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Sample records for aminobenzoic acid-para

  1. Poly (aniline-co-m-aminobenzoic acid) deposited on poly (vinyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    vinyl alcohol) (PVA) by in situ polymerization. The polymerization was effected within maleic acid (MA) cross-linked PVA hydrogel. The copolymer was obtained by oxidative polymerization of aniline hydrochloride and -aminobenzoic acid using ...

  2. Intramolecular charge transfer effects on 3-aminobenzoic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalin, T. [Department of Chemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Chidambaram 608 002, Tamil Nadu (India); Rajendiran, N. [Department of Chemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Chidambaram 608 002, Tamil Nadu (India)], E-mail: drrajendiran@rediffmail.com

    2006-03-20

    Effect of solvents, buffer solutions of different pH and {beta}-cyclodextrin on the absorption and fluorescence spectra of 3-aminobenzoic acid (3ABA) have been investigated. The solid inclusion complex of 3ABA with {beta}-CD is discussed by UV-Vis, fluorimetry, semiempirical quantum calculations (AM1), FT-IR, {sup 1}H NMR and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The thermodynamic parameters ({delta}H, {delta}G and {delta}S) of the inclusion process are also determined. The experimental results indicated that the inclusion processes is an exothermic and spontaneous. The large Stokes shift emission in solvents with 3ABA are correlated with different solvent polarity scales suggest that, 3ABA molecule is more polar in the S{sub 1} state. Solvent, {beta}-CD studies and excited state dipole moment values confirms that the presence of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) in 3ABA. Acidity constants for different prototropic equilibria of 3ABA in the S{sub 0} and S{sub 1} states are calculated. {beta}-Cyclodextrin studies shows that 3ABA forms a 1:1 inclusion complex with {beta}-CD. {beta}-CD studies suggest COOH group present in non-polar part and amino group present in hydrophilic part of the {beta}-CD cavity. A mechanism is proposed to explain the inclusion process.

  3. Studies on the complexes of uranium(IV), thorium(IV) and lanthanum(III) acetates with p-aminobenzoic acid, m-aminobenzoic acid, benzilic acid and phthalic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mangal; Singh, Ajaib

    1979-01-01

    Complexes of acetates of U(IV), Th(IV) and La(III) with the ligands p-aminobenzoic acid, m-aminobenzoic acid, benzilic acid and phthalic acid have been prepared. Colour and chemical analytical data are recorded. They are characterised on the basis of IR and reflectance spectra and magnetic susceptibility data. (M.G.B.)

  4. Characterization of the role of para-aminobenzoic acid biosynthesis in folate production by Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegkamp, H.B.A.; Oorschot, van A.; Vos, de W.M.; Smid, E.J.

    2007-01-01

    The pab genes for para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) biosynthesis in Lactococcus lactis were identified and characterized. In L. lactis NZ9000, only two of the three genes needed for pABA production were initially found. No gene coding for 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase (pabC) was initially annotated,

  5. Synthesis, thermal, spectral, and biological properties of zinc(II) 4-aminobenzoate complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Homzová, K.; Györyová, K.; Hudecová, D.; Koman, M.; Melník, M.; Kovářová, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 129, č. 2 (2017), s. 1065-1082 ISSN 1388-6150 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : zinc(II) 4-aminobenzoate * thermal * spectral Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.953, year: 2016

  6. Thermal and spectroscopic study to investigate p-aminobenzoic acid, sodium p-aminobenzoate and its compounds with some lighter trivalent lanthanides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, J.A.; Nunes, W.D.G.; Colman, T.A.D.; Nascimento, A.L.C.S do [Instituto de Química, UNESP—Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus Araraquara, Departamento de Química Analítica, Araraquara 14801-970, SP (Brazil); Caires, F.J. [Faculdade de Ciências, UNESP—Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus Bauru, Departamento de Química, Bauru 17033-260, SP (Brazil); Campos, F.X. [Instituto de Química, UNESP—Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus Araraquara, Departamento de Química Analítica, Araraquara 14801-970, SP (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Mato Grosso, Primavera do Leste 78850-000, MT (Brazil); Gálico, D.A. [Instituto de Química, UNICAMP—Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas 13083-970, SP (Brazil); Ionashiro, M., E-mail: massaoi@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Química, UNESP—Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus Araraquara, Departamento de Química Analítica, Araraquara 14801-970, SP (Brazil)

    2016-01-20

    Highlights: • The p-aminobenzoic acid melts followed partial evaporation. • The stoichiometry of compounds was established by TG, EA and complexometry. • The TG–DTA curves provided previously unreported information about thermal behavior. - Abstract: The characterization, thermal stability and thermal decomposition of some lighter trivalent lanthanide p-aminobenzoates, Ln(C{sub 7}H{sub 6}NO{sub 2}){sub 3}·H{sub 2}O (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm), as well as the thermal behavior and spectroscopic study of p-aminobenzoic acid C{sub 7}H{sub 7}NO{sub 2} and its sodium salt were investigated. The following methods were utilized: simultaneous thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA) in dynamic dry air and nitrogen atmospheres; differential scanning calorimetry (DSC); middle (MIR) and near (NIR) infrared region spectroscopy; evolved gas analysis (EGA); elemental analysis; complexometry; X-ray diffraction (XRD); and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DR) in the ultraviolet and visible regions. All the compounds were obtained monohydrated and the thermal decomposition occurred in two, three or four steps in an air atmosphere, and three or four steps in N{sub 2} atmosphere. In both atmospheres (air and N{sub 2}) the final residues were CeO{sub 2}, Pr{sub 6}O{sub 11}, Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Ln = La, Nd, Sm). The results also provided information concerning the coordination mode and thermal behavior, as well as the identification of the gaseous products which evolved during the thermal decomposition of these compounds. The DR and NIR spectra provided information about the ligand absorption bands and the f–f transitions of the Nd{sup 3+}, Pr{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+} ions.

  7. Growth and characterization of 2-amino-4-picolinium 4-aminobenzoate single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, T. P.; Anandhi, S.; Gopalakrishnan, R.

    2010-04-01

    The organic material of 2-amino-4-picolinium 4-aminobenzoate (C 6H 9N 2+·C 7H 6NO 2-) was synthesized and grown as single crystals at room temperature by slow evaporation solution growth technique in the constant temperature bath (±0.01 °C) using ethanol as solvent. The grown crystals were characterized by XRD and FT-IR spectral analyses. The melting point, density, UV-visible spectral studies were carried out for the grown crystals. The theoretical factor group analysis predicts 372 internal modes of vibration and optical modes in the grown title compound. The second harmonic generation (SHG) output of 2-amino-4-picolinium 4-aminobenzoate was recorded by Kurtz-Perry powder technique and it is found to be 355 mV at a given pulse energy of 1.45 mJ/s and for urea the SHG output was 525 mV. The dielectric behaviour of 2-amino-4-picolinium 4-aminobenzoate was investigated with different frequencies and temperatures.

  8. Rare earth and zinc layered hydroxide salts intercalated with the 2-aminobenzoate anion as organic luminescent sensitizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cursino, Ana Cristina Trindade, E-mail: anacursino@ufpr.br [CEPESQ – Research Centre of Applied Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Universidade Federal do Paraná – P.O. Box 19081, 81531-980 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rives, Vicente, E-mail: vrives@usal.es [GIR-QUESCAT – Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced S/N, 37998 Salamanca (Spain); Arizaga, Gregorio Guadalupe Carbajal, E-mail: gregoriocarbajal@yahoo.com.mx [Universidad de Guadalajara, Department of Chemistry, Boulevard Marcelino García Barragán 1421, C.P. 44430 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Trujillano, Raquel, E-mail: rakel@usal.es [GIR-QUESCAT – Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced S/N, 37998 Salamanca (Spain); Wypych, Fernando, E-mail: wypych@ufpr.br [CEPESQ – Research Centre of Applied Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Universidade Federal do Paraná – P.O. Box 19081, 81531-980 Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Rare earth (RE = Eu, Y and Tb) and zinc layered hydroxide salts intercalated with nitrate anions were synthesized, followed by exchange with 2-aminobenzoate. The UV absorption ability was improved after intercalation/grafting in relation to that shown by the parent material. - Highlights: • Rare earth (RE = Eu, Y and Tb) and zinc layered hydroxide were synthesized. • Intercalated nitrate anions were exchanged by 2-aminobenzoate. • In all the 2-aminobenzoate containing compounds, the grafting reaction was detected. • The UV absorption ability was improved after the exchange reactions. • Rare earth hydroxide salts are potential matrixes to produce luminescent materials. - Abstract: Rare earth (RE = Eu, Y and Tb) and zinc layered hydroxide salts intercalated with nitrate anions were synthesized, followed by exchange with 2-aminobenzoate. The obtained compounds were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet visible (UV–vis) spectroscopies, fluorescence measurements and thermal analysis (TGA/DTA). The results from FTIR spectroscopy suggest a direct coordination of 2-aminobenzoate to the metal cations of the inorganic layered structure. The organic derivative products from the intercalation reactions absorb a broader range of UV-light in relation to that shown by the parent material; the photoluminescence measurements present a strong violet, blue and green luminescence under UV-light excitation for layered compounds with, Zn, Y and Tb, respectively. Rare earth hydroxide salts (RE-LHS) are potential alternative matrices for the immobilization of organic species to produce luminescent materials.

  9. Rare earth and zinc layered hydroxide salts intercalated with the 2-aminobenzoate anion as organic luminescent sensitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cursino, Ana Cristina Trindade; Rives, Vicente; Arizaga, Gregorio Guadalupe Carbajal; Trujillano, Raquel; Wypych, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth (RE = Eu, Y and Tb) and zinc layered hydroxide salts intercalated with nitrate anions were synthesized, followed by exchange with 2-aminobenzoate. The UV absorption ability was improved after intercalation/grafting in relation to that shown by the parent material. - Highlights: • Rare earth (RE = Eu, Y and Tb) and zinc layered hydroxide were synthesized. • Intercalated nitrate anions were exchanged by 2-aminobenzoate. • In all the 2-aminobenzoate containing compounds, the grafting reaction was detected. • The UV absorption ability was improved after the exchange reactions. • Rare earth hydroxide salts are potential matrixes to produce luminescent materials. - Abstract: Rare earth (RE = Eu, Y and Tb) and zinc layered hydroxide salts intercalated with nitrate anions were synthesized, followed by exchange with 2-aminobenzoate. The obtained compounds were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet visible (UV–vis) spectroscopies, fluorescence measurements and thermal analysis (TGA/DTA). The results from FTIR spectroscopy suggest a direct coordination of 2-aminobenzoate to the metal cations of the inorganic layered structure. The organic derivative products from the intercalation reactions absorb a broader range of UV-light in relation to that shown by the parent material; the photoluminescence measurements present a strong violet, blue and green luminescence under UV-light excitation for layered compounds with, Zn, Y and Tb, respectively. Rare earth hydroxide salts (RE-LHS) are potential alternative matrices for the immobilization of organic species to produce luminescent materials

  10. Detection of chitinase activity by 2-aminobenzoic acid labeling of chito-oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghauharali-van der Vlugt, Karen; Bussink, Anton P; Groener, Johanna E M; Boot, Rolf G; Aerts, Johannes M F G

    2009-01-01

    Chitinases are hydrolases capable of hydrolyzing the abundant natural polysaccharide chitin. Next to artificial fluorescent substrates, more physiological chito-oligomers are commonly used in chitinase assays. Analysis of chito-oligosaccharides products is generally accomplished by UV detection. However, the relatively poor sensitivity poses a serious limitation. Here we report on a novel, much more sensitive assay for the detection of chito-oligosaccharide reaction products released by chitinases, based on fluorescent detection, following chemical labeling by 2-aminobenzoic acid. Comparison with existing UV-based assays, shows that the novel assay offers the same advantages yet allows detection of chito-oligosaccharides in the low picomolar range.

  11. Aryl- and heteroaryl-substituted aminobenzo[a]quinolizines as dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, Markus; Fischer, Holger; Hennig, Michael; Hunziker, Daniel; Huwyler, Joerg; Kuhn, Bernd; Loeffler, Bernd M; Luebbers, Thomas; Mattei, Patrizio; Narquizian, Robert; Sebokova, Elena; Sprecher, Urs; Wessel, Hans Peter

    2010-02-01

    Synthesis and SAR are described for a structurally distinct class of DPP-IV inhibitors based on aminobenzo[a]quinolizines bearing (hetero-)aromatic substituents in the S1 specificity pocket. The m-(fluoromethyl)-phenyl derivative (S,S,S)-2g possesses the best fit in the S1 pocket. However, (S,S,S)-2i, bearing a more hydrophilic 5-methyl-pyridin-2-yl residue as substituent for the S1 pocket, displays excellent in vivo activity and superior drug-like properties. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Solution thermodynamics of pyrazinamide, isoniazid, and p-aminobenzoic acid in buffers and octanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhina, Svetlana V.; Ol’khovich, Marina V.; Sharapova, Angelica V.; Volkova, Tatyana V.; Perlovich, German L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of pyrazinamide, isoniazid, p-aminobenzoic acid were measured. • The activity coefficients of the compounds at infinite dilution were determined. • Thermodynamic functions of dissolution and solvation were calculated. - Abstract: The solubility values of pyrazinamide, isoniazid, and p-aminobenzoic acid in buffers (pH 2.0 and 7.4) and octanol were measured in the temperature range of 293.15 to 313.15 K. The dissolution Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy were calculated. The dissolving process was endothermic and enthalpy-determined. The activity coefficients of the compounds at infinite dilution were determined based on the solubility data and thermophysical parameters. A positive deviation from the ideality was observed in all the solutions. A common tendency of the solubility increase with a decrease in the activity coefficients at T = 298.15 K was revealed for the investigated solute-solvent systems. The excess thermodynamic solubility functions were calculated from the temperature dependences of the activity coefficients. The solvation processes were found to have a considerable influence on the solubility of the substances in solutions studied.

  13. SEPARATION OF p-AMINOBENZOIC ACID BY REACTIVE EXTRACTION. 1. MECHANISM AND INFLUENCING FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAN CASCAVAL

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The comparative study on the reactive extraction of p-aminobenzoic acid with Amberlite LA-2 and D2EHPA in two solvents with different polarity (n-heptane and dichloromethane indicated that the extractant type and solvent polarity control the extraction mechanism. Thus, the reactive extraction with Amberlite LA-2 occurs by means of the interfacial formation of an aminic adduct with three extractant molecules in low-polar solvent, or of an salt with one extractant molecule in higher polar solvent. Similarly, the extraction with D2EHPA is based on the formation of an acidic adduct with two extractant molecules in n-heptane, or of a salt with one extractant molecule in dichloromethane. The most efficient extraction has been reached for the combination Amberlite LA-2-dichloromethane.

  14. P-aminobenzoic acid and tritiated cyanoborohydride for the detection of pyruvoyl residues in proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Poelje, P.D.; Snell, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    A procedure for the detection of covalently bound pyruvic acid in purified proteins or in crude extracts is described. The dialyzed sample is first treated with sodium cyanoborohydride to reduce any Schiff bases present and then incubated with p-aminobenzoic acid and sodium [ 3 H]cyanoborohydride. Derivatized proteins are visualized by fluorography following sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Gel slices containing the labeled proteins are hydrolyzed, and, after removal of polyacrylic acid, the hydrolysate is subjected to ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography. The presence of pyruvic acid is established by the detection of a tritiated, 280-nm absorbing compound with a retention time corresponding to that of synthetic N-(p-carboxyphenyl)alanine. The procedure is capable of detecting protein-bound pyruvic acid in the picomolar range and is easily modified to screen for other covalently bound keto acids

  15. Magnetic whiskers of p-aminobenzoic acid and their use for preparation of filled and microchannel silicone rubbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, V. V.; Loginova, V. V.; Zolotareva, N. V.; Razov, E. N.; Kotomina, V. E.; Kruglov, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    A thin cobalt layer has been formed on the surface of p-aminobenzoic acid whiskers by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The metallized crystals have been oriented in liquid polydimethylsiloxane rubber by applying a dc magnetic field. After vulcanization, the filler has been removed by processing in an alcohol solution of trifluoroacetic acid. The cobalt deposition on the surface of the organic compound and the properties of metallized whiskers are investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  16. Magnetic whiskers of p-aminobenzoic acid and their use for preparation of filled and microchannel silicone rubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, V. V.; Loginova, V. V.; Zolotareva, N. V.; Razov, E. N.; Kotomina, V. E.; Kruglov, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    A thin cobalt layer has been formed on the surface of p-aminobenzoic acid whiskers by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The metallized crystals have been oriented in liquid polydimethylsiloxane rubber by applying a dc magnetic field. After vulcanization, the filler has been removed by processing in an alcohol solution of trifluoroacetic acid. The cobalt deposition on the surface of the organic compound and the properties of metallized whiskers are investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  17. Aminobenzoate modified MgAl hydrotalcites as a novel smart additive of reinforced concrete for anticorrosion applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Z.; Fischer, H.R.; Cerezo, J.; Mol, J.M.C.; Polder, R.B.

    2013-01-01

    A carbonate form of MgAl hydrotalcite, Mg(2)Al-CO3 and its p-aminobenzoate (pAB) modified derivative, Mg(2)Al-pAB, were synthesized and characterized by means of XRD, FT-IR and TG/DSC. The anticorrosion behavior of Mg(2)Al-pAB was evaluated based on open circuit potential (OCP) of carbon steel in

  18. The vitamin-like dietary supplement para-aminobenzoic acid enhances the antitumor activity of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier, Sandhya; MacDonald, Shannon; Roth, Jennifer; Caunt, Maresa; Akalu, Abebe; Morais, Danielle; Buckley, Michael T.; Liebes, Leonard; Formenti, Silvia C.; Brooks, Peter C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) alters the sensitivity of tumor cells to ionizing radiation in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Materials: Cellular proliferation was assessed by WST-1 assays. The effects of PABA and radiation on tumor growth were examined with chick embryo and murine models. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to quantify p21 CIP1 and CDC25A levels. Results: Para-aminobenzoic acid enhanced (by 50%) the growth inhibitory activity of radiation on B16F10 cells, whereas it had no effect on melanocytes. Para-aminobenzoic acid enhanced (50-80%) the antitumor activity of radiation on B16F10 and 4T1 tumors in vivo. The combination of PABA and radiation therapy increased tumor apoptosis. Treatment of tumor cells with PABA increased expression of CDC25A and decreased levels of p21 CIP1 . Conclusions: Our findings suggest that PABA might represent a compound capable of enhancing the antitumor activity of ionizing radiation by a mechanism involving altered expression of proteins known to regulate cell cycle arrest

  19. 3-Aminobenzoic acid–4,4′-bipyridine (2/3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornsuda Lhengwan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, 3C10H8N2·2C7H7NO2, consists of three molecules of 4,4′-bipyridine (bpy and two molecules of 3-aminobenzoic acid (bza. Two molecules of bza and two molecules of bpy are connected via O—H...N, N—H...N and N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming forming infinite double-stranded zigzag chains along the c axis. The third molecule of bpy is linked to the chain by weak C—H...O interactions. Adjacent chains are linked via π–π interactions [centroid–centroid distances = 3.759 (3–3.928 (3 Å] involving the pyridine rings of bpy molecules, resulting in a sheet-like structure parallel to (100. These sheets are stacked via C—H...π interactions, resulting finally in the formation of a three-dimensional supramolecular structure.

  20. Co-culture engineering for microbial biosynthesis of 3-amino-benzoic acid in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haoran; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2016-07-01

    3-amino-benzoic acid (3AB) is an important building block molecule for production of a wide range of important compounds such as natural products with various biological activities. In the present study, we established a microbial biosynthetic system for de novo 3AB production from the simple substrate glucose. First, the active 3AB biosynthetic pathway was reconstituted in the bacterium Escherichia coli, which resulted in the production of 1.5 mg/L 3AB. In an effort to improve the production, an E. coli-E. coli co-culture system was engineered to modularize the biosynthetic pathway between an upstream strain and an downstream strain. Specifically, the upstream biosynthetic module was contained in a fixed E. coli strain, whereas a series of E. coli strains were engineered to accommodate the downstream biosynthetic module and screened for optimal production performance. The best co-culture system was found to improve 3AB production by 15 fold, compared to the mono-culture approach. Further engineering of the co-culture system resulted in biosynthesis of 48 mg/L 3AB. Our results demonstrate co-culture engineering can be a powerful new approach in the broad field of metabolic engineering. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Clinical study of p-aminobenzoic acid-N-xyloside Na in advanced cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, M.; Ota, K. (Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan))

    1982-02-01

    Therapeutic effect of p-aminobenzoic acid-N-xyloside Na (K-247) were studied. Eleven patients with a variety of solid tumors were treated with K-247 alone. K-247 was given orally 800 mg daily for 4 weeks. As for side effect of the drug, only mild gastritis was observed in a few patients. Partial response (over 25% reduction of tumor size) with a median duration of two months was observed in 3 patients. These cases were metastatic tumor of lung from the carcinoma of thyroid, metastatic tumors of lung from the carcinoma of kidney, and mediastinal tumor. In eight patients the response was classified as no change and in one patient there was progressive disease. Thus K-247 has some therapeutic activity in patients with solid tumor. Combination therapy of irradiation and administration of K-247 were also studied. In the twelve patients receiving the combination therapy, partial response was observed in 7 patients with complete response in 3 patients. In some patients it seems that the effect of irradiation was enhanced by K-247 administration. To confirm this observation, randomized controlled trial is required.

  2. Clinical study of p-aminobenzoic acid-N-xyloside Na in advanced cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Masanori; Ota, Kazuo

    1982-01-01

    Therapeutic effect of p-aminobenzoic acid-N-xyloside Na (K-247) were studied. Eleven patients with a variety of solid tumors were treated with K-247 alone. K-247 was given orally 800 mg daily for 4 weeks. As for side effect of the drug, only mild gastritis was observed in a few patients. Partial response (over 25% reduction of tumor size) with a median duration of two months was observed in 3 patients. These cases were metastatic tumor of lung from the carcinoma of thyroid, metastatic tumors of lung from the carcinoma of kidney, and mediastinal tumor. In eight patients the response was classified as no change and in one patient there was progressive disease. Thus K-247 has some therapeutic activity in patients with solid tumor. Combination therapy of irradiation and administration of K-247 were also studied. In twelve patients received the conbination therapy, partial response was observed in 7 patients with complete response in 3 patients. In some patients it seems that the effect of irradiation was enhanced by K-247 administration. To confirm this observation, randomized controlled trial is required. (author)

  3. General and specific solvent effects in optical spectra of ortho-aminobenzoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Marcelo; Ito, Amando Siuiti

    2005-03-01

    We describe studies about solvent effects on the absorption and emission properties of o-aminobenzoic acid (o-Abz), interpreting the results within the framework of general and specific solute-solvent interactions. Measurements were performed in several solvents and analysis of the absorption and emission wavelengths were made based on Lippert's model for general solvent effects and on the use of different parameters to describe the ability of the solvent to promote specific interactions with the solute. We observed low sensitivity of the Stokes shift upon changes in the medium polarity, and large deviation from the linearity predicted by Lippert's equation when the solvents were characterized as Bronsted acid in the Kamlet-Taft pi* scale. Quantum yield and fluorescence lifetimes were best interpreted based on the AN+DN scale used to describe the electron donor/acceptor properties of the solvent. The results indicated that non-radiative deexcitation processes are favoured in solvents which promote the formation of intramolecular hydrogen bond, while interactions with electron acceptor solvents lead to enhancement of fluorescence.

  4. Solvent effects in optical spectra of ortho-aminobenzoic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Marcelo; Eisenhut, Jéssica Karoline; Hirata, Izaura Yoshico; Juliano, Luiz; Ito, Amando Siuiti

    2009-11-01

    We investigated three amino derivatives of ortho-aminobenzoic or anthranilic acid (o-Abz): a) 2-Amino-benzamide (AbzNH2); b) 2-Amino-N-methyl-benzamide (AbzNHCH3) and c) 2-Amino-N-N'-dimethyl-bezamide (AbzNH(CH3)2), see Scheme 1. We describe the results of ab-initio calculations on the structural characteristics of the compounds and experimental studies about solvent effects in their absorption and steady-state and time-resolved emission properties. Ab-initio calculations showed higher stability for the rotameric conformation in which the oxygen of carbonyl is near to the nitrogen of ortho-amino group. The derivatives present decrease in the delocalization of pi electron, and absorption bands are blue shifted compared to the parent compound absorption, the extent of the effect increasing from to Abz-NH2 to Abz-NHCH3 Abz-NH(CH3)2. Measurements performed in several solvents have shown that the the dependence of Stokes shift of the derivatives with the orientational polarizability follows the Onsager-Lippert model for general effects of solvent. However deviation occurred in solvents with properties of Bronsted acids, or electron acceptor characteristics, so that hydrogen bonds formed with protic solvents predominates over intramolecular hydrogen bond. In most solvents the fluorescence decay of AbzNH2 and AbzNHCH3 was fitted to a single exponential with lifetimes around 7.0 ns and no correlation with polarity of the solvent was observed. The fluorescence decay of AbzN(CH3)2 showed lifetimes around 2.0 ns, consistent with low quantum yield of the compound. The spectroscopic properties of the monoamino derivative AbzNHCH3 are representative of the properties presented by Abz labelled peptides and fatty acids previously studied.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and NLO properties of a new 3D coordination polymer assembled from p-aminobenzoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Sun, Daofeng; Wang, Zhengping; Song, Xinyu; Sun, Sixiu

    2009-05-01

    Reaction of Zn(NO 3) 2·6H 2O with p-aminobenzoic acid in a 1:2 molar ratio under ethanol medium at room temperature affords a new three dimensional (3D) coordination polymer [Zn(PABA) 2]·H 2O ( 1) (PABA = p-aminobenzoic acid). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that 1 crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, space group P2 12 12 1, a = 7.614(2), b = 11.133(3), c = 16.869(4). 1 adopts a 3D open framework with H 2O molecules in the cavities. PABA, acting as bridging ligand as well as coordinating ligand, adopts a different coordination mode to bridge Zn atoms and form the 3D supramolecular structure which is further stabilized by N-H⋯O, O-H⋯O hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking interactions. Powder second-harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency measurement with Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) radiation shows that the SHG efficiency of 1 is equivalent to KDP crystal. The present work also demonstrates that the framework of 1 is retained after removal of the guest H 2O molecules, and the H 2O molecules can be reintroduced into the framework, indicating that this complex may also be used to generate porous materials.

  6. Preparation of three terbium complexes with p-aminobenzoic acid and investigation of crystal structure influence on luminescence property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Chaohong; Sun Haoling; Wang Xinyi; Li Junran; Nie Daobo; Fu Wenfu; Gao Song

    2004-01-01

    Three new rare earth p-aminobenzoic acid complexes, [Tb 2 L 6 (H 2 O) 2 ] n (1), [Tb 2 L 6 (H 2 O) 4 ].2H 2 O (2) and [Tb(phen) 2 L 2 (H 2 O) 2 ](phen)L·4H 2 O (3) (HL: p-aminobenzoic acid; phen: 1, 10-phenanthroline), with different structural forms are reported in this paper. Complex 1 is a polymolecule with a two-dimensional plane structure. Compound 2 is a binuclear molecule, and 3 appears to be a mononuclear complex. The fluorescence intensity, the fluorescence life-time and emission quantum yield of 2, which has two coordination water molecules, is better than those of 1, which has only one coordination water molecule. This is an unusual phenomenon for general fluorescent rare earth complexes. The fluorescence performance of 3 is the most unsatisfactory among the three complexes. Their crystal structures show that the coordination mode of the ligand is an important factor influencing the luminescence properties of a fluorescent rare earth complex

  7. Nanocomposite Thin Film of Poly(3-aminobenzoic acid and Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Fabricated through an Electrochemical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paphawadee Netsuwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The composite thin films of poly(3-aminobenzoic acid (PABA and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs are successfully fabricated through an electrochemical method. The composite mixtures containing 50 mM of 3-aminobenzoic acid with various concentrations of MWNTs (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10 mg/mL in 0.5 M H2SO4 were prepared and used in this study. Cyclic voltammetry (CV was used for fabrication and monitoring the electropolymerization of the composite thin films with potential range of 0 to 1100 mV for 5 cycles at scan rate of 20 mV/s on indium tin oxide- (ITO-coated glass substrate. UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM techniques were employed to characterize the obtained composite thin films. It was found that MWNTs can enhance the peak current of CV traces of the PABA/MWNTs composite thin films without affecting the UV-vis absorption spectra. The surface morphology of the thin films can be studied using AFM and SEM techniques.

  8. Simultaneous assessments of exocrine pancreatic function by cholesteryl-[14C]octanoate breath test and measurement of plasma p-aminobenzoic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruno, M. J.; Hoek, F. J.; Delzenne, B.; van Leeuwen, D. J.; Schteingart, C. D.; Hofmann, A. F.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1995-01-01

    Two noninvasive tests for assessing pancreatic exocrine function, the cholesteryl-[14C]octanoate breath test and the HPLCN-benzoyl-tyrosyl-p-aminobenzoic acid/p-aminosalicylic acid (NBT-PABA/PAS) test, were simultaneously performed in nine patients with pancreatic exocrine insufficiency due to

  9. Mechanochemical synthesis of bumetanide-4-aminobenzoic acid molecular cocrystals: a facile and green approach to drug optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Giovanna; Maietta, Mariarosa; Berbenni, Vittorio; Mustarelli, Piercarlo; Ferrara, Chiara; Freccero, Mauro; Grande, Vincenzo; Maggi, Lauretta; Milanese, Chiara; Girella, Alessandro; Marini, Amedeo

    2014-08-07

    Molecular cocrystals are of growing interest in pharmaceutics for their improved physicochemical properties. Their mechanochemical synthesis is very promising, being easy, cheap, and "green". Here, for the first time, we report on cocrystallization of bumetanide, a diuretic and natriuretic active principle, and 4-aminobenzoic acid. The synthesis is performed both by wet and dry grinding. The cocrystal formation was investigated with a wide range of techniques, including solid-state NMR, IR, XRD, microscopy, and thermal analysis. Wet and dry grinding procedures led to different cocrystal polymorphs. In particular, the dry method gave a cocrystal by powder amorphization and subsequent crystallization. DFT calculations at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory shed light on the H-bond scheme at the basis of cocrystal formation. The cocrystals showed improved solubility and dissolution rate with respect to the drug alone. This could guarantee a faster absorption and a better bioavailability of the active principle.

  10. Effects of the rate of supersaturation generation on polymorphic crystallization of m-hydroxybenzoic acid and o-aminobenzoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guangwen; Wong, Annie B. H.; Chow, Pui Shan; Tan, Reginald B. H.

    2011-01-01

    Effects of the rate of supersaturation generation on polymorphic crystallization have been investigated through evaporation and cooling crystallization experiments of m-hydroxybenzoic acid (m-HBA) in methanol, acetone and ethyl acetate, and o-aminobenzoic acid (o-ABA) in ethanol. The rate of supersaturation generation has been altered by systematically changing either the cooling rate or the evaporation rate of solvent using a jacketed crystallizer and a microfluidic evaporation device, respectively. The results have revealed that the rate of supersaturation generation and the tendency of the formation of the less stable polymorph are positively correlated. Kinetic effects are dominant when the rate of supersaturation generation is high, thereby producing the metastable polymorphs (orthorhombic m-HBA; Form II of o-ABA); on the contrary, more stable polymorphs (monoclinic m-HBA; Forms III and I of o-ABA) are formed when the rate of supersaturation generation is low and the thermodynamic effects are prevailing.

  11. Raman and Terahertz Spectroscopic Investigation of Cocrystal Formation Involving Antibiotic Nitrofurantoin Drug and Coformer 4-aminobenzoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Du

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cocrystallization could improve most physicochemical properties of specific active pharmaceutical ingredients, which has great potential in pharmaceutical development. In this study, the cocrystal of nitrofurantoin and 4-aminobenzoic acid was prepared with solid-state (solvent-free or green-chemistry grinding approach, and the above cocrystal has been characterized by Raman and terahertz vibrational spectroscopic techniques. Spectral results show that the vibrational modes of the cocrystal within the whole spectral region are different from those of the corresponding parent materials. The dynamic process of such pharmaceutical cocrystal formation has also been monitored directly with Raman spectra. These results offer us unique means for characterizing the cocrystal conformation from the molecule-level, and provides us with rich information about the reaction dynamic of cocrystal formation within pharmaceutical fields.

  12. Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) used as a marker for completeness of 24 hour urine: effects of age and dosage scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, J.; Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann; Ovesen, L.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine the age dependency of the urinary para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) excretion, and if a delayed PABA excretion can be overcome by advancing intake schedule; and to examine the recovery of PABA in fractionated urinary samples collected during 24 h after single and repeated doses ...... and age-dependent cut-off values, the test may achieve a higher specificity and sensitivity....

  13. Preparation of a manganese titanate nanosensor: Application in electrochemical studies of captopril in the presence of para-aminobenzoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreishi, Sayed Mehdi; Karamali, Elham; Khoobi, Asma; Enhessari, Morteza

    2015-10-15

    This study reports the synthesis and characterization of a novel nanostructure-based electrode for electrochemical studies and determination of captopril (CP). At first manganese titanate nanoceramics were synthesized by the sol-gel method. The structural evaluations of the pure nanopowders were investigated by different techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Then it was used to prepare a new nanostructured manganese titanate carbon paste electrode (MnTiO3/CPE). The characterization of the modified sensor was carried out by comprehensive techniques such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), SEM, and voltammetry. Subsequently, the modified electrode was used for CP catalytic oxidation in the presence of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) as a mediator. The results showed that PABA has high catalytic activity for CP oxidation. The electrochemical behavior of CP was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), chronoamperometry (CHA), and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) techniques. Under the optimized conditions, the catalytic oxidation peak current of CP showed two linear dynamic concentration ranges of 1.0 × 10(-8) to 1.0 × 10(-7) and 1.0 × 10(-7) to 1.0 × 10(-6), with a detection limit of 1.6 nM (signal/noise = 3), using the DPV technique. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for determination of CP in pharmaceutical and biological samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Simple and Robust N-Glycan Analysis Based on Improved 2-Aminobenzoic Acid Labeling for Recombinant Therapeutic Glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yeong Ran; Kim, Sun Young; Park, Young Sam; Lee, Gyun Min

    2018-03-21

    N-glycans of therapeutic glycoproteins are critical quality attributes that should be monitored throughout all stages of biopharmaceutical development. To reduce both the time for sample preparation and the variations in analytical results, we have developed an N-glycan analysis method that includes improved 2-aminobenzoic acid (2-AA) labeling to easily remove deglycosylated proteins. Using this analytical method, 15 major 2-AA-labeled N-glycans of Enbrel ® were separated into single peaks in hydrophilic interaction chromatography mode and therefore could be quantitated. 2-AA-labeled N-glycans were also highly compatible with in-line quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) for structural identification. The structures of 15 major and 18 minor N-glycans were identified from their mass values determined by quadrupole time-of-flight MS. Furthermore, the structures of 14 major N-glycans were confirmed by interpreting the MS/MS data of each N-glycan. This analytical method was also successfully applied to neutral N-glycans of Humira ® and highly sialylated N-glycans of NESP ® . Furthermore, the analysis data of Enbrel ® that were accumulated for 2.5 years demonstrated the high-level consistency of this analytical method. Taken together, the results show that a wide repertoire of N-glycans of therapeutic glycoproteins can be analyzed with high efficiency and consistency using the improved 2-AA labeling-based N-glycan analysis method. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The simultaneous detection and quantification of p-aminobenzoic acid and its phase 2 biotransformation metabolites in human urine using LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortje, Carla; Jansen van Rensburg, Peet; Cooke, Cecile; Erasmus, Elardus

    2015-01-01

    p-Aminobenzoic acid (PABA) can be used as a probe substance to investigate glycine conjugation, a reaction of phase 2 biotransformation. An LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of PABA and its metabolites from human urine was developed and validated. The metabolites can be quantified with acceptable precision and accuracy directly from human urine samples after ingestion of 550 mg PABA. The developed LC-MS/MS assay is to our knowledge the first method available for the simultaneous quantification of PABA and its glycine conjugation metabolites in human urine and provides important quantitative data for studies of this phase 2 biotransformation pathway.

  16. The effect of nitrate, bicarbonate and natural organic matter on the degradation of sunscreen agent p-aminobenzoic acid by simulated solar irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Liang, E-mail: lmao@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Meng, Cui; Zeng, Chao; Ji, Yuefei [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yang, Xi, E-mail: yangxi@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Gao, Shixiang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Our experiments revealed that a model sunscreen agent, p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), can be effectively transformed through reactions that are mediated by simulated solar irradiation. We systematically explored the effects of nitrate ions, bicarbonate and different types of natural organic matter (NOM) on the degradation of PABA by simulated solar irradiation. Experimental data suggest that these components ubiquitous in nature water have different influence on the rates of the photoinduced removal of PABA. Products were extracted and analyzed using LC/MS and a total of four products probably resulting from {center_dot}OH and {center_dot}NO{sub 2} radicals attack were identified and the possible reaction pathways were proposed. The findings in this study provide useful information for understanding the environmental transformation of sunscreen agent in aquatic system. - Highlights: {yields} In this study, we found that p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) can be removed by simulated solar irradiation from water. {yields} Influence of environmental components on the photodegradation of PABA was further studied. {yields} We verified using LC/MS that PABA was transformed into four compounds. {yields} We proposed the possible reaction pathways probably resulting from {center_dot}OH and {center_dot}NO{sub 2} radicals attack to PABA.

  17. Para-aminobenzoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    PABA is used in certain sunscreen and skin-care products. It may also naturally occur in these foods: Brewer's yeast Liver Molasses Mushrooms Spinach Whole grains Other products may also contain PABA.

  18. Electrochemical behavior and voltammetric determination of acetaminophen based on glassy carbon electrodes modified with poly(4-aminobenzoic acid)/electrochemically reduced graphene oxide composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wencai; Huang, Hui; Gao, Xiaochun; Ma, Houyi

    2014-12-01

    Poly(4-aminobenzoic acid)/electrochemically reduced graphene oxide composite film modified glassy carbon electrodes (4-ABA/ERGO/GCEs) were fabricated by a two-step electrochemical method. The electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen at the modified electrode was investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry. The results indicated that 4-ABA/ERGO composite films possessed excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of acetaminophen. The electrochemical reaction of acetaminophen at 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE is proved to be a surface-controlled process involving the same number of protons and electrons. The voltammetric determination of acetaminophen performed with the 4-ABA/ERGO modified electrode presents a good linearity in the range of 0.1-65 μM with a low detection limit of 0.01 μM (S/N=3). In the case of using the 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE, acetaminophen and dopamine can be simultaneously determined without mutual interference. Furthermore, the 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE has good reproducibility and stability, and can be used to determine acetaminophen in tablets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantitative twoplex glycan analysis using12C6and13C6stable isotope 2-aminobenzoic acid labelling and capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Váradi, Csaba; Mittermayr, Stefan; Millán-Martín, Silvia; Bones, Jonathan

    2016-12-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) offers excellent efficiency and orthogonality to liquid chromatographic (LC) separations for oligosaccharide structural analysis. Combination of CE with high resolution mass spectrometry (MS) for glycan analysis remains a challenging task due to the MS incompatibility of background electrolyte buffers and additives commonly used in offline CE separations. Here, a novel method is presented for the analysis of 2-aminobenzoic acid (2-AA) labelled glycans by capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry (CE-MS). To ensure maximum resolution and excellent precision without the requirement for excessive analysis times, CE separation conditions including the concentration and pH of the background electrolyte, the effect of applied pressure on the capillary inlet and the capillary length were evaluated. Using readily available 12/13 C 6 stable isotopologues of 2-AA, the developed method can be applied for quantitative glycan profiling in a twoplex manner based on the generation of extracted ion electropherograms (EIE) for 12 C 6 'light' and 13 C 6 'heavy' 2-AA labelled glycan isotope clusters. The twoplex quantitative CE-MS glycan analysis platform is ideally suited for comparability assessment of biopharmaceuticals, such as monoclonal antibodies, for differential glycomic analysis of clinical material for potential biomarker discovery or for quantitative microheterogeneity analysis of different glycosylation sites within a glycoprotein. Additionally, due to the low injection volume requirements of CE, subsequent LC-MS analysis of the same sample can be performed facilitating the use of orthogonal separation techniques for structural elucidation or verification of quantitative performance.

  20. The effects of dissolved organic matter and feeding on bioconcentration and oxidative stress of ethylhexyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoate (OD-PABA) to crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Binni; Lu, Guanghua; Yang, Haohan; Liu, Jianchao; Yan, Zhenhua; Nkoom, Matthew

    2018-03-01

    Bioconcentration of UV filters in organisms is an important indicator for the assessment of environmental hazards. However, bioconcentration testing rarely accounts for the influence of natural aquatic environmental factors. In order to better assess the ecological risk of organic UV filters (OUV-Fs) in an actual water environment, this study determined the influences of dissolved organic matter (DOM) (0, 1, 10, and 20 mg/L) and feeding (0, 0.5, 1, and 2% body weight/d) on bioconcentration of ethylhexyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoate (OD-PABA) in various tissues of crucian carp (Carassius auratus). Moreover, oxidative stress in the fish liver caused by the OD-PABA was also investigated by measuring activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), and levels of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). The bioconcentration of OD-PABA in the fish tissues was significantly decreased with the presence of DOM indicating a reduction of OD-PABA bioavailability caused by DOM. The bioconcentration factors (BCFs) decreased by 28.00~50.93% in the muscle, 72.67~96.74% in the gill, 37.84~87.72% in the liver, and 10.32~79.38% in the kidney at different DOM concentrations compared to those of the non-DOM treatments. Significant changes in SOD, CAT, GST, GSH, and MDA levels were found in the DOM- and OD-PABA-alone treatments. However, there were no significant differences in the SOD, CAT, GST, and MDA levels found when co-exposure to OD-PABA and DOM. Feeding led to lower OD-PABA concentrations in the fish tissues, and the concentrations were decreased with increasing feeding ratios. BCFs in various tissues reduced by 39.75~72.52% in the muscle, 56.86~79.73% in the gill, 66.41~87.50% in the liver, and 75.88~89.10% in the kidney, respectively. In the unfed treatments, the levels of SOD and MDA were significantly higher than those of the fed ones while GST and GSH levels were remarkably inhibited indicating the enhanced effect of starvation

  1. Rigid, non-porous and tunable hybrid p-aminobenzoate/TiO2 materials: Toward a fine structural determination of the immobilized RhCl(Ph3)3 complex

    KAUST Repository

    Espinas, Jeff

    2015-05-01

    By exchange of ligands, Wilkinson complex RhCl(PPh3)3 are immobilized on p-aminobenzoate/TiO2 with different organic loading (6, 11 and 16%). This new hybrid material exhibit a linear correlation between the ligand content of the starting TiO2 and the rhodium loading, showing the accessibility of all surfaces amines fonctions on the non-porous parent materials. 1H, 13C, and 1D, 2D INAQUEDATE refocused and J-resolved 31P solid-state NMR confirm the well-defined structure [(≡TiO)2(n{right tail}2-O2C-C6H4-NH2)RhCl-cis-(PPh3)2]. New immobilized catalysts show interesting activity in cyclohexene hydroformylation.

  2. Water's role in reshaping a macrocycle's binding pocket: infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy of benzo-15-crown-5-(H(2)O)(n) and 4'-aminobenzo-15-crown-5-(H(2)O)(n), n = 1, 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubert, V Alvin; Müller, Christian W; Zwier, Timothy S

    2009-07-16

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI), ultraviolet hole-burning (UVHB), resonant ion-dip infrared (RIDIR), and infrared-infrared ultraviolet hole-burning (IR-IR-UV) spectroscopies were carried out on benzo-15-crown-5 ether-(H(2)O)(n) (B15C-(H(2)O)(n)) and 4'-amino-benzo-15-crown-5 ether-(H(2)O)(n) (ABC-(H(2)O)(n)) clusters with n = 1,2 formed in a supersonic expansion. Two isomers of B15C-(H(2)O)(1) with S(0)-S(1) origins at 35,628 and 35,685 cm(-1) (B15C-(H(2)O)(1)(A) and B15C-(H(2)O)(1)(B), respectively) were identified and, on the basis of the combined evidence from the single-isomer UV and IR spectra, assigned to structures in which the H(2)O molecule donates both its OH groups to H-bonds to the crown oxygens. Both isomers share the same open, chairlike C(s) symmetry structure for the crown ether that exposes the crown oxygen lone pairs to binding to H(2)O on the interior of the crown. This crown conformation is not among those represented in the observed conformers in the absence of the H(2)O molecule, indicating that even a single water molecule is capable of reshaping the crown binding pocket in binding to it. In B15C-(H(2)O)(1)(A), the water molecule takes up a position parallel to the crown plane of symmetry, using one OH group to bind to the two benzo oxygens, while the other OH binds to a single crown oxygen on the opposite side of the crown. The H(2)O molecule in B15C-(H(2)O)(1)(B) binds to the other two crown oxygens, in an orientation perpendicular to the crown's symmetry plane. B15C-(H(2)O)(2) also has two isomers. The first, B15C-(H(2)O)(2)(A) with S(0)-S(1) origin at 35,813 cm(-1), is assigned to a structure in which the two water molecules take up the two positions occupied by individual water molecules in B15C-(H(2)O)(1) A and B. The second isomer, with S(0)-S(1) origin at 35,665 cm(-1), has an OH stretch RIDIR spectrum that reflects a water-water H-bond, with the second water molecule binding to the crown

  3. Crystal structures of three anhydrous salts of the Lewis base 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU with the ring-substituted benzoic acid analogues 4-aminobenzoic acid, 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid and 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Smith

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The anhydrous salts of the Lewis base 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU with 4-aminobenzoic acid [1-aza-8-azoniabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene 4-aminobenzoate, C9H17N2+·C7H6NO2− (I], 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid [1-aza-8-azoniabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene 3,5-dinitrobenzoate, C9H17N2+·C7H3N2O6−, (II] and 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNSA [1-aza-8-azoniabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene 2-hydroxy-3,5-dinitrobenzoate, C9H17N2+·C7H3N2O7−, (III] have been determined and their hydrogen-bonded structures are described. In both (II and (III, the DBU cations have a common disorder in three of the C atoms of the six-membered ring moieties [site-occupancy factors (SOF = 0.735 (3/0.265 (3 and 0.686 (4/0.314 (4, respectively], while in (III, there is additional rotational disorder in the DNSA anion, giving two sites (SOF = 0.72/0.28, values fixed for the phenol group. In the crystals of (I and (III, the cation–anion pairs are linked through a primary N—H...Ocarboxyl hydrogen bond [2.665 (2 and 2.869 (3 Å, respectively]. In (II, the ion pairs are linked through an asymmetric three-centre R12(4, N—H...O,O′ chelate association. In (I, structure extension is through amine N—H...Ocarboxyl hydrogen bonds between the PABA anions, giving a three-dimensional structure. The crystal structures of (II and (III are very similar, the cation–anion pairs being associated only through weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds, giving in both overall two-dimensional layered structures lying parallel to (001. No π–π ring associations are present in any of the structures.

  4. 4-Aminobenzoic acid 4-methylpyridine/4-methylpyridinium 4-aminobenzoate 0.58/0.42: a redetermination from the original data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fábry, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 73, Oct (2017), s. 1508-1512 ISSN 2056-9890 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1603 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24510 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : crystal structure * hydrogen bonding * symmetric hydrogen bonds * refinement constraints Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry

  5. Poly(aniline-co-m-aminobenzoic acid) deposited on poly(vinyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    form. The composite film was characterized by Fourier transform infra red (FT–IR) and ultraviolet visible (UV–VIS) spectroscopy and electrical measurements. Surface morphology of the composite films was studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The variation of conductivity of the films was studied ...

  6. Poly (aniline-co-m-aminobenzoic acid) deposited on poly (vinyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The composite film was characterized by Fourier transform infra red (FT–IR) and ultraviolet visible (UV–VIS) spectroscopy and electrical measurements. Surface morphology of the composite films was studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The variation of conductivity of the films was studied.

  7. Detection of chitinase activity by 2-aminobenzoic acid labeling of chito-oligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghauharali-van der Vlugt, Karen; Bussink, Anton P.; Groener, Johanna E. M.; Boot, Rolf G.; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.

    2009-01-01

    Chitinases are hydrolases capable of hydrolyzing the abundant natural polysaccharide chitin. Next to artificial fluorescent substrates, more physiological chito-oligomers are commonly used in chitinase assays. Analysis of chito-oligosaccharides products is generally accomplished by UV detection.

  8. Docking and Antiherpetic Activity of 2-Aminobenzo[de]-isoquinoline-1,3-diones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad Al-Salahi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As part of our search for new compounds having antiviral effects, the prepared 2-aminonaphthalimide series was examined for its activity against the herpes simplex viruses HSV-1 and HSV-2. This represents the first study of the antiviral effects of this class of compounds. The new series of 2-amino-1H-benzo[de]isoquinoline-1,3-diones was examined against HSV-1 and HSV-2 using a cytopathic effect inhibition assay. In terms of effective concentration (EC50, furaldehyde, thiophene aldehyde and allyl isothiocyanide derivatives 14‒16 showed potent activity against HSV-1 (EC50 = 19.6, 16.2 and 17.8 μg/mL, compared to acyclovir as a reference drug (EC50 = 1.8 μg/mL. Moreover, 14 and 15 were found to exhibit valuable activity against HSV-2. Many of the tested compounds demonstrated weak to moderate EC50 values relative to their inactive parent compound (2-amino-1H-benzo[de]isoquinoline-1,3-dione, while compounds 7, 9, 13, 14, 15, 16, 21 and 22 were the most active set of antiviral compounds throughout this study. The cytotoxicity (CC50, EC50, and the selectivity index (SI values were determined. In a molecular docking study, the ligand-receptor interactions of compounds 1–24 and their parent with the HSV-1 thymidine kinase active site were investigated using the Molegro Virtual Docker (MVD software. Based on the potent anti-HSV properties of the previous naphthalimide condensate products, further exploration of this series of 2-amino-1H-benzo[de]isoquinoline-1,3-diones is warranted.

  9. Crystal stucture of methyl 2-({[2-(methoxycarbonylphenyl]carbamoyl}aminobenzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasna Yassine

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C17H16N2O5, the dihedral angles between the central urea [N—C(=O—N] fragment and its attached benzene rings are 20.20 (14 and 24.24 (13°; the dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 42.1 (1°. The molecular conformation is consolidated by two intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds, which both generate S(6 rings. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of C—H...O interactions generate R22(14 loops. The dimers are linked by further C—H...O interactions into (011 sheets.

  10. Poly(aniline-co-m-aminobenzoic acid) deposited on poly(vinyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zeiss Supra 40 scanning electron microscope. 3.4 Electrical conductivity. Conductivity of the composite film samples were measured by four-probe technique using Keithley 2400 Source Meter and Keithley 2000 Digital Multimeter. Four electrical con- tacts on the film were made using silver paste. 4. Results and discussion.

  11. The crystal structure of the complex formed by 4-nitropyridine n-oxide with 3-aminobenzoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Moreno Fúquene

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La estructura cristalina y molecular del complejo formado por enlace de hidrógeno entre la 4-nitropiridina N-oxido y el ácido 3-aminobenzóico fue estudiado por difracción de rayos X. Los cristales fueron obtenidos a partir de una solución equimolecular en acetonitrilo, son monoclínicos P2/c, con a=7,325(3, b=10,173(l, c=16,701(7Á, fl=101,74(3-, V=1219( 1Á^ e Dc= 1,511 g cm^ para Z=4. La estructura fue resuelta por métodos directos y afinada por mínimos cuadrados con 1^20(1, obteniéndose un coeficiente de discordancia R=0.0504 y R^= 0.0485. Las moléculas que forman el complejo presentan un enlace de hidrógeno fuerte entre el grupo carboxilo y el grupo N-óxido con una distancia o—o igual a 2.539(7A. El ángulo dihedro formado por los planos medios de sus anillos es igual a 44.5(2°. Las moléculas de 4-nitropiridina N-óxido y del ácido 3-aininobenzóico presentan superposición en la dirección [100], con una distancia media de 3.25(4 y 3.42(4Á. Es discutido también el efecto de la substitución meta en el ácido 3-aminobenzóico sobre el empaquetamiento molecular

  12. Thermal behaviour and antimicrobial assay of some new zinc(II) 2-aminobenzoate complex compounds with bioactive ligands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krajníková, A.; Rotaru, A.; Györyová, K.; Homzová, K.; Manolea, H. O.; Kovářová, Jana; Hudecová, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 1 (2015), s. 73-83 ISSN 1388-6150 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : antimicrobial * nicotinamide derivatives * non-isothermal kinetics Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.781, year: 2015

  13. Enhancing pterin and para-aminobenzoate content is not sufficient to successfully biofortify potato tubers and Arabidopsis thaliana plants with folate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blancquaert, D.; Storozhenko, S.; Daele, W.; Stove, C.; Visser, R.G.F.; Lambert, W.; Straeten, van der D.

    2013-01-01

    Folates are important cofactors in one-carbon metabolism in all living organisms. Since only plants and micro- organisms are capable of biosynthesizing folates, humans depend entirely on their diet as a folate source. Given the low folate content of several staple crop products, folate deficiency

  14. Gastroprotective Activity of Ethyl-4-[(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzylidene) Amino]benzoate against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Ulcer in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halabi, Mohammed Farouq; Shakir, Raied Mustafa; Bardi, Daleya Abdulaziz; Al-Wajeeh, Nahla Saeed; Ablat, Abdulwali; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Norazit, Anwar; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2014-01-01

    Background The study was carried out to determine the cytotoxic, antioxidant and gastro-protective effect of ethyl-4-[(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzylid ene)amino] benzoate (ETHAB) in rats. Methodology/Principal Findings The cytotoxic effect of ETHAB was assessed using a MTT cleavage assay on a WRL68 cell line, while its antioxidant activity was evaluated in vitro. In the anti-ulcer study, rats were divided into six groups. Group 1 and group 2 received 10% Tween 20 (vehicle). Group 3 received 20 mg/kg Omeprazole. Groups 4, 5 and 6 received ETHAB at doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, respectively. After an hour, group 1 received the vehicle. Groups 2–6 received absolute ethanol to induce gastric mucosal lesions. In the WRL68 cell line, an IC50 of more than 100 µg/mL was observed. ETHAB results showed antioxidant activity in the DPPH, FRAP, nitric oxide and metal chelating assays. There was no acute toxicity even at the highest dosage (1000 mg/kg). Microscopy showed that rats pretreated with ETHAB revealed protection of gastric mucosa as ascertained by significant increases in superoxide dismutase (SOD), pH level, mucus secretion, reduced gastric lesions, malondialdehyde (MDA) level and remarkable flattened gastric mucosa. Histologically, pretreatment with ETHAB resulted in comparatively better gastric protection, due to reduction of submucosal edema with leucocyte infiltration. PAS staining showed increased intensity in uptake of Alcian blue. In terms of immunohistochemistry, ETHAB showed down-expression of Bax proteins and over-expression of Hsp70 proteins. Conclusion/Significance The gastroprotective effect of ETHAB may be attributed to antioxidant activity, increased gastric wall mucus, pH level of gastric contents, SOD activity, decrease in MDA level, ulcer area, flattening of gastric mucosa, reduction of edema and leucocyte infiltration of the submucosal layer, increased PAS staining, up-regulation of Hsp70 protein and suppressed expression of Bax. Key words: ethyl 4-(3, 5-di-ter-butyl-2-hydroxybenzylamino) benzoate; toxicity; antioxidant; gastric-ulcer; anti-ulcer; histology; immunohistochemistry. PMID:24800807

  15. A redetermination from the original data of the crystal structure of 2-amino-4,6-dimethoxy-pyrimidin-1-ium 4-aminobenzoate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fábry, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 72, Apr (2016), 512-515 ISSN 2056-9890 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1603 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : crystal structure redetermination * H-bonding * symmetric H-bonds * refinement constraints * restraints Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  16. Structural diversity of Cu(II) compounds of Schiff bases derived from 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde and a series of aminobenzoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Meiju; Cao, Zhiqiang; Xue, Ruiting; Wang, Suna; Dou, Jianmin; Wang, Daqi

    2011-06-01

    Five novel Cu(II) metal-organic coordination polymers, [(CuL 1) n] ( 1), [CuL22(Py)4] ( 2), [Cu(HL 3)(DMF) 2] ( 3), [CuL43(Py)6·HO]n ( 4), [CuL43(Py)8(CHN)2·8CHOH]n ( 5) (H 2L 1 = N-2-hydroxy-naphthaldehyde-1-alkenyl- o-amino acid, H 2L 2 = N-2-hydroxy-naphthaldehyde-1-alkenyl- m-amino acid, H 2L 3 = N-2-hydroxy-naphthaldehyde-1-alkenyl- o-amino-terephthalic acid), have been synthesized and characterized by IR, elemental analysis, UV spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Complex 1 possesses helical chain structure, which are further assembled to form three-dimensional frameworks by π⋯π stacking interactions. Complex 2 and 3 exhibit dimeric and monomeric structure. Complex 4 is a novel two-dimensional layer structure based on two kinds of binuclear Secondary Building Units (SBUs), Cu 2O 2 and Cu 2(CO 2) 4. Complex 5 exhibits a distorted zigzag chain by the alternate connectivity of L and bpy molecules. This result shows that the position of carboxylate groups play an important role in the formation of supramolecular networks.

  17. Effect of para-aminobenzoic acid on morphologic changes of the retina in the rd10 mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galbinur T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Histological evaluation of the influence of PABA on the course of retinal degeneration and the state of outer nuclear layer (ONL of the retina in rd10 mice.Methods: the present experiment studied PR model in rd10 mice (Jackson Labs, Maine, USA homozygous for a recessive mutation in the b-subunit of rod phosphodiesterase. Animals in the treatment group (n = 28 were intraperitoneally injected with PABA in saline (50 mg/kg 6 times a week from the third day after birth till 4.5 weeks of age. Animals in the control group (n = 24 were intraperitoneally injected with saline using the same protocol. At 3 and 4.5 weeks of age, eyes were enucleated. After fixation and dehydration, the samples were placed in paraffin and serial sections, 4 microns sick, were obtained through the center of the optic nerve. thickness of ONL and the number of rows of photoreceptor nuclei in the ONL of central, middle and peripheral parts of the retina were analyzed to access the morphological condition of retina. t-test was used to compare the dif- ference between two groups (p ≤ 0.05, unpaired two-tailed t-test.Results: At the age of three weeks, the thickness of ONL and the number of rows of photoreceptor nuclei in the ONL is reducing more than twofold in both experimental groups compared with healthy mice group. there is a tendency toward greater thickness of the ONL and the greater number of rows of nuclei in the central zone and mid-peripheral retina at the age of three weeks in the group of animals that were injected with PABA compared to the control group. At the age of 4.5 weeks both the thickness of the ONL, and the number of rows of photoreceptor nuclei in the ONL were significantly greater in the peripheral retina of the animals in the treatment group compared with the control group (p <0.05.Conclusion: Systemic administration of PABA has a stabilizing effect on the degenaration process of ONL of the retina in rd10 mice. thus, PABA, with its good safety profile can be an effective addition to the antioxidant therapy of retinitis pigmentosa. 

  18. Extended metal–organic solids based on benzenepolycarboxylic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 112; Issue 3. Extended metal-organic solids based on benzenepolycarboxylic and aminobenzoic acids. R Murugavel G ... Keywords. Coordination polymer; aminobenzoic acid; benzene tetracarboxylic acid; alkaline earth metals; supramolecular chemistry.

  19. Metabolic Engineering of the Shikimate Pathway for Production of Aromatics and Derived Compounds—Present and Future Strain Construction Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils J. H. Averesch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aromatic nature of shikimate pathway intermediates gives rise to a wealth of potential bio-replacements for commonly fossil fuel-derived aromatics, as well as naturally produced secondary metabolites. Through metabolic engineering, the abundance of certain intermediates may be increased, while draining flux from other branches off the pathway. Often targets for genetic engineering lie beyond the shikimate pathway, altering flux deep in central metabolism. This has been extensively used to develop microbial production systems for a variety of compounds valuable in chemical industry, including aromatic and non-aromatic acids like muconic acid, para-hydroxybenzoic acid, and para-coumaric acid, as well as aminobenzoic acids and aromatic α-amino acids. Further, many natural products and secondary metabolites that are valuable in food- and pharma-industry are formed outgoing from shikimate pathway intermediates. (Reconstruction of such routes has been shown by de novo production of resveratrol, reticuline, opioids, and vanillin. In this review, strain construction strategies are compared across organisms and put into perspective with requirements by industry for commercial viability. Focus is put on enhancing flux to and through shikimate pathway, and engineering strategies are assessed in order to provide a guideline for future optimizations.

  20. BIOCHEMICAL AND GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF AN EARLY STEP IN A NOVEL PATHWAY FOR THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF AROMATIC AMINO ACIDS AND P-AMINOBENZOIC ACID IN THE ARCHAEON METHANOCOCCUS MARIPALUDIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methanococcus maripaludis is a strictly anaerobic, methane-producing archaeon and facultative autotroph capable of biosynthesizing all the amino acids and vitamins required for growth. In this work, the novel 6-deoxy-5-ketofructose-1-phosphate (DKFP) pathway for the biosynthesis ...

  1. Stability-indicating RP-HPLC method for simultaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An accurate, simple and specific reverse phase LC procedure is established and validated for simultaneous estimation of methoxsalen and p-aminobenzoic acid in pharmaceutical formulated products and human serum. Chromatographic separation among methoxsalen, p-aminobenzoic acid and their degradation products ...

  2. Living Polycondensation: Synthesis of Well-Defined Aromatic Polyamide-Based Polymeric Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Alyami, Mram Z.

    2016-11-01

    Chain growth condensation polymerization is a powerful tool towards the synthesis of well-defined polyamides. This thesis focuses on one hand, on the synthesis of well-defined aromatic polyamides with different aminoalkyl pendant groups with low polydispersity and controlled molecular weights, and on the other hand, on studying their thermal properties. In the first project, well-defined poly (N-octyl-p-aminobenzoate) and poly (N-butyl-p-aminobenzoate) were synthesized, and for the first time, their thermal properties were studied. In the second project, ethyl4-aminobenzoate, ethyl 4-octyl aminobenzoate and 4-(hydroxymethyl) benzoic acid were used as novel efficient initiators of ε-caprolactone with t-BuP2 as a catalyst. Macroinitiator and Macromonomer of poly (ε-caprolactone) were synthesized with ethyl 4-octyl aminobenzoate and ethyl 4-aminobenzoate as initiators to afford polyamide-block-poly (ε-caprolactone) and polyamide-graft-poly (ε-caprolactone) by chain growth condensation polymerization (CGCP). In the third project, a new study has been done on chain growth condensation polymerization to discover the probability to synthesize new polymers and studied their thermal properties. For this purpose, poly (N-cyclohexyl-p-aminobenzoate) and poly (N-hexyl-p-aminobenzoate) were synthesized with low polydispersity and controlled molecular weights.

  3. hydrothermal synthesis and characterisation of amine-templated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    showed that the complexes were insoluble in water, ethanol, DMF and DMSO. KEYWORDS: Hydrothermal synthesis, metal phosphates, p-aminobenzoic acid, ethylacetoacetate, ethylammonium-. 4-aminobenzoate. INTRODUCTION. One of the major areas of materials science is the development of solid state materials with ...

  4. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (mono ethylene glycol dimethacrylate-co-4-aminobenzoate) · A JANCIRANI V KOHILA B MEENARATHI A YELILARASI R ANBARASAN · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Synthesis of a novel co-polymer made by the addition polymerisation ...

  5. Synthesis of Crown Ethers Containing a Rubicene Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Smet

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A symmetrically disubstituted derivative of the highly fluorescing and photostable rubicene was incorporated in a macrocycle using high dilution conditions and a hydroxyrubicene was functionalized with a modified aminobenzo-15-crown-5.

  6. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    metals with pyrimid- ine nucleoside (uridine) and amino acids 593. Aminobenzoic acid. Extended metal-organic solids based on ... 43. Aromatic hydroxylation. Chemistry of azopyrimidines. Part IV. Aromatic hydroxylation in palladium(II)-.

  7. EFFECTS OF ANESTHESIA (MS222) ON LIVER BIOTRANSFORMATION IN RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricaine methanesulfonate (3-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester methanesulfonate; MS222) is a widely used fish anaesthetic. While there have been several studies addressing the impact of its use on subsequently measured biotransformation rates, the measured influence on normal functio...

  8. EFFECTS OF ANESTHESIA (TRICAINE METHANESULFONATE, MS-222) BIOTRANSFORMATION IN RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricaine methanesulfonate (3-aminobenzoic acid eithyl ester methanesulfonate, tricaine, MS-222, Finquel), an anesthetic for fish, has been used extensively in aquatic toxicology to allow surgical procedures for in vivo studies and to permit in vitro preparations of isolated perfu...

  9. Bioreduction of aryl azides during mutasynthesis of new ansamitocins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Lena; Jürjens, Gerrit; Hermane, Jekaterina; Harmrolfs, Kirsten; Eichner, Simone; Fohrer, Jörg; Collisi, Wera; Sasse, Florenz; Kirschning, Andreas

    2013-09-06

    Supplementing a culture of a mutant strain of Actinosynnema pretiosum that is unable to biosynthesize aminohydroxy benzoic acid (AHBA), with 3-azido-5-hydroxy-benzoic acid and 3-azido-5-amino-benzoic acid, unexpectedly yielded anilino ansamitocins instead of the expected azido derivatives. This is the first example of the bioreduction of organic azides. The unique nature of these results was demonstrated when 3-azido-5-amino-benzoic acid was fed to the corresponding AHBA blocked mutant of Streptomyces hygroscopicus, the geldanamycin producer. This mutasynthetic experiment yielded the fully processed azido derivative of geldanamycin.

  10. Extended metal–organic solids based on benzenepolycarboxylic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 112; Issue 3. Extended metal-organic solids based on benzenepolycarboxylic and aminobenzoic acids. R Murugavel G Anantharaman D Krishnamurthy M Sathiyendiran M G Walawalkar. Volume 112 Issue 3 June 2000 pp 273-290 ...

  11. The effects of cyclodextrins on drug release from fatty suppository bases : III. Application of cyclodextrin derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijlink, H.W.; Paiotti, S.; Eissens, Anko; Lerk, C.F.

    1992-01-01

    The complexation of both n-butyl-4-aminobenzoate and diazepam with dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin, respectively, was studied. Solid complexes were prepared by freeze-drying. The complexes were incorporated in fatty suppositories and drug release was studied, both in

  12. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Calcium carbonate polymorphs were precipitated at room temperature and 80°C by varying the precipitation pH, carbonate source, effect of solvent in presence and absence of structure directing agent such as para-aminobenzoic acid. Calcite phase of calcium carbonate was obtained when sodium hydrogen carbonate ...

  13. Extended metal–organic solids based on benzenepolycarboxylic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    2.1 Coordination polymers derived from 2-aminobenzoic acid. The metal complexes 1–4 are best prepared by mixing group 2 metal chloride hydrates with 2-amino benzoic acid (2-abaH) under basic conditions (pH ~ 10–12) from an aqueous solution (scheme 3) 5. In the case of magnesium, an insoluble precipitate is.

  14. Photoinduced electron transfer in some photosensitive molecules ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. An intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) molecule, p-N,N-dimethyl- aminobenzoic acid (DMABA) has been studied in zeolite and colloidal media. The ratio of ICT to normal emission (ICT/LE) is greatly enhanced in zeolites compared to that in polar solvents. The ICT emission of DMABA was quenched by increasing ...

  15. Susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to the drugs used to treat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of the efficacy of antimalarial drugs in malarial countries is vital in adapting malaria chemotherapy and ... The samples were collected in citric acid dextrose. They were transported at +4°C to the malaria ... aminobenzoic and without folic acid (Biowhittaker Europe, A. Cambrex Company, Belgium) was used to test ...

  16. Facile synthesis and catalytic properties of silver colloidal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    obtained with high dispersion (2–3 nm), which has high catalytic activity on reduction of 4-nitrobenzoic acid to 4-aminobenzoic acid. Keywords. Silver colloidal nanoparticles; SDBS; catalytic reduction; 4-nitrobenzoic acid. 1. Introduction. Silver colloidal nanoparticles (AgCNPs) have been studied extensively in catalysis ...

  17. Discovery of novel inhibitors for DHODH via virtual screening and X-ray crystallographic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, Larry R.; Zhang, Ying; Degnen, William; Peppard, Jane; Cabel, Dasha; Zou, Chao; Tsay, Joseph T.; Subramaniam, Arun; Vaz, Roy J.; Li, Yi (Sanofi)

    2010-10-28

    Amino-benzoic acid derivatives 1-4 were found to be inhibitors for DHODH by virtual screening, biochemical, and X-ray crystallographic studies. X-ray structures showed that 1 and 2 bind to DHODH as predicted by virtual screening, but 3 and 4 were found to be structurally different from the corresponding compounds initially identified by virtual screening.

  18. JCSC_128_4_487-499_SI.docx

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Figure S2: Heteromeric units in caffeine cocrystals, Page S7. Figure S3: Ornidazole–4-aminobenzoic acid cocrystal and putative supramolecular unit for putative ornidazole–4-iodobenzoic acid cocrystal, Page S7. Figure S4: Pyrazinoic acid–isonicotinamide cocrystal and putative supramolecular unit for putative pyrazinoic ...

  19. Synthesis of aromatic glycoconjugates. Building blocks for the construction of combinatorial glycopeptide libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Nörrlinger

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available New aromatic glycoconjugate building blocks based on the trifunctional 3-aminomethyl-5-aminobenzoic acid backbone and sugars linked to the backbone by a malonyl moiety were prepared via peptide coupling. The orthogonally protected glycoconjugates, bearing an acetyl-protected glycoside, were converted into their corresponding acids which are suitable building blocks for combinatorial glycopeptide synthesis.

  20. A new smart additive of reinforced concrete based on modified hydrotalcites: Preparation, characterization and anticorrosion applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Z.; Fischer, H.; Polder, R.

    2012-01-01

    A carbonate form of Mg-Al-hydrotalcite and its p-aminobenzoate (pAB) modified derivative (i.e.,Mg(2)Al-pAB) were synthesized and characterized by means of XRD and FT-IR. The anticorrosion behavior was evaluated based on open circuit potential (OCP) of carbon steel in simulated concrete pore solution

  1. Synthesis and Antibacterial Evaluation of 2-(1,3- Benzodioxol-5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They also act as inhibitors, e.g., histone deacetylase (HDAC), carbonic anhydrase and. HIV protease [1-8]. The chemotherapeutic derivatives of this class are extensively employed as antibacterial and antiviral agents [4,9] since they are structural analogues of p-aminobenzoic acid necessary for the production of folic acid. If.

  2. 21 CFR 582.60 - Synthetic flavoring substances and adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... butyrate. 3-Methyl-3-phenyl glycidic acid ethyl ester (ethyl-methyl-phenyl-glycidate, so-called strawberry aldehyde, C-16 aldehyde). Ethyl vanillin. Eugenol. Geranoil (3,7-dimethyl-2,6 and 3,6-octadien-1-ol.... Methyl anthranilate (methyl-2-aminobenzoate). Piperonal (3,4-methylenedioxy-benzaldehyde, heliotropin...

  3. Bulletin of Materials Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    kinetics of novel poly(mono ethylene glycol dimethacrylate-co-4-aminobenzoate). A Jancirani, V Kohila, ... Chemical nature of catalysts of oxide nanoparticles in environment prevailing during growth of carbon ... carboxymethyl cellulose blends and their biodegradability. A M Abdel Ghaffar and H E Ali. 1809. Linear and ...

  4. Identification of Microbial Metabolites Elevating Vitamin Contents in Barley Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Anam; Qadir, Abdul; Anjum, Tehmina; Ahmad, Aqeel

    2015-08-19

    The current investigation analyzes metabolites of Acetobacter aceti to explore chemical compounds responsible for the induction of vitamins in barley seeds. A bioactivity guided assay of bacterial extracts and chromatographic analyses of barley produce revealed 13 chemical compounds, which were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA). PCA determined four chemical compounds (i.e., quinolinic acid, pyridoxic acid, p-aminobenzoate, and α-oxobutanoic acid) highly associated with increased quantities of vitamins. Further experimentations confirmed that quinolinic acid and p-aminobenzoate were the most efficient vitamin inducers. The results indicated chloroform/ethanol (4:1) as the best solvent system for the extraction of active compounds from crude metabolites of A. aceti. Significant quantities of mevalonic acid were detected in the extracted fraction, indicating the possible induction of the isoprenoid pathway. Altogether, the current investigation broadens the frontiers in plant-microbe interaction.

  5. Characterisation of nitrilase and nitrile hydratase biocatalytic systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brady, D

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available /l): biotin 0.05 (in 10 ml 0.1 mol/l NaOH, adjust to pH 6.5 with HCl), calcium pantothenate (1.0), nicotinic acid (1.0), myoinositol (25.0), thiamine HCl (1.0), p- aminobenzoic acid (0.2), pyridoxyl hydrochloride (1.0), adjusted to pH 6.5, and filter...

  6. SYNTHESIS, SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    ABSTRACT. A tridendatate Schiff base,L, 2-((2-hydroxynaphthalen-1-yl) methyleneamino)benzoic acid was prepared by condensation of 2-aminobenzoic acid with 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde.The prepared ligand was used to synthesize Sm(III) and Dy(III) complexes [LnL(NO3)2]NO3.2H2O,. (Ln=Sm(III) and Dy(III)).

  7. Carotamine, a Unique Aromatic Amide from Daucus Carota L. Var Biossieri (Apiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. El-Azizi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The unique aromatic peptide 4-(p-aminobenzoylamino-2-aminobenzoic acid, carotamine, together with 2,4-diaminobenzoic acid, isolated for the first time from a plant source, were identified from the aqueous alcoholic extract of the aerial parts of Daucus carota L. var. boissieri (Apiaceae. The structures were determined through conventional methods of analysis and confirmed by LC-ESI/MS and NMR spectral analysis.

  8. Modified hydrotalcites for improved corrosion protection of reinforcing steel in concrete – preparation, characterization, and assessment in alkaline chloride solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Z.; Fischer, H.; Cerezo, J.; Mol, J.M.C.; Polder, R.

    2016-01-01

    Six MgAl hydrotalcites (Mg/Al = 2 and 3) were synthesized through the modification of two carbonate hydrotalcites (i.e., Mg(2)AlCO3 and Mg(3)AlCO3) by two amino acids (11aminoundecanoic acid and paminobenzoic acid) and sodium nitrite. They were characterized by means of XRD, FTIR, TG/DSC, and

  9. Indigo degradation with purified laccases from Trametes hirsuta and Sclerotium rolfsii

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Rui; Kandelbauer, A.; Robra, K. H.; Paulo, Artur Cavaco; Gübitz, Georg M.

    2001-01-01

    The degradation of the textile dye indigo with purified laccases from the fungi Trametes hirsuta (THL1 and THL2) and Sclerotium rolfsii (SRL1) was studied. All laccases were able to oxidize indigo yielding isatin (indole-2,3-dione), which was further decomposed to anthranilic acid (2-aminobenzoic acid). Based on the oxygen consumption rate of the laccases during indigo degradation, a potential mechanism for the oxidation of indigo involving the step-wise abstraction of four electrons from ind...

  10. Indigo degradation with laccases from Polyporus sp. and Sclerotium rolfsii

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Rui; Robra, K. H.; Paulo, Artur Cavaco; Schneider, Monika; Gübitz, Georg M.

    2001-01-01

    The degradation of the textile dye indigo with purified laccases from the fungi Trametes hirsuta (THL1 and THL2) and Sclerotium rolfsii (SRL1) was studied. All laccases were able to oxidize indigo yielding isatin (indole-2,3-dione), which was further decomposed to anthranilic acid (2-aminobenzoic acid). Based on the oxygen consumption rate of the laccases during indigo degradation, a potential mechanism for the oxidation of indigo involving the step-wise abstraction of four electrons from ind...

  11. Synthesis of schiff bases of pyridine-4-carbaldehyde and their antioxidant and DNA binding studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamim, S.; Murtaza, S.; Nazar, M.F.

    2016-01-01

    A series of Schiff bases of pyridine-4-carbaldehyde with 3-aminobenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzoic acid, 4-aminobenzoic acid, 1,3-phenylenediamine, 1,2-phenylenediamine, 2-aminothiophenol, 4-aminoantipyrene, 2-aminophenol and naphthalene-1-amine was synthesized and compounds were characterized by FTIR, NMR and mass spectrometry. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant and DNA binding interaction studies. DPPH scavenging method was used to evaluate the antioxidant activities of synthesized Schiff bases at six gradually increasing concentrations of 0.5-5mg/ml. 2-((pyridin-4-ylmethylidene)amino)phenol came out to be the most efficient antioxidant at a concentration of 4mg/ml with 74% inhibition of free radicals generated by DPPH. The DNA binding interaction of the synthesized Schiff bases was determined using UV-Vis absorption titration method. Both the hypochromic and hyperchromic effects were observed along the series. The values for the binding constant (K) and free energy change (G) were calculated and most of the Schiff bases have high positive K values which indicate the efficient binding of Schiff bases with DNA. Molecular docking studies as carried out using PatchDock molecular algorithm software also indicated the high values for geometrical shape complementarity score suggesting the stabilities of Schiff bases/DNA complex. Docking studies also suggested the minor groove binding of the Schiff bases with DNA. Drug-likeness of the synthesized compounds was also tested in silico and the results are accordingly discussed. (author)

  12. Simultaneous analysis and monitoring of 16 UV filters in cosmetics by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dojung; Kim, Sangseop; Kim, Seol-A; Choi, Myoengsin; Kwon, Kyoung-Jin; Kim, Mijeong; Kim, Dong-Sup; Kim, Seung-Hee; Choi, Bo-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Sixteen UV filters were simultaneously analyzed using the high-performance liquid chromatographic method. They were drometrizole (USAN Drometrizole), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (USAN Enzacamene), menthyl anthranilate (USAN Menthyl anthranilate), benzophenone-3 (USAN Oxybenzone), benzophenone-8 (USAN Dioxybenzone), butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (USAN Avobenzone), ethylhexyl triazone (USAN Octyl triazone), octocrylene (USAN Octocrylene), ethylhexyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoic acid (USAN Padimate O), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (USAN Octinoxate), p-aminobenzoic acid (USAN Aminobenzoic acid), 2-phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulfonic acid (USAN Ensulizole), isoamyl p-methoxycinnamate (USAN Amiloxate), and recent UV filters such as diethylhexyl butamidotriazone (USAN Iscotrizinol), methylene bis-benzotriazolyl tetramethylbutylphenol (USAN Bisoctrizole), and terephthalylidene dicamphor sulfonic acid (USAN Ecamsule). Separation of the UV filters was carried out in a C(18) column with a gradient of methanol-phosphate buffer, and the UV detection was at 300, 320, or 360 nm without any interference. The limits of detection were between 0.08 and 1.94 μg/ml, and the limits of quantitation were between 0.24 and 5.89 μg/ml. The extracting solvent for the UV filters was methanol, except for ethylhexyl triazone and methylene bis-benzotriazolyl tetramethylbutylphenol, which were prepared with tetrahydrofuran. The recoveries from spiked samples were between 94.90% and 116.54%, depending on the matrixes used. The developed method was applied to 23 sunscreens obtained from local markets, and the results were acceptable to their own criteria and to maximum authorized concentrations. Consequently, these results would provide a simple extracting method and a simultaneous determination for various UV filters, which can improve the quality control process as well as the environmental monitoring of sunscreens.

  13. Kinetic Study of the Effect of Benzoic Acid Derivatives on Copper Electrodeposition

    OpenAIRE

    Howaida M. El-Kashlan

    2008-01-01

    The effect of anodic oxygen bubbles on the rate of mass transfer in presence of benzoic acid, p-nitro, p-chloro and p-aminobenzoic acids were studied by measuring the limiting current of cathodic deposition of copper from acidified copper sulphate solution using lead anode. It is found that the rate of deposition decreases by adding organic substances. The rate of deposition depends on the type of inhibitor as well as its concentration. The ability of inhibitors to decrease the limiting curre...

  14. Characterization of strain HY99, a novel microorganism capable of aerobic and anaerobic degradation of aniline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahng, H Y; Kukor, J J; Oh, K H

    2000-09-15

    We have characterized a novel microorganism, strain HY99, which is capable of aerobic and anaerobic degradation of aniline. Strain HY99 was found to aerobically metabolize aniline via catechol and 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde intermediates, and to transform aniline via p-aminobenzoate in anaerobic environments. Physiological and biochemical tests revealed that strain HY99 was most similar to Delftia acidovorans, but unlike D. acidovorans, strain HY99 was able to metabolize aniline under anaerobic conditions linked with nitrate reduction. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequencing also revealed that strain HY99 was closely related to D. acidovorans, with 96% overall similarity.

  15. Effect of vitamins on the aerobic degradation of 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, and 4-chlorobiphenyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafkewitz, D; Fava, F; Armenante, P M

    1996-11-01

    The effect of vitamins on the aerobic degradation and dechlorination of 2-chlorophenol and 4-chlorophenol by Pseudomonas pickettii, strain LD1, and 4-chlorobiphenyl by Pseudomonas sp. strain CPE1 was determined. These microorganisms are capable of using the target compounds as the sole carbon and energy source, but do not need vitamins to metabolize them. The addition to the culture medium of a vitamin solution containing biotin, folic acid, pyridoxine hydrochloride, riboflavin, thiamine hydrochloride, niacin, pantothenic acid, cyanocobalamin, p-aminobenzoic acid, and thioctic acid (total final concentration: produced was also detected during the same period, indicating active (and often stoichiometric) dechlorination of the target compounds.

  16. Protective and Therapeutic Agents for War Gases - Solutions of BAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    1945-04-02

    69 p-Aminobenzoic acid 1.01 Hydroquinone • 1.56 Silver salt 1.01 Eugenol 1.53 1.43 Blank i.oo Ammonium acetate Coumarin .98 Sodium sulfite 1.33...34 1.17 Vitamin Bi .93 Fhenyl alpha-naphthy1 Methyl glucamine .92 amine 1.16 Dextrose .89 1,5-Dihydroxy Vanillin .88 naphthalene 1.15 p-Nitro...34"..\\. ■’ Eugenol Blank o-Aminothiophenol p-Aminothiophenol Sodium hydrosulfite p-Nltroanlline ■ ’"■ ^V Vitamin A ■’■.H;-’-’’V>-’--"- Ethyl

  17. Photostabilization of doxorubicin hydrochloride with radioprotective and photoprotective agents: Potential mechanism for enhancing chemotherapy during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, M.J.; Asker, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    p-Aminobenzoic acid (PABA), urocanic acid, and sodium urate were found to significantly enhance the photostability of doxorubicin hydrochloride [adriamycin, (ADR)]. d1-Methionine, thiourea, and glycine also increased the photostability of this drug, but to a lesser degree. Sodium thiosulfate on the other hand, was found to be detrimental to the photostability of ADR. The photostabilizing effect of PABA was found to increase with increase of its concentration and was influenced by the pH and the buffer species of the vehicle. The findings would have an impact on the enhancement of therapeutic efficacy of adriamycin when administered during radiation therapy

  18. Characterization of a Pseudomonad 2-Nitrobenzoate Nitroreductase and Its Catabolic Pathway-Associated 2-Hydroxylaminobenzoate Mutase and a Chemoreceptor Involved in 2-Nitrobenzoate Chemotaxis▿ † ‡

    OpenAIRE

    Iwaki, Hiroaki; Muraki, Takamichi; Ishihara, Shun; Hasegawa, Yoshie; Rankin, Kathryn N.; Sulea, Traian; Boyd, Jason; Lau, Peter C. K.

    2007-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strain KU-7 is a prototype microorganism that metabolizes 2-nitrobenzoate (2-NBA) via the formation of 3-hydroxyanthranilate (3-HAA), a known antioxidant and reductant. The initial two steps leading to the sequential formation of 2-hydroxy/aminobenzoate and 3-HAA are catalyzed by a NADPH-dependent 2-NBA nitroreductase (NbaA) and 2-hydroxylaminobenzoate mutase (NbaB), respectively. The 216-amino-acid protein NbaA is 78% identical to a plasmid-encoded hypothetical conser...

  19. Versatile peroxidase of Bjerkandera fumosa: substrate and inhibitor specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Makarov, Oleg; Chernyshova, Marina; Turkovskaya, Olga; Jarosz-Wilkolazka, Anna

    2013-01-10

    The inhibitor and substrate specificities of versatile peroxidase from Bjerkandera fumosa (VPBF) were studied. Two different effects were found: NaN(3), Tween-80, anthracene, and fluorene decreased the activity of VPBF, but p-aminobenzoic acid increased it. A mixed mechanism of effector influence on the activity of this enzyme was shown. The catalytic properties of VPBF in the oxidation of mono- and polycyclic aromatic compounds were studied also. 2,7-Diaminofluorene, ABTS, veratryl alcohol, and syringaldazine can be oxidized by VPBF in two ways: either directly by the enzyme or by diffusible chelated Mn(3+) as an oxidizing agent. During VPBF oxidation of 2,7-diaminofluorene, both with and without Mn(2+), biphasic kinetics with apparent saturation in both micromolar and millimolar ranges were obtained. In the case of ABTS, inhibition of VPBF activity by an excess of substrate was observed. Direct oxidation of p-aminobenzoic acid by versatile peroxidase was found for the first time. The oxidation of three- and four-ring PAHs by VPBF was investigated, and the oxidation of anthracene, phenanthrene, fluorene, pyrene, chrysene, and fluoranthene was shown. The products of PAH oxidation (9,10-anthraquinone, 9,10-phenanthrenequinone, and 9-fluorenone) catalyzed by VPBF were identified. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Adsorption of Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd by Modified Ligand in a Single Component Aqueous Solution: Equilibrium, Kinetic, Thermodynamic, and Desorption Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osifo, P.; Ofomaja, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this investigation, an amino functionalized adsorbent was developed by grafting 4-aminobenzoic acid onto the backbone of cross-linked chitosan beads. The 3 sets of beads including chitosan (CX), glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan (CCX), and 4-aminobenzoic acid grafted cross-linked chitosan (FGCX) were characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, and TGA. The water content and amine concentration of FGCX were determined. The effect of adsorption parameters was studied and the optimum was used for further studies. Equilibrium data was obtained from the adsorption experiment carried out at different initial concentration; the data were applied in isotherm, thermodynamics, and kinetic studies. The Langmuir and Dubinin-Kaganer-Radushkevich (DKR) models were successful in describing the isotherm data for the considered metal ions while the Freundlich and Temkin model fit some of the considered metal ions. Pseudo-second-order and intraparticle model described the kinetic data quite well. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibb's free energy change (ΔGo), enthalpy change (ΔHo), and entropy change (ΔSo) were calculated and the results showed that the adsorption of Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Cd ions onto FGCX is spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Regeneration of the spent adsorbent was efficient for the considered metal ions. PMID:28607557

  1. Comparison of inhibition effects of some benzoic acid derivatives on sheep heart carbonic anhydrase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Deryanur; Yildiz, Melike; Şentürk, Murat; Erdoǧan, Orhan; Küfrevioǧlu, Ömer Irfan

    2016-04-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a family of metalloenzymes that requires Zn as a cofactor and catalyze the quick conversion of CO2 to HCO3- and H+. Inhibitors of the carbonic anhydrases (CAs) have medical usage of significant diseases such as glaucoma, epilepsy, gastroduodenal ulcers, acid-base disequilibria and neurological disorders. In the present study, inhibition of CA with some benzoic derivatives (1-6) were investigated. Sheep heart CA (shCA) enzyme was isolated by means of designed affinity chromatography gel (cellulose-benzyl-sulfanylamide) 42.45-fold in a yield of 44 % with 564.65 EU/mg. Purified shCA enzyme was used in vitro studies. In the studies, IC50 values were calculated for 3-aminobenzoic acid (1), 4-aminobenzoic acid (2), 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (3), 2-benzoylbenzoic acid (4), 2,3-dimethoxybenzoic acid (5), and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid (6), showing the inhibition effects on the purified enzyme. Such molecules can be used as pioneer for discovery of novel effective CA inhibitors for medicinal chemistry applications.

  2. Study of the Chemical Space of Selected Bacteriostatic Sulfonamides from an Information Theory Point of View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rosa, Sheila; Molina-Espíritu, Moyocoyani; Esquivel, Rodolfo O; Soriano-Correa, Catalina; Dehesa, Jésus S

    2016-12-05

    The relative structural location of a selected group of 27 sulfonamide-like molecules in a chemical space defined by three information theory quantities (Shannon entropy, Fisher information, and disequilibrium) is discussed. This group is composed of 15 active bacteriostatic molecules, 11 theoretically designed ones, and para-aminobenzoic acid. This endeavor allows molecules that share common chemical properties through the molecular backbone, but with significant differences in the identity of the chemical substituents, which might result in bacteriostatic activity, to be structurally classified and characterized. This is performed by quantifying the structural changes on the electron density distribution due to different functional groups and number of electrons. The macroscopic molecular features are described by means of the entropy-like notions of spatial electronic delocalization, order, and uniformity. Hence, an information theory three-dimensional space (IT-3D) emerges that allows molecules with common properties to be gathered. This space witnesses the biological activity of the sulfonamides. Some structural aspects and information theory properties can be associated, as a result of the IT-3D chemical space, with the bacteriostatic activity of these molecules. Most interesting is that the active bacteriostatic molecules are more similar to para-aminobenzoic acid than to the theoretically designed analogues. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. The Adsorption of Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd by Modified Ligand in a Single Component Aqueous Solution: Equilibrium, Kinetic, Thermodynamic, and Desorption Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Igberase

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, an amino functionalized adsorbent was developed by grafting 4-aminobenzoic acid onto the backbone of cross-linked chitosan beads. The 3 sets of beads including chitosan (CX, glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan (CCX, and 4-aminobenzoic acid grafted cross-linked chitosan (FGCX were characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, and TGA. The water content and amine concentration of FGCX were determined. The effect of adsorption parameters was studied and the optimum was used for further studies. Equilibrium data was obtained from the adsorption experiment carried out at different initial concentration; the data were applied in isotherm, thermodynamics, and kinetic studies. The Langmuir and Dubinin-Kaganer-Radushkevich (DKR models were successful in describing the isotherm data for the considered metal ions while the Freundlich and Temkin model fit some of the considered metal ions. Pseudo-second-order and intraparticle model described the kinetic data quite well. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibb’s free energy change (ΔGo, enthalpy change (ΔHo, and entropy change (ΔSo were calculated and the results showed that the adsorption of Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Cd ions onto FGCX is spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Regeneration of the spent adsorbent was efficient for the considered metal ions.

  4. Studies on biphenyl disulphonic acid doped polyanilines: Synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    zed protonic acids, such as camphorsulfonic acid, dodecyl- benzene sulfonic acid, para-toluene sulfonic acid, benzene sulfonic acid, sulfanilic acid, sulfamic acid, octyl-benzene sulfonic acid, sulfosalicylic acid or methane sulfonic acid as dopants (Epstein et al 1987; Li et al 1987; Dhawan and Trivedi 1991, 1992; Kobayashi ...

  5. Synthesis, and structural characterization of mixed ligand copper(II) complexes of N,N,N‧,N'-tetramethylethylenediamine incorporating carboxylates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Syeda Shahzadi; Gilani, Syeda Rubina; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Rüffer, Tobias

    2017-11-01

    Two ternary copper(II) complexes of N,N,N‧,N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (tmen = C6H16N2) with benzoic acid and p-aminobenzoic acid, having the formula [Cu(tmen)(BA)2(H2O)2] (1), and [Cu(tmen)(pABA)2]. 1/2 CH3OH (2) {(Where BA1- = benzoate1- (C6H5CO21-), pABA1- = p-aminobenzoate1- (p-H2NC6H5CO21-)} have been prepared and characterized by elemental combustion analysis, Uv-Visible spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, thermal, and single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. The complex 1 is a monomer with distorted octahedral geometry. In its CuN2O4 chromophore, the Cu(II) centre is coordinated by two N atoms of a symmetrically chelating tmen ligand, by two carboxylate-O atoms from two monodentate benzoate1- anions, and by two apical aqua-O atoms, which define the distorted octahedral structure. The complex 2 is a monomer with a distorted square planar coordination geometry. In CuN2O2 chromophore, tmen is coordinated to Cu(II) ion in a chelating bidentate fashion, while the two p-aminobenzoate1- anions coordinate to Cu(II) centre through their carboxylate-O atoms in a monodentate manner, forming a square planar structure. The observed difference between asymmetric ѵas(OCO) and symmetric ѵs(OCO) stretching IR vibrations of the carboxylate moieties for 1 and 2 is 220 cm-1 and 232 cm-1, respectively, which suggests monodentate coordination mode (Δν OCO>200) of the carboxylate groups to Cu(II) ion. Thermogravimetric studies of 1 indicates removal of two water molecules at 171 °C, elimination of a tmen upto 529 °C and of two benzoate groups upto 931 °C. In tga curve of 2, methanol is lost upto 212 °C, while tmen is lost from 212 to 993 °C. The antibacterial activities of these new compounds against various bacterial strains were also investigated.

  6. Fluorometric polyethyleneglycol-peptide hybrid substrates for quantitative assay of protein disulfide isomerase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Camilla; St Hilaire, Phaedria M; Winther, Jakob R.

    2004-01-01

    . This means that PDI activity is typically measured in the context of a globular protein folding pathway. The absence of small, well-defined substrates for the quantitation of both oxidation and reduction reactions constitutes an inherent problem in the analysis of PDI activity. We describe a new type...... of substrate for PDI where two cysteine-containing oligopeptides are connected by an onameric ethylene glycol linker. We term such hybrid compounds PEGtides. The oligopeptides are each marked with a fluorescent aminobenzoic acid and a quenching nitrotyrosine group, respectively. The reversible formation...... of an intramolecular disulfide bond between fluorophore-containing and quencher-containing peptide segments results in a redox-dependent fluorescence signal. We find a model compound of this type to be a highly sensitive substrate for PDI both in oxidation and in reduction assays under steady state conditions...

  7. Long-term oral refeeding of patients with cirrhosis of the liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K; Kondrup, J; Martinsen, L

    1995-01-01

    malnourished patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis were given increasing amounts of a balanced ordinary diet for 38 (SE 3) d. Intakes of protein and energy were recorded by weighing servings and leftovers on food trays. Protein intake was calculated from food tables. Total N disposal was calculated after...... measurement of urinary N excretion, and protein balance was calculated from the N balance. A validation study of protein balance in a subgroup of patients (analysis of N in food by the duplicate portion technique, correction for incomplete recovery of urine by measurement of urinary para-aminobenzoic acid...... retention was not saturated at the intakes obtained in this study. Protein intolerance was only encountered in one patient. Available evidence indicates that the requirement for achieving N balance is increased in these patients but protein retention is highly efficient with increased intake. Protein...

  8. Simultaneous and accurate determination of water- and fat-soluble vitamins in multivitamin tablets by using an RP-HPLC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semahat Kucukkolbasi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC procedure was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of seven water-soluble vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, cyanocobalamin, ascorbic acid, folic acid, and p-aminobenzoic acid and four fat-soluble vitamins (retinol acetate, cholecalciferol, α-tocopherol, and phytonadione in multivitamin tablets. The linearity of the method was excellent (R² > 0.999 over the concentration range of 10 - 500 ng mL-1. The statistical evaluation of the method was carried out by performing the intra- and inter-day precision. The accuracy of the method was tested by measuring the average recovery; values ranged between 87.4% and 98.5% and were acceptable quantitative results that corresponded with the label claims.

  9. Evaluation of various strategies to formation of pH responsive hydroquinone-terminated films on carbon electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, A.H.; Vase, K.H.; Winther-Jensen, Bjørn

    2007-01-01

    potential separation going from 0.02 V for n = 1 to 0.21 V for n = 12. The films were very robust and could withstand prolonged sonication and relatively large potential excursions. While the films followed the expected kinetic distance dependence for up to 4 methylene units the electrode kinetics...... was faster than expected for longer alkyl spacers. We suggest that film disorder, electrode-mediating effects, and a roughened electrode material could account for these apparent inconsistencies. To further understand such effects, two complementary electrode modification strategies leading to better film...... ordering on carbon were adapted; immobilizing a thin layer of benzoic acid by oxidative deposition of 4-aminobenzoic acid or employing a plasma deposition process to tether an acid analogue. Analysis of the various electrodes was accomplished by electrochemical methods, atomic force microscopy, and X...

  10. Physiochemical control of radiation and ageing damage in mustard seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey Pathak, Gopa; Basu, R.N.

    1985-01-01

    Pre- and post-irradiation soaking-drying treatment of stored mustard seed significantly reduced the adverse effect of γ-irradiation on germinability. Incorporation of radioprotective chemicals, potassium iodide, p-aminobenzoic acid and hydroquinone into the seed by dry permeation technique, employing acetone as the solvent, showed significant radioresistance while caffeine reduced post-ageing germinability of non-irradiated and irradiated seeds. The beneficial effects of the physico-chemical treatments were associated with better membrane permeability and reduced lipid peroxidation. Besides the possible operation of cellular enzymatic repair system in soaking-drying, the efficacy of the non-aqueous treatments suggests a physiochemical mechanism in the counteraction of age- and irradiation-induced seed deterioration in mustard. (author)

  11. Investigation of Polyaniline and a Functionalised Derivative as Antimicrobial Additives to Create Contamination Resistant Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Robertson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial surfaces can be applied to break transmission pathways in hospitals. Polyaniline (PANI and poly(3-aminobenzoic acid (P3ABA are novel antimicrobial agents with potential as non-leaching additives to provide contamination resistant surfaces. The activity of PANI and P3ABA were investigated in suspension and as part of absorbent and non-absorbent surfaces. The effect of inoculum size and the presence of organic matter on surface activity was determined. PANI and P3ABA both demonstrated bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in suspension and as part of an absorbent surface. Only P3ABA showed antimicrobial activity in non-absorbent films. The results that are presented in this work support the use of P3ABA to create contamination resistant surfaces.

  12. Facile synthesis of RuII Schiff base complexes: spectral characterization and antimicrobial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunachalam, S.; Padma Priya, N.; Shahul Meeran, H.

    2014-01-01

    Diamagnetic ruthenium (II) complexes of the type (RuCl (CO) (pyridine) (L)) (where L = monobasic tridentate Schiff base ligands) were synthesized by the reactions of Schiff bases derived from the reactions of o-aminobenzoic acid and Knovenegal condensate of β - ketoesters and appropriate ruthenium metal precursor (RuHCl (CO) (PPh 3 ) 2 (py)). Elemental analyses and spectral (FT-IR, UV-Vi s and 1 H, 31 P NMR) studies of all the new synthesized complexes suggest the presence of an octahedral environment around the Ru II ion. Cyclic voltammograms of all the complexes display oxidation and reduction potentials. Superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) of these complexes has also been examined. These complexes were also subjected to study their biocidal activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Botrytis cinerea and Aspergillus niger. (author)

  13. Synthesis of a new reagent, ethyl 4-azidobenzoylaminoacetimidate, and its use for RNA-protein cross-linking within Escherichia coli ribosomal 30-S subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millon, R; Olomucki, M; Le Gall, J Y; Golinska, B; Ebel, J P; Ehresmann, B

    1980-09-01

    A new reagent, ethyl 4-azidobenzoylaminoacetimidate, was prepared in a four-step synthesis starting from 4-aminobenzoic acid. This compound was used to cross-link RNA with proteins within the Escherichia coli 30-S ribosomal subunits. Following the reaction of the imidoester function with protein NH2 groups, photoactivation of the azide binds the other end of the reagent to RNA. The cross-linked proteins were labelled with 125I and identified by bidimensional gel electrophoresis. Proteins S3, S4, S5, S7, S9, S17, S18, and in a lower and more variable yield, S12, S13, S14 and S16 were bound to 16-S RNA. These results were confirmed by isolating cross-linked protein-oligonucleotide complexes from 30-S subunits containing 32P-labelled RNA.

  14. Catalysis and Sulfa Drug Resistance in Dihydropteroate Synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Mi-Kyung; Wu, Yinan; Li, Zhenmei; Zhao, Ying; Waddell, M. Brett; Ferreira, Antonio M.; Lee, Richard E.; Bashford, Donald; White, Stephen W. (SJCH)

    2013-04-08

    The sulfonamide antibiotics inhibit dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS), a key enzyme in the folate pathway of bacteria and primitive eukaryotes. However, resistance mutations have severely compromised the usefulness of these drugs. We report structural, computational, and mutagenesis studies on the catalytic and resistance mechanisms of DHPS. By performing the enzyme-catalyzed reaction in crystalline DHPS, we have structurally characterized key intermediates along the reaction pathway. Results support an S{sub N}1 reaction mechanism via formation of a novel cationic pterin intermediate. We also show that two conserved loops generate a substructure during catalysis that creates a specific binding pocket for p-aminobenzoic acid, one of the two DHPS substrates. This substructure, together with the pterin-binding pocket, explains the roles of the conserved active-site residues and reveals how sulfonamide resistance arises.

  15. Bioreporter pseudomonas fluorescens HK44 immobilized in a silica matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trogl J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The bioluminescent bioreporter Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44, the whole cell bacterial biosensor that responds to naphthalene and its metabolites via the production of visible light, was immobilized into a silica matrix by the sol-gel technique. The bioluminescence intensities were measured in the maximum of the bioluminescence band at X = 500 nm. The immobilized cells (>105 cells per g silica matrix produced light after induction by salicylate (cone. > 10 g/l, naphthalene and aminobenzoic acid. The bioluminescence intensities induced by 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene 3-hydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid were comparable to a negative control. The cells in the silica layers on glass slides produced light in response to the presence of an inductor at least 8 months after immobilization, and >50 induction cycles. The results showed that these test slides could be used as assays for the multiple determination of water pollution.

  16. Pharmacological and spectral studies of synthetic biomimetic copper complexes derived from 3-hydroxyflavone derivatives as anti-inflammatory agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nagashri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Novel biomimetic ligands were synthesized by the condensation of 3-hydroxyflavone, 2-aminophenol(L1/2-aminobenzoic acid (L2 and-aminothiazole (L3. Their Cu(II complexes have also been synthesized and characterized on the basis of 1H NMR, IR, UV–Vis spectra, elemental analyses, molar conductivity, ESR, electrochemical behaviour and thermal analyses. The antimicrobial activities (MIC values of the ligands, copper complexes and standard drugs have been evaluated using the serial dilution technique against the bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fungal species Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus flavus, Rhizoctonia bataicola and Candida albicans. The anti-inflammatory and SOD activities of the investigated compounds are also promising and allow the selection of a lead compound for further biological studies.

  17. Hyaluronic acid based hydroxamate and conjugates with biologically active amines: In vitro effect on matrix metalloproteinase-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponedel'kina, Irina Yu; Gaskarova, Aigul R; Khaybrakhmanova, Elvira A; Lukina, Elena S; Odinokov, Victor N

    2016-06-25

    In this study, water soluble hyaluronic acid (HA) based hydroxamate and conjugates with biologically active amines and hydrazides such as p- and o-aminophenols, anthranilic, 4- and 5-aminosalicylic acids, nicotinic, N-benzylnicotinic and isonicotinic hydrazides, p-aminobenzenesulfonamide (Streptocide), p-aminobenzoic acid diethylaminoethyl ester (Procaine), and 4-amino-2,3-dimethyl-1-phenyl-3-pyrazolin-5-one (4-aminoantipyrene) were examined as matrix metalloproteinase-2 inhibitors (MMPIs). In a dose of 0.27-270μM, the most efficient MMPIs were HA conjugates with o-aminophenol=4-aminoantipyrine>4-aminosalicylic acid>5-aminosalicylic acid. Conjugates with Streptocide, Procaine and HA hydroxamate showed 40-50% inhibitory effect at all used concentrations. Conjugates with anthranilic acid and isonicotinic hydrazide (Isoniazid) in a dose of 0.27μM inhibited enzyme activity by ∼70%, but with the concentration increase their inhibitory effect was decreased. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Inhibition of Dihydropteroate Synthetase from Escherichia coli by Sulfones and Sulfonamides

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Jerry L.; Maren, Thomas H.

    1973-01-01

    The inhibitory action of various diphenylsulfones and sulfonamides on dihydropteroate synthetase partially purified from Escherichia coli was examined. 4,4′-Diaminodiphenylsulfone (DDS; I50 = 2 × 10−5 M) and the monosubstituted derivatives 4-amino-4′-formamidodiphenylsulfone (I50 = 5.8 × 10−5 M) and 4-amino-4′-acetamidodiphenylsulfone (I50 = 5.2 × 10−5 M) were effective inhibitors of dihydropteroate synthetase activity. Disubstitution of the arylamine groups of DDS (4,4′-diformamidodiphenylsulfone and 4,4′-diacetamidodiphenylsulfone) resulted in complete loss of inhibitory activity. Both DDS (KI = 5.9 × 10−6 M) and sulfadiazine (KI = 2.5 × 10−6 M) were found to be competitive inhibitors of dihydropteroate synthetase. These findings are discussed in regard to the Bell and Roblin theory of structure-activity relationships for p-aminobenzoic acid antagonists. PMID:4597736

  19. Estimating salt intake in a Caucasian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Ulla; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A simple and valid alternative for 24-hour urine collection to estimate populational 24-hour urinary sodium excretion would be desirable for monitoring sodium intake in populations. AIM: To assess the validity of the predicted 24-hour urinary sodium excretion using spot urine and two...... different prediction methods in a Danish population. METHODS: Overall, 473 Danish individuals provided a para-aminobenzoic acid-validated complete 24-hour urine collection and a spot urine sample. Data were collected in the DanThyr study (248 women aged 25-30 years and 60-65 years) and the Inter99 study...... (102 men and 113 women aged 30-60 years), respectively. The measured 24-hour urine sodium excretion was compared with the predicted 24-hour sodium excretion from a causal urine specimen, using both the Tanaka prediction method and a prediction model developed in a Danish population. RESULTS...

  20. Evaluation of various strategies to formation of pH responsive hydroquinone-terminated films on carbon electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, A.H.; Vase, K.H.; Winther-Jensen, Bjørn

    2007-01-01

    ordering on carbon were adapted; immobilizing a thin layer of benzoic acid by oxidative deposition of 4-aminobenzoic acid or employing a plasma deposition process to tether an acid analogue. Analysis of the various electrodes was accomplished by electrochemical methods, atomic force microscopy, and X......The hydroquinone/quinone (H(2)Q/Q) redox system was tethered to glassy carbon surfaces using first an electrochemical pre-oxidation treatment to afford carboxylic acid functionalities followed by immobilizing the H(2)Q Precursor, n-(2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)alkan-1-amine (general structure: H2N-(CH2)(n...... potential separation going from 0.02 V for n = 1 to 0.21 V for n = 12. The films were very robust and could withstand prolonged sonication and relatively large potential excursions. While the films followed the expected kinetic distance dependence for up to 4 methylene units the electrode kinetics...

  1. Benzoic Acid Derivatives with Trypanocidal Activity: Enzymatic Analysis and Molecular Docking Studies toward Trans-Sialidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kashif

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Chagas, or American trypanosomiasis, remains an important public health problem in developing countries. In the last decade, trans-sialidase has become a pharmacological target for new anti-Chagas drugs. In this work, the aims were to design and find a new series of benzoic acid derivatives as trans-sialidase (TS inhibitors and anti-trypanosomal agents. Three compounds (14, 18, and 19 sharing a para-aminobenzoic acid moiety showed more potent trypanocidal activity than the commercially available drugs nifurtimox and benznidazole in both strains: the lysis concentration of 50% of the population (LC50 was <0.15 µM on the NINOA strain, and LC50 < 0.22 µM on the INC-5 strain. Additionally, compound 18 showed a moderate inhibition (47% on the trans-sialidase enzyme and a binding model similar to DANA (pattern A.

  2. Methotrexate for psoriasis: 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, R B

    1981-08-01

    Although not stated in body of this article, it is best to start treatment with a very small test dose. Furthermore, one should use methotrexate only when other methods fail or are impractical. In general, the criterion of life-ruining disease should be considered the primary indication. Drugs interactions should be avoided. Probenecid, phenylbutazone, and colchicine are contraindicated. Increased toxicity may occur with concomitant use of salicylates, sulfonamides, barbiturates, para-aminobenzoic acid, diphenylhydantoin, oral contraceptives, and weak organic acids. It would appear at this time that any dose being administered more often than once weekly is too toxic for the liver. Perhaps the intramuscular route is safest. Finally, the official guidelines should be followed as closely as possible, even possibly including liver biopsies. It should be recognized that liver biopsy is not without hazard, as deaths have been reported from simple needle liver biopsies.

  3. Flow Injection Analysis of 5-(Hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde in Honey by a Modified Winkler Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castoldi, Karine; Milani, Maria Izabel; Rossini, Eduardo L; Pezza, Leonardo; Pezza, Helena R

    2016-01-01

    One of the quality indicators for honey is 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (HMF), which is formed during the heating or aging of honey. The International Honey Commission recommends three methods for the determination of HMF in honey: the Winkler method, the White method, and determination by HPLC. The Winkler method uses the carcinogenic substance p-toluidine, which is not in accordance with the principles of Green Chemistry. The present work describes the determination of HMF in honey by flow injection analysis (FIA) using a modified Winkler method, replacing p-toluidine with p-aminobenzoic acid. The linear range was 1.00 to 40.0 mg L(-1), the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.43 mg L(-1), and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 1.32 mg L(-1). The method is an efficient and environmentally friendly technique for the analysis of HMF in honey.

  4. Pancreatic exocrine function testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    It is important to understand which pancreatic function tests are available and how to interpret them when evaluating patients with malabsorption. Available direct tests are the secretin stimulation test, the Lundh test meal, and measurement of serum or fecal enzymes. Indirect tests assess pancreatic exocrine function by measuring the effect of pancreatic secretion on various nutrients. These include triglycerides labeled with carbon 14, cobalamin labeled with cobalt 57 and cobalt 58, and para-aminobenzoic acid bound to a dipeptide. Of all these tests the secretin stimulation test is the most accurate and reliable if done by experienced personnel. However, the indirect tests are simpler to do and appear to be comparable to the secretin test at detecting pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. These indirect tests are becoming clinically available and clinicians should familiarize themselves with the strengths and weaknesses of each

  5. Experiment and theory confirm that UV laser photodissociation spectroscopy can distinguish protomers formed via electrospray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Edward; Dessent, Caroline E H

    2017-07-14

    The identification of protonation sites in electrosprayed molecules remains a challenge in contemporary physical science. We present the first demonstration that low-resolution, UV laser photodissociation spectroscopy can be applied in situ to identify the protomers of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) formed via electrospray from a single solution. Electronic absorption spectra are recorded via photodepletion and photofragmentation for PABA electrosprayed from solutions of water and acetonitrile. Using this approach, two protomers can be straightforwardly identified, with only the carboxylic acid protomer being produced on electrospray from water while the amine-protonated isomer dominates upon electrospray from acetonitrile. High-level SORCI and MRCI calculations are presented to provide insight into the origin of the distinctive electronic spectra displayed by the protomers. Our results are in excellent agreement with previous PABA studies conducted using established techniques, and demonstrate that UV photodissociation spectroscopy of electrosprayed ions has potential as a new diagnostic tool for identifying protomeric species.

  6. A fluorescence-based method for cyanate analysis in ethanol/water media: correlation between cyanate presence and ethyl carbamate formation in sugar cane spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohe, Thiago Hideyuki Kobe; da Silva, Alexandre Ataide; Rocha, Thaís da Silva; de Godoy, Flávio Schutzer; Franco, Douglas Wagner

    2014-10-01

    Based on the fluorescence properties of 2,4-(1H,3H)-quinazolinedione, a product of the reaction between cyanate and 2-aminobenzoic acid, a simple, sensitive, selective, and reproducible method for the cyanate analysis in aqueous ethanolic media is proposed. In this method, λ(exc) and λ(em) are 310 and 410 nm, respectively, and the limits of detection and quantification are 2.2 × 10(-7) and 6.7 × 10(-7) mol/L, respectively. Under optimal conditions (pH = 4.5, 40% ethanol), a concentration of 5.0 × 10(-6) mol/L cyanate can be determined in a single measurement, at a 95% level of confidence, with an uncertainty of ± 0.13 × 10(-6) mol/L. Cyanide, thiocyanate, chloride, nitrate, and sulfate ions, as well as urea and urethane in concentrations 1 × 10(3) higher than that of cyanate do not interfere with the measurement. The methodology was applied to cyanate analyses in the different fractions of the sugarcane distillate and the data strongly suggest a correlation between the presence of urea in wine, and the cyanate and ethyl carbamate concentrations in the spirit. Based on the fluorescence properties of the reaction product between cyanate and 2-aminobenzoic acid, a method for assaying cyanate was devised. This procedure applied to the sugarcane distillate showed for the first time a correlation between cyanate presence and ethyl carbamate (EC) formation in the different fractions of the product. Therefore, the proposed methodology can be used to predict in freshly distillate sugar cane spirits the potential total concentration of EC to be formed. Therefore, these data could be used to advise about the necessity of implementing a procedure to reduce spirit EC concentration before the product reaches the market. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Comparison of Various Easy-to-Use Procedures for Extraction of Phenols from Apricot Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtech Adam

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenols are broadly distributed in the plant kingdom and are the most abundant secondary metabolites of plants. Plant polyphenols have drawn increasing attention due to their potential antioxidant properties and their marked effects in the prevention of various oxidative stress associated diseases such as cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate a suitable method for determination of protocatechuic acid, 4-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, rutin, ferulic acid, quercetin, resveratrol and quercitrin from apricot samples. A high-performance liquid chromatograph with electrochemical and UV detectors was used. The method was optimized in respect to both the separation selectivity of individual phenolic compounds and the maximum sensitivity with the electrochemical detection. The lowest limits of detection (3 S/N using UV detection were estimated for ferulic acid (3 µM, quercitrin (4 µM and quercetin (4 µM. Using electrochemical detection values of 27 nM, 40 nM and 37 nM were achieved for ferulic acid, quercitrin and quercetin, respectively. It follows from the acquired results that the coulometric detection under a universal potential of 600 mV is more suitable and sensitive for polyphenols determination than UV detection at a universal wavelength of 260 nm. Subsequently, we tested the influence of solvent composition, vortexing and sonication on separation efficiency. Our results showed that a combination of water, acetone and methanol in 20:20:60 ratio was the most effective for p-aminobenzoic acid, chlorgenic acid, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid, rutin, resveratrol and quercetin, in comparison with other solvents. On the other hand, vortexing at 4 °C produced the highest yield. Moreover, we tested the contents of individual polyphenols in the apricot cultivars Mamaria, Mold and LE-1075. The major phenolic compounds were chlorgenic acid and rutin. Chlorgenic acid was

  8. Mathematical Evaluation of the Amino Acid and Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Activities of Fruits from Different Apricot Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods are of interest because of their significant effects on human health, which can be connected with the presence of some biologically important compounds. In this study, we carried out complex analysis of 239 apricot cultivars (Prunus armeniaca L. cultivated in Lednice (climatic area T4, South Moravia, Czech Republic. Almost all previously published studies have focused only on analysis of certain parameters. However, we focused on detection both primary and secondary metabolites in a selection of apricot cultivars with respect to their biological activity. The contents of thirteen biogenic alpha-L-amino acids (arginine, asparagine, isoleucine, lysine, serine, threonine, valine, leucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, proline and alanine were determined using ion exchange chromatography with UV-Vis spectrometry detection. Profile of polyphenols, measured as content of ten polyphenols with significant antioxidant properties (gallic acid, procatechinic acid, p-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, rutin, ferrulic acid and quercetrin, was determined by high performance liquid chromatography with spectrometric/electrochemical detection. Moreover, content of total phenolics was determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was determined using five independent spectrophotometric methods: DPPH assay, DMPD method, ABTS method, FRAP and Free Radicals methods. Considering the complexity of the obtained data, they were processed and correlated using bioinformatics techniques (cluster analysis, principal component analysis. The studied apricot cultivars were clustered according to their common biochemical properties, which has not been done before. The observed similarities and differences were discussed.

  9. Novel Isoniazid cocrystals with aromatic carboxylic acids: Crystal engineering, spectroscopy and thermochemical investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Luan F.; Souza, Matheus S.; Carvalho, Paulo S.; da Silva, Cecilia C. P.; D'Vries, Richard F.; Ellena, Javier

    2018-02-01

    Four novel cocrystals of the anti-tuberculosis drug Isoniazid (INH), including two polymorphs, with the aromatic carboxylic acids p-nitrobenzoic (PNBA), p-cyanobenzoic (PCNBA) and p-aminobenzoic (PABA) were rationally designed and synthesized by solvent evaporation. Aiming to explore the possible supramolecular synthons of this API, these cocrystals were fully characterized by X-ray diffraction (SCXRD, PXRD), spectroscopic (FT-IR) and thermal (TGA, DSC, HSM) techniques. The cocrystal formation was found to be mainly driven by the synthons formed by the pyridine and hydrazide moieties. In both INH-PABA polymorphs, the COOH acid groups are H-bonded to pyridine and hydrazide groups giving rise to the acid⋯pyridine and acid⋯hydrazide heterosynthons. In INH-PNBA and INH-PCNBA cocrystals these acid groups are only related to the pyridine moiety. In addition to the structural study, supramolecular and Hirshfeld surface analysis were also performed based on the structural data. The cocrystals were identified from the FT-IR spectra and their thermal behaviors were studied by a combination of DSC, TGA and HSM techniques.

  10. Fabrication of an electrochemical sensor based on computationally designed molecularly imprinted polymer for the determination of mesalamine in real samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torkashvand, M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gholivand, M.B., E-mail: mbgholivand@yahoo.com [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taherkhani, F. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-01

    A novel electrochemical sensor based on mesalamine molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) film on a glassy carbon electrode was fabricated. Density functional theory (DFT) in gas and solution phases was developed to study the intermolecular interactions in the pre-polymerization mixture and to find the suitable functional monomers in MIP preparation. On the basis of computational results, o-phenylenediamine (OP), gallic acid (GA) and p-aminobenzoic acid (ABA) were selected as functional monomers. The MIP film was cast on glassy carbon electrode by electropolymerization of solution containing ternary monomers and then followed by Ag dendrites (AgDs) with nanobranch deposition. The surface feature of the modified electrode (AgDs/MIP/GCE) was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Under the optimal experimental conditions, the peak current was proportional to the concentration of mesalamine ranging from 0.05 to 100 μM, with the detection limit of 0.015 μM. The proposed sensor was applied successfully for mesalamine determination in real samples. - Highlights: • The determination of MES using AgDs/MIP/GCE is reported for the first time. • The computer assisted design of terpolymer MIPs was used to screen monomers. • Theoretical results of DFT approach were in agreement with experimental results. • The sensor displayed a high selectivity for template in the presence of interferes. • The developed sensor has been applied to determine mesalamine in real samples.

  11. Content of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity in Fruits of Apricot Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Skutkova

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on natural compounds is increasingly focused on their effects on human health. In this study, we were interested in the evaluation of nutritional value expressed as content of total phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of new apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. genotypes resistant against Plum pox virus (PPV cultivated on Department of Fruit Growing of Mendel University in Brno. Fruits of twenty one apricot genotypes were collected at the onset of consumption ripeness. Antioxidant capacities of the genotypes were determined spectrometrically using DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radicals scavenging test, TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity, and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Powermethods. The highest antioxidant capacities were determined in the genotypes LE-3228 and LE-2527, the lowest ones in the LE-985 and LE-994 genotypes. Moreover, close correlation (r = 0.964 was determined between the TEAC and DPPH assays. Based on the antioxidant capacity and total polyphenols content, a clump analysis dendrogram of the monitored apricot genotypes was constructed. In addition, we optimized high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem electrochemical and spectrometric detection and determined phenolic profile consisting of the following fifteen phenolic compounds: gallic acid, 4-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, procatechin, salicylic acid, p-coumaric acid, the flavonols quercetin and quercitrin, the flavonol glycoside rutin, resveratrol, vanillin, and the isomers epicatechin, (–- and (+- catechin.

  12. Induction of new metabolites from the endophytic fungus Bionectria sp. through bacterial co-culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdem, Ramsay S T; Wang, Hao; Wafo, Pascal; Ebrahim, Weaam; Özkaya, Ferhat Can; Makhloufi, Gamall; Janiak, Christoph; Sureechatchaiyan, Parichat; Kassack, Matthias U; Lin, Wenhan; Liu, Zhen; Proksch, Peter

    2018-01-01

    A new alkaloid, 1,2-dihydrophenopyrrozin (1), along with five known compounds (2-6) was isolated from an axenic culture of the endophytic fungus, Bionectria sp., obtained from seeds of the tropical plant Raphia taedigera. Co-cultivation of this fungus either with Bacillus subtilis or with Streptomyces lividans resulted in the production of two new o-aminobenzoic acid derivatives, bionectriamines A and B (7 and 8) as well as of two additional known compounds (9 and 10). None of the latter compounds (7-10) were detected in axenic cultures of the fungus or of the bacteria indicating activation of silent biogenetic gene clusters through co-cultivation with bacteria. The structures of the new compounds were unambiguously determined based on detailed NMR and MS spectroscopic analysis and by comparison with the literature. The crystal structure of agathic acid (6) is reported here for the first time. Penicolinate A (4) exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against the human ovarian cancer cell line A2780 with an IC 50 value of 4.1μM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Increase in the penetration of tracer compounds into the rat brain during 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elo, H.A.; Ylitalo, P.; Kyoettilae, J.; Hervonen, H. (Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland)

    1982-01-01

    The penetration of different intravenous tracer molecules such as /sup 14/C-labelled 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (/sup 14/C-MCPA), /sup 14/C-p-aminobenzoic acid (/sup 14/C-PABA), /sup 14/C-sucrose, /sup 14/C-antipyrine and iodinated (/sup 125/I) human albumin (/sup 125/I-HA) into the brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was studied in MCPA-intoxicated and control rats. Toxic subcutaneous doses of sodium salt of MCPA (200-500 mg/kg) increased highly the brain/plasma and CSF/plasma ratios of /sup 14/C-MCPA and /sup 14/C-PABA, as compared to the muscle/plasma ratio. Probenecid (200 mg/kg) did not affect the cerebral MCPA concentration in the intoxicated animals. The tissue/plasma ratios of /sup 14/C-sucrose, /sup 14/C-antipyrine and /sup 125/I-HA were also increased in the brain and CSF of intoxicated animals, but the increases were less pronounced than those of /sup 14/C-MCPA or /sup 14/C-PABA. The results indicate that MCPA intoxication caused a selective damage of the blood-brain barrier in the brain areas studied.

  14. Methyl Anthranilate as a Repellent for Western Corn Rootworm Larvae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernklau, E J; Hibbard, B E; Norton, A P; Bjostad, L B

    2016-08-01

    Methyl anthranilate was identified as the active compound in extracts of maize (Zea mays L.) roots that were shown to be repellent to neonate western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) larvae. A bioassay-driven approach was used to isolate the active material from diethyl ether extracts of roots from germinating maize seeds. Separation of the extract on a Florisil column yielded an active fraction of 90:10 hexane:diethyl ether. Analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identified two compounds in the active fraction: indole (2,3-benzopyrrole) and methyl anthranilate (methyl 2-aminobenzoate). When tested in behavioral bioassays, methyl anthranilate elicited a significant (P < 0.05) repellent response at doses of 1, 10, and 100 µg. In subsequent single-choice bioassays, 1, 10, and 100 µg of methyl anthranilate prevented larvae from approaching 10 mmol/mol concentrations of carbon dioxide, which is normally highly attractive to the larvae. Indole, the other compound identified from the active fraction, did not elicit a behavioral response by the larvae. Methyl anthranilate has potential for development as a management tool for western corn rootworm larvae and may be best suited for use in a push-pull control strategy. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Photoallergic contact dermatitis. Results of photopatch testing in New York, 1985 to 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLeo, V A; Suarez, S M; Maso, M J

    1992-11-01

    Over a 6-year period, 187 patients with a history of photosensitivity were photopatch tested using standard techniques. Seventy-six patients were male and 111 were female. Most patients were white (151 patients). Two thirds of the patients were between the ages of 31 and 60 years. Testing revealed a total of 63 positive reactions: 14 plain contact, 41 photocontact, and eight combined contact and photocontact in 37 (20%) patients. Careful history taking resulted in a diagnosis of clinically relevant photoallergic contact dermatitis in 54% of these 37 patients or 11% (20) of the total tested. Ten of the relevant responses were due to fragrance ingredients (musk ambrette and 6-methylcoumarin); 18 were due to sunscreen agents (nine to p-aminobenzoic acid and esters, nine to oxybenzone). The fragrance reactions occurred in the early years of the study (1985, 1986, and 1987) while the sunscreen agents accounted for all but two of the 14 positive reactions in the last 3 years of the study (1988, 1989, and 1990). These data suggest that the incidence of photoallergy due to fragrances is declining, while reactions to sunscreen agents, in particular oxybenzone, are increasing. This trend may reflect an altered use pattern by the general population for products containing these chemicals.

  16. Fingerprint profiling of acid hydrolyzates of polysaccharides extracted from the fruiting bodies and spores of Lingzhi by high-performance thin-layer chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Xin; Chan, Kelvin K C; Leung, Hei Wun; Huie, Carmen W

    2003-11-07

    Modern extraction and planar chromatographic instrumentation were employed for the fingerprint profiling of carbohydrates from an important and popular medicinal mushroom commonly known as Lingzhi. For the first time, the feasibility of employing the high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) peak profiles (fingerprints) of carbohydrates for the screening of various Lingzhi species/products was demonstrated. An analytical procedure was developed such that upon acid hydrolysis of the polysaccharides extracted from various Lingzhi samples, fingerprint profiles that reveal the relative amounts of the degradation products, such as mono- and oligosaccharides, can be obtained using HPTLC plates (Si 50000) for separation and 4-aminobenzoic acid as the post-chromatographic derivatization reagent for detection. Also, using automated multiple development (AMD), the acid hydrolyzates from Lingzhi, consisting of simple and more complex sugars, can be separated simultaneously with high degree of automation. An important finding was that unique fingerprint patterns were observed in the monosaccharide profiles between two highly valued Lingzhi species, Ganoderma applanatum and Ganoderma lucidum, under total or partial acid hydrolysis conditions. Additionally, the HPTLC fingerprint profiles of carbohydrates were obtained from the extracts of the spores and fruiting bodies of Lingzhi and compared.

  17. Rabbit N-acetyltransferase 2 genotyping method to investigate role of acetylation polymorphism on N- and O-acetylation of aromatic and heterocyclic amine carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, David W; Doll, Mark A

    2017-09-01

    The rabbit was the initial animal model to investigate the acetylation polymorphism expressed in humans. Use of the rabbit model is compromised by lack of a rapid non-invasive method for determining acetylator phenotype. Slow acetylator phenotype in the rabbit results from deletion of the N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) gene. A relatively quick and non-invasive method for identifying the gene deletion was developed and acetylator phenotypes confirmed by measurement of N- and O-acetyltransferase activities in hepatic cytosols. Rabbit liver cytosols catalyzed the N-acetylation of sulfamethazine (p = 0.0014), benzidine (p = 0.0257), 4-aminobiphenyl (p = 0.0012), and the O-acetylation of N-hydroxy-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (N-OH-PhIP; p = 0.002) at rates significantly higher in rabbits possessing NAT2 gene than rabbits with NAT2 gene deleted. In contrast, hepatic cytosols catalyzed the N-acetylation of p-aminobenzoic acid (an N-acetyltransferase 1 selective substrate) at rates that did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) between rabbits positive and negative for NAT2. The new NAT2 genotyping method facilitates use of the rabbit model to investigate the role of acetylator polymorphism in the metabolism of aromatic and heterocyclic amine drugs and carcinogens.

  18. Improvement of Folate Biosynthesis by Lactic Acid Bacteria Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norfarina Muhamad Nor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (Lactococcus lactis NZ9000, Lactococcus lactis MG1363, Lactobacillus plantarum I-UL4 and Lactobacillus johnsonii DSM 20553 have been screened for their ability to produce folate intracellularly and/or extracellularly. L. plantarum I-UL4 was shown to be superior producer of folate compared to other strains. Statistically based experimental designs were used to optimize the medium formulation for the growth of L. plantarum I-UL4 and folate biosynthesis. The optimal values of important factors were determined by response surface methodology (RSM. The effects of carbon sources, nitrogen sources and para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA concentrations on folate biosynthesis were determined prior to RSM study. The biosynthesis of folate by L. plantarum I-UL4 increased from 36.36 to 60.39 µg/L using the optimized medium formulation compared to the selective Man de Rogosa Sharpe (MRS medium. Conditions for the optimal growth of L. plantarum I-UL4 and folate biosynthesis as suggested by RSM were as follows: lactose 20 g/L, meat extract 16.57 g/L and PABA 10 µM.

  19. 4-N-pyridin-2-yl-benzamide nanotubes compatible with mouse stem cell and oral delivery in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Jhillu S.; Lavanya, Madugula P.; Das, Pragna P.; Bag, Indira; Krishnan, Anita; Jagannadh, Bulusu; Mohapatra, Debendra K.; Pal Bhadra, Manika; Bhadra, Utpal

    2010-04-01

    p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), a structural moiety of many commercial drugs, is self-assembled with linker alkyl side chains to form tubular nanostructures. The tubes exhibited fluorescence either intrinsic or from fluorescent molecules embedded in the wall during self-assembly. Uptake and inter-cellular delivery of the conjugated nanotubes in human cancer cells and in mouse embryonic stem cells were demonstrated by fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry. Biocompatibility, cytotoxicity and clearance were monitored both ex vivo in mouse multipotent embryonic stem cells and in vivo in adult Drosophila. Accumulation of nanotubes had no adverse effects and abnormalities on stem cell morphology and proliferation rate. A distinct distribution of two separate nanotubes in various internal organs of Drosophila interprets that accumulation of nanomaterials might be interdependent on the side chain modifications and physiological settings of cell or tissue types. Unlike carbon nanomaterials, exposure of PABA nanotubes does not produce any hazards including locomotion defects and mortality of adult flies. Despite differential uptake and clearance from multiple live tissues, the use of self-assembled nanotubes can add new dimensions and scope to the development of dual-purpose oral carriers for the fulfilment of many biological promises.

  20. Folate Biofortification in Hydroponically Cultivated Spinach by the Addition of Phenylalanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Sho; Ohtani, Yuta; Tatsukami, Yohei; Aoki, Wataru; Amemiya, Takashi; Sukekiyo, Yasunori; Kubokawa, Seiichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2017-06-14

    Folate is an important vitamin mainly ingested from vegetables, and folate deficiency causes various health problems. Recently, several studies demonstrated folate biofortification in plants or food crops by metabolic engineering through genetic modifications. However, the production and sales of genetically modified foods are under strict regulation. Here, we developed a new approach to achieve folate biofortification in spinach (Spinacia oleracea) without genetic modification. We hydroponically cultivated spinach with the addition of three candidate compounds expected to fortify folate. As a result of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis, we found that the addition of phenylalanine increased the folate content up to 2.0-fold (306 μg in 100 g of fresh spinach), representing 76.5% of the recommended daily allowance for adults. By measuring the intermediates of folate biosynthesis, we revealed that phenylalanine activated folate biosynthesis in spinach by increasing the levels of pteridine and p-aminobenzoic acid. Our approach is a promising and practical approach to cultivate nutrient-enriched vegetables.

  1. Acemetacin cocrystal structures by powder X-ray diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Bolla

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cocrystals of acemetacin drug (ACM with nicotinamide (NAM, p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA, valerolactam (VLM and 2-pyridone (2HP were prepared by melt crystallization and their X-ray crystal structures determined by high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction. The powerful technique of structure determination from powder data (SDPD provided details of molecular packing and hydrogen bonding in pharmaceutical cocrystals of acemetacin. ACM–NAM occurs in anhydrate and hydrate forms, whereas the other structures crystallized in a single crystalline form. The carboxylic acid group of ACM forms theacid–amide dimer three-point synthon R32(9R22(8R32(9 with three different syn amides (VLM, 2HP and caprolactam. The conformations of the ACM molecule observed in the crystal structures differ mainly in the mutual orientation of chlorobenzene fragment and the neighboring methyl group, being anti (type I or syn (type II. ACM hydrate, ACM—NAM, ACM–NAM-hydrate and the piperazine salt of ACM exhibit the type I conformation, whereas ACM polymorphs and other cocrystals adopt the ACM type II conformation. Hydrogen-bond interactions in all the crystal structures were quantified by calculating their molecular electrostatic potential (MEP surfaces. Hirshfeld surface analysis of the cocrystal surfaces shows that about 50% of the contribution is due to a combination of strong and weak O...H, N...H, Cl...H and C...H interactions. The physicochemical properties of these cocrystals are under study.

  2. Mono and binuclear Ag(I), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II) complexes of a new azo-azomethine as ligand: synthesis, potentiometric, spectral and thermal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ibrahim S; Moustafa, Moustafa M; Abd El Aziz, Mohamed M

    2011-05-01

    New azo-azomethine dyes were prepared by reaction of p-aminobenzoic acid, o-anisidine, o-nitroaniline, and p-bromoaniline with salicylaldehyde respectively to form azo compounds and then condensation by urea to form 4-(R-arylazo 2-salicylaldene)-urea azo-azomethine derivatives (I(a-d)). The complexes of these ligands with Ag(I), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II) metal ions were prepared. The structure of the free ligands and their complexes were characterized by using elemental analysis (C, H, N), (1)H NMR, IR and UV-Vis-spectra. The proton dissociation constants of the ligands and the stability constant of their complexes have been determined potentiometrically in 40% (v/v) alcohol-water medium as well as the stoichiometry of complexes were determined conductometrically. The data reveal that the stoichiometries for all complexes were prepared in molar ratios (1:1) and (1:2) (M:L). The electrolytic and nonelectrolytic natures of the complexes were assigned based on molar conductance measurements. The thermogravimetric (TG), and differential thermal analyses (DTA) were studied in nitrogen atmosphere with heating rate 10°C/min. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for thermal decomposition of complexes have been calculated by graphical method using Coats-Redfern (CR) method. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a specific monoclonal antibody as a new tool to detect Sudan dyes and Para red

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Chunmei; Tang Yong; Fan Huiying; Chen Jinding

    2008-01-01

    To set up an immunoassay-based method to detect Sudan dyes and Para red, we generated a monoclonal antibody (Mab) using a specially designed carboxyl derivative of Sudan I (CSD I) as the immunogen. CSD I was synthesized by azocoupling reaction using 2-naphthol and diazotised 4-aminobenzoic acid. The antibody was obtained from a hybridoma, which was derived from the fusion of the mouse myeloma SP2/0 cells and the splenocytes from the mice immunized with the CSD I-bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugate. In addition, we showed that the Mab was highly specific for Sudan I, III and Para red. The limit of detection was approximately 0.01 ng mL -1 in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) buffer and 0.5 ng g -1 in chilli tomato sauce. The recoveries of Sudan I, III and Para red for the chilli tomato sauce were from 84% to 99% and coefficients of variation were from 14.9% to 33.3%. Thus, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method is a rapid and high throughput screening tool to detect Sudan dyes and Para red in food products

  4. Actions of four organic acids in radix isatidis on endotoxin-neutralization investigated by kinetic turbidimetric assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; He, Ying-jun; Li, You; Gong, Mu-xin

    2012-06-01

    To investigate anti-endotoxin action of four OAs reacted with endotoxin by the LAL assay with KTA. Using a incubating kinetic tube reader and kinetic turbidimetric assay (KTA), the concentration-response time curve of endotoxin reacted with limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) at 37 degrees C were obtained and the action of four organic acids (OAs) on it were investigated. The four OAs were benzoic acid, salicylic acid, syringic acid and 2-amino-benzoic acid from Radix isatidis. Meanwhile, the temperature variation caused by endotoxin with the four OAs was studied by the rabbit pyrogen test (RPT). It was showed that a low concentration (1 mg/mL) of the four OAs had a little effect of anti-endotoxin, and when the concentrations of the four OAs were 30 mg/mL, the endotoxin was neutralized completely. The relationships between the concentrations of endotoxin and the OAs were all linear with correlation coefficients of greater than 0.9995, indicating that the four OAs all had strong anti-endotoxin action, while syringic acid had the strongest action among the four OAs with IC50 of 12.84 mg/mL. The investigations of KTA agreed well with the results obtained by means of RPT.

  5. Peptide Inhibitor of Complement C1 Inhibits the Peroxidase Activity of Hemoglobin and Myoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela S. Hair

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin is the natural carrier of oxygen in red blood cells (RBCs. While intracellular hemoglobin provides life-sustaining oxygen transport, extracellular free hemoglobin displays toxicity due to inherent peroxidase activity generating reactive oxygen species that subsequently react with the hemoglobin molecule to produce toxic heme degradation products resulting in free radicals, oxidative stress damage, and lipid peroxidation. We have recently demonstrated that Peptide Inhibitor of Complement C1 (PIC1 inhibits peroxidase activity of the heme-based enzyme myeloperoxidase. To elucidate whether PIC1 could inhibit peroxidase activity of hemoglobin, we evaluated the consequence of PIC1 on RBC lysates, methemoglobin, and myoglobin using tetramethylbenzidine (TMB as an oxidation target. PIC1 reversibly and dose-dependently prevented TMB oxidation to tetramethylbenzidine diimine by RBC lysates, methemoglobin, and myoglobin, having comparable activity to the inhibitor 4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide. PIC1 inhibited TMB oxidation of RBC lysates similar to L-cysteine suggesting that the two cysteine residues contained in PIC1 may mediate peroxidase activity. PIC1 also inhibited heme destruction by NaOCl for RBC lysates, hemoglobin, and myoglobin as assayed by preservation of the Soret absorbance peak in the presence of NaOCl and reduction in free iron release. In conclusion, PIC1 inhibits peroxidase activity of hemoglobin and myoglobin likely via an antioxidant mechanism.

  6. Attempts to validate a possible predictive animal model for human erythrocyte G-6-PD deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, H.M.; Calabrese, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    The use of Dorset sheep erythrocytes as a model for human G-6-PD deficient erythrocytes was investigated. Seven pharmaceuticals were examined for oxidant stressor effects using a liver microsomal enzyme system to generate metabolites of the drugs. The pharmaceuticals examined were salicyclic acid, dapsone, naphthalene, B-naphtol, p-aminobenzoic acid, sulfanilamide and sulfapyridine. The test compounds were incubated with Dorset sheep erythrocytes and oxidant stressor effects were measured through reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and methemaglobin formation. The response of the Dorset sheep erythrocytes to the seven agents was compared to previous studies revealing the response of human G-6-PD deficient erythrocytes to these agents. The results indicated that metabolites of the pharmaceuticals, B-naphthol, dapsone, and sulfanilamide, are oxidant stressor agents towards sheep G-6-PD deficient erythrocytes. These results agreed with studies on the response of human G-6-PD deficient erythrocytes. The metabolized naphthalene and sulfapyridine did not cause oxidant stress in the sheep erythrocytes, despite the fact that these two agents caused oxidizing effects in human G-6-PD deficient erythrocytes in previous studies. None of the non-metabolized parent compounds caused oxidant stress in the sheep erythrocytes, which agreed with the responses of human G-6-PD deficient erythrocytes.

  7. Comparative genomics of bacterial and plant folate synthesis and salvage: predictions and validations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noiriel Alexandre

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Folate synthesis and salvage pathways are relatively well known from classical biochemistry and genetics but they have not been subjected to comparative genomic analysis. The availability of genome sequences from hundreds of diverse bacteria, and from Arabidopsis thaliana, enabled such an analysis using the SEED database and its tools. This study reports the results of the analysis and integrates them with new and existing experimental data. Results Based on sequence similarity and the clustering, fusion, and phylogenetic distribution of genes, several functional predictions emerged from this analysis. For bacteria, these included the existence of novel GTP cyclohydrolase I and folylpolyglutamate synthase gene families, and of a trifunctional p-aminobenzoate synthesis gene. For plants and bacteria, the predictions comprised the identities of a 'missing' folate synthesis gene (folQ and of a folate transporter, and the absence from plants of a folate salvage enzyme. Genetic and biochemical tests bore out these predictions. Conclusion For bacteria, these results demonstrate that much can be learnt from comparative genomics, even for well-explored primary metabolic pathways. For plants, the findings particularly illustrate the potential for rapid functional assignment of unknown genes that have prokaryotic homologs, by analyzing which genes are associated with the latter. More generally, our data indicate how combined genomic analysis of both plants and prokaryotes can be more powerful than isolated examination of either group alone.

  8. Novel nanocomposite Kevlar fabric membranes: Fabrication characterization, and performance in oil/water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimnezhad, Hanieh; Rajabi, Laleh; Salehi, Ehsan; Derakhshan, Ali Ashraf; Azimi, Sara

    2014-02-01

    Nanocomposite membranes with hydrophilic surface were fabricated for separation of oil (n-hexane) from oil/water emulsion. Three different nanomaterials namely, para-aminobenzoate alumoxane (PAB-A), boehmite-epoxide and polycitrate alumoxane (PC-A) were coated on the Kevlar fabric (support), according to a three-step dip-coating protocol. FTIR, SEM, TEM, UV/vis spectrophotometer, and wettability analyses were used to characterize the composite membranes. The three coating layers interacted chemically with one another and also physically with the Kevlar fabric. Water uptake measurements indicated that the membrane is a hydrophilic one. SEM and TEM analyses showed the smooth surface of the composite membrane and three-dimensional dendrimeric hyper-branched structure of (PC-A), respectively. A dead-end filtration setup was applied to test the membranes performance under natural gravity force. Effect of pH as an important variable affecting separation process was investigated with the neutral pH provided the optimum condition for the separation. Oil rejection and permeate fluxes were also monitored. The optimum flux and rejection obtained, were 7392 (Lm-2 h-1) and 89.06% at pH 7, respectively. Fouling occurred as a gel layer on the membrane surface. The deposited oil droplets on the surface of the membrane were successfully washed away with satisfactory permeate flux recovery (FRR = 88.88% at neutral pH), using hot distilled water and acidic solution as eluents.

  9. Fabrication of Hydrophobic Membrane for the Separation of n-Hexane/Water Mixture Using Novel Oleophilic Nanoparticle and Kevlar Fabric, as a Superior Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanieh Karimnezhad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of functionalized membranes with hydrophobic/oleophilic surfaces for the elimination of n-hexane from water using para-aminobenzoate alumoxane, boehmite-epoxide and a novel nanoparticle, i.e., Stearate Alumoxane by a simple coating technique, is reported here. FTIR was used to characterize nanoparticles. SEM and contact angle measurement analyses were used to identify the nanocomposite membranes. The concentrations of oil in permeate and retentate were measured by UV/vis spectrophotometer. The morphology of Stearate alumoxane nanoparticles was investigated by means of SEM images. The composed film of nanoparticles on the Kevlar fabric was hydrophobic with water contact angle of ~ 145° and oleophilic with oil contact angle of ~ 0º. In addition, the membranes retained stable hydrophobicity and high separation efficiency even after employing for 6 times. Applying these properties, a setup was considered using the functionalized Kevlar fabric to separate oil through down to a collector and leave water drops. Our batch filtration system was exclusively gravity-driven. The achieved separation system can separate the oily water mixture (with the concentration of 20 % (v/v n-hexane in water, effectively with a separation efficiency of 84%.

  10. Integrated disposable electrochemical immunosensors for the simultaneous determination of sulfonamide and tetracycline antibiotics residues in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conzuelo, Felipe; Campuzano, Susana; Gamella, María; Pinacho, Daniel G; Reviejo, A Julio; Marco, M Pilar; Pingarrón, José M

    2013-12-15

    The design, preparation and analytical performance of a novel integrated amperometric immunosensor based on the immobilization of selective capture antibodies on the surface of Protein G-modified screen-printed dual carbon electrodes (SPdCEs) for the multiplexed determination of sulfonamide and tetracycline antibiotics residues in milk is reported in this work. Protein G was covalently immobilized onto a 4-aminobenzoic acid (4-ABA) film grafted on the disposable electrode, and a direct competitive immunoassay using horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled tracers was performed. The amperometric responses measured at -0.2 V vs. the silver pseudo-reference electrode of the SPdCE upon the addition of H2O2 in the presence of hydroquinone (HQ) as mediator were used to monitor the extent of the immunoreactions. The developed methodology showed very low limits of detection (in the low ppb level) for sulfonamide and tetracycline antibiotics tested in untreated milk samples, and a good selectivity against other antibiotic residues frequently detected in milk and dairy products. The usefulness of the dual immunosensor was demonstrated by analyzing spiked milk samples as well as a reference milk containing a certified oxytetracycline (OTC) content. Good recoveries were attained in an analysis time of 30 min. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigation of the luminescent properties of terbium-anthranilate complexes and application to the determination of anthranilic acid derivatives in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaud, N.; Georges, J

    2003-01-10

    The luminescent properties of terbium complexes with furosemide (FR), flufenamic (FF) acid, tolfenamic (TF) acid and mefenamic (MF) acid have been investigated in aqueous solutions. For all four compounds, complexation occurs when the carboxylic acid of the aminobenzoic group is dissociated and is greatly favoured in the presence of trioctylphosphine oxide as co-ligand and Triton X-100 as surfactant. Under optimum conditions, luminescence of the lanthanide ion is efficiently sensitised and the lifetime of the {sup 5}D{sub 4} resonance level of terbium in the complex is ranging between 1 and 1.9 ms, against 0.4 ms for the aqua ion. The sensitivity of the method for the determination of anthranilic acid derivatives is improved by one to two orders of magnitude with respect to that achieved using native fluorescence or terbium-sensitised luminescence in methanol. The limits of detection are 2x10{sup -10}, 5x10{sup -10} and 2x10{sup -9} mol l{sup -1} for flufenamic acid, furosemide and tolfenamic acid, and mefenamic acid, respectively, with within-run RSD values of less than 1%. The method has been applied to the determination of flufenamic acid in spiked calf sera with and without sample pretreatment. Depending on the method and the analyte concentration, the recovery was ranging between 83 and 113% and the lowest concentration attainable in serum samples was close to 1x10{sup -7} mol l{sup -1}.

  12. Determination of N-glycans by high performance liquid chromatography using 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate as the glycosylamine labeling reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yike; Sha, Qiuyue; Du, Juan; Wang, Chang; Zhang, Liang; Liu, Bi-Feng; Lin, Yawei; Liu, Xin

    2018-02-02

    Robust, efficient identification and accurate quantification of N-glycans are of great significance in N-glycomics analysis. Here, a simple and rapid derivatization method, based on the combination of microwave-assisted deglycosylation and 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC) labeling, was developed for the analysis of N-glycan by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). After optimizing various parameters affecting deglycosylation and derivatization by RNase B, the time for N-glycan labeling was shortened to 50 min with ∼10-fold enhancement in detection sensitivity comparing to conventional 2-aminobenzoic acid (2-AA) labeling method. Additionally, the method showed good linearity (correlation coefficients > 0.991) and reproducibility (RSD N-glycome for preliminary diagnosis of human lung cancer was conducted, where significant changes of several N-glycans corresponding to core-fucosylated, mono- and disialylated glycans have been evidenced by a series of statistical analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A nutrient mediates intraspecific competition between rodent malaria parasitesin vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wale, Nina; Sim, Derek G; Read, Andrew F

    2017-07-26

    Hosts are often infected with multiple strains of a single parasite species. Within-host competition between parasite strains can be intense and has implications for the evolution of traits that impact patient health, such as drug resistance and virulence. Yet the mechanistic basis of within-host competition is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that a parasite nutrient, para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA), mediates competition between a drug resistant and drug susceptible strain of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi We further show that increasing pABA supply to hosts infected with the resistant strain worsens disease and changes the relationship between parasite burden and pathology. Our experiments demonstrate that, even when there is profound top-down regulation (immunity), bottom-up regulation of pathogen populations can occur and that its importance may vary during an infection. The identification of resources that can be experimentally controlled opens up the opportunity to manipulate competitive interactions between parasites and hence their evolution. © 2017 The Authors.

  14. Morphological structure of Gluconacetobacter xylinus cellulose and cellulose-based organic-inorganic composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyslov, R. Yu; Ezdakova, K. V.; Kopitsa, G. P.; Khripunov, A. K.; Bugrov, A. N.; Tkachenko, A. A.; Angelov, B.; Pipich, V.; Szekely, N. K.; Baranchikov, A. E.; Latysheva, E.; Chetverikov, Yu O.; Haramus, V.

    2017-05-01

    Scanning electron microscopy, ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (USANS), small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering (SANS and SAXS), as well as low-temperature nitrogen adsorption, were used in the studies of micro- and mesostructure of polymer matrix prepared from air-dry preliminarily disintegrated cellulose nano-gel film (synthesized by Gluconacetobacter xylinus) and the composites based on this bacterial cellulose. The composites included ZrO2 nanoparticles, Tb3+ in the form of low molecular weight salt and of metal-polymer complex with poly(vinylpyrrolydone)-poly(methacryloyl-o-aminobenzoic acid) copolymer. The combined analysis of the data obtained allowed revealing three levels of fractal organization in mesostructure of G. xylinus cellulose and its composites. It was shown that both the composition and an aggregation state of dopants have a significant impact on the structural characteristics of the organic-inorganic composites. The composites containing Tb3+ ions demonstrate efficient luminescence; its intensity is an order of magnitude higher in the case of the composites with the metal-polymer complex. It was found that there is the optimal content of ZrO2 nanoparticles in composites resulting in increased Tb3+ luminescence.

  15. Noninvasive investigation of exocrine pancreatic function: Feasibility of cine dynamic MRCP with a spatially selective inversion-recovery pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasokawa, Kazuya; Ito, Katsuyoshi; Tamada, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Akira; Hayashida, Minoru; Tanimoto, Daigo; Higaki, Atsushi; Noda, Yasufumi; Kido, Ayumu

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the feasibility of noncontrast-enhanced cine dynamic magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) with a spatially selective inversion-recovery (IR) pulse for evaluating exocrine pancreatic function in comparison with the N-benzoyl-L-tyrosyl-p-aminobenzoic acid (BT-PABA) test as a pancreatic exocrine function test. Twenty subjects with or without chronic pancreatitis were included. MRCP with a spatially selective IR pulse was repeated every 15 seconds for 5 minutes to acquire a total of 20 images (cine-dynamic MRCP). The median and mean frequency of the observation (the number of times) and the moving distance (mean secretion grading scores) of pancreatic juice inflow on cine-dynamic MRCP were compared with a BT-PABA test. The urinary PABA excretion rate (%) had significant positive correlations with both the mean secretion grade (r = 0.66, P = 0.002) and frequency of secretory inflow (r = 0.62, P = 0.004) in cine dynamic MRCP. Both the mean frequency of observations of pancreatic secretory inflow (1.4 ± 1.6 times vs. 14.3 ± 4.2 times, P Cine dynamic MRCP with a spatially selective IR pulse may have potential for estimating the pancreatic exocrine function noninvasively as a substitute for the BT-PABA test. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Anthranilate degradation by a cold-adapted Pseudomonas sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dockyu; Yoo, Miyoun; Kim, Eungbin; Hong, Soon Gyu

    2015-03-01

    An alpine soil bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain PAMC 25931 was characterized as eurypsychrophilic (both psychrophilic and mesotolerant) with a broad temperature range of 5-30 °C both for anthranilate (2-aminobenzoate) degradation and concomitant cell growth. Two degradative gene clusters (antABC and catBCA) were detected from a fosmid clone in the PAMC 25931 genomic library; each cluster was confirmed to be specifically induced by anthranilate. When expressed in Escherichia coli, the recombinant AntABC (anthranilate 1,2-dioxygenase, AntDO) converted anthranilate into catechol, exhibiting strict specificity toward anthranilate. Recombinant CatA (catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, C12O) from the organism was active over a broad temperature range (5-37 °C). However, CatA rapidly lost the enzyme activity when incubated at above 25 °C. For example, 1 h-preincubation at 37 °C resulted in 100% loss of enzyme activity, while a counterpart from mesophilic Pseudomonas putida mt-2 did not show any negative effect on the initial enzyme activity. These results suggest that CatA is a new cold-adapted thermolabile enzyme, which might be a product through the adaptation process of PAMC 25931 to naturally cold environments and contribute to its ability to grow on anthranilate there. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. DFT study of new bipyrazole derivatives and their potential activity as corrosion inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hengliang; Wang, Xueye; Wang, Hanlu; Wang, Ling; Liu, Aihong

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, a theoretical study of five bipyrazolic-type organic compounds, 4-{bis[(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazolyl-1-yl)methyl]-amino}phenol (1), N1,N1-bis[(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)methyl}]-N4,N4-dimethyl-1,4-benzenediamine (2), N,N-bis[(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)methyl]aniline (3), 4-[bis(3,5-dimethyl pyrazol-1-yl-methyl)-amino]butan-1-ol (4) and ethyl4-[bis(3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl-methyl) aminobenzoate] (5), has been performed using density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level in order to elucidate the different inhibition efficiencies and reactive sites of these compounds as corrosion inhibitors. The efficiencies of corrosion inhibitors and the global chemical reactivity relate to some parameters, such as EHOMO, ELUMO, gap energy (DeltaE) and other parameters, including electronegativity (chi), global hardness (eta) and the fraction of electrons transferred from the inhibitor molecule to the metallic atom (DeltaN). The calculated results are in agreement with the experimental data on the whole. In addition, the local reactivity has been analyzed through the Fukui function and condensed softness indices.

  18. Cocrystals of Hydrochlorothiazide: Solubility and Diffusion/Permeability Enhancements through Drug-Coformer Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanphui, Palash; Devi, V Kusum; Clara, Deepa; Malviya, Nidhi; Ganguly, Somnath; Desiraju, Gautam R

    2015-05-04

    Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) is a diuretic and a BCS class IV drug with low solubility and low permeability, exhibiting poor oral absorption. The present study attempts to improve the physicochemical properties of the drug using a crystal engineering approach with cocrystals. Such multicomponent crystals of HCT with nicotinic acid (NIC), nicotinamide (NCT), 4-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), succinamide (SAM), and resorcinol (RES) were prepared using liquid-assisted grinding, and their solubilities in pH 7.4 buffer were evaluated. Diffusion and membrane permeability were studied using a Franz diffusion cell. Except for the SAM and NIC cocrystals, all other binary systems exhibited improved solubility. All of the cocrystals showed improved diffusion/membrane permeability compared to that of HCT with the exception of the SAM cocrystal. When the solubility was high, as in the case of PABA, NCT, and RES cocrystals, the flux/permeability dropped slightly. This is in agreement with the expected interplay between solubility and permeability. Improved solubility/permeability is attributed to new drug-coformer interactions. Cocrystals of SAM, however, showed poor solubility and flux. This cocrystal contains a primary sulfonamide dimer synthon similar to that of HCT polymorphs, which may be a reason for its unusual behavior. Hirshfeld surface analysis was carried out in all cases to determine whether a correlation exists between cocrystal permeability and drug-coformer interactions.

  19. Grafted-double walled carbon nanotubes as electrochemical platforms for immobilization of antibodies using a metallic-complex chelating polymer: Application to the determination of adiponectin cytokine in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Irene; Barrejón, Myriam; Arellano, Luis M; González-Cortés, Araceli; Yáñez-Sedeño, Paloma; Langa, Fernando; Pingarrón, José M

    2015-12-15

    An electrochemical immunosensor for adiponectin (APN) using screen printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) modified with functionalized double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) as platforms for immobilization of the specific antibodies is reported. DWCNTs were functionalized by treatment with 4-aminobenzoic acid (HOOC-Phe) in the presence of isoamylnitrite resulting in the formation of 4-carboxyphenyl-DWCNTs. The oriented binding of specific antibodies toward adiponectin was accomplished by using the metallic-complex chelating polymer Mix&Go™. The HOOC-Phe-DWCNTs-modified SPCEs were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and compared with HOOC-Phe-SWCNTs/SPCE. The different variables affecting the performance of the developed immunosensor were optimized. Under the selected conditions, a calibration plot for APN was constructed showing a range of linearity extending between 0.05 and 10.0 μg/mL which is adequate for the determination of the cytokine in real samples. A detection limit of 14.5 ng/mL was achieved. The so prepared immunosensor exhibited a good reproducibility for the APN measurements, excellent storage stability and selectivity, and a much shorter assay time than the available ELISA kits. The usefulness of the immunosensor for the analysis of real samples was demonstrated by analyzing human serum from female or male healthy patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Environmental occurrence and ecological risk assessment of organic UV filters in marine organisms from Hong Kong coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Ziye; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin

    2016-10-01

    Organic UV filters, now considered to be emerging contaminants in aquatic ecosystems, are being intensively tracked in environmental waters worldwide. However, their environmental fate and impact of these contaminants on marine organisms remains largely unknown, especially in Asia. This work elucidates the occurrence and the ecological risks of seven UV filters detected in farmed fish, wild mussels and some other wild organisms collected from local mariculture farms in Hong Kong. For all of the organisms, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and octyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoic acid (OD-PABA) were the predominant contaminants with the highest concentrations up to 51.3 and 24.1ng/g (dw), respectively; lower levels were found for benzophenone-8 (BP-8), octocrylene (OC) and benzophenone-3 (BP-3) from UV filters indicated a positive correlation between their measured concentrations and the anthropogenic activities responsible for their direct emission. The ecological risk assessment specific to the marine aquatic environment was carried out. The risk quotient (RQ) values of EHMC and BP-3 were calculated as 3.29 and 2.60, respectively, indicating these two UV filters may pose significant risks to the marine aquatic environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Occurrence, Distribution, and Fate of Organic UV Filters in Coral Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Mirabelle M P; Lam, James C W; Ng, T Y; Ang, P O; Murphy, Margaret B; Lam, Paul K S

    2017-04-18

    Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters are widely used in personal care products and occur ubiquitously in the aquatic environment. In this study, concentrations of seven commonly used organic UV filters were determined in seawater, sediment and five coral species collected from the eastern Pearl River Estuary of South China Sea. Five compounds, benzophenone-1, -3, and -8 (BP-1, -3, and -8), octocrylene (OC) and octyl dimethyl-p-aminobenzoic acid (ODPABA), were detected in the coral tissues with the highest detection frequencies (>65%) and concentrations (31.8 ± 8.6 and 24.7 ± 10.6 ng/g ww, respectively) found for BP-3 and BP-8. Significantly higher concentrations of BP-3 were observed in coral tissues in the wet season, indicating that higher inputs of sunscreen agents could be attributed to the increased coastal recreational activities. Accumulation of UV filters was only observed in soft coral tissues with bioaccumulation factors (log 10 -values) ranging from 2.21 to 3.01. The results of a preliminary risk assessment indicated that over 20% of coral samples from the study sites contained BP-3 concentrations exceeding the threshold values for causing larval deformities and mortality in the worst-case scenario. Higher probabilities of negative impacts of BP-3 on coral communities are predicted to occur in wet season.

  2. Three pharmaceuticals cocrystals of adefovir: Syntheses, structures and dissolution study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Sun, Fuxing; Zhang, Tingting; Jia, Jiangtao; Su, Hongmin; Wang, Chenhui; Zhu, Guangshan

    2015-11-01

    We report here three novel cocrystals, which are composed of adefovir as the API (Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient) with p-aminobenzoic acid (1, 2C8H12N5O4P·C7H6NO2·3H2O), 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2, C8H12N5O4P·C7H6O4·H2O) and 2,6-pyridinedicarboxlic acid (3, C8H12N5O4P·C7H5NO4) as CCFs (cocrystal formers) respectively by crystal engineering strategy. Their structures were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), elemental analysis (EA) and infrared spectral analysis (IR). The analysis of single crystal X-ray diffraction demonstrate that cocrystal 1 and 2 form a strong hydrogen-bonded assembly through the phosphoric acids of API with water in the lattice and carboxylic acids of CCF respectively. Cocrystal 3 is formed in which the phosphoric acid groups of API are also held by the carboxylic acid groups of CCF. The PXRD results indicate their high purity of as-synthesized samples. The TGA, EA, IR and dissolution study of API and the cocrystals were also measured and discussed.

  3. Photocatalytic degradation of sunscreen active ingredients mediated by nanostructured materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Vazquez, Loraine

    Water scarcity and pollution are environmental issues with terrible consequences. In recent years several pharmaceutical and personal care products, such as sunscreen active ingredients, have been detected in different water matrices. Its recalcitrant behavior in the environment has caused controversies and generated countless questions about its safety. During this research, we employed an advanced oxidation process (photocatalysis) to degrade sunscreen active ingredients. For this study, we used a 3x3 system, evaluating three photocatalysts and three different contaminants. From the three catalysts employed, two of them were synthesized. ZnO nanoparticles were obtained using zinc acetate dihydrated as the precursor, and TiO2 nanowires were synthesized from titanium tetrachloride precursor. The third catalyst employed (namely, P25) was obtained commercially. The synthesized photocatalysts were characterized in terms of the morphology, elemental composition, crystalline structure, elemental oxidation states, vibrational modes and surface area, using SEM-EDS, XRD, XPS, Raman spectroscopy and BET measurements, respectively. The photocatalysts were employed during the study of the degradation of p-aminobenzoic acid, phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid, and benzophenone-4. In all the cases, at least 50% degradation was achieved. P25 showed degradation efficiencies above 90%, and from the nine systems, 7 of them degraded at least 86%.

  4. High-throughput metagenomic analysis of petroleum-contaminated soil microbiome reveals the versatility in xenobiotic aromatics metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yun-Juan; Xu, Zixiang; Li, Yang; Yao, Zhi; Sun, Jibin; Song, Hui

    2017-06-01

    The soil with petroleum contamination is one of the most studied soil ecosystems due to its rich microorganisms for hydrocarbon degradation and broad applications in bioremediation. However, our understanding of the genomic properties and functional traits of the soil microbiome is limited. In this study, we used high-throughput metagenomic sequencing to comprehensively study the microbial community from petroleum-contaminated soils near Tianjin Dagang oilfield in eastern China. The analysis reveals that the soil metagenome is characterized by high level of community diversity and metabolic versatility. The metageome community is predominated by γ-Proteobacteria and α-Proteobacteria, which are key players for petroleum hydrocarbon degradation. The functional study demonstrates over-represented enzyme groups and pathways involved in degradation of a broad set of xenobiotic aromatic compounds, including toluene, xylene, chlorobenzoate, aminobenzoate, DDT, methylnaphthalene, and bisphenol. A composite metabolic network is proposed for the identified pathways, thus consolidating our identification of the pathways. The overall data demonstrated the great potential of the studied soil microbiome in the xenobiotic aromatics degradation. The results not only establish a rich reservoir for novel enzyme discovery but also provide putative applications in bioremediation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. A Titanium–Organic Framework as an Exemplar of Combining the Chemistry of Metal– and Covalent–Organic Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ha L.; Gándara, Felipe; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Doan, Tan L. H.; Cordova, Kyle E.; Yaghi, Omar M.

    2016-04-06

    A crystalline material with a two-dimensional structure, termed metal–organic framework-901 (MOF-901), was prepared using a strategy that combines the chemistry of MOFs and covalent–organic frameworks (COFs). This strategy involves in situ generation of an amine-functionalized titanium oxo cluster, Ti6O6(OCH3)6(AB)6 (AB = 4-aminobenzoate), which was linked with benzene-1,4-dialdehyde using imine condensation reactions, typical of COFs. The crystal structure of MOF-901 is composed of hexagonal porous layers that are likely stacked in staggered conformation (hxl topology). This MOF represents the first example of combining metal cluster chemistry with dynamic organic covalent bond formation to give a new crystalline, extended framework of titanium metal, which is rarely used in MOFs. The incorporation of Ti(IV) units made MOF-901 useful in the photocatalyzed polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA). The resulting polyMMA product was obtained with a high-number-average molar mass (26 850 g mol–1) and low polydispersity index (1.6), which in many respects are better than those achieved by the commercially available photocatalyst (P-25 TiO2). Additionally, the catalyst can be isolated, reused, and recycled with no loss in performance.

  6. Ethanol Extracts of Fresh Davallia formosana (WL1101 Inhibit Osteoclast Differentiation by Suppressing RANKL-Induced Nuclear Factor-κB Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Hung Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rhizome of Davallia formosana is commonly used to treat bone disease including bone fracture, arthritis, and osteoporosis in Chinese herbal medicine. Here, we report the effects of WL1101, the ethanol extracts of fresh rhizomes of Davallia formosana on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. In addition, excess activated bone-resorbing osteoclasts play crucial roles in inflammation-induced bone loss diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. In this study, we examined the effects of WL1101 on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Treatment with WL1101 significantly inhibited RANKL-stimulated osteoclastogenesis. Two isolated active compounds, ((−-epicatechin or WL14 (4-hydroxy-3-aminobenzoic acid could also inhibit RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. WL1101 suppressed the RANKL-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB activation and nuclear translocation, which is the key process during osteoclastogenesis, by inhibiting the activation of IκB kinase (IKK and IκBα. In animal model, oral administration of WL1101 (50 or 200 mg/kg/day effectively decreased the excess bone resorption and significantly antagonized the trabecular bone loss in ovariectomized rats. Our results demonstrate that the ethanol extracts of fresh rhizomes of Davallia formosana inhibit osteoclast differentiation via the inhibition of NF-κB activation and effectively ameliorate ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. WL1101 may thus have therapeutic potential for the treatment of diseases associated with excessive osteoclastic activity.

  7. Ethanol Extracts of Fresh Davallia formosana (WL1101) Inhibit Osteoclast Differentiation by Suppressing RANKL-Induced Nuclear Factor- κ B Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Hung; Yang, Rong-Sen; Wang, Kuan-Chin; Lu, Dai-Hua; Liou, Houng-Chi; Ma, Yun; Chang, Shao-Han; Fu, Wen-Mei

    2013-01-01

    The rhizome of Davallia formosana is commonly used to treat bone disease including bone fracture, arthritis, and osteoporosis in Chinese herbal medicine. Here, we report the effects of WL1101, the ethanol extracts of fresh rhizomes of Davallia formosana on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. In addition, excess activated bone-resorbing osteoclasts play crucial roles in inflammation-induced bone loss diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. In this study, we examined the effects of WL1101 on receptor activator of nuclear factor- κ B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis. Treatment with WL1101 significantly inhibited RANKL-stimulated osteoclastogenesis. Two isolated active compounds, ((-)-epicatechin) or WL14 (4-hydroxy-3-aminobenzoic acid) could also inhibit RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. WL1101 suppressed the RANKL-induced nuclear factor- κ B (NF- κ B) activation and nuclear translocation, which is the key process during osteoclastogenesis, by inhibiting the activation of I κ B kinase (IKK) and I κ B α . In animal model, oral administration of WL1101 (50 or 200 mg/kg/day) effectively decreased the excess bone resorption and significantly antagonized the trabecular bone loss in ovariectomized rats. Our results demonstrate that the ethanol extracts of fresh rhizomes of Davallia formosana inhibit osteoclast differentiation via the inhibition of NF- κ B activation and effectively ameliorate ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. WL1101 may thus have therapeutic potential for the treatment of diseases associated with excessive osteoclastic activity.

  8. Substituent effects on the photophysical properties of pterin derivatives in acidic and alkaline aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrerizo, Franco M; Petroselli, Gabriela; Lorente, Carolina; Capparelli, Alberto L; Thomas, Andrés H; Braun, André M; Oliveros, Esther

    2005-01-01

    Pterins are heterocyclic compounds with important biological functions, and most of them may exist in two acid-base forms in the pH range between 3 and 13 in aqueous solution. In this work, the photophysical properties of acid and basic forms of six compounds of the pterin family (6-hydroxymethylpterin [HPT], 6-methylpterin [MPT], 6,7-dimethylpterin [DPT], rhamnopterin [RPT], N-methylfolic acid [MFA], and pteroic acid [PA]) have been studied. The effects of the chemical nature of the substituents at position 6 of the pterin moiety and the effects of the pH on the absorption and emission properties are analyzed. The fluorescence characteristics (spectra, quantum yields, lifetimes) of these compounds have been investigated using the single-photon-counting technique. Results obtained for pterin derivatives containing small substituents with 1 carbon atom (HPT, MPT, DPT) and short hydrocarbon chain (4 carbon atoms) (RPT) are different from those found for pterin derivatives containing a p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) moiety in the substituent (MFA and PA). Fluorescence quantum yields (Phi(F)) of the first group of compounds are relatively high (>/=0.4), whereas MFA and PA exhibit very small Phi(F) values (

  9. Characterization of the N-oxygenase AurF from Streptomyces thioletus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanco, Emmanuel; Choi, Yoo Seong; Sun, Ning; Vu, Michael; Zhao, Huimin

    2014-10-15

    AurF catalyzes the N-oxidation of p-aminobenzoic acid to p-nitrobenzoic acid in the biosynthesis of the antibiotic aureothin. Here we report the characterization of AurF under optimized conditions to explore its potential use in biocatalysis. The pH optimum of the enzyme was established to be 5.5 using phenazine methosulfate (PMS)/NADH as the enzyme mediator system, showing ~10-fold higher activity than previous reports in literature. Kinetic characterization at optimized conditions give a Km of 14.7 ± 1.1 μM, a kcat of 47.5 ± 5.4 min(-1) and a kcat/Km of 3.2 ± 0.4 μM(-1)min(-1). PMS/NADH and the native electron transfer proteins showed significant formation of the p-hydroxylaminobenzoic acid intermediate, however H2O2 produced mostly p-nitrobenzoic acid. Alanine scanning identified the role of important active site residues. The substrate specificity of AurF was examined and rationalized based on the protein crystal structure. Kinetic studies indicate that the Km is the main determinant of AurF activity toward alternative substrates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of the exocrine pancreatic function with the NBT-PABA test using a novel dual isotope technique and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, B; Ekelund, S; Jørgensen, L; Bremmelgaard, A

    1997-04-01

    We describe a tubeless test of exocrine pancreatic function based on a new dual isotope technique, using N-benzoyl-L-tyrosyl-p-aminobenzoic acid (NBT-PABA) as a substrate for intestinal chymotrypsin activity and the stable isotope, 13C-PABA as marker. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for the quantification of PABA and 13C-PABA in blood. The method involves hydrolysis, extractions, separation by HPLC, and methyl ester formation of the test substances before GC-MS analysis. The test is precise and shows good separation of healthy volunteers from patients with pancreatic insufficiency. The PABA/13C-PABA ratios in serum after 1.5 h were 2.64 +/- 0.14 (mean +/- SEM) in 10 healthy volunteers and 1.26 +/- 0.22 in 10 patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. We present a sensitive and specific assay, which is free of analytical interference and radiation hazards and, additionally, it illuminates extrapancreatic pharmacokinetic conditions. This test can eliminate the need for duodenal intubation, which makes it very acceptable to the patients.

  11. Morphological structure of Gluconacetobacter xylinus cellulose and cellulose-based organic-inorganic composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Smyslov, R; Khripunov, A K; Bugrov, A N; Ezdakova, K V; Kopitsa, G P; Chetverikov, Yu O; Tkachenko, A A; Angelov, B; Pipich, V; Szekely, N K; Baranchikov, A E; Latysheva, E; Haramus, V

    2017-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy, ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (USANS), small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering (SANS and SAXS), as well as low-temperature nitrogen adsorption, were used in the studies of micro- and mesostructure of polymer matrix prepared from air-dry preliminarily disintegrated cellulose nano-gel film (synthesized by Gluconacetobacter xylinus ) and the composites based on this bacterial cellulose. The composites included ZrO 2 nanoparticles, Tb 3+ in the form of low molecular weight salt and of metal-polymer complex with poly(vinylpyrrolydone)-poly(methacryloyl- o -aminobenzoic acid) copolymer. The combined analysis of the data obtained allowed revealing three levels of fractal organization in mesostructure of G. xylinus cellulose and its composites. It was shown that both the composition and an aggregation state of dopants have a significant impact on the structural characteristics of the organic-inorganic composites. The composites containing Tb 3+ ions demonstrate efficient luminescence; its intensity is an order of magnitude higher in the case of the composites with the metal-polymer complex. It was found that there is the optimal content of ZrO 2 nanoparticles in composites resulting in increased Tb 3+ luminescence. (paper)

  12. The Uses of 2-Ethoxy-(4H)-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one in the Synthesis of Some Quinazolinone Derivatives of Antimicrobial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hashash, Maher A.; Darwish, Khalid M.; Rizk, Sameh A.; El-Bassiouny, Fakhry A.

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of 2-ethoxy-(4H)-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one (1) towards nitrogen nucleophiles, e.g. ethanolamine, aromatic amines (namely: p-toluidine, p-anisidine, p-hydroxyaniline, o-hydroxyaniline, o-bromoaniline, o-phenylenediamine, p-phenylenediamine, o-tolidinediamine) p-aminobenzoic acid, glucosamine hydrochloride, 2-aminonicotinic acid, 1-naphthalenesulfonic acid hydrazide, n-decanoic acid hydrazide, benzoic acid hydrazide, semicarbazide, aminoacids (e.g. D,L-alanine, L-asparagine, L-arginine) and derivatives of 2-aminothiodiazole has been investigated. The behavior of the benzoxazinone towards a selected sulfur nucleophile, L-cysteine, has also been discussed. Formation of an amidine salt as a reaction intermediate has been assumed. The effect of solvent in some reactions has been elucidated. The structures of all the novel quinazoline and quinazolinone derivatives, obtained by heterocyclic ring opening and ring closure were inferred by the IR, MS as well as 1H-NMR spectral analysis. Moreover, the antimicrobial potential of some of the new synthesized derivatives has been evaluated.

  13. The Uses of 2-Ethoxy-(4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one in the Synthesis of Some Quinazolinone Derivatives of Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhry A. El-Bassiouny

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of 2-ethoxy-(4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one (1 towards nitrogen nucleo-philes, e.g. ethanolamine, aromatic amines (namely: p-toluidine, p-anisidine, p-hydroxyaniline, o-hydroxyaniline, o-bromoaniline, o-phenylenediamine, p-phenylene- diamine, o-tolidinediamine p-aminobenzoic acid, glucosamine hydrochloride,  2-amino- nicotinic acid, 1-naphthalenesulfonic acid hydrazide, n-decanoic acid hydrazide, benzoic acid hydrazide, semicarbazide, aminoacids (e.g. D,L-alanine, L-asparagine, L-arginine and derivatives of 2-aminothiodiazole has been investigated. The behavior of the benzoxazinone towards a selected sulfur nucleophile, L-cysteine, has also been discussed. Formation of an amidine salt as a reaction intermediate has been assumed. The effect of solvent in some reactions has been elucidated. The structures of all the novel quinazoline and quinazolinone derivatives, obtained by heterocyclic ring opening and ring closure were inferred by the IR, MS as well as 1H-NMR spectral analysis. Moreover, the antimicrobial potential of some of the new synthesized derivatives has been evaluated.

  14. Secondary Interactions Arrest the Hemiaminal Intermediate To Invert the Modus Operandi of Schiff Base Reaction: A Route to Benzoxazinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ketan; Deshmukh, Satej S; Bodkhe, Dnyaneshwar; Mane, Manoj; Vanka, Kumar; Shinde, Dinesh; Rajamohanan, Pattuparambil R; Nandi, Shyamapada; Vaidhyanathan, Ramanathan; Chikkali, Samir H

    2017-04-21

    Discovered by Hugo Schiff, condensation between amine and aldehyde represents one of the most ubiquitous reactions in chemistry. This classical reaction is widely used to manufacture pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals. However, the rapid and reversible formation of Schiff base prohibits formation of alternative products, of which benzoxazinones are an important class. Therefore, manipulating the reactivity of two partners to invert the course of this reaction is an elusive target. Presented here is a synthetic strategy that regulates the sequence of Schiff base reaction via weak secondary interactions. Guided by the computational models, reaction between 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoro-benzaldehyde with 2-amino-6-methylbenzoic acid revealed quantitative (99%) formation of 5-methyl-2-(perfluorophenyl)-1,2-dihydro-4H-benzo[d][1,3]oxazin-4-one (15). Electron donating and electron withdrawing ortho-substituents on 2-aminobenzoic acid resulted in the production of benzoxazinones 9-36. The mode of action was tracked using low temperature NMR, UV-vis spectroscopy, and isotopic ( 18 O) labeling experiments. These spectroscopic mechanistic investigations revealed that the hemiaminal intermediate is arrested by the hydrogen-bonding motif to yield benzoxazinone. Thus, the mechanistic investigations and DFT calculations categorically rule out the possibility of in situ imine formation followed by ring-closing, but support instead hydrogen-bond assisted ring-closing to prodrugs. This unprecedented reaction represents an interesting and competitive alternative to metal catalyzed and classical methods of preparing benzoxazinone.

  15. Pancreatic endocrine and exocrine function and salivary gland function in autoimmune pancreatitis before and after steroid therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisawa, Terumi; Egawa, Naoto; Inokuma, Shigeko; Tsuruta, Kouji; Okamoto, Atsutake; Kamata, Noriko; Nakamura, Teruo; Matsukawa, Masakatsu

    2003-10-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a distinct clinical entity in which an autoimmune mechanism may be involved in pathogenesis. To investigate salivary gland function in addition to pancreatic endocrine and exocrine function in patients with AIP, and to determine changes occurring after steroid therapy. Fasting serum glucose levels, oral glucose tolerance tests or glycosylated hemoglobin values were examined in 19 patients with AIP. N-benzoyl-L-tyrosyl-p-aminobenzoic acid excretion test, sialochemistry and parotid gland scintigraphy were performed in 8 patients. Eight patients had evidence of DM. Steroid therapy subsequently improved insulin secretion and glycemic control in 3 of 5 patients treated. Pancreatic exocrine function was reduced in 88% of patients. Impaired pancreatic exocrine function improved after steroid therapy in 3 of 6 patients treated. The 3 patients also showed treatment-related improvement in endocrine function. Concentration of beta2-microglobulin in saliva was significantly raised in patients with AIP compared with controls (P gland dysfunction improved after steroid therapy in all 5 patients treated. Pancreatic endocrine and exocrine and salivary gland function were frequently impaired in patients with AIP, and steroid therapy was occasionally effective for these dysfunctions.

  16. Nutritional optimization for anaerobic growth of Bacillus steaothermophilus LLD-16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Javed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a range of nutritional supplements including twenty amino acids, major vitamins and four nucleic acid bases were exploited as added-value supplements for the growth of a lactate-minus (ldh mutant Bacillus stearothermophilus LLD-16 under anaerobic environment. The chemostat studies revealed that five amino acids that includes aspartate, glutamate, isoleucine, methionine, and serine were essential for persuaded growth of B. stearothermophilus LLD-16. The anaerobic batch studies showed that a number of nutritional supplements, such as, p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA, folic acid, pantothenic acid, adenine, glycine, leucine, tryptophan, proline, alanine and α-ketoglutarate, when added individually, improved the biomass levels. In contrast, the higher concentrations of cyanocobalamine or biotin, guanine, uracil and isoleucine were found inhibitory. Furthermore, the study explains why the highest biomass formation cannot necessarily be achieved on the richest mixture of amino acids, and the inadequacy of the biosynthetic machinery is very much dependent on the growth conditions of the microorganism.

  17. Combined mutagenesis of Rhodosporidium toruloides for improved production of carotenoids and lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chaolei; Shen, Hongwei; Zhang, Xibin; Yu, Xue; Wang, Han; Xiao, Shan; Wang, Jihui; Zhao, Zongbao K

    2016-10-01

    To improve production of lipids and carotenoids by the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides by screening mutant strains. Upon physical mutagenesis of the haploid strain R. toruloides np11 with an atmospheric and room temperature plasma method followed by chemical mutagenesis with nitrosoguanidine, a mutant strain, R. toruloides XR-2, formed dark-red colonies on a screening plate. When cultivated in nitrogen-limited media, XR-2 cells grew slower but accumulated 0.23 g lipids/g cell dry wt and 0.75 mg carotenoids/g CDW. To improve its production capacity, different amino acids and vitamins were supplemented. p-Aminobenzoic acid and tryptophan had beneficial effects on cell growth. When cultivated in nitrogen-limited media in the presence of selected vitamins, XR-2 accumulated 0.41 g lipids/g CDW and 0.69 mg carotenoids/g CDW. A mutant R. toruloides strain with improved production profiles for lipids and carotenoids was obtained, indicating its potential to use combined mutagenesis for a more productive phenotype.

  18. Analysis of glycoprotein-derived oligosaccharides in glycoproteins detected on two-dimensional gel by capillary electrophoresis using on-line concentration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamoda, Satoru; Nakanishi, Yasuharu; Kinoshita, Mitsuhiro; Ishikawa, Rika; Kakehi, Kazuaki

    2006-02-17

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is an effective tool to analyze carbohydrate mixture derived from glycoproteins with high resolution. However, CE has a disadvantage that a few nanoliters of a sample solution are injected to a narrow capillary. Therefore, we have to prepare a sample solution of high concentration for CE analysis. In the present study, we applied head column field-amplified sample stacking method to the analysis of N-linked oligosaccharides derived from glycoprotein separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Model studies demonstrated that we achieved 60-360 times concentration effect on the analysis of carbohydrate chains labeled with 3-aminobenzoic acid (3-AA). The method was applied to the analysis of N-linked oligosaccharides from glycoproteins separated and detected on PAGE gel. Heterogeneity of alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), i.e. glycoforms, was examined by 2D-PAGE and N-linked oligosaccharides were released by in-gel digestion with PNGase F. The released oligosaccharides were derivatized with 3-AA and analyzed by CE. The results showed that glycoforms having lower pI values contained a larger amount of tetra- and tri-antennary oligosaccharides. In contrast, glycoforms having higher pI values contained bi-antennary oligosaccharides abundantly. The result clearly indicated that the spot of a glycoprotein glycoform detected by Coomassie brilliant blue staining on 2D-PAGE gel is sufficient for quantitative profiling of oligosaccharides.

  19. Contamination sources and distribution patterns of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in Alpine rivers strongly affected by tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandaric, Ladislav; Diamantini, Elena; Stella, Elisa; Cano-Paoli, Karina; Valle-Sistac, Jennifer; Molins-Delgado, Daniel; Bellin, Alberto; Chiogna, Gabriele; Majone, Bruno; Diaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Sabater, Sergi; Barcelo, Damia; Petrovic, Mira

    2017-07-15

    Knowledge regarding the impact of tourism on the emergence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in Alpine river waters is limited and scarce. Therefore, a study on the occurrence patterns and spatiotemporal variability of 105 PPCPs in an Alpine river basin located in the Trentino-Alto Adige region (North-Eastern Italy) has been conducted. We observed that the total concentration of analyzed PPCPs was generally higher in all sampling sites during winter than in the summer. The analysis of tourist data revealed that during both sampling campaigns the number of tourists was lower in the downstream sites in comparison with the upstream area of the basin (Val di Sole). Particularly, sampling sites located near important tourist resorts have shown the highest abundance of the PPCPs during winter, being analgesics/anti-inflammatories, antihypertensives and antibiotics the most abundant pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs). Diclofenac showed the highest concentration amongst PhACs, reaching concentrations up to 675ngL -1 in the sampling site situated downstream of the Tonale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Antihypertensives were found at concentrations >300ngL -1 , while antibiotics were quantified up to 196ngL -1 , respectively. Amongst personal care products (PCPs), the most abundant compound was octyl-dimethyl-p-aminobenzoic acid (ODPABA) with concentrations reaching up to 748ngL -1 in the sampling site situated within the Rotaliana district. In general, concentrations and detection frequencies were higher in water than in the sediment samples. The most frequently detected PhACs in sediments from both sampling campaigns were antibiotics, while amongst PCPs in sediments, octocrylene (OC) showed the highest concentration in both sampling campaigns. As a result, this study highlights the potential impact of tourism on the water quality of the Alpine aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Release, Partitioning, and Conjugation Stability of Doxorubicin in Polymer Micelles Determined by Mechanistic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponta, Andrei; Fugit, Kyle D.; Anderson, Bradley D.; Bae, Younsoo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To better understand the mechanistic parameters that govern drug release from polymer micelles with acid-labile linkers. Methods A mathematical model was developed to describe drug release from block copolymer micelles composed of a poly(ethylene glycol) shell and a poly(aspartate) core, modified with drug binding linkers for pH-controlled release [hydrazide (HYD), aminobenzoate-hydrazide (ABZ), or glycine-hydrazide (GLY)]. Doxorubicin (Dox) was conjugated to the block copolymers through acid-labile hydrazone bonds. The polymer drug conjugates were used to prepare three polymer micelles (HYD-M, ABZ-M, and GLY-M). Drug release studies were performed to identify the factors governing pH-sensitive release of Dox. The effect of prolonged storage of copolymer material on release kinetics was also observed. Results Biphasic drug release kinetics were observed for all three micelle formulations. The developed model was able to quantify observed release kinetics upon the inclusion of terms for unconjugated Dox and two populations of conjugated Dox. Micelle/water partitioning of Dox was also incorporated into the model and found significant in all micelles under neutral conditions but reduced under acidic conditions. The drug binding linker played a major role in drug release as the extent of Dox release at specific time intervals was greater at pH 5.0 than at pH 7.4 (HYD-M > ABZ-M > GLY-M). Mathematical modeling was also able correlate changes in release kinetics with the instability of the hydrazone conjugation of DOX during prolonged storage. Conclusion These results illustrate the potential utility of mechanistic modeling to better assess release characteristics intrinsic to a particular drug/nanoparticle system. PMID:25407546

  1. Negative Ion In-Source Decay Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Sequencing Acidic Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Chelsea L; Wright, Patience M; Cassady, Carolyn J

    2016-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) in-source decay was studied in the negative ion mode on deprotonated peptides to determine its usefulness for obtaining extensive sequence information for acidic peptides. Eight biological acidic peptides, ranging in size from 11 to 33 residues, were studied by negative ion mode ISD (nISD). The matrices 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzamide, 1,5-diaminonaphthalene, 5-amino-1-naphthol, 3-aminoquinoline, and 9-aminoacridine were used with each peptide. Optimal fragmentation was produced with 1,5-diaminonphthalene (DAN), and extensive sequence informative fragmentation was observed for every peptide except hirudin(54-65). Cleavage at the N-Cα bond of the peptide backbone, producing c' and z' ions, was dominant for all peptides. Cleavage of the N-Cα bond N-terminal to proline residues was not observed. The formation of c and z ions is also found in electron transfer dissociation (ETD), electron capture dissociation (ECD), and positive ion mode ISD, which are considered to be radical-driven techniques. Oxidized insulin chain A, which has four highly acidic oxidized cysteine residues, had less extensive fragmentation. This peptide also exhibited the only charged localized fragmentation, with more pronounced product ion formation adjacent to the highly acidic residues. In addition, spectra were obtained by positive ion mode ISD for each protonated peptide; more sequence informative fragmentation was observed via nISD for all peptides. Three of the peptides studied had no product ion formation in ISD, but extensive sequence informative fragmentation was found in their nISD spectra. The results of this study indicate that nISD can be used to readily obtain sequence information for acidic peptides.

  2. Development of a minimal growth medium for Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegkamp, A; Teusink, B; de Vos, W M; Smid, E J

    2010-01-01

    A medium with minimal requirements for the growth of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS was developed. The composition of the minimal medium was compared to a genome-scale metabolic model of L. plantarum. By repetitive single omission experiments, two minimal media were developed: PMM5 (true minimal medium) and PMM7 [a pseudominimal medium, supporting proper biomass formation of 350 mg l(-1) dry weight (DW)]. The specific growth rate of L. plantarum on PMM7 was found to be 50% and 63% lower when compared to growth on established growth media (chemically defined medium and MRS, respectively). Using a genome-scale metabolic model of L. plantarum, it was predicted that PMM5 and PMM7 would not support the growth of L. plantarum. This is because the biosynthesis of para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) was predicted to be essential for growth. The discrepancy in simulated growth and experimental growth on PMM7 was further investigated for pABA; a molecule which plays an important role in folate production. The growth performance and folate production were determined on PMM7 in the presence and absence of pABA. It was found that a 12,000-fold reduction in folate pools exerted no influence on formation of biomass or growth rate of L. plantarum cultures when grown in the absence of pABA. Largely reduced folate production pools do not have an effect on the growth of L. plantarum, showing that L. plantarum makes folate in a large excess. These experiments illustrate the importance of combining genome-scale metabolic models with growth experiments on minimal media.

  3. A continuous fluorescent assay for the determination of plasma and tissue angiotensin I-converting enzyme activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Alves

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A continuous assay using internally quenched fluorescent peptides with the general sequence Abz-peptidyl-(DnpP-OH (Abz = ortho-aminobenzoic acid; Dnp = 2,4-dinitrophenyl was optimized for the measurement of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE in human plasma and rat tissues. Abz-FRK(DnpP-OH, which was cleaved at the Arg-Lys bond by ACE, was used for the enzyme evaluation in human plasma. Enzymatic activity was monitored by continuous recording of the fluorescence (lambdaex = 320 nm and lambdaem = 420 nm at 37ºC, in 0.1 M Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.0, with 50 mM NaCl and 10 µM ZnCl2. The assays can be performed directly in the cuvette of the fluorimeter and the hydrolysis followed for 5 to 10 min. ACE measurements in the plasma of 80 healthy patients with Hip-His-Leu and with Abz-FRK(DnpP-OH correlated closely (r = 0.90, P < 0.001. The specificity of the assay was demonstrated by the complete inhibition of hydrolysis by 0.5 µM lisinopril or captopril. Abz-FRK(DnpP-OH cleavage by ACE was monitored in rat lung, kidney, heart, and liver homogenates in the presence of a cocktail of inhibitors containing trans-epoxy-succinyl-L-leucylamido-(4-guanido-butene, pepstatin, phenyl-methylsulfonyl fluoride, N-tosyl-L-phenylalanyl-chloromethyl ketone, and N-tosyl-lysyl-chloromethyl ketone to prevent undesirable hydrolysis. ACE activity in lung, heart and kidney homogenates, but not in liver homogenates, was completely abolished by 0.5 µM lisinopril or captopril. The advantages of the method are the procedural simplicity and the high sensitivity providing a rapid assay for ACE determinations.

  4. Functional polyaniline nanofibre mats for human adipose-derived stem cell proliferation and adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul Rahman, Norizah, E-mail: norizah@science.putra.edu.my [Polymer Electronics Research Centre, School of Chemical Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Department of Chemistry, University of Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Feisst, Vaughan [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Dickinson, Michelle E. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Malmström, Jenny [Polymer Electronics Research Centre, School of Chemical Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Dunbar, P. Rod [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Maurice Wilkins Centre, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka, E-mail: j.travas-sejdic@auckland.ac.nz [Polymer Electronics Research Centre, School of Chemical Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, P.O. Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand)

    2013-02-15

    Conductive polymer poly(aniline-co-m-aminobenzoic acid) (P(ANI-co-m-ABA)) and polyaniline (PANI) were blended with a biodegradable, biocompatible polymer, poly(L-lactic acid) and were electrospun into nanofibres to investigate their potential application as a scaffold for human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). These polymers, in both conductive and non-conductive form, were electrospun with average fibre diameters of less than 400 nm. Novel nanoindentation results obtained on the individual nanofibres revealed that the elastic moduli of the nanofibres are much higher at the surface (4–10 GPa, h{sub max} <75 nm) than in the inner fibre core (2–4 GPa, h{sub max} >75 nm). The composite nanofibres showed great promise as a scaffold for hASCs as they supported the cell adhesion and proliferation. After 1 week of cell culture hASCs were well spread on the substrates with abundant focal adhesions. The electrospun mats provide the cells with comparably stiff, sub-micron sized fibres as anchoring points on a substrate of high porosity. The conductive nature of these composite nanofibres offers exciting opportunities for electrical stimulation of the cells. - Highlights: ► Polyaniline and its copolymer's nanofibres were prepared by electrospinning. ► The elastic modulus of a single polyaniline composite nanofibres were determined. ► Elastic moduli of the nanofibres are much higher at the surface than the inner core. ► The electrospun mats supported the cell adhesion and proliferation. ► The nanofibres show great promise as a scaffold for adipose derived stem cells.

  5. Activity of human kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (KLK6) on substrates containing sequences of basic amino acids. Is it a processing protease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Roberta N; Oliveira, Lilian C G; Parise, Carolina B; Oliveira, Juliana R; Severino, Beatrice; Corvino, Angela; di Vaio, Paola; Temussi, Piero A; Caliendo, Giuseppe; Santagada, Vincenzo; Juliano, Luiz; Juliano, Maria A

    2017-05-01

    Human kallikrein 6 (KLK6) is highly expressed in the central nervous system and with elevated level in demyelinating disease. KLK6 has a very restricted specificity for arginine (R) and hydrolyses myelin basic protein, protein activator receptors and human ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits. Here we report a previously unreported activity of KLK6 on peptides containing clusters of basic amino acids, as in synthetic fluorogenic peptidyl-Arg-7-amino-4-carbamoylmethylcoumarin (peptidyl-ACC) peptides and FRET peptides in the format of Abz-peptidyl-Q-EDDnp (where Abz=ortho-aminobenzoic acid and Q-EDDnp=glutaminyl-N-(2,4-dinitrophenyl) ethylenediamine), in which pairs or sequences of basic amino acids (R or K) were introduced. Surprisingly, KLK6 hydrolyzed the fluorogenic peptides Bz-A-R ↓ R-ACC and Z-R ↓ R-MCA between the two R groups, resulting in non-fluorescent products. FRET peptides containing furin processing sequences of human MMP-14, nerve growth factor (NGF), Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and Neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) were cleaved by KLK6 at the same position expected by furin. Finally, KLK6 cleaved FRET peptides derived from human proenkephalin after the KR, the more frequent basic residues flanking enkephalins in human proenkephalin sequence. This result suggests the ability of KLK6 to release enkephalin from proenkephalin precursors and resembles furin a canonical processing proteolytic enzyme. Molecular models of peptides were built into the KLK6 structure and the marked preference of the cut between the two R of the examined peptides was related to the extended conformation of the substrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Specificity studies on Kallikrein-related peptidase 7 (KLK7) and effects of osmolytes and glycosaminoglycans on its peptidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Juliana R; Bertolin, Thiago C; Andrade, Douglas; Oliveira, Lilian C G; Kondo, Marcia Y; Santos, Jorge A N; Blaber, Michael; Juliano, Luiz; Severino, Beatrice; Caliendo, Giuseppe; Santagada, Vincenzo; Juliano, Maria A

    2015-01-01

    KLK7 substrate specificity was evaluated by families of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) peptides derived from Abz-KLFSSK-Q-EDDnp (Abz=ortho-aminobenzoic acid and Q-EDDnp=glutaminyl-N-[2,4-dinitrophenyl] ethylenediamine), by one bead-one peptide FRET peptide library in PEGA resin, and by the FRET peptide libraries Abz-GXX-Z-XX-Q-EDDnp (Z and X are fixed and random natural amino acids, respectively). KLK7 hydrolyzed preferentially F, Y or M, and its S1' and S2' subsites showed selectivity for hydrophilic amino acids, particularly R and K. This set of specificities was confirmed by the efficient kininogenase activity of KLK7 on Abz-MISLM(↓)KRPPGFSPF(↓)RSSRI-NH2 ((↓)indicates cleavage), hydrolysis of somatostatin and substance P and inhibition by kallistatin. The peptide Abz-NLY(↓)RVE-Q-EDDnp is the best synthetic substrate so far described for KLK7 [kcat/Km=455 (mMs)(-1)] that was designed from the KLK7 substrate specificity analysis. It is noteworthy that the NLYRVE sequence is present in human semaphorin 6B. KLK7 is activated by GAGs, inhibited by neutral salts, and activated by high concentration of kosmotropic salt. Pyroglutamic acid inhibited KLK7 (Ki=33mM) and is present in skin moisturizing factor (124mM). The KLK7 specificity described here and elsewhere reflects its participation in patho-physiological events in skin, the gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system, where KLK7 is significantly expressed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Photoisomerization of Ethyl 2–(3–Acylselenoureidothiophene– 3–carboxylates and Their Benzoanalogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromir Marek

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis, isomerisation and structure elucidation of the title compounds 1–6 and its isomers 7–12 by FTIR, 1H, 13C, 15N, 77Se NMR spectroscopy is reported. Ethyl 2–(3–acylselenoureidothiophene–3–carboxylates and their benzoanalogues (where acyl is benzoyl and pivaloyl were prepared by addition of ethyl 2–aminothiophene–3–carboxylates and ethyl 2–aminobenzoate on benzoyl– or pivaloylisoselenocyanate in acetone solution. An isomerization of 1–6 to the corresponding 3–acylisoselenoureas 7–12 was obtained. The isomerisation proceeds either by irradiation with light (340–400 nm or in the case of benzoylderivatives 1, 3, 5 by treatment with acetic acid. On the other hand the acid action in the pivaloyl set inhibited this isomerisation and evoked the retroisomerisation reaction of 8, 10, 12 to 2, 4, 6. Thermal analyses showed that isomerisation can be initiated also by heating. These changes proceed in the solid phase as an exothermic process at an elevated temperature but always below the temperature of melting. The structure 2 was supported by X–ray analysis. Molecular design of 2 and 8 was modeled during application of ab initio quantum chemistry calculation.

  8. Chemically defined media for the cultivation of Naegleria: pathogenic and high temperature tolerant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerad, T A; Visvesvara, G; Daggett, P M

    1983-05-01

    Chemically defined minimal media for the cultivation of high temperature tolerant and pathogenic Naegleria spp. have been developed. A defined minimal medium, identical for N. fowleri and N. lovaniensis, consists of eleven amino acids (arginine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, threonine, tryptophan, and valine), six vitamins (biotin, folic acid, hemin, pyridoxal, riboflavin, and thiamine), guanosine, glucose, salts, and metals. Three of the four strains of Naegleria fowleri tested (ATCC 30100, ATCC 30863, and ATCC 30896) and two strains of N. lovaniensis (ATCC 30467 and ATCC 30569) could be cultured beyond ten subcultures on this medium. For N. fowleri ATCC 30894 diaminopimelic acid, or lysine, or glutamic acid was also required. Mean generation time was reduced and population density increased for all strains with the introduction of glutamic acid. Glucose could be eliminated from the minimal medium only if glutamic acid was present. Without glucose, mean generation time increased and population density decreased. Diaminopimelic acid could substitute for lysin for ATCC 30894, indicating that Naegleria species may synthesize their lysine via the DAP pathway. Naegleria fowleri ATCC 30100 could be adapted to grow without serine or glycine in the minimal medium with glutamic acid added, but with mean generation time increased and population density decreased. The strain could be grown in the minimal medium in the absence of metals. For growth of N. australiensis ATCC 30958, modification of the medium by increasing metals ten-fold, substituting guanine for guanosine and adding lysine, glutamic acid, and six vitamins (p-aminobenzoic acid, choline chloride, inositol, vitamin B12, nicotinamide, and Ca pantothenate) was required.

  9. Skin metabolism of aminophenols: Human keratinocytes as a suitable in vitro model to qualitatively predict the dermal transformation of 4-amino-2-hydroxytoluene in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goebel, C.; Hewitt, N.J.; Kunze, G.; Wenker, M.; Hein, D.W.; Beck, H.; Skare, J.

    2009-01-01

    4-Amino-2-hydroxytolune (AHT) is an aromatic amine ingredient in oxidative hair colouring products. As skin contact occurs during hair dyeing, characterisation of dermal metabolism is important for the safety assessment of this chemical class. We have compared the metabolism of AHT in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT with that observed ex-vivo in human skin and in vivo (topical application versus oral (p.o.) and intravenous (i.v.) route). Three major metabolites of AHT were excreted, i.e. N-acetyl-AHT, AHT-sulfate and AHT-glucuronide. When 12.5 mg/kg AHT was applied topically, the relative amounts of each metabolite were altered such that N-acetyl-AHT product was the major metabolite (66% of the dose in comparison with 37% and 32% of the same applied dose after i.v. and p.o. administration, respectively). N-acetylated products were the only metabolites detected in HaCaT cells and ex-vivo whole human skin discs for AHT and p-aminophenol (PAP), an aromatic amine known to undergo N-acetylation in vivo. Since N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) is the responsible enzyme, kinetics of AHT was further compared to the standard NAT1 substrate p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) in the HaCaT model revealing similar values for K m and V max . In conclusion NAT1 dependent dermal N-acetylation of AHT represents a 'first-pass' metabolism effect in the skin prior to entering the systemic circulation. Since the HaCaT cell model represents a suitable in vitro assay for addressing the qualitative contribution of the skin to the metabolism of topically-applied aromatic amines it may contribute to a reduction in animal testing

  10. Routes to new hafnium(IV) tetraaryl porphyrins and crystal structures of unusual phosphate-, sulfate-, and peroxide-bridged dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falber, Alexander; Todaro, Louis; Goldberg, Israel; Favilla, Michael V; Drain, Charles Michael

    2008-01-21

    New routes for the synthesis of mono tetraaryl porphyrinato hafnium(IV) complexes, Hf(IV)Por(L)(2), are reported, where the secondary ligands, L, are determined by the method of purification. These synthetic routes cater to the solubility of the macrocycles and provide access to Hf(IV) complexes of meso tetraaryl porphyrins bearing diverse functional groups such as phenyl, tolyl, pyridyl, pentafluorophenyl, and carboxyphenyl. The latter three derivatives significantly expand the repertoire of hafnium porphyrinates. One route refluxes the porphyrin with HfCl(4) in 1-chloronaphthalene or in a mixed solvent of 1-chloronaphthalene and o-cresol. A second, solventless method is also reported wherein the porphyrin is mixed with Hf(cp)(2)Cl(2) and heated to give the metalated porphyrin in good yields. Simultaneous purification and formation of stable porphyrinato hafnium(IV) diacetate complexes, Hf(Por)OAc(2), is accomplished by elution over silica gel using 3-5% acetic acid in the eluent. Exchange of the acetate ligands for other oxo-bearing ligands can be nearly quantitative, such as p-aminobenzoate (PABA), pentanoate (pent), or octanoate (oct). Notably, we find that two to three of a variety of small multitopic dianions such as peroxo (O(2)(-2)), SO(4)(-2), and HPO(4)(-2) serve to bridge between two Hf(Por) moieties to form stable dimers. The crystal structures of this library of Hf(Por) complexes are reported, and we note that careful analysis of crystallography data reveals (Por)Hf(micro-eta(2)-O(2))(2)Hf(Por) rather than four bridging oxo or hydroxy ions.

  11. A Paleolithic-type diet results in iodine deficiency: a 2-year randomized trial in postmenopausal obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manousou, S; Stål, M; Larsson, C; Mellberg, C; Lindahl, B; Eggertsen, R; Hulthén, L; Olsson, T; Ryberg, M; Sandberg, S; Nyström, H F

    2018-01-01

    Different diets are used for weight loss. A Paleolithic-type diet (PD) has beneficial metabolic effects, but two of the largest iodine sources, table salt and dairy products, are excluded. The objectives of this study were to compare 24-h urinary iodine concentration (24-UIC) in subjects on PD with 24-UIC in subjects on a diet according to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) and to study if PD results in a higher risk of developing iodine deficiency (ID), than NNR diet. A 2-year prospective randomized trial in a tertiary referral center where healthy postmenopausal overweight or obese women were randomized to either PD (n=35) or NNR diet (n=35). Dietary iodine intake, 24-UIC, 24-h urinary iodine excretion (24-UIE), free thyroxin (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and thyrotropin (TSH) were measured at baseline, 6 and 24 months. Completeness of urine sampling was monitored by para-aminobenzoic acid and salt intake by urinary sodium. At baseline, median 24-UIC (71.0 μg/l) and 24-UIE (134.0 μg/d) were similar in the PD and NNR groups. After 6 months, 24-UIC had decreased to 36.0 μg/l (P=0.001) and 24-UIE to 77.0 μg/d (P=0.001) in the PD group; in the NNR group, levels were unaltered. FT4, TSH and FT3 were similar in both groups, except for FT3 at 6 months being lower in PD than in NNR group. A PD results in a higher risk of developing ID, than a diet according to the NNR. Therefore, we suggest iodine supplementation should be considered when on a PD.

  12. Identification and dynamic modeling of biomarkers for bacterial uptake and effect of sulfonamide antimicrobials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, Merle K.; Focks, Andreas; Siegfried, Barbara; Rentsch, Daniel; Krauss, Martin; Schwarzenbach, René P.; Hollender, Juliane

    2013-01-01

    The effects of sulfathiazole (STA) on Escherichia coli with glucose as a growth substrate was investigated to elucidate the effect-based reaction of sulfonamides in bacteria and to identify biomarkers for bacterial uptake and effect. The predominant metabolite was identified as pterine-sulfathiazole by LC-high resolution mass spectrometry. The formation of pterine-sulfathiazole per cell was constant and independent of the extracellular STA concentrations, as they exceeded the modeled half-saturation concentration K M S of 0.011 μmol L −1 . The concentration of the dihydrofolic acid precursor para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) increased with growth and with concentrations of the competitor STA. This increase was counteracted for higher STA concentrations by growth inhibition as verified by model simulation of pABA dynamics. The EC value for the inhibition of pABA increase was 6.9 ± 0.7 μmol L −1 STA, which is similar to that calculated from optical density dynamics indicating that pABA is a direct biomarker for the SA effect. - Highlights: ► Elucidation of the effect-based reaction of sulfonamides in bacteria. ► Identification of a biomarker for uptake and effect-based reaction of sulfonamides. ► Investigation of a biomarker for the bacterial growth inhibition by sulfonamides. ► Quantitative mechanistic modeling of biomarker dynamics using enzyme kinetics. ► Mechanistic quantitative linking of sulfonamide concentrations and effects. - Identification of specific biomarkers for the uptake and effect-based reaction of sulfonamides in bacteria and resulting growth inhibition.

  13. Folate Production by Probiotic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Raimondi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic bacteria, mostly belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, confer a number of health benefits to the host, including vitamin production. With the aim to produce folate-enriched fermented products and/or develop probiotic supplements that accomplish folate biosynthesis in vivo within the colon, bifidobacteria and lactobacilli have been extensively studied for their capability to produce this vitamin. On the basis of physiological studies and genome analysis, wild-type lactobacilli cannot synthesize folate, generally require it for growth, and provide a negative contribution to folate levels in fermented dairy products. Lactobacillus plantarum constitutes an exception among lactobacilli, since it is capable of folate production in presence of para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA and deserves to be used in animal trials to validate its ability to produce the vitamin in vivo. On the other hand, several folate-producing strains have been selected within the genus Bifidobacterium, with a great variability in the extent of vitamin released in the medium. Most of them belong to the species B. adolescentis and B. pseudocatenulatum, but few folate producing strains are found in the other species as well. Rats fed a probiotic formulation of folate-producing bifidobacteria exhibited increased plasma folate level, confirming that the vitamin is produced in vivo and absorbed. In a human trial, the same supplement raised folate concentration in feces. The use of folate-producing probiotic strains can be regarded as a new perspective in the specific use of probiotics. They could more efficiently confer protection against inflammation and cancer, both exerting the beneficial effects of probiotics and preventing the folate deficiency that is associated with premalignant changes in the colonic epithelia.

  14. IL-4-induced gene-1 is a leukocyte L-amino acid oxidase with an unusual acidic pH preference and lysosomal localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, James M; Naidu, Mamta D; Barcia, Michele; Porti, Debra; Chavan, Sangeeta S; Chu, Charles C

    2004-10-01

    IL-4-induced gene-1 (Il4i1 or Fig1) initially isolated as a gene of unknown function from mouse B lymphocytes, is limited in expression to primarily immune tissues and genetically maps to a region of susceptibility to autoimmune disease. The predicted Il4i1 protein (IL4I1) sequence is most similar to apoptosis-inducing protein and Apoxin I, both l-amino acid oxidases (LAAO; Enzyme Commission 1.4.3.2). We demonstrate that IL4I1 has unique LAAO properties. IL4I1 has preference for aromatic amino acid substrates, having highest specific activity with phenylalanine. In support of this selectivity, IL4I1 is inhibited by aromatic competitors (benzoic acid and para-aminobenzoic acid), but not by nonaromatic LAAO inhibitors. Il4i1 protein and enzyme activity is found in the insoluble fraction of transient transfections, implying an association with cell membrane and possibly intracellular organelles. Indeed, IL4I1 has the unique property of being most active at acidic pH (pH 4), suggesting it may reside preferentially in lysosomes. IL4I1 is N-linked glycosylated, a requirement for lysosomal localization. Confocal microscopy of cells expressing IL4I1 translationally fused to red fluorescent protein demonstrated that IL4I1 colocalized with GFP targeted to lysosomes and with acriflavine, a green fluorescent dye that is taken up into lysosomes. Thus, IL4I1 is a unique mammalian LAAO targeted to lysosomes, an important subcellular compartment involved in Ag processing.

  15. Prussian blue mediated amplification combined with signal enhancement of ordered mesoporous carbon for ultrasensitive and specific quantification of metolcarb by a three-dimensional molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yukun; Cao, Yaoyu; Wang, Xiaomin; Fang, Guozhen; Wang, Shuo

    2015-02-15

    In this work, we presented a three-dimensional (3D) molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor (MIECS) with novel strategy for ultrasensitive and specific quantification of metolcarb based on prussian blue (PB) mediated amplification combined with signal enhancement of ordered mesoporous carbon. The molecularly imprinted polymers were synthesized by electrochemically induced redox polymerization of para aminobenzoic acid (p-ABA) in the presence of template metolcarb. Ordered mesoporous carbon material (CMK-3) was introduced to enhance the electrochemical response by improving the structure of the modified electrodes and facilitating charge transfer processes of PB which was used as an inherent electrochemical active probe. The modification process for the working electrodes of the MIECS was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV), and several important parameters controlling the performance of the MIECS were investigated and optimized in detail. The MIECS with 3D structure had the advantages of ease of preparation, high porous surface structure, speedy response, ultrasensitivity, selectivity, reliable stability, good reproducibility and repeatability. Under the optimal conditions, the MIECS offered an excellent current response for metolcarb in the linear response range of 5.0 × 10(-10)-1.0 × 10(-4) mol L(-1) and the limit of detection (LOD) was calculated to be 9.3 × 10 (-11)mol L(-1) (S/N = 3). The proposed MIECS has been successfully applied for the determination of metolcarb in real samples with satisfactory recoveries. Furthermore, the construction route of this ultrasensitive 3D MIECS may provide a guideline for the determination of non-electroactive analytes in environmental control and food safety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A novel, simple and inexpensive procedure for the simultaneous determination of iopamidol and p-aminohippuric acid for renal function assessment from plasma samples in awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Romero, Violeta; González-Villalva, Karla I; Reyes, José L; Franco-Bourland, Rebecca E; Guízar-Sahagún, Gabriel; Castañeda-Hernández, Gilberto; Cruz-Antonio, Leticia

    2015-03-25

    The purpose of the current study was to design, validate and implement a novel analytical method for the simultaneous plasma measurement of iopamidol and p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) to estimate renal function in awake rats. A reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for the simultaneous measurement of iopamidol (for glomerular filtration rate estimation, GFR) and PAH (for tubular secretion determination, TS) was designed and validated using a C-18 column, 0.1M acetic acid-10% acetonitrile (90:10, v/v) as mobile phase, at a flow rate of 0.3 ml/min, and UV detection at 270 nm. Iopamidol (244.8 mg/kg) was administered intravenously followed immediately by sodium PAH (100 mg/kg) to healthy female Sprague-Dawley rats. Plasma samples obtained at 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after drug administration were deproteinized with 2.5% trichloroacetic acid containing p-aminobenzoic acid as internal standard, and separated by the validated RP-HPLC method described above. The iopamidol and PAH chromatographic data were analyzed using a non-compartmental model. The results demonstrated that the RP-HPLC method was linear in ranges between 15-120 μg/ml and 2.5-120 μg/ml for iopamidol and PAH, respectively. Precision and accuracy were within 15% for both drugs. Recovery of iopamidol and PAH was 92% and 100%, respectively. Plasma iopamidol and PAH clearances in awake rats, estimates for GFR and TS, respectively, were 1.49±0.20 ml/min and 3.73±0.38 ml/min. In conclusion, the method here described is a simple and reliable procedure, for the simultaneous and time-saving determination of GFR and TS from plasma samples in the conscious rat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis and in Vitro and in Vivo Anticoagulant and Antiplatelet Activities of Amidino- and Non-Amidinobenzamides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Hyun Lee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Three amidino- and ten non-amidinobenzamides were synthesized as 3-aminobenzoic acid scaffold-based anticoagulant and antiplatelet compounds. The anticoagulant activities of thirteen synthesized compounds 1–13, and 2b and 3b as prodrugs were preliminary evaluated by screening the prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT and prothrombin time (PT in vitro. From the aPTT results obtained, two amidinobenzamides, N-(3′-amidinophenyl-3-(thiophen-2′′-ylcarbonylamino benzamide (1, 33.2 ± 0.7 s and N-(4′-amidinophenyl-3-(thiophen-2′′-ylcarbonylamino benzamide (2, 43.5 ± 0.6 s were selected to investigate the further anticoagulant and antiplatelet activities. The aPTT results of 1 (33.2 ± 0.7 s and 2 (43.5 ± 0.6 s were compared with heparin (62.5 ± 0.8 s in vitro at 30 μM. We investigated the effect of 1 and 2 on blood anticoagulant activity (ex vivo and on tail bleeding time (in vivo on mice. A tail cutting/bleeding time assay revealed that both 1 and 2 prolonged bleeding time in mice at a dose of 24.1 g/mouse and above. Compounds 1 and 2 dose-dependently inhibited thrombin-catalyzed fibrin polymerization and platelet aggregation. In addition, 1 and 2 were evaluated on the inhibitory activities of thrombin and FXa as well as the generation of thrombin and FXa in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Collectively, 1 and 2 possess some antiplatelet and anticoagulant activities and offer a basis for development of a novel antithrombotic product.

  18. Cloning and Expression of the Benzoate Dioxygenase Genes from Rhodococcus sp. Strain 19070

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Sandra; Eby, D. Matthew; Neidle, Ellen L.

    2001-01-01

    The bopXYZ genes from the gram-positive bacterium Rhodococcus sp. strain 19070 encode a broad-substrate-specific benzoate dioxygenase. Expression of the BopXY terminal oxygenase enabled Escherichia coli to convert benzoate or anthranilate (2-aminobenzoate) to a nonaromatic cis-diol or catechol, respectively. This expression system also rapidly transformed m-toluate (3-methylbenzoate) to an unidentified product. In contrast, 2-chlorobenzoate was not a good substrate. The BopXYZ dioxygenase was homologous to the chromosomally encoded benzoate dioxygenase (BenABC) and the plasmid-encoded toluate dioxygenase (XylXYZ) of gram-negative acinetobacters and pseudomonads. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis failed to identify any plasmid in Rhodococcus sp. strain 19070. Catechol 1,2- and 2,3-dioxygenase activity indicated that strain 19070 possesses both meta- and ortho-cleavage degradative pathways, which are associated in pseudomonads with the xyl and ben genes, respectively. Open reading frames downstream of bopXYZ, designated bopL and bopK, resembled genes encoding cis-diol dehydrogenases and benzoate transporters, respectively. The bop genes were in the same order as the chromosomal ben genes of P. putida PRS2000. The deduced sequences of BopXY were 50 to 60% identical to the corresponding proteins of benzoate and toluate dioxygenases. The reductase components of these latter dioxygenases, BenC and XylZ, are 201 residues shorter than the deduced BopZ sequence. As predicted from the sequence, expression of BopZ in E. coli yielded an approximately 60-kDa protein whose presence corresponded to increased cytochrome c reductase activity. While the N-terminal region of BopZ was approximately 50% identical in sequence to the entire BenC or XylZ reductases, the C terminus was unlike other known protein sequences. PMID:11375157

  19. Functionalization of glassy carbon surface by means of aliphatic and aromatic amino acids. An experimental and theoretical integrated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanossi, Davide; Benassi, Rois; Parenti, Francesca; Tassinari, Francesco; Giovanardi, Roberto; Florini, Nicola; De Renzi, Valentina; Arnaud, Gaelle; Fontanesi, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Glassy carbon is functionalized via electrochemical assisted grafting of amino acids. ► The grafting mechanism is suggested to involve the “zwitterionic” species. ► DFT calculations allowed to determine the electroactive species. ► An original grafting mechanism is proposed. - Abstract: Glassy carbon (GC) electrode surfaces are functionalized through electrochemical assisted grafting, in oxidation regime, of six amino acids (AA): β-alanine (β-Ala), L-aspartic acid (Asp), 11-aminoundecanoic acid (UA), 4-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), 4-(4-amino-phenyl)-butyric acid (PFB), 3-(4-amino-phenyl)-propionic acid (PFP). Thus, a GC/AA interface is produced featuring carboxylic groups facing the solution. Electrochemical (cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) and XPS techniques are used to experimentally characterize the grafting process and the surface state. The theoretical results are compared with the experimental evidence to determine, at a molecular level, the overall grafting mechanism. Ionization potentials, standard oxidation potentials, HOMO and electron spin distributions are calculated at the CCD/6-31G* level of the theory. The comparison of experimental and theoretical data suggests that the main electroactive species is the “zwitterionic” form for the three aliphatic amino acids, while the amino acids featuring the amino group bound to the phenyl aromatic moiety show a different behaviour. The comparison between experimental and theoretical results suggests that both the neutral and the zwitterionic forms are present in the acetonitrile solution in the case of 4-(4-amino-phenyl)-butyric acid (PFB) and 3-(4-amino-phenyl)-propionic acid.

  20. Vitamins for enhancing plant resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubakri, Hatem; Gargouri, Mahmoud; Mliki, Ahmed; Brini, Faiçal; Chong, Julie; Jbara, Moez

    2016-09-01

    This paper provides an overview on vitamins with inducing activities in plants, the molecular and cellular mechanisms implicated, and the hormonal signalling-network regulating this process. Moreover, it reports how vitamins might be part of the molecular events linked to induced resistance by the conventional elicitors. Induced resistance (IR), exploiting the plant innate-defense system is a sustainable strategy for plant disease control. In the last decade, vitamins have been proven to act as inducers of disease resistance, and these findings have received an important attention owing to their safety and cost effectiveness. Vitamins, including thiamine (TH, vitamin B1), riboflavin (RF, vitamin B2), menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB, vitamin K3), Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA, vitamin Bx), and folic acid (FA, vitamin B9) provided an efficient protection against a wide range of pathogens through the modulation of specific host-defense facets. However, other vitamins, such as ascorbic acid (AA, vitamin C) and tocopherols (vitamin E), have been shown to be a part of the molecular mechanisms associated to IR. The present review is the first to summarize what vitamins are acting as inducers of disease resistance in plants and how could they be modulated by the conventional elicitors. Thus, this report provides an overview on the protective abilities of vitamins and the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying their activities. Moreover, it describes the hormonal-signalling network regulating vitamin-signal transduction during IR. Finally, a biochemical model describing how vitamins are involved in the establishment of IR process is discussed.

  1. Reactive low temperature plasma ionization mass spectrometry for the determination of organic UV filters in personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xuelu; Gerbig, Stefanie; Spengler, Bernhard; Schulz, Sabine

    2018-02-01

    Organic UV filters in personal care products (PCPs) have been persistently reported as a potential threat to human health. In order to guarantee consumers ' safety, the dose of these compounds in PCPs needs to be monitored. Here, a methodology based on reactive low temperature plasma ionization (LTP) mass spectrometry (MS) has been developed for the determination of common organic UV filters in PCPs including benzophenone-3, ethylhexyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoic acid, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, octocrylene, and ethylhexyl salicylate. The experiments were carried out in transmission geometry where the LTP ion source, samples loaded on a stainless steel mesh, and the MS inlet were aligned coaxially. Four chemicals, ammonia, ammonium formate, aniline, and methylamine were considered as reactive additives allowing reactions with the UV filters through different mechanisms. Methylamine-induced reactive LTP-MS showed the most prominent improvement on the detection of UV filter compounds. Compared to direct LTP-MS, the developed method improved the detection limits of UV filters more than 10 fold. Moreover, the method enabled fast semi-quantitative screening of UV filters in authentic PCPs. Concentrations of active ingredients in eight authentic PCPs as determined with reactive LTP-MS were found comparable to values offered by the cosmetic companies and corresponding HPLC data. The methodology provides high throughput analysis (70s per sample) and sensitive identification of organic UV filters. Lowest detectable concentrations ranged from 0.13µg/g for 4-methylbenzylidene camphor to 7.67µg/g for octocrylene in spiked cream. In addition, it shows the potential to be used as a screening tool for legal authentications of these chemicals in the future due to its semi-quantitative determination of UV filters in PCPs without tedious sample preparation and time-consuming chromatographic separation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sorption and degradation of selected organic UV filters (BM-DBM, 4-MBC, and OD-PABA) in laboratory water-sediment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Lu, Guanghua; Xie, Zhengxin; Ding, Jiannan; Liu, Jianchao; Li, Yi

    2016-05-01

    Organic UV filters that have been widely used in sunscreens and other personal care products have drawn much public concern because of their widespread contamination in the environment and their potential ecological risks to ecosystems. We selected three UV filters with high frequency of detection in the environment, namely butyl methoxy dibenzoylmethane (BM-DBM), ethylhexyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoate (OD-PABA), and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), to investigate the sorption and degradation behaviors of these compounds in lab-scale water-sediment systems set up with natural water and sediment samples collected from different rivers and lakes (i.e., Yangtze River, Qinhuai River, Xuanwu Lake, and Mochou Lake) in Nanjing, East China. The sorption isotherms of these UV filters were well described by the Freundlich equation (C s   = K f  × C w (n) ). The sorption of three UV filters in four sediments was all linear or close to it, with n values between 0.92 and 1.13. A moderate to strong sorption affinity was observed for these compounds, and the sorption appears to be irreversible. For the combined sorption and degradation studies, sorption was found to be a primary mechanism for the disappearance of these UV filters from the water phase, and biotransformation appears to be the predominant factor for the degradation of the target compounds in the water-sediment systems. All three UV filters were found to be slightly resistant to the microbes in these systems, with DT50total and DT90total values-the disappearance time (DT) describes the time in which the initial total mass of the UV filters in the whole system is reduced by 50 and 90 %-ranging between 18 and 31 days and 68 and 101 days, respectively.

  3. A new carbon-based magnetic material for the dispersive solid-phase extraction of UV filters from water samples before liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesana, Susy; Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; La Barbera, Giorgia; Samperi, Roberto; Zenezini Chiozzi, Riccardo; Laganà, Aldo

    2017-07-01

    Magnetic solid-phase extraction is one of the most promising new extraction methods for liquid samples before ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis. Several types of materials, including carbonaceous ones, have been prepared for this purpose. In this paper, for the first time, the preparation, characterization, and sorption capability of Fe 3 O 4 -graphitized carbon black (mGCB) composite toward some compounds of environmental interest were investigated. The synthesized mGCB consisted of micrometric GCB particles with 55 m 2  g -1 surface area bearing some carbonyl and hydroxyl functionalities and the surface partially decorated by Fe 3 O 4 microparticles. The prepared mGCB was firstly tested as an adsorbent for the extraction from surface water of 50 pollutants, including estrogens, perfluoroalkyl compounds, UV filters, and quinolones. The material showed good affinity to many of the tested compounds, except carboxylates and glucoronates; however, some compounds were difficult to desorb. Ten UV filters belonging to the chemical classes of benzophenones and p-aminobenzoates were selected, and parameters were optimized for the extraction of these compounds from surface water before UHPLC-MS/MS determination. Then, the method was validated in terms of linearity, trueness, intra-laboratory precision, and detection and quantification limits. In summary, the method performance (trueness, expressed as analytical recovery, 85-114%; RSD 5-15%) appears suitable for the determination of the selected compounds at the level of 10-100 ng L -1 , with detection limits in the range of 1-5 ng L -1 . Finally, the new method was compared with a published one, based on conventional solid-phase extraction with GCB, showing similar performance in real sample analysis. Graphical Abstract Workflow of the analytical method based on magnetic solid-phase extraction followed by LC-MS/MS determination.

  4. Sunscreens: are they beneficial for health? An overview of endocrine disrupting properties of UV-filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, M; Klit, A; Blomberg Jensen, M; Søeborg, T; Frederiksen, H; Schlumpf, M; Lichtensteiger, W; Skakkebaek, N E; Drzewiecki, K T

    2012-06-01

    Today, topical application of sunscreens, containing ultraviolet-filters (UV-filters), is preferred protection against adverse effects of ultraviolet radiation. Evidently, use of sunscreens is effective in prevention of sunburns in various models. However, evidence for their protective effects against melanoma skin cancer is less conclusive. Three important observations prompted us to review the animal data and human studies on possible side effects of selected chemical UV-filters in cosmetics. (1) the utilization of sunscreens with UV-filters is increasing worldwide; (2) the incidence of the malignant disorder for which sunscreens should protect, malignant melanoma, is rapidly increasing and (3) an increasing number of experimental studies indicating that several UV-filters might have endocrine disruptive effects. The selected UV-filters we review in this article are benzophenone-3 (BP-3), 3-benzylidene camphor (3-BC), 3-(4-methyl-benzylidene) camphor (4-MBC), 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxy cinnamate (OMC), Homosalate (HMS), 2-ethylhexyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate (OD-PABA) and 4-aminobenzoic acid (PABA). The potential adverse effects induced by UV-filters in experimental animals include reproductive/developmental toxicity and disturbance of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT). Few human studies have investigated potential side effects of UV-filters, although human exposure is high as UV-filters in sunscreens are rapidly absorbed from the skin. One of the UV-filters, BP-3, has been found in 96% of urine samples in the US and several UV-filters in 85% of Swiss breast milk samples. It seems pertinent to evaluate whether exposure to UV-filters contribute to possible adverse effects on the developing organs of foetuses and children. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2012 European Academy of Andrology.

  5. Synthesis of some new thioxoquinazolinone derivatives and a study on their anticonvulsant and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, A; Rajamanickam, V; Darlinquine, S

    2013-01-01

    A series of ten novel derivatives of 3-substituted-2-thioxoquinazolin-4(3H)-ones have been synthesized from anthranilic acid via Mannich reaction with various secondary amines in presence of formaldehyde in ice cold condition. The structure of these compounds have been elucidated by spectral (FTIR, 1H-NMR and mass) analysis. The titled compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial and anticonvulsant activities. Antimicrobial activities were determined by cup plate method and MIC values using the micro dilution broth method against two Gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus aureus, two Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris and against two fungi Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Amikacin and fluconazole were used as standard antibacterial and antifungal agents in the concentration of 10 µg/disc 20 µg/disc respectively. Amongst the compounds tested, compound 2-(2,3-dimethylphenyl) (3-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-4-oxo-2-thioxo-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-1-2H)-1ylmethyl amino)benzoic acid (PTQ-03) and 2-((2,3-dimethylphenyl)((3-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-4-oxo-2-thioxo-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-1(2H)-yl)methyl)amino)benzoic acid (ETQ-03) showed broad spectrum of activity against all the tested Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria and the fungi. Anti-convulsant activity of the compounds was evaluated by maximal electro shock (MES) convulsion method. The compounds sodium 2-(2-((2,6-Dichlorophenyl)(3-(4-oxo-2-thioxo-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-1(2H)-yl)methyl)amino) phenyl acetate (PTQ-04) and N-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-N-((3-naphthalen-2-yl)-4-oxo-2-thioxo-3,4-dihydorquinazolin-1(2H)-ylmethyl)acetamide (NTQ-01) showed potent anticonvulsant activity.

  6. Different behavior of myeloperoxidase in two rodent amoebic liver abscess models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cruz-Baquero

    Full Text Available The protozoan Entamoeba histolytica is the etiological agent of amoebiasis, which can spread to the liver and form amoebic liver abscesses. Histological studies conducted with resistant and susceptible models of amoebic liver abscesses (ALAs have established that neutrophils are the first cells to contact invasive amoebae at the lesion site. Myeloperoxidase is the most abundant enzyme secreted by neutrophils. It uses hydrogen peroxide secreted by the same cells to oxidize chloride ions and produce hypochlorous acid, which is the most efficient microbicidal system of neutrophils. In a previous report, our group demonstrated that myeloperoxidase presents amoebicidal activity in vitro. The aim of the current contribution was to analyze in vivo the role of myeloperoxidase in a susceptible (hamsters and resistant (Balb/c mice animal models of ALAs. In liver samples of hamsters and mice inoculated intraportally with Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites, the number of neutrophils in ALAs was determined by enzymatic activity. The presence of myeloperoxidase was observed by staining, and its expression and activity were quantified in situ. A significant difference existed between the two animal models in the number of neutrophils and the expression and activity of myeloperoxidase, which may explain the distinct evolution of amoebic liver abscesses. Hamsters and mice were treated with an MPO inhibitor (4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide. Hamsters treated with ABAH showed no significant differences in the percentage of lesions or in the percentage of amoebae damaged compared with the untreated hamsters. ABAH treated mice versus untreated mice showed larger abscesses and a decreased percentage of damaged amoebae in these lesion at all stages of evolution. Further studies are needed to elucidate the host and amoebic mechanisms involved in the adequate or inadequate activation and modulation of myeloperoxidase.

  7. A pyrroloquinolinequinone-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (PQQ-GDH)-electrode with direct electron transfer based on polyaniline modified carbon nanotubes for biofuel cell application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubart, Ivo W.; Göbel, Gero; Lisdat, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: In this study we present a pyrroloquinolinequinone-dependent glucose dehydrogenase [(PQQ)-GDH] electrode with direct electron transfer between the enzyme and electrode. Soluble pyrroloquinolinequinone-dependent glucose dehydrogenase from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus is covalently bound to an electropolymerized polyaniline copolymer film on a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-modified gold electrode. The pulsed electropolymerization of 2-methoxyaniline-5-sulfonic acid (MASA) and m-aminobenzoic acid (ABA) is optimized with respect to the efficiency of the bioelectrocatalytic conversion of glucose. The glucose oxidation starts at −0.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl and current densities up to 500 μA/cm 2 at low potential of +0.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl can be achieved. The electrode shows a glucose sensitivity in the range from 0.1 mM to 5 mM at a potential of +0.1 V vs. Ag/Ag/Cl. The dynamic range is extended to 100 mM at +0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The electron transfer mechanism is studied and buffer effects are investigated. The developed enzyme electrode is examined for bioenergetic application by assembling of a membrane-less biofuel cell. For the cathode a bilirubin oxidase (BOD) based MWCNT-modified gold electrode with direct electron transfer (DET) is used. The biofuel cell exhibits a cell potential of 680 ± 20 mV and a maximum power density of up to 65 μW/cm 2 at 350 mV vs. Ag/AgCl.

  8. LC/MS/MS identification of some folic acid degradation products after E-beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araújo, M.M.; Marchioni, E.; Zhao, M.; Kuntz, F.; Di Pascoli, T.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Bergaentzle, M.

    2012-01-01

    Folates belong to the B vitamin group based on the parental compound folic acid (FA). They are involved in important biochemical processes like DNA synthesis and repair. FA is composed of a pteridine ring, p-aminobenzoic acid and glutamate moieties. The human metabolism is not able to synthesize folates and therefore obtain them from diet. FA, a synthetic vitamin, is used as a food fortificant because of its low price, relative stability and increased bioavailability compared to natural folate forms. FA is known to be a sensitive compound easily degradable in aqueous solution by ultraviolet and visible light towards various by-products. Irradiation is a process for preservation of foods that uses accelerated electrons, gamma rays or X-rays. Irradiation is proposed for the treatment of various food products, eliminating or reducing pathogens and insects, increasing the storage time and replacing chemical fumigants. This study concerns the identification of degradation products of FA after E-beam irradiation. FA aqueous solutions were irradiated with a Van de Graaff electrons beam accelerator (2 MeV, 100 μA current, 20 cm scan width, dose rate about 2 kGy/s). Applied doses were between 0 (control) and 10.0 kGy. Absorbed doses were monitored with FWT 60.00 radiochromic dosimeters. - Highlights: ► We investigated the degradation of folic acid aqueous solution after electron beam treatment. ► Radiation doses over 5 kGy promote huge folic acid degradation and appearance of several degradation products. ► PCA, PABA and pABGA, already known folic acid degradation products, are formed due to E-beam treatment. ► Xanthopterin, a new radio-induced breakdown product, is formed after irradiation treatment.

  9. Human COQ9 Rescues a coq9 Yeast Mutant by Enhancing Coenzyme Q Biosynthesis from 4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid and Stabilizing the CoQ-Synthome

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Cuiwen H.; Black, Dylan S.; Allan, Christopher M.; Meunier, Brigitte; Rahman, Shamima; Clarke, Catherine F.

    2017-01-01

    Coq9 is required for the stability of a mitochondrial multi-subunit complex, termed the CoQ-synthome, and the deamination step of Q intermediates that derive from para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) in yeast. In human, mutations in the COQ9 gene cause neonatal-onset primary Q10 deficiency. In this study, we determined whether expression of human COQ9 could complement yeast coq9 point or null mutants. We found that expression of human COQ9 rescues the growth of the temperature-sensitive yeast mutant, coq9-ts19, on a non-fermentable carbon source and increases the content of Q6, by enhancing Q biosynthesis from 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4HB). To study the mechanism for the rescue by human COQ9, we determined the steady-state levels of yeast Coq polypeptides in the mitochondria of the temperature-sensitive yeast coq9 mutant expressing human COQ9. We show that the expression of human COQ9 significantly increased steady-state levels of yeast Coq4, Coq6, Coq7, and Coq9 at permissive temperature. Human COQ9 polypeptide levels persisted at non-permissive temperature. A small amount of the human COQ9 co-purified with tagged Coq6, Coq6-CNAP, indicating that human COQ9 interacts with the yeast Q-biosynthetic complex. These findings suggest that human COQ9 rescues the yeast coq9 temperature-sensitive mutant by stabilizing the CoQ-synthome and increasing Q biosynthesis from 4HB. This finding provides a powerful approach to studying the function of human COQ9 using yeast as a model. PMID:28736527

  10. Human COQ9 Rescues a coq9 Yeast Mutant by Enhancing Coenzyme Q Biosynthesis from 4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid and Stabilizing the CoQ-Synthome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuiwen H. He

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Coq9 is required for the stability of a mitochondrial multi-subunit complex, termed the CoQ-synthome, and the deamination step of Q intermediates that derive from para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA in yeast. In human, mutations in the COQ9 gene cause neonatal-onset primary Q10 deficiency. In this study, we determined whether expression of human COQ9 could complement yeast coq9 point or null mutants. We found that expression of human COQ9 rescues the growth of the temperature-sensitive yeast mutant, coq9-ts19, on a non-fermentable carbon source and increases the content of Q6, by enhancing Q biosynthesis from 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4HB. To study the mechanism for the rescue by human COQ9, we determined the steady-state levels of yeast Coq polypeptides in the mitochondria of the temperature-sensitive yeast coq9 mutant expressing human COQ9. We show that the expression of human COQ9 significantly increased steady-state levels of yeast Coq4, Coq6, Coq7, and Coq9 at permissive temperature. Human COQ9 polypeptide levels persisted at non-permissive temperature. A small amount of the human COQ9 co-purified with tagged Coq6, Coq6-CNAP, indicating that human COQ9 interacts with the yeast Q-biosynthetic complex. These findings suggest that human COQ9 rescues the yeast coq9 temperature-sensitive mutant by stabilizing the CoQ-synthome and increasing Q biosynthesis from 4HB. This finding provides a powerful approach to studying the function of human COQ9 using yeast as a model.

  11. Rationalization of reduced penetration of drugs through ceramide gel phase membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloncýová, Markéta; DeVane, Russell H; Murch, Bruce P; Berka, Karel; Otyepka, Michal

    2014-11-25

    Since computing resources have advanced enough to allow routine molecular simulation studies of drug molecules interacting with biologically relevant membranes, a considerable amount of work has been carried out with fluid phospholipid systems. However, there is very little work in the literature on drug interactions with gel phase lipids. This poses a significant limitation for understanding permeation through the stratum corneum where the primary pathway is expected to be through a highly ordered lipid matrix. To address this point, we analyzed the interactions of p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and its ethyl (benzocaine) and butyl (butamben) esters with two membrane bilayers, which differ in their fluidity at ambient conditions. We considered a dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayer in a fluid state and a ceramide 2 (CER2, ceramide NS) bilayer in a gel phase. We carried out unbiased (100 ns long) and biased z-constraint molecular dynamics simulations and calculated the free energy profiles of all molecules along the bilayer normal. The free energy profiles converged significantly slower for the gel phase. While the compounds have comparable affinities for both membranes, they exhibit penetration barriers almost 3 times higher in the gel phase CER2 bilayer. This elevated barrier and slower diffusion in the CER2 bilayer, which are caused by the high ordering of CER2 lipid chains, explain the low permeability of the gel phase membranes. We also compared the free energy profiles from MD simulations with those obtained from COSMOmic. This method provided the same trends in behavior for the guest molecules in both bilayers; however, the penetration barriers calculated by COSMOmic did not differ between membranes. In conclusion, we show how membrane fluid properties affect the interaction of drug-like molecules with membranes.

  12. Comparative Evaluation of Four Presumptive Tests for Blood to Detect Epithelial Injury on Fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colotelo, Alison HA; Smokorowski, Karen; Haxton, Tim; Cooke, Steven J.

    2014-06-01

    Current methods of fish epithelial injury detection are limited to gross macroscopic examination that has a subjective bias as well as an inability to reliably quantify the degree of injury. Fluorescein, a presumptive test for blood, has been shown to have the capability to detect and quantify fish epithelial injury. However, there are several other presumptive tests for blood (Bluestar*, phenolphthalein, and HemastixH) that may have benefits over the use of fluorescein, particularly for field research on wild fish. This study investigated the capabilities of these four tests to detect and quantify a variety of injuries commonly encountered by fish (abrasion, cuts, fin frays, and punctures) using the freshwater bluegill Lepomis macrochirus as a model. Fluorescein was consistently found to be the most reliable (i.e., detected the highest proportion of true positive results and rarely detected false positive reactions) of the four presumptive tests for blood compared. Further testing was conducted to examine the reliability of fluorescein. By 24 h after an injury was inflicted, the injury was no longer detectable by fluorescein, and when fluorescein was applied to an injured fish, the fluorescein was no longer detectable 3 h after application. In a comparison of two common anaesthetics used in fisheries research, there was no significant difference in the proportion of injury detected when 3- aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester methanesulfate (tricaine) was used compared with a clove oil and ethanol (1:9) solution. In summary, fluorescein was the most reliable presumptive test for blood examined in this study for the detection and quantification of recent (hours) fish epithelial injury.

  13. Comparação entre a composição química e capacidade antioxidante de diferentes extratos de própolis verde#

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda B. Salgueiro

    Full Text Available In this work were determined the total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity and chemical composition of twelve samples of green propolis acquired from beekeepers and other twelve commercial extracts samples from different regions of Southeast Brazil. The phenolic contents and the antioxidant activity were evaluated by the Folin-Ciocalteau and DPPH, ABTS and FRAP methods, respectively. Both types of propolis showed significant radical scavenging properties. HPLC-PDA was applied for quantification of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, para-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, vanillin, hesperidin, naringenin, pinobanksin, kaempferol, Artepillin-C (4-hydroxy-3,5-diprenyl cinnamic acid, kampheride and pinostrobin. Despite the chemical composition of both in natura and commercial propolis extracts were similar the multivariate analysis allowed the discrimination between them.

  14. Synthesis and oxidation of CpIrIII compounds: functionalization of a Cp methyl group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park-Gehrke, Lisa S; Freudenthal, John; Kaminsky, Werner; Dipasquale, Antonio G; Mayer, James M

    2009-03-21

    [CpIrCl(2)](2) () and new CpIr(III)(L-L)X complexes (L-L = N-O or C-N chelating ligands; X = Cl, I, Me) have been prepared and their reactivity with two-electron chemical oxidants explored. Reaction of with PhI(OAc)(2) in wet solvents yields a new chloro-bridged dimer in which each of the Cp ligands has been singly acetoxylated to form [Cp(OAc)Ir(III)Cl(2)](2) () (Cp(OAc) = eta(5)-C(5)Me(4)CH(2)OAc). Complex and related carboxy- and alkoxy-functionalized Cp(OR) complexes can also be prepared from plus (PhIO)(n) and ROH. [Cp(OAc)Ir(III)Cl(2)](2) () and the methoxy analogue [Cp(OMe)Ir(III)Cl(2)](2) () have been structurally characterized. Treatment of [CpIrCl(2)](2) () with 2-phenylpyridine yields CpIr(III)(ppy)Cl () (ppy = cyclometallated 2-phenylpyridyl) which is readily converted to its iodide and methyl analogues CpIr(III)(ppy)I and CpIr(III)(ppy)Me (). CpIr(III) complexes were also prepared with N-O chelating ligands derived from anthranilic acid (2-aminobenzoic acid) and alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (H(2)NCMe(2)COOH), ligands chosen to be relatively oxidation resistant. These complexes and were reacted with potential two-electron oxidants including PhI(OAc)(2), hexachlorocyclohexadienone (C(6)Cl(6)O), N-fluoro-2,4,6-trimethylpyridinium (Me(3)pyF(+)), [Me(3)O]BF(4) and MeOTf (OTf = triflate, CF(3)SO(3)). Iridium(V) complexes were not observed or implicated in these reactions, despite the similarity of the potential products to known CpIr(V) species. The carbon electrophiles [Me(3)O]BF(4) and MeOTf appear to react preferentially at the N-O ligands, to give methyl esters in some cases. Overall, the results indicate that Cp is not inert under oxidizing conditions and is therefore not a good supporting ligand for oxidizing organometallic complexes.

  15. Indium tin oxide with zwitterionic interfacial design for biosensing applications in complex matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darwish, Nadia T.; Alias, Yatimah; Khor, Sook Mei, E-mail: naomikhor@um.edu.my

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The incorporation of a linker and antifouling molecules is an important interfacial design for both affinity and enzymatic biosensors. • The resistance to non-specific protein adsorptions of BSA–FITC and RBITC–Cyt c were determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. • The antifouling interface allows detection of target analytes in highly complicated biological matrices. - Abstract: Biosensing interfaces consisting of linker molecules (COOH or NH{sub 2}) and charged, antifouling moieties ((-SO{sup 3−} and N{sup +}(Me){sub 3}) for biosensing applications were prepared for the first time by the in situ deposition of mixtures of aryl diazonium cations on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. A linker molecule is required for the attachment of biorecognition molecules (e.g., antibodies, enzymes, DNA chains, and aptamers) close to the transducer surface. The attached molecules improve the biosensing sensitivity and also provide a short response time for analyte detection. Thus, the incorporation of a linker and antifouling molecules is an important interfacial design for both affinity and enzymatic biosensors. The reductive adsorption behavior and electrochemical measurement were studied for (1) an individual compound and (2) a mixture of antifouling zwitterionic molecules together with linker molecules [combination 1: 4-sulfophenyl (SP), 4-trimethylammoniophenyl (TMAP), and 1,4-phenylenediamine (PPD); combination 2: 4-sulfophenyl (SP), 4-trimethylammoniophenyl (TMAP), and 4-aminobenzoic acid (PABA)] of aryl diazonium cations grafted onto an ITO electrode. The mixture ratios of SP:TMAP:PPD and SP:TMAP:PABA that provided the greatest resistance to non-specific protein adsorptions of bovine serum albumin labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (BSA–FITC) and cytochrome c labeled with rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RBITC–Cyt c) were determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). For the surface antifouling study

  16. Acemetacin cocrystals and salts: structure solution from powder X-ray data and form selection of the piperazine salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palash Sanphui

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acemetacin (ACM is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID, which causes reduced gastric damage compared with indomethacin. However, acemetacin has a tendency to form a less soluble hydrate in the aqueous medium. We noted difficulties in the preparation of cocrystals and salts of acemetacin by mechanochemical methods, because this drug tends to form a hydrate during any kind of solution-based processing. With the objective to discover a solid form of acemetacin that is stable in the aqueous medium, binary adducts were prepared by the melt method to avoid hydration. The coformers/salt formers reported are pyridine carboxamides [nicotinamide (NAM, isonicotinamide (INA, and picolinamide (PAM], caprolactam (CPR, p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA, and piperazine (PPZ. The structures of an ACM–INA cocrystal and a binary adduct ACM–PABA were solved using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Other ACM cocrystals, ACM–PAM and ACM–CPR, and the piperazine salt ACM–PPZ were solved from high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction data. The ACM–INA cocrystal is sustained by the acid...pyridine heterosynthon and N—H...O catemer hydrogen bonds involving the amide group. The acid...amide heterosynthon is present in the ACM–PAM cocrystal, while ACM–CPR contains carboxamide dimers of caprolactam along with acid–carbonyl (ACM hydrogen bonds. The cocrystals ACM–INA, ACM–PAM and ACM–CPR are three-dimensional isostructural. The carboxyl...carboxyl synthon in ACM–PABA posed difficulty in assigning the position of the H atom, which may indicate proton disorder. In terms of stability, the salts were found to be relatively stable in pH 7 buffer medium over 24 h, but the cocrystals dissociated to give ACM hydrate during the same time period. The ACM–PPZ salt and ACM–nicotinamide cocrystal dissolve five times faster than the stable hydrate form, whereas the ACM–PABA adduct has 2.5 times faster dissolution rate. The pharmaceutically acceptable

  17. Promiscuous and adaptable enzymes fill "holes" in the tetrahydrofolate pathway in Chlamydia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Nancy E; Thiaville, Jennifer J; Proestos, James; Juárez-Vázquez, Ana L; McCoy, Andrea J; Barona-Gómez, Francisco; Iwata-Reuyl, Dirk; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Maurelli, Anthony T

    2014-07-08

    Folates are tripartite molecules comprising pterin, para-aminobenzoate (PABA), and glutamate moieties, which are essential cofactors involved in DNA and amino acid synthesis. The obligately intracellular Chlamydia species have lost several biosynthetic pathways for essential nutrients which they can obtain from their host but have retained the capacity to synthesize folate. In most bacteria, synthesis of the pterin moiety of folate requires the FolEQBK enzymes, while synthesis of the PABA moiety is carried out by the PabABC enzymes. Bioinformatic analyses reveal that while members of Chlamydia are missing the genes for FolE (GTP cyclohydrolase) and FolQ, which catalyze the initial steps in de novo synthesis of the pterin moiety, they have genes for the rest of the pterin pathway. We screened a chlamydial genomic library in deletion mutants of Escherichia coli to identify the "missing genes" and identified a novel enzyme, TrpFCtL2, which has broad substrate specificity. TrpFCtL2, in combination with GTP cyclohydrolase II (RibA), the first enzyme of riboflavin synthesis, provides a bypass of the first two canonical steps in folate synthesis catalyzed by FolE and FolQ. Notably, TrpFCtL2 retains the phosphoribosyl anthranilate isomerase activity of the original annotation. Additionally, we independently confirmed the recent discovery of a novel enzyme, CT610, which uses an unknown precursor to synthesize PABA and complements E. coli mutants with deletions of pabA, pabB, or pabC. Thus, Chlamydia species have evolved a variant folate synthesis pathway that employs a patchwork of promiscuous and adaptable enzymes recruited from other biosynthetic pathways. Importance: Collectively, the involvement of TrpFCtL2 and CT610 in the tetrahydrofolate pathway completes our understanding of folate biosynthesis in Chlamydia. Moreover, the novel roles for TrpFCtL2 and CT610 in the tetrahydrofolate pathway are sophisticated examples of how enzyme evolution plays a vital role in the

  18. Effects of in vivo exposure to UV filters (4-MBC, OMC, BP-3, 4-HB, OC, OD-PABA) on endocrine signaling genes in the insect Chironomus riparius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozáez, Irene; Martínez-Guitarte, José Luis; Morcillo, Gloria

    2013-07-01

    There is increasing evidence indicating that several UV filters might have endocrine disruptive effects. Numerous studies have evaluated hormonal effects in vertebrates, mainly reporting estrogenic and androgenic activities in mammals and fishes. There is only limited knowledge about potential endocrine activity in invertebrate hormonal systems. In this work, the effects on endocrine signaling genes of six frequently used UV filters were investigated in Chironomus riparius, a reference organism in aquatic toxicology. The UV filters studied were: octyl-p-methoxycinnamate (OMC) also called 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC); 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC); benzophenone-3 (BP-3); 4-hidroxybenzophenone (4-HB); octocrylene (OC); and octyldimethyl-p-aminobenzoate (OD-PABA). After in vivo exposure at different dosages, expression levels of the genes coding for the ecdysone receptor (EcR), the ultraspiracle (usp, ortholog of the RXR) and the estrogen-related receptor (ERR) were quantified by Real Time PCR. The EcR gene was significantly upregulated by 4-MBC, OMC/EHMC and OD-PABA, with a dose-related response following 24h exposure. In contrast, the benzophenones, BP-3 and 4-HB, as well as OC did not alter this gene at the same exposure conditions. The transcription profiles of the usp and ERR genes were not significantly affected, except for BP-3 that inhibited the usp gene at the highest concentration. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence in invertebrates of a direct effect of UV filters on endocrine-related genes, and is consistent with the known effects on vertebrate hormonal receptor genes. The capability of 4-MBC, OMC/EHMC and OD-PABA to stimulate the expression of the ecdysone receptor, a key transcription factor for the ecdysone-genomic response in arthropods, suggests the possibility of a broad and long-term effect on this hormonal pathway. These findings strengthen the need for further research about the ecotoxicological implications

  19. Transcriptional Responses in root and leaf of Prunus persica Under Drought Stress Using RNA Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najla Ksouri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Prunus persica L. Batch, or peach, is one of the most important crops and it is widely established in irrigated arid and semi-arid regions. However, due to variations in the climate and the increased aridity, drought has become a major constraint, causing crop losses worldwide. The use of drought-tolerant rootstocks in modern fruit production appears to be a useful method of alleviating water deficit problems. However, the transcriptomic variation and the major molecular mechanisms that underlie the adaptation of drought-tolerant rootstocks to water shortage remain unclear. Hence, in this study, high-throughput sequencing (RNA-seq was performed to assess the transcriptomic changes and the key genes involved in the response to drought in root tissues (GF677 rootstock and leaf tissues (graft, var. Catherina subjected to 16 days of drought stress. In total, 12 RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced. This generated a total of 315M raw reads from both tissues, which allowed the assembly of 22,079 and 17,854 genes associated with the root and leaf tissues, respectively. Subsets of 500 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in roots and 236 in leaves were identified and functionally annotated with 56 gene ontology (GO terms and 99 metabolic pathways, which were mostly associated with aminobenzoate degradation and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. The GO analysis highlighted the biological functions that were exclusive to the root tissue, such as locomotion, hormone metabolic process, and detection of stimulus, indicating the stress-buffering role of the GF677 rootstock. Furthermore, the complex regulatory network involved in the drought response was revealed, involving proteins that are associated with signaling transduction, transcription and hormone regulation, redox homeostasis, and frontline barriers. We identified two poorly characterized genes in P. persica: growth-regulating factor 5 (GRF5, which may be involved in cellular expansion, and AtHB12

  20. Transcriptional Responses in Root and Leaf of Prunus persica under Drought Stress Using RNA Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksouri, Najla; Jiménez, Sergio; Wells, Christina E.; Contreras-Moreira, Bruno; Gogorcena, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Prunus persica L. Batsch, or peach, is one of the most important crops and it is widely established in irrigated arid and semi-arid regions. However, due to variations in the climate and the increased aridity, drought has become a major constraint, causing crop losses worldwide. The use of drought-tolerant rootstocks in modern fruit production appears to be a useful method of alleviating water deficit problems. However, the transcriptomic variation and the major molecular mechanisms that underlie the adaptation of drought-tolerant rootstocks to water shortage remain unclear. Hence, in this study, high-throughput sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed to assess the transcriptomic changes and the key genes involved in the response to drought in root tissues (GF677 rootstock) and leaf tissues (graft, var. Catherina) subjected to 16 days of drought stress. In total, 12 RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced. This generated a total of 315 M raw reads from both tissues, which allowed the assembly of 22,079 and 17,854 genes associated with the root and leaf tissues, respectively. Subsets of 500 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in roots and 236 in leaves were identified and functionally annotated with 56 gene ontology (GO) terms and 99 metabolic pathways, which were mostly associated with aminobenzoate degradation and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. The GO analysis highlighted the biological functions that were exclusive to the root tissue, such as “locomotion,” “hormone metabolic process,” and “detection of stimulus,” indicating the stress-buffering role of the GF677 rootstock. Furthermore, the complex regulatory network involved in the drought response was revealed, involving proteins that are associated with signaling transduction, transcription and hormone regulation, redox homeostasis, and frontline barriers. We identified two poorly characterized genes in P. persica: growth-regulating factor 5 (GRF5), which may be involved in cellular expansion, and

  1. Advances in analytical methods and occurrence of organic UV-filters in the environment — A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Sara; Homem, Vera, E-mail: vhomem@fe.up.pt; Alves, Arminda; Santos, Lúcia

    2015-09-01

    UV-filters are a group of compounds designed mainly to protect skin against UVA and UVB radiation, but they are also included in plastics, furniture, etc., to protect products from light damage. Their massive use in sunscreens for skin protection has been increasing due to the awareness of the chronic and acute effects of UV radiation. Some organic UV-filters have raised significant concerns in the past few years for their continuous usage, persistent input and potential threat to ecological environment and human health. UV-filters end up in wastewater and because wastewater treatment plants are not efficient in removing them, lipophilic compounds tend to sorb onto sludge and hydrophilics end up in river water, contaminating the existing biota. To better understand the risk associated with UV-filters in the environment a thorough review regarding their physicochemical properties, toxicity and environmental degradation, analytical methods and their occurrence was conducted. Higher UV-filter concentrations were found in rivers, reaching 0.3 mg/L for the most studied family, the benzophenone derivatives. Concentrations in the ng to μg/L range were also detected for the p-aminobenzoic acid, cinnamate, crylene and benzoyl methane derivatives in lake and sea water. Although at lower levels (few ng/L), UV-filters were also found in tap and groundwater. Swimming pool water is also a sink for UV-filters and its chlorine by-products, at the μg/L range, highlighting the benzophenone and benzimidazole derivatives. Soils and sediments are not frequently studied, but concentrations in the μg/L range have already been found especially for the benzophenone and crylene derivatives. Aquatic biota is frequently studied and UV-filters are found in the ng/g-dw range with higher values for fish and mussels. It has been concluded that more information regarding UV-filter degradation studies both in water and sediments is necessary and environmental occurrences should be monitored more

  2. Optimization, biological evaluation and microPET imaging of copper-64-labeled bombesin agonists, [64Cu-NO2A-(X)-BBN(7-14)NH2], in a prostate tumor xenografted mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, Stephanie R.; Nanda, Prasanta; Rold, Tammy L.; Sieckman, Gary L.; Figueroa, Said D.; Hoffman, Timothy J.; Jurisson, Silvia S.; Smith, Charles J.

    2010-01-01

    Gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPr) are a member of the bombesin (BBN) receptor family. GRPr are expressed in high numbers on specific human cancers, including human prostate cancer. Therefore, copper-64 ( 64 Cu) radiolabeled BBN(7-14)NH 2 conjugates could have potential for diagnosis of human prostate cancer via positron-emission tomography (PET). The aim of this study was to produce [ 64 Cu-NO2A-(X)-BBN(7-14)NH 2 ] conjugates for prostate cancer imaging, where X=pharmacokinetic modifier (beta-alanine, 5-aminovaleric acid, 6-aminohexanoic acid, 8-aminooctanoic acid, 9-aminonanoic acid or para-aminobenzoic acid) and NO2A=1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4-diacetic acid [a derivative of NOTA (1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid)]. Methods: [(X)-BBN(7-14)NH 2 ] Conjugates were synthesized by solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS), after which NOTA was added via manual conjugation. The new peptide conjugates were radiolabeled with 64 Cu radionuclide. The receptor-binding affinity was determined in human prostate PC-3 cells, and tumor-targeting efficacy was determined in PC-3 tumor-bearing severely combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Whole-body maximum intensity microPET/CT images of PC-3 tumor-bearing SCID mice were obtained 18 h postinjection (pi). Results: Competitive binding assays in PC-3 cells indicated high receptor-binding affinity for the [NO2A-(X)-BBN(7-14)NH 2 ] and [ nat Cu-NO2A-(X)-BBN(7-14)NH 2 ] conjugates. In vivo biodistribution studies of the [ 64 Cu-NO2A-(X)-BBN(7-14)NH 2 ] conjugates at 1, 4 and 24 h pi showed very high uptake of the tracer in GRPr-positive tissue with little accumulation and retention in nontarget tissues. High-quality, high-contrast microPET images were obtained, with xenografted tumors being clearly visible at 18 h pi. Conclusions: NO2A chelator sufficiently stabilizes copper(II) radiometal under in vivo conditions, producing conjugates with very high uptake and retention in targeted GRPr. Preclinical evaluation of these

  3. Preclinical pharmacokinetic, biodistribution, imaging and therapeutic efficacy of 177Lu-Labeled glycated bombesin analogue for gastrin-releasing peptide receptor-positive prostate tumor targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jae Cheong; Cho, Eun Ha; Kim, Jin Joo; Choi, Sang Mu; Lee, So Young; Nam, Sung Soo; Park, Ul Jae; Park, Soo Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) has been shown to be overexpressed in many human tumors, including prostate, colon, gastric, breast, pancreatic, and small cell lung cancers. Because bombesin (BBS) binds to GRPR with high affinity, BBS derivatives have been labeled with various radionuclides and have been demonstrated to be successful candidates for peptide receptor radiotherapy (PRRT). The present study describes the in vitro and in vivo preclinical characteristics of 177 Lu-DOTA-Lys(glucose)-4 aminobenzoic acid-BBS 7-14 ( 177 Lu-DOTA-gluBBN) to prepare radiolabeled candidates for the treatment of GRPR-expressing prostate tumors. Methods: 177 Lu-DOTA-gluBBN was prepared as previously published [1]. Human prostate PC-3 tumor cells were used to determine the binding (Kd) retention and efflux of 177 Lu-DOTA-gluBBN. Pharmacokinetic, imaging, and radiotherapy studies were performed in PC-3 xenografted mice. Results: The Kd value of 177 Lu-DOTA-gluBBN was 0.63 nM, with a maximum binding capacity (Bmax) of 669.7 fmol/10 6 cells (4.04 × 10 5 GRPR/cell). During a 2-hr incubation, 90.1 ± 0.4% of the cell-associated radio-peptide was internalized, and 56.3 ± 7.1% of the internalized radio-peptide was externalized in vitro. High amounts of the radio-peptide were rapidly accumulated in a PC-3 tumor in vivo, and the % ID/g of the tumor was 12.42 ± 2.15 1 hr p.i. The radio-peptide was quickly cleared from the blood, yielding tumor-to-blood ratios of 39.22 ± 17.36 at 1 hr p.i. and 330.67 ± 131.23 at 24 hr p.i. In addition, 177 Lu-DOTA-gluBBN was clearly visualized in PC-3 tumors 1 hr p.i. and significantly inhibited the tumor growth (P < 0.05). Treatment-related toxicity in the pancreas and kidneys was not observed, except for slight glomerulopathy. Conclusions: The pharmacokinetic, imaging, and therapy studies suggest that this 177 Lu-DOTA-gluBBN has promising characteristics for application in nuclear medicine, namely, for the diagnosis and treatment of GRPR

  4. Advances in analytical methods and occurrence of organic UV-filters in the environment--A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Sara; Homem, Vera; Alves, Arminda; Santos, Lúcia

    2015-09-01

    UV-filters are a group of compounds designed mainly to protect skin against UVA and UVB radiation, but they are also included in plastics, furniture, etc., to protect products from light damage. Their massive use in sunscreens for skin protection has been increasing due to the awareness of the chronic and acute effects of UV radiation. Some organic UV-filters have raised significant concerns in the past few years for their continuous usage, persistent input and potential threat to ecological environment and human health. UV-filters end up in wastewater and because wastewater treatment plants are not efficient in removing them, lipophilic compounds tend to sorb onto sludge and hydrophilics end up in river water, contaminating the existing biota. To better understand the risk associated with UV-filters in the environment a thorough review regarding their physicochemical properties, toxicity and environmental degradation, analytical methods and their occurrence was conducted. Higher UV-filter concentrations were found in rivers, reaching 0.3mg/L for the most studied family, the benzophenone derivatives. Concentrations in the ng to μg/L range were also detected for the p-aminobenzoic acid, cinnamate, crylene and benzoyl methane derivatives in lake and sea water. Although at lower levels (few ng/L), UV-filters were also found in tap and groundwater. Swimming pool water is also a sink for UV-filters and its chlorine by-products, at the μg/L range, highlighting the benzophenone and benzimidazole derivatives. Soils and sediments are not frequently studied, but concentrations in the μg/L range have already been found especially for the benzophenone and crylene derivatives. Aquatic biota is frequently studied and UV-filters are found in the ng/g-dw range with higher values for fish and mussels. It has been concluded that more information regarding UV-filter degradation studies both in water and sediments is necessary and environmental occurrences should be monitored more

  5. Diffusion-free mediator based miniature biofuel cell anode fabricated on a carbon-MEMS electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Gobind S; Holmberg, Sunny; Kulinsky, Lawrence; Madou, Marc

    2012-10-02

    We report on the functionalization of a micropatterned carbon electrode fabricated using the carbon-MEMS process for its use as a miniature diffusion-free glucose oxidase anode. Carbon-MEMS based electrodes offer precise manufacturing control on both the micro- and nanoscale and possess higher electron conductivity than redox hydrogels. However, the process involves pyrolysis in a reducing environment that renders the electrode surface less reactive and introduction of a high density of functional groups becomes challenging. Our functionalization strategy involves the electrochemical oxidation of amine linkers onto the electrode. This strategy works well with both aliphatic and aryl linkers and uses stable compounds. The anode is designed to operate through mediated electron transfer between 2,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (DHB) based redox mediator and glucose oxidase enzyme. The electrode was first functionalized with ethylene diamine (EDA) to serve as a linker for the redox mediator. The redox mediator was then grafted through reductive amination, and attachment was confirmed through cyclic voltammetry. The enzyme immobilization was carried out through either adsorption or attachment, and their efficiency was compared. For enzyme attachment, the DHB attached electrode was functionalized again through electro-oxidation of aminobenzoic acid (ABA) linker. The ABA functionalization resulted in reduction of the DHB redox current, perhaps due to increased steric hindrance on the electrode surface, but the mediator function was preserved. Enzyme attachment was then carried out through a coupling reaction between the free carboxyl group on the ABA linker and the amine side chains on the enzyme. The enzyme incubation for both adsorption and attachment was done either through a dry spotting method or wet spotting method. The dry spotting method calls for the evaporation of enzyme droplet to form a thin film before sealing the electrode environment, to increase the effective

  6. Cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity assay for antioxidants in human serum and for hydroxyl radical scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apak, Reşat; Güçlü, Kubilay; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Bektaşoğlu, Burcu; Bener, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    , for which the FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant potency) test is basically nonresponsive. The additivity of absorbances of all the tested antioxidants confirmed that antioxidants in the CUPRAC test do not chemically interact among each other so as to cause an intensification or quenching of the theoretically expected absorbance, and that a total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assay of serum is possible. As a distinct advantage over other electron-transfer based assays (e.g., Folin, FRAP, ABTS, DPPH), CUPRAC is superior in regard to its realistic pH close to the physiological pH, favorable redox potential, accessibility and stability of reagents, and applicability to lipophilic antioxidants as well as hydrophilic ones. The CUPRAC procedure can also assay hydroxyl radicals, being the most reactive oxygen species (ROS). As a more convenient, efficient, and less costly alternative to HPLC/electrochemical detection techniques and to the nonspecific, low-yield TBARS test, we use p-aminobenzoate, 2,4- and 3,5-dimethoxybenzoate probes for detecting hydroxyl radicals generated from an equivalent mixture of [Fe(II)+EDTA] with hydrogen peroxide. The produced hydroxyl radicals attack both the probe and the water-soluble antioxidants in 37 degrees C-incubated solutions for 2 h. The CUPRAC absorbance of the ethylacetate extract due to the reduction of Cu(II)-neocuproine reagent by the hydroxylated probe decreases in the presence of (.)OH scavengers, the difference being proportional to the scavenging ability of the tested compound. The developed method is less lengthy, more specific, and of a higher yield than the classical TBARS assay.

  7. Side chain modified 5-deazafolate and 5-deazatetrahydrofolate analogues as mammalian folylpolyglutamate synthetase and glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase inhibitors: synthesis and in vitro biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosowsky, A; Forsch, R A; Reich, V E; Freisheim, J H; Moran, R G

    1992-05-01

    5-Deazafolate and 5-deazatetrahydrofolate (DATHF) analogues with the glutamic acid side chain replaced by homocysteic acid (HCysA), 2-amino-4-phosphonobutanoic acid (APBA), and ornithine (Orn) were synthesized as part of a larger program directed toward inhibitors of folylpolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS) as probes of the FPGS active site and as potential therapeutic agents. The tetrahydro compounds were also of interest as non-polyglutamatable inhibitors of the purine biosynthetic enzyme glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (GARFT). Reductive coupling of N2-acetamido-6-formylpyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-one with 4-aminobenzoic acid, followed by N10-formylation, mixed anhydride condensation of the resultant N2-acetyl-N10-formyl-5- deazapteroic acid with L-homocysteic acid, and removal of the N2-acetyl and N10-formyl groups with NaOH, afforded N-(5-deazapteroyl)-L-homocysteic acid (5-dPteHCysA). Mixed anhydride condensation of N2-acetyl-N10-formyl- 5-deazapteroic acid with methyl D,L-2-amino-4-(diethoxyphosphinyl)butanoic acid, followed by consecutive treatment with Me3SiBr and NaOH, yielded D,L-2-[(5-deazapteroyl)amino]-4-phosphonobutanoic acid (5-dPteAPBA). Treatment with NaOH alone led to retention of one ethyl ester group on the phosphonate moiety. Catalytic hydrogenation of N2-acetyl-N10-formyl-5-deazapteroic acid followed by mixed anhydride condensation with methyl L-homocysteate and deprotection with NaOH afforded N-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-5-deazapteroyl)-L-homocysteic acid (5-dH4PteHCysA). Similar chemistry starting from methyl D,L-2-amino-4-(diethoxyphosphinyl)butanoic acid and methyl N delta-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-L-ornithinate yielded D,L-2-[(5-deaza-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteroyl)amino]-4-phosphonobut ano ic acid (5-dH4Pte-APBA) and N alpha-(5-deaza-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteroyl)-L-ornithine (5-dH4PteOrn), respectively. The 5-deazafolate analogues were inhibitors of mouse liver FPGS, and the DATHF analogues inhibited both mouse FPGS and mouse leukemic cell GARFT

  8. Uraemic toxins induce proximal tubular injury via organic anion transporter 1-mediated uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motojima, Masaru; Hosokawa, Atsuko; Yamato, Hideyuki; Muraki, Takamura; Yoshioka, Toshimasa

    2002-01-01

    A direct effect of uraemic toxins in promoting progression of chronic renal disease has not been established. In this study, we investigated the toxic effects of organic anions which characteristically appeared in the patients with progressive renal disease on renal proximal tubular cells expressing human organic anion transporter (hOAT) 1. A renal proximal tubular cell line, opossum kidney (OK) cells, was transformed with hOAT1. Among the organic anions examined, hippuric acid, para-hydroxyhippuric acid, ortho-hydroxyhippuric acid, indoxyl sulphate and indoleacetic acid showed a high affinity for hOAT1 expressed in the OK cells. Indoxyl sulphate and indoleacetic acid concentration-dependently inhibited proliferation of the hOAT1-transformed cells. The h.p.l.c. analysis demonstrated that cellular uptake of these organic anions was significantly elevated in hOAT1-transformed cells. These organic anions also concentration-dependently stimulated cellular free radical production. The degrees of inhibition of cell proliferation and the stimulation of free radical production induced by the organic anions were significantly higher in the hOAT1-transformed cells than vector-transformed cells. The stimulatory effect of indoxyl sulphate on free radical production was abolished by anti-oxidants and probenecid. Less free radical production was observed in the hOAT1-transformed cells treated with p-hydroxyhippuric acid, o-hydroxyhippuric acid compared with indoxyl sulphate and indoleacetic acid. Hippuric acid had little effect on free radical production. Organic anions present in the serum of patients with progressive renal disease may cause proximal tubular injury via hOAT1-mediated uptake. The mechanism of cellular toxicity by these uraemic toxins involves free radical production. Thus, some uraemic toxins may directly promote progression of chronic renal disease. PMID:11815391

  9. [Osteogenic potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from ovariectomied osteoporotic rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-ju; Ge, Dong-xia; Wu, Wen-chao; Wu, Jiang; Li, Liang

    2005-05-01

    To investigate the difference of osteogenic potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) between healthy rats and osteoporotic rats. We established the animal model of osteoporosis by performing ovariectom on the 3-month-old female Sprague-Dawley rats. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) were isolated from the rats of control group and of ovariectomized (ovx) group by means of the density-gradient centrifugation method, and the 3rd-4th passage MSCs were used in all the experiments. The experiments comprised 4 groups: (1) Marrow mesenchymal stem cells control group (MSCs control group); (2) Marrow mesenchymal stem cells ovx group (MSCs ovx group); (3) Osteogenesis induction control group (OSI control group); (4) Osteogenesis induction ovx group (OSI ovx group). Cell cycle and proliferation index (PI) of MSCs were detected by flow cytometry. The expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was detected by dynamics method with substrate of phosphoric acid para-Nitro benzene. The levels of osteocalcin were detected with the isotope labelling method. (1) PI of MSCs was lower in MSCs ovx group than in MSCs control group. (2) The expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was much higher in OSI control group than in the MSCs control group; the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was much higher in the OSI control group than in OSI ovx group after 7-day and 14-day osteogenic induction. (3) The level of osteocalcin was much higher in the OSI control group than in the MSCs control group after 14-day, 21-day, 28-day osteogenic induction. The level of osteocalcin was much higher in the OSI control group than in the OSI ovx group. Both the proliferative potential and the osteogenic potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from the ovariectomized osteoporotic rat are decreased.

  10. Artificial Metalloenzymes through Chemical Modification of Engineered Host Proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Zernickel, Anna

    2014-10-01

    With a few exceptions, all organisms are restricted to the 20 canonical amino acids for ribosomal protein biosynthesis. Addition of new amino acids to the genetic code can introduce novel functionalities to proteins, broadening the diversity of biochemical as well as chemical reactions and providing new tools to study protein structure, reactivity, dynamics and protein-protein-interactions. The site directed in vivo incorporation developed by P. G. SCHULTZ and coworkers, using an archeal orthogonal tRNA/aaRS (aminoacyl-tRNA synthase) pair, allows site-specifically insertion of a synthetic unnatural amino acid (UAA) by reprogramming the amber TAG stop codon. A variety of over 80 different UAAs can be introduced by this technique. However by now a very limited number can form kinetically stable bonds to late transition metals. This thesis aims to develop new catalytically active unnatural amino acids or strategies for a posttranslational modification of site-specific amino acids in order to achieve highly enantioselective metallorganic enzyme hybrids (MOEH). As a requirement a stable protein host has to be established, surviving the conditions for incorporation, posttranslational modification and the final catalytic reactions. mTFP* a fluorescent protein was genetically modified by excluding any exposed Cys, His and Met forming a variant mTFP*, which fulfills the required specifications. Posttranslational chemical modification of mTFP* allow the introduction of single site metal chelating moieties. For modification on exposed cysteines different maleiimid containing ligand structures were synthesized. In order to perform copper catalyzed click reactions, suitable unnatural amino acids (para-azido-(L)-phenylalanine, para-ethynyl-(L)-phenylalanine) were synthesized and a non-cytotoxic protocol was established. The triazole ring formed during this reaction may contribute as a moderate σ-donor/π-acceptor ligand to the metal binding site. Since the cell limits the

  11. Effect of carvacrol on the oxidative stability of palm oil during frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İnanç, T.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fats and oils deteriorate physically and chemically at frying temperatures due to several reasons. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of carvacrol on the oxidative stability of palm oil during a repeated frying process. Potatoes were serially fried in carvacrol-added palm oil, BHT-added palm oil and a control oil (without any antioxidants. After each tenth frying cycle, several chemical analyses were carried out on collected samples to evaluate deterioration in the oils. The free fatty acid, para-anisidine, iodine, and total polar component values of the fresh oil were 0.080, 2.85, 57.1 and 7.5, respectively. These values changed to 0.165, 11.80, 46.7, 11.0, respectively for the control oil; 0.151, 11.28, 49.2 and 10.5 for BHT-added oil; 0.140, 7.19, 51.7, 10.0 for carvacrol-added oil after 40 frying cycles. The results revealed that the use of carvacrol could significantly improve the oxidative stability of palm oil when compared to the control samples. This effect was also comparable to BHT. Using carvacrol in frying oil slowed down the rate of the formation of conjugated dienes and trienes compared to the oil with BHT and the control. The frying process significantly changed the viscosity of the oil samples.Las grasas y aceites se deterioran física y químicamente a las temperaturas de fritura debido a diferentes razones. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto del carvacrol en la estabilidad oxidativa del aceite de palma durante el proceso de fritura repetida. Se sometió a fritura repetida patatas en el aceite de palma con carvacrol agregado, en aceite de palma con BHT agregado y en aceite control (sin antioxidante. Después de cada décimo ciclo de fritura, se realizaron diferentes análisis sobre las muestras recogidas para evaluar el deterioro de los aceites. Ácidos grasos libre, para-anisidina, índice de yodo y componentes polares totales del aceite fresco fueron: 0,080, 2,85, 57,1 y 7,5, respectivamente

  12. Development of probes for bioanalytic applications of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering; Entwicklung neuer Sonden fuer bioanalytische Anwendungen der oberflaechenverstaerkten Raman-Streuung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matschulat, Andrea Isabel

    2011-07-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been established as a versatile tool for probing and labeling in analytical applications, based on the vibrational spectra of samples as well as label molecules in the proximity of noble metal nanostructures. The aim of this work was the construction of novel SERS hybrid probes. The hybrid probes consisted of Au and Ag nanoparticles and reporter molecules, as well as a targeting unit. The concept for the SERS hybrid probe design was followed by experiments comprising characterization techniques such as UV/Vis-spectroscopy (UV/Vis), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), respectively. SERS experiments were performed for studying and optimizing the plasmonic properties of nanoparticles with respect to their enhancement capabilities. The SERS-probes had to meet following requirements: biocompatibility, stability in physiological media, and enhancement of Raman-signals from Raman reporter molecules enabling the identification of different probes even in a complex biological environment. Au and Ag nanoaggregates were found to be the most appropriate SERS substrates for the hybrid probe design. The utilization of Raman reporters enabled the identification of different SERS probes in multiplexing experiments. In particular, the multiplexing capability of ten various reporter molecules para-aminobenzenethiol, 2-naphthalenethiol, crystal violet, rhodamine (B) isothiocyanate, fluorescein isothiocyanate, 5,5'dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid), para-mercaptobenzoic acid, acridine orange, safranine O und nile blue was studied using NIR-SERS excitation. As demonstrated by the results the reporters could be identified through their specific Raman signature even in the case of high structural similarity. Chemical separation analysis of the reporter signatures was performed in a trivariate approach, enabling the discrimination through an automated calculation of specific band ratios. The trivariate