity of NS dry methanolic extract on cultured cortical neurons and its influence on neurotransmitter release, as well as the presence of excitatory (glutamate and aspartate) and inhibitory amino acids (gamma-aminobutyric acid—GABA—and glycine) in NS extract. Cultured rat cortical neurons were exposed to different times and concentrations of NS dry methanolic extract and...

  4. Characterization of the Intracellular Glutamate Decarboxylase System: Analysis of Its Function, Transcription, and Role in the Acid Resistance of Various Strains of Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Karatzas, Kimon-Andreas G.; Suur, Laura; O'Byrne, Conor P.

    2012-01-01

    The glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) system is important for the acid resistance of Listeria monocytogenes. We previously showed that under acidic conditions, glutamate (Glt)/γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) antiport is impaired in minimal media but not in rich ones, like brain heart infusion. Here we demonstrate that this behavior is more complex and it is subject to strain and medium variation. Despite the impaired Glt/GABA antiport, cells accumulate intracellular GABA (GABAi) as a standard response aga...

  5. Dependence of compartmentalization of amino acids in the white and grey matter in the rat brain on the type of ionizing radiation applied

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was established that small single doses of bremsstrahlung and fast electrons from a linear accelerator cause phase shifts of the general stock, free and bound forms of amino acids of the grey and white matter of the brains of rats. The shifts depend on the nature of the ionizing radiation and also on the structural metabolic features of the metabolism of glutaminic, asparaginic, aminoacidic, glutamine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid and are secondary in nature. (author)

  6. Accumulation of gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) caused by heat-drying and expression of related genes in immature vegetable soybean (edamame)

    OpenAIRE

    TAKAHASHI, Yukiko; Sasanuma, Tsuneo; Abe, Toshinori

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effects of drying of immature seeds of vegetable soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) on the accumulation of gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) in the seeds. GABA accumulated after heat-drying, with the maximum at 40°C. The GABA content (447.5 mg/100 g DW) increased to more than 5 times the value in untreated seeds (79.6 mg/100 g DW). In contrast, the glutamate content decreased rapidly to 1/3 the level in the untreated seeds. The GABA content increased early in the heat-drying treatment: ...

  7. Autoradiographic localization of binding sites for [3H] γ-aminobutyrate, [3H] muscimol, (+) [3H] bicuculline methiodide and [3H] flunitrazepam in cultures of rat cerebellum and spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cultures of rat cerebellum and spinal cord were used to visualize sites for [3H]γ-aminobutyrate, [3H]muscimol, [3H]bicuculline methiodide and [3H] flunitrazepam by autoradiography. In cerebellar cultures, many large neurons (presumably Purkinje cells) and interneurons were labelled. In spinal cord cultures, these compounds were mainly bound to small and medium-sized neurons, whereas the majority of large neurons were unlabelled. No binding sites for these radioligands were found on glial cells. Binding of [3H]γ-aminobutyrate, [3H]muscimol and [3H]bicuculline methiodide was markedly reduced or inhibited by adding unlabelled γ-aminobutyrate, muscimol and bicuculline (10-3M) respectively to the incubation medium. Addition of a thienobenzazepine markedly reduced binding with [3H]flunitrazepam. It is concluded that tissues cultures are an excellent tool to visualize the cellular localization of binding sites for neurotransmitters and drugs using autoradiography. (author)

  8. Impact of 1-methylcyclopropene and controlled atmosphere storage on polyamine and 4-aminobutyrate levels in ‘Empire’ apple fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen L Deyman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP delays ethylene-meditated ripening of apple (Malus domestica Borkh. fruit during controlled atmosphere storage. Here, we tested the hypothesis that 1-MCP and controlled atmosphere storage enhances the levels of polyamines (PAs and 4-aminobutyrate (GABA in apple fruit. A 46-week experiment was conducted with ‘Empire’ apple using a split-plot design with four treatment replicates and 3 oC, 2.5 kPa O2, and 0.03 or 2.5 kPa CO2 with or without 1 μL L-1 1-MCP. Total PA levels were not elevated by the 1-MCP treatment. Examination of the individual PAs revealed that: (i total putrescine levels tended to be lower with 1-MCP regardless of the CO2 level, and while this was mostly at the expense of free putrescine, large transient increases in soluble conjugated putrescine were also evident; (ii total spermidine levels tended to be lower with 1-MCP, particularly at 2.5 kPa CO2, and this was mostly at the expense of soluble conjugated spermidine; (iii total spermine levels at 2.5 kPa CO2 tended to be lower with 1-MCP, and this was mostly at the expense of both soluble and insoluble conjugated spermine; and (iv total spermidine and spermine levels at 0.03 kPa were relatively unaffected, compared to 2.5 kPa CO2, but transient increases in free spermidine and spermine were evident. These findings might be due to changes in the conversion of putrescine into higher PAs and the interconversion of free and conjugated forms in apple fruit, rather than altered S-adenosylmethionine availability. Regardless of 1-MCP and CO2 treatments, the availability of glutamate showed a transient peak initially, probably due to protein degradation, and this was followed by a steady decline over the remainder of the storage period which coincided with linear accumulation of GABA. This pattern has been attributed to the stimulation of glutamate decarboxylase activity and inhibition of GABA catabolism, rather than a contribution of PAs to GABA

  9. The pharmacokinetics of [11C]methoxy-norchloroprogabidic acid, a potential PET tracer for GABA receptors in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have described the kinetic properties of [11C]methoxy-norchloroprogabidic acid, a potential radioligand for the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor. Early metabolism in mice was negligible. Protein binding in human plasma was 89±7%. Distribution volumes were 89.6±29.4 l whereas the elimination half-life was 41.6±14.3 min. Animal and human positron emission tomography (PET) data demonstrate limited uptake of the activity in brain tissue. Displacement studies in mice suggest a nonsignificant fraction of specific receptor binding. [11C] Methoxy-norchloroprogabidic acid is therefore unsuitable for brain PET

  10. Identification, purification, and characterization of a novel amino acid racemase, isoleucine 2-epimerase, from Lactobacillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutaguchi, Yuta; Ohmori, Taketo; Wakamatsu, Taisuke; Doi, Katsumi; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2013-11-01

    Accumulation of d-leucine, d-allo-isoleucine, and d-valine was observed in the growth medium of a lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus otakiensis JCM 15040, and the racemase responsible was purified from the cells and identified. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme was GKLDKASKLI, which is consistent with that of a putative γ-aminobutyrate aminotransferase from Lactobacillus buchneri. The putative γ-aminobutyrate aminotransferase gene from L. buchneri JCM 1115 was expressed in recombinant Escherichia coli and then purified to homogeneity. The enzyme catalyzed the racemization of a broad spectrum of nonpolar amino acids. In particular, it catalyzed at high rates the epimerization of l-isoleucine to d-allo-isoleucine and d-allo-isoleucine to l-isoleucine. In contrast, the enzyme showed no γ-aminobutyrate aminotransferase activity. The relative molecular masses of the subunit and native enzyme were estimated to be about 49 kDa and 200 kDa, respectively, indicating that the enzyme was composed of four subunits of equal molecular masses. The Km and Vmax values of the enzyme for l-isoleucine were 5.00 mM and 153 μmol·min(-1)·mg(-1), respectively, and those for d-allo-isoleucine were 13.2 mM and 286 μmol·min(-1)·mg(-1), respectively. Hydroxylamine and other inhibitors of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes completely blocked the enzyme activity, indicating the enzyme requires pyridoxal 5'-phosphate as a coenzyme. This is the first evidence of an amino acid racemase that specifically catalyzes racemization of nonpolar amino acids at the C-2 position. PMID:24039265

  11. γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A (GABAA) Receptor Subunits Play a Direct Structural Role in Synaptic Contact Formation via Their N-terminal Extracellular Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura E; Nicholson, Martin W; Arama, Jessica E; Mercer, Audrey; Thomson, Alex M; Jovanovic, Jasmina N

    2016-07-01

    The establishment of cell-cell contacts between presynaptic GABAergic neurons and their postsynaptic targets initiates the process of GABAergic synapse formation. GABAA receptors (GABAARs), the main postsynaptic receptors for GABA, have been recently demonstrated to act as synaptogenic proteins that can single-handedly induce the formation and functional maturation of inhibitory synapses. To establish how the subunit composition of GABAARs influences their ability to induce synaptogenesis, a co-culture model system incorporating GABAergic medium spiny neurons and the HEK293 cells, stably expressing different combinations of receptor subunits, was developed. Analyses of HEK293 cell innervation by medium spiny neuron axons using immunocytochemistry, activity-dependent labeling, and electrophysiology have indicated that the γ2 subunit is required for the formation of active synapses and that its effects are influenced by the type of α/β subunits incorporated into the functional receptor. To further characterize this process, the large N-terminal extracellular domains (ECDs) of α1, α2, β2, and γ2 subunits were purified using the baculovirus/Sf9 cell system. When these proteins were applied to the co-cultures of MSNs and α1/β2/γ2-expressing HEK293 cells, the α1, β2, or γ2 ECD each caused a significant reduction in contact formation, in contrast to the α2 ECD, which had no effect. Together, our experiments indicate that the structural role of GABAARs in synaptic contact formation is determined by their subunit composition, with the N-terminal ECDs of each of the subunits directly participating in interactions between the presynaptic and postsynaptic elements, suggesting the these interactions are multivalent and specific. PMID:27129275

  12. Residues in the extracellular loop 4 are critical for maintaining the conformational equilibrium of the gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacAulay, Nanna; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Zeuthen, Thomas; Gether, Ulrik

    2003-01-01

    conformational changes critical for the transport process. The two single mutants and the double mutant (M345H/T349H) were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and their steady-state and presteady-state kinetics were examined and compared with wild type GAT-1 by using the two-electrode voltage clamp method....... Oocytes expressing M345H showed a decrease in apparent GABA affinity, an increase in apparent affinity for Na+, a shift in the charge/voltage (Q/Vm) relationship to more positive membrane potentials, and an increased Li+-induced leak current. Oocytes expressing T349H showed an increase in apparent GABA...

  13. Gamma-aminobutyric acid agonist-induced alterations in the ultrastructure of cultured cerebellar granule cells is restricted to early development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, G H; Belhage, B; Schousboe, A;

    1988-01-01

    7 and 14 days, respectively, in culture. THIP treatment of 7-day-old cultures led to a statistically significant increase in the cytoplasmic density of rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, vesicles, and coated vesicles, whereas no significant increase in the cytoplasmic density of these...

  14. Deletion of the γ-aminobutyric acid transporter 2 (GAT2 and SLC6A13) gene in mice leads to changes in liver and brain taurine contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun; Holmseth, Silvia; Guo, Caiying; Hassel, Bjørnar; Höfner, Georg; Huitfeldt, Henrik S; Wanner, Klaus T; Danbolt, Niels C

    2012-10-12

    The GABA transporters (GAT1, GAT2, GAT3, and BGT1) have mostly been discussed in relation to their potential roles in controlling the action of transmitter GABA in the nervous system. We have generated the first mice lacking the GAT2 (slc6a13) gene. Deletion of GAT2 (both mRNA and protein) neither affected growth, fertility, nor life span under nonchallenging rearing conditions. Immunocytochemistry showed that the GAT2 protein was predominantly expressed in the plasma membranes of periportal hepatocytes and in the basolateral membranes of proximal tubules in the renal cortex. This was validated by processing tissue from wild-type and knockout mice in parallel. Deletion of GAT2 reduced liver taurine levels by 50%, without affecting the expression of the taurine transporter TAUT. These results suggest an important role for GAT2 in taurine uptake from portal blood into liver. In support of this notion, GAT2-transfected HEK293 cells transported [(3)H]taurine. Furthermore, most of the uptake of [(3)H]GABA by cultured rat hepatocytes was due to GAT2, and this uptake was inhibited by taurine. GAT2 was not detected in brain parenchyma proper, excluding a role in GABA inactivation. It was, however, expressed in the leptomeninges and in a subpopulation of brain blood vessels. Deletion of GAT2 increased brain taurine levels by 20%, suggesting a taurine-exporting role for GAT2 in the brain. PMID:22896705

  15. Baicalin Activates Glycine and [Formula: see text]-Aminobutyric Acid Receptors on Substantia Gelatinosa Neurons of the Trigeminal Subsnucleus Caudalis in Juvenile Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hua; Bhattarai, Janardhan Prasad; Oh, Sun Mi; Park, Soo Joung; Ahn, Dong Kuk; Han, Seong Kyu

    2016-04-01

    The substantia gelatinosa (SG) of the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) receives nociceptive afferent inputs from thin-myelinated A[Formula: see text] fibers and unmyelinated C fibers and has been shown to be involved in the processing of orofacial nociceptive information. Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Huang-Qin, SbG), one of the 50 fundamental herbs of Chinese herbology, has been used historically as anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic medicine. Baicalin, one of the major compounds of SbG, has been reported to have neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. However, the receptor type activated by baicalin and its precise action mechanism on the SG neurons of Vc have not yet been studied. The whole-cell patch clamp technique was performed to examine the ion channels activated by baicalin on the SG neurons of Vc. In high Cl[Formula: see text] pipette solution, the baicalin (300[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]M) induced repeatable inward currents ([Formula: see text][Formula: see text]pA, [Formula: see text]) without desensitization on all the SG neurons tested. Further, the inward currents showed a concentration (0.1-3[Formula: see text]mM) dependent pattern. The inward current was sustained in the presence of tetrodotoxin (0.5[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]M), a voltage sensitive Na[Formula: see text] channel blocker. In addition, baicalin-induced inward currents were reduced in the presence of picrotoxin (50[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]M), a GABAA receptor antagonist, flumazenil (100[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]M), a benzodiazepine-sensitive GABAA receptor antagonist, and strychnine (2[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]M), a glycine receptor antagonist, respectively. These results indicate that baicalin has inhibitory effects on the SG neurons of the Vc, which are due to the activation of GABAA and/or the glycine receptor. Our results suggest that baicalin may be a potential target for orofacial pain modulation. PMID:27080947

  16. Effect of ouabain on the gamma-[3H]aminobutyric acid uptake and release in the absence of Ca(+)+ and K(+)-depolarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of ouabain on the uptake of tritiated [3H]GABA and on its release in the absence of Ca(+)+ was studied in brain cortex synaptosomes. Ouabain, in the absence of Ca(+)+ and K(+)-depolarization, induces the release of [3H]GABA with half-maximal effect occurring at a concentration of about 7 X 10(-6) M. Parallel measurements of the effects of ouabain on the [3H]GABA uptake and the Na+,K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase activity show that ouabain inhibits both mechanisms and that the half-maximal effect also occurs at about the same ouabain concentration. Although [3H]GABA release is stimulated by ouabain, it appears that the inhibition of [3H]GABA uptake is due to a direct effect on the uptake mechanism, inasmuch as the initial velocity of the process is inhibited by ouabain. Ouabain requires extracellular Na+ for [3H]GABA release and for membrane depolarization and, in the absence of Na+, ouabain does not cause either [3H]GABA release or membrane depolarization. No significant changes in the Na+ gradients occur under conditions which permit release of [3H]GABA, but the Na+,K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase activity is inhibited, which may be responsible for membrane depolarization, which in turn may cause [3H]GABA release or inhibit its uptake

  17. 5-(Piperidin-4-yl)-3-Hydroxypyrazole: A Novel Scaffold for Probing the Orthosteric γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptor Binding Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krall, Jacob; Kongstad, Kenneth Thermann; Nielsen, Birgitte;

    2014-01-01

    A series of bioisosteric N1- and N2-substituted 5-(piperidin-4-yl)-3-hydroxypyrazole analogues of the partial GABAAR agonists 4-PIOL and 4-PHP have been designed, synthesized, and characterized pharmacologically. The unsubstituted 3-hydroxypyrazole analogue of 4-PIOL (2 a; IC50∼300 μM) is a weak...... indicate that the N1-substituted analogues of 4-PIOL and 4-PHP, 2 a–k, and previously reported 3-substituted 4-PHP analogues share a common binding mode to the orthosteric binding site in the receptor. Interestingly, the core scaffold of the N2-substituted analogues of 4-PIOL and 4-PHP, 3 b–k, are...

  18. EFFECTS OF POSTNATAL TRIMETHYLTIN OR TRIETHYLTIN TREATMENT OF CNS CATECHOLAMINE, GABA (GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID), AND ACETYLCHOLINE SYSTEMS IN THE RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects on brain neurochemistry of two neurotoxic tin compounds, trimethyltin (TMT) hydroxide and triethyltin (TET) sulfate, were examined. Long-Evans rats were treated with TMT hydroxide (1 mg/kg, i.p.) on alternate days from day 2 to 29 of life. These treatments caused a we...

  19. Characterization of γ-aminobutyric acid metabolism and oxidative damage in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings under salt and osmotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Quraan, Nisreen A; Sartawe, Fatima Al-Batool; Qaryouti, Muien M

    2013-07-15

    The molecular response of plants to abiotic stresses has been considered a process mainly involved in the modulation of transcriptional activity of stress-related genes. Nevertheless, recent findings have suggested new layers of regulation and complexity. Upstream molecular mechanisms are involved in the plant response to abiotic stress. Plants gain resistance to abiotic stress by reprogramming metabolism and gene expression. GABA is proposed to be a signaling molecule involved in nitrogen metabolism, regulating the cytosolic pH, and protection against oxidative damage in response to various abiotic stresses. The aim of our study was to examine the role of the GABA shunt pathway-specific response in five wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (Hurani 75, Sham I, Acsad 65, Um Qayes and Nodsieh) to salt and osmotic stress in terms of seed germination, seedling growth, oxidative damage (malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation), and characterization of the glutamate decarboxylse gene (GAD) m-RNA level were determined using RT-PCR techniques. Our data showed a marked increase in GABA, MDA and GAD m-RNA levels under salt and osmotic stress in the five wheat cultivars. Um Qayes cultivar showed the highest germination percentage, GABA accumulation, and MDA level under salt and osmotic stresses. The marked increase in GAD gene expression explains the high accumulation of the GABA level under both stresses. Our results indicated that the GABA shunt is a key signaling and metabolic pathway that allows wheat to adapt to salt and osmotic stress. Based on our data, the Um Qayes wheat cultivar is the cultivar most recommended to be grown in soil with high salt and osmotic contents. PMID:23602379

  20. Direct activation of GABAA receptors by substances in the organic acid fraction of Japanese sake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izu, Hanae; Shigemori, Kensuke; Eguchi, Masaya; Kawane, Shuhei; Fujii, Shouko; Kitamura, Yuji; Aoshima, Hitoshi; Yamada, Yasue

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effect of substances present in Japanese sake on the response of ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Sake was fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. The fraction containing organic acids (OA fraction) showed agonist activities on the GABAA receptor. OA fractions from sake were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS). Of the 64 compounds identified, 13 compounds showed GABAA receptor agonist activities. Especially, l-lactic acid showed high agonist activity and its EC50 value was 37μM. Intraperitoneal injections of l-lactic acid, gluconic acid, and pyruvic acid (10, 10, and 5mg/kg BW, respectively), which showed agonistic activity on the GABAA receptor, led to significant anxiolytic effects during an elevated plus-maze test in mice. PMID:27507485

  1. GABA, 5-HT and amino acids in the rotifers Brachionus plicatilis and Brachionus rotundiformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, W G; Hagiwara, A; Hara, K; Soyano, K; Snell, T W

    2000-11-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) have been shown to increase the reproduction of the Brachionus plicatilis (NH3L strain). In the present study, the endogenous presence of GABA and 5-HT in the rotifers B. plicatilis (NH3L and Kamiura strains) and Brachionus rotundiformis (Langkawi strain) were confirmed by dot blot immunoassay and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC showed that GABA and 5-HT concentrations in the three rotifer strains range from 71 to 188 pmol/mg and from 12 to 64 pmol/mg, respectively. A total of 33 amino acids were also detected in B. plicatilis and B. rotundiformis, with glutamic acid, serine, glycine, taurine, threonine, alanine, arginine, proline, valine and isoleucine in high concentrations relative to other amino acids. PMID:11118940

  2. Glutamic acid decarboxylase isoform distribution in transgenic mouse septum: an anti-GFP immunofluorescence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verimli, Ural; Sehirli, Umit S

    2016-09-01

    The septum is a basal forebrain region located between the lateral ventricles in rodents. It consists of lateral and medial divisions. Medial septal projections regulate hippocampal theta rhythm whereas lateral septal projections are involved in processes such as affective functions, memory formation, and behavioral responses. Gamma-aminobutyric acidergic neurons of the septal region possess the 65 and 67 isoforms of the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase. Although data on the glutamic acid decarboxylase isoform distribution in the septal region generally appears to indicate glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 dominance, different studies have given inconsistent results in this regard. The aim of this study was therefore to obtain information on the distributions of both of these glutamic acid decarboxylase isoforms in the septal region in transgenic mice. Two animal groups of glutamic acid decarboxylase-green fluorescent protein knock-in transgenic mice were utilized in the experiment. Brain sections from the region were taken for anti-green fluorescent protein immunohistochemistry in order to obtain estimated quantitative data on the number of gamma-aminobutyric acidergic neurons. Following the immunohistochemical procedures, the mean numbers of labeled cells in the lateral and medial septal nuclei were obtained for the two isoform groups. Statistical analysis yielded significant results which indicated that the 65 isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase predominates in both lateral and medial septal nuclei (unpaired two-tailed t-test p first to reveal the dominance of glutamic acid decarboxylase isoform 65 in the septal region in glutamic acid decarboxylase-green fluorescent protein transgenic mice. PMID:26643381

  3. N-13 labeled amino acids: biodistribution, metabolism and dosimetric considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the growing interest in metabolic imaging and with the increasing number of cyclotron/PET facilities, more studies are being performed in animal and humans using short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides. Amino acids labeled either with N-13 or C-11 are one group of compounds being used to study in vivo regional organ (i.e., brain and heart) or tumor metabolism. Of the studies previously reported using C-11 or N-13 labeled amino acids (methionine, alanine, valine, glutamate, glutamine and tryptophan), imaging was restricted mainly to the organ or tissue of interest with little information obtained about the whole-bode distribution of the label. Such data are important for studying interorgan transport of amino acids and for determining accurate dosimetric measurements after intravenous injection of labeled amino acids. The goals of the authors study were to compare the distribution of several N-13 L-amino acids and N-13 ammonia in tumor-bearing mice and to determine the metabolic fate of the label in vivo. The following amino acids were enzymatically labeled using N-13 ammonia: glutamine, glutamate, methionine, α-aminobutyric acid, valine and leucine. 30 references, 2 figures, 14 tables

  4. A radiometric microassay for glutamic acid decarboxylase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple method for purifying L-[3H] glutamic acid and incubation conditions suitable for estimating L-glutamic acid decarboxylase activity are described. Routine and recycled cation-exchange procedure for separating γ-aminobutyric acid from L-glutamate are outlined and compared. Recycling increases the sensitivity of the cation-exchange method by 6-7 fold. L-Glutamate decarboxylase activity can be measured reliably in samples of embryonic neural tissue having wet-weights of approximately 1 μg. The cation-exchange method is compared with the anion-exchange and CO2-trapping methods. L-Glutamate decarboxylase activity has been detected in the lumbar spinal cord of the chick embryo at Day 21/4 (stage 14) using the cation-exchange method. This is 5-6 days earlier than L-glutamate decarboxylase activity has been detected in embryonic neural tissue by previous investigators. L-Glutamate decarboxylase is present in the lumbar spinal cord at least as early as the birth of the first lumbar spinal cord neurons and at least 1-2 days before the initiation of synaptogenesis. (author)

  5. Enthalpic Pair Interaction of Rubidium Chloride with α-Amino Acid in Water at 298.15K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡满成; 杨茜; 蒋育澄; 夏树屏

    2005-01-01

    The mixing enthalpies of aqueous heavy rare alkali metal chloride RbC1 solutions with aqueous α-amino acid (Loglycine, L-alanine and α-aminobutyric acid) solutions, as well as the dilution enthalpies of RbC1 and α-amino acid solutions in pure water had been measured at 298.15K. The transfer enthalpies of RbCI from pure water to aqueous α-amino acid solutions could be obtained from these data. The enthalpic pair interaction parameters of RbC1 with α-amino acid in water have been evaluated according to the McMillan-Mayer theory and discussed in terms of the electrostatic interaction, structure interaction and Savage-wood group additivity mode.

  6. Inhibitory effects of matrine on electrical signals and amino acid neurotransmitters in hippocampal brain slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuping Wang; Jiping Chen; Guizhi Zhao; Dan Shou; Xuezhi Hong; Jianmin Zhang

    2009-01-01

    -dose groups were separately injected with 58.5, 39.0, and 19.5 mg/kg matrine via caudal vein, respectively. No intervention was administered to the normal group.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The field potential value in the CA1 region of penicillin-induced rat hippocampal brain slices was analyzed using the evoked field potential technique; chromatography was utilized to determine y-aminobutyric acid and glutamic acid content in the mouse hippocampus.RESULTS: (1) Both 0.1 g/L and 0.05 g/L matrine reduced the number of evoked field potentials in the penicillin-induced rat hippocampal brain slices (P<0.05 or P<0.01). In addition, 0.1 g/L matrine led to a reduction of evoked field potential amplitude (P<0.05). (2) Compared with normal mice,y-aminobutyric levels were dramatically increased at 20 minutes after high-dose matdne treatment (P<0.05). In addition, significantly increased y-aminobutyric acid levels were observed at 40 minutes after medium- and low-dose matrine treatments (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The glutamic acid/V-aminobutyric acid ratio was significantly less at 20 minutes after high-dose matrine treatment compared with the normal mice group (P<0.05).CONCLUSION: Matrine exerts a central inhibitory effect via increased inhibitory neurotransmitter y-aminobutyric acid levels in the hippocampus.

  7. Amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body uses amino acids ...

  8. AMINO ACID SYNTHESIS IN PHOTO-SYNTHESIZING SPINACH CELLS. EFFECTS OF AMMONIA ON POOL SIZES AND RATES OF LABELING FROM {sup 14}CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Peder Olesen; Cornwell, Karen L.; Gee, Sherry L.; Bassham, James A.

    1980-10-01

    Isolated cells from leaves of Spinacea oleracea have been maintained in a state capable of high rates of photosynthetic CO{sub 2} fixation for more than 60 h. The incorporation of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} under saturating CO{sub 2} conditions into carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and amino acids, and the effect of ammonia on this incorporation have been studied. Total incorporation, specific radioactivity and pool size have been determined as a function of time for most of the protein amino acids and for {gamma}-aminobutyric acid. the measurements of specific activities and of the approaches to {sup 14}C "saturation" of some amino acids indicate the presence and relative sizes of metabolically active and passive pools of these amino acids. Added ammonia decreased carbon fixation into carbohydrates and increased fixation into carboxylic acids and amino acids. Different amino acids were, however, affected in different and highly specific ways. Ammonia caused large stimulatory effects in incorporation of {sup 14}C into glutamine (a factor of 16), No effect or slight decreases were seen in glycine, serine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine labeling, In.the case of glutamate, {sup 14}C-labeling decreased, but specific activity increased. The production of labeled {gamma}-aminobutyric acid was virtually stopped by ammonia. The results indicate that added ammonia stimulates the reactions mediated by pyruvate kinase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, as seen with other plant systems. The data on the effects of added ammonia on total labeling, pool sizes, and specific activities of several amino acids provides a number of indications about the intracellular sites of principal synthesis from carbon skeletons of these amino acids and the selective nature of effects of increased intracellular ammonia concentration on such synthesis.

  9. [Effect of phenibut on the content of monoamines, their metabolites, and neurotransmitter amino acids in rat brain structures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodkina, L E; Kudrin, V S; Klodt, P M; Narkevich, V B; Tiurenkov, I N

    2009-01-01

    Effects of the nootropic drug phenibut, which is a structural analog of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), on the content of monoamines, their metabolites, and neurotransmitter amino acids in brain structures have been studied on Wistar rats. It is established that a single administration of phenibut in a dose of 25 mg/kg (i.p.) produces a statistically significant increase in the content of dopamine metabolite (3,4-dioxyphenylacetic acid) and the retarding amino acid taurine in striatum. At the same time, phenibut did not significantly influence the levels of GABA, serotonin, and dopamine in various brain structures and produce a moderate decrease in the level of norepinephrine in the hippocampus. PMID:19334514

  10. Predicting Thermodynamic Behaviors of Non-Protein Amino Acids as a Function of Temperature and pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadai, Norio

    2016-03-01

    Why does life use α-amino acids exclusively as building blocks of proteins? To address that fundamental question from an energetic perspective, this study estimated the standard molal thermodynamic data for three non-α-amino acids (β-alanine, γ-aminobutyric acid, and ɛ-aminocaproic acid) and α-amino- n-butyric acid in their zwitterionic, negative, and positive ionization states based on the corresponding experimental measurements reported in the literature. Temperature dependences of their heat capacities were described based on the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equations of state. The obtained dataset was then used to calculate the standard molal Gibbs energies ( ∆G o) of the non-α-amino acids as a function of temperature and pH. Comparison of their ∆G o values with those of α-amino acids having the same molecular formula showed that the non-α-amino acids have similar ∆G o values to the corresponding α-amino acids in physiologically relevant conditions (neutral pH, <100 °C). In acidic and alkaline pH, the non-α-amino acids are thermodynamically more stable than the corresponding α-ones over a broad temperature range. These results suggest that the energetic cost of synthesis is not an important selection pressure to incorporate α-amino acids into biological systems.

  11. ZAPA, (Z)-3-[(aminoiminomethyl)thio]-2-propenoic acid hydrochloride, a potent agonist at GABA-receptors on the Ascaris muscle cell.

    OpenAIRE

    Holden-Dye, L.; Walker, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    This study is the first report of a compound which is equal in efficacy to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at the nematode Ascaris muscle GABA-receptor. The GABA-receptor at the Ascaris muscle cell which mediates a membrane hyperpolarization and muscle relaxation has eluded classification. The structure-activity profile of this receptor is not typical of GABAA or GABAB-receptors. Here we report that the isothiouronium compound ZAPA is as potent as GABA at this receptor. This finding has import...

  12. Free amino acids in the nervous system of the amphioxus Branchiostoma lanceolatum. A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The cephalochordate amphioxus is the closest invertebrate relative to vertebrates. In this study, using HPLC technique, free L-amino acids (L-AAs and D-aspartic acid (D-Asp have been detected in the nervous system of the amphioxus Branchiostoma lanceolatum. Among other amino acids glutamate, aspartate, glycine, alanine and serine are the amino acids found at the greatest concentrations. As it occurs in the nervous system of other animal phyla, glutamate (L-Glu and aspartate (L-Asp are present at very high concentrations in the amphioxus nervous system compared to other amino acids, whereas the concentration of taurine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA is very low. Interestingly, as it is the case in vertebrates, D-aspartic acid is present as an endogenous compound in amphioxus nervous tissues. The physiological function of excitatory amino acids, and D-aspartate in particular, are discussed in terms of evolution of the nervous system under an Evo-fun (Evolution of function perspective.

  13. Acid Rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  14. Enhanced Synthesis of Alkyl Amino Acids in Miller's 1958 H2S Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Eric T.; Cleaves, H. James; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, James P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    Stanley Miller's 1958 H2S-containing experiment, which included a simulated prebiotic atmosphere of methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) produced several alkyl amino acids, including the alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers of aminobutyric acid (ABA) in greater relative yields than had previously been reported from his spark discharge experiments. In the presence of H2S, aspariic and glutamic acids could yield alkyl amino acids via the formation of thioimide intermediates. Radical chemistry initiated by passing H2S through a spark discharge could have also enhanced alkyl amino acid synthesis by generating alkyl radicals that can help form the aldehyde and ketone precursors to these amino acids. We propose mechanisms that may have influenced the synthesis of certain amino acids in localized environments rich in H2S and lightning discharges, similar to conditions near volcanic systems on the early Earth, thus contributing to the prebiotic chemical inventory of the primordial Earth.

  15. Glucose and amino acid metabolism in rat brain during sustained hypoglycemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism of glucose in brains during sustained hypoglycemia was studied. [U-14C]Glucose (20 microCi) was injected into control rats, and into rats at 2.5 hr after a bolus injection of 2 units of insulin followed by a continuous infusion of 0.2 units/100 g rat/hr. This regimen of insulin injection was found to result in steady-state plasma glucose levels between 2.5 and 3.5 mumol per ml. In the brains of control rats carbon was transferred rapidly from glucose to glutamate, glutamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid and aspartate and this carbon was retained in the amino acids for at least 60 min. In the brains of hypoglycemic rats, the conversion of carbon from glucose to amino acids was increased in the first 15 min after injection. After 15 min, the specific activity of the amino acids decreased in insulin-treated rats but not in the controls. The concentrations of alanine, glutamate, and gamma-amino-butyric acid decreased, and the concentration of aspartate increased, in the brains of the hypoglycemic rats. The concentration of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, a cofactor in many of the reactions whereby these amino acids are formed from tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, was less in the insulin-treated rats than in the controls. These data provide evidence that glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, and GABA can serve as energy sources in brain during insulin-induced hypoglycemia

  16. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on distribution dynamics of free amino acids in water soaked brown rice grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigematsu, T; Nakajima, K; Uno, Y; Sakano, A; Murakami, M; Narahara, Y; Fujii, T [Department of Food Sci., Niigata University Pharm. Appl. Life Sci. (NUPALS), Niigata, Niigata, 956-8603 (Japan); Hayashi, M [Niigata Industrial Creation Organization (NICO), Niigata, Niigata, 950-0078 (Japan); Ueno, S, E-mail: shige@nupals.ac.j [Grad. School of Agric. Sci., Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, 981-8555 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HP) with approximately below 400 MPa can induce a transformation of food materials to an alternative form, where membrane systems are damaged but certain enzymes are still active. HP treatment of water soaked brown rice grain could modify the mass transfer inside and apparent activities of enzymes, resulting in HP-dependent change of distribution of free amino acids. Thus, the distribution of free amino acids in brown rice grain during preservation after HP treatment was analyzed. Just after HP treatment at 200 MPa for 10 min, the distribution of free amino acids was not apparently different from that of untreated control. In contrast, after 1 to 4 days preservation at 25{sup 0}C, amino acids, such as Ala, Glu, Gly, Asp and Val, showed higher concentrations than those in control. This result suggested that HP treatment induced proteolysis to produce free amino acids. However, Gln, Thr and Cys, showed no apparent difference, suggesting that conversion of certain amino acids produced by proteolysis occurred. Moreover, the concentration of {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in HP-treated sample was higher than that in untreated control. These results suggested that HP treatment induced alteration of distribution of free amino acids of rice grains via proteolysis and certain amino acids metabolism pathways.

  17. Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... found naturally in some foods, including leafy vegetables, citrus fruits, beans (legumes), and whole grains. Folic acid ... mcg of folic acid every day for good health. But older adults need to be sure they ...

  18. Determination of dansylated amino acids and biogenic amines in Cannonau and Vermentino wines by HPLC-FLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Congiu, Francesca; Serreli, Gabriele; Mameli, Stefano

    2015-05-15

    Free amino acids (AA) and biogenic amines (BA) were quantified for the first time in Cannonau and Vermentino wines, the two most popular "Controlled Designation of Origin" wines from Sardinia (Italy). An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of AA and BA was developed, using selective derivatization with dansyl chloride followed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Thirty-two compounds were identified in the wines analysed. High levels of AA were found, with proline being the most abundant with average levels of 1244 ± 398 and 1008 ± 281 mg/L in Cannonau and Vermentino wines, respectively. BA were detected at average concentrations <10mg/L, except putrescine which reached 20.5 ± 10.2mg/L in Cannonau wines. Histamine was never detected in any Vermentino wines. γ-Aminobutyric acid, 4-hydroxyproline, glycine, leucine+isoleucine and putrescine proved to be useful for differentiating Cannonau wines from Vermentino wines. PMID:25577047

  19. Pancreatic beta cells express two autoantigenic forms of glutamic acid decarboxylase, a 65-kDa hydrophilic form and a 64-kDa amphiphilic form which can be both membrane-bound and soluble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christgau, S; Schierbeck, H; Aanstoot, H J;

    1991-01-01

    The 64-kDa pancreatic beta-cell autoantigen, which is a target of autoantibodies associated with early as well as progressive stages of beta-cell destruction, resulting in insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) in humans, has been identified as the gamma-aminobutyric acid-synthesizing enzyme glutamic...... compartment and hydrophobicity. A major portion of GAD64 is hydrophobic and firmly membrane-anchored and can only be released from membrane fractions by detergent. A second portion is hydrophobic but soluble or of a low membrane avidity, and a third minor portion is soluble and hydrophilic. All the GAD64...

  20. GHB acid: A rage or reprive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakhar Kapoor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB is a naturally occurring analog of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA that has been used in research and clinical medicine for many years. GHB was used clinically as an anesthetic in the 1960s but was withdrawn due to side effects that included seizures and coma. GHB has been implicated in a number of crime types; most notably in drug-facilitated sexual assault. GHB is abused by three main groups of users: Body builders who use the substance believing that it stimulated the release of growth hormone; sexual predators who covertly administer the drug for its sedative and amnesic effects and club-goers (rave parties who take the drug for its euphoric effects. The short-lived hypnotic effects, relative safety and widespread availability of the drug have made it particularly well suited to this role. The drug has an addictive potential if used for long term. The primary effects of GHB use are those of a CNS depressant and therefore range from relaxation, to euphoria, confusion, amnesia, hallucinations, and coma. Despite the increased regulation, GHB remains widely available through the Internet where one can easily purchase the necessary reagents as well as recipes for home production. There are reports of patients being unresponsive to painful stimuli and cases of oral self-mutilations linked to the abuse of GHB, though quiet rare. Such cases should remind odontologists that intra-oral lesions may be the result of self-mutilation either due to mental illness or altered states caused by the use of prescription or non-prescription drugs.

  1. An exceptional series of phase transitions in hydrophobic amino acids with linear side chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Henrik Görbitz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The solid-state phase transitions and intermediate structures of S-2-aminobutanoic acid (l-2-aminobutyric acid, S-2-aminopentanoic acid (l-norvaline, S-2-aminohexanoic acid (l-norleucine and l-methionine between 100 and 470 K, identified by differential scanning calorimetry, have been characterized in a comprehensive single-crystal X-ray diffraction investigation. Unlike other enantiomeric amino acids investigated until now, this group featuring linear side chains displays up to five distinct phases. The multiple transitions between them involve a number of different processes: alteration of the hydrogen-bond pattern, to our knowledge the first example of this observed for an amino acid, sliding of molecular bilayers, seen previously only for racemates and quasiracemates, concerted side-chain rearrangements and abrupt as well as gradual modifications of the side-chain disorder. Ordering of l-norleucine upon cooling even proceeds via an incommensurately modulated structure. l-Methionine has previously been described as being fully ordered at room temperature. An accurate refinement now reveals extensive disorder for both molecules in the asymmetric unit, while two previously unknown phases occur above room temperature.

  2. Effect of single-use versus combined-use moschus and diazepam on expression of amino acid neurotransmitters in the rat corpus striatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Zhang; Ping Liu; Xinrong He

    2012-01-01

    The present study analyzed expressional changes of excitatory neurotransmitters and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the rat corpus striatum after single-use and combined-use diazepam and Chinese herb moschus. The influence of moschus on the central nervous system was analyzed, in particular whether moschus increased penetration of other drugs into the brain. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, which included pre-column derivation with orthophthaladehyde detection, showed varied increased levels of excitatory neurotransmitters, including aspartate and glutamate, and inhibitory neurotransmitters, including glycine and γ-aminobutyric acid, in the corpus striatum after treatment with moschus alone, diazepam alone, or a combination of both. Compared with the diazepam group, aspartate levels significantly decreased at 30 and 60-105 minutes after combined treatment with moschus, while glutamate significantly increased at 45 and 75-105 minutes, glycine levels significantly increased at 105 minutes, and γ-aminobutyric acid increased at 30 and 75-105 minutes. These findings suggested that moschus increased the inhibition effects of diazepam on the brain.

  3. Anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody positive neurological syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohid, Hassaan

    2016-07-01

    A rare kind of antibody, known as anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) autoantibody, is found in some patients. The antibody works against the GAD enzyme, which is essential in the formation of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter found in the brain. Patients found with this antibody present with motor and cognitive problems due to low levels or lack of GABA, because in the absence or low levels of GABA patients exhibit motor and cognitive symptoms. The anti-GAD antibody is found in some neurological syndromes, including stiff-person syndrome, paraneoplastic stiff-person syndrome, Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS), limbic encephalopathy, cerebellar ataxia, eye movement disorders, and epilepsy. Previously, excluding MFS, these conditions were calledhyperexcitability disorders. However, collectively, these syndromes should be known as "anti-GAD positive neurological syndromes." An important limitation of this study is that the literature is lacking on the subject, and why patients with the above mentioned neurological problems present with different symptoms has not been studied in detail. Therefore, it is recommended that more research is conducted on this subject to obtain a better and deeper understanding of these anti-GAD antibody induced neurological syndromes. PMID:27356651

  4. Enthalpic Interaction for α-Amino Acid with Alkali Metal Halides in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU,Yan(卢雁)

    2004-01-01

    The studies of the enthalpic interaction parameters, hxy, hxyy and hxxv, of alkali metal halides with glycine,α-alanine and α-aminobutyric acid were published. Synthetic considering of the results of the studies, some interesting behaviors of the interaction between alkali metal halides and the α-amino acids have been found. The values of hxy will increase with the increase of the number of carbon atoms in alkyl side chain of amino acid molecules and decrease with the increase of the radius of the ions. The increasing of the salt's effect on the hydrophobic hydration structure as the radii of anion is more obvious than as that of cation. The value of hxxy will regularly decrease with the increase of the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain of amino acids and linear increase with the increase of the radius. But the relation of hxxy with the radius of cations is not evident. The value of hxyy will increase with the increase of the radii of the ions. As the increase of the number of carbon atoms of amino acids, hxyy is decreas for the ions which have lager size and there is a maximum value at α-alanine for the ions which have small size. The behaviors of the interaction mentioned above were further discussed in view of electrostatic and structural interactions.

  5. Influence of UV and RTG radiation on levels of free amino acids in rat brain tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were carried out with 204 Wistar rats divided into two experimental groups and control groups. Eighty-four rats of group 1 were UV-irradiated, and 90 rats of group 2 were irradiated with roentgen rays. Amino acids were separated by high-voltage electrophoresis and by paper chromatography. Changes in concentrations of amino acids in the brain tissue under the influence of UV radiation were analyzed after 24 hr in 5, 10, 20, 30, 50 and 90 day-old rats, and after 1, 2, 3 and in 8-day rats. The effect of irradiation with 1,200r of X rays was studied after 24 hr in rats in the same stages of development, and, in addition, the effect of 250r doses was observed in 3-day rats at 2, 7, 17, 27 and 47 days after roentgen irradiation. The following amino acids were assayed electrochromatographically: aspartic, glutamic and gamma-aminobutyric acids, alanine, glycine, serine, threonine, leucine and lysine. Brain levels of amino acids were raised under the influence of the factors applied, and ultraviolet and ionizing radiation had transient effect. (author)

  6. Ibotenic acid and thioibotenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermit, Mette B; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Nielsen, Birgitte;

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we have determined and compared the pharmacological profiles of ibotenic acid and its isothiazole analogue thioibotenic acid at native rat ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors and at recombinant rat metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors expressed in mammalian cell lines....... Thioibotenic acid has a distinct pharmacological profile at group III mGlu receptors compared with the closely structurally related ibotenic acid; the former is a potent (low microm) agonist, whereas the latter is inactive. By comparing the conformational energy profiles of ibotenic and thioibotenic acid with...... the conformations preferred by the ligands upon docking to mGlu1 and models of the other mGlu subtypes, we propose that unlike other subtypes, group III mGlu receptor binding sites require a ligand conformation at an energy level which is prohibitively expensive for ibotenic acid, but not for...

  7. Participation of GABAA Chloride Channels in the Anxiolytic-Like Effects of a Fatty Acid Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Rodríguez-Landa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human amniotic fluid and a mixture of eight fatty acids (FAT-M identified in this maternal fluid (C12:0, lauric acid, 0.9 μg%; C14:0, myristic acid, 6.9 μg%; C16:0, palmitic acid, 35.3 μg%; C16:1, palmitoleic acid, 16.4 μg%; C18:0, stearic acid, 8.5 μg%; C18:1cis, oleic acid, 18.4 μg%; C18:1trans, elaidic acid, 3.5 μg%; C18:2, linoleic acid, 10.1 μg% produce anxiolytic-like effects that are comparable to diazepam in Wistar rats, suggesting the involvement of γ-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA receptors, a possibility not yet explored. Wistar rats were subjected to the defensive burying test, elevated plus maze, and open field test. In different groups, three GABAA receptor antagonists were administered 30 min before FAT-M administration, including the competitive GABA binding antagonist bicuculline (1 mg/kg, GABAA benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil (5 mg/kg, and noncompetitive GABAA chloride channel antagonist picrotoxin (1 mg/kg. The FAT-M exerted anxiolytic-like effects in the defensive burying test and elevated plus maze, without affecting locomotor activity in the open field test. The GABAA antagonists alone did not produce significant changes in the behavioral tests. Picrotoxin but not bicuculline or flumazenil blocked the anxiolytic-like effect of the FAT-M. Based on the specific blocking action of picrotoxin on the effects of the FAT-M, we conclude that the FAT-M exerted its anxiolytic-like effects through GABAA receptor chloride channels.

  8. 固定化唾液链球菌生产γ-氨基丁酸的研究%PRUDUCTION OF γ-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID BY IMMOBILIZED Streptococcus salivarius subsp.thermophilus Y-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦阳; 汪建敏; 杨胜远; 周利娟; 姚正颖; 吕凤霞; 邹晓葵; 陆兆新

    2009-01-01

    以唾液链球茵嗜热亚种(Streptococcus salivarius subsp.thermophilus Y-2)为供试菌株,考察了卡拉胶、明胶和海藻酸钙等材料将此菌株固定化的效果,并通过比较固定化细胞的谷氨酸脱羧酶(glutamatedecarboxylase,GAD)活性及γ-氨基丁酸的产量和载体机械强度,确定了海藻酸钙作为固定化细胞的适宜载体.优化后得到的最适固定化条件(W/V)为:海藻酸钠2%,CaCl_2 14%,茵体25%,凝胶平均颗粒直径1.64 mm,在此条件下测得固定化细胞的GAD活性为游离细胞的1.2倍.细胞多批次应用稳定性试验证明:固定化细胞较游离细胞有着更稳定的GAD活性,反复使用60 h后,固定化细胞GAD活性仍能保持其初始活性的90%以上,γ-氨基丁酸的积累量达到7.97 g/L.

  9. Effects of Steeping and Germination Conditions on γ-Aminobutyric Acid Synthesis in Lentil Seeds%浸泡条件和萌芽条件对小扁豆中γ-氨基丁酸合成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢海玉; 庞中存; 黄玉龙

    2013-01-01

    以小扁豆为原料,利用浸泡和萌芽富集γ-氨基丁酸.通过单因素和正交试验研究浸泡时间和温度、萌芽时间和温度对小扁豆中γ-氨基丁酸合成的影响,从而确定最佳工艺条件.结果表明:在浸泡时间2.5h、浸泡温度36℃、萌芽时间5h及萌芽温度24℃的条件下,小扁豆中γ-氨基丁酸含量为380.503mg/100g干基,是未处理小扁豆中γ-氨基丁酸含量的1.9倍.

  10. γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)——一种新型的功能食品因子%Gamma-aminobutyric acid-a novel functional factor for nutraceuticals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许建军; 江波; 许时婴

    2003-01-01

    GABA(γ-氨基丁酸)是一种天然存在的功能性氨基酸,研究表明,它具有降低血压、改善脑功能、增强长期记忆及提高肝、肾机能等生理活性.本文概述了GABA的分布和制备方法,同时对GABA在降压、健脑等功能性食品中的应用及发展前景也作了讨论.

  11. γ-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor regulates ERK1/2 phosphorylation in rat hippocampus in high doses of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE)-induced impairment of spatial memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental and occupational exposure to Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) has been reported to induce neurotoxicological and neurobehavioral effects, such as headache, nausea, dizziness, and disorientation, etc. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in MTBE-induced neurotoxicity are still not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of MTBE on spatial memory and the expression and function of GABAA receptor in the hippocampus. Our results demonstrated that intraventricular injection of MTBE impaired the performance of the rats in a Morris water maze task, and significantly increased the expression of GABAA receptor α1 subunit in the hippocampus. The phosphorylation of ERK1/2 decreased after the MTBE injection. Furthermore, the decreased ability of learning and the reduction of phosphorylated ERK1/2 level of the MTBE-treated rats was partly reversed by bicuculline injected 30 min before the training. These results suggested that MTBE exposure could result in impaired spatial memory. GABAA receptor may play an important role in the MTBE-induced impairment of learning and memory by regulating the phosphorylation of ERK in the hippocampus.

  12. The effect of heart-and kidney-Benefiting Chinese Herbal Medicine on the function of cholinergic M-and Gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA) receptor in brain tissues of analogue dementia rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3H-QNB and 3H-GABA were used as radioactive ligand for M-and GABA receptors respectively. M-and GABA receptors were assayed by radioligand binding assay (RBA) in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of analogue dementia rats. It was found that Rt of M receptor was decreased in cerebral cortex and hippocampus and Rt of GABA receptor was decreased in cerebellum of analogue dementia rats. The dissociation constant (KD) of M-receptor was decreased significantly in cerebral cortex and KD value of (GABA) receptor was decreased in cerebellum of analogue dementia rats. The decreased Rt of M-and GABA receptor in brain tissue of analogue dementia rats was raised by Heart- and Kidney-Benefiting Chinese Herbs as well as hydergin

  13. [Gastric Acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz Chávez, R

    1996-01-01

    Gastric acid, a product of parietal cells secretion, full fills multiple biological roles which are absolutely necessary to keep corporal homeostasis. The production of the acid depends upon an effector cellular process represented in the first step by histamine, acetilcholine and gastrin, first messengers of the process. These interact with specific receptors than in sequence activate second messengers -cAMP and the calcium-calmodulin system- which afterwards activate a kinase. An specific protein is then phosphorilated by this enzyme, being the crucial factor that starts the production of acid. Finally, a proton bomb, extrudes the acid towards the gastric lumen. The secretion process mentioned above, is progressive lyactivated in three steps, two of which are stimulators -cephalic and gastric phases- and the other one inhibitor or intestinal phase. These stages are started by mental and neurological phenomena -thought, sight, smell or memory-; by food, drugs or other ingested substances; and by products of digestion. Changes in regulation of acid secretion, in the structure of gastro-duodenal mucosal barrier by a wide spectrum of factors and agents including food, drugs and H. pylori, are the basis of acid-peptic disease, entity in which gastric acid plays a fundamental role. From the therapeutic point of view, so at the theoretical as at the practical levels, t is possible to interfere with the secretion of acid by neutralization of some of the steps of the effector cellular process. An adequate knowledge of the basics related to gastric acid, allows to create strategies for the clinical handling of associated pathology, specifically in relation to peptic acid disease in all of the known clinical forms. PMID:12165790

  14. Neuroprotective Effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla in Kainic Acid-Induced Epileptic Seizures by Modulating Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Sprouting, Neuron Survival, Astrocyte Proliferation, and S100B Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsiang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR, which is a traditional Chinese medicine, has anticonvulsive effect in our previous studies, and the cellular mechanisms behind this are still little known. Because of this, we wanted to determine the importance of the role of UR on kainic acid- (KA- induced epilepsy. Oral UR for 6 weeks can successfully attenuate the onset of epileptic seizure in animal tests. Hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting dramatically decreased, while neuronal survival increased with UR treatment in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 areas. Furthermore, oral UR for 6 weeks significantly attenuated the overexpression of astrocyte proliferation and S100B proteins but not γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA receptors. These results indicate that oral UR for 6 weeks can successfully attenuate mossy fiber sprouting, astrocyte proliferation, and S100B protein overexpression and increase neuronal survival in KA-induced epileptic rat hippocampus

  15. Folic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include leafy vegetables (such as spinach, broccoli, and lettuce), okra, asparagus, fruits (such as bananas, melons, and ... Pyrimethamine (Daraprim)Pyrimethamine (Daraprim) is used to treat parasite infections. Folic acid might decrease the effectiveness of ...

  16. Folic Acid

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... March of Dimes Premature Birth Report Card Grades Cities, Counties; Focuses on Racial and Ethnic Disparities March ... your baby. Learn how you can get the right amout of folic acid before and during pregnancy ...

  17. ACID RAIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acid precipitation has become one of the major environmental problems of this decade. It is a challenge to scientists throughout the world. Researchers from such diverse disciplines as plant pathology, soil science, bacteriology, meteorology and engineering are investigating diff...

  18. Folic Acid

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Folic acid ... Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness ...

  19. Folic Acid

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Folic acid Description | Related videos | Most played video E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your ...

  20. Primordial Synthesis of Amines and Amino Acids in a 1958 Miller H2S-Rich Spark Discharge Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Eric T.; Cleaves, Henderson J.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Callahan, Michael; Aubrey, Andrew; Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    Archived samples from a previously unreported 1958 Stanley Miller electric discharge experiment containing hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were recently discovered and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We report here the detection and quantification of primary amine-containing compounds in the original sample residues, which were produced via spark discharge using a gaseous mixture of H2S, CH4, NH3, and CO2. A total of 23 amino acids and 4 amines, including 7 organosulfur compounds, were detected in these samples. The major amino acids with chiral centers are racemic within the accuracy of the measurements, indicating that they are not contaminants introduced during sample storage. This experiment marks the first synthesis of sulfur amino acids from spark discharge experiments designed to imitate primordia! environments. The relative yield of some amino acids, in particular the isomers of aminobutyric acid, are the highest ever found in a spark discharge experiment. The simulated primordial conditions used by Miller may serve as a model for early volcanic plume chemistry and provide insight to the possible roles such plumes may have played in abiotic organic synthesis. Additionally, the overall abundances of the synthesized amino acids in the presence of H2S are very similar to the abundances found in some carbonaceous meteorites, suggesting that H2S may have played an important role in prebiotic reactions in early solar system environments.

  1. Lysine and pipecolic acid and some of their derivatives show anticonvulsant activity, and stimulation of benzodiazepine receptor activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzodiazepines are one of the most widely prescribed drugs in the treatment of anxiety, epilepsy and muscle tension. The natural products lysine and pipecolic acid known to be present in the animal, plant and microorganism, have been shown to be anticonvulsant against pentetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures in mice. Methyl and ethyl esters of L-lysine and the N-isopropanol derivative of pipecolic acid appear to increase the anticonvulsant potency of the parent compounds, presumably due to their increase in hydrophobicity. Lysine and pipecolic acid showed significant stimulation of specific [3H]flunitrazepam (FZ) binding to mouse brain membranes. This stimulation was enhanced by chloride ions and stereospecific with L-isomer having higher effect. The dose-dependent anticonvulsant activity of lysine and pipecolic acid, and their stimulation of [3H]FZ binding appear to be correlated. The antiepileptic activity lysine, pipecolic acid and their derivatives therefore may be mediated through the γ-aminobutyric acid-benzodiazepine receptor complex

  2. Okadaic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Severinsen, Mai C K

    2014-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) is a polyether fatty acid produced by marine dinoflagellates and the causative agent of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. The effect of OA on apical endocytosis in the small intestine was studied in organ cultured porcine mucosal explants. Within 0.5-1 h of culture, the toxin caused...... endosomes (TWEEs) occurred unimpeded in the presence of OA, FM condensed in larger subapical structures by 1 h, implying a perturbed endosomal trafficking/maturation. The fluorescent lysosomotropic agent Lysotracker revealed induction of large lysosomal structures by OA. Endocytosis from the brush border...

  3. Metabolic regulation of trisporic acid on Blakeslea trispora revealed by a GC-MS-based metabolomic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Sun

    Full Text Available The zygomycete Blakeslea trispora is used commercially as natural source of â-carotene. Trisporic acid (TA is secreted from the mycelium of B. trispora during mating between heterothallic strains and is considered as a mediator of the regulation of mating processes and an enhancer of carotene biosynthesis. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate analysis were employed to investigate TA-associated intracellular biochemical changes in B. trispora. By principal component analysis, the differential metabolites discriminating the control groups from the TA-treated groups were found, which were also confirmed by the subsequent hierarchical cluster analysis. The results indicate that TA is a global regulator and its main effects at the metabolic level are reflected on the content changes in several fatty acids, carbohydrates, and amino acids. The carbon metabolism and fatty acids synthesis are sensitive to TA addition. Glycerol, glutamine, and ã-aminobutyrate might play important roles in the regulation of TA. Complemented by two-dimensional electrophoresis, the results indicate that the actions of TA at the metabolic level involve multiple metabolic processes, such as glycolysis and the bypass of the classical tricarboxylic acid cycle. These results reveal that the metabolomics strategy is a powerful tool to gain insight into the mechanism of a microorganism's cellular response to signal inducers at the metabolic level.

  4. Perfluorooctanoic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. de Voogt

    2014-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 335-67-1) is used in fluoropolymer production and firefighting foams and persists in the environment. Human exposure to PFOA is mostly through the diet. PFOA primarily affects the liver and can cause developmental and reproductive toxic effects in test animals.

  5. Ascorbic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevi-Bid® ... If you become pregnant while taking ascorbic acid, call your doctor. ... In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call ...

  6. Stearic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) is presented for the chemical, stearic acid. The profile lists the chemical's physical and harmful characteristics, exposure limits, and symptoms of major exposure, for the benefit of teachers and students, who use the chemical in the laboratory.

  7. Mefenamic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefenamic acid comes as a capsule to take by mouth. It is usually taken with food every 6 hours as needed for up to 1 week. Follow ... pain vomit that is bloody or looks like coffee grounds black, tarry, or bloody stools slowed breathing ...

  8. Depolarization-induced release of amino acids from the vestibular nuclear complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Donald A; Sun, Yizhe; Frisch, Christopher; Godfrey, Matthew A; Rubin, Allan M

    2012-04-01

    There is evidence from immunohistochemistry, quantitative microchemistry, and pharmacology for several amino acids as neurotransmitters in the vestibular nuclear complex (VNC), including glutamate, γ-aminobutyrate (GABA), and glycine. However, evidence from measurements of release has been limited. The purpose of this study was to measure depolarization-stimulated calcium-dependent release of amino acids from the VNC in brain slices. Coronal slices containing predominantly the VNC were prepared from rats and perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) in an interface chamber. Fluid was collected from the chamber just downstream from the VNC using a microsiphon. Depolarization was induced by 50 mM potassium in either control calcium and magnesium concentrations or reduced calcium and elevated magnesium. Amino acid concentrations in effluent fluid were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Glutamate release increased fivefold during depolarization in control calcium concentration and twofold in low calcium/high magnesium. These same ratios were 6 and 1.5 for GABA, 2 and 1.3 for glycine, and 2 and 1.5 for aspartate. Differences between release in control and low calcium/high magnesium ACSF were statistically significant for glutamate, GABA, and glycine. Glutamine release decreased during and after depolarization, and taurine release slowly increased. No evidence for calcium-dependent release was found for serine, glutamine, alanine, threonine, arginine, taurine, or tyrosine. Our results support glutamate and GABA as major neurotransmitters in the VNC. They also support glycine as a neurotransmitter and some function for taurine. PMID:22147284

  9. A glutamic acid decarboxylase (CgGAD) highly expressed in hemocytes of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meijia; Wang, Lingling; Qiu, Limei; Wang, Weilin; Xin, Lusheng; Xu, Jiachao; Wang, Hao; Song, Linsheng

    2016-10-01

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), a rate-limiting enzyme to catalyze the reaction converting the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate to inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), not only functions in nervous system, but also plays important roles in immunomodulation in vertebrates. However, GAD has rarely been reported in invertebrates, and never in molluscs. In the present study, one GAD homologue (designed as CgGAD) was identified from Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The full length cDNA of CgGAD was 1689 bp encoding a polypeptide of 562 amino acids containing a conserved pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase domain. CgGAD mRNA and protein could be detected in ganglion and hemocytes of oysters, and their abundance in hemocytes was unexpectedly much higher than those in ganglion. More importantly, CgGAD was mostly located in those granulocytes without phagocytic capacity in oysters, and could dynamically respond to LPS stimulation. Further, after being transfected into HEK293 cells, CgGAD could promote the production of GABA. Collectively, these findings suggested that CgGAD, as a GABA synthase and molecular marker of GABAergic system, was mainly distributed in hemocytes and ganglion and involved in neuroendocrine-immune regulation network in oysters, which also provided a novel insight to the co-evolution between nervous system and immune system. PMID:27208883

  10. The role of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies in mood disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Liguori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA possibly plays a causative role in mood disorders. This hypothesis originated with studies on the beneficial effect of valproate in mania and as a mood stabilizer. Since valproate is known for its action in increasing the level of GABA, it was indirectly suggested that decreasing levels of GABA were responsible for mood alterations. To identify factors causing the decreased levels of GABA, studies have concentrated on the activity of the enzyme L-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD, which catalyzes the transformation of glutamate to GABA, as a decreasing function of this enzyme induces lower levels of the neurotransmitter. Moreover, a very limited amount of research investigated the possible role of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA in determining a decreased enzymatic function of GAD. If these findings are confirmed, it will be possible to improve diagnosis and treatment of mood disorders. In addition, if the presence of GADA is associated with a genetic trait, this would allow and facilitate early diagnoses.

  11. Inhibitory and excitatory amino acids in the cerebrospinal fluid of children with two types of cerebral palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haibin Yuan; Li Wang; Fei Yin; Li Li; Jing Peng

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Under normal conditions, excitatory amino acids are dynamically balanced with inhibitory amino acids. Excitatory amino acids have been implicated in perinatal brain injury. OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences in the levels of the excitatory amino acids glutamic acid and aspartic acid, and the inhibitory amino acid gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of children with spastic cerebral palsy or athetotic cerebral palsy. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Case-control exploratory observation of neurotransmitter in patients. The experiment was performed in the Pediatrics Department of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Changsba Medical College, the Cerebral Palsy Center of Xiangtan Affiliated Hospital of South China University and the Pediatrics Department of Xiangya Hospital, between February 2006 and May 2007. PARTICIPANTS: We selected 27 children with cerebral palsy, including 13 with spastic cerebral palsy and 14 with athetotic cerebral palsy. We selected 10 patients who were not affected by any neurological disease as controls. METHODS: Two mL blood-free CSF was harvested between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae of each patient after anesthesia, and stored at 70℃. One mL CSF was mixed with 10 mg sulfosalicylic acid and placed in ice-bath for 10 minutes, then centrifuged 2 000 g for 10 minutes. The supernatant was collected for amino acid quantitation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The concentrations of glutamic acid, aspartic acid and GABA in the CSF were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorometric method. The correlation of glutamie acid, aspartic acid and GABA levels with muscular tension in children with cerebral palsy was analyzed using linear dependence. RESULTS: The concentration of GABA was significantly lower in both spastic cerebral palsy and athetotic cerebral palsy patients than in the control group (P 0.05). CONCLUSION: Spastic cerebral palsy and athetotic cerebral palsy patients exhibit an

  12. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  13. Anticonvulsant action of gamma-irradiated diazepam with correlation to certain brain amino acids and electrocorticogram activity in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of sterilization by gamma irradiation (215 KGy) of diazepam on is anticonvulsant action, on norma and depleted cerebral gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), on glutamic acid, as well as electrocorticogram activity (ECOG) was determined in the experimental animals. For the evaluation of the anticonvulsant action of either diazepam (D) or irradiated diazepam (ID), pentyl ene tetrazole seizure test, was used and the protective dose 50 (PD50) was determined in adult male mice. GABA, the main central inhibitory transmitter which is implicated in the mechanism of the anticonvulsant action of D and its precursor glutamic acid, were electrophoretically separated and spectrophotometrical evaluated. Moreover, brain electrical activity was recorded using an electroencephalograph apparatus. Although the PD50 of ID as well the effect on normal brain cerebral GABA and glutamic acids did not differ significantly from that of D, yet there was certain variabilities. Thus, the effect of D was about 4 times more potent than the ID on elevating depleted cerebral GABA. Also, electrocorticogram records demonstrated that D produced a slight inhibition while ID induced a decrease in B rhythm with remarkable in the amplitude of ECOG waves. The same pattern of effects were obtained when D or ID were used in combination with INH (250 mg kg-1). 1 tab. 1 fig

  14. Molecular aggregation in crystalline 1:1 complexes of hydrophobic D- and L-amino acids. I. The L-isoleucine series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalhus; Görbitz

    1999-06-01

    The amino acid L-isoleucine has been cocrystallized with seven selected D-amino acids including D-methionine [L-isoleucine-D-methionine (1/1), C(6)H(13)NO(2).C(5)H(11)NO(2)S, amino-acid side chain R = -CH(2)-CH(2)-S-CH(3)] and a homologous series from D-alanine [L-isoleucine-D-alanine (1/1), C(6)H(13)NO(2).C(3)H(7)NO(2), R = -CH(3)] through D-alpha-aminobutyric acid [L-isoleucine-D-alpha-aminobutyric acid (1/1), C(6)H(13)NO(2).C(4)H(9)NO(2), R = -CH(2)-CH(3)] and D-norvaline [L-isoleucine-D-norvaline (1/1), C(6)H(13)NO(2).C(5)H(11)NO(2), R = -CH(2)-CH(2)-CH(3)] to D-norleucine [L-isoleucine-D-norleucine (1/1), C(6)H(13)NO(2).C(6)H(13)NO(2), R = -CH(2)-CH(2)-CH(2)-CH(3)] with linear side chains, and D-valine [L-isoleucine-D-valine (1/1), C(6)H(13)NO(2).C(5)H(11)NO(2), R = -CH-(CH(3))(2)] and D-leucine [L-isoleucine-D-leucine (1/1), C(6)H(13)NO(2).C(6)H(13)NO(2), R = -CH(2)-CH-(CH(3))(2)] with branched side chains. All the crystal structures are divided into distinct hydrophilic and hydrophobic layers. In the five complexes with amino acids with linear side chains the polar parts of the D- and L-amino acids are related by pseudo-glide-plane symmetry, and four of them have remarkably similar molecular arrangements. The D-valine and D-leucine complexes, on the other hand, are structurally quite different with the polar parts of the D- and L-amino acids related by pseudo-inversion. Differences in the hydrogen-bond pattern in the two molecular arrangements are discussed. PMID:10927385

  15. Effects of amino acids and vitamins on the ultrastructure of the hypothalamus and neurotransmitter in exhausted rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-wei CHEN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the effects of amino acids and vitamins on the ultrastructure of the hypothalamus and neurotransmitter in exhausted rats. Methods  After adaptive swimming, 36 male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups, namely, capsule, control, and granules, with 12 rats in each group. Rats in 3 groups were given respectively amino acids capsule (8 kinds of essential amino acids and 11 kinds of vitamins were contained, normal drinking water, or amino acid-fructose beverage (2.5ml/100g, 2 times per day by gavage for 14 days. Exhaustion of rats was produced by non-loading swimming. The duration of the experiment lasted 14 days. After the last exhaustive swimming, the hypothalamus of the rats was removed for the observation of its ultrastructure under electron microscope. The contents of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5HIAA, hydroxyphenyl acetic acid (HOPAC, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA in the hypothalamus were measured with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-ECD. Results  The mitochondrial structure in the brain cells of the capsule and granules groups were basically intact. On the other hand, the cells in the control group swelled and degenerated. Different degrees of swelling could be seen in the mitochondria. In addition, obvious morphological changes of the ultrastructure were observed under electron microscopy. Dissolution and rupture of the mitochondrial membrane and cristae were noted, even with the whole mitochondria disrupted and vacuolated. The contents of 5-HT, 5-HTAA, HOPAC, and GABA in the hypothalamus of rats in the capsule and the granules groups were significantly lower than those in the control group (PConclusion  Amino acids and vitamins compound can increase the resistance of the nerve center to fatigue by alleviating pathological changes of ultrastructure and changes in neurotransmitter levels of the hypothalamus.

  16. Development of Better Analogs of Valproic Acid for the Treatment of Epilepsy by CADD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Mahto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the major neurological disorders occurring due to the abnormal functioning of the various receptors and enzymes in the central nervous system. Many potentials drugs were developed in recent times which act on ion channels like sodium (Na+, calcium (Ca2+, chloride (Cl-, and receptors like GABA receptor and enzymes like GABA transaminase. Some drugs act as enzyme, ion channel inhibitors or blockers, and some drugs as receptor agonist like barbiturates, benzodiazepines acting on GABA receptors. In the present study performed computational techniques in order to develop better inhibitors for the enzyme GABA transaminase by modifying the terminal ‘methyl’ group of the Valproic acid structure with electrophilic, nucleophile and neutral pharmacophoric features. Molecular mechanics studies has been carried out for the analogs and protein – ligand interactions of these analogs was identified through docking studies using GOLD 4.1 software against the enzyme 4-aminobutyrate-aminotransferase(GABA transaminase. From the docking studies we found that replacement of methyl with amine, hydrogen and hydroxyl groups (hydrophilic groups, are showing better fitness than that of the valproic acid.

  17. Biogenic amines, amino acids and regional blood flow in rat brain after prenatal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damage to nerve cells after prenatal irradiation could affect their later ability to function normally. The concentration of several biogenic amines and amino acids was therefore determined at different times after prenatal irradiation with 0.95 Gy on day 10, 12 or 15 of pregnancy. The offspring was sacrified 0.5, 1, 3 and 6 months after birth and the following structures were dissected: Cortex, hippocampus, striatum, thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebellum and medulla. Biogenic amines isolated by HPLC and detected electrochemically were: Dopamine, DOPA, DOPAC, epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin and hydroxyindolacetate. Amino acids converted to their dansyl derivatives and separated by HPLC were: Aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, gamma aminobutyrate and taurine. Many neurotransmitters were found increased in brain after prenatal irradiation, particularly on day 12 and 15 p.c. Marked changes were found for serotonin in several brain structures and for dopamin in striatum. An increase was also found in glutamate, glutamine and GABA. Studies on regional blood flow using injection of labelled 15 μ microspheres did not reveal significant alterations after prenatal irradiation. (orig.)

  18. Understanding Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  19. Dehydroabietic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ping Rao

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound [systematic name: (1R,4aS,10aR-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylic acid], C20H28O2, has been isolated from disproportionated rosin which is obtained by isomerizing gum rosin with a Pd-C catalyst.. Two crystallographically independent molecules exist in the asymmetric unit. In each molecule, there are three six-membered rings, which adopt planar, half-chair and chair conformations. The two cyclohexane rings form a trans ring junction with the two methyl groups in axial positions. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  20. Recombinant polycistronic structure of hydantoinase process genes in Escherichia coli for the production of optically pure D-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Gómez, Ana Isabel; Martínez-Rodríguez, Sergio; Clemente-Jiménez, Josefa María; Pozo-Dengra, Joaquín; Rodríguez-Vico, Felipe; Las Heras-Vázquez, Francisco Javier

    2007-03-01

    Two recombinant reaction systems for the production of optically pure D-amino acids from different D,L-5-monosubstituted hydantoins were constructed. Each system contained three enzymes, two of which were D-hydantoinase and D-carbamoylase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens BQL9. The third enzyme was hydantoin racemase 1 for the first system and hydantoin racemase 2 for the second system, both from A. tumefaciens C58. Each system was formed by using a recombinant Escherichia coli strain with one plasmid harboring three genes coexpressed with one promoter in a polycistronic structure. The D-carbamoylase gene was cloned closest to the promoter in order to obtain the highest level of synthesis of the enzyme, thus avoiding intermediate accumulation, which decreases the reaction rate. Both systems were able to produce 100% conversion and 100% optically pure D-methionine, D-leucine, D-norleucine, D-norvaline, D-aminobutyric acid, D-valine, D-phenylalanine, D-tyrosine, and D-tryptophan from the corresponding hydantoin racemic mixture. For the production of almost all D-amino acids studied in this work, system 1 hydrolyzed the 5-monosubstituted hydantoins faster than system 2. PMID:17220246

  1. Retarded acid emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, C.R.; Rixe, F.H.; Duffield, E.L. Jr.

    1972-08-01

    Compositions for use in acidizing hydrocarbon-bearing formations are described. Retarded acid emulsions of prolonged stability make it possible for the acid in this form to be displaced substantial distances out into the formation before becoming spent. The action of acid emulsions for use in acidizing hydrocarbon-bearing formations is prolonged by employing as the principal emulsifying agent an amine salt of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid. Acid emulsions employing the amine salt of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid exhibit greater stability than those employing the free acid. (8 claims)

  2. Plasma amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  3. Acid Lipase Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease, ... Related NINDS Publications and Information What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease or deficiency occurs when ...

  4. POLYELEOSTEARIC ACID VESICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zichen; XIE Ximng; FAN Qinghua; FANG Yifei

    1992-01-01

    α-Eleostearic acid and β-eleostearic acid formed vesicles in aqueous medium when an ethanol solutionofeleostearic acid was injected rapidly into a vigorously vortexed aqueous phase. Formation of the vesicles was demonstrated by electron microscopic observation and bromothymol blue encapsulation experiments. Polymerizations of the eleostearic acids in the formed vesicles carried out by UV irradiation produced poly-α-eleostearic acid and poly-β-eleostearic acid vesicles.

  5. Selection of Taste Markers Related to Lactic Acid Bacteria Microflora Metabolism for Chinese Traditional Paocai: A Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nan; Zhang, Chuchu; Yang, Qin; Guo, Zhuang; Yang, Bo; Lu, Wenwei; Li, Dongyao; Tian, Fengwei; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2016-03-23

    Traditional paocai brine (PB) is continuously propagated by back-slopping and contains numerous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains. Although PB is important for the quality of paocai (Chinese sauerkraut), the taste features, taste-related compounds of PB-paocai and the effects of LAB communities from PB on the taste compounds remain unclear. An electronic tongue was used to evaluate the taste features of 13 PB-paocai samples. Umami, saltiness, bitterness, sweetness, and aftertaste astringency were the main taste features of PB-paocai. A total of 14 compounds were identified as discriminant taste markers for PB-paocai via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based multimarker profiling. A LAB co-culture (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus buchneri, and Pediococcus ethanoliduran) from PB could significantly increase glutamic acid (umami), sucrose (sweetness), glycine (sweetness), lactic acid (sourness), and γ-aminobutyric acid in PB-paocai, which would endow it with important flavor features. Such features could then facilitate starter screening and fermentation optimization to produce paocai-related foods with better nutritional and sensory qualities. PMID:26915389

  6. Molecular aggregation in selected crystalline 1:1 complexes of hydrophobic D- and L-amino acids. IV. The L-phenylalanine series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görbitz, Carl Henrik; Rissanen, Kari; Valkonen, Arto; Husabø, Asmund

    2009-06-01

    The amino acid L-phenylalanine has been cocrystallized with D-2-aminobutyric acid, C(9)H(11)NO(2).C(4)H(9)NO(2), D-norvaline, C(9)H(11)NO(2).C(5)H(11)NO(2), and D-methionine, C(9)H(11)NO(2).C(5)H(11)NO(2)S, with linear side chains, as well as with D-leucine, C(9)H(11)NO(2).C(6)H(13)NO(2), D-isoleucine, C(9)H(11)NO(2).C(6)H(13)NO(2), and D-allo-isoleucine, C(9)H(11)NO(2).C(6)H(13)NO(2), with branched side chains. The structures of these 1:1 complexes fall into two classes based on the observed hydrogen-bonding pattern. From a comparison with other L:D complexes involving hydrophobic amino acids and regular racemates, it is shown that the structure-directing properties of phenylalanine closely parallel those of valine and isoleucine but not those of leucine, which shares side-chain branching at C(gamma) with phenylalanine and is normally considered to be the most closely related non-aromatic amino acid. PMID:19498234

  7. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Chiba (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  8. Expression of Mitochondrial Branched-Chain Aminotransferase and α-Keto-Acid Dehydrogenase in Rat Brain: Implications for Neurotransmitter Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Thomas Cole

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the brain, metabolism of the essential branched chain amino acids (BCAAs leucine, isoleucine and valine, is regulated in part by protein synthesis requirements. Excess BCAAs are catabolized or excreted. The first step in BCAA catabolism is catalyzed by the branched chain aminotransferase (BCAT isozymes, mitochondrial BCATm and cytosolic BCATc. A product of this reaction, glutamate, is the major excitatory neurotransmitter and precursor of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter -aminobutyric acid (GABA. The BCATs are thought to participate in an α-keto-acid nitrogen shuttle that provides nitrogen for synthesis of glutamate from -ketoglutarate. The branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex (BCKDC catalyzes the second and first irreversible step in BCAA metabolism, which is oxidative decarboxylation of the branched-chain α-keto acid (BCKA products of the BCAT reaction. Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD results from genetic defects in BCKDC, which leads to accumulation of toxic levels of BCAAs and BCKAs that result in brain swelling. Immunolocalization of BCATm and BCKDC in rats revealed that BCATm is present in astrocytes in white matter and in neuropil, while BCKDC is expressed only in neurons. BCATm appears uniformly distributed in astrocyte cell bodies throughout the brain. The segregation of BCATm to astrocytes and BCKDC to neurons provides further support for the existence of a BCAA-dependent glial-neuronal nitrogen shuttle since the data show that BCKAs produced by glial BCATm must be exported to neurons. Additionally, the neuronal localization of BCKDC suggests that MSUD is a neuronal defect involving insufficient oxidation of BCKAs, with secondary effects extending beyond the neuron.

  9. Preparation and properties of BSA-loaded microspheres based on multi-(amino acid copolymer for protein delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen X

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Xingtao Chen,1 Guoyue Lv,1 Jue Zhang,2 Songchao Tang,2 Yonggang Yan,1 Zhaoying Wu,2 Jiacan Su,2 Jie Wei2 1College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 2Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: A multi-(amino acid copolymer (MAC based on ω-aminocaproic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid, L-alanine, L-lysine, L-glutamate, and hydroxyproline was synthetized, and MAC microspheres encapsulating bovine serum albumin (BSA were prepared by a double-emulsion solvent extraction method. The experimental results show that various preparation parameters including surfactant ratio of Tween 80 to Span 80, surfactant concentration, benzyl alcohol in the external water phase, and polymer concentration had obvious effects on the particle size, morphology, and encapsulation efficiency of the BSA-loaded microspheres. The sizes of BSA-loaded microspheres ranged from 60.2 µm to 79.7 µm, showing different degrees of porous structure. The encapsulation efficiency of BSA-loaded microspheres also ranged from 38.8% to 50.8%. BSA release from microspheres showed the classic biphasic profile, which was governed by diffusion and polymer erosion. The initial burst release of BSA from microspheres at the first week followed by constant slow release for the next 7 weeks were observed. BSA-loaded microspheres could degrade gradually in phosphate buffered saline buffer with pH value maintained at around 7.1 during 8 weeks incubation, suggesting that microsphere degradation did not cause a dramatic pH drop in phosphate buffered saline buffer because no acidic degradation products were released from the microspheres. Therefore, the MAC microspheres might have great potential as carriers for protein delivery. Keywords: poly (amino acid copolymer, release, degradation

  10. Enantiomeric excesses induced in amino acids by ultraviolet circularly polarized light irradiation of extraterrestrial ice analogs: A possible source of asymmetry for prebiotic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of meteoritic amino acids with enantiomeric excesses of the L-form (ee L) has suggested that extraterrestrial organic materials may have contributed to prebiotic chemistry and directed the initial occurrence of the ee L that further led to homochirality of amino acids on Earth. A proposed mechanism for the origin of ee L in meteorites involves an asymmetric photochemistry of extraterrestrial ices by UV circularly polarized light (CPL). We have performed the asymmetric synthesis of amino acids on achiral extraterrestrial ice analogs by VUV CPL, investigating the chiral asymmetry transfer at two different evolutionary stages at which the analogs were irradiated (regular ices and/or organic residues) and at two different photon energies (6.6 and 10.2 eV). We identify 16 distinct amino acids and precisely measure the L-enantiomeric excesses using the enantioselective GC × GC-TOFMS technique in five of them: α-alanine, 2,3-diaminopropionic acid, 2-aminobutyric acid, valine, and norvaline, with values ranging from ee L = –0.20% ± 0.14% to ee L = –2.54% ± 0.28%. The sign of the induced ee L depends on the helicity and the energy of CPL, but not on the evolutionary stage of the samples, and is the same for all five considered amino acids. Our results support an astrophysical scenario in which the solar system was formed in a high-mass star-forming region where icy grains were irradiated during the protoplanetary phase by an external source of CPL of a given helicity and a dominant energy, inducing a stereo-specific photochemistry.

  11. Enantiomeric excesses induced in amino acids by ultraviolet circularly polarized light irradiation of extraterrestrial ice analogs: A possible source of asymmetry for prebiotic chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modica, Paola; De Marcellus, Pierre; D' Hendecourt, Louis Le Sergeant [Univ. Paris-Sud, Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, UMR 8617, F-91405 Orsay (France); Meinert, Cornelia; Meierhenrich, Uwe J. [Univ. Nice Sophia Antipolis, Institut de Chimie de Nice, UMR 7272 CNRS, F-06108 Nice (France); Nahon, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.nahon@synchrotron-soleil.fr, E-mail: ldh@ias.u-psud.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2014-06-10

    The discovery of meteoritic amino acids with enantiomeric excesses of the L-form (ee {sub L}) has suggested that extraterrestrial organic materials may have contributed to prebiotic chemistry and directed the initial occurrence of the ee {sub L} that further led to homochirality of amino acids on Earth. A proposed mechanism for the origin of ee {sub L} in meteorites involves an asymmetric photochemistry of extraterrestrial ices by UV circularly polarized light (CPL). We have performed the asymmetric synthesis of amino acids on achiral extraterrestrial ice analogs by VUV CPL, investigating the chiral asymmetry transfer at two different evolutionary stages at which the analogs were irradiated (regular ices and/or organic residues) and at two different photon energies (6.6 and 10.2 eV). We identify 16 distinct amino acids and precisely measure the L-enantiomeric excesses using the enantioselective GC × GC-TOFMS technique in five of them: α-alanine, 2,3-diaminopropionic acid, 2-aminobutyric acid, valine, and norvaline, with values ranging from ee {sub L} = –0.20% ± 0.14% to ee {sub L} = –2.54% ± 0.28%. The sign of the induced ee {sub L} depends on the helicity and the energy of CPL, but not on the evolutionary stage of the samples, and is the same for all five considered amino acids. Our results support an astrophysical scenario in which the solar system was formed in a high-mass star-forming region where icy grains were irradiated during the protoplanetary phase by an external source of CPL of a given helicity and a dominant energy, inducing a stereo-specific photochemistry.

  12. A sensitive and practical RP-HPLC-FLD for determination of the low neuroactive amino acid levels in body fluids and its application in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan-Li; Yu, Si-Yang; Wu, Shi-Hua; Bao, Ai-Min

    2016-03-11

    Ion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) generally fails as a method to determine low levels of free amino acids (AAs) in body fluids. Here we present a modified reversed-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) protocol for the determination of AAs in body fluids and its application in mood disorder patients. We improved a previous research protocol by modifying i) sample preparation, including deproteination, ii) derivitization, including derivating agent and condition, and iii) sample separation, which is mainly determined by the pH value, the components and the additives of the mobile phases. The combination of these modifications, together with fluorescence detection (FLD), allows sensitive and practical determination of free AA levels in body fluids of depressive patients. This protocol was validated by determining the postmortem cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glutamic acid (Glu) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels of 8 major depressive disorder (MDD) patients, 9 bipolar disorder (BD) patients, and 19 well-matched controls, while also testing the plasma and CSF AA levels of living MDD patients. CSF Glu and GABA levels were both significantly decreased in MDD but not in BD patients. The data indicate that this RP-HPLC-FLD protocol is applicable for detection of low levels of neuroactive AAs in body fluids, as well as for routine clinical applications. PMID:26808642

  13. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  14. Acid Deposition Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H2SO4) and nitric acids (HNO3), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry

  15. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other ... ACIDS are as follows:Improving mental development or growth in infants. Adding arachidonic acid (an omega-6 ...

  16. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... experience a reaction during the first few days after you receive a dose of zoledronic acid injection. Symptoms ... symptoms may begin during the first 3 days after you receive a dose of zoledronic acid injection and ...

  17. Catalytic Synthesis Lactobionic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Borodina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles are obtained, characterized and deposited on the carrier. Conducted catalytic synthesis of lactobionic acid from lactose. Received lactobionic acid identify on the IR spectrum.

  18. Plasma amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasma amino acids is a screening test done on infants that looks at the amounts of amino ... Laboratory error High or low amounts of individual plasma amino acids must be considered with other information. ...

  19. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount ... the blood in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications ...

  20. The Acid Rain Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  1. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  2. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  3. Influence of "alternative" C-terminal amino acids on the formation of [b3 + 17 + Cat]+ products from metal cationized synthetic tetrapeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbalagan, V; Silva, A T M; Rajagopalachary, S; Bulleigh, K; Talaty, E R; Van Stipdonk, M J

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dissociation patterns, and in particular the relative abundance of [b(3) + 17 + Cat](+), for peptides with C-termini designed to allow transfer of the -OH required to generate the product ion, but not necessarily as the most favored pathway. Working with the hypothesis that formation of a five-membered ring intermediate, including intramolecular nucleophilic attack by a carbonyl oxygen atom, is an important mechanistic step, several model peptides with general sequence AcFGGX were synthesized, metal cationized by electrospray ionization and subjected to collision-induced dissociation (CID). The amino acid at position X was one that either required a larger ring intermediate (beta-alanine, gamma-aminobutyric acid and epsilon-amino-n-caproic acid to generate six-, seven- or nine- membered rings, respectively) to transfer -OH, lacked a structural element required for nucleophilic attack (aminoethanol) or prohibited cyclization because of the inclusion of a rigid ring (p- and m-aminobenzoic acid). For Ag(+), Li(+) and Na(+) cationized peptides, our results show that amino acids requiring the adoption of larger ring intermediates suppressed the formation of [b(3) + 17 + Cat](+), while amino acids that prohibit cyclization eliminated the reaction pathway completely. Formation of [b(3) - 1 + Cat](+) from the alkali metal cationized versions was not a favorable process upon suppression or elimination of the [b(3) + 17 + Cat](+) pathway: the loss of H(2)O to form [M - H(2)O + Cat](+) was instead the dominant dissociation reaction observed. Multiple-stage dissociation experiments suggest that [M - H(2)O + Cat](+) is not [b(4) - 1 + Cat](+) arising from the loss of H(2)O from the C-terminus, but may instead be a species that forms via a mechanism involving the elimination of an oxygen atom from an amide group. PMID:15170745

  4. Concentration-effect relationships for the drug of abuse gamma-hydroxybutyric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felmlee, Melanie A; Roiko, Samuel A; Morse, Bridget L; Morris, Marilyn E

    2010-06-01

    gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an endogenous neurotransmitter that is abused because of its sedative/hypnotic and euphoric effects. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the concentration-effect relationships of GHB in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), brain (whole and discrete brain regions), and brain frontal cortex extracellular fluid. This information is crucial for future studies to evaluate effects of therapeutic interventions on the toxicodynamics of GHB. GHB (200-1000 mg/kg) was administered intravenously to rats, and plasma and frontal cortex microdialysate samples were collected for up to 6 h after the dose, or plasma, CSF, and brain (whole, frontal cortex, striatum, and hippocampus) concentrations were determined at the offset of its sedative/hypnotic effect [return to righting reflex (RRR)]. GHB-induced changes in the brain neurotransmitters gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate were also determined. GHB, GABA, and glutamate concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. GHB-induced sleep time significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner (20-fold increase from 200 to 1000 mg/kg). GHB concentrations in plasma (300-400 microg/ml), whole brain (70 microg/g), discrete brain regions (80-100 microg/g), and brain microdialysate (29-39 microg/ml) correlated with RRR. In contrast, CSF GHB and GABA and glutamate concentrations in discrete brain regions exhibited no relationship with RRR. Our results suggest that GHB-induced sedative/hypnotic effects are mediated directly by GHB and that at high GHB doses, GABA formation from GHB may not contribute to the observed sedative/hypnotic effect. These results support the use of a clinical GHB detoxification strategy aimed at decreasing plasma and brain GHB concentrations after GHB overdoses. PMID:20215411

  5. Concentration-Effect Relationships for the Drug of Abuse γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felmlee, Melanie A.; Roiko, Samuel A.; Morse, Bridget L.

    2010-01-01

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an endogenous neurotransmitter that is abused because of its sedative/hypnotic and euphoric effects. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the concentration-effect relationships of GHB in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), brain (whole and discrete brain regions), and brain frontal cortex extracellular fluid. This information is crucial for future studies to evaluate effects of therapeutic interventions on the toxicodynamics of GHB. GHB (200–1000 mg/kg) was administered intravenously to rats, and plasma and frontal cortex microdialysate samples were collected for up to 6 h after the dose, or plasma, CSF, and brain (whole, frontal cortex, striatum, and hippocampus) concentrations were determined at the offset of its sedative/hypnotic effect [return to righting reflex (RRR)]. GHB-induced changes in the brain neurotransmitters γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate were also determined. GHB, GABA, and glutamate concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. GHB-induced sleep time significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner (20-fold increase from 200 to 1000 mg/kg). GHB concentrations in plasma (300–400 μg/ml), whole brain (70 μg/g), discrete brain regions (80–100 μg/g), and brain microdialysate (29–39 μg/ml) correlated with RRR. In contrast, CSF GHB and GABA and glutamate concentrations in discrete brain regions exhibited no relationship with RRR. Our results suggest that GHB-induced sedative/hypnotic effects are mediated directly by GHB and that at high GHB doses, GABA formation from GHB may not contribute to the observed sedative/hypnotic effect. These results support the use of a clinical GHB detoxification strategy aimed at decreasing plasma and brain GHB concentrations after GHB overdoses. PMID:20215411

  6. Progress in the Synthesis and Application of Nipecotic Acid and Its Derivatives%3-哌啶甲酸及其衍生物的合成与应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李运波; 唐凤翔; 孟春; 郭养浩

    2009-01-01

    Nipecotic acid and its derivatives, which have high bioactivity, are significant pharmaceutical intermediates. In this review, the synthetic methods of nipecotic acid and its derivatives are summarized.The application of nipecotic acid and its derivatives to synthesizing drugs for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) uptake inhibition, cancer chemotherapy, growth hormone secretion, anti-inflammation, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, nootropics, anti-flu virus and bone disease is presented as well.%3-哌啶甲酸及其衍生物是重要的药物中间体,具有很高的生物活性.综述了3-哌啶甲酸及其羧基酯化、不饱和、不同位置取代与多取代衍生物的合成方法,并对3-哌啶甲酸及其衍生物在合成γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)摄入抑制剂、抗肿瘤药、生长激素促分泌素、消炎药物、心血管药物、促智药物、抗流感病毒、骨疾病等药物中的应用进行了概述.

  7. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor L. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2007-12-11

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  8. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Waunakee, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow; Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2010-11-09

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  9. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James L. (Madison, WI)

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  10. Nucleic acid detection assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  11. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  12. Acidizing carbonate reservoirs with chlorocarboxylic acid salt solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, E.A.; Scheuerman, R.F.; Templeton, C.C.

    1978-10-31

    A carbonate reservoir is acidized slowly by injecting an aqueous solution of a chlorocarboxylic acid salt so that the rate of the acidization is limited to the rate at which an acid is formed by the hydrolyzing of the chlorocarboxylate ions. The rate at which a chlorocarboxylic acid salt hydrolyzes to form an acid provides the desired rate of acid-release. A more complete acid-base reaction by chloroacetic acid, as compared to formic, acetic, and proprionic, is due to its being a much stronger acid. The pKa of chloroacetic acid is 2.86, whereas that of formic acid is 3.75, and that of acetic acid is 4.75. The pKa of a solution of a weak acid is the pH exhibited when the concentration of undissociated acid equals the concentration of the acid anion. 14 claims.

  13. Nucleic acid detection kits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  14. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition. PMID:27175515

  15. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  16. Effect of a peat humic acid on morphogenesis in leaf explants of Pyrus communis and Cydonia oblonga . Metabolomic analysis at an early stage of regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Grazia; Righi, Valeria; Simoni, Andrea; Schenetti, Luisa; Mucci, Adele; Tugnoli, Vitaliano; Muzzi, Enrico; Francioso, Ornella

    2013-05-29

    Plant regeneration is a critical step in most in vitro breeding techniques. This paper studies the effects of a low-molecular-weight humic acid (HA) on morphogenesis from pear and quince leaf explants. Variable HA amounts [0 (control), 1, 5, 10, and 20 mg C L(-1)] were added to the regeneration media. A dose-response effect was observed in pear for root and shoot production; it was improved at HA 1 mg C L(-1) and considerably reduced at the highest amounts. HA was, instead, ineffective in quince. The (1)H HR-MAS NMR analyses of calli in the induction phase showed more evident metabolite (asparagine, alanine, and γ-aminobutyric acid) signals in quince than in pear. The assignment of overlapped signals in both genotypes was supported by the 2D NMR analyses. Spectroscopic characterization suggested also an enhancement of asparagine contents in morphogenic calli of pear with respect to the control and higher HA amount treatments. PMID:23627499

  17. A study of fragmentation of protonated amides of some acylated amino acids by tandem mass spectrometry: observation of an unusual nitrilium ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaty, Erach R; Young, Sarah M; Dain, Ryan P; Van Stipdonk, Michael J

    2011-05-15

    A tandem mass spectrometric study of a series of secondary amides of acetylglycine and hippuric acid utilizing electrospray ionization (ESI) was conducted. Among the fragment ions observed was an unusual one, which we have determined to be a nitrilium ion having the structure CH3-C≡N⊕-Ph or Ph-C≡N⊕-Ph by loss of the full mass of glycine as a neutral fragment. A mechanism that we propose involves an initial protonation of the oxygen atom at the N-terminus, followed by cyclization to a five-membered imidazolium ring, and its subsequent collapse to the nitrilium ion. This mechanism is supported by extensive isotopic labels and considerable variation of substituents. A similar study of the amides of acyl β-alanine and acyl γ-aminobutyric acid revealed that the former furnishes the same nitrilium ion, but not the latter. Thus, a six-membered intermediate is also possible and capable of losing the full mass of β-alanine as a neutral fragment. When the size of the ring is forced to be seven-membered, this pathway is blocked. When this study was expanded to include a variety of N-acylproline amides, the nitrilium ion was observed in 100% abundance only when the acyl group was acetyl. Thus a proline effect (involvement of a strained bicyclic [3.3.0] structure) is being observed. PMID:21488111

  18. Role of a γ-aminobutryic acid (GABA) receptor mutation in the evolution and spread of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera resistance to cyclodiene insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Coates, B S; Chen, H; Sappington, T W; Guillemaud, T; Siegfried, B D

    2013-10-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, is a damaging pest of cultivated corn that was controlled by applications of cyclodiene insecticides from the late 1940s until resistance evolved ∼10 years later. Range expansion from the western plains into eastern USA coincides with resistance development. An alanine to serine amino acid substitution within the Rdl subunit of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor confers resistance to cyclodiene insecticides in many species. We found that the non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) G/T at the GABA receptor cDNA position 838 (G/T(838)) of D. v. virgifera resulted in the alanine to serine change, and the codominant SNP allele T(838) was genetically linked to survival of beetles in aldrin bioassays. A phenotypic gradient of decreasing susceptibility from west to east was correlated with higher frequencies of the resistance-conferring T(838) allele in the eastern-most populations. This pattern exists in opposition to perceived selective pressures since the more eastern and most resistant populations probably experienced reduced exposure. The reasons for the observed distribution are uncertain, but historical records of the range expansion combined with the distribution of susceptible and resistant phenotypes and genotypes provide an opportunity to better understand factors affecting the species' range expansion. PMID:23841833

  19. Bile acid sequestrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Sonne, David P; Knop, Filip K

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids are synthesized in the liver from cholesterol and have traditionally been recognized for their role in absorption of lipids and in cholesterol homeostasis. In recent years, however, bile acids have emerged as metabolic signaling molecules that are involved in the regulation of lipid and...... glucose metabolism, and possibly energy homeostasis, through activation of the bile acid receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and TGR5. Bile acid sequestrants (BASs) constitute a class of drugs that bind bile acids in the intestine to form a nonabsorbable complex resulting in interruption of the...... enterohepatic circulation. This increases bile acid synthesis and consequently reduces serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Also, BASs improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Despite a growing understanding of the impact of BASs on glucose metabolism, the mechanisms behind their glucose...

  20. Lesions of nucleus accumbens affect morphine-induced release of ascorbic acid and GABA but not of glutamate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ji Y; Yang, Jing Y; Wang, Fang; Wang, Jian Y; Song, Wu; Su, Guang Y; Dong, Ying X; Wu, Chun F

    2011-10-01

    Our previous studies have shown that local perfusion of morphine causes an increase of extracellular ascorbic acid (AA) levels in nucleus accumbens (NAc) of freely moving rats. Lines of evidence showed that glutamatergic and GABAergic were associated with morphine-induced effects on the neurotransmission of the brain, especially on the release of AA. In the present study, the effects of morphine on the release of extracellular AA, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate (Glu) in the NAc following bilateral NAc lesions induced by kainic acid (KA) were studied by using the microdialysis technique, coupled to high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) and fluorescent detection (HPLC-FD). The results showed that local perfusion of morphine (100 µM, 1 mM) in NAc dose-dependently increased AA and GABA release, while attenuated Glu release in the NAc. Naloxone (0.4 mM) pretreated by local perfusion to the NAc, significantly blocked the effects of morphine. After NAc lesion by KA (1 µg), morphine-induced increase in AA and GABA were markedly eliminated, while decrease in Glu was not affected. The loss effect of morphine on AA and GABA release after KA lesion could be recovered by GABA agonist, musimol. These results indicate that morphine-induced AA release may be mediated at least by µ-opioid receptor. Moreover, this effect of morphine possibly depend less on the glutamatergic afferents, but more on the GABAergic circuits within this nucleus. Finally, AA release induced by local perfusion of morphine may be GABA-receptor mediated and synaptically localized in the NAc. PMID:20731632

  1. Amino Acid and Biogenic Amine Profile Deviations in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: A Comparison between Healthy and Hyperlipidaemia Individuals Based on Targeted Metabolomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Gu, Wenbo; Ma, Xuan; Liu, Yuxin; Jiang, Lidan; Feng, Rennan; Liu, Liyan

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR) and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT. The amino acid and biogenic amine profiles from 30 HLP subjects were detected as independent samples to validate the changes in the metabolites. There were differences in the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles between the HLP individuals and the healthy controls at baseline and after the OGTT. The per cent changes of 13 metabolites from fasting to the 2 h samples during the OGTT in the HLP patients were significantly different from those of the healthy controls. The lipid parameters were associated with the changes in valine, isoleucine, creatine, creatinine, dimethylglycine, asparagine, serine, and tyrosine (all p < 0.05) during the OGTT in the HLP group. The postprandial changes in isoleucine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during the OGTT were positively associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; all p < 0.05) in the HLP group. Elevated oxidative stress and disordered energy metabolism during OGTTs are important characteristics of metabolic perturbations in HLP. Our findings offer new insights into the complex physiological regulation of metabolism during the OGTT in HLP. PMID:27338465

  2. Amino Acid and Biogenic Amine Profile Deviations in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: A Comparison between Healthy and Hyperlipidaemia Individuals Based on Targeted Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Gu, Wenbo; Ma, Xuan; Liu, Yuxin; Jiang, Lidan; Feng, Rennan; Liu, Liyan

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR) and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT. The amino acid and biogenic amine profiles from 30 HLP subjects were detected as independent samples to validate the changes in the metabolites. There were differences in the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles between the HLP individuals and the healthy controls at baseline and after the OGTT. The per cent changes of 13 metabolites from fasting to the 2 h samples during the OGTT in the HLP patients were significantly different from those of the healthy controls. The lipid parameters were associated with the changes in valine, isoleucine, creatine, creatinine, dimethylglycine, asparagine, serine, and tyrosine (all p < 0.05) during the OGTT in the HLP group. The postprandial changes in isoleucine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during the OGTT were positively associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; all p < 0.05) in the HLP group. Elevated oxidative stress and disordered energy metabolism during OGTTs are important characteristics of metabolic perturbations in HLP. Our findings offer new insights into the complex physiological regulation of metabolism during the OGTT in HLP. PMID:27338465

  3. Docosahexaenoic Acid Neurolipidomics

    OpenAIRE

    Niemoller, Tiffany D.; Bazan, Nicolas G.

    2009-01-01

    Mediator lipidomics is a field of study concerned with the characterization, structural elucidation and bioactivity of lipid derivatives generated by enzymatic activity. Omega-3 fatty acids have beneficial effects for vision, brain function, cardiovascular function, and immune-inflammatory responses. Docosahexaenoic acid [DHA; 22:6(n-3)], the most abundant essential omega-3 fatty acid in the human body, is selectively enriched and avidly retained in the central nervous system as an acyl chain...

  4. Fatty acids and epigenetics

    OpenAIRE

    Burdge, Graham C; Lillycrop, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to assess the findings of recent studies on the effects of fatty acids on epigenetic process and the role of epigenetics in regulating fatty acid metabolism. Recent findings The DNA methylation status of the Fads2 promoter was increased in the liver of the offspring of mice fed an ?-linolenic acid-enriched diet during pregnancy. In rats, increasing total maternal fat intake during pregnancy and lactation induced persistent hypermethyl...

  5. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  6. Azetidinic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Bunch, Lennart; Chopin, Nathalie;

    2005-01-01

    A set of ten azetidinic amino acids, that can be envisioned as C-4 alkyl substituted analogues of trans-2-carboxyazetidine-3-acetic acid (t-CAA) and/or conformationally constrained analogues of (R)- or (S)-glutamic acid (Glu) have been synthesized in a diastereo- and enantiomerically pure form from...... two diastereoisomers that were easily separated and converted in two steps into azetidinic amino acids. Azetidines 35-44 were characterized in binding studies on native ionotropic Glu receptors and in functional assays at cloned metabotropic receptors mGluR1, 2 and 4, representing group I, II and III...

  7. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also....... However, a natural production of halogenated fatty acids is also possible. In this paper we summarize the present knowledge of the occurrence of halogenated fatty acids in lipids and suggested ways of their formation. In Part II (Trends Anal. Chem. 16 (1997) 274) we deal with methods of their...

  8. The acid rain primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid rain continues to be a major problem in North America, and particularly in eastern Canada. This report introduced the topic of acid rain and discussed its formation, measurement, sources, and geographic distribution. The major sources of sulphur dioxide in Canada are smelting metals, burning coal for electrical power generation, industrial emissions (e.g., pulp and paper, petroleum and aluminum industry), and oil and gas extraction and refining. In Canada, the largest source of nitrogen oxide is the burning of fossil fuels by the transportation sector. Problem areas for acid rain in Canada were identified. The effects of acid rain were examined on lakes and aquatic ecosystems, forests and soils, human-made structures and materials, human health, and on visibility. Acid rain policies and programs were then presented from a historical and current context. Ecosystem recovery from acid rain was discussed with reference to acid rain monitoring, atmospheric response to reductions in acid-causing emissions, and ecosystem recovery of lakes, forests, and aquatic ecosystems. Challenges affecting ecosystem recovery were also presented. These challenges include drought and dry weather, decrease of base cations in precipitation, release of sulphate previously stored in soil, mineralization and immobilization of sulphur/sulphates. Last, the report discussed what still needs to be done to improve the problem of acid rain as well as future concerns. These concerns include loss of base cations from forested watersheds and nitrogen deposition and saturation. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 17 figs

  9. THIN-LAYER SEPARATION OF CITRIC ACID CYCLE INTERMEDIATES, LACTIC ACID, AND THE AMINO ACID TAURINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes a two-dimensional mixed-layer method for separating citric acid cycle intermediates, lactic acid and the amino acid taurine. The method cleanly separates all citric acid cycle intermediates tested, excepting citric acid and isocitric acid. The solvents are in...

  10. Molecular Interaction of Pinic Acid with Sulfuric Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elm, Jonas; Kurten, Theo; Bilde, Merete;

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the molecular interactions between the semivolatile α-pinene oxidation product pinic acid and sulfuric acid using computational methods. The stepwise Gibbs free energies of formation have been calculated utilizing the M06-2X functional, and the stability of the clusters is evaluated...... from the corresponding ΔG values. The first two additions of sulfuric acid to pinic acid are found to be favorable with ΔG values of -9.06 and -10.41 kcal/mol. Addition of a third sulfuric acid molecule is less favorable and leads to a structural rearrangement forming a bridged sulfuric acid-pinic acid...... without the further possibility for attachment of either sulfuric acid or pinic acid. This suggests that pinic acid cannot be a key species in the first steps in nucleation, but the favorable interactions between sulfuric acid and pinic acid imply that pinic acid can contribute to the subsequent growth of...

  11. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  12. Science of acid rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, the mechanism of forming acid rain in the atmosphere and the process of its fall to ground, the mechanism of withering forests by acid substances, and the process of acidifying lakes and marshes are explained. Moreover, the monitoring networks for acid rain and the countermeasures are described. Acid rain is the pollution phenomena related to all environment, that is, atmosphere, hydrosphere, soilsphere, biosphere and so on, and it is a local environmental pollution problem, and at the same time, an international, global environmental pollution problem. In Japan, acid rain has fallen, but the acidification of lakes and marshes is not clear, and the damage to forests is on small scale. However in East Asia region, the release of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides is much, and the increase of the effects of acid rain is expected. It is necessary to devise the measures for preventing the damage due to acid rain. The global monitoring networks of World Meteorological Organization and United Nations Environment Program, and those in Europe, USA and Japan are described. The monitoring of acid rain in Japan is behind that in Europe and USA. (K.I.)

  13. Peptide Nucleic Acid Synthons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  14. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands, and generally do so more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands while exhibiting increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from a...

  15. Locked nucleic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jan Stenvang; Sørensen, Mads D; Wengel, Jesper;

    2004-01-01

    Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a class of nucleic acid analogs possessing very high affinity and excellent specificity toward complementary DNA and RNA, and LNA oligonucleotides have been applied as antisense molecules both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we briefly describe the basic...

  16. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  17. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  18. Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  19. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Dils, R.

    1972-01-01

    # 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid...

  20. Characterization of acid tars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48 h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio 10:1 was also studied. GC/MS results show that the samples contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, up to 12 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and numerous other organic groups, including organic acids (sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids and aromatic acids), phenyl, nitrile, amide, furans, thiophenes, pyrroles, and phthalates, many of which are toxic. Metals analysis shows that Pb was present in significant concentration. DSC results show different transition peaks in the studied samples, demonstrating their complexity and variability. FTIR analysis further confirmed the presence of the organic groups detected by GC/MS. The SEM/EDX micro-analysis results provided insight on the surface characteristics of the samples and show that contaminants distribution was heterogeneous. The results provide useful data on the composition, complexity, and variability of acid tars; information which hitherto have been scarce in public domain.

  1. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    . However, a natural production of halogenated fatty acids is also possible. In this paper we summarize the present knowledge of the occurrence of halogenated fatty acids in lipids and suggested ways of their formation. In Part II (Trends Anal. Chem. 16 (1997) 274) we deal with methods of their...

  2. Canadian acid rain policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On March 13 of 1991, the Prime Minister of Canada, Brian Mulroney and the President of the United States of America, George Bush, signed an Agreement on Air Quality. This agreement enshrines Principle 21 of the 1972 Stockholm Declaration which states that countries are to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction do not cause damage to the environment of another country. This agreement also includes provisions for controlling acid rain. The Agreement on Air Quality followed years of discussion between the two countries and is a significant milestone in the history of Canadian acid rain policy. This paper begins by describing Canadian acid rain policy and its evolution. The paper also outlines the Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement and the effect of the acid rain provisions on deposition in Canada. Finally, it considers the future work that must be undertaken to further resolve the acid rain problem. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  3. Synthesis of aminoaldonic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christel Thea

    With the aim of synthesising aminoaldonic acids, two 2-acetamido-2-deoxyaldonolactones with D-galacto (6) and D-arabino (11) configuration were prepared from acetylated sugar formazans in analogy with a known procedure. Empolying the same procedure to acetylated sugar phenylhydrazones gave mixtures...... of 2,5-anhydrides and not the expected 2-acetamido-2-deoxy aldose phenylhydrazones. The acetylated phenylhydrazones were found to eliminate acetic acid when heated in aqueous ethanol and 1-phenylazoalkenes could be isolated by crystallisation. By this method the 17, 20, 23 and 25 were prepared from...... aziridino amides 43 and 51 were reductively cleaved with hydrazine to give 3-amino-2,3-dideoxyhexonhydrazides 83 and 85, which were easily converted into the corresponding lactone 84 and acid 86. The aziridine ring of 43 and 51 was also opened with acetic acid to give the 3-amino-3-deoxyhexonic acids 79 and...

  4. Fusidic acid in dermatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöfer, Helmut; Simonsen, Lene

    1995-01-01

    Studies on the clinical efficacy of fusidic acid in skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs), notably those due to Staphylococcus aureus, are reviewed. Oral fusidic acid (tablets dosed at 250 mg twice daily, or a suspension for paediatric use at 20 mg/kg/day given as two daily doses) has shown good...... efficacy and tolerability. Similarly, plain fusidic acid cream or ointment used two or three times daily in SSTIs such as impetigo are clinically and bacteriologically effective, with minimal adverse events. Combination formulations of fusidic acid with 1% hydrocortisone or 0.1% betamethasone achieve...... excellent results in infected eczema by addressing both inflammation and infection. A new lipid-rich combination formulation provides an extra moisturizing effect. Development of resistance to fusidic acid has remained generally low or short-lived and can be minimized by restricting therapy to no more than...

  5. Control of sleep-to-wake transitions via fast amino acid and slow neuropeptide transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The locus coeruleus (LC) modulates cortical, subcortical, cerebellar, brainstem and spinal cord circuits and it expresses receptors for neuromodulators that operate on a time scale of several seconds. Evidence from anatomical, electrophysiological and optogenetic experiments has shown that LC neurons receive input from a group of neurons called hypocretin neurons that release a neuropeptide called hypocretin. It is less well known how these two groups of neurons can be coregulated using GABAergic (GABA standing for gamma aminobutyric acid) neurons. As the time scale for GABAA inhibition is several orders of magnitude faster than that for the hypocretin neuropeptide effect, we investigate the limits of circuit activity regulation using a realistic model of neurons. Our investigation shows that GABAA inhibition is insufficient to control the activity levels of the LCs. Although slower forms of GABAA can in principle work, there is not much plausibility due to the low probability of the presence of slow GABAA and lack of robust stability at the maximum firing frequencies. The best possible control mechanism predicted by our modeling analysis is the presence of inhibitory neuropeptides, which exert effects on a similar time scale to the hypocretin/orexin. Although the nature of these inhibitory neuropeptides has not been identified yet, it provides the most efficient mechanism in the modeling analysis. Finally, we present a reduced mean-field model that perfectly captures the dynamics and the phenomena generated by this circuit. This investigation shows that brain communication involving multiple time scales can be better controlled by employing orthogonal mechanisms of neural transmission to decrease interference between cognitive processes and hypothalamic functions. (paper)

  6. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain. This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks. Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  7. The PROCESS experiment: exposure of amino acids in the EXPOSE-E experiment on the international space station and in laboratory simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, M; Chabin, A; Brack, A; Cottin, H; Chaput, D; Westall, F

    2012-05-01

    To understand the chemical behavior of organic molecules in the space environment, amino acids and a dipeptide in pure form and embedded in meteorite powder were exposed in the PROCESS experiment in the EXPOSE-E facility mounted on the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF) platform on board the International Space Station (ISS). After exposure to space conditions for 18 months, the samples were returned to Earth and analyzed in the laboratory for reactions caused by solar UV and cosmic radiation. Chemical degradation and possible racemization and oligomerization, the main reactions caused by photochemistry in the vacuum ultraviolet domain (VUV, wavelength range 100-200 nm for photon energy from 6.2 to 12.4 eV) were examined in particular. The molecules were extracted and derivatized by silylation and analyzed by gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS) to quantify the rate of the degradation of the compounds. Laboratory exposure in several wavelength ranges from UV to VUV was carried out in parallel in the Cologne Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) Center and Centre de biophysique moléculaire (CBM) laboratories. The results show that resistance to irradiation is a function of the chemical nature of the exposed molecules and the wavelengths of the UV light. The most altered compounds were the dipeptide, aspartic acid, and aminobutyric acid. The most resistant were alanine, valine, glycine, and aminoisobutyric acid. Our results also demonstrate the protective effect of meteorite powder, which reemphasizes the importance of exogenic contribution to the inventory of prebiotic organics on early Earth. PMID:22680689

  8. Hypermetabolic state in the 7-month-old triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and the effect of lipoic acid: a 13C-NMR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancheti, Harsh; Patil, Ishan; Kanamori, Keiko; Díaz Brinton, Roberta; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Ai-Ling; Cadenas, Enrique

    2014-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by age-dependent biochemical, metabolic, and physiologic changes. These age-dependent changes ultimately converge to impair cognitive functions. This study was carried out to examine the metabolic changes by probing glucose and tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolism in a 7-month-old triple transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTg-AD). The effect of lipoic acid, an insulin-mimetic agent, was also investigated to examine its ability in modulating age-dependent metabolic changes. Seven-month-old 3xTg-AD mice were given intravenous infusion of [1-(13)C]glucose followed by an ex vivo (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance to determine the concentrations of (13)C-labeled isotopomers of glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, gamma aminobutyric acid, and N-acetylaspartate. An intravenous infusion of [1-(13)C]glucose+[1,2-(13)C]acetate was given for different periods of time to distinguish neuronal and astrocytic metabolism. Enrichments of glutamate, glutamine, and aspartate were calculated after quantifying the total ((12)C+(13)C) concentrations by high-performance liquid chromatography. A hypermetabolic state was clearly evident in 7-month-old 3xTg-AD mice in contrast to the hypometabolic state reported earlier in 13-month-old mice. Hypermetabolism was evidenced by prominent increase of (13)C labeling and enrichment in the 3xTg-AD mice. Lipoic acid feeding to the hypermetabolic 3xTg-AD mice brought the metabolic parameters to the levels of nonTg mice. PMID:25099753

  9. Osmotically inducible uptake of betaine via amino acid transport system A in SV-3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronini, P G; De Angelis, E; Borghetti, A F; Wheeler, K P

    1994-05-15

    The osmotically inducible uptake of betaine (NNN-trimethylglycine) by SV-3T3 cells has been studied and compared with the similar process in MDCK cells. Betaine uptake by SV-3T3 cells could be described in terms of a saturable, Na(+)-dependent, component plus a small non-saturable, Na(+)-independent, component. Transport was active, producing considerable accumulation of betaine in the cells. After exposure of the cells to hypertonic conditions for 6 h, there was a marked increase in betaine uptake. Kinetic analysis indicated that this increase resulted from an increase in the Vmax. value of the saturable component, from about 88 to 185 nmol of betaine/5 min per mg of protein, the corresponding Km values of about 15 and 10 mM not being significantly different. This induction of transport activity was detectable only after about 2 h exposure of the cells to hypertonic medium, closely paralleling an induction of influx of N-methylaminoisobutyric acid, and was prevented by the presence of cycloheximide. Betaine influx was markedly inhibited by several neutral amino acids, particularly those transported by system A, such as N-methylaminoisobutyric acid and the imino acid proline. A high concentration (25 mM) of betaine also significantly inhibited the uptake of proline by SV-3T3 cells. Although very similar results were obtained with MDCK cells, prolonged exposure of cells to hypertonic conditions revealed distinct differences. When the hypertonic incubation was extended from 6 h to 24 h, betaine transport in SV-3T3 cells either remained the same or decreased, whereas it showed a further marked increase in MDCK cells, and also became sensitive to inhibition by gamma-aminobutyric acid. mRNA for the betaine transporter BGT-1 [Yamauchi, Uchida, Kwon, Preston, Brooks Robey, Garcia-Perez, Burg and Handler (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 649-652] was detectable in MDCK cells exposed to hypertonic medium for 24 h, but not in SV-3T3 cells under any conditions. It is concluded that

  10. Difficult Decisions: Acid Rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John A.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses some of the contributing factors and chemical reactions involved in the production of acid rain, its effects, and political issues pertaining to who should pay for the clean up. Supplies questions for consideration and discussion. (RT)

  11. Folic acid in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... green leafy vegetables Dried beans and peas (legumes) Citrus fruits and juices Fortified means that vitamins have ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Folic Acid Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  12. Citric acid urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... usually done while you are on a normal diet. Ask your provider for more information. ... acidosis and a tendency to form calcium kidney stones. The ... acid levels: A high carbohydrate diet Estrogen therapy Vitamin D

  13. Stomach acid test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric acid secretion test ... The test is done after you have not eaten for a while so fluid is all that remains in ... injected into your body. This is done to test the ability of the cells in the stomach ...

  14. Azelaic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pores and by decreasing production of keratin, a natural substance that can lead to the development of ... acid controls acne and rosacea but does not cure these conditions. It may take 4 weeks or ...

  15. Acid rain: An overview

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary of the effects of acid rain and related processes, sources, issues, corrective actions, research, current law, potential solutions, political solutions,...

  16. Glutamate acid decarboxylase 1 promotes metastasis of human oral cancer by β-catenin translocation and MMP7 activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD1), a rate-limiting enzyme in the production of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), is found in the GABAergic neurons of the central nervous system. Little is known about the relevance of GAD1 to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We investigated the expression status of GAD1 and its functional mechanisms in OSCCs. We evaluated GAD1 mRNA and protein expressions in OSCC-derived cells using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunoblotting analyses. To assess the critical functions of GAD1, i.e., cellular proliferation, invasiveness, and migration, OSCC-derived cells were treated with the shRNA and specific GAD1 inhibitor, 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA). GAD1 expression in 80 patients with primary OSCCs was analyzed and compared to the clinicopathological behaviors of OSCC. qRT-PCR and immunoblotting analyses detected frequent up-regulation of GAD1 in OSCC-derived cells compared to human normal oral keratinocytes. Suppression of nuclear localization of β-catenin and MMP7 secretion was observed in GAD1 knockdown and 3-MPA-treated cells. We also found low cellular invasiveness and migratory abilities in GAD1 knockdown and 3-MPA-treated cells. In the clinical samples, GAD1 expression in the primary OSCCs was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than in normal counterparts and was correlated significantly (P < 0.05) with regional lymph node metastasis. Our data showed that up-regulation of GAD1 was a characteristic event in OSCCs and that GAD1 was correlated with cellular invasiveness and migration by regulating β-catenin translocation and MMP7 activation. GAD1 might play an important role in controlling tumoral invasiveness and metastasis in oral cancer

  17. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in endodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chelating agent can bind to metals via four carboxylate and two amine groups. It is a polyamino carboxylic acid and a colorless, water-soluble solid, which is widely used to dissolve lime scale. It is produced as several salts, notably disodium EDTA and calcium disodium EDTA. EDTA reacts with the calcium ions in dentine and forms soluble calcium chelates. A review of the literature and a discussion of the different indications and considerations for...

  18. Utilization of acid tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frolov, A.F.; Denisova, T.L.; Aminov, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    Freshly produced acid tar (FPAT), obtained as refinery waste in treating petroleum oils with sulfuric acid and oleum, contains 80% or more sulfuric acid. Of such tars, pond acid tars, which contain up to 80% neutral petroleum products and sulfonated resins, are more stable, and have found applications in the production of binders for paving materials. In this article the authors are presenting results obtained in a study of the composition and reactivity of FPAT and its stability in storage in blends with asphalts obtained in deasphalting operations, and the possibility of using the FPAT in road construction has been examined. In this work, wastes were used which were obtained in treating the oils T-750, KhF-12, I-8A, and MS-14. Data on the change in group chemical composition of FPAT are shown, and the acidity, viscosity, needle penetration, and softening point of acid tars obtained from different grades of oils are plotted as functions of the storage time. It is also shown that the fresh and hardened FPATs differ in their solubilities in various solvents.

  19. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Dils, R.

    1972-01-01

    # 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid...... synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, all the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase was incorporated into long-chain fatty acids....... Hydrolysis of bound acetate and incorporation of bound acetate into fatty acids were inhibited to the same extent by guanidine hydrochloride. # 3. 3. Acetate was also covalently bound to fatty acid synthetase by chemical acetylation with [I-14C]acetic anhydride in the absence of CoASH. A total of 60 moles of...

  20. Neutron Nucleic Acid Crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatake, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The hydration shells surrounding nucleic acids and hydrogen-bonding networks involving water molecules and nucleic acids are essential interactions for the structural stability and function of nucleic acids. Water molecules in the hydration shells influence various conformations of DNA and RNA by specific hydrogen-bonding networks, which often contribute to the chemical reactivity and molecular recognition of nucleic acids. However, X-ray crystallography could not provide a complete description of structural information with respect to hydrogen bonds. Indeed, X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for determining the locations of water molecules, i.e., the location of the oxygen atom of H2O; however, it is very difficult to determine the orientation of the water molecules, i.e., the orientation of the two hydrogen atoms of H2O, because X-ray scattering from the hydrogen atom is very small.Neutron crystallography is a specialized tool for determining the positions of hydrogen atoms. Neutrons are not diffracted by electrons, but are diffracted by atomic nuclei; accordingly, neutron scattering lengths of hydrogen and its isotopes are comparable to those of non-hydrogen atoms. Therefore, neutron crystallography can determine both of the locations and orientations of water molecules. This chapter describes the current status of neutron nucleic acid crystallographic research as well as the basic principles of neutron diffraction experiments performed on nucleic acid crystals: materials, crystallization, diffraction experiments, and structure determination. PMID:26227050

  1. Method for isolating nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2015-09-29

    The current disclosure provides methods and kits for isolating nucleic acid from an environmental sample. The current methods and compositions further provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by reducing adsorption of nucleic acids by charged ions and particles within an environmental sample. The methods of the current disclosure provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by releasing adsorbed nucleic acids from charged particles during the nucleic acid isolation process. The current disclosure facilitates the isolation of nucleic acids of sufficient quality and quantity to enable one of ordinary skill in the art to utilize or analyze the isolated nucleic acids for a wide variety of applications including, sequencing or species population analysis.

  2. Acidification and Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, S. A.; Veselã½, J.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw tremendous progress in the documentation of the chemistry of the atmosphere, precipitation, and the systems impacted by acid atmospheric deposition. Chronic acidification of ecosystems results in chemical changes to soil and to surface waters and groundwater as a result of reduction of base cation supply or an increase in acid (H+) supply, or both. The most fundamental changes during chronic acidification are an increase in exchangeable H+ or Al3+ (aluminum) in soils, an increase in H+ activity (˜concentration) in water in contact with soil, and a decrease in alkalinity in waters draining watersheds. Water draining from the soil is acidified and has a lower pH (=-log [H+]). As systems acidify, their biotic community changes.Acidic surface waters occur in many parts of the world as a consequence of natural processes and also due to atmospheric deposition of strong acid (e.g., Canada, Jeffries et al. (1986); the United Kingdom, Evans and Monteith (2001); Sweden, Swedish Environmental Protection Board (1986); Finland, Forsius et al. (1990); Norway, Henriksen et al. (1988a); and the United States (USA), Brakke et al. (1988)). Concern over acidification in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere has been driven by the potential for accelerating natural acidification by pollution of the atmosphere with acidic or acidifying compounds. Atmospheric pollution ( Figure 1) has resulted in an increased flux of acid to and through ecosystems. Depending on the ability of an ecosystem to neutralize the increased flux of acidity, acidification may increase only imperceptibly or be accelerated at a rate that

  3. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  4. Amino acids in the sedimentary humic and fulvic acids

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.

    Humic and fulvic acids isolated from a few sediment samples from Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal were analysed for total hydrolysable amino acids concentration and their composition. The amono acids content of fulvic acids was higher than in the humic...

  5. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of novel bicyclic acidic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Paola; De Amici, Marco; Joppolo Di Ventimiglia, Samuele;

    2003-01-01

    Bicyclic acidic amino acids (+/-)-6 and (+/-)-7, which are conformationally constrained homologues of glutamic acid, were prepared via a strategy based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new amino acids were tested toward ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes; both of them...

  6. EFFECT OF ACIDITY ON ACID-SENSITIVE UV CURING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-dao Chen; Bing Wu; Xiao-yin Hong

    1999-01-01

    By using diphenyliodonium salts with different counterions as photo acid generators (PAGs), the effect of acidity on ring-opening polymerization of epoxy monomers and polycondensation of polyol with hexamethoxymethyl melamine (HMMM) was studied. The result shows that the rate of ring-opening polymerization is evidently dependent on the acidity of the acid and strong photo-generated acid is required.However, there is a leveling effect in the polycondensation system; if the photo-generated acid is stronger than protonated HMMM, the acidity does not obviously affect the polycondensation rate.

  7. Determination of Sialic Acids by Acidic Ninhydrin Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao,Kenzabroh

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available A new acidic ninhydrin method for determining free sialic acids is described. The method is based on the reaction of sialic acids with Gaitonde's acid ninhydrin reagent 2 which yields a stable color with an absorption maximum at 470 nm. The standard curve is linear in the range of 5 to 500 nmol of N-acetylneuraminic acid per 0.9 ml of reaction mixture. The reaction was specific only for sialic acids among the various sugars and sugar derivatives examined. Some interference of this method by cysteine, cystine and tryptophan was noted, although their absorption maxima differed from that of sialic acids. The interference by these amino acids was eliminated with the use of a small column of cation-exchange resin. The acidic ninhydrin method provides a simple and rapid method for the determination of free sialic acids in biological materials.

  8. Chemistry and electrochemistry in trifluoroacetic acid. Comparison with acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the trifluoroacetic acid is, with the acetic acid, one of most often used carboxylic acids as solvent, notably in organic chemistry, this research thesis addresses some relatively simple complexing and redox reactions to highlight the peculiar feature of this acid, and to explain its very much different behaviour with respect to acetic acid. The author develops the notion of acidity level in solvents of low dielectric constant. The second part addresses a specific solvent: BF3(CH3COOH)2. The boron trifluoride strengthens the acidity of acetic acid and modifies its chemical and physical-chemical properties. In the third part, the author compares solvent properties of CF3COOH and CH3COOH. Noticed differences explain why the trifluoroacetic acid is a more interesting reaction environment than acetic acid for reactions such as electrophilic substitutions or protein solubilisation

  9. Proliferative effects of gamma-amino butyric acid on oral squamous cell carcinoma cells are associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Tianyu; Ji, Ping; Song, Jinlin; Zhang, Hongmei; Luo, Wenping

    2016-07-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult mammalian central nervous system, has been reported to play an important physiological role in peripheral non-neuronal tissues, such as tumors. However, whether deregulated GABA is associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is currently unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of GABA on the proliferation of the OSCC cell line, Tca8113. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed to examine the expression of GABA A type receptor pi subunit (GABRP) in human OSCC tissues, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence staining and western blot analysis were performed to examine the expression of GABRP in Tca8113 cells. The proliferative effects of GABA on Tca8113 cells were analyzed by CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry. The activation status of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) was examined by western blot analysis. GABRP expression was observed in the cytoplasm with a higher level in poorly differentiated OSCC tissues. The mRNA and protein expression levels of GABRP were detected in the Tca8113 cells. The addition of GABA and the GABA A type receptor agonist, Muscimol, promoted cell proliferation and inhibited cell apoptosis through the activation of the p38 MAPK and the inhibition of the JNK MAPK signaling pathways. These results imply a novel role of GABA in OSCC. PMID:27222045

  10. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) measurement by GC-MS in blood, urine and gastric contents, following an acute intoxication in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodson, Q; Denooz, R; Serpe, P; Charlier, C

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB, sodium oxybate) is a compound related to neuromodulator gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), emerging as a recreational drug of abuse and as a rape drug. GHB-related emergencies have dramatically increased in the 1990s, but a decrease is observed since 2000. We describe the case of an acute GHB intoxication in a 28-year-old male who fell unconscious after ingestion of a mouthful of an unknown beverage, and required medical support for 2 days. A cocaine abuse was also detected by preliminary toxicological screening, but the clinical presentation was not typical of cocaine intoxication. A simple liquid-liquid extraction was used for quantitation of GHB, followed by disilyl-derivatization and analysis in selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), using GHB-d6 as internal standard. High concentrations of GHB were detected in urine (3020 mg/L) and gastric contents (71487 mg/L) at admission. After a 6-hours delay, GHB was still present in urine at 2324 mg/L and in blood at 43 mg/L. The clinical symptoms of cocaine intoxication were diminished by GHB consumption, and the cerebral scan was modified. Attention must thus be paid to acute intoxications with surprising clinical symptoms, and GHB has probably to be added to the preliminary toxicological screening. Data available regarding GHB are briefly reviewed, and our results are compared with previously published reports of non-fatal GHB intoxication. PMID:18714853

  11. Influence of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid B Receptor on Expression of Carbon Monoxide/ Heme Oxygenase System during Recurrent Febrile Seizures%反复热性惊厥过程中γ-氨基丁酸B受体对气体信号分子一氧化碳的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩颖; 秦炯; 卜定方; 杨志仙; 常杏芝; 杜军保

    2005-01-01

    目的探讨γ-氨基丁酸B受体(GABABR)对热性惊厥(FS)大鼠一氧化碳(CO)/血红素氧合酶(HO)系统表达的影响.方法 SD大鼠32只随机分为对照组、FS组、FS+baclofen组、FS+phaclofen组,每组各8只.采用热水浴诱导大鼠FS,隔日诱导1次,共10次.采用双波长分光光度计法测定大鼠血浆CO含量;用原位杂交观察GABABR和HO-1 mRNA表达情况;用免疫组织化学方法观察GABABR和HO-1蛋白表达情况.结果 FS+baclofen组CO含量高于FS组,同时HO-1表达也较FS组增强;而FS+phaclofen组CO含量低于FS组,同时HO-1表达也较FS组减弱.FS+baclofen组和FS+phaclofen组与FS组相比,差异均有显著意义(P均<0.05).结论反复FS过程中,GABABR的改变可影响CO/HO-1系统的表达.

  12. New 3-, 8-disubstituted pyrazolo[5,1-c][1,2,4]benzotriazines useful for studying the interaction with the HBp-3 area (hydrogen bond point area) in the benzodiazepine site on the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor

    OpenAIRE

    G. Guerrini; G. CICIANI; Bruni, F.; Selleri, S.; F. Melani; Daniele, S.; Martini, C; A. Costanzo

    2011-01-01

    The pharmacophoric model using ADLR procedure, based on pyrazolo[5,1-c][1,2,4]benzotriazine system, studied in our laboratory, allowed us to identify the essential interaction points (HBp-1, HBp-2, and Lp-1) and the important areas for affinity modulation (HBp-3 and Lp-2) for binding recognition at benzodiazepine (Bzs) site of GABAA receptors (GABAA-Rs). In this work ADLR method is used to rationalize the affinity data of 23 new compounds and to improve the knowledge on HBp-3 area...

  13. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    OpenAIRE

    Je Min Lee; Hyungjae Lee; SeokBeom Kang; Woo Jung Park

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human phys...

  14. Domoic Acid Epileptic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Ramsdell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.

  15. Évaluation de l’exposition d’adipocytes humains sous-cutanés en culture aux acides linoléiques conjugués par une approche multi-omique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Jean-Charles

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acids are 18 carbones fatty acids members comprising a consecutive (conjugated double bonds system with a various cis/trans geometry sequence, giving rise to at least 16 different isomers. Among those, the t10,c12 isomer has been reported to have anti-obesity properties. We evaluated the biological response of human primary adipose tissue cultured adipocytes to that CLA isomer, alone or present in a commercial mixture, using system biology approaches (primarily transcriptomics and metabolomics. We found that CLA changed the biological activity of at least 45 metabolic pathways at the genomic level, which transcriptional activities was associated to a parallelle metabolome adipocyte change (lipidome upmost (r2value transcriptome/ metabolome of 0.89. In pairwise analysis, it appeared that 6 of these pathways at the genomic level were tightly associated to the metabolomic response, such as apoptosis, interleukine-6, proteasome, reticulum endoplasmic stress, transcription role of heterochromatine, cell proliferation through EGFR dependent tyrosine kinase, gamma-aminobutyrate receptor. This latter exhibited the most tightly relationship with the metabolome variations in multivariated analysis. One may infer that this pathway is the most targeted by CLA treatment. In conclusion, the implementation of a multi-omic global approach allowed the identification of a set of biological pathways at the genomic level associated to the metabolic balance of CLA-treated adipocytes. All of these pathways are related to insulin-resistance, metabolic syndrome and adipogenesis.

  16. Effects of germination and high hydrostatic pressure processing on mineral elements, amino acids and antioxidants in vitro bioaccessibility, as well as starch digestibility in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qiang; Wang, Liping; Xu, Congcong; Mei, Jun; Li, Yunfei

    2017-01-01

    The effects of germination and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing on the in vitro bioaccessibility of mineral elements, amino acids (AAs), antioxidants and starch in brown rice (BR) were investigated. Germinated BR (GBR) was obtained by incubating at 37°C for 36h and then subjected to HHP treatments at 0.1, 100, 300 and 500MPa for 10min. The in vitro bioaccessibility of calcium and copper was increased by 12.59-52.17% and 2.87-23.06% after HHP, respectively, but bioaccessible iron was decreased. In addition, HHP significantly improved individual AAs, particularly indispensable AAs and gama-aminobutyric acid, as well as bioaccessible total antioxidant activities and starch resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis. However, germination greatly increased starch digestibility. Atomic force microscopy characterization suggested an obvious structural change in bran fraction at pressures above 300MPa. These results can help to understand the effects of germination and HHP technologies on nutrients bioaccessibility and develop appropriate processing conditions. PMID:27507507

  17. A Demonstration of Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Man Wai

    2004-01-01

    A demonstration showing acid rain formation is described. Oxides of sulfur and nitrogen that result from the burning of fossil fuels are the major pollutants of acid rain. In this demonstration, SO[subscript 2] gas is produced by the burning of matches. An acid-base indicator will show that the dissolved gas turns an aqueous solution acidic.

  18. Biological properties of lipoic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Bilska; Lidia Włodek

    2002-01-01

    Lipoic acid is a prostetic group of H-protein of the glycine cleavage system and the dihydrolipoamide acyltransferases (E2) of the pyruvate, alpha-ketoglutarate and branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes. Lipoic acid and its reduced form, dihydrolipoic acid, reacts with oxygen reactive species. This paper reviews the beneficial effects in oxidative stress models or clinical conditions.

  19. Amino acid analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabb, J W; West, K A; Dodson, W S; Hulmes, J D

    2001-05-01

    Amino acid analysis (AAA) is one of the best methods to quantify peptides and proteins. Two general approaches to quantitative AAA exist, namely, classical postcolumn derivatization following ion-exchange chromatography and precolumn derivatization followed by reversed-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC). Excellent instrumentation and several specific methodologies are available for both approaches, and both have advantages and disadvantages. This unit focuses on picomole-level AAA of peptides and proteins using the most popular precolumn-derivatization method, namely, phenylthiocarbamyl amino acid analysis (PTC-AAA). It is directed primarily toward those interested in establishing the technology with a modest budget. PTC derivatization and analysis conditions are described, and support and alternate protocols describe additional techniques necessary or useful for most any AAA method--e.g., sample preparation, hydrolysis, instrument calibration, data interpretation, and analysis of difficult or unusual residues such as cysteine, tryptophan, phosphoamino acids, and hydroxyproline. PMID:18429107

  20. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Sundin, Peter; Wesén, Clas

    1997-01-01

    Halogenated fatty acids are the major contributors to organohalogen compounds in lipids of marine mammals, fish, and bivalves. For the initial characterization of these recently noticed compounds, a determination of the halogen concentration has usually been combined with some lipid isolation and...... separation method. This review covers separation by solid phase chromatography, gel permeation chromatography, and liquid-liquid extraction, followed by halogen determination. All studies performed according to this outline have indicated that the major organohalogen compounds are chlorinated fatty acids...... bound in different lipids. For the detection and identification of individual, halogenated fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) liberated from the lipids, gas chromatography (GC) has been employed together with detection methods such as electron capture detection, electrolytic conductivity detection (ELCD...

  1. Immunocytochemical localization of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and substance P in neural areas mediating motion-induced emesis: Effects of vagal stimulation on GAD immunoreactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damelio, F.; Gibbs, M. A.; Mehler, W. R.; Daunton, Nancy G.; Fox, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    Immunocytochemical methods were employed to localize the neurotransmitter amino acid gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by means of its biosynthetic enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and the neuropeptide substance P in the area postrema (AP), area subpostrema (ASP), nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS), and gelatinous nucleus (GEL). In addition, electrical stimulation was applied to the night vagus nerve at the cervical level to assess the effects on GAD-immunoreactivity (GAR-IR). GAD-IR terminals and fibers were observed in the AP, ASP, NTS, and GEL. They showed pronounced density at the level of the ASP and gradual decrease towards the solitary complex. Nerve cells were not labelled in our preparations. Ultrastructural studies showed symmetric or asymmetric synaptic contracts between labelled terminals and non-immunoreactive dendrites, axons, or neurons. Some of the labelled terminals contained both clear- and dense-core vesicles. Our preliminary findings, after electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve, revealed a bilateral decrease of GAD-IR that was particularly evident at the level of the ASP. SP-immunoreactive (SP-IR) terminals and fibers showed varying densities in the AP, ASP, NTS, and GEL. In our preparations, the lateral sub-division of the NTS showed the greatest accumulation. The ASP showed medium density of immunoreactive varicosities and terminals and the AP and GEL displayed scattered varicose axon terminals. The electron microscopy revealed that all immunoreactive terminals contained clear-core vesicles which make symmetric or asymmetric synaptic contact with unlabelled dendrites. It is suggested that the GABAergic terminals might correspond to vagal afferent projections and that GAD/GABA and substance P might be co-localized in the same terminal allowing the possibility of a regulated release of the transmitters in relation to demands.

  2. Expression pattern of NMDA receptors reveals antiepileptic potential of apigenin 8-C-glucoside and chlorogenic acid in pilocarpine induced epileptic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseervatham, G Smilin Bell; Suryakala, U; Doulethunisha; Sundaram, S; Bose, P Chandra; Sivasudha, T

    2016-08-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of apigenin 8-C-glucoside (Vitexin) and chlorogenic acid on epileptic mice induced by pilocarpine and explored its possible mechanisms. Intraperitonial administration of pilocarpine (85mg/kg) induced seizure in mice was assessed by behavior observations, which is significantly (p>0.05) reduced by apigenin 8-C-glucoside (AP8CG) (10mg/kg) and chlorogenic acid (CA) (5mg/kg), similar to diazepam. Seizure was accompanied by an imbalance in the levels of Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate in the pilocarpine administered group. Moreover, convulsion along with reduced acetylcholinesterase, increased monoamine oxidase and oxidative stress was observed in epileptic mice brain. AP8CG and CA significantly restored back to normal levels even at lower doses. Further, increased lipid peroxidation and nitrite content was also significantly attenuated by AP8CG and CA. However, CA was found to be more effective when compared to AP8CG. In addition, the mRNA expression of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), mGluR1 and mGlu5 was significantly (P≤0.05) inhibited by AP8CG and CA in a lower dose. The mRNA expression of GRIK1 did not differ significantly in any of the group and showed a similar pattern of expression. Our result shows that AP8CG and CA selectively inhibit NMDAR, mGluR1 and mGlu5 expression. Modification in the provoked NMDAR calcium response coupled with neuronal death. Hence, these findings underline that the polyphenolics, AP8CG and CA have exerted antiepileptic and neuroprotective activity by suppressing glutamate receptors. PMID:27470339

  3. Sex- and region-specific alterations of basal amino acid and monoamine metabolism in the brain of aquaporin-4 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yi; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Xiu-Lan; Gao, Lin; Zeng, Xiao-Ning; Ding, Jian-Hua; Cao, Cong; Niu, Ling; Hu, Gang

    2005-11-15

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4), a predominant water channel of the brain, mediates transmembrane water movement at the blood-brain barrier and brain-cerebrospinal fluid interface. A broad pattern of evidence indicates that AQP4 and regulators of its expression are potential targets for treatment of brain swelling, but whether it participates in the regulation of neurotransmission has not been reported. We examined neurochemical differences between AQP4-knockout and wild-type mice with particular focus on neurotransmission. Basal tissue neurotransmitter and metabolite levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Significant sex- and region-specific differences of amino acids and monoamines were found in the brain of wild-type and AQP4-knockout mice. In cortex, striatum, and hippocampus of male AQP4-knockout mice, an increase of glutamine and decrease of aspartate were observed. Glutamate was increased only in female AQP4-knockout mice. The lack of AQP4 failed to affect the levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid and taurine. In the medial prefrontal cortex of AQP4-knockout mice, the levels of serotonin and norepinephrine were increased, but no significant change in dopamine level was found. In the striatum of male AQP4-knockout mice, the levels of dopamine and serotonin were remarkably increased, which was not found in female mice. In the hypothalamus of AQP4-knockout mice, only the serotonin level was altered. These results provide the first evidence that the lack of AQP4 expression is accompanied by sex- and region-specific alterations in brain amino acid and monoamine metabolism. PMID:16237719

  4. [Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, M; Shimizu, S

    1999-10-01

    Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are called niacin. They are the antipellagra vitamin essential to many animals for growth and health. In human being, niacin is believed necessary together with other vitamins for the prevention and cure of pellagra. Niacin is widely distributed in nature; appreciable amounts are found in liver, fish, yeast and cereal grains. Nicotinamide is a precursor of the coenzyme NAD and NADP. Some of the most understood metabolic processes that involve niacin are glycolysis, fatty acid synthesis and respiration. Niacin is also related to the following diseases: Hartnup disease; blue diaper syndrome; tryptophanuria; hydroxykynureninuria; xanthurenic aciduria; Huntington's disease. PMID:10540864

  5. Whither Acid Rain?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Brimblecombe

    2000-01-01

    Acid rain, the environmental cause célèbre of the 1980s seems to have vanished from popular conscience. By contrast, scientific research, despite funding difficulties, has continued to produce hundreds of research papers each year. Studies of acid rain taught much about precipitation chemistry, the behaviour of snow packs, long-range transport of pollutants and new issues in the biology of fish and forested ecosystems. There is now evidence of a shift away from research in precipitation and s...

  6. A very acid rocket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benoit Browaeys, D.

    1996-04-01

    The french rocket Ariane is the cause of environmental pollution. These effects are discussed in this article. Chloric acid and aluminium are in question: chloric acid is responsible of leaves necrosis and pulmonary diseases among the rats. For the man, the danger would be that drinking water could be contaminated by aluminium, which is neuro toxic with serious chronic effects. It is implicated in Alzheimer disease. But no studies has been made to search aluminium in drinking water of Sinnamary and Kourou. (N.C.). 8 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2013-09-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chelating agent can bind to metals via four carboxylate and two amine groups. It is a polyamino carboxylic acid and a colorless, water-soluble solid, which is widely used to dissolve lime scale. It is produced as several salts, notably disodium EDTA and calcium disodium EDTA. EDTA reacts with the calcium ions in dentine and forms soluble calcium chelates. A review of the literature and a discussion of the different indications and considerations for its usage are presented. PMID:24966721

  8. Whither Acid Rain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brimblecombe

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid rain, the environmental cause célèbre of the 1980s seems to have vanished from popular conscience. By contrast, scientific research, despite funding difficulties, has continued to produce hundreds of research papers each year. Studies of acid rain taught much about precipitation chemistry, the behaviour of snow packs, long-range transport of pollutants and new issues in the biology of fish and forested ecosystems. There is now evidence of a shift away from research in precipitation and sulfur chemistry, but an impressive theoretical base remains as a legacy.

  9. Boric acid concentration monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boric acid concentration was measured by thermal neutron absorption in the study of the boric acid sorption and desorption curves on an anion exchange resin. Ra-Be 18.5 GBq and Am-Be 111 GBq sources and water as a moderator were used. The SNM 12 cylindrical corona detector with 10B placed in the middle of the measuring cell was used for neutron flux measurement. The HP 9600 E computer system was used for measured data collection and evaluation. (Ha)

  10. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Calder Philip C

    2004-01-01

    The n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid gives rise to the eicosanoid family of inflammatory mediators (prostaglandins, leukotrienes and related metabolites) and through these regulates the activities of inflammatory cells, the production of cytokines and the various balances within the immune system. Fish oil and oily fish are good sources of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Consumption of these fatty acids decreases the amount of arachidonic acid in cell membranes and ...

  11. Acid Rain Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students investigate the formation of solid ammonium chloride aerosol particles to help students better understand the concept of acid rain. Provides activity objectives, procedures, sample data, clean-up instructions, and questions and answers to help interpret the data. (MDH)

  12. Acid Rain Classroom Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demchik, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a curriculum plan in which students learn about acid rain through instructional media, research and class presentations, lab activities, simulations, design, and design implementation. Describes the simulation activity in detail and includes materials, procedures, instructions, examples, results, and discussion sections. (SAH)

  13. The Acid Rain Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

    1982-01-01

    Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…

  14. The Acid Rain Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates-Bockenstedt, Catherine

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity designed to motivate students by incorporating science-related issues into a classroom debate. Includes "The Acid Rain Bill" and "Position Guides" for student roles as committee members, consumers, governors, industry owners, tourism professionals, senators, and debate directors. (DKM)

  15. Hyaluronic Acid Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itenov, Theis S; Kirkby, Nikolai S; Bestle, Morten H;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUD: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is proposed as a marker of functional liver capacity. The aim of the present study was to compare a new turbidimetric assay for measuring HA with the current standard method. METHODS: HA was measured by a particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) and enzyme...

  16. Koetjapic acid chloroform hemisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. D. Nassar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C30H46O4·0.5CHCl3, consists of one koetjapic acid [systematic name: (3R,4aR,4bS,7S,8S,10bS,12aS-7-(2-carboxyethyl-3,4b,7,10b,12a-pentamethyl-8-(prop-1-en-2-yl-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,7,8,9,10,10b,11,12,12a-hexadecahydrochrysene-3-carboxylic acid] molecule and one half-molecule of chloroform solvent, which is disordered about a twofold rotation axis. The symmetry-independent component is further disordered over two sites, with occupancies of 0.30 and 0.20. The koetjapic acid contains a fused four-ring system, A/B/C/D. The A/B, B/C and C/D junctions adopt E/trans/cis configurations, respectively. The conformation of ring A is intermediate between envelope and half-chair and ring B adopts an envelope conformation whereas rings C and D adopt chair conformations. A weak intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bond is observed. The koetjapic acid molecules are linked into dimers by two pairs of intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The dimers are stacked along the c axis.

  17. Lactic acid and lactates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, V.V.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    This review aims to integrate the present state of knowledge on lactate metabolism in human and mammalian physiology as far as it could be subject to nutritional interventions. An integrated view on the nutritional, metabolic and physiological aspects of lactic acid and lactates might open a perspec

  18. Acid dip for dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background signal in a PTFE based dosemeter caused by impurities in the PTFE and in the active component such as lithium fluoride is substantially reduced by treating the dosemeter with acid. The optimum treatment involves use of hydrofluoric acid at room temperature for approximately one minute, followed by thorough washing with methanol, and finally drying. This treatment is best applied after the original manufacture of the dosemeters. It may also be applied to existing dosemeters after they have been in use for some time. The treatment produces a permanent effect in reducing both the light induced signal and the non-light induced signal. The process may be applied to all types of dosemeter manufactured from PTFE or other plastics or resins which are able to resist brief exposure to acid. The treatment works particularly well with dosemeters based on PTFE and lithium fluoride. It is also applicable to dosemeters based on calcium sulphate, lithium borate and magnesium borate. Acids which may be used include hydrofluoric, hydrochloric, nitric, phosphoric and sulphuric. (author)

  19. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  20. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  1. Origin of fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The appearance of fatty acids and membranes is one of the most important events of the prebiotic world because genesis of life required the compartmentalization of molecules. Membranes allowed cells to become enriched with molecules relevant for their evolution and gave rise to gradients convertible into energy. By virtue of their hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface, membranes developed certain enzymatic activities impossible in the aqueous phase. A prebiotic cell is an energy unit but it is also an information unit. It has a past, a present and a future. The biochemistry of fatty acids involves acetylCoA, malonylCoA and an enzyme, acyl synthetase, which joins both molecules. After substitution of the acetyl group in place of the carboxyl group of malonyl derivatives, the chain is reduced and dehydrated to crotonyl derivatives. These molecules can again react with malonylCoA to form unsaturated chain; they can also undergo a new reduction step to form butyryl derivatives which can react with malonylCoA to form a longer aliphatic chain. The formation of malonylCoA consumes ATP. The reduction step needs NADPH and proton. Dehydration requires structural information because the reduction product is chiral (D configuration). It is unlikely that these steps were possible in a prebiotic environment. Thus we have to understand how fatty acids could appear in the prebiotic era. This hypothesis about the origin of fatty acids is based on the chemistry of sulfonium ylides and sulfonium salts. The most well-known among these molecules are S-melthyl-methionine and S-adenosyl methionine. The simplest sulfonium cation is the trimethylsulfonium cation. Chemists have evidence that these products can produce olefin when they are heated or flashed with UV light in some conditions. I suggest that these volatile products can allow the formation of fatty acids chains in atmospheric phase with UV and temperature using methanol as starting material. Different synthetic pathways will be

  2. Photostabilization of ascorbic acid with citric acid, tartaric acid and boric acid in cream formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, I; Ali Sheraz, M; Ahmed, S; Shad, Z; Vaid, F H M

    2012-06-01

    This study involves the evaluation of the effect of certain stabilizers, that is, citric acid (CT), tartaric acid (TA) and boric acid (BA) on the degradation of ascorbic acid (AH(2) ) in oil-in-water cream formulations exposed to the UV light and stored in the dark. The apparent first-order rate constants (0.34-0.95 × 10(-3) min(-1) in light, 0.38-1.24 × 10(-2) day(-1) in dark) for the degradation reactions in the presence of the stabilizers have been determined. These rate constants have been used to derive the second-order rate constants (0.26-1.45 × 10(-2) M(-1) min(-1) in light, 3.75-8.50 × 10(-3) M(-1) day(-1) in dark) for the interaction of AH(2) and the individual stabilizers. These stabilizers are effective in causing the inhibition of the rate of degradation of AH(2) both in the light and in the dark. The inhibitory effect of the stabilizers is in the order of CT > TA > BA. The rate of degradation of AH(2) in the presence of these stabilizers in the light is about 120 times higher than that in the dark. This could be explained on the basis of the deactivation of AH(2) -excited triplet state by CT and TA and by the inhibition of AH(2) degradation through complex formation with BA. AH(2) leads to the formation of dehydroascorbic acid (A) by chemical and photooxidation in cream formulations. PMID:22296174

  3. Arterial Blood Carbonic Acid Inversely Determines Lactic and Organic Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Aiken, Christopher Geoffrey Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish that arterial blood carbonic acid varies inversely with lactic acid in accordance with bicarbonate exchanging for lactate across cell membranes through the anion exchange mechanism to maintain the Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium.

  4. Effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid on erythropoiesis: A preclinical in vitro characterization for the treatment of congenital sideroblastic anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Tohru [Department of Hematology and Rheumatology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan); Department of Molecular Hematology/Oncology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan); Okamoto, Koji; Niikuni, Ryoyu [Department of Hematology and Rheumatology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan); Takahashi, Kiwamu [SBI Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Okitsu, Yoko; Fukuhara, Noriko; Onishi, Yasushi [Department of Hematology and Rheumatology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan); Ishizawa, Kenichi [Department of Hematology and Rheumatology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan); Clinical Research, Innovation and Education Center, Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai (Japan); Ichinohasama, Ryo [Department of Hematopathology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan); Nakamura, Yukio [Cell Engineering Division, RIKEN BioResource Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakajima, Motowo; Tanaka, Tohru [SBI Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Harigae, Hideo, E-mail: harigae@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Hematology and Rheumatology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan); Department of Molecular Hematology/Oncology, Tohoku University Graduate School, Sendai (Japan)

    2014-11-07

    expressed in erythroid cells. Thus, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was added to K562 cells to competitively inhibit SLC36A1-mediated transport. GABA treatment significantly impeded the ALA-mediated increase in the number of hemoglobinized cells as well as the induction of HBG, HBA, and HMOX1. Finally, small-interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of ALAS2 in HiDEP cells considerably decreased the expression of HBA, HBG, and HMOX1, and these expression levels were rescued with ALA treatment. In summary, ALA appears to be transported into erythroid cells mainly by SLC36A1 and is utilized to generate heme. ALA may represent a novel therapeutic option for CSA treatment, particularly for cases harboring ALAS2 mutations.

  5. Effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid on erythropoiesis: A preclinical in vitro characterization for the treatment of congenital sideroblastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    expressed in erythroid cells. Thus, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was added to K562 cells to competitively inhibit SLC36A1-mediated transport. GABA treatment significantly impeded the ALA-mediated increase in the number of hemoglobinized cells as well as the induction of HBG, HBA, and HMOX1. Finally, small-interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of ALAS2 in HiDEP cells considerably decreased the expression of HBA, HBG, and HMOX1, and these expression levels were rescued with ALA treatment. In summary, ALA appears to be transported into erythroid cells mainly by SLC36A1 and is utilized to generate heme. ALA may represent a novel therapeutic option for CSA treatment, particularly for cases harboring ALAS2 mutations

  6. Thermal properties of some small peptides (N-acetyl-amino acid-N′-methylamides) with non-polar side groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Tfus and ΔfusHm of methylamides of N-acetyl substituted non-polar amino acids were measured. • Tfus and ΔfusHm increased as a function of the molar mass of the alkyl side chains. • DL racemates showed Tfus of about 40 °C lower than those of the corresponding pure L enantiomers. • Ideal solubility of solids at T = 298.15 K was estimated based on their Tfus and ΔfusSm. - Abstract: Temperatures and molar enthalpies of fusion of a series of uncharged small peptides, namely the methylamides of N-acetyl substituted glycine, α-amino-butyric acid, alanine, valine, norvaline, leucine, isoleucine, norleucine, and proline, were measured by differential scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.), and molar entropies of fusion were derived. Both L- and DL-compunds were taken into account for the chiral molecules. No solid-to-solid transitions were detected from room temperature to fusion except for N-acetyl-N′-methyl alaninamide. Comparisons were made with the values for the N-acetyl amides of the corresponding amino acids previously reported. Both L enantiomers and DL racemates of α-aminobutyric acid, alanine, valine and isoleucine methylamides displayed temperatures of fusion sharply increasing as a function of molar mass, whereas much lower values, in countertendency with their molar mass increase, were found for proline and leucine methylamides. The racemic DL crystals showed temperatures of fusion of about 40 °C lower than those of the corresponding pure L enantiomers, except for proline and leucine derivatives. The enthalpies and entropies of fusion also varied as a function of molar mass following a similar trend with that of temperatures of fusion, except for alanine derivatives which showed lower values than expected. The values of ideal solubility of solids at T = 298.15 K were estimated based on their temperatures and molar entropies of fusion. Results were discussed with reference to the packing patterns based on hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic

  7. Boswellic acid inhibits expression of acid sphingomyelinase in intestinal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Rui-Dong

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Boswellic acid is a type of triterpenoids with antiinflammatory and antiproliferative properties. Sphingomyelin metabolism generates multiple lipid signals affecting cell proliferation, inflammation, and apoptosis. Upregulation of acid sphingomyelinase (SMase has been found in several inflammation-related diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Methods The present study is to examine the effect of 3-acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acids (AKBA, a potent boswellic acid, on acid SMase activity and expression in intestinal cells. Both transformed Caco-2 cells and non-transformed Int407 cells were incubated with AKBA. After incubation, the change of acid SMase activity was assayed biochemically, the enzyme protein was examined by Western blot, and acid SMase mRNA was quantified by qPCR. Results We found that AKBA decreased acid SMase activity in both intestinal cell lines in dose and time dependent manners without affecting the secretion of the enzyme to the cell culture medium. The effect of AKBA was more effective in the fetal bovine serum-free culture medium. Among different types of boswellic acid, AKBA was the most potent one. The inhibitory effect on acid SMase activity occurred only in the intact cells but not in cell-free extract in the test tubes. At low concentration, AKBA only decreased the acid SMase activity but not the quantity of the enzyme protein. However, at high concentration, AKBA decreased both the mass of acid SMase protein and the mRNA levels of acid SMase in the cells, as demonstrated by Western blot and qPCR, respectively. Under the concentrations decreasing acid SMase activity, AKBA significantly inhibited cell proliferation. Conclusion We identified a novel inhibitory effect of boswellic acids on acid SMase expression, which may have implications in human diseases and health.

  8. [Lipid synthesis by an acidic acid tolerant Rhodotorula glutinis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhangnan; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jian'an; Wang, Gehua

    2016-03-01

    Acetic acid, as a main by-product generated in the pretreatment process of lignocellulose hydrolysis, significantly affects cell growth and lipid synthesis of oleaginous microorganisms. Therefore, we studied the tolerance of Rhodotorula glutinis to acetic acid and its lipid synthesis from substrate containing acetic acid. In the mixed sugar medium containing 6 g/L glucose and 44 g/L xylose, and supplemented with acetic acid, the cell growth was not:inhibited when the acetic acid concentration was below 10 g/L. Compared with the control, the biomass, lipid concentration and lipid content of R. glutinis increased 21.5%, 171% and 122% respectively when acetic acid concentration was 10 g/L. Furthermore, R. glutinis could accumulate lipid with acetate as the sole carbon source. Lipid concentration and lipid yield reached 3.20 g/L and 13% respectively with the initial acetic acid concentration of 25 g/L. The lipid composition was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The main composition of lipid produced with acetic acid was palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, including 40.9% saturated fatty acids and 59.1% unsaturated fatty acids. The lipid composition was similar to that of plant oil, indicating that lipid from oleaginous yeast R. glutinis had potential as the feedstock of biodiesel production. These results demonstrated that a certain concentration of acetic acid need not to be removed in the detoxification process when using lignocelluloses hydrolysate to produce microbial lipid by R. glutinis. PMID:27349116

  9. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Ham, van der A.G.J.; Schuur, B.

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  10. College Chemistry Students' Mental Models of Acids and Acid Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClary, LaKeisha; Talanquer, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to characterize the mental models of acids and acid strength expressed by advanced college chemistry students when engaged in prediction, explanation, and justification tasks that asked them to rank chemical compounds based on their relative acid strength. For that purpose we completed a qualitative research…

  11. N-(3-Methylphenylsuccinamic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thimme Gowda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, C11H13NO3, the conformations of the N—H and C=O bonds in the amide segment are anti to each other, and that of the amide H atom is anti to the meta-methyl group in the benzene ring. Furthermore, the conformations of the amide oxygen and the carbonyl O atom of the acid segment are also anti to the adjacent –CH2 groups. The C=O and O—H bonds of the acid group are syn to each other. In the crystal, the molecules are packed into infinite chains through intermolecular N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  12. [Progress in glucaric acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yuying; Fang, Fang; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2015-04-01

    Glucaric acid (GA) is derived from glucose and commonly used in chemical industry. It is also considered as one of the "Top value-added chemicals from biomass" as carbohydrate monomers to produce various synthetic polymers and bioenergy. The demand for GA in food manufacture is increasing. GA has also attracted public attentions due to its therapeutic uses such as regulating hormones, increasing the immune function and reducing the risks of cancers. Currently GA is produced by chemical oxidation. Research on production of GA via microbial synthesis is still at preliminary stage. We reviewed the advances of glucaric acid applications, preparation and quantification methods. The prospects on production of GA by microbial fermentation were also discussed. PMID:26380405

  13. Studies on terreic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, H; Moriyama, K; Jinnouchi, H; Yagishita, K

    1980-03-01

    It was found that Aspergillus sp. No. Y-8980 which was isolated from a soil sample collected at Yoron Island in Kagoshima Prefecture belonged to Aspergillus terreus group by morphological observation. The active substance produced by the strain was obtained with a high yield in sucrose-yeast extract medium and extracted by chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol at pH 2.4 approximately 2.6 from the culture broth. The substance was crystallized from chloroform and ethyl acetate after charcoal treatment of the crude crystal. From various physico-chemical properties, it was found that the substance was identical to terreic acid. Terreic acid showed MICs of 25 approximately 100 mcg/ml, 12.5 mcg/ml and 50 mcg/ml against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, Xanthomonas oryzae and Xanthomonas citri, respectively, but it did not control Pseudomonas, fungi and yeast. The LD50 was 75 mg/kg i.p. and i.v. in mice. With regards to the anti-tumor effect, the morphological degeneration on HeLa cells (human carcinoma cells) was observed in the concentrations of more than 6.25 mcg/ml of terreic acid. An increase of body weight of mice caused by Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells was not definitely observed by the daily administration of 150 mcg of terreic acid per mouse for 8 consecutive days. Above showed the enough survival effect in dd mice implanted with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells, and the effect also was demonstrated by anatomies of mice. PMID:7190624

  14. Electrochemistry of nucleic acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paleček, Emil; Bartošík, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 6 (2012), s. 3427-3481. ISSN 0009-2665 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/2055; GA MŠk(CZ) ME09038; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : nucleic acids electrochemistry * DNA biosensors * DNA damage Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 41.298, year: 2012

  15. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  16. Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... niacinamide), vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), and folic acid. However, some products do ... for dandruff, depression, diabetic nerve pain, enhancing immune function, improving athletic performance, tongue infections, gray hair, headache, ...

  17. ACID ROCK DRAINAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Ionce

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Acid rock drainage (ARD is an particularly important aspect for the evaluation of the decantation ponds’ safety, and which has been only once taken into consideration at the Tarnicioara decantation pond, year 2002, as a consequence of the apparition of a strong seepage on the deposit’s dump, that has chemically de-purified the water from the river Brateasa. We have observed ARD, which implies the release of acid solutions from the mining sterile deposits, from the underground mining works and from the quarries, in the following tailings dams: Tarnicioara, Valea Strajii, Poarta Veche- which served Tarniţa Preparation Enterprise and in the Dealu Negru and Paraul Cailor ponds- which, at their time served Fundu Moldovei Preparation Enterprise, both during the period of their functioning and the period after their closure. For the decantation pond Dumitrelu which served the Calimani preparation enterprise, acid seepages from the deposit were mentioned in a study made by SC ICPM SA Baia Mare in 1993. Subsequently to the closure of the objective such seepage did not take place anymore. Instead, by raining, there is a frequent plant sterile dragging from the contour retaining wall down to the trouble pond, situated upstream.

  18. LACTIC ACID BACTERIA: PROBIOTIC APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    NEENA GARG

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is a heterotrophic Gram-positive bacteria which under goes lactic acid fermentations and leads to production of lactic acid as an end product. LAB includes Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Lactococcus and Streptococcus which are grouped together in the family lactobacillaceae. LAB shows numerous antimicrobial activities due to production of antibacterial and antifungal compounds such as organic acids, bacteriocins, diacetyl, hydrogen peroxide and reutrin. LA...

  19. Retinoic acid and cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Mei-Chih; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Lin, Ho; Yang, Tsung-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Retinoic acid which belongs to the retinoid class of chemical compounds is an important metabolite of vitamin A in diets. It is currently understood that retinoic acid plays important roles in cell development and differentiation as well as cancer treatment. Lung, prostate, breast, ovarian, bladder, oral, and skin cancers have been demonstrated to be suppressed by retinoic acid. Our results also show that low doses and high doses of retinoic acid may respectively cause cell cycle arrest and a...

  20. Biological properties of lipoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bilska

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipoic acid is a prostetic group of H-protein of the glycine cleavage system and the dihydrolipoamide acyltransferases (E2 of the pyruvate, alpha-ketoglutarate and branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes. Lipoic acid and its reduced form, dihydrolipoic acid, reacts with oxygen reactive species. This paper reviews the beneficial effects in oxidative stress models or clinical conditions.

  1. Sedimentation of sulfuric acid in acid tars from current production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisova, T.L.; Frolov, A.F.; Aminov, A.N.; Novosel' tsev, S.P.

    1987-09-01

    Acid tars obtained in treating T-750, KhF-12, and I-8A oils were investigated for purposes of recovering sulfuric acid and asphalt binders from the compositions and of determining the effects of storage time on the recovery. The consumption and sedimentation levels of sulfuric acid during storage for different periods and at different temperatures were assessed. The characteristics of an asphalt binder obtained by neutralizing acid tar with a paste consisting of asphalts from deasphalting operations and slaked lime, followed by oxidation of the mixture with atmospheric air, were determined. The sulfuric acid recovered in the settling process could be burned in order to purify it of organic contaminants.

  2. Acids and bases solvent effects on acid-base strenght

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Brian G

    2013-01-01

    Acids and bases are ubiquitous in chemistry. Our understanding of them, however, is dominated by their behaviour in water. Transfer to non-aqueous solvents leads to profound changes in acid-base strengths and to the rates and equilibria of many processes: for example, synthetic reactions involving acids, bases and nucleophiles; isolation of pharmaceutical actives through salt formation; formation of zwitter- ions in amino acids; and chromatographic separation of substrates. This book seeks to enhance our understanding of acids and bases by reviewing and analysing their behaviour in non-aqueous solvents. The behaviour is related where possible to that in water, but correlations and contrasts between solvents are also presented.

  3. An Umbrella for Acid Rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randal, Judith

    1979-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has awarded several grants to study effects of and possible solutions to the problem of "acid rain"; pollution from atmospheric nitric and sulfuric acids. The research program is administered through North Carolina State University at Raleigh and will focus on biological effects of acid rain. (JMF)

  4. Excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T N; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Ebert, B;

    1997-01-01

    We have previously shown that (RS)-2-amino-2-(5-tert-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-4-yl)acetic acid (ATAA) is an antagonist at N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. We have now resolved ATAA via diastereomeric salt formation...

  5. Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

    2014-07-01

    Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

  6. Acid Rain Limits Global Warming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Will Knight; 张林玲

    2004-01-01

    @@ Acid rain restricts global warming by reducing methane① emissions from natural wetland areas, suggests a global climate study. Acid rain is the result of industrial pollution,which causes rainwater to carry small quantities of acidic compoumds② such as sulphuric and nitric acid③. Contaminated rainwater can upset rivers and lakes, killing fish and other organisms and also damage plants, trees and buildings.

  7. Self-neutralizing well acidizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, E.A.; Scheuerman, R.F.

    1974-07-30

    A process for acidizing a subterranean region by contacting it with an acidic solution is improved by dissolving in the solution a pH-increasing reactant that subsequently adjusts the pH of the solution to a selected relatively neutral value. Urea is an example of the acid neutralizer. (10 claims)

  8. Ionic liquid supported acid-catalysed esterification of lauric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionic Liquid (IL) based on 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoro methylsulfonyl)imide (BMI.NTf2) under acidic condition was used as catalyst for the esterification reaction of fatty acid. Various acids namely sulphuric acid, perchloric acid, p-toulene sulphonic acid and various chloride salts such as zinc chloride (ZnCl2) and iron (III) chloride (FeCl3) immobilized in ionic liquid BMI.NTf2 gave acidic ILs. These acidic ILs were tested as catalysts for esterification reactions. Esterification of alcohol (methanol) with fatty acid (lauric acid) using ionic liquid BMI.NTf2 combined with H2SO4 (BMI.NTf2(H2SO4)) gave high activity (>85 %) and selectivity (100 %) observed over a period of 2 hours reaction with reaction temperature 70 degree Celsius. The ester became easily separated due to IL forming biphasic with product after the reaction where ester accumulated as the upper phase and IL with water produced after reaction at lower phase. Catalytic activities comparison also be studied between acidic ionic liquid BMI.NTf2 with acidic ionic liquid ChCl.2ZnCl2 and conventional acid catalyst. These ILs were characterised by using FTIR, NMR and TGA. Results from FTIR were showed no significant difference between ILs with ILs in acidic condition. The TGA curve show BMI.NTf2 thermals decomposition is ≥400 degree Celsius but when BMI.NTf2 combination with H2SO4, TGA curve show weight loss increase and becomes unstable. The advantages of ILs as catalyst are clean process and green chemistry due to its behaviour such as non-volatile, no loss of solvent through evaporation and reduced environmentally impact. This ILs-catalyst system can be recycle for further reaction. (author)

  9. Effect of GABA on oxidative stress in the skeletal muscles and plasma free amino acids in mice fed high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Z X; Xia, S F; Qiao, Y; Shi, Y H; Le, G W

    2015-06-01

    Increased levels of plasma free amino acids (pFAAs) can disturb the blood glucose levels in patients with obesity, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome (MS) and are associated with enhanced protein oxidation. Oxidation of proteins, especially in the muscles, can promote protein degradation and elevate the levels of pFAAs. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a food additive, can reduce high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperglycaemia; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of GABA on protein oxidation and pFAAs changes. One hundred male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups that were fed with control diet, HFD and HFD supplied with 0.2%, 0.12% and 0.06% GABA in drinking water for 20 weeks respectively. HFD feeding led to muscular oxidative stress, protein oxidation, pFAA disorders, hyperglycaemia and augmented plasma GABA levels. Treatment with GABA restored normally fasting blood glucose level and dose-dependently inhibited body weight gains, muscular oxidation and protein degradation. While medium and low doses of GABA mitigated HFD-induced pFAA disorders, the high dose of GABA deteriorated the pFAA disorders. Medium dose of GABA increased the levels of GABA, but high dose of GABA reduced the levels of plasma GABA and increased the activity of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase in the liver. Therefore, treatment with GABA mitigated HFD-induced hyperglycaemia probably by repairing HFD-induced muscular oxidative stress and pFAA disorders in mice. Our data also suggest that an optimal dose of GABA is crucial for the prevention of excess GABA-related decrease in the levels of pFAA and GABA as well as obesity. PMID:25266692

  10. Gamma Amino Butyric Acid Attenuates Liver and Kidney Damage Associated with Insulin Alteration in γ-Irradiated and Streptozotocin-Treated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) is one of the inhibitory neurotransmitters that may have the ability to relive the intensity of stress. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the role of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) in modulating insulin disturbance associated with liver and kidney damage in γ-irradiated and streptozotocin-treated rats. Irradiation was performed by whole body exposure to 6 Gy from a Cs-137 source. Streptozotocin (STZ) was administered in a single intraperitoneal dose (60 mg/kg body weight). GABA (200 mg/Kg body weight/day) was administered daily via gavages during 3 weeks to γ-irradiated and STZ-treated-rats. The results obtained showed that γ-irradiation induced hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance (similar to type 2 Diabetes), while STZ-treatment produced hyperglycemia, insulin deficiency with no insulin resistance detected (similar to type 1 Diabetes). In both cases, significant increases of alanine amino transferase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST) activities, urea and creatinine levels were recorded in the serum. These changes were associated with oxidative damage to the liver and kidney tissues notified by significant decreases of superoxide dismutase (SOD ), catalase and glutathione peroxidase ( GSH-Px) activities in parallel to significant increases of malondialdehyde (MDA) and advanced oxidation protein products ( AOPP) levels. The administration of GABA to irradiated as well as STZ-treated rats regulated insulin and glucose levels, minimized oxidative stress and reduced the severity of liver and kidney damage. It could be concluded that GABA could be a useful adjunct to reduce some metabolic complications associated with insulin deficiency and insulin resistance

  11. Investigation of free amino acid, total phenolics, antioxidant activity and purine alkaloids to assess the health properties of non-Camellia tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Bi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To find novel functional beverages from folk teas, 33 species of frequently used non-Camellia tea (plants other than Camellia were collected and compared with Camellia tea (green tea, pu-erh tea and black tea for the first time. Data are reported here on the quantities of 20 free amino acids (FAAs and three purine alkaloids (measured by UHPLC, total polyphenols (measured by Folin-Ciocalteu assay, and antioxidant activity (DPPH. The total amounts of FAAs in non-Camellia tea (0.62–18.99 mg/g are generally less than that of Camellia tea (16.55–24.99 mg/g. However, for certain FAAs, the quantities were much higher in some non-Camellia teas, such as γ-aminobutyric acid in teas from Ampelopsis grossedentata, Isodon serra and Hibiscus sabdariffa. Interestingly, theanine was detected in tea from Potentilla fruticosa (1.16±0.81 mg/g. Furthermore, the content of polyphenols in teas from A. grossedentata, Acer tataricum subsp. ginnala are significantly higher than those from Camellia tea; teas from I. serra, Pistacia chinensis and A. tataricum subsp. ginnala have remarkable antioxidant activities similar to the activities from green tea (44.23 μg/mL. Purine alkaloids (caffeine, theobromine and theophylline were not detected in non-Camellia teas. The investigation suggest some non-Camellia teas may be great functional natural products with potential for prevention of chronic diseases and aging, by providing with abundant polyphenols, antioxidants and specific FAAs.

  12. Investigation of free amino acid, total phenolics, antioxidant activity and purine alkaloids to assess the health properties of non-Camellia tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Wu; He, Chunnian; Ma, Yunyun; Shen, Jie; Zhang, Linghua Harris; Peng, Yong; Xiao, Peigen

    2016-03-01

    To find novel functional beverages from folk teas, 33 species of frequently used non-Camellia tea (plants other than Camellia) were collected and compared with Camellia tea (green tea, pu-erh tea and black tea) for the first time. Data are reported here on the quantities of 20 free amino acids (FAAs) and three purine alkaloids (measured by UHPLC), total polyphenols (measured by Folin-Ciocalteu assay), and antioxidant activity (DPPH). The total amounts of FAAs in non-Camellia tea (0.62-18.99 mg/g) are generally less than that of Camellia tea (16.55-24.99 mg/g). However, for certain FAAs, the quantities were much higher in some non-Camellia teas, such as γ-aminobutyric acid in teas from Ampelopsis grossedentata, Isodon serra and Hibiscus sabdariffa. Interestingly, theanine was detected in tea from Potentilla fruticosa (1.16±0.81 mg/g). Furthermore, the content of polyphenols in teas from A. grossedentata, Acer tataricum subsp. ginnala are significantly higher than those from Camellia tea; teas from I. serra, Pistacia chinensis and A. tataricum subsp. ginnala have remarkable antioxidant activities similar to the activities from green tea (44.23 μg/mL). Purine alkaloids (caffeine, theobromine and theophylline) were not detected in non-Camellia teas. The investigation suggest some non-Camellia teas may be great functional natural products with potential for prevention of chronic diseases and aging, by providing with abundant polyphenols, antioxidants and specific FAAs. PMID:27006902

  13. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  14. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  15. Tested Demonstrations: Color Oscillations in the Formic Acid-Nitric Acid-Sulfuric Acid System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raw, C. J. G.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Presented are procedures for demonstrating the production of color oscillations when nitric acid is added to a formic acid/concentrated sulfuric acid mixture. Because of safety considerations, "Super-8" home movie of the color changes was found to be satisfactory for demonstration purposes. (JN)

  16. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calder Philip C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid gives rise to the eicosanoid family of inflammatory mediators (prostaglandins, leukotrienes and related metabolites and through these regulates the activities of inflammatory cells, the production of cytokines and the various balances within the immune system. Fish oil and oily fish are good sources of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Consumption of these fatty acids decreases the amount of arachidonic acid in cell membranes and so available for eicosanoid production. Thus, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids act as arachidonic acid antagonists. Components of both natural and acquired immunity, including the production of key inflammatory cytokines, can be affected by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Although some of the effects of n-3 fatty acids may be brought about by modulation of the amount and types of eicosanoids made, it is possible that these fatty acids might elicit some of their effects by eicosanoid-independent mechanisms. Such n-3 fatty acid-induced effects may be of use as a therapy for acute and chronic inflammation, and for disorders that involve an inappropriately-activated immune response.

  17. Waste acid detoxification and reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economically feasible processes that reduce the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acids by reclaiming, reusing, and recycling spent acids and metal salts are being developed and demonstrated. The acids used in the demonstrations are generated during metal-finishing operations used in nuclear fuel fabrication; HF-HNO3, HNO3, and HNO3-H2SO4 wastes result from Zr etching, Cu stripping, and chemical milling of U. At discharge, wastes contain high concentrations of acid and one major metal impurity. The waste minimization process used to reclaim acid from these three streams incorporates three processes for acid regeneration and reclamation. Normally, HNO3 remains in the bottoms when an aqueous acid solution is distilled; however, in the presence of H2SO4, HNO3 will distill to the overhead stream. In this process, nitrates and fluorides present as free acid and metal salts can be reclaimed as acid for recycle to the metal-finishing processes. Uranium present in the chemical milling solution can be economically recovered from distillation bottoms and refined. Using acid distillation, the volume of chemical milling solution discharged as waste can be reduced by as much as 60% depending on the H2SO4 concentration. A payback period of 2.2 years has been estimated for this process. The development and demonstration of precipitation and distillation processes for detoxification and reclamation of waste acid is supported by the US Department of Energy's Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP)

  18. Labeled bile acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general short procedure for the introduction of 13C to the side chain of bile acids is described. Suitable (Z)-pregn-17(20)-enes are key intermediates, while the isotope is introduced by an ene reaction with [1,2,3-13C3]-methyl propiolate. For the labeling with tritium, the unlabeled product of the ene synthesis, a Δsup(5,16,22)-triene was saturated selectively at 16,17 and 22,23 with tritium gas. (author)

  19. N-(4-Isocyanophenylsuccinamic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E. Burnham

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, C11H10N2O3, inversion-related molecules are connected by pairs of O—H...O hydrogen bonds. With the exception of the atoms in the carboxylic acid group, the non-H atoms are roughly coplanar with a maximum deviation from the mean plane of 0.270 (1 Å for the C atom to which the carboxylic group is attached. The C atom of the carboxylic group lies 1.730 (2 Å from the mean plane.

  20. Nucleic Acid Vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Shan

    2004-01-01

    @@ Anew method of immunization was discovered in the early 1990s. Several research groups independently demonstrated that direct inoculation of DNA plasmids coding for a specific protein antigen could elicit immune responses against that antigen[1-4].Since in theory the mRNA molecules also have the potential to be translated into the protein antigen, this vaccination approach was officially named by WHO as the nucleic acid vaccination even though the term DNA vaccine has been used more commonly in the literature. This novel approach is considered the fourth generation of vaccines after live attenuated vaccines, killed or inactivated vaccines and recombinant protein based subunit vaccines.

  1. Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxidation of Phenyl Acetic Acid and Dl-Mandelic Acid by Permanganate in Acid Medium

    OpenAIRE

    B. Syama Sundar; P.S.Radhakrishna murti

    2014-01-01

    Kinetics of oxidation of phenyl acetic acid and DL- Mandelic acid by potassium permanganate in aqueous acetic acid and perchloric acid mixture reveals that the kinetic orders are first order in oxidant, first order in H+ and zero order in substrate for phenyl acetic acid. DL-Mandelic acid exhibits first order in oxidant and zero order in substrate. The results are rationalised by a mechanism involving intermediate formation of mandelic acid in case of Phenyl acetic acid and ester formation wi...

  2. Cryoprotection from lipoteichoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Charles V.; Middaugh, Amy; Wickham, Jason R.; Friedline, Anthony; Thomas, Kieth J.; Johnson, Karen; Zachariah, Malcolm; Garimella, Ravindranth

    2012-10-01

    Numerous chemical additives lower the freezing point of water, but life at sub-zero temperatures is sustained by a limited number of biological cryoprotectants. Antifreeze proteins in fish, plants, and insects provide protection to a few degrees below freezing. Microbes have been found to survive at even lower temperatures, and with a few exceptions, antifreeze proteins are missing. Survival has been attributed to external factors, such as the high salt concentration of brine veins and adhesion to particulates or ice crystal defects. We have discovered an endogenous cryoprotectant in the cell wall of bacteria, lipoteichoic acid biopolymers. Adding 1% LTA to bacteria cultures immediately prior to freezing provides 50% survival rate, similar to the results obtained with 1% glycerol. In the absence of an additive, bacterial survival is negligible as measured with the resazurin cell viability assay. The mode of action for LTA cryoprotection is unknown. With a molecular weight of 3-5 kDa, it is unlikely to enter the cell cytoplasm. Our observations suggest that teichoic acids could provide a shell of liquid water around biofilms and planktonic bacteria, removing the need for brine veins to prevent bacterial freezing.

  3. Growth of nitric acid hydrates on thin sulfuric acid films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Wilson, Margaret A.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1994-05-01

    Type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are thought to nucleate and grow on stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSAs). To model this system, thin sulfuric acid films were exposed to water and nitric acid vapors (1 - 3 × 10-4 Torr H2O and 1 - 2.5 × 10-6 Torr HNO3) and subjected to cooling and heating cycles. FTIR spectroscopy was used to probe the phase of the sulfuric acid and to identify the HNO3/H2O films that condensed. Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) was observed to grow on crystalline sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) films. NAT also condensed in/on supercooled H2SO4 films without causing crystallization of the sulfuric acid. This growth is consistent with NAT nucleation from ternary solutions as the first step in PSC formation.

  4. Growth of nitric acid hydrates on thin sulfuric acid films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Wilson, Margaret A.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1994-01-01

    Type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are thought to nucleate and grow on stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSAs). To model this system, thin sulfuric acid films were exposed to water and nitric acid vapors (1-3 x 10(exp -4) Torr H2O and 1-2.5 x 10(exp -6) Torr HNO3) and subjected to cooling and heating cycles. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to probe the phase of the sulfuric acid and to identify the HNO3/H2O films that condensed. Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) was observed to grow on crystalline sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) films. NAT also condensed in/on supercooled H2SO4 films without causing crystallization of the sulfuric acid. This growth is consistent with NAT nucleation from ternary solutions as the first step in PSC formation.

  5. Caro's acid - its introduction to uranium acid leaching in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After extensive testing and plant trials to establish the benefits of Caro's acid (H2SO5) as an alternative oxidant, Queensland Mines Limited decided to replace pyrolusite with Caro's acid in its acid leach uranium treatment plant at Nabarlek. The decision was based on the reagent savings and environmental gains associated with the removal of manganese from the process liquors, as well as the labour savings and improved oxidation reduction potential control possible in leaching using the Caro's acid system. Some changes in operating parameters were necessary with the introduction of Caro's acid to the treatment plant. Operating results have confirmed the relationship between oxidant demand and uranium content of ore established during the trials. Acid savings have been as predicted from the plant trials. The major saving has been of hydrated lime required for tailings neutralisation

  6. Solid acid catalysis from fundamentals to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, Hideshi

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionTypes of solid acid catalystsAdvantages of solid acid catalysts Historical overviews of solid acid catalystsFuture outlookSolid Acids CatalysisDefinition of acid and base -Brnsted acid and Lewis acid-Acid sites on surfacesAcid strengthRole of acid sites in catalysisBifunctional catalysisPore size effect on catalysis -shape selectivity-Characterization of Solid Acid Catalysts Indicator methodTemperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ammoniaCalorimetry of adsorption of basic moleculesInfrare

  7. Amino Acid Decarboxylase Activity of Some Lactic Acid Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Pelin ERTÜRKMEN; Turhan, İlkay; Öner, Zübeyde

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms which have decarboxylase activity can form biogenic amine by enzymatic decarboxylation of amino acids in foods. Histamine poisoning results from consumption of foods typically certain types of fish and cheeses that contain unusually high levels of histamine. Therefore, decarboxylase activity is an important problem at the selection of lactic acid bacteria as a starter culture in fermented products. In this study, decarboxylase activities of 161 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strain...

  8. Synthesis of stearic acid triethanolamine ester over solid acid catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Geng; Qiu Xiao Li; Ya Jie Jiang; Wei Wang

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of stearic acid triethanolamine ester over solid acid catalysts was investigated.The results showed that the catalytic activity and selectivity of zirconium sulfate supported on SBA-15(6)(pore diameter 6 nm)is better than that of commonly used hypophosphorous acid,zirconium sulfate supported on MCM-41 and zirconium sulfate supported on SBA-15(9)(pore diameter 9 nm).

  9. Bile acid interactions with cholangiocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuefeng Xia; Heather Francis; Shannon Glaser; Gianfranco Alpini; Gene LeSage

    2006-01-01

    Cholangiocytes are exposed to high concentrations of bile acids at their apical membrane. A selective transporter for bile acids, the Apical Sodium Bile Acid Cotransporter (ASBT) (also referred to as Ibat; gene name Slc10a2)is localized on the cholangiocyte apical membrane. On the basolateral membrane, four transport systems have been identified (t-ASBT, multidrug resistance (MDR)3,an unidentified anion exchanger system and organic solute transporter (Ost) heteromeric transporter, OstαOstβ. Together, these transporters unidirectionally move bile acids from ductal bile to the circulation. Bile acids absorbed by cholangiocytes recycle via the peribiliaryplexus back to hepatocytes for re-secretion into bile.This recycling of bile acids between hepatocytes and cholangiocytes is referred to as the cholehepatic shunt pathway. Recent studies suggest that the cholehepatic shunt pathway may contribute in overall hepatobiliary transport of bile acids and to the adaptation to chronic cholestasis due to extrahepatic obstruction. ASBT is acutely regulated by an adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent translocation to the apical membrane and by phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination and proteasome degradation. ASBT is chronically regulated by changes in gene expression in response to biliary bile acid concentration and inflammatory cytokines.Another potential function of cholangiocyte ASBT is to allow cholangiocytes to sample biliary bile acids in order to activate intracellular signaling pathways. Bile acids trigger changes in intracellular calcium, protein kinase C (PKC), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), mitogenactivated protein (MAP) kinase and extracellular signalregulated protein kinase (ERK) intracellular signals.Bile acids significantly alter cholangiocyte secretion,proliferation and survival. Different bile acids have differential effects on cholangiocyte intracellular signals,and in some instances trigger opposing effects on cholangiocyte secretion

  10. Molecular Simulation of Naphthenic Acid Removal on Acidic Catalyst Ⅱ. Experimental results of catalytic decarboxylation over acidic catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Xiaoqin; Tian Songbai; Hou Shuandi; Longjun; Wang Xieqing

    2008-01-01

    The energy barriers of thermal decarboxylation reactions of petroleum acids and catalytic decarboxylation reactions of Br(o)nsted acid and Lewis acid were analyzed using molecular simulation technology.Compared with thermal decarboxylation reactions of petroleum acids, the decarboxylation reactions by acid catalysts were easier to occur. The decarboxylaton effect by Lewis acid was better than Br(o)nsted acid. The mechanisms of catalytic decarboxylation over acid catalyst were also verified by experiments on a fixed bed and a fluidized bed, the experimental results showed that the rate of acid removal could reach up to 97% over the acidic catalyst at a temperature above 400℃.

  11. Binding of cationic peptides (KX)4K to DPPG bilayers. Increasing the hydrophobicity of the uncharged amino acid X drives formation of membrane bound β-sheets: A DSC and FT-IR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hädicke, André; Blume, Alfred

    2016-06-01

    The binding of cationic peptides of the sequence (KX)4K to lipid vesicles of negatively charged dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and temperature dependent Fourier-transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The hydrophobicity of the uncharged amino acid X was changed from G (glycine) over A (alanine), Abu (α-aminobutyric acid), V (valine) to L (leucine). The binding of the peptides caused an increase of the phase transition temperature (Tm) of DPPG by up to 20°C. The shift depended on the charge ratio and on the hydrophobicity of the amino acid X. Unexpectedly, the upward shift of Tm increased with increasing hydrophobicity of X. FT-IR spectroscopy showed a shift of the CH2 stretching vibrations of DPPG to lower frequency, particularly for bilayers in the liquid-crystalline phase, indicating an ordering of the hydrocarbon chains when the peptides were bound. Changes in the lipid C=O vibrational band indicated a dehydration of the lipid headgroup region after peptide binding. (KG)4K was bound in an unordered structure at all temperatures. All other peptides formed intermolecular antiparallel β-sheets, when bound to gel phase DPPG. However, for (KA)4K and (KAbu)4K, the β-sheets converted into an unordered structure above Tm. In contrast, the β-sheet structures of (KV)4K and (KL)4K remained stable even at 80°C when bound to the liquid-crystalline phase of DPPG. Strong aggregation of DPPG vesicles occurred after peptide binding. For the aggregates, we suggest a structure, where aggregated single β-sheets are sandwiched between opposing DPPG bilayers with a dehydrated interfacial region. PMID:26903220

  12. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Sundin, Peter; Wesén, Clas

    1997-01-01

    bound in different lipids. For the detection and identification of individual, halogenated fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) liberated from the lipids, gas chromatography (GC) has been employed together with detection methods such as electron capture detection, electrolytic conductivity detection (ELCD......), atomic emission spectrometry, and mass spectrometry. For most environmental samples, chlorinated FAMEs must be enriched prior to GC. ELCD is a useful detection method for indicating halogenated FAMEs in the chromatograms, and tentative identification of the halogenated species can be obtained by...... calculation of retention indices. For closer identification of halogenated FAMEs, mass spectrometry (MS) is very useful, in particular when employing the chemical ionisation mode. MS identification, however, is highly facilitated if halogenated species are first indicated by element-selective methods....

  13. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ji-Hyuk

    2013-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are the major components of brain and retina, and are the essential fatty acids with important physiologically active functions. Thus, PUFAs should be provided to children, and are very important in the brain growth and development for fetuses, newborn infants, and children. Omega-3 fatty acids decrease coronary artery disease and improve blood flow. PUFAs have been known to have anti-inflammatory action and improved the chronic inflammation such as auto-im...

  14. Allelopathic Interactions Involving Phenolic Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Blum, U.

    1996-01-01

    A major concern regarding allelopathic interactions involving phenolic acids in no-till systems pertains to the fact that concentrations of individual phenolic acids recoverable from field soils are well below levels required for inhibition of germination and seedling growth in laboratory bioassays. Field soils contain a variety of phenolic acids as well as other toxic and nontoxic organic compounds that are available to interact with seeds and roots; whereas in laboratory bioassays, with few...

  15. Fatty acid biosynthesis in actinomycetes

    OpenAIRE

    Gago, Gabriela; Diacovich, Lautaro; Arabolaza, Ana; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan; Gramajo, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    All organisms that produce fatty acids do so via a repeated cycle of reactions. In mammals and other animals, these reactions are catalyzed by a type I fatty acid synthase (FAS), a large multifunctional protein to which the growing chain is covalently attached. In contrast, most bacteria (and plants) contain a type II system in which each reaction is catalyzed by a discrete protein. The pathway of fatty acid biosynthesis in Escherichia coli is well established and has provided a foundation fo...

  16. Kojic acid in organic synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    ZIRAK, MARYAM; Eftekhari-Sis, Bagher

    2015-01-01

    The reactions of kojic acid in organic synthesis are reviewed. The aim of this review is to cover the literature up to the end of 2014, showing the distribution of publications involving kojic acid chemistry in the synthesis of various pyrone containing compounds, pyridine and pyridone heterocycles, and also other organic compounds. First, introductory text about the preparation, biological, and industrial applications, and the chemical properties of kojic acid is given. Then its uses in orga...

  17. [Total synthesis of nordihydroguaiaretic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A X; Zhao, Y R; Chen, N; Pan, X F

    1997-04-01

    beta-Keto ester(5) was obtained from vanilin through etherification, oxidation and condensation with acetoacetic ester, (5) on oxidative coupling reaction by NaOEt/I2 produced dimer (6) in high yield. Acid catalyzed cyclodehydration of (6) gave the furan derivative(7), and by a series of selective hydrogenation nordihydroguaiaretic acid, furoguaiacin dimethyl ether and dihydroguaiaretic acid dimethyl ether were synthesized. PMID:11499030

  18. ACETIC ACID AND A BUFFER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent.......The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent....

  19. Valproic Acid Induced Hyperammonaemic Encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To observe clinical and laboratory features of valproic acid-induced hyperammonaemic encephalopathy in patients taking valproic acid. Methods: Observational study was conducted at the Neurology Department, Dow University of Health Sciences, Civil Hospital, Karachi, from February 26, 2010 to March 20, 2011. Ten patients on valproic acid therapy of any age group with idiopathic or secondary epilepsy, who presented with encephalopathic symptoms, were registered and followed up during the study. Serum ammonia level, serum valproic acid level, liver function test, cerebrospinal fluid examination, electroencephalogram and brain imaging of all the patients were done. Other causes of encephalopathy were excluded after clinical and appropriate laboratory investigations. Microsoft Excel 2007 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Hyperammonaemia was found in all patients with encephalopathic symptoms. Rise in serum ammonia was independent of dose and serum level of valproic acid. Liver function was also found to be normal in 80% (n=8) of the patients. Valproic acid was withdrawn in all patients. Three (30%) patients improved only after the withdrawal of valproic acid. Six (60%) patients improved after L-Carnitine replacement, one (10%) after sodium benzoate. On followup, serum ammonia had reduced to normal in five (50%) patients and to more than half of the baseline level in two (20%) patients. Three (30%) patients were lost to followup after complete clinical improvement. Conclusion: Within therapeutic dose and serum levels, valproic acid can cause symptomatic hyperammonaemia resulting in encephalopathy. All patients taking valproic acid presenting with encephalopathic symptoms must be monitored for the condition. (author)

  20. Peptide Nucleic Acids Having Amino Acid Side Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands, and exhibit increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from a group consisting of...