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Sample records for aminobutyric acid

  1. Lactic acid bacterial cell factories for gamma-aminobutyric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haixing; Cao, Yusheng

    2010-11-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid is a non-protein amino acid that is widely present in organisms. Several important physiological functions of gamma-aminobutyric acid have been characterized, such as neurotransmission, induction of hypotension, diuretic effects, and tranquilizer effects. Many microorganisms can produce gamma-aminobutyric acid including bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Among them, gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing lactic acid bacteria have been a focus of research in recent years, because lactic acid bacteria possess special physiological activities and are generally regarded as safe. They have been extensively used in food industry. The production of lactic acid bacterial gamma-aminobutyric acid is safe and eco-friendly, and this provides the possibility of production of new naturally fermented health-oriented products enriched in gamma-aminobutyric acid. The gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing species of lactic acid bacteria and their isolation sources, the methods for screening of the strains and increasing their production, the enzymatic properties of glutamate decarboxylases and the relative fundamental research are reviewed in this article. And the potential applications of gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing lactic acid bacteria were also referred to.

  2. Production of gaba (γ - aminobutyric acid) by microorganisms: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Radhika Dhakal; Bajpai, Vivek K.; Kwang-Hyun Baek

    2012-01-01

    GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is a four carbon non-protein amino acid that is widely distributed in plants, animals and microorganisms. As a metabolic product of plants and microorganisms produced by the decarboxylation of glutamic acid, GABA functions as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain that directly affects the personality and the stress management. A wide range of traditional foods produced by microbial fermentation contain GABA, in which GABA is safe and eco-friendly, and als...

  3. Production of gaba (γ - aminobutyric acid) by microorganisms: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Radhika Dhakal; Bajpai, Vivek K.; Kwang-Hyun Baek

    2012-01-01

    GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is a four carbon non-protein amino acid that is widely distributed in plants, animals and microorganisms. As a metabolic product of plants and microorganisms produced by the decarboxylation of glutamic acid, GABA functions as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain that directly affects the personality and the stress management. A wide range of traditional foods produced by microbial fermentation contain GABA, in which GABA is safe and eco-friendly, and also has...

  4. Gamma-aminobutyric acid promotes human hepatocellular carcinoma growth through overexpressed gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor α3 subunit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression pattern of gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptors in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and indicate the relationship among gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), gamrna-aminobutyric acid A receptor α3 subunit (GABRA3) and HCC.METHODS: HCC cell line Chang, HepG2, normal liver cell line L-02 and 8 samples of HCC tissues and paired non-cancerous tissues were analyzed with semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the expression of GABAA receptors. HepG2 cells were treated with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at serial concentrations (0, 1, 10, 20, 40 and 60 μmol/L), and their proliferating abilities were analyzed with the 3-(4, 5-methylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, cell doubling time test, colon formation assay, cell cycle analysis and tumor planted in nude mice. Small interfering RNA was used for knocking down the endogenous GABRA3 in HepG2. oliferating abilities of these cells treated with or without GABA were analyzed.RESULTS: We identified the overexpression of GABRA3 in HCC cells. Knockdown of endogenous GABRA3 expression in HepG2 attenuated HCC cell growth, suggesting its role in HCC cell viability. We determined the in vitro and in vivo effect of GABA in the proliferation of GABRA3-positive cell lines, and found that GABA increased HCC growth in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, the addition of GABA into the cell culture medium promoted the proliferation of GABRA3-expressing HepG2 cells, but not GABRA3-knockdown HepG2 cells. This means that GABA stimulates HepG2 cell growth through GABRA3. CONCLUSION: GABA and GABRA3 play important roles in HCC development and progression and can be a promising molecular target for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for HCC.

  5. Hydroxylated analogues of 5-aminovaleric acid as 4-aminobutyric acidB receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, U; Hedegaard, A; Herdeis, C;

    1992-01-01

    The (R) and (S) forms of 5-amino-2-hydroxyvaleric acid (2-OH-DAVA) and 5-amino-4-hydroxyvaleric acid (4-OH-DAVA) were designed as structural hybrids of the 4-aminobutyric acidB (GABAB) agonist (R)-(-)-4-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid [(R)-(-)-3-OH-GABA] and the GABAB antagonist 5-aminovaleric acid...

  6. Production of gamma-aminobutyric acid by Lactobacillus brevis NCL912 using fed-batch fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Guidong

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gamma-aminobutyric acid is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in mammalian brains, and has several well-known physiological functions. Lactic acid bacteria possess special physiological activities and are generally regarded as safe. Therefore, using lactic acid bacteria as cell factories for gamma-aminobutyric acid production is a fascinating project and opens up a vast range of prospects for making use of GABA and LAB. We previously screened a high GABA-producer Lactobacillus brevis NCL912 and optimized its fermentation medium composition. The results indicated that the strain showed potential in large-scale fermentation for the production of gamma-aminobutyric acid. To increase the yielding of GABA, further study on the fermentation process is needed before the industrial application in the future. In this article we investigated the impacts of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, pH, temperature and initial glutamate concentration on gamma-aminobutyric acid production by Lactobacillus brevis NCL912 in flask cultures. According to the data obtained in the above, a simple and effective fed-batch fermentation method was developed to highly efficiently convert glutamate to gamma-aminobutyric acid. Results Pyridoxal-5'-phosphate did not affect the cell growth and gamma-aminobutyric acid production of Lb. brevis NCL912. Temperature, pH and initial glutamate concentration had significant effects on the cell growth and gamma-aminobutyric acid production of Lb. brevis NCL912. The optimal temperature, pH and initial glutamate concentration were 30-35°C, 5.0 and 250-500 mM. In the following fed-batch fermentations, temperature, pH and initial glutamate concentration were fixed as 32°C, 5.0 and 400 mM. 280.70 g (1.5 mol and 224.56 g (1.2 mol glutamate were supplemented into the bioreactor at 12 h and 24 h, respectively. Under the selected fermentation conditions, gamma-aminobutyric acid was rapidly produced at the first 36 h and almost not

  7. Transgenic mice overexpressing γ-aminobutyric acid transporter subtype I develop obesity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Transgenic mice ubiquitously overexpressing murine γaminobutyric acid transporter subtype I were created. Unexpectedly, these mice markedly exhibited heritable obesity,which features significantly increased body weight and fat deposition. Behavioral examination revealed that transgenic mice have slightly reduced spontaneous locomotive capacity and altered feeding pattern. This preliminary finding indicates that the inappropriate level of γ-aminobutyric acid transporters may be directly or indirectly involved in the pathogenic mechanism underlying certain types of obesity.

  8. Transgenic mice overexpressing γ—aminobutyric acid transporter subtype I develop obesity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAYINGHUA; ZHENTONGMEI; 等

    2000-01-01

    Transgenic mice ubiquitously overexpressing murine γ-aminobutyric acid transporter subtype I were created.Unexpectedly,these mice markedly exhibited heritable obesity,which features significantly increased body weight and fat deposition.Behavioral examination revealed that transgenic mice have slightly reduced spontaneous locomotive capacity and altered feeding pattern.This preliminary finding indicates that the inappropriate level of γ-aminobutyric acid transporters may be directly or indirectly involved in the pathogenic mechanism underlying certain types of obesity.

  9. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA in cerebrospinal fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuroda,Hiroo

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available Levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF were measured by radioreceptor assay (RRA in 25 normal controls and in 121 patients with various central nervous system disorders. CSF-GABA levels could be measured down to 5 pmoles/ml reliably by this assay. In normal controls, the mean (+/- SEM GABA level in CSF was 127 +/- 5.2 pmoles/ml. There was no correlation between age, sex and the CSF-GABA level in normal controls. The lowest CSF-GABA level, which was 60 +/- 6.0 pmoles/ml, was observed in alcoholic patients suffering from cerebellar ataxia. The CSF-GABA levels were quite low in patients with Alzheimer's disease, late cortical cerebellar atrophy, neuro-Behcet's syndrome, olivopontocerebellar atrophy, Huntington's chorea, Parkinson's disease and cerebral hemorrhage. On the other hand, the CSF-GABA levels of meningitis patients were significantly increased. These findings suggest that measuring the CSF-GABA level is quite beneficial in the diagnosis and pathophysiological determinations of some diseases.

  10. EFFECT OF FOOD-MICROORGANISMS ON GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID PRODUCTION BY FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Hudec

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are nice targets in order to study γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA production that has been reported to be effective in order to reduce blood pressure in experimental animals and human beings. In this study, we aimed to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA production in aerobical and anaerobical conditions, using different sources of microorganisms. The highest selectivity of GABA from precursor L-monosodium glutamate (82.22% has been reported using of microorganisms from banana, and with addition of pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P-5-P. For augmentation of selectivity the application of the further stimulating factors of GABA biosynthesis is needed.

  11. Submerged fermentation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9 for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in central nervous system, and its application in drugs and functional foods has attracted great attention. To enhance production of y-aminobutyric acid, Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9, a strain isolated from Chinese traditional fermented food pickled vegetable, was grown under submerged fermentation. Its cultivation conditions were investigated. When culture pH condition was adjusted to the optimal pH of glutamate decarboxylase activity, culture of Lb. rhamnosus YS9 in medium supplemented with 200 mM of monosodium glutamate and 200 µM of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP, produced 187 mM of GABA.

  12. Standard enthalpies of formation of γ-aminobutyric acid and the products of its dissociation in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytkin, A. I.; Chernikov, V. V.; Krutova, O. N.; Skvortsov, I. A.; Korchagina, A. S.

    2016-09-01

    Heat effects of the dissolution of crystalline γ-aminobutyric acid in water and potassium hydroxide solutions are determined by direct colorimetry at 298.15 K. Standard enthalpies of formation of γ-aminobutyric acid and the products of its dissociation in aqueous solution are calculated.

  13. Reduced gamma-aminobutyric acid concentration is associated with physical disability in progressive multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, Niamh; Solanky, Bhavana S; Muhlert, Nils; Tur, Carmen; Edden, Richard A E; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Miller, David H; Thompson, Alan J; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2015-09-01

    Neurodegeneration is thought to be the major cause of ongoing, irreversible disability in progressive stages of multiple sclerosis. Gamma-aminobutyric acid is the principle inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. The aims of this study were to investigate if gamma-aminobutyric acid levels (i) are abnormal in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis compared with healthy controls; and (ii) correlate with physical and cognitive performance in this patient population. Thirty patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and 17 healthy control subjects underwent single-voxel MEGA-PRESS (MEscher-GArwood Point RESolved Spectroscopy) magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 T, to quantify gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in the prefrontal cortex, right hippocampus and left sensorimotor cortex. All subjects were assessed clinically and underwent a cognitive assessment. Multiple linear regression models were used to compare differences in gamma-aminobutyric acid concentrations between patients and controls adjusting for age, gender and tissue fractions within each spectroscopic voxel. Regression was used to examine the relationships between the cognitive function and physical disability scores specific for these regions with gamma-aminobuytric acid levels, adjusting for age, gender, and total N-acetyl-aspartate and glutamine-glutamate complex levels. When compared with controls, patients performed significantly worse on all motor and sensory tests, and were cognitively impaired in processing speed and verbal memory. Patients had significantly lower gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in the hippocampus (adjusted difference = -0.403 mM, 95% confidence intervals -0.792, -0.014, P = 0.043) and sensorimotor cortex (adjusted difference = -0.385 mM, 95% confidence intervals -0.667, -0.104, P = 0.009) compared with controls. In patients, reduced motor function in the right upper and lower limb was associated with lower gamma-aminobutyric acid concentration in the

  14. The gamma-aminobutyric acid shunt contributes to closing the tricarboxylic acid cycle in Synechocystis sp PCC 6803

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, W; Brune, D; Vermaas, WFJ

    2014-07-16

    A traditional 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex is missing in the cyanobacterial tricarboxylic acid cycle. To determine pathways that convert 2-oxoglutarate into succinate in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, a series of mutant strains, Delta sll1981, Delta slr0370, Delta slr1022 and combinations thereof, deficient in 2-oxoglutarate decarboxylase (Sll1981), succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (Slr0370), and/or in gamma-aminobutyrate metabolism (Slr1022) were constructed. Like in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, N-acetylornithine aminotransferase, encoded by slr1022, was shown to also function as gamma-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, catalysing gamma-aminobutyrate conversion to succinic semialdehyde. As succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase converts succinic semialdehyde to succinate, an intact gamma-aminobutyrate shunt is present in Synechocystis. The Delta sll1981 strain, lacking 2-oxoglutarate decarboxylase, exhibited a succinate level that was 60% of that in wild type. However, the succinate level in the Delta slr1022 and Delta slr0370 strains and the Delta sll1981/Delta slr1022 and Delta sll1981/Delta slr0370 double mutants was reduced to 20-40% of that in wild type, suggesting that the gamma-aminobutyrate shunt has a larger impact on metabolite flux to succinate than the pathway via 2-oxoglutarate decarboxylase. C-13-stable isotope analysis indicated that the gamma-aminobutyrate shunt catalysed conversion of glutamate to succinate. Independent of the 2-oxoglutarate decarboxylase bypass, the gamma-aminobutyrate shunt is a major contributor to flux from 2-oxoglutarate and glutamate to succinate in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

  15. A validated method for gas chromatographic analysis of gamma-aminobutyric acid in tall fescue herbage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in animals that is also found in plants and has been associated with plant responses to stress. A simple and relatively rapid method of GABA separation and quantification was developed from a commercially available kit for serum amino...

  16. γ-Aminobutyric acid transporter (GAT1) overexpression in mouse affects the testicular morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid and GABAergic receptors were previously reported to be distributed in reproductive sys tems besides CNS and predicted to participate in the mod ulation of testicular function. γ-Aminobutyric acid trans porter was implicated to be involved in this process. How ever, the potential role of γ-aminobutyric transporter in testis has not been explored. In this study, we investi gated the existence of mouse γ-aminobutyric acid trans porter subtype I (mGAT1) in testis. Wild-type and trans genic mice, which overexpressing mGAT1 in a variety of tissues, especially in testis, were primarily studied to ap proach the profile of mGAT1 in testis. Mice with overex pressed mGAT1 develop normally but with reduced mass and size of testis as compared with wild-type. Testicu lar morphology of transgenic mice exhibited overt abnor malities including focal damage of the spermatogenic ep ithelium accompanied by capillaries proliferation and in creased diameter of seminiferous tubules lumen. Reduced number of spermatids was also found in some seminiferous tubules. Our results clearly demonstrate the presence of GAT1 in mouse testis and imply that GAT1 is possibly involved in testicular function.

  17. Hippocampal and cortical expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter 1 and glial fibrillary acidic protein in pentylenetetrazol-induced chronic epileptic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Zeng; Zhong Yang; Xiaodong Long; Chao You

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter plays an important role in gamma-aminobutyric acid metabolism, and is highly associated with epilepsy seizures.Pathologically, astrocytes release active substances that alter neuronal excitability, and it has been demonstrated that astrocytes play a role in epileptic seizures.OBJECTIVE: To observe changes in gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter 1 and glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in the hippocampus and cortex of the temporal lobe in rats with pentylenetetrazol-induced chronic epilepsy.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized, controlled, animal experiment was performed at the Department of Neurobiology, Third Military University of Chinese PLA between January 2006 and December 2007.MATERIALS: Pentylenetetrazol was purchased from Sigma, USA; rabbit anti-rat gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter 1 and glial fibrillary acidic protein were from Chemicon, USA.METHODS; A total of 40 Sprague Dawley rats were divided into model and control groups. Rat models of chronic epilepsy were created by pentylenetetrazol kindling, and were subdivided into 3-, 7-, and 14-day kindling subgroups.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter 1 and glial fibrillary acidic protein expression, as well as the number of positive cells in the hippocampus and cortex of temporal lobe of rats, were determined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses.RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the number of gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter 1 and glial fibrillary acidic protein -positive cells in the hippocampus and cortex of rats with pentylenetetrazol-induced epilepsy significantly increased, gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter 1 and glial fibrillary acidic protein expression increased after 3 days of kindling, reached a peak on day 7, and remained at elevated levels at day 14 (P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: Astrocytic activation and gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter 1 overexpression may contribute to pentylenetetrazol

  18. Synthesis of biobased N-methylpyrrolidone by one-pot cyclization and methylation of c-aminobutyric acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, T.M.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    N-Methylpyrrolidone (NMP) is an industrial solvent that is currently based on fossil resources. In order to prepare it in a biobased way, the possibility to synthesize NMP from -aminobutyric acid (GABA) was investigated, since GABA can be obtained from glutamic acid, an amino acid that is present in

  19. Gama-aminobutyric acid accumulation in Elsholtzia splendens in response to copper toxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-e; PENG Hong-yun; TIAN Sheng-ke

    2005-01-01

    A solution with different Cu supply levels was cultured to investigate gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation in Elsholtzia splendens, a native Chinese Cu-tolerant and accumulating plant species. Increasing Cu from 0.25 to 500 ?mol/L significantly enhanced levels of GABA and histidine (His), but considerably decreased levels of aspartate (Asp) and glutamate (Glu) in the leaves. The leaf Asp level negatively correlated with leaf Cu level, while leaf GABA level positively correlated with leaf Cu level. The leaf Glu level negatively correlated with leaf GABA level in Elsholtzia splendens. The depletion of leaf Glu may be related to the enhanced synthesis ofleafGABA under Cu stress.

  20. Synthesis and proton NMR spectroscopy of intra-vesicular gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luke Y-J; Tong, Rong; Kohane, Daniel S

    2013-01-01

    We report the synthesis of vesicles containing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and their proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectra. These vesicles were constructed to more closely mimic the intracellular environment wherein GABA exists. For this study, these GABA-containing vesicles were examined under (1)H NMR as a potential platform for future studies on the differences between aqueous phantoms, ex vivo brain extracts, and in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy results. We found that intra-vesicular GABA faithfully yielded the chemical shifts and J-coupling constants of free aqueous GABA, alongside the chemical shift signals of the vesicle wall.

  1. Effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on synaptogenesis and synaptic function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belhage, B; Hansen, Gert Helge; Elster, L;

    1998-01-01

    The correct establishment and function of synapses depend on a variety of factors, such as guidance of pre- and postsynaptic neurons as well as receptor development and localization. gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) has a pronounced effect on these events and elicits differentiation of neurons......, but the intracellular link between GABA receptor activation and DNA transcription is largely unknown. GABA also controls the induction and development of functionally and pharmacologically different GABAA receptor subtypes. The induced receptors are likely to be inserted only into the synaptic membrane domain. However...

  2. CHANGES IN SELECTIVITY OF GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID FORMATION EFFECTED BY FERMENTATION CONDITIONS AND MICROORGANISMS RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Kamila Kovalovská; Róbert Mazur; Jozef Hudec

    2011-01-01

    In this study we observe the effect of fermentation conditions and resources of microorganisms for production of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The content of produced GABA depends on various conditions such as the amount of precursor, an addition of salt, enzyme and the effect of pH. The highest selectivity of GABA (74.0 %) from the precursor (L-monosodium glutamate) has been determinate in the follow conditions: in the presence of pre-cultured microorganisms from Encián cheese in amount 1.66 %...

  3. Standard enthalpies of formation of α-aminobutyric acid and products of its dissociation in an aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytkin, A. I.; Chernikov, V. V.; Krutova, O. N.

    2016-08-01

    Heats of solution of crystalline α-aminobutyric acid in water and in aqueous solutions of potassium hydroxide at 298.15 K are measured by means of direct calorimetry. Standard enthalpies of formation of the amino acid and products of its dissociation in an aqueous solution are calculated.

  4. Effect of brain-derived neurotropic factor released from hypoxic astrocytes on gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor function in normal hippocampal neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongliang Liu; Tijun Dai

    2011-01-01

    Astrocytes can release increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor during cerebral ischemia, but it is unclear whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor affects γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor function in normal neurons. Results from this study demonstrated that γ-aminobutyric acid at 100 μmol/L concentration raised the intracellular calcium level in neurons treated with medium from cultured hypoxic astrocytes, and the rise in calcium level could be inhibited by γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor antagonist bicuculline or brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor antagonist k252a. Γ-aminobutyric acid type A-gated current induced by 100 μmol/L γ-aminobutyric acid was in an inward direction in physiological conditions, but shifted to the outward direction in neurons when treated with the medium from cultured hypoxic astrocytes, and this effect could be inhibited by k252a. The reverse potential was shifted leftward to -93 Mv, which could be inhibited by k252a and Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporter inhibitor bumetanide. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor was released from hypoxic astrocytes at a high level. It shifted the reverse potential of γ-aminobutyric acid type A-gated currents leftward in normal neurons by enhancing the function of Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporter, and caused γ-aminobutyric acid to exert an excitatory effect by activating γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor.

  5. Regional selectivity of a gamma-aminobutyric acid-induced (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine release sensitive to inhibitors of gamma-aminobutyric acid uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanno, G.; Raiteri, M.

    1987-05-01

    The effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the release of (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine ((/sup 3/H)ACh) were studied in synaptosomes prepared from rat hippocampus, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, and striatum and prelabelled with (/sup 3/H)choline. When synaptosomes were exposed in superfusion to exogenous GABA (0.01-0.3 mM) the basal release of newly synthesized (/sup 3/H)ACh was increased in a concentration-dependent way in hippocampus, cortex, and hypothalamus nerve endings. In contrast, the release of (/sup 3/H)ACh was not significantly affected by GABA in striatal synaptosomes. The effect of GABA was not antagonized significantly by bicuculline or picrotoxin. Muscimol caused only a slight not significant increase of (/sup 3/H)ACh release when tested at 0.3 mM whereas, at this concentration, (-)-baclofen was totally inactive. The GABA-induced release of (/sup 3/H)ACh was counteracted by SKF 89976A, SKF 100561, and SKF 100330A, three strong and selective GABA uptake inhibitors. The data suggest that, in selective areas of the rat brain, GABA causes release of (/sup 3/H)ACh following penetration into cholinergic nerve terminals through a GABA transport system.

  6. Beta-aminobutyric acid priming of plant defense: the role of ABA and other hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccelli, Ivan; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte

    2016-08-01

    Plants are exposed to recurring biotic and abiotic stresses that can, in extreme situations, lead to substantial yield losses. With the changing environment, the stress pressure is likely to increase and sustainable measures to alleviate the effect on our crops are sought. Priming plants for better stress resistance is one of the sustainable possibilities to reach this goal. Here, we report on the effects of beta-aminobutyric acid, a priming agent with an exceptionally wide range of action and describe its way of preparing plants to defend themselves against various attacks, among others through the modulation of their hormonal defense signaling, and highlight the special role of abscisic acid in this process. PMID:26584561

  7. Succinic semialdehyde as a substrate for the formation of gamma-aminobutyric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bemmelen, F J; Schouten, M J; Fekkes, D; Bruinvels, J

    1985-11-01

    The conversion of succinic semialdehyde into gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by GABA-transaminase was measured in rat brain homogenate in the presence of different concentrations of the cosubstrate glutamate. The calculated kinetic parameters of succinic semialdehyde for GABA-transaminase were a limiting Km value of 168 microM and a limiting Vmax value of 38 mumol g-1 h-1. Combination with previously obtained data for the conversion of GABA into succinic semialdehyde revealed a kEq value of 0.04, indicating that equilibrium of GABA-transaminase is biased toward the formation of GABA. The increased formation of GABA in the presence of succinic semialdehyde was not due to an increased conversion of glutamate into GABA by glutamic acid decarboxylase. Therefore these results indicate that succinic semialdehyde can act as a precursor for GABA synthesis.

  8. Effect of the treatment by slightly acidic electrolyzed water on the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid in germinated brown millet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingfeng; Hao, Jianxiong; Liu, Xianggui; Liu, Haijie; Ning, Yawei; Cheng, Ruhong; Tan, Bin; Jia, Yingmin

    2015-11-01

    The accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid and the microbial decontamination are concerned increasingly in the production of sprouts. In this work, the effect of the treatment by slightly acidic electrolyzed water on the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid in the germinated brown millet was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography during germination. The results showed that slightly acidic electrolyzed water with appropriate available chlorine (15 or 30 mg/L) could promote the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid by up to 21% (P treatment with slightly acidic electrolyzed water could not enhance the sprouts growth of the germinated brown millet. The catalase and peroxidase activities of the germinated brown millet during germination were in agreement with the sprouts growth. Our results suggested that the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid was independent of the length of sprouts in germinated grains. Moreover, the treatment with slightly acidic electrolyzed water significantly reduced the microbial counts in the germinated millet (P treatment with high available chlorine concentration (15 and 30 mg/L) showed stronger anti-infection potential in the germinated brown millet than that of lower available chlorine concentration (5 mg/L). In conclusion, the treatment with slightly acidic electrolyzed water is an available approach to improve the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid and anti-infection potential in the germinated brown millet, and it can avoid too long millet sprouts.

  9. Effects of Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii extracts on gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha 1 subunit brain expression during development in a recurrent seizure rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liqun Liu; Ding'an Mao; Keqiang Chi; Xingfang Li; Tao Bo; Jinming Guo; Zhuwen Yi

    2011-01-01

    Extracts from Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii (Grassleaf Sweetflag Rhizome, Shichangpu) have been shown to improve learning and memory, reduce anxiety, allay excitement, and suppress seizures. Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii extracts interact with γ-aminobutyric acid and activate the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor, although few studies have addressed the precise effects of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor α1 subunit. In the present study, γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor α1 subunit protein expression in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and pathological scores of brain injury, were significantly greater following recurrent seizures, but significantly decreased following treatment with Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii extracts. These results indicated that Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii extracts down-regulated γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor α1 subunit protein expression in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus and protected seizure-induced brain injury during development.

  10. Dendritic Assembly of Heteromeric γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type B Receptor Subunits in Hippocampal NeuronsS⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez, Omar A.; Vidal, René L.; Tello, Judith A.; Vargas, Karina J.; Kindler, Stefan; Härtel, Steffen; Couve, Andrés

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that control synaptic efficacy through the availability of neurotransmitter receptors depends on uncovering their specific intracellular trafficking routes. γ-Aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB) receptors (GABABRs) are obligatory heteromers present at dendritic excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic sites. It is unknown whether synthesis and assembly of GABABRs occur in the somatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) followed by vesicular transport to ...

  11. Dorsal root ganglion progenitors differentiate to gamma-aminobutyric acid- and choline acetyltransferase-positive neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingli Yu; Yindi Ding; Ambre Spencer; Ji Ma; Ruisheng Lu; Brian B. Rudkin; Chonggang Yuan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the isolation and differentiation of dorsal root ganglion progenitor cells for therapeutic use in neurodegenerative diseases.Rat embryonic dorsal root ganglia progenitors were isolated and purified using the differential adhesion method combined with cytosine arabinoside treatment.After culture in serum-free medium supplemented with B27, basic fibroblast growth factor and epidermal growth factor, these cells remained viable and survived for more than 18 months in vitro.Most cells differentiated to neurons that were immunoreactive for gamma-aminobutyric acid and choline acetyltransferase as detected by immunohistochemical staining.In addition, nerve growth factor and neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor expression were also observed in dorsal root ganglion progenitors and differentiated cells.K252a, an inhibitor that blocks nerve growth factor-induced signaling, inhibited cell survival, suggesting the possible existence of a nerve growth factor autocrine loop in these proliferating cells.

  12. Detection of Glutamate and γ-aminobutyric Acid in Vitreous of Patients with Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Deng; De-Zheng Wu; Rulong Gao

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To study the levels of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in vitreous of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDR) and to investigate their roles in retinal ischemia.Method: Vitreous samples were collected from 25 patients (27 eyes) with PDR and 14patients ( 14 eyes) with idiopathic macular hole. Glutamate and GABA detection were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).Results: Patients with PDR had significantly higher concentrations of glutamate and GABA than the control group. The glutamate level has a significantly positive correlation with GABA level.Conclusion: Detection of glutamate and GABA in vitreous provides biochemical support for the mechanism and treatment of ischemic retinal damage in patients with PDR.

  13. Optimization of γ-aminobutyric acid production by Lactobacillus plantarum Taj-Apis362 from honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajabadi, Naser; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Baradaran, Ali; Rahim, Raha Abdul; Mahyudin, Nor Ainy; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abdul; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Saari, Nazamid

    2015-04-15

    Dominant strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from honey bees were evaluated for their γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing ability. Out of 24 strains, strain Taj-Apis362 showed the highest GABA-producing ability (1.76 mM) in MRS broth containing 50 mM initial glutamic acid cultured for 60 h. Effects of fermentation parameters, including initial glutamic acid level, culture temperature, initial pH and incubation time on GABA production were investigated via a single parameter optimization strategy. The optimal fermentation condition for GABA production was modeled using response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that the culture temperature was the most significant factor for GABA production. The optimum conditions for maximum GABA production by Lactobacillus plantarum Taj-Apis362 were an initial glutamic acid concentration of 497.97 mM, culture temperature of 36 °C, initial pH of 5.31 and incubation time of 60 h, which produced 7.15 mM of GABA. The value is comparable with the predicted value of 7.21 mM.

  14. Optimization of γ-Aminobutyric Acid Production by Lactobacillus plantarum Taj-Apis362 from Honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Tajabadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dominant strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from honey bees were evaluated for their γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-producing ability. Out of 24 strains, strain Taj-Apis362 showed the highest GABA-producing ability (1.76 mM in MRS broth containing 50 mM initial glutamic acid cultured for 60 h. Effects of fermentation parameters, including initial glutamic acid level, culture temperature, initial pH and incubation time on GABA production were investigated via a single parameter optimization strategy. The optimal fermentation condition for GABA production was modeled using response surface methodology (RSM. The results showed that the culture temperature was the most significant factor for GABA production. The optimum conditions for maximum GABA production by Lactobacillus plantarum Taj-Apis362 were an initial glutamic acid concentration of 497.97 mM, culture temperature of 36 °C, initial pH of 5.31 and incubation time of 60 h, which produced 7.15 mM of GABA. The value is comparable with the predicted value of 7.21 mM.

  15. Expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor α2 subunit in the dorsal root ganglion of rats with sciatic nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lian; Yang Wang; Ketao Ma; Lei Zhao; Zhongshuang Zhang; Yuanyuan Shang; Junqiang Si; Li Li

    2012-01-01

    The γ-aminobutyric acid neurotransmitter in the spinal cord dorsal horn plays an important role in pain modulation through primary afferent-mediated presynaptic inhibition. The weakening of γ-aminobutyric acid-mediated presynaptic inhibition may be an important cause of neuropathic pain. Γ-aminobutyric acid-mediated presynaptic inhibition is related to the current strength of γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor activation. In view of this, the whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used here to record the change in muscimol activated current of dorsal root ganglion neurons in a chronic constriction injury model. Results found that damage in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons following application of muscimol caused concentration-dependent activation of current, and compared with the sham group, its current strength and γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor protein expression decreased. Immunofluorescence revealed that γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor α2 subunit protein expression decreased and was most obvious at 12 and 15 days after modeling. Our experimental findings confirmed that the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor α2 subunit in the chronic constriction injury model rat dorsal root ganglion was downregulated, which may be one of the reasons for the reduction of injury in dorsal root ganglion neurons following muscimol-activated currents.

  16. Effect of Propofol on Glutamate and γ-aminobutyric Acid Release from Rat Hippocampal Synaptosomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG You; YAO Shanglong; ZENG Yinming; LIU Hongliang; CAO Junli

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effect of propofol on the release of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from rat hippocampal synatosomes, synaptosomes was made from hippocampus and incubated with artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF). With the experiment of Ca2+-dependent release of glutamate and GABA, dihydrokainic acid (DHK) and nipectic acid were added into aCSF. For the observation of Ca2+-independent release of glutamate and GABA, no DHK, nipectic acid and Ca2+were added from aCSF. The release of glutamate and GABA were evoked by 20μmol/L veratridine or 30 mmol/L KCl. The concentration of glutamate and GABA in aCSF was measured by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). 30, 100 and 300 μmol/L propofol significantly inhibited veratridine-evoked Ca2+-dependent release of glutamate and GABA (P<0.01 or P<0.05). However, propofol showed no effect on elevated KCl-evoked Ca2+-dependent release of glutamate and GABA (P>0.05). Veratridine or elevated KCl evoked Ca2+ -independent release of glutamate and GABA was not affected significantly by propofol (P>0.05). Propofol could inhibit Ca2+-dependent release of glutamate and GABA. However, it has no effect on the Ca2+-independent release ofglutamate and GABA.

  17. Current Perspective on the Location and Function of Gamma- Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) and its Metabolic Partners in the Kidney.

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Kadeshia; Peppiatt-Wildman, Claire M.; Kelley, Stephen P; Wildman, Scott S.P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter located in the mammalian central nervous system, which binds to GABAA and GABAB receptors to mediate its neurological effects. In addition to its role in the CNS, an increasing number of publications have suggested that GABA might also play a role in the regulation of renal function. All three enzymes associated with GABA metabolism; glutamic acid decarboxylase, GABA α-oxoglutarate transaminase (GABA-T) and succinic se...

  18. Sodium glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid affect iron metabolism in the rat caudate putamen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Wang; Peng Guan; Fei Li; Yujian Fu; Xianglin Duan; Yanzhong Chang

    2010-01-01

    Glutamic acid and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) influence iron content in the substantia nigra and globus pallidus, although the mechanisms of action remain unclear. The present study measured iron content and changes in divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and hephaestin expression in the substantia nigra and caudate putamen, and explored the effects of GABA and glutamic acid on iron metabolism, Results demonstrated that iron content and DMT1 non iron response element [DMT1 (-IRE)] expression were significantly greater but hephaestin expression was significantly lower in the caudate putamen of the monosodium glutamate group compared with the control group. No significant difference in iron content was detected between the GABA and control groups. DMT1(-IRE) expression was significantly reduced, but hephaestin expression was significantly increased in the GABA group compared with the control group. In addition, there was no significant difference in tyrosine hydroxylase expression between monosodium glutamate and GABA groups and the control group. These results suggested that glutamate affected iron metabolism in the caudate putamen by increasing DMT1(-IRE) and decreasing hephaestin expression. In addition, GABA decreased DMT1(-IRE) expression in the caudate putamen.

  19. Evolution of neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid,glutamate and their receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiheng GOU; Xiao WANG; Wen WANG

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate are two important amino acid neurotransmitters widely present in the nervous systems of ammals,insects,round worm,and platyhelminths,while their receptors are quite diversified across different animal phyla.However,the evolutionary mechanisms between the two conserved neurotransmitters and their diversified receptors remain elusive,and antagonistic interactions between GABA and glutamate signal transduction systems,in particular,have begun to attract significant attention.In this review,we summarize the extant results on the origin and evolution of GABA and glutamate,as well as their receptors,and analyze possible evolutionary processes and phylogenetic relationships of various GABAs and glutamate receptors.We further discuss the evolutionary history of Excitatory/Neutral Amino Acid Transporter (EAAT),a transport protein,which plays an important role in the GABA-glutamate "yin and yang" balanced regulation.Finally,based on current advances,we propose several potential directions of future research.

  20. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) homeostasis regulates pollen germination and polarized growth in Picea wilsonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yu; Chen, Tong; Jing, Yanping; Fan, Lusheng; Wan, Yinglang; Lin, Jinxing

    2013-11-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a four-carbon non-protein amino acid found in a wide range of organisms. Recently, GABA accumulation has been shown to play a role in the stress response and cell growth in angiosperms. However, the effect of GABA deficiency on pollen tube development remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that specific concentrations of exogenous GABA stimulated pollen tube growth in Picea wilsonii, while an overdose suppressed pollen tube elongation. The germination percentage of pollen grains and morphological variations in pollen tubes responded in a dose-dependent manner to treatment with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MP), a glutamate decarboxylase inhibitor, while the inhibitory effects could be recovered in calcium-containing medium supplemented with GABA. Using immunofluorescence labeling, we found that the actin cables were disorganized in 3-MP treated cells, followed by the transition of endo/exocytosis activating sites from the apex to the whole tube shank. In addition, variations in the deposition of cell wall components were detected upon labeling with JIM5, JIM7, and aniline blue. Our results demonstrated that calcium-dependent GABA signaling regulates pollen germination and polarized tube growth in P. wilsonii by affecting actin filament patterns, vesicle trafficking, and the configuration and distribution of cell wall components.

  1. Use of Lactococcus lactis to enrich sourdough bread with γ-aminobutyric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanwar, Seema; Bamnia, Meenakshi; Ghosh, Moushumi; Ganguli, Abhijit

    2013-02-01

    Fried sourdough bread (bhatura) with an elevated amount of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was produced using lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The LAB starter was screened and isolated from pickled yam showing highest GABA content and was identified as Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. The maximum GABA production in de Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) media supplemented with monosodium glutamate (MSG) was 110 mg/100 ml at pH 5, and 1-3% NaCl did not change the production of GABA significantly (p>0.05). When MSG was replaced with Vigna mungo in sourdough, the amount of GABA for bhatura was 226.22 mg/100 g representing about 10-fold increase. A sensory evaluation resulted as the overall general acceptability of bhatura to be 4.91 ± 0.03 on a five-point hedonic scale. Thus, the results indicated the potential of L. lactis as a LAB starter for the production of GABA-enriched bhatura. Although other physiological effects can be expected in the product, animal and clinical studies are mandatory prior to application of this food.

  2. Effects of traditionally used anxiolytic botanicals on enzymes of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, R; Levac, D; Cybulska, P; Merali, Z; Trudeau, V L; Arnason, J T

    2007-09-01

    In Canada, the use of botanical natural health products (NHPs) for anxiety disorders is on the rise, and a critical evaluation of their safety and efficacy is required. The purpose of this study was to determine whether commercially available botanicals directly affect the primary brain enzymes responsible for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism. Anxiolytic plants may interact with either glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) or GABA transaminase (GABA-T) and ultimately influence brain GABA levels and neurotransmission. Two in vitro rat brain homogenate assays were developed to determine the inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of aqueous and ethanolic plant extracts. Approximately 70% of all extracts that were tested showed little or no inhibitory effect (IC50 values greater than 1 mg/mL) and are therefore unlikely to affect GABA metabolism as tested. The aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) exhibited the greatest inhibition of GABA-T activity (IC50 = 0.35 mg/mL). Extracts from Centella asiatica (gotu kola) and Valeriana officinalis (valerian) stimulated GAD activity by over 40% at a dose of 1 mg/mL. On the other hand, both Matricaria recutita (German chamomile) and Humulus lupulus (hops) showed significant inhibition of GAD activity (0.11-0.65 mg/mL). Several of these species may therefore warrant further pharmacological investigation. The relation between enzyme activity and possible in vivo mode of action is discussed. PMID:18066140

  3. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration inversely correlates with basal perfusion in human occipital lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Manus J; Rane, Swati; Hussey, Erin; Mason, Emily; Pradhan, Subechhya; Waddell, Kevin W; Ally, Brandon A

    2014-03-01

    Commonly used neuroimaging approaches in humans exploit hemodynamic or metabolic indicators of brain function. However, fundamental gaps remain in our ability to relate such hemo-metabolic reactivity to neurotransmission, with recent reports providing paradoxical information regarding the relationship among basal perfusion, functional imaging contrast, and neurotransmission in awake humans. Here, sequential magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measurements of the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA+macromolecules normalized by the complex N-acetyl aspartate-N-acetyl aspartyl glutamic acid: [GABA(+)]/[NAA-NAAG]), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements of perfusion, fractional gray-matter volume, and arterial arrival time (AAT) are recorded in human visual cortex from a controlled cohort of young adult male volunteers with neurocognitive battery-confirmed comparable cognitive capacity (3 T; n=16; age=23±3 years). Regression analyses reveal an inverse correlation between [GABA(+)]/[NAA-NAAG] and perfusion (R=-0.46; P=0.037), yet no relationship between AAT and [GABA(+)]/[NAA-NAAG] (R=-0.12; P=0.33). Perfusion measurements that do not control for AAT variations reveal reduced correlations between [GABA(+)]/[NAA-NAAG] and perfusion (R=-0.13; P=0.32). These findings largely reconcile contradictory reports between perfusion and inhibitory tone, and underscore the physiologic origins of the growing literature relating functional imaging signals, hemodynamics, and neurotransmission.

  4. Subchronic toxicity evaluation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, Kazuhito; Yamatsu, Atsushi; Yamashita, Yusuke; Watabe, Kazuya; Horie, Noriko; Masuda, Kazuyuki; Kim, Mujo

    2014-06-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an amino acid compound contained in vegetables such as tomatoes and also widely distributed in mammals. GABA acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter and promotes parasympathetic activity to provide several beneficial effects, for instance, relaxation, anti-stress, and insomnia. GABA, produced via a fermentation process, has been available as a functional food ingredient. As part of a program to assess its safety, GABA was administered by oral gavage at doses of 500, 1250, and 2500mg/kg body weight to groups of 10 male and 10 female Sprague-Dawley rats for 13weeks. Treatment was not associated with the test substance-related mortality and appeared to be well tolerated. There were no toxicologically and statistically significant changes in urinalysis, hematology, clinical chemistry parameters, and in necropsy findings. A few statistically significant changes in food consumption and body weights were noted in the male groups while any significant changes were not noted in female groups. There was no effect of treatment on organ weights or on the results of the histopathological examinations. The results of toxicity evaluation support the safety use of GABA and the potential use as a functional food ingredient.

  5. Evaluation of improved γ-aminobutyric acid production in yogurt using Lactobacillus plantarum NDC75017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Y; Man, C X; Han, X; Li, L; Guo, Y; Deng, Y; Li, T; Zhang, L W; Jiang, Y J

    2015-04-01

    Most γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing microorganisms are lactic acid bacteria (LAB), but the yield of GABA is limited in most of these GABA-producing strains. In this study, the production of GABA was carried out by using Lactobacillus plantarum NDC75017, a strain screened from traditional fermented dairy products in China. Concentrations of substrate (l-monosodium glutamate, L-MSG) and coenzyme (pyridoxal-5-phosphate, PLP) of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) and culture temperature were investigated to evaluate their effects on GABA yield of Lb. plantarum NDC75017. The results indicated that GABA production was related to GAD activity and biomass of Lb. plantarum NDC75017. Response surface methodology was used to optimize conditions of GABA production. The optimal factors for GABA production were L-MSG at 80 mM, PLP at 18 μM, and a culture temperature of 36 °C. Under these conditions, production of GABA was maximized at 314.56 mg/100 g. Addition of Lb. plantarum NDC75017 to a commercial starter culture led to higher GABA production in fermented yogurt. Flavor and texture of the prepared yogurt and the control yogurt did not differ significantly. Thus, Lb. plantarum NDC75017 has good potential for manufacture of GABA-enriched fermented milk products.

  6. CHANGES IN SELECTIVITY OF GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID FORMATION EFFECTED BY FERMENTATION CONDITIONS AND MICROORGANISMS RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Kovalovská

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study we observe the effect of fermentation conditions and resources of microorganisms for production of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA. The content of produced GABA depends on various conditions such as the amount of precursor, an addition of salt, enzyme and the effect of pH. The highest selectivity of GABA (74.0 % from the precursor (L-monosodium glutamate has been determinate in the follow conditions: in the presence of pre-cultured microorganisms from Encián cheese in amount 1.66 % (w/v the source of microorganisms/volume of the fermentation mixture, after the addition of 0.028 % (w/v of CaCl2/volume of the fermentation mixture, 100 μM of pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P-5-P and the GABA precursor concentration in the fermentation mixture 2.6 mg ml-1 in an atmosphere of gas nitrogen. Pure cultures of lactic acid bacteria increased the selectivity of GABA by an average of 20 % compared with bacteria from the path of Encián.

  7. The anticonvulsant gabapentin (neurontin) does not act through gamma-aminobutyric acid-B receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders A.; Mosbacher, Johannes; Elg, Susanne;

    2002-01-01

    The actions of the anticonvulsant gabapentin [1-(aminomethyl)cyclohexaneacetic acid, Neurontin] have been somewhat enigmatic until recently, when it was claimed to be a gamma-aminobutyric acid-B (GABA(B)) receptor agonist acting exclusively at a heterodimeric complex containing the GABA(B(1a......)) splice variant (Mol Pharmacol 2001;59:144-152). In this study, we have investigated the effects of gabapentin on recombinant GABA(B(1a)) and GABA(B(1b)) receptors coexpressed with GABA(B(2)) in five different functional recombinant assays, its ability to inhibit [(3)H]GABA binding in a GABA(B) receptor......-selective binding assay using rat synaptic membranes, and its ability to inhibit transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations in Labrador retriever dogs. Up to a concentration of 1 mM, gabapentin displayed no agonistic effects on either the GABA(B(1a,2)) or the GABA(B(1b,2)) heterodimer, when these were...

  8. Synaptic and extrasynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor clusters in rat hippocampal cultures during development

    OpenAIRE

    Scotti, Alessandra L.; Reuter, Harald

    2001-01-01

    We have simultaneously measured the expression of postsynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor clusters and of presynaptic boutons in neonatal rat hippocampal cultures between days 1 and 30. GABAA receptors were labeled with antibodies recognizing the extracellular domains of β2/3 and γ2 subunits. Boutons were visualized by activity-dependent uptake of the styryl dye FM4-64, or by antibodies against the presynaptic vesicular protein SV2 or the GABA-synt...

  9. The synthesis and biodistribution of 3-(4'-[125I]-iodophenyl)-4-aminobutyric acid, a radioiodinated analogue of baclofen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baclofen has been found to bind to receptors in the central nervous system that are specific for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a well known inhibitory neurotransmitter. This paper describes the synthesis of a radioiodinated analog of baclofen as part of an effort to develop receptor probes useful in single photon emission computed tomography. Preliminary biodistribution studies showed the radioiodinationed analog to be essentially stable to in vivo deiodination and have a distribution profile similar to that of baclofen. (Author)

  10. Association of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid A Receptor α2 Gene (GABRA2) with Alcohol Use Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dawei.; Sulovari, Arvis; Cheng, Chao; Zhao, Hongyu; Henry R Kranzler; Gelernter, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in mammalian brain. GABA receptor are involved in a number of complex disorders, including substance abuse. No variants of the commonly studied GABA receptor genes that have been associated with substance dependence have been determined to be functional or pathogenic. To reconcile the conflicting associations with substance dependence traits, we performed a meta-analysis of variants in the GABAA receptor genes (GABRB2, GABR...

  11. Production of gamma-aminobutyric acid by Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus Y2 under submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S-Y; Lü, F-X; Lu, Z-X; Bie, X-M; Jiao, Y; Sun, L-J; Yu, B

    2008-04-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, has several well-known physiological functions and has been applied to the production of many drugs and functional foods. The technology of GABA production via submerged fermentation by Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus Y2 was investigated in this paper. It indicated that the GABA production was related to the biochemical characteristics of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) of S. salivarius subsp. thermophilus Y2. After 24 h of fermentation at 37 degrees C, which is the suitable culture conditions for GAD-production, then the culture condition were adjusted to the optimal temperature (40 degrees C) and pH (4.5) for the GAD reaction activity in biotransformation of cells and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (0.02 mmol/l) were added to the broth at the 48 h, the GABA production was increased up to 1.76-fold, reaching 7984.75 +/- 293.33 mg/l. The strain shows great potential use as a starter for GABA-containing yoghurt, cheese and other functional fermented food productions. PMID:17514494

  12. γ-aminobutyric acid secreted from islet β-cells modulates exocrine secretion in rat pancreas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Deuk Park; Zheng-Yun Cui; Guang Wu; Hyung-Seo Park; Hyoung-Jin Park

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of endogenous γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in pancreatic exocrine secretion.METHODS: The isolated, vascularly perfused rat pancreas was employed in this study to eliminate the possible influences of extrinsic nerves and hormones.Cholecystokinin (CCK; 10 pmol/L) was intra-arterially given to stimulate exocrine secretion of the pancreas.RESULTS: Glutamine, a major precursor of GABA, which was given intra-arterially at concentrations of 1, 4 and 10 mmol/L, dose-dependently elevated the CCK-stimulated secretions of fluid and amylase in the normal pancreas.Bicuculline (10 μmol/L), a GABAA receptor antagonist,blocked the enhancing effect of glutamine (4 mmol/L) on the CCK-stimulated exocrine secretions. Glutamine, at concentrations of 1, 4 and 10 mmol/L, dose-dependently increased the GABA concentration in portal effluent of the normal pancreas. The effects of glutamine on the CCK-stimulated exocrine secretion as well as the GABA secretion were markedly reduced in the streptozotocintreated pancreas.CONCLUSION: GABA could be secreted from β-cells into the islet-acinar portal system after administration of glutainine, and could enhance the CCK-stimulated exocrine secretion through GABAA receptors. Thus,GABA in islet β-cells is a hormone modulating pancreatic exocrine secretion.

  13. Functionalities of conjugated compounds of γ-aminobutyric acid with salicylaldehyde or cinnamaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tai-Ti; Tseng, Yi-Wei; Yang, Tsung-Shi

    2016-01-01

    Aldehydes or ketones can react with amino compounds to form Schiff base adducts, which have been widely studied and shown to exhibit antimicrobial, antioxidant or antiviral activity. Salicylaldehyde (SA) and cinnamaldehyde (CA) are components of plant essential oils. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GA) is an important substance in the mammalian central nervous system and responsible for many bioactivities. This study aimed to synthesize functional Schiff base adducts using GA and SA or CA; to study the antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity and tyrosinase-inhibition activity of these adducts (SA-GA and CA-GA) and their metal complexes--SA-GA-Cu (or Zn) and CA-GA-Cu (or Zn); and to find their applications in food systems. SA-GA and CA-GA both exhibited good antibacterial effects, and so did their Cu complexes. As for antioxidant activity, SA-GA and CA-GA were superior to their metal complexes in most tests. Regarding inhibition of enzymatic browning of mushrooms, both SA-GA-Cu and CA-GA-Cu could inhibit tyrosinase activity effectively.

  14. Impaired reproduction in transgenic mice overexpressing γ-aminobutyric acid transporter I (GAT1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Hua HU; Jin Fu ZHANG; Ying Hua MA; Jie JIANG; Na YANG; Xin Bo LI; Zhi Guang YU CHI; Jian FEI; Li He GUO

    2004-01-01

    It is well documented that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system existed in reproductive organs. Recent researches showed that GABAA and GABAB receptors were present in testis and sperm,and might mediate the acrosome reaction induced by GABA and progesterone. GABA transporter I (GAT1) also existed in testis and sperm,but its physiological function was unknown. In the present study,we used GAT1 overexpressing mice to explore GAT1 function in male reproductive system. We found that the expression level of GAT1 continuously increased in wild-type mouse testis from 1 month to 2 months after birth. GAT1 overexpression in mouse affected testis development,which embodied reduced testis mass and slowed spermatogenesis in transgenic mice. Moreover,transgenic mice showed increase of the percentage of broken sperm. The further study revealed that the reproductive capacity was impaired in GAT1 overexpressing mice. In addition,testosterone level was significantly low in transgenic mice compared with that in wild-type mice. Our findings provided the first evidence that abnormal expression of GAT1 could result in dysgenesis,and indicated that GAT1 might be therapeutically targeted for contraception or dysgenesis treatment.

  15. Identification of gamma-aminobutyric acid and its binding sites in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, J.M.; Bergstrom, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate decarboxylase and GABA-transaminase were identified in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The concentration of GABA in C. elegans is approximately 10-fold lower than the concentration of GABA in rat brain. Glutamate decarboxylase and GABA-transaminase, the GABA anabolic and catabolic enzymes, are also present in C. elegans. Crude membrane fractions were prepared from C. elegans and used to study specific (/sup 3/H) GABA binding sites. GABA binds to C. elegans membranes with high affinity and low capacity. Muscimol is a competitive inhibitor of specific GABA binding with a K/sub I/ value of 120 nM. None of the other GABA agonists or antagonists inhibited greater than 40% of the specific GABA binding at concentrations up to 10/sup -4/M. Thirteen spider venoms were examined as possible GABA agonists or antagonists, the venom from Calilena agelenidae inhibits specific GABA binding with a K/sub I/ value of 6 nl/ml. These results suggest that GABA has a physiological role as a neurotransmitter in C. elegans.

  16. The inhibitory role of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on immunomodulation of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meijia; Qiu, Limei; Wang, Lingling; Wang, Weilin; Xin, Lusheng; Li, Yiqun; Liu, Zhaoqun; Song, Linsheng

    2016-05-01

    γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter to suppress the immune-mediated pro-inflammatory reactions, and it has been used in the treatment of many inflammation-related diseases in vertebrates, while its immunomodulatory role in invertebrates has never been reported. In the present study, GABA was found to exist in the hemolymph of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, and its concentration decreased slightly from 8.00 ± 0.37 μmol L(-1) at normal condition to 7.73 ± 0.15 μmol L(-1) at 6 h after LPS stimulation, and then increased to 9.34 ± 0.15 μmol L(-1), 8.86 ± 0.68 μmol L(-1) at 12 h and 48 h, respectively. After LPS stimulation, the mRNA expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines (CgIL-17 and CgTNF) and immune effectors (CgSOD and CgBPI), and the protein expression of NOS increased significantly, and these increased trends were remarkably inhibited by GABA stimulation. At the same time, the phagocytosis rate and apoptosis rate of immunocytes also increased obviously after LPS stimulation, whereas the increase was repressed with the addition of GABA. The results collectively demonstrated that GABA was an indispensable inhibitory agent for both humoral and cellular immune response, which mainly functioned at the late phase of immune response to avoid the excess immune reactions and maintain the immune homeostasis.

  17. Utilization of barley or wheat bran to bioconvert glutamate to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wen-Jie; Kim, Min-Ju; Kim, Keun-Sung

    2013-09-01

    This study deals with the utilization of agro-industrial wastes created by barley and wheat bran in the production of a value-added product, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The simple and eco-friendly reaction requires no pretreatment or microbial fermentation steps but uses barley or wheat bran as an enzyme source, glutamate as a substrate, and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) as a cofactor. The optimal reaction conditions were determined on the basis of the temperatures and times used for the decarboxylation reactions and the initial concentrations of barley or wheat bran, glutamate, and PLP. The optimal reactions produced 9.2 mM of GABA from 10 mM glutamate, yielding a 92% GABA conversion rate, when barley bran was used and 6.0 mM of GABA from 10 mM glutamate, yielding a 60% GABA conversion rate, when wheat bran was used. The results imply that barley bran is more efficient than wheat bran in the production of GABA.

  18. Contents of Neo-flavored Tea (GABA Kintaro) Containing γ-Aminobutyric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Yoshiya

    The contents of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), catechins, theaflavins, caffeine and pheophorbide-a in neo-flavored tea (GABA Kintaro tea) were analyzed. 1)The amounts of GABA were increased over 1.5mg/g by means of infrared ray irradiation with agitation treatment. 2)There was a tendency for the amount of catechins to be decreased by this treatment, whereas the amount of theaflavins tended to increase with the same treatment. The composition of these contents in this GABA Kintaro tea was almost the same as that of black tea. 3)There was a tendency for the amount of caffeine to be decreased by this treatment. 4)There was a tendency for the amount of pheophorbide-a to be increased by this treatment. 5)The result of this study showed that the amounts of GABA and theaflavins in this GABA Kintaro tea were higher than ordinary green tea but contained few catechins.It became clear that the amount of pheophorbide-a in this GABA Kintaro tea was less than the standard value established in processed chlorella.

  19. Potentiation of gamma aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAAR by Ethanol: How are inhibitory receptors affected?

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    Benjamin eFörstera

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increase in the understanding of ethanol actions on the type A -aminobutyric acid chloride channel (GABAAR, a member of the pentameric ligand gated ion channels (pLGICs. However, the mechanism by which ethanol potentiates the complex is still not fully understood and a number of publications have shown contradictory results. Thus many questions still remain unresolved requiring further studies for a better comprehension of this effect. The present review concentrates on the involvement of GABAAR in the acute actions of ethanol and specifically focuses on the immediate, direct or indirect, synaptic and extra-synaptic modulatory effects. To elaborate on the immediate, direct modulation of GABAAR by acute ethanol exposure, electrophysiological studies investigating the importance of different subunits, and data from receptor mutants will be examined. We will also discuss the nature of the putative binding sites for ethanol based on structural data obtained from other members of the pLGICs family. Finally, we will briefly highlight the glycine gated chloride channel (GlyR, another member of the pLGIC family, as a suitable target for the development of new pharmacological tools.

  20. Effects of Frequency Drift on the Quantification of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Using MEGA-PRESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shang-Yueh; Fang, Chun-Hao; Wu, Thai-Yu; Lin, Yi-Ru

    2016-04-01

    The MEGA-PRESS method is the most common method used to measure γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain at 3T. It has been shown that the underestimation of the GABA signal due to B0 drift up to 1.22 Hz/min can be reduced by post-frequency alignment. In this study, we show that the underestimation of GABA can still occur even with post frequency alignment when the B0 drift is up to 3.93 Hz/min. The underestimation can be reduced by applying a frequency shift threshold. A total of 23 subjects were scanned twice to assess the short-term reproducibility, and 14 of them were scanned again after 2–8 weeks to evaluate the long-term reproducibility. A linear regression analysis of the quantified GABA versus the frequency shift showed a negative correlation (P  0.05). Therefore, a frequency shift threshold at 0.125 ppm (15.5 Hz) can be used to reduce underestimation during GABA quantification. For data with a B0 drift up to 3.93 Hz/min, the coefficients of variance of short-term and long-term reproducibility for the GABA quantification were less than 10% when the frequency threshold was applied.

  1. [Interactions between dopamine receptor and NMDA/type A γ-aminobutyric acid receptors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Ying; Wei, Ting-Jia; Weng, Jing-Jin; Qin, Jiang-Yuan; Huang, Xi; Su, Ji-Ping

    2016-04-25

    Type A γ-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAAR) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) are the major inhibitory and excitatory receptors in the central nervous system, respectively. Co-expression of the receptors in the synapse may lead to functional influence between receptors, namely receptor interaction. The interactions between GABAAR and NMDAR can be either positive or negative. However, the mechanisms of interaction between the two receptors remain poorly understood, and potential mechanisms include (1) through a second messenger; (2) by receptors trafficking; (3) by direct interaction; (4) by a third receptor-mediation. Dopamine is the most abundant catecholamine neurotransmitter in the brain, and its receptors, dopamine receptors (DR) can activate multiple signaling pathways. Earlier studies on the interaction between DR and GABAAR/NMDAR have shown some underlying mechanisms, suggesting that DR could mediate the interaction between GABAAR and NMDAR. This paper summarized some recent progresses in the studies of the interaction between DR and NMDAR/GABAAR, providing a further understanding on the interaction between NMDAR and GABAAR mediated by DR. PMID:27108906

  2. Induced resistance against the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, by β-aminobutyric acid in citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Siddharth; Meyer, Wendy L; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2013-10-01

    β-Aminobutyric acid (BABA) is known to induce resistance to microbial pathogens, nematodes and insects in several host plant/pest systems. The present study was undertaken to determine whether a similar effect of BABA occurred against the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, in citrus. A 25 mM drench application of BABA significantly reduced the number of eggs/plant as compared with a water control, whereas 200 and 100 mM applications of BABA reduced the numbers of nymphs/plant and adults/plants, respectively. A 5 mM foliar application of BABA significantly reduced the number of adults but not eggs or nymphs when compared with a water control treatment. In addition, leaf-dip bioassays using various concentrations (25–500 mM) of BABA indicated no direct toxic effect on 2nd and 5th instar nymphs or adult D. citri. BABA-treated plants were characterized by significantly lower levels of iron, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, sulfur and zinc as compared with control plants. The expression level of the PR-2 gene (β-1,3-glucanase) in BABA-treated plants that were also damaged by D. citri adult feeding was significantly higher than in plants exposed to BABA, D. citri feeding alone or control plants. Our results indicate the potential for using BABA as a systemic acquired resistance management tool for D. citri.

  3. Effects of Aeration Treatment on γ-Aminobutyric Acid Accumulation in Germinated Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanxin Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the optimum condition of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA accumulation in germinated tartary buckwheat, effects of some factors including aeration treatment, physiological indexes, air flow rate, culture temperature, and pH value of cultivating solution under hypoxia on GABA in germinated tartary buckwheat were investigated. The results showed that the dark cultures with distilled water at 30°C, 2 days, and aeration stress with 1.0 L/min air flow rate at 30°C were optimal for GABA accumulation. Under these conditions, the predicted content of GABA was up to 371.98 μg/g DW. The analysis of correlation indicated that there was a significant correlation (P<0.01 between GABA accumulation and physiological indexes. Box-Behnken experimental analysis revealed that optimal conditions with aeration treatment for GABA accumulation in germinated tartary buckwheat were air flow rate of 1.04 L/min, culture temperature of 31.25°C, and a pH value of 4.21. Under these conditions, the GABA content was predicted as high as 386.20 μg/g DW, which was close to the measured value (379.00±9.30 μg/g DW. The variance analysis and validation test suggested that this established regression model could predict GABA accumulation in tartary buckwheat during germination.

  4. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and neuropeptides in neural areas mediating motion-induced emesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damelio, F.; Daunton, Nancy G.; Fox, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    Immunocytochemical methods were employed to localize the neurotransmitter amino acid gamma-aminobutyric acid and the neuropeptides substance P and Met-enkephalin in the area postrema (AP), area subpostrema (ASP), nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS), dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMNV), and lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN). Glutamic acid decarboxylase immunoreactive (GAD-IR) terminals and fibers were observed in the AP and particularly in the ASP. A gradual decrease in the density of terminals was seen towards the solitary complex. The DMNV revealed irregularly scattered GAD-IR terminals within the neuropil or closely surrounding neuronal cell bodies. The LVN, particularly the dorsal division, showed numerous axon terminals which were mostly localize around large neurons and their proximal dendrites. Substance P immunoreactive (SP-IR) terminals and fibers showed high density in the solitary complex, in particular within the lateral division. The ASP showed medium to low density of SP-IR fibers and terminals. The AP exhibited a small number of fibers and terminals irregularly distributed. The DMNV revealed a high density of SP-IR terminals and fibers that were mainly concentrated in the periphery. Very few terminals were detected in the LVN. Met-enkephalin immunoreactive (Met-Enk-IR) fibers and terminals showed high density and uniform distribution in the DMNV. Scattered terminals and fibers were observed in the AP, ASP, and NTS (particularly the lateral division). The very few fibers were observed in the LVN surrounded the neuronal cell bodies. The present report is part of a study designed to investigate the interaction between neuropeptides and conventional neurotransmitters under conditions producing motion sickness and in the process of sensory-motor adaptation.

  5. Soil drench treatment with ß-aminobutyric acid increases drought tolerance of potato.

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    Anita Sós-Hegedűs

    Full Text Available The non-protein amino acid β-aminobutyric acid (BABA is known to be a priming agent for a more efficient activation of cellular defence responses and a potent inducer of resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. Nevertheless, most of the studies on priming have been carried out in Arabidopsis. In potato, the effect of BABA was demonstrated only on biotic stress tolerance. We investigated the effect of BABA on the drought tolerance of potato and found that soil drenched with BABA at a final concentration of 0.3 mM improves the drought tolerance of potato. Water loss from the leaves of the primed plants is attenuated and the yield is increased compared to the unprimed drought-stressed plants. The metabolite composition of the tubers of the BABA-treated plants is less affected by drought than the tuber composition of the non-treated plants. Nitric oxide and ROS (reactive oxygen species production is increased in the BABA-treated roots but not in the leaves. In the leaves of the BABA-treated plants, the expression of the drought-inducible gene StDS2 is delayed, but the expression of ETR1, encoding an ethylene receptor, is maintained for a longer period under the drought conditions than in the leaves of the non-treated, drought-stressed control plants. This result suggests that the ethylene-inducible gene expression remains suppressed in primed plants leading to a longer leaf life and increased tuber yield compared to the non-treated, drought-stressed plants. The priming effect of BABA in potato, however, is transient and reverts to an unprimed state within a few weeks.

  6. New insights into {gamma}-aminobutyric acid catabolism: Evidence for {gamma}-hydroxybutyric acid and polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Benoît; Meudec, Emmanuelle; Lepoutre, Jean-Paul; Rossignol, Tristan; Blondin, Bruno; Dequin, Sylvie; Camarasa, Carole

    2009-07-01

    The gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) shunt, an alternative route for the conversion of alpha-ketoglutarate to succinate, involves the glutamate decarboxylase Gad1p, the GABA transaminase Uga1p and the succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase Uga2p. This pathway has been extensively described in plants and animals, but its function in yeast remains unclear. We show that the flux through Gad1p is insignificant during fermentation in rich sugar-containing medium, excluding a role for this pathway in redox homeostasis under anaerobic conditions or sugar stress. However, we found that up to 4 g of exogenous GABA/liter was efficiently consumed by yeast. We studied the fate of this consumed GABA. Most was converted into succinate, with a reaction yield of 0.7 mol/mol. We also showed that a large proportion of GABA was stored within cells, indicating a possible role for this molecule in stress tolerance mechanisms or nitrogen storage. Furthermore, based on enzymatic and metabolic evidence, we identified an alternative route for GABA catabolism, involving the reduction of succinate-semialdehyde into gamma-hydroxybutyric acid and the polymerization of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid to form poly-(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-4-hydroxybutyric acid). This study provides the first demonstration of a native route for the formation of this polymer in yeast. Our findings shed new light on the GABA pathway and open up new opportunities for industrial applications.

  7. Evaluation of commercial soy sauce koji strains of Aspergillus oryzae for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab Kadir, Safuan; Wan-Mohtar, Wan Abd Al Qadr Imad; Mohammad, Rosfarizan; Abdul Halim Lim, Sarina; Sabo Mohammed, Abdulkarim; Saari, Nazamid

    2016-10-01

    In this study, four selected commercial strains of Aspergillus oryzae were collected from soy sauce koji. These A. oryzae strains designated as NSK, NSZ, NSJ and NST shared similar morphological characteristics with the reference strain (A. oryzae FRR 1675) which confirmed them as A. oryzae species. They were further evaluated for their ability to produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by cultivating the spore suspension in a broth medium containing 0.4 % (w/v) of glutamic acid as a substrate for GABA production. The results showed that these strains were capable of producing GABA; however, the concentrations differed significantly (P soy sauce production. PMID:27541157

  8. β-aminobutyric acid mediated drought stress alleviation in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Arun K; Bhardwaj, Pardeep K; Ghosh, Supriya; Roy, Sankhajit; Saha, Suman; Sherpa, Ang R; Saha, Samir K; Hossain, Zahed

    2016-02-01

    The present study highlights the role of β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) in alleviating drought stress effects in maize (Zea mays L.). Chemical priming was imposed by pretreating 1-week-old plants with 600 μM BABA prior to applying drought stress. Specific activities of key antioxidant enzymes and metabolites (ascorbate and glutathione) levels of ascorbate-glutathione cycle were studied to unravel the priming-induced modulation of plant defense system. Furthermore, changes in endogenous ABA and JA concentrations as well as mRNA expressions of key genes involved in their respective biosynthesis pathways were monitored in BABA-primed (BABA+) and non-primed (BABA-) leaves of drought-challenged plants to better understand the mechanistic insights into the BABA-induced hormonal regulation of plant response to water-deficit stress. Accelerated stomatal closure, high relative water content, and less membrane damage were observed in BABA-primed leaves under water-deficit condition. Elevated APX and SOD activity in non-primed leaves found to be insufficient to scavenge all H2O2 and O2 (·-) resulting in oxidative burst as evident after histochemical staining with NBT and DAB. A higher proline accumulation in non-primed leaves also does not give much protection against drought stress. Increased GR activity supported with the enhanced mRNA and protein expressions might help the BABA-primed plants to maintain a high GSH pool essential for sustaining balanced redox status to counter drought-induced oxidative stress damages. Hormonal analysis suggests that in maize, BABA-potentiated drought tolerance is primarily mediated through JA-dependent pathway by the activation of antioxidant defense systems while ABA biosynthesis pathway also plays an important role in fine-tuning of drought stress response.

  9. Relating MEG measured motor cortical oscillations to resting γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaetz, W; Edgar, J C; Wang, D J; Roberts, T P L

    2011-03-15

    The human motor cortex exhibits characteristic beta (15-30 Hz) and gamma oscillations (60-90 Hz), typically observed in the context of transient finger movement tasks. The functional significance of these oscillations, such as post-movement beta rebound (PMBR) and movement-related gamma synchrony (MRGS) remains unclear. Considerable animal and human non-invasive studies, however, suggest that the networks supporting these motor cortex oscillations depend critically on the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA). Despite such speculation, a direct relation between MEG measured motor cortex oscillatory power and frequency with resting GABA concentrations has not been demonstrated. In the present study, motor cortical responses were measured from 9 healthy adults while they performed a cued button-press task using their right index finger. In each participant, PMBR and MRGS measures were obtained from time-frequency plots obtained from primary motor (MI) sources, localized using beamformer differential source localization. For each participant, complimentary magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) GABA measures aligned to the motor hand knob of the left central sulcus were also obtained. GABA concentration was estimated as the ratio of the motor cortex GABA integral to a cortical reference NAA resonance at 2 ppm. A significant linear relation was observed between MI GABA concentration and MRGS frequency (R(2)=0.46, pGABA concentration and MRGS power. Conversely, a significant linear relation was observed between MI GABA concentration and PMBR power (R(2)=0.34, pGABA concentration and PMBR frequency. Finally, a significant negative linear relation between the participant's age and MI gamma frequency was observed, such that older participants had a lower gamma frequency (R(2)=0.40, pGABA in the generation and modulation of endogenous motor cortex rhythmic beta and gamma activity.

  10. Antiepileptic Potential of Matrine via Regulation the Levels of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid and Glutamic Acid in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Xiang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Our present study aimed to determine the antiepileptic activity of matrine, and explore the possible molecular mechanism. To evaluate the antiepileptic activity of matrine, seizures in mice induced by PTZ and MES were established, then the pentobarbital sodium-induced anaesthetizing time and locomotor activity tests in mice were also carried out. For the molecular mechanism investigations, contents of aspartic acid (Asp, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, glutamic acid (Glu, glycine (Gly in seizures mice were determined; then, the chronic seizures rats induced by PTZ were prepared, and western blotting was used to determine the expressions of GAD 65, GABAA and GABAB in the brains. In the results, matrine showed significant antiepileptic effects on seizures mice induced by MES and PTZ. Moreover, the pentobarbital sodium-induced anaesthetizing time and locomotor activity tests were also demonstrated that matrine had obvious antiepileptic effects. Additionally, our results revealed that after treatment with matrine, contents of GABA can be elevated, and the contents of Glu were obviously decreased. Furthermore, western blotting revealed that the mechanism regarding the antiepileptic effect of may be related to the up-regulations of GAD 65 and GABAA in the brain. Collectively, we suggested that matrine can be developed as an effective antiseptic drug.

  11. Antiepileptic potential of matrine via regulation the levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamic acid in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jun; Jiang, Yugang

    2013-12-05

    Our present study aimed to determine the antiepileptic activity of matrine, and explore the possible molecular mechanism. To evaluate the antiepileptic activity of matrine, seizures in mice induced by PTZ and MES were established, then the pentobarbital sodium-induced anaesthetizing time and locomotor activity tests in mice were also carried out. For the molecular mechanism investigations, contents of aspartic acid (Asp), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamic acid (Glu), glycine (Gly) in seizures mice were determined; then, the chronic seizures rats induced by PTZ were prepared, and western blotting was used to determine the expressions of GAD 65, GABAA and GABAB in the brains. In the results, matrine showed significant antiepileptic effects on seizures mice induced by MES and PTZ. Moreover, the pentobarbital sodium-induced anaesthetizing time and locomotor activity tests were also demonstrated that matrine had obvious antiepileptic effects. Additionally, our results revealed that after treatment with matrine, contents of GABA can be elevated, and the contents of Glu were obviously decreased. Furthermore, western blotting revealed that the mechanism regarding the antiepileptic effect of may be related to the up-regulations of GAD 65 and GABAA in the brain. Collectively, we suggested that matrine can be developed as an effective antiseptic drug.

  12. The role of γ-aminobutyric acid and its receptors in the nucleus of basal optic root in pigeons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付煜西; 高宏峰; 王书荣; Stephen A.George

    1997-01-01

    The effects of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and its antagonists bicuculline and 2-hydroxysaclofen on neuronal firings in the nucleus of basal optic root (nBOR) in pigeons were studied by using extracellular recording and microiontophoretic techniques. The results suggest that GABA may be an inhibitory neurotransmitter or modulator within nBOR, functioning by means of main mediation of GABAA receptors and of minor mediation of GABAB receptors. Furthermore, GABA and its GABAA receptors are involved in the modulation of directional selectivity in part of nBOR neurons.

  13. Effects of progesterone on glutamate transporter 2 and gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter 1 expression in the developing rat brain after recurrent seizures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingjuan Liu; Dingan Mao; Liqun Liu; Yu Huang; Tao Bo

    2012-01-01

    Seizures were induced by flurothyl inhalation. Rats were intramuscularly treated with progesterone after each seizure. Results demonstrated that glutamate transporter 2 and γ-aminobutyric acid transporter 1 expression levels were significantly increased in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the developing rat brain following recurrent seizures. After progesterone treatment, glutamate transporter 2 protein expression was upregulated, but γ-aminobutyric acid transporter 1 levels decreased. These results suggest that glutamate transporter 2 and γ-aminobutyric acid transporter 1 are involved in the pathological processes of epilepsy. Progesterone can help maintain a balance between excitatory and inhibitory systems by modulating the amino acid transporter system, and protect the developing brain after recurrent seizures.

  14. The effect of antivitamin B6 administration on gamma-aminobutyric acid metabolism in retina and electroretinogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, A; Kamada, Y; Kunita, M; Matsuda, M

    1980-01-01

    The effect of several antivitamin B6 on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism was studied in the rat retina. The rat electroretinogram (ERG) was also recorded after administration of these drugs. Aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA) and hydrazine administration increased the GABA content and inhibited the GABA degrading enzyme, GABA transaminase in retina. In addition, there drugs elongated the peak latency of the oscillatory potential in the rat ERG. In contrast, 4-deoxypyridoxine (DOP) or isonicotinic acid hydrazide (INAH) administration decreased the GABA content and inhibited the GABA synthesizing enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase in retina, and administration of these drugs together with AOAA lessened the degrees of elevation of GABA content and of the elongation of the peak latency produced as compared with AOAA alone, though neither of the former drugs had a significant effect on ERG. The retinal GABA seems to play an important role in relation to the oscillatory potential of ERG.

  15. Metabolic pathways regulated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contributing to heat tolerance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhou; Yu, Jingjin; Peng, Yan; Huang, Bingru

    2016-07-26

    γ-Aminobutyric acid is a non-protein amino acid involved in various metabolic processes. The objectives of this study were to examine whether increased GABA could improve heat tolerance in cool-season creeping bentgrass through physiological analysis, and to determine major metabolic pathways regulated by GABA through metabolic profiling. Plants were pretreated with 0.5 mM GABA or water before exposed to non-stressed condition (21/19 °C) or heat stress (35/30 °C) in controlled growth chambers for 35 d. The growth and physiological analysis demonstrated that exogenous GABA application significantly improved heat tolerance of creeping bentgrass. Metabolic profiling found that exogenous application of GABA led to increases in accumulations of amino acids (glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, threonine, serine, and valine), organic acids (aconitic acid, malic acid, succinic acid, oxalic acid, and threonic acid), sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose, galactose, and maltose), and sugar alcohols (mannitol and myo-inositol). These findings suggest that GABA-induced heat tolerance in creeping bentgrass could involve the enhancement of photosynthesis and ascorbate-glutathione cycle, the maintenance of osmotic adjustment, and the increase in GABA shunt. The increased GABA shunt could be the supply of intermediates to feed the tricarboxylic acid cycle of respiration metabolism during a long-term heat stress, thereby maintaining metabolic homeostasis.

  16. Metabolic pathways regulated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contributing to heat tolerance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhou; Yu, Jingjin; Peng, Yan; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid is a non-protein amino acid involved in various metabolic processes. The objectives of this study were to examine whether increased GABA could improve heat tolerance in cool-season creeping bentgrass through physiological analysis, and to determine major metabolic pathways regulated by GABA through metabolic profiling. Plants were pretreated with 0.5 mM GABA or water before exposed to non-stressed condition (21/19 °C) or heat stress (35/30 °C) in controlled growth chambers for 35 d. The growth and physiological analysis demonstrated that exogenous GABA application significantly improved heat tolerance of creeping bentgrass. Metabolic profiling found that exogenous application of GABA led to increases in accumulations of amino acids (glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, threonine, serine, and valine), organic acids (aconitic acid, malic acid, succinic acid, oxalic acid, and threonic acid), sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose, galactose, and maltose), and sugar alcohols (mannitol and myo-inositol). These findings suggest that GABA-induced heat tolerance in creeping bentgrass could involve the enhancement of photosynthesis and ascorbate-glutathione cycle, the maintenance of osmotic adjustment, and the increase in GABA shunt. The increased GABA shunt could be the supply of intermediates to feed the tricarboxylic acid cycle of respiration metabolism during a long-term heat stress, thereby maintaining metabolic homeostasis. PMID:27455877

  17. γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptor Subunit α-6 (GABRA6 Gene Polymorphism and Anxiety Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa I. Barliana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorder caused by environmental factor and individual genetic variations. Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors Subunit α-6 (GABRA6 is γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA receptor. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP of GABRA6 gene at rs3219151 (T1521C affected individual response of stress. The aim of present study was to identify GABRA6 genotype variations in Bandung city population and its correlation with stress condition. Samples were collected from 112 respondents who filled The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10 questionnaire for stress condition. Blood samples were collected and identification of GABRA6 gene was analyzed using Polymerase Chain Reaction‑Refractory Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP by AlwN1 restriction enzyme digestion. The result of present study showed that 84 respondents (75% have CC genotype, 14 respondents (12.5% have CT genotype, and other 14 respondents (12.5% have TT genotype. Most of respondents have CC genotype but the data did not meet the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and showed no correlation between GABRA6 gene variations and stress condition using bivariate analysis (Chi-Square.

  18. Effects of glutamate decarboxylase and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter on the bioconversion of GABA in engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vo, Tam Dinh; Kim, Tae Wan; Hong, Soon Ho

    2012-05-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-essential amino acid and a precursor of pyrrolidone, a monomer of nylon 4. GABA can be biosynthesized through the decarboxylation of L: -glutamate by glutamate decarboxylase. In this study, the effects of glutamate decarboxylase (gadA, gadB), glutamate/GABA antiporter (gadC) and GABA aminotransferase (gabT) on GABA production were investigated in Escherichia coli. Glutamate decarboxylase was overexpressed alone or with the glutamate/GABA antiporter to enhance GABA synthesis. GABA aminotransferase, which redirects GABA into the TCA cycle, was knock-out mutated. When gadB and gadC were co-overexpressed in the gabT mutant strain, a final GABA concentration of 5.46 g/l was obtained from 10 g/l of monosodium glutamate (MSG), which corresponded to a GABA yield of 89.5%.

  19. Effect of glycine, DL-alanine and DL-2-aminobutyric acid on the temperature of maximum density of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Effect of α-amino acids on the temperature of maximum density of water is presented. • The addition of α-amino acids decreases the temperature of maximum density of water. • Despretz constants suggest that the amino acids behave as water structure breakers. • Despretz constants decrease as the number of CH2 groups of the amino acid increase. • Solute disrupting effect becomes smaller as its hydrophobic character increases. - Abstract: The effect of glycine, DL-alanine and DL-2-aminobutyric acid on the temperature of maximum density of water was determined from density measurements using a magnetic float densimeter. Densities of aqueous solutions were measured within the temperature range from T = (275.65 to 278.65) K at intervals of T = 0.50 K over the concentration range between (0.0300 and 0.1000) mol · kg−1. A linear relationship between density and concentration was obtained for all the systems in the temperature range considered. The temperature of maximum density was determined from the experimental results. The effect of the three amino acids is to decrease the temperature of maximum density of water and the decrease is proportional to molality according to Despretz equation. The effect of the amino acids on the temperature of maximum density decreases as the number of methylene groups of the alkyl chain becomes larger. The results are discussed in terms of (solute + water) interactions and the effect of amino acids on water structure

  20. EXTRACELLULAR GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC-ACID IN THE SUBSTANTIA-NIGRA RETICULATA MEASURED BY MICRODIALYSIS IN AWAKE RATS - EFFECTS OF VARIOUS STIMULANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TIMMERMAN, W; WESTERINK, BHC

    1995-01-01

    The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic system in the substantia nigra reticulata (SNR) was challenged by local infusion of various receptor-specific agents to obtain additional information on the physiological significance of extracellular GABA levels as measured by microdialysis in awake rats. No

  1. Individual variability in verbal fluency correlates with γ-aminobutyric acid concentration in the left inferior frontal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Tomoya; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2016-09-01

    A particular feature of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), which is considered a central region for language processing, is leftward functional/anatomical asymmetry. However, previous studies have not clearly shown lateralization of neurotransmitters in the cortical regions. Using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we measured γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations in the bilateral IFG. To evaluate individual variability in linguistic performance, we further used a verbal fluency test. Although GABA+/creatine (Cr) values were not different between the left and the right IFG, we found a significant correlation between category fluency scores and GABA+/Cr values in the left IFG. No correlation was found between letter fluency scores and GABA+/Cr values. We also confirmed that the result was independent of the references used (Cr and H2O). Our results show a new physiological basis of linguistic performance as well as leftward asymmetry of the IFG. PMID:27454241

  2. Silencing gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor alpha 1 subunit expression and outward potassium current in developing cortical neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Bo; Jiang Li; Jian Li; Xingfang Li; Kaihui Xing

    2011-01-01

    We used RNA interference (RNAi) to disrupt synthesis of the cortical neuronal γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABAAR) α1 in rats during development, and measured outward K+ currents during neuronal electrical activity using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. Three pairs of small interfering RNA (siRNA) for GABAAR α1 subunit were designed using OligoEngine RNAi software. This siRNA was found to effectively inhibited GABAAR α1 mRNA expression in cortical neuronal culture in vitro, but did not significantly affect neuronal survival. Outward K+ currents were decreased, indicating that GABAAR α1 subunits in developing neurons participate in neuronal function by regulating outward K+ current.

  3. Presence of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (Gaba) in the Pedal Mucus of the Critically Endangered Species Patella ferruginea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Ingraham, G A; Espinosa, F; Krock, B

    2015-05-01

    Patella ferruginea is a giant patellid limpet endemic to the Mediterranean Sea. It presently is in danger of extinction, and many have called for developing conservation measures including the mass production of spats for re-introduction projects. However, so far all attempts have been relatively unsuccessful. Previous work analyzing the effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the recruitment of patellid limpets has shown that larvae respond to the presence of this signaling molecule. This response could explain the gregarious distribution typical of this species. In the present study, we demonstrated that GABA is naturally secreted by P. ferruginea in the pedal mucus. GABA is preferentially secreted during the summer, coinciding with the reproductive resting period of the species. Further research should aim to analyze the effects of GABA on larval development and metamorphosis in order to assess its potential use to improve conservation efforts.

  4. How Imaging Glutamate, γ-Aminobutyric Acid, and Dopamine Can Inform the Clinical Treatment of Alcohol Dependence and Withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmer, Ansel T; Mason, Graeme F; Fucito, Lisa M; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Cosgrove, Kelly P

    2015-12-01

    Neuroimaging studies have dramatically advanced our understanding of the neurochemical basis of alcohol dependence, a major public health issue. In this paper, we review the research generated from neurochemical specific imaging modalities including magnetic resonance spectroscopy, positron emission tomography, and single-photon emission computed tomography in studies of alcohol dependence and withdrawal. We focus on studies interrogating γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate, and dopamine, as these are prominent neurotransmitter systems implicated in alcohol dependence. Highlighted findings include diminished dopaminergic functioning and modulation of the GABA system by tobacco smoking during alcohol withdrawal. Then, we consider how these findings impact the clinical treatment of alcohol dependence and discuss directions for future experiments to address existing gaps in the literature, for example, sex differences and smoking comorbidity. These and other considerations provide opportunities to build upon the current neurochemistry imaging literature of alcohol dependence and withdrawal, which may usher in improved therapeutic and relapse prevention strategies. PMID:26510169

  5. Gamma-aminobutyric acid and GABA_A receptors are involved in directional selectivity of pretectal neurons in pigeons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖泉; 付煜西; 胡婧; 高洪峰; 王书荣

    2000-01-01

    The present study describes the effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and its antagonists, bicuculline and 2-hydroxysaclofen, on visual responses of neurons in the pigeon nucleus lentiformis mesencephali (nLM). The results indicate that GABA significantly reduces both spontaneous activity and visual responsiveness, and GABAA antagonist bicuculline but not GABAB antagonist 2-hydroxysaclofen enhances visual responses of nLM cells examined. Furthermore, inhibition produced by motion in the null-direction of pretectal neurons is diminished by bicuculline but not by 2-hydroxysaclofen. It is therefore concluded that the null-direction inhibition of directional cells in the pigeon nLM is predominantly mediated by GABA and GABAA receptors. This inhibition may at least in part underlie directional asymmetry of optokinetic responses.

  6. Gamma aminobutyric acid transporter subtype 1 gene knockout mice: a new model for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Yang; Guoqiang Cai; Youqing Cai; Jian Fei; Guoxiang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by hyperactivity,impaired sustained attention,impulsivity,and is usually accompanied by varying degrees of learning difficulties and lack of motor coordination.However,the pathophysiology and etiology of ADHD remain inconclusive so far.Our previous studies have demonstrated that the gamma aminobutyric acid transporter subtype 1 (GAT1) gene knockout (ko) mouse (gat1-/-)is hyperactive and exhibited impaired memory performance in the Morris water maze.In the current study,we found that the gat1-/-mice showed low levels of attentional focusing and increased impulsivity.In addition,the gat1-/-mice displayed ataxia characterized by defects in motor coordination and balance skills.The hyperactivity in the ko mice was reduced by both methylphenidate and amphetamine.Collectively,these results suggest that GAT1 ko mouse is a new animal model for ADHD studying and GAT1 may be a new target to treat ADHD.

  7. Gamma-aminobutyric acid and GABAA receptors are involved in directional selectivity of pretectal neurons in pigeons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The present study describes the effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and itsantagonists, bicuculline and 2-hydroxysaclofen, on visual responses of neurons in the pigeon nucleuslentiformis mesencephali (nLM). The results indicate that GABA significantly reduces bothspontaneous activity and visual responsiveness, and GABAA antagonist bicuculline but not GABABantagonist 2-hydroxysaclofen enhances visual responses of nLM cells examined. Furthermore,inhibition produced by motion in the null-direction of pretectal neurons is diminished by bicucullinebut not by 2-hydroxysaclofen. It is therefore concluded that the null-direction inhibition of directionalcells in the pigeon nLM is predominantly mediated by GABA and GABAA receptors. This inhibitionmay at least in part underlie directional asymmetry of optokinetic responses.

  8. Baclofen (β-p-chlorophenyl-γ-aminobutyric acid) enhances [3H]γ-aminobutyric acid (3H-GABA) release from rat globus pallidus in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rat globus pallidus has been investigated as a possible model in which to study pre-synaptic GABA mechanisms in vitro. (+ -)-Baclofen (300μM-1 mM) significantly enhanced the release of radioactivity from superfused slices of rat globus pallidus prelabelled with 3H-GABA in vitro. This releasing action was specific to the (+)-isomer of baclofen. Neither the (-)-isomer nor another neuronal depressant DL-α-upsilon-diaminopimelic acid had any significant effect. The releasing effect of baclofen appeared unrelated to the phenethylamine moiety of its structure as neither β-phenethylamine nor dopamine evoked release of 3H-GABA from pallidal slices. Baclofen increased the efflux of radioactivity from pallidal slices prelabelled with either [3H]β-alanine or 3H diaminobutric acid in vitro. The use of specific glial and neuronal GABA uptake blocking compounds (β-alanine and (+ -)-cis-1,3-aminocyclohexanecarboxylic acid) did not permit resolution of the elements from which baclofen was evoking [3H]GABA release. Baclofen also inhibited uptake of [3H]GABA into pallidal slices with an IC50 value of 6 x 10-4m. The GABA-like properties of baclofen may be related to the (+)-isomer while non-specific neuronal depressant actions are an effect of the (-)-isomer. The potential of the (+)-isomer as an antipyschotic agent while (-)-baclofen remains the effective antispastic drug free from unwanted side-effects is discussed. (author)

  9. Dynamic changes in gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate decarboxylase activity in oats (Avena nuda L.) during steeping and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian Guo; Hu, Qing Ping; Duan, Jiang Lian; Tian, Cheng Rui

    2010-09-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and provides beneficial effects for human and other animals health. To accumulate GABA, samples from two different naked oat cultivars, Baiyan II and Bayou I, were steeped and germinated in an incubator. The content of GABA and glutamic acid as well as the activity of the glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) in oats during steeping and germination were investigated with an amino acid automatic analyzer. Compared with raw groats, an increase in GABA content of oat groats during steeping and germination was continuously observed for two oat cultivars. The activity of GAD increased greatly at the end of steeping and the second stage of germination for Baiyan II and Bayou I, respectively. Glutamic acid content of treated oat groats was significantly lower than that in raw groats until the later period of germination. GABA was correlated (p<0.01) significantly and positively with the glutamic acid rather than GAD activity in the current study. The results indicates that steeping and germination process under highly controlled conditions can effectively accumulate the GABA in oat groats for Baiyan II and Bayou I, which would greatly facilitate production of nutraceuticals or food ingredients that enable consumers to gain greater access to the health benefits of oats. However, more assays need to be further performed with more oat cultivars.

  10. Quantification of γ-Aminobutyric Acid in Cerebrospinal Fluid Using Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arning, Erland; Bottiglieri, Teodoro

    2016-01-01

    We describe a simple stable isotope dilution method for accurate and precise measurement of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as a clinical diagnostic test. Determination of GABA in CSF (50 μL) was performed utilizing high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray positive ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Analysis of free and total GABA requires two individual sample preparations and mass spectrometry analyses. Free GABA in CSF is determined by a 1:2 dilution with internal standard (GABA-D2) and injected directly onto the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system. Determination of total GABA in CSF requires additional sample preparation in order to hydrolyze all the bound GABA in the sample to the free form. This requires hydrolyzing the sample by boiling in acidic conditions (hydrochloric acid) for 4 h. The sample is then further diluted 1:10 with a 90 % acetonitrile/0.1 % formic acid solution and injected into the HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system. Each assay is quantified using a five-point standard curve and is linear from 6 nM to 1000 nM and 0.63 μM to 80 μM for free and total GABA, respectively. PMID:26602123

  11. [Influence of exogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on GABA metabolism and amino acid contents in roots of melon seedling under hypoxia stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Yan; Li, Jing-Rui; Xia, Qing-Ping; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Gao, Hong-Bo

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigated the influence of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on GABA metabolism and amino acid content under hypoxia stress by accurately controlling the level of dissolved oxygen in hydroponics, using the roots of melon 'Xiyu 1' seedlings as the test material. The results showed that compared with the control, the growth of roots was inhibited seriously under hypoxia stress. Meanwhile, the hypoxia-treated roots had significantly higher activities of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), glutamine synthetase (GS), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) as well as the contents of GABA, pyruvic acid, alanine (Ala) and aspartic acid (Asp). But the contents of glutamic acid (Glu) and alpha-keto glutaric acid in roots under hypoxia stress was obviously lower than those of the control. Exogenous treatment with GABA alleviated the inhibition effect of hypoxia stress on root growth, which was accompanied by an increase in the contents of endogenous GABA, Glu, alpha-keto glutaric acid and Asp. Furthermore, under hypoxia stress, the activities of GAD, GDH, GOGAT, GS, ALT, AST as well as the contents of pyruvic acid and Ala significantly decreased in roots treated with GABA. However, adding GABA and viny-gamma-aminobutyric acid (VGB) reduced the alleviation effect of GABA on melon seedlings under hypoxia stress. The results suggested that absorption of GABA by roots could alleviate the injury of hypoxia stress to melon seedlings. This meant that GABA treatment allows the normal physiological metabolism under hypoxia by inhibiting the GAD activity through feedback and maintaining higher Glu content as well as the bal- ance of carbon and nitrogen.

  12. Activation of γ-aminobutyric Acid (A) Receptor Protects Hippocampus from Intense Exercise-induced Synapses Damage and Apoptosis in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Ding; Lan Xie; Cun-Qing Chang; Zhi-Min Chen; Hua Ai

    2015-01-01

    Background: Our previous study has confirmed that one bout of exhaustion (Ex) can cause hippocampus neurocyte damage, excessive apoptosis, and dysfunction. Its initial reason is intracellular calcium overload in hippocampus triggered by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) over-activation. NMDAR activation can be suppressed by γ-aminobutyric acid (A) receptor (GABAAR). Whether GABAAR can prevent intense exercise-induced hippocampus apoptosis, damage, or dysfunction will be studied in thi...

  13. Bicyclic γ-amino acids as inhibitors of γ-aminobutyrate aminotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Andrea; Tamborini, Lucia; Pennacchietti, Eugenia; Coluccia, Antonio; Silvestri, Romano; Cullia, Gregorio; De Micheli, Carlo; Conti, Paola; De Biase, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The γ-aminobutyrate (GABA)-degradative enzyme GABA aminotransferase (GABA-AT) is regarded as an attractive target to control GABA levels in the central nervous system: this has important implications in the treatment of several neurological disorders and drug dependencies. We have investigated the ability of newly synthesized compounds to act as GABA-AT inhibitors. These compounds have a unique bicyclic structure: the carbocyclic ring bears the GABA skeleton, while the fused 3-Br-isoxazoline ring contains an electrophilic warhead susceptible of nucleophilic attack by an active site residue of the target enzyme. Out of the four compounds tested, only the one named (+)-3 was found to significantly inhibit mammalian GABA-AT in vitro. Docking studies, performed on the available structures of GABA-AT, support the experimental findings: out of the four tested compounds, only (+)-3 suitably orients the electrophilic 3-Br-isoxazoline warhead towards the active site nucleophilic residue Lys329, thereby explaining the irreversible inhibition of GABA-AT observed experimentally. PMID:25807299

  14. Effect of propofol on the reactivity of acetylcholinesterase, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors in the hippocampus of aged rats after chronic cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Chen; Jiangbei Cao; Weidong Mi

    2011-01-01

    We induced ischemic brain injury in aging rats to examine the effects of varying doses of propofol on hippocampal activities of acetylcholinesterase, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, and γ-aminobutyric acid receptors. Propofol exhibited no obvious impact on acetylcholinesterase activity, but directly activated the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor. The neuroprotective function of propofol on the hippocampus of aging rats following cerebral ischemic injury may be related to altered activities of γ-aminobutyric acid receptors and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors.

  15. Thermodynamics of DL-α-aminobutyric acid induced solvation mechanism in aqueous KCl solutions at 288.15-308.15 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, S.; Ghosh, S.; Hossain, A.; Mahali, K.; Roy, S.; Dolui, B. K.

    2016-09-01

    The solubilities of DL-α-aminobutyric acid in KCl solutions of different concentrations are measured at 288.15-308.15 K. Gibbs energies and entropies have been determined for transfer of α-aminobutyric acid form water to aqueous KCl solution at 298.15 K. The cavity, dipole-dipole and other interactions affecting the solubility, as well as stability of the amino acid in solution are also evaluated. Gibbs energy and entropy of transfer due to interactions are computed to create the model of the complex solute-solvent and solventsolvent interactions. Molar volume, densities, dipole moment of solvent and diameter of co-solvent in aqueous potassium chloride are also evaluated.

  16. Resistance to Citrus Canker in Key/Mexican Lime Induced by β-Aminobutyric Acid and Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Beheshti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus bacterial canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc, is a destructive disease. So far used chemicals to control this pathogen are either not effective or have harmful effects on the environment. To improve control of this disease, lime (Citrus aurantifolia plants inoculated with Xcc were treated with β-Aminobutyric Acid (BABA, ascorbic acid (vitamin C, thiamin (vitamin B1, green tea (Camellia sinensis, copper oxychloride and distilled water. Lesion diameters of inoculated leaves were evaluated twenty days after treatment. The results showed that BABA and green tea had inhibitory effects on disease development. None of the agents used for plant treatment had direct antimicrobial activity on Xcc, except copper oxychloride. This indicated that the inhibitory effects of BABA and green tea resulted from strengthening the defense capacities of the plant. To support this claim, partial coding sequences of Pathogenesis-Related (PR genes from lime were cloned and sequenced. Analysis of PR gene expression showed increased mRNA levels of β-1,3-glucanase and chitinase, during disease development. Reduction in lesion size and lack of antimicrobial activity indicate that BABA and green tea might be useful treatments against Xcc infection.

  17. Novel fermented chickpea milk with enhanced level of γ-aminobutyric acid and neuroprotective effect on PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Wei, Mingming; Wu, Junjun; Rui, Xin; Dong, Mingsheng

    2016-01-01

    In this study, novel fermented chickpea milk with high γ -aminobutyric acid (GABA) content and potential neuroprotective activity was developed. Fermentation starter that can produce GABA was selected from 377 strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Chinese fermented foods. Among the screened strains, strain M-6 showed the highest GABA-producing capacity in De Man-Rogosa and Sharp (MRS) broth and chickpea milk. M-6 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum based on Gram staining, API carbohydrate fermentation pattern testing, and 16s rDNA sequencing. The complete gene encoding glutamate decarboxylase was cloned to confirm the presence of the gene in L. plantarum M-6. The fermentation condition was optimized by response surface methodology. Results demonstrated that L. plantarum M-6 produced the highest GABA content of 537.23 mg/L. The optimal condition included an inoculum concentration of 7%, presence of 0.2% (m/v) monosodium glutamate and 55 µ M pyridoxal-5-phosphate, incubation temperature of 39 °C and fermentation time of 48 h . GABA-enriched chickpea milk exerted protective effects on PC12 cells against MnCl2 -induced injury. GABA-enriched chickpea milk improved cell viability and markedly attenuated the release of lactate dehydrogenase compared with the impaired cells. PMID:27602272

  18. Studies on high γ-aminobutyric acid-producing monascus purpureus which breeding with heavy ion beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) is a kind of nonprotein amino acid, which is reported to antihypertension, tranquilization, improve liver function, prevent obesity and avoid senile dementia, etc., and is an important effective component in health products. In this study, Monascus Purpureus spores were radiated with 96 MeV/u, LET=28.12 keV/μm 12C6+ ion beams. Doses were set as 20, 50 and 80 Gy, respectively. The experiments were run as follows: preparation of monospore suspension → irradiated with heavy ion beam → diluted and spread on dish → screening and stored in inclined plane → shaking culture → GABA extraction → GABA concentration determined by paper chromatography. One stable high productive strain HQ06 was obtained in this study. The content of GABA in HQ06 was 2.50±0.04 mg/ml, 3.7±1.7% higher than that in control (which was 2.41±0.03 mg/ml). Results showed that it is feasible for breeding high GABA producing strains with heavy ion beam radiation, and the heavy ion beam is a kind of effective mutation source. Further studies should be done for breeding much higher productive strains to satisfy the demands of industry. (authors)

  19. Evaluation of commercial soy sauce koji strains of Aspergillus oryzae for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab Kadir, Safuan; Wan-Mohtar, Wan Abd Al Qadr Imad; Mohammad, Rosfarizan; Abdul Halim Lim, Sarina; Sabo Mohammed, Abdulkarim; Saari, Nazamid

    2016-10-01

    In this study, four selected commercial strains of Aspergillus oryzae were collected from soy sauce koji. These A. oryzae strains designated as NSK, NSZ, NSJ and NST shared similar morphological characteristics with the reference strain (A. oryzae FRR 1675) which confirmed them as A. oryzae species. They were further evaluated for their ability to produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by cultivating the spore suspension in a broth medium containing 0.4 % (w/v) of glutamic acid as a substrate for GABA production. The results showed that these strains were capable of producing GABA; however, the concentrations differed significantly (P GABA concentration was obtained from NSK (194 mg/L) followed by NSZ (63 mg/L), NSJ (51.53 mg/L) and NST (31.66 mg/L). Therefore, A. oryzae NSK was characterized and the sequence was found to be similar to A. oryzae and A. flavus with 99 % similarity. The evolutionary distance (K nuc) between sequences of identical fungal species was calculated and a phylogenetic tree prepared from the K nuc data showed that the isolate belonged to the A. oryzae species. This finding may allow the development of GABA-rich ingredients using A. oryzae NSK as a starter culture for soy sauce production.

  20. Novel fermented chickpea milk with enhanced level of γ-aminobutyric acid and neuroprotective effect on PC12 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Wei, Mingming; Wu, Junjun; Rui, Xin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, novel fermented chickpea milk with high γ -aminobutyric acid (GABA) content and potential neuroprotective activity was developed. Fermentation starter that can produce GABA was selected from 377 strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Chinese fermented foods. Among the screened strains, strain M-6 showed the highest GABA-producing capacity in De Man–Rogosa and Sharp (MRS) broth and chickpea milk. M-6 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum based on Gram staining, API carbohydrate fermentation pattern testing, and 16s rDNA sequencing. The complete gene encoding glutamate decarboxylase was cloned to confirm the presence of the gene in L. plantarum M-6. The fermentation condition was optimized by response surface methodology. Results demonstrated that L. plantarum M-6 produced the highest GABA content of 537.23 mg/L. The optimal condition included an inoculum concentration of 7%, presence of 0.2% (m/v) monosodium glutamate and 55 µ M pyridoxal-5-phosphate, incubation temperature of 39 °C and fermentation time of 48 h . GABA-enriched chickpea milk exerted protective effects on PC12 cells against MnCl2 -induced injury. GABA-enriched chickpea milk improved cell viability and markedly attenuated the release of lactate dehydrogenase compared with the impaired cells. PMID:27602272

  1. Effects of inhibitors of protein synthesis and intracellular transport on the gamma-aminobutyric acid agonist-induced functional differentiation of cultured cerebellar granule cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belhage, B; Hansen, Gert Helge; Meier, E;

    1990-01-01

    The effect of inhibitors of protein synthesis (actinomycin D, cycloheximide), proteases (leupeptin), and intracellular transport (colchicine, monensin) on the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist [4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP)]-induced changes in morphological differenti......The effect of inhibitors of protein synthesis (actinomycin D, cycloheximide), proteases (leupeptin), and intracellular transport (colchicine, monensin) on the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist [4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP)]-induced changes in morphological...... of membranes for [3H]GABA binding assays. In some experiments the functional activity of the newly induced low-affinity GABA receptors was assessed by investigation of the ability of GABA to inhibit neurotransmitter release from the neurons. These experiments were performed to differentiate between...

  2. Overexpression and optimization of glutamate decarboxylase in Lactobacillus plantarum Taj-Apis362 for high gamma-aminobutyric acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajabadi, Naser; Baradaran, Ali; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Rahim, Raha A; Bakar, Fatimah A; Manap, Mohd Yazid A; Mohammed, Abdulkarim S; Saari, Nazamid

    2015-07-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an important bioactive compound biosynthesized by microorganisms through decarboxylation of glutamate by glutamate decarboxylase (GAD). In this study, a full-length GAD gene was obtained by cloning the template deoxyribonucleic acid to pTZ57R/T vector. The open reading frame of the GAD gene showed the cloned gene was composed of 1410 nucleotides and encoded a 469 amino acids protein. To improve the GABA-production, the GAD gene was cloned into pMG36e-LbGAD, and then expressed in Lactobacillus plantarum Taj-Apis362 cells. The overexpression was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and GAD activity, showing a 53 KDa protein with the enzyme activity increased by sevenfold compared with the original GAD activity. The optimal fermentation conditions for GABA production established using response surface methodology were at glutamic acid concentration of 497.973 mM, temperature 36°C, pH 5.31 and time 60 h. Under the conditions, maximum GABA concentration obtained (11.09 mM) was comparable with the predicted value by the model at 11.23 mM. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful cloning (clone-back) and overexpression of the LbGAD gene from L. plantarum to L. plantarum cells. The recombinant Lactobacillus could be used as a starter culture for direct incorporation into a food system during fermentation for production of GABA-rich products.

  3. The synthesis and biodistribution of 3-(4'-[[sup 125]I]-iodophenyl)-4-aminobutyric acid, a radioiodinated analogue of baclofen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakita, Y.; Kojima, M. (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Div. of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry); Schwendner, S.W.; McConnell, D.; Counsell, R.E. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). School of Medicine)

    1990-02-01

    Baclofen has been found to bind to receptors in the central nervous system that are specific for [gamma]-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a well known inhibitory neurotransmitter. This paper describes the synthesis of a radioiodinated analog of baclofen as part of an effort to develop receptor probes useful in single photon emission computed tomography. Preliminary biodistribution studies showed the radioiodinationed analog to be essentially stable to in vivo deiodination and have a distribution profile similar to that of baclofen. (Author).

  4. GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) production, antioxidant activity in some germinated dietary seeds and the effect of cooking on their GABA content

    OpenAIRE

    Kasarin TIANSAWANG; Pairoj LUANGPITUKSA; Warunee VARANYANOND; Chanida HANSAWASDI

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Germinated grains have been known as sources of Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that provide beneficial effects for human health. This study was aimed to investigate GABA production, dietary fiber, antioxidant activity, and the effect of cooking on GABA loss in germinated legumes and sesame. The highest GABA content was found in germinated mung bean, (0.8068 g kg-1, 24 h incubation) followed by germinated soybean, germinated black bean and soaked sesame. Beside GABA, dietary fiber con...

  5. Suppression of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Transaminases Induces Prominent GABA Accumulation, Dwarfism and Infertility in the Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Koike, Satoshi; Matsukura, Chiaki; Takayama, Mariko; Asamizu, Erika; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Tomatoes accumulate γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at high levels in the immature fruits. GABA is rapidly converted to succinate during fruit ripening through the activities of GABA transaminase (GABA-T) and succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH). Although three genes encoding GABA-T and both pyruvate- and α-ketoglutarate-dependent GABA-T activities have been detected in tomato fruits, the mechanism underlying the GABA-T-mediated conversion of GABA has not been fully understood. In this wor...

  6. Evaluation of γ- aminobutyric acid, phytate and antioxidant activity of tempeh-like fermented oats (Avena sativa L.) prepared with different filamentous fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Shengbao; Gao, Fengyi; Zhang, Xudong; Wang, Ou; Wu, Wei; Zhu, Songjie; Zhang, Di; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping

    2012-01-01

    Tempeh is a popular traditional fermented food in Asia. Many tempeh-like foods are made from cereal grains. However, the information of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation in those tempeh-like cereal grains during fermentation is lacking. Meanwhile, little information is available on the anti-nutrient contents and antioxidant activity of tempeh-like fermented oats. The aim of the present work was to study the changes of GABA, phytate, natural antioxidants and antioxidant activity of tempe...

  7. Overexpression of γ-aminobutyric acid transporter subtype I leads to susceptibility to kainic acid-induced seizure in transgenic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter,and the GABAergic synaptic transmission is normally terminated by the rapid uptake through GABA transporters.With transgenic mice ubiquitously overexpressing GABA transporter subtype I (GAT1),the present study explored the pathophysiological role of GAT1 in epileptogenesis.Though displaying no spontaneous seizure activity,these mice exhibit altered electroencephalographic patterns and increased susceptibility to seizure induced by kainic acid.In addition,the GABAA receptor and glutamate transporters are up-regulated in transgenic mice,which perhaps reflects a compensatory or corrective change to the elevated level of GAT1.These preliminary findings support the hypothesis that excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission,and seizure susceptibility can be altered by neurotransmitter transporters.

  8. Dual effects of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) treatment on the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and rutin in germinated buckwheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jianxiong; Wu, Tongjiao; Li, Huiying; Wang, Wei; Liu, Haijie

    2016-06-15

    In the present study, the dual effects of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) treatment on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and rutin accumulation of germinated buckwheat were evaluated during germination. The results showed that SAEW treatment (pH 5.83, ACC of 20.3 mg/L) could promote the accumulation of GABA and rutin in germinated buckwheat. The GABA and rutin contents of SAEW-germinated buckwheat reached 143.20 and 739.9 mg/100 g respectively, which is significantly higher than those of control (Pbuckwheat. The results suggested that SAEW treatment could promote the rutin accumulation of germinated buckwheat by influencing phenylpropanoid secondary metabolic pathway instead of the inhibition of rutin degrading enzyme (RDE) activity. In addition, SAEW treatment had no adverse impact on the sprouts growth and could reduce the microbial populations of germinated buckwheat during germination.

  9. Negative regulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor on free calcium ion levels following facial nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fugao Zhu; Dawei Sun; Yanqing Wang; Rui Zhou; Junfeng Wen; Xiuming Wan; Yanjun Wang; Banghua Liu

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that muscarinic, and nicotinic receptors increase free Ca2+ levels in the facial nerve nucleus via various channels following facial nerve injury. However, intracellular Ca2+ overload can trigger either necrotic or apoptotic cell death. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, exists in the facial nerve nucleus. It is assumed that GABA negatively regulates free Ca2+ levels in the facial nerve nucleus. The present study investigated GABA type A (GABAA) receptor expression in the facial nerve nucleus in a rat model of facial nerve injury using immunohistochemistry and laser confocal microscopy, as well as the regulatory effects of GABAA receptor on nicotinic receptor response following facial nerve injury. Subunits α1, α3, α5, β1, β2, δ, and γ3 of GABAA receptors were expressed in the facial nerve nucleus following facial nerve injury. In addition, GABAA receptor expression significantly inhibited the increase in nicotinic receptor-mediated free Ca2+ levels in the facial nerve nucleus following facial nerve injury in a concentration-dependent fashion. These results suggest that GABAA receptors exhibit negative effects on nicotinic receptor responses following facial nerve injury.

  10. Genotoxic and mutagenic effects of vigabatrin, a γ-aminobutyric acid transaminase inhibitor, in Wistar rats submitted to rotarod task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, V R; Sousa, K; Pires, T R; Papke, Dkm; Vieira, C G; de Souza, L P; Leal, M B; Schunck, Rva; Picada, J N; Pereira, P

    2016-09-01

    Vigabatrin (VGB) is an antiepileptic drug thatincreases brain γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels through irreversible inhibition of GABA transaminase. The aim of this study was to evaluate neurotoxicological effects of VGB measuring motor activity and genotoxic and mutagenic effects after a single and repeated administration. Male Wistar rats received saline, VGB 50, 100, or 250 mg/kg by gavage for acute and subchronic (14 days) treatments and evaluated in the rotarod task. Genotoxicity was evaluated using the alkaline version of the comet assay in samples of blood, liver, hippocampus, and brain cortex after both treatments. Mutagenicity was evaluated using the micronucleus test in bone marrow of the same animals that received subchronic treatment. The groups treated with VGB showed similar performance in rotarod compared with the saline group. Regarding the acute treatment, it was observed that only higher VGB doses induced DNA damage in blood and hippocampus. After the subchronic treatment, VGB did not show genotoxic or mutagenic effects. In brief, VGB did not impair motor activities in rats after acute and subchronic treatments. It showed a repairable genotoxic potential in the central nervous system since genotoxicity was observed in the acute treatment group. PMID:26500220

  11. Extraction, purification and anti-fatigue activity of γ-aminobutyric acid from mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hengwen; He, Xuanhui; Liu, Yan; Li, Jun; He, Qingyong; Zhang, Cuiying; Wei, Benjun; Zhang, Ye; Wang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is a tree species of Moraceae widely distributed in Southern China. In the present study, the white crystal of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was purified from mulberry leaves, and its bioactivity was also investigated. The main results were as follows: first, the crude GABA was extracted from mulberry leaves by using biochemical methods. Then, the crude was purified by chromatography over an S-8 macroporous resin, Sephadex G-10, and 732 cation exchange resin to yield a white crystal. Lavage administration and exposure of GABA to male NIH mice showed no adverse effects on their growth and development. In an endurance capacity test, the average loaded-swimming time of medium dose was 111.60% longer than the control (P < 0.01). Further investigations showed that relative to that of model control, the respective blood lactate (BL) concentrations of low- and medium-dose were 28.52% and 28.81% lower (P < 0.05), whereas the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were 36.83% and 40.54% lower (P < 0.05), and that of liver glycogen (LG) levels were 12.81% and 17.22% lower (P < 0.05). The results indicated that GABA has an advantage over taurine of anti-fatigue effect. These findings were indicative of the anti-fatigue activity of GABA.

  12. Pyridoxine Supplementation Improves the Activity of Recombinant Glutamate Decarboxylase and the Enzymatic Production of Gama-Aminobutyric Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Huang

    Full Text Available Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD catalyzes the irreversible decarboxylation of L-glutamate to the valuable food supplement γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA. In this study, GAD from Escherichia coli K12, a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP-dependent enzyme, was overexpressed in E. coli. The GAD produced in media supplemented with 0.05 mM soluble vitamin B6 analog pyridoxine hydrochloride (GAD-V activity was 154.8 U mL-1, 1.8-fold higher than that of GAD obtained without supplementation (GAD-C. Purified GAD-V exhibited increased activity (193.4 U mg-1, 1.5-fold higher than that of GAD-C, superior thermostability (2.8-fold greater than that of GAD-C, and higher kcat/Km (1.6-fold higher than that of GAD-C. Under optimal conditions in reactions mixtures lacking added PLP, crude GAD-V converted 500 g L-1 monosodium glutamate (MSG to GABA with a yield of 100%, and 750 g L-1 MSG with a yield of 88.7%. These results establish the utility of pyridoxine supplementation and lay the foundation for large-scale enzymatic production of GABA.

  13. Effect of Thiopental Sodium on the Release of Glutamate and γ-aminobutyric Acid from Rats Prefrontal Cortical Synaptosomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红亮; 姚尚龙

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the effect of thiopental sodium on the release of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from synaptosomes in the prefrontal cortex, synaptosomes were made, the spontaneous release and the evoked release by 30 mmol/L KCl or 20 μmol/L veratridine of glutamate and GABA were performed under various concentrations of thiopental sodium (10-300μmol/L), glutamate and GABA concentrations were determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Our results showed that spontaneous release and evoked release of glutamate were significantly inhibited by 30μmol/L, 100 μmol/L and 300 μmol/L thiopental sodium, IC50 of thiopental sodium was 25.8±2.3 μmol/L for the spontaneous release, 23.4±2.4 μmol/L for KClevoked release, and 24.3±1.8 μmol/L for veratridine-evoked release. But GABA spontaneous release and evoked release were unaffected. The study showed that thiopental sodium with clinically related concentrations could inhibit the release of glutamate, but had no effect on the release of GABA from rats prefrontal cortical synaptosomes.

  14. Postharvest Treatment with β-Aminobutyric Acid Induces Resistance Against Dry Rot Caused by Fusarium sulphureum in Potato Tuber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Yan; LI Yong-cai; BI Yang; CHEN Song-jiang; LI Ying-chao; YUAN Li; WANG Yi; WANG Di

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of postharvest β-aminobutyric acid(BABA)treatment was studied for inducing resistance against dry rot caused by Fusarium sulphureum in tubers and slices of two potato cultivars(resistant cultivar Shepody and susceptible cultivar Xindaping).The results showed that BABA at 100 mmol L-1 significantly reduced lesion diameter in inoculated both tubers and slices.The chemical at 100 mmol L-1 showed an effective reduction in infection ability of F.sulphureum inoculated 48 and 72 h after treatment in slices of resistant cultivar,and 72 and 96 h in susceptible ones.BABA increased the activitives of peroxidase(POD),polyphenoloxidase(PPO)and phenylalanine ammonialyase(PAL),and accumulated the contents of lignin,flavonoids and phenolics in slices.The resistant cultivar had a stronger resistant response than the susceptible one.These findings suggest that the BABA treatment can induce the resistance in potato tubers,however,the inducing degree depends on the original level of resistance present in each cultivar.

  15. Progress in studies on the role of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor in convulsion: a short review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xing-fang; LIU Li-qun

    2012-01-01

    Convulsion is the medical condition where body muscles contract and relax rapidly and repeatedly,resulting in an uncontrolled shaking of the body.The impaired inhibition of electrical activity in the brain is one of leading causes of convulsion.y-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS).GABA acts at inhibitory synapses in the brain by binding to specific transmembrane receptors in the plasma membrane of both pre- and post-synaptic neuronal processes.GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is the most important inhibitory receptor,and is the target receptor of anticonvulsant drugs in the clinic.In this review,we describe GABAergic signaling mediated by GABAAR,the mechanisms of GABAAR and their expression,and the progress being made on understanding the role of GABAAR in convulsion with emphasis on the association between GABAAR mutations or GABAAR subunit expression and convulsion.We also describe progress of anticonvulsant drugs based on the GABAAR.

  16. Pyridoxine Supplementation Improves the Activity of Recombinant Glutamate Decarboxylase and the Enzymatic Production of Gama-Aminobutyric Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Su, Lingqia; Wu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) catalyzes the irreversible decarboxylation of L-glutamate to the valuable food supplement γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In this study, GAD from Escherichia coli K12, a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme, was overexpressed in E. coli. The GAD produced in media supplemented with 0.05 mM soluble vitamin B6 analog pyridoxine hydrochloride (GAD-V) activity was 154.8 U mL-1, 1.8-fold higher than that of GAD obtained without supplementation (GAD-C). Purified GAD-V exhibited increased activity (193.4 U mg-1, 1.5-fold higher than that of GAD-C), superior thermostability (2.8-fold greater than that of GAD-C), and higher kcat/Km (1.6-fold higher than that of GAD-C). Under optimal conditions in reactions mixtures lacking added PLP, crude GAD-V converted 500 g L-1 monosodium glutamate (MSG) to GABA with a yield of 100%, and 750 g L-1 MSG with a yield of 88.7%. These results establish the utility of pyridoxine supplementation and lay the foundation for large-scale enzymatic production of GABA. PMID:27438707

  17. Pyridoxine Supplementation Improves the Activity of Recombinant Glutamate Decarboxylase and the Enzymatic Production of Gama-Aminobutyric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Su, Lingqia; Wu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) catalyzes the irreversible decarboxylation of L-glutamate to the valuable food supplement γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In this study, GAD from Escherichia coli K12, a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme, was overexpressed in E. coli. The GAD produced in media supplemented with 0.05 mM soluble vitamin B6 analog pyridoxine hydrochloride (GAD-V) activity was 154.8 U mL-1, 1.8-fold higher than that of GAD obtained without supplementation (GAD-C). Purified GAD-V exhibited increased activity (193.4 U mg-1, 1.5-fold higher than that of GAD-C), superior thermostability (2.8-fold greater than that of GAD-C), and higher kcat/Km (1.6-fold higher than that of GAD-C). Under optimal conditions in reactions mixtures lacking added PLP, crude GAD-V converted 500 g L-1 monosodium glutamate (MSG) to GABA with a yield of 100%, and 750 g L-1 MSG with a yield of 88.7%. These results establish the utility of pyridoxine supplementation and lay the foundation for large-scale enzymatic production of GABA. PMID:27438707

  18. Factors influencing diamine oxidase activity and γ-aminobutyric acid content of fava bean (Vicia faba L.) during germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Runqiang; Chen, Hui; Gu, Zhenxin

    2011-11-01

    Factors (germination time, spectra, temperature, pH, and chemical inhibitors) influencing diamine oxidase (DAO, EC 1.4.3.6) activity and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content of fava bean (Vicia faba L.) during germination were investigated in this study. DAO activity significantly increased in germinating seeds but varied with different organs. The enzyme activity was higher in shoot than that in cotyledon, hypocotyl, and radicle. When seeds were germinated in the dark, DAO activity was 2.35-, 2.00-, 2.36-, 4.40-, and 1.67-fold of that under white, red, blue, green, and yellow spectra, respectively. The optimum germination temperature and pH value for increasing DAO activity were 30 °C and 3.0, respectively. The DAO activity was inhibited significantly by aminoguanidine and sodium ethylenediamine tetracetate, while it was activated by CuCl(2) and CaCl(2). Germinating at an appropriate temperature and pH, 30% of GABA formation was supplied by DAO. Calcium was related to the regulation of DAO activity and GABA accumulation. PMID:21942768

  19. Determination and comparison of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in pu-erh and other types of Chinese tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Ma, Yan; Wei, Zhen-zhen; Yuan, Wen-xia; Li, Ya-li; Zhang, Chun-hua; Xue, Xiao-ting; Zhou, Hong-jie

    2011-04-27

    Two previous studies have reported that pu-erh tea contains a high level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and has several physiological functions. However, two other researchers have demonstrated that the GABA content of several pu-erh teas was low. Due to the high value and health benefits of GABA, analysis of mass-produced pu-erh tea is necessary to determine whether it is actually enriched with GABA. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the determination of GABA in tea, the results of which were verified by amino acid analysis using an Amino Acid Analyzer (AAA). A total of 114 samples of various types of Chinese tea, including 62 pu-erh teas, 13 green teas, 8 oolong teas, 8 black teas, 3 white teas, 4 GABA teas, and 16 process samples from two industrial fermentations of pu-erh tea (including the raw material and the first to seventh turnings), were analyzed using HPLC. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the GABA content in pu-erh tea was significantly lower than that in other types of tea (p GABA content decreased during industrial fermentation of pu-erh tea (p GABA was not a major bioactive constituent and resolved the disagreement GABA content in pu-erh tea. In addition, the GABA content in white tea was found to be significantly higher than that in the other types of tea (p GABA-enriched white tea.

  20. Asymmetric synthesis of -aminophosphonates: The bio-isosteric analogs of -aminobutyric acid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kalisankar Bera; Dwayaja Nadkarni; Iirishi N N Namboothiri

    2013-05-01

    The properties of aminophosphonates as transition state analogs of amino acids, and as antibacterial, antifungal and antiHIV agents attracted considerable attention in recent years. Although many reviews appeared in the literature covering - and -aminophosphonates, -aminophosphonates did not receive sufficient attention despite the fact that parent -aminophosphonic acid and its derivatives are bio-isosteric analogs of GABA (-amino butyric acid). This review provides a critical summary of the significance of -aminophosphonates and various approaches to their synthesis, with particular emphasis to asymmetric versions.

  1. On-line near-infrared spectroscopy optimizing and monitoring biotransformation process of γ-aminobutyric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyu Ding

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS with its fast and nondestructive advantages can be qualified for the real-time quantitative analysis. This paper demonstrates that NIRS combined with partial least squares (PLS regression can be used as a rapid analytical method to simultaneously quantify l-glutamic acid (l-Glu and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA in a biotransformation process and to guide the optimization of production conditions when the merits of NIRS are combined with response surface methodology. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC reference analysis was performed by the o-phthaldialdehyde pre-column derivatization. NIRS measurements of two batches of 141 samples were firstly analyzed by PLS with several spectral pre-processing methods. Compared with those of the HPLC reference analysis, the resulting determination coefficients (R2, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP and residual predictive deviation (RPD of the external validation for the l-Glu concentration were 99.5%, 1.62 g/L, and 11.3, respectively. For the GABA concentration, R2, RMSEP, and RPD were 99.8%, 4.00 g/L, and 16.4, respectively. This NIRS model was then used to optimize the biotransformation process through a Box-Behnken experimental design. Under the optimal conditions without pH adjustment, 200 g/L l-Glu could be catalyzed by 7148 U/L glutamate decarboxylase (GAD to GABA, reaching 99% conversion at the fifth hour. NIRS analysis provided timely information on the conversion from l-Glu to GABA. The results suggest that the NIRS model can not only be used for the routine profiling of enzymatic conversion, providing a simple and effective method of monitoring the biotransformation process of GABA, but also be considered to be an optimal tool to guide the optimization of production conditions.

  2. On-line near-infrared spectroscopy optimizing and monitoring biotransformation process ofγ-aminobutyric acid$

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoyu Ding; Yuanyuan Hou; Jiamin Peng; Yunbing Shen; Min Jiang; Gang Bai

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with its fast and nondestructive advantages can be qualified for the real-time quantitative analysis. This paper demonstrates that NIRS combined with partial least squares (PLS) regression can be used as a rapid analytical method to simultaneously quantify L-glutamic acid (L-Glu) andγ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in a biotransformation process and to guide the optimization of production conditions when the merits of NIRS are combined with response surface methodology. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) reference analysis was performed by the o-phthaldialdehyde pre-column derivatization. NIRS measurements of two batches of 141 samples were firstly analyzed by PLS with several spectral pre-processing methods. Compared with those of the HPLC reference analysis, the resulting determination coefficients (R2), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and residual predictive deviation (RPD) of the external validation for the L-Glu concentration were 99.5%, 1.62 g/L, and 11.3, respectively. For the GABA concentration, R2, RMSEP, and RPD were 99.8%, 4.00 g/L, and 16.4, re-spectively. This NIRS model was then used to optimize the biotransformation process through a Box-Behnken experimental design. Under the optimal conditions without pH adjustment, 200 g/L L-Glu could be catalyzed by 7148 U/L glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) to GABA, reaching 99%conversion at the fifth hour. NIRS analysis provided timely information on the conversion from L-Glu to GABA. The results suggest that the NIRS model can not only be used for the routine profiling of enzymatic conversion, providing a simple and effective method of monitoring the biotransformation process of GABA, but also be considered to be an optimal tool to guide the optimization of production conditions.

  3. Phosphatase inhibitors remove the run-down of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in the human epileptic brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, E.; Ragozzino, D. A.; Di Angelantonio, S.; Spinelli, G.; Trettel, F.; Martinez-Torres, A.; Torchia, G.; Arcella, A.; Di Gennaro, G.; Quarato, P. P.; Esposito, V.; Cantore, G.; Miledi, R.; Eusebi, F.

    2004-01-01

    The properties of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptors (GABAA receptors) microtransplanted from the human epileptic brain to the plasma membrane of Xenopus oocytes were compared with those recorded directly from neurons, or glial cells, in human brains slices. Cell membranes isolated from brain specimens, surgically obtained from six patients afflicted with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) were injected into frog oocytes. Within a few hours, these oocytes acquired GABAA receptors that generated GABA currents with an unusual run-down, which was inhibited by orthovanadate and okadaic acid. In contrast, receptors derived from membranes of a nonepileptic hippocampal uncus, membranes from mouse brain, or recombinant rat α1β2γ2-GABA receptors exhibited a much less pronounced GABA-current run-down. Moreover, the GABAA receptors of pyramidal neurons in temporal neocortex slices from the same six epileptic patients exhibited a stronger run-down than the receptors of rat pyramidal neurons. Interestingly, the GABAA receptors of neighboring glial cells remained substantially stable after repetitive activation. Therefore, the excessive GABA-current run-down observed in the membrane-injected oocytes recapitulates essentially what occurs in neurons, rather than in glial cells. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses from the same TLE neocortex specimens revealed that GABAA-receptor β1, β2, β3, and γ2 subunit mRNAs were significantly overexpressed (8- to 33-fold) compared with control autopsy tissues. Our results suggest that an abnormal GABA-receptor subunit transcription in the TLE brain leads to the expression of run-down-enhanced GABAA receptors. Blockage of phosphatases stabilizes the TLE GABAA receptors and strengthens GABAergic inhibition. It may be that this process can be targeted to develop new treatments for intractable epilepsy. PMID:15218107

  4. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 Inhibits γ-Aminobutyric Acid-Activated Current in Hippocampal Pyramidal Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zhiwen; Tian, Yujing; Qi, Mengwen; Li, Yingchun; Du, Yimei; Chen, Lei; Liu, Wentao; Chen, Ling

    2016-01-01

    The balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter systems is crucial for the modulation of neuronal excitability in the central nervous system (CNS). The activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is reported to enhance the response of hippocampal glutamate receptors, but whether the inhibitory neurotransmitter system can be regulated by TRPV4 remains unknown. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS. Here, we show that application of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) synthetic (GSK1016790A or 4α-PDD) or endogenous agonist (5,6-EET) inhibited GABA-activated current (IGABA) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, which was blocked by specific antagonists of TRPV4 and of GABAA receptors. GSK1016790A increased the phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) and decreased the phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt) protein levels, which was attenuated by removing extracellular calcium or by a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-β antagonist. GSK1016790A-induced decrease of p-Akt protein level was sensitive to an AMPK antagonist. GSK1016790A-inhibited IGABA was blocked by an AMPK antagonist or a phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase (PI3K) agonist. GSK1016790A-induced inhibition of IGABA was also significantly attenuated by a protein kinase C (PKC) antagonist but was unaffected by protein kinase A or calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II antagonist. We conclude that activation of TRPV4 inhibits GABAA receptor, which may be mediated by activation of AMPK and subsequent down-regulation of PI3K/Akt signaling and activation of PKC signaling. Inhibition of GABAA receptors may account for the neuronal hyperexcitability caused by TRPV4 activation.

  5. Development of early-born γ-Aminobutyric acid hub neurons in mouse hippocampus from embryogenesis to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villette, Vincent; Guigue, Philippe; Picardo, Michel Aimé; Sousa, Vitor Hugo; Leprince, Erwan; Lachamp, Philippe; Malvache, Arnaud; Tressard, Thomas; Cossart, Rosa; Baude, Agnès

    2016-08-15

    Early-born γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons (EBGNs) are major components of the hippocampal circuit because at early postnatal stages they form a subpopulation of "hub cells" transiently supporting CA3 network synchronization (Picardo et al. [2011] Neuron 71:695-709). It is therefore essential to determine when these cells acquire the remarkable morphofunctional attributes supporting their network function and whether they develop into a specific subtype of interneuron into adulthood. Inducible genetic fate mapping conveniently allows for the labeling of EBGNs throughout their life. EBGNs were first analyzed during the perinatal week. We observed that EBGNs acquired mature characteristics at the time when the first synapse-driven synchronous activities appeared in the form of giant depolarizing potentials. The fate of EBGNs was next analyzed in the adult hippocampus by using anatomical characterization. Adult EBGNs included a significant proportion of cells projecting selectively to the septum; in turn, EBGNs were targeted by septal and entorhinal inputs. In addition, most EBGNs were strongly targeted by cholinergic and monoaminergic terminals, suggesting significant subcortical innervation. Finally, we found that some EBGNs located in the septum or the entorhinal cortex also displayed a long-range projection that we traced to the hippocampus. Therefore, this study shows that the maturation of the morphophysiological properties of EBGNs mirrors the evolution of early network dynamics, suggesting that both phenomena may be causally linked. We propose that a subpopulation of EBGNs forms into adulthood a scaffold of GABAergic projection neurons linking the hippocampus to distant structures. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2440-2461, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26779909

  6. Co-localization of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid and Glutamate in Neurons of the Spider Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian-Fine, Ruth; Meisner, Shannon; Torkkeli, Päivi H; Meinertzhagen, Ian A

    2015-12-01

    Spider sensory neurons with cell bodies close to various sensory organs are innervated by putative efferent axons from the central nervous system (CNS). Light and electronmicroscopic imaging of immunolabeled neurons has demonstrated that neurotransmitters present at peripheral synapses include γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate and octopamine. Moreover, electrophysiological studies show that these neurotransmitters modulate the sensitivity of peripheral sensory neurons. Here, we undertook immunocytochemical investigations to characterize GABA and glutamate-immunoreactive neurons in three-dimensional reconstructions of the spider CNS. We document that both neurotransmitters are abundant in morphologically distinct neurons throughout the CNS. Labeling for the vesicular transporters, VGAT for GABA and VGLUT for glutamate, showed corresponding patterns, supporting the specificity of antibody binding. Whereas some neurons displayed strong immunolabeling, others were only weakly labeled. Double labeling showed that a subpopulation of weakly labeled neurons present in all ganglia expresses both GABA and glutamate. Double labeled, strongly and weakly labeled GABA and glutamate immunoreactive axons were also observed in the periphery along muscle fibers and peripheral sensory neurons. Electron microscopic investigations showed presynaptic profiles of various diameters with mixed vesicle populations innervating muscle tissue as well as sensory neurons. Our findings provide evidence that: (1) sensory neurons and muscle fibers are innervated by morphologically distinct, centrally located GABA- and glutamate immunoreactive neurons; (2) a subpopulation of these neurons may co-release both neurotransmitters; and (3) sensory neurons and muscles are innervated by all of these neurochemically and morphologically distinct types of neurons. The biochemical diversity of presynaptic innervation may contribute to how spiders filter natural stimuli and coordinate appropriate response

  7. Carbon dioxide solubility in aqueous potassium salt solutions of L-proline and DL-α-aminobutyric acid at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • CO2 solubility in aqueous potassium salt solutions of L-proline and DL-α-aminobutyric acid were studied. • The CO2 partial pressures studied was up to 1000 kPa. • The temperatures studied were (313.2, 333.2, 353.2) K. • The measured data were represented satisfactorily by using the applied correlations. • The CO2 absorption capacity of the studied systems was high and comparable with monoethanolamine. - Abstract: In the present work, the solubility of CO2 in aqueous solutions of potassium prolinate (KPr) and potassium α-aminobutyrate (KAABA) was measured at temperatures (313.2, 333.2, and 353.2) K and CO2 partial pressures up to 1000 kPa for amino acid salt concentrations: KPr, w = (7.5, 14.5, and 27.4 wt%) and KAABA, w = (6.9, 13.4, and 25.6 wt%). It was found that the CO2 absorption capacities of the studied amino acid salt systems were considerably high and comparable with that of industrially important alkanolamines including monoethanolamine. The CO2 loadings in aqueous potassium α-aminobutyrate at high pressures were also found to be generally higher than the loadings in aqueous potassium prolinate. A modified Kent–Eisenberg model was applied to correlate the CO2 solubility in the amino acid salt solution as function of CO2 partial pressure, temperature, and concentration. The model gave good representation of the (vapour + liquid) equilibrium data obtained for the amino acid salt systems studied, and provided accurate predictions of the solubility

  8. DL-β-aminobutyric acid-induced resistance in soybean against Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Zhong

    Full Text Available Priming can improve plant innate capability to deal with the stresses caused by both biotic and abiotic factors. In this study, the effect of DL-β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA against Aphis glycines Matsumura, the soybean aphid (SA was evaluated. We found that 25 mM BABA as a root drench had minimal adverse impact on plant growth and also efficiently protected soybean from SA infestation. In both choice and non-choice tests, SA number was significantly decreased to a low level in soybean seedlings drenched with 25 mM BABA compared to the control counterparts. BABA treatment resulted in a significant increase in the activities of several defense enzymes, such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, peroxidase (POX, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, chitinase (CHI, and β-1, 3-glucanase (GLU in soybean seedlings attacked by aphid. Meanwhile, the induction of 15 defense-related genes by aphid, such as AOS, CHS, MMP2, NPR1-1, NPR1-2, and PR genes, were significantly augmented in BABA-treated soybean seedlings. Our study suggest that BABA application is a promising way to enhance soybean resistance against SA.

  9. Influence of cold stress on contents of soluble sugars, vitamin C and free amino acids including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in spinach (Spinacia oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Young-Eun; Kuppusamy, Saranya; Cho, Kye Man; Kim, Pil Joo; Kwack, Yong-Bum; Lee, Yong Bok

    2017-01-15

    The contents of soluble sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose, maltose and raffinose), vitamin C and free amino acids (34 compounds, essential and non-essential) were quantified in open-field and greenhouse-grown spinaches in response to cold stress using liquid chromatography. In general, greenhouse cultivation produced nutritionally high value spinach in a shorter growing period, where the soluble sugars, vitamin C and total amino acids concentrations, including essential were in larger amounts compared to those grown in open-field scenarios. Further, low temperature exposure of spinach during a shorter growth period resulted in the production of spinach with high sucrose, ascorbate, proline, gamma-aminobutyric acid, valine and leucine content, and these constitute the most important energy/nutrient sources. In conclusion, cultivation of spinach in greenhouse at a low temperature (4-7°C) and exposure for a shorter period (7-21days) before harvest is recommended. This strategy will produce a high quality product that people can eat. PMID:27542466

  10. Imidase catalyzing desymmetric imide hydrolysis forming optically active 3-substituted glutaric acid monoamides for the synthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojiri, Masutoshi; Hibi, Makoto; Shizawa, Hiroaki; Horinouchi, Nobuyuki; Yasohara, Yoshihiko; Takahashi, Satomi; Ogawa, Jun

    2015-12-01

    The recent use of optically active 3-substituted gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogs in human therapeutics has identified a need for an efficient, stereoselective method of their synthesis. Here, bacterial strains were screened for enzymes capable of stereospecific hydrolysis of 3-substituted glutarimides to generate (R)-3-substituted glutaric acid monoamides. The bacteria Alcaligenes faecalis NBRC13111 and Burkholderia phytofirmans DSM17436 were discovered to hydrolyze 3-(4-chlorophenyl) glutarimide (CGI) to (R)-3-(4-chlorophenyl) glutaric acid monoamide (CGM) with 98.1% enantiomeric excess (e.e.) and 97.5% e.e., respectively. B. phytofirmans DSM17436 could also hydrolyze 3-isobutyl glutarimide (IBI) to produce (R)-3-isobutyl glutaric acid monoamide (IBM) with 94.9% e.e. BpIH, an imidase, was purified from B. phytofirmans DSM17436 and found to generate (R)-CGM from CGI with specific activity of 0.95 U/mg. The amino acid sequence of BpIH had a 75% sequence identity to that of allantoinase from A. faecalis NBRC13111 (AfIH). The purified recombinant BpIH and AfIH catalyzed (R)-selective hydrolysis of CGI and IBI. In addition, a preliminary investigation of the enzymatic properties of BpIH and AfIH revealed that both enzymes were stable in the range of pH 6-10, with an optimal pH of 9.0, stable at temperatures below 40 °C, and were not metalloproteins. These results indicate that the use of this class of hydrolase to generate optically active 3-substituted glutaric acid monoamide could simplify the production of specific chiral GABA analogs for drug therapeutics.

  11. Limbic Encephalitis Associated with Anti-γ-aminobutyric Acid B Receptor Antibodies: A Case Series from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Zhi Guan; Hai-Tao Ren; Xun-Zhe Yang; Qiang Lu; Bin Peng; Yi-Cheng Zhu; Xiao-Qiu Shao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Autoimmune encephalitis associated with antibodies against γ-aminobutyric acid B receptor (GABABR) in patients with limbic encephalitis (LE) was first described in 2010.We present a series of Han Chinese patients for further clinical refinement.Methods: Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients referred to the program of encephalitis and paraneoplastic syndrome of Peking Union Medical College Hospital were tested with indirect immunofluorescence.Clinical information of patients with anti-GABABR antibody positivity was retrospectively reviewed, and descriptive statistical analysis was performed.Results: All eighteen anti-GABABR antibody-positive cases had limbic syndromes, and electroencephalogram (EEG) or neuroimaging evidence fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of LE.Four patients had additional antibodies against Hu in serum and one had anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antibody in both sera and CSE Seventeen (17/18) patients presented with new-onset refractory seizure or status epileptics.Twelve (12/18) patients had memory deficits, 11 (11/18) patients had personality change, 7 (7/18) patients had disturbance of consciousness, and 3 (3/18) patients showed cerebellar dysfunction.One patient with LE had progressive motor and sensory polyneuropathy.Lung cancer was detected in 6 (6/18) patients.Ten (10/18) patients showed abnormality in bilateral or unilateral mediotemporal region on magnetic resonance imaging.Ten (10/18) patients had temporal lobe epileptic activity with or without general slowing on EEG.Seventeen patients received immunotherapy and 15 of them showed neurological improvement.Four patients with lung cancer died within 1-12 months due to neoplastic complications.Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that most Han Chinese patients with anti-GABABR antibody-associated LE have prominent refractory epilepsy and show neurological improvement on immunotherapy.Patients with underlying lung tumor have a relatively poor prognosis

  12. Reproducibility and effect of tissue composition on cerebellar γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) MRS in an elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zaiyang; Dyke, Jonathan P; Ma, Ruoyun; Huang, Chaorui C; Louis, Elan D; Dydak, Ulrike

    2015-10-01

    MRS provides a valuable tool for the non-invasive detection of brain γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in vivo. GABAergic dysfunction has been observed in the aging cerebellum. The study of cerebellar GABA changes is of considerable interest in understanding certain age-related motor disorders. However, little is known about the reproducibility of GABA MRS in an aged population. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the feasibility and reproducibility of GABA MRS in the aged cerebellum at 3.0 T and to examine the effect of differing tissue composition on GABA measurements. MRI and (1)H MRS examinations were performed on 10 healthy elderly volunteers (mean age, 75.2 ± 6.5 years) using a 3.0-T Siemens Tim Trio scanner. Among them, five subjects were scanned twice to assess the short-term reproducibility. The MEGA-PRESS (Mescher-Garwood point-resolved spectroscopy) J-editing sequence was used for GABA detection in two volumes of interest (VOIs) in the left and right cerebellar dentate. MRS data processing and quantification were performed with LCModel 6.3-0L using two separate basis sets, generated from density matrix simulations using published values for chemical shifts and J couplings. Raw metabolite levels from LCModel outputs were corrected for cerebrospinal fluid contamination and relaxation. GABA-edited spectra yielded robust and stable GABA measurements with averaged intra-individual coefficients of variation for corrected GABA+ between 4.0 ± 2.8% and 13.4 ± 6.3%, and inter-individual coefficients of variation between 12.6% and 24.2%. In addition, there was a significant correlation between GABA+ obtained with the two LCModel basis sets. Overall, our results demonstrated the feasibility and reproducibility of cerebellar GABA-edited MRS at 3.0 T in an elderly population. This information might be helpful for studies using this technique to study GABA changes in normal or diseased aging brain, e.g. for power calculations and the interpretation of longitudinal

  13. Binding interaction of a gamma-aminobutyric acid derivative with serum albumin: an insight by fluorescence and molecular modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Uttam; Pramanik, Sumit Kumar; Bhattacharya, Baisali; Banerji, Biswadip; C Maiti, Nakul

    2016-01-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a naturally occurring inhibitory neurotransmitter and some of its derivatives showed potential to act as neuroprotective agents. With the aim of developing potential leads for anti-Alzheimer's drugs, in this study we synthesized a novel GABA derivative, methyl 4-(4-((2-(tert-butoxy)-2-oxoethyl)(4-methoxyphenyl)amino)benzamido)butanoate by a unique method of Buchwald-Hartwig cross coupling synthesis; with some modification the yield was significant (97 %) and spectroscopic analysis confirmed that the compound was highly pure (98.8 % by HPLC). The druglikeness properties such as logP, logS, and polar surface area were 3.87, -4.86 and 94.17 Å(2) respectively and it satisfied the Lipinski's rule of five. We examined the binding behavior of the molecule to human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) which are known as universal drug carrier proteins. The molecule binds to the proteins with low micromolar efficiency and the calculated binding constants were 3.85 and 2.75 micromolar for BSA and HSA, respectively. Temperature dependent study using van't Hoff equation established that the binding was thermodynamically favorable and the changes in the Gibb's free energy, ΔG for the binding process was negative. However, the binding of the molecule to HSA was enthalpy driven and the change of enthalpy (ΔH) was -10.63 kJ/mol, whereas, the binding to BSA was entropy driven and the change in entropy ΔS was 222 J/mol. The molecular docking analysis showed that the binding sites of the molecule lie in the groove between domain I and domain III of BSA, whereas it is within the domain I in case of HSA, which also supported the different thermodynamic nature of binding with HSA and BSA. Molecular dynamics analysis suggested that the binding was stable with time and provided further details of the binding interaction. Molecular dynamics study also highlighted the effect of this ligand binding on the serum albumin structure. PMID

  14. Association of gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor α2 gene (GABRA2) with alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dawei; Sulovari, Arvis; Cheng, Chao; Zhao, Hongyu; Kranzler, Henry R; Gelernter, Joel

    2014-03-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in mammalian brain. GABA receptor are involved in a number of complex disorders, including substance abuse. No variants of the commonly studied GABA receptor genes that have been associated with substance dependence have been determined to be functional or pathogenic. To reconcile the conflicting associations with substance dependence traits, we performed a meta-analysis of variants in the GABAA receptor genes (GABRB2, GABRA6, GABRA1, and GABRG2 on chromosome 5q and GABRA2 on chromosome 4p12) using genotype data from 4739 cases of alcohol, opioid, or methamphetamine dependence and 4924 controls. Then, we combined the data from candidate gene association studies in the literature with two alcohol dependence (AD) samples, including 1691 cases and 1712 controls from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment (SAGE), and 2644 cases and 494 controls from our own study. Using a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of 0.007, we found strong associations between GABRA2 and AD (P=9 × 10(-6) and odds ratio (OR) 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.27 (1.15, 1.4) for rs567926, P=4 × 10(-5) and OR=1.21 (1.1, 1.32) for rs279858), and between GABRG2 and both dependence on alcohol and dependence on heroin (P=0.0005 and OR=1.22 (1.09, 1.37) for rs211014). Significant association was also observed between GABRA6 rs3219151 and AD. The GABRA2 rs279858 association was observed in the SAGE data sets with a combined P of 9 × 10(-6) (OR=1.17 (1.09, 1.26)). When all of these data sets, including our samples, were meta-analyzed, associations of both GABRA2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms remained (for rs567926, P=7 × 10(-5) (OR=1.18 (1.09, 1.29)) in all the studies, and P=8 × 10(-6) (OR=1.25 (1.13, 1.38)) in subjects of European ancestry and for rs279858, P=5 × 10(-6) (OR=1.18 (1.1, 1.26)) in subjects of European ancestry. Findings from this extensive meta-analysis of five GABAA receptor genes and substance abuse support

  15. Gas release-based prescreening combined with reversed-phase HPLC quantitation for efficient selection of high-γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinglong; Shah, Nagendra P

    2015-02-01

    High γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing lactobacilli are promising for the manufacture of GABA-rich foods and to synthesize GRAS (generally recognized as safe)-grade GABA. However, common chromatography-based screening is time-consuming and inefficient. In the present study, Korean kimchi was used as a model of lactic acid-based fermented foods, and a gas release-based prescreening of potential GABA producers was developed. The ability to produce GABA by potential GABA producers in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe medium supplemented with or without monosodium glutamate was further determined by HPLC. Based on the results, 9 isolates were regarded as high GABA producers, and were further genetically identified as Lactobacillus brevis based on the sequences of 16S rRNA gene. Gas release-based prescreening combined with reversed-phase HPLC confirmation was an efficient and cost-effective method to identify high-GABA-producing LAB, which could be good candidates for probiotics. The GABA that is naturally produced by these high-GABA-producing LAB could be used as a food additive.

  16. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of 6-aminonicotinic acid analogues as novel γ-aminobutyric acidA receptor agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jette Gellert; Sørensen, Troels Ersted; Damgaard, Maria;

    2014-01-01

    A series of 6-aminonicotinic acid analogues have been synthesized and pharmacologically characterized at native and selected recombinant GABAA receptors. 6-Aminonicotinic acid (3) as well as 2- and 4-alkylated analogues (9–11, 14–16) display low to mid-micromolar GABAAR binding affinities to nati...

  17. The gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB receptor agonist baclofen inhibits morphine sensitization by decreasing the dopamine level in rat nucleus accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Zhenyu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeated morphine exposure can induce behavioral sensitization. There are evidences have shown that central gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA system is involved in morphine dependence. However, the effect of a GABAB receptor agonist baclofen on morphine-induced behavioral sensitization in rats is unclear. Methods We used morphine-induced behavioral sensitization model in rat to investigate the effects of baclofen on behavioral sensitization. Moreover, dopamine release in the shell of the nucleus accumbens was evaluated using microdialysis assay in vivo. Results The present study demonstrated that morphine challenge (3 mg/kg, s.c. obviously enhanced the locomotor activity following 4-day consecutive morphine administration and 3-day withdrawal period, which indicated the expression of morphine sensitization. In addition, chronic treatment with baclofen (2.5, 5 mg/kg significantly inhibited the development of morphine sensitization. It was also found that morphine challenge 3 days after repeated morphine administration produced a significant increase of extracellular dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. Furthermore, chronic treatment with baclofen decreased the dopamine release induced by morphine challenge. Conclusions Our results indicated that gamma-aminobutyric acid system plays an important role in the morphine sensitization in rat and suggested that behavioral sensitization is a promising model to study the mechanism underlying drug abuse.

  18. Gamma aminobutyric acid B and 5-hydroxy tryptamine 2A receptors functional regulation during enhanced liver cell proliferation by GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticles treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilpa, Joy; Pretty, Mary Abraham; Anitha, Malat; Paulose, Cheramadathikudyil Skaria

    2013-09-01

    Liver is one of the major organs in vertebrates and hepatocytes are damaged by many factors. The liver cell maintenance and multiplication after injury and treatment gained immense interest. The present study investigated the role of Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) coupled with chitosan nanoparticles in the functional regulation of Gamma aminobutyric acid B and 5-hydroxy tryptamine 2A receptors mediated cell signaling mechanisms, extend of DNA methylation and superoxide dismutase activity during enhanced liver cell proliferation. Liver injury was achieved by partial hepatectomy of male Wistar rats and the GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticles treatments were given intraperitoneally. The experimental groups were sham operated control (C), partially hepatectomised rats with no treatment (PHNT), partially hepatectomised rats with GABA chitosan nanoparticle (GCNP), 5-HT chitosan nanoparticle (SCNP) and a combination of GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticle (GSCNP) treatments. In GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticle treated group there was a significant decrease (PGABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticles induced liver cell proliferation which has therapeutic significance in liver disease management.

  19. Straightforward and effective synthesis of γ-aminobutyric acid transporter subtype 2-selective acyl-substituted azaspiro[4.5]decanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaofeng; Lubin, Hodney; Ioja, Enikő; Kékesi, Orsolya; Simon, Ágnes; Apáti, Ágota; Orbán, Tamás I; Héja, László; Kardos, Julianna; Markó, István E

    2016-01-15

    Supply of major metabolites such as γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), β-alanine and taurine is an essential instrument that shapes signalling, proper cell functioning and survival in the brain and peripheral organs. This background motivates the synthesis of novel classes of compounds regulating their selective transport through various fluid-organ barriers via the low-affinity γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter subtype 2 (GAT2). Natural and synthetic spirocyclic compounds or therapeutics with a range of structures and biological activity are increasingly recognised in this regard. Based on pre-validated GABA transport activity, straightforward and efficient synthesis method was developed to provide an azaspiro[4.5]decane scaffold, holding a variety of charge, substituent and 3D constrain of spirocyclic amine. Investigation of the azaspiro[4.5]decane scaffold in cell lines expressing the four GABA transporter subtypes led to the discovery of a subclass of a GAT2-selective compounds with acyl-substituted azaspiro[4.5]decane core. PMID:26706177

  20. Uptake of gamma-aminobutyric acid and L-glutamic acid by synaptosomes from postmortem human cerebral cortex: multiple sites, sodium dependence and effect of tissue preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, P R; Watson, W E; Morrison, M M; Johnston, G A; Bird, E D; Cowburn, R F; Hardy, J A

    1989-06-26

    The uptake of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and L-glutamic acid by synaptosomes prepared from frozen postmortem human brain was shown to be effected via distinct high and low affinity sites. At approximately 17 h postmortem delay, the kinetic parameters for GABA uptake were: high affinity site, Km 7.1 +/- 2.5 microM, Vmax 18.7 +/- 4.8 nmol.min-1 per 100 mg protein; low affinity site, Km 2 +/- 1 mM, Vmax 425 +/- 250 nmol.min-1 per 100 mg protein (means +/- S.E.M., n = 13). Kinetic parameters for L-glutamate uptake were: high affinity site, Km 7.5 +/- 1.0 microM, Vmax 85 +/- 8 nmol.min-1 per 100 mg protein; low affinity site, Km 1.8 +/- 1.2 mM. Vmax 780 +/- 175 nmol.min-1 per 100 mg protein (n = 11). A detailed kinetic analysis of high affinity GABA uptake was performed over a range of sodium ion concentrations. The results were consistent with a coupling ratio of one Na+ ion to one GABA molecule; a similar result was found with rat brain synaptosomes. However, rat and human synaptosomes differed in the degree to which the substrate affinity of the high affinity GABA uptake site varied with decreasing Na+ ion concentration. High affinity GABA uptake was markedly affected by the method used to freeze and divide the tissue, but did not vary greatly in different cortical regions. There was some decline of high affinity GABA uptake activity with postmortem delay, apparently due to a loss of sites rather than a change in site affinity.

  1. Discovery of α-Substituted Imidazole-4-acetic Acid Analogues as a Novel Class of ρ1 γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptor Antagonists with Effect on Retinal Vascular Tone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krall, Jacob; Brygger, Benjamin M; Sigurðardóttir, Sara B;

    2016-01-01

    The ρ-containing γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAA Rs) play an important role in controlling visual signaling. Therefore, ligands that selectively target these GABAA Rs are of interest. In this study, we demonstrate that the partial GABAA R agonist imidazole-4-acetic acid (IAA) is able...... to penetrate the blood-brain barrier in vivo; we prepared a series of α- and N-alkylated, as well as bicyclic analogues of IAA to explore the structure-activity relationship of this scaffold focusing on the acetic acid side chain of IAA. The compounds were prepared via IAA from l-histidine by an efficient...

  2. Proteomic analysis of B-aminobutyric acid priming and aba-induction of drought resistance in crabapple (Malus pumila): effect on general metabolism, the phenylpropanoid pathway and cell wall enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a variety of annual crops and model plants, the xenobiotic compound, DL-beta-aminobutyric acid (BABA), has been shown to enhance disease resistance and increase salt, drought, and thermotolerance. BABA does not activate stress genes directly but rather sensitizes plants to respond more quickly a...

  3. GABA shunt and polyamine degradation pathway on γ-aminobutyric acid accumulation in germinating fava bean (Vicia faba L.) under hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Runqiang; Guo, Qianghui; Gu, Zhenxin

    2013-01-01

    GABA shunt and polyamine degradation pathway on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation in germinating fava bean under hypoxia was investigated. GABA content, GAD and DAO activity were significantly increased under hypoxia treatment. Glu and polyamine contents enhanced largely and thus supplied as sufficient substrates for GABA formation. In contrast, GABA content decreased, mainly in the embryo, after removing the hypoxia stress. DAO activity, Glu and polyamines contents decreased, while an increment of GAD activity was observed. This indicated that GAD activity can be not only regulated by hypoxia, but by the rapid growth of embryo after the recovery from hypoxia stress. When treated with AG, DAO activity was almost inhibited completely, and the GABA content decreased by 32.96% and 32.07% after treated for 3 and 5 days, respectively. Hence, it can be inferred that about 30% of GABA formed in germinating fava bean under hypoxia was supplied by polyamine degradation pathway.

  4. Efficient production of gamma-aminobutyric acid using Escherichia coli by co-localization of glutamate synthase, glutamate decarboxylase, and GABA transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung Pham, Van; Somasundaram, Sivachandiran; Lee, Seung Hwan; Park, Si Jae; Hong, Soon Ho

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an important bio-product, which is used in pharmaceutical formulations, nutritional supplements, and biopolymer monomer. The traditional GABA process involves the decarboxylation of glutamate. However, the direct production of GABA from glucose is a more efficient process. To construct the recombinant strains of Escherichia coli, a novel synthetic scaffold was introduced. By carrying out the co-localization of glutamate synthase, glutamate decarboxylase, and GABA transporter, we redirected the TCA cycle flux to GABA pathway. The genetically engineered E. coli strain produced 1.08 g/L of GABA from 10 g/L of initial glucose. Thus, with the introduction of a synthetic scaffold, we increased GABA production by 2.2-fold. The final GABA concentration was increased by 21.8% by inactivating competing pathways.

  5. Exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) affects pollen tube growth via modulating putative Ca2+-permeable membrane channels and is coupled to negative regulation on glutamate decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guang-Hui; Zou, Jie; Feng, Jing; Peng, Xiong-Bo; Wu, Ju-You; Wu, Ying-Liang; Palanivelu, Ravishankar; Sun, Meng-Xiang

    2014-07-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is implicated in pollen tube growth, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms that it mediates are largely unknown. Here, it is shown that exogenous GABA modulates putative Ca(2+)-permeable channels on the plasma membranes of tobacco pollen grains and pollen tubes. Whole-cell voltage-clamp experiments and non-invasive micromeasurement technology (NMT) revealed that the influx of Ca(2+) increases in pollen tubes in response to exogenous GABA. It is also demonstrated that glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), the rate-limiting enzyme of GABA biosynthesis, is involved in feedback controls of Ca(2+)-permeable channels to fluctuate intracellular GABA levels and thus modulate pollen tube growth. The findings suggest that GAD activity linked with Ca(2+)-permeable channels relays an extracellular GABA signal and integrates multiple signal pathways to modulate tobacco pollen tube growth. Thus, the data explain how GABA mediates the communication between the style and the growing pollen tubes.

  6. GABA shunt and polyamine degradation pathway on γ-aminobutyric acid accumulation in germinating fava bean (Vicia faba L.) under hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Runqiang; Guo, Qianghui; Gu, Zhenxin

    2013-01-01

    GABA shunt and polyamine degradation pathway on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation in germinating fava bean under hypoxia was investigated. GABA content, GAD and DAO activity were significantly increased under hypoxia treatment. Glu and polyamine contents enhanced largely and thus supplied as sufficient substrates for GABA formation. In contrast, GABA content decreased, mainly in the embryo, after removing the hypoxia stress. DAO activity, Glu and polyamines contents decreased, while an increment of GAD activity was observed. This indicated that GAD activity can be not only regulated by hypoxia, but by the rapid growth of embryo after the recovery from hypoxia stress. When treated with AG, DAO activity was almost inhibited completely, and the GABA content decreased by 32.96% and 32.07% after treated for 3 and 5 days, respectively. Hence, it can be inferred that about 30% of GABA formed in germinating fava bean under hypoxia was supplied by polyamine degradation pathway. PMID:23017406

  7. Cloning of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) ρ1 cDNA: A GABA receptor subunit highly expressed in the retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Type A γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors are a family of ligand-gated chloride channels that are the major inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the nervous system. Molecular cloning has revealed diversity in the subunits that compose this heterooligomeric receptor, but each previously elucidated subunit displays amino acid similarity in conserved structural elements. The authors have used these highly conserved regions to identify additional members of this family by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One PCR product was used to isolate a full-length cDNA from a human retina cDNA library. The mature protein predicted from this cDNA sequence is 458 amino acids long and displays between 30 and 38% amino acid similarity to the previously identified GABAA subunits. This gene is expressed primarily in the retina but transcripts are also detected in the brain, lung, and thymus. Injection of Xenopus oocytes with RNA transcribed in vitro produces a GABA-responsive chloride conductance and expression of the cDNA in COS cells yields GABA-displaceable muscimol binding. These features are consistent with our identification of a GABA subunit, GABA ρ1, with prominent retinal expression that increases the diversity and tissue specificity of this ligand-gated ion-channel receptor family

  8. Sensitive determination of taurine, γ-aminobutyric acid and ornithine in wolfberry fruit and cortex lycii by HPLC with fluorescence detection and online mass spectrometry identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangming; You, Jinmao; Suo, Yourui; Fan, Baolei

    2015-04-01

    A new, simple and highly sensitive method for the determination of taurine, γ-aminobutyric acid and ornithine using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection is described. Three non-protein amino acids were derivatized by a novel precolumn derivatization reagent 2-[2-(dibenzocarbazol)-ethoxy]ethyl chloroformate before injected. Optimum derivatization was obtained at 40°C for 5 min in the presence of sodium borate buffer (pH 9.0). Derivatives were sufficiently stable to be efficiently analyzed by HPLC without pretreatment. On a reversed-phase Hypersil BDS C8 column, the amino acids were separated in conjunction with a gradient elution with a good baseline resolution. The identification of derivatives was carried out by online postcolumn mass spectrometry with an electrospray ionization source in positive ion mode. Excellent linear responses were observed with the correlation coefficients of >0.9996, and instrument detection limits (at a signal to noise of 3 : 1) were in the range of 0.30-0.33 nmol/L. The proposed method is sensitive and reproducible for the precise determination of the amino acids from wolfberry fruit and cortex lycii samples. PMID:24996656

  9. In Silico Prediction of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Type-A Receptors Using Novel Machine-Learning-Based SVM and GBDT Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhijun; Huang, Yong; Yue, Xiaodong; Lu, Huijuan; Xuan, Ping; Ju, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid type-A receptors (GABAARs) belong to multisubunit membrane spanning ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) which act as the principal mediators of rapid inhibitory synaptic transmission in the human brain. Therefore, the category prediction of GABAARs just from the protein amino acid sequence would be very helpful for the recognition and research of novel receptors. Based on the proteins' physicochemical properties, amino acids composition and position, a GABAAR classifier was first constructed using a 188-dimensional (188D) algorithm at 90% cd-hit identity and compared with pseudo-amino acid composition (PseAAC) and ProtrWeb web-based algorithms for human GABAAR proteins. Then, four classifiers including gradient boosting decision tree (GBDT), random forest (RF), a library for support vector machine (libSVM), and k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) were compared on the dataset at cd-hit 40% low identity. This work obtained the highest correctly classified rate at 96.8% and the highest specificity at 99.29%. But the values of sensitivity, accuracy, and Matthew's correlation coefficient were a little lower than those of PseAAC and ProtrWeb; GBDT and libSVM can make a little better performance than RF and k-NN at the second dataset. In conclusion, a GABAAR classifier was successfully constructed using only the protein sequence information. PMID:27579307

  10. Enhancement of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in Nham (Thai fermented pork sausage) using starter cultures of Lactobacillus namurensis NH2 and Pediococcus pentosaceus HN8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanaburee, Anussara; Kantachote, Duangporn; Charernjiratrakul, Wilawan; Sukhoom, Ampaitip

    2013-10-15

    The aim was to produce Nham that was enriched with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA); therefore two GABA producing lactic acid bacteria (Pediococcus pentosaceus HN8 and Lactobacillus namurensis NH2) were used as starter cultures. By using the central composite design (CCD) we showed that addition of 0.5% monosodium glutamate (MSG) together with an inoculum size of roughly 6logCFU/g of each of the two strains produced a maximal amounts of GABA (4051 mg/kg) in the 'GABA Nham' product. This was higher than any current popular commercial Nham product by roughly 8 times. 'GABA Nham' with the additions of both starters and MSG (TSM) supported maximum populations of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with a minimum of yeasts and no staphylococci or molds when compared to the controls that had no addition of any starters or MSG (TNN), or only the addition of MSG (TNM), or with only the starter (TSN). Based on proximate analysis among the Nham sets, 'GABA Nham' was low in fat, carbohydrate and energy although its texture and color were slightly different from the control (TNN). However, sensory evaluations of 'GABA Nham' were more acceptable than the controls and commercial Nham products for all tested parameters. Hence, a unique novel 'GABA Nham' fermented pork sausage was successfully developed.

  11. Co-Localization of GABA Shunt Enzymes for the Efficient Production of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid via GABA Shunt Pathway in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Van Dung; Somasundaram, Sivachandiran; Park, Si Jae; Lee, Seung Hwan; Hong, Soon Ho

    2016-04-28

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid, which is an important inhibitor of neurotransmission in the human brain. GABA is also used as the precursor of biopolymer Nylon-4 production. In this study, the carbon flux from the tricarboxylic acid cycle was directed to the GABA shunt pathway for the production of GABA from glucose. The GABA shunt enzymes succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (GabD) and GABA aminotransferase (GabT) were co-localized along with the GABA transporter (GadC) by using a synthetic scaffold complex. The co-localized enzyme scaffold complex produced 0.71 g/l of GABA from 10 g/l of glucose. Inactivation of competing metabolic pathways in mutant E. coli strains XBM1 and XBM6 increased GABA production 13% to reach 0.80 g/l GABA by the enzymes co-localized and expressed in the mutant strains. The recombinant E. coli system developed in this study demonstrated the possibility of the pathway of the GABA shunt as a novel GABA production pathway.

  12. [Response of reactive oxygen metabolism in melon chloroplasts to short-term salinity-alkalinity stress regulated by exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Li-xia; Hu, Li-pan; Hu, Xiao-hui; Pan, Xiong-bo; Ren, Wen-qi

    2015-12-01

    The regulatory effect of exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in melon chloroplasts under short-term salinity-alkalinity stress were investigated in melon variety 'Jinhui No. 1', which was cultured with deep flow hydroponics. The result showed that under salinity-alkalinity stress, the photosynthetic pigment content, MDA content, superoxide anion (O₂·) production rate and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) content in chloroplast increased significantly, the contents of antioxidants ascorbic acid (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) increased, and the activities of H⁺-ATPase and H⁺-PPiase were inhibited obviously. With exogenous GABA application, the accumulations of O₂·, MDA and H₂O₂ induced by salinity-alkalinity stress were inhibited. Exogenous GABA alleviated the increase of photosynthetic pigment content, improved the activity of SOD, enzymes of AsA-GSH cycle, total AsA and total GSH while decreased the AsA/DHA ratio and GSH/GSSH ratio. Foliar GABA could enhance the H⁺-ATPase and H⁺-PPiase activities. Our results suggested that the exogenous GABA could accelerate the ROS metabolism in chloroplast, promote the recycle of AsA-GSH, and maintain the permeability of cell membrane to improve the ability of melon chloroplast against salinity-alkalinity stress. PMID:27112014

  13. Use of sourdough fermentation and pseudo-cereals and leguminous flours for the making of a functional bread enriched of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coda, Rossana; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Gobbetti, Marco

    2010-02-28

    Lactobacillus plantarum C48 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis PU1, previously selected for the biosynthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), were used for sourdough fermentation of cereal, pseudo-cereal and leguminous flours. Chickpea, amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat were the flours most suitable to be enriched of GABA. The parameters of sourdough fermentation were optimized. Addition of 0.1mM pyridoxal phosphate, dough yield of 160, inoculum of 5 x 10(7)CFU/g of starter bacteria and fermentation for 24h at 30 degrees C were found to be the optimal conditions. A blend of buckwheat, amaranth, chickpea and quinoa flours (ratio 1:1:5.3:1) was selected and fermented with baker's yeast (non-conventional flour bread, NCB) or with Lb. plantarum C48 sourdough (non-conventional flour sourdough bread, NCSB) and compared to baker's yeast started wheat flour bread (WFB). NCSB had the highest concentration of free amino acids and GABA (ca. 4467 and 504 mg/kg, respectively). The concentration of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of NCSB bread was the highest, as well as the rate of in vitro starch hydrolysis was the lowest. Texture analysis showed that sourdough fermentation enhances several characteristics of NCSB with respect to NCB, thus approaching the features of WFB. Sensory analysis showed that sourdough fermentation allowed to get good palatability and overall taste appreciation.

  14. Dairy Streptococcus thermophilus improves cell viability of Lactobacillus brevis NPS-QW-145 and its γ-aminobutyric acid biosynthesis ability in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinglong; Law, Yee-Song; Shah, Nagendra P

    2015-08-06

    Most high γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) producers are Lactobacillus brevis of plant origin, which may be not able to ferment milk well due to its poor proteolytic nature as evidenced by the absence of genes encoding extracellular proteinases in its genome. In the present study, two glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) genes, gadA and gadB, were found in high GABA-producing L. brevis NPS-QW-145. Co-culturing of this organism with conventional dairy starters was carried out to manufacture GABA-rich fermented milk. It was observed that all the selected strains of Streptococcus thermophilus, but not Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, improved the viability of L. brevis NPS-QW-145 in milk. Only certain strains of S. thermophilus improved the gadA mRNA level in L. brevis NPS-QW-145, thus enhanced GABA biosynthesis by the latter. These results suggest that certain S. thermophilus strains are highly recommended to co-culture with high GABA producer for manufacturing GABA-rich fermented milk.

  15. A functional assay to measure postsynaptic gamma-aminobutyric acidB responses in cultured spinal cord neurons: Heterologous regulation of the same K+ channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamatchi, G.L.; Ticku, M.K. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio (USA))

    1991-02-01

    The stimulation of postsynaptic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)B receptors leads to slow inhibitory postsynaptic potentials due to the influx of K(+)-ions. This was studied biochemically, in vitro in mammalian cultured spinal cord neurons by using 86Rb as a substitute for K+. (-)-Baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist, produced a concentration-dependent increase in the 86Rb-influx. This effect was stereospecific and blocked by GABAB receptor antagonists like CGP 35 348 (3-aminopropyl-diethoxymethyl-phosphonic acid) and phaclofen. Apart from the GABAB receptors, both adenosine via adenosine1 receptors and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) via 5-HT1 alpha agonists also increased the 86Rb-influx. These agonists failed to show any additivity between them when they were combined in their maximal concentration. In addition, their effect was antagonized specifically by their respective antagonists without influencing the others. These findings suggest the presence of GABAB, adenosine1 and 5-HT1 alpha receptors in the cultured spinal cord neurons, which exhibit a heterologous regulation of the same K(+)-channel. The effect of these agonists were antagonized by phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, an activator of protein kinase C, and pretreatment with pertussis toxin. This suggests that these agonists by acting on their own receptors converge on the same K(+)-channel through the Gi/Go proteins. In summary, we have developed a biochemical functional assay for studying and characterizing GABAB synaptic pharmacology in vitro, using spinal cord neurons.

  16. A functional assay to measure postsynaptic gamma-aminobutyric acidB responses in cultured spinal cord neurons: Heterologous regulation of the same K+ channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stimulation of postsynaptic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)B receptors leads to slow inhibitory postsynaptic potentials due to the influx of K(+)-ions. This was studied biochemically, in vitro in mammalian cultured spinal cord neurons by using 86Rb as a substitute for K+. (-)-Baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist, produced a concentration-dependent increase in the 86Rb-influx. This effect was stereospecific and blocked by GABAB receptor antagonists like CGP 35 348 (3-aminopropyl-diethoxymethyl-phosphonic acid) and phaclofen. Apart from the GABAB receptors, both adenosine via adenosine1 receptors and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) via 5-HT1 alpha agonists also increased the 86Rb-influx. These agonists failed to show any additivity between them when they were combined in their maximal concentration. In addition, their effect was antagonized specifically by their respective antagonists without influencing the others. These findings suggest the presence of GABAB, adenosine1 and 5-HT1 alpha receptors in the cultured spinal cord neurons, which exhibit a heterologous regulation of the same K(+)-channel. The effect of these agonists were antagonized by phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, an activator of protein kinase C, and pretreatment with pertussis toxin. This suggests that these agonists by acting on their own receptors converge on the same K(+)-channel through the Gi/Go proteins. In summary, we have developed a biochemical functional assay for studying and characterizing GABAB synaptic pharmacology in vitro, using spinal cord neurons

  17. A fluorescence-coupled assay for gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA reveals metabolic stress-induced modulation of GABA content in neuroendocrine cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E Ippolito

    Full Text Available Pathways involved in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA have been implicated in the pathogenesis of high grade neuroendocrine (NE neoplasms as well as neoplasms from a non-NE lineage. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas, overexpression of the GABA synthetic enzyme, glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD1, was found to be associated with decreased disease free-survival in prostate adenocarcinoma and decreased overall survival in clear cell renal cell carcinomas. Furthermore, GAD1 was found to be expressed in castrate-resistant prostate cancer cell lines, but not androgen-responsive cell lines. Using a novel fluorescence-coupled enzymatic microplate assay for GABA mediated through reduction of resazurin in a prostate neuroendocrine carcinoma (PNEC cell line, acid microenvironment-induced stress increased GABA levels while alkaline microenvironment-induced stress decreased GABA through modulation of GAD1 and glutamine synthetase (GLUL activities. Moreover, glutamine but not glucose deprivation decreased GABA through modulation of GLUL. Consistent with evidence in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms that GABA synthesis mediated through GAD1 may play a crucial role in surviving stress, GABA may be an important mediator of stress survival in neoplasms. These findings identify GABA synthesis and metabolism as a potentially important pathway for regulating cancer cell stress response as well as a potential target for therapeutic strategies.

  18. A fluorescence-coupled assay for gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) reveals metabolic stress-induced modulation of GABA content in neuroendocrine cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Joseph E; Piwnica-Worms, David

    2014-01-01

    Pathways involved in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of high grade neuroendocrine (NE) neoplasms as well as neoplasms from a non-NE lineage. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas, overexpression of the GABA synthetic enzyme, glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD1), was found to be associated with decreased disease free-survival in prostate adenocarcinoma and decreased overall survival in clear cell renal cell carcinomas. Furthermore, GAD1 was found to be expressed in castrate-resistant prostate cancer cell lines, but not androgen-responsive cell lines. Using a novel fluorescence-coupled enzymatic microplate assay for GABA mediated through reduction of resazurin in a prostate neuroendocrine carcinoma (PNEC) cell line, acid microenvironment-induced stress increased GABA levels while alkaline microenvironment-induced stress decreased GABA through modulation of GAD1 and glutamine synthetase (GLUL) activities. Moreover, glutamine but not glucose deprivation decreased GABA through modulation of GLUL. Consistent with evidence in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms that GABA synthesis mediated through GAD1 may play a crucial role in surviving stress, GABA may be an important mediator of stress survival in neoplasms. These findings identify GABA synthesis and metabolism as a potentially important pathway for regulating cancer cell stress response as well as a potential target for therapeutic strategies.

  19. Efficient gamma-aminobutyric acid bioconversion by employing synthetic complex between glutamate decarboxylase and glutamate/GABA antiporter in engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vo, Tam Dinh; Ko, Ji-seun; Park, Si Jae; Lee, Seung Hwan; Hong, Soon Ho

    2013-08-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a precursor of one of the most promising heat-resistant biopolymers, Nylon-4, and can be produced by the decarboxylation of monosodium glutamate (MSG). In this study, a synthetic protein complex was applied to improve the GABA conversion in engineered Escherichia coli. Complexes were constructed by assembling a single protein-protein interaction domain SH3 to the glutamate decarboxylase (GadA and GadB) and attaching a cognate peptide ligand to the glutamate/GABA antiporter (GadC) at the N-terminus, C-terminus, and the 233rd amino acid residue. When GadA and GadC were co-overexpressed via the C-terminus complex, a GABA concentration of 5.65 g/l was obtained from 10 g/l MSG, which corresponds to a GABA yield of 93 %. A significant increase of the GABA productivity was also observed where the GABA productivity increased 2.5-fold in the early culture period due to the introduction of the synthetic protein complex. The GABA pathway efficiency and GABA productivity were enhanced by the introduction of the complex between Gad and glutamate/GABA antiporter.

  20. Residues in the extracellular loop 4 are critical for maintaining the conformational equilibrium of the gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacAulay, Nanna; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Zeuthen, Thomas;

    2003-01-01

    We mutated residues Met345 and Thr349 in the rat gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter-1 (GAT-1) to histidines (M345H and T349H). These two residues are located four amino acids apart at the extracellular end of transmembrane segment 7 in a region of GAT-1 that we have previously suggested undergoes...... conformational changes critical for the transport process. The two single mutants and the double mutant (M345H/T349H) were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and their steady-state and presteady-state kinetics were examined and compared with wild type GAT-1 by using the two-electrode voltage clamp method...... affinity, a decrease in apparent Na+ affinity, a profound shift in the Q/Vm relationship to more negative potentials, and a decreased Li+-induced leak current. The data are consistent with a shift in the conformational equilibrium of the mutant transporters, with M345H stabilized in an outward...

  1. [Response of reactive oxygen metabolism in melon chloroplasts to short-term salinity-alkalinity stress regulated by exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Li-xia; Hu, Li-pan; Hu, Xiao-hui; Pan, Xiong-bo; Ren, Wen-qi

    2015-12-01

    The regulatory effect of exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in melon chloroplasts under short-term salinity-alkalinity stress were investigated in melon variety 'Jinhui No. 1', which was cultured with deep flow hydroponics. The result showed that under salinity-alkalinity stress, the photosynthetic pigment content, MDA content, superoxide anion (O₂·) production rate and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) content in chloroplast increased significantly, the contents of antioxidants ascorbic acid (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) increased, and the activities of H⁺-ATPase and H⁺-PPiase were inhibited obviously. With exogenous GABA application, the accumulations of O₂·, MDA and H₂O₂ induced by salinity-alkalinity stress were inhibited. Exogenous GABA alleviated the increase of photosynthetic pigment content, improved the activity of SOD, enzymes of AsA-GSH cycle, total AsA and total GSH while decreased the AsA/DHA ratio and GSH/GSSH ratio. Foliar GABA could enhance the H⁺-ATPase and H⁺-PPiase activities. Our results suggested that the exogenous GABA could accelerate the ROS metabolism in chloroplast, promote the recycle of AsA-GSH, and maintain the permeability of cell membrane to improve the ability of melon chloroplast against salinity-alkalinity stress.

  2. Mutations in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transaminase genes in plants or Pseudomonas syringae reduce bacterial virulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H. Park; R. Mirabella; P.A. Bronstein; G.M. Preston; M.A. Haring; C.K. Lim; A. Collmer; R.C. Schuurink

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 is a bacterial pathogen of Arabidopsis and tomato that grows in the apoplast. The non-protein amino acid γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) is produced by Arabidopsis and tomato and is the most abundant amino acid in the apoplastic fluid of tomato. The DC3000 genome h

  3. [Comparative analysis of action of beta-phenyl derivatives of glutamic and gamma-aminobutyric acid on cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular endothelium after irreversible occlusion of the common carotid artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volotova, E V; Kurkin, D V; Mazina, N V; Berestovitskaia, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2013-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the effect of phenyl derivatives of glutamic (RGPU-135) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (Phenibut) on cerebral blood flow, vasodilatory endothelial function and the number of circulating endothelial cells desquamated in animals after irreversible occlusion of the common carotid arteries. It was found that animals treated prophylactically by RGPU-135, after occlusion of the common carotid arteries have higher cerebral blood flow and lower the severity of endothelial dysfunction than in animals treated with Phenibut. PMID:24003482

  4. Tomato Glutamate Decarboxylase Genes SlGAD2 and SlGAD3 Play Key Roles in Regulating γ-Aminobutyric Acid Levels in Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Mariko; Koike, Satoshi; Kusano, Miyako; Matsukura, Chiaki; Saito, Kazuki; Ariizumi, Tohru; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) can accumulate relatively high levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during fruit development. However, the molecular mechanism underlying GABA accumulation and its physiological function in tomato fruits remain elusive. We previously identified three tomato genes (SlGAD1, SlGAD2 and SlGAD3) encoding glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), likely the key enzyme for GABA biosynthesis in tomato fruits. In this study, we generated transgenic tomato plants in which each SlGAD was suppressed and those in which all three SlGADs were simultaneously suppressed. A significant decrease in GABA levels, i.e. 50-81% compared with wild-type (WT) levels, was observed in mature green (MG) fruits of the SlGAD2-suppressed lines, while a more drastic reduction (up to tomato fruits. The importance of SlGAD3 expression was also confirmed by generating transgenic tomato plants that over-expressed SlGAD3. The MG and red fruits of the over-expressing transgenic lines contained higher levels of GABA (2.7- to 5.2-fold) than those of the WT. We also determined that strong down-regulation of the SlGADs had little effect on overall plant growth, fruit development or primary fruit metabolism under normal growth conditions.

  5. Feeding rumen-protected gamma-aminobutyric acid enhances the immune response and antioxidant status of heat-stressed lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianbo; Zheng, Nan; Sun, Xianzhi; Li, Songli; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhang, Yangdong

    2016-08-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of rumen-protected gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on immune function and antioxidant status in heat-stressed dairy cows. Sixty Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments according to a completely randomized block design. The treatments consisted of 0 (control), 40, 80, or 120mg of GABA/kg DM from rumen-protected GABA. The trial lasted 10 weeks. The average temperature-humidity indices at 0700, 1400 and 2200h were 78.4, 80.2 and 78.7, respectively. Rectal temperatures decreased linearly at 0700, 1400, and 2200h with increasing GABA. As the GABA increased, the immunoglobulin (Ig) A and IgG contents and the proportions of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes increased linearly (PAOC) increased linearly (P<0.05), whereas malondialdehyde (MDA) content decreased linearly (P<0.05) with increasing GABA. These results indicate that rumen-protected GABA supplementation to heat-stressed dairy cows can improve their immune function and antioxidant activity. PMID:27503722

  6. Quantification of γ-aminobutyric acid in the heads of houseflies (Musca domestica) and diamondback moths (Plutella xylostella (L.)), using capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xueyan; Liang, Pei; Song, Dunlun; Yang, Wenling; Gao, Xiwu

    2012-02-01

    A novel method was developed for quantifying the levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the heads of houseflies (Musca domestica) and diamondback moths (Plutella xylostella (L.)), using capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF). The GABA in sample was derivatized with 4-chloro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-Cl) prior to CE-LIF analysis. In total, 32 mmol/L borate buffer, at pH 9.2 and containing 5.3 mmol/L β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and 10.4 mmol/L sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), was determined to be the optimum CE background electrolyte (BGE) for GABA analysis. The detection limit of GABA was 0.016 μmol/L. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the migration time and peak area of GABA were 1.78 and 4.93%, respectively. The average recoveries of 0.97, 3.88, and 5.83 μmol/L of GABA, each added to the head sample of housefly, ranged from 88.9 to 110.5%. This method is simple and applicable to GABA assays of the heads of insects. With this newly developed CE-LIF method, the amounts of GABA in the heads of houseflies (M. domestica) and diamondback moths (P. xylostella (L.)) were measured. The results are relevant to the understandings of some insecticides and insecticide-resistance mechanisms in pests.

  7. Determination of therapeutic γ-aminobutyric acid analogs in forensic whole blood by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Lambert K; Hasselstrøm, Jørgen B

    2014-05-01

    Vigabatrin, pregabalin, gabapentin and baclofen are γ-aminobutyric acid analogs that are used in the treatment of epileptic seizures (vigabatrin, pregabalin and gabapentin) and spasticity (baclofen). The intake of these drugs may induce adverse reactions and impair the ability of an individual to drive a vehicle. There have also been reports of cases of intoxication and fatalities from overdoses. For rapid and accurate quantification of these drugs in forensic cases, an ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method using pneumatically assisted electrospray ionization has been developed. The technique has been validated on both ante- and postmortem human whole blood. The protein in the blood samples was removed by the addition of a mixture of methanol and acetonitrile, and the extract was ultrafiltered and diluted with acetonitrile. The separation was performed by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography. Calibration of the system was achieved through use of matrix-matched calibrants combined with isotope dilution. The lower limits of quantification were 0.02-0.04 mg/L, and the relative intra-laboratory reproducibility standard deviations were 89%. The trueness expressed as the relative bias of the test results was within ±7% at concentrations of 1-40 mg/L for vigabatrin, pregabalin and gabapentin and of 0.1-4 mg/L for baclofen.

  8. Mass transfer characterization of gamma-aminobutyric acid production by Enterococcus faecium CFR 3003: encapsulation improves its survival under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divyashri, Gangaraju; Prapulla, Siddalingaiya Gurudatt

    2015-03-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production by free and Ca-alginate encapsulated cells of Enterococcus faecium CFR 3003 was investigated. Mass transfer rates characterizing the GABA production process using encapsulated cells were investigated. Experiments were performed to investigate external film and internal pore diffusion mass transfer rates. The Damkohler and Thiele analysis provides a good description of external film and internal pore diffusion resistances, respectively. The experiments revealed that the external film effects could be neglected but the process is affected to the greater extent by internal mass transfer effects and was found to be the principal rate-controlling step. Protective effect of encapsulation on cell survivability was tested under digestive environment, when challenged to salivary α-amylase, simulated gastric fluid and intestinal fluid. Viability of encapsulated cells was significantly higher under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions and could produce higher GABA than those observed with free cells. The results indicate that the Ca-alginate encapsulated probiotics could effectively be delivered to the colonic site for effective inhibitory action.

  9. Alternate cadmium exposure differentially affects the content of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine within the hypothalamus, median eminence, striatum and prefrontal cortex of male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquifino, A.I. [Dept. de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular III, Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Seara, R.; Fernandez-Rey, E.; Lafuente, A. [Lab. de Toxicologia, Universidad de Vigo, Orense (Spain)

    2001-05-01

    This work examines changes of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine contents in the hypothalamus, striatum and prefrontal cortex of the rat after an alternate schedule of cadmium administration. Age-associated changes were also evaluated, of those before puberty and after adult age. In control rats GABA content decreased with age in the median eminence and in anterior, mediobasal and posterior hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex and the striatum. Taurine content showed similar results with the exception of mediobasal hypothalamus and striatum, where no changes were detected. In pubertal rats treated with cadmium from 30 to 60 days of life, GABA content significantly decreased in all brain regions except in the striatum. When cadmium was administered from day 60 to 90 of life, GABA content was significantly changed in prefrontal cortex only compared with the age matched controls. Taurine content showed similar results in pubertal rats, with the exception of the median eminence and the mediobasal hypothalamus, neither of which showed a change. However, when cadmium was administered to rats from day 60 to 90 of life, taurine content only changed in prefrontal cortex compared with the age matched controls. These results suggest that cadmium differentially affects GABA and taurine contents within the hypothalamus, median eminence, striatum and prefrontal cortex as a function of age. (orig.)

  10. Identification of clathrin heavy chain as a direct interaction partner for the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor associated protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohrlüder, Jeannine; Hoffmann, Yvonne; Stangler, Thomas; Hänel, Karen; Willbold, Dieter

    2007-12-18

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAA receptors) are the major sites of GABA-mediated fast synaptic inhibition in the central nervous system. Variation of the cell surface receptor count is postulated to be of importance in modulating inhibitory synaptic transmission. The GABAA receptor associated protein (GABARAP) is a ubiquitin-like modifier, implicated in GABAA receptor clustering, trafficking, and turnover. GABARAP pull-down experiments with brain lysate identified clathrin heavy chain to be GABARAP-associated. Phage display screening of a randomized peptide library for GABARAP ligands yielded a sequence motif which characterizes the peptide binding specificity of GABARAP. Sequence database searches with this motif revealed clathrin heavy chain as a protein containing the identified sequence motif within its residues 510-522, supporting the result of the pull-down experiments. Calreticulin, which was identified recently as a GABARAP ligand, contains a very similar sequence motif. We demonstrate that calreticulin indeed competes with clathrin heavy chain for GABARAP binding. Finally, employing nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we mapped the GABARAP residues responsible for binding to clathrin. The hereby mapped GABARAP regions overlap very well with the homologue residues in yeast Atg8 that were recently shown to be important for autophagy. Together with the knowledge that GABARAP and clathrin are known to be involved in GABAA receptor trafficking within the cell, this strongly suggests a clear physiological relevance of the direct interaction of GABARAP with clathrin heavy chain. PMID:18027972

  11. Characteristic expression of γ-aminobutyric acid and glutamate decarboxylase in rat jejunum and its relation to differentiation of epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang-Yu Wang; Masahito Watanabe; Ren-Min Zhu; Kentaro Maemura

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression between γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate decarboxylase and its relation with differentiation and maturation of jejunal epithelial cells in rat jejunum.METHODS: Immunohistochemical expression of GABA and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD, including two isoforms,GAD65 and GAD67) was investigated in rat jejunum.Meanwhile, double staining was performed with GAD65 immunohistochemistry, followed by lectin histochemistry of fluorescent wheat germ agglutinin. Furthermore,evaluation of cell kinetics in jejunum was conducted by 3Hthymidine autoradiography and immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal antibody to proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA).RESULTS: The cells showing positive immunoreactivity GABA and GAD65 were mainly distributed in the villi in rat jejunum, while jejunal epithelial cells were negative for GAD67. Positive GABA or GAD65 staining was mainly located in the cytoplasm and along the brush border of epithelial cells in the middle and upper portions. In addition, a few GABA and GAD65 strongly positive cells were scattered in the upper two thirds of jejunal villi. Double staining showed that GAD65 immunoreactivity was not found in goblet cells.3H-thymidine-labeled nuclei were found in the lower and middle portions of jejunal crypts, which was consistent with PCNA staining. Therefore, GABA and GAD65 were expressed in a maturation or functional zone.CONCLUSION: The characteristic expression of GABA and GAD suggests that GABA might be involved in regulation of differentiation and maturation of epithelial cells in rat jejunum.

  12. The Antidotal Effects of High-dosage γ-Aminobutyric Acid on Acute Tetramine Poisoning as Compared with Sodium Dimercaptopropane Sulfonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Peng; HAN Jiyuan; WENG Yuying

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effect of high-dosage γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on acute tetramine (TET) poisoning, 50 Kunming mice were divided into 5 groups at random and the antidotal effects of GABA or sodium dimercaptopropane sulfonate (Na-DMPS) on poisoned mice in different groups were observed in order to compare the therapeutic effects of high-dosage GABA with those of Na-DMPS. Slices of brain tissue of the poisoned mice were made to examine pathological changes of cells. The survival analysis was employed. Our results showed that both high-dosage GABA and Na-DMPS could obviously prolong the survival time, delay onset of convulsion and muscular twitch, and ameliorate the symptoms after acute tetramine poisoning in the mice.Better effects could be achieved with earlier use of high dosage GABA or Na-DMPS. There was no significant difference in prolonging the survival time between high-dose GABA and Na-DMPS used immediately after poisioning. It is concluded that high-dosage GABA can effectively antagonize acute toxicity of teramine in mice. And it is suggested that high-dosage GABA may be used as an excellent antidote for acute TET poisoning in clinical practice. The indications and correct dosage for clinical use awaits to be further studied.

  13. Impact of Precooling and Controlled-Atmosphere Storage on γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Accumulation in Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Molin; Ndeurumio, Kessy H; Zhao, Lei; Hu, Zhuoyan

    2016-08-24

    Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) fruit cultivars 'Chuliang' and 'Shixia' were analyzed for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation after precooling and in controlled-atmosphere storage. Fruit were exposed to 5% O2 plus 3%, 5%, or 10% CO2 at 4 °C, and GABA and associated enzymes, aril firmness, and pericarp color were measured. Aril softening and pericarp browning were delayed by 5% CO2 + 5% O2. GABA concentrations and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD; EC 4.1.1.15) activities declined during storage at the higher-CO2 treatments. However, GABA aminotransferase (GABA-T; EC 2.6.1.19) activities in elevated CO2-treated fruit fluctuated during storage. GABA concentrations increased after precooling treatments. GAD activity and GABA-T activity were different between cultivars after precooling. GABA concentrations in fruit increased after 3 days of 10% CO2 + 5% O2 treatment and then declined as storage time increased. GABA accumulation was associated with stimulation of GAD activity rather than inhibition of GABA-T activity.

  14. Enhancing Contents of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) and Other Micronutrients in Dehulled Rice during Germination under Normoxic and Hypoxic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Junzhou; Yang, Tewu; Feng, Hao; Dong, Mengyi; Slavin, Margaret; Xiong, Shanbai; Zhao, Siming

    2016-02-10

    Biofortification of staple grains with high contents of essential micronutrients is an important strategy to overcome micronutrient malnutrition. However, few attempts have targeted at γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a functional nutrient for aging populations. In this study, two rice cultivars, Heinuo and Xianhui 207, were used to investigate changes in GABA and other nutritional compounds of dehulled rice after germination under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Forty-one metabolites were identified in both cultivars treated by normoxic germination, whereas the germinated dehulled rice of Heinuo and Xianhui 207 under hypoxic treatment had 43 and 41 metabolites identified, respectively. GABA increased in dehulled rice after germination, especially under hypoxia. Meanwhile, a number of other health-beneficial and/or flavor-related compounds such as lysine and d-mannose increased after the hypoxic treatment. The accumulation of GABA exhibited genotype-specific modes in both normoxic and hypoxic treatments. With regard to GABA production, Xianhui 207 was more responsive to the germination process than Heinuo, whereas Heinuo was more responsive to hypoxia than Xianhui 207. This study provides a promising approach to biofortify dehulled rice with increased GABA and other nutrients through metabolomic-based regulation.

  15. Further evidence for involvement of the dorsal hippocampus serotonergic and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic pathways in the expression of contextual fear conditioning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almada, Rafael C; Albrechet-Souza, Lucas; Brandão, Marcus L

    2013-12-01

    Intra-dorsal hippocampus (DH) injections of 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), a serotonin-1A (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-1A) receptor agonist, were previously shown to inhibit the expression of contextual fear when administered six hours after conditioning. However, further understanding of the consolidation and expression of aversive memories requires investigations of these and other mechanisms at distinct time points and the regions of the brain to which they are transferred. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of DH serotonergic and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic mechanisms in the expression of contextual fear 24 h after conditioning, reflected by fear-potentiated startle (FPS) and freezing behavior. The recruitment of the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in these processes was also evaluated by measuring Fos protein immunoreactivity. Although intra-DH injections of 8-OH-DPAT did not produce behavioral changes, muscimol reduced both FPS and the freezing response. Fos protein immunoreactivity revealed that contextual fear promoted wide activation of the mPFC, which was significantly reduced after intra-DH infusions of muscimol. The present findings, together with previous data, indicate that in contrast to 5-HT, which appears to play a role during the early phases of contextual aversive memory consolidation, longer-lasting GABA-mediated mechanisms are recruited during the expression of contextual fear memories.

  16. Impact of Precooling and Controlled-Atmosphere Storage on γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Accumulation in Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Molin; Ndeurumio, Kessy H; Zhao, Lei; Hu, Zhuoyan

    2016-08-24

    Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) fruit cultivars 'Chuliang' and 'Shixia' were analyzed for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation after precooling and in controlled-atmosphere storage. Fruit were exposed to 5% O2 plus 3%, 5%, or 10% CO2 at 4 °C, and GABA and associated enzymes, aril firmness, and pericarp color were measured. Aril softening and pericarp browning were delayed by 5% CO2 + 5% O2. GABA concentrations and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD; EC 4.1.1.15) activities declined during storage at the higher-CO2 treatments. However, GABA aminotransferase (GABA-T; EC 2.6.1.19) activities in elevated CO2-treated fruit fluctuated during storage. GABA concentrations increased after precooling treatments. GAD activity and GABA-T activity were different between cultivars after precooling. GABA concentrations in fruit increased after 3 days of 10% CO2 + 5% O2 treatment and then declined as storage time increased. GABA accumulation was associated with stimulation of GAD activity rather than inhibition of GABA-T activity. PMID:27412947

  17. Evaluation of γ- aminobutyric acid, phytate and antioxidant activity of tempeh-like fermented oats (Avena sativa L.) prepared with different filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shengbao; Gao, Fengyi; Zhang, Xudong; Wang, Ou; Wu, Wei; Zhu, Songjie; Zhang, Di; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping

    2014-10-01

    Tempeh is a popular traditional fermented food in Asia. Many tempeh-like foods are made from cereal grains. However, the information of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation in those tempeh-like cereal grains during fermentation is lacking. Meanwhile, little information is available on the anti-nutrient contents and antioxidant activity of tempeh-like fermented oats. The aim of the present work was to study the changes of GABA, phytate, natural antioxidants and antioxidant activity of tempeh-like fermented oats. As fermentation time progressed, the GABA, total phenolics content (TPC) and flavonoids increased rapidly. The Aspergillus oryzae-fermented oats had the highest GABA, whereas Rhizopus oryzae-fermented oats had the highest TPC. Phytate, an anti-nutrient component, was dramatically reduced in the fermented oats, especially those by A. oryzae (reduced by about 63 %). The antioxidant activities of fermented oats were also significantly enhanced after 72 h fermentation (p oats fermented by generally recognized as safe (GRAS) fungi can be recommended as tempeh-like functional foods with higher GABA, more natural antioxidants and lower phytate compared with native oats.

  18. Dietary supplementation with glutamine and γ-aminobutyric acid improves growth performance and serum parameters in 22- to 35-day-old broilers exposed to hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H; Bai, X; Shah, A A; Wen, A Y; Hua, J L; Che, C Y; He, S J; Jiang, J P; Cai, Z H; Dai, S F

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed using 360 21-day-old chicks to determine the influences of diet supplementation with glutamine (5 g/kg), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 100 mg/kg) or their combinations on performance and serum parameters exposed to cycling high temperatures. From 22 to 35 days, the experimental groups (2 × 2) were subjected to circular heat stress by exposing them to 30-34 °C cycling, while the positive control group was exposed to 23 °C constant. The blood of broilers was collected to detect serum parameters on days 28 and 35. Compared with the positive control group, the cycling high temperature decreased (p Diet supplemented with GABA also increased (p < 0.05) weight gain and the serum levels of TP, T4, ALP, GABA and glutamine. In addition, the significant interactions (p < 0.05) between glutamine and GABA were found in the feed consumption, weight gain and the serum ALP, CK, LDH, GABA, T3 and T4 levels of heat-stressed chickens. This research indicated that dietary glutamine and GABA improved the antistress ability in performance and serum parameters of broilers under hot environment. PMID:25980810

  19. GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid production, antioxidant activity in some germinated dietary seeds and the effect of cooking on their GABA content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasarin TIANSAWANG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Germinated grains have been known as sources of Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA that provide beneficial effects for human health. This study was aimed to investigate GABA production, dietary fiber, antioxidant activity, and the effect of cooking on GABA loss in germinated legumes and sesame. The highest GABA content was found in germinated mung bean, (0.8068 g kg-1, 24 h incubation followed by germinated soybean, germinated black bean and soaked sesame. Beside GABA, dietary fiber content also increased in all grains during germination where the insoluble dietary fiber fractions were always found in higher proportions to soluble dietary fiber fractions. Our results also confirmed that germinated mung bean is a rich source of GABA and dietary fibers. Microwave cooking resulted in the smallest loss of GABA in mung bean and sesame, while steaming led to the least GABA content loss in soybean and black bean. Therefore microwave cooking and steaming are the most recommended cooking processes to preserve GABA in germinated legumes and sesame.

  20. Analysis of persistent changes to γ-aminobutyric acid receptor gene expression in Plutella xylostella subjected to sublethal amounts of spinosad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, X-H; Wu, Q-J; Zhang, Y-J; Long, Y-H; Wu, X-M; Li, R-Y; Wang, M; Tian, X-L; Jiao, X-G

    2016-01-01

    A multi-generational approach was used to investigate the persistent effects of a sub-lethal dose of spinosad in Plutella xylostella. The susceptibility of various sub-populations of P. xylostella to spinosad and the effects of the insecticide on the gene expression of γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAR) were determined. The results of a leaf dip bioassay showed that the sensitivity of P. xylostella to spinosad decreased across generations. The sub-strains had been previously selected based on a determined LC25 of spinosad. Considering that GABA-gated chloride channels are the primary targets of spinosad, the cDNA of P. xylostella was used to clone GABARα by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The mature peptide cDNA was 1477-bp long and contained a 1449-bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 483 amino acids. The resulting amino acid sequence was used to generate a neighbor-joining dendrogram, and homology search was conducted using NCBI BLAST. The protein had high similarity with the known GABAR sequence from P. xylostella. Subsequent semi-quantitative RT-PCR and real-time PCR analyses indicated that the GABAR transcript levels in the spinosad-resistant strain (RR, 145.82-fold) and in Sub1 strain (selected with LC25 spinosad for one generation) were the highest, followed by those in the spinosad-susceptible strain, the Sub10 strain (selected for ten generations), and the Sub5 strain (selected for five generations). This multi-generational study found significant correlations between spinosad susceptibility and GABAR gene expression, providing insights into the long-term effects of sub-lethal insecticide exposure and its potential to lead to the development of insecticide-resistant insect populations. PMID:27525859

  1. Library screening by means of mass spectrometry (MS) binding assays-exemplarily demonstrated for a pseudostatic library addressing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter 1 (GAT1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindelar, Miriam; Wanner, Klaus T

    2012-09-01

    In the present study, the application of mass spectrometry (MS) binding assays as a tool for library screening is reported. For library generation, dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC) was used. These libraries can be screened by means of MS binding assays when appropriate measures are taken to render the libraries pseudostatic. That way, the efficiency of MS binding assays to determine ligand binding in compound screening with the ease of library generation by DCC is combined. The feasibility of this approach is shown for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter 1 (GAT1) as a target, representing the most important subtype of the GABA transporters. For the screening, hydrazone libraries were employed that were generated in the presence of the target by reacting various sets of aldehydes with a hydrazine derivative that is delineated from piperidine-3-carboxylic acid (nipecotic acid), a common fragment of known GAT1 inhibitors. To ensure that the library generated is pseudostatic, a large excess of the nipecotic acid derivative is employed. As the library is generated in a buffer system suitable for binding and the target is already present, the mixtures can be directly analyzed by MS binding assays-the process of library generation and screening thus becoming simple to perform. The binding affinities of the hits identified by deconvolution were confirmed in conventional competitive MS binding assays performed with single compounds obtained by separate synthesis. In this way, two nipecotic acid derivatives exhibiting a biaryl moiety, 1-{2-[2'-(1,1'-biphenyl-2-ylmethylidene)hydrazine]ethyl}piperidine-3-carboxylic acid and 1-(2-{2'-[1-(2-thiophenylphenyl)methylidene]hydrazine}ethyl)piperidine-3-carboxylic acid, were found to be potent GAT1 ligands exhibiting pK(i) values of 6.186 ± 0.028 and 6.229 ± 0.039, respectively. This method enables screening of libraries, whether generated by conventional chemistry or DCC, and is applicable to all kinds of targets including

  2. Interactive effects of glutamine and gamma-aminobutyric acid on growth performance and skeletal muscle amino acid metabolism of 22-42-day-old broilers exposed to hot environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hong; Bai, Xi; Shah, Assar Ali; Dai, Sifa; Wang, Like; Hua, Jinling; Che, Chuanyan; He, Shaojun; Wen, Aiyou; Jiang, Jinpeng

    2016-06-01

    The present experiment was conducted to investigate the interactive effects between dietary glutamine (Gln, 0 and 5 g/kg) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 0 and 100 mg/kg) on growth performance and amino acid (AA) metabolism of broilers under hot environment. A total of 360 22-day-old Arbor Acres male chickens were randomly assigned to five treatment groups under thermoneutral chamber (PC, 23 °C) and cyclic heat stress (HS, 30-34 °C cycling) conditions. Compared with the PC group, cyclic HS decreased ( P glutamine synthetase (GS) and gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T) at 28, 35, and 42 days. Dietary Gln and GABA improved ( P < 0.05) DWG and DFC of broilers under cyclic HS during 28-42 days. In breast muscle, the Gln supplementation increased ( P < 0.05) the concentrations of Gln (28, 35, and 42 days), Glu (28, 35, and 42 days), and GABA (42 days) and the activities of glutaminase (28, 35, and 42 days) and GAD (28, 35, and 42 days) but decreased ( P < 0.05) GS activities at 28, 35, and 42 days and GABA-T activities at 28 days. The addition of GABA increased ( P < 0.05) the concentrations of Gln and Glu and activities of glutaminase and GAD, while it decreased ( P < 0.05) GABA-T activities at 28, 35, and 42 days. Significant interactions ( P < 0.05) between Gln and GABA were found on breast skeletal muscle Gln concentrations, glutaminase activities, GS activities at 28 and 35 days, and DWG, GABA concentrations, and GABA-T activities at 28, 35, and 42 days in broilers under cyclic HS. In conclusion, the present results indicated that the interactions of exogenous Gln and GABA could offer a potential nutritional strategy to prevent HS-related depression in skeletal muscle Gln and GABA metabolism of broilers.

  3. Oral treatment with γ-aminobutyric acid improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity by inhibiting inflammation in high fat diet-fed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jide Tian

    Full Text Available Adipocyte and β-cell dysfunction and macrophage-related chronic inflammation are critical for the development of obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which can be negatively regulated by Tregs. Our previous studies and those of others have shown that activation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA receptors inhibits inflammation in mice. However, whether GABA could modulate high fat diet (HFD-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance has not been explored. Here, we show that although oral treatment with GABA does not affect water and food consumption it inhibits the HFD-induced gain in body weights in C57BL/6 mice. Furthermore, oral treatment with GABA significantly reduced the concentrations of fasting blood glucose, and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in the HFD-fed mice. More importantly, after the onset of obesity and T2DM, oral treatment with GABA inhibited the continual HFD-induced gain in body weights, reduced the concentrations of fasting blood glucose and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in mice. In addition, oral treatment with GABA reduced the epididymal fat mass, adipocyte size, and the frequency of macrophage infiltrates in the adipose tissues of HFD-fed mice. Notably, oral treatment with GABA significantly increased the frequency of CD4(+Foxp3(+ Tregs in mice. Collectively, our data indicated that activation of peripheral GABA receptors inhibited the HFD-induced glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and obesity by inhibiting obesity-related inflammation and up-regulating Treg responses in vivo. Given that GABA is safe for human consumption, activators of GABA receptors may be valuable for the prevention of obesity and intervention of T2DM in the clinic.

  4. Colocalization of gamma-aminobutyric acid and acetylcholine in neurons in the laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei in the cat: a light and electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hong-Ge; Yamuy, Jack; Sampogna, Sharon; Morales, Francisco R; Chase, Michael H

    2003-12-01

    Cholinergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) mechanisms in the dorsolateral pontomesencephalic tegmentum have been implicated in the control of active (REM) sleep and wakefulness. To determine the relationships between neurons that contain these neurotransmitters in this region of the brainstem in adult cats, combined light and electron microscopic immunocytochemical procedures were employed. Light microscopic analyses revealed that choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and GABA immunoreactive neurons were distributed throughout the laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei (LDT and PPT). Surprisingly, approximately 50% of the ChAT immunoreactive neurons in these nuclei also contained GABA. Using electron microscopic pre-embedding immunocytochemistry, GABA immunoreactivity was observed in somas, dendrites and axon terminals in both the LDT and PPT. Most of the GABA immunoreactive terminals formed symmetrical synapses with non-immunolabeled dendrites. Electron microscopic double-immunolabeling techniques revealed that ChAT and GABA were colocalized in axon terminals in the LDT/PPT. Approximately 30% of the ChAT immunoreactive terminals were also GABA immunoreactive, whereas only 6-8% of the GABA immunoreactive terminals were ChAT immunoreactive. Most of the ChAT/GABA immunoreactive terminals formed symmetrical synapses with non-immunolabeled dendrites; however, ChAT/GABA immunoreactive terminals were also observed that contacted ChAT immunoreactive dendrites. With respect to ChAT immunoreactive postsynaptic profiles, approximately 40% of the somas and 50% of the dendrites received synaptic contact from GABA immunoreactive terminals in both the LDT and PPT. These findings (a) indicate that there are fundamental interactions between cholinergic and GABAergic neurons within the LDT/PPT that play an important role in the control of active sleep and wakefulness and (b) provide an anatomical basis for the intriguing possibility that a mechanism of acetylcholine and

  5. Quantification of induced resistance against Phytophthora species expressing GFP as a vital marker: beta-aminobutyric acid but not BTH protects potato and Arabidopsis from infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si-Ammour, Azeddine; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Mauch, Felix

    2003-07-01

    SUMMARY Induced resistance was studied in the model pathosystem Arabidopsis-Phytophthora brassicae (formerly P. porri) in comparison with the agronomically important late blight disease of potato caused by Phytophthora infestans. For the quantification of disease progress, both Phytophthora species were transformed with the vector p34GFN carrying the selectable marker gene neomycine phosphotransferase (nptII) and the reporter gene green fluorescent protein (gfp). Eighty five per cent of the transformants of P. brassicae and P. infestans constitutively expressed GFP at high levels at all developmental stages both in vitro and in planta. Transformants with high GFP expression and normal in vitro growth and virulence were selected to quantify pathogen growth by measuring the in planta emitted GFP fluorescence. This non-destructive monitoring of the infection process was applied to analyse the efficacy of two chemical inducers of disease resistance, a functional SA-analogue, benzothiadiazole (BTH), and beta-aminobutyric acid (BABA) which is involved in priming mechanisms of unknown nature. BABA pre-treatment (300 microm) via soil drench applied 24 h before inoculation completely protected the susceptible Arabidopsis accession Landsberg erecta (Ler) from infection with P. brassicae. A similar treatment with BTH (330 microm) did not induce resistance. Spraying the susceptible potato cultivar Bintje with BABA (1 mm) 2 days before inoculation resulted in a phenocopy of the incompatible interaction shown by the resistant potato cultivar Matilda while BTH (1.5 mm) did not protect Bintje from severe infection. Thus, in both pathosystems, the mechanisms of induced resistance appeared to be similar, suggesting that the Arabidopsis-P. brassicae pathosystem is a promising model for the molecular analysis of induced resistance mechanisms of potato against the late blight disease.

  6. Bipotential precursors of putative fibrous astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in rat cerebellar cultures express distinct surface features and neuron-like γ-aminobutyric acid transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When postnatal rat cerebellar cells were cultured in a chemically defined, serum-free medium, the only type of astrocyte present was unable to accumulate γ-[3H]aminobutyric acid (GABA), did not express surface antigens recognized by two monoclonal antibodies, A2B5 and LB1, and showed minimal proliferation. In these cultures, nonneuronal A2B5+, LB1+ stellate cells exhibiting neuron-like [3H]GABA uptake formed cell colonies of increasing size and were GFAP-. After about one week of culturing, the A2B5+, LB1+, GABA-uptake positive cell groups became galactocerebroside (GalCer) positive. Immunocytolysis of the A2B5+ cells at 3 and 4 days in vitro prevented the appearance of the A2B5+, LB1+, GABA-uptake positive cell colonies, and also of the GalCer+ cell groups. If 10% (vol/vol) fetal calf serum was added to 6-day cultures, the A2B5+, LB1+, GABA-uptake positive cell groups expressed GFAP and not GalCer. If the serum was added to the cultures 2 days after lysing the A2B5+ cells, only A2B5-, LB1-, GABA-uptake negative astrocytes proliferated. It is concluded that the putative fibrous astrocytes previously described in serum-containing cultures derive from bipotential precursors that differentiate into oligodendrocytes (GalCer+) in serum-free medium or into astrocytes (GFAP+) in the presence of serum, while the epithelioid A2B5-, LB1-, GABA-uptake negative astrocytes originate from a different precursor not yet identified

  7. Co-existence of calcium-binding proteins and γ-aminobutyric acid or glycine in neurons of the rat medullary dorsal horn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文; 武胜昔; 李云庆

    2004-01-01

    Background We investigated the co-expression of calbindin-D28k (CB), calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV, a combination of the three is referred to as CaBPs) with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or glycine in neurons of the rat medullary dorsal horn (MDH).Methods Immunofluorescence histochemical double-staining for CaBPs and GABA or glycine was performed on the sections from rat MDH.Results CB-, CR-, PV-, GABA- and glycine-like immunoreactive (LI) neurons were differentially observed in all layers of the MDH, but particularly in lamina Ⅱ. Neurons that exhibited immunoreactivity for both CaBPs and GABA or glycine were also observed mainly in lamina Ⅱ. A few of them were found in laminae I and III. The percentages of neurons which co-expressed CB/GABA or CB/glycine out of the total numbers of CB- and GABA-LI neurons or CB- and glycine-LI neurons were 5.3% and 12.1% or 4.1% and 10.0%, respectively. The ratios of CR/GABA or CR/glycine co-existing neurons out of the total numbers of CR- and GABA-LI neurons or CR- and glycine-LI neurons were 5.8% and 7.6% or 4.4% and 7.1%, respectively. The rates of PV/GABA or PV/glycine co-localized neurons out of the total numbers of PV- and GABA-LI neurons or PV- and glycine-LI neurons were 11.1% and 5.1% or 9.9% and 5.1%, respectively. Conclusion The results indicate that some neurons in the MDH contain both CaBPs and GABA or glycine.

  8. Modulation of the release of norepinephrine by gamma-aminobutyric acid and morphine in the frontal cerebral cortex of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peoples, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Agents that enhance gamma-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, neurotransmission modulate certain effects of opioids, such as analgesia. Opioid analgesia is mediated in part by norepinephrine in the forebrain. In this study, the interactions between morphine and GABAergic agents on release of ({sup 3}H) norepinephrine from rat frontal cerebral cortical slices were examined. GABA, 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}-10{sup {minus}3} M, enhanced potassium stimulated ({sup 3}H) norepinephrine release and reversed the inhibitory effect of morphine in a noncompetitive manner. GABA did not enhance release of ({sup 3}H) norepinephrine stimulated by the calcium ionophore A23187. The effect of GABA was reduced by the GABA{sub A} receptor antagonists bicuculline methiodide or picrotoxin, and by the selective inhibitor of GABA uptake SKF 89976A, but was blocked completely only when bicuculline methiodide and SKF 89976A were used in combination. The GABA{sub A} agonist muscimol, 10{sup {minus}4} M, mimicked the effect of GABA, but the GABA{sub B} agonist ({plus minus})baclofen, 10{sup {minus}4} M, did not affect the release of ({sup 3}H) norepinephrine in the absence or the presence of morphine. Thus GABA appears to produce this effect by stimulating GABA uptake and GABA{sub A}, but not GABA{sub B}, receptors. In contrast to the results that would be predicted for an event involving GABA{sub A} receptors, however, the effect of GABA did not desensitize, and benzodiazepine agonists did not enhance the effect of GABA at any concentration tested between 10{sup {minus}8} and 10{sup {minus}4} M. Thus these receptors may constitute a subclass of GABA{sub A} receptors. These results support a role of GABA uptake and GABA{sub A} receptors in enhancing the release of norepinephrine and modulating its inhibition by opioids in the frontal cortex of the rat.

  9. Modulation of the release of norepinephrine by gamma-aminobutyric acid and morphine in the frontal cerebral cortex of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agents that enhance gamma-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, neurotransmission modulate certain effects of opioids, such as analgesia. Opioid analgesia is mediated in part by norepinephrine in the forebrain. In this study, the interactions between morphine and GABAergic agents on release of [3H] norepinephrine from rat frontal cerebral cortical slices were examined. GABA, 5 x 10-5-10-3 M, enhanced potassium stimulated [3H] norepinephrine release and reversed the inhibitory effect of morphine in a noncompetitive manner. GABA did not enhance release of [3H] norepinephrine stimulated by the calcium ionophore A23187. The effect of GABA was reduced by the GABAA receptor antagonists bicuculline methiodide or picrotoxin, and by the selective inhibitor of GABA uptake SKF 89976A, but was blocked completely only when bicuculline methiodide and SKF 89976A were used in combination. The GABAA agonist muscimol, 10-4 M, mimicked the effect of GABA, but the GABAB agonist (±)baclofen, 10-4 M, did not affect the release of [3H] norepinephrine in the absence or the presence of morphine. Thus GABA appears to produce this effect by stimulating GABA uptake and GABAA, but not GABAB, receptors. In contrast to the results that would be predicted for an event involving GABAA receptors, however, the effect of GABA did not desensitize, and benzodiazepine agonists did not enhance the effect of GABA at any concentration tested between 10-8 and 10-4 M. Thus these receptors may constitute a subclass of GABAA receptors. These results support a role of GABA uptake and GABAA receptors in enhancing the release of norepinephrine and modulating its inhibition by opioids in the frontal cortex of the rat

  10. A Two-stage pH and Temperature Control with Substrate Feeding Strategy for Production of Gamma-aminobutyric Acid by Lactobacillus brevis CGMCC 1306

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭春龙; 黄俊; 胡升; 赵伟睿; 姚善泾; 梅乐和

    2013-01-01

    Methods to optimize the production of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by Lactobacillus brevis CGMCC 1306 were investigated. Results indicated that cell growth was maximal at pH 5.0, while pH 4.5 was pref-erable to GABA formation. The optimal temperature for cell growth (35 °C) was lower than that for GABA forma-tion (40 °C). In a two-stage pH and temperature control fermentation, cultures were maintained at pH 5.0 and 35 °C for 32 h, then adjusted to pH 4.5 and 40 °C, GABA production increased remarkably and reached 474.79 mmol·L-1 at 72 h, while it was 398.63 mmol·L-1 with one stage pH and temperature control process, in which cultivation con-ditions were constantly controlled at pH 5.0 and 35 °C. In order to avoid the inhibition of cell growth at higher L-monosodium glutamate (L-MSG) concentrations, the two-stage control fermentation with substrate feeding strat-egy was applied to GABA production, with 106.87 mmol (20 g) L-MSG supplemented into the shaking-flask at 32 h and 56 h post-inoculation separately. The GABA concentration reached 526.33 mmol·L-1 at 72 h with the fer-mentation volume increased by 38%. These results will provide primary data to realize large-scale production of GABA by L. brevis CGMCC 1306.

  11. Attenuation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transaminase activity contributes to GABA increase in the cerebral cortex of mice exposed to β-cypermethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Y; Cao, D; Li, X; Zhang, R; Yu, F; Ren, Y; An, L

    2014-03-01

    The current study investigated the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels and GABA metabolic enzymes (GABA transaminase (GABA(T)) and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD)) activities at 2 and 4 h after treatment, using a high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detectors and colorimetric assay, in the cerebral cortex of mice treated with 20, 40 or 80 mg/kg β-cypermethrin by a single oral gavage, with corn oil as vehicle control. In addition, GABA protein (4 h after treatment), GABA(T) protein (2 h after treatment) and GABA receptors messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were detected by immunohistochemistry, Western blot and real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, respectively. β-Cypermethrin (80 mg/kg) significantly increased GABA levels in the cerebral cortex of mice, at both 2 and 4 h after treatment, compared with the control. Also, GABA immunohistochemistry results suggested that the number of positive granules was increased in the cerebral cortex of mice 4 h after exposure to 80 mg/kg β-cypermethrin when compared with the control. Furthermore, the results also showed that GABA(T) activity detected was significantly decreased in the cerebral cortex of mice 2 h after β-cypermethrin administration (40 or 80 mg/kg). No significant changes were found in GAD activity, or the expression of GABA(T) protein and GABAB receptors mRNA, in the cerebral cortex of mice, except that 80 mg/kg β-cypermethrin caused a significant decrease, compared with the vehicle control, in GABAA receptors mRNA expression 4 h after administration. These results suggested that attenuated GABA(T) activity induced by β-cypermethrin contributed to increased GABA levels in the mouse brain. The downregulated GABAA receptors mRNA expression is most likely a downstream event.

  12. Suppression of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transaminases induces prominent GABA accumulation, dwarfism and infertility in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Satoshi; Matsukura, Chiaki; Takayama, Mariko; Asamizu, Erika; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2013-05-01

    Tomatoes accumulate γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at high levels in the immature fruits. GABA is rapidly converted to succinate during fruit ripening through the activities of GABA transaminase (GABA-T) and succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH). Although three genes encoding GABA-T and both pyruvate- and α-ketoglutarate-dependent GABA-T activities have been detected in tomato fruits, the mechanism underlying the GABA-T-mediated conversion of GABA has not been fully understood. In this work, we conducted loss-of-function analyses utilizing RNA interference (RNAi) transgenic plants with suppressed pyruvate- and glyoxylate-dependent GABA-T gene expression to clarify which GABA-T isoforms are essential for its function. The RNAi plants with suppressed SlGABA-T gene expression, particularly SlGABA-T1, showed severe dwarfism and infertility. SlGABA-T1 expression was inversely associated with GABA levels in the fruit at the red ripe stage. The GABA contents in 35S::SlGABA-T1(RNAi) lines were 1.3-2.0 times and 6.8-9.2 times higher in mature green and red ripe fruits, respectively, than the contents in wild-type fruits. In addition, SlGABA-T1 expression was strongly suppressed in the GABA-accumulating lines. These results indicate that pyruvate- and glyoxylate-dependent GABA-T is the essential isoform for GABA metabolism in tomato plants and that GABA-T1 primarily contributes to GABA reduction in the ripening fruits.

  13. Stoichiometry of expressed alpha(4)beta(2)delta gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors depends on the ratio of subunit cDNA transfected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Kelly R; Czajkowski, Cynthia

    2010-05-01

    The gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABA(A)R) is the target of many depressants, including benzodiazepines, anesthetics, and alcohol. Although the highly prevalent alphabetagamma GABA(A)R subtype mediates the majority of fast synaptic inhibition in the brain, receptors containing delta subunits also play a key role, mediating tonic inhibition and the actions of endogenous neurosteroids and alcohol. However, the fundamental properties of delta-containing GABA(A)Rs, such as subunit stoichiometry, are not well established. To determine subunit stoichiometry of expressed delta-containing GABA(A)Rs, we inserted the alpha-bungarotoxin binding site tag in the alpha(4), beta(2), and delta subunit N termini. An enhanced green fluorescent protein tag was also inserted into the beta(2) subunit to shift its molecular weight, allowing us to separate subunits using SDS-PAGE. Tagged alpha(4)beta(2)delta GABA(A)Rs were expressed in HEK293T cells using various ratios of subunit cDNA, and receptor subunit stoichiometry was determined by quantitating fluorescent alpha-bungarotoxin bound to each subunit on Western blots of surface immunopurified tagged GABA(A)Rs. The results demonstrate that the subunit stoichiometry of alpha(4)beta(2)delta GABA(A)Rs is regulated by the ratio of subunit cDNAs transfected. Increasing the ratio of delta subunit cDNA transfected increased delta subunit incorporation into surface receptors with a concomitant decrease in beta(2) subunit incorporation. Because receptor subunit stoichiometry can directly influence GABA(A)R pharmacological and functional properties, considering how the transfection protocols used affect subunit stoichiometry is essential when studying heterologously expressed alpha(4)beta(2)delta GABA(A)Rs. Successful bungarotoxin binding site tagging of GABA(A)R subunits is a novel tool with which to accurately quantitate subunit stoichiometry and will be useful for monitoring GABA(A)R trafficking in live cells.

  14. Positive regulation by γ-aminobutyric acid B receptor subunit-1 of chondrogenesis through acceleration of nuclear translocation of activating transcription factor-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Yoshifumi; Hinoi, Eiichi; Takarada, Takeshi; Nakamura, Yukari; Ogawa, Shinya; Yoneda, Yukio

    2012-09-28

    A view that signaling machineries for the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are functionally expressed by cells outside the central nervous system is now prevailing. In this study, we attempted to demonstrate functional expression of GABAergic signaling molecules by chondrocytes. In cultured murine costal chondrocytes, mRNA was constitutively expressed for metabotropic GABA(B) receptor subunit-1 (GABA(B)R1), but not for GABA(B)R2. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the predominant expression of GABA(B)R1 by prehypertrophic to hypertrophic chondrocytes in tibial sections of newborn mice. The GABA(B)R agonist baclofen failed to significantly affect chondrocytic differentiation determined by Alcian blue staining and alkaline phosphatase activity in cultured chondrocytes, whereas newborn mice knocked out of GABA(B)R1 (KO) showed a decreased body size and delayed calcification in hyoid bone and forelimb and hindlimb digits. Delayed calcification was also seen in cultured metatarsals from KO mice with a marked reduction of Indian hedgehog gene (Ihh) expression. Introduction of GABA(B)R1 led to synergistic promotion of the transcriptional activity of activating transcription factor-4 (ATF4) essential for normal chondrogenesis, in addition to facilitating ATF4-dependent Ihh promoter activation. Although immunoreactive ATF4 was negligibly detected in the nucleus of chondrocytes from KO mice, ATF4 expression was again seen in the nucleus and cytoplasm after the retroviral introduction of GABA(B)R1 into cultured chondrocytes from KO mice. In nuclear extracts of KO chondrocytes, a marked decrease was seen in ATF4 DNA binding. These results suggest that GABA(B)R1 positively regulates chondrogenesis through a mechanism relevant to the acceleration of nuclear translocation of ATF4 for Ihh expression in chondrocytes. PMID:22879594

  15. Dual orexin receptor antagonists show distinct effects on locomotor performance, ethanol interaction and sleep architecture relative to gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres D. Ramirez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs are a potential treatment for insomnia that function by blocking both the orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptors. The objective of the current study was to further confirm the impact of therapeutic mechanisms targeting insomnia on locomotor coordination and ethanol interaction using DORAs and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA-A receptor modulators of distinct chemical structure and pharmacologic properties in the context of sleep-promoting potential. The current study compared rat motor co-ordination after administration of DORAs, DORA-12 and almorexant, and GABA-A receptor modulators, zolpidem, eszopiclone and diazepam, alone or each in combination with ethanol. Motor performance was assessed by measuring time spent walking on a rotarod apparatus. Zolpidem, eszopiclone and diazepam (0.3–30 mg/kg administered orally [PO] impaired rotarod performance in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, all three GABA-A receptor modulators potentiated ethanol- (0.25–1.25 g/kg induced impairment on the rotarod. By contrast, neither DORA-12 (10–100 mg/kg, PO nor almorexant (30–300 mg/kg, PO impaired motor performance alone or in combination with ethanol. In addition, distinct differences in sleep architecture were observed between ethanol, GABA-A receptor modulators (zolpidem, eszopiclone and diazepam and DORA-12 in electroencephalogram studies in rats. These findings provide further evidence that orexin receptor antagonists have an improved motor side-effect profile compared with currently available sleep-promoting agents based on preclinical data and strengthen the rationale for further evaluation of these agents in clinical development.

  16. Relationship of γ-aminobutyric acid and glutamate+glutamine concentrations in the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex with performance of Cambridge Gambling Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, Kazuyuki; Narita, Kosuke; Suzuki, Yusuke; Takei, Yuichi; Suda, Masashi; Tagawa, Minami; Ujita, Koichi; Sakai, Yuki; Narumoto, Jin; Near, Jamie; Fukuda, Masato

    2015-04-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), consisting of the perigenual ACC (pgACC) and mid-ACC (i.e., affective and cognitive areas, respectively), plays a significant role in the performance of gambling tasks, which are used to measure decision-making behavior under conditions of risk. Although recent neuroimaging studies have suggested that the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration in the pgACC is associated with decision-making behavior, knowledge regarding the relationship of GABA concentrations in subdivisions of the ACC with gambling task performance is still limited. The aim of our magnetic resonance spectroscopy study is to investigate in 20 healthy males the relationship of concentrations of GABA and glutamate+glutamine (Glx) in the pgACC, mid-ACC, and occipital cortex (OC) with multiple indexes of decision-making behavior under conditions of risk, using the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT). The GABA/creatine (Cr) ratio in the pgACC negatively correlated with delay aversion score, which corresponds to the impulsivity index. The Glx/Cr ratio in the pgACC negatively correlated with risk adjustment score, which is reported to reflect the ability to change the amount of the bet depending on the probability of winning or losing. The scores of CGT did not significantly correlate with the GABA/Cr or Glx/Cr ratio in the mid-ACC or OC. Results of this study suggest that in the pgACC, but not in the mid-ACC or OC, GABA and Glx concentrations play a distinct role in regulating impulsiveness and risk probability during decision-making behavior under conditions of risk, respectively.

  17. Mutations in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transaminase genes in plants or Pseudomonas syringae reduce bacterial virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Duck Hwan; Mirabella, Rossana; Bronstein, Philip A; Preston, Gail M; Haring, Michel A; Lim, Chun Keun; Collmer, Alan; Schuurink, Robert C

    2010-10-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 is a bacterial pathogen of Arabidopsis and tomato that grows in the apoplast. The non-protein amino acid γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) is produced by Arabidopsis and tomato and is the most abundant amino acid in the apoplastic fluid of tomato. The DC3000 genome harbors three genes annotated as gabT GABA transaminases. A DC3000 mutant lacking all three gabT genes was constructed and found to be unable to utilize GABA as a sole carbon and nitrogen source. In complete minimal media supplemented with GABA, the mutant grew less well than wild-type DC3000 and showed strongly reduced expression of hrpL and avrPto, which encode an alternative sigma factor and effector, respectively, associated with the type III secretion system. The growth of the gabT triple mutant was weakly reduced in Arabidopsis ecotype Landberg erecta (Ler) and strongly reduced in the Ler pop2-1 GABA transaminase-deficient mutant that accumulates higher levels of GABA. Much of the ability to grow on GABA-amended minimal media or in Arabidopsis pop2-1 leaves could be restored to the gabT triple mutant by expression in trans of just gabT2. The ability of DC3000 to elicit the hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco leaves is dependent upon deployment of the type III secretion system, and the gabT triple mutant was less able than wild-type DC3000 to elicit this HR when bacteria were infiltrated along with GABA at levels of 1 mm or more. GABA may have multiple effects on P. syringae-plant interactions, with elevated levels increasing disease resistance.

  18. Activation of γ-aminobutyric Acid (A) Receptor Protects Hippocampus from Intense Exercise-induced Synapses Damage and Apoptosis in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Ding; Lan Xie; Cun-Qing Chang; Zhi-Min Chen; Hua Ai

    2015-01-01

    Background:Our previous study has confirmed that one bout of exhaustion (Ex) can cause hippocampus neurocyte damage,excessive apoptosis,and dysfunction.Its initial reason is intracellular calcium overload in hippocampus triggered by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) over-activation.NMDAR activation can be suppressed by γ-aminobutyric acid (A) receptor (GABAAR).Whether GABAAR can prevent intense exercise-induced hippocampus apoptosis,damage,or dysfunction will be studied in this study.Methods:According to dose test,rats were randomly divided into control (Con),Ex,muscimol (MUS,0.l mg/kg) and bicuculline (BIC,0.5 mg/kg) groups,then all rats underwent once swimming Ex except ones in Con group only underwent training.Intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was measured by Fura-2-acetoxymethyl ester;glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and synaptophysin (SYP) immunofluorescence were also performed;apoptosis were displayed by dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) stain;endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis pathway was detected by Western blotting analysis;Morris water maze was used to detect learning ability and spatial memory.Results:The appropriate dose was 0.1 mg/kg for MUS and 0.5 mg/kg for BIC.Ex group showed significantly increased [Ca2+]i and astrogliosis;TUNEL positive cells and levels of GFAP,B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) associated X protein (Bax),caspase-3,caspase-12 cleavage,CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP),and p-Jun amino-terminal kinase (p-JNK) in Ex group also raised significantly compared to Con group,while SYP,synapse plasticity,and Bcl-2 levels in Ex group were significantly lower than those in Con group.These indexes were back to normal in MUS group.BIC group had the highest levels of [Ca2+]i,astrogliosis,TUNEL positive cell,GFAP,Bax,caspase-3,caspase-12 cleavage,CHOP,and p-JNK,it also gained the lowest SYP,synapse plasticity,and Bcl-2 levels among all groups.Water maze test showed that Ex group had longer

  19. Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing affects trafficking of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Chammiran; Wahlstedt, Helene; Ohlson, Johan; Björk, Petra; Ohman, Marie

    2011-01-21

    Recoding by adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing plays an important role in diversifying proteins involved in neurotransmission. We have previously shown that the Gabra-3 transcript, coding for the α3 subunit of the GABA(A) receptor is edited in mouse, causing an isoleucine to methionine (I/M) change. Here we show that this editing event is evolutionarily conserved from human to chicken. Analyzing recombinant GABA(A) receptor subunits expressed in HEK293 cells, our results suggest that editing at the I/M site in α3 has functional consequences on receptor expression. We demonstrate that I/M editing reduces the cell surface and the total number of α3 subunits. The reduction in cell surface levels is independent of the subunit combination as it is observed for α3 in combination with either the β2 or the β3 subunit. Further, an amino acid substitution at the corresponding I/M site in the α1 subunit has a similar effect on cell surface presentation, indicating the importance of this site for receptor trafficking. We show that the I/M editing during brain development is inversely related to the α3 protein abundance. Our results suggest that editing controls trafficking of α3-containing receptors and may therefore facilitate the switch of subunit compositions during development as well as the subcellular distribution of α subunits in the adult brain. PMID:21030585

  20. Adenosine-to-Inosine RNA Editing Affects Trafficking of the γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A (GABAA) Receptor*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Chammiran; Wahlstedt, Helene; Ohlson, Johan; Björk, Petra; Öhman, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Recoding by adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing plays an important role in diversifying proteins involved in neurotransmission. We have previously shown that the Gabra-3 transcript, coding for the α3 subunit of the GABAA receptor is edited in mouse, causing an isoleucine to methionine (I/M) change. Here we show that this editing event is evolutionarily conserved from human to chicken. Analyzing recombinant GABAA receptor subunits expressed in HEK293 cells, our results suggest that editing at the I/M site in α3 has functional consequences on receptor expression. We demonstrate that I/M editing reduces the cell surface and the total number of α3 subunits. The reduction in cell surface levels is independent of the subunit combination as it is observed for α3 in combination with either the β2 or the β3 subunit. Further, an amino acid substitution at the corresponding I/M site in the α1 subunit has a similar effect on cell surface presentation, indicating the importance of this site for receptor trafficking. We show that the I/M editing during brain development is inversely related to the α3 protein abundance. Our results suggest that editing controls trafficking of α3-containing receptors and may therefore facilitate the switch of subunit compositions during development as well as the subcellular distribution of α subunits in the adult brain. PMID:21030585

  1. Rescue of deficient amygdala tonic γ-aminobutyric acidergic currents in the Fmr(-/y) mouse model of fragile X syndrome by a novel γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor-positive allosteric modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brandon S; Martinez-Botella, Gabriel; Loya, Carlos M; Salituro, Francesco G; Robichaud, Albert J; Huntsman, Molly M; Ackley, Mike A; Doherty, James J; Corbin, Joshua G

    2016-06-01

    Alterations in the ratio of excitatory to inhibitory transmission are emerging as a common component of many nervous system disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Tonic γ-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) transmission provided by peri- and extrasynaptic GABA type A (GABAA ) receptors powerfully controls neuronal excitability and plasticity and, therefore, provides a rational therapeutic target for normalizing hyperexcitable networks across a variety of disorders, including ASDs. Our previous studies revealed tonic GABAergic deficits in principal excitatory neurons in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in the Fmr1(-/y) knockout (KO) mouse model fragile X syndrome. To correct amygdala deficits in tonic GABAergic neurotransmission in Fmr1(-/y) KO mice, we developed a novel positive allosteric modulator of GABAA receptors, SGE-872, based on endogenously active neurosteroids. This study shows that SGE-872 is nearly as potent and twice as efficacious for positively modulating GABAA receptors as its parent molecule, allopregnanolone. Furthermore, at submicromolar concentrations (≤1 μM), SGE-872 is selective for tonic, extrasynaptic α4β3δ-containing GABAA receptors over typical synaptic α1β2γ2 receptors. We further find that SGE-872 strikingly rescues the tonic GABAergic transmission deficit in principal excitatory neurons in the Fmr1(-/y) KO BLA, a structure heavily implicated in the neuropathology of ASDs. Therefore, the potent and selective action of SGE-872 on tonic GABAA receptors containing α4 subunits may represent a novel and highly useful therapeutic avenue for ASDs and related disorders involving hyperexcitability of neuronal networks. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26308557

  2. Structural model for gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor noncompetitive antagonist binding: widely diverse structures fit the same site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ligong; Durkin, Kathleen A; Casida, John E

    2006-03-28

    Several major insecticides, including alpha-endosulfan, lindane, and fipronil, and the botanical picrotoxinin are noncompetitive antagonists (NCAs) for the GABA receptor. We showed earlier that human beta(3) homopentameric GABA(A) receptor recognizes all of the important GABAergic insecticides and reproduces the high insecticide sensitivity and structure-activity relationships of the native insect receptor. Despite large structural diversity, the NCAs are proposed to fit a single binding site in the chloride channel lumen lined by five transmembrane 2 segments. This hypothesis is examined with the beta(3) homopentamer by mutagenesis, pore structure studies, NCA binding, and molecular modeling. The 15 amino acids in the cytoplasmic half of the pore were mutated to cysteine, serine, or other residue for 22 mutants overall. Localization of A-1'C, A2'C, T6'C, and L9'C (index numbers for the transmembrane 2 region) in the channel lumen was established by disulfide cross-linking. Binding of two NCA radioligands [(3)H]1-(4-ethynylphenyl)-4-n-propyl-2,6,7-trioxabicyclo[2.2.2]octane and [(3)H] 3,3-bis-trifluoromethyl-bicyclo[2,2,1]heptane-2,2-dicarbonitrile was dramatically reduced with 8 of the 15 mutated positions, focusing attention on A2', T6', and L9' as proposed binding sites, consistent with earlier mutagenesis studies. The cytoplasmic half of the beta3 homopentamer pore was modeled as an alpha-helix. The six NCAs listed above plus t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate fit the 2' to 9' pore region forming hydrogen bonds with the T6' hydroxyl and hydrophobic interactions with A2', T6', and L9' alkyl substituents, thereby blocking the channel. Thus, widely diverse NCA structures fit the same GABA receptor beta subunit site with important implications for insecticide cross-resistance and selective toxicity between insects and mammals.

  3. Effect of Jian-Pi-Zhi-Dong Decoction on striatal glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid levels detected using microdialysis in a rat model of Tourette syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang W

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Wen Zhang,1,* Li Wei,2,* Wenjing Yu,1 Xia Cui,1 Xiaofang Liu,2 Qian Wang,1 Sumei Wang2 1Department of Pediatrics, The Third Affiliated Hospital, 2Department of Pediatrics, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Jian-Pi-Zhi-Dong Decoction (JPZDD is a dedicated treatment of Tourette syndrome (TS. The balance of neurotransmitters in the cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical network is crucial to the occurrence of TS and related to its severity. This study evaluated the effect of JPZDD on glutamate (Glu and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA and their receptors in a TS rat model.Materials and methods: Rats were divided into four groups (n=12 each. TS was induced in three of the groups by injecting them with 3,3'-iminodipropionitrile for 7 consecutive days. Two model groups were treated with tiapride (Tia or JPZDD, while the control and the remaining model group were gavaged with saline. Behavior was assessed by stereotypic score and autonomic activity. Striatal Glu and GABA contents were detected using microdialysis. Expressions of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 and GABAA receptor (GABAAR were observed using Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction.Results: Tia and JPZDD groups had decreased stereotypy compared with model rats; however, the JPZDD group showed a larger decrease in stereotypy than the Tia group at a 4-week time point. In a spontaneous activity test, the total distance of the JPZDD and Tia groups was significantly decreased compared with the model group. The Glu levels of the model group were higher than the control group and decreased with Tia or JPZDD treatment. The GABA level was higher in the model group than the control group. Expressions of GABAAR protein in the model group were higher than in the control group. Treatment with Tia or JPZDD reduced the expression of GABAAR protein. In the case of the m

  4. A phase transition from monoclinic C2 with Z' = 1 to triclinic P1 with Z' = 4 for the quasiracemate L-2-aminobutyric acid-D-methionine (1/1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görbitz, Carl Henrik; Wragg, David S; Bakke, Ingrid Marie Bergh; Fleischer, Christian; Grønnevik, Gaute; Mykland, Maria; Park, Yoomin; Trovik, Kristian Wiedicke; Serigstad, Halvard; Sundsli, Bård Edgar Vestheim

    2016-07-01

    Racemates of hydrophobic amino acids with linear side chains are known to undergo a unique series of solid-state phase transitions that involve sliding of molecular bilayers upon heating or cooling. Recently, this behaviour was shown to extend also to quasiracemates of two different amino acids with opposite handedness [Görbitz & Karen (2015). J. Phys. Chem. B, 119, 4975-4984]. Previous investigations are here extended to an L-2-aminobutyric acid-D-methionine (1/1) co-crystal, C4H9NO2·C5H11NO2S. The significant difference in size between the -CH2CH3 and -CH2CH2SCH3 side chains leads to extensive disorder at room temperature, which is essentially resolved after a phase transition at 229 K to an unprecedented triclinic form where all four D-methionine molecules in the asymmetric unit have different side-chain conformations and all three side-chain rotamers are used for the four partner L-2-aminobutyric acid molecules. PMID:27377274

  5. Genetic manipulation of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt in rice: overexpression of truncated glutamate decarboxylase (GAD2) and knockdown of γ-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T) lead to sustained and high levels of GABA accumulation in rice kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimajiri, Yasuka; Oonishi, Takayuki; Ozaki, Kae; Kainou, Kumiko; Akama, Kazuhito

    2013-06-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid commonly present in all organisms. Because cellular levels of GABA in plants are mainly regulated by synthesis (glutamate decarboxylase, GAD) and catabolism (GABA-transaminase, GABA-T), we attempted seed-specific manipulation of the GABA shunt to achieve stable GABA accumulation in rice. A truncated GAD2 sequence, one of five GAD genes, controlled by the glutelin (GluB-1) or rice embryo globulin promoters (REG) and GABA-T-based trigger sequences in RNA interference (RNAi) cassettes controlled by one of these promoters as well, was introduced into rice (cv. Koshihikari) to establish stable transgenic lines under herbicide selection using pyriminobac. T₁ and T₂ generations of rice lines displayed high GABA concentrations (2-100 mg/100 g grain). In analyses of two selected lines from the T₃ generation, there was a strong correlation between GABA level and the expression of truncated GAD2, whereas the inhibitory effect of GABA-T expression was relatively weak. In these two lines both with two T-DNA copies, their starch, amylose, and protein levels were slightly lower than non-transformed cv. Koshihikari. Free amino acid analysis of mature kernels of these lines demonstrated elevated levels of GABA (75-350 mg/100 g polished rice) and also high levels of several amino acids, such as Ala, Ser, and Val. Because these lines of seeds could sustain their GABA content after harvest (up to 6 months), the strategy in this study could lead to the accumulation GABA and for these to be sustained in the edible parts.

  6. Effect of Functional Bread Rich in Potassium, γ-Aminobutyric Acid and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors on Blood Pressure, Glucose Metabolism and Endothelial Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Tomás, Nerea; Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Quilez, Joan; Merino, Jordi; Ferré, Raimon; Díaz-López, Andrés; Bulló, Mònica; Hernández-Alonso, Pablo; Palau-Galindo, Antoni; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Because it has been suggested that food rich in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) peptides have beneficial effects on blood pressure (BP) and other cardiovascular risk factors, we tested the effects of low-sodium bread, but rich in potassium, GABA, and ACEI peptides on 24-hour BP, glucose metabolism, and endothelial function. A randomized, double-blind, crossover trial was conducted in 30 patients with pre or mild-to-moderate hypertension, comparing three 4-week nutritional interventions separated by 2-week washout periods. Patients were randomly assigned to consume 120 g/day of 1 of the 3 types of bread for each nutritional intervention: conventional wheat bread (CB), low-sodium wheat bread enriched in potassium (LSB), and low-sodium wheat bread rich in potassium, GABA, and ACEI peptides (LSB + G). For each period, 24-hour BP measurements, in vivo endothelial function, and biochemical samples were obtained. After LSB + G consumption, 24-hour ambulatory BP underwent a nonsignificant greater reduction than after the consumption of CB and LSB (0.26 mm Hg in systolic BP and −0.63 mm Hg in diastolic BP for CB; −0.71 mm Hg in systolic BP and −1.08 mm Hg in diastolic BP for LSB; and −0.75 mm Hg in systolic BP and −2.12 mm Hg in diastolic BP for LSB + G, respectively). Diastolic BP at rest decreased significantly during the LSB + G intervention, although there were no significant differences in changes between interventions. There were no significant differences between interventions in terms of changes in in vivo endothelial function, glucose metabolism, and peripheral inflammatory parameters. Compared with the consumption of CB or LSB, no greater beneficial effects on 24-hour BP, endothelial function, or glucose metabolism were demonstrated after the consumption of LSB + G in a population with pre or mild-to-moderate hypertension. Further studies are warranted to clarify the

  7. γ-氨基丁酸受体基因的系统性调控网络%Systematic regulatory network of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云燕; 李中; 陈丹妮; 雷清锋; 何露; 韦睿

    2015-01-01

    提出一种多学科交叉结合的策略,试图初步获得系统性调控γ-氨基丁酸( gamma-aminobutyric acid, GABA)受体基因的转录因子线索。利用基于功能基因组学方法的DNA元件百科全书计划已发表的数据,系统性地获得GABA受体基因的开放染色质序列,并以此作为固相化探针,捕获与其特异性相互作用的蛋白质分子,并利用质谱分析鉴定蛋白。结果发现,对不同脑区获得的核蛋白,探针都能捕获到同样的特异性条带,然而,作为对照的天门冬氨酸( N-methyl-D-aspartate, NMDA)受体基因相关的开放染色质探针,在不同脑区中并未检获上述特异信号,说明结合蛋白是特异的。质谱分析表明,与GABA受体基因相关的开放染色质特异相互作用的蛋白是核膜血影重复蛋白-1( nuclear envelop spectrin repeatprotein-1, Nesprin-1),又称synaptic nuclear envelope-1(SYNE-1)。进一步的调控网络生物信息学分析表明, Nesprin-1可能与MAFA、 IRX2、 BCL6、 CEBPA 以及 RP58等转录因子形成复合物,并与 GABA 受体基因 GABRA5、GABRA6、 GABBR1和GABBR2等共表达。表明GABA受体基因在不同脑区是通过相同的转录调控机制进行表达的, Nesprin-1可能与 MAFA、 IRX2、 BCL6、 CEBPA 以及 RP58等转录因子形成复合物进而调控GABA受体基因表达,该特异的转录因子调控网络有望用于诱导多能干细胞或是前体细胞直接分化为GABA能神经元。%By using a multidisciplinary strategy, we try to systematically find out the transcription factors that regu-late gamma-aminobutyric acid ( GABA) receptor expression. Based on the published data in the encyclopedia of DNA elements ( ENCODE ) , we obtain open chromatin sequences of GABA receptor genes. These sequences are used as solid phase probes to capture the specific proteins that could interact with the sequences directly. The cap-tured protein is identified with mass spectrometry for further regulatory network

  8. Effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid A-receptor antagonist on sleep-wakefulness cycles following lesion to the ventrolateral preoptic area in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Zhang; Yina Sun; Peng Xie; Xuguang Yang; Yiping Hou

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neurons expressing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) play an important role in the regulation of wakefulness to sleep, as well as the maintenance of sleep. However, the role of GABAergic neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMn), with regard to the sleep-wakefulness cycle, is poorly understood.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of GABAergic neurons in the TMn on the sleep-wakefulness cycle.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized controlled study, performed at the Laboratory of Neurobiology, Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University from July 2007 to February 2008.MATERIALS: Fifteen healthy, adult, male, Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups(n = 5): control, ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) lesion, and VLPO lesion plus GABAA receptor antagonist-treated. Ibotenic acid and bicuculline were provided by Sigma (St. Louis, USA). METHODS: Four electroencephalogram screw electrodes were implanted into the skull at a frontal region (two) and parietal bones (two) on each side. Three flexible electromyogram wire electrodes were placed into the nuchal muscles. On day 8, a fine glass micropipette (10-20 mm tip diameter) containing ibotenic acid solution (10 nmol/L) was injected into the VLPO in both hemispheres following bone wax removal under anesthesia. One week after the second surgery, sleep-wakefulness states were recorded in rats from the VLPO lesion group. On day 10 after VLPO lesion, bicuculline (10 nmol/L), a GABAA-receptor antagonist, was microinjected into the TMn and sleep-wakefulness states were recorded for 24 hours.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Duration of the sleep-wakefulness cycle in each group using a Data acquisition unit (Micro1 401 mk2) and Data collection software (Spike Ⅱ). RESULTS: VLPO lesion induced an increased duration of wakefulness (W, 13.17%) and light slow-wave sleep (SWS1, 28.9%), respectively. Deep slow-wave sleep (SWS2, 43.74%) and paradoxical sleep (PS

  9. Gamma-aminobutyric acid and autism spectrum disorders%γ-氨基丁酸与孤独症谱系障碍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 单玲; 杜琳; 贾飞勇; 王伟

    2015-01-01

    孤独症谱系障碍是一组以社会交往、交流障碍和重复刻板性行为为主要特征的疾病,病因尚不明确。近年研究发现在孤独症谱系障碍动物模型中分娩时及生后早期Na+-K+-2Cl-共转运体1(NKCC1)与K+-2Cl-共转运体2(KCC2)的表达时相发生改变,造成海马神经元细胞内氯离子堆积,致使γ-氨基丁酸介导的神经兴奋性与抑制性的转换被破坏。应用 NKCC1抑制剂布美他尼对模型动物母体进行干预后纠正了它们的神经发育顺序,改善了其孤独症样行为,并且已有研究应用布美他尼改善了孤独症患者的症状。故而γ-氨基丁酸信号通路为孤独症谱系障碍发病机制的研究提供了新的方向,可能成为治疗孤独症谱系障碍新的靶点。本文对γ-氨基丁酸与孤独症谱系障碍关系的研究现状作一综述。%Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of diseases characterized by social interaction and communication defects and repeat stereotyped behaviors, and the etiology is not clear now. In recent years, the study found that in the ASD animal model of childbirth and early postnatal the time of expression of Na+-K+-2Cl-transporter 1 (NKCC1) and K+-2Cl- (KCC2) had changed, and the accumulation of chlorine ion neurons within the hippocampus, lead to the conversion of excitatory and inhibitory mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was damaged. Application of bumetanide, as a NKCC1 inhibitor, in animal models’ matrix may correct their neurological development order, improve autistic behaviors. And the existing research by applying bumetanide improved symptoms in patients with ASD. So GABA signaling pathway provides a new direction of the pathogenesis of ASD, may become a new target in the treatment of ASD. In this paper, the research was about the relationship of GABA and ASD.

  10. The γ-aminobutyric acid-producing ability under low pH conditions of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional fermented foods of Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, with a strong ability to produce ACE-inhibitory peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Barla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Many traditional fermented products are onsumed in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, such as kaburazushi, narezushi, konkazuke, and ishiru. Various kinds of lactic acid bacteria (LAB are associated with their fermentation, however, characterization of LAB has not yet been elucidated in detail. In this study, we evaluated 53 isolates of LAB from various traditional fermented foods by taxonomic classification at the species level by analyzing the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA sequences and carbohydrate assimilation abilities. We screened isolates that exhibited high angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activities in skim milk or soy protein media and produced high γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA concentrations in culture supernatants when grown in de Man Rogosa Sharpe broth in the presence of 1% (w/v glutamic acid. The results revealed that 10 isolates, i.e., Lactobacillus buchneri (2 isolates, Lactobacillus brevis (6 isolates, and Weissella hellenica (2 isolates had a high GABA-producing ability of >500 mg/100 ml after 72 h of incubation at 35 °C. The ACE inhibitory activity of the whey cultured with milk protein by using L. brevis (3 isolates, L. buchneri (2 isolates, and W. hellenica (2 isolates was stronger than that of all whey cultured with soy protein media, and these IC50 were < 1 mg protein/ml. Three of 10 isolates had high GABA-producing activities at pH 3, suggesting that they could be powerful candidates for use in the fermentation of food materials having low pH.

  11. Effect of soaking treatment withγ-aminobutyric acid on potato germination%γ-氨基丁酸浸种处理对马铃薯萌发的效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖惠瑗; 朱昌华; 甘立军; 夏凯

    2016-01-01

    以马铃薯克新13号为材料,采用γ-氨基丁酸(0.2~5.0 mmol/L)浸种处理,通过测定种薯淀粉酶活性的变化、淀粉含量、还原糖含量、芽条长度和地上地下部干鲜重等生理指标,研究了γ-氨基丁酸对马铃薯萌发的作用效应。结果表明,γ-氨基丁酸可能通过提高淀粉酶活性,促进淀粉分解,提高还原糖含量,促进幼芽伸长及地上地下部干鲜重等生理指标,促进马铃薯萌发和干物质的积累。当γ-氨基丁酸处理浓度为1.0 mmol/L时,促进萌发效果最佳。%In this study, potato (Kexin No.13) was used as the material to study the effect of soaking application of γ-aminobutyric acid ( from 0.2 to 5.0 mmol/L) on the potato germination .The changes of amylase activity , starch content , reducing sugar content , bud length , fresh and dry weight of shoot and root in seed potatoes were measured and determined in the experiment .The results showed that appropriate amount of γ-aminobutyric acid may improve the germination of potato and dry matter accumulation of buds by elevating the activity of starch enzyme , promoting the decomposition of starch , increasing reducing sugar content , facilitating the plu-mule elongation and improving the dry and fresh weight of shoot and root .γ-aminobutyric acid at the concentration of 1.0 mmol/L showed the optimal effect on potato germination .

  12. Manganese accumulation in membrane fractions of primary astrocytes is associated with decreased γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) uptake, and is exacerbated by oleic acid and palmitate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordahl, Steve C; Erikson, Keith M

    2014-05-01

    Manganese (Mn) exposure interferes with GABA uptake; however, the effects of Mn on GABA transport proteins (GATs) have not been identified. We sought to characterize how Mn impairs GAT function in primary rat astrocytes. Astrocytes exposed to Mn (500 μM) had significantly reduced (3)H-GABA uptake despite no change in membrane or cytosolic GAT3 protein levels. Co-treatment with 100 μM oleic or palmitic acids (both known to be elevated in Mn neurotoxicity), exacerbated the Mn-induced decline in (3)H-GABA uptake. Mn accumulation in the membrane fraction of astrocytes was enhanced with fatty acid administration, and was negatively correlated with (3)H-GABA uptake. Furthermore, control cells exposed to Mn only during the experimental uptake had significantly reduced (3)H-GABA uptake, and the addition of GABA (50 μM) blunted cytosolic Mn accumulation. These data indicate that reduced GAT function in astrocytes is influenced by Mn and fatty acids accumulating at or interacting with the plasma membrane.

  13. γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Production and Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory Activity of Fermented Soybean Containing Sea Tangle by the Co-Culture of Lactobacillus brevis with Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun Kyeong; Kim, Nam Yeun; Ahn, Hyung Jin; Ji, Geun Eog

    2015-08-01

    To enhance the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content, the optimized fermentation of soybean with added sea tangle extract was evaluated at 30°C and pH 5.0. The medium was first inoculated with Aspergillus oryzae strain FMB S46471 and fermented for 3 days, followed by the subsequent inoculation with Lactobacillus brevis GABA 100. After fermentation for 7 days, the fermented soybean showed approximately 1.9 g/kg GABA and exhibited higher ACE inhibitory activity than the traditional soybean product. Furthermore, several peptides in the fraction containing the highest ACE inhibitory activity were identified. The novel fermented soybean enriched with GABA and ACE inhibitory components has great pharmaceutical and functional food values.

  14. 利用发芽糙米制备γ-氨基丁酸低度饮料酒的研究%The Study of Using Germinated Grown Rice Preparation of γ-aminobutyric Acid of Low Alcoholic Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈成; 常洪娟

    2012-01-01

    In this article,firstly,by making brown rice germinate,then germination brown rice and germ peeling corn,sorghum,barley were mixed in proportion to join the drinking water to enter the colloid mill ultrafine powder slurry,after pasting,saccharification,fermentation,refining.The rich gamma-aminobutyric acid,low-grade alcoholic beverage was manufactured.%首先通过糙米进行发芽处理,然后将发芽糙米与脱胚脱皮玉米、高粱、大麦按比例混合后加入饮用水进入胶体磨进行超微粉浆,经过糊化、糖化、发酵、精制后,生产富含γ-氨基丁酸低度饮料酒。

  15. 7T Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid, Glutamate, and Glutamine Reveals Altered Concentrations in Patients With Schizophrenia and Healthy Siblings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thakkar, Katharine N; Rösler, Lara; Wijnen, Jannie P;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction model of schizophrenia predicts dysfunction in both glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) transmission. We addressed this hypothesis by measuring GABA, glutamate, glutamine, and the sum of glutamine plus glutamate...... concentrations in vivo in patients with schizophrenia using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7T, which allows separation of metabolites that would otherwise overlap at lower field strengths. In addition, we investigated whether altered levels of GABA, glutamate, glutamine, and the sum of glutamine plus...... glutamate reflect genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia by including healthy first-degree relatives. METHODS: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7T was performed in 21 patients with chronic schizophrenia who were taking medication, 23 healthy first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia...

  16. Phenotypic consequences of deletion of the {gamma}{sub 3}, {alpha}{sub 5}, or {beta}{sub 3} subunit of the type A {gamma}-aminobutyric acid receptor in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culia, C.T.; Stubbs, L.J.; Montgomery, C.S.; Russell, L.B.; Rinchik, E.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-03-29

    Three genes (Gabrg3, Gabra5, and Gabrb3) encoding the {gamma}{sub 3}, {alpha}{sub 5}, and {beta}{sub 3} subunits of the type A {gamma}-aminobutyric acid receptor, respectively, are known to map near the pink-eyed dilution (p) locus in mouse chromosome 7. This region shares homology with a segment of human chromosome 15 that is implicated in Angelman syndrome, an inherited neurobehavioral disorder. By mapping Gabrg3-Gabra5-Gabrb3-telomere. Like Gabrb3, neither the Gabra5 nor Gabrg3 gene is functionally imprinted in adult mouse brain. Mice deleted for all three subunits die at birth with a cleft palate, although there are rare survivors ({approximately} 5%) that do not have a cleft palate but do exhibit a neurological abnormality characterized by tremor, jerky gait, and runtiness. The authors have previously suggested that deficiency of the {beta}{sub 3} subunit may be responsible for the clefting defect. Most notably, however, in this report they describe mice carrying two overlapping, complementing p deletions that fail to express the {gamma}{sub 3} transcript, as well as mice from another line that express neither the {gamma}{sub 3} nor {alpha}{sub 5} transcripts. Surprisingly, mice from both of these lines are phenotypically normal and do not exhibit any of the neurological symptoms characteristic of the rare survivors that are deleted for all three ({gamma}{sub 3}, {alpha}{sub 5}, and {beta}{sub 3}) subunits. These mice therefore provide a whole-organism type A {gamma}-aminobutyric-acid receptor background that is devoid of any receptor subtypes that normally contain the {gamma}{sub 3} and/or {alpha}{sub 5} subunits. The absence of an overt neurological phenotype in mice lacking the {gamma}{sub 3} and/or {alpha}{sub 5} subunits also suggests that mutations in these genes are unlikely to provide useful animal models for Angelman syndrome in humans.

  17. Studies on Screening and Fermentation Process of Lactic Acid Bacteria Producing γ-aminobutyric Acid%产γ-氨基丁酸乳酸菌的筛选及发酵过程研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周青; 魏春; 应向贤; 章银军; 汪钊

    2011-01-01

    从不同泡菜中筛选到6株产γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)的乳酸菌,其中A号乳酸菌产量相对较高,GABA产量为1.261g/L。A号菌株经16SrDNA鉴定为植物乳杆菌,初步命名为Lactobacillus plantarum WZ011。通过单因素和正交设计方法对其发酵培养基进行优化,得到最佳培养基成分(g/L):葡萄糖13,酵母膏5,谷氨酸钠12,盐酸吡哆醇0.15,无水乙酸钠2,MgSO4·7H200.02,MnSO4·4H200.001,FeSO4·7H:O0.001,NaCl 0.001。Lactobac%Six γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were screened from different kimchi samples. The strain A showed the highest GABA-producing ability of 1. 261 g/L. Strain A was named as Lactobacillus plantarum WZ011 via 16S rDNA analysis. Fermentation medium was optimized using single factor test and orthogonal design methods. The optimal medium composition was glucose 13, yeast 5, monosodium glutamate 12, CsH11NO3 · HCl 0.15, CH3COONa2, MgSO4·7H20 0.02, MnSO4 ·4H20 0. 001 , FeSO4· 7H2O 0. 001 , NaCl 0. 001, and water 1 000 mL. It was concluded from the curve of the fermentation kinetics that GABA fermentation process included two stages of cell growth and product formation. When nitrogen source was decreased and CsH11NO3 · HCl was added, the utilization rate of monosodium glutamate rose to 99% and GABA production rate were increased more than twice. Under the optimum conditions, the highest GABA production reached 5. 814 g/L, which was 79% higher than that of original fermentation condition. Furthermore, the duration of reaching the sationary phase of GABA production was decreased for 48h compared to the original fermentation conditions.

  18. In vivo simultaneous monitoring of gamma-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, and L-aspartate using brain microdialysis and capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection: Analytical developments and in vitro/in vivo validations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvinet, Valérie; Parrot, Sandrine; Benturquia, Nadia; Bravo-Moratón, Eva; Renaud, Bernard; Denoroy, Luc

    2003-09-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate (Glu), and L-aspartate (L-Asp) are three major amino acid neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. In this work, a method for the separation of these three neurotransmitters in brain microdialysis samples using a commercially available capillary electrophoresis (CE) system has been developed. Molecules were tagged on their primary amine function with the fluorogene agent naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA), and, after separation by micellar electrokinetic chromatography, were detected by laser-induced fluorescence using a 442 nm helium-cadmium laser. The separation conditions for the analysis of derivatized neurotransmitters in standard solutions and microdialysates have been optimized, and this method has been validated on both pharmacological and analytical basis. The separation of GABA, Glu, and L-Asp takes less than 10 min by using a 75 mmol/L borate buffer, pH 9.2, containing 70 mmol/L SDS and 10 mmol/L hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin and + 25 kV voltage. The detection limits were 3, 15 nmol/L and, 5 nmol/L for GABA, Glu, and L-Asp, respectively. Moreover, submicroliter samples can be analyzed. This method allows a simple, rapid and accurate measurement of the three amino acid neurotransmitters for the in vivo brain monitoring using microdialysis sampling.

  19. Effect and Mechanism ofβ-Aminobutyric Acid on Incidence of Grey Mold Decay in Postharvest Grapes%BABA处理对葡萄果实采后灰霉病的影响及机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙清红; 高梵; 李晓安; 金鹏; 郑永华

    2016-01-01

    The effects ofβ-aminobutyric acid (BABA) treatment on postharvest grey mold decay, the activities of defense-related enzymes and total phenolics content in Kyoho grapes were investigated. The grape fruits were pretreated with 75 mmol/L BABA, inoculated with Botrytis cinerea, and then stored at 25 ℃ for 60 h. The results showed that BABA treatment resulted in significantly lower disease incidence and smaller lesion diameter compared with the control fruit. Meanwhile, BABA treatment enhanced the activities of defense-related enzymes including chitinase, β-1,3 glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, 4-coumarate coenzyme A ligase and cinnamate-4-hydroxylase and increased the content of total phenolics. These results suggest that BABA treatment can reduce the incidence and severity of gray mold decay by inducing disease resistance in grapes.%以‘巨峰’葡萄果实为实验材料,研究β-氨基丁酸(β-aminobutyric acid,BABA)处理对葡萄果实灰霉病、抗病相关酶活性和总酚含量的影响。葡萄果实先用75 mmol/L的BABA溶液处理后刺伤接种灰霉葡萄孢菌,然后转入25℃贮藏60 h。结果发现,BABA处理有效抑制了‘巨峰’葡萄果实的腐烂和病斑的扩展;同时BABA处理还诱导了果实中几丁质酶、β-1,3葡聚糖酶、苯丙氨酸解氨酶、4-香豆酸辅酶A连接酶和肉桂酸羟化酶等抗病相关酶活性以及总酚含量的提高。结果表明,BABA可诱导葡萄果实产生抗病性,从而减少灰霉病的发生。

  20. Synthesis and characterization of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of tridentate Schiff base derived from vanillin and DL-α-aminobutyric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, M. Sivasankaran; Joseyphus, R. Selwin

    2008-09-01

    Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of the Schiff base derived from vanillin and DL-α-aminobutyric acid were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, electronic spectra, conductance measurements, magnetic measurements, powder XRD and biological activity. The analytical data show the composition of the metal complex to be [ML(H 2O)], where L is the Schiff base ligand. The conductance data indicate that all the complexes are non-electrolytes. IR results demonstrate the tridentate binding of the Schiff base ligand involving azomethine nitrogen, phenolic oxygen and carboxylato oxygen atoms. The IR data also indicate the coordination of a water molecule with the metal ion in the complex. The electronic spectral measurements show that Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes have tetrahedral geometry, while Cu(II) complex has square planar geometry. The powder XRD studies indicate that Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes are amorphous, whereas Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes are crystalline in nature. Magnetic measurements show that Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes have paramagnetic behaviour. Antibacterial results indicated that the metal complexes are more active than the ligand.

  1. Effect of Gamma Aminobutyric Acid B Receptor on Brain Damage Induced by Recurrent Febrile Seizures%γ-氨基丁酸B受体在反复热性惊厥脑损伤中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩颖; 秦炯; 卜定方; 常杏芝; 杨志仙

    2005-01-01

    目的探讨γ-氨基丁酸B受体(γ-aminobutyric acid B receptor,GABABR)对反复热性惊厥(febrile seizures,FS)脑损伤的影响.方法SD大鼠随机分为对照组、FS组、FS+氯苯氨丁酸(baclofen)组、FS+法克罗芬(phaclofen)组.采用热水浴诱导大鼠FS,隔日诱导1次,共10次.记录大鼠惊厥潜伏期、持续时间及强度;用原位杂交和免疫组织化学方法分别观察c-fos基因和Fos蛋白表达情况.结果与FS组相比,FS+baclofen组大鼠惊厥潜伏期延长、惊厥持续时间缩短、惊厥强度减轻;而FS+phaclofen组大鼠惊厥潜伏期缩短、惊厥持续时间延长、惊厥强度加重.baclofen干预使c-fos基因和Fos蛋白表达降低,而phaclofen 干预使其表达增强.结论应用GABABR激动剂baclofen和抑制剂phaclofen干预研究表明,GABABR与热性惊厥脑损伤的发生、发展密切相关.

  2. Perinatal exposure to germinated brown rice and its gamma amino-butyric acid-rich extract prevents high fat diet-induced insulin resistance in first generation rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiza Altine Adamu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence suggests perinatal environments influence the risk of developing insulin resistance. Objective: The present study was aimed at determining the effects of intrauterine exposure to germinated brown rice (GBR and GBR-derived gamma (γ aminobutyric acid (GABA extract on epigenetically mediated high fat diet–induced insulin resistance. Design: Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were fed high-fat diet (HFD, HFD+GBR, or HFD+GABA throughout pregnancy until 4 weeks postdelivery. The pups were weighed weekly and maintained on normal pellet until 8 weeks postdelivery. After sacrifice, biochemical markers of obesity and insulin resistance including oral glucose tolerance test, adiponectin, leptin, and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4 were measured. Hepatic gene expression changes and the global methylation and histone acetylation levels were also evaluated. Results: Detailed analyses revealed that mothers given GBR and GABA extract, and their offspring had increased adiponectin levels and reduced insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, leptin, oxidative stress, and RBP4 levels, while their hepatic mRNA levels of GLUT2 and IPF1 were increased. Furthermore, GBR and GABA extract lowered global DNA methylation levels and modulated H3 and H4 acetylation levels. Conclusions: These results showed that intrauterine exposure to GBR-influenced metabolic outcomes in offspring of rats with underlying epigenetic changes and transcriptional implications that led to improved glucose homeostasis.

  3. Connections between 5-HT-containing terminals and 5-HT2A receptor and γ-aminobutyric acid or glycine co-existed neurons in the rat medullary dorsal horn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui; LI Yun-qing

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the connections between serotonin (5-HT)-containing terminals and 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR)/γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or 5-HT2AR/glycine co-existed neurons in the rat medullary dorsal horn (MDH).Methods: Immunofluorescence histochemical triple-staining for 5-HT, 5-HT2AR, GABA or glycine. Results: 5-HT-immunoreaetive fibers and terminals were chiefly located in the superficial laminae (laminae Ⅰ and Ⅱ) of the MDH. Neurons exhibiting 5-HT2AR-, GABA- or glycine-immunoreactivities were mainly observed in the superficial laminae. Some 5-HT2AR-immunopositive neurons also exhibited GABA- or glycine-immunoreaetivities. 5-HT-containing terminals made close contacts with 5-HT2AR/GABA or 5-HT2AR/glycine co-existed neurons. Conclusion: 5-HT2AR/GABA or 5-HT2AR /glycine co-exist in some of the neurons in the superficial laminae of the MDH. 5-HT-immunoreactive terminals form close connections with 5-HT2AR/GABA or 5-HT2AR/glycine co-existed neurons.

  4. The human [gamma]-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit [beta]3 and [alpha]5 gene cluster in chromosome 15q11-q13 is rich in highly polymorphic (CA)[sub n] repeats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatt, K.; Lalande, M. (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, MA (United States)); Sinnett, D. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States))

    1994-01-01

    The [gamma]-aminobutyric acid (GABA[sub A]) receptor [beta]33 (GABRB3) and [alpha]5 (GABRA5) subunit genes have been localized to the Angelman and Prader-Willi syndrome region of chromosome 15q11-q13. GABRB3, which encompasses 250 kb, is located 100 kb proximal of GABRA5, with the two genes arranged in head-to-head transcriptional orientation. In screening 135 kb of cloned DNA within a 260-kb interval extending from within GABRB3 to the 5[prime] end of GABRA5, 10 new (CA), repeats have been identified. Five of these have been analyzed in detail and found to be highly polymorphic, with the polymorphism information content (PIC) ranging from 0.7 to 0.85 and with heterozygosities of 67 to 94%. In the clones from GABRB3/GABRA5 region, therefore, the frequency of (CA)[sub n] with PICs [ge] 0.7 is 1 per 27 kb. Previous estimates of the density of (CA)[sub n] with PICs [ge] 0.7 in the human genome have been approximately 10-fold lower. The GABRB3/GABRA5 region appears, therefore, to be enriched for highly informative (CA)[sub n]. This set of closely spaced, short tandem repeat polymorphisms will be useful in the molecular analyses of Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes and in high-resolution studies of genetic recombination within this region. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. High-resolution mapping of the [gamma]-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit [beta]3 and [alpha]5 gene cluster on chromosome 15q11-q13, and localization of breakpoints in two Angelman syndrome patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinnett, D.; Wagstaff, J.; Woolf, E. (Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States) Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)); Glatt, K. (Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)); Kirkness, E.J. (National Inst. of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Rockville, MD (United States))Lalande, M. (Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States) Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States) Howard Hughes Medical Inst., Boston, MA (United States))

    1993-06-01

    The [gamma]-aminobutyric acid (GABA[sub A]) receptors are a family of ligand-gated chloride channels constituting the major inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the nervous system. In order to determine the genomic organization of the GABA[sub A] receptor [beta]3 subunit gene (GABRB3) and [alpha]5 subunit gene (GABRA5) in chromosome 15q11-q13, the authors have constructed a high-resolution physical map using the combined techniques of field-inversion gel electrophoresis and phage genomic library screening. This map, which covers nearly 1.0 Mb, shows that GABRB3 and GABRA5 are separated by less than 100 kb and are arranged in a head-to-head configuration. GABRB3 encompasses approximately 250 kb, while GABRA5 is contained within 70 kb. This difference in size is due in large part to an intron of 150 kb within GABRB3. The authors have also identified seven putative CpG islands within a 600-kb interval. Chromosomal rearrangement breakpoints -- in one Angelman syndrome (AS) patient with an unbalanced translocation and in another patient with a submicroscopic deletion -- are located within the large GABRB3 intron. These findings will facilitate chromosomal walking strategies for cloning the regions disrupted by the DNA rearrangements in these AS patients and will be valuable for mapping new genes to the AS chromosomal region. 64 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Functional modulation of cerebral gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex with ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate: Presence of independent binding site for ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, J.; Kuriyama, K. (Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan))

    1990-05-01

    Effect of ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-CCE) on the function of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex was studied. Beta-CCE noncompetitively and competitively inhibited (3H)flunitrazepam binding to benzodiazepine receptor, but not (3H)muscimol binding to GABAA receptor as well as t-(3H)butylbicycloorthobenzoate (( 3H) TBOB) binding to chloride ion channel, in particulate fraction of the mouse brain. Ro15-1788 also inhibited competitively (3H) flunitrazepam binding. On the other hand, the binding of beta-(3H)CCE was inhibited noncompetitively and competitively by clonazepam and competitively by Ro15-1788. In agreement with these results, benzodiazepines-stimulated (3H)muscimol binding was antagonized by beta-CCE and Ro15-1788. Gel column chromatography for the solubilized fraction from cerebral particulate fraction by 0.2% sodium deoxycholate (DOC-Na) in the presence of 1 M KCl indicated that beta-(3H)CCE binding site was eluted in the same fraction (molecular weight, 250,000) as the binding sites for (3H)flunitrazepam, (3H)muscimol and (3H)TBOB. GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx into membrane vesicles prepared from the bovine cerebral cortex was stimulated and attenuated by flunitrazepam and beta-CCE, respectively. These effects of flunitrazepam and beta-CCE on the GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx were antagonized by Ro15-1788. The present results suggest that the binding site for beta-CCE, which resides on GABAA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex, may be different from that for benzodiazepine. Possible roles of beta-CCE binding site in the allosteric inhibitions on benzodiazepine binding site as well as on the functional coupling between chloride ion channel and GABAA receptor are also suggested.

  7. Functional modulation of cerebral gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex with ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate: Presence of independent binding site for ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-CCE) on the function of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex was studied. Beta-CCE noncompetitively and competitively inhibited [3H]flunitrazepam binding to benzodiazepine receptor, but not [3H]muscimol binding to GABAA receptor as well as t-[3H]butylbicycloorthobenzoate [( 3H] TBOB) binding to chloride ion channel, in particulate fraction of the mouse brain. Ro15-1788 also inhibited competitively [3H] flunitrazepam binding. On the other hand, the binding of beta-[3H]CCE was inhibited noncompetitively and competitively by clonazepam and competitively by Ro15-1788. In agreement with these results, benzodiazepines-stimulated [3H]muscimol binding was antagonized by beta-CCE and Ro15-1788. Gel column chromatography for the solubilized fraction from cerebral particulate fraction by 0.2% sodium deoxycholate (DOC-Na) in the presence of 1 M KCl indicated that beta-[3H]CCE binding site was eluted in the same fraction (molecular weight, 250,000) as the binding sites for [3H]flunitrazepam, [3H]muscimol and [3H]TBOB. GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx into membrane vesicles prepared from the bovine cerebral cortex was stimulated and attenuated by flunitrazepam and beta-CCE, respectively. These effects of flunitrazepam and beta-CCE on the GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx were antagonized by Ro15-1788. The present results suggest that the binding site for beta-CCE, which resides on GABAA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex, may be different from that for benzodiazepine. Possible roles of beta-CCE binding site in the allosteric inhibitions on benzodiazepine binding site as well as on the functional coupling between chloride ion channel and GABAA receptor are also suggested

  8. Comparison of sprout and freeze available for the enrichment of y-aminobutyric acid from soybean%大豆发芽和冷冻富集γ-氮基丁酸的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘畅; 吴非

    2012-01-01

    The y-aminobutyric acid was enriched by two methods that were sprout and freeze from soybean. The results showed that the content was 7.97 mg/g when those beans were soaked in 35 ℃ for 4 h and were incubated in 27 % for 2.5 d and it was 3.1 times more than those ungerminated seeds. It also showed that the content was 11.62 mg/g soybean when those beans were freezed in -35 ℃ for 18 hours and were thawed in 30 ℃ for 18 h and it was 4.6 times more than those unfreezed seeds. Freeze operation was easier than sprout operation and the effects were also better.%通过发芽、冷冻2种方法富集大豆中γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)。结果表明,大豆在35℃水浴中浸泡4h、27℃培养2.5r1的条件下发芽,豆芽中GABA含量为7.97mg/g,是未发茅大豆中含量的3.1倍;大豆在-35℃冷冻18h、30℃解冻18h65条件下,GABA含量为11.62mg/g,是未冷冻大豆中含量的4.6倍;冷冻与发芽相比,操作简单,富集效果好。

  9. Cloning, expression analysis, and molecular modeling of the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor alpha2 subunit gene from the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Hongliang; Gao, Lu; Hu, Zhen; Liu, Haiyuan; Zhong, Guohua

    2013-01-01

    Intensive research on the molecule structures of the gamma-nminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor in agricultural pests has great significance to the mechanism investigation, resistance prevention, and molecular design of novel pesticides. The GABA receptor a2 (SlGABARα2) subunit gene in Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was cloned using the technologies of reverse transcription PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The gemonic DNA sequence of SlGABARα2 has 5164 bp with 8 exons and 7 introns that were in accordance with the GT-AG splicing formula. The complete mRNA sequence of SlGABARα2 was 1965 bp, with an open reading frame of 1500 bp encoding a protein of 499 amino acids. The GABA receptor is highly conserved among insects. The conserved regions include several N-glycosylation, Oglycosylation, and phosphorylation sites, as well as 4 transmembrane domains. The identities that SlGABARα2 shared with the GABA receptor a2 subunit of Spodoptera exigua, Heliothis virescens, Chilo suppressalis, Plutella xylostella, Bombyx mori ranged from 99.2% to 87.2% at the amino acid level. The comparative 3-dimensional model of SlGABARα2 showed that its tertiary structure was composed of 4 major α-helixes located at the 4 putative transmembrane domains on one side, with some β-sheets and 1 small α-helix on the other side. SlGABARα2 may be attached to the membrane by 4 α-helixes that bind ions in other conserved domains to transport them through the membrane. The results of quantitative real time PCR demonstrated that SlGABARα2 was expressed in all developmental stages of S. litura. The relative expression level of SlGABARα2 was the lowest in eggs and increased with larval growth, while it declined slightly in pupae and reached the peak in adults. The expressions of SlGABARα2 in larvae varied among different tissues; it was extremely high in the brain but was low in the midgut, epicuticle, Malpighian tube, and fat body. PMID:23909412

  10. Immunohistochemical evidence for colocalization of gamma-aminobutyric acid and serotonin in neurons of the ventral medulla oblongata projecting to the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millhorn, D E; Hökfelt, T; Seroogy, K; Oertel, W; Verhofstad, A A; Wu, J Y

    1987-04-28

    Fluorescence immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the medulla oblongata of colchicine-treated rats that had been incubated with guinea pig antibodies to serotonin (5-HT) and either rabbit or sheep antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). Numerous cells in the rostral ventrolateral medulla in the region of nucleus raphe magnus were immunostained for either 5-HT or GAD. A substantial number of neurons showed positive immunoreactivity for both substances, and were most frequently observed in the lateral aspect of nucleus raphe magnus. In addition, a number of the 5-HT/GAD-containing neurons were retrogradely labelled with Fast blue dye that had been injected into the thoracic spinal cord. This work provides evidence for colocalization of the classical neurotransmitters 5-HT and GABA in single cells of the ventral medulla oblongata, some of which project to the spinal cord. PMID:3555707

  11. Research and Application Status on Physiologic Functions ofγ-Aminobutyric Acid and Its Receptors%γ-氨基丁酸及其受体功能的研究与应用现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁臣; 陈忠

    2015-01-01

    γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA),both a natural functional amino acid and a major inhibitory neurotransmit-ter,shows its biological and regulation roles by binding with GABA receptors.In this paper,the physiological char-acteristics of GABA and its receptors,its regulation of the postoperative cognitive dysfunction,its treatment of dis-eases,its effects on alcohol and drug addiction as well as its application in practice were reviewed,and meanwhile some issues to be noted in the future were also proposed.With the gradual deepening of research on GABA,its functions have found extensive application in various fields.The development and application of GABA-rich food and fodders in animal production have become one of hot topics of research in the food and animal husbandry in particular.Therefore,the research on GABA has a more promising future.%γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)是一种功能性非蛋白质氨基酸,是重要的抑制性神经递质。GABA 通过与其受体结合从而具有多种功能及调节作用。随着对 GABA 研究的逐渐深入,其功能已经在各个领域得到了广泛的应用,尤其在食品及畜牧业中,对富含 GABA 的食品、饲料的开发及在动物生产中的应用已成为国内外研究的热点之一,因此,对 GABA 的研究具有较广阔的前景。论文从 GABA 及其受体的生理特性,对认知功能障碍的调节、对疾病的治疗及缓解、对酒精和药物成瘾作用等生理功能及 GABA 在实际中的应用进行了综述,并提出了今后应重视的问题。

  12. Effect of Functional Bread Rich in Potassium, γ-Aminobutyric Acid and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors on Blood Pressure, Glucose Metabolism and Endothelial Function: A Double-blind Randomized Crossover Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Tomás, Nerea; Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Quilez, Joan; Merino, Jordi; Ferré, Raimon; Díaz-López, Andrés; Bulló, Mònica; Hernández-Alonso, Pablo; Palau-Galindo, Antoni; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2015-11-01

    Because it has been suggested that food rich in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) peptides have beneficial effects on blood pressure (BP) and other cardiovascular risk factors, we tested the effects of low-sodium bread, but rich in potassium, GABA, and ACEI peptides on 24-hour BP, glucose metabolism, and endothelial function.A randomized, double-blind, crossover trial was conducted in 30 patients with pre or mild-to-moderate hypertension, comparing three 4-week nutritional interventions separated by 2-week washout periods. Patients were randomly assigned to consume 120 g/day of 1 of the 3 types of bread for each nutritional intervention: conventional wheat bread (CB), low-sodium wheat bread enriched in potassium (LSB), and low-sodium wheat bread rich in potassium, GABA, and ACEI peptides (LSB + G). For each period, 24-hour BP measurements, in vivo endothelial function, and biochemical samples were obtained.After LSB + G consumption, 24-hour ambulatory BP underwent a nonsignificant greater reduction than after the consumption of CB and LSB (0.26 mm Hg in systolic BP and -0.63 mm Hg in diastolic BP for CB; -0.71 mm Hg in systolic BP and -1.08 mm Hg in diastolic BP for LSB; and -0.75 mm Hg in systolic BP and -2.12 mm Hg in diastolic BP for LSB + G, respectively). Diastolic BP at rest decreased significantly during the LSB + G intervention, although there were no significant differences in changes between interventions. There were no significant differences between interventions in terms of changes in in vivo endothelial function, glucose metabolism, and peripheral inflammatory parameters.Compared with the consumption of CB or LSB, no greater beneficial effects on 24-hour BP, endothelial function, or glucose metabolism were demonstrated after the consumption of LSB + G in a population with pre or mild-to-moderate hypertension. Further studies are warranted to clarify the effect of GABA on BP

  13. Effect of sertraline with gamma-aminobutyric acid on cognitive function of the subsyndromal symptomatic depression%γ-氨基丁酸对亚综合征性抑郁认知功能的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春英; 陶荣芬; 顾永健; 黄晓卫

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨舍曲林联合γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)对亚综合征性抑郁(SSD)认知功能的影响.方法:83例SSD患者分为单用药组(单用舍曲林治疗)45例和合用药组(舍曲林联合GABA治疗)38例.疗程12个月.于治疗前和治疗12个月采用抑郁自评量表(SDS)、韦氏成人智力量表(WAIS)、临床记忆量表、威斯康星卡片分类测验(WCST)评定认知功能和抑郁症状严重度.结果:治疗后两组SDS、WAIS、WCST和临床记忆量表的指向记忆、联想学习、记忆商数以及合用药组的图像自由回忆均较治疗前有显著改善(P<0.05或P<0.01);以合用药组的联想学习、记忆商数、WCST正确百分数和随机错误数成绩较单用药组明显为好(P<0.05).结论:GABA联合舍曲林对亚综合征性抑郁认知功能的改善较单用舍曲林更为显著.%Objective: To investigate the effect of sertraline with gamma-aminobutyric acid on cognitive function of subsyndromal symptomatic depression (SSD). Method:83 SSD patients were assigned to either group A (n = 45 ) receiving sertraline or group B (n = 38 ) receiving sertraline with GABA therapy for 12 month.Wechsler adult intelligence scale (WAIS), clinical memory scale (CMS) and Wisconsin cards sorting test (WCST) were used to evaluate cognitive function,and self depression scale (SDS) to evaluate the symptom severity before and after treatment. Results:After treatment, both groups showed significantly improvement in SDS, all subscales of WAIS, WCST, and auditory recall, paired-association and total MQ of CMS (P < 0. 05 or P <0.01 ) ;but group B showed more improvement in paired-association as well as total MQ of CMS and correct numbers as well as random errors of WCST ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion: Both sertraline and GABA treatment may be superior to sertraline treatment for improving cognition of SSD.

  14. Effect of Functional Bread Rich in Potassium, γ-Aminobutyric Acid and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors on Blood Pressure, Glucose Metabolism and Endothelial Function: A Double-blind Randomized Crossover Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Tomás, Nerea; Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Quilez, Joan; Merino, Jordi; Ferré, Raimon; Díaz-López, Andrés; Bulló, Mònica; Hernández-Alonso, Pablo; Palau-Galindo, Antoni; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2015-11-01

    Because it has been suggested that food rich in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) peptides have beneficial effects on blood pressure (BP) and other cardiovascular risk factors, we tested the effects of low-sodium bread, but rich in potassium, GABA, and ACEI peptides on 24-hour BP, glucose metabolism, and endothelial function.A randomized, double-blind, crossover trial was conducted in 30 patients with pre or mild-to-moderate hypertension, comparing three 4-week nutritional interventions separated by 2-week washout periods. Patients were randomly assigned to consume 120 g/day of 1 of the 3 types of bread for each nutritional intervention: conventional wheat bread (CB), low-sodium wheat bread enriched in potassium (LSB), and low-sodium wheat bread rich in potassium, GABA, and ACEI peptides (LSB + G). For each period, 24-hour BP measurements, in vivo endothelial function, and biochemical samples were obtained.After LSB + G consumption, 24-hour ambulatory BP underwent a nonsignificant greater reduction than after the consumption of CB and LSB (0.26 mm Hg in systolic BP and -0.63 mm Hg in diastolic BP for CB; -0.71 mm Hg in systolic BP and -1.08 mm Hg in diastolic BP for LSB; and -0.75 mm Hg in systolic BP and -2.12 mm Hg in diastolic BP for LSB + G, respectively). Diastolic BP at rest decreased significantly during the LSB + G intervention, although there were no significant differences in changes between interventions. There were no significant differences between interventions in terms of changes in in vivo endothelial function, glucose metabolism, and peripheral inflammatory parameters.Compared with the consumption of CB or LSB, no greater beneficial effects on 24-hour BP, endothelial function, or glucose metabolism were demonstrated after the consumption of LSB + G in a population with pre or mild-to-moderate hypertension. Further studies are warranted to clarify the effect of GABA on BP

  15. Substrate-Na{sup +} complex formation: Coupling mechanism for {gamma}-aminobutyrate symporters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallo, Anna; Simon, Agnes [Department of Neurochemistry, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungary); Bencsura, Akos [Department of Theoretical Chemistry, Institute of Structural Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Heja, Laszlo [Department of Neurochemistry, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungary); Kardos, Julianna, E-mail: jkardos@chemres.hu [Department of Neurochemistry, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungary)

    2009-07-24

    Crystal structures of transmembrane transport proteins belonging to the important families of neurotransmitter-sodium symporters reveal how they transport neurotransmitters across membranes. Substrate-induced structural conformations of gated neurotransmitter-sodium symporters have been in the focus of research, however, a key question concerning the mechanism of Na{sup +} ion coupling remained unanswered. Homology models of human glial transporter subtypes of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter {gamma}-aminobutyric acid were built. In accordance with selectivity data for subtype 2 vs. 3, docking and molecular dynamics calculations suggest similar orthosteric substrate (inhibitor) conformations and binding crevices but distinguishable allosteric Zn{sup 2+} ion binding motifs. Considering the occluded conformational states of glial human {gamma}-aminobutyric acid transporter subtypes, we found major semi-extended and minor ring-like conformations of zwitterionic {gamma}-aminobutyric acid in complex with Na{sup +} ion. The existence of the minor ring-like conformation of {gamma}-aminobutyric acid in complex with Na{sup +} ion may be attributed to the strengthening of the intramolecular H-bond by the electrostatic effect of Na{sup +} ion. Coupling substrate uptake into cells with the thermodynamically favorable Na{sup +} ion movement through substrate-Na{sup +} ion complex formation may be a mechanistic principle featuring transmembrane neurotransmitter-sodium symporter proteins.

  16. Optimization of Culture Solution Compositions for γ- aminobutyric Acid Accumulation in Germinated Fava Beans( Vicia faba L.)%发芽蚕豆富集γ-氨基丁酸的培养液组分优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈惠; 杨润强; 韩永斌; 顾振新

    2011-01-01

    以蚕豆为试材,研究谷氨酸钠(MSG)、CaCl2、和VB6对发芽蚕豆谷氨酸脱羧酶(GAD)及γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)的影响,采用Box - behnken设计对发芽蚕豆富集GABA的培养液组分进行了优化,并对发芽蚕豆富集GABA的二次回归模型进行分析.结果表明,低氧联合盐胁迫下,MSG、CaCl2和VB6对发芽蚕豆GAD及GABA的影响均达到显著水平(P <0.005).经过回归分析建立了GABA含量对培养液组分的二次回归模型,回归方程的决定系数达到0.976,说明方程能很好的预测GABA富集含量的变化.蚕豆富集GABA的最适培养液组分为MSG 1.1 mg/mL、CaCl2 6.1 mmol/L、VB672 μmol/L,此时,GABA富集量达到(1.98 ±0.09)mg/g DW,为对照[(1.08±0.01 )mg/g DW]的1.83倍.%In this paper, the effects of MSG, CaCl2 and VB6 on glutamate decarboxylase ( GAD) and 7 - ami-nobutyric acid (GABA) of germinated fava beans were investigated. The culture solution compositions used for GA-BA accumulation in fava beans were optimized with Box - Behnken design. The results showed that under the condition of hypoxia combined with salt stress, the effects of MSG, CaCl2 and VB6 on GAD and GABA of germinated fava beans all reached significant levels ( P < 0. 005 ). The quadric regression equation was established between GABA content and culture solution compositions. The R - squared reached 0. 976, which meant that the equation could predict the changes of accumulation contents of GABA well. The optimum compositions of culture solution for GABA accumulation were MSG of 1. 1 mg/mL, CaCl2 of 6. 1 mmol/L and VB6 of 72 pjnol/L. Under these conditions, the content of GABA was (1.98 ±0.09) mg/g DW, which was 1. 83 times as much as that of the control [ (1. 08 ± 0.01) mg/gDW].

  17. γ-氨基丁酸在氯胺酮抗抑郁中的作用%Role of gamma-aminobutyric acid in the antidepressant effects of ketamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘向六; 刘文学; 邱丽丽; 张广芬; 周志强

    2015-01-01

    action mechanisms are not yet fully understood .The aim of this study was to investigate the role of gamma-aminobutyric acid ( GABA) in the antidepressant effects of ketamine . Methods Thirty-two male Wistar rats were e-qually randomized into four groups: saline, ketamine, GABA, and GABA+ketamine.All the animals were implanted with a guide cannula into the lateral ventricle and on the eighth day after operation subjected to a 15 min forced swimming test (FST) for the estab-lishment of a depression model .At 24 h after modeling , the rats of the saline and ketamine groups were treated intracerebroventricularly with 2μL isotonic saline solution, and those of the GABA and GABA +ketamine groups with 50μg (2μL) GABA, followed by intrap-eritoneal administration of 1 mL saline in the former two groups and 10 mg/kg (1 mL) ketamine in the latter two groups 10 min later.At 30 min after treatment , the open field test ( OFT) was carried out for crossing and rearing scores and a 6-min FST was performed to re-cord the immobility time in the last 5 minutes.The content of GABA in the prefrontal cortex of the rats was measured following behav -ioral tests. Results The immobility time was significantly decreased in the ketamine group ([107.5 ±21.2]sec) as compared with the saline, GABA, and GABA+ketamine groups ([167.2 ±22.1], [159.8 ±17.5], and [143.8 ±22.1]sec) (P0.05).The level of GABA in the prefrontal cortex was remarkably lower in the ketamine group ([12.4 ±3.4]ng/mg prot) than in the saline, GABA, and GABA+ketamine groups ([23.3 ± 6.3], [27.3 ±5.7], and [18.0 ±5.4]ng/mg prot) (P0.05 ). Conclusion The antidepressant effects of ketamine are related to the decreased GABA level in the prefrontal cortex in rats receiving FST .

  18. Screening of Lactic Acid Bacteria with High Yield of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid from Yellow Serofluid,the Wastewater from Tofu Production%黄浆水中高产γ-氨基丁酸乳酸菌的筛选及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳荣; 梁金钟

    2014-01-01

    经初筛、复筛,从黄浆水中筛得一株高产γ-氨基丁酸(γ-aminobutyric acid,GABA)的菌株,对其进行形态学及生理生化鉴定,并与GenBank上已提交的16S rDNA进行BLAST比对,结果表明,其归属于乳酸杆菌属(Lactobacillus).由MEGA 6.0软件构建的系统发育树结果表明,该菌株与Lactobacillus plantarum 16S rDNA序列同源性达99%,且与生理生化实验结果一致,因此,确定该菌株为植物乳杆菌(Lactobacillus plantarum),编号为LP-Dfa301,测得其发酵液中GABA产量为5.833 g/L.

  19. Optimization of Medium Components and Culture Conditions for Enhanced Yield of γ-Aminobutyric Acid by Candida sp.Y6 by Response Surface Methodology%响应面法优化假丝酵母Y6产γ-氨基丁酸发酵工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑鸿雁; 赵炜彤; 昌妍希

    2015-01-01

    从火龙果果实表面上筛选出一株发酵产γ-氨基丁酸(γ-aminobutyric acid,GABA)假丝酵母菌菌株Y6(Candida sp.).用反相高效液相色谱测定发酵液中GABA含量.响应面试验确定其最适培养基成分为:蔗糖23 g/L、麸皮65 g/L、L-谷氨酸6g/L、磷酸吡哆醛0.5 mmol/L.最适培养条件为初始pH 4.5、培养温度28℃、转速200 r/min、培养时间3.5 d.结果表明:优化之后GABA的产量提高了72%.

  20. γ-aminobutyric acid B receptor (GABABR)ameliorated liver fibrosis by inhibiting hepatic cell migration%γ-氨基丁酸B受体抑制大鼠肝细胞迁移并改善肝纤维化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊文梅; 石炳毅; 冯凯; 马锡慧; 魏红山; 黄海燕; 何秀云

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of r-aminobutyric acid B receptor in the development of liver fibrosis.Methods Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups including a control group,a model group,a baclofen group,and a CGP35348 group.Liver fibrosis was then induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4).Baclofen and CGP35348 treatment were carried out after the formation of liver fibrosis,followed by complete extraction of the eyeball to obtain blood sample to test liver function.Liver tissue specimens were cut and stored for histological staining,histochemistry,real-time polymerase chain-reaction (RT-PCR),and western blot analysis.Results Histological staining indicated that the degree of liver fibrosis was more severe in the CGP35348 group than in the baclofen group (P<0.001).The levels of alanine transaminase (ALT),aspartate aminotransferase (AST),gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT),total bilirubin (TBil),and direct bilirubin (DBil) were significantly lower in the baclofen group than in the CGP35348 group (P<0.01).The levels of ALT,AST,GGT,TBil,and DBil were significantly higher in the CGP35348 group than in the model group (P<0.05).Immunofluorescence results show that the hepatic cell migration was inhibited in the baclofen group.Western blot results showed that the expression levels of α-SMA protein were significantly lowered in the baclofen group when compared to that of the CGP35348 group and model group (P<0.01).Conclusion GABAB receptor might play a role in the liver protection by inhibition of migration of hepatic cells in liver fibrosis.Further studies into the mechanism behind this function are further needed and may be a potential source of future anti-fibrotic treatment.%目的 探讨发现γ-氨基丁酸B(GABAB)受体对肝纤维化的调控作用.方法 32只SD 大鼠分为4组,每组8只,分别为对照组、模型组、baclofen处理组和CGP35348处理组.用四氯化碳(CCl4)溶液诱导肝纤维化,baclofen和CGP35348处

  1. EFFECTS OF γ-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID ON BLOOD LIPIDS IN RATS UNDER EMOTIONAL STRESS%γ-氨基丁酸对情绪应激大鼠血脂的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳俊彦; 胡卓炎; 褚玥; 梁添; 赖玉婷; 枷春红

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)对情绪应激大鼠血脂代谢的调节作用.方法 利用不确定性空瓶刺激的方法建立焦虑应激大鼠模型,将40只雄性SD大鼠随机分为对照组、模型组、GABA 0.5 (L)、1.0(M)和2.0 mg/kg(H)组,应激前分别给予大鼠灌服生理盐水或相应剂量的GABA,14d后采用高架十字迷宫实验(EPM)检测大鼠行为,然后采集血样,测定大鼠血浆甘油三酯(TG)、总胆固醇(TC)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)和高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)水平,并计算非高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(non-HDL-C)含量、TG/HDL-C、LDL-C/HDL-C比值.结果:应激后对照组体重和食物利用率极显著高于其余各组(P<0.01);模型组进入开放臂的时间百分比极显著低于对照组和GABA 2 mg/kg组(P<0.01),进入开放臂的次数百分比则显著低于对照组(P<0.05);各组大鼠的入臂总次数差异不显著(P>0.05).血脂水平分析显示模型组血浆中TC含量显著高于GABA 2 mg/kg组(P<0.05),non-HDL-C含量则显著高于对照组(P<0.05),极显著高于GABA 2 mg/kg组(P<0.01),模型组的LDL-C/HDL-C比值显著高于对照组和GABA 2 mg/kg组(P<0.05). 结论 2 mg/kg GABA能明显增加EPM中进入开放臂的时间百分比,降低TC与non-HDL-C含量并下调LDL-C/HDL-C比值,有效缓解焦虑情绪并改善血脂代谢.%Objective To observe the modulation effects of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on blood lipids in rats under emotional stress.Methods Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups randomly (n=8 each):control group,model group,GABA 0.5,1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg group.Animal model of emotional stress was induced by empty water bottles stimulation method.The rats were administered with saline or different doses of GABA orally before they suffered from emotional stress.14 d later,animal behaviors were assessed in the elevated plus maze test (EPM),and plasma levels of triglyceride (TG),total cholesterol (TC),low density

  2. 抗γ-氨基丁酸B受体脑炎患者的临床特征分析%The characteristics of clinical manifestations in patients with anti-γ-aminobutyric acid B receptor encephalitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张隽; 张阵; 樊春秋; 吉训明; 黄小钦

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical features and prognosis in adult Chinese patients with anti-γ-aminobutyric acid B receptor (GABA-BR) encephalitis.Methods We reviewed the clinical manifestations,cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examinations,brain magnetic resonance imaging and prognosis of 12 patients who were diagnosed as anti-GABA-BR encephalitis in Capital Medical University Xuanwu Hospital from March 2013 to December 2015.Results The major clinical features of anti-GABA-BR encephalitis patients included seizures (12/12),cognitive disorder (10/12),psychiatric symptoms (10/12),sleep disorders (3/12),visual hallucination (2/12),involuntary movements (2/12),decreased consciousness (3/12),cerebellar signs (2/12),fever (2/12).GABA-BR-antibody was positive in CSF and serum of all the patients.Electroencephalogram revealed epileptic discharges in 4/12 patients.Brain MRI showed abnormal signal in up to 9/12 patients,located in the hippocampus,temporal lobes,thalamus and periventricular area.PET or SPECT indicated hypometabolism in 5/6 patients.After the average of fourteen months follow-up,9/12 patients had good prognosis,3 patients did not.Of 3 patients with poor outcome,2 had small cell lung cancer.Conclusions The predominant clinical features of the anti-GABA-BR encephalitis are seizures,cognitive disorder and psychiatric symptoms.The lesions are not only located in limbic system.Early diagnosis and immune modulation may provide a good outcome.%目的 分析我国成年人抗γ-氨基丁酸B(GABA-B)受体脑炎患者的临床特征和预后特点.方法 收集2013年3月至2015年12月首都医科大学宣武医院收治的12例抗GABA-B受体脑炎患者,总结其临床症状、实验室检查、脑电图检查、影像学资料,并进行分析.结果 12例抗GABA-B受体脑炎患者主要临床表现为癫痫发作12例,认知障碍10例,精神行为异常10例,睡眠障碍3例,视幻觉2例,不自主运动2例,意识障碍3例,小脑体征2例,发热2例.12例患者脑

  3. The γ-aminobutyric acid-producing ability under low pH conditions of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional fermented foods of Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, with a strong ability to produce ACE-inhibitory peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Barla; Takashi Koyanagi; Naoko Tokuda; Hiroshi Matsui; Takane Katayama; Hidehiko Kumagai; Toshihide Michihata; Tetsuya Sasaki; Atsushi Tsuji; Toshiki Enomoto

    2016-01-01

    Many traditional fermented products are onsumed in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, such as kaburazushi, narezushi, konkazuke, and ishiru. Various kinds of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are associated with their fermentation, however, characterization of LAB has not yet been elucidated in detail. In this study, we evaluated 53 isolates of LAB from various traditional fermented foods by taxonomic classification at the species level by analyzing the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) sequences and carbohydr...

  4. A Study on Design, Synthesis and Anti-hypoxia Activity of Nitronyl Nitroxide-γ-aminobutyric Acid Conjugate%氮氧自由基与γ-氨基丁酸偶联物的设计合成与抗缺氧活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景临林; 马慧萍; 樊鹏程; 何蕾; 贾正平

    2015-01-01

    目的 设计合成一种新型氮氧自由基与γ-氨基丁酸偶联物并研究其抗缺氧活性. 方法 以对羟基苯甲醛、溴乙酸乙酯、γ-氨基丁酸甲酯盐酸盐和2 ,3-二甲基-2 ,3-二羟氨基丁烷为原料,经醚化、酰胺化、缩合和氧化反应得到一种氮氧自由基与γ-氨基丁酸的偶联物(化合物3),并通过小鼠常压密闭耐缺氧实验对其抗缺氧活性进行评价.结果 3组在常压密闭缺氧实验下,与缺氧模型组比较,乙酰唑胺组和化合物3组存活时间均明显延长,差异有统计学意义(P<0. 01),化合物3组与乙酰唑胺组比较存活时间延长(P<0. 01). 与正常对照组比较,缺氧模型组中LD含量显著升高(P<0. 01),LDH活性显著降低(P<0. 01);与缺氧模型组比较,化合物3组小鼠血浆中LD含量差异无统计学意义,但是LD累积速率明显降低,差异有统计学意义( P<0. 01 ). 结论 氮氧自由基与γ-氨基丁酸偶联物的设计路线合理,合成方法简便,产率较高,并且表现出了较高的抗缺氧活性.%Objective To design the synthesis of a nitronyl nitroxide-γ-aminobutyric acid conjugate and to inves-tigate its anti-hypoxia activity. Methods A nitronyl nitroxide-γ-aminobutyric acid conjugate ( compound 3 ) was a-chieved via etherification, amidation, condensation and oxidizing reaction using 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, ethyl bromoace-tate, methyl 4-aminobutyrate hydrochloride and 2, 3-dimethyl-2, 3-dihydroxylamino butane as starting materials. The an-ti-hypoxic activities of the compound were evaluated using the normobaric hypoxia experiment of mice. Results Com-pared with those in the hypoxia model group, Acetazolamide and compound 3 groups had significantly prolonged survival time in the three groups under normobaric hypoxia experiment, and the differences were statistically significant ( P <0. 01). The survival time of mice in compound 3 group was significantly longer than that in Acetazolamide group (P<0. 01). Compared with

  5. 308.15 K、313.15 K和318.15K下4-氨基丁酸在硫酸沙丁胺醇水溶液中的体积和黏度研究%Volumetric and Viscometric Studies of 4-Aminobutyric Acid in Aqueous Solutions of Salbutamol Sulphate at 308.15,313.15 and 318.15 K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Rajagopal; S.S. Jayabalakrishnan

    2009-01-01

    Density (ρ) and viscosity (η) measurements were carried out for 4-aminobutyric acid in 0.0041, 0.0125 and 0.0207 mol·L~(-1) aqueous salbutamol sulphate at T= 308.15, 313.15 and 318.15 K.. The measured values of density and viscosity were used to estimate some important parameters such as apparent molar volume V_φ, limiting apparent molar volume V_φ~0, transfer volume ΔV_φ~0, hydration number nH , second derivative of infinite dilution of partial molar volume with temperature (e)~2V_φ~0 /(e)T~2 , viscosity B-coefficients, variation of B with temperature dB/dT, free energy of activation per mole of solvent Δμ_1~(0*) and solute Δμ_2~(0*), activation entropy ΔS_2~(0*) and activation enthalpy ΔH_2~(0*) of the amino acids. These parameters have been interpreted in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions and structure making/breaking ability of solutes in the given solution.

  6. The Optimization of Culture Condition on γ-aminobutyric Acid Accumulation in Fava Bean (Vicia faba L. ) Under Hypoxia Combined with NaCI%低氧联合NaCl胁迫下蚕豆发芽富集γ-氨基丁酸培养条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨润强; 陈惠; 顾振新

    2012-01-01

    以蚕豆(启豆2号)为原料,研究了低氧联合NaCl胁迫下培养条件对γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)富集的影响。结果显示:非胁迫培养时间、培养pH和胁迫培养时间显著影响发芽蚕豆GABA积累。蚕豆发芽富集GABA最佳培养条件是非胁迫培养1.5d、培养液pH3.5和低氧联合NaC1胁迫4d,在此条件下其GABA含量可达1.06mg/g DW,为原料蚕豆的7.57倍。%The culture condition of γ-aminobutyric acid accumulation in germinating fava bean (Qi Bean 2 ) seeds under hypoxia combined with NaC1 was investigated. The results showed that non-stress culture time, pH and stress time impacted the accumulation of GABA significantly. The optimum condition was culturing for 1.5 days, pH 3.5 and stress for 4 days. The GABA content was 1.06 mg/g DW and was 7.57-fold of that in un-germinated lava bean.

  7. Dynamic Changes of Glutamic Acid and γ-Aminobutyric Acid in Rat Striatum in Vivo before and after Exhaustive Exercise%力竭运动前后活体大鼠纹状体谷氨酸和γ-氨基丁酸水平的动态变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔德才; 李许贞; 杨东升; 刘晓莉

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察一次性力竭运动过程中大鼠纹状体内神经递质谷氨酸(Glu)和γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)含量及其比值的动态变化,探讨运动疲劳后纹状体神经元电活动改变的可能机制.方法:8周龄雄性Wistar大鼠8只,通过手术预先将透析套管定植入左侧纹状体(P:0.2,L:3,H:3.2).采用活体微透析与高效液相色谱(HPLC)检测联用技术,动态观察一次性力竭运动过程中及恢复期纹状体内神经递质Glu和GABA含量及其比值的变化规律.结果:Glu含量及Glu/GABA比值从运动即刻开始上升,力竭期前60 min达到最高水平,随后开始回降,并在恢复期30min降到最低点,之后又开始回升;GABA水平在运动开始后缓慢下降,力竭期前30 min达到最低点,之后上升并在力竭期后又回降.结论:运动疲劳时纹状体内Glu和GABA浓度变化是导致神经元兴奋性改变以及大鼠运动能力降低的重要原因之一.%Purpose To investigate the dynamic changes in levels of glutamate (Glu) acid and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in rat striatum in vivo during exhaustive exercise and 90 minutes after exhaustion. Methods Eight male Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were used in the experiment. A cannula with replaceable inner guide was inserted into the left striatum (P: 0.2, L: 3, H: 3.2) . Microdialy-sis and high pressure liquid chromatography techniques were used to detect the changes of the Glu and GABA in vivo during the exhaustive exercise and 90 minutes after exhaustion. The Glu/GABA ratio in rat striatum was also calculated. Results The level of Glu and Glu/GABA ratio rose at the beginning of the exercise, and reached their peak 60 minutes after exercise. The level of GABA began to drop after the beginning of the exercise, and reached the minimum 30 minutes before exhaustion. Conclusion The changes in Glu and GABA concentrations in rat striatum during exhaustive exercise is one of the most important reasons for altering neurons activity and thus impair

  8. 高产γ-氨基丁酸的棉子糖肠球菌的筛选、鉴定及其摇瓶发酵条件的优化%Screening, identification and flask fermentation optimization of a high-yield γ-aminobutyric acid Enterococcus raffinosus strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧敏; 高强; 苏喆; 王梦晓; 段强; 张云泽; 司晓光

    2012-01-01

    [目的]在中国传统发酵泡菜中分离出高产γ-氨基丁酸(γ-Aminobutyric acid,GABA)的乳酸菌.[方法]对分离自泡菜中的菌株M1进行形态观察、生理生化特性鉴定及其16S rDNA序列分析,实验采用单因素和正交设计对以MRS培养基为基础的GABA发酵培养基与摇瓶发酵条件进行了优化. [结果]菌株M1的形态培养和生理生化特征均符合肠球菌属(Enterococcus)特征,其16S rDNA序列与Enterococcus raffinosus SS1278 16S rDNA序列同源性达99%,鉴定为棉子糖肠球菌(Enterococcus raffinosus).优化该菌株产 GABA 的发酵培养基的实验发现,最佳摇瓶发酵条件为:接种量10%,发酵温度30℃,培养初始pH 5.5,发酵周期60 h,谷氨酸一钠底物浓度10%,GABA产量提高了1.22倍. [结论]棉子糖肠球菌(E.raffinosus) M1菌株具有工业化发酵生产GABA的潜力.%[Objective] A high-yield γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) producing lactic acid bacterium (LAB), strain M1 was isolated from pickled Chinese vegetables by our laboratory.[Methods] Its physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence were analyzed.GABA fermentation medium, based on MRS medium, was optimized using single factor test and orthogonal design, as well as the shake flask condition for GABA fermentation.[Results] The results indicated that the morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics of strain M1 were accorded with Enterococcus family.The identity between the obtained 16S rDNA sequence of strain M1 and Enterococcus raffinosus SS1278 was up to 99%, strain M1 was accordingly identified as Enterococcus raffinosus.Moreover, its GABA fermentation medium was optimized, and the shake flask condition for GABA fermentation was: inoculum of 10%, growing temperature at 30 ℃, initial pH at 5.5, fermentation period of 60 h and monosodium glutamate substrate concentration of 10%.Under these conditions, GABA yield by flask fermentation achieved a 1.22-fold increase

  9. Effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid B receptor on nitric oxide/nitric oxide synthase system during recurrent febrile seizures%反复热性惊厥过程中γ-氨基丁酸B受体对一氧化氮/一氧化氮合酶体系的调节作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩颖; 秦炯; 卜定方; 杨志仙; 常杏芝; 杜军保

    2006-01-01

    目的:探讨γ-氨基丁酸B受体(γ-aminobutyric acid B receptor,GABABR)对热性惊厥(febrile seizure,FS)大鼠一氧化氮(nitric oxide,NO)/一氧化氮合酶(nitric oxide synthase,NOS)体系表达的影响.方法:将21 d龄SD大鼠随机分为对照组、FS组、FS+巴氯芬(baclofen)组和FS+法克罗芬(phaclofen)组.采用热水浴诱导大鼠FS,隔日诱导1次,共10次.采用分光光度计法测定大鼠血浆中NO含量;用原位杂交方法观察神经元型一氧化氮合酶(neuronal nitric oxide synthase,nNOS)mRNA表达情况;用免疫组化方法观察nNOS蛋白表达情况.结果:FS+baclofen组NO含量低于FS组[(19.02±9.31)μmol/L比(40.03±9.12)μmol/L],同时nNOS蛋白和mRNA表达也较FS组减弱;而FS+phaclofen组NO含量高于FS组[(66.46±8.15)μmol/L比(40.03±9.12)μmol/L],同时nNOS蛋白和mRNA表达也较FS组增强.结论:反复热性惊厥过程中,GABABR的改变可影响NO/NOS体系的表达.

  10. Research Progress in Determination of γ-Aminobutyric Acid in the Germinated Brown Rice%γ-氨基丁酸在发芽糙米中检测方法综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐瑞萍; 贾成莉; 吕庆銮; 李秀娟

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviewed nutritional value and research status of germinated brown rice, introduced determination methods of γ-arninobutyric acid, for explore high pressure liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography -mass spectrometry, paper chromatography method and colorimetry.%综述了发芽糙米的营养价值和研究状况,介绍γ-氨基丁酸检测方法,如:高效液相法、LC—MS、纸层析法、比色法等。

  11. Preparation of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Using Streptococcus salivarius subsp.thermophilus Y-2 Cells%唾液链球菌嗜热亚种Y-2细胞转化法制备γ-氨基丁酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨胜远; 陆兆新; 吕凤霞; 别小妹

    2011-01-01

    研究反应pH值、反应温度、重金属盐、表面活性剂、底物浓度、菌体质最浓度和磷酸吡哆醛添加量对Streptococcus salivarius subsp.thermophilus Y-2细胞转化法生产γ-氨基丁酸的影响.获得反应体系的最佳组成为:湿菌体25g/L、BaCl2 40mmol/L、Triton X-100体积分数0.02%、L-谷氨酸单钠盐(L-monosodium glutamate,MSG)47.5g/L和L-谷氨酸(L-glutamic acid,L-Glu)90.0g/L.该体系在40℃、pH4.5和搅拌速度100r/min的最适转化条件下进行反应72h,转化液GABA产量达到了(87.16±4.33)g/L,细胞平均生产力为(48.42±2.41)mg/(h·g),摩尔转化率为(97.60±4.71)%.

  12. 米糠中γ-氨基丁酸的富集及纯化工艺研究%Study on enrichment and purification of γ-aminobutyric acid in rice bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管娜娜; 张晖; 王立; 郭晓娜; 钱海峰

    2011-01-01

    The accumulation of GABA in rice bran by glutamate decarboxylase(GAD) ,and the purification of GABA enriched solution using cation ion exchange resin were investigated. The optimal accumulation conditions of GABA were determined as described below: the ionic strength of citric acid-disodium hydrogen phosphate buffer solution was 0.02mol/L, the reaction time was 16h. Under the optimal conditions, the concentration of GABA reached 2900mg/100g rice bran. The optimal purification conditions of GABA enriched solution also be determined as following: the optimal pH of sample solution was 2.0, the concentration of GABA enriched solution was 2.0mg/mL,concentration of eluting agent was 2.0mol/L. And the final purity of GABA reached 61.25%.%以米糠为原料,利用米糠中高活性谷氨酸脱羧酶(GAD)进行γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)的富集实验,并采用阳离子交换树脂对富集液中GABA进行分离纯化.结果表明:采用0.02mol/L Ph5.6的Na2HPO4-柠檬酸缓冲液进行GABA富集实验,反应16h后可得到GABA 2900mg/100g米糠.采用D001大孔强酸性阳离子交换树脂对该富集液进行纯化实验,调节富集液Ph2.0,以2mg/Ml的浓度上样吸附,2mol/L的氨水浓度进行洗脱,最终可得γ-氨基丁酸纯度61.25%.

  13. Inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-gated chloride currents by noradrenaline in rat spiral ganglion neuron%去甲肾上腺素抑制大鼠耳蜗螺旋神经元γ氨基丁酸门控氯通道电流

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查定军; 薛涛; 乔莉; 卢连军; 林颖; 王智明; 李云庆; 邱建华

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究去甲肾上腺素(noradrenaline,NA)对培养大鼠耳蜗螺旋神经元γ氨基丁酸(gamma-aminobutyric acid,GABA)诱发电流的作用.方法分离培养大鼠耳蜗螺旋神经元,采用制霉菌素穿孔膜片钳全细胞记录技术,记录NA对GABA诱发电流的作用.结果 大鼠螺旋神经元GABA诱发反应的反转电位为(-0.78±0.05)mV(n=8),与Cl-平衡电位一致.GABA在钳制电位为-50 mV时,可引起内向电流,EC50为(5.2±0.5)μmol/L,Hill系数为1.03(n=26),该电流可被GABA-A受体拮抗剂荷包牡丹碱抑制,NA对该电流具有抑制作用.结论 NA可以抑制螺旋神经元GABA-A受体介导的门控氯通道电流,该作用可能与交感神经系统对听觉的调控有关.%Objective To investigate the pharmacological modulatory properties of noradrenaline in the rat spiral ganglion neuron.Methods Nystain perforated patch recording technique under voltage-clamp conditions was used to record the modulatory effect of noradrenaline on the current evoked by gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) in the spiral ganglion neuron.Results The reversal potential of the GABA response was about(-0.78±0.05)mV(n=8),which was almost identical to the theoretical Cl- equilibrium potential.At the holding potential of -50 mV,GABA evoked inward current (IGABA) over the concentration range of 0.3 to 1μmol/L The EC50 and Hill coefficient for GABA were (5.2±0.5)μmol/L and 1.03(n=26).The IGABA was suppressed by bicuculline,the selective GABA-A receptor antagonist,and the chloride currents evoked by GABA was inhibited by noradrenaline.Conclusions The result indicates that noradrenaline depressed GABA-A receptor-gated chloride currents,which may contribute to the modulatory effect of sympathetic system on auditory transmission.

  14. Identification of γ-aminobutyric Acid producing Enterococcus faecium and Characterization of Its Glutamate Decarboxylase%产γ-氨基丁酸屎肠球菌的鉴定及其谷氨酸脱羧酶酶学性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云; 杨胜远; 杨韵晴; 黄荣城; 陈郁娜; 刘祥流

    2010-01-01

    目的: 鉴定1株产γ氨基丁酸(γ-aminobutyric acid,GABA)的乳酸菌HS3,并研究了其谷氨酸脱羧酶(Glutamate decarboxylase,GAD)粗酶酶学性质.方法:根据形态培养特征、生理生化特征和16S rDNA序列比对及系统发育分析对菌株HS3进行了鉴定.采用菌体细胞破碎后的粗酶液,研究了温度、pH和金属离子对酶活的影响.结果:菌株HS3的形态培养和生理生化特征符合肠球菌属(Enterococcus)特征,其16S rDNA序列与Enterococcus faecium(EU717962)16S rDNA序列同源性达99%,鉴定菌株HS3为屎肠球菌(Enterococcus faecium),菌株HS3 GAD最适作用温度为40 ℃,最适作用pH4.5.酶的热稳定较好,50℃处理4h,在pH3.5~6.0酶活基本稳定.Ca~(2+)对酶有激活作用,5mmol/L和50mmol/L浓度酶活分别提高了37.41%和17.43%.Ba~(2+)和Zn~(2+)在5mmol/L浓度时激活作用明显,而Mg~(2+)在5mmol/L浓度激活作用较好.结论:菌株HS3的GAD活力较高,稳定性较好,为生物合成GABA提供了新的微生物菌种资源.

  15. 反复热性惊厥过程中γ-氨基丁酸B受体对硫化氢的调节作用%Gamma-aminobutyric acid B receptor regulates the expression of hydrogen sulfide /cystathionine-β-synthase system in recurrent febrile seizures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩颖; 秦炯; 卜定方; 常杏芝; 杨志仙; 杜军保

    2006-01-01

    目的热性惊厥(febrile seizure,FS)是婴幼儿时期最常见的惊厥性疾患之一,阐明其发生机制一直是该领域的重要研究课题.该课题前期的研究证明,γ-氨基丁酸B受体(γ-aminobutyric acid B receptor,GABABR)亚基和气体信号分子硫化氢(H2S)均在反复热性惊厥中发挥了重要作用.该文使用GABABR激动剂ba-clofen,抑制剂Phaclofen,探讨GABABR对FS大鼠硫化氢/胱硫醚-β-合成酶(cystathionine-β-synthase,CBS)体系表达的影响.方法大鼠随机分为对照组,FS组,FS+baclofen组,FS+phaclofen组.采用热水浴诱导大鼠FS,隔日诱导1次,共10次.采用分光光度计法测定大鼠血浆中H2S含量;用原位杂交方法观察CBS mRNA表达情况;用免疫组化方法观察CBS蛋白表达情况.结果FS+baclofen组H2S含量较FS组升高427.45±15.91μmoL/L vs362.14±19.71 μmol/L,同时CBS表达也较FS组增强;而FS+phaclofen组H2S含量较FS组降低189.72±21.53μmol/L vs 362.14±19.71 μmol/L,同时CBS表达也较FS组减弱.结论反复热性惊厥过程中,GABABR的改变可影响H2S/CBS体系的表达.

  16. The four human ¿-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Trine; Christiansen, Bolette; Jensen, Anders Asbjørn;

    2009-01-01

    , we perform the first elaborate pharmacological characterization of all four human GAT subtypes. We conduct the experiments in parallel in a [3H]GABA uptake assay using 14 standard GAT substrates and inhibitors. This setup enables direct comparison of the absolute values of inhibitory activities......, no subtype selective ligands have been reported for the three remaining GATs. Given the potential therapeutic relevance of the individual GAT subtypes, a search for novel structures displaying selectivities for specific GAT subtypes is important. In this study, we validate our [3H]GABA uptake assay for use...... in high throughput screening. We find that the assay is categorized by high Z'-factors (Z' > 0.5) for all four GAT subtypes, demonstrating that the assay is excellent for a high throughput screen. This [3H]GABA uptake assay therefore enables future high through put screening of compound libraries...

  17. Effect of Shuyu Capsule Contained Serum on the Expression of γ-aminobutyric Acid B2 Receptor in Primary Cultured Rat Hippocampus Neurons%舒郁胶囊含药血清对大鼠海马神经元γ氨基丁酸B2受体蛋白表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜英凤; 高杰; 魏盛; 薛玲; 葛庆芳

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Our aim was to investigate the protein changes of the expression of γ-aminobutyric acid B2 (GABABR2) receptor in primary cultured rat hippocampus neurons, to explore the intervention mechanism of Shuyu capsule for treating depression emotion preliminarily. Method; We used the chronic mild stress (CMS) to establish the depression emotion ( DE) model in rats, and then the rats were evaluated by sucrose intake, the body weight and open-field from beginning to the end for the model. Serum of rats in each group was collected and then added into the medium of vitro cultured hippocampus primary neurons. At last the expression of "y-aminobutyric acid B2 receptor was detected with Western blot respectively. Result: Compared with the normal group, the weight, the total score of open field test and the sucrose intake of preference test of rats in depression emotion model group lessened significantly (P <0. 01 ) . On the other hand, compared with the depression emotion model group, the weight, the total score of open field test and the sucrose intake of preference test of rats in Shuyu capsule , bupleurum and fluoxetine treatment groups increased significantly ( P < 0. 05 or P < 0. 01 ). Western blot demonstrated that the serum of model group rats obviously increased the protein levels of GABABR2 (P <0. 01 ) , compared with the normal control group. While serum of the Shuyu capsule and fluoxetine treatment groups markedly decreased the protein levels of GABABR2 (P <0. 05) , the bupleurum group had no difference with the model group, but the trendhad improved. Conclusion; The serum of rats with depression emotion could induce the high expression of GABABR2, the Shuyu capsule may play antidepressants by reducing the expression of GABABR2 in primary cultured rat hippocampus neurons. The bupleurum also has a good antidepressant effect, but the effect is less than Shuyu capsule.%目的:观察抑郁情绪大鼠模型给药血清对离体海马神经元γ氨基丁酸B2

  18. 浸泡及发芽条件对糙米吸水率·发芽率和γ-氨基丁酸含量的影响%Effect of the Soaking Treatment and Germination Condition on the Germination Rate and the Content of γ-aminobutyric Acid of Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李苏红; 王俊伟; 邵洋; 刘虹

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The processing technique for the highest germination rate and content of γ-aminobutyric acid(GABA) of brown rice was explored. [ Method]The effect of the soaking treatment and the germination condition on the water absorption,germination rate and level of GABA of brown rice was experimented with the design of single factor and orthogonal method. [ Results ] The brown rice soaked in the water with 40 ℃ was with fastest ability I n water-absorption and it would be saturated after 20-24 hours,which absorption rate of water was 29.0% to 32.0%. The optimal condition of brown rice seed germination was:the temperature of seed-soaking was 35 ℃ ;the time of seed-soaking,48 h;the temperature of seed germination,35 ℃;and the time of seed germination,24 hours. The best condition for the content of GABA in brown rice was the temperature of seed-soaking was 35 ℃ ;the time of seed-soaking,24 hours;the temperature of seed germination,30 ℃ and the time of seed germination ,20 hours. [ Conclusion ] It had important significance in the determination of the optimum condition of brown rice seed germination and the exploration of the intrinsic link between the water absorption,germination rate and the content of GABA in the process of seed germination.%[目的]探索使糙米的发芽率和γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)含量达到最佳的工艺条件.[方法]采用单因素和正交试验法研究浸泡条件和发芽条件对糙米的吸水率、发芽率以及GABA含量的影响.[结果]在40℃浸泡温度条件下糙米吸水快,在20~24 h后水分趋于饱和,吸水率达29.0%-32.0%.糙米发芽的最佳条件为:浸泡温度35℃、浸泡时间48h、发芽温度35℃、发芽时间24h.糙米中GABA含量的最佳富集条件为:浸泡温度35℃、浸泡时间24h、发芽温度30℃、发芽时间20 h.[结论]研究结果对确定糙米发芽的最佳工艺条件及揭示发芽过程中吸水率、发芽率以及GABA含量之间的内在联系具有重要意义.

  19. Study on the Changes and Correlation of Physiological Activities,γ-aminobutyric Acid and Other Essential Substances in Germinating Soybean%发芽过程中大豆生理活性和GABA等物质含量变化及相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭元新; 宋玉; 杨润强; 陈惠; 顾振新

    2011-01-01

    研究了大豆发芽过程中生理活性和γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)等物质含量的变化,并对指标间的相关性进行了分析。结果表明:随着培养温度的升高和时间的延长,大豆芽菜的生长加快,呼吸作用增强,可溶性糖含量下降,还原糖、可溶性蛋白、游离氨基酸和GABA含量升高,干物质含量随发芽时间的延长呈下降趋势。相关性分析表明,GABA的富集量与芽长(r=0.888)、呼吸强度(r=0.917),可溶性蛋白(r=0.878)和游离氨基酸(r=0.943)具有极显著的正相关,但是和干物质含量具有极显著的负相关(r=-0.915)。综合考虑大豆芽菜品质和GABA累积量等因素,大豆在30℃避光发芽5 d,是生产富含GABA豆芽的合适条件。%The changes and correlation of physiological activities,γ-aminobutyric acid(GABA) and other essential substances in germinating soybean in germinating soybean were investigated in this study.It is indicated from the result that with the increase of culture temperature and time,the shoot growth and respiration rate of the germinating soybean are enhanced,the contents of soluble sugar decrease and the content of reducing sugar,soluble protein,free amino acids and GABA increased.The content of dry matter presented the downward trend along with culture time.Correlation analysis revealed,on the one hand,that the GABA accumulation has a significant positive correlation(P0.01) with sprout length(r=0.888),respiratory rate(r=0.917),soluble protein(r=0.878),free amino acid(r=0.943),on the other hand,has a negative correlation with content of dry matter(r=–0.915).By comprehensive consideration of quality and GABA accumulation of germinated soybean,the suitable germinating condition for high GABA germinated soybean was dark culture for 5 d at 30 °C.

  20. 交泰丸对睡眠剥夺大鼠下丘脑Orexin A及γ-氨基丁酸的影响%Effect of Jiaotai Pills on Hypothalamic Orexin A and Gamma-aminobutyric Acid in Sleep Deprivation Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全世建; 焦蒙蒙; 黑赏艳; 钱莉莉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of Jiaotai Pills ( JP) on hypothalamic neurotransmitters of Orexin A and gamma-aminobutyric acid ( GABA) in rapid eye movement ( REM) sleep deprivation rats. Methods Rat model of REM-sleep deprivation was established by water small platform method. The rats were randomized into 6 groups, namely normal control group, model group, Diazepam group (3 mg/kg), and high-, medium-and low-dose JP groups ( JP in the dosage of 18.6, 9.3 and 4.6 g/kg respectively) . Enzyme-labeled instrument was used to detect the absorbance ratio of rat hypothalamic Orexin A content, and high performance liquid phase electrochemical detection method was adopted for the detection of hypothalamic GABA content. Results Compared with the normal control group, all of the rats in the model group suffered from insomnia, and the Orexin A content was increased ( P0.05) . Conclusion The sedative and hypnic mechanism of JP is probably related with the inhibition of hypothalamic Orexin A.%【目的】观察交泰丸对快速动眼(REM)睡眠剥夺大鼠下丘脑神经递质Orexin A及γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)的影响。【方法】采用水环境小平台法制备大鼠睡眠剥夺模型,将造模成功的大鼠随机分为6组,即交泰丸高、中、低剂量组(剂量分别为18.6、9.3、4.6 g/kg),地西泮组(剂量为3 mg/kg)、模型组及正常组,采用酶标仪吸光度法检测大鼠下丘脑促觉醒神经递质Orexin A,高效液相法库伦电化学检测大鼠下丘脑促睡眠神经递质GABA。【结果】与正常组比较,模型组大鼠完全处于失眠状态,其下丘脑Orexin A含量显著升高( P<0.05);与模型组比较,交泰丸高、中、低剂量组失眠状态有明显改善, Orexin A含量显著降低(P<0.05);与模型组比较,交泰丸高、中、低剂量组GABA含量无显著变化(P>0.05)。【结论】交泰丸的镇静催眠作用可能是通过抑制大鼠下

  1. Effect of activation of γ-aminobutyric acid B receptors on glutamate release in spinal dorsal horn neurons in rats with diabetic neuropathic pain%激活γ-氨基丁酸B受体对糖尿病神经痛大鼠脊髓背角神经元谷氨酸递质释放的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀丽; 吴川; 郭跃先; 王秋筠; 刘飞飞; 曹倩倩; 张兆龙

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨激活γ-氨基丁酸B(γ-aminobutyric acid B,GABAB)受体对糖尿病神经痛大鼠脊髓背角谷氨酸能神经元递质释放中的影响.方法 30只(4周龄,150 g~170 g)雄性Sprague-Dawley( SD)大鼠,采用随机数字表法随机分为2组(每组15只):正常对照组(N组)、糖尿病神经痛组(D组).D组通过腹腔注射链脲佐菌素(streptozotocin,STZ)50 mg/kg制备糖尿病神经痛模型,N组腹腔给予等量生理盐水,两组分别于腹腔注射后第3~4周测定空腹血糖、机械缩足阈值(paw withdrawal mechanical threshold,PWMT);然后处死大鼠取腰1~5脊髓,制备脊髓薄片,采用全细胞膜片钳技术,记录脊髓Ⅱ板层单突触神经元谷氨酸能诱发兴奋性突触后电流(evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents,eEPSCs).细胞封接后稳定5 min开始记录,灌流液中加入终浓度为1、10、20、50μmol/L的Baclofen(GABAB受体特异性激动剂),于给药前对照、给予上述浓度药后各时点及洗脱后5 min,记录上述各时点eEPSCs的波幅变化,比较Baclofen对两组大鼠eEPSCs波幅的抑制率,并观察CGP55845 (GABAB 受体特异性阻断剂,1 μmol/L)对Baclofen(50 μmol/L)eEPSCs作用的影响.结果 与N组比较,D组大鼠血糖显著增高,PWT明显降低(P<0.05).电生理共记录30个神经元(每组15个),1 μmol/L~50 μmol/L的Baclofen均以剂量依赖方式降低两组大鼠eEPSCs波幅(P<0.05),N、D两组在1、10、20、50 μmol/L Baclofen时点波幅抑制率均明显下降(P<0.05),两组上述时点比较,D组显著低于N组(P<0.05),分别为:(47±7)vs(21±7),(55±6)vs(50±6),(92±6)vs(72±9),(95±8)vs(88±8),1μmol/LCGP55845可完全去除50 μmol/L Baclofen对两组神经元(每组12个)eEPSCs的作用.结论 激活GABAB受体可明显抑制脊髓背角神经元谷氨酸递质释放,但对糖尿病神经痛大鼠其抑制作用减弱.%Objective To explore the effect of activation of γ-aminobutyric acid B (GABAB) receptors on glutamate

  2. Neurochemical correlates of. gamma. -aminobutyrate (GABA) inhibition in cat visual cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcar, V.J.; Dreher, B. (Univ. of Sydney (Australia))

    1990-01-01

    High affinity binding of ({sup 3}H){gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to neuronal membranes from different parts of cat visual cortex was tested for sensitivity to GABA{sub A} agonists isoguvacine and THIP, GABA{sub A} antagonist SR95531 and GABA{sub B} agonist baclofen. Some of the GABA{sub A}-binding sites were found to have a very low affinity for THIP, suggesting the presence and, possibly, uneven distribution of non-synaptic GABA{sub A} receptors in cat visual cortex. There were no differences in K{sub m} and V{sub max} values of high affinity uptake of GABA and in the potency of K{sup +}-stimulated release of GABA, between primary and association cortices. Consequently, the present results indicate that despite the anatomical and physiological differences between the primary and association feline visual cortices the neurochemical characteristics of GABAergic inhibition are very similar in the two regions.

  3. Neurochemical correlates of γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) inhibition in cat visual cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High affinity binding of [3H]γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to neuronal membranes from different parts of cat visual cortex was tested for sensitivity to GABAA agonists isoguvacine and THIP, GABAA antagonist SR95531 and GABAB agonist baclofen. Some of the GABAA-binding sites were found to have a very low affinity for THIP, suggesting the presence and, possibly, uneven distribution of non-synaptic GABAA receptors in cat visual cortex. There were no differences in Km and Vmax values of high affinity uptake of GABA and in the potency of K+-stimulated release of GABA, between primary and association cortices. Consequently, the present results indicate that despite the anatomical and physiological differences between the primary and association feline visual cortices the neurochemical characteristics of GABAergic inhibition are very similar in the two regions

  4. 大鼠杏仁体基底外侧核中含D2受体的γ-氨基丁酸神经元受多巴胺能末梢支配%γ-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID NEURONS BEARING D2 RECEPTORS ARE INNERVATED BY DOPAMINERGIC TERMINALS IN THE BASOLATERAL NUCLEUS OF RAT AMYGDALA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞锡; 彭裕文; 沈馨亚; 大谷修; 西条 寿夫; 小野 武年

    2005-01-01

    Although both dopamine (DA) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) systems in the amygdala (AM) are involved in schizophrenia which is generally treated by administration of D2 receptor antagonists, it is not clear what is the collocation relationship between GABA and D2 receptors and what are the synaptic relationships between the dopaminergic terminals and GABAergic neurons in AM. Present study examined the coexistence of GABA and D2 receptors and synapses formed between dopaminergic terminals and GABAergic neurons in a key nucleus, the basolateral nucleus (BL), of rat AM by means of double labeling immunofluorescent confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and immunoelectron microscopy (IEM). CLSM revealed that the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) immunolabeled GABAergic neurons were exclusively immunoreactive (IR) to D2 receptors. This indicates that all of the GABAergic interneurons bear D2receptors. IEM revealed that 45% of the DA synapses ( n = 980) were formed between the DA-IR terminals and GAD-IR neurons, and 55% of that formed between DA-IR terminals and unlabeled neuronal elements. In the DA-GABA synapses, the DA-IR terminals targeted either directly (36%) or indirectly (by serial synapse, 9% ) on GAD-IR dendritic structures. Furthermore, the direct DA-GABA synapses could be classified into single ( 16% ) , convergent ( 14% ) and axoaxonic (6%) types according to the number of synapses and the synaptic compositions. In the indirect case, the connection was a synaptic complex, in which a DA-IR terminal formed a synapse on another terminal that form the synapse on the GAD-IR dendrite. In the synapses of DA-unlabeled neuronal elements, the DA-IR terminals targeted on unlabeled perikarya (4%), dendrites (42%), and axons or terminals (9%). Interestingly, all of the DA synapses were exclusively symmetric. The present results suggest that D2 receptor antagonists might act on GABAergic neurons to weaken the DA neurotransmission in AM for clinical effects in

  5. Influence of Low Frequency Electrical Stimulation on Glutamate and Gama-Aminobutyric Acid in Hippocampal Extracellular Fuid of Rats with Drug Resistant Epilepsy%低频电刺激对耐药癫痫大鼠海马细胞外液谷氨酸及γ-氨基丁酸的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐太峰; 伍国锋

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察低频电刺激( LFS)海马对杏仁核电点燃耐药癫痫模型大鼠脑内谷氨酸( Glu)及γ-氨基丁酸( GABA)的影响。方法:选取60只雄性健康SD大鼠制作杏仁核点燃模型,采用苯妥英钠( PHT)和苯巴比妥( PB)对杏仁核点燃癫痫鼠进行耐药筛选,对明确耐药大鼠给予海马LFS治疗,收集电刺激海马治疗前后脑组织微透析液,采用高效液相色谱法( HPLC)观察治疗前后Glu及GABA含量。结果:筛选出的耐药癫痫模型大鼠7只,海马刺激前GABA浓度为(29.1140±7.2362)mg/L,刺激后为(37.1300±7.6225)mg/L,刺激前后比较差异有统计学意义( P ﹤0.05);Glu 刺激前浓度为(2527.7420±514.8311)mg/L,刺激后为(2243.9060±329.2778)mg/L,有降低趋势,但差异无统计学意义( P﹥0.05),GABA/Glu刺激前为0.01163±0.00234,刺激后为0.01650±0.00236,差异有统计学意义( P﹤0.05)。结论:耐药癫痫大鼠海马LFS可增加刺激部位脑组织透析液中GABA水平,提高GABA/Glu比值,这可能是LFS抑制癫痫发作的机制之一。%[ Abstract]Objective:To observe the influence of low frequency electrical stimulation( LFS)of hip-pocampus on glutamate( Glu)and Gama-Aminobutyric Acid( GABA)in brain tissues of amygdala kin-dling epilepsy rat model. Methods:60 healthy male SD rats were selected to make the amygdala kin-dling epilepsy model. Amygdala kindling rats were screened by Pheytoin sodium and Phenobarbital for their drug resistance. The rats with clear drug resistance received LFS treatment. Hippocampal brain microdialysate liquid was collected before and after LFS treatment and HPLC was adopted to detect Glu and GABA content. Results:7 amygdale kindling rats with drug resistance were obtained through screening. Among the 7 selected rats with drug resistance,GABA concentration was( 29. 114 ± 7. 236 2)mg/L before LFS compared with(37. 13 ± 7. 622 5)mg/L after

  6. 外源性γ-氨基丁酸和舍曲林对急性应激抑郁大鼠海马神经元GABA受体的影响%The effects of γ-aminobutyric acid and sertraline on the GABA receptor of hippocampus neuron in rats of depression induced by acute stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芬; 顾永健

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of γ-aminobutyric acid ( GABA) and sertraline on the CABAA(α) receptor and GABAB receptor of hippocampus neuron in rats of depression induced by acute stress. Methods The cognitive function of male SD (Sprague-Dawley) rats was screened through Y-maze. Then rats were randomly divided into five groups. Except control group,rats were injected intraperitoneally with double-distilled, GABA,sertraline or GABA + sertraline respectively. They were exposed to the forced-swimming stress test,which was to make acute stress model of depression. The space memory function in the maze was measured. Then the number of GABA-like immunoreactive neurons in hippocampus CA1 ,CA3 ,DG areas of rats were investigated with immunohistochemist. Results Compared with the model group,the immobility time in the forced-swimming test and the latency in the maze could be reduced significantly after pretreatment with GABA and sertraline (P < 0.01). The positive cell populations of CA1 ,CA3 region and DG gate region in the model group were significantly reduced compared with the control group (P<0.01). GABA could only improve the positive cell populations of GABAB receptor in CA3 region (P<0.01). In the sertraline group,the positive cell populations in hippocampus were increased obviously more than it in model group(P<0.01). The positive cell populations of hippocampus in the GABA + sertraline group in CA1 ( (82.83±8.72),(78.08±5.67)),in CA3((92.83±9.35),(76.00±3.97)),in the gate of DG( (35.00 ±1.41) ,(33.33±4.36)) increased significantly to the other groups (P< 0.05 or 0.01). Conclusion Ectogenic GABA could improve the sertraline' s effects of antagonizing acute depression effectively and the space memory function,and its mechanism may be involved in strengthening the expression of GABAA(α) receptor and GABAB receptor in hippocampus.%目的 探讨外源性γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)和舍曲林对急性应激抑郁大鼠海马神经元GABAA(α)

  7. Effects of cognitive function and neuron morphous in hippocampus of the chronic stress depressed rats with gamma-aminobutyric acid and sertraline%γ-氨基丁酸联合舍曲林对慢性应激抑郁大鼠认知功能及海马神经元形态的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春英; 顾永健

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨γ-氨基丁酸联合舍曲林对慢性应激抑郁大鼠认知功能及海马神经元形态的影响.方法 采用慢性轻度不可预见性应激建立慢性应激抑郁大鼠模型;模型组、舍曲林组、GABA组及研究组大鼠分别给予腹腔注射生理盐水、舍曲林、GABA、GABA+舍曲林21 d,对照组不予任何刺激和药物;采用敞箱试验和电迷宫试验测定大鼠的行为和记忆能力;Nissl染色观察各组大鼠海马CA1、CA3区锥体细胞神经元形态.结果 应激后,接受应激的4组的水平运动、垂直运动、修饰运动较对照组相比显著减少(P<0.05或0.01).用药后研究组和舍曲林组的水平运动[分别为(57.25±18.79)格,(39.00±13.69)格]、垂直运动[分别为(23.25±7.01)次,(16.75±4.71)次]、修饰运动[分别为(2.25±0.46)次,(2.25±1.04)次]以及电迷宫的正确反应次数[分别为(17.00±1.93)次,(16.88±2.64)次]、潜伏期时间[分别为(172.88±26.91)s,(206.00±33.54)s]均明显好于模型组(P<0.05或0.01),GABA组潜伏期时间较模型组显著缩短(P<0.05).与对照组相比,舍曲林组、GABA组和研究组的CA1、CA3区锥体细胞神经元在形态、密集度、排列方面均有不同程度的改善,其中研究组的改善最明显.结论 GABA联合舍曲林能保护慢性应激抑郁大鼠的海马神经元,从而改善其认知功能.%Objective To investigate the effects of cognitive function and neuron morphous in hippocampus of the chronic stress depressed rats with gamma-aminobutyric acid and sertraline.Methods Using the chronic mild unpredictable stress to make the model of the chronic stress depressed rats.Sample group,sertraline group,GABA group and research group were gave by saline,sertraline,GABA,GABA and sertraline i.p.respectively for 21 days.Control group reeepted no any stress and drugs.Using open-field test and electric maze test to detect the behavior and memory function of the rats.Using Nissl staining to observe the

  8. γ-氨基丁酸和舍曲林对急性应激抑郁大鼠认知功能的作用%The roles of γ-aminobutyric acid and sertraline on the cognition in rats of depression induced by acute stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芬; 顾永健; 姜正林

    2009-01-01

    目的 探究γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)和舍曲林对急性应激抑郁大鼠认知功能的影响.方法 对经Y-迷宫筛查出认知功能无差异的雄性SD大鼠进行强迫游泳,建立急性应激抑郁大鼠模型.观察未行应激的大鼠(对照组)、应激大鼠(模型组)、采用GABA预处理的应激大鼠(GABA组)及GABA+舍曲林预处理的应激大鼠(GABA+舍曲林组)在强迫游泳中的不动时间及其游泳后迷宫中的潜伏期.结果 随着GABA剂量的增加.在GABA≥0.5g/kg时大鼠游泳不动时间渐缩短[(432.33±187.64)s>(332.50±217.23)s].与舍曲林(5mg/kg)+GABA(0.25 g/kg)作用[(316.67±353.83)s]相似,与模型组[(1404.33±129.46)s]比较差异有显著性(P<0.01;P<0.05),而大剂量GABA+舍曲林治疗组大鼠游泳不动时间[(1086.17±411.80)s]反而延长;模型组游泳后迷宫中潜伏期为[(179.17±8.54)s],高于对照组[(105.00±32.18)s],差异具有显著性(P<0.05),10 mg/kg舍曲林及舍曲林+GABA联合治疗,大鼠游泳后迷宫中潜伏期分别为[(100.30±21.01)s]、[(69.83±16.89)s]、[(86.83±13.11)s],大鼠游泳后迷宫中潜伏期明显缩短,低于模型组,差异具有显著性(P<0.05,0.01).结论 GABA有一定的抗抑郁作用;适量的GABA与舍曲林联合应用,不但可减少2种药物的使用剂量,较它们单独使用疗效更著;且可明显改善抑郁大鼠的学习记忆功能.%Objective To study the effects of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and sertraline on the cognition functions in acute stressed rats.Methods Y-type maze were used to test the cognitive function of Male SD (Sprague-Dawley) rats.They were exposed to the forced-swimming stress test,which was to make acute stress model of depression.Except control group,rats were pretreated with different doses of GABA and/or sertraline,then the time of immobility in the forced-swimming test and latency in the maze were observed individual.Results Compared with the model group[(1404.33±129.46)s] ,GABA could decrease the

  9. Effect of Jingqianping Granules and Jingqianshu Granules on Expression of Hypothalamic γ-Aminobutyric Acid B2 Receptor in Emotional Rats Models of Anger-out and Anger-in%经前平和经前舒颗粒对愤怒郁怒情绪模型大鼠下丘脑γ氨基丁酸B2受体表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜英凤; 薛玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of "γ-aminobutyric acid B2 receptor (GABABR2)in rats models of anger-out and anger-in, and to explore the intervention mechanism of liver-regulating compound Formulas of Jingqianping Granule and Jingqianshu Granules. Methods The emotional models of anger-out and anger-in were induced in rats by social isolation plus resident-intruder. We analyzed the expression of hypothalamic GABAbR2 by Western blot and RT-PCR methods. Results The mRNA and protein expression levels of hypothalamic GABAbR2 in model rats were decreased when compared with that in the normal control group (P < 0.05-0.01), and the decrease of GABABR2 expression in anger-out model group was more significant than that in anger-in model group. Compared with the model groups, mRNA and protein expression levels of hypothalamic GABArR2 were increased in the medication groups to various degrees. Conclusion The decrease of hypothalamic GABAbR2 expression is one of common e- motional mechanisms in rats with with anger-out and anger-in emotion, and Jingqianping Granules and Jingqianshu Granules can up-regulate the GABAbR2 expression level.%目的 探索愤怒、郁怒情绪与γ氨基丁酸B2受体(GABABR2)的关系,以及调肝方药经前平颗粒和经前舒颗粒的中枢干预机制.方法采用居住入侵和社会隔离的方法复制愤怒、郁怒情绪大鼠模型,用RT-PCR和Western Blot的方法检测GABARR2 mRNA和蛋白的表达差异.结果与正常对照组相比,愤怒、郁怒情绪模型大鼠下丘脑GABABR2 mRNA水平和蛋白水平均明显下降(P<0.01~0.05),而且愤怒模型组的降低程度明显大于郁怒模型组.与各模型组相比,各给药组GABABR2 mRNA水平和蛋白水平均有不同程度的升高.结论大鼠下丘脑GABABR2表达降低可能是影响大鼠愤怒和郁怒情绪的重要共性机制之一;中药经前平和经前舒颗粒对GABABR2表达异常变化具有调节作用.

  10. Identification, Purification, and Characterization of a Novel Amino Acid Racemase, Isoleucine 2-Epimerase, from Lactobacillus Species

    OpenAIRE

    Mutaguchi, Yuta; Ohmori, Taketo; Wakamatsu, Taisuke; Doi, Katsumi; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of d-leucine, d-allo-isoleucine, and d-valine was observed in the growth medium of a lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus otakiensis JCM 15040, and the racemase responsible was purified from the cells and identified. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme was GKLDKASKLI, which is consistent with that of a putative γ-aminobutyrate aminotransferase from Lactobacillus buchneri. The putative γ-aminobutyrate aminotransferase gene from L. buchneri JCM 1115 was expres...

  11. 生物基尼龙聚丁内酰胺单体γ-氨基丁酸的纯化工艺研究%Study on the Separation and Extraction Technology of Gamma-aminobutyric Acid (GABA) for PA4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鹤飞; 夏泉鸣; 邱勇隽; 王耀松; 蒋丽华; 赵黎明

    2014-01-01

    为掌握从谷氨酸发酵液提取生物基尼龙聚丁内酰胺单体γ-氨基丁酸( GABA)的技术,本文研究了膜过滤联合离子交换吸附和洗脱的工艺,并且使用活性炭进行脱色。膜过滤过程中初始大跨膜压差为0.85 bar,过滤温度控制在38℃;离子交换过程采用QY-021-a强酸型阳离子交换树脂,常温下吸附-洗脱的操作方法;经旋转蒸发浓缩后,添加15%(碳对固形物含量之比)活性炭,温度为65℃,搅拌40 min脱色。结果表明:平均膜通量为128 L/m2·h,浓缩倍数为33.3倍。经取样检测膜透过液样品,浓缩液样品计算GABA收率为97.7%,微滤膜以及膜表面污染物上无GABA截留和吸附截留;离子交换经5 BV洗脱后计算收率,吸附-洗脱过程的收率为92.8%;使用活性碳B的脱色率为94.2%,GABA收率为99.2%。该工艺的总收率为85%,该工艺具有工业化应用前景,并且可以通过优化离子交换工艺和设备进一步提高收率。%In order to explore the extraction technology of GABA from fermentation broth with glutamic acid as substrate, membrane filtration associated with ion-exchange adsorption and desorption process were studied in this paper, and followed with decolorization by using active carbon. The initial trans-membrane pressure is 0. 85 bar during the filtration process, and the temperature was controlled at 38℃. With QY-021-a strong acid cation exchange resin as packing in ion-exchange column, adsorption-desorption process was exerted at room temperature. After concentrated by rotary evaporation, decolorization was performed using 15% ( carbon/solids in the solution ) activate carbon, with temperature fixed at 65℃, stirring for 40 min. Results showed that the average flux was 128 L/m2·h, and concentration ratio was 33.3. Samplings to detect membrane permeate showed that the yield of GABA was 97.7%, which indicated that there was no GABA

  12. Glutamine synthetase stability and subcellular distribution in astrocytes are regulated by γ-aminobutyric type B receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyghe, Deborah; Nakamura, Yasuko; Terunuma, Miho; Faideau, Mathilde; Haydon, Philip; Pangalos, Menelas N; Moss, Stephen J

    2014-10-17

    Emerging evidence suggests that functional γ-aminobutyric acid B receptors (GABABRs) are expressed by astrocytes within the mammalian brain. GABABRs are heterodimeric G-protein-coupled receptors that are composed of R1/R2 subunits. To date, they have been characterized in neurons as the principal mediators of sustained inhibitory signaling; however their roles in astrocytic physiology have been ill defined. Here we reveal that the cytoplasmic tail of the GABABR2 subunit binds directly to the astrocytic protein glutamine synthetase (GS) and that this interaction determines the subcellular localization of GS. We further demonstrate that the binding of GS to GABABR2 increases the steady state expression levels of GS in heterologous cells and in mouse primary astrocyte culture. Mechanistically this increased stability of GS in the presence of GABABR2 occurs via reduced proteasomal degradation. Collectively, our results suggest a novel role for GABABRs as regulators of GS stability. Given the critical role that GS plays in the glutamine-glutamate cycle, astrocytic GABABRs may play a critical role in supporting both inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission.

  13. Proteolysis and bioconversion of cereal proteins to glutamate and γ-Aminobutyrate (GABA) in Rye malt sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromeck, Achim; Hu, Ying; Chen, Lingyun; Gänzle, Michael G

    2011-02-23

    This study aimed to achieve the conversion of cereal proteins to the alternative end products glutamate or γ-aminobutyrate (GABA). Rye malt, fungal proteases, and lactobacilli were employed to convert wheat gluten or barley proteins. Glutamate and GABA formations were strain-dependent. Lactobacillus reuteri TMW1.106 and Lactobacillus rossiae 34J accumulated glutamate; L. reuteri LTH5448 and LTH5795 accumulated GABA. Glutamate and GABA accumulation by L. reuteri TMW1.106 and LTH5448 increased throughout fermentation time over 96 h, respectively. Peptides rather than amino acids were the main products of proteolysis in all doughs, and barley proteins were more resistant to degradation by rye malt proteases than wheat gluten. However, addition of fungal protease resulted in comparable degradation of both substrates. Glutamate and GABA accumulated to concentrations up to 63 and 90 mmol kg(-1) DM, respectively. Glutamate levels obtained through bioconversion of cereal proteins enable the use of hydrolyzed cereal protein as condiment. PMID:21271723

  14. Effect of γ-aminobutyric acid B receptors on the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in hippocampus of rats with diabetic neuropathic pain with depression%γ-氨基丁酸B型受体对糖尿病神经痛合并抑郁大鼠海马脑源性神经生长因子表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白惠萍; 刘朋; 杨淑红; 吴川; 任伟; 郭跃先; 王秀丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect γ-aminobutyric acid B (GABAB) receptors on the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in rats with diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) with depression by using GABAB receptors agonist (baclofen) and antagonists (CGP55845).Methods 100 male SD rats were randomly divided into two groups:normal control group (C group) and DNP with depression model group (D group),in which the rats were intraperitonealy injected with saline or streptozocin (STZ) respectively.The DNP with depression models were established in 80 rats three weeks after the forced swimming test (FST),and 80 rats were randomly divided into 4 subgroups (n =20,each group) according to the given medicines:saline 10 μl + saline 10 μl injected intrathecally in D1 group,baclofen 0.5 μg + saline 10 μl in D2 group,CGP55845 10 μg + saline 10 μl in D3 group,and CGP55845 10 μg +baclofen 0.5 μg in D4 group.Saline 10 μl + saline 10 μl were injected intrathecally in 20 normal rats (C group).There was an interval of 15 min between twice intrathecal injections in five groups for 4 days.The paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) and immobility time of FST (IMFST) were measured two h (T1) and two weeks after intrathecal injection (T2) respectively.The hippocampi of rats were removed after measurements of PWT and IMFST for detection of BDNF expression.Results As compared with C group,the PWT was significantly reduced [(13.02 ± 1.68) g vs.(3.46 ±0.84) g,P <0.05],the IMFST was significantly prolonged [(47.14 ±3.65) s vs.(178.12 ± 12.49) s,P <0.05],and the expression of BDNF was decreased (P < 0.05) in D group.As compared with D1 group,the IMFST was significantly shortened (P < 0.05) in D2 and D3 groups,the expression of BDNF was increased (P < 0.05) in D2 and D3 groups,and the PWT was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in D2 group but showed no significant change in D3 group.The PWT,IMFST and expression of BDNF showed no significant change in D4 group as

  15. 鞘内注射γ-氨基丁酸转运体抑制剂NO-711在骨癌痛大鼠脊髓水平印制磷酸化细胞外信号周节激酶1/2的上调%Intrathecal administration of γ-aminobutyric acid transporter-1 inhibitor NO-711 inhibits the up-regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in lumbar spinal cord of bone cancer pain in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱珊珊; 谭珊珊; 曾因明

    2011-01-01

    Intrathecal post-treatment with NO-711 inhibited allodynia in rats with bone cancer pain,but could not relieve ambulatory-evoked pain.The inhibitory effect lasted for 8 h(group N2,6.49±0.64)and 12 h(group N3 12.40±1.37,N4 11.48±0.69)respectively.Compared with group S,Western blot analysis revealed that p-ERK1/2 expression in the spinal cord in group N 1 was significantly increased(P<0.05); Compared with group N 1,p-ERK1/2 expression in the spinal cord in group N2,N3,N4 were significantly decreased(P<0.01).Conclusion Our studies indicate that activation of ERK in the lumbar spinal cord is involved in the induction and maintenance of bone cancer pain in rats.Intrathecal injection of GAT-1 inhibitor attenuated mechanical hyperalgesia via inhibiting the up-regulation of p-ERK1/2 in rat tibial bone cancer pain model.%目的 探讨脊髓水平脊髓细胞外信号调节激酶1/2(extracellular regulated kinase 1/2,ERK1/2)活化在大鼠骨癌痛发生中的作用.方法 实验1:雌性SD大鼠48只,体重160 g~200 g,按随机数字表法分成2组(每组24只),A组(对照组)、B组(模型组).采用胫骨上段骨髓腔接种Walker-256乳腺癌细胞方法制备大鼠骨癌痛模型.于术前1d、术后1、3、5、7、10、14、21d测定大鼠机械刺激缩足反射阈值(mechanical withdrawal threshold,MWT)和自由行走痛行为学评分(ambulatory-evoked pain scores,APS),术后第7、14、21天取大鼠腰段脊髓,采用Western blot方法检测ERK1/2的表达.实验2:60只大鼠按随机数字表法分为5组(每组12只):S组、N1组、N2组、N3组和N4组.假手术组+生理盐水(S组)、骨癌痛+生理盐水(N1组)、骨癌痛+NO-711 10 μg(N2组)、骨癌痛+NO-711 20 μg(N3组)、骨癌痛+NO-711 40μg(N4组).于术后第14天鞘内分别给予生理盐水(S组、N1组)、γ-氨基丁酸转运体(γ-aminobutyric acid transporter-1,GAT-1)抑制剂NO-711 10 μg(N2组)、NO-711 20 μg(N3组)、NO-711 40 μg(N4组).最后一次给药后0.5、1、2、4、8、12

  16. Effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on synaptogenesis and synaptic function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belhage, B; Hansen, G H; Elster, L;

    1998-01-01

    , but the intracellular link between GABA receptor activation and DNA transcription is largely unknown. GABA also controls the induction and development of functionally and pharmacologically different GABAA receptor subtypes. The induced receptors are likely to be inserted only into the synaptic membrane domain. However...

  17. Cloning and characterization of a functional human ¿-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter, human GAT-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Bolette; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Jensen, Anders A.;

    2007-01-01

    at the transporter. Expression analysis by reverse transcription-PCR showed that GAT-2 mRNA is present in human brain, kidney, lung, and testis. The finding of the human GAT-2 demonstrates for the first time that the four plasma membrane GABA transporters identified in several mammalian species are all conserved...

  18. Does gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA influence the development of chronic inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridges S Louis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have demonstrated a role for spinal p38 MAP kinase (MAPK in the development of chronic inflammation and peripheral arthritis and a role for GABA in the inhibition of p38 MAPK mediated effects. Integrating these data suggests that GABA may play a role in downregulating mechanisms that lead to the production of proinflammatory agents such as interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and matrix metalloproteinase 3 – agents implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Genetic studies have also associated RA with members of the p38 MAPK pathway. Hypothesis We propose a hypothesis for an inefficient GABA signaling system that results in unchecked proinflammatory cytokine production via the p38 MAPK pathway. This model also supports the need for increasing research in the integration of immunology and neuroscience.

  19. Comparison of Nootropic and Neuroprotective Features of Aryl-Substituted Analogs of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyurenkov, I N; Borodkina, L E; Bagmetova, V V; Berestovitskaya, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2016-02-01

    GABA analogs containing phenyl (phenibut) or para-chlorophenyl (baclofen) substituents demonstrated nootropic activity in a dose of 20 mg/kg: they improved passive avoidance conditioning, decelerated its natural extinction, and exerted antiamnestic effect on the models of amnesia provoked by scopolamine or electroshock. Tolyl-containing GABA analog (tolibut, 20 mg/kg) exhibited antiamnestic activity only on the model of electroshock-induced amnesia. Baclofen and, to a lesser extent, tolibut alleviated seizures provoked by electroshock, i.e. both agents exerted anticonvulsant effect. All examined GABA aryl derivatives demonstrated neuroprotective properties on the maximum electroshock model: they shortened the duration of coma and shortened the period of spontaneous motor activity recovery. In addition, these agents decreased the severity of passive avoidance amnesia and behavioral deficit in the open field test in rats exposed to electroshock. The greatest neuroprotective properties were exhibited by phenyl-containing GABA analog phenibut. PMID:26906198

  20. Alpha-amino acid behaves differently from beta- or gamma-amino acids as treated by trimetaphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X; Liu, Y; Xu, P X; Cai, Y M; Zhao, Y F

    2008-01-01

    The condensation reactions of sodium trimetaphosphate with single amino acids, namely glycine, L-alanine, beta-alanine and gamma-aminobutyric acid or pairs of these amino acids were reinvestigated by electrospray ion-trap mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography. It was found when mixtures were treated by sodium trimetaphosphate only in the presence of alpha-amino acid dipeptides were formed. Without addition of alpha-amino acids, the beta-amino acid or gamma-aminobutyric acid could not form peptide either by themselves or with their mixtures under the same conditions. From the data it is concluded that phosphate might select alpha-amino acids to produce the peptides being important precursors for the origin of life. PMID:17973074

  1. Role of taurine on acid secretion in the rat stomach

    OpenAIRE

    Ho Jau-Der; Chang Chia-Chieh; Huang Kai-Han; Lu Ruey-Hwa; Tsai Li Hsueh

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Taurine has chemical structure similar to an inhibitory neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Previous studies on GABA in the stomach suggest GABAergic neuron is involved in acid secretion, but the effects of taurine are poor understood. Methods The effects of taurine on acid secretion, signal transduction, and localization of taurinergic neurons were determined in the rat stomach using everted whole stomach, RIA kit and immunohistochemical methods. Results We used...

  2. Syntheses ofγ-fluoro-α-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufe, G; Kröger, S

    1996-09-01

    Methods for the synthesis of racemic and optically active title compounds are presented. Key step of these four-step procedures is the alkylation with 1-bromo-2-fluoroalkanes of glycine-ester-derived imines in anhydrous medium using lithium diisopropylamide as a base at low temperature or phase transfer catalyzed alkylation with 50% NaOH and triethylbenzylammoniumchloride as the phase transfer catalyst, respectively. Subsequent three-step deprotection gave the free acids in 13-33% overall yield. Deracemization ofγ-fluoro-α-aminobutyric acid methyl and ethyl esters withα-chymotrypsin was shown to give the (-)-enantiomers of the esters and (+)-γ-fluoro-α-aminobutyric acid in >98% ee, while from thetert-butylester the opposite stereochemical result was observed giving the (-)-acid with 88% ee. Optically activeγ-fluoro-α-amino acids were synthesized alternatively by phase transfer catalysis with N-benzyl-cinchonium chloride or using an auxiliary-directed asymmetric alkylation of the imine derived from (R)-(+)-camphor or (R)-(+)-2-hydroxypinan-3-one. These processes gave different enantiomers ofγ-fluoro-α-aminobutyric acid via a monomeric lithium enolate in the first or a dimeric lithium enolate in the second case, respectively. The enantiomeric excess can be improved by lithium/magnesium exchange. PMID:24178725

  3. Effect of activating γ-aminobutyric acid B receptors on the expression of phosphorylated cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B in the spinal dorsal horn in rats with diabetic neuropathic pain%激活γ-氨基丁酸B型受体对糖尿病神经痛大鼠脊髓背角磷酸化环磷酸腺苷反应元件结合蛋白和N-甲基-D-天冬氨酸受体2B亚基表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘朋; 郭闻亚; 赵晓南; 吕艳霞; 魏淑明; 王秀丽

    2013-01-01

    目的 利用γ-氨基丁酸B型受体(GABAR)受体激动剂(巴氯芬)和拮抗剂(CGP55845),探讨激活GABAB受体对糖尿病神经痛大鼠脊髓背角磷酸化环磷酸腺苷反应元件结合蛋白(p-CREB)和N-甲基-D-天冬氨酸受体2B亚基(NMDA-2B、NR2B)表达的影响.方法 62只SD雄性大鼠随机分为两组:正常对照组(C组)和糖尿病神经痛模型组(D组),腹腔分别注射生理盐水或链脲佐菌素(STZ,60 mg/kg).50只大鼠腹腔注射STZ,4周后36只大鼠成功制备成糖尿病神经痛(DNP)模型并鞘内置管,根据鞘内给药(共20μ1)随机分为3组(n=12):DNP对照组(D1组):生理盐水10 μl+生理盐水10μ;巴氯芬组(D2组):生理盐水10 μ1+巴氯芬0.5μg;CGP55845+巴氯芬组(D3组):CGP55845 10 μg+巴氯芬0.5 μg;12只同周龄正常大鼠腹腔注射生理盐水并鞘内置管作为C组,鞘内注射生理盐水10μl+生理盐水10μl.4组大鼠两次鞘内注射间隔15 min,连续4d,每天鞘内注射前、后30 min测定大鼠50%机械缩足阈值(PWT),各时点分别为:T1、T2、T3、T4,最后1次测完后取大鼠脊髓背角,采用分子生物学方法测定p-CREB、环磷酸腺苷反应元件结合蛋白(CREB)和NR2B受体表达变化.结果 与C组比较,D1、D3两组大鼠T1-T4各时点PWT明显降低(P<0.05),p-CREB和NR2B蛋白表达及NR2B mRNA表达明显增多(P<0.05);与D1组比较,D2组大鼠各时点PWT显著升高(P<0.05);与D1组p-CREB(0.76 ±0.13)、NR2B(1.28 ±0.14)蛋白表达、NR2B mRNA表达(0.83±0.10)比较,D2组p-CREB (0.45±0.08)和NR2B(0.88 0.13)蛋白表达及NR2B mRNA表达(0.53±0.08)显著降低(P<0.05).4组间比较,CREB蛋白表达差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 激活GABAB受体可使糖尿病神经痛大鼠脊髓背角p-CREB、NR2B蛋白表达下调,抑制糖尿病神经痛.%Objective To investigate the effect of activating γ-aminobutyric acid(GABAB) receptors on the expression of phosphorylated cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element

  4. Role of a gamma-aminobutryic acid (GABA) receptor mutation in the evolution and spread of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera resistance to cyclodiene insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    An alanine to serine amino acid substitution within the Rdl subunit of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor confers resistance to cyclodiene insecticides in many species. The corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, is a damaging pest of cultivated corn that was partially controlled by ...

  5. 3-Aminopropylphosphinic acid--a potent, selective GABAB receptor agonist in the guinea-pig ileum and rat anococcygeus muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Hills, J. M.; Dingsdale, R. A.; Parsons, M.E.; Dolle, R. E.; Howson, W.

    1989-01-01

    1. 3-Aminopropylphosphinic acid, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogue, was tested for activity on guinea-pig isolated ileum and rat isolated anococcygeus muscle preparations. The effects of 3-aminopropylphosphinic acid were compared with those of GABA and baclofen. 2. In the electrically stimulated ileum, 3-aminopropylphosphinic acid, like GABA and baclofen, caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of the cholinergic twitch contraction, the IC50 value being 1.84 +/- 0.23 microM (n = 1...

  6. Conformational basis for the Li(+)-induced leak current in the rat gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacAulay, Nanna; Zeuthen, Thomas; Gether, Ulrik

    2002-01-01

    (+)-bound conformation of the protein displayed a lower passive water permeability than that of the Na(+)- and choline (Ch(+))-bound conformations and the leak current did not saturate with increasing amounts of Li(+) in the test solution. The mechanism that gives rise to the leak current did not support active water...... transport in contrast to the mechanism responsible for GABA translocation (approximately 330 water molecules per charge). Altogether, these data support the distinct nature of the leak conductance in relation to the substrate translocation process. It was observed that the leak current was inhibited by low...

  7. Transmembrane topology, subcellular distribution and turnover of the gamma-aminobutyric acid/benzodizaepine receptor in chick brain cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were performed utilizing trypsinization of the GABA/BZD-R in intact cells to determine (1) the subcellular distribution of membrane-associated GABA/BZD-Rs and (2) aspects of the transmembrane topology of the BZD-R. Additionally, R07-0213, a positively charged benzodiazepine, was used to distinguish between cell surface and intracellular BZD-Rs. Following trypsin treatment of intact cells a cleaved receptor fragment of Mr = 24,000 (xRF24) is generated. It remains anchored in the plasma membrane and not only retains the ability to bind [3H]flunitrazepan reversibly and irreversibly but also retains the ability to be modulated by GABA. xRF24 is not observed following trypsinization of saponin-treated cells or cell homogenates, indicating that it has a cytoplasmic domain as well as a cell surface domain, as expected for a transmembrane fragment of the BZD-R. By utilizing [3H]flunitrazepam as an irreversible photoaffinity label, BZD-R turnover was also investigated

  8. Gamma-aminobutyric acid and benzodiazepine receptor changes induced by unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the medial forebrain bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, H.S.; Penney, J.B.; Young, A.B.

    1985-11-01

    Quantitative autoradiography was used to ascertain alterations in (TH)muscimol, (TH)flunitrazepam (FLU), (TH)naloxone, (TH)D-alanine-D-leucine-enkephalin (DADL), and (TH)spiroperidol binding in basal ganglia 1 week, 4 weeks, and 5 months after unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) in the rat. At 1 and 4 weeks following lesions, (TH)spiroperidol binding increased 33% in striatum. At 5 months, (TH)spiroperidol was only nonsignificantly increased above control. At 1 week, (TH)muscimol binding decreased 39% in ipsilateral globus pallidus (GP), but increased 41% and 11% in entopeduncular nucleus (EPN) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), respectively. At 4 weeks, (TH)muscimol binding was reduced 19% in striatum and 44% in GP and remained enhanced by 32% in both EPN and SNr. These changes in (TH)muscimol binding persisted at 5 months. (TH)FLU binding was altered in the same direction as (TH)muscimol binding; however, changes were slower in onset and became significant (and remained so) only at 4 weeks after lesions. Decreases in (TH)naloxone and (TH)DADL binding were seen in striatum, GP, EPN, and SNr. Scatchard analyses revealed that only receptor numbers were altered. This study provides biochemical evidence for differential regulation of striatal GABAergic output to GP and EPN/SNr.

  9. DISC1 Protein Regulates γ-Aminobutyric Acid, Type A (GABAA) Receptor Trafficking and Inhibitory Synaptic Transmission in Cortical Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jing; Graziane, Nicholas M; Gu, Zhenglin; Yan, Zhen

    2015-11-13

    Association studies have suggested that Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) confers a genetic risk at the level of endophenotypes that underlies many major mental disorders. Despite the progress in understanding the significance of DISC1 at neural development, the mechanisms underlying DISC1 regulation of synaptic functions remain elusive. Because alterations in the cortical GABA system have been strongly linked to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, one potential target of DISC1 that is critically involved in the regulation of cognition and emotion is the GABAA receptor (GABAAR). We found that cellular knockdown of DISC1 significantly reduced GABAAR-mediated synaptic and whole-cell current, whereas overexpression of wild-type DISC1, but not the C-terminal-truncated DISC1 (a schizophrenia-related mutant), significantly increased GABAAR currents in pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex. These effects were accompanied by DISC1-induced changes in surface GABAAR expression. Moreover, the regulation of GABAARs by DISC1 knockdown or overexpression depends on the microtubule motor protein kinesin 1 (KIF5). Our results suggest that DISC1 exerts an important effect on GABAergic inhibitory transmission by regulating KIF5/microtubule-based GABAAR trafficking in the cortex. The knowledge gained from this study would shed light on how DISC1 and the GABA system are linked mechanistically and how their interactions are critical for maintaining a normal mental state. PMID:26424793

  10. A Potential Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technique Based on Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer for In Vivo γ-Aminobutyric Acid Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Gen; Zhang, Tao; Dai, Zhuozhi; Yi, Meizhi; Jia, Yanlong; Nie, Tingting; Zhang, Handi; Xiao, Gang; Wu, Renhua

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We developed a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique based on chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) for GABA imaging and investigated the concentration-dependent CEST effect ofGABA in a rat model of brain tumor with blood—brain barrier (BBB) disruption. Materials and Methods All MRI studies were performed using a 7.0-T Agilent MRI scanner. Z-spectra for GABA were acquired at 7.0 T, 37°C, and a pH of 7.0 using varying B1 amplitudes. CEST images of phantoms with different concentrations of GABA solutions (pH, 7.0) and other metabolites (glutamine, myoinositol, creatinine, and choline) were collected to investigate the concentration-dependent CEST effect of GABA and the potential contribution from other brain metabolites. CEST maps for GABA in rat brains with tumors were collected at baseline and 50 min, 1.5 h, and 2.0 h after the injection of GABA solution. Results The CEST effect of GABA was observed at approximately 2.75 parts per million(ppm) downfield from bulk water, and this effect increased with an increase in the B1 amplitude and remained steady after the B1 amplitude reached 6.0 μT (255 Hz). The CEST effect of GABA was proportional to the GABA concentration in vitro. CEST imaging of GABA in a rat brain with a tumor and compromised BBB showed a gradual increase in the CEST effect after GABA injection. Conclusion The findings of this study demonstrate the feasibility and potential of CEST MRI with the optimal B1 amplitude, which exhibits excellent spatial and temporal resolutions, to map changes in GABA. PMID:27711138

  11. Modulation of y-aminobutyric acid (GABA) uptake by P2Y1 metabotropic purinergic receptor in rat cortical astrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Joaquim Pedro Faria, 1980-

    2011-01-01

    Os astrócitos expressam uma variedade de receptores purinérgicos (P2), envolvidos na comunicação entre astrócitos e indutores de aumentos rápidos na [Ca2+]i. Os receptores metabatrópicos do ATP (P2Y) regulam o Ca2+ citoplasmático através da via de sinalização PLC-PKC, a qual está, também, envolvida na regulação da actividade dos transportadores de GABA, nomeadamente GAT-1 e GAT-3. No presente estudo foi analisada, a modulação dos transportadores de GABA nos astrócitos pela b...

  12. Comparative proteomic analysis of gamma-aminobutyric acid responses in hypoxia-treated and untreated melon roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Longquan; Wu, Xiaolei; Tian, Zhen; Jia, Kaizhi; Pan, Yinghong; Li, Jingrui; Gao, Hongbo

    2015-08-01

    Hypoxia is one of the main environmental stresses that accounts for decreasing crop yield. To further investigate the mechanisms whereby exogenous GABA alleviates hypoxia injury to melon seedlings, a comparative proteomic analysis was performed using roots subjected to normal aeration and hypoxia conditions with or without GABA (5mM). The results indicated that protein spots on gels after hypoxia and hypoxia+GABA treatment were significantly changed. Three "matched sets" were analyzed from four treatments, and 13 protein spots with large significant differences in expression were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Exogenous GABA treatment enhanced the expression of protein in cytosolic phosphoglycerate kinase 1, exaA2 gene product, dnaJ and myb-like DNA-binding domain-containing proteins, as well as elongation factor-1 alpha and hypothetical proteins in hypoxia-induced roots. However, the hypoxia+GABA treated roots had a significantly lower expression of proteins including malate dehydrogenase, nucleoside diphosphate kinase, disease resistance-like protein, disulfide isomerase, actin, ferrodoxin NADP oxidoreductase, glutathione transferase, netting associated peroxidase. This paper describes the effect of GABA on melon plants under hypoxia-induced stress using proteomics, and supports the alleviating function of GABA in melon plants grown under hypoxic conditions.

  13. Carrier-mediated ¿-aminobutyric acid transport across the basolateral membrane of human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Carstensen, Mette; Brodin, Birger

    2012-01-01

    -affinity transporter is Na(+) and Cl(-) dependent. The substrate specificity of the high-affinity transporter was further studied and Gly-Sar, Leucine, gaboxadol, sarcosine, lysine, betaine, 5-hydroxythryptophan, proline and glycine reduced the GABA uptake to approximately 44-70% of the GABA uptake in the absence...

  14. Impairment of glutamine/glutamate-γ-aminobutyric acid cycle in manganese toxicity in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidoryk-Wegrzynowicz, M

    2014-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element that is required for maintaining the proper function and regulation of many biochemical and cellular reactions. Despite its essentiality, at excessive levels Mn is toxic to the central nervous system. The overdose accumulation of Mn in specific brain areas, such as the substantia nigra, the globus pallidus and the striatum, triggers neurotoxicity resulting in a neurological brain disorder, referred to as manganism. Manganese toxicity is associated with the disruption of glutamine (Gln)/glutamate (Glu) GABA cycle (GGC). The GGC represents a complex process, since Gln efflux from astrocytes must be met by its influx in neurons. Mn toxicity is associated with the disruption of both of these critical points in the cycle. In cultured astrocytes, pre-treatment with Mn inhibits the initial net uptake of Gln in a concentration-dependent manner. Manganese added directly to astrocytes induces deregulation in the expression of SNAT3, SNAT2, ASCT2 and LAT2 transporters and significantly decreases in Gln uptake mediated by the transporting Systems N and ASC, and a decrease in Gln efflux mediated by Systems N, ASC and L. Further, Mn disrupts Glu transporting systems leading to both a reduction in Glu uptake and elevation in extracellular Glu levels. Interestingly, there appear to be common signaling targets of Mn in GGC cycling in glial cells. Namely, the PKC signaling is affected by Mn in Gln and Glu transporters expression and function. Additionally, Mn was identified to deregulate glutamine synthetase (GS) expression and activity. Those evidences could triggers depletion of Gln synthesis/metabolism in glia cells and consequently diminish astrocytic-derived glutamine, while disruption of Glu removal/transport can mediate dyshomeostasis in neurotransmission of functioning neurons. Overdose and excessive Mn accumulations in astrocytes not only culminate in pathology, but also affect astrocytic protective properties and defect or alternate astrocyte-neuronal integrity. Here we highlight the mechanistic commonalities inherent to Mn neurotoxicity related to the astrocyte pathology and GGC impairment.

  15. Systematic analysis of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism and function in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuantai; Janetopoulos, Chris

    2013-05-24

    While GABA has been suggested to regulate spore encapsulation in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, the metabolic profile and other potential functions of GABA during development remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the homeostasis of GABA metabolism by disrupting genes related to GABA metabolism and signaling. Extracellular levels of GABA are tightly regulated during early development, and GABA is generated by the glutamate decarboxylase, GadB, during growth and in early development. However, overexpression of the prespore-specific homologue, GadA, in the presence of GadB reduces production of extracellular GABA. Perturbation of extracellular GABA levels delays the process of aggregation. Cytosolic GABA is degraded by the GABA transaminase, GabT, in the mitochondria. Disruption of a putative vesicular GABA transporter (vGAT) homologue DdvGAT reduces secreted GABA. We identified the GABAB receptor-like family member GrlB as the major GABA receptor during early development, and either disruption or overexpression of GrlB delays aggregation. This delay is likely the result of an abolished pre-starvation response and late expression of several "early" developmental genes. Distinct genes are employed for GABA generation during sporulation. During sporulation, GadA alone is required for generating GABA and DdvGAT is likely responsible for GABA secretion. GrlE but not GrlB is the GABA receptor during late development.

  16. Molecular basis of the γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor α3 subunit interaction with the clustering protein gephyrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tretter, Verena; Kerschner, Bernd; Milenkovic, Ivan;

    2011-01-01

    -fold difference in the interaction strength between GABA(A)R α3 and GlyR β subunits with gephyrin with dissociation constants of 5.3 μm and 0.2 μm, respectively. Taken together, these observations suggest that clustering of GABA(A)R α2, α3, and GlyRs by gephyrin is mediated by distinct mechanisms...

  17. Neuronal gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptors undergo cognate ligand chaperoning in the endoplasmic reticulum by endogenous GABA

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ping; Eshaq, Randa S.; Meshul, Charles K.; Moore, Cynthia; Hood, Rebecca L; Leidenheimer, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    GABAA receptors mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain. Dysfunction of these receptors is associated with various psychiatric/neurological disorders and drugs targeting this receptor are widely used therapeutic agents. Both the efficacy and plasticity of GABAA receptor-mediated neurotransmission depends on the number of surface GABAA receptors. An understudied aspect of receptor cell surface expression is the post-translational regulation of receptor biogenesis within the endo...

  18. Gephyrin-mediated γ-aminobutyric acid type A and glycine receptor clustering relies on a common binding site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maric, Hans-Michael; Mukherjee, Jayanta; Tretter, Verena;

    2011-01-01

    tight interaction with GlyR β, gephyrin only loosely interacts with GABA(A)R α2, whereas it has an intermediate affinity for the GABA(A)R α1 and α3 subunits. Despite the wide variation in affinities and the low overall sequence homology among the identified receptor subunits, competition assays...

  19. Impairment of glutamine/glutamate-γ-aminobutyric acid cycle in manganese toxicity in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidoryk-Wegrzynowicz, M

    2014-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element that is required for maintaining the proper function and regulation of many biochemical and cellular reactions. Despite its essentiality, at excessive levels Mn is toxic to the central nervous system. The overdose accumulation of Mn in specific brain areas, such as the substantia nigra, the globus pallidus and the striatum, triggers neurotoxicity resulting in a neurological brain disorder, referred to as manganism. Manganese toxicity is associated with the disruption of glutamine (Gln)/glutamate (Glu) GABA cycle (GGC). The GGC represents a complex process, since Gln efflux from astrocytes must be met by its influx in neurons. Mn toxicity is associated with the disruption of both of these critical points in the cycle. In cultured astrocytes, pre-treatment with Mn inhibits the initial net uptake of Gln in a concentration-dependent manner. Manganese added directly to astrocytes induces deregulation in the expression of SNAT3, SNAT2, ASCT2 and LAT2 transporters and significantly decreases in Gln uptake mediated by the transporting Systems N and ASC, and a decrease in Gln efflux mediated by Systems N, ASC and L. Further, Mn disrupts Glu transporting systems leading to both a reduction in Glu uptake and elevation in extracellular Glu levels. Interestingly, there appear to be common signaling targets of Mn in GGC cycling in glial cells. Namely, the PKC signaling is affected by Mn in Gln and Glu transporters expression and function. Additionally, Mn was identified to deregulate glutamine synthetase (GS) expression and activity. Those evidences could triggers depletion of Gln synthesis/metabolism in glia cells and consequently diminish astrocytic-derived glutamine, while disruption of Glu removal/transport can mediate dyshomeostasis in neurotransmission of functioning neurons. Overdose and excessive Mn accumulations in astrocytes not only culminate in pathology, but also affect astrocytic protective properties and defect or alternate astrocyte-neuronal integrity. Here we highlight the mechanistic commonalities inherent to Mn neurotoxicity related to the astrocyte pathology and GGC impairment. PMID:25574742

  20. The effect of two lipophilic gamma-aminobutyric acid uptake blockers in CA1 of the rat hippocampal slice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rekling, J C; Jahnsen, H; Mosfeldt Laursen, A

    1990-01-01

    the blood. 2. We have investigated the effect of these two uptake inhibitors on the responses to exogenous GABA and on GABA-mediated inhibitory synaptic potentials in pyramidal neurones of the CA1 region in the rat hippocampal slice. 3. We found that both drugs increased the amplitude and duration of...... responses to exogenous GABA. Furthermore, the inhibitory synaptic potentials increased in amplitude. This increase was seen in both early and late phases of the synaptic potentials. We conclude that NO-05-0328 and NO-05-0329, at least in vitro, are more effective than older GABA uptake inhibitors such as...

  1. Effect of borneol, moschus, storax, and acorus tatarinowii on expression levels of four amino acid neurotransmitters in the rat corpus striatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Zhang; Ping Liu; Xinrong He

    2012-01-01

    The present study collected cerebrospinal fluid samples from the corpus striatum in rats treated with borneol, moschus, storax, and acorus tatarinowii using brain microdialysis technology. Levels of excitatory neurotransmitters aspartic acid and glutamate, as well as inhibitory neurotransmitters glycine and ?-aminobutyric acid, were measured in samples using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, phosphate gradient elution, and fluorescence detection. Results showed that concentrations of all four amino acid neurotransmitters significantly increased in the corpus striatum following treatment with borneol or moschus, but effects due to borneol were more significant than moschus. Acorus tatarinowii treatment increased ?-aminobutyric acid expression, but decreased glutamate concentrations. Storax increased aspartic acid concentrations and decreased glycine expression. Results demonstrated that borneol and moschus exhibited significant effects on con amino acid neurotransmitter expression; storax exhibited excitatory effects, and acorus tatarinowii resulted in inhibitory effects.

  2. Nonproteinogenic D-amino acids at millimolar concentrations are a toxin for anaerobic microorganisms relevant to early Earth and other anoxic planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Sophie L; Cockell, Charles S

    2015-03-01

    The delivery of extraterrestrial organics to early Earth provided a potentially important source of carbon and energy for microbial life. Optically active organic compounds of extraterrestrial origin exist in racemic form, yet life on Earth has almost exclusively selected for L- over D-enantiomers of amino acids. Although D-enantiomers of proteinogenic amino acids are known to inhibit aerobic microorganisms, the role of concentrated nonproteinogenic meteoritic D-amino acids on anaerobic metabolisms relevant to early Earth and other anoxic planets such as Mars is unknown. Here, we test the inhibitory effect of D-enantiomers of two nonproteinogenic amino acids common to carbonaceous chondrites, norvaline and α-aminobutyric acid, on microbial iron reduction. Three pure strains (Geobacter bemidjiensis, Geobacter metallireducens, Geopsychrobacter electrodiphilus) and an iron-reducing enrichment culture were grown in the presence of 10 mM D-enantiomers of both amino acids. Further tests were conducted to assess the inhibitory effect of these D-amino acids at 1 and 0.1 mM. The presence of 10 mM D-norvaline and D-α-aminobutyric acid inhibited microbial iron reduction by all pure strains and the enrichment. G. bemidjiensis was not inhibited by either amino acid at 0.1 mM, but D-α-aminobutyric acid still inhibited at 1 mM. Calculations using published meteorite accumulation rates to the martian surface indicate D-α-aminobutyric acid may have reached inhibitory concentrations in little over 1000 years during peak infall. These data show that, on a young anoxic planet, the use of one enantiomer over another may render the nonbiological enantiomer an environmental toxin. Processes that generate racemic amino acids in the environment, such as meteoritic infall or impact synthesis, would have been toxic processes and could have been a selection pressure for the evolution of early racemases. PMID:25695622

  3. 产γ-氨基丁酸乳酸菌及其应用%γ-Aminobutyric acid producing Lactic acid bacteria and its applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李理; 刘冶; 满朝新; 姜毓君

    2014-01-01

    γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)是一种在自然界广泛存在的非蛋白质氨基酸,具有降血压、镇静安神、免疫调节等多种生理功能.许多乳酸菌能够利用其谷氨酸脱羧酶催化谷氨酸及其盐类产生GABA.产GABA的乳酸菌菌株种类较多且产量各异,主要来源于泡菜、发酵乳、干酪等酸性食品.谷氨酸脱羧酶直接决定乳酸菌合成GABA的能力,该酶的活性受到底物、辅酶、发酵pH值和发酵时间等多种因素的影响.以高产GABA的乳酸菌作为发酵剂研制富含GABA的发酵乳制品是对乳酸菌益生功能的进一步利用,具有较为广阔的市场价值.因此筛选高产GABA的乳酸菌不仅有利于相关产品的开发,也是研究产GABA乳酸菌相关性质的重要基础.

  4. (1S, 3S)-3-amino-4-difluoromethylenyl-1-cyclopentanoic acid (CPP-115), a potent gamma-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase inactivator for the treatment of cocaine addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Yue; Gerasimov, Madina R; Kvist, Trine;

    2012-01-01

    Vigabatrin, a GABA aminotransferase (GABA-AT) inactivator, is used to treat infantile spasms and refractory complex partial seizures and is in clinical trials to treat addiction. We evaluated a novel GABA-AT inactivator (CPP-115) and observed that it does not exhibit other GABAergic or off-target...

  5. Characterization of the Intracellular Glutamate Decarboxylase System: Analysis of Its Function, Transcription, and Role in the Acid Resistance of Various Strains of Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Karatzas, Kimon-Andreas G.; Suur, Laura; O'Byrne, Conor P.

    2012-01-01

    The glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) system is important for the acid resistance of Listeria monocytogenes. We previously showed that under acidic conditions, glutamate (Glt)/γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) antiport is impaired in minimal media but not in rich ones, like brain heart infusion. Here we demonstrate that this behavior is more complex and it is subject to strain and medium variation. Despite the impaired Glt/GABA antiport, cells accumulate intracellular GABA (GABAi) as a standard response aga...

  6. Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Bernardi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB is a short-chain fatty acid structurally similar to the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid. Clinical trials have demonstrated that 50-100 mg/kg of GHB fractioned into three or six daily doses is able to suppress alcohol withdrawal symptoms and facilitates the maintenance of abstinence from alcohol. These studies have also shown that GHB craving episodes are a very limited phenomenon (about 10-15%. Thus, physicians with access should consider the clinical efficacy of GHB as a valid pharmacological tool for the treatment of alcohol addiction.

  7. Amino acid composition of cerebrospinal fluid in actue neuroinfections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buryakova, A V; Sytinsky, I A

    1975-01-01

    A survey of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amino acids, glutamine, and glutamic and gamma-aminobutyric (GABA) acids was made in 168 children, aged 1 to 14 years, with various neurological infections. The glutamic acid and glutamine concentrations in the CSF of children with severe forms of acute serous and bacterial meningitis were about three to four times as great as in controls. The indices returned almost to normal during recovery. GABA is absent in normal CSF, but appeared in the CSF of patients with bacterial meningitis. Its determination may be used as an additional test to differentiate between serous and bacterial meningitis.

  8. Accumulation of gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) caused by heat-drying and expression of related genes in immature vegetable soybean (edamame)

    OpenAIRE

    TAKAHASHI, Yukiko; Sasanuma, Tsuneo; Abe, Toshinori

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effects of drying of immature seeds of vegetable soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) on the accumulation of gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) in the seeds. GABA accumulated after heat-drying, with the maximum at 40°C. The GABA content (447.5 mg/100 g DW) increased to more than 5 times the value in untreated seeds (79.6 mg/100 g DW). In contrast, the glutamate content decreased rapidly to 1/3 the level in the untreated seeds. The GABA content increased early in the heat-drying treatment: ...

  9. [Effect of synthetic cyclopentane beta,beta'-triketones on amino acid metabolism in roots of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demina, E A; Tishchenko, L Ia; Shestak, O P; Novikov, V L; Anisimov, M M

    2009-01-01

    Germination of buckwheat seeds in solutions of synthetic mono- and tricyclic cyclopentane-containing beta,beta'-triketones of various concentrations was accompanied by inhibition of seedling root growth and changes in the contents of glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid, proline, glutamine, and alanine. The monocyclic triketone also affected the amount of isoleucine. It is likely that the increase in proline content is a nonspecific response significant for enhancing stress tolerance in seedlings.

  10. Impact of 1-methylcyclopropene and controlled atmosphere storage on polyamine and 4-aminobutyrate levels in ‘Empire’ apple fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen L Deyman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP delays ethylene-meditated ripening of apple (Malus domestica Borkh. fruit during controlled atmosphere storage. Here, we tested the hypothesis that 1-MCP and controlled atmosphere storage enhances the levels of polyamines (PAs and 4-aminobutyrate (GABA in apple fruit. A 46-week experiment was conducted with ‘Empire’ apple using a split-plot design with four treatment replicates and 3 oC, 2.5 kPa O2, and 0.03 or 2.5 kPa CO2 with or without 1 μL L-1 1-MCP. Total PA levels were not elevated by the 1-MCP treatment. Examination of the individual PAs revealed that: (i total putrescine levels tended to be lower with 1-MCP regardless of the CO2 level, and while this was mostly at the expense of free putrescine, large transient increases in soluble conjugated putrescine were also evident; (ii total spermidine levels tended to be lower with 1-MCP, particularly at 2.5 kPa CO2, and this was mostly at the expense of soluble conjugated spermidine; (iii total spermine levels at 2.5 kPa CO2 tended to be lower with 1-MCP, and this was mostly at the expense of both soluble and insoluble conjugated spermine; and (iv total spermidine and spermine levels at 0.03 kPa were relatively unaffected, compared to 2.5 kPa CO2, but transient increases in free spermidine and spermine were evident. These findings might be due to changes in the conversion of putrescine into higher PAs and the interconversion of free and conjugated forms in apple fruit, rather than altered S-adenosylmethionine availability. Regardless of 1-MCP and CO2 treatments, the availability of glutamate showed a transient peak initially, probably due to protein degradation, and this was followed by a steady decline over the remainder of the storage period which coincided with linear accumulation of GABA. This pattern has been attributed to the stimulation of glutamate decarboxylase activity and inhibition of GABA catabolism, rather than a contribution of PAs to GABA

  11. Transgenic manipulation of a single polyamine in poplar cells affects the accumulation of all amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Sridev; Minocha, Rakesh; Long, Stephanie; Minocha, Subhash C

    2010-04-01

    The polyamine metabolic pathway is intricately connected to metabolism of several amino acids. While ornithine and arginine are direct precursors of putrescine, they themselves are synthesized from glutamate in multiple steps involving several enzymes. Additionally, glutamate is an amino group donor for several other amino acids and acts as a substrate for biosynthesis of proline and gamma-aminobutyric acid, metabolites that play important roles in plant development and stress response. Suspension cultures of poplar (Populus nigra x maximowiczii), transformed with a constitutively expressing mouse ornithine decarboxylase gene, were used to study the effect of up-regulation of putrescine biosynthesis (and concomitantly its enhanced catabolism) on cellular contents of various protein and non-protein amino acids. It was observed that up-regulation of putrescine metabolism affected the steady state concentrations of most amino acids in the cells. While there was a decrease in the cellular contents of glutamine, glutamate, ornithine, arginine, histidine, serine, glycine, cysteine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, aspartate, lysine, leucine and methionine, an increase was seen in the contents of alanine, threonine, valine, isoleucine and gamma-aminobutyric acid. An overall increase in percent cellular nitrogen and carbon content was also observed in high putrescine metabolizing cells compared to control cells. It is concluded that genetic manipulation of putrescine biosynthesis affecting ornithine consumption caused a major change in the entire ornithine biosynthetic pathway and had pleiotropic effects on other amino acids and total cellular carbon and nitrogen, as well. We suggest that ornithine plays a key role in regulating this pathway.

  12. Identification, purification, and characterization of a novel amino acid racemase, isoleucine 2-epimerase, from Lactobacillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutaguchi, Yuta; Ohmori, Taketo; Wakamatsu, Taisuke; Doi, Katsumi; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2013-11-01

    Accumulation of d-leucine, d-allo-isoleucine, and d-valine was observed in the growth medium of a lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus otakiensis JCM 15040, and the racemase responsible was purified from the cells and identified. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme was GKLDKASKLI, which is consistent with that of a putative γ-aminobutyrate aminotransferase from Lactobacillus buchneri. The putative γ-aminobutyrate aminotransferase gene from L. buchneri JCM 1115 was expressed in recombinant Escherichia coli and then purified to homogeneity. The enzyme catalyzed the racemization of a broad spectrum of nonpolar amino acids. In particular, it catalyzed at high rates the epimerization of l-isoleucine to d-allo-isoleucine and d-allo-isoleucine to l-isoleucine. In contrast, the enzyme showed no γ-aminobutyrate aminotransferase activity. The relative molecular masses of the subunit and native enzyme were estimated to be about 49 kDa and 200 kDa, respectively, indicating that the enzyme was composed of four subunits of equal molecular masses. The Km and Vmax values of the enzyme for l-isoleucine were 5.00 mM and 153 μmol·min(-1)·mg(-1), respectively, and those for d-allo-isoleucine were 13.2 mM and 286 μmol·min(-1)·mg(-1), respectively. Hydroxylamine and other inhibitors of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes completely blocked the enzyme activity, indicating the enzyme requires pyridoxal 5'-phosphate as a coenzyme. This is the first evidence of an amino acid racemase that specifically catalyzes racemization of nonpolar amino acids at the C-2 position. PMID:24039265

  13. Direct activation of GABAA receptors by substances in the organic acid fraction of Japanese sake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izu, Hanae; Shigemori, Kensuke; Eguchi, Masaya; Kawane, Shuhei; Fujii, Shouko; Kitamura, Yuji; Aoshima, Hitoshi; Yamada, Yasue

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effect of substances present in Japanese sake on the response of ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Sake was fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. The fraction containing organic acids (OA fraction) showed agonist activities on the GABAA receptor. OA fractions from sake were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS). Of the 64 compounds identified, 13 compounds showed GABAA receptor agonist activities. Especially, l-lactic acid showed high agonist activity and its EC50 value was 37μM. Intraperitoneal injections of l-lactic acid, gluconic acid, and pyruvic acid (10, 10, and 5mg/kg BW, respectively), which showed agonistic activity on the GABAA receptor, led to significant anxiolytic effects during an elevated plus-maze test in mice. PMID:27507485

  14. Prebiotic formation of polyamino acids in molten urea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, H.; Nomoto, S.; Terasaki, M.; Shimoyama, A.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2005-04-01

    It is important for research into the origins of life to elucidate polyamino acid formation under prebiotic conditions. Only a limited set of amino acids has been reported to polymerize thermally. In this paper we demonstrate a novel thermal polymerization mechanism in a molten urea of alkylamino acids (i.e. glycine, alanine, β-alanine, α-aminobutyric acid, valine, norvaline, leucine and norleucine), which had been thought to be incapable of undergoing thermal polymerization. Also, aspartic acid was found to polymerize in molten urea at a lower temperature than that at which aspartic acid alone had previously been thermally polymerized. Individual oligomers produced in heating experiments on urea-amino acid mixtures were analysed using a liquid chromatograph mass spectrometer. Major products in the reaction mixture were three different types of polyamino acid derivatives: N-carbamoylpolyamino acids, polyamino acids containing a hydantoin ring at the N-terminal position and unidentified derivatives with molecular weights that were greater by 78 than those of the corresponding peptide forms. The polymerization reaction occurred by taking advantage of the high polarity of molten urea as well as its dehydrating ability. Under the presumed prebiotic conditions employed here, many types of amino acids were thus revealed to undergo thermal polymerization.

  15. Agonist-dependent endocytosis of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors revealed by a γ2(R43Q) epilepsy mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumont, Severine; André, Caroline; Perrais, David; Boué-Grabot, Eric; Taly, Antoine; Garret, Maurice

    2013-09-27

    GABA-gated chloride channels (GABAARs) trafficking is involved in the regulation of fast inhibitory transmission. Here, we took advantage of a γ2(R43Q) subunit mutation linked to epilepsy in humans that considerably reduces the number of GABAARs on the cell surface to better understand the trafficking of GABAARs. Using recombinant expression in cultured rat hippocampal neurons and COS-7 cells, we showed that receptors containing γ2(R43Q) were addressed to the cell membrane but underwent clathrin-mediated dynamin-dependent endocytosis. The γ2(R43Q)-dependent endocytosis was reduced by GABAAR antagonists. These data, in addition to a new homology model, suggested that a conformational change in the extracellular domain of γ2(R43Q)-containing GABAARs increased their internalization. This led us to show that endogenous and recombinant wild-type GABAAR endocytosis in both cultured neurons and COS-7 cells can be amplified by their agonists. These findings revealed not only a direct relationship between endocytosis of GABAARs and a genetic neurological disorder but also that trafficking of these receptors can be modulated by their agonist.

  16. γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A (GABAA) Receptor Subunits Play a Direct Structural Role in Synaptic Contact Formation via Their N-terminal Extracellular Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura E; Nicholson, Martin W; Arama, Jessica E; Mercer, Audrey; Thomson, Alex M; Jovanovic, Jasmina N

    2016-07-01

    The establishment of cell-cell contacts between presynaptic GABAergic neurons and their postsynaptic targets initiates the process of GABAergic synapse formation. GABAA receptors (GABAARs), the main postsynaptic receptors for GABA, have been recently demonstrated to act as synaptogenic proteins that can single-handedly induce the formation and functional maturation of inhibitory synapses. To establish how the subunit composition of GABAARs influences their ability to induce synaptogenesis, a co-culture model system incorporating GABAergic medium spiny neurons and the HEK293 cells, stably expressing different combinations of receptor subunits, was developed. Analyses of HEK293 cell innervation by medium spiny neuron axons using immunocytochemistry, activity-dependent labeling, and electrophysiology have indicated that the γ2 subunit is required for the formation of active synapses and that its effects are influenced by the type of α/β subunits incorporated into the functional receptor. To further characterize this process, the large N-terminal extracellular domains (ECDs) of α1, α2, β2, and γ2 subunits were purified using the baculovirus/Sf9 cell system. When these proteins were applied to the co-cultures of MSNs and α1/β2/γ2-expressing HEK293 cells, the α1, β2, or γ2 ECD each caused a significant reduction in contact formation, in contrast to the α2 ECD, which had no effect. Together, our experiments indicate that the structural role of GABAARs in synaptic contact formation is determined by their subunit composition, with the N-terminal ECDs of each of the subunits directly participating in interactions between the presynaptic and postsynaptic elements, suggesting the these interactions are multivalent and specific. PMID:27129275

  17. Gamma-aminobutyric acid agonist-induced alterations in the ultrastructure of cultured cerebellar granule cells is restricted to early development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, G H; Belhage, B; Schousboe, A;

    1988-01-01

    7 and 14 days, respectively, in culture. THIP treatment of 7-day-old cultures led to a statistically significant increase in the cytoplasmic density of rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, vesicles, and coated vesicles, whereas no significant increase in the cytoplasmic density of these...

  18. Gamma-aminobutyric acid agonist-induced alterations in the ultrastructure of cultured cerebellar granule cells is restricted to early development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert Helge; Belhage, B; Schousboe, A;

    1988-01-01

    The effect of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]-pyridin-3-ol (THIP) on the ultrastructural composition of cultured cerebellar granule cells was investigated during development by quantitative electron microscopy (morphometric analysis). Granule cells were exposed to THIP (150 microM) for 6 h aft...... of these organelles was observed in 14-day-old cultures exposed to THIP for 6 h. These findings show that the effect of THIP on the ultrastructural composition of cultured cerebellar granule cells is restricted to early development.......The effect of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]-pyridin-3-ol (THIP) on the ultrastructural composition of cultured cerebellar granule cells was investigated during development by quantitative electron microscopy (morphometric analysis). Granule cells were exposed to THIP (150 microM) for 6 h after...

  19. 5-(Piperidin-4-yl)-3-Hydroxypyrazole: A Novel Scaffold for Probing the Orthosteric γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptor Binding Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krall, Jacob; Kongstad, Kenneth Thermann; Nielsen, Birgitte;

    2014-01-01

    A series of bioisosteric N1- and N2-substituted 5-(piperidin-4-yl)-3-hydroxypyrazole analogues of the partial GABAAR agonists 4-PIOL and 4-PHP have been designed, synthesized, and characterized pharmacologically. The unsubstituted 3-hydroxypyrazole analogue of 4-PIOL (2 a; IC50∼300 μM) is a weak...... indicate that the N1-substituted analogues of 4-PIOL and 4-PHP, 2 a–k, and previously reported 3-substituted 4-PHP analogues share a common binding mode to the orthosteric binding site in the receptor. Interestingly, the core scaffold of the N2-substituted analogues of 4-PIOL and 4-PHP, 3 b...

  20. Effects of inhibitors of protein synthesis and intracellular transport on the gamma-aminobutyric acid agonist-induced functional differentiation of cultured cerebellar granule cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belhage, B; Hansen, G H; Meier, E;

    1990-01-01

    differentiation and GABA receptor expression was investigated in cultured cerebellar granule cells. After 4 days in culture the neurons were exposed to the inhibitors for 6 h in the simultaneous presence of THIP. Subsequently, cultures were either fixed for electron microscopic examination or used for preparation...... of membranes for [3H]GABA binding assays. In some experiments the functional activity of the newly induced low-affinity GABA receptors was assessed by investigation of the ability of GABA to inhibit neurotransmitter release from the neurons. These experiments were performed to differentiate between...... an intracellular and a plasma membrane localization of the receptors. In all experiments cultures treated with THIP alone served as controls. The inhibitors of protein synthesis totally abolished the ability of THIP to induce low-affinity GABA receptors. In contrast, the inhibitors of intracellular transport...

  1. Polyamine biosynthesis and degradation are modulated by exogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid in root-zone hypoxia-stressed melon roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunyan; Fan, Longquan; Gao, Hongbo; Wu, Xiaolei; Li, Jingrui; Lv, Guiyun; Gong, Binbin

    2014-09-01

    We detected physiological change and gene expression related to PA metabolism in melon roots under controlled and hypoxic conditions with or without 5 mM GABA. Roots with hypoxia treatment showed a significant increase in glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity and endogenous GABA concentration. Concurrently, PA biosynthesis and degradation accelerated with higher gene expression and enzymes activity. However, endogenous GABA concentrations showed a large and rapid increase in Hypoxia + GABA treated roots. This led to a marked increase in Glu concentration by feedback inhibition of GAD activity. Hypoxia + GABA treatment enhanced arginine (Arg), ornithine (Orn) and methionine (Met) levels, promoting enzyme gene expression levels and arginine decarboxylase (ADC), ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) activities in roots. Hypoxia + GABA treatment significantly increased concentrations of free putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) from day two to eight, promoting the PA conversion to soluble conjugated and insoluble bound forms. However, PA degradation was significantly inhibited in hypoxia + GABA treated roots by significantly decreasing gene expression and activity of diamine oxidase (DAO) and polyamine oxidase (PAO). However, exogenous GABA showed a reduced effect in control compared with hypoxic conditions. Our data suggest that alleviating effect of exogenous GABA to hypoxia is closely associated with physiological regulation of PA metabolism. We propose a potential negative feedback mechanism of higher endogenous GABA levels from combined effects of hypoxia and exogenous GABA, which alleviate the hypoxia damage by accelerating PA biosynthesis and conversion as well as preventing PA degradation in melon plants.

  2. Analysis of γ-Aminobutyric Acid Content in Germinated Brown Rice (Oryza sativa L.)%籼稻萌芽糙米GABA含量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绪璋; 周以飞

    2007-01-01

    以籼稻多系一号,特优175,威优77三个品种的糙米为材料,分析了相同条件下生产的萌芽糙米及不同处理的萌芽糙米GABA(r-氨基丁酸)含量.试验结果表明:不同品种的萌芽糙米GABA含量差异显著,多系一号萌芽糙米GABA含量为244mg/kg,与特优175,威优77比较差异达到显著水平;萌芽糙米GABA含量是糙米的5倍;糙米浸泡后催芽,在萌芽生长过程中GABA含量逐步提高,24h后达到最高值时开始下降;生长素GA对富集GABA有一定的促进作用,但烘干和晒干两种处理对萌芽糙米GABA含量没有影响.

  3. Ex vivo binding of t-( sup 35 S) butylbicyclophosphorothionate: A biochemical tool to study the pharmacology of ethanol at the gamma-aminobutyric acid-coupled chloride channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanna, E.; Concas, A.; Serra, M.; Santoro, G.; Biggio, G. (Univ. of Cagliari (Italy))

    1991-03-01

    The effects of acute administration of ethanol on t-(35S)Butylbiclophosphorothionate (35S-TBPS) binding measured ex vivo in unwashed membrane preparations of rat cerebral cortex were investigated. Ethanol, given i.g., decreased in a dose-related (0.5-4 g/kg) and time-dependent manner the binding of 35S-TBPS. This effect was similar to that induced by the administration of diazepam (0.5-4 mg/kg i.p.). Scatchard plot analysis of this radioligand binding revealed that ethanol, differently from diazepam, decreased the apparent affinity of 35S-TBPS recognition sites whereas it failed to change the density of these binding sites. The effect of ethanol on 35S-TBPS binding could not be reversed by the previous administration to rats of the benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, Ro 15-1788 (ethyl-8-fluoro-5,6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H- imidazo (1,5a) (1,4) benzodiazepine-3-carboxylate). Vice versa, the benzodiazepine receptor partial inverse agonist, Ro 15-4513 (ethyl-8-azido-5,6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H- imidazo (1,5a) (4,4) benzodiazepine-3-carboxylate) (8 mg/kg i.p.), prevented completely ethanol-induced decrease of 35S-TBPS binding. The ability of Ro 15-4513 to prevent the action of ethanol was shared by the anxiogenic and proconvulsant beta-carboline derivatives, FG 7142 (N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide) (12.5 mg/kg i.p.) and ethyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (0.6 mg/kg i.v.), which, per se, enhanced this parameter. Moreover, ethanol (0.5-4 g/kg) was able to reverse the increase of 35S-TBPS binding elicited by the s.c. injection of isoniazid (350 mg/kg) and to clearly attenuate the severity of tonic-clonic seizures produced by this inhibitor of the GABAergic transmission.

  4. Differential interactions of 5-(4-piperidyl)-3-isoxazolol analogues with insect γ-aminobutyric acid receptors leading to functional selectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Genyan; Frølund, Bente; Ozoe, Fumiyo;

    2015-01-01

    value of 31.3 μM. Homology models and docking simulations revealed that a cation-π interaction between an analogue and an Arg residue in loop C or E of the orthosteric site is a key component of antagonism. This specific phenomenon was lacking in the interactions between 2a and the orthosteric site...... of small brown planthopper GABARs. These findings provide important insights into designing and developing novel drugs and insecticides....

  5. Phenylacetic acids and the structurally related non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac bind to specific gamma-hydroxybutyric acid sites in rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Høg, Signe; Skonberg, Christian;

    2009-01-01

    Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a proposed neurotransmitter or neuromodulator with a yet unresolved mechanism of action. GHB binds to both specific high-affinity GHB binding sites and to gamma-aminobutyric acid subtype B (GABA(B)) receptors in the brain. To separate specific GHB effects from...... GABA(B) receptor effects, it is imperative to develop GHB selective and potent compounds. We generated the compound, 4-(biphen-4-yl)-4-hydroxybutyric acid, which is the 4-hydroxyl analogue of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) fenbufen (referred to as gamma-hydroxyfenbufen). When measured...... in a rat brain homogenate [(3)H]NCS-382 binding assay, gamma-hydroxyfenbufen inhibited [(3)H]NCS-382 binding with a 10-fold higher affinity than GHB (K(i) 0.44 microM), thus establishing it as a novel lead structure. The active metabolite of fenbufen, 4-biphenylacetic acid inhibited [(3)H]NCS-382 binding...

  6. An acidic amino acid transmembrane helix 10 residue conserved in the neurotransmitter:sodium:symporters is essential for the formation of the extracellular gate of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter GAT-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yona, Assaf; Kanner, Baruch I

    2012-03-01

    GAT-1 mediates transport of GABA together with sodium and chloride in an electrogenic process enabling efficient GABAergic transmission. Biochemical and modeling studies based on the structure of the bacterial homologue LeuT are consistent with a mechanism whereby the binding pocket is alternately accessible to either side of the membrane and which predicts that the extracellular part of transmembrane domain 10 (TM10) exhibits aqueous accessibility in the outward-facing conformation only. In this study we have engineered cysteine residues in the extracellular half of TM10 of GAT-1 and probed their state-dependent accessibility to sulfhydryl reagents. In three out of four of the accessible cysteine mutants, the inhibition of transport by a membrane impermeant sulfhydryl reagent was diminished under conditions expected to increase the proportion of inward-facing transporters, such as the presence of GABA together with the cotransported ions. A conserved TM10 aspartate residue, whose LeuT counterpart participates in a "thin" extracellular gate, was found to be essential for transport and only the D451E mutant exhibited residual transport activity. D451E exhibited robust sodium-dependent transient currents with a voltage-dependence indicative of an increased apparent affinity for sodium. Moreover the accessibility of an endogenous cysteine to a membrane impermeant sulfhydryl reagent was enhanced by the D451E mutation, suggesting that sodium binding promotes an outward-facing conformation of the transporter. Our results support the idea that TM10 of GAT-1 lines an accessibility pathway from the extracellular space into the binding pocket and plays a role in the opening and closing of the extracellular transporter gate.

  7. Glutamic acid decarboxylase isoform distribution in transgenic mouse septum: an anti-GFP immunofluorescence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verimli, Ural; Sehirli, Umit S

    2016-09-01

    The septum is a basal forebrain region located between the lateral ventricles in rodents. It consists of lateral and medial divisions. Medial septal projections regulate hippocampal theta rhythm whereas lateral septal projections are involved in processes such as affective functions, memory formation, and behavioral responses. Gamma-aminobutyric acidergic neurons of the septal region possess the 65 and 67 isoforms of the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase. Although data on the glutamic acid decarboxylase isoform distribution in the septal region generally appears to indicate glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 dominance, different studies have given inconsistent results in this regard. The aim of this study was therefore to obtain information on the distributions of both of these glutamic acid decarboxylase isoforms in the septal region in transgenic mice. Two animal groups of glutamic acid decarboxylase-green fluorescent protein knock-in transgenic mice were utilized in the experiment. Brain sections from the region were taken for anti-green fluorescent protein immunohistochemistry in order to obtain estimated quantitative data on the number of gamma-aminobutyric acidergic neurons. Following the immunohistochemical procedures, the mean numbers of labeled cells in the lateral and medial septal nuclei were obtained for the two isoform groups. Statistical analysis yielded significant results which indicated that the 65 isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase predominates in both lateral and medial septal nuclei (unpaired two-tailed t-test p first to reveal the dominance of glutamic acid decarboxylase isoform 65 in the septal region in glutamic acid decarboxylase-green fluorescent protein transgenic mice. PMID:26643381

  8. N-13 labeled amino acids: biodistribution, metabolism and dosimetric considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the growing interest in metabolic imaging and with the increasing number of cyclotron/PET facilities, more studies are being performed in animal and humans using short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides. Amino acids labeled either with N-13 or C-11 are one group of compounds being used to study in vivo regional organ (i.e., brain and heart) or tumor metabolism. Of the studies previously reported using C-11 or N-13 labeled amino acids (methionine, alanine, valine, glutamate, glutamine and tryptophan), imaging was restricted mainly to the organ or tissue of interest with little information obtained about the whole-bode distribution of the label. Such data are important for studying interorgan transport of amino acids and for determining accurate dosimetric measurements after intravenous injection of labeled amino acids. The goals of the authors study were to compare the distribution of several N-13 L-amino acids and N-13 ammonia in tumor-bearing mice and to determine the metabolic fate of the label in vivo. The following amino acids were enzymatically labeled using N-13 ammonia: glutamine, glutamate, methionine, α-aminobutyric acid, valine and leucine. 30 references, 2 figures, 14 tables

  9. Enthalpic Pair Interaction of Rubidium Chloride with α-Amino Acid in Water at 298.15K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡满成; 杨茜; 蒋育澄; 夏树屏

    2005-01-01

    The mixing enthalpies of aqueous heavy rare alkali metal chloride RbC1 solutions with aqueous α-amino acid (Loglycine, L-alanine and α-aminobutyric acid) solutions, as well as the dilution enthalpies of RbC1 and α-amino acid solutions in pure water had been measured at 298.15K. The transfer enthalpies of RbCI from pure water to aqueous α-amino acid solutions could be obtained from these data. The enthalpic pair interaction parameters of RbC1 with α-amino acid in water have been evaluated according to the McMillan-Mayer theory and discussed in terms of the electrostatic interaction, structure interaction and Savage-wood group additivity mode.

  10. Inhibitory effects of matrine on electrical signals and amino acid neurotransmitters in hippocampal brain slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuping Wang; Jiping Chen; Guizhi Zhao; Dan Shou; Xuezhi Hong; Jianmin Zhang

    2009-01-01

    -dose groups were separately injected with 58.5, 39.0, and 19.5 mg/kg matrine via caudal vein, respectively. No intervention was administered to the normal group.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The field potential value in the CA1 region of penicillin-induced rat hippocampal brain slices was analyzed using the evoked field potential technique; chromatography was utilized to determine y-aminobutyric acid and glutamic acid content in the mouse hippocampus.RESULTS: (1) Both 0.1 g/L and 0.05 g/L matrine reduced the number of evoked field potentials in the penicillin-induced rat hippocampal brain slices (P<0.05 or P<0.01). In addition, 0.1 g/L matrine led to a reduction of evoked field potential amplitude (P<0.05). (2) Compared with normal mice,y-aminobutyric levels were dramatically increased at 20 minutes after high-dose matdne treatment (P<0.05). In addition, significantly increased y-aminobutyric acid levels were observed at 40 minutes after medium- and low-dose matrine treatments (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The glutamic acid/V-aminobutyric acid ratio was significantly less at 20 minutes after high-dose matrine treatment compared with the normal mice group (P<0.05).CONCLUSION: Matrine exerts a central inhibitory effect via increased inhibitory neurotransmitter y-aminobutyric acid levels in the hippocampus.

  11. Optimization ofγ-aminobutyric Preparation by Recombinant Glutamate Decarboxylase%重组谷氨酸脱羧酶制备γ-氨基丁酸的工艺条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄燕; 宿玲恰; 吴敬

    2016-01-01

    谷氨酸脱羧酶,一种磷酸吡哆醛(PLP)依赖性酶,能专一、不可逆地催化L-谷氨酸脱羧得到γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)。构建了产Lactobacillus brevisWJH3谷氨酸脱羧酶重组大肠杆菌E.coliBL21(DE3)/pET-24a-gad,以此作为菌种进行摇瓶发酵诱导培养,发酵过程中一次性添加0.05mmol/LPLP培养24h,破壁上清酶活达81.7U/mL,是不添加PLP对照酶活的1.8倍。对酶转化L-谷氨酸钠生成GABA反应条件进行了优化,结果表明,在转化体系不添加PLP的情况下,底物谷氨酸钠浓度为250g/L,反应初始pH5.0,温度37℃,加酶量60U/g底物,转速200r/min,在此条件下反应18h,GABA转化率达到100%,为γ-氨基丁酸的工业化生产奠定基础。%Glutamate decarboxylase(GAD),a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate(PLP)-dependent enzyme,irreversibly catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-glutamate to be the valuable food additive γ-aminobutyric acid(GABA). In this study,a recombinant Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)/pET-24a-gad producing Lactobacillus brevis WJH3 GAD was constructed as strain in the flask culturing of fermentation and induction. The activity of GAD produced in the supernatant of culturing for 24 h medium supplemented one-time with 0.05 mmol/L PLP was 81.7 U/mL,and this was 1.8-fold of that without PLP supplementation. Furthermore,the condition for GABA preparation by enzymatic conversion was optimized;under the condition of 250 g/L monosodium glutamate(MSG),pH5.0,37℃,60 U GAD per gram substrate incubated for 18 hours,and rotation rate 200 r/min,100% of the MSG was transformed into GABA. These results establish the utility of PLP supplementation and lay the foundation for large-scale enzymatic production of GABA.

  12. [Effect of phenibut on the content of monoamines, their metabolites, and neurotransmitter amino acids in rat brain structures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodkina, L E; Kudrin, V S; Klodt, P M; Narkevich, V B; Tiurenkov, I N

    2009-01-01

    Effects of the nootropic drug phenibut, which is a structural analog of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), on the content of monoamines, their metabolites, and neurotransmitter amino acids in brain structures have been studied on Wistar rats. It is established that a single administration of phenibut in a dose of 25 mg/kg (i.p.) produces a statistically significant increase in the content of dopamine metabolite (3,4-dioxyphenylacetic acid) and the retarding amino acid taurine in striatum. At the same time, phenibut did not significantly influence the levels of GABA, serotonin, and dopamine in various brain structures and produce a moderate decrease in the level of norepinephrine in the hippocampus. PMID:19334514

  13. Amino acid abundances and stereochemistry in hydrothermally altered sediments from the Juan de Fuca Ridge, northeastern Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, E; Simoneit, B R; Holm, N G

    2000-09-01

    The Juan de Fuca Ridge is a hydrothermally active, sediment covered, spreading ridge situated a few hundred kilometres off the west coast of North America in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Sediments from seven sites drilled during the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Legs 139 and 168 were analyzed for total hydrolyzable amino acids (THAA), individual amino acid distributions, total organic C (TOC) and total N (TN) contents. The aim was to evaluate the effects of hydrothermal stress on the decomposition and transformation of sedimentary amino acids. Hydrolyzable amino acids account for up to 3.3% of the total organic C content and up to 12% of the total N content of the upper sediments. The total amounts of amino acids decrease significantly with depth in all drilled holes. This trend is particularly pronounced in holes with a thermal gradient of around 0.6 degrees C/m or higher. The most abundant amino acids in shallow sediments are glycine, alanine, lysine, glutamic acid, valine and histidine. The changes in amino acid distributions in low temperature holes are characterized by increased relative abundances of non-protein beta-alanine and gamma-aminobutyric acid. In high temperature holes the amino acid compositions are characterized by high abundances of glycine, alanine, serine, ornithine and histidine at depth. D/L ratios of samples with amino acid distributions similar to those found in acid hydrolysates of kerogen, indicate that racemization rates of amino acids bound by condensation reactions may be diminished.

  14. Predicting Thermodynamic Behaviors of Non-Protein Amino Acids as a Function of Temperature and pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadai, Norio

    2016-03-01

    Why does life use α-amino acids exclusively as building blocks of proteins? To address that fundamental question from an energetic perspective, this study estimated the standard molal thermodynamic data for three non-α-amino acids (β-alanine, γ-aminobutyric acid, and ɛ-aminocaproic acid) and α-amino- n-butyric acid in their zwitterionic, negative, and positive ionization states based on the corresponding experimental measurements reported in the literature. Temperature dependences of their heat capacities were described based on the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equations of state. The obtained dataset was then used to calculate the standard molal Gibbs energies ( ∆G o) of the non-α-amino acids as a function of temperature and pH. Comparison of their ∆G o values with those of α-amino acids having the same molecular formula showed that the non-α-amino acids have similar ∆G o values to the corresponding α-amino acids in physiologically relevant conditions (neutral pH, acidic and alkaline pH, the non-α-amino acids are thermodynamically more stable than the corresponding α-ones over a broad temperature range. These results suggest that the energetic cost of synthesis is not an important selection pressure to incorporate α-amino acids into biological systems.

  15. 氨基酸分析仪快速测定糙米中的γ-氨基丁酸%Rapid Determination of γ-aminobutyric Acid in Husked Rice with Amino Acid Analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任红波

    2003-01-01

    采用20 min短程序快速测定糙米中的γ-氨基丁酸,通过γ-氨基丁酸标准品的精密度试验和回收率试验,证明此短程序适于测定γ-氨基丁酸,且稳定、快速、准确.

  16. Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  17. Amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... amino acids are: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan , and valine. Nonessential amino acids "Nonessential" means that our bodies produce an amino ...

  18. Predicting Thermodynamic Behaviors of Non-Protein Amino Acids as a Function of Temperature and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadai, Norio

    2016-03-01

    Why does life use α-amino acids exclusively as building blocks of proteins? To address that fundamental question from an energetic perspective, this study estimated the standard molal thermodynamic data for three non-α-amino acids (β-alanine, γ-aminobutyric acid, and ε-aminocaproic acid) and α-amino-n-butyric acid in their zwitterionic, negative, and positive ionization states based on the corresponding experimental measurements reported in the literature. Temperature dependences of their heat capacities were described based on the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equations of state. The obtained dataset was then used to calculate the standard molal Gibbs energies (∆G (o)) of the non-α-amino acids as a function of temperature and pH. Comparison of their ∆G (o) values with those of α-amino acids having the same molecular formula showed that the non-α-amino acids have similar ∆G (o) values to the corresponding α-amino acids in physiologically relevant conditions (neutral pH, amino acids are thermodynamically more stable than the corresponding α-ones over a broad temperature range. These results suggest that the energetic cost of synthesis is not an important selection pressure to incorporate α-amino acids into biological systems.

  19. Free amino acids in the nervous system of the amphioxus Branchiostoma lanceolatum. A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The cephalochordate amphioxus is the closest invertebrate relative to vertebrates. In this study, using HPLC technique, free L-amino acids (L-AAs and D-aspartic acid (D-Asp have been detected in the nervous system of the amphioxus Branchiostoma lanceolatum. Among other amino acids glutamate, aspartate, glycine, alanine and serine are the amino acids found at the greatest concentrations. As it occurs in the nervous system of other animal phyla, glutamate (L-Glu and aspartate (L-Asp are present at very high concentrations in the amphioxus nervous system compared to other amino acids, whereas the concentration of taurine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA is very low. Interestingly, as it is the case in vertebrates, D-aspartic acid is present as an endogenous compound in amphioxus nervous tissues. The physiological function of excitatory amino acids, and D-aspartate in particular, are discussed in terms of evolution of the nervous system under an Evo-fun (Evolution of function perspective.

  20. Glucose and amino acid metabolism in rat brain during sustained hypoglycemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism of glucose in brains during sustained hypoglycemia was studied. [U-14C]Glucose (20 microCi) was injected into control rats, and into rats at 2.5 hr after a bolus injection of 2 units of insulin followed by a continuous infusion of 0.2 units/100 g rat/hr. This regimen of insulin injection was found to result in steady-state plasma glucose levels between 2.5 and 3.5 mumol per ml. In the brains of control rats carbon was transferred rapidly from glucose to glutamate, glutamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid and aspartate and this carbon was retained in the amino acids for at least 60 min. In the brains of hypoglycemic rats, the conversion of carbon from glucose to amino acids was increased in the first 15 min after injection. After 15 min, the specific activity of the amino acids decreased in insulin-treated rats but not in the controls. The concentrations of alanine, glutamate, and gamma-amino-butyric acid decreased, and the concentration of aspartate increased, in the brains of the hypoglycemic rats. The concentration of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, a cofactor in many of the reactions whereby these amino acids are formed from tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, was less in the insulin-treated rats than in the controls. These data provide evidence that glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, and GABA can serve as energy sources in brain during insulin-induced hypoglycemia

  1. Enhanced Synthesis of Alkyl Amino Acids in Miller's 1958 H2S Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Eric T.; Cleaves, H. James; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, James P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    Stanley Miller's 1958 H2S-containing experiment, which included a simulated prebiotic atmosphere of methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) produced several alkyl amino acids, including the alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers of aminobutyric acid (ABA) in greater relative yields than had previously been reported from his spark discharge experiments. In the presence of H2S, aspariic and glutamic acids could yield alkyl amino acids via the formation of thioimide intermediates. Radical chemistry initiated by passing H2S through a spark discharge could have also enhanced alkyl amino acid synthesis by generating alkyl radicals that can help form the aldehyde and ketone precursors to these amino acids. We propose mechanisms that may have influenced the synthesis of certain amino acids in localized environments rich in H2S and lightning discharges, similar to conditions near volcanic systems on the early Earth, thus contributing to the prebiotic chemical inventory of the primordial Earth.

  2. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on distribution dynamics of free amino acids in water soaked brown rice grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigematsu, T; Nakajima, K; Uno, Y; Sakano, A; Murakami, M; Narahara, Y; Fujii, T [Department of Food Sci., Niigata University Pharm. Appl. Life Sci. (NUPALS), Niigata, Niigata, 956-8603 (Japan); Hayashi, M [Niigata Industrial Creation Organization (NICO), Niigata, Niigata, 950-0078 (Japan); Ueno, S, E-mail: shige@nupals.ac.j [Grad. School of Agric. Sci., Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, 981-8555 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HP) with approximately below 400 MPa can induce a transformation of food materials to an alternative form, where membrane systems are damaged but certain enzymes are still active. HP treatment of water soaked brown rice grain could modify the mass transfer inside and apparent activities of enzymes, resulting in HP-dependent change of distribution of free amino acids. Thus, the distribution of free amino acids in brown rice grain during preservation after HP treatment was analyzed. Just after HP treatment at 200 MPa for 10 min, the distribution of free amino acids was not apparently different from that of untreated control. In contrast, after 1 to 4 days preservation at 25{sup 0}C, amino acids, such as Ala, Glu, Gly, Asp and Val, showed higher concentrations than those in control. This result suggested that HP treatment induced proteolysis to produce free amino acids. However, Gln, Thr and Cys, showed no apparent difference, suggesting that conversion of certain amino acids produced by proteolysis occurred. Moreover, the concentration of {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in HP-treated sample was higher than that in untreated control. These results suggested that HP treatment induced alteration of distribution of free amino acids of rice grains via proteolysis and certain amino acids metabolism pathways.

  3. Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... found naturally in some foods, including leafy vegetables, citrus fruits, beans (legumes), and whole grains. Folic acid ... mcg of folic acid every day for good health. But older adults need to be sure they ...

  4. Determination of dansylated amino acids and biogenic amines in Cannonau and Vermentino wines by HPLC-FLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Congiu, Francesca; Serreli, Gabriele; Mameli, Stefano

    2015-05-15

    Free amino acids (AA) and biogenic amines (BA) were quantified for the first time in Cannonau and Vermentino wines, the two most popular "Controlled Designation of Origin" wines from Sardinia (Italy). An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of AA and BA was developed, using selective derivatization with dansyl chloride followed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Thirty-two compounds were identified in the wines analysed. High levels of AA were found, with proline being the most abundant with average levels of 1244 ± 398 and 1008 ± 281 mg/L in Cannonau and Vermentino wines, respectively. BA were detected at average concentrations wines. Histamine was never detected in any Vermentino wines. γ-Aminobutyric acid, 4-hydroxyproline, glycine, leucine+isoleucine and putrescine proved to be useful for differentiating Cannonau wines from Vermentino wines.

  5. Determination of dansylated amino acids and biogenic amines in Cannonau and Vermentino wines by HPLC-FLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Congiu, Francesca; Serreli, Gabriele; Mameli, Stefano

    2015-05-15

    Free amino acids (AA) and biogenic amines (BA) were quantified for the first time in Cannonau and Vermentino wines, the two most popular "Controlled Designation of Origin" wines from Sardinia (Italy). An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of AA and BA was developed, using selective derivatization with dansyl chloride followed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Thirty-two compounds were identified in the wines analysed. High levels of AA were found, with proline being the most abundant with average levels of 1244 ± 398 and 1008 ± 281 mg/L in Cannonau and Vermentino wines, respectively. BA were detected at average concentrations <10mg/L, except putrescine which reached 20.5 ± 10.2mg/L in Cannonau wines. Histamine was never detected in any Vermentino wines. γ-Aminobutyric acid, 4-hydroxyproline, glycine, leucine+isoleucine and putrescine proved to be useful for differentiating Cannonau wines from Vermentino wines. PMID:25577047

  6. GHB acid: A rage or reprive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakhar Kapoor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB is a naturally occurring analog of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA that has been used in research and clinical medicine for many years. GHB was used clinically as an anesthetic in the 1960s but was withdrawn due to side effects that included seizures and coma. GHB has been implicated in a number of crime types; most notably in drug-facilitated sexual assault. GHB is abused by three main groups of users: Body builders who use the substance believing that it stimulated the release of growth hormone; sexual predators who covertly administer the drug for its sedative and amnesic effects and club-goers (rave parties who take the drug for its euphoric effects. The short-lived hypnotic effects, relative safety and widespread availability of the drug have made it particularly well suited to this role. The drug has an addictive potential if used for long term. The primary effects of GHB use are those of a CNS depressant and therefore range from relaxation, to euphoria, confusion, amnesia, hallucinations, and coma. Despite the increased regulation, GHB remains widely available through the Internet where one can easily purchase the necessary reagents as well as recipes for home production. There are reports of patients being unresponsive to painful stimuli and cases of oral self-mutilations linked to the abuse of GHB, though quiet rare. Such cases should remind odontologists that intra-oral lesions may be the result of self-mutilation either due to mental illness or altered states caused by the use of prescription or non-prescription drugs.

  7. GHB acid: A rage or reprive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Prakhar; Deshmukh, Revati; Kukreja, Ipsita

    2013-10-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a naturally occurring analog of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that has been used in research and clinical medicine for many years. GHB was used clinically as an anesthetic in the 1960s but was withdrawn due to side effects that included seizures and coma. GHB has been implicated in a number of crime types; most notably in drug-facilitated sexual assault. GHB is abused by three main groups of users: Body builders who use the substance believing that it stimulated the release of growth hormone; sexual predators who covertly administer the drug for its sedative and amnesic effects and club-goers (rave parties) who take the drug for its euphoric effects. The short-lived hypnotic effects, relative safety and widespread availability of the drug have made it particularly well suited to this role. The drug has an addictive potential if used for long term. The primary effects of GHB use are those of a CNS depressant and therefore range from relaxation, to euphoria, confusion, amnesia, hallucinations, and coma. Despite the increased regulation, GHB remains widely available through the Internet where one can easily purchase the necessary reagents as well as recipes for home production. There are reports of patients being unresponsive to painful stimuli and cases of oral self-mutilations linked to the abuse of GHB, though quiet rare. Such cases should remind odontologists that intra-oral lesions may be the result of self-mutilation either due to mental illness or altered states caused by the use of prescription or non-prescription drugs.

  8. An exceptional series of phase transitions in hydrophobic amino acids with linear side chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Henrik Görbitz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The solid-state phase transitions and intermediate structures of S-2-aminobutanoic acid (l-2-aminobutyric acid, S-2-aminopentanoic acid (l-norvaline, S-2-aminohexanoic acid (l-norleucine and l-methionine between 100 and 470 K, identified by differential scanning calorimetry, have been characterized in a comprehensive single-crystal X-ray diffraction investigation. Unlike other enantiomeric amino acids investigated until now, this group featuring linear side chains displays up to five distinct phases. The multiple transitions between them involve a number of different processes: alteration of the hydrogen-bond pattern, to our knowledge the first example of this observed for an amino acid, sliding of molecular bilayers, seen previously only for racemates and quasiracemates, concerted side-chain rearrangements and abrupt as well as gradual modifications of the side-chain disorder. Ordering of l-norleucine upon cooling even proceeds via an incommensurately modulated structure. l-Methionine has previously been described as being fully ordered at room temperature. An accurate refinement now reveals extensive disorder for both molecules in the asymmetric unit, while two previously unknown phases occur above room temperature.

  9. Effect of single-use versus combined-use moschus and diazepam on expression of amino acid neurotransmitters in the rat corpus striatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Zhang; Ping Liu; Xinrong He

    2012-01-01

    The present study analyzed expressional changes of excitatory neurotransmitters and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the rat corpus striatum after single-use and combined-use diazepam and Chinese herb moschus. The influence of moschus on the central nervous system was analyzed, in particular whether moschus increased penetration of other drugs into the brain. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, which included pre-column derivation with orthophthaladehyde detection, showed varied increased levels of excitatory neurotransmitters, including aspartate and glutamate, and inhibitory neurotransmitters, including glycine and γ-aminobutyric acid, in the corpus striatum after treatment with moschus alone, diazepam alone, or a combination of both. Compared with the diazepam group, aspartate levels significantly decreased at 30 and 60-105 minutes after combined treatment with moschus, while glutamate significantly increased at 45 and 75-105 minutes, glycine levels significantly increased at 105 minutes, and γ-aminobutyric acid increased at 30 and 75-105 minutes. These findings suggested that moschus increased the inhibition effects of diazepam on the brain.

  10. Amino Acids Content in Germinating Seeds and Seedlings from Castanea sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmaison, A M; Tixier, M

    1986-06-01

    During germination the chestnut (Castanea sativa L.) var ecotype 33 accumulates a large amount of asparagine in the cotyledons. This compound also accumulates in the growing axis:shoots and roots. In the cotyledons, gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) represents a major amino compound during germination and early seedling growth. In young seedlings, 35 days old, arginine predominates over the other soluble amino acids, particularly in roots. Five enzymic activities involved in arginine and GABA have been measured in the storage organ of the seed: arginase and ornithine carbamyltransferase decrease during germination indicating the slowing down of the urea cycle. In contrast, ornithine aminotransferase increases. Glutamate decarboxylase is particularly active about 21 days after imbibition and GABA aminotransferase activity decreases during germination. These two activities are in good agreement with the likely transport of GABA from cotyledons to growing axis. Asparagine, arginine, and GABA are the three amino compounds obviously involved in the mobilization of nitrogen reserves in the germinating chestnut seeds Castanea sativa.

  11. Anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody positive neurological syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohid, Hassaan

    2016-07-01

    A rare kind of antibody, known as anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) autoantibody, is found in some patients. The antibody works against the GAD enzyme, which is essential in the formation of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter found in the brain. Patients found with this antibody present with motor and cognitive problems due to low levels or lack of GABA, because in the absence or low levels of GABA patients exhibit motor and cognitive symptoms. The anti-GAD antibody is found in some neurological syndromes, including stiff-person syndrome, paraneoplastic stiff-person syndrome, Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS), limbic encephalopathy, cerebellar ataxia, eye movement disorders, and epilepsy. Previously, excluding MFS, these conditions were calledhyperexcitability disorders. However, collectively, these syndromes should be known as "anti-GAD positive neurological syndromes." An important limitation of this study is that the literature is lacking on the subject, and why patients with the above mentioned neurological problems present with different symptoms has not been studied in detail. Therefore, it is recommended that more research is conducted on this subject to obtain a better and deeper understanding of these anti-GAD antibody induced neurological syndromes. PMID:27356651

  12. Ibotenic acid and thioibotenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermit, Mette B; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Nielsen, Birgitte;

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we have determined and compared the pharmacological profiles of ibotenic acid and its isothiazole analogue thioibotenic acid at native rat ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors and at recombinant rat metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors expressed in mammalian cell lines....... Thioibotenic acid has a distinct pharmacological profile at group III mGlu receptors compared with the closely structurally related ibotenic acid; the former is a potent (low microm) agonist, whereas the latter is inactive. By comparing the conformational energy profiles of ibotenic and thioibotenic acid...... with the conformations preferred by the ligands upon docking to mGlu1 and models of the other mGlu subtypes, we propose that unlike other subtypes, group III mGlu receptor binding sites require a ligand conformation at an energy level which is prohibitively expensive for ibotenic acid, but not for thioibotenic acid...

  13. Enthalpic Interaction for α-Amino Acid with Alkali Metal Halides in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU,Yan(卢雁)

    2004-01-01

    The studies of the enthalpic interaction parameters, hxy, hxyy and hxxv, of alkali metal halides with glycine,α-alanine and α-aminobutyric acid were published. Synthetic considering of the results of the studies, some interesting behaviors of the interaction between alkali metal halides and the α-amino acids have been found. The values of hxy will increase with the increase of the number of carbon atoms in alkyl side chain of amino acid molecules and decrease with the increase of the radius of the ions. The increasing of the salt's effect on the hydrophobic hydration structure as the radii of anion is more obvious than as that of cation. The value of hxxy will regularly decrease with the increase of the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain of amino acids and linear increase with the increase of the radius. But the relation of hxxy with the radius of cations is not evident. The value of hxyy will increase with the increase of the radii of the ions. As the increase of the number of carbon atoms of amino acids, hxyy is decreas for the ions which have lager size and there is a maximum value at α-alanine for the ions which have small size. The behaviors of the interaction mentioned above were further discussed in view of electrostatic and structural interactions.

  14. Participation of GABAA Chloride Channels in the Anxiolytic-Like Effects of a Fatty Acid Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Rodríguez-Landa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human amniotic fluid and a mixture of eight fatty acids (FAT-M identified in this maternal fluid (C12:0, lauric acid, 0.9 μg%; C14:0, myristic acid, 6.9 μg%; C16:0, palmitic acid, 35.3 μg%; C16:1, palmitoleic acid, 16.4 μg%; C18:0, stearic acid, 8.5 μg%; C18:1cis, oleic acid, 18.4 μg%; C18:1trans, elaidic acid, 3.5 μg%; C18:2, linoleic acid, 10.1 μg% produce anxiolytic-like effects that are comparable to diazepam in Wistar rats, suggesting the involvement of γ-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA receptors, a possibility not yet explored. Wistar rats were subjected to the defensive burying test, elevated plus maze, and open field test. In different groups, three GABAA receptor antagonists were administered 30 min before FAT-M administration, including the competitive GABA binding antagonist bicuculline (1 mg/kg, GABAA benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil (5 mg/kg, and noncompetitive GABAA chloride channel antagonist picrotoxin (1 mg/kg. The FAT-M exerted anxiolytic-like effects in the defensive burying test and elevated plus maze, without affecting locomotor activity in the open field test. The GABAA antagonists alone did not produce significant changes in the behavioral tests. Picrotoxin but not bicuculline or flumazenil blocked the anxiolytic-like effect of the FAT-M. Based on the specific blocking action of picrotoxin on the effects of the FAT-M, we conclude that the FAT-M exerted its anxiolytic-like effects through GABAA receptor chloride channels.

  15. [Gastric Acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz Chávez, R

    1996-01-01

    Gastric acid, a product of parietal cells secretion, full fills multiple biological roles which are absolutely necessary to keep corporal homeostasis. The production of the acid depends upon an effector cellular process represented in the first step by histamine, acetilcholine and gastrin, first messengers of the process. These interact with specific receptors than in sequence activate second messengers -cAMP and the calcium-calmodulin system- which afterwards activate a kinase. An specific protein is then phosphorilated by this enzyme, being the crucial factor that starts the production of acid. Finally, a proton bomb, extrudes the acid towards the gastric lumen. The secretion process mentioned above, is progressive lyactivated in three steps, two of which are stimulators -cephalic and gastric phases- and the other one inhibitor or intestinal phase. These stages are started by mental and neurological phenomena -thought, sight, smell or memory-; by food, drugs or other ingested substances; and by products of digestion. Changes in regulation of acid secretion, in the structure of gastro-duodenal mucosal barrier by a wide spectrum of factors and agents including food, drugs and H. pylori, are the basis of acid-peptic disease, entity in which gastric acid plays a fundamental role. From the therapeutic point of view, so at the theoretical as at the practical levels, t is possible to interfere with the secretion of acid by neutralization of some of the steps of the effector cellular process. An adequate knowledge of the basics related to gastric acid, allows to create strategies for the clinical handling of associated pathology, specifically in relation to peptic acid disease in all of the known clinical forms. PMID:12165790

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-06-0037 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-06-0037 ref|NP_001074610.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 2 ...precursor [Mus musculus] sp|Q80T41|GABR2_MOUSE RecName: Full=Gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit...ptor 51; Flags: Precursor emb|CAM27833.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B recept...or 2 [Mus musculus] emb|CAM27679.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor 2 [Mus musculus] emb|CAM21407.1| gamma-aminobutyric... acid (GABA) B receptor 2 [Mus musculus] emb|CAM22528.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PCAP-01-1728 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PCAP-01-1728 ref|NP_001074610.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 2 ...precursor [Mus musculus] sp|Q80T41|GABR2_MOUSE RecName: Full=Gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit...ptor 51; Flags: Precursor emb|CAM27833.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B recept...or 2 [Mus musculus] emb|CAM27679.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor 2 [Mus musculus] emb|CAM21407.1| gamma-aminobutyric... acid (GABA) B receptor 2 [Mus musculus] emb|CAM22528.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0877 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0877 ref|NP_068704.2| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor 1 isof...orm c precursor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI18016.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] e...mb|CAI18605.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAX03210.1| gamma-aminobutyric... acid (GABA) B receptor, 1, isoform CRA_f [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI17391.2| gamma-aminobutyric... acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAQ10083.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B recepto

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGOR-01-0854 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGOR-01-0854 ref|NP_001074610.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 2 ...precursor [Mus musculus] sp|Q80T41|GABR2_MOUSE RecName: Full=Gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit...ptor 51; Flags: Precursor emb|CAM27833.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B recept...or 2 [Mus musculus] emb|CAM27679.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor 2 [Mus musculus] emb|CAM21407.1| gamma-aminobutyric... acid (GABA) B receptor 2 [Mus musculus] emb|CAM22528.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

  20. Integration of Metabolomics and Subcellular Organelle Expression Microarray to Increase Understanding the Organic Acid Changes in Post-harvest Citrus Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohua Sun; Zhaocheng Ma; Yunjiang Cheng; Xiuxin Deng; Andan Zhu; Shuzhen Liu; Ling Sheng; Qiaoli Ma; Li Zhang; Elsayed Mohamed Elsayed Nishawy; Yunliu Zeng; Juan Xu

    2013-01-01

    Citric acid plays an important role in fresh fruit flavor and its adaptability to post-harvest storage conditions. In order to explore organic acid regulatory mechanisms in post-harvest citrus fruit, systematic biological analyses were conducted on stored Hirado Buntan Pummelo (HBP; Citrus grandis) fruits. High-performance capillary electrophoresis, subcellular organelle expression microarray, real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and conventional physiological and biochemical analyses were undertaken. The results showed that the concentration of organic acids in HBP underwent a regular fluctuation. GC-MS-based metabolic profiling indicated that succinic acid, g-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glutamine contents increased, but 2-oxoglutaric acid content declined, which further confirmed that the GABA shunt may have some regulatory roles in organic acid catabolism processes. In addition, the concentration of organic acids was significantly correlated with senescence-related physiological processes, such as hydrogen peroxide content as well as superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities, which showed that organic acids could be regarded as important parameters for measuring citrus fruit post-harvest senescence processes.

  1. Effects of Steeping and Germination Conditions on γ-Aminobutyric Acid Synthesis in Lentil Seeds%浸泡条件和萌芽条件对小扁豆中γ-氨基丁酸合成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢海玉; 庞中存; 黄玉龙

    2013-01-01

    以小扁豆为原料,利用浸泡和萌芽富集γ-氨基丁酸.通过单因素和正交试验研究浸泡时间和温度、萌芽时间和温度对小扁豆中γ-氨基丁酸合成的影响,从而确定最佳工艺条件.结果表明:在浸泡时间2.5h、浸泡温度36℃、萌芽时间5h及萌芽温度24℃的条件下,小扁豆中γ-氨基丁酸含量为380.503mg/100g干基,是未处理小扁豆中γ-氨基丁酸含量的1.9倍.

  2. Nutrition and baking properties of mung bean sourdough bread with high γ-aminobutyric acid%高γ-氨基丁酸绿豆酸面团面包营养与烘焙特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏晓琴; 张可欣; 黄卫宁; 刘若诗; 陈军民; 张峦; 李志斌; 傅贵华; RAYAS-DUARTE Patrica

    2016-01-01

    通过改良纸层析(modified paper chromatography,MPC)、高效液相色谱(high performance liquid chromatography,HPLC)、16S rRNA基因测序、质构仪(texture anylyzer,TA)及感官分析方法从传统发酵米粉中分离筛选得到一株产γ-氨基丁酸的布氏乳杆菌(Lactobacillus buchneri,L.bu),以小麦面包和绿豆面包为对照,研究了该乳酸菌发酵对绿豆酸面团面包营养与烘焙特性的影响.结果表明:筛选得到一株产γ-氨基丁酸的布氏乳杆菌(Lactobacillus buchneri,L.bu),其γ-氨基丁酸产量为3.66±0.05 g/L;L.bu发酵的绿豆酸面团面包中总游离氨基酸含量分别为小麦面包和绿豆面包的3.36和2.77倍,其中γ-氨基丁酸含量为23.44 mg/100 g,显著高于绿豆面包和小麦面包;与绿豆面包相比,绿豆酸面团面包全质构特性得到显著改善,面包品质有所提升;酸面团的引入,使其各项感官特性评分显著高于绿豆面包,整体可接受度接近小麦面包.

  3. 固定化唾液链球菌生产γ-氨基丁酸的研究%PRUDUCTION OF γ-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID BY IMMOBILIZED Streptococcus salivarius subsp.thermophilus Y-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦阳; 汪建敏; 杨胜远; 周利娟; 姚正颖; 吕凤霞; 邹晓葵; 陆兆新

    2009-01-01

    以唾液链球茵嗜热亚种(Streptococcus salivarius subsp.thermophilus Y-2)为供试菌株,考察了卡拉胶、明胶和海藻酸钙等材料将此菌株固定化的效果,并通过比较固定化细胞的谷氨酸脱羧酶(glutamatedecarboxylase,GAD)活性及γ-氨基丁酸的产量和载体机械强度,确定了海藻酸钙作为固定化细胞的适宜载体.优化后得到的最适固定化条件(W/V)为:海藻酸钠2%,CaCl_2 14%,茵体25%,凝胶平均颗粒直径1.64 mm,在此条件下测得固定化细胞的GAD活性为游离细胞的1.2倍.细胞多批次应用稳定性试验证明:固定化细胞较游离细胞有着更稳定的GAD活性,反复使用60 h后,固定化细胞GAD活性仍能保持其初始活性的90%以上,γ-氨基丁酸的积累量达到7.97 g/L.

  4. Optimization of fermentation conditions for the production of γ-aminobutyric acid by Lactobacillus plantarum%植物乳杆菌LB-17产γ-氨基丁酸培养基优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹然; 梁金钟

    2016-01-01

    以植物乳杆菌(Lactobacillus plantarum Lb-17)为发酵菌株,以发酵产物γ-氨基丁酸产量为检测参数,对植物乳杆菌发酵产γ-氨基丁酸的发酵培养基进行优化.利用单因素实验和Box-Behnken响应曲面实验对发酵培养基进行优化得到最优培养基为:葡萄糖12.0 g/L、酵母粉18.0 g/L、Ca2+ 55.0 mmol/L、Mg2+ 60.0 mmol/L、L-谷氨酸钠26.0 g/L.优化后,植物乳杆菌Lb-17发酵γ-氨基丁酸产量达8.037 g/L,是优化前5.49 g/L提高1.5倍.

  5. The summary of γ-aminobutyric acid(GABA) in mulberry leaf(Morus alba L.)%桑叶中γ-氨基丁酸的研究概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈恒文; 林健荣

    2008-01-01

    γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)在动植物体内广泛存在,是中枢神经系统内重要的抑制性神经递质.本文对植物中GABA的分布、代谢、生理功能及桑叶中的GABA研究进展作一归纳与论述,以供读者更方便对GABA的了解,为研究和开发富含GABA的食品和饮料提供帮助.

  6. Effect of germination conditions on γ-aminobutyric acid content of germinated brown rice%发芽条件对发芽糙米中γ-氨基丁酸含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚森; 郑理; 赵思明; 熊善柏

    2006-01-01

    以糙米为原料,研究浸泡温度、发芽温度和发芽时间对发芽过程中γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)含量变化的影响,建立基于GABA含量的糙米发芽动力学模型,以获得富含GABA发芽糙米的最佳工艺条件.结果表明:浸泡温度、发芽温度和发芽时间对GABA的含量有显著影响,采用Logistic生长模型建立的糙米发芽动力学方程能较好地描述GABA含量的变化规律.在30~40℃浸泡和33~38℃发芽,GABA的增长速率常数b和积累极限k均达到较高水平;基于GABA含量的最佳发芽条件为33.0℃浸泡12 h,35.1℃发芽26 h,此条件下GABA的含量可达32.23 mg/(100 g).

  7. GABA对小鼠回肠平滑肌自主收缩活动的影响%Effect of γ-aminobutyric acid on spontaneous contraction of ileum smooth muscle in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田琴; 胡还忠; 马立群; 汪长东; 王晓敏; 梁华敏

    2005-01-01

    目的:观察GABA对小鼠回肠平滑肌运动功能的影响,探讨GABA的作用与β受体、NO之间的关系.方法:以离体回肠收缩张力的变化为指标,观察GABA的作用,GABAA受体抑制剂木防己苦毒素picrotoxin,β受体的阻断剂propranolol,NOS抑制剂L-NNA,cGMP合成酶的抑制剂ODQ对GABA作用的影响.结果:GABA抑制小鼠回肠平滑肌自主收缩活动.1×10-6和1×10-3mol/L GABA抑制率分别为34.71±7.35%和22.23±4.69%.picrotoxin没有改变GABA的抑制作用.L-NNA减弱GABA的抑制作用,ODQ也减弱GABA的抑制作用.NO供体L-Arg(5×10-7mol/L)使GABA(1×10-6mol/L)的抑制效应减弱,但不影响GABA(1×10-3mol/L)的抑制作用.propranolol(3×10-6mol/L)减弱GABA的抑制效应.结论:GABA对小鼠回肠自主收缩有抑制作用,这种作用可能需要cGMP和NO的参与;β受体兴奋时对GABA抑制效应也有一定的影响.

  8. Study on concentration and distribution of γ-aminobutyric acid in traditional fermented soybean products%传统发酵豆制品中γ-氨基丁酸含量分布研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠玲; 史小峰

    2009-01-01

    用Berthelot显色反应快速测定了发酵豆制品试样中γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)含量,分析发现各类发酵豆制品中GABA含量丰富,不同品种之间差异显著.结果表明腐乳卤汁和坯体GABA的平均含量最高,分别为122.57 mg/100 mL和73.52 mg/100 g,青方腐乳中GABA含量总体高于白方腐乳和红方腐乳,腐乳卤汁中GABA含量总体高于腐乳坯体中GABA含量.

  9. γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)——一种新型的功能食品因子%Gamma-aminobutyric acid-a novel functional factor for nutraceuticals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许建军; 江波; 许时婴

    2003-01-01

    GABA(γ-氨基丁酸)是一种天然存在的功能性氨基酸,研究表明,它具有降低血压、改善脑功能、增强长期记忆及提高肝、肾机能等生理活性.本文概述了GABA的分布和制备方法,同时对GABA在降压、健脑等功能性食品中的应用及发展前景也作了讨论.

  10. Neuroprotective Effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla in Kainic Acid-Induced Epileptic Seizures by Modulating Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Sprouting, Neuron Survival, Astrocyte Proliferation, and S100B Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsiang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR, which is a traditional Chinese medicine, has anticonvulsive effect in our previous studies, and the cellular mechanisms behind this are still little known. Because of this, we wanted to determine the importance of the role of UR on kainic acid- (KA- induced epilepsy. Oral UR for 6 weeks can successfully attenuate the onset of epileptic seizure in animal tests. Hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting dramatically decreased, while neuronal survival increased with UR treatment in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 areas. Furthermore, oral UR for 6 weeks significantly attenuated the overexpression of astrocyte proliferation and S100B proteins but not γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA receptors. These results indicate that oral UR for 6 weeks can successfully attenuate mossy fiber sprouting, astrocyte proliferation, and S100B protein overexpression and increase neuronal survival in KA-induced epileptic rat hippocampus

  11. A tonoplast Glu/Asp/GABA exchanger that affects tomato fruit amino acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Christopher J; Thomas, Benjamin; Baxter, Charles J; Smith, J Andrew C; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2015-03-01

    Vacuolar accumulation of acidic metabolites is an important aspect of tomato fruit flavour and nutritional quality. The amino acids Asp and Glu accumulate to high concentrations during ripening, while γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) shows an approximately stoichiometric decline. Given that GABA can be catabolised to form Glu and subsequently Asp, and the requirement for the fruit to maintain osmotic homeostasis during ripening, we hypothesised the existence of a tonoplast transporter that exports GABA from the vacuole in exchange for import of either Asp or Glu. We show here that the tomato vacuolar membrane possesses such a transport property: transport of Glu across isolated tonoplast vesicle membranes was trans-stimulated in counterexchange mode by GABA, Glu and Asp. We identified SlCAT9 as a candidate protein for this exchanger using quantitative proteomics of a tonoplast-enriched membrane fraction. Transient expression of a SlCAT9-YFP fusion in tobacco confirmed a tonoplast localisation. The function of the protein was examined by overexpression of SlCAT9 in transgenic tomato plants. Tonoplast vesicles isolated from transgenic plants showed higher rates of Glu and GABA transport than wild-type (WT) only when assayed in counterexchange mode with Glu, Asp, or GABA. Moreover, there were substantial increases in the content of all three cognate amino acids in ripe fruit from the transgenic plants. We conclude that SlCAT9 is a tonoplast Glu/Asp/GABA exchanger that strongly influences the accumulation of these amino acids during fruit development.

  12. Primordial Synthesis of Amines and Amino Acids in a 1958 Miller H2S-Rich Spark Discharge Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Eric T.; Cleaves, Henderson J.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Callahan, Michael; Aubrey, Andrew; Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    Archived samples from a previously unreported 1958 Stanley Miller electric discharge experiment containing hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were recently discovered and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We report here the detection and quantification of primary amine-containing compounds in the original sample residues, which were produced via spark discharge using a gaseous mixture of H2S, CH4, NH3, and CO2. A total of 23 amino acids and 4 amines, including 7 organosulfur compounds, were detected in these samples. The major amino acids with chiral centers are racemic within the accuracy of the measurements, indicating that they are not contaminants introduced during sample storage. This experiment marks the first synthesis of sulfur amino acids from spark discharge experiments designed to imitate primordia! environments. The relative yield of some amino acids, in particular the isomers of aminobutyric acid, are the highest ever found in a spark discharge experiment. The simulated primordial conditions used by Miller may serve as a model for early volcanic plume chemistry and provide insight to the possible roles such plumes may have played in abiotic organic synthesis. Additionally, the overall abundances of the synthesized amino acids in the presence of H2S are very similar to the abundances found in some carbonaceous meteorites, suggesting that H2S may have played an important role in prebiotic reactions in early solar system environments.

  13. Analysis of chiral amino acids in cerebrospinal fluid samples linked to different stages of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samakashvili, Shorena; Ibáñez, Clara; Simó, Carolina; Gil-Bea, Francisco J; Winblad, Bengt; Cedazo-Mínguez, Angel; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2011-10-01

    Chiral micellar electrokinetic chromatography with laser-induced fluorescence detection (chiral-MEKC-LIF) was used to investigate D- and L-amino acid contents in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples related to different Alzheimer disease (AD) stages. CSF samples were taken from (i) control subjects (S1 pool), (ii) subjects showing a mild cognitive impairment who remained stable (S2 pool), (iii) subjects showing an mild cognitive impairment that progressed to AD (S3 pool) and (iv) subjects diagnosed with AD (S4 pool). The optimized procedure only needed 10 μL of CSF and it included sample cleaning, derivatization with FITC and chiral-MEKC-LIF separation. Eighteen standard amino acids were baseline separated with efficiencies up to 703,000 plates/m, high sensitivity (LODs in the nM range) and good resolution (values ranging from 2.6 to 9.5). Using this method, L-Arg, L-Leu, L-Gln, γ-aminobutyric acid, L-Ser, D-Ser, L-Ala, Gly, L-Lys, L-Glu and L-Asp were detected in all the CSF samples. S3 and S4 samples (i.e. AD subjects) showed significant lower amounts of L-Arg L-Lys, L-Glu and L-Asp compared to the non-AD S1 and S2 samples, showing in the S4 group the lowest amounts of L-Arg L-Lys, L-Glu and L-Asp. Moreover, γ-aminobutyric acid was significantly higher in AD subjects with the highest amount also found for S4. No significant differences were observed for the rest of amino acids including D-Ser. Based on the obtained chiral-MEKC-LIF data, it was possible to correctly classify all the samples into the four groups. These results demonstrate that the use of enantioselective procedures as the one developed in this work can provide some new light on the investigations of AD, including the discovery of new biomarkers related to different stages of AD.

  14. Transcriptome and metabolome analyses of sugar and organic acid metabolism in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata) fruit during fruit maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiong; Wang, Chengyang; Dong, Wencheng; Jiang, Qing; Wang, Dengliang; Li, Shaojia; Chen, Ming; Liu, Chunrong; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-01-01

    Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) is an important mandarin citrus in China. However, the low ratio of sugars to organic acids makes it less acceptable for consumers. In this work, three stages (S120, early development stage; S195, commercial harvest stage; S205, delayed harvest stage) of Ponkan fruit were selected for study. Among 28 primary metabolites analyzed in fruit, sugars increased while organic acids in general decreased. RNA-Seq analysis was carried out and 19,504 genes were matched to the Citrus clementina genome, with 85 up-regulated and 59 down-regulated genes identified during fruit maturation. A sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) gene was included in the up-regulated group, and this was supported by the transcript ratio distribution. Expression of two asparagine transferases (AST), and a specific ATP-citrate lyase (ACL) and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) members increased during fruit maturation. It is suggested that SPS, AST, ACL and GAD coordinately contribute to sugar accumulation and organic acid degradation during Ponkan fruit maturation. Both the glycolysis pathway and TCA cycle were accelerated during later maturation, indicating the flux change from sucrose metabolism to organic acid metabolism was enhanced, with citrate degradation occurring mainly through the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and acetyl-CoA pathways. PMID:25455100

  15. Metabolic regulation of trisporic acid on Blakeslea trispora revealed by a GC-MS-based metabolomic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Sun

    Full Text Available The zygomycete Blakeslea trispora is used commercially as natural source of â-carotene. Trisporic acid (TA is secreted from the mycelium of B. trispora during mating between heterothallic strains and is considered as a mediator of the regulation of mating processes and an enhancer of carotene biosynthesis. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate analysis were employed to investigate TA-associated intracellular biochemical changes in B. trispora. By principal component analysis, the differential metabolites discriminating the control groups from the TA-treated groups were found, which were also confirmed by the subsequent hierarchical cluster analysis. The results indicate that TA is a global regulator and its main effects at the metabolic level are reflected on the content changes in several fatty acids, carbohydrates, and amino acids. The carbon metabolism and fatty acids synthesis are sensitive to TA addition. Glycerol, glutamine, and ã-aminobutyrate might play important roles in the regulation of TA. Complemented by two-dimensional electrophoresis, the results indicate that the actions of TA at the metabolic level involve multiple metabolic processes, such as glycolysis and the bypass of the classical tricarboxylic acid cycle. These results reveal that the metabolomics strategy is a powerful tool to gain insight into the mechanism of a microorganism's cellular response to signal inducers at the metabolic level.

  16. Transcriptome and metabolome analyses of sugar and organic acid metabolism in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata) fruit during fruit maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiong; Wang, Chengyang; Dong, Wencheng; Jiang, Qing; Wang, Dengliang; Li, Shaojia; Chen, Ming; Liu, Chunrong; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-01-01

    Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) is an important mandarin citrus in China. However, the low ratio of sugars to organic acids makes it less acceptable for consumers. In this work, three stages (S120, early development stage; S195, commercial harvest stage; S205, delayed harvest stage) of Ponkan fruit were selected for study. Among 28 primary metabolites analyzed in fruit, sugars increased while organic acids in general decreased. RNA-Seq analysis was carried out and 19,504 genes were matched to the Citrus clementina genome, with 85 up-regulated and 59 down-regulated genes identified during fruit maturation. A sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) gene was included in the up-regulated group, and this was supported by the transcript ratio distribution. Expression of two asparagine transferases (AST), and a specific ATP-citrate lyase (ACL) and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) members increased during fruit maturation. It is suggested that SPS, AST, ACL and GAD coordinately contribute to sugar accumulation and organic acid degradation during Ponkan fruit maturation. Both the glycolysis pathway and TCA cycle were accelerated during later maturation, indicating the flux change from sucrose metabolism to organic acid metabolism was enhanced, with citrate degradation occurring mainly through the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and acetyl-CoA pathways.

  17. Stearic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) is presented for the chemical, stearic acid. The profile lists the chemical's physical and harmful characteristics, exposure limits, and symptoms of major exposure, for the benefit of teachers and students, who use the chemical in the laboratory.

  18. Perfluorooctanoic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. de Voogt

    2014-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 335-67-1) is used in fluoropolymer production and firefighting foams and persists in the environment. Human exposure to PFOA is mostly through the diet. PFOA primarily affects the liver and can cause developmental and reproductive toxic effects in test animals.

  19. A glutamic acid decarboxylase (CgGAD) highly expressed in hemocytes of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meijia; Wang, Lingling; Qiu, Limei; Wang, Weilin; Xin, Lusheng; Xu, Jiachao; Wang, Hao; Song, Linsheng

    2016-10-01

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), a rate-limiting enzyme to catalyze the reaction converting the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate to inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), not only functions in nervous system, but also plays important roles in immunomodulation in vertebrates. However, GAD has rarely been reported in invertebrates, and never in molluscs. In the present study, one GAD homologue (designed as CgGAD) was identified from Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The full length cDNA of CgGAD was 1689 bp encoding a polypeptide of 562 amino acids containing a conserved pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase domain. CgGAD mRNA and protein could be detected in ganglion and hemocytes of oysters, and their abundance in hemocytes was unexpectedly much higher than those in ganglion. More importantly, CgGAD was mostly located in those granulocytes without phagocytic capacity in oysters, and could dynamically respond to LPS stimulation. Further, after being transfected into HEK293 cells, CgGAD could promote the production of GABA. Collectively, these findings suggested that CgGAD, as a GABA synthase and molecular marker of GABAergic system, was mainly distributed in hemocytes and ganglion and involved in neuroendocrine-immune regulation network in oysters, which also provided a novel insight to the co-evolution between nervous system and immune system. PMID:27208883

  20. Inhibitory and excitatory amino acids in the cerebrospinal fluid of children with two types of cerebral palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haibin Yuan; Li Wang; Fei Yin; Li Li; Jing Peng

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Under normal conditions, excitatory amino acids are dynamically balanced with inhibitory amino acids. Excitatory amino acids have been implicated in perinatal brain injury. OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences in the levels of the excitatory amino acids glutamic acid and aspartic acid, and the inhibitory amino acid gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of children with spastic cerebral palsy or athetotic cerebral palsy. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Case-control exploratory observation of neurotransmitter in patients. The experiment was performed in the Pediatrics Department of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Changsba Medical College, the Cerebral Palsy Center of Xiangtan Affiliated Hospital of South China University and the Pediatrics Department of Xiangya Hospital, between February 2006 and May 2007. PARTICIPANTS: We selected 27 children with cerebral palsy, including 13 with spastic cerebral palsy and 14 with athetotic cerebral palsy. We selected 10 patients who were not affected by any neurological disease as controls. METHODS: Two mL blood-free CSF was harvested between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae of each patient after anesthesia, and stored at 70℃. One mL CSF was mixed with 10 mg sulfosalicylic acid and placed in ice-bath for 10 minutes, then centrifuged 2 000 g for 10 minutes. The supernatant was collected for amino acid quantitation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The concentrations of glutamic acid, aspartic acid and GABA in the CSF were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorometric method. The correlation of glutamie acid, aspartic acid and GABA levels with muscular tension in children with cerebral palsy was analyzed using linear dependence. RESULTS: The concentration of GABA was significantly lower in both spastic cerebral palsy and athetotic cerebral palsy patients than in the control group (P 0.05). CONCLUSION: Spastic cerebral palsy and athetotic cerebral palsy patients exhibit an

  1. Novel radioiodinated {gamma}-hydroxybutyric acid analogues for radiolabeling and Photolinking of high-affinity {gamma}-hydroxybutyric acid binding sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Høg, Signe; Sabbatini, Paola;

    2010-01-01

    ¿-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a therapeutic drug, a drug of abuse, and an endogenous substance that binds to low- and high-affinity sites in the mammalian brain. To target the specific GHB binding sites, we have developed a (125)I-labeled GHB analog and characterized its binding in rat brain...... homogenate and slices. Our data show that [(125)I]4-hydroxy-4-[4-(2-iodobenzyloxy)phenyl]butanoate ([(125)I]BnOPh-GHB) binds to one site in rat brain cortical membranes with low nanomolar affinity (K(d), 7 nM; B(max), 61 pmol/mg protein). The binding is inhibited by GHB and selected analogs......, but not by ¿-aminobutyric acid. Autoradiography using horizontal slices from rat brain demonstrates the highest density of binding in hippocampus and cortical regions and the lowest density in the cerebellum. Altogether, the findings correlate with the labeling and brain regional distribution of high-affinity GHB sites...

  2. Novel Radioiodinated γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid Analogues for Radiolabeling and Photolinking of High-Affinity γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid Binding Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Høg, Signe; Sabbatini, Paola;

    2010-01-01

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a therapeutic drug, a drug of abuse, and an endogenous substance that binds to low- and high-affinity sites in the mammalian brain. To target the specific GHB binding sites, we have developed a 125I-labeled GHB analog and characterized its binding in rat brain...... homogenate and slices. Our data show that [125I]4-hydroxy-4-[4-(2-iodobenzyloxy)phenyl]butanoate ([125I]BnOPh-GHB) binds to one site in rat brain cortical membranes with low nanomolar affinity (Kd, 7 nM; Bmax, 61 pmol/mg protein). The binding is inhibited by GHB and selected analogs, but not by γ......-aminobutyric acid. Autoradiography using horizontal slices from rat brain demonstrates the highest density of binding in hippocampus and cortical regions and the lowest density in the cerebellum. Altogether, the findings correlate with the labeling and brain regional distribution of high-affinity GHB sites or [3H...

  3. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  4. Good and bad protons: genetic aspects of acidity stress responses in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavrukov, Yuri; Hirai, Yoshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Physiological aspects of acidity stress in plants (synonymous with H(+) rhizotoxicity or low-pH stress) have long been a focus of research, in particular with respect to acidic soils where aluminium and H(+) rhizotoxicities often co-occur. However, toxic H(+) and Al(3+) elicit different response mechanisms in plants, and it is important to consider their effects separately. The primary aim of this review was to provide the current state of knowledge regarding the genetics of the specific reactions to low-pH stress in growing plants. A comparison of the results gleaned from quantitative trait loci analysis and global transcriptome profiling of plants in response to high proton concentrations revealed a two-stage genetic response: (i) in the short-term, proton pump H(+)-ATPases present the first barrier in root cells, allocating an excess of H(+) into either the apoplast or vacuole; the ensuing defence signaling system involves auxin, salicylic acid, and methyl jasmonate, which subsequently initiate expression of STOP and DREB transcription factors as well as chaperone ROF; (2) the long-term response includes other genes, such as alternative oxidase and type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, which act to detoxify dangerous reactive oxygen species in mitochondria, and help plants better manage the stress. A range of transporter genes including those for nitrate (NTR1), malate (ALMT1), and heavy metals are often up-regulated by H(+) rhizotoxicity. Expansins, cell-wall-related genes, the γ-aminobutyric acid shunt and biochemical pH-stat genes also reflect changes in cell metabolism and biochemistry in acidic conditions. However, the genetics underlying the acidity stress response of plants is complicated and only fragmentally understood.

  5. Changes in extracellular levels of amygdala amino acids in genetically fast and slow kindling rat strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Rick S; Anisman, Hymie; Merali, Zul; McIntyre, Dan C

    2002-08-01

    A neurochemical basis for many of the epilepsies has long been suspected to result from an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter mechanisms. Data supporting changes in extrasynaptic amino acid levels during epileptogenesis, however, remain controversial. In the present study, we used in vivo microdialysis to measure the levels of extracellular GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) and glutamate during seizure development in rats with a genetic predisposition for (Fast), or against (Slow), amygdala kindling. Dialysates were collected from both amygdalae before, during, and up to 12 min after a threshold-triggered amygdala afterdischarge (AD). One hour later, samples were again collected from both amygdalae in response to a hippocampal threshold AD. Daily amygdala kindling commenced the next day but without dialysis. After the rats were fully kindled, the same protocol was again employed. Amino acid levels were not consistently increased above baseline with triggered seizures in either strain. Instead, before kindling, a focal seizure in the Slow rats was associated with a large decrease in GABA in the non-stimulated amygdala, while amino acid levels in the Fast rats remained near baseline in both amygdalae. Similar results were seen after kindling. By contrast, before and after kindling, hippocampal stimulation caused large decreases in all amino acid levels in both amygdalae in both strains. These data suggest that, in response to direct stimulation, extracellular amino acid concentrations remain stable in tissues associated with either greater natural (Fast) or induced (kindled Fast/Slow) excitability, but are lowered with indirect stimulation (hippocampus) and/or low excitability.

  6. Preparation and properties of BSA-loaded microspheres based on multi-(amino acid) copolymer for protein delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingtao; Lv, Guoyu; Zhang, Jue; Tang, Songchao; Yan, Yonggang; Wu, Zhaoying; Su, Jiacan; Wei, Jie

    2014-01-01

    A multi-(amino acid) copolymer (MAC) based on ω-aminocaproic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid, L-alanine, L-lysine, L-glutamate, and hydroxyproline was synthetized, and MAC microspheres encapsulating bovine serum albumin (BSA) were prepared by a double-emulsion solvent extraction method. The experimental results show that various preparation parameters including surfactant ratio of Tween 80 to Span 80, surfactant concentration, benzyl alcohol in the external water phase, and polymer concentration had obvious effects on the particle size, morphology, and encapsulation efficiency of the BSA-loaded microspheres. The sizes of BSA-loaded microspheres ranged from 60.2 μm to 79.7 μm, showing different degrees of porous structure. The encapsulation efficiency of BSA-loaded microspheres also ranged from 38.8% to 50.8%. BSA release from microspheres showed the classic biphasic profile, which was governed by diffusion and polymer erosion. The initial burst release of BSA from microspheres at the first week followed by constant slow release for the next 7 weeks were observed. BSA-loaded microspheres could degrade gradually in phosphate buffered saline buffer with pH value maintained at around 7.1 during 8 weeks incubation, suggesting that microsphere degradation did not cause a dramatic pH drop in phosphate buffered saline buffer because no acidic degradation products were released from the microspheres. Therefore, the MAC microspheres might have great potential as carriers for protein delivery.

  7. Transcranial focal electrical stimulation reduces the convulsive expression and amino acid release in the hippocampus during pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana-Gómez, César E; Alcántara-González, David; Luna-Munguía, Hiram; Bañuelos-Cabrera, Ivette; Magdaleno-Madrigal, Víctor; Fernández-Mas, Rodrigo; Besio, Walter; Rocha, Luisa

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of transcranial focal electrical stimulation (TFS) on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate release in the hippocampus under basal conditions and during pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). Animals were previously implanted with a guide cannula attached to a bipolar electrode into the right ventral hippocampus and a concentric ring electrode placed on the skull surface. The first microdialysis experiment was designed to determine, under basal conditions, the effects of TFS (300 Hz, 200 μs biphasic square pulses, for 30 min) on afterdischarge threshold (ADT) and the release of GABA and glutamate in the hippocampus. The results obtained indicate that at low current intensities (Status Epilepticus".

  8. Molecular aggregation in crystalline 1:1 complexes of hydrophobic D- and L-amino acids. I. The L-isoleucine series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalhus; Görbitz

    1999-06-01

    The amino acid L-isoleucine has been cocrystallized with seven selected D-amino acids including D-methionine [L-isoleucine-D-methionine (1/1), C(6)H(13)NO(2).C(5)H(11)NO(2)S, amino-acid side chain R = -CH(2)-CH(2)-S-CH(3)] and a homologous series from D-alanine [L-isoleucine-D-alanine (1/1), C(6)H(13)NO(2).C(3)H(7)NO(2), R = -CH(3)] through D-alpha-aminobutyric acid [L-isoleucine-D-alpha-aminobutyric acid (1/1), C(6)H(13)NO(2).C(4)H(9)NO(2), R = -CH(2)-CH(3)] and D-norvaline [L-isoleucine-D-norvaline (1/1), C(6)H(13)NO(2).C(5)H(11)NO(2), R = -CH(2)-CH(2)-CH(3)] to D-norleucine [L-isoleucine-D-norleucine (1/1), C(6)H(13)NO(2).C(6)H(13)NO(2), R = -CH(2)-CH(2)-CH(2)-CH(3)] with linear side chains, and D-valine [L-isoleucine-D-valine (1/1), C(6)H(13)NO(2).C(5)H(11)NO(2), R = -CH-(CH(3))(2)] and D-leucine [L-isoleucine-D-leucine (1/1), C(6)H(13)NO(2).C(6)H(13)NO(2), R = -CH(2)-CH-(CH(3))(2)] with branched side chains. All the crystal structures are divided into distinct hydrophilic and hydrophobic layers. In the five complexes with amino acids with linear side chains the polar parts of the D- and L-amino acids are related by pseudo-glide-plane symmetry, and four of them have remarkably similar molecular arrangements. The D-valine and D-leucine complexes, on the other hand, are structurally quite different with the polar parts of the D- and L-amino acids related by pseudo-inversion. Differences in the hydrogen-bond pattern in the two molecular arrangements are discussed. PMID:10927385

  9. Hydrofluoric acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluorhydric acid ... stomach, or intestine have holes (perforations) from the acid. ... Hydrofluoric acid is especially dangerous. The most common accidents involving hydrofluoric acid cause severe burns on the skin ...

  10. Chromohalobacter is a Causing Agent for the Production of Organic Acids and Putrescine during Fermentation of Ganjang, a Korean Traditional Soy Sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji Young; Chun, Byung Hee; Jeon, Che Ok

    2015-12-01

    Ganjang, a Korean traditional fermented soy sauce, is prepared by soaking doenjang-meju (fermented soybeans) in approximately 20% (w/v) solar salt solution. The metabolites and bacterial communities during ganjang fermentation were simultaneously investigated to gain a better understanding of the roles of the microbial population. The bacterial community analysis based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that initially, the genus Cobetia was predominant (0 to 10 d), followed by Bacillus (5 to 74 d), and eventually, Chromohalobacter became predominant until the end of the fermentation process (74 to 374 d). Metabolite analysis using (1)H-NMR showed that carbon compounds, such as fructose, galactose, glucose, and glycerol, probably released from doenjang-meju, increased rapidly during the early fermentation period (0 to 42 d). After removal of doenjang-meju from the ganjang solution (42 d), the initial carbon compounds remained nearly constant without the increase of fermentation products. At this point, Bacillus species, which probably originated from doenjang-meju, were predominant, suggesting that Bacillus is not mainly responsible for ganjang fermentation. Fermentation products including acetate, lactate, α-aminobutyrate, γ-aminobutyrate, and putrescine increased quickly with the rapid decrease of the initial carbon compounds, while Chromohalobacter, probably derived from the solar salts, was predominant. Multivariate redundancy analysis indicated that the Chromohalobacter population was closely correlated with the production of the organic acids and putrescine during the ganjang fermentation. These results may suggest that Chromohalobacter is a causing agent responsible for the production of organic acids and putrescine during ganjang fermentation and that the solar salts, not doenjang-meju, is an important microbial source for ganjang fermentation.

  11. Effects of amino acids and vitamins on the ultrastructure of the hypothalamus and neurotransmitter in exhausted rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-wei CHEN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the effects of amino acids and vitamins on the ultrastructure of the hypothalamus and neurotransmitter in exhausted rats. Methods  After adaptive swimming, 36 male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups, namely, capsule, control, and granules, with 12 rats in each group. Rats in 3 groups were given respectively amino acids capsule (8 kinds of essential amino acids and 11 kinds of vitamins were contained, normal drinking water, or amino acid-fructose beverage (2.5ml/100g, 2 times per day by gavage for 14 days. Exhaustion of rats was produced by non-loading swimming. The duration of the experiment lasted 14 days. After the last exhaustive swimming, the hypothalamus of the rats was removed for the observation of its ultrastructure under electron microscope. The contents of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5HIAA, hydroxyphenyl acetic acid (HOPAC, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA in the hypothalamus were measured with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-ECD. Results  The mitochondrial structure in the brain cells of the capsule and granules groups were basically intact. On the other hand, the cells in the control group swelled and degenerated. Different degrees of swelling could be seen in the mitochondria. In addition, obvious morphological changes of the ultrastructure were observed under electron microscopy. Dissolution and rupture of the mitochondrial membrane and cristae were noted, even with the whole mitochondria disrupted and vacuolated. The contents of 5-HT, 5-HTAA, HOPAC, and GABA in the hypothalamus of rats in the capsule and the granules groups were significantly lower than those in the control group (PConclusion  Amino acids and vitamins compound can increase the resistance of the nerve center to fatigue by alleviating pathological changes of ultrastructure and changes in neurotransmitter levels of the hypothalamus.

  12. The effect of folic acid on GABA(A)-B 1 receptor subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Kizzy; Kuizon, Salomon; Junaid, Mohammed; Idrissi, Abdeslem El

    2013-01-01

    Autism contains a spectrum of behavioral and cognitive disturbances of childhood development that is manifested by deficits in social interaction, impaired communication, repetitive behavior, and/or restricted interest. Much research has been dedicated to finding the genes that are responsible for autism, but less than 10% of the cases can be attributed to one gene. Autism prevalence has increased in the last decade and there may be environmental components that are leading to this increase. There are reports of disruption of epigenetic mechanisms controlling the regulation of gene expression as probable cause for autism. Folic acid (FA) is prescribed to women during pregnancy, and can cause epigenetic changes. GABAergic pathway is involved in inhibitory neurotransmission in the central nervous system and plays a crucial role during early embryonic development. Autism may entail defect or deregulation of the GABAergic receptor pathway in the brain. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (type A) beta 1 receptor (GABRB1) disruption has been implicated in autism. In the present study, we investigated GABRB1 expression in response to FA supplementation in neuronal cells. Western blot analysis showed GABRB1 protein levels increased in the FA-treated cells in a concentration-dependent manner. FA-dependent increased expression of GABRB1 was further confirmed at the mRNA level using quantitative RT-PCR. These results suggest that epigenetic control of gene expression may affect the expression of GABRB1 and disrupt inhibitory synaptic transmission during embryonic development. PMID:23392927

  13. Development of Better Analogs of Valproic Acid for the Treatment of Epilepsy by CADD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Mahto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the major neurological disorders occurring due to the abnormal functioning of the various receptors and enzymes in the central nervous system. Many potentials drugs were developed in recent times which act on ion channels like sodium (Na+, calcium (Ca2+, chloride (Cl-, and receptors like GABA receptor and enzymes like GABA transaminase. Some drugs act as enzyme, ion channel inhibitors or blockers, and some drugs as receptor agonist like barbiturates, benzodiazepines acting on GABA receptors. In the present study performed computational techniques in order to develop better inhibitors for the enzyme GABA transaminase by modifying the terminal ‘methyl’ group of the Valproic acid structure with electrophilic, nucleophile and neutral pharmacophoric features. Molecular mechanics studies has been carried out for the analogs and protein – ligand interactions of these analogs was identified through docking studies using GOLD 4.1 software against the enzyme 4-aminobutyrate-aminotransferase(GABA transaminase. From the docking studies we found that replacement of methyl with amine, hydrogen and hydroxyl groups (hydrophilic groups, are showing better fitness than that of the valproic acid.

  14. Biogenic amines, amino acids and regional blood flow in rat brain after prenatal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damage to nerve cells after prenatal irradiation could affect their later ability to function normally. The concentration of several biogenic amines and amino acids was therefore determined at different times after prenatal irradiation with 0.95 Gy on day 10, 12 or 15 of pregnancy. The offspring was sacrified 0.5, 1, 3 and 6 months after birth and the following structures were dissected: Cortex, hippocampus, striatum, thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebellum and medulla. Biogenic amines isolated by HPLC and detected electrochemically were: Dopamine, DOPA, DOPAC, epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin and hydroxyindolacetate. Amino acids converted to their dansyl derivatives and separated by HPLC were: Aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, gamma aminobutyrate and taurine. Many neurotransmitters were found increased in brain after prenatal irradiation, particularly on day 12 and 15 p.c. Marked changes were found for serotonin in several brain structures and for dopamin in striatum. An increase was also found in glutamate, glutamine and GABA. Studies on regional blood flow using injection of labelled 15 μ microspheres did not reveal significant alterations after prenatal irradiation. (orig.)

  15. Specific effects of punishment on amino acids turnover in discrete rat brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, T; Dworkin, S I; Co, C; Smith, J E

    1988-11-01

    Specific effects of punishment on the turnover rates of aspartate (Asp), glutamate (Glu) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in 14 brain regions were investigated in rats exposed to punishment. Two yoked controls were also used in an attempt to separate the nonspecific effects of response rate, reinforcement density and direct effects of punisher (foot shock). Punished and unpunished littermate rats had similar response rates, and the reinforcement density was almost identical for both groups. A third group (yoked-shock rats) received food and shock independent of responding whenever these were given to the punished rats. When compared to the unpunished rats, the punishment increased the turnover rates of the three amino acids in all brain regions examined except GABA turnover in the caudate-putamen and preoptic-diagonal band. The majority of these changes by the punishment were similar to the effects of the yoked-shock (yoked-shock versus unpunished), although the magnitude of increase by the punishment was mostly larger than that by the yoked-shock. Six changes by the punishment (increase in the turnover rates of Asp in the thalamus, Glu in the hypothalamus and GABA in the cingulate cortex, entorhinal-subicular cortex, dentate gyrus and hypothalamus) appeared to be the specific effects of punishment since the yoked-shock did not affect these parameters. These results suggest that the punishment caused a hyperexcitation of the amino acidergic neurons in the limbic systems, particularly those in Papez's circuit. PMID:3251236

  16. Understanding Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-0119 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-0119 ref|NP_068703.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor 1 isof...A-B receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAA21454.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH42598.1| Gamma-aminobut...yric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH50532.2| Gamma-aminobutyric... acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI18015.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GA...BA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI17389.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-0768 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-0768 ref|NP_068703.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor 1 isof...A-B receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAA21454.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH42598.1| Gamma-aminobut...yric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH50532.2| Gamma-aminobutyric... acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI18015.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GA...BA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI17389.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CJAC-01-0025 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-0025 ref|NP_068703.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor 1 isof...A-B receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAA21454.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH42598.1| Gamma-aminobut...yric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH50532.2| Gamma-aminobutyric... acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI18015.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GA...BA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI17389.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-02-0276 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-02-0276 ref|NP_068703.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor 1 isof...A-B receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAA21454.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH42598.1| Gamma-aminobut...yric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH50532.2| Gamma-aminobutyric... acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI18015.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GA...BA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI17389.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RNOR-20-0079 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-20-0079 ref|NP_068703.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor 1 isof...A-B receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAA21454.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH42598.1| Gamma-aminobut...yric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH50532.2| Gamma-aminobutyric... acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI18015.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GA...BA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI17389.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUS-17-0114 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUS-17-0114 ref|NP_068703.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor 1 isof...A-B receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAA21454.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH42598.1| Gamma-aminobut...yric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH50532.2| Gamma-aminobutyric... acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI18015.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GA...BA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI17389.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-06-0049 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-06-0049 ref|NP_068703.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor 1 isof...A-B receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAA21454.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH42598.1| Gamma-aminobut...yric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH50532.2| Gamma-aminobutyric... acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI18015.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GA...BA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI17389.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RMAC-04-0032 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-04-0032 ref|NP_068703.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor 1 isof...A-B receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAA21454.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH42598.1| Gamma-aminobut...yric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH50532.2| Gamma-aminobutyric... acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI18015.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GA...BA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI17389.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-BTAU-01-1929 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-1929 ref|NP_068703.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor 1 isof...A-B receptor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAA21454.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH42598.1| Gamma-aminobut...yric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|AAH50532.2| Gamma-aminobutyric... acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI18015.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GA...BA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI17389.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens

  6. Okadaic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Severinsen, Mai C K

    2014-01-01

    was studied at the electron microscopic level using the membrane-impermeable marker Ruthenium Red (RR). Like FM dye, RR was taken up into TWEEs and multivesicular bodies (MVBs). However, OA induced the formation of a large number of lamellar bodies (LBs), a type of lysosome-related organelles. LBs...... hyper protein phosphorylation, but no detectable loss of cell polarity or cytoskeletal integrity of the enterocytes. Using a fluorescent membrane marker, FM dye, endocytosis from the brush border was affected by the toxin. Although constitutive uptake into subapical terminal web-localized early...... in acidic organelles, implying a different toxic mechanism of action. We propose that rapid induction of LBs, an indicator of phospholipidosis, should be included in the future toxicity profile of OA....

  7. Dehydroabietic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ping Rao

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound [systematic name: (1R,4aS,10aR-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthrene-1-carboxylic acid], C20H28O2, has been isolated from disproportionated rosin which is obtained by isomerizing gum rosin with a Pd-C catalyst.. Two crystallographically independent molecules exist in the asymmetric unit. In each molecule, there are three six-membered rings, which adopt planar, half-chair and chair conformations. The two cyclohexane rings form a trans ring junction with the two methyl groups in axial positions. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  8. Recombinant polycistronic structure of hydantoinase process genes in Escherichia coli for the production of optically pure D-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Gómez, Ana Isabel; Martínez-Rodríguez, Sergio; Clemente-Jiménez, Josefa María; Pozo-Dengra, Joaquín; Rodríguez-Vico, Felipe; Las Heras-Vázquez, Francisco Javier

    2007-03-01

    Two recombinant reaction systems for the production of optically pure D-amino acids from different D,L-5-monosubstituted hydantoins were constructed. Each system contained three enzymes, two of which were D-hydantoinase and D-carbamoylase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens BQL9. The third enzyme was hydantoin racemase 1 for the first system and hydantoin racemase 2 for the second system, both from A. tumefaciens C58. Each system was formed by using a recombinant Escherichia coli strain with one plasmid harboring three genes coexpressed with one promoter in a polycistronic structure. The D-carbamoylase gene was cloned closest to the promoter in order to obtain the highest level of synthesis of the enzyme, thus avoiding intermediate accumulation, which decreases the reaction rate. Both systems were able to produce 100% conversion and 100% optically pure D-methionine, D-leucine, D-norleucine, D-norvaline, D-aminobutyric acid, D-valine, D-phenylalanine, D-tyrosine, and D-tryptophan from the corresponding hydantoin racemic mixture. For the production of almost all D-amino acids studied in this work, system 1 hydrolyzed the 5-monosubstituted hydantoins faster than system 2. PMID:17220246

  9. Anticonvulsant and behavioral effects observed in mice following treatment with an ester derivative of ferulic acid: Isopentyl ferulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Keylla C; Oliveira, George Laylson S; Machado, Kátia C; Islam, Md Torequl; Junior, Antonio Luiz G; De Sousa, Damião P; Freitas, Rivelilson M

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential anticonvulsant effect of isopentyl ferulate, a new ester derived from ferulic acid in mice (Mus musculus) subjected to two models of induced seizures. According to the results obtained, the IF at doses of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg (i.p.) showed protective effect against induced seizures by pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, i.p.) and pentylenetetrazole (70 mg/kg, i.p.). In the two animal models of seizures, the pretreatment of the IF (25, 50 and 75 mg/kg) with flumazenil blocked the anticonvulsant effect, suggesting that the mechanism of action of this ester derived of ferulic acid may be related to activity in the benzodiazepine-binding site of the GABAA receptor (γ-aminobutyric acid, type A). In addition to the anticonvulsant effect, behavioral changes as neurotoxicity indication were assessed by using the rota rod and open field tests. The results obtained showed that the IF (25, 50 and 75 mg/kg) does not induce significant changes in locomotor activity and motor coordination when compared with the control group, unlike the results presented by diazepam. Thus, these results demonstrate a new pharmacological knowledge of IF with potential application against epileptic seizures. However, further studies are needed to elucidate other neurobiological mechanisms underlying epilepsy.

  10. Simultaneous determination of vigabatrin and amino acid neurotransmitters in brain microdialysates by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benturquia, Nadia; Parrot, Sandrine; Sauvinet, Valérie; Renaud, Bernard; Denoroy, Luc

    2004-07-01

    Capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIFD) coupled to in vivo microdialysis sampling was used in order to monitor simultaneously a drug and several neurotransmitters in the brain extracellular fluid. Determination of the antiepileptic drug vigabatrin and the amino acid neurotransmitters glutamate (Glu), l-aspartate (l-Asp) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was performed on low-concentration samples which were derivatized with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA) and separated using a pH 9.2 75 mM sodium borate running buffer containing 60 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and 5mM hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD). Glu, l-Asp and vigabatrin derivatized at a concentration of 1.0 x 10(-9) M, and GABA derivatized at a concentration of 5.0 x 10(-9) M, produced peaks with signal-to-noise ratios of 8:1, 8:1, 4:1 and 5:1, respectively. The nature of the neurotransmitter peaks found in rat brain microdialysates was confirmed by both electrophoretic and pharmacological validations. This method was used for monitoring vigabatrin and amino acid neurotransmitters in microdialysates from the rat striatum during intracerebral infusion of the drug and revealed rapid vigabatrin-induced changes in GABA and Glu levels. This original application of CE-LIFD coupled to microdialysis represents a powerful tool for pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic investigations.

  11. Retarded acid emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, C.R.; Rixe, F.H.; Duffield, E.L. Jr.

    1972-08-01

    Compositions for use in acidizing hydrocarbon-bearing formations are described. Retarded acid emulsions of prolonged stability make it possible for the acid in this form to be displaced substantial distances out into the formation before becoming spent. The action of acid emulsions for use in acidizing hydrocarbon-bearing formations is prolonged by employing as the principal emulsifying agent an amine salt of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid. Acid emulsions employing the amine salt of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid exhibit greater stability than those employing the free acid. (8 claims)

  12. Acid Lipase Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease, ... Related NINDS Publications and Information What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease or deficiency occurs when ...

  13. Plasma amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  14. Molecular aggregation in selected crystalline 1:1 complexes of hydrophobic D- and L-amino acids. IV. The L-phenylalanine series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görbitz, Carl Henrik; Rissanen, Kari; Valkonen, Arto; Husabø, Asmund

    2009-06-01

    The amino acid L-phenylalanine has been cocrystallized with D-2-aminobutyric acid, C(9)H(11)NO(2).C(4)H(9)NO(2), D-norvaline, C(9)H(11)NO(2).C(5)H(11)NO(2), and D-methionine, C(9)H(11)NO(2).C(5)H(11)NO(2)S, with linear side chains, as well as with D-leucine, C(9)H(11)NO(2).C(6)H(13)NO(2), D-isoleucine, C(9)H(11)NO(2).C(6)H(13)NO(2), and D-allo-isoleucine, C(9)H(11)NO(2).C(6)H(13)NO(2), with branched side chains. The structures of these 1:1 complexes fall into two classes based on the observed hydrogen-bonding pattern. From a comparison with other L:D complexes involving hydrophobic amino acids and regular racemates, it is shown that the structure-directing properties of phenylalanine closely parallel those of valine and isoleucine but not those of leucine, which shares side-chain branching at C(gamma) with phenylalanine and is normally considered to be the most closely related non-aromatic amino acid.

  15. Molecular aggregation in selected crystalline 1:1 complexes of hydrophobic D- and L-amino acids. IV. The L-phenylalanine series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görbitz, Carl Henrik; Rissanen, Kari; Valkonen, Arto; Husabø, Asmund

    2009-06-01

    The amino acid L-phenylalanine has been cocrystallized with D-2-aminobutyric acid, C(9)H(11)NO(2).C(4)H(9)NO(2), D-norvaline, C(9)H(11)NO(2).C(5)H(11)NO(2), and D-methionine, C(9)H(11)NO(2).C(5)H(11)NO(2)S, with linear side chains, as well as with D-leucine, C(9)H(11)NO(2).C(6)H(13)NO(2), D-isoleucine, C(9)H(11)NO(2).C(6)H(13)NO(2), and D-allo-isoleucine, C(9)H(11)NO(2).C(6)H(13)NO(2), with branched side chains. The structures of these 1:1 complexes fall into two classes based on the observed hydrogen-bonding pattern. From a comparison with other L:D complexes involving hydrophobic amino acids and regular racemates, it is shown that the structure-directing properties of phenylalanine closely parallel those of valine and isoleucine but not those of leucine, which shares side-chain branching at C(gamma) with phenylalanine and is normally considered to be the most closely related non-aromatic amino acid. PMID:19498234

  16. Selection of Taste Markers Related to Lactic Acid Bacteria Microflora Metabolism for Chinese Traditional Paocai: A Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nan; Zhang, Chuchu; Yang, Qin; Guo, Zhuang; Yang, Bo; Lu, Wenwei; Li, Dongyao; Tian, Fengwei; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2016-03-23

    Traditional paocai brine (PB) is continuously propagated by back-slopping and contains numerous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains. Although PB is important for the quality of paocai (Chinese sauerkraut), the taste features, taste-related compounds of PB-paocai and the effects of LAB communities from PB on the taste compounds remain unclear. An electronic tongue was used to evaluate the taste features of 13 PB-paocai samples. Umami, saltiness, bitterness, sweetness, and aftertaste astringency were the main taste features of PB-paocai. A total of 14 compounds were identified as discriminant taste markers for PB-paocai via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based multimarker profiling. A LAB co-culture (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus buchneri, and Pediococcus ethanoliduran) from PB could significantly increase glutamic acid (umami), sucrose (sweetness), glycine (sweetness), lactic acid (sourness), and γ-aminobutyric acid in PB-paocai, which would endow it with important flavor features. Such features could then facilitate starter screening and fermentation optimization to produce paocai-related foods with better nutritional and sensory qualities. PMID:26915389

  17. POLYELEOSTEARIC ACID VESICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zichen; XIE Ximng; FAN Qinghua; FANG Yifei

    1992-01-01

    α-Eleostearic acid and β-eleostearic acid formed vesicles in aqueous medium when an ethanol solutionofeleostearic acid was injected rapidly into a vigorously vortexed aqueous phase. Formation of the vesicles was demonstrated by electron microscopic observation and bromothymol blue encapsulation experiments. Polymerizations of the eleostearic acids in the formed vesicles carried out by UV irradiation produced poly-α-eleostearic acid and poly-β-eleostearic acid vesicles.

  18. Effects of edaravone on the amino acid neurotransmitter pathway from the hippocampus in pentylenetetrazol-induced epileptic rats%依达拉奉对戊四氮致痫大鼠海马氨基酸递质通路的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李飞; 成祥林

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨依达拉奉对戊四氮( PTZ)致痫大鼠海马氨基酸递质通路的影响。方法将36只成年Wistar大鼠随机分为正常对照组( NC组)、模型组( M组)和依达拉奉组(E组),观察3组大鼠的行为学和脑电图情况,应用免疫组织化学方法测定各组大鼠海马γ-氨基丁酸转运体和谷氨酰胺合成酶的含量。结果与M组相比,E组大鼠癫痫发作程度和脑电图改变以及海马γ-氨基丁酸转运体的含量均明显下降(P均<0.05),而谷氨酰胺合成酶的含量则明显升高( P<0.05)。结论依达拉奉可通过降低癫痫大鼠海马γ-氨基丁酸转运体含量和增强谷氨酰胺合成酶表达以达到对抗癫痫的效果。%Objective It is to investigate the effects of edaravone on the amino acid pathway from the hippocampus in pen-tylenetetrazol ( PTZ)-induced epileptic rats.Methods 36 adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control group ( NC group) , epileptic model group( M group) and edaravone group ( ET group) .The changes of behavior and EEG were ob-served in rats of the three groups.The expression of hippocampalγ-aminobutyric acid transporter and glutamine synthetase at protein level was detected by immunohistochemistry.Results Compared with that in M group, epileptic degree and EEG chan-ges and the expression of hippocampalγ-aminobutyric acid transporter was significantly decreased (P<0.05), while the ex-pression of glutamine synthetase was significantly increased in ET group(P<0.05).Conclusion Edaravone could ameliorate epilepsy via a decrease of the expression of hippocampalγ-aminobutyric acid transporter and an increase of the expression of glutamine synthetase in pentylenetetrazol ( PTZ)-induced epileptic rats.

  19. Concentration and distribution of dissolved amino acids in a shallow hydrothermal system, Vulcano Island (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, E.; Skoog, A. [University of Connecticut, Groton, CT (United States). Dept. of Marine Sciences; Amend, J.P. [Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences

    2004-09-01

    Hydrothermal systems are known to harbour a large number of microorganisms, but the organic chemical composition of the solution that comprises their potential substrate is largely unknown. Concentrations and distributions of dissolved free amino acids (DFAA) and dissolved combined amino acids (DCAA) were determined in fluids from the moderate-temperature (42-89{sup o}C), shallow hydrothermal system on the volcanically active island of Vulcano, Italy. The seven samples represent three different geological settings on the island; shallow ({approx} 1 m) submarine vents, geothermal wells, and seeps in heated beach sediments, in addition to ambient local seawater from the bay, Baia di Levante. All hydrothermal sites, with one exception, had TDAA concentrations that were 3-114 times higher than local seawater in Baia di Levante. There were large similarities in amino acid concentration and composition among samples from the same geological setting. The highest amino acid concentrations were found at sites with acidic and reducing conditions, which also had the largest freshwater component. An unusually high fraction of the TDAA pool was represented by DFAA (33-87%), possibly due to in situ acid hydrolysis of DCAA to DFAA. Both DFAA and DCAA concentrations were correlated to DOC, indicating similar source and sink functions for these pools. The yield of TDAA (TDAA-carbon as fraction of organic carbon) ranged from 2% to 25%, which is high compared with non-hydrothermal settings, and indicates high biological lability. The mole fraction of {beta}-alanine plus {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (% BALA + GABA) was 2-2.7% of TDAA, also indicating high biological lability. Owing to the high over-all amino acid concentrations, the high fraction of DFAAs, and the high biological lability of the organic matter, organic matter in general and amino acids specifically could represent significant carbon and energy sources for archaea and bacteria in this hydrothermal system. The clear

  20. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Chiba (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  1. Novel high-affinity and selective biaromatic 4-substituted ¿-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) analogues as GHB ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Signe; Wellendorph, Petrine; Nielsen, Birgitte;

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a metabolite of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and has been proposed to function as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. GHB is used in the treatment of narcolepsy and is a drug of abuse. GHB binds to both GABA(B) receptors and specific high-affinity GHB sites...... in brain, of which the latter have not been linked unequivocally to function, but are speculated to be GHB receptors. In this study, a series of biaromatic 4-substituted GHB analogues, including 4'-phenethylphenyl, 4'-styrylphenyl, and 4'-benzyloxyphenyl GHB analogues, were synthesized and characterized...... pharmacologically in a [3H](E,RS)-(6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5-hydroxy-5H-benzocyclohept-6-ylidene)acetic acid ([3H]NCS-382) binding assay and in GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptor binding assays. The compounds were selective for the high-affinity GHB binding sites and several displayed Ki values below 100 nM. The affinity...

  2. Preparation and properties of BSA-loaded microspheres based on multi-(amino acid copolymer for protein delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen X

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Xingtao Chen,1 Guoyue Lv,1 Jue Zhang,2 Songchao Tang,2 Yonggang Yan,1 Zhaoying Wu,2 Jiacan Su,2 Jie Wei2 1College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 2Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: A multi-(amino acid copolymer (MAC based on ω-aminocaproic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid, L-alanine, L-lysine, L-glutamate, and hydroxyproline was synthetized, and MAC microspheres encapsulating bovine serum albumin (BSA were prepared by a double-emulsion solvent extraction method. The experimental results show that various preparation parameters including surfactant ratio of Tween 80 to Span 80, surfactant concentration, benzyl alcohol in the external water phase, and polymer concentration had obvious effects on the particle size, morphology, and encapsulation efficiency of the BSA-loaded microspheres. The sizes of BSA-loaded microspheres ranged from 60.2 µm to 79.7 µm, showing different degrees of porous structure. The encapsulation efficiency of BSA-loaded microspheres also ranged from 38.8% to 50.8%. BSA release from microspheres showed the classic biphasic profile, which was governed by diffusion and polymer erosion. The initial burst release of BSA from microspheres at the first week followed by constant slow release for the next 7 weeks were observed. BSA-loaded microspheres could degrade gradually in phosphate buffered saline buffer with pH value maintained at around 7.1 during 8 weeks incubation, suggesting that microsphere degradation did not cause a dramatic pH drop in phosphate buffered saline buffer because no acidic degradation products were released from the microspheres. Therefore, the MAC microspheres might have great potential as carriers for protein delivery. Keywords: poly (amino acid copolymer, release, degradation

  3. Aminoalkanoic Acids as Alternatives to Mercaptoalkanoic Acids for the Linker-Assisted Attachment of Quantum Dots to TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-González, Natalia; Chauhan, Saurabh; Watson, David F

    2016-09-13

    Linear aminoalkanoic acids (AAAs) and mercaptoalkanoic acids (MAAs) were characterized as bifunctional ligands to tether CdSe QDs to nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films and to mediate excited-state electron transfer (ET) from the QDs to TiO2 nanoparticles. The adsorption of 12-aminododecanoic acid (ADA) and 12-mercaptododecanoic acid (ADA) to TiO2 followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Surface adduct formation constants (Kad) were ∼10(4) M(-1); saturation amounts of the ligands per projected surface area of TiO2 (Γ0) were ∼10(-7) mol cm(-2). Both Kad and Γ0 differed by 20% or less for the two linkers. CdSe QDs adhered to ADA- and MDA-functionalized TiO2 films; data were well modeled by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and Langmuir kinetics. For ADA- and MDA-mediated assembly values of Kad were (1.8 ± 0.4) × 10(6) and (2.4 ± 0.4) × 10(6) M(-1), values of Γ0 were (1.6 ± 0.3) × 10(-9) and (1.2 ± 0.1) × 10(-9) mol cm(-2), and rate constants were (14 ± 5) and (60 ± 20) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. Thus, the thermodynamics and kinetics of linker-assisted assembly were slightly more favorable for MDA than for ADA. Steady-state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy revealed that electrons were transferred from both band-edge and surface states of CdSe QDs to TiO2 with rate constants (ket) of ∼10(7) s(-1). ET was approximately twice as fast through thiol-bearing linker 4-mercaptobutyric acid (MBA) as through amine-bearing linker 4-aminobutyric acid (ABA). Photoexcited QDs transferred holes to adsorbed MBA. In contrast, ABA did not scavenge photogenerated holes from CdSe QDs, which maximized the separation of charges following ET. Additionally, ABA shifted electron-trapping surface states to higher energies, minimizing the loss of potential energy of electrons prior to ET. These trade-offs involving the kinetics and thermodynamics of linker-assisted assembly; the driving force, rate constant, and efficiency of ET; and the extent of photoinduced charge

  4. Enantiomeric excesses induced in amino acids by ultraviolet circularly polarized light irradiation of extraterrestrial ice analogs: A possible source of asymmetry for prebiotic chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modica, Paola; De Marcellus, Pierre; D' Hendecourt, Louis Le Sergeant [Univ. Paris-Sud, Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, UMR 8617, F-91405 Orsay (France); Meinert, Cornelia; Meierhenrich, Uwe J. [Univ. Nice Sophia Antipolis, Institut de Chimie de Nice, UMR 7272 CNRS, F-06108 Nice (France); Nahon, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.nahon@synchrotron-soleil.fr, E-mail: ldh@ias.u-psud.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2014-06-10

    The discovery of meteoritic amino acids with enantiomeric excesses of the L-form (ee {sub L}) has suggested that extraterrestrial organic materials may have contributed to prebiotic chemistry and directed the initial occurrence of the ee {sub L} that further led to homochirality of amino acids on Earth. A proposed mechanism for the origin of ee {sub L} in meteorites involves an asymmetric photochemistry of extraterrestrial ices by UV circularly polarized light (CPL). We have performed the asymmetric synthesis of amino acids on achiral extraterrestrial ice analogs by VUV CPL, investigating the chiral asymmetry transfer at two different evolutionary stages at which the analogs were irradiated (regular ices and/or organic residues) and at two different photon energies (6.6 and 10.2 eV). We identify 16 distinct amino acids and precisely measure the L-enantiomeric excesses using the enantioselective GC × GC-TOFMS technique in five of them: α-alanine, 2,3-diaminopropionic acid, 2-aminobutyric acid, valine, and norvaline, with values ranging from ee {sub L} = –0.20% ± 0.14% to ee {sub L} = –2.54% ± 0.28%. The sign of the induced ee {sub L} depends on the helicity and the energy of CPL, but not on the evolutionary stage of the samples, and is the same for all five considered amino acids. Our results support an astrophysical scenario in which the solar system was formed in a high-mass star-forming region where icy grains were irradiated during the protoplanetary phase by an external source of CPL of a given helicity and a dominant energy, inducing a stereo-specific photochemistry.

  5. Enantiomeric excesses induced in amino acids by ultraviolet circularly polarized light irradiation of extraterrestrial ice analogs: A possible source of asymmetry for prebiotic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of meteoritic amino acids with enantiomeric excesses of the L-form (ee L) has suggested that extraterrestrial organic materials may have contributed to prebiotic chemistry and directed the initial occurrence of the ee L that further led to homochirality of amino acids on Earth. A proposed mechanism for the origin of ee L in meteorites involves an asymmetric photochemistry of extraterrestrial ices by UV circularly polarized light (CPL). We have performed the asymmetric synthesis of amino acids on achiral extraterrestrial ice analogs by VUV CPL, investigating the chiral asymmetry transfer at two different evolutionary stages at which the analogs were irradiated (regular ices and/or organic residues) and at two different photon energies (6.6 and 10.2 eV). We identify 16 distinct amino acids and precisely measure the L-enantiomeric excesses using the enantioselective GC × GC-TOFMS technique in five of them: α-alanine, 2,3-diaminopropionic acid, 2-aminobutyric acid, valine, and norvaline, with values ranging from ee L = –0.20% ± 0.14% to ee L = –2.54% ± 0.28%. The sign of the induced ee L depends on the helicity and the energy of CPL, but not on the evolutionary stage of the samples, and is the same for all five considered amino acids. Our results support an astrophysical scenario in which the solar system was formed in a high-mass star-forming region where icy grains were irradiated during the protoplanetary phase by an external source of CPL of a given helicity and a dominant energy, inducing a stereo-specific photochemistry.

  6. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  7. Acid Deposition Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H2SO4) and nitric acids (HNO3), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry

  8. Screening and identification of lactic acid bacteria for biosynthesis of γ-aminobutyric acid from the leaching solution of Chinese rice wine%黄酒浸米液中产γ-氨基丁酸乳酸菌的筛选和鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚金炎; 谢湉; 楼坚; 胡升; 梅乐和; 谢东芳; 黄俊

    2015-01-01

    从黄酒浸米液中筛选出一株产γ-氨基丁酸的菌株Tpxj-01,采用生理生化实验、形态学观察以及16S rDNA序列分析对Tpxj-01进行鉴定,结果表明该菌株为植物乳杆菌Lactobacillus plantarum.高效液相色谱分析对Lactobacillus plantarum Tpxj-01发酵产γ-氨基丁酸的能力进行定量测定,发酵液中γ-氨基丁酸浓度为1.02 g/L.筛选获得的乳酸菌Lactobacillus plantarum Tpxj-01 生物安全性高,能应用于食品工业,具有较好的γ-氨基丁酸生产潜力.

  9. 力竭运动前后及恢复期大鼠脑皮质运动区GABA含量及GAD、GABA-T活性的变化%Changes of Gamma-aminobutyric Acid Content and Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase, GABA Transaminase Activity in Motor Area of Rats Cortex after Acute Exhausting Swimming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡江平; 张蕴琨

    2005-01-01

    目的:观察力竭运动前后及恢复期大鼠脑皮质运动区GABA含量及GAD、GABA-T活性的动态变化.方法:成年雄性SD大鼠进行一次性力竭游泳,用荧光法测定其脑皮质运动区GABA含量及GAD、GABA-T活性.结果:力竭运动前后及恢复期大鼠脑皮质运动区GA-BA含量、GAD与GABA-T活性出现明显变化.结论:运动性疲劳时GABA可能是脑的机能抑制状态的主导因素之一.力竭运动后GAD、GABA-T活性明显增高,GABA的代谢加快.中枢机能的恢复具有时间延续性.GABA代谢酶的变化可以用来评定运动过程及恢复期中枢机能状态.

  10. Inhibition of Excitatory Amino Acid Efflux Contributes to Protective Effects of Puerarin Against Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the protective effects of puerarine (Pur) against cerebral ischemia is associated with depressing the extracellular levels of amino acid transmitters in brain of rats. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 60 min followed by 24 h reperfusion. Pur (50, 100 mg/kg,i.p.) was administered at the onset of MCAO. The infarct rate and edema rate were detected on TTC (2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride)-stained coronal sections. The extracellular levels of amino acid transmitters were monitored in striatum of rats with ischemic/reperfusion injury using in vivo microdialysis technique. Furthermore, the protective effects of Pur against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity were detected. Glutamate-induced apoptotic and necrotic cells in hippocampus were estimated by flow cytometric analysis of Annexin-Ⅴ and PI labeling cells. Results Pur (100 mg/kg) significantly decreased infarct size by 31.6% (P<0.05), reduced edema volume (P<0.05), and improved neurological functions (P<0.05) following MCAO. In these rats, the ischemia-induced extracellular levels of aspartate (Asp), glutamate (Glu), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and taurine (Tau) were significantly reduced in striatum of vehicle-treated animals by 54.7%, 56.7%, 75.8%, and 68.1% (P<0.01 and P<0.05). Pur reduced the peak values of Glu and Asp more obviously than those of GABA and Tau, and the rate of Glu/GABA during MCAO markedly decreased in Pur-treated MCAO rats, compared with the vehicle-treated MCAO rats.Meanwhile, apoptosis and necrosis induced by Glu in cultured hippocampal neurons were significantly reduced after Pur treatment. Conclusion Acute treatment with Pur at the onset of occlusion significantly depresses ischemia-induced efflux of amino acids, especially, excitotoxicity in the striatum, a mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effect on cellular survival.

  11. Plasma amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasma amino acids is a screening test done on infants that looks at the amounts of amino ... Laboratory error High or low amounts of individual plasma amino acids must be considered with other information. ...

  12. 78 FR 20029 - Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic...: This regulation establishes an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of castor oil... residues of castor oil, polymer with adipic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid and ricinoleic acid on food...

  13. The Acid Rain Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  14. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  15. Azetidinic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Bunch, Lennart; Chopin, Nathalie;

    2005-01-01

    A set of ten azetidinic amino acids, that can be envisioned as C-4 alkyl substituted analogues of trans-2-carboxyazetidine-3-acetic acid (t-CAA) and/or conformationally constrained analogues of (R)- or (S)-glutamic acid (Glu) have been synthesized in a diastereo- and enantiomerically pure form fr...

  16. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  17. Distribution of gamma-aminobutyric and nitrogen monoxide-coexisting neurons in cortical amygdaloid nucleus in rats and its modulation effect on pain transmission%大鼠杏仁皮质核内γ-氨基丁酸与一氧化氮共存神经元分布及对痛觉信息传递的调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪晶晶; 凌树才; 朱晞

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Quite a few deoxidized reduced form of nicotinamide-adenime dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH-d) -positive neurons distribute in amygdala complex (AMC) and gamma-aminobutyric acid(GABA)is an important inhibitory neurotransmitter that also widely distributes in the central nervous system (CNS) of mammals. Whether there is coexistence of GABA and nitricoxide synthase (NOS) in AMC is unknown at present.OBJECTIVE: To observe whether there is GABA and NADPH-d-eoexist neuron in cortical nucleus of amygdala (Co) with the combination of NADPH-d hischemical and immunohistochemical double staining.DESIGN: A verifying controlled study based on the experimental animals.SETTING: Department of anatomy of two universities MATERIALS: The study was conducted in the department of Anatomy,Medical College of Zhejiang University between May 2004 and June 2004. Six SD rats in either gender with a body mass between 250 g and 300 g were selected.INTERVENTIONS: Coronary serial frozen slices of brain tissue were prepared. 4 sets of slices were selected for Nissl staining, NADPH-d histochemical staining, NADPH-d histochemical and GABA immunohistochemical double staining, and control experiment for the test of antibody specificity. GABA-labeled neurons, NADPH-d-positive neurons, and NADPH-d/GABA double-labeled neurons were counted in Co nucleus for the calculation of the percentage of double-labeled positive neurons to single-labeled positive neurons.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Distribution of NADPH-d/GABA double labeled neuron; distribution of NADPH-d or GABA single labeled neuron.RESULTS: Most of GABA-positive neurons distributed in posteromed cortical amygdaloid nucleus (PMCo), posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus (PLCo), which were mainly small types but few middle types. Most of NADPH-d-positive neurons distributed in PMCo, PLCo and anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus (Aco), which were mainly middle sized and small sized neurons. The ratio of NADPH-d/GABA double-labeled neurons

  18. Progress in the Synthesis and Application of Nipecotic Acid and Its Derivatives%3-哌啶甲酸及其衍生物的合成与应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李运波; 唐凤翔; 孟春; 郭养浩

    2009-01-01

    Nipecotic acid and its derivatives, which have high bioactivity, are significant pharmaceutical intermediates. In this review, the synthetic methods of nipecotic acid and its derivatives are summarized.The application of nipecotic acid and its derivatives to synthesizing drugs for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) uptake inhibition, cancer chemotherapy, growth hormone secretion, anti-inflammation, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, nootropics, anti-flu virus and bone disease is presented as well.%3-哌啶甲酸及其衍生物是重要的药物中间体,具有很高的生物活性.综述了3-哌啶甲酸及其羧基酯化、不饱和、不同位置取代与多取代衍生物的合成方法,并对3-哌啶甲酸及其衍生物在合成γ-氨基丁酸(GABA)摄入抑制剂、抗肿瘤药、生长激素促分泌素、消炎药物、心血管药物、促智药物、抗流感病毒、骨疾病等药物中的应用进行了概述.

  19. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  20. Acidizing carbonate reservoirs with chlorocarboxylic acid salt solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, E.A.; Scheuerman, R.F.; Templeton, C.C.

    1978-10-31

    A carbonate reservoir is acidized slowly by injecting an aqueous solution of a chlorocarboxylic acid salt so that the rate of the acidization is limited to the rate at which an acid is formed by the hydrolyzing of the chlorocarboxylate ions. The rate at which a chlorocarboxylic acid salt hydrolyzes to form an acid provides the desired rate of acid-release. A more complete acid-base reaction by chloroacetic acid, as compared to formic, acetic, and proprionic, is due to its being a much stronger acid. The pKa of chloroacetic acid is 2.86, whereas that of formic acid is 3.75, and that of acetic acid is 4.75. The pKa of a solution of a weak acid is the pH exhibited when the concentration of undissociated acid equals the concentration of the acid anion. 14 claims.

  1. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition. PMID:27175515

  2. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition.

  3. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  4. Acid-Base Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, L Lee; Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S

    2015-12-01

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3(-) and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3(-) is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys.

  5. Novel high-affinity and selective biaromatic 4-substituted gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) analogues as GHB ligands: design, synthesis, and binding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høg, Signe; Wellendorph, Petrine; Nielsen, Birgitte; Frydenvang, Karla; Dahl, Ivar F; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Brehm, Lotte; Frølund, Bente; Clausen, Rasmus P

    2008-12-25

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a metabolite of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and has been proposed to function as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. GHB is used in the treatment of narcolepsy and is a drug of abuse. GHB binds to both GABA(B) receptors and specific high-affinity GHB sites in brain, of which the latter have not been linked unequivocally to function, but are speculated to be GHB receptors. In this study, a series of biaromatic 4-substituted GHB analogues, including 4'-phenethylphenyl, 4'-styrylphenyl, and 4'-benzyloxyphenyl GHB analogues, were synthesized and characterized pharmacologically in a [3H](E,RS)-(6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5-hydroxy-5H-benzocyclohept-6-ylidene)acetic acid ([3H]NCS-382) binding assay and in GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptor binding assays. The compounds were selective for the high-affinity GHB binding sites and several displayed Ki values below 100 nM. The affinity of the 4-[4'-(2-iodobenzyloxy)phenyl] GHB analogue 17b was shown to reside predominantly with the R-enantiomer (Ki = 22 nM), which has higher affinity than previously reported GHB ligands.

  6. Capillary electrophoresis combined with microdialysis in the human spinal cord: a new tool for monitoring rapid peroperative changes in amino acid neurotransmitters within the dorsal horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrot, Sandrine; Sauvinet, Valérie; Xavier, Jean-Michel; Chavagnac, Delphine; Mouly-Badina, Laurence; Garcia-Larrea, Luis; Mertens, Patrick; Renaud, Bernard

    2004-06-01

    A method originally developed for the separation of the three neurotransmitters gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate (Glu) and L-aspartate (L-Asp) in microdialysis samples from rat brain (Sauvinet et al., Electrophoresis 2003, 24, 3187-3196) was applied to human spinal dialysates obtained during peroperative microdialysis from patients undergoing surgery against chronic pain. Molecules were tagged on their primary amine function with the fluorogene agent, naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA), and, after separation by capillary electrophoresis (CE, 75 mmol/L borate buffer, pH 9.2, containing 70 mmol/L sodium dodecyl sulfate and 10 mmol/L hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin, + 25 kV voltage), were detected by laser-induced fluorescence detection (LIFD) using a 442 nm helium-cadmium laser. The complete method, including microdialysis sampling and analysis by CE-LIFD, has been validated for the analysis of human spinal microdialysates. The analytical detection limits were 1, 3.7 and 17 nmol/L for GABA, Glu and L-Asp respectively. This method allows an accurate measurement of the three amino acid neurotransmitters during an in vivo monitoring performed as rapidly as every minute in the human spinal dorsal horn. In addition, the effect of a brief peroperative electrical stimulation of the dorsal rootlets was investigated. The results obtained illustrate the advantages of combining microdialysis with CE-LIFD for studying neurotransmitters with such a high sampling rate.

  7. Bile acid sequestrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Sonne, David P; Knop, Filip K

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids are synthesized in the liver from cholesterol and have traditionally been recognized for their role in absorption of lipids and in cholesterol homeostasis. In recent years, however, bile acids have emerged as metabolic signaling molecules that are involved in the regulation of lipid...... and glucose metabolism, and possibly energy homeostasis, through activation of the bile acid receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and TGR5. Bile acid sequestrants (BASs) constitute a class of drugs that bind bile acids in the intestine to form a nonabsorbable complex resulting in interruption...... of the enterohepatic circulation. This increases bile acid synthesis and consequently reduces serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Also, BASs improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Despite a growing understanding of the impact of BASs on glucose metabolism, the mechanisms behind their glucose...

  8. Amino Acid and Biogenic Amine Profile Deviations in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: A Comparison between Healthy and Hyperlipidaemia Individuals Based on Targeted Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Gu, Wenbo; Ma, Xuan; Liu, Yuxin; Jiang, Lidan; Feng, Rennan; Liu, Liyan

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR) and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT. The amino acid and biogenic amine profiles from 30 HLP subjects were detected as independent samples to validate the changes in the metabolites. There were differences in the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles between the HLP individuals and the healthy controls at baseline and after the OGTT. The per cent changes of 13 metabolites from fasting to the 2 h samples during the OGTT in the HLP patients were significantly different from those of the healthy controls. The lipid parameters were associated with the changes in valine, isoleucine, creatine, creatinine, dimethylglycine, asparagine, serine, and tyrosine (all p < 0.05) during the OGTT in the HLP group. The postprandial changes in isoleucine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during the OGTT were positively associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; all p < 0.05) in the HLP group. Elevated oxidative stress and disordered energy metabolism during OGTTs are important characteristics of metabolic perturbations in HLP. Our findings offer new insights into the complex physiological regulation of metabolism during the OGTT in HLP. PMID:27338465

  9. Amino Acid and Biogenic Amine Profile Deviations in an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test: A Comparison between Healthy and Hyperlipidaemia Individuals Based on Targeted Metabolomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Gu, Wenbo; Ma, Xuan; Liu, Yuxin; Jiang, Lidan; Feng, Rennan; Liu, Liyan

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is characterized by a disturbance in lipid metabolism and is a primary risk factor for the development of insulin resistance (IR) and a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this work was to investigate the changes in postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles provoked by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in HLP patients using targeted metabolomics. We used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to analyze the serum amino acid and biogenic amine profiles of 35 control and 35 HLP subjects during an OGTT. The amino acid and biogenic amine profiles from 30 HLP subjects were detected as independent samples to validate the changes in the metabolites. There were differences in the amino acid and biogenic amine profiles between the HLP individuals and the healthy controls at baseline and after the OGTT. The per cent changes of 13 metabolites from fasting to the 2 h samples during the OGTT in the HLP patients were significantly different from those of the healthy controls. The lipid parameters were associated with the changes in valine, isoleucine, creatine, creatinine, dimethylglycine, asparagine, serine, and tyrosine (all p < 0.05) during the OGTT in the HLP group. The postprandial changes in isoleucine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during the OGTT were positively associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; all p < 0.05) in the HLP group. Elevated oxidative stress and disordered energy metabolism during OGTTs are important characteristics of metabolic perturbations in HLP. Our findings offer new insights into the complex physiological regulation of metabolism during the OGTT in HLP. PMID:27338465

  10. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  11. Docosahexaenoic Acid Neurolipidomics

    OpenAIRE

    Niemoller, Tiffany D.; Bazan, Nicolas G.

    2009-01-01

    Mediator lipidomics is a field of study concerned with the characterization, structural elucidation and bioactivity of lipid derivatives generated by enzymatic activity. Omega-3 fatty acids have beneficial effects for vision, brain function, cardiovascular function, and immune-inflammatory responses. Docosahexaenoic acid [DHA; 22:6(n-3)], the most abundant essential omega-3 fatty acid in the human body, is selectively enriched and avidly retained in the central nervous system as an acyl chain...

  12. The acid rain primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid rain continues to be a major problem in North America, and particularly in eastern Canada. This report introduced the topic of acid rain and discussed its formation, measurement, sources, and geographic distribution. The major sources of sulphur dioxide in Canada are smelting metals, burning coal for electrical power generation, industrial emissions (e.g., pulp and paper, petroleum and aluminum industry), and oil and gas extraction and refining. In Canada, the largest source of nitrogen oxide is the burning of fossil fuels by the transportation sector. Problem areas for acid rain in Canada were identified. The effects of acid rain were examined on lakes and aquatic ecosystems, forests and soils, human-made structures and materials, human health, and on visibility. Acid rain policies and programs were then presented from a historical and current context. Ecosystem recovery from acid rain was discussed with reference to acid rain monitoring, atmospheric response to reductions in acid-causing emissions, and ecosystem recovery of lakes, forests, and aquatic ecosystems. Challenges affecting ecosystem recovery were also presented. These challenges include drought and dry weather, decrease of base cations in precipitation, release of sulphate previously stored in soil, mineralization and immobilization of sulphur/sulphates. Last, the report discussed what still needs to be done to improve the problem of acid rain as well as future concerns. These concerns include loss of base cations from forested watersheds and nitrogen deposition and saturation. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 17 figs

  13. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  14. THIN-LAYER SEPARATION OF CITRIC ACID CYCLE INTERMEDIATES, LACTIC ACID, AND THE AMINO ACID TAURINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes a two-dimensional mixed-layer method for separating citric acid cycle intermediates, lactic acid and the amino acid taurine. The method cleanly separates all citric acid cycle intermediates tested, excepting citric acid and isocitric acid. The solvents are in...

  15. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides ( ... the blood in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  16. Peptide Nucleic Acid Synthons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  17. Locked nucleic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jan Stenvang; Sørensen, Mads D; Wengel, Jesper;

    2004-01-01

    Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a class of nucleic acid analogs possessing very high affinity and excellent specificity toward complementary DNA and RNA, and LNA oligonucleotides have been applied as antisense molecules both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we briefly describe the basic...

  18. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  19. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  20. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  1. Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  2. Uric acid - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High levels of uric acid can sometimes cause gout or kidney disease. You may have this test if you have had or are about to have certain types of chemotherapy. Rapid weight loss, which may occur with such treatments, can increase the amount of uric acid in ...

  3. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands, and generally do so more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands while exhibiting increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from...

  4. Carbolic acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you to. If the person swallowed the carbolic acid, give them water or milk right away, if a provider tells ... well someone does depends on how much carbolic acid they swallowed and how quickly they receive treatment. The faster medical help is given, the better ...

  5. Neurotoxicity of Folic Acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amsterdam van JGC; Jansen EHJM; A Opperhuizen; TOX

    2004-01-01

    The present review summarises the neurotoxicological effects of folic acid. Some studies in animals have shown that folic acid is neurotoxic and epileptogenic when applied directly to the brain. One poorly controlled and not further reproduced study from 1970 reported neurotoxic symptoms like malais

  6. Salicylic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin blemishes in people who have acne. Topical salicylic acid is also used to treat skin conditions that involve scaling or overgrowth of skin ... water for 15 minutes.Do not apply topical salicylic acid to skin that is broken, red, swollen, irritated, or infected. ...

  7. Fusidic acid in dermatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöfer, Helmut; Simonsen, Lene

    1995-01-01

    Studies on the clinical efficacy of fusidic acid in skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs), notably those due to Staphylococcus aureus, are reviewed. Oral fusidic acid (tablets dosed at 250 mg twice daily, or a suspension for paediatric use at 20 mg/kg/day given as two daily doses) has shown good...... efficacy and tolerability. Similarly, plain fusidic acid cream or ointment used two or three times daily in SSTIs such as impetigo are clinically and bacteriologically effective, with minimal adverse events. Combination formulations of fusidic acid with 1% hydrocortisone or 0.1% betamethasone achieve...... excellent results in infected eczema by addressing both inflammation and infection. A new lipid-rich combination formulation provides an extra moisturizing effect. Development of resistance to fusidic acid has remained generally low or short-lived and can be minimized by restricting therapy to no more than...

  8. 21 CFR 172.860 - Fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... acid, caprylic acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid. (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fatty acids. 172.860 Section 172.860 Food and Drugs... Multipurpose Additives § 172.860 Fatty acids. The food additive fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  9. Gluconic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastassiadis, Savas; Morgunov, Igor G

    2007-01-01

    Gluconic acid, the oxidation product of glucose, is a mild neither caustic nor corrosive, non toxic and readily biodegradable organic acid of great interest for many applications. As a multifunctional carbonic acid belonging to the bulk chemicals and due to its physiological and chemical characteristics, gluconic acid itself, its salts (e.g. alkali metal salts, in especially sodium gluconate) and the gluconolactone form have found extensively versatile uses in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, construction and other industries. Present review article presents the comprehensive information of patent bibliography for the production of gluconic acid and compares the advantages and disadvantages of known processes. Numerous manufacturing processes are described in the international bibliography and patent literature of the last 100 years for the production of gluconic acid from glucose, including chemical and electrochemical catalysis, enzymatic biocatalysis by free or immobilized enzymes in specialized enzyme bioreactors as well as discontinuous and continuous fermentation processes using free growing or immobilized cells of various microorganisms, including bacteria, yeast-like fungi and fungi. Alternatively, new superior fermentation processes have been developed and extensively described for the continuous and discontinuous production of gluconic acid by isolated strains of yeast-like mold Aureobasidium pullulans, offering numerous advantages over the traditional discontinuous fungi processes.

  10. Hypermetabolic state in the 7-month-old triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and the effect of lipoic acid: a 13C-NMR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancheti, Harsh; Patil, Ishan; Kanamori, Keiko; Díaz Brinton, Roberta; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Ai-Ling; Cadenas, Enrique

    2014-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by age-dependent biochemical, metabolic, and physiologic changes. These age-dependent changes ultimately converge to impair cognitive functions. This study was carried out to examine the metabolic changes by probing glucose and tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolism in a 7-month-old triple transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTg-AD). The effect of lipoic acid, an insulin-mimetic agent, was also investigated to examine its ability in modulating age-dependent metabolic changes. Seven-month-old 3xTg-AD mice were given intravenous infusion of [1-(13)C]glucose followed by an ex vivo (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance to determine the concentrations of (13)C-labeled isotopomers of glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, gamma aminobutyric acid, and N-acetylaspartate. An intravenous infusion of [1-(13)C]glucose+[1,2-(13)C]acetate was given for different periods of time to distinguish neuronal and astrocytic metabolism. Enrichments of glutamate, glutamine, and aspartate were calculated after quantifying the total ((12)C+(13)C) concentrations by high-performance liquid chromatography. A hypermetabolic state was clearly evident in 7-month-old 3xTg-AD mice in contrast to the hypometabolic state reported earlier in 13-month-old mice. Hypermetabolism was evidenced by prominent increase of (13)C labeling and enrichment in the 3xTg-AD mice. Lipoic acid feeding to the hypermetabolic 3xTg-AD mice brought the metabolic parameters to the levels of nonTg mice. PMID:25099753

  11. The PROCESS experiment: exposure of amino acids in the EXPOSE-E experiment on the international space station and in laboratory simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, M; Chabin, A; Brack, A; Cottin, H; Chaput, D; Westall, F

    2012-05-01

    To understand the chemical behavior of organic molecules in the space environment, amino acids and a dipeptide in pure form and embedded in meteorite powder were exposed in the PROCESS experiment in the EXPOSE-E facility mounted on the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF) platform on board the International Space Station (ISS). After exposure to space conditions for 18 months, the samples were returned to Earth and analyzed in the laboratory for reactions caused by solar UV and cosmic radiation. Chemical degradation and possible racemization and oligomerization, the main reactions caused by photochemistry in the vacuum ultraviolet domain (VUV, wavelength range 100-200 nm for photon energy from 6.2 to 12.4 eV) were examined in particular. The molecules were extracted and derivatized by silylation and analyzed by gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS) to quantify the rate of the degradation of the compounds. Laboratory exposure in several wavelength ranges from UV to VUV was carried out in parallel in the Cologne Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) Center and Centre de biophysique moléculaire (CBM) laboratories. The results show that resistance to irradiation is a function of the chemical nature of the exposed molecules and the wavelengths of the UV light. The most altered compounds were the dipeptide, aspartic acid, and aminobutyric acid. The most resistant were alanine, valine, glycine, and aminoisobutyric acid. Our results also demonstrate the protective effect of meteorite powder, which reemphasizes the importance of exogenic contribution to the inventory of prebiotic organics on early Earth.

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MMUR-01-0395 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MMUR-01-0395 ref|NP_001461.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor 1 isof...orm a precursor [Homo sapiens] sp|Q9UBS5|GABR1_HUMAN RecName: Full=Gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor s...tor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAA09980.1| GABA-BR1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAA21453.1| gamma-aminobutyric... acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI18017.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B recep...tor, 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI17390.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI18606.1| gamma-aminobutyric

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0877 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0877 ref|NP_001461.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor 1 isof...orm a precursor [Homo sapiens] sp|Q9UBS5|GABR1_HUMAN RecName: Full=Gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor s...tor [Homo sapiens] emb|CAA09980.1| GABA-BR1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAA21453.1| gamma-aminobutyric... acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI18017.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B recep...tor, 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI17390.1| gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI18606.1| gamma-aminobutyric

  14. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    , chlorinated lipids have been found in meat exposed to hypochlorite disinfected water, and in chlorine-treated flour and in products made from such flour. Following exposure to chlorine bleached pulp mill effluents, aquatic organisms may have elevated concentrations of chlorinated fatty acids in their lipids......Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also...

  15. 76 FR 16796 - Pediatric Anesthesia Safety Initiative (PASI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ...-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists, such as ketamine, and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA... attention, memory, motor function, and behavior; and Epidemiologic investigations surveying large...

  16. Osmotically inducible uptake of betaine via amino acid transport system A in SV-3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronini, P G; De Angelis, E; Borghetti, A F; Wheeler, K P

    1994-05-15

    The osmotically inducible uptake of betaine (NNN-trimethylglycine) by SV-3T3 cells has been studied and compared with the similar process in MDCK cells. Betaine uptake by SV-3T3 cells could be described in terms of a saturable, Na(+)-dependent, component plus a small non-saturable, Na(+)-independent, component. Transport was active, producing considerable accumulation of betaine in the cells. After exposure of the cells to hypertonic conditions for 6 h, there was a marked increase in betaine uptake. Kinetic analysis indicated that this increase resulted from an increase in the Vmax. value of the saturable component, from about 88 to 185 nmol of betaine/5 min per mg of protein, the corresponding Km values of about 15 and 10 mM not being significantly different. This induction of transport activity was detectable only after about 2 h exposure of the cells to hypertonic medium, closely paralleling an induction of influx of N-methylaminoisobutyric acid, and was prevented by the presence of cycloheximide. Betaine influx was markedly inhibited by several neutral amino acids, particularly those transported by system A, such as N-methylaminoisobutyric acid and the imino acid proline. A high concentration (25 mM) of betaine also significantly inhibited the uptake of proline by SV-3T3 cells. Although very similar results were obtained with MDCK cells, prolonged exposure of cells to hypertonic conditions revealed distinct differences. When the hypertonic incubation was extended from 6 h to 24 h, betaine transport in SV-3T3 cells either remained the same or decreased, whereas it showed a further marked increase in MDCK cells, and also became sensitive to inhibition by gamma-aminobutyric acid. mRNA for the betaine transporter BGT-1 [Yamauchi, Uchida, Kwon, Preston, Brooks Robey, Garcia-Perez, Burg and Handler (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 649-652] was detectable in MDCK cells exposed to hypertonic medium for 24 h, but not in SV-3T3 cells under any conditions. It is concluded that

  17. Glutamate acid decarboxylase 1 promotes metastasis of human oral cancer by β-catenin translocation and MMP7 activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD1), a rate-limiting enzyme in the production of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), is found in the GABAergic neurons of the central nervous system. Little is known about the relevance of GAD1 to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We investigated the expression status of GAD1 and its functional mechanisms in OSCCs. We evaluated GAD1 mRNA and protein expressions in OSCC-derived cells using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunoblotting analyses. To assess the critical functions of GAD1, i.e., cellular proliferation, invasiveness, and migration, OSCC-derived cells were treated with the shRNA and specific GAD1 inhibitor, 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA). GAD1 expression in 80 patients with primary OSCCs was analyzed and compared to the clinicopathological behaviors of OSCC. qRT-PCR and immunoblotting analyses detected frequent up-regulation of GAD1 in OSCC-derived cells compared to human normal oral keratinocytes. Suppression of nuclear localization of β-catenin and MMP7 secretion was observed in GAD1 knockdown and 3-MPA-treated cells. We also found low cellular invasiveness and migratory abilities in GAD1 knockdown and 3-MPA-treated cells. In the clinical samples, GAD1 expression in the primary OSCCs was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than in normal counterparts and was correlated significantly (P < 0.05) with regional lymph node metastasis. Our data showed that up-regulation of GAD1 was a characteristic event in OSCCs and that GAD1 was correlated with cellular invasiveness and migration by regulating β-catenin translocation and MMP7 activation. GAD1 might play an important role in controlling tumoral invasiveness and metastasis in oral cancer

  18. [Hydrofluoric acid burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holla, Robin; Gorter, Ramon R; Tenhagen, Mark; Vloemans, A F P M Jos; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is increasingly used as a rust remover and detergent. Dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid results in a chemical burn characterized by severe pain and deep tissue necrosis. It may cause electrolyte imbalances with lethal consequences. It is important to identify high-risk patients. 'High risk' is defined as a total affected body area > 3% or exposure to hydrofluoric acid in a concentration > 50%. We present the cases of three male patients (26, 31, and 39 years old) with hydrofluoric acid burns of varying severity and describe the subsequent treatments. The application of calcium gluconate 2.5% gel to the skin is the cornerstone of the treatment, reducing pain as well as improving wound healing. Nails should be thoroughly inspected and possibly removed if the nail is involved, to ensure proper healing. In high-risk patients, plasma calcium levels should be evaluated and cardiac monitoring is indicated.

  19. Difficult Decisions: Acid Rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John A.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses some of the contributing factors and chemical reactions involved in the production of acid rain, its effects, and political issues pertaining to who should pay for the clean up. Supplies questions for consideration and discussion. (RT)

  20. Folic acid in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... green leafy vegetables Dried beans and peas (legumes) Citrus fruits and juices Fortified means that vitamins have ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Folic Acid Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  1. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of ... in black currant seed, borage seed, and evening primrose oils. Omega-6 fatty acids are used for ...

  2. Acid rain: An overview

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary of the effects of acid rain and related processes, sources, issues, corrective actions, research, current law, potential solutions, political solutions,...

  3. Stomach acid test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric acid secretion test ... The test is done after you have not eaten for a while so fluid is all that remains in ... injected into your body. This is done to test the ability of the cells in the stomach ...

  4. Citric acid urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... usually done while you are on a normal diet. Ask your provider for more information. ... acidosis and a tendency to form calcium kidney stones. The ... acid levels: A high carbohydrate diet Estrogen therapy Vitamin D

  5. Amino acid racemisation dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray-Wallace, C.V. [University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). School of Geosciences

    1999-11-01

    The potential of the time-dependent amino acid racemisation reaction as a method of age assessment was first reported by Hare and Abelson (1968). They noted that in specimens of the bivalve mollusc Mercenaria sp., greater concentrations of amino acids in the D-configuration with increasing fossil age. Hare and Abelson (1968) also reported negligible racemisation in a modern specimen of Mecanaria sp. On this basis they suggested that the extent of amino acid racemisation (epimerisation in the case of isoleucine) may be used to assess the age of materials within and beyond the range of radiocarbon dating. For the past thirty years amino acid racemisation has been extensively applied in Quaternary research as a method of relative and numeric dating, and a particularly large literature has emerged on the subject 12 refs.

  6. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is ... One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup ...

  7. Azelaic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pores and by decreasing production of keratin, a natural substance that can lead to the development of ... acid controls acne and rosacea but does not cure these conditions. It may take 4 weeks or ...

  8. Neutron Nucleic Acid Crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatake, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The hydration shells surrounding nucleic acids and hydrogen-bonding networks involving water molecules and nucleic acids are essential interactions for the structural stability and function of nucleic acids. Water molecules in the hydration shells influence various conformations of DNA and RNA by specific hydrogen-bonding networks, which often contribute to the chemical reactivity and molecular recognition of nucleic acids. However, X-ray crystallography could not provide a complete description of structural information with respect to hydrogen bonds. Indeed, X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for determining the locations of water molecules, i.e., the location of the oxygen atom of H2O; however, it is very difficult to determine the orientation of the water molecules, i.e., the orientation of the two hydrogen atoms of H2O, because X-ray scattering from the hydrogen atom is very small.Neutron crystallography is a specialized tool for determining the positions of hydrogen atoms. Neutrons are not diffracted by electrons, but are diffracted by atomic nuclei; accordingly, neutron scattering lengths of hydrogen and its isotopes are comparable to those of non-hydrogen atoms. Therefore, neutron crystallography can determine both of the locations and orientations of water molecules. This chapter describes the current status of neutron nucleic acid crystallographic research as well as the basic principles of neutron diffraction experiments performed on nucleic acid crystals: materials, crystallization, diffraction experiments, and structure determination.

  9. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Dils, R.

    1972-01-01

    # 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid...... synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, all the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase was incorporated into long-chain fatty acids....... Hydrolysis of bound acetate and incorporation of bound acetate into fatty acids were inhibited to the same extent by guanidine hydrochloride. # 3. 3. Acetate was also covalently bound to fatty acid synthetase by chemical acetylation with [I-14C]acetic anhydride in the absence of CoASH. A total of 60 moles...

  10. Method for isolating nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2015-09-29

    The current disclosure provides methods and kits for isolating nucleic acid from an environmental sample. The current methods and compositions further provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by reducing adsorption of nucleic acids by charged ions and particles within an environmental sample. The methods of the current disclosure provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by releasing adsorbed nucleic acids from charged particles during the nucleic acid isolation process. The current disclosure facilitates the isolation of nucleic acids of sufficient quality and quantity to enable one of ordinary skill in the art to utilize or analyze the isolated nucleic acids for a wide variety of applications including, sequencing or species population analysis.

  11. Acidification and Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, S. A.; Veselã½, J.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw tremendous progress in the documentation of the chemistry of the atmosphere, precipitation, and the systems impacted by acid atmospheric deposition. Chronic acidification of ecosystems results in chemical changes to soil and to surface waters and groundwater as a result of reduction of base cation supply or an increase in acid (H+) supply, or both. The most fundamental changes during chronic acidification are an increase in exchangeable H+ or Al3+ (aluminum) in soils, an increase in H+ activity (˜concentration) in water in contact with soil, and a decrease in alkalinity in waters draining watersheds. Water draining from the soil is acidified and has a lower pH (=-log [H+]). As systems acidify, their biotic community changes.Acidic surface waters occur in many parts of the world as a consequence of natural processes and also due to atmospheric deposition of strong acid (e.g., Canada, Jeffries et al. (1986); the United Kingdom, Evans and Monteith (2001); Sweden, Swedish Environmental Protection Board (1986); Finland, Forsius et al. (1990); Norway, Henriksen et al. (1988a); and the United States (USA), Brakke et al. (1988)). Concern over acidification in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere has been driven by the potential for accelerating natural acidification by pollution of the atmosphere with acidic or acidifying compounds. Atmospheric pollution ( Figure 1) has resulted in an increased flux of acid to and through ecosystems. Depending on the ability of an ecosystem to neutralize the increased flux of acidity, acidification may increase only imperceptibly or be accelerated at a rate that

  12. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  13. Amino acids in the sedimentary humic and fulvic acids

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.

    Humic and fulvic acids isolated from a few sediment samples from Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal were analysed for total hydrolysable amino acids concentration and their composition. The amono acids content of fulvic acids was higher than in the humic...

  14. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of novel bicyclic acidic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Paola; De Amici, Marco; Joppolo Di Ventimiglia, Samuele;

    2003-01-01

    Bicyclic acidic amino acids (+/-)-6 and (+/-)-7, which are conformationally constrained homologues of glutamic acid, were prepared via a strategy based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new amino acids were tested toward ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes; both of them...

  15. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) measurement by GC-MS in blood, urine and gastric contents, following an acute intoxication in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodson, Q; Denooz, R; Serpe, P; Charlier, C

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB, sodium oxybate) is a compound related to neuromodulator gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), emerging as a recreational drug of abuse and as a rape drug. GHB-related emergencies have dramatically increased in the 1990s, but a decrease is observed since 2000. We describe the case of an acute GHB intoxication in a 28-year-old male who fell unconscious after ingestion of a mouthful of an unknown beverage, and required medical support for 2 days. A cocaine abuse was also detected by preliminary toxicological screening, but the clinical presentation was not typical of cocaine intoxication. A simple liquid-liquid extraction was used for quantitation of GHB, followed by disilyl-derivatization and analysis in selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), using GHB-d6 as internal standard. High concentrations of GHB were detected in urine (3020 mg/L) and gastric contents (71487 mg/L) at admission. After a 6-hours delay, GHB was still present in urine at 2324 mg/L and in blood at 43 mg/L. The clinical symptoms of cocaine intoxication were diminished by GHB consumption, and the cerebral scan was modified. Attention must thus be paid to acute intoxications with surprising clinical symptoms, and GHB has probably to be added to the preliminary toxicological screening. Data available regarding GHB are briefly reviewed, and our results are compared with previously published reports of non-fatal GHB intoxication.

  16. EFFECT OF ACIDITY ON ACID-SENSITIVE UV CURING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-dao Chen; Bing Wu; Xiao-yin Hong

    1999-01-01

    By using diphenyliodonium salts with different counterions as photo acid generators (PAGs), the effect of acidity on ring-opening polymerization of epoxy monomers and polycondensation of polyol with hexamethoxymethyl melamine (HMMM) was studied. The result shows that the rate of ring-opening polymerization is evidently dependent on the acidity of the acid and strong photo-generated acid is required.However, there is a leveling effect in the polycondensation system; if the photo-generated acid is stronger than protonated HMMM, the acidity does not obviously affect the polycondensation rate.

  17. Chemistry and electrochemistry in trifluoroacetic acid. Comparison with acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the trifluoroacetic acid is, with the acetic acid, one of most often used carboxylic acids as solvent, notably in organic chemistry, this research thesis addresses some relatively simple complexing and redox reactions to highlight the peculiar feature of this acid, and to explain its very much different behaviour with respect to acetic acid. The author develops the notion of acidity level in solvents of low dielectric constant. The second part addresses a specific solvent: BF3(CH3COOH)2. The boron trifluoride strengthens the acidity of acetic acid and modifies its chemical and physical-chemical properties. In the third part, the author compares solvent properties of CF3COOH and CH3COOH. Noticed differences explain why the trifluoroacetic acid is a more interesting reaction environment than acetic acid for reactions such as electrophilic substitutions or protein solubilisation

  18. Determination of Sialic Acids by Acidic Ninhydrin Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao,Kenzabroh

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available A new acidic ninhydrin method for determining free sialic acids is described. The method is based on the reaction of sialic acids with Gaitonde's acid ninhydrin reagent 2 which yields a stable color with an absorption maximum at 470 nm. The standard curve is linear in the range of 5 to 500 nmol of N-acetylneuraminic acid per 0.9 ml of reaction mixture. The reaction was specific only for sialic acids among the various sugars and sugar derivatives examined. Some interference of this method by cysteine, cystine and tryptophan was noted, although their absorption maxima differed from that of sialic acids. The interference by these amino acids was eliminated with the use of a small column of cation-exchange resin. The acidic ninhydrin method provides a simple and rapid method for the determination of free sialic acids in biological materials.

  19. Domoic Acid Epileptic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Ramsdell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.

  20. Effects of germination and high hydrostatic pressure processing on mineral elements, amino acids and antioxidants in vitro bioaccessibility, as well as starch digestibility in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qiang; Wang, Liping; Xu, Congcong; Mei, Jun; Li, Yunfei

    2017-01-01

    The effects of germination and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing on the in vitro bioaccessibility of mineral elements, amino acids (AAs), antioxidants and starch in brown rice (BR) were investigated. Germinated BR (GBR) was obtained by incubating at 37°C for 36h and then subjected to HHP treatments at 0.1, 100, 300 and 500MPa for 10min. The in vitro bioaccessibility of calcium and copper was increased by 12.59-52.17% and 2.87-23.06% after HHP, respectively, but bioaccessible iron was decreased. In addition, HHP significantly improved individual AAs, particularly indispensable AAs and gama-aminobutyric acid, as well as bioaccessible total antioxidant activities and starch resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis. However, germination greatly increased starch digestibility. Atomic force microscopy characterization suggested an obvious structural change in bran fraction at pressures above 300MPa. These results can help to understand the effects of germination and HHP technologies on nutrients bioaccessibility and develop appropriate processing conditions. PMID:27507507