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Sample records for amino alcohols

  1. Amino Alcohols from the Ascidian Pseudodistoma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyung Won

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven new amino alcohol compounds, pseudoaminols A–G (1–7, were isolated from the ascidian Pseudodistoma sp. collected off the coast of Chuja-do, Korea. Structures of these new compounds were determined by analysis of the spectroscopic data and from chemical conversion. The presence of an N-carboxymethyl group in two of the new compounds (6 and 7 is unprecedented among amino alcohols. Several of these compounds exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity, as well as weak inhibitory activity toward Na+/K+-ATPase.

  2. Chiral separation of amino-alcohols using extractant impregnated resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babic, K.; Driessen, G.H.M.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; de Haan, A.B.

    2007-01-01

    The performance of extractant impregnated resin (EIR) technology for chiral separation of amino-alcohols has been investigated. Phenylglycinol was selected as an archetype model enantiomer and azophenolic crown ether was used as a versatile enantioselective extractant. 1-Phenyloctane was selected as

  3. Reactions of α-phosphorylated carbonyl compounds with amino alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskva, V.V.; Sitdikova, T.Sh.; Zykova, T.V.; Alparova, M.V.; Shagvaleev, F.Sh.

    1986-01-01

    2-Aminoethanol reacts with carbonyl compounds with the formation, depending on the structure of the latter, either of a mixture of azomethines and oxazolidines, or of only azomethines. In the development of investigations on the reactivity of α-phosphorylated carbonyl compounds the authors studied the reactions of a number of amino alcohols with phosphorylated acetaldehyde and acetone. In both cases they observed the formation of compounds of enamine structure, oxazolidines and azomethines were not observed. By means of NMR spectroscopy they established clearly the formation of the E-isomeric products. The 1 H, 31 P, and 13 C NMR spectra were recorded on a WP-80 spectrometer. Chemical shifts of protons and 13 C nuclei are given relative to TMS, and phosphorus nuclei relative to orthophosphoric acid

  4. Nonradical Zinc-Barbier Reaction for Diastereoselective Synthesis of Vicinal Amino Alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keinicke, Lise Edelmann; Fristrup, Peter; Norrby, Per-Ola

    2005-01-01

    A new protocol for the synthesis of vicinal amino alcohols is described. The method employs a Barbier-type reaction between an imine and 3-benzoyloxyallyl bromide in the presence of zinc metal. The addition products are debenzoylated to afford amino alcohols in good yields and with diastereomeric...

  5. Lanthanide metal complex-based membrane electrodes for sensing of biological amino alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar; Kaur, Ravneet; Shinoda, Satoshi; Tsukube, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Electrodes selective for amino alcohols were prepared by incorporating lanthanide tris(β-diketonates) in PVC membranes, which formed 1:1 highly coordinated complexes with amino alcohols. Several electrodes gave near-Nernstian slopes for 2-amino-3-methyl-1-butanol in the linear concentration range of 1.0 x 10 -1 to 1.0 x 10 -3 M, while the low detection limits of these electrodes were order of ∼10 -4 M. Although the observed response profiles were significantly dependent on the natures of the targeted amino alcohols, the electrodes exhibited stable potentiometric signals in the pH range of 6-12 in short time period of 20 s. The related monoalcohol, diol, and zwitterionic amino acid substrates gave no response, indicating that the present type of lanthanide tris(β-diketonates) were applicable in potentiometric sensing of amino alcohols

  6. Oxidation of aromatic alcohols on zeolite-encapsulated copper amino acid complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, S.; Teixeira Florencio, J.M. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemistry, Chemical Technology

    1998-12-31

    Copper complexes of the amino acids histidine, arginine and lysine have been introduced into the supercages of zeolite Y and, for the first time, into the large intracrystalline cavities of zeolites EMT and MCM-22. The resulting host/guest compounds are characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, UV/VIS-spectroscopy in the diffuse reflectance mode and by catalytic tests in the liquid-phase oxidation of aromatic alcohols (viz. benzyl alcohol, 2- and 3-methylbenzyl alcohol and 2,5-dimethylbenzyl alcohol) with tertiary-butylhydroperoxide as oxidant. It was observed that intracrystalline copper-amino acid complexes possess remarkable catalytic activity, yielding the corresponding aromatic aldehydes and acids. (orig.)

  7. Short and Efficient Synthesis of Optically Active N-Tosyl Aziridines from 2-Amino Alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. F. de Araújo

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Two alternative and complementary one-pot procedures for the direct transformation of 2-amino alcohols to N-tosyl aziridines are presented. The unsubstituted parent compound and its less hindered homologues can be obtained in high yields by tosylation and in situ cyclisation effected by potassium hydroxide in water/dichloromethane. Higher substituted amino alcohols give better yields using potassium carbonate in acetonitrile. Both procedures use simple inorganic bases and produce only inorganic salts as byproducts.

  8. The impacts of temperature, alcoholic degree and amino acids content on biogenic amines and their precursor amino acids content in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, C; Bordiga, M; Pérez-Álvarez, E P; Travaglia, F; Arlorio, M; Salinas, M R; Coïsson, J D; Garde-Cerdán, T

    2017-09-01

    The aim was to study how factors such as temperature, alcoholic degree, and amino acids supplementation are able to influence the content of tyramine, histamine, 2-phenylethylamine, tryptamine and their precursor amino acids in winemaking process. Biogenic amines and amino acids were quantified at the beginning, middle and end of alcoholic fermentation, and at the end of malolactic fermentation. In general, samples produced with amino acid supplementation did not show the highest concentrations of biogenic amines, except for histamine, which content increased with the addition of the four amino acids. The synthesis of tyramine was mainly affected by the temperature and alcoholic degree, the formation of phenylethylamine was largely influenced by alcoholic degree, and tryptamine synthesis principally depended on temperature. Interestingly, there was interaction between these three factors for the biogenic amines studied. In conclusion, winemaking conditions should be established depending on the biogenic amine which synthesis is required to be controlled. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Thermoreversible cross-linking of maleated ethylene/propylene copolymers with diamines and amino-alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mee, van der M.A.J.; Goossens, J.G.P.; Duin, van M.

    2008-01-01

    Maleated ethylene/propylene copolymers (MAn-g-EPM) were thermoreversibly cross-linked using diamines and amino-alcohols. Covalent cross-links are formed via the equilibrium reaction of the grafted anhydride groups with di-functional cross-linkers containing combinations of primary (1°) and secondary

  10. Dielectric properties of some cadmium and mercury amino alcohol complexes at low temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALAA E. ALI

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The dielectric properties of some cadmium and mercury amino alcohol complexes were studied within the temperature range of 100–300 K at the frequencies of 100, 300 and 1000 kHz. The polarization mechanisms are suggested and the dependence of both e and tg d on both temperature and frequency are analyzed. The analysis of the data reveals semi-conducting features based mainly on the hopping mechanism.

  11. Enantioselective conjugate addition of diethylzinc to chalcone catalyzed by Co(acac)2 and chiral amino alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, André H.M. de; Feringa, Bernard

    1997-01-01

    Co(acac)2 in the presence of chiral ligands has been employed as catalyst for the enantioselective conjugate addition of diethylzinc to chalcone. With chiral amino alcohols derived from (+)-camphor, enantioselectivities up to 83% were achieved.

  12. Reductive Umpolung of Carbonyl Derivatives with Visible-Light Photoredox Catalysis: Direct Access to Vicinal Diamines and Amino Alcohols via α-Amino Radicals and Ketyl Radicals

    KAUST Repository

    Fava, Eleonora; Millet, Anthony; Nakajima, Masaki; Loescher, Sebastian; Rueping, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Visible-light-mediated photoredox-catalyzed aldimine-aniline and aldehyde-aniline couplings have been realized. The reductive single electron transfer (SET) umpolung of various carbonyl derivatives enabled the generation of intermediary ketyl and α-amino radical anions, which were utilized for the synthesis of unsymmetrically substituted 1,2-diamines and amino alcohols. Anilines can be coupled with aldimines or aldehydes in a visible-light-mediated photoredox-catalyzed process. Reductive single electron transfer (SET) umpolung of the carbonyl derivatives leads to the generation of intermediary ketyl and α-amino radical anions, which were used for the synthesis of unsymmetrically substituted 1,2-diamines and amino alcohols.

  13. Reductive Umpolung of Carbonyl Derivatives with Visible-Light Photoredox Catalysis: Direct Access to Vicinal Diamines and Amino Alcohols via α-Amino Radicals and Ketyl Radicals

    KAUST Repository

    Fava, Eleonora

    2016-05-02

    Visible-light-mediated photoredox-catalyzed aldimine-aniline and aldehyde-aniline couplings have been realized. The reductive single electron transfer (SET) umpolung of various carbonyl derivatives enabled the generation of intermediary ketyl and α-amino radical anions, which were utilized for the synthesis of unsymmetrically substituted 1,2-diamines and amino alcohols. Anilines can be coupled with aldimines or aldehydes in a visible-light-mediated photoredox-catalyzed process. Reductive single electron transfer (SET) umpolung of the carbonyl derivatives leads to the generation of intermediary ketyl and α-amino radical anions, which were used for the synthesis of unsymmetrically substituted 1,2-diamines and amino alcohols.

  14. Amino acid content in red wines obtained from grapevine nitrogen foliar treatments: consumption during the alcoholic fermentation

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    Javier Portu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is an important element for grapevine and winemaking which affects the development of the plant and yeast, and therefore it is important for wine quality. The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar application to vineyard of proline, phenylalanine and urea and two commercial nitrogen fertilizers, without and with amino acids in their formulation, on the wine amino acid content and their consumption during the alcoholic fermentation. The results showed that these treatments did not affect the amino acid composition in wines. The differences observed for certain amino acids were so small that the concentration of total amino acids was not significantly different among wines. Moreover, it was observed that the higher the content of amino acids in the medium, the greater their consumption during the alcoholic fermentation.

  15. Fluorescence recognition of chiral amino alcohols by using a novel ionic liquid sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Pengfei; Wu, Datong; Zhao, Xiaoyong; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2017-08-07

    A novel task-specific ionic liquid derived from l-phenylalaninol was prepared as an enantioselective fluorescent sensor for the first time. Fluorescent chiral ionic liquid 1 (FCIL1) is found to exhibit highly enantioselective fluorescence enhancements toward both aromatic and non-aromatic chiral amino alcohols. When (S)-FCIL1 was treated with the enantiomers of phenylalaninol, a great fluorescence enhancement at 349 nm could be observed and the value of the enantiomeric fluorescence difference (ef) is 5.92. This demonstrated that the chiral sensor (S)-FCIL1 exhibited an excellent enantioselective response behaviour to d-phenylalaninol. Besides that, both the fluorescence intensity at 349 nm (I 349 ) and the ratio of I 349 to I 282 depend linearly on the concentration of amino alcohols. Both the concentration and the enantiomeric composition could be determined by using the chiral ionic liquid. Differently, the sensor treated with the enantiomers of 2-amino-1-butanol showed an opposite result: the fluorescence intensity of the S-enantiomer is higher than that of the R-enantiomer. Furthermore, the size of the substituents on the chiral carbon might be important for the enantioselective fluorescent response.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of sulfolane-based amino alcohols: A combined experimental and computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchykov, Vitalii A.; Zarovnaya, Iryna S.; Tretiakov, Serhii V.; Reshetnyak, Alyona V.; Omelchenko, Iryna V.; Shishkin, Oleg V.; Okovytyy, Sergiy I.

    2018-04-01

    Aminolysis of 3,4-epoxysulfolane in aqueous media leads to a very complex mixture of products with unresolved stereochemistry. Herein, we report a detailed theoretical and experimental mechanistic investigation of this reaction along with extensive spectroscopic characterization of the resulting amino alcohols, using 1D and 2D NMR techniques (1H, 13C, NOE, NOESY, COSY, HSQC, HMBC) as well as XRD analysis. In addition to simple amines such as ammonia and benzylamine, our study also employed the more sterically hindered endo-bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-en-2-ylmethanamine. The mechanism of the aminolysis of 3,4-epoxysulfolane by aqueous ammonia was studied in more detail using quantum chemical calculations at the M06-2X/6-31++G** level of theory. The computational results led us to conclude that the most probable way of initial epoxide transformation is base-catalyzed rearrangement to a corresponding allylic alcohol. Subsequent formation of vicinal amino alcohols and diols proceeds via addition of ammonia or hydroxy-anions to activated double Cdbnd C bond with some preference of a cis-attack. Detailed analytical data obtained in the course of our work will be useful for the stereochemical identification of new sulfolane derivatives.

  17. Preparation of Cyclic Urethanes from Amino Alcohols and Carbon Dioxide Using Ionic Liquid Catalysts with Alkali Metal Promoters

    OpenAIRE

    Masahiko Arai; Hisanori Senboku; Hiroshi Kanamaru; Shin-ichiro Fujita

    2006-01-01

    Several ionic liquids were applied as catalysts for the synthesis of cyclic urethanes from amino alcohols and pressurized CO2 in the presence of alkali metal compounds as promoters. A comparative study was made for the catalytic performance using different ionic liquids, substrates, promoters, and pressures. The optimum catalytic system was BMIM-Br promoted by K2CO3, which, for 1-amino-2-propanol, produced cyclic urethane in 40% yield with a smaller yield of substituted cyclic ...

  18. Chirality sensing of bioactive compounds with amino alcohol unit via circular dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, Marcin; Groszek, Grażyna; Frelek, Jadwiga

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to test various chiroptical techniques, including in particular the in situ dirhodium methodology, to assign the absolute configuration of 1,2- and 1,3-amino alcohols. As models, we selected mainly compounds that have both an additional strongly absorbing and interfering chromophoric system and application in medicinal chemistry. Determination of the absolute configuration (AC) of the tested molecules such as cinchona alkaloids, Tamiflu, and others was carried out using a combination of electronic and vibrational circular dichroism (ECD, VCD) spectroscopy. It has been demonstrated that both 1,2- and 1,3-aminol moieties are subject to the same sector rule correlating stereostructure of formed Rh 2 -complex with chiroptical properties, and that the changes in the position of the stereogenic center do not affect its proper use. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Alpha-amino alcohol of para-boronophenylalanine, BPAol, as a potential boron carrier for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagaki, M.; Ono, K.; Masunaga, S.; Kinashi, Y.

    2000-01-01

    α amino alcohol of boronophenylalanine BPAol in which -COOH group is replaced with hydrophilic group of -OH of p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) has been synthesized and its BNCT effect on experimental tumor models have been investigated. Tumor cell killing effect of BPAol on C6 gliosarcoma cells was very high 4.4 times as that of BPA, since it was actively accumulated into tumor cells in 4-5 times as that of BPA. Carboxylic group of BPA might not play as an essential role in uptake of BPA into tumor cells. BPAol-based BNCT strongly inhibited the tumor growth of Green's melanotic melanoma hamsters even under therapeutic dose of BPA-based BNCT. These preliminary findings strongly warrant further extensive pre-clinical study for BPAol as a boron carrier for BNCT. (author)

  20. (+)-camphor-derived tri- and tetradentate amino alcohols; synthesis and application as ligands in the nickel catalyzed enantioselective conjugate addition of diethylzinc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, André H.M. de; Imbos, Rosalinde; Feringa, Bernard

    1997-01-01

    Several novel tri- and tetradentate amino alcohol ligands, all derived from (+)-camphor, have been synthesized by using specific N-alkylation procedures. The amino alcohols were employed as chiral ligands in the nickel catalyzed conjugate additions of diethylzine to chalcone and cyclohexenone as

  1. Enantioselective conjugate addition of diethylzinc to chalcone catalyzed by Co(acac)(2) and chiral amino alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A.H.M.; Feringa, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    Co(acac)(2) in the presence of chiral ligands has been employed as catalyst for the enantioselective conjugate addition of diethylzinc to chalcone. With chiral amino alcohols derived from (+)-camphor, enantioselectivities up to 83% were achieved. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  2. An easy and efficient method to produce {gamma}-amino alcohols by reduction of {beta}-enamino ketones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Maria Ines N.C.; Braga, Antonio C.H. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: herrera@iqm.unicamp.br

    2004-12-01

    Reduction of {beta}-enamino ketones 2 with NaBH{sub 4} in glacial acetic acid gave {gamma}-amino alcohols 1 in 70% to 98% yield with diastereomeric excesses, preferentially the syn product, from 44% to 90%. The stereochemistry of these compounds was confirmed by analysis of their tetrahydro-1,3-oxazine derivatives 3. (author)

  3. Lanthanide tris(β-diketonates) as useful probes for chirality determination of biological amino alcohols in vibrational circular dichroism: ligand to ligand chirality transfer in lanthanide coordination sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Hiroyuki; Terada, Keiko; Tsukube, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    A series of lanthanide tris(β-diketonates) functioned as useful chirality probes in the vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) characterization of biological amino alcohols. Various chiral amino alcohols induced intense VCD signals upon ternary complexation with racemic lanthanide tris(β-diketonates). The VCD signals observed around 1500 cm(-1) (β-diketonate IR absorption region) correlated well with the stereochemistry and enantiomeric purity of the targeted amino alcohol, while the corresponding monoalcohol, monoamine, and diol substrates induced very weak VCD signals. The high-coordination number and dynamic property of the lanthanide complex offer an effective chirality VCD probing of biological substrates. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Chiral bis(amino acid)- and bis(amino alcohol)-oxalamide gelators. Gelation properties, self-assembly motifs and chirality effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frkanec, Leo; Zinić, Mladen

    2010-01-28

    Bis(amino acid)- and bis(amino alcohol)oxalamide gelators represent the class of versatile gelators whose gelation ability is a consequence of strong and directional intermolecular hydrogen bonding provided by oxalamide units and lack of molecular symmetry due to the presence of two chiral centres. Bis(amino acid)oxalamides exhibit ambidextrous gelation properties, being capable to form gels with apolar and also highly polar solvent systems and tend to organise into bilayers or inverse bilayers in hydrogel or organic solvent gel assemblies, respectively. (1)H NMR and FTIR studies of gels revealed the importance of the equilibrium between the assembled network and smaller dissolved gelator assemblies. The organisation in gel assemblies deduced from spectroscopic structural studies are in certain cases closely related to organisations found in the crystal structures of selected gelators, confirming similar organisations in gel assemblies and in the solid state. The pure enantiomer/racemate gelation controversy is addressed and the evidence provided that rac-16 forms a stable toluene gel due to resolution into enantiomeric bilayers, which then interact giving gel fibres and a network of different morphology compared to its (S,S)-enantiomer gel. The TEM investigation of both gels confirmed distinctly different gel morphologies, which allowed the relationship between the stereochemical form of the gelator, the fibre and the network morphology and the network solvent immobilisation capacity to be proposed. Mixing of the constitutionally different bis(amino acid) and bis(amino alcohol)oxalamide gelators resulted in some cases in highly improved gelation efficiency denoted as synergic gelation effect (SGE), being highly dependent also on the stereochemistry of the component gelators. Examples of photo-induced gelation based on closely related bis(amino acid)-maleic acid amide and -fumaramide and stilbene derived oxalamides where gels form by irradiation of the solution of

  5. Frozen Chirality of Tertiary Aromatic Amides: Access to Enantioenriched Tertiary α-Amino Acid or Amino Alcohol without Chiral Reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Thi Thoa; Viswambharan, Baby; Gori, Didier; Guillot, Régis; Naubron, Jean-Valère; Kouklovsky, Cyrille; Alezra, Valérie

    2017-04-27

    One of the fundamental and intriguing aspects of life is the homochirality of the essential molecules. In this field, the absolute asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids is a major challenge. Herein, we report access, by chemical means, to tertiary α-amino acid derivatives in up to 96 % ee without using any chiral reagent. In our strategy, the dynamic axial chirality of tertiary aromatic amides is frozen in a crystal and is responsible for the stereoselectivity of the subsequent steps. Furthermore, we could control the configuration of the final product by manually sorting and selecting the initial crystals. Based on vibrational circular dichroism studies, we could rationalize the observed stereoselectivity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Factors influencing the formation of histaminol, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and tryptophol in wine: Temperature, alcoholic degree, and amino acids concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordiga, M; Lorenzo, C; Pardo, F; Salinas, M R; Travaglia, F; Arlorio, M; Coïsson, J D; Garde-Cerdán, T

    2016-04-15

    The validation of a HPLC-PDA-MS/MS chromatographic method for the quali/quantitative characterization of histaminol, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and tryptophol in wine has been described and discussed. Four standards showed a good linearity with high correlation coefficient values (over 0.9989) and LOD and LOQ were 0.001-0.015 mg/L and 0.004-0.045 mg/L, respectively. Furthermore, this study reported how factors such as temperature, alcoholic degree, and amino acids concentration are able to influence the formation of these four alcohols in Monastrell wines. The quantification values of these alcohols has been detected both at the half and end of alcoholic fermentation, and at the end of malolactic fermentation. In relation to interactions between factors, several significant variations emerged (p ⩽ 0.001). The impact of amino acids supplementation in Monastrell must it has been demonstrated, mainly in regards to histaminol and tryptophol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A concise route to pyrrolizidine alkaloids bearing the 1,2-amino alcohol functionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, C.; Aizpurua, J.M.; Roman, P.; Luque, A.; Martinez-Ripoll, M. [Facultad de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Organica, Universidad del Pais Vascom San Sebastian (Spain)

    1996-10-01

    The first entry to optically pure 4-amino-3-hydroxy-pyrrolizidine and 4-amino-pyrrolizidine alkaloid frameworks is provided by a highly diastereoselective [2+2] cycloaddition of alkoxyketenes to N-Boc-prolinal imines as the key reaction.

  8. Chemoselective O-acylation of hydroxyamino acids and amino alcohols under acidic reaction conditions: History, scope and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor E. Kristensen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids, whether natural, semisynthetic or synthetic, are among the most important and useful chiral building blocks available for organic chemical synthesis. In principle, they can function as inexpensive, chiral and densely functionalized starting materials. On the other hand, the use of amino acid starting materials routinely necessitates protective group chemistry, and in reality, large-scale preparations of even the simplest side-chain derivatives of many amino acids often become annoyingly strenuous due to the necessity of employing protecting groups, on one or more of the amino acid functionalities, during the synthetic sequence. However, in the case of hydroxyamino acids such as hydroxyproline, serine, threonine, tyrosine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA, many O-acyl side-chain derivatives are directly accessible via a particularly expedient and scalable method not commonly applied until recently. Direct acylation of unprotected hydroxyamino acids with acyl halides or carboxylic anhydrides under appropriately acidic reaction conditions renders possible chemoselective O-acylation, furnishing the corresponding side-chain esters directly, on multigram-scale, in a single step, and without chromatographic purification. Assuming a certain degree of stability under acidic reaction conditions, the method is also applicable for a number of related compounds, such as various amino alcohols and the thiol-functional amino acid cysteine. While the basic methodology underlying this approach has been known for decades, it has evolved through recent developments connected to amino acid-derived chiral organocatalysts to become a more widely recognized procedure for large-scale preparation of many useful side-chain derivatives of hydroxyamino acids and related compounds. Such derivatives are useful in peptide chemistry and drug development, as amino acid amphiphiles for asymmetric catalysis, and as amino acid acrylic precursors for preparation of

  9. Chemoselective O-acylation of hydroxyamino acids and amino alcohols under acidic reaction conditions: History, scope and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Summary Amino acids, whether natural, semisynthetic or synthetic, are among the most important and useful chiral building blocks available for organic chemical synthesis. In principle, they can function as inexpensive, chiral and densely functionalized starting materials. On the other hand, the use of amino acid starting materials routinely necessitates protective group chemistry, and in reality, large-scale preparations of even the simplest side-chain derivatives of many amino acids often become annoyingly strenuous due to the necessity of employing protecting groups, on one or more of the amino acid functionalities, during the synthetic sequence. However, in the case of hydroxyamino acids such as hydroxyproline, serine, threonine, tyrosine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), many O-acyl side-chain derivatives are directly accessible via a particularly expedient and scalable method not commonly applied until recently. Direct acylation of unprotected hydroxyamino acids with acyl halides or carboxylic anhydrides under appropriately acidic reaction conditions renders possible chemoselective O-acylation, furnishing the corresponding side-chain esters directly, on multigram-scale, in a single step, and without chromatographic purification. Assuming a certain degree of stability under acidic reaction conditions, the method is also applicable for a number of related compounds, such as various amino alcohols and the thiol-functional amino acid cysteine. While the basic methodology underlying this approach has been known for decades, it has evolved through recent developments connected to amino acid-derived chiral organocatalysts to become a more widely recognized procedure for large-scale preparation of many useful side-chain derivatives of hydroxyamino acids and related compounds. Such derivatives are useful in peptide chemistry and drug development, as amino acid amphiphiles for asymmetric catalysis, and as amino acid acrylic precursors for preparation of

  10. In situ epoxide generation by dimethyldioxirane oxidation and the use of epichlorohydrin in the flow synthesis of a library of β-amino alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossar, Peter J; Baker, Jennifer R; Cain, Nicholas; McCluskey, Adam

    2018-04-01

    The flow coupling of epichlorohydrin with substituted phenols, while efficient, limits the nature of the epoxide available for the development of focused libraries of β-amino alcohols. This limitation was encountered in the production of analogues of 1-(4-nitrophenoxy)-3-((2-((4-(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidin-2-yl)amino)ethyl)amino)propan-2-ol 1 , a potential antibiotic lead. The in situ (flow) generation of dimethyldoxirane (DMDO) and subsequent flow olefin epoxidation abrogates this limitation and afforded facile access to structurally diverse β-amino alcohols. Analogues of 1 were readily accessed either via (i) a flow/microwave hybrid approach, or (ii) a sequential flow approach. Key steps were the in situ generation of DMDO, with olefin epoxidation in typically good yields and a flow-mediated ring opening aminolysis to form an expanded library of β-amino alcohols 1 and 10a - 18g , resulting in modest ( 11a , 21%) to excellent ( 12g , 80%) yields. Alternatively flow coupling of epichlorohydrin with phenols 4a - 4m (22%-89%) and a Bi(OTf) 3 catalysed microwave ring opening with amines afforded a select range of β-amino alcohols, but with lower levels of aminolysis regiocontrol than the sequential flow approach.

  11. Effect of specific amino acids on hepatic lipid metabolism in fructose-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegatheesan, Prasanthi; Beutheu, Stéphanie; Ventura, Gabrielle; Sarfati, Gilles; Nubret, Esther; Kapel, Nathalie; Waligora-Dupriet, Anne-Judith; Bergheim, Ina; Cynober, Luc; De-Bandt, Jean-Pascal

    2016-02-01

    Fructose diets have been shown to induce insulin resistance and to alter liver metabolism and gut barrier function, ultimately leading to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Citrulline, Glutamine and Arginine may improve insulin sensitivity and have beneficial effects on gut trophicity. Our aim was to evaluate their effects on liver and gut functions in a rat model of fructose-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 58) received a 4-week fructose (60%) diet or standard chow with or without Citrulline (0.15 g/d) or an isomolar amount of Arginine or Glutamine. All diets were made isonitrogenous by addition of non-essential amino acids. At week 4, nutritional and metabolic status (plasma glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides and amino acids, net intestinal absorption) was determined; steatosis (hepatic triglycerides content, histological examination) and hepatic function (plasma aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin) were assessed; and gut barrier integrity (myeloperoxidase activity, portal endotoxemia, tight junction protein expression and localization) and intestinal and hepatic inflammation were evaluated. We also assessed diets effects on caecal microbiota. In these experimental isonitrogenous fructose diet conditions, fructose led to steatosis with dyslipidemia but without altering glucose homeostasis, liver function or gut permeability. Fructose significantly decreased Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus and tended to increase endotoxemia. Arginine and Glutamine supplements were ineffective but Citrulline supplementation prevented hypertriglyceridemia and attenuated liver fat accumulation. While nitrogen supply alone can attenuate fructose-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Citrulline appears to act directly on hepatic lipid metabolism by partially preventing hypertriglyceridemia and steatosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition

  12. Flow Asymmetric Propargylation: Development of Continuous Processes for the Preparation of a Chiral β-Amino Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Sheeran, Jillian W; Clausen, Andrew M; Fang, Yuan-Qing; Bio, Matthew M; Bader, Scott

    2017-08-01

    The development of a flow chemistry process for asymmetric propargylation using allene gas as a reagent is reported. The connected continuous process of allene dissolution, lithiation, Li-Zn transmetallation, and asymmetric propargylation provides homopropargyl β-amino alcohol 1 with high regio- and diastereoselectivity in high yield. This flow process enables practical use of an unstable allenyllithium intermediate. The process uses the commercially available and recyclable (1S,2R)-N-pyrrolidinyl norephedrine as a ligand to promote the highly diastereoselective (32:1) propargylation. Judicious selection of mixers based on the chemistry requirement and real-time monitoring of the process using process analytical technology (PAT) enabled stable and scalable flow chemistry runs. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A Branched-Chain Amino Acid-Related Metabolic Signature Characterizes Obese Adolescents with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Goffredo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of several metabolite pathways, including branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs, are associated with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD and insulin resistance in adults, while studies in youth reported conflicting results. We explored whether, independently of obesity and insulin resistance, obese adolescents with NAFLD display a metabolomic signature consistent with disturbances in amino acid and lipid metabolism. A total of 180 plasma metabolites were measured by a targeted metabolomic approach in 78 obese adolescents with (n = 30 or without (n = 48 NAFLD assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. All subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test and subsets of patients underwent a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and/or a second MRI after a 2.2 ± 0.8-year follow-up. Adolescents with NAFLD had higher plasma levels of valine (p = 0.02, isoleucine (p = 0.03, tryptophan (p = 0.02, and lysine (p = 0.02 after adjustment for confounding factors. Circulating BCAAs were negatively correlated with peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, higher baseline valine levels predicted an increase in hepatic fat content (HFF at follow-up (p = 0.01. These results indicate that a dysregulation of BCAA metabolism characterizes obese adolescents with NAFLD independently of obesity and insulin resistance and predict an increase in hepatic fat content over time.

  14. Microwave-Enhanced Sulphated Zirconia and SZ/MCM-41 Catalyzed Regioselective Synthesis of β-Amino Alcohols Under Solvent-Free Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo González-Zamora

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A solvent-free approach for the regioselective synthesis of β-amino alcohols inshorter reaction times and higher yields, compared to conventional heating is described. Itinvolves microwave (MW exposure of undiluted reactants in the presence of sulphatedzirconia (SZ or sulphated zirconia over MCM-41 (SZM as catalyst. Both acid materialscan be easily recovered and reused.

  15. Bioactive Compounds Derived from the Yeast Metabolism of Aromatic Amino Acids during Alcoholic Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Mas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolites resulting from nitrogen metabolism in yeast are currently found in some fermented beverages such as wine and beer. Their study has recently attracted the attention of researchers. Some metabolites derived from aromatic amino acids are bioactive compounds that can behave as hormones or even mimic their role in humans and may also act as regulators in yeast. Although the metabolic pathways for their formation are well known, the physiological significance is still far from being understood. The understanding of this relevance will be a key element in managing the production of these compounds under controlled conditions, to offer fermented food with specific enrichment in these compounds or even to use the yeast as nutritional complements.

  16. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because that's how many accidents occur. What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  17. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  18. Alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro Junior, L.

    1988-01-01

    The alcohol production as a secondary energy source, the participation of the alcohol in Brazilian national economic and social aspects are presented. Statistical data of alcohol demand compared with petroleum by-products and electricity are also included. (author)

  19. Saccharomyces kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces uvarum differ from Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the production of aroma-active higher alcohols and acetate esters using their amino acidic precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stribny, Jiri; Gamero, Amparo; Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Querol, Amparo

    2015-07-16

    Higher alcohols and acetate esters are important flavour and aroma components in the food industry. In alcoholic beverages these compounds are produced by yeast during fermentation. Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most extensively used species, other species of the Saccharomyces genus have become common in fermentation processes. This study analyses and compares the production of higher alcohols and acetate esters from their amino acidic precursors in three Saccharomyces species: Saccharomyces kudriavzevii, Saccharomyces uvarum and S. cerevisiae. The global volatile compound analysis revealed that S. kudriavzevii produced large amounts of higher alcohols, whereas S. uvarum excelled in the production of acetate esters. Particularly from phenylalanine, S. uvarum produced the largest amounts of 2-phenylethyl acetate, while S. kudriavzevii obtained the greatest 2-phenylethanol formation from this precursor. The present data indicate differences in the amino acid metabolism and subsequent production of flavour-active higher alcohols and acetate esters among the closely related Saccharomyces species. This knowledge will prove useful for developing new enhanced processes in fragrance, flavour, and food industries. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. A colorimetric chiral sensor based on chiral crown ether for the recognition of the two enantiomers of primary amino alcohols and amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eun Na Rae; Li, Yinan; Kim, Hee Jin; Hyun, Myung Ho

    2011-04-01

    A new colorimetric chiral sensor material consisting of three different functional sites such as chromophore (2,4-dinitrophenylazophenol dye), binding site (crown ether), and chiral barrier (3,3'-diphenyl-1,1'-binaphthyl group) was prepared and applied to the recognition of the two enantiomers of primary amino alcohols and amines. Among five primary amino alcohols and two primary amines tested, the two enantiomers of phenylalaninol show the highest difference in the absorption maximum wavelength (Δλ(max)=43.5 nm) and in the association constants (K(S)/K(R)=2.51) upon complexation with the colorimetric chiral sensor material and, consequently, the two enantiomers of phenylalaninol were clearly distinguished from each other by the color difference. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Rationalization of the pKa values of alcohols and thiols using atomic charge descriptors and its application to the prediction of amino acid pKa's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugur, Ilke; Marion, Antoine; Parant, Stéphane; Jensen, Jan H; Monard, Gerald

    2014-08-25

    In a first step toward the development of an efficient and accurate protocol to estimate amino acids' pKa's in proteins, we present in this work how to reproduce the pKa's of alcohol and thiol based residues (namely tyrosine, serine, and cysteine) in aqueous solution from the knowledge of the experimental pKa's of phenols, alcohols, and thiols. Our protocol is based on the linear relationship between computed atomic charges of the anionic form of the molecules (being either phenolates, alkoxides, or thiolates) and their respective experimental pKa values. It is tested with different environment approaches (gas phase or continuum solvent-based approaches), with five distinct atomic charge models (Mulliken, Löwdin, NPA, Merz-Kollman, and CHelpG), and with nine different DFT functionals combined with 16 different basis sets. Moreover, the capability of semiempirical methods (AM1, RM1, PM3, and PM6) to also predict pKa's of thiols, phenols, and alcohols is analyzed. From our benchmarks, the best combination to reproduce experimental pKa's is to compute NPA atomic charge using the CPCM model at the B3LYP/3-21G and M062X/6-311G levels for alcohols (R(2) = 0.995) and thiols (R(2) = 0.986), respectively. The applicability of the suggested protocol is tested with tyrosine and cysteine amino acids, and precise pKa predictions are obtained. The stability of the amino acid pKa's with respect to geometrical changes is also tested by MM-MD and DFT-MD calculations. Considering its strong accuracy and its high computational efficiency, these pKa prediction calculations using atomic charges indicate a promising method for predicting amino acids' pKa in a protein environment.

  2. Application of cation-exchange solid-phase extraction for the analysis of amino alcohols from water and human plasma for verification of Chemical Weapons Convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaujia, Pankaj K; Tak, Vijay; Pardasani, Deepak; Gupta, A K; Dubey, D K

    2008-03-28

    The analysis of nitrogen containing amino alcohols, which are the precursors and degradation products of nitrogen mustards and nerve agent VX, constitutes an important aspect for verifying the compliance to the CWC (Chemical Weapons Convention). This work devotes on the development of solid-phase extraction method using silica- and polymer-based SCX (strong cation-exchange) and MCX (mixed-mode strong cation-exchange) cartridges for N,N-dialkylaminoethane-2-ols and alkyl N,N-diethanolamines, from water. The extracted analytes were analyzed by GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) in the full scan and selected ion monitoring modes. The extraction efficiencies of SCX and MCX cartridges were compared, and results revealed that SCX performed better. Extraction parameters, such as loading capacity, extraction solvent, its volume, and washing solvent were optimized. Best recoveries were obtained using 2 mL methanol containing 10% NH(4)OH and limits of detection could be achieved up to 5 x 10(-3) microg mL(-1) in the selected ion monitoring mode and 0.01 microg mL(-1) in full scan mode. The method was successfully employed for the detection and identification of amino alcohol present in water sample sent by Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in the official proficiency tests. The method was also applied to extract the analytes from human plasma. The SCX cartridge showed good recoveries of amino alcohols from human plasma after protein precipitation.

  3. [Alcohol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zima, T

    1996-07-14

    Alcohol is one of the most widely used addictive substances. It can be assumed that everybody encounters alcohol--ethanol in various forms and concentrations in the course of their lives. A global and social problem of our civilization is alcohol consumption which has a rising trend. Since 1989 the consumption of alcoholic beverages is rising and the mean annual consumption of concentrated ethanol per head is cea 10 litres. In ethanol abuse the organism is damaged not only by ethanol alone but in particular by substances formed during its metabolism. Its detailed knowledge is essential for the knowledge and investigations of the metabolic and toxic effect of ethanol on the organism. Ingested alcohol is in 90-98% eliminated from the organism by three known metabolic pathways: 1-alcohol dehydrogenase, 2-the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system and 3-catalase. Alcohol is a frequent important risk factor of serious "diseases of civilization" such as IHD, hypertension, osteoporosis, neoplastic diseases. Cirrhosis of the liver and chronic pancreatitis are the well known diseases associated with alcohol ingestion and also their most frequent cause. It is impossible to list all organs and diseases which develop as a result of alcohol consumption. It is important to realize that regular and "relatively" small amounts in the long run damage the organism and may be even fatal.

  4. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria to change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  5. The effect of increased branched-chain amino acid transaminase activity in yeast on the production of higher alcohols and on the flavour profiles of wine and distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, Mariska; Bauer, Florian F; Styger, Gustav; Lambrechts, Marius G; Pretorius, Isak S

    2006-08-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, branched-chain amino acid transaminases (BCAATases) are encoded by the BAT1 and BAT2 genes. BCAATases catalyse the transfer of amino groups between those amino acids and alpha-keto-acids. alpha-Keto-acids are precursors for the biosynthesis of higher alcohols, which significantly influence the aroma and flavour of yeast-derived fermentation products. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of BAT-gene expression on general yeast physiology, on aroma and flavour compound formation and on the sensory characteristics of wines and distillates. For this purpose, the genes were overexpressed and deleted in a laboratory strain, BY4742, and overexpressed in an industrial wine yeast strain, VIN13. The data show that, with the exception of a slow growth phenotype observed for the BAT1 deletion strain, the fermentation behaviour of the strains was unaffected by the modifications. The chemical and sensory analysis of fermentation products revealed a strong correction between BAT gene expression and the formation of many aroma compounds. The data suggest that the adjustment of BAT gene expression could play an important role in assisting winemakers in their endeavour to produce wines with specific flavour profiles.

  6. A Multidisciplinary Approach Toward the Rapid and Preparative-Scale Biocatalytic Synthesis of Chiral Amino Alcohols: A Concise Transketolase-/omega-Transaminase-Mediated Synthesis of (2S,3S)-2-Aminopentane-1,3-diol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, M.E.B; Chen, B.H.; Hibbert, E.G

    2010-01-01

    Chiral amino alcohols represent an important class of value-added biochemicals and pharmaceutical intermediates. Chemical routes to such compounds are generally step intensive, requiring environmentally unfriendly catalysts and solvents. This work describes a multidisciplinary approach to the rapid...... the bioconversions were subsequently scaled up to preparative scales in batch stirred-tank reactors. The microwell methods thus provide process chemists and engineers with a valuable tool for the rapid and early evaluation of potential synthetic strategies. Overall, this work describes a concise and efficient...... biocatalytic route to chiral amino alcohols and illustrates an integrated multidisciplinary approach to bioconversion process design and scale-up....

  7. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to do. Wondering if adding a glass of wine or beer might help lower your blood glucose if it is high? The effects of alcohol can be unpredictable and it is not recommended as a treatment for high blood glucose. The risks likely outweigh any benefit that may be seen in blood glucose alone. ...

  8. Identification of β-Amino alcohol grafted 1,4,5 trisubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles as potent antimalarial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devender, Nalmala; Gunjan, Sarika; Chhabra, Stuti; Singh, Kartikey; Pasam, Venkata Reddy; Shukla, Sanjeev K; Sharma, Abhisheak; Jaiswal, Swati; Singh, Sunil Kumar; Kumar, Yogesh; Lal, Jawahar; Trivedi, Arun Kumar; Tripathi, Renu; Tripathi, Rama Pati

    2016-02-15

    In a quest to discover new drugs, we have synthesized a series of novel β-amino alcohol grafted 1,2,3-triazoles and screened them for their in vitro antiplasmodial and in vivo antimalarial activity. Among them, compounds 16 and 25 showed potent activity against chloroquine-sensitive (Pf3D7) strain with IC50 of 0.87 and 0.3 μM respectively, while compounds 7 and 13 exhibited better activity in vitro than the reference drug against chloroquine-resistance strain (PfK1) with IC50 of 0.5 μM each. Compound 25 showed 86.8% in vivo antimalarial efficacy with favorable pharmacokinetic parameters. Mechanistic studies divulged that potent compounds significantly boosted p53 protein levels to exhibit the antimalarial activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Metal-Free α-C(sp3–H Functionalized Oxidative Cyclization of Tertiary N,N-Diaryl Amino Alcohols: Theoretical Approach for Mechanistic Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakir Ullah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The mechanistic pathway of TEMPO/I2-mediated oxidative cyclization of N,N-diaryl amino alcohols 1 was investigated. Based on direct empirical experiments, three key intermediates (aminium radical cation 3, α-aminoalkyl radical 4, and iminium 5, four types of reactive species (radical TEMPO, cationic TEMPO, TEMPO-I, and iodo radical, and three types of pathways ((1 SET/PCET mechanism; (2 HAT/1,6-H transfer mechanism; (3 ionic mechanism were assumed. Under the assumption, nine free energy diagrams were acquired through density functional theory calculations. From the comparison of solution-phase free energy, some possible mechanisms were excluded, and then the chosen plausible mechanisms were concretized using the more stable intermediate 7.

  10. Adipose Tissue Dysfunction and Altered Systemic Amino Acid Metabolism Are Associated with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulin Cheng

    Full Text Available Fatty liver is a major cause of obesity-related morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to identify early metabolic alterations associated with liver fat accumulation in 50- to 55-year-old men (n = 49 and women (n = 52 with and without NAFLD.Hepatic fat content was measured using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS. Serum samples were analyzed using a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR metabolomics platform. Global gene expression profiles of adipose tissues and skeletal muscle were analyzed using Affymetrix microarrays and quantitative PCR. Muscle protein expression was analyzed by Western blot.Increased branched-chain amino acid (BCAA, aromatic amino acid (AAA and orosomucoid were associated with liver fat accumulation already in its early stage, independent of sex, obesity or insulin resistance (p<0.05 for all. Significant down-regulation of BCAA catabolism and fatty acid and energy metabolism was observed in the adipose tissue of the NAFLD group (p<0.001for all, whereas no aberrant gene expression in the skeletal muscle was found. Reduced BCAA catabolic activity was inversely associated with serum BCAA and liver fat content (p<0.05 for all.Liver fat accumulation, already in its early stage, is associated with increased serum branched-chain and aromatic amino acids. The observed associations of decreased BCAA catabolism activity, mitochondrial energy metabolism and serum BCAA concentration with liver fat content suggest that adipose tissue dysfunction may have a key role in the systemic nature of NAFLD pathogenesis.

  11. Ultrasonic-assisted synthesis of novel nanocomposite of poly(vinyl alcohol) and amino-modified MCM-41: A green adsorbent for Cd(II) removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Roozbeh; Dinari, Mohammad; Mohammadnezhad, Gholamhossein

    2018-01-01

    Amino-modified MCM-41/poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposite (M-MCM-41/PVOH NC) was developed for the adsorption of Cd(II) from aqueous media. M-MCM-41/PVOH NC was prepared through ultrasonic-assisted and simple blending procedure with economical and environmentally friendly polymer. The as-prepared adsorbent was characterized by FT-IR, TEM, FE-SEM and TGA. The contact time, solution pH and initial concentration of Cd(II) were found to affect the adsorption of Cd(II) from aqueous media. Kinetic studies were carried out and pseudo-first-order (PFO), pseudo-second-order (PSO), Elovich, and intra-particle diffusion (IPD) reaction kinetic models were examined. The kinetic results revealed that the adsorption of Cd(II) onto M-MCM-41/PVOH NC followed PSO kinetic model and is a chemical adsorption. The equilibrium adsorption data were evaluated by different isotherms viz. Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin Radushkevich (D-R) equations. The equilibrium data fitted better with the Langmuir isotherm and the maximum adsorption capacity of M-MCM-41/PVOH NC at 298K was calculated to be 46.73mgg -1 for Cd(II) on a typical saturated monomolecular layer with a fixed number of localized adsorption sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mycosporine like amino acids in brown algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serban Radu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biosynthesis of mycosporine and accumulation in cells serves as protection, by shielding the cells sensitive molecules Mycosporine-like aminoacids (MAAs are derivated compounds of mycosporine that contains an amino-cyclohexenimine ring liked to an amino acid, amino alcohol or amino group. They preesent absorbtion maximum between 320 and 360 nm.

  13. Mycosporine like amino acids in brown algae

    OpenAIRE

    Serban Radu; Stoian Gheorghe

    2013-01-01

    Biosynthesis of mycosporine and accumulation in cells serves as protection, by shielding the cells sensitive molecules Mycosporine-like aminoacids (MAAs) are derivated compounds of mycosporine that contains an amino-cyclohexenimine ring liked to an amino acid, amino alcohol or amino group. They preesent absorbtion maximum between 320 and 360 nm.

  14. A density functional theory and quantum theory of atoms-in-molecules analysis of the stability of Ni(II) complexes of some amino alcohol ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadwaj, Pradeep R; Cukrowski, Ignacy; Perry, Christopher B; Marques, Helder M

    2011-06-23

    The structure of the complexes of the type [Ni(L)(H(2)O)(2)](2+), where L is an amino alcohol ligand, L = N,N'-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-ethane-1,2-diamine (BHEEN), N,N'-bis(2-hydroxycyclohexyl)-ethane-1,2-diamine (Cy(2)EN), and N,N'-bis(2-hydroxycyclopentyl)-ethane-1,2-diamine, (Cyp(2)EN) were investigated at the X3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory both in the gas phase and in solvent (CPCM model) to gain insight into factors that control the experimental log K(1) values. We find that (i) analyses based on Bader's quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) are useful in providing significant insight into the nature of metal-ligand bonding and in clarifying the nature of weak "nonbonded" interactions in these complexes and (ii) the conventional explanation of complex stability in these sorts of complexes (based on considerations of bond lengths, bite angles and H-clashes) could be inadequate and indeed might be misleading. The strength of metal-ligand bonds follows the order Ni-N > Ni-OH ≥ Ni-OH(2); the bonds are predominantly ionic with some covalent character decreasing in the order Ni-N > Ni-OH > Ni-OH(2), with Ni-OH(2) being close to purely ionic. We predict that the cis complexes are preferred over the trans complexes because of (i) stronger bonding to the alcoholic O-donor atoms and (ii) more favorable intramolecular interactions, which appear to be important in determining the conformation of a metal-ligand complex. We show that (i) the flexibility of the ligand, which controls the Ni-OH bond length, and (ii) the ability of the ligand to donate electron density to the metal are likely to be important factors in determining values of log K(1). We find that the electron density at the ring critical point of the cyclopentyl moieties in Cyp(2)EN is much higher than that in the cyclohexyl moieties of Cy(2)EN and interpret this to mean that Cyp(2)EN is a poorer donor of electron density to a Lewis acid than Cy(2)EN.

  15. Elevation of liver endoplasmic reticulum stress in a modified choline-deficient l-amino acid-defined diet-fed non-alcoholic steatohepatitis mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraki, Yo; Makita, Yukimasa; Yamasaki, Midori; Amano, Yuichiro; Matsuo, Takanori

    2017-05-06

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress caused by accumulation of misfolded proteins is observed in several kinds of diseases. Since ER stress is reported to be involved in the progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), highly sensitive and simple measurement methods are required for research into developing novel therapy for NASH. To investigate the involvement of ER stress in NASH pathogenesis in a mouse model, an assay for liver ER stress was developed using ER stress activated indicator-luciferase (ERAI-Luc) mice. To establish the assay method for detection of ER stress in the liver, tunicamycin (TM) (0.3 mg/kg i. p.) was administered to ERAI-Luc mice, and the luciferase activity was measured in ex vivo and in vivo. To evaluate ER stress in the NASH model, ERAI-Luc mice were fed a modified choline-deficient l-amino acid-defined (mCDAA) diet for 14 weeks. After measurement of ER stress by luminescence imaging, levels of liver lipids and pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory gene expression were measured as NASH-related indexes. In non-invasive whole-body imaging, TM elevated luciferase activity in the liver, induced by activation of ER stress. The highest luminescence in the liver was confirmed by ex vivo imaging of isolated tissues. In parallel with progression of NASH, elevated luminescence induced by ER stress in liver was observed in mCDAA diet-fed ERAI-Luc mice. Luciferase activity was significantly and positively correlated to levels of triglyceride and free cholesterol in the liver, as well as to the mRNA expression of type 1 collagen α1 chain and tumor necrosis factor α. These data indicated that the use of ERAI-Luc mice was effective in the detection of ER stress in the liver. Moreover, the NASH model using ERAI-Luc mice can be a useful tool to clarify the role of ER stress in pathogenesis of NASH and to evaluate effects of drugs targeted against ER stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  17. Relation between kinetic of alcoholic fermentation and must nitrogen content. Influence of nitrogen fertilization on Vitis vinifera cv Muscadelle with permanent grass cover. Nature and concentration levels of some amino acids of musts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corine Larchevêque

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment concerning the introduction of nitrogen fertilization on permanent grass cover was undertaken in 1995. This was done in order to determine both the role and the influence of nitrogen on the fermentability of must. Located in the Sainte-Foy La Grande area, the plot studied has a deep silty soil. The cultivar Muscadelle was grafted on the 3309 C rootstock. Four tests with several N-fertilizations were compared : 1 (no-tillage and 0 kg N/ha/year, 2 (permanent grass cover without N-fertilization, 3 (permanent grass cover and 30 kg N/ha/year and 4 (permanent grass cover and 60 kg N/ha/year. Nitrogen was added at springtime, on the total interrow area as weIl as on the narrow strip around the vines. The grass cover (with or without N-fertilization had a great effect on yield : it decreased the latter by about 38 percent compared to the no-tillage trial. Moreover, the total acidity values were lower for the musts in trials 2,3 and 4 than in the control 1. Inversely, the initial sugar values were greater in the grass cover trials. The duration of alcoholic fermentation was very different with the no-tillage test and the others : 17 days were necessary for the first, and 42 to 50 for the other musts. This parameter was quite cIosely correlated to the content of nitrogen composites in the must and more particularly to amino acids. The global amino acid contents of must and wine were higher in test 1 than in the others. It is noteworthy that numerous kinds of amino acids were present but it seems likely that some of them were very important by virtue of their nature or their concentration levels. Among the principal amino acids, proline represented at least 20 percent of the global amino acids content for musts 2 and 4, and 14 to 19 percent for musts 3 and 1. Arginine was present only in the must of the grass-cover trials. Proline, arginine, alanine, asparagine/glutamine and aspartic acid represented about 50 to 60 percent of the global amino

  18. Azetidinic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Bunch, Lennart; Chopin, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    A set of ten azetidinic amino acids, that can be envisioned as C-4 alkyl substituted analogues of trans-2-carboxyazetidine-3-acetic acid (t-CAA) and/or conformationally constrained analogues of (R)- or (S)-glutamic acid (Glu) have been synthesized in a diastereo- and enantiomerically pure form from...... of two diastereoisomers that were easily separated and converted in two steps into azetidinic amino acids. Azetidines 35-44 were characterized in binding studies on native ionotropic Glu receptors and in functional assays at cloned metabotropic receptors mGluR1, 2 and 4, representing group I, II and III...... beta-amino alcohols through a straightforward five step sequence. The key step of this synthesis is an original anionic 4-exo-tet ring closure that forms the azetidine ring upon an intramolecular Michael addition. This reaction was proven to be reversible and to lead to a thermodynamic distribution...

  19. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the ...

  20. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... 466 KB] No. 81: Exploring Treatment Options for Alcohol Use Disorders [ PDF - 539K] No. 80: Alcohol and HIV/AIDS: ...

  1. Branched-chain amino acids prevent hepatic fibrosis and development of hepatocellular carcinoma in a non-alcoholic steatohepatitis mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegoshi, Kai; Honda, Masao; Okada, Hikari; Takabatake, Riuta; Matsuzawa-Nagata, Naoto; Campbell, Jean S; Nishikawa, Masashi; Shimakami, Tetsuro; Shirasaki, Takayoshi; Sakai, Yoshio; Yamashita, Taro; Takamura, Toshinari; Tanaka, Takuji; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2017-03-14

    Oral supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; leucine, isoleucine, and valine) in patients with liver cirrhosis potentially suppresses the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and improves event-free survival. However, the detailed mechanisms of BCAA action have not been fully elucidated. BCAA were administered to atherogenic and high-fat (Ath+HF) diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model mice. Liver histology, tumor incidence, and gene expression profiles were evaluated. Ath+HF diet mice developed hepatic tumors at a high frequency at 68 weeks. BCAA supplementation significantly improved hepatic steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis, and tumors in Ath+HF mice at 68 weeks. GeneChip analysis demonstrated the significant resolution of pro-fibrotic gene expression by BCAA supplementation. The anti-fibrotic effect of BCAA was confirmed further using platelet-derived growth factor C transgenic mice, which develop hepatic fibrosis and tumors. In vitro, BCAA restored the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-stimulated expression of pro-fibrotic genes in hepatic stellate cells (HSC). In hepatocytes, BCAA restored TGF-β1-induced apoptosis, lipogenesis, and Wnt/β-Catenin signaling, and inhibited the transformation of WB-F344 rat liver epithelial stem-like cells. BCAA repressed the promoter activity of TGFβ1R1 by inhibiting the expression of the transcription factor NFY and histone acetyltransferase p300. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect of BCAA on TGF-β1 signaling was mTORC1 activity-dependent, suggesting the presence of negative feedback regulation from mTORC1 to TGF-β1 signaling. Thus, BCAA induce an anti-fibrotic effect in HSC, prevent apoptosis in hepatocytes, and decrease the incidence of HCC; therefore, BCAA supplementation would be beneficial for patients with advanced liver fibrosis with a high risk of HCC.

  2. Amino alcohol- (NPS-2143 and quinazolinone-derived calcilytics (ATF936 and AXT914 differentially mitigate excessive signalling of calcium-sensing receptor mutants causing Bartter syndrome Type 5 and autosomal dominant hypocalcemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Letz

    Full Text Available Activating calcium sensing receptor (CaSR mutations cause autosomal dominant hypocalcemia (ADH characterized by low serum calcium, inappropriately low PTH and relative hypercalciuria. Four activating CaSR mutations cause additional renal wasting of sodium, chloride and other salts, a condition called Bartter syndrome (BS type 5. Until today there is no specific medical treatment for BS type 5 and ADH. We investigated the effects of different allosteric CaSR antagonists (calcilytics on activating CaSR mutants.All 4 known mutations causing BS type 5 and five ADH mutations were expressed in HEK 293T cells and receptor signalling was studied by measurement of intracellular free calcium in response to extracellular calcium ([Ca2+]o. To investigate the effect of calcilytics, cells were stimulated with 3 mM [Ca2+]o in the presence or absence of NPS-2143, ATF936 or AXT914.All BS type 5 and ADH mutants showed enhanced signalling activity to [Ca2+]o with left shifted dose response curves. In contrast to the amino alcohol NPS-2143, which was only partially effective, the quinazolinone calcilytics ATF936 and AXT914 significantly mitigated excessive cytosolic calcium signalling of all BS type 5 and ADH mutants studied. When these mutants were co-expressed with wild-type CaSR to approximate heterozygosity in patients, ATF936 and AXT914 were also effective on all mutants.The calcilytics ATF936 and AXT914 are capable of attenuating enhanced cytosolic calcium signalling activity of CaSR mutations causing BS type 5 and ADH. Quinazolinone calcilytics might therefore offer a novel treatment option for patients with activating CaSR mutations.

  3. Plasma amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  4. Rationalization of the pKa values of alcohols and thiols using atomic charge descriptors and its application to the prediction of amino acid pKa's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugur, Ilke; Marion, Antoine; Parant, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    ) to also predict pKa's of thiols, phenols, and alcohols is analyzed. From our benchmarks, the best combination to reproduce experimental pKa's is to compute NPA atomic charge using the CPCM model at the B3LYP/3-21G and M062X/6-311G levels for alcohols (R(2) = 0.995) and thiols (R(2) = 0.986), respectively...

  5. ALCOHOL I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the increase in alcohol marketing activities by the transnational alcohol corporations in Nigeria .... were recorded with a digital device with ..... era (i.e., before alcohol industry was es- tablished in ..... university student drinking: A na-.

  6. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this process. One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup urine disease. Amino acids are "building blocks" that join together to form ...

  7. Amino acids and proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; van den Akker, Chris H.; de Groof, Femke; van der Schoor, Sophie R. D.

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids and protein are key factors for growth. The neonatal period requires the highest intake in life to meet the demands. Those demands include amino acids for growth, but proteins and amino acids also function as signalling molecules and function as neurotransmitters. Often the nutritional

  8. Composition of amino acid using carbon monoxide. Amide carbonylation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izawa, Kunisuke (Ajinomoto Co., Inc., Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-02-01

    Amide carbonylation reaction is a method to compose N-acyl-{alpha}-amino acid from aldehyde, carboxylic acid amide, and carbon monoxide in a phase and with high yield. Unlike the conventional Strecker reaction, this method does not use HCN which is in question on public pollution and does not require hydrolysis. This amide carbonylation reaction was discovered by Wakamatsu and others of Ajinomoto Co.,Ltd. Present application examples of this method are the composition of N-acetyl amino acid from the aldehyde class, the composition of N-Acyl amino acid from olefin, the composition of N-acyl or acetyl amino acid from the raw material of alcohol and the halide class, the composition of N-acyl or acetyl amino acid via the isomerization of epoxide and allyl alcohol, the composition of amino dicarboxylic acid, applying deoxidation of ring acid anhydride, the composition of N-acyl amino acid from the raw material of the amine class, the stereoselective composition of -substitution ring-{alpha}-amino acid, and the composition of amino aldehyde. 24 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Fermentation of starches and sugars to alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fertman, G I; Berenshtein, A F; Gulyaev, J P

    1958-02-25

    To prevent the growth of acid-forming bacteria in the started wort, the ester-aldehyde fraction or the amino alcohol obtained in the rectification process is returned to the wort in amounts sufficient to give an alcohol concentration of approximately 1.5% by volume. The fermenting wort is also acidified to 0.5 to 0.6.

  10. Black Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  11. Crystal structures of (RS-N-[(1R,2S-2-benzyloxy-1-(2,6-dimethylphenylpropyl]-2-methylpropane-2-sulfinamide and (RS-N-[(1S,2R-2-benzyloxy-1-(2,4,6-trimethylphenylpropyl]-2-methylpropane-2-sulfinamide: two related protected 1,2-amino alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Carbone

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compounds, C22H31NO2S, (1, and C23H33NO2S, (2, are related protected 1,2-amino alcohols. They differ in the substituents on the benzene ring, viz. 2,6-dimethylphenyl in (1 and 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl in (2. The plane of the phenyl ring is inclined to that of the benzene ring by 28.52 (7° in (1 and by 44.65 (19° in (2. In the crystal of (1, N—H...O=S and C—H...O=S hydrogen bonds link molecules, forming chains along [100], while in (2, similar hydrogen bonds link molecules into chains along [010]. The absolute structures of both compounds were determined by resonance scattering.

  12. Peptide analysis as amino alcohols by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Application to hyperoligopeptiduria. Detection of Gly-3Hyp-4Hyp and Gly-Pro-4Hyp-Gly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, W; Niederwieser, A

    1979-03-15

    A method for the qualitative analysis of oligopeptides in human urine in cases of peptiduria is described. After sample precleaning on a strongly acidic ion exchanger, the trifluoroacetyl/methyl esters were formed and the peptide derivatives were transformed into trifluoroethyl oligoamino alcohols according to Nau and Biemann. It was found that oligoamino alcohols could be isolated selectively on a weakly acidic ion exchanger. The O-trimethylsilylated trifluoroethyl oligoamino alcohols were separated on a SE-30 glass capillary column and analyzed by computer-assisted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In order to increase specificity and to facilitate mass spectrometric interpretation, aliquots of the sample were reduced separately with lithium-aluminium deuteride and hydride. Each peptide gave a pair of derivatives with characteristic mass differences of the ions, namely 2 mass units per reduced oxo group (deuterium-hydrogen-labelling of oxo groups by reduction). Correct identification is assumed only if both mass spectral patterns fit the theory. Sample volumes of 5--100 ml of urine are needed. About six samples can be derivatized per week. Three cases with suspected peptiduria were investigated and the following peptides were found: Gly-Pro-4Hyp-Gly; Gly-Pro-4Hyp; Gly-Hyp-Hyp (postulated isomer Gly-3Hyp-4Hyp); Pro-4Hyp and Gly-Pro. With exception of the tetrapeptide, these compounds could be detected also in the urine of a healthy child.

  13. Determination of amino acids in grape-derived products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejón, R M; Troncoso, A M; Morales, M L

    2010-06-15

    The amino acids present in foods and beverages affect the quality of these products and they play an important role in enology. Amino acids are consumed by yeasts as a source of nitrogen during alcoholic fermentation and are precursors of aroma compounds. In this review various chromatographic methodologies for the determination of amino acids are described, and specific applications for the analysis of amino acid content are discussed. Amino acids usually need to be derivatized to make them more detectable. Several derivatizing reagents have been employed for the determination of amino acids in enological applications, and each has its advantages and disadvantages.

  14. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  15. Alcohol Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Trkovská, Jana

    2017-01-01

    The thesis concerns itself with alcohol advertising. Alcohol is the most widespread habit-forming substance, yet its consumption is permitted in most countries all around the world, possibly restricted by the age of consumers only. Drinking alcohol cannot be either regulated or prohibited today. It has become commonplace for the majority of our lives. Being aware of its apparent risks, however, there is an effort to regulate at least alcohol advertising. The main objective of this work was to...

  16. Alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin, P

    1961-01-04

    The addition of C/sub 6-10/ alcohols to the fermenting sugar solutions, increased the yield of alcohol by 1.5 to 5%. The best additives were (additive, % additive in sugar solution, % increased in yield of alcohol): hexanol, 0.03, 2.5; heptanol, 0.05, 3; nonanol, 0.01, 3; 2-ethylbutanol, 0.05, 4; 2-ethylhexanol, 0.05, 5; a mixture of C/sub 7-9/ alcohols from the Oxo synthesis, 0.05, 4.5, and a mixture of C/sub 10/ alcohols 0.05, 3.

  17. PCI-GC-MS-MS approach for identification of non-amino organic acid and amino acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Hemi; Yang, Lin; Ji, Fenfen; Cai, Zongwei

    2017-03-15

    Alkyl chloroformate have been wildly used for the fast derivatization of metabolites with amino and/or carboxyl groups, coupling of powerful separation and detection systems, such as GC-MS, which allows the comprehensive analysis of non-amino organic acids and amino acids. The reagents involving n-alkyl chloroformate and n-alcohol are generally employed for providing symmetric labeling terminal alkyl chain with the same length. Here, we developed an asymmetric labeling strategy and positive chemical ionization gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (PCI-GC-MS-MS) approach for determination of non-amino organic acids and amino acids, as well as the short chain fatty acids. Carboxylic and amino groups could be selectively labelled by propyl and ethyl groups, respectively. The specific neutral loss of C 3 H 8 O (60Da), C 3 H 5 O 2 (74Da) and C 4 H 8 O 2 (88Da) were useful in the selective identification for qualitative analysis of organic acids and amino acid derivatives. PCI-GC-MS-MS using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was applied for semi-quantification of typical non-amino organic acids and amino acids. This method exhibited a wide range of linear range, good regression coefficient (R 2 ) and repeatability. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of targeted metabolites showed excellent intra- and inter-day precision (chloroformate derivatization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Wheat-bran autolytic peptides containing a branched-chain amino acid attenuate non-alcoholic steatohepatitis via the suppression of oxidative stress and the upregulation of AMPK/ACC in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Takumi; Ueno, Takato; Nogata, Yoichi; Hayakawa, Masako; Koga, Hironori; Torimura, Takuji

    2017-02-01

    Whole-wheat intake is known to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome. However, the active component remains unclear. Recently, we identified bioactive peptides [leucine-arginine-proline (LRP) and leucine-glutamine‑proline (LQP)] from wheat bran autolytic hydrolysate. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of LRP and LQP on non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in a mouse model. We also evaluated the effects of these peptides on oxidative stress and on the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway, two major pathogenic factors of NASH. Seven‑week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet for 10 weeks and administered water supplemented with 0.05% LRP, 0.20% LRP, 0.05% LQP, or 0.20% LQP (each n=5) or distilled water (control; n=5) ad libitum. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring the serum levels of diacron reactive oxygen metabolite (d-ROM) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP). Hepatic expression of phosphorylated AMPK and phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were evaluated by immunoblotting. The result showed that non‑alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score was significantly decreased in all types of treatment. Serum d-ROM levels were significantly decreased in the 0.20% LRP group, but not in the 0.05% LRP, 0.05% LQP, and 0.20% LQP groups. Serum BAP levels were significantly increased in the 0.05% LRP and 0.20% LRP groups, but not in the 0.05% LQP and 0.20% LQP groups. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that the expression of phospho-AMPK was increased whereas that of phospho-ACC was decreased in the 0.20% LQP group. In conclusion, we demonstrated that both LRP and LQP alleviated the severity of NASH in a high-fat diet-induced NASH mouse model. In addition, we showed that LRP and LQP modulated oxidative stress and upregulated AMPK/ACC, respectively. Thus, LRP and LQP may constitute clinically applicable therapeutic agents for NASH.

  19. Amino acid racemisation dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray-Wallace, C.V.

    1999-01-01

    The potential of the time-dependent amino acid racemisation reaction as a method of age assessment was first reported by Hare and Abelson (1968). They noted that in specimens of the bivalve mollusc Mercenaria sp., greater concentrations of amino acids in the D-configuration with increasing fossil age. Hare and Abelson (1968) also reported negligible racemisation in a modern specimen of Mecanaria sp. On this basis they suggested that the extent of amino acid racemisation (epimerisation in the case of isoleucine) may be used to assess the age of materials within and beyond the range of radiocarbon dating. For the past thirty years amino acid racemisation has been extensively applied in Quaternary research as a method of relative and numeric dating, and a particularly large literature has emerged on the subject

  20. Amino Acids and Chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie E.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  1. Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids and Marine Toxins - The Common and the Different

    OpenAIRE

    Donat P. Häder; Manfred Klisch

    2008-01-01

    Marine microorganisms harbor a multitude of secondary metabolites. Among these are toxins of different chemical classes as well as the UV-protective mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). The latter form a group of water-soluble, low molecular-weight (generally < 400) compounds composed of either an aminocyclohexenone or an aminocyclohexenimine ring, carrying amino acid or amino alcohol substituents. So far there has been no report of toxicity in MAAs but nevertheless there are some features th...

  2. Rhodium-catalyzed Asymmetric Hydrogenation of α-Dehydroamino Ketones: A General Approach to Chiral α-amino Ketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenchao; Wang, Qingli; Xie, Yun; Lv, Hui; Zhang, Xumu

    2016-01-01

    Rhodium/DuanPhos-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of aliphatic α-dehydroamino ketones has been achieved and afforded chiral α-amino ketones in high yields and excellent enantioselectives (up to 99 % ee), which could be reduced further to chiral β-amino alcohols by LiAlH(tBuO)3 with good yields. This protocol provides a readily accessible route for the synthesis of chiral α-amino ketones and chiral β-amino alcohols. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Derivatives of 1,3-oxazolidines on the base of diamino-alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimov, M.B.; Kimsanov, B.Kh.; Tagaeva, S.E.; Khuseynov, K.B.

    2001-01-01

    In this article authors investigated the reaction of 1-cyclohexyl amino-3-diethyl amino-2-propanol, 1-butylamine-3-diethyl amino-2-propanol. By authors was determined that reaction of initial diamino-alcohols with furfural passing at molar correlation of reagents 1:1 at temperature 20-22 d ig C at presence dehydrating medium-potash during 36 hours

  4. Isopropanol alcohol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbing alcohol poisoning; Isopropyl alcohol poisoning ... Isopropyl alcohol can be harmful if it is swallowed or gets in the eyes. ... These products contain isopropanol: Alcohol swabs Cleaning supplies ... Rubbing alcohol Other products may also contain isopropanol.

  5. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 33960 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  6. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... lead to lifelong damage. DANGERS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY Drinking a lot of alcohol during pregnancy can ...

  7. NIAAA Alcohol Treatment Navigator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What Is Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD)? What Types of Alcohol Treatment Are Available? ... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What is alcohol use disorder (AUD)? A health condition that can improve with ...

  8. and amino acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    P RABINDRA REDDY* and A MOHAN REDDY. Department of ... The mixed ligand complexes of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) with uridine and amino acids ..... Sabat M, Satyashur K A and Sundaralingam M 1983 J. Am. Chem. Soc. ... Uemura T, Shimura T, Nakamishi H, Tomahiro T, Nagawa Y and Okuno (Yohmei) H 1991. Inorg.

  9. New Functions and Potential Applications of Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneyama, Hisayuki; Kobayashi, Hisamine; Tonouchi, Naoto

    Currently, several types of amino acids are being produced and used worldwide. Nevertheless, several new functions of amino acids have been recently discovered that could result in other applications. For example, oral stimulation by glutamate triggers the cephalic phase response to prepare for food digestion. Further, the stomach and intestines have specific glutamate-recognizing systems in their epithelial mucosa. Regarding clinical applications, addition of monosodium glutamate to the medicinal diet has been shown to markedly enhance gastric secretion in a vagus-dependent manner. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are the major components of muscles, and ingestion of BCAAs has been found to be effective for decreasing muscle pain. BCAAs are expected to be a solution for the serious issue of aging. Further, ingestion of specific amino acids could be beneficial. Glycine can be ingested for good night's sleep: glycine ingestion before bedtime significantly improved subjective sleep quality. Ingestion of alanine and glutamine effectively accelerates alcohol metabolism, and ingestion of cystine and theanine effectively prevents colds. Finally, amino acids could be used in a novel clinical diagnostic method: the balance of amino acids in the blood could be an indicator of the risk of diseases such as cancer. These newly discovered functions of amino acids are expected to contribute to the resolution of various issues.

  10. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 whi...

  11. Alcohol Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ingredients commonly found in alcoholic beverages, especially in beer or wine, can cause intolerance reactions. These include: Sulfites or other preservatives Chemicals, grains or other ingredients Histamine, a byproduct of fermentation or brewing In some cases, reactions can be ...

  12. Alcohol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than eight breaths a minute) Irregular breathing (a gap of more than 10 seconds between breaths) Blue- ... about alcohol by their parents and who report close relationships with their parents are less likely to ...

  13. Alcoholic neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently inspecting the feet and shoes to reduce injury caused by pressure or objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent ...

  14. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... daily rhythm for various functions (e.g., body temperature or blood pressure) that is controlled by certain “ ... A special section delves more deeply into specific classes of genes and their relationship to alcoholism. The ...

  15. [Alcohol intake--a two-edged sword. Part 1: metabolism and pathogenic effects of alcohol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströhle, Alexander; Wolters, Maike; Hahn, Andreas

    2012-08-01

    From the biomedical point of view alcohol is a Janus-faced dietary component with a dose-dependent effect varying from cardiovascular protection to cytotoxicity. Alcohol is absorbed in the upper gastrointestinal tract by passive diffusion, is quickly distributed throughout body water and is mostly eliminated through oxidation. The enzymatically-catalyzed oxidative degradation to acetaldehyde and further to acetate is primarily localized in the liver. In case of a low blood alcohol concentration (0.5 per thousand) are increasingly oxidized by the microsomal ethanoloxidizing system (MEOS). Alcohol consumption induces several metabolic reactions as well as acute effects on the central nervous system. Chronic alcohol consumption to some extent irreparably damages nearly every organ with the liver being particularly concerned. There are three stages of alcohol-induced liver disease (fatty liver, alcohol hepatitis, liver cirrhosis) and the liver damages mainly result from reaction products of alcohol degradation (acetaldehyde, NADH and reactive oxygen species). An especially dreaded clinical complication of the alcohol-induced liver disease is the hepatic encephalopathy. Its pathogenesis is a multifactorial and self-perpetuating process with the swelling of astrocytes being a crucial point. Swollen astrocytes induce several reactions such as oxidative/nitrosative stress, impaired signal transduction, protein modifications and a modified gene expression profile. The swelling of astrocytes and the change in neuronal activity are attributed to several neurotoxins, especially ammonia and aromatic amino acids. In alcohol addicted subjects multiple micronutrient deficiencies are common. The status of folic acid, thiamine, pyridoxine and zinc is especially critical.

  16. Steric and electrostatic interactions govern nanofiltration of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Yongki; Chellam, Shankararaman

    2007-10-01

    Crossflow nanofiltration experiments were performed to investigate the factors influencing the removal of amino acids by a commercially available polymeric thin-film composite membrane. The removals of five monoprotic (Ala, Val, Leu, Gly, and Thr), one diprotic (Asp), and one dibasic (Arg) amino acids in a range of permeate fluxes, feed pH values, and ionic strengths were analyzed using a phenomenological model of membrane transport. At any given pH and ionic strength, reflection coefficients (rejection at asymptotically infinite flux) of monoprotic amino acids increased with molar radius demonstrating the role of steric interactions on their removal. Additionally, consistent with Donnan exclusion, higher reflection coefficients were obtained when the membrane and the amino acids both carried the same nature of charge (positive or negative). In other words, both co-ion repulsion and molecular size determined amino acids removal. Importantly, the removal of effectively neutral amino acids were significantly higher than neutral sugars and alcohols of similar size demonstrating that even near their isoelectric point, zwitterionic characteristics preclude them from being considered as strictly neutral. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... experience alcohol’s longer-term effects, which can include: Alcohol use disorder Health problems Increased risk for certain cancers In ...

  18. 2-Amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob T; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-01-01

    positive patch test reactions to the coupler 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014. METHODS: Patch test results from the Allergen Bank database for eczema patients patch tested with 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014 were reviewed. RESULTS......: A total of 902 dermatitis patients (154 from the dermatology department and 748 from 65 practices) were patch tested with amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014. Thirteen (1.4%) patients had a positive patch test reaction. Our results do not indicate irritant reactions....... CONCLUSIONS: 2-Amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate is a new but rare contact allergen....

  19. carcass amino acid composition and utilization of dietary amino

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maynard (1954), Fisher & Scott (1954), Forbes &. Rao (1959), Hartsook & Mitchell (1956). King (1963) showed that individual amino acids in the carcass could differ widely from the requirement by the anirnal for those particular amino acids used for purposes other than protein synthesis and subsequent retention. How-.

  20. Enantioselective Addition of Allyltin Reagents to Amino Aldehydes Catalyzed with Bis(oxazolinylphenylrhodium(III Aqua Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisao Nishiyama

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bis(oxazolinylphenylrhodium(III aqua complexes, (PheboxRhX2(H2O [X = Cl, Br], were found to be efficient Lewis acid catalysts for the enantioselective addition of allyl- and methallyltributyltin reagents to amino aldehydes. The reactions proceed smoothly in the presence of 5–10 mol % of (PheboxRhX2(H2O complex at ambient temperature to give the corresponding amino alcohols with modest to good enantioselectivity (up to 94% ee.

  1. EXTRACTION-CHROMATOGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF GLUCOSE AND FRUCTOSE IN THE PRESENCE OF AROMATIC AMINO ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Korenman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of glucose and fructose from aqueous salt solutions containing aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, hydrophilic solvents (aliphatic alcohols, alkyl acetates, ketones have been studied. The quantitative characteric of the process (the distribution coefficients, the degree of extraction, separation factors are calculeted. The dependence of distribution ratios of monosaccharides from the amino acid content in the solution has been established. A mobile phase for analysis of the concentrate by ascending thin layer chromatography have been developed.

  2. Alcoholism and Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alec; Linnoila, Markku

    1986-01-01

    Reviews knowledge about suicide in alcoholism: how commonly suicide among alcoholics occurs; which alcoholics commit suicide and why; suicide among alcoholic women and alcoholic physicians; possible predisposing biological factors; possible linkages with depression, adverse life events, and personality disorder; and future research and directions.…

  3. Studies on radiolysis of amino acids, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oku, Tadatake

    1978-01-01

    In order to elucidate the effect of adding methionine on the loss of amino acid by γ-irradiation in amino acid mixture, because methionine is one of the most radio-sensitive in amino acids, the remaining amino acids in γ-irradiated aqueous solution of amino acid mixture were studied by determining the total amount of each remaining amino acid. The mixture of 18 amino acids which contains methionine and that of 17 amino acids without methionine were used. Amino acids and the irradiation products were determined with an automatic amino acid analyzer. The total amount of remaining amino acids in the irradiated solution of 18 amino acid mixture was more than that of 17 amino acid mixture. The order of the total amount of each remaining amino acid by low-dose irradiation was Gly>Ala>Asp>Glu>Val>Ser, Pro>Ile, Leu>Thr>Lys>Tyr>Arg>His>Phe>Try>Cys>Met. In case of the comparison of amino acids of same kinds, the total remaining amount of each amino acid in amino acid mixture was more than that of individually irradiated amino acid. The total remaining amounts of glycine, alanine and aspartic acid in irradiated 17 amino acid mixture resulted in slight increase. Ninhydrin positive products formed from 18 amino acid mixture irradiated with 2.640 x 10 3 rad were ammonia, methionine sulfoxide and DOPA of 1.34, 0.001 and 0.25 μmoles/ml of the irradiated solution, respectively. (Kobake, H.)

  4. Iron(II)-catalyzed intermolecular amino-oxygenation of olefins through the N-O bond cleavage of functionalized hydroxylamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Deng-Fu; Zhu, Cheng-Liang; Jia, Zhen-Xin; Xu, Hao

    2014-09-24

    An iron-catalyzed diastereoselective intermolecular olefin amino-oxygenation reaction is reported, which proceeds via an iron-nitrenoid generated by the N-O bond cleavage of a functionalized hydroxylamine. In this reaction, a bench-stable hydroxylamine derivative is used as the amination reagent and oxidant. This method tolerates a range of synthetically valuable substrates that have been all incompatible with existing amino-oxygenation methods. It can also provide amino alcohol derivatives with regio- and stereochemical arrays complementary to known amino-oxygenation methods.

  5. Efficient loading of primary alcohols onto a solid phase using a trityl bromide linker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crestey, François; Ottesen, Lars Korsgaard; Jaroszewski, Jerzy Witold

    2008-01-01

    The Letter describes an improved, rapid and mild strategy for the loading of primary alcohols onto a polystyrene trityl resin via a highly reactive trityl bromide linker. This protocol facilitates an efficient resin loading even of acid-sensitive or heat-labile alcohols, which otherwise require...... expensive or non-commercial resin types. Secondary alcohols were only attached in moderate to low yields, while attempts to load a tertiary alcohol expectedly failed. Importantly, selective attachment of diols via a primary alcohol group in the presence of more hindered alcohol groups proved possible....... The effects of activation time and reagent excess as well as alcohol structure were investigated. This improved method provides a convenient access to O-linked resin-bound N-Fmoc-protected amino alcohols that may be employed in SPS of peptides with C-terminal alcohol functionalities. In the case...

  6. Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be increased in women because their digestive system may be less able to process alcohol, thus increasing the amount of alcohol reaching the liver. Genetic makeup Genetic makeup is thought to be involved because alcoholic liver disease often ...

  7. Alcohol Use Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following ...

  8. Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol use disorder” or AUD. AUD is a chronic relapsing brain disease characterized by compulsive alcohol use, loss of control over alcohol intake, and a negative emotional state when not using. ...

  9. Amino Acids from a Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie Elisla

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 to Earth in January 2006. Examinations of the organic compounds in cometary samples can reveal information about the prebiotic organic inventory present on the early Earth and within the early Solar System, which may have contributed to the origin of life. Preliminary studies of Stardust material revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds (cometary- vs. terrestrial contamination) could not be identified. We have recently measured the carbon isotopic ratios of these amino acids to determine their origin, leading to the first detection of a coetary amino acid.

  10. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Alcohol Use Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links to Other Websites About Us More CDC Alcohol Topics CDC Alcohol Portal Excessive Alcohol Use Binge ... of alcohol screening and counseling for all women Alcohol Use Quiz Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  11. 2-Amino-5-chloropyridinium nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donia Zaouali Zgolli

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The title structure, C5H6ClN2+·NO3−, is held together by extensive hydrogen bonding between the NO3− ions and 2-amino-5-chloropyridinium H atoms. The cation–anion N—H...O hydrogen bonds link the ions into a zigzag- chain which develops parallel to the b axis. The structure may be compared with that of the related 2-amino-5-cyanopyridinium nitrate.

  12. Palladium-Catalyzed Anti-Markovnikov Oxidation of Allylic Amides to Protected beta-Amino Aldehydes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, Jiajia; Harvey, Emma C.; Fananas-Mastral, Martin; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    A general method for the preparation of N-protected beta-amino aldehydes from allylic amines or linear allylic alcohols is described. Here the Pd(II)-catalyzed oxidation of N-protected allylic amines with benzoquinone is achieved in tBuOH under ambient conditions with excellent selectivity toward

  13. Impact of Wort Amino Acids on Beer Flavour: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês M. Ferreira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The process by which beer is brewed has not changed significantly since its discovery thousands of years ago. Grain is malted, dried, crushed and mixed with hot water to produce wort. Yeast is added to the sweet, viscous wort, after which fermentation occurs. The biochemical events that occur during fermentation reflect the genotype of the yeast strain used, and its phenotypic expression is influenced by the composition of the wort and the conditions established in the fermenting vessel. Although wort is complex and not completely characterized, its content in amino acids indubitably affects the production of some minor metabolic products of fermentation which contribute to the flavour of beer. These metabolic products include higher alcohols, esters, carbonyls and sulfur-containing compounds. The formation of these products is comprehensively reviewed in this paper. Furthermore, the role of amino acids in the beer flavour, in particular their relationships with flavour active compounds, is discussed in light of recent data.

  14. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a baby when a mother drinks alcohol during pregnancy. Causes Using alcohol during pregnancy can cause the same risks as using alcohol in general. But it poses extra risks to the unborn baby. When a pregnant woman drinks ... use during pregnancy. Larger amounts of alcohol appear to increase the ...

  15. Turning to alcohol?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiboro, S.K.

    1998-01-01

    Brazil is examining whether turning to alcohol could solve its problems. The fuel alcohol producers are lobbying hard for the government to increase the use of alcohol to fuel the country's cars. Not only does using alcohol reduce CO 2 , runs the argument, but the Kyoto agreement might just attract international financing for the project. (author)

  16. Clearinghouse: alcohol and poppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Ten articles from magazines and journals are referenced on the subjects of alcohol and poppers. Topics include alcohol consumption and HIV/AIDS-related risky sexual behavior, alcohol and drug abuse, and self-esteem, gender, and alcohol use. Contact information is provided.

  17. Children of Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krois, Deborah Helen

    Although alcoholism has long been considered a serious problem, the impact of parental alcoholism on children has only recently begun to receive attention from researchers and clinicians. A review of the empirical literature on children of alcoholics was conducted and it was concluded that children raised in an alcoholic family are at increased…

  18. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... categories: 4 » Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) » Partial FAS (pFAS) » Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND) » Alcohol-Related Birth ... either prenatally, after birth, or both Partial FAS (pFAS) Partial FAS (pFAS) involves prenatal alcohol exposure, and ...

  19. Maternal L-glutamine supplementation prevents prenatal alcohol exposure-induced fetal growth restriction in an ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Onkar B; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to cause fetal growth restriction and disturbances in amino acid bioavailability. Alterations in these parameters can persist into adulthood and low birth weight can lead to altered fetal programming. Glutamine has been associated with the synthesis of other amino acids, an increase in protein synthesis and it is used clinically as a nutrient supplement for low birth weight infants. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of repeated maternal alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation on fetal growth and amino acid bioavailability during the third trimester-equivalent period in an ovine model. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to four groups, saline control, alcohol (1.75-2.5 g/kg), glutamine (100 mg/kg, three times daily) or alcohol + glutamine. In this study, a weekend binge drinking model was followed where treatment was done 3 days per week in succession from gestational day (GD) 109-132 (normal term ~147). Maternal alcohol exposure significantly reduced fetal body weight, height, length, thoracic girth and brain weight, and resulted in decreased amino acid bioavailability in fetal plasma and placental fluids. Maternal glutamine supplementation successfully mitigated alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction and improved the bioavailability of glutamine and glutamine-related amino acids such as glycine, arginine, and asparagine in the fetal compartment. All together, these findings show that L-glutamine supplementation enhances amino acid availability in the fetus and prevents alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction.

  20. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C; Tanski, Susanne E; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D

    2016-02-01

    Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  2. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  3. Branched-Chain Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Ghiringhelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study is focused on evaluation and use of the most effective and correct nutrients. In particular, our attention is directed to the role of certain amino acids in cachectic patients. During parenteral nutrition in humans, physician already associates in the PN-bags different formulations including amino acids, lipids and glucose solutions or essential amino acids solution alone or exclusively branched-chain amino acids (BCAA. Studies investigated the effects of dietary BCAA ingestion on different diseases and conditions such as obesity and metabolic disorders, liver disease, muscle atrophy, cancer, impaired immunity or injuries (surgery, trauma, burns, and sepsis. BCAAs have been shown to affect gene expression, protein metabolism, apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocytes, and insulin resistance. They have also been shown to inhibit the proliferation of liver cancer cells in vitro, and are essential for lymphocyte proliferation and dendritic cell maturation. Oral or parenteral administration of these three amino acids will allow us to evaluate the real efficacy of these compounds during a therapy to treat malnutrition in subjects unable to feed themselves.

  4. Solid-phase route to Fmoc-protected cationic amino acid building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jacob Dahlqvist; Linderoth, Lars; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2012-01-01

    Diamino acids are commonly found in bioactive compounds, yet only few are commercially available as building blocks for solid-phase peptide synthesis. In the present work a convenient, inexpensive route to multiple-charged amino acid building blocks with varying degree of hydrophobicity...... was developed. A versatile solid-phase protocol leading to selectively protected amino alcohol intermediates was followed by oxidation to yield the desired di- or polycationic amino acid building blocks in gram-scale amounts. The synthetic sequence comprises loading of (S)-1-(p-nosyl)aziridine-2-methanol onto...... of simple neutral amino acids as well as analogs displaying high bulkiness or polycationic side chains was prepared. Two building blocks were incorporated into peptide sequences using microwave-assisted solid-phase peptide synthesis confirming their general utility....

  5. Global alcohol policy and the alcohol industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter

    2009-05-01

    The WHO is preparing its global strategy on alcohol, and, in so doing, has been asked to consult with the alcohol industry on ways it could contribute in reducing the harm done by alcohol. This review asks which is more effective in reducing harm: the regulatory approaches that the industry does not favour; or the educational approaches that it does favour. The current literature overwhelmingly finds that regulatory approaches (including those that manage the price, availability, and marketing of alcohol) reduce the risk of and the experience of alcohol-related harm, whereas educational approaches (including school-based education and public education campaigns) do not, with industry-funded education actually increasing the risk of harm. The alcohol industry should not be involved in making alcohol policy. Its involvement in implementing policy should be restricted to its role as a producer, distributor, and marketer of alcohol. In particular, the alcohol industry should not be involved in educational programmes, as such involvement could actually lead to an increase in harm.

  6. Studies on radiolysis of amino acids, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oku, Tadatake

    1977-01-01

    In order to elucidate the radiolysis of amino acid, peptide, protein and enzyme, the radiolytic mechanisms of neutral amino acids (glycine, L-alanine, L-valine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine, L-serine, and L-threonine) and acidic amino acids (L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid and DL-amino-n-adipic acid) were studied in the presence of air or in the atmosphere nitrogen. An aqueous solution of 1 mM. of each amino acid was sealed in a glass ampoule under air or nitrogen. Irradiation of amino acid solutions was carried out with γ-rays of 60 Co at doses of 4.4-2,640x10 3 rads. The amino acids and the radiolytic products formed were determined by ion-exchange chromatography. From the results of determining amino acids and the radiolytic products formed and their G-values, the radiolytic mechanisms of the amino acids were discussed. (auth.)

  7. Consumo de alcohol alcoholismo

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Páez, Pablo E.; Fundación Valle de Lili

    1999-01-01

    ¿Qué es el alcohol?/¿Cómo actual el alcohol en el organismo?/¿Qué efectos causa?/Efectos por el consumo crónico/¿El consumo de alcohol durante el embarazo afecta el embrión?/¿Qué otras consecuencias tiene el consumo de alcohol?/¿Cuándo se considera que una persona tiene problemas con su consumo de alcohol?/¿Cuándo se debe sospechar que alguien tiene problemas con el consumo de alcohol?/Características del saber beber adecuadamente?/¿Cuales son las alternativas de tratamiento para este problem...

  8. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (thesis provides novel warranted epidemiological information about AH that shows increasing incidence and mortality rates. Consequently, it reiterates the fact that AH is a life-threatening disease and suggests that AH is an

  9. Muscle metabolism and whole blood amino acid profile in patients with liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Gitte; Sørensen, Michael; Buhl, Mads; Sandahl, Thomas D; Møller, Niels; Ott, Peter; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are used in liver cirrhosis to promote protein synthesis, support ammonia detoxification, and treat hepatic encephalopathy. Cirrhosis leads to subnormal BCAA plasma concentrations and studies indicate that levels are decreased due to their role in muscle ammonia removal. Muscle contribution has not been fully elucidated. We studied muscle amino acid metabolism in six healthy subjects, 13 cirrhosis patients and six patients with an episode of alcoholic hepatitis. Subjects had catheters inserted into the femoral artery and vein to obtain arterial (A) and venous (V) concentrations of amino acids (μmol/L blood). BCAA concentrations were lower in patients with cirrhosis compared to healthy subjects (p BCAA uptake was variable and on average higher in patients with alcoholic hepatitis and patients with stable cirrhosis compared to healthy subjects (mean A-V difference 0.5 and 32 vs. - 12 μmol/L blood) (p = 0.22). The release of aromatic amino acids (AAA) was comparable in the three groups (P > 0.30). The BCAA/AAA (Fischer's ratio) was lower in patients with cirrhosis and patients with alcoholic hepatitis compared to healthy subjects (mean 1.65, 1.17 and 2.73, both p BCAA and higher AAA blood concentrations compared to healthy subjects. The trend towards an increased muscle uptake of BCAA may have contributed but this was not significant.

  10. Yeast Metabolites of Glycated Amino Acids in Beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, Michael; Beer, Falco; Witte, Sophia; Henle, Thomas

    2018-06-01

    Glycation reactions (Maillard reactions) during the malting and brewing processes are important for the development of the characteristic color and flavor of beer. Recently, free and protein-bound Maillard reaction products (MRPs) such as pyrraline, formyline, and maltosine were found in beer. Furthermore, these amino acid derivatives are metabolized by Saccharomyces cerevisiae via the Ehrlich pathway. In this study, a method was developed for quantitation of individual Ehrlich intermediates derived from pyrraline, formyline, and maltosine. Following synthesis of the corresponding reference material, the MRP-derived new Ehrlich alcohols pyrralinol (up to 207 μg/L), formylinol (up to 50 μg/L), and maltosinol (up to 6.9 μg/L) were quantitated for the first time in commercial beer samples by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. This is equivalent to ca. 20-40% of the concentrations of the parent glycated amino acids. The metabolites were almost absent from alcohol-free beers and malt-based beverages. Two previously unknown valine-derived pyrrole derivatives were characterized and qualitatively identified in beer. The metabolites investigated represent new process-induced alkaloids that may influence brewing yeast performance due to structural similarities to quorum sensing and metal-binding molecules.

  11. Effect of fermentation and subsequent pasteurization processes on amino acids composition of orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrillo, I; Fernández-Pachón, M S; Collado-González, J; Escudero-López, B; Berná, G; Herrero-Martín, G; Martín, F; Ferreres, F; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2015-06-01

    The fermentation of fruit produces significant changes in their nutritional composition. An orange beverage has been obtained from the controlled alcoholic fermentation and thermal pasteurization of orange juice. A study was performed to determine the influence of both processes on its amino acid profile. UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS was used for the first time for analysis of orange juice samples. Out of 29 amino acids and derivatives identified, eight (ethanolamine, ornithine, phosphoethanolamine, α-amino-n-butyric acid, hydroxyproline, methylhistidine, citrulline, and cystathionine) have not previously been detected in orange juice. The amino acid profile of the orange juice was not modified by its processing, but total amino acid content of the juice (8194 mg/L) was significantly increased at 9 days of fermentation (13,324 mg/L). Although the pasteurization process produced partial amino acid degradation, the total amino acid content was higher in the final product (9265 mg/L) than in the original juice, enhancing its nutritional value.

  12. Women and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  13. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or more than 14 drinks per week for men. What is the evidence that alcohol drinking is a cause of cancer? Based on extensive reviews of research studies , there is a strong scientific consensus of an association between alcohol drinking ...

  14. Genetics of Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ena C; Soundy, Timothy J; Hu, Yueshan

    2017-05-01

    Consuming excessive amounts of alcohol has the potential to modify an individual's brain and lead to alcohol dependence. Alcohol use leads to 88,000 deaths every year in the U.S. alone and can lead to other health issues including cancers, such as colorectal cancer, and mental health problems. While drinking behavior varies due to environmental factors, genetic factors also contribute to the risk of alcoholism. Certain genes affecting alcohol metabolism and neurotransmitters have been found to contribute to or inhibit the risk. Geneenvironment interactions may also play a role in the susceptibility of alcoholism. With a better understanding of the different components that can contribute to alcoholism, more personalized treatment could cater to the individual. This review discusses the major genetic factors and some small variants in other genes that contribute to alcoholism, as well as considers the gene-environmental interactions. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  15. Children of alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and reported life quality of their children. The study confirmed the hypothesis about a substantial correlation between high alcohol consumption of parents, higher psychopathological symptom - expression and lower reported life quality score of their children. Higher PTSD-related symptomatology in children of alcoholics is probably resulted by home violence, which is very often present in family of alcoholics. The article also evaluated the results regarding suicide ideation of children of alcoholics, which is definitely more frequent and more intense than in their peers living in non alcohol – dependent families.

  16. an Unrecorded Alcohol Beverage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Chemical analysis of volatile compounds fromkhadi, an unrecorded alcoholic beverage from Botswana, was ... quality, some of them may be contaminated and toxic, thereby ... home-brewed alcoholic beverages exist in Botswana and are.

  17. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol can harm your baby at any stage during a pregnancy. That includes the earliest stages, before ... can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Children who are born with ...

  18. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  19. What We Fund - Alcohol

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    NCDP

    Analysis of the regulatory environment (national ... Predicting and evaluating policy impact. PA. N ... constrain the use of a holistic approach engaging ... alcohol, and ultra-processed food and drink industries, ... Alcohol and Other Drugs, 2003.

  20. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Alcohol Facts and Statistics Print version Alcohol Use in the United States: ... 1238–1245, 2004. PMID: 15010446 National Center for Statistics and Analysis. 2014 Crash Data Key Findings (Traffic ...

  1. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have problems with alcohol if you: Are a young adult under peer pressure Have depression, bipolar disorder , anxiety disorders , or schizophrenia Can easily obtain alcohol Have low self-esteem Have problems with relationships Live a stressful lifestyle ...

  2. Chronic alcoholism-mediated metabolic disorders in albino rat testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayakhmetova, Ganna M; Bondarenko, Larysa B; Matvienko, Anatoliy V; Kovalenko, Valentina M

    2014-09-01

    There is good evidence for impairment of spermatogenesis and reductions in sperm counts and testosterone levels in chronic alcoholics. The mechanisms for these effects have not yet been studied in detail. The consequences of chronic alcohol consumption on the structure and/or metabolism of testis cell macromolecules require to be intensively investigated. The present work reports the effects of chronic alcoholism on contents of free amino acids, levels of cytochrome P450 3A2 (CYP3A2) mRNA expression and DNA fragmentation, as well as on contents of different cholesterol fractions and protein thiol groups in rat testes. Wistar albino male rats were divided into two groups: I - control (intact animals), II - chronic alcoholism (15% ethanol self-administration during 150 days). Following 150 days of alcohol consumption, testicular free amino acid content was found to be significantly changed as compared with control. The most profound changes were registered for contents of lysine (-53%) and methionine (+133%). The intensity of DNA fragmentation in alcohol-treated rat testes was considerably increased, on the contrary CYP3A2 mRNA expression in testis cells was inhibited, testicular contents of total and etherified cholesterol increased by 25% and 45% respectively, and protein SH-groups decreased by 13%. Multidirectional changes of the activities of testicular dehydrogenases were detected. We thus obtained complex assessment of chronic alcoholism effects in male gonads, affecting especially amino acid, protein, ATP and NADPH metabolism. Our results demonstrated profound changes in testes on the level of proteome and genome. We suggest that the revealed metabolic disorders can have negative implication on cellular regulation of spermatogenesis under long-term ethanol exposure.

  3. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  4. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines

  5. THE INTERCORRELATION OF THE AMINO ACID QUALITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ABSTRACT. Levels of amino acids were determined in the grains of guinea corn, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench ... KEY WORDS: Amino acid quality, Raw, Steeped, Germinated, Guinea corn ..... Health Organization: Geneva; 1999; pp. 101-119.

  6. Amino acid metabolism conflicts with protein diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Krick, Teresa; Shub, David A.; Verstraete, Nina; Ferreiro, Diego U.; Alonso, Leonardo G.; Shub, Michael; Sanchez, Ignacio E.

    2014-01-01

    The 20 protein-coding amino acids are found in proteomes with different relative abundances. The most abundant amino acid, leucine, is nearly an order of magnitude more prevalent than the least abundant amino acid, cysteine. Amino acid metabolic costs differ similarly, constraining their incorporation into proteins. On the other hand, a diverse set of protein sequences is necessary to build functional proteomes. Here, we present a simple model for a cost-diversity trade-off postulating that n...

  7. Kinetics of volatile metabolites during alcoholic fermentation of cane molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachot, T; Mueller, M; Pons, M N [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 54 - Nancy (France). Lab. des Sciences du Genie Chimique

    1991-07-01

    The kinetics of ethanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and fusel alcohols during alcoholic fermentations on cane molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been obtained via an in-situ gas membrane sensor connected to a gas chromatograph. Various operation parameters have been investigated such as inoculum rate, molasses concentration, operation mode (batch, fed-batch). The modification of fusel alcohols kinetics in response to addition of amino acids has been studied as well as the assimilation of two intermediary aldehydes (isovaleraldehyde and isobutyraldehyde) in the fusel alcohol synthesis pathway. (orig.).

  8. Nickel-catalyzed regio- and enantioselective aminolysis of 3,4-epoxy alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2015-04-08

    The first catalytic regio- and enantioselective aminolysis of 3,4-epoxy alcohols has been accomplished. Under the catalysis of Ni(ClO4)2·6H2O, the C4 selective ring opening of various 3,4-epoxy alcohols proceeded in a stereospecific manner with high regioselectivities. Furthermore, with the Ni-BINAM catalytic system the enantioselective ring opening of 3,4-epoxy alcohols furnished various γ-hydroxy-δ-amino alcohols as products with complete regiocontrol and high enantioselectivities (up to 94% ee).

  9. Toward Sustainable Amino Acid Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuda, Yoshihiro; Hara, Yoshihiko; Kojima, Hiroyuki

    Because the global amino acid production industry has been growing steadily and is expected to grow even more in the future, efficient production by fermentation is of great importance from economic and sustainability viewpoints. Many systems biology technologies, such as genome breeding, omics analysis, metabolic flux analysis, and metabolic simulation, have been employed for the improvement of amino acid-producing strains of bacteria. Synthetic biological approaches have recently been applied to strain development. It is also important to use sustainable carbon sources, such as glycerol or pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass, instead of conventional carbon sources, such as glucose or sucrose, which can be used as food. Furthermore, reduction of sub-raw substrates has been shown to lead to reduction of environmental burdens and cost. Recently, a new fermentation system for glutamate production under acidic pH was developed to decrease the amount of one sub-raw material, ammonium, for maintenance of culture pH. At the same time, the utilization of fermentation coproducts, such as cells, ammonium sulfate, and fermentation broth, is a useful approach to decrease waste. In this chapter, further perspectives for future amino acid fermentation from one-carbon compounds are described.

  10. Unnatural reactive amino acid genetic code additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deiters, Alexander; Cropp, T. Ashton; Chin, Jason W.; Anderson, Christopher J.; Schultz, Peter G.

    2017-10-25

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  11. Sugar amino acids and related molecules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sugar amino acids constitute an important class of such polyfunctional scaffolds where the carboxyl, amino and hydroxyl termini provide an excellent opportunity to organic chemists to create structural diversities akin to Nature's molecular arsenal. In recent years, sugar amino acids have been used extensively in the area of ...

  12. SHORT COMMUNICATION DETERMINATION OF AMINO ACIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    The purpose of this study was to assess the levels of free and total amino acid ... Gas chromatographic method with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) was ... Total amino acid analysis was done on acid hydrolysates of RJ samples by the ion-exchange ... The data of amino acids and protein content for all analyzed fresh and.

  13. Methods for preparation of deuterated amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pshenichnikova, A.B.; Karnaukhova, E.N.; Zvonkova, E.N.

    1995-01-01

    The current state and prospects for the use of amino acids labeled with stable isotopes are considered. Methods for the preparation of deuterated amino acids, including synthetic, chemicoenzymatic, and biosynthetic ones, and deuterium exchange reactions are summarized. Problems in the preparation of optically pure amino acids are discussed. 120 refs., 15 figs

  14. Reactions of tritium atoms with amino acids, deuterated amino acids and mixtures of amino acids. Additivity property and isotope effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badun, G.A.; Filatov, Eh.S.

    1988-01-01

    Interaction of tritium atoms with glycine (1) and leucine (2) amino acids, deuterated amino acids, their mixtures and glycylleucine (3) peptide in the 77-300 K temperature range is studied in isothermal and gradient regimes. Tagged amino acids were separated from targets after conducting the reaction. At T 150 K are associated with intermolecular transmission of free valence in the mixture of amino acids. Regularities of the reaction found for the mixture of amino acids are conserved for (3) as well, i.e. the peptide bond does not essentially affect the reaction of isotopic exchange conditioned by atomic tritium

  15. Genetics and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.

  16. On molybdenum (6) alcoholates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turova, N.Ya.; Kessler, V.G.

    1990-01-01

    Synthesis techniques for molybdenum (6) alcoholates of MoO(OR) 4 (1) and MoO 2 (OR) 2 (2) series by means of exchange interaction of corresponding oxychloride with MOR (M=Li, Na) are obtained. These techniques have allowed to prepare 1(R=Me, Et, i-Pr) and 2(R=Me, Et) with 70-98 % yield. Methylates are also prepared at ether interchange of ethylates by methyl alcohol. Metal anode oxidation in corresponding alcohol may be used for 1 synthesis. Physicochemical properties of both series alcoholates, solubility in alcohols in particular, depend on their formation conditions coordination polymerism. Alcoholates of 1 are rather unstable and tend to decomposition up to 2 and ether. It is suggested to introduce NaOR microquantities to stabilize those alcoholates

  17. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Light to moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties; however, the magnitude of protection depends on other factors and may be confined to some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relationship between alcohol and coronary heart disease...... (CHD). The cardioprotective effect of alcohol seems to be larger among middle-aged and elderly adults than among young adults, who do not have a net beneficial effect of a light to moderate alcohol intake in terms of reduced all-cause mortality. The levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD is lowest...... and the levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD exceeds the risk among abstainers are lower for women than for men. The pattern of drinking seems important for the apparent cardioprotective effect of alcohol, and the risk of CHD is generally lower for steady versus binge drinking. Finally, there is some...

  18. Amino acid properties conserved in molecular evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold R Rudnicki

    Full Text Available That amino acid properties are responsible for the way protein molecules evolve is natural and is also reasonably well supported both by the structure of the genetic code and, to a large extent, by the experimental measures of the amino acid similarity. Nevertheless, there remains a significant gap between observed similarity matrices and their reconstructions from amino acid properties. Therefore, we introduce a simple theoretical model of amino acid similarity matrices, which allows splitting the matrix into two parts - one that depends only on mutabilities of amino acids and another that depends on pairwise similarities between them. Then the new synthetic amino acid properties are derived from the pairwise similarities and used to reconstruct similarity matrices covering a wide range of information entropies. Our model allows us to explain up to 94% of the variability in the BLOSUM family of the amino acids similarity matrices in terms of amino acid properties. The new properties derived from amino acid similarity matrices correlate highly with properties known to be important for molecular evolution such as hydrophobicity, size, shape and charge of amino acids. This result closes the gap in our understanding of the influence of amino acids on evolution at the molecular level. The methods were applied to the single family of similarity matrices used often in general sequence homology searches, but it is general and can be used also for more specific matrices. The new synthetic properties can be used in analyzes of protein sequences in various biological applications.

  19. Circulating Metabolites Associated with Alcohol Intake in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline H. van Roekel

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the metabolites associated with alcohol consumption may provide insights into the metabolic pathways through which alcohol may affect human health. We studied associations of alcohol consumption with circulating concentrations of 123 metabolites among 2974 healthy participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC study. Alcohol consumption at recruitment was self-reported through dietary questionnaires. Metabolite concentrations were measured by tandem mass spectrometry (BIOCRATES AbsoluteIDQTM p180 kit. Data were randomly divided into discovery (2/3 and replication (1/3 sets. Multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate confounder-adjusted associations of alcohol consumption with metabolite concentrations. Metabolites significantly related to alcohol intake in the discovery set (FDR q-value < 0.05 were further tested in the replication set (Bonferroni-corrected p-value < 0.05. Of the 72 metabolites significantly related to alcohol intake in the discovery set, 34 were also significant in the replication analysis, including three acylcarnitines, the amino acid citrulline, four lysophosphatidylcholines, 13 diacylphosphatidylcholines, seven acyl-alkylphosphatidylcholines, and six sphingomyelins. Our results confirmed earlier findings that alcohol consumption was associated with several lipid metabolites, and possibly also with specific acylcarnitines and amino acids. This provides further leads for future research studies aiming at elucidating the mechanisms underlying the effects of alcohol in relation to morbid conditions.

  20. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patients to better address how stress affects their motivation to drink. Early screening also is vital. For ... C.; Hong, K.A.; et al Enhanced negative emotion and alcohol craving, and altered physiological responses following ...

  1. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF Strong Family Relationships Can Prevent Alcohol and Drug Use Among Teens - دری (Dari) MP3 Karen Chemical Dependency Taskforce of Minnesota What Is Addiction? - English PDF What Is Addiction? - دری (Dari) PDF ...

  2. Alcohol Advertising and Alcohol Consumption by Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer; Dhaval Dave

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically estimate the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of brand capital is used to explain the effects of advertising on consumption. The industry response function and the evidence from prior studies indicate that the empirical strategy should maximize the variance in the advertising data. The approach in this paper to maximizing the variance in advertising data is to employ cross sectional data. The Monitoring th...

  3. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Paoletti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exerts teratogenic effects in all the gestation times, with peculiar features in relationship to the trimester of pregnancy in which alcohol is assumed. Alcohol itself and its metabolites modify DNA synthesis, cellular division, cellular migration and the fetal development. The characteristic facies of feto-alcoholic syndrome (FAS-affected baby depends on the alcohol impact on skull facial development during the first trimester of pregnancy. In association there are cerebral damages with a strong defect of brain development up to the life incompatibility. Serious consequences on fetal health also depends on dangerous effects of alcohol exposure in the organogenesis of the heart, the bone, the kidney, sensorial organs, et al. It has been demonstrated that maternal binge drinking is a high factor risk of mental retardation and of delinquent behaviour. Unfortunately, a lower alcohol intake also exerts deleterious effects on fetal health. In several countries of the world there is a high alcohol use, and this habit is increased in the women. Therefore, correct information has to be given to avoid alcohol use by women in the preconceptional time and during the pregnancy. Preliminary results of a study performed by the authors show that over 80% of pregnant and puerperal women are not unaware that more than 2 glasses of alcohol/week ingested during pregnancy can create neurological abnormalities in the fetus. However, after the information provided on alcoholic fetopathy, all women are conscious of the damage caused by the use of alcohol to the fetus during pregnancy. This study confirms the need to provide detailed information on the negative effects of alcohol on fetal health. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  4. 2-Amino-5-chloropyridinium trifluoroacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukar Hemamalini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title salt, C5H6ClN2+·C2F3O2−, contains two independent 2-amino-5-chloropyridinium cations and two independent trifluoroacetate anions. The F atoms of both anions are disordered over two sets of positions, with occupancy ratios of 0.672 (12:0.328 (12 and 0.587 (15:0.413 (15. In the crystal, the cations and anions are linked via N—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (001.

  5. Influence of different yeasts on the amino acid pattern of rosé wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandl Karin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In an experiment with Rosé wine, 27 different commercial yeasts were tested for their influence on the amino acid pattern of the wine. Amino acids are precursors for aromatic substances; therefore a large variation of the amino acid values in the wine was expected. Blaufränkisch grapes with 20° KMW were matured in the cellar with 27 different commercial yeasts. The fermentation was carried out in 34l vessels. The wines were measured for amino acids using an HP 1200 liquid chromatograph and HP-FLD1100 according to Umagat. The wines showed 13.5% alcohol and little residual sugar. The measurement results of the amino acids of the different wines showed large variations. For example, the amount of the amino acid alanine in wine varied from 17 to 138 mg. In particular, the wines of the yeast Pino Type showed the highest amounts of alanine in comparison to the other fermented wines.

  6. An improved synthesis of carbon-14 labelled carboxylic acids from carbon-14 labelled amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamurthy, T.V.; Ravi, S.; Viswanathan, K.V.

    1988-01-01

    Various carbon-14 labelled amino acids including the aromatic ones viz., tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan are converted to the corresponding carboxylic acids in high yield (70-90%) on a micromolar scale synthesis by reaction with hydroxyl-amine-O-sulphonic acid and in a short reaction time. The improvement in yield has been achieved by using aqeuous alcohol as solvent in lieu of water alone as the medium of reaction. (author)

  7. Vine-shoot waste aqueous extract applied as foliar fertilizer to grapevines: Effect on amino acids and fermentative volatile content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, R; Garde-Cerdán, T; Zalacain, A; Garcia, R; Cabrita, M J; Salinas, M R

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar applications of different wood aqueous extracts on the amino acid content of musts and wines from Airén variety; and to study their relationship with the volatile compounds formed during alcoholic fermentation. For this purpose, the foliar treatments proposed were a vine-shoot aqueous extract applied in one and two times, and an oak extract which was only applied once. Results obtained show the potential of Airén vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts to be used as foliar fertilizer, enhancing the wine amino acid content especially when they were applied once. Similar results were observed with the aqueous oak extract. Regarding wine fermentative volatile compounds, there is a close relationship between musts and their wines amino acid content allowing us to discuss about the role of proline during the alcoholic fermentation and the generation of certain volatiles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Foppa

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies have attributed a protective effect to alcohol consumption on the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Alcohol intake in the amount of one to two drinks per day results in an estimated 20-40% reduction in cardiovascular events. An additional protective effect, according to major cohort studies, has been attributed to wine, probably due to antioxidant effects and platelet antiaggregation agents. On the other hand, the influence of different patterns of alcohol consumption and environmental factors may explain a great part of the additional effect of wine. Protection may be mediated by modulation of other risk factors, because alcohol increases HDL-C, produces a biphasic response on blood pressure, and modulates the endothelial function, while it neither increases body weight nor impairs glucose-insulin homeostasis. Alcohol may also have a direct effect on atherogenesis. Despite these favorable effects, the current evidence is not enough to justify prescribing alcohol to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  9. Alcohol, aggression, and violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Škrila

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between alcohol and aggression has long been recognized, but the systematic research to understand the causal basis for this relationship and the processes that underlie it has only been undertaken in the past 25 years. In the article the most important mechanisms, by which alcohol affects behavior, are explained. Aggression in persons with alcohol dependence and the connection between antisocial (dissocial personality disorder, alcohol and aggression are described. In addition different forms of aggression or violence, that have been committed under the influence of alcohol, such as inter-partner violence, sexual assault, child abuse, crime and traffic accidents are described.Conclusions: The research findings can be used in the prevention and treatment of alcohol-related aggression.

  10. Alcohol in moderation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone; Lockshin, Larry; Louviere, Jordan J.

    2011-01-01

    products identified, which are jointly purchased with low alcohol wines. The effect of a tax increase on substitution patterns between alcoholic beverages is examined. Methodology: In a discrete choice experiment, based on their last purchase, consumers select one or several different alcoholic beverages......Purpose: The study examines the market potential for low and very low alcohol wine products under two different tax regimes. The penetration and market share of low alcohol wine are estimated under both tax conditions. Consumers’ alcoholic beverage purchase portfolios are analysed and those...... into a purchase basket. An experimental design controlled the beverages’ price variation. Applying an intra-individual research design, respondents’ purchases were simulated under current and increased taxes. Findings: A market potential for low and very low wine products of up to ten percent of the wine market...

  11. Branched-Chain Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Keisuke; Tsuchisaka, Atsunari; Yukawa, Hideaki

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), viz., L-isoleucine, L-leucine, and L-valine, are essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized in higher organisms and are important nutrition for humans as well as livestock. They are also valued as synthetic intermediates for pharmaceuticals. Therefore, the demand for BCAAs in the feed and pharmaceutical industries is increasing continuously. Traditional industrial fermentative production of BCAAs was performed using microorganisms isolated by random mutagenesis. A collection of these classical strains was also scientifically useful to clarify the details of the BCAA biosynthetic pathways, which are tightly regulated by feedback inhibition and transcriptional attenuation. Based on this understanding of the metabolism of BCAAs, it is now possible for us to pursue strains with higher BCAA productivity using rational design and advanced molecular biology techniques. Additionally, systems biology approaches using augmented omics information help us to optimize carbon flux toward BCAA production. Here, we describe the biosynthetic pathways of BCAAs and their regulation and then overview the microorganisms developed for BCAA production. Other chemicals, including isobutanol, i.e., a second-generation biofuel, can be synthesized by branching the BCAA biosynthetic pathways, which are also outlined.

  12. Excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T N; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Ebert, B

    1997-01-01

    We have previously shown that (RS)-2-amino-2-(5-tert-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-4-yl)acetic acid (ATAA) is an antagonist at N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. We have now resolved ATAA via diastereomeric salt formation......)-phenylethylamine salt of N-BOC-(R)-ATAA. Like ATAA, neither (R)- nor (S)-ATAA significantly affected (IC50 > 100 microM) the receptor binding of tritiated AMPA, kainic acid, or (RS)-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid, the latter being a competitive NMDA antagonist. Electrophysiological experiments......, using the rat cortical wedge preparation, showed the NMDA antagonist effect as well as the AMPA antagonist effect of ATAA to reside exclusively in the (R)-enantiomer (Ki = 75 +/- 5 microM and 57 +/- 1 microM, respectively). Neither (R)- nor (S)-ATAA significantly reduced kainic acid-induced excitation...

  13. Alcohol Consumption in Students

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Drinking behaviour among university students is a serious public health concern. Reasons for drinking are complex and many factors contribute to this behaviour. Previous research has established links between personality factors and alcohol consumption and also between metacognitions and alcohol consumption. Few studies have looked into how personality traits and metacognitions interact. This study investigated the relationships between personality, metacognitions and alcohol consumption in a...

  14. Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Jin Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS. However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory impairment, that is, blackouts due to retrieval impairments as well as those due to deficits in encoding. Alcoholic blackouts may be complete (en bloc or partial (fragmentary depending on severity of memory impairment. In fragmentary blackouts, cueing often aids recall. Memory impairment during acute intoxication involves dysfunction of episodic memory, a type of memory encoded with spatial and social context. Recent studies have shown that there are multiple memory systems supported by discrete brain regions, and the acute effects of alcohol on learning and memory may result from alteration of the hippocampus and related structures on a cellular level. A rapid increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC is most consistently associated with the likelihood of a blackout. However, not all subjects experience blackouts, implying that genetic factors play a role in determining CNS vulnerability to the effects of alcohol. This factor may predispose an individual to alcoholism, as altered memory function during intoxication may affect an individual‟s alcohol expectancy; one may perceive positive aspects of intoxication while unintentionally ignoring the negative aspects. Extensive research on memory and learning as well as findings related to the acute effects of alcohol on the brain may elucidate the mechanisms and impact associated with the alcohol- induced blackout.

  15. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  16. Alcohol-related interpretation bias in alcohol-dependent patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woud, M.L.; Pawelczack, S.; Rinck, M.; Lindenmeyer, J.; Souren, P.M.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Becker, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Models of addictive behaviors postulate that implicit alcohol-related memory associations and biased interpretation processes contribute to the development and maintenance of alcohol misuse and abuse. The present study examined whether alcohol-dependent patients (AP) show an

  17. Dependence of the metabolic fecal amino acids on the amino acid content of the feed. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krawielitzki, K.; Schadereit, R.; Voelker, T.; Reichel, K.

    1982-01-01

    In an experiment with 20 15 N-labelled growing rats the excretion of amino acids as well as of metabolic fecal amino acids were investigated after feeding of soybean oil meal as sole protein source. A low, yet statistically significant increase of the excretion of amino acids and metabolic fecal amino acids was ascertained in accordance with a growing quota of soybean oil meal in the ration. The true digestibility of amino acids ascertained according to conventional methods is above 90% and, under consideration of the increase of metabolic fecal amino acids, on the average increases by 3.5 digestibility units (1.4 to 6.2). (author)

  18. Amino acidis derived from Titan tholins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Bishun N.; Sagan, Carl; Ogino, Hiroshi; Nagy, Bartholomew; Er, Cevat

    1986-01-01

    The production of amino acids by acid treatment of Titan tholin is experimentally investigated. The synthesis of Titan tholin and the derivatization of amino acids to N-trifluoroacetyl isopropyl esters are described. The gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis of the Titan tholins reveals the presence of glycine, alpha and beta alainine, and aspartic acid, and the total yield of amino acids is about 0.01.

  19. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, Henry

    2002-03-01

    The question addressed in this review is whether aggregate alcohol advertising increases alcohol consumption among college students. Both the level of alcohol-related problems on college campuses and the level of alcohol advertising are high. Some researchers have concluded that the cultural myths and symbols used in alcohol advertisements have powerful meanings for college students and affect intentions to drink. There is, however, very little empirical evidence that alcohol advertising has any effect on actual alcohol consumption. The methods used in this review include a theoretical framework for evaluating the effects of advertising. This theory suggests that the marginal effect of advertising diminishes at high levels of advertising. Many prior empirical studies measured the effect of advertising at high levels of advertising and found no effect. Those studies that measure advertising at lower, more disaggregated levels have found an effect on consumption. The results of this review suggest that advertising does increase consumption. However, advertising cannot be reduced with limited bans, which are likely to result in substitution to other available media. Comprehensive bans on all forms of advertising and promotion can eliminate options for substitution and be potentially more effective in reducing consumption. In addition, there is an increasing body of literature that suggests that alcohol counteradvertising is effective in reducing the alcohol consumption of teenagers and young adults. These findings indicate that increased counteradvertising, rather than new advertising bans, appears to be the better choice for public policy. It is doubtful that the comprehensive advertising bans required to reduce advertising would ever receive much public support. New limited bans on alcohol advertising might also result in less alcohol counteradvertising. An important topic for future research is to identify the counteradvertising themes that are most effective with

  20. Alcohol and older drivers' crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Researchers have examined the effects of alcohol consumption : on older adults functioning, and some have : addressed alcohols effects on older drivers crash risk. : Generally, the findings have shown that alcohol is less : likely to be a fa...

  1. Alcohol's Effects on the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Effects on the Body Alcohol's Effects on the Body Drinking too much – on a single occasion or ... your health. Here’s how alcohol can affect your body: Brain: Alcohol interferes with the brain’s communication pathways, ...

  2. Amino acid composition of some Mexican foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales de León, Josefina; Camacho, M Elena; Bourges, Héctor

    2005-06-01

    Knowledge of the amino acid composition of foods is essential to calculate their chemical score, which is used to predict protein quality of foods and diets. Though amino acid composition of many foods is reasonably well established, better knowledge is needed on native foods consumed in different regions and countries. This paper presents the amino acid composition of different presentations of raw and processed foods produced and consumed in Mexico. The amino acid composition was determined using Beckman amino acid analyzers (models 116 and 6300). Tryptophan was determined using the Spies and Chambers method. Of the different foods analyzed, some comments are made on native or basic foods in Mexico: Spirulin, where lysine is the limiting amino acid, with a chemical score of 67%, is a good source of tryptophan (1.16g/16 gN); amaranth contains high levels of sulphur amino acids (4.09 to 5.34 g/16gN), with a protein content of 15 g/100g; and pulque, a Pre-Hispanic beverage that contains high levels of tryptophan (2.58 g/16 gN) and sulphur amino acids (2.72 g/16 gN). Finally, insects are good sources of sulphur amino acids and lysine.

  3. Alcohol Use and Hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Marion G.; Terrault, Norah A.

    2002-01-01

    Excess alcohol consumption can worsen the course and outcome of chronic hepatitis C. It is important to distinguish between alcohol abuse, which must be treated on its own merits, and the effect of alcohol use on progression, severity, and treatment of hepatitis C. Most studies on the effects of alcohol on hepatitis C have focused on patients, with high levels of daily alcohol intake. Indeed, the adverse effects of light and moderate amounts of alcohol intake on hepatitis C virus (HCV) infect...

  4. Drugs and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Victor F.

    1978-01-01

    Millions of people in this country take medications, and millions drink alcohol. Both are drugs and have effects on the organs and systems with which they or their metabolites come in contact. This short article discusses some of the combined effects of prescribed drugs and alcohol on some systems, with special emphasis on the liver. PMID:712865

  5. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  7. Alcoholism and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jeong Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect in the insulin-mediated glucose function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in the liver. In addition, neurobiological profiles of alcoholism are linked to the effects of a disruption of glucose homeostasis and of insulin resistance, which are affected by altered appetite that regulates the peptides and neurotrophic factors. Since conditions, which precede the onset of diabetes that are associated with alcoholism is one of the crucial public problems, researches in efforts to prevent and treat diabetes with alcohol dependence, receives special clinical interest. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in the interplay between alcoholism and diabetes. Further, the purpose of this study also includes summarizing the pathophysiological mechanisms in the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  8. Alcohol and Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraushaar, Kevin W.

    Increased constraints on access to alcohol resulted from the closure of the sole hotels in two "experimental" towns. This afforded a natural experiment to study the effects of the change in availability of alcohol on consumption. Dependent measures were derived from public records of liquor sales by all licensed premises, and from…

  9. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA LUZ PROTASIO L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD, ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduction of CAD complications. Apparently, red wine offers more benefits than any other kind of drinks, probably due to flavonoids. Alcohol alters lipoproteins and the coagulation system. The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hypertension is also influenced by the alcohol intake. Thus, heavy alcohol intake is almost always associated with systemic hypertension, and hence shall be avoided. In individuals that ingest excess alcohol, there is higher risk of coronary occlusion, arrhythmias, hepatic cirrhosis, upper gastrointestinal cancers, fetal alcohol syndrome, murders, sex crimes, traffic and industrial accidents, robberies, and psychosis. Alcohol is no treatment for atherosclerosis; but it doesn't need to be prohibited for everyone. Thus moderate amounts of alcohol (1-2 drinks/day, especially red wine, may be allowed for those at risk for atherosclerosis complications.

  10. Neurological complications of alcoholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Nikiforov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nervous system lesions associated with chronic alcohol intoxication are common in clinical practice. They lead to aggravated alcoholic disease, its more frequent recurrences, and intensified pathological craving for alcohol. Neurological pathology in turn occurs with frequent exacerbations. The interaction of diseases, age, and medical  pathomorphism modifies the clinical presentation and course of the  major pathology, as well as comorbidity, the nature and severity of  complications, worsens quality of life in a patient, and makes the  diagnostic and treatment process difficult. The paper discusses the  classification, clinical variants, biochemical and molecular biological  aspects of various complications of alcoholic disease. It considers its  most common form, in particular alcoholic polyneuropathy, as well as its rarer variants, such as hemorrhagic encephalopathy with a subacute course (Gayet–Wernicke encephalopathy.

  11. Alcoholic hallucinosis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Werner Griciunas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Case report of patient who has been an alcoholic for 40 years and, after reducing alcohol intake, developed auditory and visual hallucinations, which caused behavior change. Neurological issues, electrolyte disturbances and other organ dysfunctions were excluded as cause of said change. After intake of haloperidol and risperidone, the patient had regression of symptoms and denied having presented hallucinatory symptoms. The Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais – 5ª edição (DSM-V includes alcoholic hallucinosis in the Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder (alcohol, beginning during abstinence; however, the document is not yet very well accepted among the medical community. The difficulty of the team to confirm the diagnosis of alcoholic hallucinosis lies in the differential diagnosis, as Delirium tremens and severe withdrawal syndrome with psychotic symptoms. Thus, psychopathological differentiation is important, as well as continuity of research and collaboration of other clinical teams in the evaluation.

  12. Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kate; Rambaldi, Andrea; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening disease, with an average mortality of approximately 40%. There is no widely accepted, effective treatment for alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline is used to treat alcoholic hepatitis, but there has been no systematic review to assess its effects....... OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pentoxifylline in alcoholic hepatitis. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, LILACS......, clinicaltrials.gov, and full text searches were conducted until August 2009. Manufacturers and authors were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised clinical trials of pentoxifylline in participants with alcoholic hepatitis compared to control were selected for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two...

  13. Alcoholics' selective attention to alcohol stimuli: automated processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormark, K M; Laberg, J C; Nordby, H; Hugdahl, K

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated alcoholics' selective attention to alcohol words in a version of the Stroop color-naming task. Alcoholic subjects (n = 23) and nonalcoholic control subjects (n = 23) identified the color of Stroop versions of alcohol, emotional, neutral and color words. Manual reaction times (RTs), skin conductance responses (SCRs) and heart rate (HR) were recorded. Alcoholics showed overall longer RTs than controls while both groups were slower in responding to the incongruent color words than to the other words. Alcoholics showed longer RTs to both alcohol (1522.7 milliseconds [ms]) and emotional words (1523.7 ms) than to neutral words (1450.8 ms) which suggests that the content of these words interfered with the ability to attend to the color of the words. There was also a negative correlation (r = -.41) between RT and response accuracy to alcohol words for the alcoholics, reflecting that the longer time the alcoholics used to respond to the color of the alcohol words, the more incorrect their responses were. The alcoholics also showed significantly greater SCRs to alcohol words (0.16 microSiemens) than to any of the other words (ranging from 0.04-0.08 microSiemens), probably reflecting the emotional significance of the alcohol words. Finally, the alcoholics evidenced smaller HR acceleration to alcohol (1.9 delta bpm) compared to neutral (2.8 delta bpm), which could be related to difficulties alcoholics experience in terminating their attention to the alcohol words. These findings indicate that it is difficult for alcoholics to regulate their attention to alcohol stimuli, suggesting that alcoholics' processing of alcohol information is automated.

  14. Dependence of the metabolic fecal amino acids on the amino acid content of the feed. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krawielitzki, K.; Schadereit, R.; Voelker, T.; Reichel, K.

    1981-01-01

    The amount of metabolic fecal amino acids (MFAA) in dependence on the amino acid intake was determined for graded maize rations in 15 N-labelled rats and the part of labelled endogenous amino acids in feces was calculated by the isotope dilution method. The excretion of amino acids and MFAA in feces are described as functions of the amino acid intake for 17 amino acids and calculated regressively. For all 17 amino acids investigated, there was a more or less steep increase of MFAA according to an increasing amino acid intake. In contrast to N-free feeding, the MFAA increase to the 2- to 4.5-fold value in feeding with pure maize (16.5% crude protein). The thesis of the constancy of the excretion of MFAA can consequently be no longer maintained. The true digestibility according to the conventional method is, on an average of all amino acids, 7.3 units below ascertained according to the 15 N method. The limiting amino acids lysine and threonine revealed the greatest difference. Tryptophane as first limiting amino acid could not be determined. The true digestibility of nearly all amino acids ascertained for maize by the isotope method is above 90%. (author)

  15. Crystalline amino acids and nitrogen emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstegen, M.W.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.

    2003-01-01

    Reductions in dietary protein level and supplementation with certain crystalline amino acids is a well-established method of formulating diets to achieve a more ideal amino acid pattern and to reduce nitrogen excretion. Up to 35% reduction in nitrogen excretion may be achieved by supplementing pig

  16. Amino acids transport in lactic streptococci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, Arnold Jacob Mathieu

    1987-01-01

    Lactic streptococci are extremely fastidious bacteria. For growth an exogenous source of amino acids and other nutrients is essential. The amino acid requirement in milk is fulfilled by the milk-protein casein, which is degraded by sequential hydrolysis, involving proteases and peptidases. ... Zie:

  17. 21 CFR 172.320 - Amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.320 Amino acids. The food additive amino acids may be safely used...

  18. Amino acid regulation of autophagosome formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Alfred J.

    2008-01-01

    Amino acids are not only substrates for various metabolic pathways, but can also serve as signaling molecules controlling signal transduction pathways. One of these signaling pathways is mTOR-dependent and is activated by amino acids (leucine in particular) in synergy with insulin. Activation of

  19. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... million people, while Alabama has the least. Alcohol dependence (alcoholism) was identified as a factor in 30% ... alcohol content or mixing alcohol with energy drinks. Caffeine can mask alcohol's effects and cause people to ...

  20. Family Based Prevention of Alcohol and Risky Sex for Older Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-08

    Alcohol Drinking; Alcohol Intoxication; Alcohol Poison; Alcohol-Related Disorders; Alcohol Impairment; Alcohol Withdrawal; Alcohol Abstinence; Alcohol; Harmful Use; Sex Behavior; Sexual Aggression; Sexual Harassment; Relation, Interpersonal

  1. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol degrad...

  2. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-08-17

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines. Utilizing higher-molecular-weight alcohols as fuels requires careful analysis of their fuel properties. ASTM standards provide fuel property requirements for spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines such as the stability, lubricity, viscosity, and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) properties of blends of higher alcohols. Important combustion properties that are studied include laminar and turbulent flame speeds, flame blowout/extinction limits, ignition delay under various mixing conditions, and gas-phase and particulate emissions. The chapter focuses on the combustion of higher alcohols in reciprocating SI and CI engines and discusses higher alcohol performance in SI and CI engines. Finally, the chapter identifies the sources, production pathways, and technologies currently being pursued for production of some fuels, including n-butanol, iso-butanol, and n-octanol.

  3. Highly efficient aerobic oxidation of alcohols by using less-hindered nitroxyl-radical/copper catalysis: optimum catalyst combinations and their substrate scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasano, Yusuke; Kogure, Naoki; Nishiyama, Tomohiro; Nagasawa, Shota; Iwabuchi, Yoshiharu

    2015-04-01

    The oxidation of alcohols into their corresponding carbonyl compounds is one of the most fundamental transformations in organic chemistry. In our recent report, 2-azaadamantane N-oxyl (AZADO)/copper catalysis promoted the highly chemoselective aerobic oxidation of unprotected amino alcohols into amino carbonyl compounds. Herein, we investigated the extension of the promising AZADO/copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of alcohols to other types of alcohol. During close optimization of the reaction conditions by using various alcohols, we found that the optimum combination of nitroxyl radical, copper salt, and solution concentration was dependent on the type of substrate. Various alcohols, including highly hindered and heteroatom-rich ones, were efficiently oxidized into their corresponding carbonyl compounds under mild conditions with lower amounts of the catalysts. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Optical Sensors for Detection of Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettiwala, Aafrin M; Singh, Prabhat K

    2017-11-06

    Amino acids are crucially involved in a myriad of biological processes. Any aberrant changes in physiological level of amino acids often manifest in common metabolic disorders, serious neurological conditions and cardiovascular diseases. Thus, devising methods for detection of trace amounts of amino acids becomes highly elemental to their efficient clinical diagnosis. Recently, the domain of developing optical sensors for detection of amino acids has witnessed significant activity which is the focus of the current review article. We undertook a detailed search of the peer-reviewed literature that primarily deals with optical sensors for amino acids and focuses on the use of different type of materials as a sensing platform. Ninety-five papers have been included in the review, majority of which deals with optical sensors. We attempt to systematically classify these contributions based on applications of various chemical and biological scaffolds such as polymers, supramolecular assemblies, nanoparticles, DNA, heparin etc. for the sensing of amino acids. This review identifies that supramolecular assemblies and nanomaterial continue to be commonly used materials to devise sensors for amino acids followed by surfactant assemblies. The broad implications of amino acids in human health and diagnosis have stirred a lot of interest to develop optimized optical detection systems for amino acids in recent years, using different materials based on chemical and biological scaffolds. We have also attempted to highlight the merits and demerits of some of the noteworthy sensor systems to instigate further efforts for constructing amino acids sensor based on unconventional concepts. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol...... degradation drank approximately 30% more alcohol per week and had a higher risk of everyday and heavy drinking, and of alcoholism. Individuals with ADH1C slow versus fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy drinking Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/25...

  6. Alcohol from whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-01

    A process for ethanol production from whey is described. The lactose is fermented into alcohol via glucose and galactose of yeast. The whey must be pasteurized before fermentation in order to reduce the concentration of microorganisms in the protein fraction. The protein is separated by ultrafiltration. The whey, which is now rather free of bacteria, is introduced into the fermentation unit where yeast cultures are added to it. After fermentation, the yeast slurry is separated and processed into feeding yeast while the mash is passed on to the distillation unit. The alcohol thus produced is of very high quality and may be added to alcoholic beverages.

  7. Is proximity to alcohol outlets associated with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kedir, Abdu; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Stock, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study examined the associations between distance from residence to the nearest alcohol outlet with alcohol consumption as well as with alcohol-related harm. Methods: Data on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and sociodemographics were obtained from the 2011 Danish Drug...... and Alcohol Survey (n=5133) with respondents aged 15–79 years. The information on distances from residence to the nearest alcohol outlets was obtained from Statistics Denmark. Multiple logistic and linear regressions were used to examine the association between distances to outlets and alcohol consumption...... whereas alcohol-related harm was analysed using negative binomial regression. Results: Among women it was found that those living closer to alcohol outlets were more likely to report alcohol-related harm (p

  8. Is proximity to alcohol outlets associated with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seid, Abdu K.; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Stock, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study examined the associations between distance from residence to the nearest alcohol outlet with alcohol consumption as well as with alcohol-related harm. Methods: Data on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and sociodemographics were obtained from the 2011 Danish Drug...... and Alcohol Survey (n = 5133) with respondents aged 15–79 years. The information on distances from residence to the nearest alcohol outlets was obtained from Statistics Denmark. Multiple logistic and linear regressions were used to examine the association between distances to outlets and alcohol consumption...... whereas alcohol-related harm was analysed using negative binomial regression. Results: Among women it was found that those living closer to alcohol outlets were more likely to report alcohol-related harm (p

  9. Moral judgment of alcohol addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Alcoholism could represent an important factor of crime and different forms of abuse of family members (physical and emotional exist in many alcohol-addict cases, as well as characteristics of immoral behaviour. Objective. The objective of our study was to determine the predominating forms in moral judgment of alcohol addicts, and to examine whether there was any statistically significant difference in moral judgment between alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics from general population. Methods. The sample consisted of 62 subjects, divided into a study (alcoholics and a control group (non-alcoholics from general population. The following instruments were used: social-demographic data, AUDIT, MMPI-201, cybernetic battery of IQ tests (KOG-3 and the TMR moral reasoning test. Results. Mature forms of moral judgment prevailed in both group of subjects, alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics. Regarding mature forms of moral judgment (driven by emotions and cognitive non-alcoholics from the general population had higher scores, but the difference was not statistically significant. Regarding socially adapted and egocentric orientation alcohol addicted persons had higher scores. However, only regarding intuitive-irrational orientation there was a statistically significant difference in the level of moral judgment (p<0.05 between alcoholics and non-alcoholics, in favour of the alcoholics. Conclusion. Moral judgment is not a category differing alcohol addicted persons from those who are not. Nevertheless, the potential destructivity of alcoholism is reflected in lower scores regarding mature orientations in moral judgment.

  10. ALCOHOL AND HEART RHYTHM DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Yusupova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and particularly extension of alcohol consumption in alcohol diseas increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmias development and aggravates existing arrhythmias. Patients do not always receive the necessary specific treatment due to lack of detection of the ethanol genesis of these arrhythmias. Management of patients with alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, including its cardiac complications among other cardiac arrhythmias should use both antiarrhythmic and anti-alcohol drugs and antidepressants. Such issues as diagnosis and management of patients with alcohol-induced cardiac arrhythmias are presented.

  11. Thermodynamic Modeling of Several Aqueous Alkanol Solutions Containing Amino Acids with the Perturbed-Chain Statistical Associated Fluid Theory Equation of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Luisa; Breil, Martin Peter; Pinho, S. P.

    2009-01-01

    parameters for the amino acids were fitted to the densities, activity and osmotic coefficients, vapor pressures, and water activity of their aqueous solutions. The solubilities of amino acids in pure and mixed solvent systems were calculated on the basis of the phase equilibrium conditions for a pure solid...... and a fluid phase. The hypothetical melting properties of each amino acid were fitted, to accurately correlate the solubilities in pure water. Only one temperature independent binary parameter is required for each amino acid/solvent pair. The model can accurately describe the solubility of the amino acids...... in water, but the correlation for the solubility in pure alcohols was not so satisfactory. The solubility in mixed solvents (ternary systems) was predicted on the basis of the modeling of the solubility in pure solvents, without any additional fitting of the parameters, and the results achieved were...

  12. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W

    2002-06-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube.

  13. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorders (FASDs) National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence Last Updated: November 21, 2017 This article was ... about pre-pregnancy planning, including tips on nutrition, exercise and healthy habits. About Support Us Copyright & Permissions ...

  14. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (NCADD) Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMSHA) Last reviewed: April, 2016 Pregnancy Is it safe? Other Pregnancy topics ') document.write(' ...

  15. Alcohol and radionuclide metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlum, D.D.; Hess, J.O.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of ethanol administration on the deposition and retention of polymeric 239 Pu and 241 Am citrate was studied in the rat. Only in the case of polymeric Pu was there an effect of alcohol administration

  16. Breath alcohol test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a glass tube. The tube is filled with bands of yellow crystals. The bands in the tube change colors (from yellow to ... Results Mean With the balloon method: 1 green band means that the blood-alcohol level is 0. ...

  17. When alcohol acts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob

    2009-01-01

      Sociological studies into alcohol use seem to find it difficult to deal with the substance itself. Alcohol tends to be reduced to a symbol of a social process and in this way the sociological research loses sight of effects beyond the social. This paper suggests a new theoretical approach...... to the study of alcohol and teenagers' (romantic) relationships, inspired by actor-network theory (ANT). The central feature of ANT is to search for relationships, or rather networks, between all things relevant to the phenomenon. All material and semantic structures, things, persons, discourses, etc....... that influence a given situation are described as actants and are entered into the analysis. The aim of this paper is to propose a way of including materiality in sociological analyses of alcohol and to explore ways of using focus group interview material in ANT-inspired analysis. By analyzing a girl...

  18. Women and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be more vulnerable to brain damage than teen boys who drink. Women also may be more susceptible than men to alcohol-related blackouts, defined as periods of memory loss of events during intoxication without loss of consciousness. ...

  19. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Living with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Alcohol Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... heavy drinking, most heavy drinkers have developed cirrhosis. Hepatitis C and cirrhosis In general, someone with hepatitis ...

  20. Weight loss and alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Maclean JC. Alcohol consumption and body weight. Health Econ . 2010;19(7):814-832. PMID: 19548203 www. ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...

  1. Alcohol and Cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol and Cirrhosis Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans and the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting ...

  2. Alcohol and masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemle, R; Mishkind, M E

    1989-01-01

    Alcohol use--and abuse--has always been more prevalent among males than among females. The sex role prescription for men to affirm their masculinity by drinking is a major determinant of this sex difference. This paper reviews the intricate interrelationship between masculinity and both social and alcoholic drinking. A large body of evidence indicates that social drinking is a primary cultural symbol of manliness; portrayals in the media strengthen this association. Less evidence exists to connect masculinity issues with alcoholic dependence, but there has been much speculation: Three psychodynamic theories of alcoholism--the repressed homosexuality, dependency, and power theories--hypothesized that men who drink addictively have the most fragile masculine identities. The 1980s have witnessed a widespread recognition of the dangers of equating drinking and manliness, and societal changes suggest that drinking may be gradually losing its masculine aura.

  3. Alcoholic liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2018 . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:59-60. Carithers RL, McClain C. Alcoholic ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 86. Haines EJ, Oyama LC. ...

  4. Older Adults and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Older Adults A national 2008 survey found that about 40 ... of adults ages 65 and older drink alcohol. Older adults can experience a variety of problems from drinking ...

  5. Non alcoholic steatohepatitis - Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Peter L. M.

    2004-01-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an underdiagnosed liver disease characterized by steatosis, necroinflammation and fibrosis. This disease may eventually develop into cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. NASH is highly prevalent among obese individuals and among patients with diabetes

  6. Alcohol production from whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reesen, L

    1978-01-01

    The continuous production of ethanol from whey permeate, by fermentation of its lactose with Kluyveromyces fragilis, is described. From whey containing 4.4% lactose, production costs were very competitive with those for alcohol from molasses.

  7. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani; Oß wald, Patrick; Hansen, Nils; Kohse-Hö inghaus, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    . While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides

  8. Distribution of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Noble, S. K.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most eagerly studied questions upon initial return of lunar samples was whether significant amounts of organic compounds, including amino acids, were present. Analyses during the 1970s produced only tentative and inconclusive identifications of indigenous amino acids. Those analyses were hampered by analytical difficulties including relative insensitivity to certain compounds, the inability to separate chiral enantiomers, and the lack of compound-specific isotopic measurements, which made it impossible to determine whether the detected amino acids were indigenous to the lunar samples or the results of contamination. Numerous advances have been made in instrumentation and methodology for amino acid characterization in extraterrestrial samples in the intervening years, yet the origin of amino acids in lunar regolith samples has been revisited only once for a single lunar sample, (3) and remains unclear. Here, we present initial data from the analyses of amino acid abundances in 12 lunar regolith samples. We discuss these abundances in the context of four potential amino acid sources: (1) terrestrial biological contamination; (2) contamination from lunar module (LM) exhaust; (3) derivation from solar windimplanted precursors; and (4) exogenous delivery from meteorites.

  9. Enantiomer-specific selection of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xueying; Tellez, Luis A; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2013-12-01

    Dietary intake of L-amino acids impacts on several physiological functions, including the control of gastrointestinal motility, pancreatic secretion, and appetite. However, the biological mechanisms regulating behavioral predilections for certain amino acid types remain poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that, in mice, the potency with which a given glucogenic amino acid increases glucose utilization reflects its rewarding properties. We have found that: (1) during long-, but not short-, term preference tests, L-alanine and L-serine were preferred over their D-enantiomer counterparts, while no such effect was observed for L-threonine vs. D-threonine; (2) these behavioral patterns were closely associated with the ability of L-amino acids to promote increases in respiratory exchange ratios such that those, and only those, L-amino acids able to promote increases in respiratory exchange ratios were preferred over their D-isomers; (3) these behavioral preferences were independent of gustatory influences, since taste-deficient Trpm5 knockout mice displayed ingestive responses very similar to those of their wild-type counterparts. We conclude that the ability to promote increases in respiratory exchange ratios enhances the reward value of nutritionally relevant amino acids and suggest a mechanistic link between substrate utilization and amino acid preferences.

  10. Amino Acid Stability in the Early Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E. T.; Brinton, K. L.; Burton, A. S.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Bada, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    It is likely that a variety of amino acids existed in the early oceans of the Earth at the time of the origin and early evolution of life. "Primordial soup", hydrothermal vent, and meteorite based processes could have contributed to such an inventory. Several "protein" amino acids were likely present, however, based on prebiotic synthesis experiments and carbonaceous meteorite studies, non-protein amino acids, which are rare on Earth today, were likely the most abundant. An important uncertainty is the length of time these amino acids could have persisted before their destruction by abiotic and biotic processes. Prior to life, amino acid concentrations in the oceans were likely regulated by circulation through hydro-thermal vents. Today, the entire ocean circulates through vent systems every 10(exp 7) years. On the early Earth, this value was likely smaller due to higher heat flow and thus marine amino acid life-time would have been shorter. After life, amino acids in the oceans could have been assimilated by primitive organisms.

  11. Amino acid analogs for tumor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, M.M.; Shoup, T.

    1998-01-01

    The invention provides novel amino acid compounds of use in detecting and evaluating brain and body tumors. These compounds combine the advantageous properties of 1-amino-cycloalkyl-1-carboxylic acids, namely, their rapid uptake and prolonged retention in tumors with the properties of halogen substituents, including certain useful halogen isotopes including fluorine-18, iodine-123, iodine-125, iodine-131, bromine-75, bromine-76, bromine-77 and bromine-82. In one aspect, the invention features amino acid compounds that have a high specificity for target sites when administered to a subject in vivo. Preferred amino acid compounds show a target to non-target ratio of at least 5:1, are stable in vivo and substantially localized to target within 1 hour after administration. An especially preferred amino acid compound is [ 18 F]-1-amino-3-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC). In another aspect, the invention features pharmaceutical compositions comprised of an α-amino acid moiety attached to either a four, five, or a six member carbon-chain ring. In addition, the invention features analogs of α-aminoisobutyric acid

  12. Alcoholic hallucinosis: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bárbara Werner Griciunas; Norton Yoshiaki Kitanishi; Patricia Motta Carvalho; Daniel Azevedo Cavalcante; Leonardo Mattiolli Marini

    2017-01-01

    Case report of patient who has been an alcoholic for 40 years and, after reducing alcohol intake, developed auditory and visual hallucinations, which caused behavior change. Neurological issues, electrolyte disturbances and other organ dysfunctions were excluded as cause of said change. After intake of haloperidol and risperidone, the patient had regression of symptoms and denied having presented hallucinatory symptoms. The Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais – 5ª edição (...

  13. [Alcohol and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seror, E; Chapelon, E; Bué, M; Garnier-Lengliné, H; Lebeaux-Legras, C; Loudenot, A; Lejeune, C

    2009-10-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a major cause of mental retardation in Western countries. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is mainly characterized by pre- and postnatal stunted growth, neurocognitive disorders, and facial dysmorphism. It compromises the intellectual and behavioral prognosis of the child. Prevention tools exist, through better information of health professionals, for optimal care of high-risk women before, during, and after pregnancy, which would decrease the incidence of SAF in the future.

  14. Aziridino Alcohols as Catalysts for the Enantioselective Addition of Diethylzinc to Aldehydes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, David Ackland; Kornø, Hanne Tøfting; Guijarro, David

    1998-01-01

    The chiral aziridino alcohols 1 -3 have been prepared either from amino acids (1a from serine; 1b - 1i and 3 from threonine; 2a - 2e from allo-threonine) or via asymmetric synthesis (1j, 1k, 1l and 2f from methyl cinnamate). These easily available ligands act as catalysts for the enantioselective...

  15. Synthesis of acetylene alcohols of heterocyclic type and the acyl derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldir Dyusebaeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A synthesis of potentially biologically active heterocyclic amino alcohols of acetylene (Piperidine and Morpholine under the conditions of Mannich reaction accomplished and received their acyl derivatives. Pharmacological activity (antibacterial and antispasmotic of synthesized compounds, also acute toxicological characteristics studied. The study showed that the combination of DMAE-4 has antispasmodic activity with low toxicity.

  16. Enzymatic halogenation and oxidation using an alcohol oxidase-vanadium chloroperoxidase cascade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    But, Andrada; Noord, Van Aster; Poletto, Francesca; Sanders, Johan P.M.; Franssen, Maurice C.R.; Scott, Elinor L.

    2017-01-01

    The chemo-enzymatic cascade which combines alcohol oxidase from Hansenula polymorpha (AOXHp) with vanadium chloroperoxidase (VCPO), for the production of biobased nitriles from amino acids was investigated. In the first reaction H2O2 (and acetaldehyde) are generated from ethanol and oxygen by AOXHp.

  17. Excitatory amino acid neurotoxicity and neurodegenerative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, B; Garthwaite, J

    1990-09-01

    The progress over the last 30 years in defining the role of excitatory amino acids in normal physiological function and in the abnormal neuronal activity of epilepsy has been reviewed in earlier articles in this series. In the last five years it has become clear that excitatory amino acids also play a role in a wide range of neurodegenerative processes. The evidence is clearest where the degenerative process is acute, but is more controversial for slow degenerative processes. In this article Brian Meldrum and John Garthwaite review in vivo and in vitro studies of the cytotoxicity of amino acids and summarize the contribution of such toxicity to acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders.

  18. Absorption of proteins and amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeejeebhoy, K.N.

    1976-01-01

    Although the absorption of proteins and amino acids is an important issue in nutrition, its measurement is not common because of the methodological difficulties. Complications are attributable in particular to the magnitude of endogenous protein secretion and to the diversity of absorption mechanisms for amino acids either as individual units or as peptides. Methods for studying absorption include balance techniques, tolerance tests, tracer techniques using proteins or amino acids labelled with 131 I, 3 H, or 15 N, intestinal perfusion studies, and others; they must be selected according to the nature of the information sought. Improvements over the current methods would be useful. (author)

  19. Cytokines: muscle protein and amino acid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hall, Gerrit

    2012-01-01

    raises TNF-α and IL-6 to moderate levels, has only identified IL-6 as a potent cytokine, decreasing systemic amino acid levels and muscle protein metabolism. The marked decrease in circulatory and muscle amino acid concentrations was observed with a concomitant reduction in both the rates of muscle...... of IL-6 on the regulation of muscle protein metabolism but indirectly via IL-6 reducing amino acid availability. SUMMARY: Recent studies suggest that the best described cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 are unlikely to be the major direct mediators of muscle protein loss in inflammatory diseases. However...

  20. Pd(II)-Catalyzed Hydroxyl-Directed C–H Olefination Enabled by Mono-Protected Amino Acid Ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Wang, Dong-Hui; Engle, Keary M.

    2010-01-01

    A novel Pd(II)-catalyzed ortho-C–H olefination protocol has been developed using spatially remote, unprotected tertiary, secondary, and primary alcohols as the directing groups. Mono-N-protected amino acid ligands were found to promote the reaction, and an array of olefin coupling partners could be used. When electron-deficient alkenes were used, the resulting olefinated intermediates underwent subsequent Pd(II)-catalyzed oxidative intramolecular cyclization to give the corresponding pyran products, which could be converted into ortho-alkylated alcohols under hydrogenolysis conditions. The mechanistic details of the oxidative cyclization step are discussed and situated in the context of the overall catalytic cycle. PMID:20359184

  1. Effect of amino acids and amino acid derivatives on crystallization of hemoglobin and ribonuclease A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Len; Kobayashi, Toyoaki; Shiraki, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the addition of amino acids and amino acid derivatives on the crystallization of hemoglobin and ribonuclease A has been evaluated. The results showed that certain types of additives expand the concentration conditions in which crystals are formed. Determination of the appropriate conditions for protein crystallization remains a highly empirical process. Preventing protein aggregation is necessary for the formation of single crystals under aggregation-prone solution conditions. Because many amino acids and amino acid derivatives offer a unique combination of solubility and stabilizing properties, they open new avenues into the field of protein aggregation research. The use of amino acids and amino acid derivatives can potentially influence processes such as heat treatment and refolding reactions. The effect of the addition of several amino acids, such as lysine, and several amino acid derivatives, such as glycine ethyl ester and glycine amide, on the crystallization of equine hemoglobin and bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A has been examined. The addition of these amino acids and amino acid derivatives expanded the range of precipitant concentration in which crystals formed without aggregation. The addition of such additives appears to promote the crystallization of proteins

  2. Effect of amino acids and amino acid derivatives on crystallization of hemoglobin and ribonuclease A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Len, E-mail: len@ksc.kwansei.ac.jp; Kobayashi, Toyoaki [School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan); Shiraki, Kentaro [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Hiroshi [School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337 (Japan)

    2008-05-01

    The effect of the addition of amino acids and amino acid derivatives on the crystallization of hemoglobin and ribonuclease A has been evaluated. The results showed that certain types of additives expand the concentration conditions in which crystals are formed. Determination of the appropriate conditions for protein crystallization remains a highly empirical process. Preventing protein aggregation is necessary for the formation of single crystals under aggregation-prone solution conditions. Because many amino acids and amino acid derivatives offer a unique combination of solubility and stabilizing properties, they open new avenues into the field of protein aggregation research. The use of amino acids and amino acid derivatives can potentially influence processes such as heat treatment and refolding reactions. The effect of the addition of several amino acids, such as lysine, and several amino acid derivatives, such as glycine ethyl ester and glycine amide, on the crystallization of equine hemoglobin and bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A has been examined. The addition of these amino acids and amino acid derivatives expanded the range of precipitant concentration in which crystals formed without aggregation. The addition of such additives appears to promote the crystallization of proteins.

  3. Alcohol drinking pattern and risk of alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, Gro; Grønbæk, Morten; Kjær, Mette S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol is the main contributing factor of alcoholic cirrhosis, but less is known about the significance of drinking pattern. METHODS: We investigated the risk of alcoholic cirrhosis among 55,917 participants (aged 50-64years) in the Danish Cancer, Diet, and Health study (1993......-2011). Baseline information on alcohol intake, drinking pattern, and confounders was obtained from a questionnaire. Follow-up information came from national registers. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for alcoholic cirrhosis in relation to drinking frequency, lifetime alcohol amount, and beverage type. RESULTS......: We observed 257 and 85 incident cases of alcoholic cirrhosis among men and women, respectively, none among lifetime abstainers. In men, HR for alcoholic cirrhosis among daily drinkers was 3.65 (95% CI: 2.39; 5.55) compared to drinking 2-4days/week. Alcohol amount in recent age periods (40-49 and 50...

  4. Alcohol-attributable and alcohol-preventable mortality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Becker, Ulrik; Grønbæk, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify alcohol-attributable and -preventable mortality, totally and stratified on alcohol consumption in Denmark 2010, and to estimate alcohol-related mortality assuming different scenarios of changes in alcohol distribution in the population. We estimated alcohol......-attributable and -preventable fractions based on relative risks of conditions causally associated with alcohol from meta-analyses and information on alcohol consumption in Denmark obtained from 14,458 participants in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 and corrected for adult per capita consumption. Cause-specific mortality...... data were obtained from the Danish Register of Causes of Death. In total, 1,373 deaths among women (5.0 % of all deaths) and 2,522 deaths among men (9.5 % of all deaths) were attributable to alcohol, while an estimated number of 765 (2.8 %) and 583 (2.2 %) deaths were prevented by alcohol...

  5. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparing Alcohol Marketing and Alcohol Warning Message Policies Across Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettlaufer, Ashley; Cukier, Samantha N; Giesbrecht, Norman

    2017-08-24

    In order to reduce harms from alcohol, evidence-based policies are to be introduced and sustained. To facilitate the dissemination of policies that reduce alcohol-related harms by documenting, comparing, and sharing information on effective alcohol polices related to restrictions on alcohol marketing and alcohol warning messaging in 10 Canadian provinces. Team members developed measurable indicators to assess policies on (a) restrictions on alcohol marketing, and (b) alcohol warning messaging. Indicators were peer-reviewed by three alcohol policy experts, refined, and data were collected, submitted for validation by provincial experts, and scored independently by two team members. The national average score was 52% for restrictions on marketing policies and 18% for alcohol warning message policies. Most provinces had marketing regulations that went beyond the federal guidelines with penalties for violating marketing regulations. The provincial liquor boards' web pages focused on product promotion, and there were few restrictions on sponsorship activities. No province has implemented alcohol warning labels, and Ontario was the sole province to have legislated warning signs at all points-of-sale. Most provinces provided a variety of warning signs to be displayed voluntarily at points-of-sale; however, the quality of messages varied. Conclusions/Importance: There is extensive alcohol marketing with comparatively few messages focused on the potential harms associated with alcohol. It is recommended that governments collaborate with multiple stakeholders to maximize the preventive impact of restrictions on alcohol marketing and advertising, and a broader implementation of alcohol warning messages.

  7. Amino acid nitrosation products as alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Santos, M del P; Calle, E; Casado, J

    2001-08-08

    Nitrosation reactions of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-amino acids whose reaction products can act as alkylating agents of DNA were investigated. To approach in vivo conditions for the two-step mechanism (nitrosation and alkylation), nitrosation reactions were carried out in aqueous acid conditions (mimicking the conditions of the stomach lumen) while the alkylating potential of the nitrosation products was investigated at neutral pH, as in the stomach lining cells into which such products can diffuse. These conclusions were drawn: (i) The alkylating species resulting from the nitrosation of amino acids with an -NH(2) group are the corresponding lactones; (ii) the sequence of alkylating power is: alpha-lactones > beta-lactones > gamma-lactones, coming respectively from the nitrosation of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-amino acids; and (iii) the results obtained may be useful in predicting the mutagenic effectiveness of the nitrosation products of amino acids.

  8. Side Chain Cyclized Aromatic Amino Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van der Poorten, Olivier; Knuhtsen, Astrid; Sejer Pedersen, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Constraining the conformation of flexible peptides is a proven strategy to increase potency, selectivity, and metabolic stability. The focus has mostly been on constraining the backbone dihedral angles; however, the correct orientation of the amino acid side chains (χ-space) that constitute...... the peptide pharmacophore is equally important. Control of χ-space utilizes conformationally constrained amino acids that favor, disfavor, or exclude the gauche (-), the gauche (+), or the trans conformation. In this review we focus on cyclic aromatic amino acids in which the side chain is connected...... to the peptide backbone to provide control of χ(1)- and χ(2)-space. The manifold applications for cyclized analogues of the aromatic amino acids Phe, Tyr, Trp, and His within peptide medicinal chemistry are showcased herein with examples of enzyme inhibitors and ligands for G protein-coupled receptors....

  9. AMINO ACIDS APPLICATION TO CREATE OF NANOSTRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Chekman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Review is devoted to the amino acids that could be used for nanostructures creation. The investigation of corresponding properties of amino acids is essential for their role definition in creation of nanomedicines. However, amino acid studying as components of nanostructures is insufficient. Study of nanoparticles for medicines creation was initiated by the development of nanotechnology. Amino acids in complexes with the nanoparticles of organic and inorganic nature play an important role for medicines targeting in pathological process. They could reduce toxicity of the nanomaterials used in nanomedicine and are used for creation of biosensors, lab-on-chip and therefore they are a promising material for synthesis of new nanodrugs and diagnostic tools.

  10. Acute Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and Gun Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branas, Charles C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    A case–control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  11. Alcohol and the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, S; Montalvo, R

    1998-01-01

    Alcoholic pancreatitis may be one of the most serious adverse consequences of alcohol abuse. Its diagnosis, as it has for many years, depends primarily on clinical acumen in interpreting properly the symptoms and signs of abdominal distress, buttressed by elevated pancreatic enzymes (amylase and lipase). More recently, the use of computerized tomography (CT) in selected situations has been both of confirmatory and prognostic value. Severity of abnormality by CT correlates reasonably well with a variety of clinical-laboratory clusters (APACHE system, Ranson's criteria, etc.) and aids in therapy. The pathogenesis of alcoholic pancreatitis is not fully defined. The ultimate picture is one of tissue autolysis by activated proteolytic enzymes. The triggers for such activation, however, are still not known. They are represented by three main theories: (1) large duct obstruction and/or increased permeability relative to pancreatic secretion, (2) small duct obstruction due to proteinaceous precipitates, and (3) a direct toxic-metabolic effect of ethanol on pancreatic acinar cells. While not mutually exclusive, we favor the last hypothesis as being most consistent with the effects of ethanol on other organ systems. The direct effects of ethanol and/or its metabolites may be mediated, at least in part, via oxidative stress or the generation of fatty acid ethyl esters. Autolysis (regardless of proximate mechanism(s)) leads to inflammation likely mediated via release of various cytokines. It also should be appreciated that "acute" pancreatitis (the topic of this chapter) likely represents an acute process within a chronic pancreatic exposure and injury from alcoholic abuse. The key question of why pancreatitis develops in only a small number of alcohol abusers is not resolved. Therapy depends on the severity of alcoholic pancreatitis, which is defined by clinical-laboratory and often CT criteria. Mild pancreatitis usually resolves acutely with alcohol abstention and supportive

  12. Genetically encoded fluorescent coumarin amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiangyun; Xie, Jianming; Schultz, Peter G.

    2010-10-05

    The invention relates to orthogonal pairs of tRNAs and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases that can incorporate the coumarin unnatural amino acid L-(7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl) ethylglycine into proteins produced in eubacterial host cells such as E. coli. The invention provides, for example but not limited to, novel orthogonal synthetases, methods for identifying and making the novel synthetases, methods for producing proteins containing the unnatural amino acid L-(7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl)ethylglycine and related translation systems.

  13. Wafer Cakes of Improved Amino Acid Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roksolana Boidunyk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study of the amino acid composition of newly developed wafer cakes with adipose fillings combined with natural additives. The appropriateness of the using non-traditional raw materials (powder of willow herb, poppy oilcake, carob, as well as skimmed milk powder in order to increase the biological value of wafer cakes and improve their amino acid composition is proven.

  14. Comparative analysis of amino acids and amino-acid derivatives in protein crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Len; Shiraki, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    New types of aggregation suppressors, such as amino acids and their derivatives, were focused on as fourth-component additives. Data were obtained that indicated that the additives promote protein crystallization. Optimal conditions for protein crystallization are difficult to determine because proteins tend to aggregate in saturated solutions. This study comprehensively evaluates amino acids and amino-acid derivatives as additives for crystallization. This fourth component of the solution increases the probability of crystallization of hen egg-white lysozyme in various precipitants owing to a decrease in aggregation. These results suggest that the addition of certain types of amino acids and amino-acid derivatives, such as Arg, Lys and esterified and amidated amino acids, is a simple method of improving the success rate of protein crystallization

  15. Discovery and History of Amino Acid Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shin-Ichi

    There has been a strong demand in Japan and East Asia for L-glutamic acid as a seasoning since monosodium glutamate was found to present umami taste in 1907. The discovery of glutamate fermentation by Corynebacterium glutamicum in 1956 enabled abundant and low-cost production of the amino acid, creating a large market. The discovery also prompted researchers to develop fermentative production processes for other L-amino acids, such as lysine. Currently, the amino acid fermentation industry is so huge that more than 5 million metric tons of amino acids are manufactured annually all over the world, and this number continues to grow. Research on amino acid fermentation fostered the notion and skills of metabolic engineering which has been applied for the production of other compounds from renewable resources. The discovery of glutamate fermentation has had revolutionary impacts on both the industry and science. In this chapter, the history and development of glutamate fermentation, including the very early stage of fermentation of other amino acids, are reviewed.

  16. Studies on radiolysis of amino acids, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oku, Tadatake

    1978-01-01

    For the purpose of investigating the radiolysis of amino acids and the safeness to radiation, the radiolytic mechanism and radio-sensitivity of sulfur-containing amino acids in aqueous solution in the presence of air or in the atmosphere of nitrogen were studied. Aqueous solutions of L-methionine, cysteine (both 1mM) and L-cystine (0.3mM) were irradiated with γ-ray of 60 Co at the dose of 4.2 - 2,640 x 10 3 rad. The amino acids and the radiolytic products were determined with an amino acid analyzer. The volatile sulfur compounds formed from γ-irradiated methionine were estimated by a flame photometric detector-gas chromatograph. From the results obtained, G values of the radiolysis of sulfur-containing amino acids and the products were calculated, and the radiolytic mechanisms of methionine, cysteine and cystine were proposed. The radio-sensitivity of sulfur-containing amino acids was shown as follows: cysteine (C3-SH) > methionine (C5, -SCH 3 ) > cystine (C 6 , -S-S-). Off-flavor development from γ-irradiated methionine when oxidizing agent was added was less than that when reducing agent was added. (Kobatake, H.)

  17. Free amino acids in spider hemolymph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillinghast, Edward K; Townley, Mark A

    2008-11-01

    We examined the free amino acid composition of hemolymph from representatives of five spider families with an interest in knowing if the amino acid profile in the hemolymph of orb-web-building spiders reflects the high demands for small organic compounds in the sticky droplets of their webs. In nearly all analyses, on both orb and non-orb builders, glutamine was the most abundant free amino acid. Glycine, taurine, proline, histidine, and alanine also tended to be well-represented in orb and non-orb builders. While indications of taxon-specific differences in amino acid composition were observed, it was not apparent that two presumptive precursors (glutamine, taurine) of orb web sticky droplet compounds were uniquely enriched in araneids (orb builders). However, total amino acid concentrations were invariably highest in the araneids and especially so in overwintering juveniles, even as several of the essential amino acids declined during this winter diapause. Comparing the data from this study with those from earlier studies revealed a number of discrepancies. The possible origins of these differences are discussed.

  18. Amino Acid Patterns around Disulfide Bonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Drury

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Disulfide bonds provide an inexhaustible source of information on molecular evolution and biological specificity. In this work, we described the amino acid composition around disulfide bonds in a set of disulfide-rich proteins using appropriate descriptors, based on ANOVA (for all twenty natural amino acids or classes of amino acids clustered according to their chemical similarities and Scheffé (for the disulfide-rich proteins superfamilies statistics. We found that weakly hydrophilic and aromatic amino acids are quite abundant in the regions around disulfide bonds, contrary to aliphatic and hydrophobic amino acids. The density distributions (as a function of the distance to the center of the disulfide bonds for all defined entities presented an overall unimodal behavior: the densities are null at short distances, have maxima at intermediate distances and decrease for long distances. In the end, the amino acid environment around the disulfide bonds was found to be different for different superfamilies, allowing the clustering of proteins in a biologically relevant way, suggesting that this type of chemical information might be used as a tool to assess the relationship between very divergent sets of disulfide-rich proteins.

  19. Exposure to alcohol advertisements and teenage alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenard, Jerry L; Dent, Clyde W; Stacy, Alan W

    2013-02-01

    This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents' jobs, and parents' education. Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence.

  20. Exposure to Alcohol Advertisements and Teenage Alcohol-Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Clyde W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. METHODS: A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents’ jobs, and parents’ education. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. CONCLUSIONS: Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence. PMID:23359585

  1. Anticonvulsants for alcohol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Silvia; Amato, Laura; Vecchi, Simona; Davoli, Marina

    2010-03-17

    Alcohol abuse and dependence represents a most serious health problem worldwide with major social, interpersonal and legal interpolations. Besides benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants are often used for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal symptoms. Anticonvulsants drugs are indicated for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, alone or in combination with benzodiazepine treatments. In spite of the wide use, the exact role of the anticonvulsants for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal has not yet bee adequately assessed. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of anticonvulsants in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. We searched Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group' Register of Trials (December 2009), PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL (1966 to December 2009), EconLIT (1969 to December 2009). Parallel searches on web sites of health technology assessment and related agencies, and their databases. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effectiveness, safety and overall risk-benefit of anticonvulsants in comparison with a placebo or other pharmacological treatment. All patients were included regardless of age, gender, nationality, and outpatient or inpatient therapy. Two authors independently screened and extracted data from studies. Fifty-six studies, with a total of 4076 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Comparing anticonvulsants with placebo, no statistically significant differences for the six outcomes considered.Comparing anticonvulsant versus other drug, 19 outcomes considered, results favour anticonvulsants only in the comparison carbamazepine versus benzodiazepine (oxazepam and lorazepam) for alcohol withdrawal symptoms (CIWA-Ar score): 3 studies, 262 participants, MD -1.04 (-1.89 to -0.20), none of the other comparisons reached statistical significance.Comparing different anticonvulsants no statistically significant differences in the two outcomes considered.Comparing anticonvulsants plus other drugs versus other drugs (3 outcomes considered), results

  2. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  3. Oxidative diversification of amino acids and peptides by small-molecule iron catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osberger, Thomas J; Rogness, Donald C; Kohrt, Jeffrey T; Stepan, Antonia F; White, M Christina

    2016-09-08

    Secondary metabolites synthesized by non-ribosomal peptide synthetases display diverse and complex topologies and possess a range of biological activities. Much of this diversity derives from a synthetic strategy that entails pre- and post-assembly oxidation of both the chiral amino acid building blocks and the assembled peptide scaffolds. The vancomycin biosynthetic pathway is an excellent example of the range of oxidative transformations that can be performed by the iron-containing enzymes involved in its biosynthesis. However, because of the challenges associated with using such oxidative enzymes to carry out chemical transformations in vitro, chemical syntheses guided by these principles have not been fully realized in the laboratory. Here we report that two small-molecule iron catalysts are capable of facilitating the targeted C-H oxidative modification of amino acids and peptides with preservation of α-centre chirality. Oxidation of proline to 5-hydroxyproline furnishes a versatile intermediate that can be transformed to rigid arylated derivatives or flexible linear carboxylic acids, alcohols, olefins and amines in both monomer and peptide settings. The value of this C-H oxidation strategy is demonstrated in its capacity for generating diversity: four 'chiral pool' amino acids are transformed to twenty-one chiral unnatural amino acids representing seven distinct functional group arrays; late-stage C-H functionalizations of a single proline-containing tripeptide furnish eight tripeptides, each having different unnatural amino acids. Additionally, a macrocyclic peptide containing a proline turn element is transformed via late-stage C-H oxidation to one containing a linear unnatural amino acid.

  4. Stress, Epigenetics, and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonat, Sachin; Pandey, Subhash C.

    2012-01-01

    Acute and chronic stressors have been associated with alterations in mood and increased anxiety that may eventually result in the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders. Stress and associated disorders, including anxiety, are key factors in the development of alcoholism because alcohol consumption can temporarily reduce the drinker’s dysphoria. One molecule that may help mediate the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein that regulates the structure and function of the sites where two nerve cells interact and exchange nerve signals (i.e., synapses) and which is involved in numerous physiological processes. Aberrant regulation of BDNF signaling and alterations in synapse activity (i.e., synaptic plasticity) have been associated with the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders and alcoholism. Mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of genetic information without modification of the DNA sequence (i.e., epigenetic mechanisms) may play a role in the complex control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity—for example, by modifying the structure of the DNA–protein complexes (i.e., chromatin) that make up the chromosomes and thereby modulating the expression of certain genes. Studies regarding the epigenetic control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity provide a promising direction to understand the mechanisms mediating the interaction between stress and alcoholism. PMID:23584115

  5. Distribution of motor-alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandberg, Aa.; Saevbark, B.

    1996-10-01

    The study is made on the assumption that Sweden, as a first step, will substitute alcohol fuels for five percent of the gasoline and diesel consumption, i.e. 700-900,000 m 3 alcohol/year, and later increase the alcohol share. Alcohol will be mixed into all gasoline, and one new fuel quality (85 percent alcohol) will be introduced during a ten year period. The cost for adapting the distribution system to alcohol fuels, and for building new service stations etc are also estimated. 15 refs

  6. Influence of foliar riboflavin applications to vineyard on grape amino acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Santamaría, Rosario; Ruiz-González, Rubén; Nonell, Santi; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Pérez-Álvarez, Eva P

    2018-02-01

    Nitrogen is an important element for grapevine and winemaking, which affects plant development, grape juice fermentation and has a potential effect in modulating wine quality. The aim was to study the influence of foliar applications of riboflavin (vitamin B2) to vineyard on grape nitrogen composition. This vitamin has a reported capacity to protect different plant species, but its application to favor grape and grape juice quality had not previously been studied. This work reports the oenological properties and the effect on amino acid concentration of grape juices obtained from grapes treated with riboflavin at two different doses compared to control. Results showed that probable alcohol, malic acid, color intensity and hue had significant differences when the riboflavin treatments were applied. Most of the amino acids presented the highest concentrations when the lowest riboflavin dose was used. These results are promising in terms of fermentation development and grape juice nitrogen composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sulfur Amino Acids in Diet-induced Fatty Liver: A New Perspective Based on Recent Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John I. Toohey

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship of sulfur amino acids to diet-induced fatty liver was established 80 years ago, with cystine promoting the condition and methionine preventing it. This relationship has renewed importance today because diet-induced fatty liver is relevant to the current epidemics of obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. Two recent papers provide the first evidence linking sulfane sulfur to diet-induced fatty liver opening a new perspective on the problem. This review summarizes the early data on sulfur amino acids in fatty liver and correlates that data with current knowledge of sulfur metabolism. Evidence is reviewed showing that the lipotropic effect of methionine may be mediated by sulfane sulfur and that the hepatosteatogenic effect of cystine may be related to the removal of sulfane sulfur by cysteine catabolites. Possible preventive and therapeutic strategies are discussed.

  8. Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids and Marine Toxins - The Common and the Different

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klisch, Manfred; Häder, Donat-P.

    2008-01-01

    Marine microorganisms harbor a multitude of secondary metabolites. Among these are toxins of different chemical classes as well as the UV-protective mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). The latter form a group of water-soluble, low molecular-weight (generally < 400) compounds composed of either an aminocyclohexenone or an aminocyclohexenimine ring, carrying amino acid or amino alcohol substituents. So far there has been no report of toxicity in MAAs but nevertheless there are some features they have in common with marine toxins. Among the organisms producing MAAs are cyanobacteria, dinoflagellates and diatoms that also synthesize toxins. As in cyclic peptide toxins found in cyanobacteria, amino acids are the main building blocks of MAAs. Both, MAAs and some marine toxins are transferred to other organisms e.g. via the food chains, and chemical modifications can take place in secondary consumers. In contrast to algal toxins, the physiological role of MAAs is clearly the protection from harmful UV radiation by physical screening. However, other roles, e.g. as osmolytes and antioxidants, are also considered. In this paper the common characteristics of MAAs and marine toxins are discussed as well as the differences. PMID:18728764

  9. Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids and Marine Toxins - The Common and the Different

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donat P. Häder

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine microorganisms harbor a multitude of secondary metabolites. Among these are toxins of different chemical classes as well as the UV-protective mycosporinelike amino acids (MAAs. The latter form a group of water-soluble, low molecular-weight (generally < 400 compounds composed of either an aminocyclohexenone or an aminocyclohexenimine ring, carrying amino acid or amino alcohol substituents. So far there has been no report of toxicity in MAAs but nevertheless there are some features they have in common with marine toxins. Among the organisms producing MAAs are cyanobacteria, dinoflagellates and diatoms that also synthesize toxins. As in cyclic peptide toxins found in cyanobacteria, amino acids are the main building blocks of MAAs. Both, MAAs and some marine toxins are transferred to other organisms e.g. via the food chains, and chemical modifications can take place in secondary consumers. In contrast to algal toxins, the physiological role of MAAs is clearly the protection from harmful UV radiation by physical screening. However, other roles, e.g. as osmolytes and antioxidants, are also considered. In this paper the common characteristics of MAAs and marine toxins are discussed as well as the differences.

  10. Composition of amino acids and bioactive amines in common wines of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Carla Agustini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Since most consumed wines in Brazil are common wines and since their representativeness is not accounted for in scientific research, current study quantifies bioactive amines and their precursors in Brazilian sweet and dry common wines, correlates the formation of amines with physical and chemical parameters and clusters studied areas by their amine and amino acid contents. Forty-seven wine samples varying in type, color and origin were analyzed simultaneously for seventeen amino acids, ammonium ion and five bioactive amines by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet detection after the derivation phase. Physical and chemical analyses comprised titratable acidity, pH, organic acids, sugar and alcohol contents. Sweet wines had lower concentrations of amino acids and bioactive amines. Dry white wines had higher amino acid contents when compared to those in dry red wines. Since multivariate data analysis confirmed similarities between the studied regions, their unity as potential viniculture area was reinforced. Amine levels in Brazilian common wines were reported for the first time and results reinforced the importance of bioactive amines quantification and the use of suitable vinification practices to reduce their formation.

  11. Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids from Coral Dinoflagellates▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosic, Nedeljka N.; Dove, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Coral reefs are one of the most important marine ecosystems, providing habitat for approximately a quarter of all marine organisms. Within the foundation of this ecosystem, reef-building corals form mutualistic symbioses with unicellular photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. Exposure to UV radiation (UVR) (280 to 400 nm) especially when combined with thermal stress has been recognized as an important abiotic factor leading to the loss of algal symbionts from coral tissue and/or a reduction in their pigment concentration and coral bleaching. UVR may damage biological macromolecules, increase the level of mutagenesis in cells, and destabilize the symbiosis between the coral host and their dinoflagellate symbionts. In nature, corals and other marine organisms are protected from harmful UVR through several important photoprotective mechanisms that include the synthesis of UV-absorbing compounds such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). MAAs are small (<400-Da), colorless, water-soluble compounds made of a cyclohexenone or cyclohexenimine chromophore that is bound to an amino acid residue or its imino alcohol. These secondary metabolites are natural biological sunscreens characterized by a maximum absorbance in the UVA and UVB ranges of 310 to 362 nm. In addition to their photoprotective role, MAAs act as antioxidants scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and suppressing singlet oxygen-induced damage. It has been proposed that MAAs are synthesized during the first part of the shikimate pathway, and recently, it has been suggested that they are synthesized in the pentose phosphate pathway. The shikimate pathway is not found in animals, but in plants and microbes, it connects the metabolism of carbohydrates to the biosynthesis of aromatic compounds. However, both the complete enzymatic pathway of MAA synthesis and the extent of their regulation by environmental conditions are not known. This minireview discusses the current knowledge of MAA

  12. Continuous alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smidrkal, M; Nejedly, A

    1956-01-01

    Results are given of investigations on the continuous production of ethanol on a laboratory and on a semi-commercial scale. The suggested devices are particularly described. Under constant conditions the production cycle required 12 to 17 days, the acidity being 4.0 to 415 ml. 0.1 N NaOH/100 ml and the concentration of fermented wort 10.5 to 11%. The maximum production from 1 h of fermentation space during 24 h was 8.67 l of absolute alcohol when the efflux was divided into several basins; when the efflux of sweet wort was collected into one basin only, the maximum production was 7.20 l of absolute alcohol. The amount of alcohol produced was 62.20 l/100 kg sugar.

  13. Receptivity to alcohol marketing predicts initiation of alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lisa; Feighery, Ellen C; Schleicher, Nina C; Fortmann, Stephen P

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the influence of alcohol advertising and promotions on the initiation of alcohol use. A measure of receptivity to alcohol marketing was developed from research about tobacco marketing. Recall and recognition of alcohol brand names were also examined. Data were obtained from in-class surveys of sixth, seventh, and eighth graders at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Participants who were classified as never drinkers at baseline (n = 1,080) comprised the analysis sample. Logistic regression models examined the association of advertising receptivity at baseline with any alcohol use and current drinking at follow-up, adjusting for multiple risk factors, including peer alcohol use, school performance, risk taking, and demographics. At baseline, 29% of never drinkers either owned or wanted to use an alcohol branded promotional item (high receptivity), 12% students named the brand of their favorite alcohol ad (moderate receptivity), and 59% were not receptive to alcohol marketing. Approximately 29% of adolescents reported any alcohol use at follow-up; 13% reported drinking at least 1 or 2 days in the past month. Never drinkers who reported high receptivity to alcohol marketing at baseline were 77% more likely to initiate drinking by follow-up than those were not receptive. Smaller increases in the odds of alcohol use at follow-up were associated with better recall and recognition of alcohol brand names at baseline. Alcohol advertising and promotions are associated with the uptake of drinking. Prevention programs may reduce adolescents' receptivity to alcohol marketing by limiting their exposure to alcohol ads and promotions and by increasing their skepticism about the sponsors' marketing tactics.

  14. Acute Alcoholic Hepatitis: Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Paulina K; Lucey, Michael R

    2016-08-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) causes great morbidity and mortality in the United States and throughout the world. Advances in therapy have proven difficult. In part, this reflects challenges in diagnosis, including the distinction between AH and acute-on-chronic liver failure. Liver biopsy is the best method to clarify the cause in circumstances whereby conflicting clinical data confound the diagnosis. All treatment of AH begins with abstinence from alcohol. All patients with AH should be given sufficient nutrition. Prednisolone has become the principal agent for treating patients with severe AH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Koji for alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, T; Ogihara, H

    1956-06-25

    The pressed cake of fermented alcohol mash was used for preparing koji. The cake included considerable amounts of sugar, N-containing materials, enzymes, and vitamins, and gave a high-quality koji for alcohol fermentation. For example, the cake can be mixed with wheat bran and rice husks in the proportion 6:5:0 or 6:2:3 to make koji in the usual way. The saccharification power of the new koji was about 1.1 to 1.2 times as strong as that of usual koji prepared from wheat bran and rice husks.

  16. Fermentative alcohol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Charles R.; Maiorella, Brian L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Cysewski, Gerald R.

    1982-01-01

    An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  17. The definition of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, J S

    1993-11-01

    Formulations of alcohol dependence are continuously refreshed, in line with changing concepts and altered needs. Two new descriptions have been prepared: the revised WHO criteria for substance use disorders and an educative definition of alcoholism. The major sets of diagnostic criteria provided by WHO and by the American Psychiatric Association are moving closer together but have not solved all the semantic problems. More refined assessments are also available to quicken fulfillment of the long-awaited hope that treatments can be matched to patients.

  18. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dehydrogenase 3 polymorphism, and colorectal adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, E.W.; Wark, P.A.; Ocké, M.C.; Bunschoten, A.; Otten, M.H.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol is a probable risk factor with regard to colorectal neoplasm and is metabolized to the carcinogen acetaldehyde by the genetically polymorphic alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) enzyme. We evaluated whether the association between alcohol and colorectal adenomas is modified by ADH3 polymorphism.

  19. NEUROCOGNITIVE ASSESSMENT OF ALCOHOL INPATIENTSDURING RECOVERY FROM ALCOHOLISM*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilijana Šprah

    2008-05-01

    Our study demonstrated that some alcohol-related cognitive, emotional and motivationaldeficits can also persist to certain extent after several weeks of sobriety. Especially alcoholabstainers with suicidal history revealed a specific neuropsychological profile in this regard. Employed neurocognitive assessment proved as useful approach for clinical evaluation of alcohol abstainers functioning, since cognitive deficits have been also hypothesizedto affect the efficacy of alcoholism treatment

  20. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects in Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancratz, Diane R.

    This literature review defines Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) and considers their causes, diagnoses, prevalence, and educational ramifications. Effects of alcohol during each of the trimesters of pregnancy are summarized. Specific diagnostic characteristics of FAS are listed: (1) growth deficiency, (2) a…

  1. Influencia del solvente en el espectro ultravioleta de nitro y amino bifenilos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina B. de Gómez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Los nitro y amino bifenilos fueron sintetizados, caracterizados y usados como solutos, para determinarles su espectro U.V. Los solventes empleados corresponden a la serie de los alcoholes, como son: Metanol, Etanol, n- e iso-Propanol, n-, iso- y sec-Butanol. Se encontró que la posición de la banda de máxima absorción de cada una de las soluciones se relaciona tanto con las características del soluto como del solvente. Estos efectos se resumen en la ecuación de Rao (12, cuya aplicabilidad queda confirmada para este caso.

  2. Synthesis of the C8’-epimeric thymine pyranosyl amino acid core of amipurimycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod R. Markad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The C8’-epimeric pyranosyl amino acid core 2 of amipurimycin was synthesized from D-glucose derived alcohol 3 in 13 steps and 14% overall yield. Thus, the Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation of allyl alcohol 7 followed by trimethyl borate mediated regio-selective oxirane ring opening with azide, afforded azido diol 10. The acid-catalyzed 1,2-acetonide ring opening in 10 concomitantly led to the formation of the pyranose ring skeleton to give 2,7-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane 12. Functional group manipulation in 12 gave 21 that on stereoselective β-glycosylation afforded the pyranosyl thymine nucleoside 2 – a core of amipurimycin.

  3. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toolkit American College of Nurse-Midwives – Alcohol and Pregnancy The Arc’s FASD Prevention Project NIH’s National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) NIH/NIAAA Fact Sheet: Fetal Alcohol Exposure ...

  4. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001944.htm Alcohol use and safe drinking To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alcohol use involves drinking beer, wine, or hard liquor. ...

  5. Propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fede, Giuseppe; Germani, Giacomo; Gluud, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease.......Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  6. Effectiveness of passive alcohol sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Author's abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of passive alcohol sensors for youth alcohol enforcement conducted as part of normal or typical police operations. Three municipal police departments of 100 or more sworn ...

  7. Study of the effect of vintage, maturity degree, and irrigation on the amino acid and biogenic amine content of a white wine from the Verdejo variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Heras, Miriam; Pérez-Magariño, Silvia; Del-Villar-Garrachón, Vanesa; González-Huerta, Carlos; Moro Gonzalez, Luis Carlos; Guadarrama Rodríguez, Alberto; Villanueva Sanchez, Sonia; Gallo González, Rubén; Martín de la Helguera, Sara

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of three factors directly related to the amino acid content of grapes and their interaction. These three factors were vintage, maturity degree and irrigation. The evolution of amino acid was also assessed during the winemaking along with the effect of maturity and irrigation on the biogenic amine formation. The grapes used for this study were of the Verdejo variety. The results indicated that there was a strong vintage effect on amino acid content in grapes, which seemed to be clearly related to climatic conditions. The effect of maturity on amino acid content depended on vintage, irrigation and the amino acid itself although it was observed that irrigation caused the increase of most amino acids present in the berry. Irrigation did not affect the evolution of nitrogen compounds during the alcoholic fermentation process but the maturity degree in some of the amino acids tested did so. No direct relationship could be established between irrigation or maturity degree and biogenic amines. However, it should be noted that the biogenic amine content was very low. Vintage has a strong effect on the amino acid content in grapes which appears to be related to weather conditions. No direct relationship has been found between irrigation or maturity degree and biogenic amines content. Furthermore, it is noted that biogenic amine content found in final wines was very low. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Solid-phase synthesis of 3-amino-2-pyrazolines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John

    1998-01-01

    The development of a solid-phase synthesis of 3-amino-2-pyrazolines is described. Conjugate addition of hydrazines to alpha,beta-unsaturated nitriles followed by cyclization yields 3-amino-2-pyrazolines. Acylation or sulfonation of the free amino-group yields a 24 member library of 3-amino-2...

  9. Postprandial fate of amino acids: adaptation to molecular forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolles, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    During the postprandial phase dietary proteins are digested to peptides and amino acids and absorbed. Once absorbed the peptides are further hydrolyzed to amino acids and transported to the tissues. These amino acids are largely incorporated into body proteins. Not all amino acids are, however,

  10. Propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2002-01-01

    Alcohol is the most common cause of liver disease in the Western world today. Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any efficacy in patients with alcoholic liver disease.......Alcohol is the most common cause of liver disease in the Western world today. Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any efficacy in patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  11. On monitoring unrecorded alcohol consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Rehm, Jürgen; Poznyak, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Unrecorded alcohol consumption is a global problem, with about 25% of all alcohol consumption concerning this category. There are different forms of unrecorded alcohol, legally produced versus illegally produced, artisanal vs industrially produced, and then surrogate alcohol, which is officially not intended for human consumption. Monitoring and surveillance of unrecorded consumption is not well developed. The World Health Organization has developed a monitoring system, using the Nominal Grou...

  12. Alcohol myopia and goal commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Sevincer, A. Timur; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    According to alcohol myopia theory, acute alcohol consumption leads people to disproportionally focus on the salient rather than the peripheral aspects of a situation. We summarize various studies exploring how myopic processes resulting from acute alcohol intake affect goal commitment. After consuming alcohol student participants felt strongly committed to an important personal goal even though they had low expectations of successfully attaining the goal. However, once intoxicated participan...

  13. Amino acid "little Big Bang": Representing amino acid substitution matrices as dot products of Euclidian vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann Karel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence comparisons make use of a one-letter representation for amino acids, the necessary quantitative information being supplied by the substitution matrices. This paper deals with the problem of finding a representation that provides a comprehensive description of amino acid intrinsic properties consistent with the substitution matrices. Results We present a Euclidian vector representation of the amino acids, obtained by the singular value decomposition of the substitution matrices. The substitution matrix entries correspond to the dot product of amino acid vectors. We apply this vector encoding to the study of the relative importance of various amino acid physicochemical properties upon the substitution matrices. We also characterize and compare the PAM and BLOSUM series substitution matrices. Conclusions This vector encoding introduces a Euclidian metric in the amino acid space, consistent with substitution matrices. Such a numerical description of the amino acid is useful when intrinsic properties of amino acids are necessary, for instance, building sequence profiles or finding consensus sequences, using machine learning algorithms such as Support Vector Machine and Neural Networks algorithms.

  14. Amino acid "little Big Bang": representing amino acid substitution matrices as dot products of Euclidian vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Karel; Gibrat, Jean-François

    2010-01-04

    Sequence comparisons make use of a one-letter representation for amino acids, the necessary quantitative information being supplied by the substitution matrices. This paper deals with the problem of finding a representation that provides a comprehensive description of amino acid intrinsic properties consistent with the substitution matrices. We present a Euclidian vector representation of the amino acids, obtained by the singular value decomposition of the substitution matrices. The substitution matrix entries correspond to the dot product of amino acid vectors. We apply this vector encoding to the study of the relative importance of various amino acid physicochemical properties upon the substitution matrices. We also characterize and compare the PAM and BLOSUM series substitution matrices. This vector encoding introduces a Euclidian metric in the amino acid space, consistent with substitution matrices. Such a numerical description of the amino acid is useful when intrinsic properties of amino acids are necessary, for instance, building sequence profiles or finding consensus sequences, using machine learning algorithms such as Support Vector Machine and Neural Networks algorithms.

  15. Synthesis of L-2-amino-8-oxodecanoic acid: an amino acid component of apicidins

    OpenAIRE

    Linares de la Morena, María Lourdes; Agejas Chicharro, Francisco Javier; Alajarín Ferrández, Ramón; Vaquero López, Juan José; Álvarez-Builla Gómez, Julio

    2001-01-01

    The synthesis Of L-2-amino-8-oxodecanoic acid (Aoda) is described. This is a rare amino acid component of apicidins, a family of new cyclic tetrapeptides, inhibitors of histone deacetylase. Aoda was synthesised in seven steps from L-glutamic acid along with some derivatives. Universidad de Alcalá Fundación General de la Universidad de Alcalá FEDER

  16. Alcohol and the Hispanic Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... States, a standard drink is one that contains about 14 grams of pure alcohol, which is found in: »» 12 ounces of beer with 5 percent alcohol content »» 5 ounces of wine with 12 percent alcohol content »» 1.5 ounces ...

  17. Alcoholism: Development, Consequences, and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Nada J.; Heinemann, M. Edith

    This book is intended to contribute to the theoretical knowledge of alcoholism workers so that the needs of people with alcohol related problems may be met with greater understanding. Contributors to the book represent a variety of disciplines and address a broad spectrum of topics. Part One deals with developmental perspectives of alcoholism,…

  18. Ionotropic excitatory amino acid receptor ligands. Synthesis and pharmacology of a new amino acid AMPA antagonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, U; Sløk, F A; Stensbøl, T B

    2000-01-01

    We have previously described the potent and selective (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptor agonist, (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-carboxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (ACPA), and the AMPA receptor antagonist (RS)-2-amino-3-[3-(carboxymethoxy)-5-methyl-4...... excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors using receptor binding and electrophysiological techniques, and for activity at metabotropic EAA receptors using second messenger assays. Compounds 1 and 4 were essentially inactive. (RS)-2-Amino-3-[3-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl]propionic acid (ACMP, 2......-isoxazolyl]propionic acid (AMOA). Using these AMPA receptor ligands as leads, a series of compounds have been developed as tools for further elucidation of the structural requirements for activation and blockade of AMPA receptors. The synthesized compounds have been tested for activity at ionotropic...

  19. Poly(furfuryl alcohol)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper describes a facile hydrothermal approach to the large-scale synthesis of well-dispersed poly(furfuryl alcohol) (PFA) nanospheres with an average diameter of 350 nm in the presence of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP). Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies showed that ...

  20. Alcohol - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... XYZ List of All Topics All Alcohol - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated on 16 April 2018

  1. Alcohol and retinoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crabb, D.W.; Pinairs, J.; Hasanadka, R.

    2001-01-01

    , M. Fang, and David W. Crabb; (2) Alcohol, vitamin A, and beta-carotene: Adverse interactions, by M. A. Leo and Charles S. Lieber; (3) Retinoic acid, hepatic stellate cells, and Kupffer cells, by Hidekazu Tsukamoto, K. Motomura, T. Miyahara, and M. Ohata; (4) Retinoid storage and metabolism in liver...

  2. Fermentative Alcohol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martín, Mariano; Sánchez, Antonio; Woodley, John M.

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter we present some of key principles of bioreactor design for the production of alcohols by fermentation of sugar and syngas . Due to the different feedstocks, a detailed analysis of the hydrodynamics inside the units , bubble columns or stirred tank reactors , the gas-liquid mass...

  3. Alcohol en verkeersveiligheid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SWOV

    1967-01-01

    A review is given on the participation in traffic by consumers of alcoholic beverages and tbe number of "drunken accidents". The investigations and results of these are endorsed with critical comments. A survey is given of the measures that have been and are being considered. The most important

  4. Drugs, Alcohol & Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Christina

    Expectant parents are introduced to the effects of a variety of drugs on the unborn baby. Material is divided into seven sections. Section 1 deals with the most frequently used recreational drugs, including alcohol, marijuana, narcotics, depressants, stimulants, inhalants, and hallucinogens. Sections 2 and 3 focus on the effects of prescription…

  5. Alcohol and Traffic Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Frances Baker, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Seven papers discuss current issues and applied social research concerning alcohol traffic safety. Prevention, policy input, methodology, planning strategies, anti-drinking/driving programs, social-programmatic orientations of Mothers Against Drunk Driving, Kansas Driving Under the Influence Law, New Jersey Driving While Impaired Programs,…

  6. Control over the color transition behavior of polydiacetylene vesicles using different alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanatornchai, Thanutpon; Charoenthai, Nipaphat; Wacharasindhu, Sumrit; Sukwattanasinitt, Mongkol; Traiphol, Rakchart

    2013-02-01

    In this contribution, we investigate the color transition behavior of polydiacetylene (PDA) vesicles upon exposure to different chemical stimuli. A series of linear and branched alcohols are used as model additives, allowing systematic control of their molecular shape and polarity. The PDA vesicles are fabricated by using three monomers, 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA), 10,12-tricosadyinoic acid (TCDA), and N-(2-amino ethyl)pentacosa-10,12-dyinamide (AEPCDA). When a series of linear alcohols is used, the longer alcohol length causes color transition of all PDA vesicles. In this system, the penetration of linear alcohols into the inner layer of PDA vesicles is dictated by their polarity. The change of -OH position within the alcohol molecule also affects the degree of penetration. It requires a higher amount of the 2-propanol to induce color transitions of the PDAs compared to that of the 1-propanol. The addition of methyl branches into the hydrophobic tail of alcohols causes an increase in steric effect, which hinders the penetration as well. When the 2,2-dimethyl-1-propanol is used as a stimulus, the color transition of PDAs occurs at much higher alcohol concentration compared to 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 1-pentanol. The variation of PDA structures also affects their ability to interact with the alcohols. The modified head group of poly(AEPCDA) promotes the ability to distinguish between 1-propanol and 2-propanol or 1-propanol and ethanol. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cometary Amino Acids from the STARDUST Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie Elsila

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81 P/WiId 2 to Earth in January 2006. Examinations of the organic compounds in cometary samples can reveal information about the prebiotic organic inventory present on the early Earth and within the early Solar System, which may have contributed to the origin of life. Preliminary studies of Stardust material revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds (cometary vs. terrestrial contamination) could not be identified. We have recently measured the carbon isotopic ratios of these amino acids to determine their origin, leading to the first detection of a cometary amino acid.

  8. Polymerization of amino acids containing nucleotide bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Cheikh, Azzouz; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1990-01-01

    The nucleoamino acids 1-(3'-amino,3'-carboxypropyl)uracil (3) and 9-(3'-amino,3'-carboxypropyl)adenine (4) have been prepared as (L)-en-antiomers and as racemic mixtures. When 3 or 4 is suspended in water and treated with N,N'-carbon-yldiimidazole, peptides are formed in good yield. The products formed from the (L)-enantiomers are hydrolyzed to the monomeric amino acids by pronase. Attempts to improve the efficiency of these oligomerizations by including a polyuridylate template in the reaction mixture were not successful. Similarly, oligomers derived from the (L)-enantiomer of 3 did not act as templates to facilitate the oligomerization of 4.

  9. Protein Design Using Unnatural Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgiçer, Basar; Kumar, Krishna

    2003-11-01

    With the increasing availability of whole organism genome sequences, understanding protein structure and function is of capital importance. Recent developments in the methodology of incorporation of unnatural amino acids into proteins allow the exploration of proteins at a very detailed level. Furthermore, de novo design of novel protein structures and function is feasible with unprecedented sophistication. Using examples from the literature, this article describes the available methods for unnatural amino acid incorporation and highlights some recent applications including the design of hyperstable protein folds.

  10. Large neutral amino acids in daily practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Kirsten Kiær

    2010-01-01

    At the Kennedy Centre for Phenylketonuria, Denmark, large neutral amino acids (LNAAs) are being used to treat adult and adolescent patients who are nonadherent to dietary treatment for phenylketonuria (PKU). At the start of treatment, a patient must undergo dietary analysis and regular blood...... sampling to measure plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations. The aim of this analysis and treatment is that the patient receives 25-30% of the daily protein requirement from LNAA supplementation and the remaining 70-75% from natural, low-phenylalanine proteins (although some patients have difficulties...

  11. Indigenous Amino Acids in Iron Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, J. E.; Dworkin, J. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Johnson, N. M.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the organic content of meteorites and the potential delivery of molecules relevant to the origin of life on Earth is an important area of study in astrobiology. There have been many studies of meteoritic organics, with much focus on amino acids as monomers of proteins and enzymes essential to terrestrial life. The majority of these studies have involved analysis of carbonaceous chondrites, primitive meteorites containing approx. 3-5 wt% carbon. Amino acids have been observed in varying abundances and distributions in representatives of all eight carbonaceous chondrite groups, as well as in ungrouped carbonaceous chondrites, ordinary and R chondrites, ureilites, and planetary achondrites [1 and references therein].

  12. Unusual Amino Acids in Medicinal Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaskovich, Mark A T

    2016-12-22

    Unusual amino acids are fundamental building blocks of modern medicinal chemistry. The combination of readily functionalized amine and carboxyl groups attached to a chiral central core along with one or two potentially diverse side chains provides a unique three-dimensional structure with a high degree of functionality. This makes them invaluable as starting materials for syntheses of complex molecules, highly diverse elements for SAR campaigns, integral components of peptidomimetic drugs, and potential drugs on their own. This Perspective highlights the diversity of unnatural amino acid structures found in hit-to-lead and lead optimization campaigns and clinical stage and approved drugs, reflecting their increasingly important role in medicinal chemistry.

  13. 2-Amino-5-bromopyridinium hydrogen succinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong-Kun Fun

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C5H6BrN2+·C4H5O4−, the pyridine N atom of the 2-amino-5-bromopyridine molecule is protonated. The protonated N atom and the amino group are linked via N—H...O hydrogen bonds to the carboxylate O atoms of the singly deprotonated succinate anion. The hydrogen succinate anions are linked via O—H...O hydrogen bonds. A weak intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bond is also observed.

  14. Stability of trapped electrons in thermally modified alcohol-alcohol and alcohol-water glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlebosz, G.; Kalecinski, J.

    1996-01-01

    Absorption spectra of e t - , DTA and dielectric losses measurements of frozen irradiated matrices of different composition of alcohol-water and alcohol-alcohol have been studied as a function of temperature. In ethylene glycol-water and glycerol-water systems irregularity of e t - decay might be caused by inhomogeneity of the glasses. (author)

  15. 76 FR 17140 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; RFA-AA-11-02 Alcohol Induced Metabolic and Hepatic...: Philippe Marmillot, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism...

  16. Ethanol up-regulates nucleus accumbens neuronal activity dependent pentraxin (Narp): implications for alcohol-induced behavioral plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ary, Alexis W; Cozzoli, Debra K; Finn, Deborah A; Crabbe, John C; Dehoff, Marlin H; Worley, Paul F; Szumlinski, Karen K

    2012-06-01

    Neuronal activity dependent pentraxin (Narp) interacts with α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) glutamate receptors to facilitate excitatory synapse formation by aggregating them at established synapses. Alcohol is well-characterized to influence central glutamatergic transmission, including AMPA receptor function. Herein, we examined the influence of injected and ingested alcohol upon Narp protein expression, as well as basal Narp expression in mouse lines selectively bred for high blood alcohol concentrations under limited access conditions. Alcohol up-regulated accumbens Narp levels, concomitant with increases in levels of the GluR1 AMPA receptor subunit. However, accumbens Narp or GluR1 levels did not vary as a function of selectively bred genotype. We next employed a Narp knock-out (KO) strategy to begin to understand the behavioral relevance of alcohol-induced changes in protein expression in several assays of alcohol reward. Compared to wild-type mice, Narp KO animals: fail to escalate daily intake of high alcohol concentrations under free-access conditions; shift their preference away from high alcohol concentrations with repeated alcohol experience; exhibit a conditioned place-aversion in response to the repeated pairing of 3 g/kg alcohol with a distinct environment and fail to exhibit alcohol-induced locomotor hyperactivity following repeated alcohol treatment. Narp deletion did not influence the daily intake of either food or water, nor did it alter any aspect of spontaneous or alcohol-induced motor activity, including the development of tolerance to its motor-impairing effects with repeated treatment. Taken together, these data indicate that Narp induction, and presumably subsequent aggregation of AMPA receptors, may be important for neuroplasticity within limbic subcircuits mediating or maintaining the rewarding properties of alcohol. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Highly efficient and generalized asymmetric synthesis of quaternary stereogenic carbon-containing β-amino indanones/indanoles via Mannich-type additions between 1-indanones and N-tert-butanesulfinylketimines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingmin; Xie, Chen; Mei, Haibo; Soloshonok, Vadim A; Han, Jianlin; Pan, Yi

    2014-07-14

    Here we report that, unlike other ketones, 1-indanone and acetophenone derived enolates undergo Mannich-type addition reactions with N-tert-butanesulfinyl ketimines with excellent yields (up to 98%) and diastereoselectivity (>99/1). The resulting compounds represent a new type of biologically relevant β-aminoketone derivative bearing quaternary stereogenic carbon, which could be further converted into the corresponding β-amino ketones and β-amino alcohols, possessing three consecutive stereogenic centres.

  18. Preoperative alcoholism and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonnesen, H; Kehlet, H

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preoperative risk assessment has become part of daily clinical practice, but preoperative alcohol abuse has not received much attention. METHODS: A Medline search was carried out to identify original papers published from 1967 to 1998. Relevant articles on postoperative morbidity...... in alcohol abusers were used to evaluate the evidence. RESULTS: Prospective and retrospective studies demonstrate a twofold to threefold increase in postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, the most frequent complications being infections, bleeding and cardiopulmonary insufficiency. Wound complications...... to postoperative morbidity. CONCLUSION: Alcohol consumption should be included in the preoperative assessment of likely postoperative outcome. Reduction of postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers may include preoperative alcohol abstinence to improve organ function, or perioperative alcohol administration...

  19. Regional amino acid transport into brain during diabetes: Effect of plasma amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mans, A.M.; DeJoseph, M.R.; Davis, D.W.; Hawkins, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Transport of phenylalanine and lysine into the brain was measured in 4-wk streptozotocin-diabetic rats to assess the effect on the neutral and basic amino acid transport systems at the blood-brain barrier. Amino acid concentrations in plasma and brain were also measured. Regional permeability-times-surface area (PS) products and influx were determined using a continuous infusion method and quantitative autoradiography. The PS of phenylalanine was decreased by an average of 40% throughout the entire brain. Influx was depressed by 35%. The PS of lysine was increased by an average of 44%, but the influx was decreased by 27%. Several plasma neutral amino acids (branched chain) were increased, whereas all basic amino acids were decreased. Brain tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, methionine, and lysine contents were markedly decreased. The transport changes were almost entirely accounted for by the alterations in the concentrations of the plasma amino acids that compete for the neutral and basic amino acid carriers. The reduced influx could be responsible for the low brain content of some essential amino acids, with possibly deleterious consequences for brain functions

  20. Exposure to alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption among Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C; Magee, Christopher A

    2011-01-01

    Underage drinking is a major problem in Australia and may be influenced by exposure to alcohol advertising. The objective of the present study was to collect data on 12-17 year old Australian adolescents' exposure to different types of alcohol advertising and examine the association between exposure to advertising and alcohol consumption. A cross-sectional survey of 1113 adolescents aged 12-17 years recruited with a variety of methods to gain a cross-section of participants across metropolitan, regional and rural New South Wales (including independent schools, mall intercepts and online). Participants answered a series of questions assessing adolescents' exposure to alcohol advertising across eight media (including television, Internet and point-of-sale). Alcohol consumption was assessed using three questions (initiation, recent consumption and frequency of consumption in the previous 12 months). The majority indicated that they had been exposed to alcohol advertisements on television, in newspapers and magazines, on the Internet, on billboards/posters and promotional materials and in bottleshops, bars and pubs; exposure to some of these types of alcohol advertisements was associated with increased alcohol consumption, with differences by age and gender. The results are consistent with studies from other countries and suggest that exposure to alcohol advertisements among Australian adolescents is strongly associated with drinking patterns. Given current high levels of drinking among Australian youth, these findings suggest the need to address the high levels of young people's exposure to alcohol advertising.

  1. Excitatory amino acid receptors and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, B S

    1992-08-01

    Recent advances in the molecular biology of excitatory amino acid receptors are reviewed. Evidence that drugs blocking the excitatory action of glutamate at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA receptors may be of clinical use in epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, cerebral ischaemia and trauma, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) encephalopathy and neuropathic pain is summarized.

  2. Intestinal metabolism of sulfur amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is a metabolically significant site of sulfur amino acid (SAA) metabolism in the body and metabolizes approx. 20% of the dietary methionine intake that is mainly transmethylated to homocysteine and transsulfurated to cysteine. The GIT accounts for approx. 25% of the ...

  3. Optimization of short amino acid sequences classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcz, Aleksy; Szymański, Zbigniew

    This article describes processing methods used for short amino acid sequences classification. The data processed are 9-symbols string representations of amino acid sequences, divided into 49 data sets - each one containing samples labeled as reacting or not with given enzyme. The goal of the classification is to determine for a single enzyme, whether an amino acid sequence would react with it or not. Each data set is processed separately. Feature selection is performed to reduce the number of dimensions for each data set. The method used for feature selection consists of two phases. During the first phase, significant positions are selected using Classification and Regression Trees. Afterwards, symbols appearing at the selected positions are substituted with numeric values of amino acid properties taken from the AAindex database. In the second phase the new set of features is reduced using a correlation-based ranking formula and Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization. Finally, the preprocessed data is used for training LS-SVM classifiers. SPDE, an evolutionary algorithm, is used to obtain optimal hyperparameters for the LS-SVM classifier, such as error penalty parameter C and kernel-specific hyperparameters. A simple score penalty is used to adapt the SPDE algorithm to the task of selecting classifiers with best performance measures values.

  4. Isotachophoresis. The separation of amino acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaerts, F.M.; Put, van der A.J.M.

    1970-01-01

    There are several instrumental methods of analysis available for amino acids. The most important ones are ion-exchange chromatography (Stein and Moore), gas chromatography and paper chromatography. These techniques all have various disadvantages; the time for analysis may be long or the sample

  5. Amino Acid Interaction (INTAA) web server.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgonek, Jakub; Vymetal, Jirí; Jakubec, David; Vondrášek, Jirí

    2017-07-03

    Large biomolecules-proteins and nucleic acids-are composed of building blocks which define their identity, properties and binding capabilities. In order to shed light on the energetic side of interactions of amino acids between themselves and with deoxyribonucleotides, we present the Amino Acid Interaction web server (http://bioinfo.uochb.cas.cz/INTAA/). INTAA offers the calculation of the residue Interaction Energy Matrix for any protein structure (deposited in Protein Data Bank or submitted by the user) and a comprehensive analysis of the interfaces in protein-DNA complexes. The Interaction Energy Matrix web application aims to identify key residues within protein structures which contribute significantly to the stability of the protein. The application provides an interactive user interface enhanced by 3D structure viewer for efficient visualization of pairwise and net interaction energies of individual amino acids, side chains and backbones. The protein-DNA interaction analysis part of the web server allows the user to view the relative abundance of various configurations of amino acid-deoxyribonucleotide pairs found at the protein-DNA interface and the interaction energies corresponding to these configurations calculated using a molecular mechanical force field. The effects of the sugar-phosphate moiety and of the dielectric properties of the solvent on the interaction energies can be studied for the various configurations. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. cobaloxime by imidazoles and amino acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    to replicate them in experimental model systems with ... Axial ligation kinetics was monitored .... A trans influence study in propyl (aquo)cobaloxime by imidazoles and amino acids. 307 .... unfilled π* anti-bonding orbitals through dπ–pπ back-.

  7. SHORT COMMUNICATION DETERMINATION OF AMINO ACIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    ABSTRACT. Royal jelly (RJ) is popular among consumers around the world due to its perceived health benefits. The purpose of this study was to assess the levels of free and total amino acid profile as well as protein content in order to characterize Bulgarian RJ samples. A total of 17 fresh and commercial RJ samples from.

  8. Treatment of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of amino acids. Babies with TYR I may need vitamin D, a vitamin that can help babies who ... Rickets is a condition in which too little vitamin D causes a child’s bones to be ... condition, he may need to take certain medicines. For example: Babies with ...

  9. Amino acid metabolism of Lemna minor L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, D.; Rich, P.J.; Brunk, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    A serious limitation to the use of N(O,S)-heptafluorobutyryl isobutyl amino acid derivatives in the analysis of 15 N-labeling kinetics of amino acids in plant tissues, is that the amides glutamine and asparagine undergo acid hydrolysis to glutamate and aspartate, respectively, during derivatization. This led us to consider an alternative procedure for derivatization of glutamine and asparagine with N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide in pyridine. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry yielded fragment ions (M-57) of mass 417 and 431 for the [ 14 N]asparagine and [ 14 N]glutamine derivatives, respectively, suitable for monitoring unlabeled, single- 15 N- and double- 15 N-labeled amide species from the ion clusters at mass to charge ratio (m/z) 415 to 423 for asparagine, and m/z 429 to 437 for glutamine. From separate analyses of the specific isotope abundance of the amino-N groups of asparagine and glutamine as their N-heptafluorobutyryl isobutyl derivatives, the specific amide-[ 15 N] abundance of these amino acids was determined

  10. Present Global Situation of Amino Acids in Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonouchi, Naoto; Ito, Hisao

    At present, amino acids are widely produced and utilized industrially. Initially, monosodium glutamate (MSG) was produced by extraction from a gluten hydrolysate. The amino acid industry started using the residual of the lysate. The discovery of the functions of amino acids has led to the expansion of their field of use. In addition to seasoning and other food use, amino acids are used in many fields such as animal nutrients, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. On the other hand, the invention of the glutamate fermentation process, followed by the development of fermentation methods for many other amino acids, is no less important. The supply of these amino acids at a low price is very essential for their industrial use. Most amino acids are now produced by fermentation. The consumption of many amino acids such as MSG or feed-use amino acids is still rapidly increasing.

  11. Amino acid code of protein secondary structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shestopalov, B V

    2003-01-01

    The calculation of protein three-dimensional structure from the amino acid sequence is a fundamental problem to be solved. This paper presents principles of the code theory of protein secondary structure, and their consequence--the amino acid code of protein secondary structure. The doublet code model of protein secondary structure, developed earlier by the author (Shestopalov, 1990), is part of this theory. The theory basis are: 1) the name secondary structure is assigned to the conformation, stabilized only by the nearest (intraresidual) and middle-range (at a distance no more than that between residues i and i + 5) interactions; 2) the secondary structure consists of regular (alpha-helical and beta-structural) and irregular (coil) segments; 3) the alpha-helices, beta-strands and coil segments are encoded, respectively, by residue pairs (i, i + 4), (i, i + 2), (i, i = 1), according to the numbers of residues per period, 3.6, 2, 1; 4) all such pairs in the amino acid sequence are codons for elementary structural elements, or structurons; 5) the codons are divided into 21 types depending on their strength, i.e. their encoding capability; 6) overlappings of structurons of one and the same structure generate the longer segments of this structure; 7) overlapping of structurons of different structures is forbidden, and therefore selection of codons is required, the codon selection is hierarchic; 8) the code theory of protein secondary structure generates six variants of the amino acid code of protein secondary structure. There are two possible kinds of model construction based on the theory: the physical one using physical properties of amino acid residues, and the statistical one using results of statistical analysis of a great body of structural data. Some evident consequences of the theory are: a) the theory can be used for calculating the secondary structure from the amino acid sequence as a partial solution of the problem of calculation of protein three

  12. Dry alcohol production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There is no waste in the process, neither gaseous, nor liquid. The chosen process provides safe operation according to temperature regime and resistance in the pipes, air purification columns and filters. Working at increased pressure is suitable for evaporation and condensation at increased temperatures. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  13. Alcohol advertising and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2002-04-01

    Considerable research now exists that the media may exert a powerful influence on adolescents' drug-taking behavior. Teens view an average of 2,000 beer and wine ads per year in the US. In addition, television shows, movies, and music videos contain considerable amounts of alcohol use. This article will discuss the available research and offers suggestions to make the media healthier for teenagers.

  14. Genetics, systems, and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClearn, G E

    1993-03-01

    Under a variety of rubrics (e.g., complexity, self-constructing systems, dissipative structures), interest has recently burgeoned in applying principles of complex systems to a wide variety of scientific issues. A major concern is with emergent properties of systems not derivable from the properties of components of the systems. In this paper, some elementary aspects of "systems" considerations are applied to phenomena of alcohol pharmacogenetics. It is likely that whole new families of informative phenotypes can be generated by this approach.

  15. Alcohol induced osteopenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, E.; Bremer, G.; Franck, H.

    1986-01-01

    There is a clear evidence of a propensity to fractures and the development of osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and mixed forms in chronic alcoholics. Osteomalacia is associated with impaired vitamin D status, probably due to enzyme induction in liver and kidney and development of a secondary intestinal hyperparathyroidism. The development of osteoporosis is multifactorial, but seems to arise mainly through reduction in bone formation and reduced dietary protein and calcium intake. Low testosterone levels may also contribute to osteoporosis. (orig.) [de

  16. Alcohol induced osteopenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keck, E.; Bremer, G.; Franck, H.

    1986-12-01

    There is a clear evidence of a propensity to fractures and the development of osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and mixed forms in chronic alcoholics. Osteomalacia is associated with impaired vitamin D status, probably due to enzyme induction in liver and kidney and development of a secondary intestinal hyperparathyroidism. The development of osteoporosis is multifactorial, but seems to arise mainly through reduction in bone formation and reduced dietary protein and calcium intake. Low testosterone levels may also contribute to osteoporosis.

  17. Effects of simple rain-shelter cultivation on fatty acid and amino acid accumulation in 'Chardonnay' grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Nan; Ren, Zhi-Yuan; Yang, Xiao-Fan; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2018-02-01

    Fatty acids and amino acids are the precursors of aliphatic and aromatic volatile compounds, higher alcohols and esters. They are also nutrition for yeast metabolism during fermentation. However, few reports have been concerned about the effect of viticulture practices on the accumulation of fatty acids and amino acids in wine grapes. This study aimed to explore the accumulation of these compounds in developing Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay grape berries under two vintages, and compare the influences of the rain-shelter cultivation and open-field cultivation. Fifteen fatty acids and 21 amino acids were detected in total. The rain-shelter cultivation led to an increase in the total concentration of fatty acids, and a decrease in the total concentration of amino acids compared with the open-field cultivation in 2012, while no significant difference was observed between two cultivation modes in 2013 vintage. Concentrations of palmitoleic acid, isoleucine and cysteine were significantly promoted in the rain-shelter grape berries, whereas those of tyrosine and ornithine were markedly reduced in both vintages. The rain-shelter cultivation of wine grapes in the rainy region is beneficial for improving grape quality and fermentation activity by influence on the concentration of fatty acids and amino acids. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Alcoholic Hepatitis Markedly Decreases the Capacity for Urea Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Glavind

    Full Text Available Data on quantitative metabolic liver functions in the life-threatening disease alcoholic hepatitis are scarce. Urea synthesis is an essential metabolic liver function that plays a key regulatory role in nitrogen homeostasis. The urea synthesis capacity decreases in patients with compromised liver function, whereas it increases in patients with inflammation. Alcoholic hepatitis involves both mechanisms, but how these opposite effects are balanced remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate how alcoholic hepatitis affects the capacity for urea synthesis. We related these findings to another measure of metabolic liver function, the galactose elimination capacity (GEC, as well as to clinical disease severity.We included 20 patients with alcoholic hepatitis and 7 healthy controls. The urea synthesis capacity was quantified by the functional hepatic nitrogen clearance (FHNC, i.e., the slope of the linear relationship between the blood α-amino nitrogen concentration and urea nitrogen synthesis rate during alanine infusion. The GEC was determined using blood concentration decay curves after intravenous bolus injection of galactose. Clinical disease severity was assessed by the Glasgow Alcoholic Hepatitis Score and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD score.The FHNC was markedly decreased in the alcoholic hepatitis patients compared with the healthy controls (7.2±4.9 L/h vs. 37.4±6.8 L/h, P<0.01, and the largest decrease was observed in those with severe alcoholic hepatitis (4.9±3.6 L/h vs. 9.9±4.9 L/h, P<0.05. The GEC was less markedly reduced than the FHNC. A negative correlation was detected between the FHNC and MELD score (rho = -0.49, P<0.05.Alcoholic hepatitis markedly decreases the urea synthesis capacity. This decrease is associated with an increase in clinical disease severity. Thus, the metabolic failure in alcoholic hepatitis prevails such that the liver cannot adequately perform the metabolic up-regulation observed in other stressful

  19. Kinetic and modelling studies of NAD+ and poly(ethylene glycol)-bound NAD+ in horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhommerig, S.A.M.; Sluyterman, L.A.A.E.; Meijer, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol)-bound nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (PEG-NAD+) has been successfully employed in the continuous production of L-amino acids from the corresponding alpha-keto acids by stereospecific reductive amination. Like many other dehydrogenases also horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase

  20. [Nationwide survey of alcohol drinking and alcoholism among Japanese adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Yoneatsu; Matsushita, Sachio; Shirasaka, Tomonobu; Hiro, Hisanori; Higuchi, Susumu

    2005-10-01

    To investigate the characteristics of alcohol use among Japanese adults and prevalence of alcohol dependence in Japan, we conducted a nationwide survey on alcohol drinking behavior and alcohol dependence among Japanese adults using a representative sampling method. We sampled 3500 adults from throughout the entire country using a stratified random sampling method with two-step stratification, and carried out a home visit interview survey. A total of 2547 people (72.8%) responded to the survey. The survey period was June, 2003. The questionnaire contained questions about the frequency and quantity of alcohol use, 'hazardous use of alcohol' and 'alcohol dependence' according to the ICD-10 definition, several screening scales on problem use of alcohol (CAGE, KAST, AUDIT), life-time prevalence of 24 alcohol related diseases, smoking status, dysgryphia, and nightcap drinking. The number of respondents was, 1184 males, and 1363 females. Lifetime alcohol drinking, and weekly drinking, and daily drinking rates were 95.1%, 64.4%, and 36.2% for males, 79.0%, 27.5%, and 7.5% for females, respectively. Average daily alcohol consumption was 3.7 units for males, and 2.0 units for females (1 unit = 10 g pure alcohol). The proportion of drinkers who drank alcohol 4 units or more daily was 28.9% for males, and 7.6% for females, and that for 6 units or more was 12.7% for males, and 3.4% for females. The proportion of flasher was 41.2% for males, and 35.0% for females. Among screening questions, problem drinking was most frequently identified using AUDIT (score 12 points or more, 150 persons), followed by KAST (2 points or more, 100 persons) and CAGE (2 points or more, 98 persons). The number of subjects who met the ICD-10 criteria for alcohol dependence was 24, while the number who engaged in hazardous alcohol use was 64. This study revealed that problem drinking and alcohol dependence are a serious problem in Japanese general population. The problem of females drinking may be

  1. [Non alcoholic steatohepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manero, E; Findor, J A; Avagnina, A; de Elizalde, S; Elsner, B

    1994-01-01

    A prospective study of 21 patients with the diagnosis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was carried out. All patients had hepatomegaly and in 10 (48%) image studies were consistent with steatosis and/or fibrosis. Biochemically, there was increase of AST, ALT and cholesterol in 48%, of GGT in 52% and of alkaline phosphatase in 38%. 18 patients were obese, 2 of them diabetic, 2 others had a history of exposure to drugs (amiodarone and isopropilic alcohol) and the last one presented hypothyroidism. Liver biopsies were studied using a semiquantitative scale to evaluate the degree of steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis in a scale from 1 to 3. Results showed a medium score of 2.6 for steatosis, 1.5 for inflammation and 1.8 for fibrosis. Four patients had cirrhosis and Mallory bodies were found in 11 cases (52%). NASH is an oligosymptomatic disease that can be found in different clinical conditions, mainly obesity, and is more frequent in women. It is histologically indistinguishable from alcoholic steatohepatitis. It is frequently underdiagnosed clinically and must be taken into account as a possible cause of cryptogenetic cirrhosis.

  2. [DGRW update: alcohol addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelgesang, M

    2011-10-01

    First, epidemiological data and socioeconomic consequences of alcohol addiction are summarized. Research findings, in particular in intervention and evaluation, from 2009-2011 in the field of alcohol addiction treatment are then discussed concerning their relevance for rehabilitation practice. The search was based on PubMed and PSYNDEX. The interventions most frequently evaluated and found most effective in alcohol addiction treatment are cognitive-behavioural interventions. Further topics dealt with are: pharmacological relapse prevention; technologically based therapies (e. g. e-therapy); systemic interventions; 12-steps; effectiveness of addiction treatment as confirmed in large-scale catamnestic studies; treatment of addiction and comorbidity; various subgroups (like elderly people and women); as well as other new and interesting developments such as rehab case management, dovetailing of medical and vocational interventions, stepped-care interventions, rehab management category groups as well as a new focus on individual treatment experiences and the pre-eminence of the therapeutic relationship. Finally, priority areas of future research are described. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Varenicline Reduces Alcohol Intake During Repeated Cycles of Alcohol Reaccess Following Deprivation in Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Janice C; Nicholson, Emily R; Dilley, Julian E; Filosa, Nick J; Rademacher, Logan C; Smith, Teal N

    2017-08-01

    Most alcoholics experience periods of voluntary alcohol abstinence or imposed alcohol deprivation followed by a return to alcohol drinking. This study examined whether varenicline (VAR) reduces alcohol intake during a return to drinking after periods of alcohol deprivation in rats selectively bred for high alcohol drinking (the alcohol preferring or "P" rats). Alcohol-experienced P rats were given 24-hour access to food and water and scheduled access to alcohol (15% and 30% v/v) for 2 h/d. After 4 weeks, rats were deprived of alcohol for 2 weeks, followed by reaccess to alcohol for 2 weeks, and this pattern was repeated for a total of 3 cycles. Rats were fed either vehicle (VEH) or VAR, in doses of 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg BW, at 1 hour prior to onset of the daily alcohol reaccess period for the first 5 days of each of the 3 alcohol reaccess cycles. Low-dose VAR (0.5 mg/kg BW) reduced alcohol intake during the 5 days of drug treatment in alcohol reaccess cycles 1 and 2. Higher doses of VAR (1.0 mg/kg BW and 2.0 mg/kg BW) reduced alcohol intake during the 5 days of treatment in all 3 alcohol reaccess cycles. The decrease in alcohol intake disappeared with termination of VAR treatment in all alcohol reaccess cycles. The results demonstrate that VAR decreases alcohol intake during multiple cycles of alcohol reaccess following alcohol deprivation in rats and suggests that it may prevent a return to heavy alcohol drinking during a lapse from alcohol abstinence in humans with alcohol use disorder. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. Non-Competitive NMDA Receptor Antagonist Hemantane Reduces Ethanol Consumption in Long-Term Alcohol Experienced Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolik, L G; Nadorova, A V; Seredenin, S B

    2017-12-01

    Activity of hemantane, an amino adamantane derivative, exhibiting the properties of lowaffinity non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, was evaluated in experimental in vivo models of alcoholism. Hemantane had no effects on the formation and manifestation of behavioral sensitization to ethanol in DBA/2 mice. Under conditions of free choice between 10% ethanol and water, hemantane (20 mg/kg/day for 14 days, intraperitoneally) significantly reduced the daily ethanol intake in random-bred male rats with formed alcohol motivation (>4 g/kg of ethanol). During modelling of withdrawal syndrome, hemantane administered intraperitoneally in doses of 5-20 mg/kg dose-dependently attenuated alcohol-deprivation effect after acute withdrawal with no effects on protracted abstinence. It was found that hemantane suppressed alcohol drinking behavior in long-term ethanol experienced rats and attenuated alcohol-seeking behavior after acute withdrawal.

  5. Alcohol in the city: wherever and whenever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xisca Sureda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol urban environment has been associated with individual alcohol behaviors. We are constantly exposed to a wide variety of alcohol products, its marketing and promotion and signs of alcohol consumption that may influence alcohol-drinking behaviors. In this photo-essay, we include photographs that visually explain the exposure to alcohol in the urban streetscape of Madrid. These photographs show the pervasiveness of alcohol products in this city, which can be found everywhere at any time.

  6. A3.5 Unrecorded alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Vital, Clara; Urbano, Cláudia; Balsa, Casimiro; Österberg, Esa

    2016-01-01

    UID/SOC/04647/2013 Drinking alcohol is an important public health problem. It is an even more important problem when there are many different ways of acquiring the substance. The amounts of alcohol acquired from some sources are recorded and published in official alcohol consumption statistics. Alcohol consumption figures may be based on data on alcohol taxation or data from formal off- and on-premise alcohol sales, while other ways of acquiring alcohol go beyond these official statistics,...

  7. Electrochemical and DFT studies of {beta}-amino-alcohols as corrosion inhibitors for brass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Guo [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)]. E-mail: gaogaoguoguo@yahoo.com.cn; Liang, Chenghao [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China); Electromechanics and Materials Engineering College, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026 (China)

    2007-03-20

    The electrochemical performance of 1-diethylamino-propan-2-ol (EAP) and 1,3-bis-diethylamino-propan-2-ol (DEAP) for brass in simulated atmospheric water is evaluated by potentiodynamic curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The experimental results show that the investigated compounds, which can effectively retard the anodic dissolution of brass, are anodic inhibitors. Furthermore, the inhibition efficiency of DEAP is higher than that of EAP at the same concentration. This observation is supported by density functional theoretical (DFT) parameters such as the highest occupied molecule energy level (E {sub HOMO}), the lowest unoccupied molecule energy level (E {sub LUMO}), the energy difference ({delta}E) between E {sub HOMO} and E {sub LUMO}, Mulliken charges and the HOMO orbital.

  8. Physician's information about alcohol problems at hospitalisation of alcohol misusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Gluud, C

    1992-01-01

    Information was gathered on recognition and treatment of alcohol problems in the primary and secondary health sectors, the latter represented by a department of hepatology. The general practitioner finds in most cases (18/26, 69%) that it is relevant to advise about a patient's alcohol misuse...... on admission forms when the patient previously has been discharged from another department with this diagnosis. However, if the patient has not previously been hospitalised due to alcohol misuse, information on the diagnosis is only rarely (30/114, 26%) available. This difference is highly significant (P = 0.......0001). The case-recording hospital physician at admission recognises 73% of alcohol misusers who are admitted with a non-alcohol-related diagnosis. When the patient had been evaluated by both the admitting physician and the case-recording hospital physician, information on the alcohol problem occurred...

  9. Alcohol and the young child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, D E

    1984-01-01

    With the increasing availability of alcohol in modern times, the child neglect and abuse portrayed in Hogarth's engraving Gin Lane may once again be witnessed. Reports occur occasionally of alcohol being given deliberately to infants to quieten them, but alcohol poisoning in the slightly older child is not uncommon. The introduction of child-proof containers has altered poisoning figures recently. However, alcohol poisoning tends to occur at ages 3 and 4, that is, about 2 years after the peak of all poisonings in children. This difference may be an indication that alcohol is taken in imitation of parents' drinking, a suggestion which has some support from reported cases of mouthwash poisoning. Holidays and high days where children and alcohol mix, are potentially dangerous periods. Since alcohol poisoning can be fatal, yet if recognised is relatively easily managed, every child with the slightest degree of drowsiness should be suspect until proven or not by blood alcohol. The prevention of alcohol poisoning in the young child consists in protecting the alcohol by lock and key, not setting an example by drinking or gargling in front of children. Many substances such as mouthwash and perfume should also be under supervision. Once actual poisoning has occurred blood sugar is probably more important than the level of blood ethanol and blood sugar levels should be monitored frequently and the child treated with glucose, preferably intravenously.

  10. Alcohol and the work place

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service has observed an increase in the number of personnel suffering from alcohol-related problems in recent years, in spite of the implementation of stricter regulations concerning the consumption of alcohol on the site. The causes of alcohol-related problems are often complex and many-faceted. A family history of alcohol abuse can be a cofactor in excessive drinking. The effects on a person's work are not negligible and should not be ignored. "Alcohol and the work place" is the third part of a campaign designed to raise awareness of the risks of alcohol consumption, which has already dealt with "alcohol and health" and "alcohol and road safety".Many employers have taken steps to confront the problem, and CERN launched a campaign to help its employees suffering from alcohol-related problems over ten years ago. A standing SCC sub-group on the prevention of alcoholism has been set up and Operational Circular No. 8, which defines the role and responsibilities of all parties concerned in the m...

  11. [Current peculiarities of alcoholic psychosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksin, D S; Egorov, A Iu

    2011-01-01

    The follow-up study of alcoholic psychoses in male patients admitted to a clinical department of a psychiatric hospital in 2005-2007 was carried out. Patients with alcoholic psychoses made up from 15 to 30% of all patients. The number of psychosis had seasonal variations with the elevations in spring and autumn, peaks in January, lune and October. Alcoholic delirium morbidity made up from 69 to 82% of the total number of alcoholic psychoses, alcoholic hallucinosis varied from 14 to 27%. Other forms were presented by single cases. In alcoholic delirium hallucinations had brighter, sated character. The most specific were visual hallucinations in the form of zoohallucinations, hallucinations of an oral cavity ("sensation of threads, hair etc"). The most often observable characters were "extraneous people, animal, demons". In alcoholic hallucinosis, verbal contrast hallucinations, making comment hallucinations, visual illusions were most frequent. The family history of mental disorders and alcoholism was noted in 30% of patients with alcoholic psychosis. The probability of occurrence of alcoholic psychoses depended on the quality of consumed drinks. The presence of a cranial-brain injury in the anamnesis considerably aggravated the disease forecast and increased the risk of seizure syndrome.

  12. Liver proteomics in progressive alcoholic steatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando, Harshica [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Wiktorowicz, John E.; Soman, Kizhake V. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Khan, M. Firoze [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Shakeel Ansari, G.A., E-mail: sansari@utmb.edu [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Fatty liver is an early stage of alcoholic and nonalcoholic liver disease (ALD and NALD) that progresses to steatohepatitis and other irreversible conditions. In this study, we identified proteins that were differentially expressed in the livers of rats fed 5% ethanol in a Lieber–DeCarli diet daily for 1 and 3 months by discovery proteomics (two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry) and non-parametric modeling (Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines). Hepatic fatty infiltration was significantly higher in ethanol-fed animals as compared to controls, and more pronounced at 3 months of ethanol feeding. Discovery proteomics identified changes in the expression of proteins involved in alcohol, lipid, and amino acid metabolism after ethanol feeding. At 1 and 3 months, 12 and 15 different proteins were differentially expressed. Of the identified proteins, down regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase (− 1.6) at 1 month and up regulation of aldehyde dehydrogenase (2.1) at 3 months could be a protective/adaptive mechanism against ethanol toxicity. In addition, betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase 2 a protein responsible for methionine metabolism and previously implicated in fatty liver development was significantly up regulated (1.4) at ethanol-induced fatty liver stage (1 month) while peroxiredoxin-1 was down regulated (− 1.5) at late fatty liver stage (3 months). Nonparametric analysis of the protein spots yielded fewer proteins and narrowed the list of possible markers and identified D-dopachrome tautomerase (− 1.7, at 3 months) as a possible marker for ethanol-induced early steatohepatitis. The observed differential regulation of proteins have potential to serve as biomarker signature for the detection of steatosis and its progression to steatohepatitis once validated in plasma/serum. -- Graphical abstract: The figure shows the Hierarchial cluster analysis of differentially expressed protein spots obtained after ethanol feeding for 1 (1–3

  13. Regioselective Nucleophilic Ring Opening of Epoxides and Aziridines derived from Homoallylic Alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, David Ackland; Groth, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    The regioselectivity of nucleophilic ring opening of some 3,4-epoxy and 3,4-aziridino alcohols has been studied. The nucleophiles chosen were complex hydrides (LiAlH4, Red-Al and DIBAL) and Lipshutz- or Gilman-type organocuprate reagents. The C-4 substituent in the substrates was varied in order...... to study steric and electronic effects on the ring opening reactions. For alkyl substituents at C-4, most of the results can be explained on the basis of intramolecular delivery of the nucleophile to C-3 via a six-membered transition state, leading to 1,4-diols or 1,4-amino alcohol derivatives. In general......, the epoxy alcohols gave poorer regioselectivity than the N-tosyl aziridino alcohols, for which selectivities of >95:5 were routinely obtained. The activating effect of a phenyl group at C-4 led to a switch in regiochemistry, with the 1,3-diol or 1,3-amino alcohol derivative as the major product. (C) 1997...

  14. The Alcohol Environment Protocol: A new tool for alcohol policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casswell, Sally; Morojele, Neo; Williams, Petal Petersen; Chaiyasong, Surasak; Gordon, Ross; Gray-Philip, Gaile; Viet Cuong, Pham; MacKintosh, Anne-Marie; Halliday, Sharon; Railton, Renee; Randerson, Steve; Parry, Charles D H

    2018-01-04

    To report data on the implementation of alcohol policies regarding availability and marketing, and drink driving, along with ratings of enforcement from two small high-income to three high-middle income countries, and one low-middle income country. This study uses the Alcohol Environment Protocol, an International Alcohol Control study research tool, which documents the alcohol policy environment by standardised collection of data from administrative sources, observational studies and interviews with key informants to allow for cross-country comparison and change over time. All countries showed adoption to varying extents of key effective policy approaches outlined in the World Health Organization Global Strategy to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol (2010). High-income countries were more likely to allocate resources to enforcement. However, where enforcement and implementation were high, policy on availability was fairly liberal. Key Informants judged alcohol to be very available in both high- and middle-income countries, reflecting liberal policy in the former and less implementation and enforcement and informal (unlicensed) sale of alcohol in the latter. Marketing was largely unrestricted in all countries and while drink-driving legislation was in place, it was less well enforced in middle-income countries. In countries with fewer resources, alcohol policies are less effective because of lack of implementation and enforcement and, in the case of marketing, lack of regulation. This has implications for the increase in consumption taking place as a result of the expanding distribution and marketing of commercial alcohol and consequent increases in alcohol-related harm. © 2018 The Authors Drug and Alcohol Review published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  15. Alcohol-specific parenting, adolescent alcohol use and the mediating effect of adolescent alcohol-related cognitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mares, S.H.W.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives : Previous research indicated that alcohol-specific parenting is an important precursor of adolescent alcohol use, but failed to define the underlying mechanism. Based on social cognitive theory, alcohol-related cognitions such as alcohol refusal self-efficacy and alcohol-related

  16. Deracemization of Secondary Alcohols by using a Single Alcohol Dehydrogenase

    KAUST Repository

    Karume, Ibrahim

    2016-03-01

    © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. We developed a single-enzyme-mediated two-step approach for deracemization of secondary alcohols. A single mutant of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus secondary alcohol dehydrogenase enables the nonstereoselective oxidation of racemic alcohols to ketones, followed by a stereoselective reduction process. Varying the amounts of acetone and 2-propanol cosubstrates controls the stereoselectivities of the consecutive oxidation and reduction reactions, respectively. We used one enzyme to accomplish the deracemization of secondary alcohols with up to >99% ee and >99.5% recovery in one pot and without the need to isolate the prochiral ketone intermediate.

  17. Alcohol and malnutrition in the pathogenesis of experimental alcoholic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, M A

    1980-02-01

    In this study, the morphology and the catecholamine levels of the myocardium in both well-nourished and malnourished alcohol-fed rats were examined. Alcohol has been administered to rats for 16 weeks. Rats fed a diet containing alcohol corresponding to 40 per cent. of total calorific intake and inadequate amounts of calories and nutrients developed morphological changes in the heart, while the controls did not. In addition, an increase in cardiac noradrenaline concentration and heart: body weight ratio could be observed. There were no differences in myocardial morphology and catecholamine concentration between well-nourished rats fed alcohol as 35 per cent. of the calorific intake and pair-fed controls. A dispute exists about whether alcohol is directly toxic to the heart or indirectly injurious due to associated dietary deficiency. The present results, taken together, make the theory of cardiotoxicity of alcohol an unlikely one, at least in the case of the rat; and they offer considerable support for the hypothesis that the association between chronic consumption of alcoholic beverages and cardiomyopathy is a result of a primary multifactorial nutritional deficiency, resulting from displacement of nutrient-associated calories by the "empty" calories--devoid of protein, vitamins, and minerals--of alcohol, and/or a secondary nutritional deficiency due to injurious effects of alcohol on the liver, pancreas and intestine. It is suggested that continued exposure to high levels of catecholamine, directly related to malnutrition, may play a role in the development of myocardial pathology.

  18. Alcohol abuse and related disorders treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sivolap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are the leading causes of worse health and increased mortality rates. Excessive alcohol consumption is the third leading cause of the global burden of diseases and a leading factor for lower lifespan and higher mortality. Alcohol abuse decreases working capacity and efficiency and requires the increased cost of the treatment of alcohol-induced disorders, which entails serious economic losses. The unfavorable medical and social consequences of excessive alcohol use determine the importance of effective treatment for alcoholism. The goals of rational pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence are to enhance GABA neurotransmission, to suppress glutamate neurotransmission, to act on serotonin neurotransmission, to correct water-electrolyte balance, and to compensate for thiamine deficiency. Alcoholism treatment consists of two steps: 1 the prevention and treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and its complications (withdrawal convulsions and delirium alcoholicum; 2 antirecurrent (maintenance therapy. Benzodiazepines are the drugs of choice in alleviating alcohol withdrawal and preventing its convulsive attacks and delirium alcoholicum. Diazepam and chlordiazepoxide are most commonly used for this purpose; the safer drugs oxazepam and lorazepam are given to the elderly and patients with severe liver lesions. Anticonvulsants having normothymic properties, such as carbamazepine, valproic acid, topiramate, and lamotrigine, are a definite alternative to benzodiazepines. The traditional Russian clinical practice (clearance detoxification has not a scientific base or significant impact on alcohol withdrawal-related states in addicts. Relapse prevention and maintenance therapy for alcohol dependence are performed using disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone; since 2013 the European Union member countries have been using, besides these agents, nalmefene that is being registered in Russia. Memantine and a number of other

  19. The economic impact of alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, T R

    1988-01-01

    The economic effects of alcohol abuse are as damaging to the nation as the health effects, affecting the family, the community, and persons of all ages. Underaged drinking is interfering with children's development, affecting the nation's ability to respond to economic challenge in the future. The college aged may be the most difficult to educate about alcohol abuse because of drinking patterns established at an early age and susceptibility to advertising inducements. Health care costs for families with an alcoholic member are twice those for families without one, and up to half of all emergency room admissions are alcohol related. Fetal alcohol syndrome is one of the top three known causes of birth defects, and is totally preventable. Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are estimated to have cost the nation $117 billion in 1983, while nonalcoholic drug abuse that year cost $60 billion. Costs of alcohol abuse are expected to be $136 billion a year by 1990, mostly from lost productivity and employment. Between 6 and 7 million workers are alcoholic, with an undetermined loss of productivity, profits, and competitiveness of American business. Alcohol abuse contributes to the high health care costs of the elderly beneficiaries of Federal health financing programs. Heavily affected minorities include blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans. Society tends to treat the medical and social consequences of alcohol abuse, rather than its causes. Although our experience with the consequences of alcohol abuse is greater than that for any other drug, public concern for its prevention and treatment is less than for other major illnesses or abuse of other drugs. Alcohol abuse is a problem being given high priority within the Department in an effort to create a national agenda on the issue and to try to impart a greater sense of urgency about the problems. Ways are being explored to integrate alcoholism activities into more Departmental programs. Employee assistance programs for alcohol

  20. Molecular characterization and expression of a novel alcohol oxidase from Aspergillus terreus MTCC6324.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitun Chakraborty

    Full Text Available The alcohol oxidase (AOx cDNA from Aspergillus terreus MTCC6324 with an open reading frame (ORF of 2001 bp was constructed from n-hexadecane induced cells and expressed in Escherichia coli with a yield of ∼4.2 mg protein g-1 wet cell. The deduced amino acid sequences of recombinant rAOx showed maximum structural homology with the chain B of aryl AOx from Pleurotus eryngii. A functionally active AOx was achieved by incubating the apo-AOx with flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD for ∼80 h at 16°C and pH 9.0. The isoelectric point and mass of the apo-AOx were found to be 6.5±0.1 and ∼74 kDa, respectively. Circular dichroism data of the rAOx confirmed its ordered structure. Docking studies with an ab-initio protein model demonstrated the presence of a conserved FAD binding domain with an active substrate binding site. The rAOx was specific for aryl alcohols and the order of its substrate preference was 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol >3-methoxybenzyl alcohol>3, 4-dimethoxybenzyl alcohol > benzyl alcohol. A significantly high aggregation to ∼1000 nm (diameter and catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km of 7829.5 min-1 mM-1 for 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol was also demonstrated for rAOx. The results infer the novelty of the AOx and its potential biocatalytic application.

  1. Metabolic response of Candida albicans to phenylethyl alcohol under hyphae-inducing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ting-Li; Tumanov, Sergey; Cannon, Richard D; Villas-Boas, Silas G

    2013-01-01

    Phenylethyl alcohol was one of the first quorum sensing molecules (QSMs) identified in C. albicans. This extracellular signalling molecule inhibits the hyphal formation of C. albicans at high cell density. Little is known, however, about the underlying mechanisms by which this QSM regulates the morphological switches of C. albicans. Therefore, we have applied metabolomics and isotope labelling experiments to investigate the metabolic changes that occur in C. albicans in response to phenylethyl alcohol under defined hyphae-inducing conditions. Our results showed a global upregulation of central carbon metabolism when hyphal development was suppressed by phenylethyl alcohol. By comparing the metabolic changes in response to phenylethyl alcohol to our previous metabolomic studies, we were able to short-list 7 metabolic pathways from central carbon metabolism that appear to be associated with C. albicans morphogenesis. Furthermore, isotope-labelling data showed that phenylethyl alcohol is indeed taken up and catabolised by yeast cells. Isotope-labelled carbon atoms were found in the majority of amino acids as well as in lactate and glyoxylate. However, isotope-labelled carbon atoms from phenylethyl alcohol accumulated mainly in the pyridine ring of NAD(+)/NADH and NADP(-/)NADPH molecules, showing that these nucleotides were the main products of phenylethyl alcohol catabolism. Interestingly, two metabolic pathways where these nucleotides play an important role, nitrogen metabolism and nicotinate/nicotinamide metabolism, were also short-listed through our previous metabolomics works as metabolic pathways likely to be closely associated with C. albicans morphogenesis.

  2. Redox self-sufficient whole cell biotransformation for amination of alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatte, Stephanie; Wendisch, Volker F

    2014-10-15

    Whole cell biotransformation is an upcoming tool to replace common chemical routes for functionalization and modification of desired molecules. In the approach presented here the production of various non-natural (di)amines was realized using the designed whole cell biocatalyst Escherichia coli W3110/pTrc99A-ald-adh-ta with plasmid-borne overexpression of genes for an l-alanine dehydrogenase, an alcohol dehydrogenase and a transaminase. Cascading alcohol oxidation with l-alanine dependent transamination and l-alanine dehydrogenase allowed for redox self-sufficient conversion of alcohols to the corresponding amines. The supplementation of the corresponding (di)alcohol precursors as well as amino group donor l-alanine and ammonium chloride were sufficient for amination and redox cofactor recycling in a resting buffer system. The addition of the transaminase cofactor pyridoxal-phosphate and the alcohol dehydrogenase cofactor NAD(+) was not necessary to obtain complete conversion. Secondary and cyclic alcohols, for example, 2-hexanol and cyclohexanol were not aminated. However, efficient redox self-sufficient amination of aliphatic and aromatic (di)alcohols in vivo was achieved with 1-hexanol, 1,10-decanediol and benzylalcohol being aminated best. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The epigenetic landscape of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Harish R; Sakharkar, Amul J; Teppen, Tara L; Berkel, Tiffani D M; Pandey, Subhash C

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism is a complex psychiatric disorder that has a multifactorial etiology. Epigenetic mechanisms are uniquely capable of accounting for the multifactorial nature of the disease in that they are highly stable and are affected by environmental factors, including alcohol itself. Chromatin remodeling causes changes in gene expression in specific brain regions contributing to the endophenotypes of alcoholism such as tolerance and dependence. The epigenetic mechanisms that regulate changes in gene expression observed in addictive behaviors respond not only to alcohol exposure but also to comorbid psychopathology such as the presence of anxiety and stress. This review summarizes recent developments in epigenetic research that may play a role in alcoholism. We propose that pharmacologically manipulating epigenetic targets, as demonstrated in various preclinical models, hold great therapeutic potential in the treatment and prevention of alcoholism. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fuel alcohol opportunities for Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenglass, Bert

    1980-08-01

    Prepared at the request of US Senator Birch Bayh, Chairman of the National Alcohol Fuels Commission, this study may be best utilized as a guidebook and resource manual to foster the development of a statewide fuel alcohol plan. It examines sectors in Indiana which will impact or be impacted upon by the fuel alcohol industry. The study describes fuel alcohol technologies that could be pertinent to Indiana and also looks closely at how such a fuel alcohol industry may affect the economic and policy development of the State. Finally, the study presents options for Indiana, taking into account the national context of the developing fuel alcohol industry which, unlike many others, will be highly decentralized and more under the control of the lifeblood of our society - the agricultural community.

  5. Features and application of amino acid oil gelatinizer for controlling oil spills on the sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, Hiroyuki

    1987-10-01

    Diffusion of oil spills is prevented and the oil can be easily recovered if it is solidified. Features and application of gelling agent for amino acid series oil are introduced. The gelatinizer for amino acid is made of amino acid derivative with solvent added thereto so that oil can be gelatinized by mere spraying of the agent over oil spills. The agent can be intermixed with oil because it floats on the sea. Oil spill is gelatinized instantly and diffusion of the oils is prevented. The oil can easily be recovered with a fishing net and the like. The influence of oil spills to living aquatic resources is greatly lessened, and the gel is safe for workers. It can gelatinize everything except alcohol. Gelatinization has the depressor effect for volatization and is effective for the prevention of fire. The gelatized oil can be burnt up although it contains 10-20 % of water. Oil film on the water can be completely controlled when the agent is sprayed over it. It contributes to the purification of nature since it is readily decomposed. (1 fig, 4 tabs, 3 refs)

  6. Construct validation of the scale of attitudes toward alcohol, alcoholism and individuals with alcohol use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divane de Vargas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background : The attitudes toward issues related to alcohol and alcoholism have been noted as important predictors of the quantity and quality of care provided to individuals who have problems related to alcohol use. The Scale of Attitudes toward Alcohol, Alcoholism and Alcoholics (EAFAAA (Escala de Atitudes Frente ao Álcool, ao Alcoolismo e à pessoa com transtornos relacionados ao uso do álcool – EAFAAA has been widely used among students in health-related fields. However, the psychometric properties of this instrument have not been tested among professionals. Objective : The goal of this study was to determine the construct validity of the EAFAAA for use among health professionals. Methods : A preliminary version of the EAFAAA was distributed to a sample of health care professionals (n = 1,025. For the construct validation of the scale, the data were subjected to a factorial analysis, and the internal consistency was examined; the cutoff score of the instrument was determined using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve. Results : The exploratory factor analysis and the refinement of the EAFAAA items resulted in a final version consisting of 50 items divided into four factors: (1 Work and interpersonal relationships with patients with alcohol use disorders, (2 The individual with an alcohol use disorder, (3 Etiology of alcoholism and (4 Alcoholic beverages and their use. The internal consistency of the scale was considered adequate (Cronbach’s α > 0.80, and the instrument cutoff score was set at 3.15. Discussion : The results suggest that the instrument is valid for identifying attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and individuals with alcohol use disorders among health professionals.

  7. Alcohol Use and Abuse: Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Alcohol use and the risk for alcohol-related problems ...

  8. Stimulation of appetite by alcohol.

    OpenAIRE

    Hetherington, M. M.; Cameron, F.; Wallis, D. J.; Pirie, L. M.

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the effects of alcohol on appetite and food intake, 26 males attended the laboratory on three occasions. On each occasion, they were given a standard breakfast. Visual analog scale ratings of hunger, desire to eat and fullness (appetite ratings) were recorded from before breakfast until their return to the laboratory for lunch. Thirty minutes before lunch, subjects either rested (baseline), were given 330 ml of a no-alcohol lager (264 kJ: no-alcohol condition) or 330 m...

  9. Reducing Alcohol Harm. International Benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    last 10 years.12 Apart from the cost of medical care, the cost of alcohol use can also be associated with absenteeism and property damage. Alcohol...related harms cost British industry approximately £2 billion a year13 and the NHS about £1.7 billion a year14. Alcohol affects labour and productivity...Harmful drinking, Factsheet, June (2007). 15 “ Absenteeism due to drink”, Healthcare Today Magazine, September 19th, 2007. (Accessed on 19/09/07, at

  10. Liver Disease in the Alcoholic

    OpenAIRE

    Szilagyi, Andrew

    1986-01-01

    The problem of liver damage in alcoholic patients is widespread. This review discusses hepatic damage on the basis of a histologic classification of increasing severity. In the early stages, or with compensated cirrhosis, clinical and laboratory findings may not accurately reflect hepatic involvement. Furthermore, there exists a group of alcoholic patients in whom liver disease may be caused by factors other than alcohol. Nevertheless, in most patients with liver disease, certain biochemical ...

  11. From Unnatural Amino Acid Incorporation to Artificial Metalloenzymes

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Arwa

    2016-01-01

    This thesis explores a novel strategy based on the site-selective incorporation of unnatural, metal binding amino acids into a host protein. The unnatural amino acids can either serve directly as metal binding centers can

  12. Synthesis of some labelled non-proteinogenic amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrianens, P.; Vanderhaeghe, H.

    1987-01-01

    The literature on the synthesis of labeled non-proteinogenic amino acids contains approximately 300 papers, whereas syntheses of labeled proteinogenic amino acids are dealt with in some 800-1000 publications. However, most of the methods described in this paper for the synthesis of non-proteinogenic amino acids are also used for the preparation of the essential amino acids addition, the first category also contains β, γ...amino acids, seleno amino acids, N-methyl and α-methyl amino acids and sometimes have atoms or groups which are not present in the protein building blocks. Furthermore the latter group is more easily available so that methods for synthesis of non-proteinogenic amino acids are more needed

  13. Change in amino acids content during germination and seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    presence of histidine (His) and phenylalanine (Phe), but also to amide amino acids asparagine (Asn), glutamine (Gln) and Arg contents. In Cola sp., free amino acids varied significantly during these two processes indicating their high utilization.

  14. Effect of various amino acids on shoot regeneration of sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-06

    Apr 6, 2009 ... Full Length Research Paper. Effect of various amino acids .... maize, sorghum, pineapple, rice and other monocots to enhance somatic ... without additional amino acids, making a total of 26 treatments. All culture media were ...

  15. 40 Oil Characterization, Amino Acid and Vitamin A and C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AL-AMAANI

    using Techno sequential multi sample amino acid analyser and except phenylalanine which was most abundant in the sample had the highest contents of all the amino acids analysed. The fatty ..... Health Organization Rome, 19-26. October.

  16. Free amino acids and 5'-nucleotides in Finnish forest mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manninen, Hanna; Rotola-Pukkila, Minna; Aisala, Heikki; Hopia, Anu; Laaksonen, Timo

    2018-05-01

    Edible mushrooms are valued because of their umami taste and good nutritional values. Free amino acids, 5'-nucleotides and nucleosides were analyzed from four Nordic forest mushroom species (Lactarius camphoratus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, Craterellus tubaeformis) using high precision liquid chromatography analysis. To our knowledge, these taste components were studied for the first time from Craterellus tubaeformis and Lactarius camphoratus. The focus was on the umami amino acids and 5'-nucleotides. The free amino acid and 5'-nucleotide/nucleoside contents of studied species differed from each other. In all studied samples, umami amino acids were among five major free amino acids. The highest concentration of umami amino acids was on L. camphoratus whereas B. edulis had the highest content of sweet amino acids and C. cibarius had the highest content of bitter amino acids. The content of umami enhancing 5'-nucleotides were low in all studied species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21...

  18. 27 CFR 21.113 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 21.113 Section 21.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21...

  19. 27 CFR 19.398 - Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcohol. 19.398 Section 19.398 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Articles Bottling, Packaging, and Removal of Products § 19.398 Alcohol. (a) Containers. Subject to the...

  20. Unrecorded Alcohol Consumption: Quantitative Methods of Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Razvodovsky, Y. E.

    2010-01-01

    unrecorded alcohol; methods of estimation In this paper we focused on methods of estimation of unrecorded alcohol consumption level. Present methods of estimation of unrevorded alcohol consumption allow only approximate estimation of unrecorded alcohol consumption level. Tacking into consideration the extreme importance of such kind of data, further investigation is necessary to improve the reliability of methods estimation of unrecorded alcohol consumption.

  1. Alcohol fuels for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Partha

    1993-01-01

    The importance of alcohol as an alternative fuel has been slowly established. In countries such as Brazil, they are already used in transport and other sectors of economy. Other developing countries are also trying out experiments with alcohol fuels. Chances of improving the economy of many developing nations depends to a large extent on the application of this fuel. The potential for alcohol fuels in developing countries should be considered as part of a general biomass-use strategy. The final strategies for the development of alcohol fuel will necessarily reflect the needs, values, and conditions of the individual nations, regions, and societies that develop them. (author). 5 refs

  2. Alcohol, Athletic Performance and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cameron-Smith

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption within elite sport has been continually reported both anecdotally within the media and quantitatively in the literature. The detrimental effects of alcohol on human physiology have been well documented, adversely influencing neural function, metabolism, cardiovascular physiology, thermoregulation and skeletal muscle myopathy. Remarkably, the downstream effects of alcohol consumption on exercise performance and recovery, has received less attention and as such is not well understood. The focus of this review is to identify the acute effects of alcohol on exercise performance and give a brief insight into explanatory factors.

  3. Employment impacts of alcohol taxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Roy; Chaloupka, Frank J; Powell, Lisa M; Jernigan, David H

    2017-12-01

    There is strong scientific evidence supporting the effectiveness of increasing alcohol taxes for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related problems. Opponents have argued that alcohol tax increases lead to job losses. However, there has been no comprehensive economic analysis of the impact of alcohol taxes on employment. To fill this gap, a regional macroeconomic simulation model was used to assess the net impact of two hypothetical alcohol tax increases (a 5-cent per drink excise tax increase and a 5% sales tax increase on beer, wine, and distilled spirits, respectively) on employment in Arkansas, Florida, Massachusetts, New Mexico, and Wisconsin. The model accounted for changes in alcohol demand, average state income, and substitution effects. The employment impact of spending the new tax revenue on general expenditures versus health care was also assessed. Simulation results showed that a 5-cent per drink additional excise tax on alcoholic beverages with new tax revenues allocated to general expenditures increased net employment in Arkansas (802 jobs); Florida (4583 jobs); Massachusetts (978 jobs); New Mexico (653 jobs); and Wisconsin (1167 jobs). A 5% additional sales tax also increased employment in Arkansas (789 jobs; Florida (4493 jobs); Massachusetts (898 jobs); New Mexico (621 jobs); and Wisconsin (991 jobs). Using new alcohol tax revenues to fund health care services resulted in slightly lower net increases in state employment. The overall economic impact of alcohol tax increases cannot be fully assessed without accounting for the job gains resulting from additional tax revenues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Alcohol myopia and goal commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Timur Sevincer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available According to alcohol-myopia theory, acute alcohol consumption leads people to disproportionally focus on the salient rather than the peripheral aspects of a situation. We summarize various studies exploring how myopic processes resulting from acute alcohol intake affect goal commitment. After consuming alcohol student participants felt strongly committed to an important personal goal even though they had low expectations of successfully attaining the goal. However, once intoxicated participants were sober again (i.e., not myopic anymore they failed to act on their goal commitment. In line with alcohol-myopia theory, strong goal commitment as a result of alcohol intake was mediated by intoxicated (vs. sober participants disproportionally focusing on the desirability rather than the feasibility of their goal. Further supporting alcohol-myopia theory, when the low feasibility of attaining a particular goal was experimentally made salient (either explicitly or implicitly by subliminal priming, intoxicated participants felt less committed than those who consumed a placebo. We discuss these effects of acute alcohol intake in the context of research on the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on goal commitment.

  5. On monitoring unrecorded alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Rehm

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unrecorded alcohol consumption is a global problem, with about 25% of all alcohol consumption concerning this category. There are different forms of unrecorded alcohol, legally produced versus illegally produced, artisanal vs industrially produced, and then surrogate alcohol, which is officially not intended for human consumption. Monitoring and surveillance of unrecorded consumption is not well developed. The World Health Organization has developed a monitoring system, using the Nominal Group Technique, a variant of the Delphi methodology. Experiences with this methodology over the past two years are reported. Finally, conclusions for the monitoring and surveillance at the national level are given.

  6. Homeostatic responses to amino acid insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy G. Anthony

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a brief overview describing how two key signaling pathways, namely the integrated stress response and the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1, work together to facilitate cellular adaptation to dietary amino acid insufficiency. A deeper understanding of these mechanisms is leading to identification of novel targets which aid in disease treatments, improve stress recovery and increase health span through slowed aging and enhanced metabolic fitness.

  7. Conformational Interconversions of Amino Acid Derivatives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaminský, Jakub; Jensen, F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2016), s. 694-705 ISSN 1549-9618 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-03978S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03564S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-00270S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : amino acids * force fields * transition states Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.245, year: 2016

  8. Branched-chain amino acids for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, B; Koretz, R L; Kjaergard, L L

    2003-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy may be caused by a decreased plasma ratio of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to aromatic amino acids. Treatment with BCAA may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy.......Hepatic encephalopathy may be caused by a decreased plasma ratio of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to aromatic amino acids. Treatment with BCAA may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy....

  9. Differential utilization of blood meal amino acids in mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Miesfeld, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Guoli Zhou, Roger MiesfeldDepartment of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USAAbstract: Amino acids in the mosquito blood meal have two forms, protein-bound and plasma-free amino acids. To determine if the metabolic fate and flux of these two forms of blood meal amino acids are distinct, we fed mosquitoes eight [14C]-labeled amino acids, seven of which are essential for mosquitoes (leucine, valine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, lysine, arginine, histidine), and one th...

  10. Amino acid metabolism in plant leaf, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Osamu; Kumazawa, Kikuo

    1977-01-01

    14C-labelled sodium bicarbonate and 15N-labelled ammonium sulfate were simultaneously vacuum-infiltrated into detached sunflower leaves, and the incorporation of 14C and 15N into free amino acids was chased during 60-min period in the light and in the dark. In the light, the 14C specific activity of aspartic acid, alanine, serine and glycine rapidly increased for 5 min and thereafter decreased. On the other hand, that of glutamic acid continued to increase slowly during the entire 60-min period. In the dark, aspartic acid most actively incorporated 14C. The difference of changes in 14C specific activity between glutamic acid and other amino acids was also observed in the dark as in the light. These results suggest that the carbon skeleton of glutamic acid is synthesized from aspartic acid, alanine, serine and glycine. 15N content of glutamine was the highest of all amino acids investigated in the light, and it was followed by glutamic acid, alanine, aspartic acid, serine and glycine, in this order. In the dark, 15N content of glutamic acid fell remarkably and was lower than that of alanine up to 5 min. From these 15N tracer experiments, it is suggested that the incorporation of ammonium into glutamic acid is strictly dependent on light and that alanine incorporates ammonium by the direct animation besides the transamination from glutamic acid. (auth.)

  11. Thermochemical study of deuterium exchange reactions in water-alcohol and alcohol-alcohol systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurma, J.R.; Fenby, D.V.

    1979-01-01

    Molar excess enthalpies of water-alcohol systems have been analyzed to give equilibrium constants and enthalpies of the reactions 2ROH + D 2 O = 2ROD + H 2 O (R = CH 3 , C 2 H 5 , n-C 3 H 7 ). The equilibrium constants are significantly greater than the ''random'' value. Molar excess enthalpies of alcohol-alcohol systems have been analyzed to give enthalpies of reactions ROH + R'OD = ROD + R'OH. The enthalpies of water-alcohol and alcohol-alcohol exchange reactions form a self-consistent set and are in good agreement with values from earlier studies. Molar excess enthalpies at 298.15 K are reported for n-C 3 H 7 OH and n-C 3 H 7 OD with H 2 O, D 2 O, CH 3 OH, CH 3 OD, C 2 H 5 OH, and C 2 H 5 OD

  12. The alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKeon, A

    2008-08-01

    The alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is a common management problem in hospital practice for neurologists, psychiatrists and general physicians alike. Although some patients have mild symptoms and may even be managed in the outpatient setting, others have more severe symptoms or a history of adverse outcomes that requires close inpatient supervision and benzodiazepine therapy. Many patients with AWS have multiple management issues (withdrawal symptoms, delirium tremens, the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, seizures, depression, polysubstance abuse, electrolyte disturbances and liver disease), which requires a coordinated, multidisciplinary approach. Although AWS may be complex, careful evaluation and available treatments should ensure safe detoxification for most patients.

  13. Foliar application of amino acids modulates aroma components of 'FUJI' apple (malus domestica L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou, W.; Zhang, L.; Chen, F.; Cui, Z.; Zhao, Y.; Zheng, P.; Tian, L.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, C.

    2015-01-01

    Volatile flavor compounds play a key role in determining the perception and acceptability as well as enhancing market competitiveness of apple (Malus domestica L.). In our study, we evaluated the effects of foliar-applied four different amino acids, i.e. leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile), valine (Val) and alanine (Ala), on aroma components and two key enzymes activities involved in aroma metabolism of Fuji apple. The total amount of aromatic components under Ala treatment was significantly higher than those under other treatments. There was a considerable increase in total aroma content, including hexanal, 2-methyl-butanol, nonanal, (E)-2-hexenal, methyleugenol, ethyl acetate, butanoic acid-pentyl ester, butanoic acid-hexyl ester, butyric acid ethyl ester, acetic acid-2-methyl-butyl ester, treated with spraying amino acids compared with the control. More specifically, hexanal, 2-methyl-butanol, methyleugenol and acetic acid-2-methyl-butyl ester exhibited a greater substantial increase of their contents than those of in other ingredients. However, butanoic acid-2-methyl-2-methyl butyl ester maintained a highest level among all aroma components regardless of different amino acids application. Furthermore, the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) were much higher under Ala treatment than those under other treatments. We concluded that foliar-applied organic nitrogen (N), especially for Ala, can improve aroma metabolism and it could be used in production to enhance fruit quality on a commercial scale. (author)

  14. 77 FR 69869 - National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse, and National Cancer Advisory Board... Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse, and National...: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse, and...

  15. 76 FR 2129 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis Panel, ``Review of the Prenatal Alcohol in Sudden Infant Death... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers...

  16. 75 FR 10808 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of Alcohol Resource Grant Applications. Date: April 6...: Richard A Rippe, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...

  17. 78 FR 66015 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; AA-2 Deferred Grant Application Review. Date...: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20852...

  18. 75 FR 46949 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism... Branch, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers...

  19. 78 FR 25755 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; RFA AA13-001, Specialized Alcohol Research Centers. Date... Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109...

  20. 77 FR 43098 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Alcohol Center Grants--Parent Committee. Date: August 10, 2012...: Richard A Rippe, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism...

  1. 76 FR 26311 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, Review of Program Projects on Alcohol-Related Research. August...: Richard A Rippe, PhD, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109...

  2. Regulation of autophagy by mTOR and amino acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruf, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids are the molecular building blocks for proteins, which form the molecular framework of every cell. In addition, amino acids are also needed for the production of nucleotides and lipids to make DNA and membranes. Amino acids are essential biomolecules and without them cellular growth would

  3. Protein synthesis in the presence of carbamoyl-amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, L.M.; Stephens, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    The role of exogenous carbamoyl-amino acids in protein biosynthesis has been examined in vitro using a mixture of 14 C amino acids to label newly synthesized protein in human reticulocyte rich (8-18%) peripheral blood. Aliquots of the radiolabeled newly synthesized protein were acid precipitated, washed and the radioactivity measured. Control samples which measured the synthetic capacity of the blood were aliquots of the same blood- 14 C amino acid mixture without added carbamoyl-amino acids or cyanate. N-carbamoyl leucine alone or a 3 N-carbamoyl amino acid mixture of leucine, aspartic acid and tyrosine were used to test inhibition of protein synthesis. Also carbamoyl-amino acids were synthesized using cyanate and Pierce hydrolyzate amino acid calibration standards or the mixture of 14 C amino acids. In this system the carbamoylation of endogenous amino acids by cyanate up to 8 μmol/100μl showed a linear decrease in protein synthesis with time which is inversely related to the cyanate concentration. At greater cyanate levels the inhibition of protein synthesis reaches a plateau. When N-carbamoyl-amino acids only are present there is about a 50% decrease in the 14 C protein at 30 minutes as compared to the synthesis of 14 C protein without N-carbamoyl-amino acids. These results indicate that the presence of carbamoyl-amino acids interferes with protein synthesis

  4. Radiolabeled amino acids : Basic aspects and clinical applications in oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, PL; Vaalburg, W; Pruim, J; de Vries, EGE; Langen, KJ; Piers, DA

    As the applications of metabolic imaging are expanding, radiolabeled amino acids may gain increased clinical interest, This review first describes the basic aspects of amino acid metabolism, then continues with basic aspects of radiolabeled amino acids, and finally describes clinical applications,

  5. 40 CFR 721.555 - Alkyl amino nitriles (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl amino nitriles (generic). 721... Substances § 721.555 Alkyl amino nitriles (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl amino nitriles (PMNs P-96...

  6. Soil amino acid composition across a boreal forest successional sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy R. Werdin-Pfisterer; Knut Kielland; Richard D. Boone

    2009-01-01

    Soil amino acids are important sources of organic nitrogen for plant nutrition, yet few studies have examined which amino acids are most prevalent in the soil. In this study, we examined the composition, concentration, and seasonal patterns of soil amino acids across a primary successional sequence encompassing a natural gradient of plant productivity and soil...

  7. the amino acid composition of selected south african feed ingredients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of assessing the balance of amino acids, each is presented as a percentage of the requirements of broilers up to 3 weeks of age. ... nutritional importance of the total sulphur amino acids .... out and the primary amino acid analysis result sheet.

  8. Effects of amino acids and metabolizable energy on egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-31

    Aug 31, 2011 ... rate. All amino acids are not available in the feedstuffs for maintenance and production. Parts of amino acids are indigestible and can vary among different .... Fertility and hatch- ability are the major economical traits in broiler breeder reproductive performance. Main effects of amino acid of feedstuffs was ...

  9. Metabolism of amino acid amides in Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, H.F.M.; Croes, L.M.; Peeters, W.P.H.; Peters, P.J.H.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    1993-01-01

    The metabolism of the natural amino acid L-valine, the unnatural amino acids D-valine, and D-, L-phenylglycine (D-, L-PG), and the unnatural amino acid amides D-, L-phenylglycine amide (D, L-PG-NH2) and L-valine amide (L-Val-NH2) was studied in Pseudomonas putida ATCC 12633. The organism possessed

  10. Diagnosis of alcohol misuse and alcoholic liver disease among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alcohol related hepatocellular liver injury was assessed using aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase levels. A combination of CAGE score ≥2 and De Ritis ratio ≥2 defined alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), and viral hepatitis B and C serologies were evaluated in all ...

  11. Mortality from alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, Andreas; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine the relationship of alcohol consumption, alcohol use disorder and mortality. METHOD: A cohort of 4316 male former Vietnam-era US army personnel participating in telephone survey and medical examination in middle age (mean age 38.3 years) in 1985-1986 was used. Alcohol...... consumption was reported in face-to-face interview on medical history and information on DSM-III alcohol use disorder was obtained from structured psychiatric interview (using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule). Mortality hazard during 15 years of follow-up was assessed with Cox proportional hazard regression...... modeling. RESULT: A total of 4251 individuals participated in the psychiatric interview and the medical history interview. Of these 998 were abstainers, and for the remaining 3253 we calculated weekly average consumption and monthly frequency of binge drinking. A total of 1988 had alcohol dependence, abuse...

  12. Alcohol: Does It Affect Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol: Does it affect blood pressure? Does drinking alcohol affect your blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Drinking too much alcohol can raise blood pressure to unhealthy levels. Having ...

  13. Alcohol-crash problem in Canada, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    This report examines: data on alcohol in fatally injured drivers and pedestrians; the number and : percent of people who died in alcohol-related crashes; and alcohol involvement in those crashes : in which someone was seriously injured but not killed...

  14. Alcohol-crash problem in Canada, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This report examines: data on alcohol in fatally injured drivers and pedestrians; the number and : percent of people who died in alcohol-related crashes; and alcohol involvement in those crashes : in which someone was seriously injured but not killed...

  15. Alcohol-crash problem in Canada, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This report examines: data on alcohol in fatally injured drivers and pedestrians; the number and : percent of people who died in alcohol-related crashes; and alcohol involvement in those crashes : in which someone was seriously injured but not killed...

  16. An association study between polymorphism of alcohol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... factors which include alcohol metabolizing genes and ... Association research proves that c2 allele is a risk factor for ..... polymorphism in alcohol liver cirrhosis and alcohol chronic pancreatitis among Polish individuals.S cand ...

  17. The effect of alcohol price on dependent drinkers' alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner, Carolyn; Christie, Grant; Zhou, Lifeng; King, Julian

    2015-12-18

    To investigate the current purchasing behaviours of a group of dependent drinkers and their potential response to future increases in the price of alcohol. 115 clients undergoing medical detoxification completed an anonymous survey about their daily alcohol consumption, its cost, their response to potential price increases and strategies previously used when unable to afford alcohol. Mean and median number of standard drinks consumed per day was 24, at a median cost of $25 NZD (95%CI $22, $30). Thirty-six per cent (95%CI 26%, 46%) of the group bought alcohol at $1 or less per standard drink, and the median number of drinks consumed per day (30) by this group was significantly higher (p=0.0028) than the rest of the sample (22.5). The most common strategy used if no money was available to purchase alcohol was to forgo essentials. If facing a potential price rise, 77% (95%CI 69%, 85%) would switch wholly or partially to a cheaper product and 13% (95%CI 8%, 21%) would cut down their drinking. Although the majority of our group would be financially impacted by an increase in the minimum price per standard drink, any potential impacts would be most significant in those buying the cheapest alcohol (who also drink the most), suggesting that minimum pricing may be an important harm minimisation strategy in this group. A minimum price per standard drink would limit the possibility of switching to an alternate cheaper product and likely result in an overall reduction in alcohol consumption in this group. Stealing alcohol, or the use of non-beverage alcohol, were seldom reported as previous strategies used in response to unaffordable alcohol and fears of such are not valid reasons for rejecting minimum pricing to reduce general population consumption.

  18. Paradoxical effects of alcohol information on alcohol outcome expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krank, Marvin D; Ames, Susan L; Grenard, Jerry L; Schoenfeld, Tara; Stacy, Alan W

    2010-07-01

    Cognitive associations with alcohol predict both current and future use in youth and young adults. Much cognitive and social cognitive research suggests that exposure to information may have unconscious influences on thinking and behavior. The present study assessed the impact of information statements on the accessibility of alcohol outcome expectancies. The 2 studies reported here investigated the effects of exposure to alcohol statements typical of informational approaches to prevention on the accessibility of alcohol outcome expectancies. High school and university students were presented with information statements about the effects of alcohol and other commercial products. The alcohol statements were taken from expectancy questionnaires. Some of these statements were presented as facts and others as myths. The retention of detailed information about these statements was manipulated by (i) divided attention versus focused attention or (ii) immediate versus delayed testing. Accessibility of personal alcohol outcome expectancies was subsequently measured using an open-ended question about the expected effects of alcohol. Participants reported more alcohol outcomes seen during the information task as personal expectations about the effects of alcohol use than similar unseen items. Paradoxically, myth statements were also more likely to be reported as expectancies than unseen items in all conditions. Additionally, myth statements were generated less often than fact statements only under the condition of immediate testing with strong content processing instructions. These observations are consistent with findings from cognitive research where familiarity in the absence of explicit memory can have an unconscious influence on performance. In particular, the exposure to these items in an informational format increases accessibility of the seen items even when the participants were told that they were myths. The findings have implications for the development of

  19. Monkey alcohol tissue research resource: banking tissues for alcohol research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunais, James B; Davenport, April T; Helms, Christa M; Gonzales, Steven W; Hemby, Scott E; Friedman, David P; Farro, Jonathan P; Baker, Erich J; Grant, Kathleen A

    2014-07-01

    An estimated 18 million adults in the United States meet the clinical criteria for diagnosis of alcohol abuse or alcoholism, a disorder ranked as the third leading cause of preventable death. In addition to brain pathology, heavy alcohol consumption is comorbid with damage to major organs including heart, lungs, liver, pancreas, and kidneys. Much of what is known about risk for and consequences of heavy consumption derive from rodent or retrospective human studies. The neurobiological effects of chronic intake in rodent studies may not easily translate to humans due to key differences in brain structure and organization between species, including a lack of higher-order cognitive functions, and differences in underlying prefrontal cortical neural structures that characterize the primate brain. Further, rodents do not voluntarily consume large quantities of ethanol (EtOH) and they metabolize it more rapidly than primates. The basis of the Monkey Alcohol Tissue Research Resource (MATRR) is that nonhuman primates, specifically monkeys, show a range of drinking excessive amounts of alcohol (>3.0 g/kg or a 12 drink equivalent per day) over long periods of time (12 to 30 months) with concomitant pathological changes in endocrine, hepatic, and central nervous system (CNS) processes. The patterns and range of alcohol intake that monkeys voluntarily consume parallel what is observed in humans with alcohol use disorders and the longitudinal experimental design spans stages of drinking from the EtOH-naïve state to early exposure through chronic abuse. Age- and sex-matched control animals self-administer an isocaloric solution under identical operant procedures. The MATRR is a unique postmortem tissue bank that provides CNS and peripheral tissues, and associated bioinformatics from monkeys that self-administer EtOH using a standardized experimental paradigm to the broader alcohol research community. This resource provides a translational platform from which we can better

  20. Translating Alcohol Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Angela M.; Miles, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and its sequelae impose a major burden on the public health of the United States, and adequate long-term control of this disorder has not been achieved. Molecular and behavioral basic science research findings are providing the groundwork for understanding the mechanisms underlying AUD and have identified multiple candidate targets for ongoing clinical trials. However, the translation of basic research or clinical findings into improved therapeutic approaches for AUD must become more efficient. Translational research is a multistage process of streamlining the movement of basic biomedical research findings into clinical research and then to the clinical target populations. This process demands efficient bidirectional communication across basic, applied, and clinical science as well as with clinical practitioners. Ongoing work suggests rapid progress is being made with an evolving translational framework within the alcohol research field. This is helped by multiple interdisciplinary collaborative research structures that have been developed to advance translational work on AUD. Moreover, the integration of systems biology approaches with collaborative clinical studies may yield novel insights for future translational success. Finally, appreciation of genetic variation in pharmacological or behavioral treatment responses and optimal communication from bench to bedside and back may strengthen the success of translational research applications to AUD. PMID:26259085

  1. Nutritional and medicinal aspects of D-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel; Levin, Carol E

    2012-05-01

    This paper reviews and interprets a method for determining the nutritional value of D-amino acids, D-peptides, and amino acid derivatives using a growth assay in mice fed a synthetic all-amino acid diet. A large number of experiments were carried out in which a molar equivalent of the test compound replaced a nutritionally essential amino acid such as L-lysine (L-Lys), L-methionine (L-Met), L-phenylalanine (L-Phe), and L-tryptophan (L-Trp) as well as the semi-essential amino acids L-cysteine (L-Cys) and L-tyrosine (L-Tyr). The results show wide-ranging variations in the biological utilization of test substances. The method is generally applicable to the determination of the biological utilization and safety of any amino acid derivative as a potential nutritional source of the corresponding L-amino acid. Because the organism is forced to use the D-amino acid or amino acid derivative as the sole source of the essential or semi-essential amino acid being replaced, and because a free amino acid diet allows better control of composition, the use of all-amino-acid diets for such determinations may be preferable to protein-based diets. Also covered are brief summaries of the widely scattered literature on dietary and pharmacological aspects of 27 individual D-amino acids, D-peptides, and isomeric amino acid derivatives and suggested research needs in each of these areas. The described results provide a valuable record and resource for further progress on the multifaceted aspects of D-amino acids in food and biological samples.

  2. A method of sample preparation for N15 determination in amino acids separated by paper chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secer, M.

    1988-01-01

    The amino acids separated with two dimensional paper chromatography were isolated in two ways which make their 15 N determination possible 1) After developing the spots of chromatograms with ninhydrin they were cut out and shaken 30' with 2 ml dist. H 2 O. To destroy the ninhydrin-NH 3 colour complex, the extraction solution was heated in boiling waterbath for 10' and then 0.5 ml 2 N HCl was added to the solution and continued to heat for further 10'. For the 15 N determination of amino acids by emissionspectrometer this colour complex must be destroyed completely. It was reached with adding 2 ml 30% H 2 O 2 to the solution and heating it 5' in 100 0 C waterbath. After the evaporation of colourless solution under IR-lamp at 70 0 C, the white powder was dissolved with 50 ul dist. H 2 O and centrifuged 10'. The clear supernatant was used to gain N 2 gas by the CuO/CaO combustion. N 2 gas is necessary for the 15 N/ 14 N ratio determination by emissionsspectrometer. 2) In the second way, the destroying of ninhydrin-NH 3 colour complex was easier and quicker this way the spots were eluted (extracted) with 50% alcohol and 30% H 2O2 with 1:1 ratio. After shaking the solution 30', it turns quite colourless. It means that the ninhydrin-NH 3 colour complex was completely destroyed. Further works have been done as described in the first way. We have found out that one amino acid should have 10-20 ug N in it to assess the 15 N enrichment. In order to attain this quantity of N for certain amino acids, the spots of three separately run chromatograms were combined

  3. From alcohol toxicity to treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seitz, HK; Salaspuro, M; Savolainen, M; Haber, P; Ishii, H; Teschke, R; Moshage, H; Lieber, CS

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium held at the meeting of the International Society for Biomedical Research on Alcoholism in Mannheim, Germany, in October 2004. This symposium was dedicated to Charles S. Lieber in recognition of his contribution in alcohol research over the last 50

  4. My parent is an alcoholic..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Else

    Alcoholism is still kept as a secret, inside and outside the family. Parents often hope to protect their children by not talking about their drink habits. Interviews with children of al-coholics show they always know, and from an early age they generate coping strategies to stop their parent from...

  5. The alcohol patient and surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H

    1999-01-01

    Alcohol abusers have a threefold increased risk of post-operative morbidity after surgery. The most frequent complications are infections, cardiopulmonary insufficiency, and bleeding episodes. Pathogenesis is suppressed immune capacity, subclinical cardiac dysfunction, and haemostatic imbalance....... The economic implications of alcohol abuse in surgical patients are tremendous. Interventional studies are required to reduce future increases in post-operative morbidity....

  6. Epidemiology Of Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.Г. Мартынова

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main factors of chronic liver disease is alcohol. The level of alcoholic liver disease incidence and cirrhosis mortality has increased considerably in the recent years in many countries. The risk of development and disease progression are determined by the effect of endogenous and exogenous factors: "drinking mode", female gender, heredity and genetic predisposition, obesity, concomitant viral hepatitis

  7. Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and/or stressed when you are not drinking Types of AUDs include alcoholism (also called alcohol dependence), and ... enhancement therapy helps you build and strengthen the motivation to change ... over a short period of time. The therapy starts with identifying the pros ...

  8. Alcohol Poisoning Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.

  9. Elderly alcoholics in outpatient treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bent; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard; Lolk, Anette

    2010-01-01

    In Denmark, the treatment of alcoholics is provided by public outpatient alcohol clinics. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether elderly patients differ from younger patients with regards to sociodemographic data, drinking pattern and psychiatric comorbidity which may affect...

  10. Orosensory responsiveness and alcohol behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Margaret; Bajec, Martha; Pickering, Gary

    2017-08-01

    Consumption of alcoholic beverages is widespread through much of the world, and significantly impacts human health and well-being. We sought to determine the contribution of orosensation ('taste') to several alcohol intake measures by examining general responsiveness to taste and somatosensory stimuli in a convenience sample of 435 adults recruited from six cohorts. Each cohort was divided into quantiles based on their responsiveness to sweet, sour, bitter, salty, umami, metallic, and astringent stimuli, and the resulting quantiles pooled for analysis (Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA). Responsiveness to bitter and astringent stimuli was associated in a non-linear fashion with intake of all alcoholic beverage types, with the highest consumption observed in middle quantiles. Sourness responsiveness tended to be inversely associated with all measures of alcohol consumption. Regardless of sensation, the most responsive quantiles tended to drink less, although sweetness showed little relationship between responsiveness and intake. For wine, increased umami and metallic responsiveness tended to predict lower total consumption and frequency. A limited examination of individuals who abstain from all alcohol indicated a tendency toward higher responsiveness than alcohol consumers to sweetness, sourness, bitterness, and saltiness (biserial correlation), suggesting that broadly-tuned orosensory responsiveness may be protective against alcohol use and possibly misuse. Overall, these findings confirm the importance of orosensory responsiveness in mediating consumption of alcohol, and indicate areas for further research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. The alcohol fuels in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This presentation shows the antecedents of the production of alcohol fuel in Guatemala as an alternative to imported gasoline, also presents current statistics of consumption, importation of liquid fossil fuels, production of alcohol fuel, consumption, and trends of consumption mixed with gasoline and yield data

  12. Alcohol, aging, and innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boule, Lisbeth A; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2017-07-01

    The global population is aging: in 2010, 8% of the population was older than 65 y, and that is expected to double to 16% by 2050. With advanced age comes a heightened prevalence of chronic diseases. Moreover, elderly humans fair worse after acute diseases, namely infection, leading to higher rates of infection-mediated mortality. Advanced age alters many aspects of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, leading to impaired responses to primary infection and poor development of immunologic memory. An often overlooked, yet increasingly common, behavior in older individuals is alcohol consumption. In fact, it has been estimated that >40% of older adults consume alcohol, and evidence reveals that >10% of this group is drinking more than the recommended limit by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol consumption, at any level, alters host immune responses, including changes in the number, phenotype, and function of innate and adaptive immune cells. Thus, understanding the effect of alcohol ingestion on the immune system of older individuals, who are already less capable of combating infection, merits further study. However, there is currently almost nothing known about how drinking alters innate immunity in older subjects, despite innate immune cells being critical for host defense, resolution of inflammation, and maintenance of immune homeostasis. Here, we review the effects of aging and alcohol consumption on innate immune cells independently and highlight the few studies that have examined the effects of alcohol ingestion in aged individuals. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  13. Amino acid derived 1,4-dialkyl substituted imidazolones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Frederik; Meldal, Morten Peter

    2010-01-01

    A general method for synthesis of 1,4-substituted imidazolones from amino acids on solid support or in solution has been developed. Amino acid derived 3-Boc-(1,3)-oxazinane (Box) protected amino aldehyde building blocks were coupled through urea bonds to the amino terminal of dipeptides or amino...... acids. Upon acidic release, the aldehyde instantaneously formed the cyclic N-carbamyliminium ion, which rearranged to the corresponding imidazolone. Under strongly acidic conditions the imidazolones acted as nuclophiles in the Pictet-Spengler reaction....

  14. Structural and Affinity Determinants in the Interaction between Alcohol Acyltransferase from F. x ananassa and Several Alcohol Substrates: A Computational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Navarro-Retamal

    Full Text Available Aroma and flavor are important factors of fruit quality and consumer preference. The specific pattern of aroma is generated during ripening by the accumulation of volatiles compounds, which are mainly esters. Alcohol acyltransferase (AAT (EC 2.3.1.84 catalyzes the esterification reaction of aliphatic and aromatic alcohols and acyl-CoA into esters in fruits and flowers. In Fragaria x ananassa, there are different volatiles compounds that are obtained from different alcohol precursors, where octanol and hexanol are the most abundant during fruit ripening. At present, there is not structural evidence about the mechanism used by the AAT to synthesize esters. Experimental data attribute the kinetic role of this enzyme to 2 amino acidic residues in a highly conserved motif (HXXXD that is located in the middle of the protein. With the aim to understand the molecular and energetic aspects of volatiles compound production from F. x ananassa, we first studied the binding modes of a series of alcohols, and also different acyl-CoA substrates, in a molecular model of alcohol acyltransferase from Fragaria x ananassa (SAAT using molecular docking. Afterwards, the dynamical behavior of both substrates, docked within the SAAT binding site, was studied using routine molecular dynamics (MD simulations. In addition, in order to correlate the experimental and theoretical data obtained in our laboratories, binding free energy calculations were performed; which previous results suggested that octanol, followed by hexanol, presented the best affinity for SAAT. Finally, and concerning the SAAT molecular reaction mechanism, it is suggested from molecular dynamics simulations that the reaction mechanism may proceed through the formation of a ternary complex, in where the Histidine residue at the HXXXD motif deprotonates the alcohol substrates. Then, a nucleophilic attack occurs from alcohol charged oxygen atom to the carbon atom at carbonyl group of the acyl CoA. This

  15. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz eTyszka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several years ago, Cohen, Dearnaley, and Hansel [1] demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly [2]. The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar, where customers with differing levels of alcohol intoxication were offered a choice between a risky and an ambiguous lottery. We found that alcohol reduced ambiguity aversion and that the effect occurred in men but not women. We interpret these findings in terms of the risk-as-value hypothesis, according to which, people in Western culture tend to value risk, and suggest that alcohol consumption triggers adherence to socially and culturally valued patterns of conduct different for men and women.

  16. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka, Tadeusz; Macko, Anna; Stańczak, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Several years ago, Cohen et al. (1958) demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly (Camerer and Weber, 1992). The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar), where customers with differing levels of alcohol intoxication were offered a choice between a risky and an ambiguous lottery. We found that alcohol reduced ambiguity aversion and that the effect occurred in men but not women. We interpret these findings in terms of the risk-as-value hypothesis, according to which, people in Western culture tend to value risk, and suggest that alcohol consumption triggers adherence to socially and culturally valued patterns of conduct different for men and women.

  17. Alcohol and male reproductive health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Swan, Shanna; Jørgensen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    .1-32.2) higher free testosterone than men with a weekly intake between 1 and 10 units. Alcohol intake was not significantly associated with serum inhibin B, FSH or LH levels in either group of men. The study is the largest of its kind and has sufficient power to detect changes in semen quality and reproductive......STUDY QUESTION: Is there an association between alcohol intake and semen quality and serum reproductive hormones among healthy men from the USA and Europe? SUMMARY ANSWER: Moderate alcohol intake is not adversely associated with semen quality in healthy men, whereas it was associated with higher...... serum testosterone levels. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: High alcohol intake has been associated with a wide range of diseases. However, few studies have examined the correlation between alcohol and reproductive function and most have been conducted in selected populations of infertile men or have a small...

  18. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized;...... units alcohol per week and 375 mg or more caffeine per day during pregnancy may increase the risk of spontaneous abortion.......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol...

  19. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re......-operation. The personal and economic consequences are tremendous. The incidence of alcohol abusers undergoing surgery was 7% to 49%, according to gender and diagnosis. They have been identified by a self-reported alcohol intake, which implies the possibility of underestimation. Alcohol markers could be used for a more...

  20. Alcohol: taking a population perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, William; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Stockwell, Tim; Jernigan, David; Naimi, Timothy; Gilmore, Ian

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol consumption is a global phenomenon, as is the resultant health, social and economic harm. The nature of these harms varies with different drinking patterns and with the societal and political responses to the burden of harm; nevertheless, alcohol-related chronic diseases have a major effect on health. Strong evidence exists for the effectiveness of different strategies to minimize this damage and those policies that target price, availability and marketing of alcohol come out best, whereas those using education and information are much less effective. However, these policies can be portrayed as anti-libertarian and so viewing them in the context of alcohol-related harm to those other than the drinker, such as the most vulnerable in society, is important. When this strategy is successful, as in Scotland, it has been possible to pass strong and effective legislation, such as for a minimum unit price for alcohol.

  1. Cancer morbidity in alcohol abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Møller, Henrik; Andersen, J R

    1994-01-01

    Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared...... colonic (RR = 1.0; 95% CI 0.8-1.3) or rectal cancer (RR = 1.0; CI 0.7-1.3) than expected. The risk of breast cancer in women was slightly increased (RR = 1.3; 95% CI 0.9-1.7), but not statistically significant. Thus, the associations between alcohol and cancer of the upper digestive and respiratory tract...... and the liver are confirmed. In addition, this study indicates an increased occurrence of cancer of the prostate gland, pleura and uterine cervix in alcohol abusers....

  2. Parental Divorce, Maternal-Paternal Alcohol Problems, and Adult Offspring Lifetime Alcohol Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald G; Alonzo, Dana; Hasin, Deborah S

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influences of parental divorce and maternal-paternal histories of alcohol problems on adult offspring lifetime alcohol dependence using data from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Parental divorce and maternal-paternal alcohol problems interacted to differentially influence the likelihood of offspring lifetime alcohol dependence. Experiencing parental divorce and either maternal or paternal alcohol problems doubled the likelihood of alcohol dependence. Divorce and history of alcohol problems for both parents tripled the likelihood. Offspring of parental divorce may be more vulnerable to developing alcohol dependence, particularly when one or both parents have alcohol problems.

  3. Incretin effect after oral amino Acid ingestion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Ola; Pacini, Giovanni; Tura, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    is also present after amino acid ingestion is not known. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to explore insulin secretion and incretin hormones after oral and iv amino acid administration at matched total amino acid concentrations in healthy subjects. DESIGN: An amino acid mixture (Vaminolac......) was administered orally or iv at a rate resulting in matching total amino acid concentrations to 12 male volunteers with age 22.5 ± 1.4 years and a body mass index 22.4 ± 1.4 kg/m(2), who had no history of diabetes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Main outcome measures were area under the 120-minute curve for insulin, C...... after oral than after iv amino acid challenges (P = .006), whereas there was no significant difference in the glucagon response. Intact and total GIP rose after oral but not after iv amino acid administration, whereas intact and total GLP-1 levels did not change significantly in either test. CONCLUSION...

  4. Antioxidative Categorization of Twenty Amino Acids Based on Experimental Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Naijin; Chen, Guanqun; Liu, Hui

    2017-11-27

    In view of the great importance bestowed on amino acids as antioxidants in oxidation resistance, we attempted two common redox titration methods in this report, including micro-potassium permanganate titration and iodometric titration, to measure the antioxidative capacity of 20 amino acids, which are the construction units of proteins in living organisms. Based on the relative intensities of the antioxidative capacity, we further conducted a quantitative comparison and found out that the product of experimental values obtained from the two methods was proven to be a better indicator for evaluating the relative antioxidative capacity of amino acids. The experimental results were largely in accordance with structural analysis made on amino acids. On the whole, the 20 amino acids concerned could be divided into two categories according to their antioxidative capacity. Seven amino acids, including tryptophan, methionine, histidine, lysine, cysteine, arginine and tyrosine, were greater in total antioxidative capacity compared with the other 13 amino acids.

  5. Alcohol and the sleeping brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colrain, Ian M; Nicholas, Christian L; Baker, Fiona C

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol acts as a sedative that interacts with several neurotransmitter systems important in the regulation of sleep. Acute administration of large amounts of alcohol prior to sleep leads to decreased sleep-onset latency and changes in sleep architecture early in the night, when blood alcohol levels are high, with subsequent disrupted, poor-quality sleep later in the night. Alcohol abuse and dependence are associated with chronic sleep disturbance, lower slow-wave sleep, and more rapid-eye-movement sleep than normal, that last long into periods of abstinence and may play a role in relapse. This chapter outlines the evidence for acute and chronic alcohol effects on sleep architecture and sleep electroencephalogram, evidence for tolerance with repeated administration, and possible underlying neurochemical mechanisms for alcohol's effects on sleep. Also discussed are sex differences as well as effects of alcohol on sleep homeostasis and circadian regulation. Evidence for the role of sleep disruption as a risk factor for developing alcohol dependence is discussed in the context of research conducted in adolescents. The utility of sleep-evoked potentials in the assessment of the effects of alcoholism on sleep and the brain and in abstinence-mediated recovery is also outlined. The chapter concludes with a series of questions that need to be answered to determine the role of sleep and sleep disturbance in the development and maintenance of problem drinking and the potential beneficial effects of the treatment of sleep disorders for maintenance of abstinence in alcoholism. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Correlation between plasma homocysteine levels and craving in alcohol dependent stabilized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Maurizio; Mondola, Raffaella

    2018-06-01

    Homocysteine is a sulfur amino acid strictly related with alcohol consumption. In alcoholics, hyperhomocysteinemia can increase the risk of various alcohol-related disorders such as: brain atrophy, epileptic seizures during withdrawal, and mood disorders. To evaluate the correlation among serum homocysteine concentrations, craving, hazardous and harmful patterns of alcohol consumption in patients stabilized for withdrawal symptoms. Participants were adult outpatients accessed at the Addiction Treatment Unit. Alcoholism was assessed using the following tools: Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus (MINI Plus), Alcohol Use Disorder Identification test (AUDIT), Visual Analogic Scale for craving (VAS). Furthermore, during the first visit a blood sample was taken from all patients to measure the plasma concentration of both homocysteine and Carboxy Deficient Transferrin (CDT). Differences between groups in socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were analyzed using the t-test and the Mann-Whitney's U test for normally and non-normally distributed data, respectively. Correlation between clinical scale scores and plasma concentration of homocysteine and CDT was evaluated using the Pearson's correlation coefficient and the Kendall's Tau-b bivariate correlation coefficient for normally and non-normally distributed data, respectively. Our study included 92 patients. No difference was found in socio-demographic characteristics between groups. The group with high homocysteine had higher prevalence of mood disorders (p correlation with both VAS score (p correlated with alcoholism in a bidirectional manner because its level appears to be related with alcohol degree, but simultaneously, hyperhomocysteinemia could enhance the alcohol consumption increasing the severity of craving in a circular self reinforcing mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  7. Cloning and sequencing of the gene coding for alcohol dehydrogenase of Bacillus stearothermophilus and rational shift of the optimum pH.

    OpenAIRE

    Sakoda, H; Imanaka, T

    1992-01-01

    Using Bacillus subtilis as a host and pTB524 as a vector plasmid, we cloned the thermostable alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-T) gene (adhT) from Bacillus stearothermophilus NCA1503 and determined its nucleotide sequence. The deduced amino acid sequence (337 amino acids) was compared with the sequences of ADHs from four different origins. The amino acid residues responsible for the catalytic activity of horse liver ADH had been clarified on the basis of three-dimensional structure. Since those cata...

  8. Pharmacogenomics of alcohol addiction: Personalizing pharmacologic treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragia Georgia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is a serious psychiatric disorder with harmful physical, mental and social consequences, and a high probability of a chronic relapsing course. The field of pharmacologic treatment of alcohol dependence and craving is expanding rapidly; the drugs that have been found to reduce relapse rates or drinking in alcohol-dependent patients and are approved for treatment of alcohol dependence are naltrexone, acamprosate and disulfiram, whereas also topiramate appears as a promising therapy. For many patients, however, these treatments are not effective. Evidence from a number of different studies suggests that genetic variation is a significant contributor to interindividual variation of clinical presentation of alcohol problems and response to a given treatment. The aim of the present review is to summarize and discuss the findings on the association between gene polymorphisms and the response to alcohol dependence treatment medications. It is anticipated that future implementation of pharmacogenomics in clinical practice will help personalize alcohol dependence drug treatment, and development personalized hospital pharmacology.

  9. Evolutionary systems biology of amino acid biosynthetic cost in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Barton

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Every protein has a biosynthetic cost to the cell based on the synthesis of its constituent amino acids. In order to optimise growth and reproduction, natural selection is expected, where possible, to favour the use of proteins whose constituents are cheaper to produce, as reduced biosynthetic cost may confer a fitness advantage to the organism. Quantifying the cost of amino acid biosynthesis presents challenges, since energetic requirements may change across different cellular and environmental conditions. We developed a systems biology approach to estimate the cost of amino acid synthesis based on genome-scale metabolic models and investigated the effects of the cost of amino acid synthesis on Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene expression and protein evolution. First, we used our two new and six previously reported measures of amino acid cost in conjunction with codon usage bias, tRNA gene number and atomic composition to identify which of these factors best predict transcript and protein levels. Second, we compared amino acid cost with rates of amino acid substitution across four species in the genus Saccharomyces. Regardless of which cost measure is used, amino acid biosynthetic cost is weakly associated with transcript and protein levels. In contrast, we find that biosynthetic cost and amino acid substitution rates show a negative correlation, but for only a subset of cost measures. In the economy of the yeast cell, we find that the cost of amino acid synthesis plays a limited role in shaping transcript and protein expression levels compared to that of translational optimisation. Biosynthetic cost does, however, appear to affect rates of amino acid evolution in Saccharomyces, suggesting that expensive amino acids may only be used when they have specific structural or functional roles in protein sequences. However, as there appears to be no single currency to compute the cost of amino acid synthesis across all cellular and environmental

  10. Alcoholic Ketosis: Prevalence, Determinants, and Ketohepatitis in Japanese Alcoholic Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Akira; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Mizukami, Takeshi; Matsui, Toshifumi; Shiraishi, Koichi; Kimura, Mitsuru; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu; Maruyama, Katsuya

    2014-11-01

    Alcoholic ketosis and ketoacidosis are metabolic abnormalities often diagnosed in alcoholics in emergency departments. We attempted to identify determinants or factors associated with alcoholic ketosis. The subjects of this cross-sectional survey were 1588 Japanese alcoholic men (≥40 years) who came to an addiction center within 14 days of their last drink. The results of the dipstick urinalyses revealed a prevalence of ketosis of 34.0% (±, 21.5%; +, 8.9%; and 2+/3+; 3.6%) in the alcoholics. Higher urine ketone levels were associated with higher serum total bilirubin, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase levels. A multivariate analysis by the proportional odds model showed that the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for an increase in ketosis by one category was 0.94 (0.84-1.06) per 10-year increase in age, 0.93 (0.89-0.97) per 1-day increase in interval since the last drink, 1.78 (1.41-2.26) in the presence of slow-metabolizing alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B*1/*1), 1.61 (1.10-2.36) and 1.30 (1.03-1.65) when the beverage of choice was whiskey and shochu, respectively (distilled no-carbohydrate beverages vs. the other beverages), 2.05 (1.27-3.32) in the presence of hypoglycemia Ketosis was a very common complication and frequently accompanied by alcoholic liver injury in our Japanese male alcoholic population, in which ADH1B*1/*1 genotype, consumption of whiskey or shochu, hypoglycemia, lower BMI and smoking were significant determinants of the development of ketosis. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  11. Parental alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, and alcohol-specific attitudes, alcohol-specific communication, and adolescent excessive alcohol use and alcohol-related problems: An indirect path model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mares, S.H.W.; Vorst, H. van der; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol-specific parent-child communication has often been studied in relation to regular alcohol use of adolescents. However, it might be as important to focus on adolescent problematic alcohol use. In addition, the way parents communicate with their children about alcohol might depend on their own

  12. Grape and wine amino acid composition from Carignan noir grapevines growing under rainfed conditions in the Maule Valley, Chile: Effects of location and rootstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gamboa, G; Carrasco-Quiroz, M; Martínez-Gil, A M; Pérez-Álvarez, E P; Garde-Cerdán, T; Moreno-Simunovic, Y

    2018-03-01

    Nitrogen compounds play a key role on grape and wine quality. Their composition in grapes depends mainly on variety, viticultural management, and terroir, and affects fermentation kinetics and the volatile compound formation. The aim of this work was to study grape and wine amino acid composition of ungrafted or grafted onto cv. País Carignan grapevines growing under rainfed conditions in ten sites of the Maule Valley (Chile). The results showed that proline was the most abundant amino acid in grapes and wines. In general, Carignan noir grapevines grafted over País showed lower grape amino acid content respect to ungrafted vines. Cool night index (CI) was inversely correlated to several amino acids, showing that their plant synthesis or accumulation increased with lower minimum temperatures during the last month before harvest. Truquilemu (Tru) and Ciénaga de Name (Cdn) sites showed the highest concentration for several amino acids and total amino acid content in grapes, which led to a faster alcoholic fermentation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Amino Acid Profile and Volatile Flavour Compounds of Raw and Steamed Patin Catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) and Narrow-barred Spanish Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, Rusky I.; Rostini, I.; Rochima, E.

    2018-02-01

    Fish species and processing methods could affect the volatile flavour composition and amino acid profile of fishery commodity. The objectives of this study were to identify volatile components and amino acid profile of two considered predominant fish species in Indonesia which are freshwater Patin catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) and marine water fish, Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson). The methods used in this study were to detect volatile compounds using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) on fresh and steamed of both species samples (100°C for 30 minutes) and amino acid profile were also analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The volatile components analysis successfully detects as much as 29 and 59 volatiles compounds in fresh and steamed Patin catfish respectively, while 37 and 102 compounds were detected in fresh and steamed Spanish mackerel samples. Most of detected components derives from hydrocarbons, aldehydes, alcohols and ketone groups which could affected by their chemical composition and resulted from various thermal involved reaction. The amino acids profile identification results showed that glutamic acid was found higher compared to other amino acids standards in both samples. Glutamic acid is non-essential amino acid which is important in umami taste substances.

  14. Three human alcohol dehydrogenase subunits: cDNA structure and molecular and evolutionary divergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, T.; Szeto, S.; Yoshida, A.

    1986-01-01

    Class I human alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; alcohol:NAD + oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.1) consists of several homo- and heterodimers of α, β, and γ subunits that are governed by the ADH1, ADH2, and ADH3 loci. The authors previously cloned a full length of cDNA for the β subunit, and the complete sequence of 374 amino acid residues was established. cDNAs for the α and γ subunits were cloned and characterized. A human liver cDNA library, constructed in phage λgt11, was screened by using a synthetic oligonucleotide probe that was matched to the γ but not to the β sequence. Clone pUCADHγ21 and clone pUCADHα15L differed from β cDNA with respect to restriction sites and hybridization with the nucleotide probe. Clone pUCADHγ21 contained an insertion of 1.5 kilobase pairs (kbp) and encodes 374 amino acid residues compatible with the reported amino acid sequence of the γ subunit. Clone pUCADHα15L contained an insertion of 2.4 kbp and included nucleotide sequences that encode 374 amino acid residues for another subunit, the γ subunit. In addition, this clone contained the sequences that encode the COOH-terminal part of the β subunit at its extended 5' region. The amino acid sequences and coding regions of the cDNAs of the three subunits are very similar. A high degree of resemblance is observed also in their 3' noncoding regions. However, distinctive differences exist in the vicinity of the Zn-binding cysteine residue at position 46. Based on the cDNA sequences and the deduced amino acid sequences of the three subunits, their structural and evolutionary relationships are discussed

  15. Adolescent alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Pernille; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Huckle, Taisia

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To analyse how adolescent drunkenness and frequency of drinking were associated with adult drinking patterns and alcohol control policies. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional survey data on 13- and 15-year-olds in 37 countries who participated in the Health Behaviour in School.......68-0.90). Weekly drinking was associated significantly with weak restrictions on availability (OR boys = 2.82, CI = 1.74-4.54, OR girls = 2.00, CI = 1.15-3.46) and advertising (OR boys = 1.56, CI = 1.02-2.40, OR girls = 1.79, CI = 1.10-2.94). CONCLUSIONS: Comparing data cross-nationally, high levels of adult...

  16. Degradation of fluorotelomer alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellis, David A; Martin, Jonathan W; De Silva, Amila O

    2004-01-01

    Human and animal tissues collected in urban and remote global locations contain persistent and bioaccumulative perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). The source of PFCAs was previously unknown. Here we present smog chamber studies that indicate fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) can degrade...... in the atmosphere to yield a homologous series of PFCAs. Atmospheric degradation of FTOHs is likely to contribute to the widespread dissemination of PFCAs. After their bioaccumulation potential is accounted for, the pattern of PFCAs yielded from FTOHs could account for the distinct contamination profile of PFCAs....... The significance of the gas-phase peroxy radical cross reactions that produce PFCAs has not been recognized previously. Such reactions are expected to occur during the atmospheric degradation of all polyfluorinated materials, necessitating a reexamination of the environmental fate and impact of this important...

  17. Anticonvulsants for alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Pier Paolo; Trogu, Emanuela; Pacini, Matteo; Maremmani, Icro

    2014-02-13

    Alcohol dependence is a major public health problem that is characterised by recidivism and a host of medical and psychosocial complications. Besides psychosocial interventions, different pharmacological interventions have been or currently are under investigation through Cochrane systematic reviews. The primary aim of the review is to assess the benefits/risks of anticonvulsants for the treatment of alcohol dependence. We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Trials Register (October 2013), PubMed (1966 to October 2013), EMBASE (1974 to October 2013) and CINAHL (1982 to October 2013). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing anticonvulsants alone or in association with other drugs and/or psychosocial interventions versus placebo, no treatment and other pharmacological or psychosocial interventions. We used standard methodological procedures as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. A total of 25 studies were included in the review (2641 participants). Most participants were male, with an average age of 44 years. Anticonvulsants were compared with placebo (17 studies), other medications (seven studies) and no medication (two studies). The mean duration of the trials was 17 weeks (range four to 52 weeks). The studies took place in the USA, Europe, South America, India and Thailand. Variation was reported in the characteristics of the studies, including their design and the rating instruments used. For many key outcomes, the risk of bias associated with unclear or unconcealed allocation and lack of blinding affected the quality of the evidence.Anticonvulsants versus placebo: For dropouts (16 studies, 1675 participants, risk ratio (RR) 0.94, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 0.74 to 1.19, moderate-quality evidence) and continuous abstinence (eight studies, 634 participants, RR 1.21, 95% Cl 95% 0.97 to 1.52, moderate-quality evidence), results showed no evidence of differences. Moderate-quality evidence suggested that

  18. Fractures and alcohol abuse - patient opinion of alcohol intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bolette; Alva-Jørgensen, Peter; Raffing, Rie

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To clarify patient opinions about alcohol intervention in relation to surgery before investigating the effect in a Scandinavian multi-centre randomized trial. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A qualitative study. Thirteen consecutive alcohol patients with fractures participated after informed consent....... They were interviewed during their hospital stay. The number of participants was based on the criteria of data-saturation. The analysis followed the applied qualitative framework model aimed at evaluation of specific participant needs within a larger overall project. RESULTS: All patients regarded alcohol...

  19. Helleborus purpurascens—Amino Acid and Peptide Analysis Linked to the Chemical and Antiproliferative Properties of the Extracted Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina-Elena Segneanu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong drive worldwide to discover and exploit the therapeutic potential of a large variety of plants. In this work, an alcoholic extract of Helleborus purpurascens (family Ranunculaceae was investigated for the identification of amino acids and peptides with putative antiproliferative effects. In our work, a separation strategy was developed using solvents of different polarity in order to obtain active compounds. Biochemical components were characterized through spectroscopic (mass spectroscopy and chromatographic techniques (RP-HPLC and GC-MS. The biological activity of the obtained fractions was investigated in terms of their antiproliferative effects on HeLa cells. Through this study, we report an efficient separation of bioactive compounds (amino acids and peptides from a plant extract dependent on solvent polarity, affording fractions with unaffected antiproliferative activities. Moreover, the two biologically tested fractions exerted a major antiproliferative effect, thereby suggesting potential anticancer therapeutic activity.

  20. Helleborus purpurascens-Amino Acid and Peptide Analysis Linked to the Chemical and Antiproliferative Properties of the Extracted Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segneanu, Adina-Elena; Grozescu, Ioan; Cziple, Florentina; Berki, Daniel; Damian, Daniel; Niculite, Cristina Mariana; Florea, Alexandru; Leabu, Mircea

    2015-12-11

    There is a strong drive worldwide to discover and exploit the therapeutic potential of a large variety of plants. In this work, an alcoholic extract of Helleborus purpurascens (family Ranunculaceae) was investigated for the identification of amino acids and peptides with putative antiproliferative effects. In our work, a separation strategy was developed using solvents of different polarity in order to obtain active compounds. Biochemical components were characterized through spectroscopic (mass spectroscopy) and chromatographic techniques (RP-HPLC and GC-MS). The biological activity of the obtained fractions was investigated in terms of their antiproliferative effects on HeLa cells. Through this study, we report an efficient separation of bioactive compounds (amino acids and peptides) from a plant extract dependent on solvent polarity, affording fractions with unaffected antiproliferative activities. Moreover, the two biologically tested fractions exerted a major antiproliferative effect, thereby suggesting potential anticancer therapeutic activity.

  1. The alcohol program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Jose R.; Goldemberg, Jose

    1999-01-01

    The rationale for the launching of the Alcohol Program from sugarcane in Brazil in the mid-1970s is described as an answer to the first ''oil crisis'' as well as a solution to the problem of the fluctuating sugar prices in the international market. The technical characteristics of ethanol as a fuel are given as well as a discussion of the evolution of the cost of production, environmental and social consequences. Regarding costs, ethanol production was close to 100 dollars a barrel in the initial stages of the Program in 1980 falling rapidly due to economies of scale and technological progress to half that value in 1990, followed by a slower decline in recent years. Considering the hard currency saved by avoiding oil importation through the significant displacement of gasoline by ethanol and the decrease in the amount of external debt that the displaced oil importation was able to provide it is possible to demonstrate that the Alcohol Program has been an efficient way of exchanging dollar debt by national currency subsidies which are paid by the liquid fossil fuel users. Even with this economic gains for society, the continuity of the Program is difficult to maintain. Two solutions to this problem are discussed: internal expansion of the use of ethanol and exports to industrialized countries where it could be used as an octane enhancer. The main attractiveness of the Program - the reduction of CO 2 emissions as compared to fossil fuels - is stressed, mainly as a solution for industrialized countries to fulfill their commitments with the United Nations Framework Climate Change Convention. (Author)

  2. Contributions of GABA to alcohol responsivity during adolescence: Insights from preclinical and clinical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveri, Marisa M.

    2015-01-01

    There is a considerable body of literature demonstrating that adolescence is a unique age period, which includes rapid and dramatic maturation of behavioral, cognitive, hormonal and neurobiological systems. Most notably, adolescence is also a period of unique responsiveness to alcohol effects, with both hyposensitivity and hypersensitivity observed to the various effects of alcohol. Multiple neurotransmitter systems are undergoing fine-tuning during this critical period of brain development, including those that contribute to the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. The role of developmental maturation of the γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA) system, however, has received less attention in contributing to age-specific alcohol sensitivities. This review integrates GABA findings from human magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies as they may translate to understanding adolescent-specific responsiveness to alcohol effects. Better understanding of the vulnerability of the GABA system both during adolescent development, and in psychiatric conditions that include alcohol dependence, could point to a putative mechanism, boosting brain GABA, that may have increased effectiveness for treating alcohol abuse disorders. PMID:24631274

  3. Effects of alcohol intake on brain structure and function in non-alcohol-dependent drinkers

    OpenAIRE

    Bruin, Eveline Astrid de

    2005-01-01

    About 85% of the adult population in the Netherlands regularly drinks alcohol. Chronic excessive alcohol intake in alcohol-dependent individuals is known to have damaging effects on brain structure and function. Relatives of alcohol-dependent individuals display differences in brain function that are similar to those found in alcoholics, even if they have never been drinking alcohol. This suggests that brain damage in alcohol-dependent individuals is at least partly related to genetic factors...

  4. Usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting recidivism of drunk-driving among previously convicted drunk-driving offenders: results from the recidivism of alcohol-impaired driving (ROAD) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenhout, Thomas M; Poll, Anneleen; Vermassen, Tijl; De Buyzere, Marc L; Delanghe, Joris R

    2014-01-01

    In several European countries, drivers under the influence (DUI), suspected of chronic alcohol abuse are referred for medical and psychological examination. This study (the ROAD study, or Recidivism Of Alcohol-impaired Driving) investigated the usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting drunk-driving recidivism in previously convicted drunk-driving offenders. The ROAD study is a prospective study (2009-13) that was performed on 517 randomly selected drivers in Belgium. They were convicted for drunk-driving for which their licence was confiscated. The initial post-arrest blood samples were collected and analysed for percentage carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT), transaminsase activities [alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST)], gamma-glutamyltransferase (γGT) and red cell mean corpuscular volume (MCV). The observation time for each driver was 3 years and dynamic. A logistic regression analysis revealed that ln(%CDT) (P drunk-driving. The ROAD index (which includes ln(%CDT), ln(γGT), -ln(ALT) and the sex of the driver) was calculated and had a significantly higher area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (0.71) than the individual biomarkers for drunk-driving recidivism. Drivers with a high risk of recidivating (ROAD index ≥ 25%; third tertile) could be distinguished from drivers with an intermediate risk (16% ≤ ROAD index drunk-driving. The association with gamma-glutamyltransferase, alanine amino transferase and the sex of the driver could have additional value for identifying drunk-drivers at intermediate risk of recidivism. Non-specific indirect alcohol markers, such as alanine amino transferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate amino transferase and red cell mean corpuscular volume have minimal added value to % carbohydrate-deficient transferrin for distinguishing drunk drivers with a low or high risk of recidivism. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. [Acrodystrophic neuropathy in an alcoholic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Y; Hironaka, M; Shimoyama, M; Toyota, Y; Kurokawa, M; Kohriyama, T; Nakamura, S

    1993-01-01

    The patient was a 48-year-old alcoholic man with no contributory family history. At age 36 he had developed sensory dominant polyneuropathy with highly impaired temperature sensation and deep sensation in the lower extremities, recurrent ulcers of the toes, and sexual impotence. A sural nerve biopsy at this time revealed marked loss of myelinated fibers with relative preservation of the population of unmyelinated fibers. Subsequently, he developed muscle atrophy of the lower thighs, urinary incontinence, and Wernicke's encephalopathy, and became non-ambulatory at age 44. The peripheral nerve conduction findings suggested predominantly axonal degeneration. The entire course was characterized by alternative progression and partial recovery influenced by his alcohol intake and nutritional state. Alcoholic neuropathy is a major cause of solitary acrodystrophic neuropathy (ADN). Manifestations of autonomic and motor neuropathy are more marked in alcoholic ADN than in HSAN-I, and central nervous system involvement is the hallmark of alcoholic ADN. In the treatment of patients with alcoholic ADN, attention should be paid to diabetes mellitus, malnutritional state, and vitamin deficiency, which frequently complicate alcoholism.

  6. Cancer morbidity in alcohol abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Møller, Henrik; Andersen, J R

    1994-01-01

    Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared with th...... and the liver are confirmed. In addition, this study indicates an increased occurrence of cancer of the prostate gland, pleura and uterine cervix in alcohol abusers.......Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared...... with that of the total Danish population. On average the 15,214 men were observed for 12.9 years and the 3,093 women for 9.4 years. The overall morbidity of cancer was increased significantly. Of the men, 1,441 developed cancer [relative risk (RR) = 1.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.5-1.7], while 182 women did (RR...

  7. Images and realities of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkunen, P

    1998-09-01

    The paper discusses the relationship between the images of alcohol and society, on one hand, and the reality of drinking and drinking problems on the other hand, from the point of view of policy-relevant research. Images of alcohol influence policy but they also depend on the social and cultural environment of policy-making. The epidemiological total consumption theory of alcohol-related problems is used as an example. The theory is embedded in the modern welfare state's ideals and its policy relevance presupposes that these ideals--universalism, consequentialism and public planning--are respected. If the approach today receives less attention by policy-makers than its empirical validity merits, it may be due to an erosion of these ideals, not of the epidemiological model itself. Images of alcohol influence behaviour and drinking problems but they also articulate the social context in which the images are constructed. This paper demonstrates the point, applying Lévi-Straussian cultural theory to an analysis of a recent beer advertisement addressed to young people. The advertisement not only reflects the images associated with youthful drinking but also the ambiguous status of youth as non-adults in contemporary society. The author stresses that for social and cultural research alcohol is a two-way window, to look at society through alcohol and to look at alcohol through society. Both directions are necessary for policy-relevant research.

  8. Microbial electrode sensor for alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikuma, M [Ajinomoto Co., Inc., Kawasaki, Japan; Kubo, T; Yasuda, T; Karube, I; Suzuki, S

    1979-10-01

    A microbial electrode consisting of immobilized microorganisms, a gas permeable Teflon membrane, and an oxygen electrode was prepared for the continuous determination of methyl and ethyl alcohols. Immobilized Trichosporon brassicae was employed for a microbial electrode sensor for ethyl alcohol. When a sample solution containing ethyl alcohol was injected into a microbial electrode system, the current of the electrode decreased markedly with time until a steady state was reached. The response time was within 10 min by the steady state method and within 6 min by the pulse method. A linear relationship was observed between the current decrease and the concentration of ethyl alcohol below 22.5 mg/liter. The current was reproducible within +- 6% of the relative error when a sample solution containing 16.5 mg/liter ethyl alcohol. The standard deviation was 0.5 mg/liter in 40 experiments. The selectivity of the microbial electrode sensor for ethyl alcohol was satisfactory. The microbial electrode sensor was applied to a fermentation broth of yeasts and satisfactory comparative results were obtained (correlation coefficient 0.98). The current output of the microbial electrode sensor was almost constant for more than three weeks and 2100 assays. A microbial electrode sensor using immobilized bacteria for methyl alcohol was also described.

  9. Drugs acting on amino acid neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, B S

    1986-01-01

    The most potent agents currently available for suppressing myoclonic activity in animals and humans act to enhance GABA-mediated inhibition and/or to diminish amino acid-induced excitation. Postsynaptic GABA-mediated inhibition plays an important role at the cortical level, diminishing the effect of augmented afferent activity and preventing pathologically enhanced output. Enhancement of GABAergic inhibition, principally at the cortical level but also at lower levels, by clonazepam and by valproate appears to be a predominant element in their antimyoclonic action. Studies in various animal models, including photically induced myoclonus in the baboon, P papio, indicate the value of other approaches to enhancing GABA-mediated inhibition. Among such approaches meriting evaluation in humans are inhibition of GABA-transaminase activity by gamma-vinyl GABA and action at some of the benzodiazepine receptors to enhance the action of GABA, as by the novel anticonvulsant beta-carbolines. Excitatory transmission mediated by dicarboxylic amino acids appears to play a role in myoclonus, especially at the spinal level, but also in the brainstem, cerebellum, basal ganglia, and cortex. Among various novel agents that act at the postsynaptic receptor site to antagonize such excitation, those specifically blocking excitation induced by aspartate and/or NMDA prevent myoclonic activity in a wide range of animal models. Further research is required before such agents can be evaluated in humans.

  10. Large neutral amino acids in daily practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahring, Kirsten Kiær

    2010-12-01

    At the Kennedy Centre for Phenylketonuria, Denmark, large neutral amino acids (LNAAs) are being used to treat adult and adolescent patients who are nonadherent to dietary treatment for phenylketonuria (PKU). At the start of treatment, a patient must undergo dietary analysis and regular blood sampling to measure plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations. The aim of this analysis and treatment is that the patient receives 25-30% of the daily protein requirement from LNAA supplementation and the remaining 70-75% from natural, low-phenylalanine proteins (although some patients have difficulties in maintaining this level of protein intake). Patients are therefore able to follow a more "normal" diet than those adhering to a PKU diet with AA supplementation (in which only 20% of the daily protein requirement is provided from the diet and 80% from AA supplementation). LNAAs have also been used to treat older patients with untreated/late-diagnosed PKU who show profound intellectual, psychological, and behavioral impairments. Treatment with LNAAs has been shown to improve measures of concentration and awareness of external stimuli in some of these patients and thus enhance their socialization, emotionality, frustration tolerance, and mood.

  11. Alcohol fuels program technical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-07-01

    The last issue of the Alcohol Fuels Process R/D Newsletter contained a work breakdown structure (WBS) of the SERI Alcohol Fuels Program that stressed the subcontracted portion of the program and discussed the SERI biotechnology in-house program. This issue shows the WBS for the in-house programs and contains highlights for the remaining in-house tasks, that is, methanol production research, alcohol utilization research, and membrane research. The methanol production research activity consists of two elements: development of a pressurized oxygen gasifier and synthesis of catalytic materials to more efficiently convert synthesis gas to methanol and higher alcohols. A report is included (Finegold et al. 1981) that details the experimental apparatus and recent results obtained from the gasifier. The catalysis research is principally directed toward producing novel organometallic compounds for use as a homogeneous catalyst. The utilization research is directed toward the development of novel engine systems that use pure alcohol for fuel. Reforming methanol and ethanol catalytically to produce H/sub 2/ and CO gas for use as a fuel offers performance and efficiency advantages over burning alcohol directly as fuel in an engine. An application of this approach is also detailed at the end of this section. Another area of utilization is the use of fuel cells in transportation. In-house researchers investigating alternate electrolyte systems are exploring the direct and indirect use of alcohols in fuel cells. A workshop is being organized to explore potential applications of fuel cells in the transportation sector. The membrane research group is equipping to evaluate alcohol/water separation membranes and is also establishing cost estimation and energy utilization figures for use in alcohol plant design.

  12. Alcohol Use and Firearm Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branas, Charles C; Han, SeungHoon; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    Although the misuse of firearms is necessary to the occurrence of firearm violence, there are other contributing factors beyond simply firearms themselves that might also be modified to prevent firearm violence. Alcohol is one such key modifiable factor. To explore this, we undertook a 40-year (1975-2014) systematic literature review with meta-analysis. One large group of studies showed that over one third of firearm violence decedents had acutely consumed alcohol and over one fourth had heavily consumed alcohol prior to their deaths. Another large group of studies showed that alcohol was significantly associated with firearm use as a suicide means. Two controlled studies showed that gun injury after drinking, especially heavy drinking, was statistically significant among self-inflicted firearm injury victims. A small group of studies investigated the intersection of alcohol and firearms laws and alcohol outlets and firearm violence. One of these controlled studies found that off-premise outlets selling takeout alcohol were significantly associated with firearm assault. Additional controlled, population-level risk factor and intervention studies, including randomized trials of which only 1 was identified, are needed. Policies that rezone off-premise alcohol outlets, proscribe blood alcohol levels and enhance penalties for carrying or using firearms while intoxicated, and consider prior drunk driving convictions as a more precise criterion for disqualifying persons from the purchase or possession of firearms deserve further study. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Alcohol-flavoured tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackler, Robert K; VanWinkle, Callie K; Bumanlag, Isabela M; Ramamurthi, Divya

    2018-05-01

    In 2009, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned characterising flavours in cigarettes (except for menthol) due to their appeal to teen starter smokers. In August 2016, the agency deemed all tobacco products to be under its authority and a more comprehensive flavour ban is under consideration. To determine the scope and scale of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products among cigars & cigarillos, hookahs and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Alcohol-flavoured tobacco products were identified by online search of tobacco purveyors' product lines and via Google search cross-referencing the various tobacco product types versus a list of alcoholic beverage flavours (eg, wine, beer, appletini, margarita). 48 types of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products marketed by 409 tobacco brands were identified. Alcohol flavours included mixed drinks (n=25), spirits (11), liqueurs (7) and wine/beer (5). Sweet and fruity tropical mixed drink flavours were marketed by the most brands: piña colada (96), mojito (66) and margarita (50). Wine flavours were common with 104 brands. Among the tobacco product categories, brands offering alcohol-flavoured e-cigarettes (280) were most numerous, but alcohol-flavoured products were also marketed by cigars & cigarillos (88) and hookah brands (41). Brands by major tobacco companies (eg, Philip Morris, Imperial Tobacco) were well represented among alcohol-flavoured cigars & cigarillos with five companies offering a total of 17 brands. The widespread availability of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products illustrates the need to regulate characterising flavours on all tobacco products. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Apple Aminoacid Profile and Yeast Strains in the Formation of Fusel Alcohols and Esters in Cider Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleutério Dos Santos, Caroline Mongruel; Pietrowski, Giovana de Arruda Moura; Braga, Cíntia Maia; Rossi, Márcio José; Ninow, Jorge; Machado Dos Santos, Tâmisa Pires; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Jorge, Regina Maria Matos; Nogueira, Alessandro

    2015-06-01

    The amino acid profile in dessert apple must and its effect on the synthesis of fusel alcohols and esters in cider were established by instrumental analysis. The amino acid profile was performed in nine apple musts. Two apple musts with high (>150 mg/L) and low (90%) during fermentation in all the ciders. Principal component analysis (PCA) explained 81.42% of data variability and the separation of three groups for the analyzed samples was verified. The ciders manufactured with low nitrogen content showed sluggish fermentation and around 50% less content of volatile compounds (independent of the yeast strain used), which were mainly 3-methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol) and esters. However, in the presence of amino acids (asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and alanine) there was a greater differentiation between the yeasts in the production of fusel alcohols and ethyl esters. High contents of these aminoacids in dessert apple musts are essential for the production of fusel alcohols and most of esters by aromatic yeasts during cider fermentation. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Turkey-hen amino acid composition of brain and eyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeyeye, E.I.

    2015-01-01

    The amino acids composition of the brain and eyes of the mature Turkey-hen (Meleagris gallopavo L.), were determined on dry weight basis. Total essential amino acids ranged from 35.1-36.0 g/100 g as 49.5-49.8% of the total amino acids. The amino acid score showed that lysine ranged from 0.76-0.91 (on whole hen.s egg comparison), 0.85-1.03 (on provisional essential amino acid scoring pattern), and 0.81-0.98 (on suggested requirement of the essential amino acid of a preschool child). The predicted protein efficiency ratio was 1.94-2.41, whilst essential amino acid index range was 1.06-1.08 and the calculated isoelectric point range was 3.97-4.18. The correlation coefficient (rxy) was positively high and significant at r = 0.01 for the total amino acids, amino acid scores (on the whole hen.s egg comparisons made) and the isoelectric point. On the whole, the eyes were better in 12/18 or 66.7% parameters of the amino acids than the brain of Turkey-Hen. (author)

  16. The Role of Microbial Amino Acid Metabolism in Host Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien P. J. G. Neis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Disruptions in gut microbiota composition and function are increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The functional output of the gut microbiota, including short-chain fatty acids and amino acids, are thought to be important modulators underlying the development of these disorders. Gut bacteria can alter the bioavailability of amino acids by utilization of several amino acids originating from both alimentary and endogenous proteins. In turn, gut bacteria also provide amino acids to the host. This could have significant implications in the context of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus, conditions associated with elevated systemic concentrations of certain amino acids, in particular the aromatic and branched-chain amino acids. Moreover, several amino acids released by gut bacteria can serve as precursors for the synthesis of short-chain fatty acids, which also play a role in the development of obesity. In this review, we aim to compile the available evidence on the contribution of microbial amino acids to host amino acid homeostasis, and to assess the role of the gut microbiota as a determinant of amino acid and short-chain fatty acid perturbations in human obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  17. Extraterrestrial Amino Acids in the Almahata Sitta Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Parker, Eric T.; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2010-01-01

    Amino acid analysis of a meteorite fragment of asteroid 2008 TC3 called Almahata Sitta was carried out using reverse-phase liquid chromatography coupled with UV fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-FD/ToF-MS) as part of a sample analysis consortium. LC-FD/ToF-MS analyses of hot-water extracts from the meteorite revealed a complex distribution of two- to seven-carbon aliphatic amino acids and one- to three-carbon amines with abundances ranging from 0.5 to 149 parts-per-billion (ppb). The enantiomeric ratios of the amino acids alanine, R-amino-n-butyric acid (beta-ABA), 2-amino-2-methylbutanoic acid (isovaline), and 2-aminopentanoic acid (norvaline) in the meteorite were racemic (D/L approximately 1), indicating that these amino acids are indigenous to the meteorite and not terrestrial contaminants. Several other non-protein amino acids were also identified in the meteorite above background levels including alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), 4-amino-2- methylbutanoic acid, 4-amino-3-methylbutanoic acid, and 3-, 4-, and 5-aminopentanoic acid. The total abundances of isovaline and alpha-AIB in Almahata Sitta are 1000 times lower than the abundances of these amino acids found in the CM carbonaceous chondrite Murchison. The extremely low abundances and unusual distribution of five carbon amino acids in Almahata Sitta compared to Cl, CM, and CR carbonaceous chondrites may reflect extensive thermal alteration of amino acids on the parent asteroid by partial melting during formation or subsequent impact shock heating. It is also possible that amino acids were synthesized by catalytic reactions on the parent body after asteroid 2008 TC3 cooled to lower temperatures.

  18. Synthesis of Water-Soluble Amino Functionalized Multithiacalix[4]arene via Quaternization of Tertiary Amino Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Nosov

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A convenient approach to the synthesis of multithiacalix[4]arene derivatives containing amino groups and phthalimide fragments by the formation of quaternary ammonium salts is presented. As the initial macrocycle for the synthesis of multithiacalix[4]arenes, a differently substituted p-tert-butylthiacalix[4]arene containing bromoacetamide and three phthalimide fragments was used in a 1,3-alternate conformation. The macrocycle in cone conformation containing the tertiary amino groups was found to be a convenient core for the multithiacalix[4]arene systems. Interaction of the core multithiacalix[4]arene with monobromoacetamide derivatives of p-tert-butylthiacalix[4]arene resulted in formation in high yields of pentakisthiacalix[4]arene containing quaternary ammonium and phthalimide fragments. The removal of phthalimide groups led to the formation of amino multithiacalix[4]arene in a good yield. Based on dynamic light scattering, it was shown that the synthesized amino multithiacalix[4]arene, with pronounced hydrophobic and hydrophilic fragments, formed dendrimer-like nanoparticles in water via direct supramolecular self-assembly.

  19. Synthesis of a-amino amides via a-amino imidoylbenzotriazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALAN R. KATRITZKY

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Reactions of isonitriles 11a-c with N-(a-aminoalkylbenzotriazoles 10a-k afford N-(a-aminoimidoylbenzotriazoles 12a-q which on hydrolysis by dilute hydrochloric acid gave a-amino amides 14a-j.

  20. Alcohol Withdrawal Mimicking Organophosphate Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezihat Rana Disel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates, which can cause occupational poisoning due to inappropriate personal protective measures, are widely used insecticides in agricultural regions of southern Turkey. Therefore, the classical clinical findings of this cholinergic poisoning are myosis, excessive secretions, bradicardia and fasciculations are easy to be recognized by local medical stuff. Diseases and conditions related to alcoholism such as mental and social impairments, coma, toxicity, withdrawal, and delirium are frequent causes of emergency visits of chronic alcoholic patients. Here we present a case diagnosed and treated as organophosphate poisoning although it was an alcohol withdrawal in the beginning and became delirium tremens, due to similar symptoms.

  1. Income inequality, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Roberts, Sarah C M; Bond, Jason

    2013-04-01

    We examined the relationship between state-level income inequality and alcohol outcomes and sought to determine whether associations of inequality with alcohol consumption and problems would be more evident with between-race inequality measures than with the Gini coefficient. We also sought to determine whether inequality would be most detrimental for disadvantaged individuals. Data from 2 nationally representative samples of adults (n = 13,997) from the 2000 and 2005 National Alcohol Surveys were merged with state-level inequality and neighborhood disadvantage indicators from the 2000 US Census. We measured income inequality using the Gini coefficient and between-race poverty ratios (Black-White and Hispanic-White). Multilevel models accounted for clustering of respondents within states. Inequality measured by poverty ratios was positively associated with light and heavy drinking. Associations between poverty ratios and alcohol problems were strongest for Blacks and Hispanics compared with Whites. Household poverty did not moderate associations with income inequality. Poverty ratios were associated with alcohol use and problems, whereas overall income inequality was not. Higher levels of alcohol problems in high-inequality states may be partly due to social context.

  2. Aromatic Amino Acid-Derived Compounds Induce Morphological Changes and Modulate the Cell Growth of Wine Yeast Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Beatriz; Vázquez, Jennifer; Cullen, Paul J; Mas, Albert; Beltran, Gemma; Torija, María-Jesús

    2018-01-01

    Yeasts secrete a large diversity of compounds during alcoholic fermentation, which affect growth rates and developmental processes, like filamentous growth. Several compounds are produced during aromatic amino acid metabolism, including aromatic alcohols, serotonin, melatonin, and tryptamine. We evaluated the effects of these compounds on growth parameters in 16 different wine yeasts, including non- Saccharomyces wine strains, for which the effects of these compounds have not been well-defined. Serotonin, tryptamine, and tryptophol negatively influenced yeast growth, whereas phenylethanol and tyrosol specifically affected non- Saccharomyces strains. The effects of the aromatic alcohols were observed at concentrations commonly found in wines, suggesting a possible role in microbial interaction during wine fermentation. Additionally, we demonstrated that aromatic alcohols and ethanol are able to affect invasive and pseudohyphal growth in a manner dependent on nutrient availability. Some of these compounds showed strain-specific effects. These findings add to the understanding of the fermentation process and illustrate the diversity of metabolic communication that may occur among related species during metabolic processes.

  3. Carbon 14 and tritium radioactivity of alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerain, J.; Tourliere, S.

    1975-01-01

    The method of measuring carbon 14 radioactivity of alcohols has been perfected in order to establish the correct determination of synthetic alcohol added to fermentation alcohol. The specific carbon and tritium activity of alcohol of different origins have been determined for 1973 and 1974. The Suess effect and nuclear fall-out are observed [fr

  4. 21 CFR 328.10 - Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcohol. 328.10 Section 328.10 Food and Drugs FOOD...-THE-COUNTER DRUG PRODUCTS INTENDED FOR ORAL INGESTION THAT CONTAIN ALCOHOL Ingredients § 328.10 Alcohol. (a) Any over-the-counter (OTC) drug product intended for oral ingestion shall not contain alcohol...

  5. Management of Chronic Alcoholism in Nigeria | Oghagbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reviews the problems that could arise from alcohol abuse and dependence, the biochemistry of alcohol metabolism, laboratory findings and drug treatment of alcoholism. It emphasizes the need to view alcoholism as a disease that need prompt attention. Furthermore, it discussed the various treatment modalities ...

  6. Cryptorchidism and maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ida N; Jensen, Tina Kold; Petersen, Jørgen H

    2007-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can adversely affect the fetus. We investigated the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and cryptorchidism (undescended testis) among newborn boys.......Prenatal exposure to alcohol can adversely affect the fetus. We investigated the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and cryptorchidism (undescended testis) among newborn boys....

  7. 48 CFR 908.7107 - Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol. 908.7107 Section... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7107 Alcohol. (a) This section covers (1) Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, (ATF), Treasury Department, alcohol regulations...

  8. Alcoholism among Hispanics--A Growing Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rolando

    1979-01-01

    A major concern to anyone involved in the alcoholism field is the basic understanding of alcoholism as a disease that Hispanics have not yet completely accepted. Hispanics have usually labeled the use of alcoholic beverages as being embedded into Hispanic culture and have viewed alcoholism as an individual weakness to be endured in silence. (NQ)

  9. Children's Alcohol Initiation: An Analytic Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Bernadette; Snow, Pamela; Aroni, Rosalie

    2010-01-01

    Many parents support the "supervised introduction" of alcohol to children. While initiation to regular alcohol consumption in early adolescence has been linked with alcohol-related problems in adult life, the findings from these studies cannot be extrapolated to early childhood. The definition of initiation to alcohol in early childhood is often…

  10. A prospective toxicology analysis in alcoholics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørgen Lange; Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Felby, Søren

    1997-01-01

    A prospective and comprehensive investigation was done on 73 medico–legal autopsies in alcoholics. The results of the toxicology analyses are described. Alcohol intoxication was the cause of death in 8%, combined alcohol/drug intoxication in 15% and drugs alone in 19%. Alcoholic ketoacidosis...

  11. Alcohol consumption and tolerance of Neurospora crassa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The alcohol consumption and tolerance of the ascomycete Neurospora crassa was investigated in this study. This fungus is able to utilize both native alcohol and non-native alcohols as carbon sources, yet little is known about the enzymes involved in these processes. The deletion of alcohol dehydroge...

  12. Syndrome Analysis: Chronic Alcoholism in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendorf, James E.

    1990-01-01

    Provides outline narrative of most possible outcomes of regular heavy alcohol use, regular alcohol abuse, or chronic alcoholism. A systems analysis approach is used to expose conditions that may result when a human organism is subjected to excessive and chronic alcohol consumption. Such an approach illustrates the detrimental effects which alcohol…

  13. 27 CFR 4.36 - Alcoholic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36 Section 4.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.36...

  14. 78 FR 41940 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group; Biomedical Research Review Subcommittee. Date: October 22, 2013... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers...

  15. 78 FR 65347 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict Applications--Basic Sciences. Date...: National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20855...

  16. 76 FR 15989 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis Panel, RFA on AIDS Consortium. Date: April 21-22, 2011. Time: 8 a.m..., Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National...

  17. 75 FR 53320 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcoholism, Special Emphasis Panel, Review of Resource Grant Applications (R24). Date: November 3, 2010. Time..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National...

  18. 77 FR 22793 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group Neuroscience Review Subcommittee. Date: June 13, 2012. Time: 8 a.m... Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  19. 75 FR 10293 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism, Initial Review Group Neuroscience Review Subcommittee. Date: June 7-8, 2010. Time: 8 a.... Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health...

  20. 75 FR 38533 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel ZAA1 HH01--AA3 Member Conflicts. Date: July 30, 2010. Time: 11 a... Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities...