Sample records for amine catalyzed silica

  1. Understanding amine catalyzed silica polymerization : diatoms as bioarchitects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spoerke, Erik David; Aubry, Sylvie; Lane, Pamela; Robinson, David B; Bauer, Christina A.; Zendejas, Frank; Tran, Huu; Lane, Todd W.; Simmons, Blake Alexander


    Current state-of-the-art biomimetic methodologies employed worldwide for the realization of self-assembled nanomaterials are adequate for certain unique applications, but a major breakthrough is needed if these nanomaterials are to obtain their true promise and potential. These routes typically utilize a 'top-down' approach in terms of controlling the nucleation, growth, and deposition of structured nanomaterials. Most of these techniques are inherently limited to primarily 2D and simple 3D structures, and are therefore limited in their ultimate functionality and field of use. Zeolites, one of the best-known and understood synthetic silica structures, typically possess highly ordered silica domains over very small length scales. The development of truly organized and hierarchical zeolites over several length scales remains an intense area of research world wide. Zeolites typically require high-temperature and complex synthesis routes that negatively impact certain economic parameters and, therefore, the ultimate utility of these materials. Nonetheless, zeolite usage is in the tons per year worldwide and is quickly becoming ubiquitous in its applications. In addition to these more mature aspects of current practices in materials science, one of the most promising fields of nanotechnology lies in the advent and control of biologically self-assembled materials, especially those involved with silica and other ceramics such as hydroxyapatite. Nature has derived, through billions of years of evolutionary steps, numerous methods by which fault-tolerant and mechanically robust structures can be created with exquisite control and precision at relatively low temperature ranges and pressures. Diatoms are one of the best known examples that exhibit this degree of structure and control known that is involved with the biomineralization of silica. Diatoms are eukaryotic algae that are ubiquitous in marine and freshwater environments. They are a dominant form of

  2. Silica Chloride Nano Particle Catalyzed Ring Opening of Epoxides by Aromatic Amines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karimian Ramin; Piri Farideh; Karimi Babak; Moghimi Abolghasem


    Silica chloride nano particle (nano SiO2-Cl), has been found to be heterogeneous catalyst for facile, simple and mild ring opening of epoxides with aromatic amines to afford β-amino alcohols in dry CH2Cl2 at room temperature.

  3. Palladium-catalyzed amination of allyl alcohols. (United States)

    Ghosh, Raju; Sarkar, Amitabha


    An efficient catalytic amination of aryl-substituted allylic alcohols has been developed. The complex [(η(3)-allyl)PdCl](2) modified by a bis phosphine ligand, L, has been used as catalyst in the reaction that afforded a wide range of allyl amines in good to excellent yield under mild conditions.

  4. Amine-functionalized porous silicas as adsorbents for aldehyde abatement. (United States)

    Nomura, Akihiro; Jones, Christopher W


    A series of aminopropyl-functionalized silicas containing of primary, secondary, or tertiary amines is fabricated via silane-grafting on mesoporous SBA-15 silica and the utility of each material in the adsorption of volatile aldehydes from air is systematically assessed. A particular emphasis is placed on low-molecular-weight aldehydes such as formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, which are highly problematic volatile organic compound (VOC) pollutants. The adsorption tests demonstrate that the aminosilica materials with primary amines most effectively adsorbed formaldehyde with an adsorption capacity of 1.4 mmolHCHO g(-1), whereas the aminosilica containing secondary amines showed lower adsorption capacity (0.80 mmolHCHO g(-1)) and the aminosilica containing tertiary amines adsorbed a negligible amount of formaldehyde. The primary amine containing silica also successfully abated higher aldehyde VOC pollutants, including acetaldehyde, hexanal, and benzaldehyde, by effectively adsorbing them. The adsorption mechanism is investigated by (13)C CP MAS solid-state NMR and FT-Raman spectroscopy, and it is demonstrated that the aldehydes are chemically attached to the surface of aminosilica in the form of imines and hemiaminals. The high aldehyde adsorption capacities of the primary aminosilicas in this study demonstrate the utility of amine-functionalized silica materials for reduction of gaseous aldehydes.

  5. Mesoporous Silica: A Suitable Adsorbent for Amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahzadeh-Ghom Sara


    Full Text Available Abstract Mesoporous silica with KIT-6 structure was investigated as a preconcentrating material in chromatographic systems for ammonia and trimethylamine. Its adsorption capacity was compared to that of existing commercial materials, showing its increased adsorption power. In addition, KIT-6 mesoporous silica efficiently adsorbs both gases, while none of the employed commercial adsorbents did. This means that KIT-6 Mesoporous silica may be a good choice for integrated chromatography/gas sensing micro-devices.

  6. Lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. (United States)

    Gorlewska-Roberts, Katarzyna M; Teitel, Candee H; Lay, Jackson O; Roberts, Dean W; Kadlubar, Fred F


    Lactoperoxidase, an enzyme secreted from the human mammary gland, plays a host defensive role through antimicrobial activity. It has been implicated in mutagenic and carcinogenic activation in the human mammary gland. The potential role of heterocyclic and aromatic amines in the etiology of breast cancer led us to examination of the lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation of the most commonly studied arylamine carcinogens: 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]-pyridine (PhIP), benzidine, 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx). In vitro activation was performed with lactoperoxidase (partially purified from bovine milk or human milk) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and calf thymus DNA. Products formed during enzymatic activation were monitored by HPLC with ultraviolet and radiometric detection. Two of these products were characterized as hydrazo and azo derivatives by means of mass spectrometry. The DNA binding level of 3H- and 14C-radiolabeled amines after peroxidase-catalyzed activation was dependent on the hydrogen peroxide concentration, and the highest levels of carcinogen binding to DNA were observed at 100 microM H2O2. Carcinogen activation and the level of binding to DNA were in the order of benzidine > ABP > IQ > MeIQx > PhIP. One of the ABP adducts was identified, and the level at which it is formed was estimated to be six adducts/10(5) nucleotides. The susceptibility of aromatic and heterocyclic amines for lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation and the binding levels of activated products to DNA suggest a potential role of lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation of carcinogens in the etiology of breast cancer.

  7. Iridium- and Ruthenium-Catalyzed N-alkylation of Amines with Alcohols and Amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentz-Petersen, Linda Luise Reeh

    via folding assisted ligation. One segment was synthesised as the C-terminal thioester by Boc-SPPS and the other segment as a C-terminal acid by Fmoc-SPPS. The sites of mutation were all in the α-helical region of the protein and the mutation choices were alanine and Aib, which both posses a high α...... is environmentally benign as it is performed in the absence of both solvent and additives and the only by-product is ammonia. Additionally, the work-up procedure is a simple distillation of the product directly from the reaction mixture. Synthesis of piperazines In the Madsen group it has previously been...... catalysts have been employed for the N-alkylation of amines with either alcohols or amines. Synthesis of secondary amines Self-condensation of primary amines afforded secondary amines in good to high yields. The reaction is catalyzed by the commercially available [Cp*IrCl2]2 complex. The procedure...

  8. Highly Aminated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles with Cubic Pore Structure

    KAUST Repository

    Suteewong, Teeraporn


    Mesoporous silica with cubic symmetry has attracted interest from researchers for some time. Here, we present the room temperature synthesis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles possessing cubic Pm3n symmetry with very high molar ratios (>50%) of 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane. The synthesis is robust allowing, for example, co-condensation of organic dyes without loss of structure. By means of pore expander molecules, the pore size can be enlarged from 2.7 to 5 nm, while particle size decreases. Adding pore expander and co-condensing fluorescent dyes in the same synthesis reduces average particle size further down to 100 nm. After PEGylation, such fluorescent aminated mesoporous silica nanoparticles are spontaneously taken up by cells as demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy.

  9. Copper(II)-catalyzed electrophilic amination of quinoline N-oxides with O-benzoyl hydroxylamines. (United States)

    Li, Gang; Jia, Chunqi; Sun, Kai; Lv, Yunhe; Zhao, Feng; Zhou, Kexiao; Wu, Hankui


    Copper acetate-catalyzed C-H bond functionalization amination of quinoline N-oxides was achieved using O-benzoyl hydroxylamine as an electrophilic amination reagent, thereby affording the desired products in moderate to excellent yields. Electrophilic amination can also be performed in good yield on a gram scale.

  10. Reductive amination of aldehydes and ketones using sodium borohydride in the presence of silica chloride under solvent-free conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heshmatollah; Alinezhad; Mahmood; Tajbakhsh; Neda; Hamidi


    A simple and convenient procedure for the preparation of amines from aldehydes and ketones with sodium borohydride activated by silica chloride as a catalyst under solvent-free conditions is described.A variety of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes,ketones and amines when mixed with NaBH_4/silica chloride at room temperature,afforded excellent yield of the corresponding amines.

  11. Silica nanospheres formation induced by peroxidase-catalyzed phenol polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    To examine whether lignin-like compound is correlated with silica precipitation in grass, a series of simulated chemical experiments were carried out at ambient temperature and pressure, close to cell wall pH, with phenol polymerization catalyzed by peroxidase in silicon solution. The experiments showed that phenol polymer (a kind of lignin-like substance) caused silica nanosphere precipitation similar to those caused by protein in diatom cell wall previously reported by other authors. The sphere diameter varied with different kinds of phenol and the concentrations of phenol and silicon. Silicon precipitation had phenol and silicon saturation effect, meaning that when the concentration ratio of soluble silicon to phenol exceeded a certain value, the amount of silicon precipitation would decrease.

  12. Silver-catalyzed synthesis of amides from amines and aldehydes (United States)

    Madix, Robert J; Zhou, Ling; Xu, Bingjun; Friend, Cynthia M; Freyschlag, Cassandra G


    The invention provides a method for producing amides via the reaction of aldehydes and amines with oxygen adsorbed on a metallic silver or silver alloy catalyst. An exemplary reaction is shown in Scheme 1: (I), (II), (III). ##STR00001##

  13. Iridium‐Catalyzed Condensation of Amines and Vicinal Diols to Substituted Piperazines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentz-Petersen, Linda Luise Reeh; Nordstrøm, Lars Ulrik Rubæk; Madsen, Robert


    A straightforward procedure is described for the synthesis of piperazines from amines and 1,2‐diols. The heterocyclization is catalyzed by [Cp*IrCl2]2 and sodium hydrogen carbonate and can be achieved with either toluene or water as solvent. The transformation does not require any stoichiometric...... is believed to involve dehydrogenation of the 1,2‐diol to the α‐hydroxy aldehyde, which condenses with the amine to form the α‐hydroxy imine. The latter rearranges to the corresponding α‐amino carbonyl compound, which then reacts with another amine followed by reduction of the resulting imine....

  14. Amine functionalized cubic mesoporous silica nanoparticles as an oral delivery system for curcumin bioavailability enhancement (United States)

    Budi Hartono, Sandy; Hadisoewignyo, Lannie; Yang, Yanan; Meka, Anand Kumar; Antaresti; Yu, Chengzhong


    In the present work, a simple method was used to develop composite curcumin-amine functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN). The nanoparticles were used to improve the bioavailability of curcumin in mice through oral administration. We investigated the effect of particle size on the release profile, solubility and oral bioavailability of curcumin in mice, including amine functionalized mesoporous silica micron-sized-particles (MSM) and MSN (100-200 nm). Curcumin loaded within amine functionalized MSN (MSN-A-Cur) had a better release profile and a higher solubility compared to amine MSM (MSM-A-Cur). The bioavailability of MSN-A-Cur and MSM-A-Cur was considerably higher than that of ‘free curcumin’. These results indicate promising features of amine functionalized MSN as a carrier to deliver low solubility drugs with improved bioavailability via the oral route.

  15. Trimodal nanoporous silica as a support for amine-based CO2 adsorbents: Improvement in adsorption capacity and kinetics (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Bhattacharjee, Samiran


    A trimodal nanoporous silica (TS) having unique trimodal pore structure viz., internal mesopores, textural mesopores and interconnected macropores, has been functionalized with amine using two different methods covalent grafting and wet impregnation. Both were studied as nanocomposite sorbents for CO2 capture. The effects of the amine loading, immobilization processes and the type of support were investigated. Commercially available silica gel (SG) with a purely mesoporous structure was studied as the support for the amine in order to compare differences in pore structure and amine loading with differences in CO2 adsorption capacity and kinetics. Amine-grafted TS exhibited much faster CO2 adsorption kinetics at 35 °C than amine-grafted SG. At the same amine loading, amine-impregnated TS showed higher CO2 adsorption capacity and faster CO2 adsorption kinetics than amine-impregnated SG. The CO2 adsorption capacity of amine-impregnated TS increased as the amine loading increased until 70%, with the highest value of 172 mg/g, while the amine-impregnated SG reached the highest CO2 adsorption capacity of only 78 mg/g at 40% amine loading. More importantly, amine-impregnated as-prepared TS exhibited even higher CO2 capture capacity than amine-impregnated TS when the amine loading was below 60%. Results suggest that amine-modified trimodal nanoporous silica sorbents meet the challenges of current CO2 capture technology.

  16. Palladium-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Primary Amines in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金恒; 江焕峰; 陈鸣才


    The chemoselectity of the palladimm-catalyzed carbonylation of amines was affected by the addition of MeOH in supercritical carbon dioxide. The results show different selectivity in supercritical carbon dioxide CO2(sc) from that in alcohol.Methyl carbamate and its derivatives were obtained in high yields in CO2(sc).

  17. Mechanistic study on the ruthenium-catalyzed direct amination of alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pingen, Dennis; Lutz, Martin; Vogt, Dieter


    The Ru-catalyzed direct amination of alcohols with ammonia was investigated for the RuHCl(CO)(PPh3)3/Xantphos system in order to gain mechanistic insight. For several Ru(II) precursor complexes the influence of different additives on catalytic performance was investigated. NMR studies revealed that

  18. Copper and amine free Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction catalyzed by efficient diphosphane-palladium catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting He; Lei Lei Wu; Xing Li Fu; Hai Yan Fu; Hua Chen; Rui Xiang Li


    The commercially available diphosphane ligand MeO-BIPHEP was first investigated in the palladium-catalyzed Sonogashira reaction in the absence of copper and amine. The coupling of various aryl bromides and aryl chlorides with phenylacetylene gave moderate to excellent yields.

  19. Support influences in the Pd-catalyzed racemization and dynamic kinetic resolution of chiral benzylic amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parvulescu, A.N.; Jacobs, P.A.; De Vos, D.E.


    The acid–base properties of the supports for Pd catalysts strongly affect their performance in racemization and dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR) of chiral benzylic amines. The need for a basic support was proven by comparing the racemization results obtained for Pd on silica, on LDH (layered double

  20. Amine modification of nonporous silica nanoparticles reduces inflammatory response following intratracheal instillation in murine lungs. (United States)

    Morris, Angie S; Adamcakova-Dodd, Andrea; Lehman, Sean E; Wongrakpanich, Amaraporn; Thorne, Peter S; Larsen, Sarah C; Salem, Aliasger K


    Amorphous silica nanoparticles (NPs) possess unique material properties that make them ideal for many different applications. However, the impact of these materials on human and environmental health needs to be established. We investigated nonporous silica NPs both bare and modified with amine functional groups (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)) in order to evaluate the effect of surface chemistry on biocompatibility. In vitro data showed there to be little to no cytotoxicity in a human lung cancer epithelial cell line (A549) for bare silica NPs and amine-functionalized NPs using doses based on both mass concentration (below 200μg/mL) and exposed total surface area (below 14m(2)/L). To assess lung inflammation, C57BL/6 mice were administered bare or amine-functionalized silica NPs via intra-tracheal instillation. Two doses (0.1 and 0.5mg NPs/mouse) were tested using the in vivo model. At the higher dose used, bare silica NPs elicited a significantly higher inflammatory response, as evidence by increased neutrophils and total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid compared to amine-functionalized NPs. From this study, we conclude that functionalization of nonporous silica NPs with APTES molecules reduces murine lung inflammation and improves the overall biocompatibility of the nanomaterial.

  1. Adsorption of formaldehyde vapor by amine-functionalized mesoporous silica materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SRISUDA Saeung; VIROTE Boonamnuayvitaya


    The amine-functionalized mesoporous silica materials were prepared via the co-condensation reaction of tetraethoxysilane and three types of organoalkoxysilanes:3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane,n-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane,and 3-(2-(2-aminoehtylamino)ethylamino) propyl-trimethoxysilane.Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide was used as a template for forming pores.Specific surface area and pore volume of the amine-functionalized mesoporous silica materials were determined using surface area and pore size analyzer.Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscope was employed for identifying the functional groups on pore surface.In addition,the amine-functionalized mesoporous silica materials were applied as adsorbents for adsorbing formaldehyde vapor.FTIR spectra showed the evidence of the reaction between formaldehyde molecules and amine groups on pore surface of adsorbents.The equilibrium data of formaldehyde adsorbed on the adsorbents were analyzed using the Langmuir,Freundiich and Temkin isotherm.The sample functionalized from n-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane showed the highest adsorption capacity owing to its amine groups and the large pore diameter.

  2. Adsorption of formaldehyde vapor by amine-functionalized mesoporous silica materials. (United States)

    Srisuda, Saeung; Virote, Boonamnuayvitaya


    The amine-functionalized mesoporous silica materials were prepared via the co-condensation reaction of tetraethoxysilane and three types of organoalkoxysilanes: 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane, n-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane, and 3-(2-(2-aminoehtylamino)ethylamino) propyl-trimethoxysilane. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide was used as a template for forming pores. Specific surface area and pore volume of the amine-functionalized mesoporous silica materials were determined using surface area and pore size analyzer. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscope was employed for identifying the functional groups on pore surface. In addition, the amine-functionalized mesoporous silica materials were applied as adsorbents for adsorbing formaldehyde vapor. FTIR spectra showed the evidence of the reaction between formaldehyde molecules and amine groups on pore surface of adsorbents. The equilibrium data of formaldehyde adsorbed on the adsorbents were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm. The sample functionalized from n-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane showed the highest adsorption capacity owing to its amine groups and the large pore diameter.

  3. Iridium-catalyzed asymmetric ring-opening reactions of oxabicyclic alkenes with secondary amine nucleophiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingqiao Yang


    Full Text Available Iridium-catalyzed asymmetric ring-opening reactions of oxabicyclic alkenes with various aliphatic and aromatic secondary amines are reported for the first time. The reaction gave the corresponding trans-1,2-dihydronaphthalenol derivatives in good yields with moderate enantioselectivities in the presence of 2.5 mol % [Ir(CODCl]2 and 5 mol % bisphosphine ligand (S-p-Tol-BINAP. The trans-configuration of 3f was confirmed by X-ray crystallography.

  4. Amide Synthesis from Alcohols and Amines Catalyzed by Ruthenium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Johan Hygum; Osztrovszky, Gyorgyi; Nordstrøm, Lars Ulrik Rubæk


    The direct synthesis of amides from alcohols and amines is described with the simultaneous liberation of dihydrogen. The reaction does not require any stoichiometric additives or hydrogen acceptors and is catalyzed by ruthenium N-heterocyclic carbene complexes. Three different catalyst systems...... chloride and base. A range of different primary alcohols and amines have been coupled in the presence of the three catalyst systems to afford the corresponding amides in moderate to excellent yields. The best results are obtained with sterically unhindered alcohols and amines. The three catalyst systems do...... not show any significant differences in reactivity, which indicates that the same catalytically active species is operating. The reaction is believed to proceed by initial dehydrogenation of the primary alcohol to the aldehyde that stays coordinated to ruthenium and is not released into the reaction...

  5. Amine-functionalized magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles for DNA separation (United States)

    Sheng, Wei; Wei, Wei; Li, Junjian; Qi, Xiaoliang; Zuo, Gancheng; Chen, Qi; Pan, Xihao; Dong, Wei


    We report a modified approach for the functionalized magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MMSN) using polymer microspheres incorporated with magnetic nanoparticles in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and the core-shell magnetic silica nanoparticles (MSN). These particles were functionalized with amino groups via the addition of aminosilane directly to the particle sol. We then evaluate their DNA separation abilities and find the capacity of DNA binding significantly increased (210.22 μg/mg) compared with normal magnetic silica spheres (138.44 μg/mg) by using an ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer (UV). The morphologies, magnetic properties, particle size, pore size, core-shell structure and Zeta potential are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). This work demonstrates that our MMSN own an excellent potential application in bioseparation and drug delivery.

  6. Amines immobilized double-walled silica nanotubes for CO2 capture. (United States)

    Ko, Young Gun; Lee, Hyun Jeong; Oh, Hyun Chul; Choi, Ung Su


    Novel silica support has been required for high amine loading and good CO2 molecule diffusion into its pores to increase the performance of CO2 adsorbents. Herein, amine groups supported on double-walled silica nanotubes (DWSNTs) have been prepared via the immobilization of various aminosilanes (primary, secondary, tertiary, di-, and tri-aminosilanes) on DWSNT, and found to be a very effective adsorbent for CO2 capture. Amine groups immobilized DWSNTs captured CO2 reversibly in a temperature swing process at various adsorption temperatures (25°C, 50°C, 75°C, and 100°C). The amines on modified DWSNTs showed high CO2 capture capacity in the order of tri-, di-, primary, secondary, and tertiary amines. The CO2 capture capacity of all aminosilanes immobilized DWSNTs decreased linearly with the increase of the adsorption temperature. We expect that DWSNT would be able to inspire researchers to use it not only as a support for CO2 capture but also as a promising candidate for various applications.

  7. Immobilization of Magnetic Nanoparticles onto Amine-Modified Nano-Silica Gel for Copper Ions Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Elkady


    Full Text Available A novel nano-hybrid was synthesized through immobilization of amine-functionalized silica gel nanoparticles with nanomagnetite via a co-precipitation technique. The parameters, such as reagent concentrations, reaction temperature and time, were optimized to accomplish the nano-silica gel chelating matrix. The most proper amine-modified silica gel nanoparticles were immobilized with magnetic nanoparticles. The synthesized magnetic amine nano-silica gel (MANSG was established and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM. The feasibility of MANSG for copper ions’ remediation from wastewater was examined. MANSG achieves a 98% copper decontamination from polluted water within 90 min. Equilibrium sorption of copper ions onto MANSG nanoparticles obeyed the Langmuir equation compared to the Freundlich, Temkin, Elovich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R equilibrium isotherm models. The pseudo-second-order rate kinetics is appropriate to describe the copper sorption process onto the fabricated MANSG.

  8. Amine-functionalized magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles for DNA separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Wei; Wei, Wei; Li, Junjian; Qi, Xiaoliang; Zuo, Gancheng; Chen, Qi; Pan, Xihao; Dong, Wei, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2}@EDPS with uniform size and good dispersity is prepared. • We fabricated MMSN@EDPS with distinct core-shell–shell triple-layer composition. • DNA adsorption capacity of MMSN@EDPS is considerable. - Abstract: We report a modified approach for the functionalized magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MMSN) using polymer microspheres incorporated with magnetic nanoparticles in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and the core-shell magnetic silica nanoparticles (MSN). These particles were functionalized with amino groups via the addition of aminosilane directly to the particle sol. We then evaluate their DNA separation abilities and find the capacity of DNA binding significantly increased (210.22 μg/mg) compared with normal magnetic silica spheres (138.44 μg/mg) by using an ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer (UV). The morphologies, magnetic properties, particle size, pore size, core-shell structure and Zeta potential are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). This work demonstrates that our MMSN own an excellent potential application in bioseparation and drug delivery.

  9. Analyzing site selectivity in Rh2(esp)2-catalyzed intermolecular C-H amination reactions. (United States)

    Bess, Elizabeth N; DeLuca, Ryan J; Tindall, Daniel J; Oderinde, Martins S; Roizen, Jennifer L; Du Bois, J; Sigman, Matthew S


    Predicting site selectivity in C-H bond oxidation reactions involving heteroatom transfer is challenged by the small energetic differences between disparate bond types and the subtle interplay of steric and electronic effects that influence reactivity. Herein, the factors governing selective Rh2(esp)2-catalyzed C-H amination of isoamylbenzene derivatives are investigated, where modification to both the nitrogen source, a sulfamate ester, and substrate are shown to impact isomeric product ratios. Linear regression mathematical modeling is used to define a relationship that equates both IR stretching parameters and Hammett σ(+) values to the differential free energy of benzylic versus tertiary C-H amination. This model has informed the development of a novel sulfamate ester, which affords the highest benzylic-to-tertiary site selectivity (9.5:1) observed for this system.

  10. Alcohol amination with ammonia catalyzed by an acridine-based ruthenium pincer complex: a mechanistic study. (United States)

    Ye, Xuan; Plessow, Philipp N; Brinks, Marion K; Schelwies, Mathias; Schaub, Thomas; Rominger, Frank; Paciello, Rocco; Limbach, Michael; Hofmann, Peter


    The mechanistic course of the amination of alcohols with ammonia catalyzed by a structurally modified congener of Milstein's well-defined acridine-based PNP-pincer Ru complex has been investigated both experimentally and by DFT calculations. Several key Ru intermediates have been isolated and characterized. The detailed analysis of a series of possible catalytic pathways (e.g., with and without metal-ligand cooperation, inner- and outer-sphere mechanisms) leads us to conclude that the most favorable pathway for this catalyst does not require metal-ligand cooperation.

  11. Amination Reactions of Aryl Halides with Nitrogen-Containing Reagents Catalyzed by Cul in Ionic Liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN,Jin-Can; ZHOU,Li; WANG,Lei


    CuI-catalyzed coupling reactions of aryl iodides and electron-deficient aryl bromides with nitrogen-containing reagents, such as imidazole, benzimidazole, aliphatic primary and secondary amines, aniline, primary and secondary amides, in ionic liquid were developed. The reaction conditions involved the use of[Bmim][BF4] as the solvent,potassium phosphate as the base, and CuI as the catalyst. The CuI and[Bmim][BF4] could be recovered and recycled for five consecutive trials without significant loss of their activity.

  12. Improving adsorbent properties of cage-like ordered amine functionalized mesoporous silica with very large pores for bioadsorption. (United States)

    Budi Hartono, Sandy; Qiao, Shi Zhang; Jack, Kevin; Ladewig, Bradley P; Hao, Zhengping; Lu, Gao Qing Max


    In this paper, we report the successful synthesis of amine-functionalized FDU-12-type mesoporous silica with a very large pore (30.2 nm) and a highly ordered mesostructure by using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) as an organosilane source. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements confirmed that the materials possessed a face-centered cubic (space group Fm3m) mesostructure. Different techniques were used to obtain a significant pore and entrance size enlargement: low synthesis temperature and high hydrothermal treatment temperature. The amount of amine organosilane influenced the mesostructure of the mesoporous silica. It was found that the addition of inorganic salt (KCl) could help to maintain an ordered structure of the large pore mesoporous material. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), solid-state magic-angle spinning (MAS) 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) verified the incorporation of amine functional groups on the surface of the materials. The addition of amine organosilane extended the synthesis temperature domain of ordered FDU-12 materials. The amine functional group significantly enhanced the adsorption capacity of the mesoporous materials, e.g., the amine functionalized mesoporous silica had 8-fold higher bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption capacity than that of the unfunctionalized one. It also had 2 times higher adsorption capacity for large cellulase enzymes. The amine functional group introduced positively charged groups on the surface of the mesoporous silica, which created strong electrostatic interactions between the protein and the silica.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hui; YANG Shu; LUO Yunjun


    A new method to chemically modify the surface of nanosized-SiO2 was studied in this paper. Nanosized-SiO2 was grafted with hyperbranched poly(amin ester) through one-spot polycondensation between AB2 monomer and active hydroxyl on silica surface in present of catalyst.Compared with the results of FTIR and TEM, it is found hyperbranched poly(amin ester) is successfully grafted on the surface of nanosized-SiO2 and the surface properties have been changed with an expected way. The results indicate that nanosized-SiO2 grafted with hyperbranched poly(amin ester) has better dispersion in the ethanol or chloroform than that unmodified.

  14. Microwave-assisted chemoselective copper-catalyzed amination of o-chloro and o-bromobenzoic acids using aromatic amines under solvent free conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaghoub Sarrafi; Manijeh Mohadeszadeh; Kamal Alimohammadi


    Copper-catalyzed synthesis of N-aryl anthranilic acid derivatives using effective amination of 2-chloro and 2-bromobenzoic acid under microwave irradiation is reported. Some of the advantages of this method axe high chemoselectivity, short reaction times, ease of work up procedure and elimination of the need for acid protection.

  15. Rate equations for sodium catalyzed amorphous silica dissolution (United States)

    Rimstidt, J. Donald; Zhang, Yilun; Zhu, Chen


    Newly measured amorphous silica dissolution rate data were combined with data from the literature to produce an equation that predicts the dissolution flux (J, mol/m2 s) of amorphous silica as a function of temperature (T, K), sodium concentration (mNa+, molal), and hydrogen ion activity (aH+).

  16. Rh(III)-Catalyzed C-H Bond Addition/Amine-Mediated Cyclization of Bis-Michael Acceptors. (United States)

    Potter, Tyler J; Ellman, Jonathan A


    A Rh(III)-catalyzed C-H bond addition/primary amine-promoted cyclization of bis-Michael acceptors is reported. The C-H bond addition step occurs with high chemoselectivity, and the subsequent intramolecular Michael addition, mediated by a primary amine catalyst, sets three contiguous stereocenters with high diastereoselectivity. A broad range of directing groups and both aromatic and alkenyl C-H bonds were shown to be effective in this transformation, affording functionalized piperidines, tetrahydropyrans, and cyclohexanes.

  17. Copper-catalyzed direct amination of quinoline N-oxides via C-H bond activation under mild conditions. (United States)

    Zhu, Chongwei; Yi, Meiling; Wei, Donghui; Chen, Xuan; Wu, Yangjie; Cui, Xiuling


    A highly efficient and concise one-pot strategy for the direct amination of quinoline N-oxides via copper-catalyzed dehydrogenative C-N coupling has been developed. The desired products were obtained in good to excellent yields for 22 examples starting from the parent aliphatic amines. This methodology provides a practical pathway to 2-aminoquinolines and features a simple system, high efficiency, environmental friendliness, low reaction temperature, and ligand, additives, base, and external oxidant free conditions.

  18. Dimedone-catalyzed Addition of Amines into Cyano Group: Facile Synthesis of Thiazol-2-yl Substituted E-Acrylonitriles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱伟军; 屠兴超; 冯惠; 屠蔓苏; 姜波; 吴飞跃; 屠树江


    An efficient dimedone-catalyzed synthesis of highly functionalized thiazol-2-yl substituted E-acrylonitrile derivatives has been established through two-step reaction of a-thiocyanate ketones with malononitrile and amines. The a-thiocyanate ketones were subjected with malononitrile to provide thiazol-2-ylidenemalononitrile derivatives, followed with various amines in the presence of dimedone to yield the final thiazol-2-yl substituted acrylonitrile derivatives.

  19. Novel multiparametric approach to elucidate the surface amine-silanization reaction profile on fluorescent silica nanoparticles. (United States)

    Roy, Shibsekhar; Dixit, Chandra K; Woolley, Robert; MacCraith, Brian D; O'Kennedy, Richard; McDonagh, Colette


    This Article addresses the important issue of the characterization of surface functional groups for optical bioassay applications. We use a model system consisting of spherical dye-doped silica nanoparticles (NPs) that have been functionalized with amine groups whereby the encapsulated cyanine-based near-infrared dye fluorescence acts as a probe of the NP surface environment. This facilitates the identification of the optimum deposition parameters for the formation of a stable ordered amine monolayer and also elucidates the functionalization profile of the amine-silanization process. Specifically, we use a novel approach where the techniques of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and fluorescence lifetime measurement (FL) are used in conjunction with the more conventional analytical techniques of zeta potential measurement and Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The dynamics of the ordering of the amine layer in different stages of the reaction have been characterized by FTIR, FL, and FCS. The results indicate an optimum reaction time for the formation of a stable amine layer, which is optimized for further biomolecular conjugation, whereas extended reaction times lead to a disordered cross-linked layer. The results have been validated using an immunoglobulin (IgG) plate-based direct binding assay where the maximum number of IgG-conjugated aminated NPs were captured by immobilized anti-IgG antibodies for the NP sample corresponding to the optimized amine-silanization condition. Importantly, these results point to the potential of FCS and FL as useful analytical tools in diverse fields such as characterization of surface functionalization.

  20. Rh-Catalyzed, Regioselective, C-H Bond Functionalization: Access to Quinoline-Branched Amines and Dimers. (United States)

    Reddy, M Damoder; Fronczek, Frank R; Watkins, E Blake


    Rh-catalyzed, chelation-induced, C-5 regioselective C-H functionalization of 8-amidoquinolines with a range of N-Boc aminals is reported for the first time. The addition of in situ generated imines to C(sp(2))-H bonds afforded branched amines in good to excellent yields. Moreover, this transformation features good functional group compatibility, broad substrate scope, and mild reaction conditions and is suitable for gram-scale synthesis. In addition, an unprecedented, chelation-induced, site-selective, remote dimerization of quinolines led to the formation of dimer frameworks in moderate yields under Rh-catalyzed conditions.

  1. Development of efficient amine-modified mesoporous silica SBA-15 for CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaoyun; Qin, Hongyan; Zheng, Xiuxin; Wu, Wei, E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A secondary amine AN-TEPA is used to modify the SBA-15. • CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity (180.1 mg g{sup −1}-adsorbent for 70% amine loading) is high. • The sorbent exhibits a high stability after 12 cycling runs. • The modified SBA-15 achieves complete desorption at low temperature (100 °C). - Abstract: A novel CO{sub 2} sorbent was prepared by impregnating mesoporous silica, SBA-15, with acrylonitrile (AN)-modified tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) in order to increase CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity and improve cycling stability. The mesoporous silica with pre- and post-surface modification was investigated by X-ray diffraction characterization (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption test (N{sub 2}-BET), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The adsorption/desorption performance of S-TN (TN: AN modified TEPA) and S-TEPA was studied by dynamic adsorption. Test results showed that the solid base-impregnated SBA-15 demonstrated high CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity (180.1 mg g{sup −1}-adsorbent for 70% amine loading level). Compared to S-TEPA (24.1% decrease of initial capacity), S-TN with 50% amine loading exhibited improved cycling stability, 99.9% activity reserved (from initial 153.0 mg g{sup −1} to 151.3 mg g{sup −1}) after 12 cycles of adsorption/desorption at 100 °C. A mechanism of molecular structure of the loaded amine was attributed to the improved performance.

  2. Oxidative Carbonylation of Aromatic Amines with CO Catalyzed by 1,3-Dialkylimidazole-2-selenone in Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengshou Tian


    Full Text Available 1,3-Dialkylimidazole-2-selenone as a novel substituted selenium heterocyclic catalyst was used to catalyze oxidative carbonylation of aromatic amines with carbon monoxide in the presence of air to symmetrical ureas in up to 97% yield in ionic liquids.

  3. Practical copper-catalyzed N-arylation of amines with 20% aqueous solution of n-Bu4NOH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamidreza Molaei; Mohammad Mehdi Ghanbari


    N-Arylation of a wide variety of amines with phenylboronic acid catalyzed by copper acetate under 20% aqueous solution of nBu4NOH was accomplished in good to excellent yields (up to 92%) and substrate conversions (up to 96%).

  4. Mechanistic Investigation of the Ruthenium–N-Heterocyclic-Carbene-Catalyzed Amidation of Alcohols and Amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarov, Ilya; Fristrup, Peter; Madsen, Robert


    The mechanism of the ruthenium–N-heterocyclic-carbene-catalyzed formation of amides from alcohols and amines was investigated by experimental techniques (Hammett studies, kinetic isotope effects) and by a computational study by using dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT/ M06......, but that it is one of several slow steps in the catalytic cycle. Rapid scrambling of hydrogen and deuterium at the a position of the alcohol was observed with deuterium-labeled substrates, which implies that the catalytically active species is a ruthenium dihydride. The experimental results were supported...... by the characterization of a plausible catalytic cycle by using DFT/M06. Both cisdihydride and trans-dihydride intermediates were considered, but when the theoretical turnover frequencies (TOFs) were derived directly from the calculated DFT/M06 energies, we found that only the trans-dihydride pathway was in agreement...

  5. [Novel access to indazoles based on palladium-catalyzed amination chemistry]. (United States)

    Inamoto, Kiyofumi


    Two efficient methods to construct the indazole nucleus have been developed, both of which utilize palladium-catalyzed intramolecular carbon-nitrogen bond formation. One is based on intramolecular Buchwald-Hartwig amination reaction of 2-halobenzophenone tosylhydrazones. The catalyst system we developed for this reaction allows the cyclization to proceed under very mild conditions and thus could be applied to a wide range of substrates with acid- or base-sensitive functional groups. Furthermore, this methodology could be applied for the construction of benzoisoxazole ring system. In addition, catalytic C-H activation with palladium followed by intramolecular amination of benzophenone tosylhydrazones was also accomplished with the aid of the catalyst system such as Pd(OAc)(2)/Cu(OAc)(2)/AgOCOCF(3), which gave another route to indazoles. Using this combination, indazoles with various functional groups could be obtained in good to high yields, especially in the case of substrates having electron donating group such as methoxy group on benzene ring. Interesting chemo- and regioselectivity were also observed in this reaction.

  6. Synthesis, characterization, and application of silica supported ionic liquid as catalyst for reductive amination of cyclohexanone with formic acid and triethyl amine as hydrogen source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashif H. Tamboli; Avinash A. Chaugule; Faheem A. Sheikh; Wook-Jin Chung; Hern Kim


    A silica supported ionic liquid was synthesized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption, and thermogravimetric analysis. All these techniques, especially SEM results indicated the presence of well-defined spherical particles having diameters larger than the pristine silica particles, confirming the successful immobilization of the ionic liquid. The prepared silica supported ionic liquid was used in the reductive amination of cyclohexanone under different conditions with different azeo-tropic mixtures of formic acid and triethyl amine as a hydrogen source. The catalyst showed effi-cient catalytic performance and excellent yields of N-cyclohexyl amine derivatives in the range of 58%to 84%at 30 °C. After completion of the reaction, the catalyst was easily recovered by simple filtration and reused for another five cycles without any significant impact on product yields. The obtained catalytic performance indicates that the present catalyst is green, very active, and reusable for the reductive amination of cyclohexanone.

  7. Luminescent silica nanoparticles for sensing acetylcholinesterase-catalyzed hydrolysis of acetylcholine. (United States)

    Mukhametshina, Alsu R; Fedorenko, Svetlana V; Zueva, Irina V; Petrov, Konstantin A; Masson, Patrick; Nizameev, Irek R; Mustafina, Asiya R; Sinyashin, Oleg G


    This work highlights the H-function of Tb(III)-doped silica nanoparticles in aqueous solutions of acetic acid as a route to sense acetylcholinesterase-catalyzed hydrolysis of acetylcholine (ACh). The H-function results from H(+)-induced quenching of Tb(III)-centered luminescence due to protonation of Tb(III) complexes located close to silica/water interface. The H-function can be turned on/switched off by the concentration of complexes within core or nanoparticle shell zones, by the silica surface decoration and adsorption of both organic and inorganic cations on silica surface. Results indicate the optimal synthetic procedure for making nanoparticles capable of sensing acetic acid produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of acetylcholine. The H-function of nanoparticles was determined at various concentrations of ACh and AChE. The measurements show experimental conditions for fitting the H-function to Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Results confirm that reliable fluorescent monitoring AChE-catalyzed hydrolysis of ACh is possible through the H-function properties of Tb(III)-doped silica nanoparticles.

  8. Silica-supported Copper(Ⅱ) Catalyzed Coupling of Arylboronic Acids with Imidazoles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-Yuan; WANG Lei


    Immobilized copper(Ⅱ) in organic-inorganic hybrid materials catalyzed Ar-N coupling of arylboronic acids with imidazoles has been developed. Arylboronic acids reacted with imidazoles smoothly in the presence of a 3-(2-aminoethylamino)propyl functionalized silica gel immobilized copper(Ⅱ) catalyst (10 mol%) in methanol without any additives and bases. The reactions generated the corresponding cross-coupling products in good yields.Furthermore, silica-supported copper can be recovered and recycled by a simple filtration procedure and used for five consecutive trials without decreases in activity.

  9. Chemical, Physical, and Mechanical Characterization of Isocyanate Cross-linked Amine-Modified Silica Aerogels (United States)

    Katti, Atul; Shimpi, Nilesh; Roy, Samit; Lu, Hongbing; Fabrizio, Eve F.; Dass, Amala; Capadona, Lynn A.; Leventis, Nicholas


    We describe a new mechanically strong lightweight porous composite material obtained by encapsulating the skeletal framework of amine-modified silica aerogels with polyurea. The conformal polymer coating preserves the mesoporous structure of the underlying silica framework and the thermal conductivity remains low at 0.041 plus or minus 0.001 W m(sup -1 K(sup -1). The potential of the new cross-linked silica aerogels for load-carrying applications was determined through characterization of their mechanical behavior under compression, three-point bending, and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). A primary glass transition temperature of 130 C was identified through DMA. At room temperature, results indicate a hyperfoam behavior where in compression cross-linked aerogels are linearly elastic under small strains (less than 4%) and then exhibit yield behavior (until 40% strain), followed by densification and inelastic hardening. At room temperature the compressive Young's modulus and the Poisson's ratio were determined to be 129 plus or minus 8 MPa and 0.18, respectively, while the strain at ultimate failure is 77% and the average specific compressive stress at ultimate failure is 3.89 x 10(exp 5) N m kg(sup -1). The specific flexural strength is 2.16 x 10(exp 4) N m kg(sup -1). Effects on the compressive behavior of strain rate and low temperature were also evaluated.

  10. Important Roles of Enthalpic and Entropic Contributions to CO 2 Capture from Simulated Flue Gas and Ambient Air Using Mesoporous Silica Grafted Amines

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhabbaz, Mustafa A.


    © 2014 American Chemical Society. The measurement of isosteric heats of adsorption of silica supported amine materials in the low pressure range (0- 0.1 bar) is critical for understanding the interactions between CO2 and amine sites at low coverage and hence to the development of efficient amine adsorbents for CO2 capture from flue gas and ambient air. Heats of adsorption for an array of silica-supported amine materials are experimentally measured at low coverage using a Calvet calorimeter equipped with a customized dosing manifold. In a series of 3-aminopropylfunctionalized silica materials, higher amine densities resulted in higher isosteric heats of adsorption, clearly showing that the density/proximity of amine sites can influence the amine efficiency of adsorbents. In a series of materials with fixed amine loading but different amine types, strongly basic primary and secondary amine materials are shown to have essentially identical heats of adsorption near 90 kJ/mol. However, the adsorption uptakes vary substantially as a function of CO2 partial pressure for different primary and secondary amines, demonstrating that entropic contributions to adsorption may play a key role in adsorption at secondary amine sites, making adsorption at these sites less effi cient at the low coverages that are important to the direct capture of CO2 from ambient air. Thus, while primary amines are confirmed to be the most effective amine types for CO2 capture from ambient air, this is not due to enhanced enthalpic contributions associated with primary amines over secondary amines, but may be due to unfavorable entropic factors associated with organization of the second alkyl chain on the secondary amine during CO2 adsorption. Given this hypothesis, favorable entropic factors may be the main reason primary amine based adsorbents are more effective under air capture conditions.

  11. Important roles of enthalpic and entropic contributions to CO2 capture from simulated flue gas and ambient air using mesoporous silica grafted amines. (United States)

    Alkhabbaz, Mustafa A; Bollini, Praveen; Foo, Guo Shiou; Sievers, Carsten; Jones, Christopher W


    The measurement of isosteric heats of adsorption of silica supported amine materials in the low pressure range (0-0.1 bar) is critical for understanding the interactions between CO2 and amine sites at low coverage and hence to the development of efficient amine adsorbents for CO2 capture from flue gas and ambient air. Heats of adsorption for an array of silica-supported amine materials are experimentally measured at low coverage using a Calvet calorimeter equipped with a customized dosing manifold. In a series of 3-aminopropyl-functionalized silica materials, higher amine densities resulted in higher isosteric heats of adsorption, clearly showing that the density/proximity of amine sites can influence the amine efficiency of adsorbents. In a series of materials with fixed amine loading but different amine types, strongly basic primary and secondary amine materials are shown to have essentially identical heats of adsorption near 90 kJ/mol. However, the adsorption uptakes vary substantially as a function of CO2 partial pressure for different primary and secondary amines, demonstrating that entropic contributions to adsorption may play a key role in adsorption at secondary amine sites, making adsorption at these sites less efficient at the low coverages that are important to the direct capture of CO2 from ambient air. Thus, while primary amines are confirmed to be the most effective amine types for CO2 capture from ambient air, this is not due to enhanced enthalpic contributions associated with primary amines over secondary amines, but may be due to unfavorable entropic factors associated with organization of the second alkyl chain on the secondary amine during CO2 adsorption. Given this hypothesis, favorable entropic factors may be the main reason primary amine based adsorbents are more effective under air capture conditions.

  12. Tuning cooperativity by controlling the linker length of silica-supported amines in catalysis and CO2 capture. (United States)

    Brunelli, Nicholas A; Didas, Stephanie A; Venkatasubbaiah, Krishnan; Jones, Christopher W


    Cooperative interactions between aminoalkylsilanes and silanols on a silica surface can be controlled by varying the length of the alkyl linker attaching the amine to the silica surface from C1 (methyl) to C5 (pentyl). The linker length strongly affects the catalytic cooperativity of amines and silanols in aldol condensations as well as the adsorptive cooperativity for CO(2) capture. The catalytic cooperativity increases with the linker length up to propyl (C3), with longer, more flexible linkers (up to C5) providing no additional benefit or hindrance. Short linkers (C1 and C2) limit the beneficial amine-silanol cooperativity in aldol condensations, resulting in lower catalytic rates than with the C3+ linkers. For the same materials, the adsorptive cooperativity exhibits similar trends for CO(2) capture efficiency.

  13. Effective and novel enantioselective preparation of pyranopyrazoles and pyranocoumarins that is catalyzed by a quinine-derived primary amine. (United States)

    Yang, Sai; Shen, Liu-lan; Kim, Yoon-Jung; Jeong, Jin-Hyun


    In this study, we executed an effective and novel enantioselective Michael/cyclodehydration sequential reaction between pyrazolin-5-one (or 4-hydroxy-2-pyrone) and chalcones that is catalyzed by a quinine-derived primary amine L7 in the presence of Boc-D-Phg-OH. Chiral pyranopyrazoles and pyranocoumarins were obtained in excellent enantioselectivities (up to 93%) with moderate yields and moderate enantioselectivities with high yields (up to 84%).

  14. Stereocontrol in proline-catalyzed asymmetric amination: a comparative assessment of the role of enamine carboxylic acid and enamine carboxylate. (United States)

    Sharma, Akhilesh K; Sunoj, Raghavan B


    The transition state models in two mechanistically distinct pathways, involving (i) an enamine carboxylic acid (path-A, 4) and (ii) an enamine carboxylate (path-B, 8), in the proline-catalyzed asymmetric α-amination have been examined using DFT methods. The path-A predicts the correct product stereochemistry under base-free conditions while path-B accounts for reversal of configuration in the presence of a base.

  15. A novel synthesis of 2-aryl-2H-indazoles via a palladium-catalyzed intramolecular amination reaction. (United States)

    Song, J J; Yee, N K


    [reaction: see text] A variety of 2-aryl-2H-indazoles were synthesized by the palladium-catalyzed intramolecular amination of the corresponding N-aryl-N(o-bromobenzyl)hydrazines. Of several sets of reaction conditions surveyed, the combination of Pd(OAc)2/dppf/tBuONa gave the best results. This method applies to a wide scope of substrates containing electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substituents.

  16. Dehydrogenative Synthesis of Imines from Alcohols and Amines Catalyzed by a Ruthenium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggi, Agnese; Madsen, Robert


    be applied to a variety of primary alcohols and amines and can be combined with a subsequent addition reaction. A deuterium labeling experiment indicates that the catalytically active species is a ruthenium dihydride. The reaction is believed to proceed by initial dehydrogenation of the alcohol......A new method for the direct synthesis of imines from alcohols and amines is described where hydrogen gas is liberated. The reaction is catalyzed by the ruthenium N-heterocyclic carbene complex [RuCl2(IiPr)(p-cymene)] in the presence of the ligand DABCO and molecular sieves. The imination can...... to the aldehyde, which stays coordinated to ruthenium. Nucleophilic attack of the amine affords the hemiaminal, which is released from ruthenium and converted into the imine....

  17. Ruthenium-catalyzed α-(hetero)arylation of saturated cyclic amines: reaction scope and mechanism. (United States)

    Peschiulli, Aldo; Smout, Veerle; Storr, Thomas E; Mitchell, Emily A; Eliáš, Zdeněk; Herrebout, Wouter; Berthelot, Didier; Meerpoel, Lieven; Maes, Bert U W


    Transition-metal-catalyzed sp(3) C-H activation has emerged as a powerful approach to functionalize saturated cyclic amines. Our group recently disclosed a direct catalytic arylation reaction of piperidines at the α position to the nitrogen atom. 1-(Pyridin-2-yl)piperidine could be smoothly α-arylated if treated with an arylboronic ester in the presence of a catalytic amount of [Ru3(CO)12] and one equivalent of 3-ethyl-3-pentanol. A systematic study on the substrate and reagent scope of this transformation is disclosed in this paper. The effect of substitution on both the piperidine ring and the arylboronic ester has been investigated. Smaller (pyrrolidine) and larger (azepane) saturated ring systems, as well as benzoannulated derivatives, were found to be compatible substrates with the α-arylation protocol. The successful use of a variety of heteroarylboronic esters as coupling partners further proved the power of this direct functionalization method. Mechanistic studies have allowed for a better understanding of the catalytic cycle of this remarkable transformation featuring an unprecedented direct transmetalation on a Ru(II)-H species.

  18. Quaternary ammonium-functionalized silica sorbents for the solid-phase extraction of aromatic amines under normal phase conditions. (United States)

    Vidal, Lorena; Robin, Orlane; Parshintsev, Jevgeni; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa


    Quaternary ammonium-functionalized silica materials were synthesized and applied for solid-phase extraction (SPE) of aromatic amines, which are classified as priority pollutants by US Environmental Protection Agency. Hexamethylenetetramine used for silica surface modification for the first time was employed as SPE sorbent under normal phase conditions. Hexaminium-functionalized silica demonstrated excellent extraction efficiencies for o-toluidine, 4-ethylaniline and quinoline (recoveries 101-107%), while for N,N-dimethylaniline and N-isopropylaniline recoveries were from low to moderate (14-46%). In addition, the suitability of 1-alkyl-3-(propyl-3-sulfonate) imidazolium-functionalized silica as SPE sorbent was tested under normal phase conditions. The recoveries achieved for the five aromatic amines ranged from 89 to 99%. The stability of the sorbent was evaluated during and after 150 extractions. Coefficients of variation between 4.5 and 10.2% proved a high stability of the synthesized sorbent. Elution was carried out using acetonitrile in the case of hexaminium-functionalized silica and water for 1-alkyl-3-(propyl-3-sulfonate) imidazolium-functionalized silica sorbent. After the extraction the analytes were separated and detected by liquid chromatography ultraviolet detection (LC-UV). The retention mechanism of the materials was primarily based on polar hydrogen bonding and π-π interactions. Comparison made with activated silica proved the quaternary ammonium-functionalized materials to offer different selectivity and better extraction efficiencies for aromatic amines. Finally, 1-alkyl-3-(propyl-3-sulfonate) imidazolium-functionalized silica sorbent was successfully tested for the extraction of wastewater and soil samples.

  19. amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Styszko Katarzyna


    Full Text Available The study investigated the application of char activated with CO2 and impregnated with amines solutions for removal of selected xenobiotics from aqueous solutions. The chars produced from the pyrolysis of waste tires. The solutions of monoethanolamine (MEA, diethanolamine (DEA and polyethylenimine (PEI were used for impregnation of char. The sorption capacity of char impregnated with amines depended on amines chemical properties. The adsorptive removal of mixture of pharmaceuticals residues by modified materials was assessed. BET surface area of materials varied from 36 m2 g−1 to 128 m2 g−1. The highest removal efficiencies up to 99 % were observed for char impregnated with PEI.

  20. Decomposition of formic acid over silica encapsulated and amine functionalised gold nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Kunov-Kruse, Andreas Jonas; Kegnæs, Søren


    Formic acid has recently attracted considerable attention as a safe and convenient source of hydrogen for sustainable chemical synthesis and renewable energy storage. Here, we show that silica encapsulated and amine functionalised gold nanoparticles are highly active catalysts for the production...... of hydrogen by vapour phase decomposition of formic acid. The core-shell catalysts are prepared in a reverse micelle system that makes it possible to control the size of the Au nanoparticles and the thickness of the SiO2 shells, which has a large impact on the catalytic activity. The smallest gold...... nanoparticles are 2.2 ± 0.3 nm in diameter and have a turnover frequency (TOF) of up to 958 h−1 at a temperature of 130 °C. Based on detailed in situ ATR-FTIR studies and results from kinetic isotope labelling experiments we propose that the active site is a low-coordinated and amine functionalised Au atom...

  1. Immobilization of Chiral Ferrocenyl Ligands on Silica Gel and their Testing in Pd-catalyzed Allylic Substitution and Rh-catalyzed Hydrogenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan J. Macquarrie


    Full Text Available Five different silica gels containing two chiral ferrocenyl ligands were prepared by various synthetic routes and tested in an enantioselective Pd(0-catalyzed allylic substitution and Rh-catalyzed hydrogenation. All the prepared anchored ligands were characterized by porosimetry data, DRIFTS spectra, thermal data and AAS. The aim of the work was to compare the influence of the carrier, surface properties and immobilization strategy on the performance of the catalyst.

  2. Silica aerogels as support for lipase catalyzed esterifications at sub- and supercritical conditions



    The enzymes (lipases from Candida rugosa and porcine pancreas) were immobilized on silica aerogels by sol-gel procedure followed by supercritical drying with CO2. Such immobilized enzymes were used as biocatalysts for esterification in supercritical CO2 and near critical propane at 40 °C and 100 bar. It was found out that the initial reaction rates in propane rose two to three times in comparison with the same reaction, catalyzed by free lipase. SC CO2 deactivated the non-immobilized lipase i...

  3. Hydrogenation of Toluidines Catalyzed by Silica-supported Carboxymethylcellulose-platinum Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin; YANG Ji-huo; HUANG Mei-yu; JIANG Ying-yan


    The hydrogenation of toluidines catalyzed by silica-supported carboxymethyl cellulose platinum complex forms methylcyclohexlamines in high yields, such as m-toluidine to 3-methylcyclohexylamine, o-toluidine to 2-methylcyclohexylamine, and p-toluidine to 4-methylcyclohexylamine in 97%, 96.7% and 98.2% yields,respectively, at 30 C and under atmospheric hydrogen pressure. The yields were remarkably affected by the Pt content in the complex, the kind of solvent and the reaction temperature. The catalyst was very stable and could be reused several times without remarkable change in the catalytic activity.

  4. Chromo- and fluorophoric water-soluble polymers and silica particles by nucleophilic substitution reaction of poly(vinyl amine)


    Katja Hofmann; Ingolf Kahle; Frank Simon; Stefan Spange


    Novel chromophoric and fluorescent carbonitrile-functionalized poly(vinyl amine) (PVAm) and PVAm/silica particles were synthesized by means of nucleophilic aromatic substitution of 8-oxo-8H-acenaphtho[1,2-b]pyrrol-9-carbonitrile (1) with PVAm in water. The water solubility of 1 has been mediated by 2,6-O-β-dimethylcyclodextrin or by pre-adsorption onto silica particles. Furthermore, 1 was converted with isopropylamine into the model compound 1-M. All new compounds were characterized by N...

  5. Acid-base bifunctional catalysis of silica-alumina-supported organic amines for carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions. (United States)

    Motokura, Ken; Tomita, Mitsuru; Tada, Mizuki; Iwasawa, Yasuhiro


    Acid-base bifunctional heterogeneous catalysts were prepared by the reaction of an acidic silica-alumina (SA) surface with silane-coupling reagents possessing amino functional groups. The obtained SA-supported amines (SA-NR2) were characterized by solid-state 13C and 29Si NMR spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The solid-state NMR spectra revealed that the amines were immobilized by acid-base interactions at the SA surface. The interactions between the surface acidic sites and the immobilized basic amines were weaker than the interactions between the SA and free amines. The catalytic performances of the SA-NR2 catalysts for various carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as cyano-ethoxycarbonylation, the Michael reaction, and the nitro-aldol reaction, were investigated and compared with those of homogeneous and other heterogeneous catalysts. The SA-NR2 catalysts showed much higher catalytic activities for the carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions than heterogeneous amine catalysts using other supports, such as SiO2 and Al2O3. On the other hand, homogeneous amines hardly promoted these reactions under similar reaction conditions, and the catalytic behavior of SA-NR2 was also different from that of MgO, which was employed as a typical heterogeneous base. An acid-base dual-activation mechanism for the carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions is proposed.

  6. Tri-n-butylphosphane catalyzed ring opening of aziridines with secondary amines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Xuan Zhang; Li Su; Wei Gang Hu; Jie Zhou


    Ring opening of aziridine with dialkyl amine took place readily in the presence of catalytic amounts of tri-n-butylphosphane (10 mol%) in the mixture of CH3CN/H2O (10:1),giving corresponding vicinal diamines in mediate to high yields (58-95%) with good regioselecfivifie,while aromatic secondary amine could not react under the same condifions.Tti-n-butylphosphane exhibited different catalytic selectivity to amines from Lewis acid catalysts.

  7. Palladium-Catalyzed N-Alkylation of Amides and Amines with Alcohols Employing the Aerobic Relay Race Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余小春; 姜澜; 李强; 谢嫒媛; 徐清


    Possibly because homogeneous palladium catalysts are not typical borrowing hydrogen catalysts and ligands are thus ineffective in catalyst activation under conventional anaerobic conditions, they had not been used in the N-alkylation reactions of amines/amides with alcohols in the past. By employing the aerobic relay race methodol- ogy with Pd-catalyzed aerobic alcohol oxidation being a more effective protocol for alcohol activation, ligand-free homogeneous palladiums are successfully used as active catalysts in the dehydrative N-alkylation reactions, giving high yields and selectivities of the alkylated amides and amines. Mechanistic studies implied that the reaction most probably proceeds via the novel relay race mechanism we recently discovered and proposed.

  8. Efficient and reversible CO2 capture by amine functionalized-silica gel confined task-specific ionic liquid system. (United States)

    Aboudi, Javad; Vafaeezadeh, Majid


    Simple, efficient and practical CO2 capture method is reported using task-specific ionic liquid (IL) supported onto the amine-functionalized silica gel. The results have been shown that both the capacity and rate of the CO2 absorption notably increase in the supported IL/molecular sieve 4 Å system in comparison of homogeneous IL. Additionally, it has shown that the prepared material is capable for reversible carbon dioxide absorption for at least 10 cycles without significant loss of efficiency. The presence of the amine-based IL and the surface bonded amine groups increase the capacity of CO2 absorption even in a CO2/CH4 gas mixture through the formation of ammonium carbamate onto the surface of mesoporous material.

  9. Functionalized Polysilsesquioxane-Based Hybrid Silica Solid Amine Sorbents for the Regenerative Removal of CO2 from Air. (United States)

    Abhilash, Kochukunju Adisser Saraladevi; Deepthi, Thomas; Sadhana, Retnakumari Amma; Benny, K George


    Functionalized polysilsesquioxane-based hybrid silica materials are presented as solid amine sorbents for direct CO2 capture from air. The sorbent was synthesized from amine and vinyl functionalized alkoxysilanes by a simple, energy efficient, and cost-effective co-condensation method. The material, containing bound amine functionalities, was found to have a selective CO2 capturing capacity of 1.68 mmol/g from atmospheric air with an adsorption half time of 50 min. This material also showed a maximum adsorption capacity of 2.28 mmol/g in pure CO2 and 1.92 mmol/g in 10% CO2. Desorption started at a temperature as low as 60 °C, and complete desorption occurred at 80 °C. The sorbent exhibited high recycling ability, and 100 cycles of adsorption/desorption were demonstrated in pure CO2 and 50 cycles in ambient air without any loss in efficiency.

  10. Efficient and reversible CO2 capture by amine functionalized-silica gel confined task-specific ionic liquid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Aboudi


    Full Text Available Simple, efficient and practical CO2 capture method is reported using task-specific ionic liquid (IL supported onto the amine-functionalized silica gel. The results have been shown that both the capacity and rate of the CO2 absorption notably increase in the supported IL/molecular sieve 4 Å system in comparison of homogeneous IL. Additionally, it has shown that the prepared material is capable for reversible carbon dioxide absorption for at least 10 cycles without significant loss of efficiency. The presence of the amine-based IL and the surface bonded amine groups increase the capacity of CO2 absorption even in a CO2/CH4 gas mixture through the formation of ammonium carbamate onto the surface of mesoporous material.

  11. Palladium-catalyzed Substitution of Ketone or Aldehyde Bearing Aryl Triflates by Amines or Amides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Xiaochun; DAI Chunya; CAO Xiongjie; CAI Lisheng; PIKE Victor W


    Various aryl triflates, bearing ketone or aldehyde groups, were evaluated for palladium-mediated introduction of an amino group at the triflate position in the presence of various phosphine ligands. BINAP was best for secondary amines, MOP-type ligand for primary or small secondary amines and Xantphos for primary or cyclic secondary amides. No ligand was found effective for acyclic secondary amides.

  12. CAN Catalyzed Preparation of β-Enamino Ketones from Amines and Acetylacetone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng DUAN; Ting LI; Xue Jie XUAN; Yang Jie WU


    A variety of β-enamino ketones were synthesized in high to excellent yields by reacting acetylacetone with amines in the presence of a catalytic amount of cerium(Ⅳ) ammonium nitrate(CAN) under ultrasonic irradiation.

  13. Using aqueous ammonia in hydroaminomethylation reactions: ruthenium-catalyzed synthesis of tertiary amines. (United States)

    Wu, Lipeng; Fleischer, Ivana; Zhang, Min; Liu, Qiang; Franke, Robert; Jackstell, Ralf; Beller, Matthias


    The direct synthesis of tertiary amines from ammonia and olefins is presented. Using a combination of Ru3 (CO)12 and 2-phosphino-substituted imidazole ligand as catalyst system allows for hydroaminomethylation reactions of bulk aliphatic and functionalized olefins. Tertiary amines are obtained in an atom-efficient domino process in moderate to good isolated yields (45-76%) with excellent regioselectivities (n/iso up to 99:1).

  14. Direct use of allylic alcohols for platinum-catalyzed monoallylation of amines. (United States)

    Utsunomiya, Masaru; Miyamoto, Yoshiki; Ipposhi, Junji; Ohshima, Takashi; Mashima, Kazushi


    A new direct catalytic amination of allylic alcohols promoted by the combination of platinum and a large bite-angle ligand DPEphos was developed in which the allylic alcohol was effectively converted to a pi-allylplatinum intermediate without the use of an activating reagent. The use of the DPEphos ligand was essential for obtaining high catalyst activity and high monoallylation selectivity of primary amines, allowing the formation of a variety of monoallylation products in good to excellent yield.

  15. Site-specific indolation of proline-based peptides via copper(II)-catalyzed oxidative coupling of tertiary amine N-oxides. (United States)

    Wu, Xiaowei; Zhang, Dengyou; Zhou, Shengbin; Gao, Feng; Liu, Hong


    The first site-specific and purely chemical method for modifying proline-based peptides was developed via a convenient, copper-catalyzed oxidative coupling of tertiary amine N-oxides with indoles. This novel approach features high regioselectivity and diastereoselectivity, mild conditions, and compatibility with various functional groups. In addition, a simplified process was realized in one pot and two steps via in situ oxidative coupling of tertiary amine and indoles.

  16. Synthesis of quinazolines and tetrahydroquinazolines: copper-catalyzed tandem reactions of 2-bromobenzyl bromides with aldehydes and aqueous ammonia or amines. (United States)

    Fan, Xuesen; Li, Bin; Guo, Shenghai; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xinying


    An efficient synthesis of diversely substituted quinazolines and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinazolines through copper-catalyzed tandem reactions of the readily available 2-bromobenzyl bromides, aldehydes, and aqueous ammonia or amines has been developed. By using ammonia and simple aliphatic amines as the nitrogen source, the present method provides a versatile and practical protocol for the synthesis of quinazolines and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinazolines.

  17. Effect of polyvinylpyrrolidone on mesoporous silica morphology and esterification of lauric acid with 1-butanol catalyzed by immobilized enzyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jinyu; Zhou, Guowei, E-mail:; Jiang, Bin; Zhao, Minnan; Zhang, Yan


    Mesoporous silica materials with a range of morphology evolution, i.e., from curved rod-shaped mesoporous silica to straight rod-shaped mesoporous silica, were successfully prepared using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and triblock copolymer as dual template. The effects of PVP molecular weight and concentration on mesoporous silica structure parameters were studied. Results showed that surface area and pore volume continuously decreased with increased PVP molecular weight. Mesoporous silica prepared with PVP K30 also possessed larger pore diameter, interplanar spacing (d{sub 100}), and cell parameter (a{sub 0}) than that prepared with PVP K15 and PVP K90. In addition, with increased PVP concentration, d{sub 100} and a{sub 0} continuously decreased. The mechanism of morphology evolution caused by the change in PVP concentration was investigated. The conversion rate of lauric acid with 1-butanol catalyzed by immobilized Porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) was also evaluated. Results showed that PPL immobilized on amino-functionalized straight rod-shaped mesoporous silica maintained 50% of its esterification conversion rate even after five cycles of use with a maximum conversion rate was about 90.15%. - Graphical abstract: Curved rod-shaped mesoporous silica can be obtained at low and the highest PVP concentration, while straight rod-shaped mesoporous silica can be obtained at higher PVP concentration. - Highlights: • Mesoporous silica with morphology evolution from CRMS to SRMS were prepared. • Effects of PVP molecular weight and concentration on silica morphology were studied. • A possible mechanism for the formation of morphology evolution SiO{sub 2} was proposed. • Esterification of lauric acid with 1-butanol catalyzed by immobilized PPL.

  18. Copper-catalyzed α-amination of phosphonates and phosphine oxides: a direct approach to α-amino phosphonic acids and derivatives. (United States)

    McDonald, Stacey L; Wang, Qiu


    A direct approach to important α-amino phosphonic acids and its derivatives has been developed by using copper-catalyzed electrophilic amination of α-phosphonate zincates with O-acyl hydroxylamines. This amination provides the first example of CN bond formation which directly introduces acyclic and cyclic amines to the α-position of phosphonates in one step. The reaction is readily promoted at room temperature with as little as 0.5 mol % of catalyst, and demonstrates high efficiency on a broad substrate scope.

  19. An Efficient Procedure for Esterification of Aryloxyacetic Acid and Arylthioacetic Acid Catalyzed by Silica Sulfuric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI,Hong-Ya; LI,Ji-Tai; LI,Hui-Zhang


    @@ Aryloxyacetate and arylthioacetate are wildly used in herbicides, plant regulator and insecticides. Recently, Wille et al. have reported that methyl aryloxyacetate is an efficient agent to prevent and treat allergic contact dermatitis.[1] The most popular synthesis is by heating sodium phenoxide (mercaptide) with ethyl chloroacetate in DMF,[2] or by the esterification of acid with alcohol using concentrated H2SO4 as catalyst.[3] In this paper, synthesis of aryloxyacetate and aryl thioacetate from aryloxyacetic acid and arylthioacetic acid respectively in ether catalyzed by silica sulfuric acid in 83%~94% yields is described. The catalyst is reused for 3 times without significant loss of activity (Entry 4). Compared with common procedures, the present procedure possesses the advantages of the operational simplicity, short reaction time,less-corrosion, high yield and reusable catalyst.

  20. Fast solid-phase extraction of N-linked glycopeptides by amine-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles. (United States)

    Miao, Weili; Zhang, Cheng; Cai, Yan; Zhang, Ying; Lu, Haojie


    Selective enrichment is a crucial step before the mass spectrometric analysis of glycoproteins. A new approach using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)-functionalized mesoporous silica materials (SBA-15) was reported to enrich the glycoproteins. Selective extraction of glycopeptides was achieved through coupling the oxidized glycan chains on the glycopeptides with the amine groups on SBA-15 through a reductive amination reaction, then the captured glycopeptides were detached from the SBA-15 for the following MS analysis using the enzyme PNGase F. Because the mesoporous material has a confinement effect, the efficiency of enrichment and enzymatic deglycosylation was improved dramatically. The coupling time was shortened from 4 hours to 1 hour, and the deglycosylation time was greatly shortened from 6 hours to 3 hours. This approach was successfully applied to profile the N-glycoproteome of human colorectal cancer serum. 84 N-linked glycosylation sites from 56 N-linked glycoproteins were identified from as little as 5 μL serum.

  1. Amine-modified ordered mesoporous silica: The effect of pore size on CO{sub 2} capture performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lin; Yao, Manli [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Advanced Catalysis Materials, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Hu, Xin [College of Chemistry and Life Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Hu, Gengshen, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Advanced Catalysis Materials, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Lu, Jiqing; Luo, Mengfei [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Advanced Catalysis Materials, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Fan, Maohong, E-mail: [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States)


    Highlights: • Larger pore size could decrease the mass transfer resistance and increase the interaction between CO{sub 2} and TEPA. • The CO{sub 2} uptakes of sorbents were enhanced in the presence of moisture. • The sorbents are stable and regenerable under test conditions. - Abstract: The objective of current research is to investigate the effect of pore size of mesoporous silica supports on the CO{sub 2} capture performance of solid amine sorbents. Two ordered mesoporous silicas (OMS) with different pore sizes (5.6 nm and 7.6 nm) were synthesized as tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) supports. A serious of techniques, such as physical adsorption, infrared spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis were used to characterize the solid amine sorbents. The CO{sub 2} capture performances of the sorbents were evaluated using breakthrough method with a fixed-bed reactor equipped with an online mass spectrometer. The experimental results indicate that the pore size has significant influence on CO{sub 2} capture performance. Larger pore size could decrease the mass transfer resistance and increase the interaction between CO{sub 2} and TEPA. Therefore, OMS-7.6 is better than OMS-5.6 as amine support. The highest CO{sub 2} sorption capacities achieved with OMS-7.6 with 50 wt% TEPA loading (OMS-7.6-50) in the absence and presence of moisture are 3.45 mmol/g and 4.28 mmol/g, respectively, under the conditions of 10.0% CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixture at 75 °C. Cyclic CO{sub 2} adsorption–desorption experiments indicate that the solid amine sorbents are fairly stable and regenerable.

  2. Efficient and reversible CO2 capture by amine functionalized-silica gel confined task-specific ionic liquid system


    Javad Aboudi; Majid Vafaeezadeh


    Simple, efficient and practical CO2 capture method is reported using task-specific ionic liquid (IL) supported onto the amine-functionalized silica gel. The results have been shown that both the capacity and rate of the CO2 absorption notably increase in the supported IL/molecular sieve 4 Å system in comparison of homogeneous IL. Additionally, it has shown that the prepared material is capable for reversible carbon dioxide absorption for at least 10 cycles without significant loss of efficien...

  3. N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Palladium Complex Catalyzed Oxidative Carbonylation of Amines to Ureas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG,Shu-Zhan; PENG,Xin-Gao; LIU,Jian-Ming; SUN,Wei; XIA,Chun-Gu


    Palladium carbene shows high efficiency without any promoter on oxidative carbonylation of amines to ureas and a new type of palladium carbene complex containing both an aniline and an NHC ligands was found to be the active species for the reaction.

  4. A Mechanistic Study of Direct Activation of Allylic Alcohols in Palladium Catalyzed Amination Reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gumrukcu, Y.; de Bruin, B.; Reek, J.N.H.


    We here report a computational approach on the mechanism of allylicamination reactions using allyl-alcohols and amines as the substrates and phosphoramidite palladium catalyst 1a, which operates in the presence of catalytic amount of 1,3-diethylurea as a co-catalyst. DFT calculations showed a cooper

  5. Energy-efficient green catalysis: supported gold nanoparticle-catalyzed aminolysis of esters with inert tertiary amines by C-O and C-N bond activations. (United States)

    Bao, Yong-Sheng; Baiyin, Menghe; Agula, Bao; Jia, Meilin; Zhaorigetu, Bao


    Catalyzed by supported gold nanoparticles, an aminolysis reaction between various aryl esters and inert tertiary amines by C-O and C-N bond activations has been developed for the selective synthesis of tertiary amides. Comparison studies indicated that the gold nanoparticles could perform energy-efficient green catalysis at room temperature, whereas Pd(OAc)2 could not.

  6. Distinct reactivity of Morita-Baylis-Hillman acetates as a novel C(2) component in amine-catalyzed [2 + 2 + 2] and [2 + 4] annulations. (United States)

    Chen, Rongshun; Xu, Silong; Wang, Liyi; Tang, Yuhai; He, Zhengjie


    Amine-catalyzed [2 + 2 + 2] and [2 + 4] annulations of Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) acetates with cyano activated alkenes and 1,3-azadienes have been developed to provide cyclohexanes and tetrahydropyridines. In the annulations, MBH acetates serve as a novel C(2) component with an inactive homoallylic methyl involved in the bond formation.

  7. Ionic liquid-functionalized silica for selective solid-phase extraction of organic acids, amines and aldehydes. (United States)

    Vidal, Lorena; Parshintsev, Jevgeni; Hartonen, Kari; Canals, Antonio; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa


    Three ionic liquid (IL)-functionalized silica materials, imidazolium, N-methylimidazolium and 1-alkyl-3-(propyl-3-sulfonate) imidazolium, were synthesised and applied in solid-phase extraction (SPE) of organic acids, amines and aldehydes, which are important compound families in atmospheric aerosol particles. 1-Alkyl-3-(propyl-3-sulfonate) imidazolium-functionalized silica was tested as sorbent for SPE for the first time. The analytes were separated and detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). To confirm the results achieved by LC-MS, the acids were additionally determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The stability of the IL-functionalized silica materials was tested at low and high pH. The effect of the pH on the extraction was also informative of the retention mechanism of the materials. The results showed anion exchange to be the main interaction, but hydrophobic and π interactions and hydrogen bonding also played a role in the extraction. Extraction efficiencies for organic acids ranged from 87 to 110%, except for cis-pinonic acid (19-29%). Lower extraction efficiencies for amines and aldehydes confirmed that anionic exchange was the predominant interaction. Comparisons made with two commercial SPE materials--silica-based strong anion exchange (SAX) and polymer-based mixed-mode anion exchange and reverse-phase (MAX)--showed the IL-functionalized materials to offer different selectivity and better extraction efficiency than SAX for aromatic compounds. Finally, the new materials were successfully tested in the extraction of an atmospheric aerosol sample.

  8. Chromo- and fluorophoric water-soluble polymers and silica particles by nucleophilic substitution reaction of poly(vinyl amine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Hofmann


    Full Text Available Novel chromophoric and fluorescent carbonitrile-functionalized poly(vinyl amine (PVAm and PVAm/silica particles were synthesized by means of nucleophilic aromatic substitution of 8-oxo-8H-acenaphtho[1,2-b]pyrrol-9-carbonitrile (1 with PVAm in water. The water solubility of 1 has been mediated by 2,6-O-β-dimethylcyclodextrin or by pre-adsorption onto silica particles. Furthermore, 1 was converted with isopropylamine into the model compound 1-M. All new compounds were characterized by NMR, FTIR, UV–vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The solvent-dependent UV–vis absorption and fluorescence emission band positions of the model compound and the carbonitrile-functionalized PVAm were studied and interpreted using the empirical Kamlet–Taft solvent parameters π* (dipolarity/polarizability, α (hydrogen-bond donating capacity and β (hydrogen-accepting ability in terms of the linear solvation energy relationship (LSER. The solvent-independent regression coefficients a, b and s were determined using multiple linear correlation analysis. It is shown, that the chains of the polymer have a significant influence on the solvatochromic behavior of 1-P. The structure of the carbonitrile 1-Si bound to polymer-modified silica particles was studied by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET measurements. Fluorescent silica particles were obtained as shown by fluorescence spectroscopy with a diffuse reflectance technique.

  9. Platinum-catalyzed direct amination of allylic alcohols under mild conditions: ligand and microwave effects, substrate scope, and mechanistic study. (United States)

    Ohshima, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yoshiki; Ipposhi, Junji; Nakahara, Yasuhito; Utsunomiya, Masaru; Mashima, Kazushi


    Transition metal-catalyzed amination of allylic compounds via a pi-allylmetal intermediate is a powerful and useful method for synthesizing allylamines. Direct catalytic substitution of allylic alcohols, which forms water as the sole coproduct, has recently attracted attention for its environmental and economical advantages. Here, we describe the development of a versatile direct catalytic amination of both aryl- and alkyl-substituted allylic alcohols with various amines using Pt-Xantphos and Pt-DPEphos catalyst systems, which allows for the selective synthesis of various monoallylamines, such as the biologically active compounds Naftifine and Flunarizine, in good to high yield without need for an activator. The choice of the ligand was crucial toward achieving high catalytic activity, and we demonstrated that not only the large bite-angle but also the linker oxygen atom of the Xantphos and DPEphos ligands was highly important. In addition, microwave heating dramatically affected the catalyst activity and considerably decreased the reaction time compared with conventional heating. Furthermore, several mechanistic investigations, including (1)H and (31)P{(1)H} NMR studies; isolation and characterization of several catalytic intermediates, Pt(xantphos)Cl(2), Pt(eta(2)-C(3)H(5)OH)(xantphos), etc; confirmation of the structure of [Pt(eta(3)-allyl)(xantphos)]OTf by X-ray crystallographic analysis; and crossover experiments, suggested that formation of the pi-allylplatinum complex through the elimination of water is an irreversible rate-determining step and that the other processes in the catalytic cycle are reversible, even at room temperature.

  10. Mechanism of arylboronic acid-catalyzed amidation reaction between carboxylic acids and amines. (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Yu, Hai-Zhu; Fu, Yao; Guo, Qing-Xiang


    Arylboronic acids were found to be efficient catalysts for the amidation reactions between carboxylic acids and amines. Theoretical calculations have been carried out to investigate the mechanism of this catalytic process. It is found that the formation of the acyloxyboronic acid intermediates from the carboxylic acid and the arylboronic acid is kinetically facile but thermodynamically unfavorable. Removal of water (as experimentally accomplished by using molecular sieves) is therefore essential for overall transformation. Subsequently C-N bond formation between the acyloxyboronic acid intermediates and the amine occurs readily to generate the desired amide product. The cleavage of the C-O bond of the tetracoordinate acyl boronate intermediates is the rate-determining step in this process. Our analysis indicates that the mono(acyloxy)boronic acid is the key intermediate. The high catalytic activity of ortho-iodophenylboronic acid is attributed to the steric effect as well as the orbital interaction between the iodine atom and the boron atom.

  11. Zinc catalyzed Guanylation reaction of Amines with Carbodiimides/ Isocyanate leading to Guanidines/Urea derivatives formation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    We report the highly chemo-selective catalytic addition of N–H bonds from various aromaticamines to carbodiimides and isocyanates using (Ar-BIAO)ZnCl2 complexes [Ar-BIAO = N-(aryl)iminoacenapthenone,Ar = 2,6-$Me_{2}C_{6}H_{3}$ (1), 2,4,6 $Me_{3}C_{6}H_{2}$ (2), $2,6-^{i}$ $Pr_{2}C_{6}_H{3} (3)] as the pre-catalyst to prepareguanidine and urea derivatives in 55-90% yield. The complex 3 showed higher catalytic activity than analogouscomplexes 1 and 2 under similar reaction conditions. The catalytic guanylation of N–H bonds with heterocumulenesdisplays a broad substrate scope. The amines having electron donating groups underwent higher conversionthan the amines having electron withdrawing groups to afford corresponding guanidine or urea derivatives.A possible mechanism involving penta-coordinated zinc transition state for the catalytic reaction is presented.

  12. Cu(OAc)2 catalyzed Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction in amines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Mei Guo; Chen Liang Deng; Jin Heng Li


    A simple Cu(OAc)2 catalyzed Sonogashira coupling protocol is presented. It was found that the couplings of a variety of aryl halides with terminal alkynes were conducted smoothly to afford the corresponding desired products in moderate to excellent yields, using Cu(OAc)2 as the catalyst and Et3N as the solvent.

  13. Heterogeneously porous γ-MnO₂-catalyzed direct oxidative amination of benzoxazole through C-H activation in the presence of O₂. (United States)

    Pal, Provas; Giri, Arnab Kanti; Singh, Harshvardhan; Ghosh, Subhash Chandra; Panda, Asit Baran


    Oxidative amination of azoles through catalytic C-H bond activation is a very important reaction due to the presence of 2-aminoazoles in several biologically active compounds. However, most of the reported methods are performed under homogeneous reaction conditions using excess reagents and additives. Herein, we report the heterogeneous, porous γ-MnO2-catalyzed direct amination of benzoxazole with wide range of primary and secondary amines. The amination was carried under mild reaction conditions and using molecular oxygen as a green oxidant, without any additives. The catalyst can easily be separated by filtration and reused several times without a significant loss of its catalytic performance. Of note, the reaction tolerates a functional group such as alcohol, thus indicating the broad applicability of this reaction.

  14. Amine-catalyzed direct aldol reactions of hydroxy- and dihydroxyacetone: biomimetic synthesis of carbohydrates. (United States)

    Popik, Oskar; Pasternak-Suder, Monika; Leśniak, Katarzyna; Jawiczuk, Magdalena; Górecki, Marcin; Frelek, Jadwiga; Mlynarski, Jacek


    This article presents comprehensive studies on the application of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines as efficient organocatalysts for the de novo synthesis of ketoses and deoxyketoses. Mimicking the actions of aldolase enzymes, the synthesis of selected carbohydrates was accomplished in aqueous media by using proline- and serine-based organocatalysts. The presented methodology also provides direct access to unnatural L-carbohydrates from the (S)-glyceraldehyde precursor. Determination of the absolute configuration of all obtained sugars was feasible using a methodology consisting of concerted ECD and VCD spectroscopy.

  15. A Mechanistic Study of Direct Activation of Allylic Alcohols in Palladium Catalyzed Amination Reactions


    Yasemin Gumrukcu; Bas de Bruin; Reek, Joost N. H.


    We here report a computational approach on the mechanism of allylicamination reactions using allyl-alcohols and amines as the substrates and phosphoramidite palladium catalyst 1a, which operates in the presence of catalytic amount of 1,3-diethylurea as a co-catalyst. DFT calculations showed a cooperative hydrogen-bonding array between the urea moiety and the hydroxyl group of the allyl alcohol, which strengthens the hydrogen bond between the O-H moiety of the coordinated allyl-alcohol and th...

  16. The impact of aminated surface ligands and silica shells on the stability, uptake, and toxicity of engineered silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonventre, Josephine A.; Pryor, Joseph B.; Harper, Bryan J.; Harper, Stacey L., E-mail: [Oregon State University, Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology (United States)


    Inherent nanomaterial characteristics, composition, surface chemistry, and primary particle size, are known to impact particle stability, uptake, and toxicity. Nanocomposites challenge our ability to predict nanoparticle reactivity in biological systems if they are composed of materials with contrasting relative toxicities. We hypothesized that toxicity would be dominated by the nanoparticle surface (shell vs core), and that modulating the surface ligands would have a direct impact on uptake. We exposed developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) to a series of ∼70 nm amine-terminated silver nanoparticles with silica shells (AgSi NPs) to investigate the relative influence of surface amination, composition, and size on toxicity. Like-sized aminated AgSi and Si NPs were more toxic than paired hydroxyl-terminated nanoparticles; however, both AgSi NPs were more toxic than the Si NPs, indicating a significant contribution of the silver core to the toxicity. Incremental increases in surface amination did not linearly increase uptake and toxicity, but did have a marked impact on dispersion stability. Mass-based exposure metrics initially supported the hypothesis that smaller nanoparticles (20 nm) would be more toxic than larger particles (70 nm). However, surface area-based metrics revealed that toxicity was independent of size. Our studies suggest that nanoparticle surfaces play a critical role in the uptake and toxicity of AgSi NPs, while the impact of size may be a function of the exposure metric used. Overall, uptake and toxicity can be dramatically altered by small changes in surface functionalization or exposure media. Only after understanding the magnitude of these changes, can we begin to understand the biologically available dose following nanoparticle exposure.

  17. Chemical and mechanical properties of silica hybrid films from NaOH catalyzed sols for micromachining with diamond cutting tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prenzel, T., E-mail: [Stiftung Institut für Werkstofftechnik, Badgasteiner Str. 3, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Mehner, A. [Stiftung Institut für Werkstofftechnik, Badgasteiner Str. 3, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Lucca, D.A.; Qi, Y.; Harriman, T.A. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, 218 Engineering North, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Mutlugünes, Y. [Labor für Mikrozerspanung — LFM, Badgasteiner Str. 2, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Shojaee, S.A. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, 218 Engineering North, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Wang, Y.Q.; Williams, D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Nastasi, M. [Nebraska Center for Energy Sciences Research, University of Nebraska, 230 Whittier Research Center, 2200 Vine Street Lincoln, NE 68583-0857 (United States); Zoch, H.-W. [Stiftung Institut für Werkstofftechnik, Badgasteiner Str. 3, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Swiderek, P. [Institute of Applied and Physical Chemistry, University of Bremen, Leobener Straße, 28359 Bremen (Germany)


    Manufacturing of microstructured mold surfaces was realized by the micromachining of thick sol–gel silica hybrid coatings. The films were deposited onto pre-machined steel molds by spin coating using NaOH-catalyzed sols from organosilicate precursors. The effect of the sol synthesis and the heat treatment on the mechanical and chemical properties of these films was studied in order to develop thick and crack-free films with appropriate properties for micromachining with diamond cutting tools. The hardness was measured by nanoindentation as a function of the heat treatment temperature. The transition from soft organic gel films to hard glass-like films due to the thermal treatment was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, elastic recoil detection, and Raman and infrared spectroscopies. The films from NaOH catalyzed sols showed a complex transition from aliphatic carbon originating from hydrocarbon groups to carbonates, carboxylates and disordered carbon clusters. - Highlights: ► Thick silica hybrid films were micromachined with diamond cutting tools. ► The nanoindentation hardness increased with the heat treatment temperature. ► The role of sodium hydroxide in base catalyzed silica sols was studied. ► Formation of carbonates, carboxylates and disordered carbon was observed.

  18. Effect of polyvinylpyrrolidone on mesoporous silica morphology and esterification of lauric acid with 1-butanol catalyzed by immobilized enzyme (United States)

    Zhang, Jinyu; Zhou, Guowei; Jiang, Bin; Zhao, Minnan; Zhang, Yan


    Mesoporous silica materials with a range of morphology evolution, i.e., from curved rod-shaped mesoporous silica to straight rod-shaped mesoporous silica, were successfully prepared using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and triblock copolymer as dual template. The effects of PVP molecular weight and concentration on mesoporous silica structure parameters were studied. Results showed that surface area and pore volume continuously decreased with increased PVP molecular weight. Mesoporous silica prepared with PVP K30 also possessed larger pore diameter, interplanar spacing (d100), and cell parameter (a0) than that prepared with PVP K15 and PVP K90. In addition, with increased PVP concentration, d100 and a0 continuously decreased. The mechanism of morphology evolution caused by the change in PVP concentration was investigated. The conversion rate of lauric acid with 1-butanol catalyzed by immobilized Porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) was also evaluated. Results showed that PPL immobilized on amino-functionalized straight rod-shaped mesoporous silica maintained 50% of its esterification conversion rate even after five cycles of use with a maximum conversion rate was about 90.15%.

  19. Comparative analyses of laccase-catalyzed amination reactions for production of novel β-lactam antibiotics. (United States)

    Mikolasch, Annett; Manda, Katrin; Schlüter, Rabea; Lalk, Michael; Witt, Sabine; Seefeldt, Simone; Hammer, Elke; Schauer, Frieder; Jülich, Wolf-Dieter; Lindequist, Ulrike


    Seven novel β-lactam antibiotics with activities against Gram-positive bacterial strains, among them methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, were synthesized by amination of 2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in usable yields (30-60%). These products protected mice against an infection with S. aureus lethal to the control animals. The results show the usefulness of laccase for the synthesis of potential new antibiotics, in addition to the interdependence of the laccase substrates, the amino coupling partners, and the product formation, yield, and activity. The syntheses of β-lactam antibiotics with 2,5-dihydroxyaromatic acid substructures (para-substituted) are then compared with those of 3,4-dihydroxyaromatic acid substructures (ortho-substituted). Para-substituted laccase substrates were better reaction partners in these syntheses than ortho-substituted compounds.

  20. A Mechanistic Study of Direct Activation of Allylic Alcohols in Palladium Catalyzed Amination Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Gumrukcu


    Full Text Available We here report a computational approach on the mechanism of allylicamination reactions using allyl-alcohols and amines as the substrates and phosphoramidite palladium catalyst 1a, which operates in the presence of catalytic amount of 1,3-diethylurea as a co-catalyst. DFT calculations showed a cooperative hydrogen-bonding array between the urea moiety and the hydroxyl group of the allyl alcohol, which strengthens the hydrogen bond between the O-H moiety of the coordinated allyl-alcohol and the carbonyl-moiety of the ligand. This hydrogen bond pattern facilitates the (rate-limiting C-O oxidative addition step and leads to lower energy isomers throughout the catalytic cycle, clarifying the role of the urea-moiety.

  1. Mesoporous Metal Complex–Silica Aerogels for Environmentally Friendly Amination of Allylic Alcohols


    Grau Atienza, Aida; Baeza, Alejandro; Serrano, Elena; Garcia-Martinez, Javier; Nájera Domingo, Carmen


    Two series of mesoporous hybrid iron(III) complex–silica aerogels were prepared in one-pot synthesis by using the sol–gel coordination chemistry approach. The use of the ligands 3-(2-aminoethylamino)propyltrimethoxysilane and 2-(diphenylphosphino)ethyltriethoxysilane, both with terminal triethoxysilyl groups, were used to incorporate metal complexes in situ into the framework of silica, through their co-condensation with a silicon alkoxide during the aerogel formation. This methodology yielde...

  2. Gravimetric analysis of the adsorption and desorption of CO2 on amine-functionalized mesoporous silica mounted on a microcantilever array. (United States)

    Lee, Dongkyu; Jin, Yusung; Jung, Namchul; Lee, Jaehyuk; Lee, Jinwoo; Jeong, Yong Shik; Jeon, Sangmin


    The kinetics of CO(2) adsorption and desorption over amine-functionalized mesoporous silica were investigated using silicon microcantilever arrays. Three types of mesoporous silica with different pore sizes were synthesized and functionalized with a variety of amine molecules. After depositing the silica sorbents onto the free end of each cantilever in an array, mass changes due to the adsorption and desorption of CO(2) were determined in situ with picogram sensitivity by measuring variations in the cantilever frequencies. The adsorption and desorption kinetics were found to be diffusion-controlled, and the kinetics were accelerated by increasing the temperature and pore size. The activation energies for adsorption and desorption of CO(2) were determined from Arrhenius plots.

  3. Kinetics and Mechanism of Iridium(Ⅲ)-Catalyzed Oxidation of Ethanol Amine by Cerium(Ⅳ) in Sulfuric Acid Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Yong-qing; LIU Hong-mei; YANG Lin; YANG Guo-zhong; SONG Wen-yu; LIU Yu-kai


    In this study, the kinetics and mechanism of the iridium(Ⅲ)-catalyzed oxidation of ethanol amine(EAN) by cerium(Ⅳ) in a sulfuric acid medium was investigated using titrimetric technique of redox in a temperature range of 298-313 K. It was found that the reaction is of first order with respect to Ce(Ⅳ) and Ir(Ⅲ), and a positive fractional order with respect to EAN. It was also found that the pseudo-first-order([EAN](》)[Ce(Ⅳ)]) rate constant kobs decreases with the increase of [H+] and [HSO-4]. Under the protection of nitrogen gas, the reaction system can initiate the polymerization of acrylonitrile, indicating the generation of free radicals. On the basis of the experimental results, a suitable mechanism was proposed. From the dependence of kobs on the concentration of hydrogen sulfate, Ce(SO4)2 was found to be the kinetically active species. The rate constants of the rate-determining step together with the activation parameters were evaluated.

  4. Amino acid-catalyzed seed regrowth synthesis of photostable high fluorescent silica nanoparticles with tunable sizes for intracellular studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahabi, Shakiba; Treccani, Laura, E-mail:; Rezwan, Kurosch [University of Bremen, Advanced Ceramics (Germany)


    Size-controlled fluorescence silica nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used for nanotoxicological studies, and diagnostic and targeted therapies. Such particles can be easily visualized and localized within cell environments and their interactions with cellular components can be monitored. We developed an amino acid-catalyzed seed regrowth technique (ACSRT) to synthesize spherical rhodamine-doped silica NPs with tunable sizes, low polydispersity index as well as high labeling efficiency and enhanced fluorescence photostability. Via ACSRT, fluorescent silica NPs can be obtained by introducing the fluorophore in seed formation step, while a precise control over particle size can be achieved by simply adjusting the concentration of reactants in the regrowth step. Unlike the conventional methods, the proposed ACSRT permits the synthesis of fluorescent silica NPs in a water-based system, without the use of any surfactants and co-surfactants. By this approach, additional linkers for covalent coupling of the fluorophore to silica matrix can be omitted, while a remarkable doping efficiency is achieved. The suitability of these particles for biomedical application is demonstrated by in vitro tests with normal and malignant bone cells. We show that the particles can be easily and unambiguously visualized by a conventional fluorescence microscope, localized, and distinguished within intracellular components. In addition, it is presented that the cellular uptake and cytotoxic profile of silica NPs are strongly correlated to the particle size, concentration, and cell line. The results of in vitro experiments demonstrate that tunable fluorescent silica NPs synthesized with ACSRT can be potentially used for toxicological assessments and nanomedical studies.

  5. Kinetics of oxidation of an organic amine with a Cr(V) salen complex in homogeneous aqueous solution and on the surface of mesoporous silica. (United States)

    Szajna-Fuller, Ewa; Huang, Yulin; Rapp, Jennifer L; Chaka, Gezahegn; Lin, Victor S Y; Pruski, Marek; Bakac, Andreja


    A comparative study of catalytic activity under homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions was carried out using the (salen)Cr(III)-catalyzed oxidation of tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) with iodosobenzene as a model reaction. Amine-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) were synthesized in a co-condensation reaction and functionalized with salen via a covalent Si-C bond. A Cr(III) complex of this supported ligand, MSN-(salen)Cr(III), was prepared and characterized. Data from powder XRD, BET isotherms and BJH pore size distribution all showed that MSN-(salen)Cr(III) still had the typical MSN high surface area, narrow pore size distribution, and ordered hexagonal pore structure, which were further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. (13)C and (29)Si solid-state NMR data provided structural information about the catalyst and verified successful functionalization of the salen ligand and coordination to Cr(III). No unreacted salen or Cr(III) were observed. The loadings of salen and salen-Cr(III) complex were determined via TGA and EDX, respectively. Both measurements indicated that approximately 0.5 mmol/g of catalyst was loaded on the surface of MSN. The oxidation of TMB with iodosobenzene using MSN-(salen)Cr(III) as a heterogeneous catalyst exhibited both similarities and differences with the analogous homogeneous reaction using (salen)Cr(III)(H(2)O)(+) as a catalyst in aqueous acetonitrile. In the presence of 0.10 M HClO(4), the two catalytic reactions proceeded at similar rates and generated the doubly oxidized product TMB(2+). In the absence of acid, the radical cation TMB (+) was produced. The kinetics of the heterogeneous reaction in the absence of added acid responded to concentrations of all three reagents, i.e. (salen)Cr(III), TMB, and PhIO.

  6. Cyclic stability testing of aminated-silica solid sorbent for post-combustion CO2 capture. (United States)

    Fisher, James C; Gray, McMahan


    The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is examining the use of solid sorbents for CO2 removal from coal-fired power plant flue gas streams. An aminated sorbent (previously reported by the NETL) is tested for stability by cyclic exposure to simulated flue gas and subsequent regeneration for 100 cycles. Each cycle was quantified using a traced gas in the simulated flue gas monitored by a mass spectrometer, which allowed for rapid determination of the capacity.

  7. Enhancement of formaldehyde degradation by amine functionalized silica/titania films. (United States)

    Photong, Somjate; Boonamnuayvitaya, Virote


    Doping amine functional groups into SiO2/TiO2 films for enhancing the decomposition of formaldehyde has been investigated using the modified sol-gel method to prepare organic-inorganic hybrid photocatalysts via the co-condensation reaction of methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMOS) and amine functional groups. n-(2-Aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (AEAPTMS) and 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (APTMS) were selected to study the effect of amine functional groups on the enhancement of formaldehyde adsorption and degradation under a UV irradiation process. Physicochemical properties of prepared photocatalysts were characterized with nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results indicated that the APTMS/SiO2/TiO2 film demonstrated a degradation efficiency of 79% superior to those of SiO2/TiO2 and AEAPTMS/SiO2/TiO2 films due to the synergetic effect of adsorption and photocatalytic properties. The APTMS/SiO2/TiO2 film can be recycled with about 7% decreasing of degradation efficiency after seven cycles.

  8. Bulk gold catalyzed oxidation reactions of amines and isocyanides and iron porphyrin catalyzed N-H and O-H bond insertion/cyclization reactions of diamines and aminoalcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klobukowski, Erik [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    This work involves two projects. The first project entails the study of bulk gold as a catalyst in oxidation reactions of isocyanides and amines. The main goal of this project was to study the activation and reactions of molecules at metal surfaces in order to assess how organometallic principles for homogeneous processes apply to heterogeneous catalysis. Since previous work had used oxygen as an oxidant in bulk gold catalyzed reactions, the generality of gold catalysis with other oxidants was examined. Amine N-oxides were chosen for study, due to their properties and use in the oxidation of carbonyl ligands in organometallic complexes. When amine N-oxides were used as an oxidant in the reaction of isocyanides with amines, the system was able to produce ureas from a variety of isocyanides, amines, and amine N-oxides. In addition, the rate was found to generally increase as the amine N-oxide concentration increased, and decrease with increased concentrations of the amine. Mechanistic studies revealed that the reaction likely involves transfer of an oxygen atom from the amine N-oxide to the adsorbed isocyanide to generate an isocyanate intermediate. Subsequent nucleophilic attack by the amine yields the urea. This is in contrast to the bulk gold-catalyzed reaction mechanism of isocyanides with amines and oxygen. Formation of urea in this case was proposed to proceed through a diaminocarbene intermediate. Moreover, formation of the proposed isocyanate intermediate is consistent with the reactions of metal carbonyl ligands, which are isoelectronic to isocyanides. Nucleophilic attack at coordinated CO by amine N-oxides produces CO{sub 2} and is analogous to the production of an isocyanate in this gold system. When the bulk gold-catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenation of amines was examined with amine N-oxides, the same products were afforded as when O{sub 2} was used as the oxidant. When the two types of oxidants were directly compared using the same reaction system and

  9. Transition-metal-catalyzed C-N bond forming reactions using organic azides as the nitrogen source: a journey for the mild and versatile C-H amination. (United States)

    Shin, Kwangmin; Kim, Hyunwoo; Chang, Sukbok


    Owing to the prevalence of nitrogen-containing compounds in functional materials, natural products and important pharmaceutical agents, chemists have actively searched for the development of efficient and selective methodologies allowing for the facile construction of carbon-nitrogen bonds. While metal-catalyzed C-N cross-coupling reactions have been established as one of the most general protocols for C-N bond formation, these methods require starting materials equipped with functional groups such as (hetero)aryl halides or their equivalents, thus generating stoichiometric amounts of halide salts as byproducts. To address this aspect, a transition-metal-catalyzed direct C-H amination approach has emerged as a step- and atom-economical alternative to the conventional C-N cross-coupling reactions. However, despite the significant recent advances in metal-mediated direct C-H amination reactions, most available procedures need harsh conditions requiring stoichiometric external oxidants. In this context, we were curious to see whether a transition-metal-catalyzed mild C-H amination protocol could be achieved using organic azides as the amino source. We envisaged that a dual role of organic azides as an environmentally benign amino source and also as an internal oxidant via N-N2 bond cleavage would be key to develop efficient C-H amination reactions employing azides. An additional advantage of this approach was anticipated: that a sole byproduct is molecular nitrogen (N2) under the perspective catalytic conditions. This Account mainly describes our research efforts on the development of rhodium- and iridium-catalyzed direct C-H amination reactions with organic azides. Under our initially optimized Rh(III)-catalyzed amination conditions, not only sulfonyl azides but also aryl- and alkyl azides could be utilized as facile amino sources in reaction with various types of C(sp(2))-H bonds bearing such directing groups as pyridine, amide, or ketoxime. More recently, a new

  10. Robust and Porous β-Diketiminate-Functionalized Metal–Organic Frameworks for Earth-Abundant-Metal-Catalyzed C–H Amination and Hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thacker, Nathan C.; Lin, Zekai; Zhang, Teng; Gilhula, James C.; Abney, Carter W.; Lin, Wenbin (UC)


    We have designed a strategy for postsynthesis installation of the β-diketiminate (NacNac) functionality in a metal–organic framework (MOF) of UiO-topology. Metalation of the NacNac-MOF (I) with earth-abundant metal salts afforded the desired MOF-supported NacNac-M complexes (M = Fe, Cu, and Co) with coordination environments established by detailed EXAFS studies. The NacNac-Fe-MOF catalyst, I•Fe(Me), efficiently catalyzed the challenging intramolecular sp3 C–H amination of a series of alkyl azides to afford α-substituted pyrrolidines. The NacNac-Cu-MOF catalyst, I•Cu(THF), was effective in promoting the intermolecular sp3 C–H amination of cyclohexene using unprotected anilines to provide access to secondary amines in excellent selectivity. Finally, the NacNac-Co-MOF catalyst, I•Co(H), was used to catalyze alkene hydrogenation with turnover numbers (TONs) as high as 700 000. All of the NacNac-M-MOF catalysts were more effective than their analogous homogeneous catalysts and could be recycled and reused without a noticeable decrease in yield. The NacNac-MOFs thus provide a novel platform for engineering recyclable earth-abundant-element-based single-site solid catalysts for many important organic transformations.

  11. Assessment of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinol-based amine N-halamine-labeled silica nanoparticles as potent antibiotics for deactivating bacteria. (United States)

    Li, Chenghao; Hou, Jingjing; Huang, Zhen; Zhao, Tianyi; Xiao, Linghan; Gao, Ge; Harnoode, Chokto; Dong, Alideertu


    Novel potent antibiotics, amine N-halamine-labeled silica nanoparticles (ANHLS NPs) based on 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinol (TMP), were skillfully synthesized via the encapsulation of silica nanoparticles with amine N-halamine polymer for effective killing pathogenic bacteria. The particle size and coating thickness of amine N-halamine of ANHLS NPs were well controlled by tuning size of silica NPs and polymer encapsulation period, respectively. Effect of chlorination time on the oxidative chlorine content in ANHLS NPs was well elucidated by the aid of the modified iodometric/thiosulfate technique. Antimicrobial action of the ANHLS NPs on bacterial strain was evaluated using Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli as model pathogenic bacteria. Bactericidal assessment showed that the ANHLS NPs exerted powerful bactericidal capability toward both two model bacteria. Time-kill assay demonstrated the significance of the oxidative chlorine content and contact time on antibacterial behavior. Size effect experiment displayed the decisive role of the size in controlling the biocidal activity. Plausible antibacterial mechanism of the ANHLS NPs against pathogenic bacteria was also discussed. Such a systematic investigation of the ANHLS NPs provides us a novel idea of making them the promising candidates for deactivating bacteria or even disease control.

  12. Recycle Adsorption of Cu2+ on Amine-functionalized Mesoporous Silica Monolithic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Da-zhou; JING Shu-bo; XU Jia-ning; YANG Hong; ZHENG Wei; SONG Tian-you; ZHANG Ping


    3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane functionalized worm-like mesoporous silica monolithic(WMSM-NH2) was prepared and used as a new regenerable adsorbent for the removal of Cu2+ ions.The analysis results show that the WMSM-NH2 monolithic had a high efficiency value of 99.3% for Cu2+ remediation when the Cu2+ solution was at an initial concentration of 10.32 mg/L.The regeneration study of the WMSM-NH2 monolithic presented that the adsorption efficiency of 89.0% was remained and a mass of 92.0% was left after seven adsorption-desorption cycles were executed.The monolithic material with high resistance to the acid and good mechanical stability can facilitate the operations of adsorption and regeneration of the adsorbent.

  13. Palladium-catalyzed aryl amination-heck cyclization cascade: A one-flask approach to 3-substituted Indoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Pedersen, Henrik; Bang-Andersen, B.;


    Two for the price of one: A Pd/dppf-based catalyst provides access to the title compounds from 1,2-dihalogenated aromatic compounds and allylic amines in a single reaction flask. The initial aryl amination step occurs with excellent selectivity for the aryl iodide to ensure the formation of a sin...

  14. Desorption Kinetics and Mechanisms of CO2 on Amine-Based Mesoporous Silica Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Teng


    Full Text Available Tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA-based mesoporous MCM-41 is used as the adsorbent to determine the CO2 desorption kinetics of amine-modified materials after adsorption. The experimental data of CO2 desorption as a function of time are derived by zero-length column at different temperatures (35, 50, and 70 °C and analyzed by Avrami’s fractional-order kinetic model. A new method is used to distinguish the physical desorption and chemical desorption performance of surface-modified mesoporous MCM-41. The activation energy Ea of CO2 physical desorption and chemical desorption calculated from Arrhenius equation are 15.86 kJ/mol and 57.15 kJ/mol, respectively. Furthermore, intraparticle diffusion and Boyd’s film models are selected to investigate the mechanism of CO2 desorption from MCM-41 and surface-modified MCM-41. For MCM-41, there are three rate-limiting steps during the desorption process. Film diffusion is more prominent for the CO2 desorption rates at low temperatures, and pore diffusion mainly governs the rate-limiting process under higher temperatures. Besides the surface reaction, the desorption process contains four rate-limiting steps on surface-modified MCM-41.

  15. Amine-Impregnated Mesoporous Silica Nanotube as an Emerging Nanocomposite for CO2 Capture. (United States)

    Niu, Mengya; Yang, Huaming; Zhang, Xiangchao; Wang, Yutang; Tang, Aidong


    Pristine halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were pretreated to produce mesoporous silica nanotubes (MSiNTs), which was further impregnated with polyethenimine (PEI) to prepare an emerging nanocomposite MSiNTs/PEI (MP) for CO2 capture. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was employed to analyze the influences of PEI loading amount and adsorption temperature on CO2 adsorption capacity of the nanocomposite. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area (SBET) of MSiNTs was six times higher than that of HNTs, and the corresponding pore volume was more than two times higher than that of HNTs. The well dispersion of PEI within the nanotubes of MSiNTs benefits more CO2 gas adsorption, and the adsorption capacity of the nanocomposite could reach 2.75 mmol/g at 85 °C for 2 h. The CO2 adsorption on the nanocomposite was demonstrated to occur via a two-stage process: initially, a sharp linear weight increase at the beginning, and then a relatively slow adsorption step. The adsorption capacity could reach as high as 70% within 2 min. Also, the nanocomposite exhibited good stability on CO2 adsorption/desorption performance, indicating that the as-prepared emerging nanocomposite show an interesting application potential in the field of CO2 capture.

  16. Highly Efficient Conjugate Addition of Amines to Electron Deficient Alkenes Catalyzed by KF Supported on Metal Oxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG, Xuezheng; ZHANG, Jinga; BAO, Shaohua; YANG, Jianguo


    A novel efficient procedure has been developed for the conjugate addition of amines to electron deficient al- kenes. A series of KF supported on different carders have been synthesized for the conjugate addition amines to al- kenes. After optimizing the reaction conditions, KF/MgO was chosen as the most efficient catalyst for the reactions. The results showed that the catalyst was very efficient for the conjugate addition of amines to electron deficient al- kenes with excellent yields in several minutes. Operational simplicity, no need of any solvent, low cost of the cata- lyst used, high yields, reusability, excellent chemoselectivity and wide applicability are the key features of this methodology.

  17. Functionalized nanostructured silica by tetradentate-amine chelating ligand as efficient heavy metals adsorbent : Applications to industrial effluent treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahbazi, Afsaneh [Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Younesi, Habibollah [Tarbiat Modares University, Noor (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Badiei, Alireza [University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Organofunctionalized nanostructured silica SBA-15 with tri(2-aminoethyl)amine tetradentate-amine ligand was synthesized and applied as adsorbent for the removal of Cu{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, and Cd{sup 2+} from both synthetic wastewater and real paper mill and electroplating industrial effluents. The prepared materials were characterized by XRD, N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, TGA, and FT-IR analysis. The Tren-SBA-15 was found to be a fast adsorbent for heavy metal ions from single solution with affinity for Cu{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, than for Cd{sup 2+} due to the complicated impacts of metal ion electronegativity. The kinetic rate constant decreased with increasing metal ion concentration due to increasing of ion repulsion force. The equilibrium batch experimental data is well described by the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity was 1.85 mmol g{sup -1} for Cu{sup 2+}, 1.34 mmol g{sup -1} for Pb{sup 2+}, and 1.08 mmol g{sup -1} for Cd{sup 2+} at the optimized adsorption conditions (pH=4, T=323 K, t=2 h, C0=3 mmol L{sup -1}, and adsorbent dose=1 g L{sup -1}). All Gibbs energy was negative as expected for spontaneous interactions, and the positive entropic values from 103.7 to 138.7 J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1} also reinforced this favorable adsorption process in heterogeneous system. Experiment with real wastewaters showed that approximately a half fraction of the total amount of studied metal ions was removed within the first cycle of adsorption. Hence, desorption experiments were performed by 0.3M HCl eluent, and Tren-SBA-15 successfully reused for four adsorption/desorption cycles to complete removal of metal ions from real effluents. The regenerated Tren-SBA-15 displayed almost similar adsorption capacity of Cu{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, and Cd{sup 2+} even after four recycles. The results suggest that Tren-SBA-15 is a good candidate as an adsorbent in the removal of Cu{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, and Cd{sup 2+} from aqueous solutions.

  18. Vanadium-catalyzed oxidative Strecker reaction: α-C-H cyanation of para-methoxyphenyl (PMP)-protected primary amines. (United States)

    Zhu, Chen; Xia, Ji-Bao; Chen, Chuo


    We describe an oxidative Strecker reaction that allows for direct cyanation of para-methoxyphenyl (PMP)-protected primary amines. A vanadium(V) complex was used as the catalyst and TBHP as the oxidant. The cyanation occurs at the α-C position bearing either an alkyl or an aromatic group. This method provides a direct access to α-aminonitrile from amines with one-carbon extension.

  19. 纳米氧化铜催化碘代芳烃的氨基化反应%Ligand-free copper(Ⅱ)-catalyzed amination of aryl iodides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕良忠; 徐欢; 丁元华; 刘伟; 袁宇


    针对硝基化合物还原制备芳香胺中反应条件苛刻、适用范围较小、副产物较多、产品质量欠佳等缺陷,研究出一种以纳米氧化铜为催化剂、氨水为氨源且无配体参与的一步合成芳香伯胺的方法.该方法具有原料价廉、反应条件温和、对环境友好等优点,为芳香胺的合成增添了新的途径.%Reduction of nitro substituted aromatic compounds is the main method for preparation of aromatic amines in industry at present. However, the conventional synthetic methods often have relatively harsh reaction conditions, small scope of application, unavoidable by-products, poor selectivity, poor product quality and other shortcomings. This paper develops one step method of ligand-free nano copper oxide catalyzed amination reaction of aryl iodides with ammonia. Aqueous NH3 solution is a convenient and inexpensive source of ammonia. The synthesis method with mild conditions and environmental friendliness, has added a new method for synthesizing primary aromatic amines.

  20. The Role of Pendant Amines in the Breaking and Forming of Molecular Hydrogen Catalyzed by Nickel Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raugei, Simone; Chen, Shentan; Ho, Ming-Hsun; Ginovska-Pangovska, Bojana; Rousseau, Roger J.; Dupuis, Michel; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, R. Morris


    We present the results of a comprehensive theoretical investigation of the role of pendant amine ligands in the oxidation of H2 and formation of H2 by [Ni(P2RN2R’)2]2+ electrocatalysts (where P2RN2R’ is the 1,5-R’-3,7-R derivative of 1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane with R and R’ are aryl or alkyl groups). We focus our analysis on the thermolchemical part of the catalytic cycle, as it is known to be rate determining for both H2 oxidation and production. We find that the presence of pendant amine functional groups greatly facilitates the heterolytic H2 bond cleavage resulting in a protonated amine functional group and a Ni hydride. Only one single well-positioned pendant amine is required to serve this function. The pendant amine can also effectively shuttle protons to the active site making the redistribution of protons and the H2 evolution a very facile processes. An important requirement for the overall catalytic process is the positioning of at least one amine in close proximity to the metal center. Indeed, only protonation of the pendant amines on the metal center side (endo position) leads to catalytically active intermediates, whereas protonation on the opposite side of the metal center (exo position) leads to a variety of isomers, which are detrimental to catalysis. This material is based upon work supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under FWP56073.

  1. Amine-tethered adsorbents based on three-dimensional macroporous silica for CO(2) capture from simulated flue gas and air. (United States)

    Liu, Fa-Qian; Wang, Lei; Huang, Zhao-Ge; Li, Chao-Qin; Li, Wei; Li, Rong-Xun; Li, Wei-Hua


    New covalently tethered CO2 adsorbents are synthesized through the in situ polymerization of N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) of l-alanine from amine-functionalized three-dimensional (3D) interconnected macroporous silica (MPS). The interconnected macropores provide low-resistant pathways for the diffusion of CO2 molecules, while the abundant mesopores ensure the high pore volume. The adsorbents exhibit high molecular weight (of up to 13058 Da), high amine loading (more than 10.98 mmol N g(-1)), fast CO2 capture kinetics (t1/2 CO2 g(-1) in simulated flue gas and 2.65 mmol CO2 g(-1) in simulated ambient air under 1 atm of dry CO2), as well as good stability over 120 adsorption-desorption cycles, which allows the overall CO2 capture process to be promising and sustainable.

  2. Functional-Group-Tolerant, Silver-Catalyzed N-N Bond Formation by Nitrene Transfer to Amines. (United States)

    Maestre, Lourdes; Dorel, Ruth; Pablo, Óscar; Escofet, Imma; Sameera, W M C; Álvarez, Eleuterio; Maseras, Feliu; Díaz-Requejo, M Mar; Echavarren, Antonio M; Pérez, Pedro J


    Silver(I) promotes the highly chemoselective N-amidation of tertiary amines under catalytic conditions to form aminimides by nitrene transfer from PhI═NTs. Remarkably, this transformation proceeds in a selective manner in the presence of olefins and other functional groups without formation of the commonly observed aziridines or C-H insertion products. The methodology can be applied not only to rather simple tertiary amines but also to complex natural molecules such as brucine or quinine, where the products derived from N-N bond formation were exclusively formed. Theoretical mechanistic studies have shown that this selective N-amidation reaction proceeds through triplet silver nitrenes.

  3. Ionic liquids as silica deactivating agents in gas chromatography for direct analysis of primary amines in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzyzaniak, A.; Weggemans, W.; Schuur, B.; Haan, de A.B.


    Analysis of primary amines in aqueous samples remains a challenging analytical issue. The preferred approach by gas chromatography is hampered by interactions of free silanol groups with the highly reactive amine groups, resulting in inconsistent measurements. Here, we report a method for direct ana

  4. Selective copper(II acetate and potassium iodide catalyzed oxidation of aminals to dihydroquinazoline and quinazolinone alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T. Richers


    Full Text Available Copper(II acetate/acetic acid/O2 and potassium iodide/tert-butylhydroperoxide systems are shown to affect the selective oxidation of ring-fused aminals to dihydroquinazolines and quinazolinones, respectively. These methods enable the facile preparation of a number of quinazoline alkaloid natural products and their analogues.

  5. Bifunctional heterogeneous catalysis of silica-alumina-supported tertiary amines with controlled acid-base interactions for efficient 1,4-addition reactions. (United States)

    Motokura, Ken; Tanaka, Satoka; Tada, Mizuki; Iwasawa, Yasuhiro


    We report the first tunable bifunctional surface of silica-alumina-supported tertiary amines (SA-NEt(2)) active for catalytic 1,4-addition reactions of nitroalkanes and thiols to electron-deficient alkenes. The 1,4-addition reaction of nitroalkanes to electron-deficient alkenes is one of the most useful carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions and applicable toward a wide range of organic syntheses. The reaction between nitroethane and methyl vinyl ketone scarcely proceeded with either SA or homogeneous amines, and a mixture of SA and amines showed very low catalytic activity. In addition, undesirable side reactions occurred in the case of a strong base like sodium ethoxide employed as a catalytic reagent. Only the present SA-supported amine (SA-NEt(2)) catalyst enabled selective formation of a double-alkylated product without promotions of side reactions such as an intramolecular cyclization reaction. The heterogeneous SA-NEt(2) catalyst was easily recovered from the reaction mixture by simple filtration and reusable with retention of its catalytic activity and selectivity. Furthermore, the SA-NEt(2) catalyst system was applicable to the addition reaction of other nitroalkanes and thiols to various electron-deficient alkenes. The solid-state magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopic analyses, including variable-contact-time (13)C cross-polarization (CP)/MAS NMR spectroscopy, revealed that acid-base interactions between surface acid sites and immobilized amines can be controlled by pretreatment of SA at different temperatures. The catalytic activities for these addition reactions were strongly affected by the surface acid-base interactions.

  6. Palladium-catalyzed Carbonylative Cyclization of 2-Bromocyclohex-1-enecarbalde-hydes with Aliphatic Primary Amines Leading to 3-Aminohydroisoindol-1-ones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Yeon Kyu; Cho, Chan Sik; Yoon, Nam Sik [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    It has been shown that 2-bromocyclohex-1-enecarbaldehydes, which are readily prepared from α-methylene containing cyclohexanones under the bromination conditions of Vilsmeier-Haak reaction, undergo carbonylative cyclization with aliphatic primary amines in the presence of a palladium catalyst and a bidentate phosphorus ligand to give 3-aminohydroisoindol-1-ones. The present reaction provides a promising route for the synthesis of valuable heterocycles from readily available starting ketones. Further study of synthetic applications to heterocycles using these ketones is currently under investigation. Palladium-catalyzed carbonylation of organic halides (or triflates) followed by intramolecular cyclization (carbonyl-ative cyclization) has been widely explored and used as a promising synthetic tool for the construction of the structural core of many pharmacologically and biologically active lactones and lactams.

  7. Amine-free reversible hydrogen storage in formate salts catalyzed by ruthenium pincer complex without pH control or solvent change. (United States)

    Kothandaraman, Jotheeswari; Czaun, Miklos; Goeppert, Alain; Haiges, Ralf; Jones, John-Paul; May, Robert B; Prakash, G K Surya; Olah, George A


    Due to the intermittent nature of most renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind, energy storage is increasingly required. Since electricity is difficult to store, hydrogen obtained by electrochemical water splitting has been proposed as an energy carrier. However, the handling and transportation of hydrogen in large quantities is in itself a challenge. We therefore present here a method for hydrogen storage based on a CO2 (HCO3 (-) )/H2 and formate equilibrium. This amine-free and efficient reversible system (>90 % yield in both directions) is catalyzed by well-defined and commercially available Ru pincer complexes. The formate dehydrogenation was triggered by simple pressure swing without requiring external pH control or the change of either the solvent or the catalyst. Up to six hydrogenation-dehydrogenation cycles were performed and the catalyst performance remained steady with high selectivity (CO free H2 /CO2 mixture was produced).

  8. The role of the alcohol and carboxylic acid in directed ruthenium-catalyzed C(sp3)-H α-alkylation of cyclic amines. (United States)

    Bergman, Sheba D; Storr, Thomas E; Prokopcová, Hana; Aelvoet, Karel; Diels, Gaston; Meerpoel, Lieven; Maes, Bert U W


    A general directed Ru-catalyzed C(sp(3))-H α-alkylation protocol for piperidines (less-reactive substrates than the corresponding five-membered cyclic amines) has been developed. The use of a hindered alcohol (2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanol) as the solvent and catalyst activator, and a catalytic amount of trans-1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid is necessary to achieve a high conversion to product. This protocol was used to effectively synthesize a number of 2-hexyl- and 2,6-dihexyl piperidines, as well as the alkaloid (±)-solenopsin A. Kinetic studies have revealed that the carboxylic acid additive has a significant effect on catalyst initiation, catalyst longevity, and reverses the reaction selectivity compared with the acid-free reaction (promotes alkylation versus competing alkene reduction).

  9. Silica-gel Catalyzed Facile Synthesis of 3,4-Dihydropyrimidinones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Sameer; Aware, Umesh; Patil, Amit; Rohera, Vinita; Jain, Mukul; Patel, Pankaj [Zydus Research Centre, Sarkhej-Bavla N.H., Ahmedabad (India); Ghate, Manjunath [Nirma University, Ahmedabad (India)


    We have developed a mild and highly effective procedure for the one-pot synthesis of substituted dihydropyrimidinones in high yields using silica gel as a green, highly efficient and recyclable heterogeneous catalyst. Our approach can be applied to the preparation of a wide range of synthetic analogues for structure-activity studies. Investigations in this direction are ongoing. The pyrimidinone ring is a basic substructure of numerous biologically active alkaloids and pharmaceutical products. These cores are regarded as one of the most important groups of drug-like scaffolds. 3,4-dihydropyrimidinones above are known to exhibit variety of pharmacological activity such as calcium channel modulation, mitotic kinesin Eg5 inhibition, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial activity, etc.

  10. Unsaturated Fatty Acid Esters Metathesis Catalyzed by Silica Supported WMe5

    KAUST Repository

    Riache, Nassima


    Metathesis of unsaturated fatty acid esters (FAEs) by silica supported multifunctional W-based catalyst is disclosed. This transformation represents a novel route towards unsaturated di-esters. Especially, the self-metathesis of ethyl undecylenate results almost exclusively on the homo-coupling product whereas with such catalyst, 1-decene gives ISOMET (isomerization and metathesis olefin) products. The olefin metathesis in the presence of esters is very selective without any secondary cross-metathesis products demonstrating that a high selective olefin metathesis could operate at 150 °C. Additionally, a cross-metathesis of unsaturated FAEs and α-olefins allowed the synthesis of the corresponding ester with longer hydrocarbon skeleton without isomerisation.

  11. Silver nanoparticles deposited on amine-functionalized silica spheres and their amalgamation-based spectral and colorimetric detection of Hg(II) ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rameshkumar, Perumal; Manivannan, Shanmugam; Ramaraj, Ramasamy, E-mail: [Madurai Kamaraj University, Centre for Photoelectrochemistry, School of Chemistry (India)


    A facile synthetic method to decorate amine-functionalized silica spheres (SiO{sub 2}) by silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) is reported. The transmission electron microscopic (TEM) images showed that spherical Ag NPs with an average particle size of 14 nm were deposited on 250 nm-sized SiO{sub 2} spheres (SiO{sub 2}/Ag NPs). The spectral and colorimetric detection of Hg(II) ions were carried out using the synthesized SiO{sub 2}/Ag NPs with an experimental detection limit of 5 {mu}M. It was found that the addition of Hg(II) ions (150 {mu}M) into the solution of SiO{sub 2}/Ag NPs completely quenched the SPR band of the Ag NPs due to the formation of anisotropic Ag amalgam crystals (AgHg). The selective detection of Hg(II) ions by SiO{sub 2}/Ag NPs in the presence of other environmentally relevant metal ions was also demonstrated using spectral and colorimetric methods.Graphical abstractAmine-functionalized silica spheres are decorated by in situ formation of silver nanoparticles and their spectral and colorimetric detection of Hg(II) ions is reported.

  12. Sustainable Pathways to Pyrroles through Iron-Catalyzed N-Heterocyclization from Unsaturated Diols and Primary Amines. (United States)

    Yan, Tao; Barta, Katalin


    Pyrroles are prominent scaffolds in pharmaceutically active compounds and play an important role in medicinal chemistry. Therefore, the development of new, atom-economic, and sustainable catalytic strategies to obtain these moieties is highly desired. Direct catalytic pathways that utilize readily available alcohol substrates have been recently established; however, these approaches rely on the use of noble metals such as ruthenium or iridium. Here, we report on the direct synthesis of pyrroles using a catalyst based on the earth-abundant and inexpensive iron. The method uses 2-butyne-1,4-diol or 2-butene-1,4-diol that can be directly coupled with anilines, benzyl amines, and aliphatic amines to obtain a variety of N-substituted pyrroles in moderate-to-excellent isolated yields.

  13. Palladium-catalyzed C-H activation/intramolecular amination reaction: a new route to 3-aryl/alkylindazoles. (United States)

    Inamoto, Kiyofumi; Saito, Tadataka; Katsuno, Mika; Sakamoto, Takao; Hiroya, Kou


    A method for the catalytic C-H activation of hydrazone compounds followed by intramolecular amination is described. It requires the use of a catalytic amount of Pd(OAc)2 in the presence of Cu(OAc)2 and AgOCOCF3, which efficiently effects the cyclization to afford variously substituted indazoles. The reactions proceed under relatively mild conditions and thus tolerate a variety of functional groups, including alkoxycarbonyl and cyano groups and halogen atoms.

  14. Design, Synthesis and Biological Activity of Novel Reversible Peptidyl FVIIa Inhibitors Rh-Catalyzed Enantioselective Synthesis of Diaryl Amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Morten

    stategies were proposed, the one involving a tetramic acid key intermediate being the most straightforward and with less protective group manipulation. For introduction of the benzyl functionality, a palladium-catalyzed -arylation was developed. This transformation occurs under mild conditions showing high...

  15. Ionic liquids as silica deactivating agents in gas chromatography for direct analysis of primary amines in water. (United States)

    Krzyżaniak, Agnieszka; Weggemans, Wilko; Schuur, Boelo; de Haan, André B


    Analysis of primary amines in aqueous samples remains a challenging analytical issue. The preferred approach by gas chromatography is hampered by interactions of free silanol groups with the highly reactive amine groups, resulting in inconsistent measurements. Here, we report a method for direct analysis of aliphatic amines and diamines in aqueous samples by gas chromatography (GC) with silanol deactivation using ionic liquids (ILs). ILs including trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis 2,4,4-(trimethylpentyl)phosphinate (Cyphos IL-104), 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [pmim][Tf(2)N] and N″-ethyl-N,N,N',N'-tetramethylguanidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate [etmg][FAP] were tested as deactivating media for the GC liner. Solutions of these ILs in methanol were injected in the system prior to the analysis of primary amines. Butane-1,4-diamine (putrescine, BDA) was used as a reference amine. The best results were obtained using the imidazolium IL [pmim][Tf(2)N]. With this deactivator, excellent reproducibility of the analysis was achieved, and the detection limit of BDA was as low as 1mM. The applicability of the method was proven for the analysis of two different primary amines (C4-C5) and pentane-1,5-diamine.

  16. Phenylsulfonic Acid Functionalized Mesoporous Silica Catalyzed Transetherification of Alcohols with Dimethoxymethane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建明; 吕剑


    Phenylsulfonic acid functionalized mesoporous silica was synthesized by condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate with phenyltrimethoxysilane, and then sulfonation using 30% fuming sulfuric acid. The material was characterized using FT-IR, DSC, XPS, TEM and N2 adsorption/desorption measurements. DSC revealed that sulfonic acid group of the catalyst was decomposed at 354.8℃, indicating that the catalyst exhibited high thermal stability. XPS showed that there existed three kinds of different silicon species on surface of the catalyst. The catalytic performance of the catalyst was evaluated using transetherification of alcohols with dimethoxymethane. It was found that among primary alcohols, the selectivities of the two long-chain alcohols for n-dedocanol and n-tetradecyl alcohol were higher than 97.0% at the conversions of 43.6% and 65.3%, respectively, while the selectivities of the short-chain alcohols except for n-hexanol were less than 90.0% at the conversions of over 80.0%. Due to steric bartier, the secondary alcohols such as /so-butanol and cyclohexanol afforded conversions of 79.4% and 60.5%, and the selectivities of the two alcohols were more than 90.0%. The sequence in conversion of the substituted phenols isas follows: p-nitrophenol>p-fluorophenol≥p-bromophenol>p-cresol>m-cresol.

  17. Hydroformylation of dihydrofurans catalyzed by rhodium complex encapsulated hexagonal mesoporous silica

    KAUST Repository

    Khokhar, Munir


    HRh(CO)(PPh3)3 encapsulated hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS) is found to be an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for the selective hydroformylation of 2,3-dihydrofuran (2,3DHF) and 2,5-dihydrofuran (2,5DHF). The Rh-complex encapsulated in situ in the organic phase of template inside the pores of HMS was found to act as nano phase reactors. Conversion of 2,3-DHF and 2,5-DHF and selectivity of the corresponding aldehydes were thoroughly investigated by studying the reaction parameters: catalyst amount, substrate concentration, partial as well as total pressure of CO and H2, and temperature. The selectivity for the formation of tetrahydrofuran-2-carbaldehyde (THF-2-carbaldehyde) from the hydroformylation of 2,3-DHF was found to be more than the selectivity of the formation of tetrahydrofuran-3-carbaldehyde (THF-3-carbaldehyde) from 2,5-DHF. The reaction paths are suggested and discussed for the selective formation of the corresponding aldehydes. The catalyst was elegantly separated and effectively recycled for six times.

  18. CYP-450 isoenzymes catalyze the generation of hazardous aromatic amines after reaction with the azo dye Sudan III


    Zanoni, Thalita Boldrin; Lizier, Thiago M. [UNESP; Assis,Marilda das Dores; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma


    This work describes the mutagenic response of Sudan III, an adulterant food dye, using Salmonella typhimurium assay and the generation of hazardous aromatic amines after different oxidation methods of this azo dye. For that, we used metabolic activation by S9, catalytic oxidation by ironporphyrin and electrochemistry oxidation in order to simulate endogenous oxidation conditions. The oxidation reactions promoted discoloration from 65% to 95% of Sudan III at 1×10-4molL-1 and generation of 7.6×...

  19. Cloning and characterization of a new laccase from Lactobacillus plantarum J16 CECT 8944 catalyzing biogenic amines degradation. (United States)

    Callejón, S; Sendra, R; Ferrer, S; Pardo, I


    In our search for degrading activities of biogenic amines (BAs) in lactic acid bacteria, a protein annotated as laccase enzyme was identified in Lactobacillus plantarum J16 (CECT 8944). In this study, the gene of this new laccase was cloned and heterologously overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant laccase protein was purified and characterized biochemically. The purified laccase showed characteristic spectroscopic properties of blue multicopper oxidases. The enzyme has a molecular weight of ∼ 62.5 kDa and activity toward typical laccase substrates 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (2,6-DMP). The pH optima on ABTS and 2,6-DMP were 3.5 and 7.0, respectively. Kinetic constants Km and Vmax were of 0.21 mM and 0.54 U/mg for ABTS and 1.67 mM and 0.095 U/mg for 2,6-DMP, respectively. The highest oxidizing activity toward 2,6-DMP was obtained at 60 °C. However, after a preincubation step at 85 °C for 10 min, no residual activity was detected. It has been demonstrated that recombinant L. plantarum laccase oxidizes biogenic amines, mainly tyramine, and thus presents new biotechnological potential for the enzyme in eliminating toxic compounds present in fermented food and beverages.

  20. Methyl Iodide Accelerated Asymmetric Epoxidation of Alkenes Catalyzed by Chiral Salen-Mn(Ⅲ) Complexes with Tertiary Amine Units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN,Yang; TANG,Ning


    A series of chiral salen-Mn(Ⅲ) complexes featuring two tertiary amine units were synthesized and employed in the enantioselective epoxidation of unfunctionalized alkenes in the presence of pyridine N-oxide and 2,6-dimethylpyridine N-oxide as proximal ligands, respectively. Moderate to high enantioselectivity and acceptable yields were achieved when NaClO was used as terminal oxidant under CH2Cl2/H2O biphasic media. Methyl iodide was found to be an effective additive to accelerate the epoxidation, possibly owing to the formation of quaternary ammonium units on catalysts, which may facilitate the reaction in an oil/water biphasic medium. The subsequent stimulation experiment was carried out, and the resulting ESI-HRMS analysis revealed the formation of a novel(salen)manganese(Ⅲ) intermediate featuring two quaternary ammonium units, and bearing a pyridine N-oxide and a molecule of water simultaneously axially-coordinated backbone.

  1. Characterization of silica particles prepared via urease-catalyzed urea hydrolysis and activity of urease in sol-gel silica matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Katsuya, E-mail: [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98 Anagahora, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Nishida, Masakazu [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98 Anagahora, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Ito, Kimiyasu; Tomita, Masahiro [Division of Chemistry for Materials, Graduate School of Engineering, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya-cho, Tsu, Mie 514-8570 (Japan)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silica precipitation occurred via urease-catalytic reactions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher urease activity for silica synthesis enables mesostructure of silica-urease composites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Urease encapsulating in silica matrix retained high activity. - Abstract: Urease templated precipitation of silica synthesized by sol-gel chemistry produces a composite material allowing high urease activity. This study investigates the structural properties of the composite material that allow for the retention of the urease hydrolysis activity. Scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy reveal that the composite has a mesoporous structure composed of closely packed spherical structures {approx}20-50 nm in diameter. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis revealed that the surface area and pore volume of the composite prepared under the conditions of 50 mM urea and 25 Degree-Sign C is relatively high (324 m{sup 2}/g and 1.0 cm{sup 3}/g). These values are equivalent to those of usual mesoporous silica materials synthesized from the self-assembly of triblock copolymers as organic templates. In addition, after encapsulating in a sol-gel silica matrix, urease retained high activity ({approx}90% of the activity compared with native urease). Our results suggest a new method for synthesizing mesoporous silica materials with highly tunable pore sizes and shapes under mild conditions.

  2. Method for the production of primary amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldenius, Kai-Uwe; Ditrich, Klaus; Breurer, Michael; Navickas, Vaidotas; Janssen, Dick; Crismaru, Ciprian; Bartsch, Sebastian


    The present invention relates to a novel enzymatically catalyzed method for the production of aliphatic primary amines, which method comprises the enzymatic oxidation of a primary aliphatic alcohol catalyzed by an alcohol dehydrogenase, amination of the resulting oxocompound catalyzed by a transamin

  3. Structural Changes of Silica Mesocellular Foam Supported Amine-Functionalized CO 2 Adsorbents Upon Exposure to Steam

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Wen


    Three classes of amine-functionalized mesocellular foam (MCF) materials are prepared and evaluated as CO2 adsorbents. The stability of the adsorbents under steam/air and steam/nitrogen conditions is investigated using a Parr autoclave reactor to simulate, in an accelerated manner, the exposure that such adsorbents will see under steam stripping regeneration conditions at various temperatures. The CO2 capacity and organic content of all adsorbents decrease after steam treatment under both steam/air and steam/nitrogen conditions, primarily due to structural collapse of the MCF framework, but with additional contributions likely associated with amine degradation during treatment under harsh conditions. Treatment with steam/air is found to have stronger effect on the CO2 capacity of the adsorbents compared to steam/nitrogen. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  4. Structural changes of silica mesocellular foam supported amine-functionalized CO2 adsorbents upon exposure to steam. (United States)

    Li, Wen; Bollini, Praveen; Didas, Stephanie A; Choi, Sunho; Drese, Jeffrey H; Jones, Christopher W


    Three classes of amine-functionalized mesocellular foam (MCF) materials are prepared and evaluated as CO(2) adsorbents. The stability of the adsorbents under steam/air and steam/nitrogen conditions is investigated using a Parr autoclave reactor to simulate, in an accelerated manner, the exposure that such adsorbents will see under steam stripping regeneration conditions at various temperatures. The CO(2) capacity and organic content of all adsorbents decrease after steam treatment under both steam/air and steam/nitrogen conditions, primarily due to structural collapse of the MCF framework, but with additional contributions likely associated with amine degradation during treatment under harsh conditions. Treatment with steam/air is found to have stronger effect on the CO(2) capacity of the adsorbents compared to steam/nitrogen.

  5. Efficient alkene epoxidation catalyzed by molybdenyl acetylacetonate supported on aminated UiO-66 metal−organic framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kardanpour, Reihaneh [Department of Chemistry, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tangestaninejad, Shahram, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirkhani, Valiollah, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghadam, Majid, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadpoor-Baltork, Iraj; Zadehahmadi, Farnaz [Department of Chemistry, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) containing Mo Schiff base complexes were prepared by post-synthesis method and applied as efficient catalysts in the epoxidation of alkenes with tert-BuOOH. In this manner, UiO-66-NH{sub 2} (UiO=University of Oslo) MOF was reacted with salicylaldehyde and thiophene-2-carbaldehyde to produce bidentate Schiff bases. Then, the Schiff base ligands were used for immobilization of molybdenyl acetylacetonate. These new catalysts were characterized by FT-IR, UV–vis spectroscopic techniques, X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). These catalytic systems showed excellent activity in the epoxidation of alkenes such as cyclic and linear ones with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) in 1,2-dichloroethane, and reused several times without any appreciable loss of their activity. - Graphical abstract: Efficient alkene epoxidation with TBHP catalyzed by heterogeneous and reusable molybdenum base catalysts is reported. - Highlights: • UiO-66-NH{sub 2} was modified with salicylaldehyde and thiophene-2-carbaldehyde. • The Schiff base groups were used for immobilization of MoO{sub 2}(acac){sub 2}. • The heterogeneous catalysts were prepared. • The prepared catalysts were used for epoxidation of alkenes. • Compared to other catalyst, our catalysts were more efficient and forceful.

  6. Multifunctional mesoporous silica catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Victor Shang-Yi; Tsai, Chih-Hsiang; Chen, Hung-Ting; Pruski, Marek; Kobayashi, Takeshi


    The present invention provides bifunctional silica mesoporous materials, including mesoporous silica nanoparticles ("MSN"), having pores modified with diarylammonium triflate and perfluoroaryl moieties, that are useful for the acid-catalyzed esterification of organic acids with organic alcohols.

  7. Silica-bonded N-propylsulfamic acid as a recyclable catalyst for the synthesis of 2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-ones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khodabakhsh Niknam; Nasrolah Jafarpour; Ebrahim Niknam


    2,3-Dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one derivatives are synthesized via a one-pot,three component reaction of isatoic anhydride and an aromatic aldehyde with ammonium acetate or primary amine catalyzed by silica-bonded N-propylsulfamic acid(SBNPSA)in refluxing ethanol.

  8. 多相双金属Pt-Sn/γ-Al2O3催化的胺N-烷基化反应合成仲胺和叔胺%Heterogeneous Bimetallic Pt-Sn/γ-Al2O3 Catalyzed N-Alkylation of Amines:Efficient Synthesis of Secondary and Tertiary Amines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赫巍; 何松波; 孙承林; 吴凯凯; 王连弟; 余正坤


    AT-Alkylation of amines with alcohols through a borrowing hydrogen strategy is a green route to amines. Heterogeneous bimetallic Pt-Sn/γ-Al2O3 catalyzed the reactions of primary (secondary) amines with alcohols in the absence of external hydrogen source, efficiently affording secondary (tertiary) amines with water and a small amount of imines as the by-products. Various functional groups in the substrates were tolerated in the catalytic system. The Pt-Sn/γ-Al2O3 catalyst was easily recycled, suggesting its potential application in the production of secondary and tertiary amines.%基于借氢策略、醇为烷基化试剂的胺的N-烷基化反应是合成胺类化合物的绿色途径.在无外加氢源条件下,多相双金属Pt-Sn/γ-Al2O3催化剂可高效催化醇为烷基化试剂的伯(仲)胺的N-烷基化反应合成仲(叔)胺,反应副产物为水与极少量亚胺.催化体系的底物适应性好,目标产物收率高;催化剂可以循环使用,具有潜在的工业化应用前景.

  9. Silver nanoparticles deposited on amine-functionalized silica spheres and their amalgamation-based spectral and colorimetric detection of Hg(II) ions (United States)

    Rameshkumar, Perumal; Manivannan, Shanmugam; Ramaraj, Ramasamy


    A facile synthetic method to decorate amine-functionalized silica spheres (SiO2) by silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) is reported. The transmission electron microscopic (TEM) images showed that spherical Ag NPs with an average particle size of 14 nm were deposited on 250 nm-sized SiO2 spheres (SiO2/Ag NPs). The spectral and colorimetric detection of Hg(II) ions were carried out using the synthesized SiO2/Ag NPs with an experimental detection limit of 5 μM. It was found that the addition of Hg(II) ions (150 μM) into the solution of SiO2/Ag NPs completely quenched the SPR band of the Ag NPs due to the formation of anisotropic Ag amalgam crystals (AgHg). The selective detection of Hg(II) ions by SiO2/Ag NPs in the presence of other environmentally relevant metal ions was also demonstrated using spectral and colorimetric methods.

  10. Microscale scavenging of pentachlorophenol in water using amine and tripolyphosphate-grafted SBA-15 silica: batch and modeling studies. (United States)

    Diagboya, Paul N; Olu-Owolabi, Bamidele I; Adebowale, Kayode O


    Mesoporous silica SBA-15 meets most criteria for selection of water treatment adsorbents such as high specific surface area, large pore-size, chemical inertness, repertory of surface functional groups, good thermal stability, selectivity, regenerability, and low cost of manufacture. However, its use for water treatment is still largely unexplored. SBA-15 and its functionalized derivatives of aminopropyltriethoxysilane (SA) and tripolyphosphate (ST) were synthesized, characterized, and used to investigate pentachlorophenol (PCP) removal from aqueous solutions. Functionalization improved SBA-15 capacity for PCP removal from solution in accordance with the trend SBA-15 SBA-15, but the functionalized SBA-15 materials showed higher hysteresis. The results imply that functionalized SBA-15 sorbents are promising materials for microscale scavenging of PCP in solution.

  11. A comparative study of three different synthesis routes for hydrophilic fluorophore-doped silica nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahabi, Shakiba [University of Bremen, Advanced Ceramics (Germany); Treccani, Laura, E-mail: [Petroceramics S.p.A., Kilometro Rosso Science Park (Italy); Rezwan, Kurosch [University of Bremen, Advanced Ceramics (Germany)


    The synthesis of fluorophore-doped silica nanoparticles (FDS NPs) with two conventional approaches, Stöber and microemulsion, as well as a novel amino acid-catalyzed seeds regrowth technique (ACSRT) is presented. The efficiency of each applied synthesis route toward incorporation of selected hydrophilic fluorophores, including rhodamine B isothiocyanate and fluorescein isothiocyanate, without and with an amine-containing crosslinker, into silica matrix was systematically studied. Our results clearly highlight the advantages of ACSRT to obtain FDS NPs with a remarkable encapsulation efficiency, high quantum yield, and enhanced stability against bleaching and dye leaking due to efficient embedding of the dyes inside silica network even without the amine-containing silane reagent. Moreover, evaluation of photostability of FDNPs internalized in human bone cells demonstrates the merits of ACSRT.

  12. Cyclooctane metathesis catalyzed by silica-supported tungsten pentamethyl [(ΞSiO)W(Me)5]: Distribution of macrocyclic alkanes

    KAUST Repository

    Riache, Nassima


    Metathesis of cyclic alkanes catalyzed by the new surface complex [(ΞSiO)W(Me)5] affords a wide distribution of cyclic and macrocyclic alkanes. The major products with the formula CnH2n are the result of either a ring contraction or ring expansion of cyclooctane leading to lower unsubstituted cyclic alkanes (5≤n≤7) and to an unprecedented distribution of unsubstituted macrocyclic alkanes (12≤n≤40), respectively, identified by GC/MS and by NMR spectroscopies.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜明发; 王涛; 黄永凯; 强娜; 全大萍


    In order to study the structure and the catalytic activity of aliphatic tertiary amines, the ring-opening polymerizations of trimethylene carbonate ( TMC ) and L-lactide ( L-LA) were catalyzed by aliphatic tertiary amines,including triethylamine ( TEA) , N, N, N', N'-tetramethylethylenediamine ( TMEDA ) , 1, 1,4,7, 7-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine (PMDTA) and 4-( dimethylamino) pyridine (DMAP) , using benzyl alcohol as initiator in THF at 551. Studies revealed the catalytic activity of these tertiary amines was increased according to the order; TEA < TMEDA ≈ PMDTA < DMAP. The relationships of polymer molecular weight with the conversion of monomer were linear, which were consistent with a living polymerization character. Finally, the plausible polymerization pathway was through an alcohol-activating mechanism. Aliphatic tertiary amines which were abundant in source and cheap in price were suitable for catalyzing the ring-opening bulk polymerization of lactone in low temperature because of their low boiling point, being liquid under ordinary conditions and being easy to get rid of.%为研究脂肪叔胺结构对内酯开环聚合规律的影响,以三乙胺( TEA)、N,N,N′,N′-四甲基乙二胺(TMEDA)、N,N,N′,N″,N″-五甲基二亚乙基三胺(PM DTA)3种不同结构的叔胺催化碳酸三亚甲基酯(TMC)和左旋丙交酯( L-LA)开环聚合.结果显示,在55℃的THF溶液中,以苄醇为引发剂,3种叔胺均能催化TMC和L-LA的开环聚合,聚合物的分子量与单体转化率成线性关系,表现出活性聚合特征.三者催化能力为TEA< TMEDA<PMDTA.对聚合物进行端基分析发现聚合反应可能是一个由醇活化机理引发的过程.

  14. Catalyzed oxidative degradation of methyl orange over Au catalyst prepared by ionic liquid-polymer modified silica (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Guo, J. S.


    A new type of hybrid material was prepared by grafting an ionic liquid monomer, 1-(p-vinylbenzyl)-3-methylimidazolium chloride, on the surface of the porous silica which was synthesized via sodium silicate hydrolysis. The as-synthesized products were characterized by scanning electron microscope, nitrogen physisorption experiment, thermogravimetric analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectra. A catalyst with Au was prepared using the hybrid material as carrier. The experimental results show that the catalyst exhibits a better catalytic effect of hydrogen peroxide on the degradation of methyl orange. The reason may be that the metal component of the catalyst facilitated the dissociation of hydrogen peroxide to produce abundant highly active free radicals which can rapidly ruin the structure of methyl orange molecules in water. Finally, a probable catalytic degradation mechanism based on diffusion was discussed.

  15. 氨改性的介孔二氧化硅的直接合成和CO2吸附%Direct Synthesis of Amine-functionalized Mesoporous Silica for CO2 Adsorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡智辉; 张东辉; 王纪孝


    Amine-functionalized mesoporous silica was prepared by using lauric acid and N-stearoyl-l-glutamic acid as structure directing agents via the S-N+-I- mechanism and applied to CO2 adsorption at room temperature.With γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane as co-structure directing agent and due to the direct electrostatic interaction with anionic surfactant, most of the amino groups were uniformly distributed at the inner surface of pores and the performance was stable. The amine-functionalized mesoporous silica was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen physisorption and thermogravimetric analysis. The CO2 adsorption capacity was measured by digital recording balance. At the room temperature and under the atmospheric pressure, the adsorption capacity of LAA-AMS-0.2 for CO2 and N2 is 1.40 mmol·g-1 and 0.03 mmol·g-1, respectively, indicating high separation coefficient of CO2/N2.

  16. 有机金催化胺氧化羰化制氨基甲酸酯%The Oxidative Carbonylation of Amines Catalyzed by Organic Gold(Ⅰ) Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石峰; 邓友全; 司马天龙; 龚成科


    At 200 ℃ and 50 mPa, the oxidative carbonylation of amines catalyzed by organic gold complexes HAuCl4, Au(PPh3)Cl, Au(PPh3)2Cl, Au(PPh3)NO3 and [Au(PPh3)]2S afforded R(NHCO2CH3)n with a high conversion and selectivity. The best results were obtained when using the catalyst Au(PPh3)Cl in the presence of PPh3. The catalytic efficiency of catalytic Au(PPh3)Cl was compared to Pd(PPh3)2Cl2, e.g. the conversion was 97.2% and selectivity was 89% when using catalyst Au(PPh3)Cl in the presence of PPh3, while the conversion was 98.8% and selectivity was 86% when using catalyst Pd(PPh3)2Cl2 in the presence of PPh3. The experimental results suggested that Au complexes might be promising catalysts instead of Pd catalysts for the oxidative carbonylation of amines to carbamates.

  17. Iodine Catalyzed One-pot Synthesis of 3,4-Dihydroquinazolin-4-ones from Anthranilic Acids, Ortho Esters and Amines under Solvent-free Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Hong-She; ZENG,Jun-E


    A simple and efficient procedure has been developed for the one-pot synthesis of 3,4-dihydroquinazolin-4-ones from anthranilic acids, ortho esters and amines using a catalytic amount of iodine under solvent-free conditions to afford the corresponding products in excellent yields. The direct use of commercially available catalyst, mild and solvent-free reaction conditions, short reaction time, easy workup and excellent yields are the advantages of the present protocol.

  18. Towards the design of organocatalysts for nerve agents remediation: The case of the active hydrolysis of DCNP (a Tabun mimic) catalyzed by simple amine-containing derivatives. (United States)

    Barba-Bon, Andrea; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Sancenón, Félix; Costero, Ana M; Gil, Salvador; Pérez-Pla, Francisco; Llopis, Elisa


    We report herein a study of the hydrolysis of Tabun mimic DCNP in the presence of different amines, aminoalcohols and glycols as potential suitable organocatalysts for DCNP degradation. Experiments were performed in CD3CN in the presence of 5% D2O, which is a suitable solvent mixture to follow the DCNP hydrolysis. These studies allowed the definition of different DCNP depletion paths, resulting in the formation of diethylphosphoric acid, tetraethylpyrophosphate and phosphoramide species as final products. Without organocatalysts, DCNP hydrolysis occurred mainly via an autocatalysis path. Addition of tertiary amines in sub-stoichiometric amounts largely enhanced DCNP depletion whereas non-tertiary polyamines reacted even faster. Glycols induced very slight increment in the DCNP hydrolysis, whereas DCNP hydrolysis increased sharply in the presence of certain aminoalcohols especially, 2-(2-aminoethylamino)ethanol. For the latter compound, DCNP depletion occurred ca. 80-fold faster than in the absence of organocatalysts. The kinetic studies revealed that DCNP hydrolysis in the presence of 2-(2-aminoethylamino)ethanol occurred via a catalytic process, in which the aminoalcohol was involved. DCNP hydrolysis generally depended strongly on the structure of the amine, and it was found that the presence of the OHCH2CH2N moiety in the organocatalyst structure seems important to induce a fast degradation of DCNP.

  19. Substrate inhibition in the heterogeneous catalyzed aldol condensation: A mechanistic study of supported organocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandel, Kapil; Althaus, Stacey M.; Peeraphatdit, Chorthip; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Trewyn, Brian G.; Pruski, Marek; Slowing, Igor I.


    In this study, we demonstrate how materials science can be combined with the established methods of organic chemistry to find mechanistic bottlenecks and redesign heterogeneous catalysts for improved performance. By using solid-state NMR, infrared spectroscopy, surface and kinetic analysis, we prove the existence of a substrate inhibition in the aldol condensation catalyzed by heterogeneous amines. We show that modifying the structure of the supported amines according to the proposed mechanism dramatically enhances the activity of the heterogeneous catalyst. We also provide evidence that the reaction benefits significantly from the surface chemistry of the silica support, which plays the role of a co-catalyst, giving activities up to two orders of magnitude larger than those of homogeneous amines. This study confirms that the optimization of a heterogeneous catalyst depends as much on obtaining organic mechanistic information as it does on controlling the structure of the support.

  20. 二吡啶甲基胺配合物修饰的肿瘤靶向性硅核壳纳米球%Target Cancer Cells through Complexes of Di(picolyl)amine Modified Silica Core-Shell Nanospheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秋云; 王玲昀; 陈浩; 王娟; 高静


    运用油包水微乳液方法制备了二吡啶甲基胺(dpa)及其锰(Ⅱ)和铁(Ⅲ)配合物修饰的Gd-DTPA配合物硅核壳纳米球,其中二吡啶甲基胺锰(Ⅱ)和铁(Ⅲ)配合物修饰的纳米球粒径分别为60和5 nm.体外MRI成像研究表明3种纳米球能显著提高肿瘤细胞的磁共振成像效果,具备良好的肿瘤靶向性.生物活性数据显示三价铁配合物修饰的纳米球具备成像和抑制细胞生长的双重功能,而锰配合物修饰的纳米球不能抑制肿瘤细胞的生长,可作为低毒性的肿瘤成像剂.实验结果显示肿瘤靶向性配合物修饰的纳米球可发展成为新型多功能肿瘤靶向性纳米药物.%Di(picolyl)amine modified silica nanoparticles were prepared by W/O microemulsion method.The coordination of metal ions(Mn(Ⅱ)and Fe(Ⅲ))with di(pycolyl)amine modified nanoparticles produced two different size of nanospheres with the hydrodynamic diameter of approximately 60 nm and 5 nm,respectively.Three grafted silica nanospheres all display a great contrast enhancement in vitro indicating that they could accumulate in cancer cell,selectively.The Fe(Ⅲ)-di(picolyl)amine complex modified nanosphere was a multifunctional nanoparticle to image and inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells,and (Mn(Ⅱ)-di(picolyl)amine codex modified nanosphere could only be used as a low toxic MRI agents.So antitumor complexes modified nanospheres would be new kinds of multifunctional nanoparticles to target the cancer cells actively through complex induced active intracellular accumulating.

  1. Vanadium catalyzed direct synthesis of imines from amines or alcohols and amines by an aerobic oxidative reaction under mild conditions%温和条件下钒催化氧化胺、醇和胺直接合成亚胺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王连月; 陈波; 任兰会; 张恒耘; 吕迎; 高爽


    The direct synthesis of imines from amines or alcohols and amines by vanadium catalyzed aerobic oxidation was developed. Without an additive or promoter, various symmetrical and unsymmetrical imines were obtained in good to excellent yields under mild conditions with air as an environmen‐tally benign oxidant. The catalyst is very easy to prepare and use, and this catalytic system is also effective for the synthesis of heteroatom‐containing imines.%开发了钒催化氧化胺、醇和胺直接合成亚胺催化体系,无须额外的添加剂或促进剂,空气作为环境友好的氧源,温和条件下,能高收率地得到各种对称和非对称亚胺,并且催化剂非常容易制备和使用。该催化体系对含杂原子亚胺的合成也非常有效。

  2. Insights into dehydrogenative coupling of alcohols and amines catalyzed by a (PNN)-Ru(II) hydride complex: unusual metal-ligand cooperation. (United States)

    Zeng, Guixiang; Li, Shuhua


    Density functional theory calculations were performed to elucidate the mechanism of dehydrogenative coupling of primary alcohols and amines mediated by a PNN-Ru(II) hydride complex (PNN = (2-(di-tert-butylphosphinomethyl)-6-(diethylaminomethyl)pyridine)). A plausible reaction pathway was proposed which contains three stages: (1) The alcohol dehydrogenation reaction to generate the aldehyde and H(2); (2) The aldehyde-amine condensation reaction to form the hemiaminal intermediate; (3) The dehydrogenation process of the hemiaminal intermediate to yield the final amide product with the liberation of H(2). The first and third stages occur via a similar pathway: (a) Proton transfer from the substrate to the PNN ligand; (b) Intramolecular rearrangement of the deprotonated substrate to form an anagostic complex; (c) Hydride transfer from the deprotonated substrate to the Ru center to yield the trans-dihydride intermediate and the aldehyde (or amide); (d) Benzylic proton migration from the PNN ligand to the metal center forming a dihydrogen complex and subsequent H(2) liberation to regenerate the catalyst. In all these steps, the metal-ligand cooperation plays an essential role. In proton transfer steps (a) and (d), the metal-ligand cooperation is achieved through the aromatization/dearomatization processes of the PNN ligand. While in steps (b) and (c), their collaboration are demonstrated by the formation of an anagostic interaction between Ru and the C-H bond and two ionic hydrogen bonds supported by the PNN ligand.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-hua Huang; Zheng-wu Bai; Chuan-qi Yin; Shi-rong Li


    Two polyurethanes of different molecular weights were prepared by the copolymerization of phenyl diisocyanate and diisopropyl tartrate. The polyurethanes having terminal isocyanate groups were reacted with 3-aminopropyl silica gel to afford two chiral stationary phases. The (M-)n of the two polyurethanes were 4057 g/mol and 6442 g/mol. The polyurethanes and the corresponding chiral stationary phases were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR and elemental analysis. The loading capacities of the polyurethanes on silica gel were 0.68 mmol units/g and 0.61 mmol units/g, respectively. The separation performance and the influence of additives, triethylamine and trichloroacetic acid, on the separation of chiral compounds were investigated by HPLC. The chiral stationary phase prepared from polyurethane with (M-)n of 4057 g/mol demonstrated better enantioseparation capability than that with (M-)n of 6442 g/mol. Additionally, it was found that the addition of triethylamine and trichloroacetic acid in the mobile phases significantly improved the enantioseparation for these two chiral stationary phases.

  4. Mixed - Amine Functionalized MesoPorous Silica Gel for CO2 CaPture%混合胺修饰的介孔硅胶吸附 cO2性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琳琳; 郭庆杰


    以介孔硅胶为载体,采用“嫁接+浸渍”两步法制备了混合胺(APTS + TEPA)修饰的介孔硅胶吸附剂。在固定床中考察了3-氨丙基三乙氧基硅烷(APTS)和四乙烯五胺(TEPA)负载量、吸附温度、进气流量对 cO2吸附性能的影响,并研究了吸附剂的循环稳定性。结果表明,当 APTS 负载量30%,TEPA 负载量30%(TEPA30- APTS30- MSG),吸附温度为70℃,进气流量为30 mL/min 时,该吸附剂表现出最好的吸附性能,饱和吸附量高达3.04 mmol/ g,较纯 TEPA 浸渍提高了37.6%。该吸附剂经10次吸脱附循环后,饱和吸附量仅下降2.96%,具有较好的循环稳定性。%A novel hybrid 3 - aminopropyltrimethoxysilane( APTS) and tetraethylenepentamine ( TEPA ) modified mesoporous silica gel sorbent was synthesized by a two - step method,which combined grafting and impregnation methods. The effects of APTS and TEPA loadings,adsorption temperature and influent velocities on cO2 adsorption capacity were investigated in a self - assembled fixed bed reactor. It was found that the mesoporous silica gel modified with 30% APTS and 30% TEPA(TEPA30 - APTS30 - MSG)showed a maximum adsorption capacity of 3. 04 mmol - cO2 / g - sorbent at a optimal temperature of 70 ℃ and influent velocities of 30 mL/ min. The adsorption capacity is maintained after 10 cycles of adsorption - desorption process,indicating that the mixed - amine functionalized mesoporous silica gel exhibited an excellent stability in a prolonged cyclic operation.

  5. Solid-phase extraction of copper(II) in water and food samples using silica gel modified with bis(3-aminopropyl)amine and determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. (United States)

    Cagirdi, Duygu; Altundag, Hüseyin; Imamoglu, Mustafa; Tuzen, Mustafa


    A simple and selective separation and preconcentration method was developed for the determination of Cu(ll) ions. This method is based on adsorption of Cu(ll) ions from aqueous solution on a bis(3-aminopropyl)amine modified silica gel column and flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination after desorption. Various analytical parameters such as pH, type of eluent solution and its volume, flow rate of sample and eluent, and sample volume were optimized. Effects of some cation, anion, and transition metal ions on the recoveries of Cu(ll) ions were also investigated. Cu(ll) ions were quantitatively recovered at pH 6; 5.0 mL of 2 M HCI was used as the eluent. The preconcentration factor was found to be 150. The LOD was 0.12 microg/L for Cu(ll). The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of Tea Leaves (INCT-TL-1) and Fish Protein (DORM-3) certified reference materials. The optimized method was applied to various water and food samples for the determination of Cu(ll).

  6. Fractals of Silica Aggregates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhinhongLi; DongWu; Yuhansun; JunWang; YiLiu; BaozhongDong; Zhinhong


    Silica aggregates were prepared by base-catalyzed hydrolysis and condensation of alkoxides in alcohol.Polyethylene glycol(PEG) was used as organic modifier.The sols were characterized using Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) with synchrotron radiation as X-ray source.The structure evolution during the sol-gel process was determined and described in terms of the fractal geometry.As-produced silica aggregates were found to be mass fractals.The fractl dimensions spanned the regime 2.1-2.6 corresponding to more branched and compact structures.Both RLCA and Eden models dominated the kinetic growth under base-catalyzed condition.

  7. Hydrothermal Reactivity of Amines (United States)

    Robinson, K.; Shock, E.; Hartnett, H. E.; Williams, L. B.; Gould, I.


    The reactivity of aqueous amines depends on temperature, pH, and redox state [1], all of which are highly variable in hydrothermal systems. Temperature and pH affect the ratio of protonated to unprotonated amines (R-NH2 + H+ = R-NH3+), which act as nucleophiles and electrophiles, respectively. We hypothesize that this dual nature can explain the pH dependence of reaction rates, and predict that rates will approach a maximum at pH = pKa where the ratio of protonated and unprotonated amines approaches one and the two compounds are poised to react with one another. Higher temperatures in hydrothermal systems allow for more rapid reaction rates, readily reversible reactions, and unique carbon-nitrogen chemistry in which water acts as a reagent in addition to being the solvent. In this study, aqueous benzylamine was used as a model compound to explore the reaction mechanisms, kinetics, and equilibria of amines under hydrothermal conditions. Experiments were carried out in anoxic silica glass tubes at 250°C (Psat) using phosphate-buffered solutions to observe changes in reaction rates and product distributions as a function of pH. The rate of decomposition of benzylamine was much faster at pH 4 than at pH 9, consistent with the prediction that benzylamine acts as both nucleophile and an electrophile, and our estimate that the pKa of benzylamine is ~5 at 250°C and Psat. Accordingly, dibenzylamine is the primary product of the reaction of two benzylamine molecules, and this reaction is readily reversible under hydrothermal conditions. Extremely acidic or basic pH can be used to suppress dibenzylamine production, which also suppresses the formation of all other major products, including toluene, benzyl alcohol, dibenzylimine, and tribenzylamine. This suggests that dibenzylamine is the lone primary product that then itself reacts as a precursor to produce the above compounds. Analog experiments performed with ring-substituted benzylamine derivatives and chiral

  8. Catalytic Conversion of Bio-Oil to Oxygen-Containing Fuels by Acid-Catalyzed Reaction with Olefins and Alcohols over Silica Sulfuric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingwen Wang


    Full Text Available Crude bio-oil from pine chip fast pyrolysis was upgraded with olefins (1-octene, cyclohexene, 1,7-octadiene, and 2,4,4-trimethylpentene plus 1-butanol (iso-butanol, t-butanol and ethanol at 120 °C using a silica sulfuric acid (SSA catalyst that possesses a good catalytic activity and stability. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR analysis showed that upgrading sharply increased ester content and decreased the amounts of levoglucosan, phenols, polyhydric alcohols and carboxylic acids. Upgrading lowered acidity (pH value rose from 2.5 to >3.5, removed the unpleasant odor and increased hydrocarbon solubility. Water content dramatically decreased from 37.2% to about 7.0% and the heating value increased from 12.6 MJ·kg−1 to about 31.9 MJ·kg−1. This work has proved that bio-oil upgrading with a primary olefin plus 1-butanol is a feasible route where all the original heating value of the bio-oil plus the added olefin and alcohol are present in the resulting fuel.

  9. Enantioselective, iridium-catalyzed monoallylation of ammonia. (United States)

    Pouy, Mark J; Stanley, Levi M; Hartwig, John F


    Highly enantioselective, iridium-catalyzed monoallylations of ammonia are reported. These reactions occur with electron-neutral, -rich, and -poor cinnamyl carbonates, alkyl and trityloxy-substituted allylic carbonates, and dienyl carbonates in moderate to good yields and excellent enantioselectivities. This process is enabled by the use of an iridium catalyst that does not require a Lewis acid for activation and that is stable toward a large excess of ammonia. This selective formation of primary allylic amines allows for one-pot syntheses of heterodiallylamines and allylic amides that are not otherwise accessible via iridium-catalyzed allylic amination without the use of blocking groups and protective group manipulations.

  10. Diastereoselective Hydrogenation and Kinetic Resolution of Imines Using Rhodium/Diphosphine Catalyzed Hydrogenation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, Cornelis; Vries, Johannes G. de


    Kinetic resolution of racemic α-methylbenzyl amine can be achieved with 98% ee. of the remaining amine at 70% conversion using the Rhodium/2S,4S-BDPP catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of imines. The same catalyst will hydrogenate optically pure α-methylbenzyl amines with a diastereoselectivity of u

  11. Copper-Catalyzed Three- Five- or Seven-Component Coupling Reactions: The Selective Synthesis of Cyanomethylamines, N,N-Bis(CyanomethylAmines and N,N'-Bis(CyanomethylMethylenediamines Based on a Strecker-Type Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Konakahara


    Full Text Available We have demonstrated that a cooperative catalytic system comprised of CuCl and Cu(OTf2 could be used to effectively catalyse the three-, five- and seven-component coupling reactions of aliphatic or aromatic amines, formaldehyde, and trimethylsilyl cyanide (TMSCN, and selectively produce in good yields the corresponding cyanomethylamines, N,N-bis(cyanomethylamines and N,N'-bis(cyanomethylmethylenediamines.

  12. The Oxidative Coupling of 2,6-Xylenol Catalyzed by Polymeric Complexes of Copper, 1. Kinetic Study of the Catalysis by Copper(II)-Complexes of Partially Aminated Polystyrene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Arend Jan; Prak, Nanno; Challa, Ger


    The oxidative coupling reaction of 2,6-xylenol catalyzed by copper(II) complexes of chemically modified polystyrene was investigated. Under the applied reaction conditions the main reaction product was 2,6,2',6'-tetramethyl-1,1'-dioxo-4,4'-bicyclohexa-2,5-dienylidene. It was found that the polymeric

  13. Supramolecular Assembly of pH-Sensitive Triphenylene Derived π-Gelators and Their Application as Molecular Template for the Preparation of Silica Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Muñoz Resta


    Full Text Available The gelation properties and mode of self-assembly of six asymmetrical hexaether triphenylene derivatives mono-functionalized with carboxylic and primary amine groups were investigated. The presence of a carboxylic and amine group attached to the triphenylene core generated stable, thermo- and pH-sensitive supramolecular π-organogels with a reversible response to both stimuli. In order to understand the gelation process, we studied the effect of the spacer length and found a different gelation scope for the acid and basic derivatives that accounts for a different supramolecular self-assembly. The presence of the basic group on the amino derivatives was used to guide and catalyze the templated in situ sol-gel polymerization of TEOS and allowed us, under controlled hydrolytic conditions, to prepare an entangled fibrillar network of silica nanotubes.

  14. Photocatalytic splitting of CS2 to S8 and a carbon-sulfur polymer catalyzed by a bimetallic ruthenium(II) compound with a tertiary amine binding site: toward photocatalytic splitting of CO2? (United States)

    Livanov, Konstantin; Madhu, Vedichi; Balaraman, Ekambaram; Shimon, Linda J W; Diskin-Posner, Yael; Neumann, Ronny


    The catalytic photocleavage of CS(2) to S(8) and a (C(x)S(y))(n) polymer with visible light using a dinuclear ruthenium(II) compound with a bipyridine units for photoactivity and a vicinal tertiary amine binding site for CS(2) activation was studied. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR, ESI-MS and elemental analysis. CS(2) photocleavage was significant (240 turnovers, 20 h) to yield isolable S(8) and a (C(x)S(y))(n) polymer. A mononuclear catalyst or one without an amine binding site showed significantly less activity. XPS of the (C(x)S(y))(n) polymer showed a carbon/sulfur ratio ∼1.5-1.6 indicating that in part both C-S bonds of CS(2) had been cleaved. Catalyst was also included within the polymer. The absence of peaks in the (1)H NMR verified the (C(x)S(y))(n) nature of the polymer, while (13)C NMR and IR indicated that the polymer had multiple types of C-S and C-C bonds.

  15. Hf(NMe2)4-Catalyzed aza-Michael addition of aromatic amines and acrylates%Hf(NMe2)4催化下芳香胺与丙烯酸叔丁酯的氮杂迈克加成反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 李玉峰; 潘毅; 陈强; 庄韦; 冯美丽; 朱红军


    研究了以Hf(NMe2)4为催化剂的芳香胺与丙烯酸叔丁酯的氮杂迈克加成反应,讨论了催化反应过程中催化剂用量,反应温度,以及芳胺取代基对反应收事的影响.利用该方法合成了6种取代的氮杂加成产物,并对反应条件进行优化,使收率在18 ~63%之间.研究发现,芳香胺上取代基的给电子能力越强,反应收率越高,产物结构经1H NMR,13C NMR表征,证明为目标产物.%Hf(NMe2)4 were used as catalysts to study the aza-michael addition between arylamines with different electronic effect groups and tert-butyl acrylate. It is found that the aromatic amines can only react with one molecule of acrylate to generate secondary amines. Being catalyzed by Hf( NME2)4, in toluene,under 100 ℃,tert-butyl acrylate were reacted with six kinds of arylamines with different electronic effect substituent groups. We find that,the stronger the electron capacity of the substituent,the higher the yield of the reaction(from 18% to 63% ). The products were characterized by 1H NMR and 13C NMR,there were proved to be the target compounds.

  16. Anisotropic silica mesostructures for DNA encapsulation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aparna Ganguly; Ashok K Ganguli


    The encapsulation of biomolecules in inert meso or nanostructures is an important step towards controlling drug delivery agents. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) are of immense importance owing to their high surface area, large pore size, uniform particle size and chemical inertness. Reverse micellar method with CTAB as the surfactant has been used to synthesize anisotropic mesoporous silica materials. We have used the anisotropic silica nanostructures for DNA encapsulation studies and observed a loading capacity of ∼8 g mg-1 of the sample. On functionalizing the pores of silica with amine group, the amount of DNA loaded on the rods decreases which is due to a reduction in the pore size upon grafting of amine groups.

  17. A Metal and Base-Free Chemoselective Primary Amination of Boronic Acids Using Cyanamidyl/Arylcyanamidyl Radical as Aminating Species: Synthesis and Mechanistic Studies by Density Functional Theory. (United States)

    Chatterjee, Nachiketa; Arfeen, Minhajul; Bharatam, Prasad V; Goswami, Avijit


    An efficient, metal and base-free, chemoselective synthesis of aryl-, heteroaryl-, and alkyl primary amines from the corresponding boronic acids has been achieved at ambient temperature mediated by [bis(trifluoroacetoxy)iodo]benzene (PIFA) and N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) using cyanamidyl/arylcyanamidyl radicals as the aminating species. The primary amine compounds were initially obtained as their corresponding ammonium trifluoroacetate salts which, on treatment with aq NaOH, provide the free amines. Finally, the primary amines were isolated through column chromatography over silica-gel using hexane-EtOAc solvent system as the eluent. The reactions are sufficiently fast, completing within 1 h. Quantum chemical calculations in combination with experimental observations validate that the ipso amination of substituted boronic acids involves the formation of cyanamidyl/arylcyanamidyl radical, followed by regiospecific interaction of its nitrile-N center with boron atom of the boronic acids, leading to chemoselective primary amination.

  18. Continuous CO2 capture in a circulating fluidized bed using supported amine sorbents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veneman, R.; Li, Z.; Hogendoorn, J.A.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Brilman, D.W.F.


    In this work, supported amine sorbents were prepared by physical impregnation of silica and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) with tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) and studied for post-combustion CO2 capture purposes in a lab scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) reactor. Sorbent amine loading and support

  19. Monofunctional primary amine: A new class of organocatalyst for asymmetric Aldol reaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    A new class of organocatalysts involving a primary amine as the only functional group is developed for catalytic asymmetric aldol reaction of cyclohexanone/ cyclopentanone with various aryl aldehydes in thepresence of benzoic acid as an additive at −10◦C. In an unexpected observation, the primary amine catalyzed reactions gave excellent yield and good to excellent stereoselectivity, while secondary amines were found to have little or no reactivity under similar reaction conditions.

  20. Asymmetric Amination of Cyclic N-sulfonylimines Catalyzed by Squaric Amide%方酰胺催化的环状磺酰亚胺不对称胺化反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周全; 董琳


    首次报道了方酰胺催化环状磺酰亚胺α-位的不对称胺化反应.以N-环状磺酰亚胺与偶氮二羧酸酯为原料,在方酰胺催化下经Michael加成反应构建C-N键,合成了一系列新型糖精衍生物;1-(1,1-二氧代苯并异噻唑-3..基)-1-肼二甲酸二苄酯丁烷经还原、关环反应得含尿素结构的并环衍生物,其结构经1H NMR,13C NMR和HR-MS表征.并考察了反应温度、反应时间和底物结构对胺化反应的影响.结果表明,以奎宁方酸胺为催化剂时,最佳反应条件为:二氯甲烷为溶剂,4(A) MS为添加剂,于-30℃反应24h,收率95%~99%,84%e.e.~94%e.e..%A series of novel saccharin derivatives were synthesized by asymmetric α-amination of cyclic N-sulfonylimines with hydrogen bonding catalyst in moderate conditions.A polycyclic product was obtanied by reduction and cyclization reaction of dibenzyl 1-[1-(1,1-dioxidobenzo[d] isothiazol3-yl) butyl] hydrasine-1,2-dicarboxylate.The structures were characterized by 1H NMR,13C NMR,and HR-MS.The effect of temperature,reaction time and the structure of the substrate on asymmetric α-amination were investigated.The results showed that the optimum reaction conditions at-30 C for 24 h were as follows:dichloromethane was the solvent,4(A) MS was the catalyst promoter,the yield was 95% ~99% with 84%e.e.~94%e.e..

  1. Nitrosamine formation in amine scrubbing at desorber temperatures. (United States)

    Fine, Nathan A; Goldman, Mark J; Rochelle, Gary T


    Amine scrubbing is a thermodynamically efficient and industrially proven method for carbon capture, but amine solvents can nitrosate in the desorber, forming potentially carcinogenic nitrosamines. The kinetics of reactions involving nitrite and monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), methylethanolamine (MMEA), and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) were determined under desorber conditions. The nitrosations of MEA, DEA, and MMEA are first order in nitrite, carbamate species, and hydronium ion. Nitrosation of MDEA, a tertiary amine, is not catalyzed by the addition of CO2 since it cannot form a stable carbamate. Concentrated and CO2 loaded MEA was blended with low concentrations of N-(2-hydroxyethyl) glycine (HeGly), hydroxyethyl-ethylenediamine (HEEDA), and DEA, secondary amines common in MEA degradation. Nitrosamine yield was proportional to the concentration of secondary amine and was a function of CO2 loading and temperature. Blends of tertiary amines with piperazine (PZ) showed n-nitrosopiperazine (MNPZ) yields close to unity, validating the slow nitrosation rates hypothesized for tertiary amines. These results provide a useful tool for estimating nitrosamine accumulation over a range of amine solvents.

  2. Hydroaminomethylation of 1-Dodecene Catalyzed by Water-soluble Rhodium Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Yong WANG; Mei Ming LUO; Yao Zhong LI; Hua CHEN; Xian Jun LI


    The hydroaminomethylation of 1-dodecene catalyzed by water soluble rhodium complex RhCl(CO)(TPPTS)2 in the presence of surfactant CTAB was investigated. High reactivity and selectivity for tertiary amine were achieved under relatively mild conditions.

  3. Three-component synthesis of amidoalkyl naphthols catalyzed by bismuth(Ⅲ) nitrate pentahydrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Wang; Yan Liang; Ting Ting Zhang; Jing Jing Gao


    Bismuth(Ⅲ) nitrate pentahydrate catalyzed the three-component condensation of β-naphthol,aldehydes and amines/urea under solvent-free conditions to afford the corresponding amidoalkyl naphthols in excellent yields.

  4. Graphene oxide catalyzed cis-trans isomerization of azobenzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongha Shin


    Full Text Available We report the fast cis-trans isomerization of an amine-substituted azobenzene catalyzed by graphene oxide (GO, where the amine functionality facilitates the charge transfer from azobenzene to graphene oxide in contrast to non-substituted azobenzene. This catalytic effect was not observed in stilbene analogues, which strongly supports the existence of different isomerization pathways between azobenzene and stilbene. The graphene oxide catalyzed isomerization is expected to be useful as a new photoisomerization based sensing platform complementary to GO-based fluorescence quenching methods.

  5. Synthetic Study of Dragmacidin E: Construction of the Core Structure Using Pd-Catalyzed Cascade Cyclization and Rh-Catalyzed Aminoacetoxylation. (United States)

    Inoue, Naoya; Nakano, Shun-Ichi; Harada, Shingo; Hamada, Yasumasa; Nemoto, Tetsuhiro


    We developed a novel synthetic method of the core structure of dragmacidin E bearing a 7-membered ring-fused bis(indolyl)pyrazinone skeleton. Formation of the 7-membered ring-fused tricyclic indole skeleton was accomplished using a palladium-catalyzed Heck insertion-allylic amination cascade. Vicinal difunctionalization of the 7-membered ring was realized via a rhodium-catalyzed aminoacetoxylation.

  6. Enhanced formaldehyde-vapor adsorption capacity of polymeric amine-incorporated aminosilicas. (United States)

    Nomura, Akihiro; Jones, Christopher W


    Airborne formaldehyde, which is a highly problematic volatile organic compound (VOC) pollutant, is adsorbed by polymeric amine-incorporated silicas (aminosilicas), and the factors that affect the adsorption performance are systematically investigated. Three different types of polymeric amines 1) poly(ethyleneimine) branched (PEIBR); 2) poly(ethyleneimine) linear (PEILI); and 3) poly(allylamine) (PAA) are impregnated into two types of porous silicas [SBA-15 and mesocellular foam (MCF) silicas] with systematic changes of the amine loadings. The adsorption results demonstrate that the adsorption capacity increases along with the amine loading until the polymeric amines completely fill the silica pores. This results in the MCF silica, which has a larger pore volume and hence can accommodate more polymeric amine before completely filling the pore, giving materials that adsorb more formaldehyde, with the largest adsorption capacity, q, of up to 5.7 mmolHCHO  g(-1) among the samples studied herein. Of the three different types of polymers, PAA, comprised of 100 % primary amines, showed the highest amine efficiency μ (mmolHCHO/mmolN) for capturing formaldehyde. The chemical structures of the adsorbed formaldehyde are analyzed by (13)C cross-polarization magic-angle spinning (CP-MAS) NMR, and it is demonstrated that the adsorbed formaldehyde is chemically attached to the aminosilica surface, forming hemiaminal and imine species. Because the chemical adsorption of formaldehyde forms covalent bonds, it is not desorbed from the aminosilicas below 130 °C based on temperature-programed-desorption (TPD) analysis. The high formaldehyde-adsorption capacity and stability of the trapped formaldehyde on the amine surface in this study reveal the potential utility of aminosilicas as formaldehyde abatement materials.

  7. One-Pot and Efficient Synthesis of Triazolo[1,2-a]indazole-triones via Reaction of Arylaldehydes with Urazole and Dimedone Catalyzed by Silica Nanoparticles Prepared from Rice Husk


    Asadollah Hassankhani; Sayed Zia Mohammadi; Hooshang Hamidian; Samieh Fozooni


    A novel synthesis of triazolo[1,2-a]indazole-1,3,8-trione derivatives by reaction of urazole, dimedone and aromatic aldehydes under conventional heating and microwave irradiation and solvent-free conditions using silica nanoparticles prepared from rice husk ash as catalyst is described. The new method features high yields, multicomponent reactions and environmental friendliness.

  8. One-Pot and Efficient Synthesis of Triazolo[1,2-a]indazole-triones via Reaction of Arylaldehydes with Urazole and Dimedone Catalyzed by Silica Nanoparticles Prepared from Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadollah Hassankhani


    Full Text Available A novel synthesis of triazolo[1,2-a]indazole-1,3,8-trione derivatives by reaction of urazole, dimedone and aromatic aldehydes under conventional heating and microwave irradiation and solvent-free conditions using silica nanoparticles prepared from rice husk ash as catalyst is described. The new method features high yields, multicomponent reactions and environmental friendliness.

  9. One-pot and efficient synthesis of triazolo[1,2-a]indazole-triones via reaction of arylaldehydes with urazole and dimedone catalyzed by silica nanoparticles prepared from rice husk. (United States)

    Hamidian, Hooshang; Fozooni, Samieh; Hassankhani, Asadollah; Mohammadi, Sayed Zia


    A novel synthesis of triazolo[1,2-a]indazole-1,3,8-trione derivatives by reaction of urazole, dimedone and aromatic aldehydes under conventional heating and microwave irradiation and solvent-free conditions using silica nanoparticles prepared from rice husk ash as catalyst is described. The new method features high yields, multicomponent reactions and environmental friendliness.

  10. Silica Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Ghahramani


    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to heavy metals, organic solvents and silica is associated with a variety of renal manifestations. Improved understanding of occupational renal disease provides insight into environmental renal disease, improving knowledge of disease pathogenesis. Silica (SiO2 is an abundant mineral found in sand, rock, and soil. Workers exposed to silica include sandblasters, miners, quarry workers, masons, ceramic workers and glass manufacturers. New cases of silicosis per year have been estimated in the US to be 3600–7300. Exposure to silica has been associated with tubulointerstitial disease, immune-mediated multisystem disease, chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. A rare syndrome of painful, nodular skin lesions has been described in dialysis patients with excessive levels of silicon. Balkan endemic nephropathy is postulated to be due to chronic intoxication with drinking water polluted by silicates released during soil erosion. The mechanism of silica nephrotoxicity is thought to be through direct nephrotoxicity, as well as silica-induced autoimmune diseases such as scleroderma and systemic lupus erythematosus. The renal histopathology varies from focal to crescentic and necrotizing glomerulonephritis with aneurysm formation suggestive of polyarteritis nodosa. The treatment for silica nephrotoxicity is non-specific and depends on the mechanism and stage of the disease. It is quite clear that further research is needed, particularly to elucidate the pathogenesis of silica nephropathy. Considering the importance of diagnosing exposure-related renal disease at early stages, it is imperative to obtain a thorough occupational history in all patients with renal disease, with particular emphasis on exposure to silica, heavy metals, and solvents.

  11. Utilization of rice husk ash as silica source for the synthesis of mesoporous silicas and their application to CO2 adsorption through TREN/TEPA grafting. (United States)

    Bhagiyalakshmi, Margandan; Yun, Lee Ji; Anuradha, Ramani; Jang, Hyun Tae


    Mesoporous MCM-41, MCM-48 and SBA-15 were synthesized using Rice husk ash (RHA) as the silica source and their defective Si-OH sites were functionalized by 3-chloropropyltrimethoxysilane (CPTMS) which was subsequently grafted with amine compounds, Tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (TREN) and Tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA). X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and BET results of the parent mesoporous silica suggested their closeness of structural properties to those obtained from conventional silica sources. CO(2) adsorption of branched amine TREN and straight chain amine TEPA at 25, 50 and 75 degrees C was obtained by Thermogravimetric Analyser (TGA) at atmospheric pressure. TREN grafted mesoporous silica showed 7% of CO(2) adsorption while TEPA grafted mesoporous silicas showed less CO(2) adsorption, which is due to the presence of isolated amine groups in TREN. TREN grafted mesoporous silicas were also observed to be selective towards CO(2), thermally stable and recyclable. The order of CO(2) adsorption with respect to amount of amine grafting was observed to be MCM-48/TREN>MCM-41/TREN>SBA-15/TREN.

  12. Characterization of the in vitro binding and inhibition kinetics of primary amine oxidase/vascular adhesion protein-1 by glucosamine.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Olivieri, Aldo


    Primary-amine oxidase (PrAO) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of endogenous and exogenous primary amines and also functions, in some tissues, as an inflammation-inducible endothelial factor, known as vascular adhesion protein-1. VAP-1 mediates the slow rolling and adhesion of lymphocytes to endothelial cells in a number of inflammatory conditions, including inflammation of the synovium.

  13. Continuous Reductive Amination of Biomass-Derived Molecules over Carbonized Filter Paper-Supported FeNi Alloy. (United States)

    Chieffi, Gianpaolo; Braun, Max; Esposito, Davide


    This paper reports the continuous reductive amination of different molecules, including biomass-related compounds, over carbon-supported FeNi nanoparticles obtained on the basis of inexpensive and abundant metal precursors and cellulose. A biorefinery case study for the preparation of pyrrolidones via acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of glucose followed by reductive amination of the obtained levulinic acid is described.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Aminopropyl-HMS Silica by a Neutral Amine Assembly Route%氨丙基官能化HMS介孔分子筛的合成及表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王奂玲; 赵睿; 闫亮; 丁勇; 索继栓


    沿S0I0路径,以十六胺为模板剂,以3-氨丙基三乙氧基硅烷为有机硅源,通过与TEOS共水解沉淀合成了氨丙基官能化HMS介孔分子筛.采用粉末X-射线衍射分析、N2吸/脱附、扫描电镜分析、高分辨透射电镜分析、傅立叶变换红外分析以及元素分析等表征手段,对所合成的材料进行表征.氨丙基官能化HMS介孔分子筛具有worm-like孔道结构,且较为均一的孔径分布.研究了前体硅源中3-氨丙基三乙氧基硅烷含量的变化对氨丙基官能化HMS介孔分子筛的相结构及织构性能的影响.傅立叶变换红外分析表明,NH2-CH2-CH2-CH2有机基团分布在杂化HMS介孔孔道中.%Aminopropyl-incorporated HMS silica materials were synthesized by a" one-pot" co-condensa-tion from tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) using hexadecylamineas the structure-directing species via the" S0I0" route. The synthesized materials were characterized bymeans of X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption, SEM, HRTEM, FT-IR, and element analysis. Mesoporousphases with worm-like channels as well as uniform pores can be prepared via the" S0I0" route. The vari-ations of the phase structure and texture properties with the content of APTES were studied. FT-IR analy-sis revealed that the aminopropyl group remains intact in the channels of the hybrid HMS silicas.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷明志; 张良莹; 姚熹


    Colloidal silica sol is formed by a novel hydrolyzing procedure of tetraethyl-orthosilicate(TEOS) catalyzing with NH3*H2O in aqueous mediums. Glycerol, combining with the hydrolyzed intermediates of TEOS, controls growing of the silica particles; poly(vinyl-vinyl alcohol makes the colloidal silica sol with polymeric structure and spinning, thermal strain makes the gel silica film changed into a nanoporous structure with diameter ranging 50-150 nm. Morphologies of the nanoporous silica film have been characterized; the porosities (%) is 32-64; the average dielectric constant at 1MHz region is 2.0 and 2.1; the thermal conductivity is less than 0.8. Chemical mechanism of the sol-gel process is discussed.

  16. Synthesis of Cone-Shaped Colloids from Rod-Like Silica Colloids with a Gradient in the Etching Rate. (United States)

    Hagemans, Fabian; van der Wee, Ernest B; van Blaaderen, Alfons; Imhof, Arnout


    We present the synthesis of monodisperse cone-shaped silica colloids and their fluorescent labeling. Rod-like silica colloids prepared by ammonia-catalyzed hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate in water droplets containing polyvinylpyrrolidone cross-linked by citrate ions in pentanol were found to transform into cone-shaped particles upon mild etching by NaOH in water. The diameter and length of the resulting particles were determined by those of the initial rod-like silica colloids. The mechanism responsible for the cone-shape involves silica etching taking place with a varying rate along the length of the particle. Our experiments thus also lead to new insights into the variation of the local particle structure and composition. These are found to vary gradually along the length of the rod, as a result of the way the rod grows out of a water droplet that keeps itself attached to the flat end of the bullet-shaped particles. Subtle differences in composition and structure could also be resolved by high-resolution stimulated emission depletion confocal microscopy on fluorescently labeled particles. The incorporation of a fluorescent dye chemically attached to an amine-based silane coupling agent resulted in a distribution of fluorophores mainly on the outside of the rod-shaped particles. In contrast, incorporation of the silane coupling agent alone resulted in a homogeneous distribution. Additionally, we show that etching rods, where a silane coupling agent alone was incorporated and subsequently coupled to a fluorescent dye, resulted in fluorescent silica cones, the orientation of which can be discerned using super-resolution confocal microscopy.

  17. Amine Functionalized Porous Network

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed


    Amine groups can be introduced in porous materials by a direct (one pot) or post-synthetic modification (PSM) process on aldehyde groups, and the resulting porous materials have increased gas affinity.

  18. Sponges with covalently tethered amines for high-efficiency carbon capture

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Genggeng


    © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Adsorption using solid amine sorbents is an attractive emerging technology for energy-efficient carbon capture. Current syntheses for solid amine sorbents mainly based on physical impregnation or grafting-to methods (for example, aminosilane-grafting) lead to limited sorbent performance in terms of stability and working capacity, respectively. Here we report a family of solid amine sorbents using a grafting-from synthesis approach and synthesized by cationic polymerization of oxazolines on mesoporous silica. The sorbent with high amount of covalently tethered amines shows fast adsorption rate, high amine efficiency and sorbent capacity well exceeding the highest value reported to date for lowerature carbon dioxide sorbents under simulated flue gas conditions. The demonstrated efficiency of the new amine-immobilization chemistry may open up new avenues in the development of advanced carbon dioxide sorbents, as well as other nitrogen-functionalized systems.

  19. Enzymatic network for production of ether amines from alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacio, Cyntia M.; Crismaru, Ciprian G.; Bartsch, Sebastian


    We constructed an enzymatic network composed of three different enzymes for the synthesis of valuable ether amines. The enzymatic reactions are interconnected to catalyze the oxidation and subsequent transamination of the substrate and to provide cofactor recycling. This allows production...... for reactions containing 10mM alcohol and up to 280mM ammonia corresponded well to predicted conversions. The results indicate that efficient amination can be driven by high concentrations of ammonia and may require improving enzyme robustness for scale-up....

  20. Biogenic amines in beer


    Čiháková, Dagmar


    This thesis deals with the technological process of brewing beer, describes the raw materials needed for its production, and points out the useful and harmful substances contained in beer as biogenic amines (BA). Furthermore, there are described the issues of biogenic amines in food and primarily in beer, which is a histamine, putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine and tryptamine. In the practical section BA was determined in lager bottom-fermented beers from local microbreweries and large industri...

  1. Chlorodiethylaluminum supported on silica: A dinuclear aluminum surface species with bridging μ2-Cl-ligand as a highly efficient co-catalyst for the Ni-catalyzed dimerization of ethene

    KAUST Repository

    Kermagoret, Anthony


    Silica-supported chloro alkyl aluminum co-catalysts (DEAC@support) were prepared via Surface Organometallic Chemistry by contacting diethylaluminum chloride (DEAC) and high specific surface silica materials, i.e. SBA-15, MCM-41, and Aerosil SiO2. Such systems efficiently activate NiCl 2(PBu3)2 for catalytic ethene dimerization, with turnover frequency (TOF) reaching up to 498,000 molC2H4/ (molNi h) for DEAC@MCM-41. A detailed analysis of the DEAC@SBA-15 co-catalyst structure by solid-state aluminum-27 NMR at high-field (17.6 T and 20.0 T) and ultrafast spinning rates allows to detect six sites, characterized by a distribution of quadrupolar interaction principal values CQ and isotropic chemical shifts δiso. Identification of the corresponding Al-grafted structures was possible by comparison of the experimental NMR signatures with these calculated by DFT on a wide range of models for the aluminum species (mono- versus di-nuclear, mono- versus bis-grafted with bridging Cl or ethyl). Most of the sites were identified as dinuclear species with retention of the structure of DEAC, namely with the presence of μ2-Cl-ligands between two aluminum, and this probably explains the high catalytic performance of this silica-supported co-catalysts. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Yttrium (III chloride catalyzed Mannich reaction: An efficient procedure for the synthesis of β-amino carbonyl compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswarlu Yekkirala


    Full Text Available Yttrium (III chloride catalyzed Mannich reaction of aldehydes with ketones and amines in acetonitrile at reflux temperature to give various β-amino carbonyl compounds in very good yields.

  3. Aminoarenethiolate-Copper(I)-Catalyzed Amination of Aryl Bromides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jerphagnon, Thomas; Klink, Gerard P.M. van; Vries, Johannes G. de; Koten, Gerard van


    Aminoarenethiolate-copper(I) complexes are known to be efficient catalysts for carbon-carbon bond formation. Here, we show the first examples that these thiolate-copper(I) complexes are efficient for carbon-nitrogen bond formation reactions as well. N-Arylation of benzylamine and imidazole with brom

  4. Benzylamines via Iron-Catalyzed Direct Amination of Benzyl Alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Tao; Feringa, Ben L.; Barta, Katalin


    Benzylamines play a prominent role in numerous pharmaceutically active compounds. Thus, the development of novel, sustainable catalytic methodologies to provide access to these privileged structural motifs is of central importance. Herein we describe a systematic study for the construction of a larg

  5. Amine-Catalyzed Isomerization of Diethylmaleate to Diethylfumarate. (United States)

    Glover, Irving T.; And Others


    This reaction is used in an introductory organic chemistry course to illustrate principles of gas-liquid chromatography, geometrical isomerism, homogeneous catalysis, and activation energy determinations. (BB)

  6. High capacity immobilized amine sorbents (United States)

    Gray, McMahan L.; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Soong, Yee; Filburn, Thomas


    A method is provided for making low-cost CO.sub.2 sorbents that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. The improved method entails treating an amine to increase the number of secondary amine groups and impregnating the amine in a porous solid support. The method increases the CO.sub.2 capture capacity and decreases the cost of utilizing an amine-enriched solid sorbent in CO.sub.2 capture systems.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TEO Gek Chun


    @@ Chitose Amine is a natural substance which the body cells will readily absorb and it helps strengthen the immune system and reduces the cholesterol. Currently. Chitose Amine has been used widely in cosmetics and detoxification foods. The mian therapeutic properties of Chitose Amine in cosmetics are as follow:

  8. Degradation and transformation of atrazine under catalyzed ozonation process with TiO2 as catalyst. (United States)

    Yang, Yixin; Cao, Hongbin; Peng, Pai; Bo, Hongmiao


    Degradation of atrazine by heterogeneously catalyzed ozonation was carried out with TiO2 in the form of rutile as the catalyst. Some experimental factors such as catalyst dose, ozone dose and initial concentration of atrazine were investigated for their influence on catalyzed ozonation process. Although atrazine was effectively removed from aqueous solution by catalyzed ozonation process, the mineralization degree only reached 56% at the experimental conditions. Five transformation products were identified by GC/MS analysis. The degradation of atrazine involved de-alkylation, de-chlorination and de-amination. Diaminotriazine and 5-azauracil were the de-chlorinated and de-aminated products, respectively. The evolution of concentration of transformation products during catalyzed ozonation process was compared with uncatalyzed ozonation to show the degradation pathway. Toxicity tests based on the inhibition of the luminescence emitted by Vibrio fisheri indicated the detoxification of atrazine by catalyzed ozonation.

  9. ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. Catalytic asymmetric hydroamination of unactivated internal olefins to aliphatic amines. (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Shi, Shi-Liang; Niu, Dawen; Liu, Peng; Buchwald, Stephen L


    Catalytic assembly of enantiopure aliphatic amines from abundant and readily available precursors has long been recognized as a paramount challenge in synthetic chemistry. Here, we describe a mild and general copper-catalyzed hydroamination that effectively converts unactivated internal olefins—an important yet unexploited class of abundant feedstock chemicals—into highly enantioenriched α-branched amines (≥96% enantiomeric excess) featuring two minimally differentiated aliphatic substituents. This method provides a powerful means to access a broad range of advanced, highly functionalized enantioenriched amines of interest in pharmaceutical research and other areas.

  10. Catalytic Enantioselective Electrophilic Aminations of Acyclic α-Alkyl β-Carbonyl Nucleophilies. (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Sun, Bingfeng; Deng, Li


    Highly enantioselective aminations of acyclic α-alkyl β-keto thioesters and trifluoroethyl α-methyl α-cyanoacetate (12) with as low as 0.05 mol % of a bifunctional cinchona alkaloid catalyst were established. This ability to afford highly enantioselectivity for the amination of α-alkyl β-carbonyl compounds renders the 6'-OH cinchona alkaloid-catalyzed amination applicable for the enantioselective synthesis of acyclic chiral compounds bearing N-substituted quaternary stereocenters. The synthetic application of this reaction is illustrated in a concise asymmetric synthesis of α-methylserine, a key intermediate previously utilized in the total synthesis of a small molecule immunomodulator, conagenin.

  11. Liquid nitration of benzene catalyzed by ammonium molybdophosphat catalyst supported on silica%二氧化硅负载磷钼酸铵催化苯液相硝化反应的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿辉; 刘丽君; 李考真; 崔庆新; 龚树文


    Ammonium molybdophosphat (S-AMPA) catalyst supported on silica was synthesized by sol-gel method with ethyl silicate as silicon source. The properties were characterized by XRD, IR spectra and the potentiometric titration method. The influences of various parameters such as reaction time and temperature on liquid nitration of benzene have also been systematically studied. XRD and IR indicated that the Keggin structure was retained after AMPA catalyst supported on silica. And the results of potentiometric titration revealed that the maximum acid strength and the total number of acid sites of S-AMPA were more than these of unsupported catalyst. The catalyst exhibited high catalytic activity for nitration reaction and the highest yield is up to 96%. The phase and structure of catalyst have not obvious change after used, although the active component had some loss in the reaction progress.%以正硅酸乙酯为硅源,采用溶胶-凝胶法制备了负载磷钼杂多酸铵催化剂(S-AMPA),利用XRD、IR以及电位滴定等方法对催化剂进行了表征,并考察了催化剂用量、反应时间和温度等反应参数对催化剂的苯液相硝化反应催化性能的影响.结果表明,溶胶-凝胶法制备的S-AMPA具有典型的Keggin结构,而且负载后催化剂的酸度和酸性点总量都明显增大;反应时间等反应参数对苯催化硝化反应有明显的影响,在优化实验条件下,苯硝化转化率可达96%;反应后催化剂活性组分有所损失,但催化剂整体物相和结构没有发生明显变化.

  12. Metal-silica sol-gel materials (United States)

    Stiegman, Albert E. (Inventor)


    The present invention relates to a single phase metal-silica sol-gel glass formed by the co-condensation of a transition metal with silicon atoms where the metal atoms are uniformly distributed within the sol-gel glass as individual metal centers. Any transition metal may be used in the sol-gel glasses. The present invention also relates to sensor materials where the sensor material is formed using the single phase metal-silica sol-gel glasses. The sensor materials may be in the form of a thin film or may be attached to an optical fiber. The present invention also relates to a method of sensing chemicals using the chemical sensors by monitoring the chromatic change of the metal-silica sol-gel glass when the chemical binds to the sensor. The present invention also relates to oxidation catalysts where a metal-silica sol-gel glass catalyzes the reaction. The present invention also relates to a method of performing oxidation reactions using the metal-silica sol-gel glasses. The present invention also relates to organopolymer metal-silica sol-gel composites where the pores of the metal-silica sol-gel glasses are filled with an organic polymer polymerized by the sol-gel glass.

  13. The interaction of encapsulated pharmaceutical drugs with a silica matrix. (United States)

    Morais, Everton C; Correa, Gabriel G; Brambilla, Rodrigo; Radtke, Claudio; Baibich, Ione Maluf; dos Santos, João Henrique Z


    A series of seven drugs, namely, fluoxetine, gentamicin, lidocaine, morphine, nifedipine, paracetamol and tetracycline, were encapsulated. The encapsulated systems were characterized using a series of complementary techniques: Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), diffusive reflectance spectroscopy in the UV-vis region (DRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). According to the DRS spectra, most of the encapsulated systems showed a band shift of the maximum absorption when compared with the corresponding bare pharmaceutical. Additionally, after encapsulation, the drugs exhibited infrared band shifts toward higher wavenumbers, which in turn provided insight into potential sites for interaction with the silica framework. The amine group showed a band shift in the spectra of almost all the drugs (except nifedipine and tetracycline). This finding indicates the possibility of a hydrogen bonding interaction between the drug and the silica via electron donation from the amine group to the silica framework. XPS confirmed this interaction between the pharmaceuticals and the silica through the amine group. A correlation was observed between the textural characteristics of the solids and the spectroscopic data, suggesting that the amine groups from the pharmaceuticals were more perturbed upon encapsulation.

  14. Organocatalytic asymmetric allylic amination of Morita–Baylis–Hillman carbonates of isatins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Zhang


    Full Text Available The investigation of a Lewis base catalyzed asymmetric allylic amination of Morita–Baylis–Hillman carbonates derived from isatins afforded an electrophilic pathway to access multifunctional oxindoles bearing a C3-quaternary stereocenter, provided with good to excellent enantioselectivity (up to 94% ee and in high yields (up to 97%.

  15. Asymmetric α-amination of 3-substituted oxindoles using chiral bifunctional phosphine catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao-Wen Jin


    Full Text Available A highly enantioselective α-amination of 3-substituted oxindoles with azodicarboxylates catalyzed by amino acids-derived chiral phosphine catalysts is reported. The corresponding products containing a tetrasubstituted carbon center attached to a nitrogen atom at the C-3 position of the oxindole were obtained in high yields and with up to 98% ee.

  16. Copper-catalyzed intermolecular oxyamination of olefins using carboxylic acids and O-benzoylhydroxylamines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett N. Hemric


    Full Text Available This paper reports a novel approach for the direct and facile synthesis of 1,2-oxyamino moieties via an intermolecular copper-catalyzed oxyamination of olefins. This strategy utilizes O-benzoylhydroxylamines as an electrophilic amine source and carboxylic acids as a nucleophilic oxygen source to achieve a modular difunctionalization of olefins. The reaction proceeded in a regioselective manner with moderate to good yields, exhibiting a broad scope of carboxylic acid, amine, and olefin substrates.

  17. Aminosilane-grafted polymer/silica hollow fiber adsorbents for CO₂ capture from flue gas. (United States)

    Rezaei, Fateme; Lively, Ryan P; Labreche, Ying; Chen, Grace; Fan, Yanfang; Koros, William J; Jones, Christopher W


    Amine/silica/polymer composite hollow fiber adsorbents are produced using a novel reactive post-spinning infusion technique, and the obtained fibers are shown to capture CO2 from simulated flue gas. The post-spinning infusion technique allows for functionalization of polymer/silica hollow fibers with different types of amines during the solvent exchange step after fiber spinning. The post-spinning infusion of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APS) into mesoporous silica/cellulose acetate hollow fibers is demonstrated here, and the materials are compared with hollow fibers infused with poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI). This approach results in silica/polymer composite fibers with good amine distribution and accessibility, as well as adequate porosity retained within the fibers to facilitate rapid mass transfer and adsorption kinetics. The CO2 adsorption capacities for the APS-infused hollow fibers are shown to be comparable to those of amine powders with similar amine loadings. In contrast, fibers that are spun with presynthesized, amine-loaded mesoporous silica powders show negligible CO2 uptake and low amine loadings because of loss of amines from the silica materials during the fiber spinning process. Aminosilica powders are shown to be more hydrophilic than the corresponding amine containing composite hollow fibers, the bare polymer as well as silica support. Both the PEI-infused and APS-infused fibers demonstrate reduced CO2 adsorption upon elevating the temperature from 35 to 80 °C, in accordance with thermodynamics, whereas PEI-infused powders show increased CO2 uptake over that temperature range because of competing diffusional and thermodynamic effects. The CO2 adsorption kinetics as probed via TGA show that the APS-infused hollow fiber adsorbents have more rapid uptake kinetics than their aminosilica powder analogues. The adsorption performance of the functionalized hollow fibers is also assessed in CO2 breakthrough experiments. The breakthrough results show a

  18. Synthesis of cyclohexanone ethylene ketal catalyzed by silica supported ammonium molybdophosphate catalyst%二氧化硅负载磷钼杂多酸铵催化合成环己酮乙二醇缩酮

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于丽敏; 王佳佳; 周卫卫; 刘丽君; 龚树文; 尹汉东


    采用溶胶-凝胶法制备系列二氧化硅负载磷钼杂多酸铵固体酸催化剂,以环己酮和乙二醇为原料、环己烷为带水荆,合成环己酮乙二醇缩酮,考察催化剂负载量、原料配比、催化剂用量、带水剂用量以及反应时间等因素对反应收率的影响.得到较佳工艺条件:n(环己酮):n(乙二醇)=1:1.5,催化剂用量0.5 g,环已烷用量10 mL,回流反应45 min,产品平均收率97.1%.催化剂重复使用性实验结果表明,随着使用次数的增多,二氧化硅负载磷钼杂多酸铵催化剂催化活性下降,但使用6次后,仍表现出较高的缩酮收率.%Cyclohexanone glycol ketal was synthesized from cyclohexanone and ethylene glycol using silica supported ammonium molybdophosphate as the catalyst,which was prepared by sol-gel method. The influence of catalyst dosage, molar ratio of cyclohexanone to ethylene glycol, amount of water carrying agent and reaction time on the yield was investigated. The results showed that the product yield of 97.1%was attained under the optimal condition as follows: n ( cyclohexanone ): n ( glycol ) = 1: 1.5, catalyst dosage 0.5 g,the amount of water carrying agent cyclohexane 10 mL,and reflux time 45 min. The catalyst exhibited higher catalytic activity after being repeated use 6 times.

  19. 二氧化硅负载高氯酸催化合成香兰素缩1,2-丙二醇%Synthesis of Vanillin 1,2-propylene glycol acetal catalyzed by silica supported perchloric acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    以二氧化硅负载高氯酸(HClO4/SiO2)为催化剂,香兰素和1,2-丙二醇经缩合反应合成香兰素缩1,2-丙二醇.考察了醛醇物质的量比、催化剂用量、反应温度和反应时间对产品收率的影响.实验表明,较佳反应条件为:当香兰素的用量为0.1 mol,1,2-丙二醇的用量为0.16 mol,即n(香兰素)∶n(1,2-丙二醇)=1∶1.6,催化剂用量1.5g,反应温度80℃,反应时间45 min,香兰素缩1,2-丙二醇的收率达87.1%以上.HClO4/SiO2是一种热稳定性好、简单易制、可循环使用的高效非均相催化剂.%Vanillin 1, 2-propylene glycol acetal was synthesized through the condensation of Vanillin with 1, 2-propylene glycol using silica supported perchloric acid (HClO4/SiO2) as a catalyst. The effects of the molar ratio of reactant, the amount of catalyst, reaction temperature and reaction time on the yield of product were discussed. The results showed that the optimized reaction conditions are as follows; the molar ratio of Vanillin (0.1 mol) to 1, 2-propylene glycol (0.16 mol) is 1:1.6; the amount of catalyst is 1.5 g, reaction temperature is 80 ℃ and the reaction time is 45 min. Under the optimum conditions mentioned above, the yield of Vanillin 1, 2-propylene glycol acetal reached more than 87.1%. HClO4/SiO2 as a heterogeneous catalyst has many advantages of high thermal stability, ease of preparation and reusability.

  20. Functionalization of Hollow Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for Improved 5-FU Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong She


    Full Text Available Hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles were successfully fabricated and functionalized with appropriate silanes. After modifications, amine, carboxyl, cyano, and methyl groups were grafted onto the nanoparticles and all functionalized hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles maintained a spherical and hollow structure with a mean diameter of ~120 nm and a shell thickness of ~10 nm. The loading capacity of the hollow mesoporous silica nanoaprticles to the anticancer drug, 5-fluorouracil, can be controlled via precise functionalization. The presence of amine groups on the surface of nanoparticles resulted in the highest loading capacity of 28.89%, due to the amine functionalized nanoparticles having a similar hydrophilicity but reverse charge to the drug. In addition, the change in pH leads to the variation of the intensity of electrostatic force between nanoparticles and the drug, which finally affects the loading capacity of amine functionalized hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles to some extent. Higher drug loading was observed at pH of 7.4 and 8.5 as 5-fluorouracil becomes more deprotonated in alkaline conditions. The improved drug loading capacity by amine functionalized hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles has demonstrated that they can become potential intracellular 5-fluorouracil delivery vehicles for cancers.

  1. 介孔SBA-15负载磷钨酸催化四氢呋喃聚合的研究%Study on THF Polymerization Catalyzed by Phosphotungstic Heteropolyacid on Mesoporous Silica SBA-15 Support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓杭军; 邓佳; 陈纪忠


    以SBA-15为载体负载磷钨酸(HPW),用于催化四氢呋喃(THF)开环聚合,采用在线反应红外分析仪(ReactIR)测定THF转化率,实验考察了HPW负载质量百分比、3-氨丙基三乙氧基硅烷(APTES)/SBA-15质量比和载体SBA-15孔径等因素对催化剂的催化性能和THF转化率的影响。结果表明:采用直接浸渍法负载HPW,HPW最优负载质量百分比为40%;将SBA-15进行氨基改性后负载HPW,最优APTES/SBA-15质量比为mAPTES/mSBA-15=0.0712,且通过氨基改性可有效改善催化剂的重复利用性能;当载体 SBA-15的比表面积较大时(853 m2⋅g-1)或孔径较大(比表面积较小498~585 m2⋅g-1)时,所制备的催化剂具有较高的催化效率、聚合产物平均分子量较大,催化剂的催化效率和聚合产物分子量随着孔径增大而增大。%A catalyst synthesized by loading phosphotungstic heteropolyacid on mesoporous silica material SBA-15 support was used in ring-opening polymerization of tetrahydrofuran (THF). The polymerization of THF was monitored in real-time by ReactIR. The effects of mass fraction of HPW, the mass ratio of 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES) to SBA-15, and the pore diameter of SBA-15 on catalytic performance and the conversion of THF were investigated. It was found that the supported catalyst HPW/SBA-15 prepared by impregnation with 40% mass fraction of HPW exhibits the highest activity. The amino-functionalized SBA-15 can effectively improve the catalytic performance of catalyst HPW/NH2-SBA-15 for repeated use in THF polymerization. And the catalyst HPW/NH2-SBA-15 has the highest activity when the mass ratio of mAPTES/mSBA-15=0.0712. It shows good catalytic performance. Its PTHF product has higher molecular weight when SBA-15 has larger specific surface area or larger pore sizes (specific surface area=498~585 m2⋅g-1). Also, the catalytic performance of catalysts and the molecular weight of PTHF product increase with the pore size of

  2. Incorporation of Mesoporous Silica Particles in Gelatine Gels: Effect of Particle Type and Surface Modification on Physical Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez-Esteve, E.; Oliver, L.; Garcia, L.; Nieuwland, M.; Jongh, de H.H.J.; Martinez-Manez, R.; Barat, J.M.


    The aim of this work was to investigate the impact of mesoporous silica particles (MSPs) on the physicochemical properties of filled protein gels. We have studied the effect of the addition of different mesoporous silica particles, either bare or functionalized with amines or carboxylates, on the ph

  3. Incorporation of mesoporous silica particles in gelatine gels: Effect of particle type and surface modification on physical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Esteve, E.; Oliver, L.; García, L.; Nieuwland, M.; Jongh, H.H.J. de; Martínez-Máñez, R.; Barat, J.M.


    The aim of this work was to investigate the impact of mesoporous silica particles (MSPs) on the physicochemical properties of filled protein gels. We have studied the effect of the addition of different mesoporous silica particles, either bare or functionalized with amines or carboxylates, on the ph

  4. Alumina-entrapped Ag catalyzed nitro compounds coupled with alcohols using borrowing hydrogen methodology. (United States)

    Liu, Huihui; Chuah, Gaik Khuan; Jaenicke, Stephan


    Supported silver catalysts were reported for the first time to be able to catalyze the coupling reaction between nitroarenes and alcohols via the borrowing hydrogen scheme. The recyclable, non-leaching catalyst is synthesized by the entrapment method, which allows entrapping of silver nanoparticles in an alumina matrix. Alcohols, acting as the reducing agents for nitro-groups, alkylated the resultant amines smoothly over these silver catalysts giving a yield of >98% towards the N-substituted amines. In this process, multiple steps were realized in one-pot over a single catalyst with very high efficiency. It offers another clean and economic way to achieve amination of alcohols.

  5. A novel fabrication of meso-porous silica film by sol-gol of TEOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷明志; 姚熹; 张良莹


    A homogeneous crack-free nano- or meso-porous silica films on silicon was fabricated by colloidal silica sol derived by hydrolyzing tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) catalyzing with (C4H9)4N+OH- in water medium. The solution with ratio of H2O/TEOS≥15, R4N+ and glycerol as templates, combining with the hydrolyzed intermediate, controlled the silica aggregating; the templated silica film with heterostructure was developed into homogeneous nano-porous then meso-porous silica films after being annealed from 750 ℃ to 850 ℃; the formation mechanism of the porous silica films was discussed; morphologies of the silica films were characterized. The refractive indexes of the porous silica films were 1.256-1.458, the thermal conductivity < 0.7 W/m/K. The fabricating procedure and the sequence had not been reported before.

  6. Inhibition of chickpea seedling copper amine oxidases by tetraethylenepentamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Talaei


    Full Text Available Copper amine oxidases are important enzymes, which contribute to the regulation of mono- and polyamine levels. Each monomer contains one Cu(II ion and 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalanine (TPQ as cofactors. They catalyze the oxidative deamination of primary amines to aldehydes with a ping-pong mechanism consisting of a transamination. The mechanism is followed by the transfer of two electrons to molecular oxygen which is reduced to hydrogen peroxide. Inhibitors are important tools in the study of catalytic properties of copper amine oxidases and they also have a wide application in physiological research. In this study, purification of the chickpea seedling amine oxidase, was done via salting out by ammonium sulfate and dialysis, followed by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. By using the Lineweaver - Burk plot, the Km and Vm of the enzyme were found to be 3.3 mM and 0.95 mmol/min/mg, respectively. In this study, the interaction of chickpea diamino oxidase with tetraethylene- pentamine was studied. Analysis of kinetic data indicated that tetraethylenepentamine (with Ki=0.1 mM inhibits the enzyme by linear mixed inhibitory effect.

  7. Palladium Immobilized on Silica Gel: A Novel and Reusable Catalyst for Heck Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zu-Li; WANG Lei; YAN Jin-Can


    The immobilization of palladium on silica gel in Heck reaction has been developed.Iodobenzenes,bromobenzenes and activated chlorobenzenes were coupled with olefins (Heck reaction) smoothly to afford the corresponding cross-coupling products in good to excellent yields under phosphine- and amine-free reaction conditions in the presence of silica gel supported palladium,Silica-Ap-Pd catalyst,potassium carbonate as base and DMF as solvent.Furthermore,the silica-supported palladium catalyst 3 could be recovered and recycled by a simple filtration of the reaction solution and used for 6 consecutive trials without significant loss of its catalytic activity.

  8. Optimization of silica silanization by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. (United States)

    Howarter, John A; Youngblood, Jeffrey P


    Thin films of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) are commonly used to promote adhesion between silica substrates and organic or metallic materials with applications ranging from advanced composites to biomolecular lab-on-a-chip. Unfortunately, there is confusion as to which reaction conditions will result in consistently aminated surfaces. A wide range of conflicting experimental methods are used with researchers often assuming the creation of smooth self-assembled monolayers. A range of film morphologies based on the film deposition conditions are presented here to establish an optimized method of APTES film formation. The effect of reaction temperature, solution concentration, and reaction time on the structure and morphology was studied for the system of APTES on silica. Three basic morphologies were observed: smooth thin film, smooth thick film, and roughened thick film.

  9. Gold(III)-catalyzed three-component coupling reaction (TCC) selective toward furans. (United States)

    Li, Jian; Liu, Li; Ding, Dong; Sun, Jiangtao; Ji, Yangxuan; Dong, Jialing


    An efficient three-component coupling reaction toward a variety of furan derivatives has been developed. This cascade transformation proceeds via the gold-catalyzed coupling reaction of phenylglyoxal derivatives, secondary amines, and terminal alkynes, under the reaction conditions, that undergoes cyclization into the furan core.

  10. Nitridated fibrous silica (KCC-1) as a sustainable solid base nanocatalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Bouhrara, Mohamed


    We observed that support morphology has dramatic effects on the performance of nitridated silica as a base. By simply replacing conventional silica supports (such as SBA-15 and MCM-41) with fibrous nanosilica (KCC-1), we observed multifold enhancement in the catalytic activity of the nitridated solid base for Knoevenagel condensations and transesterification reactions. This enhancement of the activity can be explained by amine accessibility, which is excellent in KCC-1 due to its open and flexible fibrous structure, that facilitates penetration and interaction with basic amine sites. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  11. Catalyzing RE Project Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Kate; Elgqvist, Emma; Walker, Andy; Cutler, Dylan; Olis, Dan; DiOrio, Nick; Simpkins, Travis


    This poster details how screenings done with REopt - NREL's software modeling platform for energy systems integration and optimization - are helping to catalyze the development of hundreds of megawatts of renewable energy.

  12. Muon Catalyzed Fusion (United States)

    Armour, Edward A.G.


    Muon catalyzed fusion is a process in which a negatively charged muon combines with two nuclei of isotopes of hydrogen, e.g, a proton and a deuteron or a deuteron and a triton, to form a muonic molecular ion in which the binding is so tight that nuclear fusion occurs. The muon is normally released after fusion has taken place and so can catalyze further fusions. As the muon has a mean lifetime of 2.2 microseconds, this is the maximum period over which a muon can participate in this process. This article gives an outline of the history of muon catalyzed fusion from 1947, when it was first realised that such a process might occur, to the present day. It includes a description of the contribution that Drachrnan has made to the theory of muon catalyzed fusion and the influence this has had on the author's research.

  13. Silica in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Sargent, B A; Tayrien, C; McClure, M K; Li, A; Basu, A R; Manoj, P; Watson, D M; Bohac, C J; Furlan, E; Kim, K H; Green, J D; Sloan, G C


    Mid-infrared spectra of a few T Tauri stars (TTS) taken with the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on board the Spitzer Space Telescope show prominent narrow emission features indicating silica (crystalline silicon dioxide). Silica is not a major constituent of the interstellar medium; therefore, any silica present in the circumstellar protoplanetary disks of TTS must be largely the result of processing of primitive dust material in the disks surrouding these stars. We model the silica emission features in our spectra using the opacities of various polymorphs of silica and their amorphous versions computed from earth-based laboratory measurements. This modeling indicates that the two polymorphs of silica, tridymite and cristobalite, which form at successively higher temperatures and low pressures, are the dominant forms of silica in the TTS of our sample. These high temperature, low pressure polymorphs of silica present in protoplanetary disks are consistent with a grain composed mostly of tridymite named Ada found...

  14. Silica extraction from geothermal water (United States)

    Bourcier, William L; Bruton, Carol J


    A method of producing silica from geothermal fluid containing low concentration of the silica of less than 275 ppm includes the steps of treating the geothermal fluid containing the silica by reverse osmosis treatment thereby producing a concentrated fluid containing the silica, seasoning the concentrated fluid thereby producing a slurry having precipitated colloids containing the silica, and separating the silica from the slurry.

  15. Deciphering the origin of cooperative catalysis by dirhodium acetate and chiral spiro phosphoric acid in an asymmetric amination reaction. (United States)

    Kisan, Hemanta K; Sunoj, Raghavan B


    The mechanism of asymmetric amination of diazo-acetate by tert-butyl carbamate catalyzed by dirhodium tetra(trifluoro)acetate and chiral SPINOL-phosphoric acid is examined using DFT (M06 and B3LYP) computations. A cooperative participation of both catalysts is noticed in the stereo-controlling transition state of the reaction.

  16. Cobalt-silica magnetic nanoparticles with functional surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vadala, Michael L. [Department of Chemistry and the Macromolecules and Interfaces Institute, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Mail Code 0212, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0344 (United States); Zalich, Michael A. [School of Physics, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Fulks, David B. [Department of Chemistry and the Macromolecules and Interfaces Institute, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Mail Code 0212, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0344 (United States); St Pierre, Tim G. [School of Physics, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Dailey, James P. [Department of Ophthalmology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Riffle, Judy S. [Department of Chemistry and the Macromolecules and Interfaces Institute, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Mail Code 0212, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0344 (United States)]. E-mail:


    Cobalt nanoparticles encased in polysiloxane block copolymers have been heated at 600-700 deg C to form protective shells around the particles, which contain crosslinked Si-O structures, and to anneal the cobalt. Methods to functionalize and modify the surfaces of the pyrolyzed/annealed silica-cobalt complexes with amines, isocyanates, poly(ethylene oxide), poly(L-lactide) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) are presented.

  17. Amine-Amine Exchange in Aminium-Methanesulfonate Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Matthew L.; Varner, Mychel E.; Perraud, Veronique M.; Ezell, Michael J.; Wilson, Jacqueline M.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Gerber, Robert B.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.


    Aerosol particles are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and have been shown to impact the Earth’s climate, reduce visibility, and adversely affect human health. Modeling the evolution of aerosol systems requires an understanding of the species and mechanisms involved in particle growth, including the complex interactions between particle- and gas-phase species. Here we report studies of displacement of amines (methylamine, dimethylamine or trimethylamine) in methanesulfonate salt particles by exposure to a different gas-phase amine, using a single particle mass spectrometer, SPLAT II. The variation of the displacement with the nature of the amine suggests that behavior is dependent on water in or on the particles. Small clusters of methanesulfonic acid with amines are used as a model in quantum chemical calculations to identify key structural elements that are expected to influence water uptake, and hence the efficiency of displacement by gas-phase molecules in the aminium salts. Such molecular-level understanding of the processes affecting the ability of gas-phase amines to displace particle-phase aminium species is important for modeling the growth of particles and their impacts in the atmosphere.

  18. Effect of chemical modification on carbon dioxide adsorption property of mesoporous silica. (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Shen, Yanmei; Bai, Lu


    Three adsorbents were prepared by different modification methods, which were grafting silica gel with (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane, grafting silica gel with acrylamide polymer, and impregnating silica gel with acrylamide polymer, respectively. The characterization of materials was carried out by N(2) adsorption experiments, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and elemental analyses. The results showed that the amine group was successfully loaded on all three modified adsorbents; among that, the polymer-modified silica adsorbents had higher amine content and larger surface area than the aminopropyl-grafted silica adsorbent and displayed higher thermal stability than the other polymer-modified silica materials previously reported. The CO(2) adsorption/desorption experiments performed at 25°C by TGA-DSC method showed that the highest CO(2) adsorption capacity (0.98 mmol/g) was observed for the polymer-impregnated silica adsorbent. CO(2) adsorbed on all samples was completely desorbed by purging with inert gas at 60°C except for the aminopropyl-grafted silica material, which showed the highest enthalpy of CO(2) adsorption.

  19. Dynamics of CO 2 Adsorption on Amine Adsorbents. 2. Insights Into Adsorbent Design

    KAUST Repository

    Bollini, Praveen


    Packed bed breakthrough experiments are reported for commercial zeolite 13X and 3-aminopropyl-functionalized SBA-15 silica materials with three different amine loadings. Mass and heat transfer dynamics for all four materials are modeled successfully. Amine adsorbents with open pores are found to exhibit faster mass diffusion rates compared to zeolite 13X. When amine loading is increased by coupling aminopropyl groups, premature breakthrough combined with a long tail is observed. Contrary to conventional physisorbants, finite heat losses to the column wall do not explain the long breakthrough tail. A rate model that accounts for heterogeneity in diffusion was found to accurately capture the breakthrough shape of the high loading material. Batch uptake measurements support the hypothesis that slow diffusion through the polymer phase is what hampers adsorption kinetics in the high amine loading adsorbent. The results emphasize the importance of designing materials that are not overloaded with amine sites, as excessive amine loadings can lead to depressed adsorption kinetics and premature column breakthrough. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  20. Highly efficient palladium-catalyzed hydrostannation of ethyl ethynyl ether. (United States)

    Andrews, Ian P; Kwon, Ohyun


    The palladium-catalyzed hydrostannation of acetylenes is widely exploited in organic synthesis as a means of forming vinyl stannanes for use in palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. Application of this methodology to ethyl ethynyl ether results in an enol ether that is challenging to isolate from the crude reaction mixture because of incompatibility with typical silica gel chromatography. Reported here is a highly efficient procedure for the palladium-catalyzed hydrostannation of ethyl ethynyl ether using 0.1% palladium(0) catalyst and 1.0 equiv of tributyltin hydride. The product obtained is a mixture of regioisomers that can be carried forward with exclusive reaction of the beta-isomer. This method is highly reproducible; relative to previously reported procedures, it is more economical and involves a more facile purification procedure.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Objective: To synthesize thirteen effective microbial potent oxazine-2-amine derivatives and evaluate the antimicrobial activities of these compounds. Material and methods: The solvent-free solid fly-ash: H2SO4 catalyzed cyclization of 4-bromo-1-naphthyl chalcones and urea under microwave irradiation technique was utilized for the synthesis of oxazine derivatives. The synthesized oxazines were characterized by their physical constants and spectroscopic data. The Bauer-Kirby disc-diffusion method of measurement of zone of inhibition was used for evaluation antimicrobial activity of synthesized oxazines. Results: The cyclization was effective and this reaction gave more than 80% yield. The catalyst was reused up to five times consecutively without appreciable decreasing of yield. All compounds were active against their microbial strains. Conclusions: This solvent-free synthetic method was effective for the synthesis of oxazine derivatives. The amino, dimethylamino, halogens, methoxy and methyl substituted oxazines shows significant antibacterial activity. Chloro, hydroxy and nitro substituted oxazine derivative have shown significant antifungal activity.

  2. Porous Properties of Nano-fibriform Silica from Natural Chrysotile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lijuan; LU Anhuai; WANG Changqiu; LI Xuejun; ZHENG Xishen; ZHAO Dongjun; LIU Rui


    With the TEM and physical gas adsorption techniques, porous properties of nano-fibriform silica (MLD: 92.73 %) from natural chrysotile are studied in this paper. The results indicate that porous nano-fibriform silica results from brucite octahedral sheets of nature chrysotile dissolved completely and Si-O tetrahedral sheets collapsed by acid leaching. Its length is at a micron or nanometer scale.There are two types of pores: pores among neighboring fibers and pores in nanofiber. These pores (less than 6.5 nm in diameter, mostly 2.1 nm and 3.8 nm) all belong to mesopores. The pores in fibers consist of those among SiO2 particles, those among aggregates, remnant nanotubes and capillary tubes. Nanofibriform silica proves better than the traditional silica as a carrier of catalyzer and a filler for reinforce rubber and plastics.

  3. Amine Swingbed Payload Project Management (United States)

    Walsch, Mary; Curley, Su


    The International Space Station (ISS) has been designed as a laboratory for demonstrating technologies in a microgravity environment, benefitting exploration programs by reducing the overall risk of implementing such technologies in new spacecraft. At the beginning of fiscal year 2010, the ISS program manager requested that the amine-based, pressure-swing carbon dioxide and humidity absorption technology (designed by Hamilton Sundstrand, baselined for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, and tested at the Johnson Space Center in relevant environments, including with humans, since 2005) be developed into a payload for ISS Utilization. In addition to evaluating the amine technology in a flight environment before the first launch of the Orion vehicle, the ISS program wanted to determine the capability of the amine technology to remove carbon dioxide from the ISS cabin environment at the metabolic rate of the full 6 ]person crew. Because the amine technology vents the absorbed carbon dioxide and water vapor to space vacuum (open loop), additional hardware needed to be developed to minimize the amount of air and water resources lost overboard. Additionally, the payload system would be launched on two separate Space Shuttle flights, with the heart of the payload-the swingbed unit itself-launching a full year before the remainder of the payload. This paper discusses the project management and challenges of developing the amine swingbed payload in order to accomplish the technology objectives of both the open -loop Orion application as well as the closed-loop ISS application.

  4. Preparation of Poly(MA-alt--olefin-C6,8,12,18)/Silica Nanohybrids via in situ generated nanofillers for use as a dual function organonanofiller

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deni̇z Demi̇rcan; Günay Ki̇barer; Zaki̇r M O Rzayev


    Four types of copolymer-silica nanocomposites have been prepared via ring-opening grafting of -aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTS) as reactive coupling agent onto preformed copolymers of maleic anhydride (MA) with 1-hexene, 1-octene, 1-dodecene and 1-octadecene and in situ hydrolysis (polycondensation) of side-chain ethoxysilane groups and tetraethoxysilane as a precursor in the presence of HCl catalyst. The copolymers of MA with 1-hexene, 1-octene and 1-dodecene were synthesized by free radical polymerization and another MA copolymer with 1-octadecene was supplied commercially as matrix copolymer. Chemical/physical structures, thermal behavior and morphology investigations of the generated hybrids were performed by FTIR, 13C, 29Si-NMR, TGA, SEM and TEM analysis methods. Nano-level hybridization through covalent bonding (amidization) between the anhydride unit of copolymers and amine group of APTS was observed, and nanosilica networks (hydrolysis) were obtained through acid catalyzed co-polycondensation of TEOS and ethoxysilane fragments from both coupling agent and precursor. Agreeing with 29Si-NMR and TGA quantitative analysis results, the degree of hydrolysis of ethoxysilane groups varied from 51.0 to 60.9%, and the content of in situ generated silica particles was found to be around 70.7-75.7%. Thermal properties and thermal stability of the obtained hybrids were found to be enhanced with silica content. SEM analysis confirmed the formation of nanostructural hybrids with relatively fine distributed nanoparticles. TEM analyses of all the nanohybrids indicate the formation of spherical morphologies. These novel copolymer hybrids are expected to be a promising and efficient organonanofiller for the preparation of polymer nanocomposites with both dual functionality and compatibilizer effects.

  5. Silica Synthesis by Sponges: Unanticipated Molecular Mechanism (United States)

    Morse, D. E.; Weaver, J. C.


    Oceanic diatoms, sponges and other organisms synthesize gigatons per year of silica from silicic acid, ultimately obtained from the weathering of rock. This biogenic silica exhibits a remarkable diversity of structures, many of which reveal a precision of nanoarchitectural control that exceeds the capabilities of human engineering. In contrast to the conditions of anthropogenic and industrial manufacture, the biological synthesis of silica occurs under mild physiological conditions of low temperatures and pressures and near-neutral pH. In addition to the differentiation between biological and abiotic processes governing silica formation, the biomolecular mechanisms controlling synthesis of these materials may offer insights for the development of new, environmentally benign routes for synthesis of nanostructurally controlled silicas and high-performance polysiloxane composites. We found that the needle-like silica spicules made by the marine sponge, Tethya aurantia, each contain an occluded axial filament of protein composed predominantly of repeating assemblies of three similar subunits we named "silicateins." To our surprise, analysis of the purified protein subunits and the cloned silicatein DNAs revealed that the silicateins are highly homologous to a family of hydrolytic enzymes. As predicted from this finding, we discovered that the silicatein filaments are more than simple, passive templates; they actively catalyze and spatially direct polycondensation to form silica, (as well as the phenyl- and methyl-silsesquioxane) from the corresponding silicon alkoxides at neutral pH and low temperature. Catalytic activity also is exhibited by the silicatein subunits obtained by disaggregation of the protein filaments and those produced from recombinant DNA templates cloned in bacteria. This catalytic activity accelerates the rate-limiting hydrolysis of the silicon alkoxide precursors. Genetic engineering, used to produce variants of the silicatein molecule with

  6. C-H amination in the synthesis of N-heterocycles


    Fu, Hua; Yu,Jipan


    Jipan Yu, Hua Fu Key Laboratory of Bioorganic Phosphorus Chemistry and Chemical Biology (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, People's Republic of China Abstract: N-heterocycles are important motifs in natural products and pharmaceuticals. Recently, the transition metal–catalyzed C-H amination has become a subject in the synthesis of N-heterocycles because of use of the readily available starting materials, high efficiency, economy,...

  7. Amine Swingbed Payload Technology Demonstration (United States)

    Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey


    The Amine Swingbed is an amine-based, vacuum-regenerated adsorption technology for removing carbon dioxide and humidity from a habitable spacecraft environment, and is the baseline technology for the Orion Program’s Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). It uses a pair of interleaved-layer beds filled with SA9T, the amine sorbent, and a linear multiball valve rotates 270° back and forth to control the flow of air and vacuum to adsorbing and desorbing beds. One bed adsorbs CO2 and H2O from cabin air while the other bed is exposed to vacuum for regeneration by venting the CO2 and H2O. The two beds are thermally linked, so no additional heating or cooling is required. The technology can be applied to habitable environments where recycling CO2 and H2O is not required such as short duration missions.

  8. Complex amine-based reagents (United States)

    Suslov, S. Yu.; Kirilina, A. V.; Sergeev, I. A.; Zezyulya, T. V.; Sokolova, E. A.; Eremina, E. V.; Timofeev, N. V.


    Amines for a long time have been applied to maintaining water chemistry conditions (WCC) at power plants. However, making use of complex reagents that are the mixture of neutralizing and the filmforming amines, which may also contain other organic components, causes many disputes. This is mainly due to lack of reliable information about these components. The protective properties of any amine with regard to metal surfaces depend on several factors, which are considered in this article. The results of applying complex reagents to the protection of heating surfaces in industrial conditions and estimated behavior forecasts for various reagents under maintaining WCC on heat-recovery boilers with different thermal circuits are presented. The case of a two-drum heat-recovery boiler with in-line drums was used as an example, for which we present the calculated pH values for various brands of reagents under the same conditions. Work with different reagent brands and its analysis enabled us to derive a composition best suitable for the conditions of their practical applications in heat-recovery boilers at different pressures. Testing the new amine reagent performed at a CCPP power unit shows that this reagent is an adequate base for further development of reagents based on amine compounds. An example of testing a complex reagent is shown created with the participation of the authors within the framework the program of import substitution and its possible use is demonstrated for maintaining WCC of power-generating units of combined-cycle power plants (CCPP) and TPP. The compliance of the employed reagents with the standards of water chemistry conditions and protection of heating surfaces were assessed. The application of amine-containing reagents at power-generating units of TPP makes it possible to solve complex problems aimed at ensuring the sparing cleaning of heating surfaces from deposits and the implementation of conservation and management of water chemistry condition

  9. Synthesis and properties of highly dispersed ionic silica-poly(ethylene oxide) nanohybrids.

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, Nikhil J


    We report an ionic hybrid based on silica nanoparticles as the anion and amine-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) as a cation. The charge on the nanoparticle anion is carried by the surface hydroxyls. SAXS and TEM reveal an exceptional degree of dispersion of the silica in the polymer and high degree of order in both thin film and bulk forms. In addition to better dispersion, the ionic hybrid shows improved flow characteristics compared to silica/PEO mixtures in which the ionic interactions are absent.

  10. Fluorescent quantification of amino groups on silica nanoparticle surfaces. (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Zhang, Yanqin


    Functionalization of the surfaces of silica particles is often the first step in their various applications. An improved heterogeneous Fmoc-Cl fluorescent assay using an aqueous solution was developed to detect the number of amino groups on solid-phase supports. The fluorescent Fmoc-Cl method is 50-fold more sensitive than the current UV assay using an organic solvent. This method, together with the homogeneous fluorescamine and OPA assays, is used to detect amino groups on the silica particle surface. The accuracy and effect factors of these methods were examined and the assays were optimized. The results showed that the amine groups on silica particles can produce stronger fluorescence than small amine molecules in solution, because the porous structure of the particle surface is a more hydrophobic environment. The number of active amino groups that can be conjugated with biomolecules is much less than the total number of amino groups on the silica particle. Compared with physical methods, chemical assays involving direct reaction with amino groups would furnish the closest result to the number of active amino groups on the particle surface.

  11. Bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Arora


    Full Text Available Aromatic amines are an important group of industrial chemicals, which are widely used for manufacturing of dyes, pesticides, drugs, pigments, and other industrial products. These compounds have been considered highly toxic to human beings due to their carcinogenic nature. Three groups of aromatic amines have been recognized: monocyclic, polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatic amines. Bacterial degradation of several monocyclic aromatic compounds has been studied in a variety of bacteria, which utilizes monocyclic aromatic amines as their sole source of carbon and energy. Several degradation pathways have been proposed and the related enzymes and genes have also been characterized. Many reviews have been reviewed toxicity of monocyclic aromatic amines; however, there is lack of review on biodegradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. The aim of this review is to summarize bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. This review will increase our current understanding of biochemical and molecular basis of bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines.

  12. Muon catalyzed fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, K. [Advanced Meson Science Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Nagamine, K. [Muon Science Laboratory, IMSS-KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Matsuzaki, T. [Advanced Meson Science Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kawamura, N. [Muon Science Laboratory, IMSS-KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)


    The latest progress of muon catalyzed fusion study at the RIKEN-RAL muon facility (and partly at TRIUMF) is reported. The topics covered are magnetic field effect, muon transfer to {sup 3}He in solid D/T and ortho-para effect in dd{mu} formation.

  13. Mesoporous Silicas with Tunable Morphology for the Immobilization of Laccase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Gascón


    Full Text Available Siliceous ordered mesoporous materials (OMM are gaining interest as supports for enzyme immobilization due to their uniform pore size, large surface area, tunable pore network and the introduction of organic components to mesoporous structure. We used SBA-15 type silica materials, which exhibit a regular 2D hexagonal packing of cylindrical mesopores of uniform size, for non-covalent immobilization of laccase. Synthesis conditions were adjusted in order to obtain supports with different particle shape, where those with shorter channels had higher loading capacity. Despite the similar isoelectric points of silica and laccase and the close match between the size of laccase and the pore dimensions of these SBA-15 materials, immobilization was achieved with very low leaching. Surface modification of macro-/mesoporous amorphous silica by grafting of amine moieties was proved to significantly increase the isoelectric point of this support and improve the immobilization yield.

  14. Radiation-induced polymerization and grafting of {beta}(-)pinene on silica surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, Franco [Lupi Chemical Research Institute, Via Casilina 1626/A, 00133 Rome (Italy)], E-mail:; Ursini, Ornella; Lilla, Edo; Angelini, Giancarlo [CNR, Institute of Chemical Metodologies, Area della Ricerca di Roma 1, Monterotondo Scalo, Rome (Italy)


    Poly-{beta}-pinene (pBp) was obtained on silica surface by {gamma} radiation-induced polymerization of {beta}(-)pinene in presence of silica gel with a specific surface area of 300 m{sup 2}/g. Different radiation doses were employed in the range 50-332 kGy. The pBp-silica hybrid samples obtained have been characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy and the amount of pBp on silica surface has been determined both by gravimetric and TGA measurements. The fraction of pBp chemically grafted on silica surface has been determined by the extraction of the pBp-silica hybrid with boiling toluene and was found to be 10-20% of the total pBp formed on silica surface. The optical activity of pBp extracted from the hybrid was studied by polarimetric measurements and found slightly lower than the typical specific optical rotation of pBp polymerized in bulk with radiation. The thermal stability of the pBp-silica hybrid materials was studied by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis. The results show lower thermal stability for the pBp-silica hybrid in comparison to pure pBp. Evidently, silica catalyzes the thermal decomposition of pBp at lower temperatures. Use of the pBp-silica hybrid as stationary phase for liquid chromatography for chiral separations has been proposed.

  15. Polymeric amines and biomedical uses thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuis, Antonius; Zhang, Youchum; Picchioni, Francesco; Roks, Antonius


    The invention relates to the field of polymers and biomedical applications thereof. In particular, it relates to the use of polymeric amines derived from alternating polyketones.Provided is the use of a polymeric amine for modulating or supporting cellular behavior, said polymeric amine being an alt


    carbon fibers . Several economical and simple processes were developed for obtaining research quantities of silica surfaced carbon filaments. Vat dipping processes were utilized to deposit an oxide such as silica onto the surface and into the micropores of available carbon or graphite base fibers. High performance composite materials were prepared with the surface treated carbon fibers and various resin matrices. The ablative characteristics of these composites were very promising and exhibited fewer limitations than either silica or...treated

  17. Synthesis of Dihydrobenzofurans via Palladium-Catalyzed Heteroannulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozhkov, Roman Vladimirovich [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Palladium-catalyzed heteroannulation of 1,3-dienes with 3-iodo-2-alkenols, and 2-iodo-2-alkenols, as well as their amino analogs, affords the corresponding cyclic ethers and amines respectively. The presence of a β-hydrogen in the vinylic halide results in β-hydride elimination giving the corresponding alkyne. The presence of a bulky group in the α-position of the vinylic halide results in failure or reduced amounts of annulation products. A chloride source, pyridine base and electron-rich phosphine are essential for this reaction.

  18. Urea- and Thiourea-Catalyzed Aminolysis of Carbonates. (United States)

    Blain, Marine; Yau, Honman; Jean-Gérard, Ludivine; Auvergne, Rémi; Benazet, Dominique; Schreiner, Peter R; Caillol, Sylvain; Andrioletti, Bruno


    The aminolysis of (poly)carbonates by (poly)amines provides access to non-isocyanate polyurethanes (NIPUs) that are toxic-reagent-free analogues of polyurethanes (PUs). Owing to their low reactivity, the ring opening of cyclic carbonates requires the use of a catalyst. Herein, we report that the more available and cheaper ureas could advantageously be used for catalyzing the formation of NIPUs at the expense of the thiourea analogues. In addition, we demonstrate a medium-range pKa of the (thio)urea and an unqeual substitution pattern is critical for controlling the efficiency of the carbonate opening.

  19. Synthesis of Dihydrobenzofurans via Palladium-Catalyzed Heteroannulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman Vladimirovich Rozhkov


    Palladium-catalyzed heteroannulation of 1,3-dienes with 3-iodo-2-alkenols, and 2-iodo-2-alkenols, as well as their amino analogs, affords the corresponding cyclic ethers and amines respectively. The presence of a {beta}-hydrogen in the vinylic halide results in {beta}-hydride elimination giving the corresponding alkyne. The presence of a bulky group in the {alpha}-position of the vinylic halide results in failure or reduced amounts of annulation products. A chloride source, pyridine base and electron-rich phosphine are essential for this reaction.

  20. Advances in heterocyclic ketene aminals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Recent developments in the study of the reactions of heterocyclic ketene aminals are reviewed with the emphases on regioselective alkylation, acylation and glycosylation reactions, and on the aza-ene reactions with α,β-unsaturated compounds, azo and carbonyl compounds. Reactions with 1,3-dipoles and other reagents to synthesize fused heterocycles are also discussed.

  1. Aminering van hydroxyderivaten van halogeenazahetarenen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, W.A.


    In this thesis an introductory investigation is described on the reactivity of hydroxy derivatives of halogenopyridines and a bromohydroxyquinoline towards strong bases.It is a sequel to earlier work on the effect of substituents present in the nucleus of halogenopyridines on the course of amination

  2. Biogenic amines in fermented foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spano, G.; Russo, P.; Lonvaud-Funel, A.; Lucas, P.; Alexandre, H.; Grandvalet, C.; Coton, E.; Coton, M.; Barnavon, L.; Bach, B.; Rattray, F.; Bunte, A.; Magni, C.; Ladero, V.; Alvarez, M.; Fernández, M.; Lopez, P.; Palencia, P.F. de; Corbi, A.; Trip, H.; Lolkema, J.S.


    Food-fermenting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are generally considered to be non-toxic and non-pathogenic. Some species of LAB, however, can produce biogenic amines (BAs). BAs are organic, basic, nitrogenous compounds, mainly formed through decarboxylation of amino acids. BAs are present in a wide rang

  3. Silica in higher plants. (United States)

    Sangster, A G; Hodson, M J


    Opaline silica deposits are formed by many vascular (higher) plants. The capacity of these plants for silica absorption varies considerably according to genotype and environment. Plant communities exchange silica between soil and vegetation, especially in warmer climates. Silica deposition in epidermal cell walls offers mechanical and protective advantages. Biogenic silica particles from plants are also implicated in the causation of cancer. Recent techniques are reviewed which may aid in the identification of plant pathways for soluble silica movement to deposition sites and in the determination of ionic environments. Botanical investigations have focused on silicification of cell walls in relation to plant development, using scanning and transmission electron microscopy combined with X-ray microanalysis. Silica deposition in macrohair walls of the lemma of canary grass (Phalaris) begins at inflorescence emergence and closely follows wall thickening. The structure of the deposited silica may be determined by specific organic polymers present at successive stages of wall development. Lowering of transpiration by enclosure of Phalaris inflorescences in plastic bags reduced silica deposition in macrohairs. Preliminary freeze-substitution studies have located silicon, as well as potassium and chloride, in the cell vacuole and wall deposition sites during initial silicification.

  4. Facile synthesis of small crystal ZSM-5 zeolite by acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Small crystal zeolites ZSM-5 with sizes of 150-300 nm were synthesized using the colloidal silicate precursors as the silica source created by the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate with tetrapropylammonium bromide as the structure-directing agent within a short crystallization time of 20-35 h. The precursors and final products were detected by XRD, SEM, ICP and DLS.

  5. Click on silica: systematic immobilization of Co(II) Schiff bases to the mesoporous silica via click reaction and their catalytic activity for aerobic oxidation of alcohols. (United States)

    Rana, Bharat S; Jain, Suman L; Singh, Bhawan; Bhaumik, Asim; Sain, Bir; Sinha, Anil K


    The systematic immobilization of cobalt(II) Schiff base complexes on SBA-15 mesoporous silica via copper catalyzed [3 + 2] azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) "click reaction" involving either step-wise synthesis of silica-bound Schiff base ligand followed by its subsequent complexation with cobalt ions, or by the direct immobilization of preformed Co(II) Schiff base complex to the silica support is described. The catalytic activity of the prepared complexes was studied for the oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds using molecular oxygen as oxidant. The immobilized complexes were recycled for several runs without loss in catalytic activity and no leaching was observed during this course.

  6. Asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of imines catalyzed by a polymer-immobilized chiral catalyst. (United States)

    Haraguchi, Naoki; Tsuru, Keiichi; Arakawa, Yukihiro; Itsuno, Shinichi


    The asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of imines was performed with the use of a polymer-immobilized chiral catalyst. The chiral catalyst, prepared from crosslinked polystyrene-immobilized chiral 1,2-diamine monosulfonamide, was effective in the asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of N-benzyl imines in CH(2)Cl(2) to give a chiral amine in high yield and good enantioselectivity. Furthermore, an amphiphilic polymeric catalyst prepared from crosslinked polystyrene containing sulfonated groups successfully catalyzed the asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of cyclic imines in water. Enantioenriched secondary amines with up to 94% ee were obtained by using a polymeric catalyst.

  7. Homologation of α-aryl amino acids through quinone-catalyzed decarboxylation/Mukaiyama-Mannich addition. (United States)

    Haugeberg, Benjamin J; Phan, Johnny H; Liu, Xinyun; O'Connor, Thomas J; Clift, Michael D


    A new method for amino acid homologation by way of formal C-C bond functionalization is reported. This method utilizes a 2-step/1-pot protocol to convert α-amino acids to their corresponding N-protected β-amino esters through quinone-catalyzed oxidative decarboxylation/in situ Mukaiyama-Mannich addition. The scope and limitations of this chemistry are presented. This methodology provides an alternative to the classical Arndt-Eistert homologation for accessing β-amino acid derivatives. The resulting N-protected amine products can be easily deprotected to afford the corresponding free amines.

  8. 超声波辅助下KHSO4催化胺与α,β-不饱和化合物的Aza-Michael反应研究%Study of Aza-Michael addition of aliphatic amines to α,β-unsaturated compounds catalyzed by a KHSO4 under ultrasound -irradiated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清寒; 赵志刚


    The Aza-Michael addition of α β-unsaturated compounds with aliphatic amines under ultrasound irradiation in water and KHSO4 as catalyst at room temperature can afford the corresponding Michael addition products rapidly in high yields. The advantages of this methodology are the experimental simplicity, rapid, selectivity and environmentally benign, which will contribute to the progress of green chemistry. The target compounds were confirmed by MS, IR and 'HNMR data.%超声波辅助条件下,水作溶剂,KHSO4有效的催化了脂肪族胺与α,β-不饱和化合物的Aza-Michael共轭加成反应,快速高收率地得到了Michael加成产物β-氨基化合物.该方法除了实验简单、反应速度快及选择性好外,还对环境友好,有助于绿色化学的进程.所有产物的结构均经质谱、红外光谱和核磁共振氢谱分析进行确证.

  9. Silica Refractory Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lingyan; Peng Xigao


    @@ 1.Scope This standard specifies the classification,technical requirements,test methods,quality appraisal procedures,packing,marking,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of silica refractory bricks.This standard is applicable to silica refractory bricks with single weight≤40 kg.

  10. Crystalline Silica Primer (United States)



    Crystalline silica is the scientific name for a group of minerals composed of silicon and oxygen. The term crystalline refers to the fact that the oxygen and silicon atoms are arranged in a threedimensional repeating pattern. This group of minerals has shaped human history since the beginning of civilization. From the sand used for making glass to the piezoelectric quartz crystals used in advanced communication systems, crystalline silica has been a part of our technological development. Crystalline silica's pervasiveness in our technology is matched only by its abundance in nature. It's found in samples from every geologic era and from every location around the globe. Scientists have known for decades that prolonged and excessive exposure to crystalline silica dust in mining environments can cause silicosis, a noncancerous lung disease. During the 1980's, studies were conducted that suggested that crystalline silica also was a carcinogen. As a result of these findings, crystalline silica has been regulated under the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Hazard Communication Standard (HCS). Under HCS, OSHAregulated businesses that use materials containing 0.1% or more crystalline silica must follow Federal guidelines concerning hazard communication and worker training. Although the HCS does not require that samples be analyzed for crystalline silica, mineral suppliers or OSHAregulated

  11. On the role of the colloidal stability of mesoporous silica nanoparticles as gene delivery vectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebrian, Virginia [Hospital Universitario La Paz-IdiPAZ (Spain); Yaguee, Clara; Arruebo, Manuel, E-mail: [University of Zaragoza, Aragon Nanoscience Institute (INA), C/Mariano Esquillor, Edif. I-D (Spain); Martin-Saavedra, Francisco M. [Hospital Universitario La Paz-IdiPAZ (Spain); Santamaria, Jesus [CIBER de Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, CIBER-BBN (Spain); Vilaboa, Nuria [Hospital Universitario La Paz-IdiPAZ (Spain)


    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles have been synthesized and functionalized with four different types of molecules containing amino groups, i.e., with primary amines only, with quaternary amines, with quaternized cyclic amines, or with polyethylenimine (PEI), which is formed by primary, secondary, and tertiary amines. These nanoparticles were then incubated with reporter plasmids and the ability of the resulting complexes to transfect human cells was studied. Only nanoparticles functionalized with PEI were efficient for transfection. The agglomeration behavior and the electrokinetic potential of the nanoparticle-plasmid complexes have been studied, as well as their cell internalization behavior using a fluorescent-labeled plasmid that allows its monitorization by confocal microscopy. The results indicate that the efficiency of PEI-functionalized nanoparticles for transfection resides to some extent in the different characteristics imparted to the nanoparticles regarding agglomeration and surface charge behavior.

  12. Dimethylsilanone generation from pyrolysis of polysiloxanes filled with nanosized silica and ceria/silica

    CERN Document Server

    Kulyk, Kostiantyn; Gatchell, Michael; Alexander, John D; Borysenko, Mykola; Palianytsia, Borys; Larsson, Mats; Kulik, Tetiana


    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a widely used organosilicon polymer often employed in formulations with fine oxide particles for various high temperature applications. Although PDMS is considered to be thermally stable and chemically inert, it is not always clear how the oxide filler influences its thermoresistance, decomposition chemistry and what reactive products are formed in the underlying thermal reactions. In this work we use temperature programmed desorption mass spectrometry (TPD MS) to study the pyrolysis of PDMS and its composites with nanosized silica and ceria/silica. Our results suggest that the elusive organosilicon compound - dimethylsilanone is generated from PDMS over a broad temperature range (in some cases starting at 70${\\deg}$C). The presence of nano-oxides catalyzed this process. Ions characteristic of the fragmentation of dimethylsilanone under electron ionization were assigned with the aid of DFT structure calculations. Possible reaction mechanisms for generating dimethylsilanone were ...

  13. Application of a Palladium-Catalyzed C-H Functionalization/Indolization Method to Syntheses of cis-Trikentrin A and Herbindole B. (United States)

    Leal, Raul A; Bischof, Caroline; Lee, Youjin V; Sawano, Shota; McAtee, Christopher C; Latimer, Luke N; Russ, Zachary N; Dueber, John E; Yu, Jin-Quan; Sarpong, Richmond


    We describe herein formal syntheses of the indole alkaloids cis-trikentrin A and herbindole B from a common meso-hydroquinone intermediate prepared by a ruthenium-catalyzed [2+2+1+1] cycloaddition that has not been used previously in natural product synthesis. Key steps include a sterically demanding Buchwald-Hartwig amination as well as a unique C(sp(3) )-H amination/indole formation. Studies toward a selective desymmetrization of the meso-hydroquinone are also reported.

  14. Synthesis and properties of novel soluble poly(aryl amine ketone)s as high-performance polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG GuanJun; TANG ShiZhen; LUO Xuan; WANG Qiang; XU Zhe; ZHANG Lin; LIN RunXiong


    A series of poly(aryl amine ketone)s have been obtained by the condensation polymerization of differ-ent aromatic dibromides with different primary aromatic diamines via palladium-catalyzed aryl amina-tion reaction. The structures of polymers are characterized by means of FT-IR, 1H NMR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The results show an agreement with the proposed structures. DSC and TG measurements show that polymers possess high glass transition temperature (Tg>170"C) and good thermal stability with high decomposition temperatures (To>450℃). These novel polymers also exhibit good mechanical behaviors and good solubility.

  15. Mesoporous silica and organosilica films templated by nanocrystalline chitin. (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh-Dinh; Shopsowitz, Kevin E; MacLachlan, Mark J


    Liquid crystalline phases can be used to impart order into inorganic solids, creating materials that mimic natural architectures. Herein, mesoporous silica and organosilica films with layered structures and high surface areas have been templated by nanocrystalline chitin. Aqueous suspensions of spindle-shaped chitin nanocrystals were prepared by sequential deacetylation and hydrolysis of chitin fibrils isolated from king crab shells. The nanocrystalline chitin self-assembles into a nematic liquid-crystalline phase that has been used to template silica and organosilica composites. Removal of the chitin template by either calcination or sulfuric-acid-catalyzed hydrolysis gave mesoporous silica and ethylene-bridged organosilica films. The large, crack-free mesoporous films have layered structures with features that originate from the nematic organization of the nanocrystalline chitin.

  16. Catalyzed Ceramic Burner Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Amy S., Dr.


    Catalyzed combustion offers the advantages of increased fuel efficiency, decreased emissions (both NOx and CO), and an expanded operating range. These performance improvements are related to the ability of the catalyst to stabilize a flame at or within the burner media and to combust fuel at much lower temperatures. This technology has a diverse set of applications in industrial and commercial heating, including boilers for the paper, food and chemical industries. However, wide spread adoption of catalyzed combustion has been limited by the high cost of precious metals needed for the catalyst materials. The primary objective of this project was the development of an innovative catalyzed burner media for commercial and small industrial boiler applications that drastically reduce the unit cost of the catalyzed media without sacrificing the benefits associated with catalyzed combustion. The scope of this program was to identify both the optimum substrate material as well as the best performing catalyst construction to meet or exceed industry standards for durability, cost, energy efficiency, and emissions. It was anticipated that commercial implementation of this technology would result in significant energy savings and reduced emissions. Based on demonstrated achievements, there is a potential to reduce NOx emissions by 40,000 TPY and natural gas consumption by 8.9 TBtu in industries that heavily utilize natural gas for process heating. These industries include food manufacturing, polymer processing, and pulp and paper manufacturing. Initial evaluation of commercial solutions and upcoming EPA regulations suggests that small to midsized boilers in industrial and commercial markets could possibly see the greatest benefit from this technology. While out of scope for the current program, an extension of this technology could also be applied to catalytic oxidation for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Considerable progress has been made over the course of the grant

  17. Amine-oxide hybrid materials for acid gas separations

    KAUST Repository

    Bollini, Praveen


    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on porous silica materials functionalized with amine-containing organic species are emerging as an important class of materials for the adsorptive separation of acid gases from dilute gas streams. In particular, these materials are being extensively studied for the adsorption of CO 2 from simulated flue gas streams, with an eye towards utilizing these materials as part of a post-combustion carbon capture process at large flue gas producing installations, such as coal-fired electricity-generating power plants. In this Application Article, the utilization of amine-modified organic-inorganic hybrid materials is discussed, focusing on important attributes of the materials, such as (i) CO 2 adsorption capacities, (ii) adsorption and desorption kinetics, and (iii) material stability, that will determine if these materials may one day be useful adsorbents in practical CO 2 capture applications. Specific research needs and limitations associated with the current body of work are identified. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. 2-(Sulfooxy)propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid as novel and versatile catalyst for the formylation of alcohols and amines using ethyl formate under neat conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arash Ghorbani-Choghamarani; Ziba Akbaripanah


    2-(Sulfooxy)propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid (supported on silica gel) has been introduced as novel and green catalyst for the formylation of alcohols and amines with ethyl formate,as mild formylation agent,under neat conditions at room temperature.

  19. Surface Immobilization of pH-Responsive Polymer Brushes on Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles by Enzyme Mimetic Catalytic ATRP for Controlled Cargo Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Zhou


    Full Text Available Peroxidase mimetic catalytic atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP was first used to install tertiary amine-functionalized polymer brushes on the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs in a facile and highly efficient manner. Poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (PDMAEMA brushes-grafted MSNs were fabricated by biocompatible deuterohemin-β-Ala-His-Thr-Val-Glu-Lys (DhHP-6-catalyzed surface-initiated ATRP (SI-ATRP. The resulting organic–inorganic hybrid nanocarriers were fully characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, SEM, TEM, Elemental analysis, Zeta-potential, and N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms, which demonstrated the successful coating of pH-responsive polymers on the MSN surface. Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G dyes were further loaded within the mesopores of this nanocarrier, and the release of Rh6G out of MSNs in a controlled fashion was achieved upon lowing the solution pH. The electrostatic repulsion of positively-charged tertiary ammonium of PDMAEMAs in acidic environments induced the stretching out of polymer brushes on MSN surfaces, thus opening the gates to allow cargo diffusion out of the mesopores of MSNs.

  20. Regioselective synthesis of 1-alkyl- or 1-aryl-1H-indazoles via copper-catalyzed cyclizations of 2-haloarylcarbonylic compounds. (United States)

    Viña, Dolores; del Olmo, Esther; López-Pérez, José L; San Feliciano, Arturo


    [reaction: see text] A general method for the one-step regioselective synthesis of 1-alkyl- or 1-aryl-1H-indazoles from ortho-halogenated alkanoylphenones, benzophenones, and arylcarboxylic acids, via copper-catalyzed amination, was developed by using 0.2% mol of CuO in the presence of K(2)CO(3). The reaction involves amination followed by intramolecular dehydration. Different functionalized alkyl aryl ketones, diaryl ketones, and benzoic acid derivatives were efficiently coupled with several hydrazines. Ligands commonly employed as catalysts for intermolecular amination were shown to be ineffective for this cyclization.

  1. Silicification and biosilicification: The role of macromolecules in bioinspired silica synthesis (United States)

    Patwardhan, Siddharth Vijay

    Diatoms, sponges and grasses are all known to produce ornate biogenic silica structures under ambient conditions. Some aspects of the molecular mechanism controlling biosilicification have recently been elucidated. The entrapment of the catalyzing/templating/scaffolding biomacromolecules enables them to be recovered by selective dissolution of biosilica. The proteins extracted from the diatom Cylindrotheca fusiformis (silaffins) and the sponge Tethya aurantia (silicateins) have been shown to precipitate silica from silica precursors in vitro. The identification of synthetic macromolecules that can act as catalysts/templates/scaffolds for silica formation gives exciting possibilities for bioinspired silica synthesis. Herein, the role of various synthetic (bio)macromolecules in silicification is studied. Attempts have also been made to understand the mechanism(s) governing (bio)macromolecule mediated (bio)silicification. Furthermore, the results and the understanding gained from various synthetic systems are used to demonstrate the potential of such bioinspired routes to develop new materials.

  2. Trace Amines and the Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1: Pharmacology, Neurochemistry, and Clinical Implications


    Yue ePei; Aman eAsif-Malik; Canales, Juan J.


    Biogenic amines are a collection of endogenous molecules that play pivotal roles as neurotransmitters and hormones. In addition to the “classical” biogenic amines resulting from decarboxylation of aromatic acids, including dopamine (DA), norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin (5-HT), and histamine, other biogenic amines, present at much lower concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS), and hence referred to as “trace” amines (TAs), are now recognized to play significant neurophysiolog...

  3. Development and validation of a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatographic method for determination of aromatic amines in environmental water. (United States)

    Li, Ruiping; Zhang, Yi; Lee, Charles C; Lu, Rongrong; Huang, Yingping


    A simple, precise, and accurate hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatographic (HILIC) method has been developed for the determination of five aromatic amines in environmental water samples. Chromatography was carried out on a bare silica column, using a mixture of acetonitrile and a buffer of NaH(2)PO(4)-H(3)PO(4) (pH 1.5, containing 10mM NaH(2)PO(4)) (85:15, v/v) as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 mL min(-1). Aromatic amines were detected by UV absorbance at 254 nm. The linear range of amines was good (r(2)>0.998) and limit of detection (LOD) within 0.02-0.2 mg L(-1) (S/N=3). The retention mechanism for the analytes under the optimum conditions was determined to be a combination of adsorption, partition and ionic interactions. The proposed method was applied to the environmental water samples. Aromatic amines were isolated from aqueous samples using solid-phase extraction (SPE) with Oasis HLB cartridges. Recoveries of greater than 75% with precision (RSD) less than 12% were obtained at amine concentrations of 5-50 microg L(-1) from 100mL river water and influents from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The present HILIC technique proved to be a viable method for the analysis of aromatic amines in the environmental water samples.

  4. Flotation of kaolinite with dodecyl tertiary amines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Xue-feng; LIU Chang-miao; HU Yue-hua


    The flotation of kaolinite using a series of tertiary amines (N,N-dimethyl-dodecyl amine (DRN), N,N-diethyl-dodecyl amine (DEN), N,N-dipropyl-dodecyl amine (DPN) and N,N-dibenzyl-bodecyi amine (DBN)) was investigated. The results show that the maximum recoveries of kaolinite for DEN, DPN and DRN are 93%, 88% and 84%, respectively, but that of DBN is very low. On the basis of zeta potential and FT-IR spectra, the ionization of surface hydroxyl and isomorphic exchange of surface ions account for the charging mechanisms of kaolinite surface. The adsorption mechanism of tertiary amines on kaolinite surface is mainly electrostatic. The isoelectric point (IEP) of kaolinite increases from 3.4 to some more positive points after the interaction of kaolinite with the four tertiary amines. The FT-IR spectra of kaolinite change with the presence of some new sharp shapes belonging to the tertiary amines. The inductive electronic effects and space-steric effects of -CH_3, -C_2H_5, -C_3H_7 and -C_7H_7 bonding to N atom result in different collecting power of the four tertiary amines.

  5. Dynamic properties of silica aerogels as deduced from specific-heat and thermal-conductivity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernasconi, A.; Sleator, T.; Posselt, D.;


    The specific heat C(p) and the thermal conductivity lambda of a series of base-catalyzed silica aerogels have been measured at temperatures between 0.05 and 20 K. The results confirm that the different length-scale regions observed in the aerogel structure are reflected in the dynamic behavior...

  6. Low-temperature specific-heat and thermal-conductivity of silica aerogels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernasconi, A.; Sleator, T.; Posselt, D.;


    Specific heat, C(p), and thermal conductivity, lambda, have been measured on a series of base-catalyzed silica aerogels at temperatures between 0.05 and 20 K. Results for both C(p)(T) and lambda(T) confirm that the different length-scale regions observed in the aerogel structure are reflected...

  7. Low-temperature specific heat and thermal conductivity of silica aerogels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sleator, T.; Bernasconi, A.; Posselt, D.;


    Specific-heat and thermal-conductivity measurements were made on a series of base-catalyzed silica aerogels at temperatures between 0.05 and 20 K. Evidence for a crossover between regimes of characteristically different excitations was observed. The data analysis indicates a "bump" in the density...

  8. Phase separation during silica gel formation followed by time-resolved SAXS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gommes, Cedric J. [Universite de Liege, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Bat B6a, Allee du 6 aout 3, B-4000 Sart Tilman Liege (Belgium)]. E-mail:; Blacher, Silvia [Universite de Liege, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Bat B6a, Allee du 6 aout 3, B-4000 Sart Tilman Liege (Belgium); Goderis, Bart [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Laboratorium voor Macromoleculaire Structuurchemie, Celestijnenlann 200F, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Pirard, Jean-Paul [Universite de Liege, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Bat B6a, Allee du 6 aout 3, B-4000 Sart Tilman Liege (Belgium)


    Time-resolved small angle X-ray scattering data are collected during the formation of silica gels from the base catalyzed polymerization of tetraethoxysilane in ethanol with 3-(2-aminoethylamino)propyltrimethoxysilane and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane as additives. It is shown that a polymerization-induced spinodal demixing occurs during the gel formation.

  9. New Stable Cu(I) Catalyst Supported on Weakly Acidic Polyacrylate Resin for Green C-N Coupling: Synthesis of N-(Pyridin-4-yl)benzene Amines and N,N-Bis(pyridine-4-yl)benzene Amines. (United States)

    Kore, Nitin; Pazdera, Pavel


    A method for preparation of a new stable Cu(I) catalyst supported on weakly acidic polyacrylate resin without additional stabilizing ligands is described. A simple and efficient methodology for Ullmann Cu(I) catalyzed C-N cross coupling reactions using this original catalyst is reported. Coupling reactions of 4-chloropyridinium chloride with anilines containing electron donating (EDG) or electron withdrawing (EWG) groups, naphthalen-2-amine and piperazine, respectively, are successfully demonstrated.

  10. New Stable Cu(I Catalyst Supported on Weakly Acidic Polyacrylate Resin for Green C-N Coupling: Synthesis of N-(Pyridin-4-ylbenzene Amines and N,N-Bis(pyridine-4-ylbenzene Amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Kore


    Full Text Available A method for preparation of a new stable Cu(I catalyst supported on weakly acidic polyacrylate resin without additional stabilizing ligands is described. A simple and efficient methodology for Ullmann Cu(I catalyzed C-N cross coupling reactions using this original catalyst is reported. Coupling reactions of 4-chloropyridinium chloride with anilines containing electron donating (EDG or electron withdrawing (EWG groups, naphthalen-2-amine and piperazine, respectively, are successfully demonstrated.

  11. Multifunctional antireflection coatings based on novel hollow silica-silica nanocomposites. (United States)

    Zhang, Xianpeng; Lan, Pinjun; Lu, Yuehui; Li, Jia; Xu, Hua; Zhang, Jing; Lee, YoungPak; Rhee, Joo Yull; Choy, Kwang-Leong; Song, Weijie


    Antireflection (AR) coatings that exhibit multifunctional characteristics, including high transparency, robust resistance to moisture, high hardness, and antifogging properties, were developed based on hollow silica-silica nanocomposites. These novel nanocomposite coatings with a closed-pore structure, consisting of hollow silica nanospheres (HSNs) infiltrated with an acid-catalyzed silica sol (ACSS), were fabricated using a low-cost sol-gel dip-coating method. The refractive index of the nanocomposite coatings was tailored by controlling the amount of ACSS infiltrated into the HSNs during synthesis. Photovoltaic transmittance (TPV) values of 96.86-97.34% were obtained over a broad range of wavelengths, from 300 to 1200 nm; these values were close to the theoretical limit for a lossy single-layered AR coating (97.72%). The nanocomposite coatings displayed a stable TPV, with degradation values of less than 4% and 0.1% after highly accelerated temperature and humidity stress tests, and abrasion tests, respectively. In addition, the nanocomposite coatings had a hardness of approximately 1.6 GPa, while the porous silica coatings with an open-pore structure showed more severe degradation and had a lower hardness. The void fraction and surface roughness of the nanocomposite coatings could be controlled, which gave rise to near-superhydrophilic and antifogging characteristics. The promising results obtained in this study suggest that the nanocomposite coatings have the potential to be of benefit for the design, fabrication, and development of multifunctional AR coatings with both omnidirectional broadband transmission and long-term durability that are required for demanding outdoor applications in energy harvesting and optical instrumentation in extreme climates or humid conditions.

  12. Facile fabrication of organic-inorganic hybrid beads by aminated alginate enabled gelation and biomimetic mineralization. (United States)

    Li, Jian; Wu, Hong; Liang, Yanpeng; Jiang, Zhongyi; Jiang, Yanjun; Zhang, Lei


    Inspired by biomineralization, design and preparation of biomimetic organic-inorganic composites have become a hot issue and a research frontier in many areas, including enzyme engineering. In this research, a unique and facile method for fabricating organic-inorganic hybrid beads is proposed. Modified alginate with a dual function of gelation and mineralization was synthesized for fabrication of hybrid carriers for enzyme immobilization. With the aid of EDC/NHS conjugation chemistry, the amine groups from diethylene triamine were grafted onto alginate in a controllable way. The resultant aminated alginate served manifold functions: forming a hydrogel via Ca(2+)-cross-linking, inducing the biomimetic silicification and manipulating the distribution of silica nanoparticles. Owing to the compact polymer network structure and the homogeneous silica nanoparticle dispersion, the as-prepared NH2-alginate/silica hybrid beads displayed superior swelling resistance and mechanical stability to pure alginate beads. The hybrid beads were subsequently utilized for encapsulation of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH). It was found that the thermal stability, pH tolerance and storage stability of the immobilized enzyme were all improved without significantly lowering the catalytic activity.

  13. Probing Intramolecular versus Intermolecular CO2 Adsorption on Amine-Grafted SBA-15. (United States)

    Yoo, Chun-Jae; Lee, Li-Chen; Jones, Christopher W


    A mesoporous silica SBA-15 is modified with an array of amine-containing organosilanes including (i) propylamine, SiCH2CH2CH2NH2 (MONO), (ii) propylethylenediamine, SiCH2CH2CH2NHCH2CH2NH2 (DI), (iii) propyldiethylenetriamine, SiCH2CH2CH2NHCH2CH2NHCH2CH2NH2 (TRI), and (iv) propyltriethylenetetramine, SiCH2CH2CH2NHCH2CH2N(CH2CH2NH2)2 (TREN) and the low loading silane adsorbents (∼0.45 mmol silane/g) are evaluated for their CO2 adsorption properties, with a focus on gaining insight into the propensity for intramolecular vs intermolecular CO2 adsorption. Adsorption isotherms at low CO2 coverages are measured while simultaneously recording the heat evolved via a Tian-Calvet calorimeter. The results are compared on a silane molecule efficiency basis (mol CO2 adsorbed/mol silane) to assess the potential for intramolecular CO2 adsorption, employing two amine groups in a single silane molecule. As the number of amines in the silane molecule increases (MONO capture CO2. Analysis of the CO2 uptake for samples with the surface silanols removed by capping demonstrates that cooperative uptake due to amine-CO2-silanol interactions is also possible over these adsorbents and is the primary mode of sorption for the MONO material at the studied low silane loading. As the propensity for intramolecular CO2 capture increases due to the presence of multiple amines in a single silane molecule (MONO amine-containing silanes at low coverage is the first to provide significant, direct evidence for intramolecular CO2 capture in a single silane molecule. Furthermore, it provides evidence for the relative heats of adsorption for physisorption on a silanol laden surface (ca. 37 kJ/mol), a silanol-capped surface (ca. 25 kJ/mol), via amine-CO2-silanol interactions (ca. 46 kJ/mol), and via amine-CO2-amine interactions at low surface coverages (ca. 65 kJ/mol).

  14. Conformation and assembly of polypeptide scaffolds in templating the synthesis of silica: an example of a polylysine macromolecular "switch". (United States)

    Patwardhan, Siddharth V; Maheshwari, Ronak; Mukherjee, Niloy; Kiick, Kristi L; Clarson, Stephen J


    Although the role of polycationic macromolecules in catalyzing the synthesis of silica structures is well established, detailed understanding of the mechanisms behind the production of silica structures of controlled morphologies remains unclear. In this study, we have used both poly-L-lysine (PLL) and/or poly-D-lysine (PDL) for silica synthesis to investigate mechanisms controlling inorganic morphologies. The formation of both spherical silica particles and hexagonal plates was observed. The formation of hexagonal plates was suggested, via circular dichroic spectroscopy (CD), to result from the assembly of helical polylysine molecules. We confirm that the formation of PLL helices is a prerequisite to the hexagonal silica synthesis. In addition, we present for the first time that the handedness of the helicity of the macromolecule does not affect the formation of hexagonal silica. We also show, by using two different silica precursors, that the precursor does not have a direct effect on the formation of hexagonal silica plates. Furthermore, when polylysine helices were converted to beta-sheet structure, only silica particles were obtained, thus suggesting that the adoption of a helical conformation by PLL is required for the formation of hexagonally organized silica. These results demonstrate that the change in polylysine conformation can act as a "switch" in silica structure formation and suggest the potential for controlling morphologies and structures of inorganic materials via control of the conformation of soft macromolecular templates.

  15. Synthesis of 1,3-Amino Alcohols, 1,3-Diols, Amines, and Carboxylic Acids from Terminal Alkynes. (United States)

    Zeng, Mingshuo; Herzon, Seth B


    The half-sandwich ruthenium complexes 1-3 activate terminal alkynes toward anti-Markovnikov hydration and reductive hydration under mild conditions. These reactions are believed to proceed via addition of water to metal vinylidene intermediates (4). The functionalization of propargylic alcohols by metal vinylidene pathways is challenging owing to decomposition of the starting material and catalytic intermediates. Here we show that catalyst 2 can be employed to convert propargylic alcohols to 1,3-diols in high yield and with retention of stereochemistry at the propargylic position. The method is also amenable to propargylic amine derivatives, thereby establishing a route to enantioenriched 1,3-amino alcohol products. We also report the development of formal anti-Markovnikov reductive amination and oxidative hydration reactions to access linear amines and carboxylic acids, respectively, from terminal alkynes. This chemistry expands the scope of products that can be prepared from terminal alkynes by practical and high-yielding metal-catalyzed methods.

  16. Catalyzing alignment processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær; Jørgensen, Ulrik


    This paper describes how environmental management systems (EMS) spur the circulation of processes that support the constitution of environmental issues as specific environ¬mental objects and objectives. EMS catalyzes alignmentprocesses that produce coherence among the different elements involved......, the networks of environmental professionals that work in the environmental organisation, in consulting and regulatory enforcement, and dominating business cultures. These have previously been identified in the literature as individually significant in relation to the evolving environmental agendas....... They are here used to describe the context in which environmental management is implemented. Based on findings from contributions to a research program studying the implementation and impact of EMS in different settings, we highlight the diverse roles that these systems play in the Thai context. EMS may over...

  17. Enzymatic resolution of racemic amines in a continuous reactor in organic solvents. (United States)

    Gutman, A L; Meyer, E; Kalerin, E; Polyak, F; Sterling, J


    An enzymatic process has been developed for the continuous production of the pharmaceutically important intermediate (R)-1-aminoindan and of the chiral resolving agent (R)-1-(1-naphthyl)ethylamine. The process consists of the subtilisin catalyzed stereoselective aminolysis of the racemic primary amine with an active ester in organic solvent. The competing nonenzymatic reaction has been suppressed by appropriate choice of solvent and reactant's concentration and by minimizing the time of contact between the amine and the active ester. Subtilisin was immobilized on glass beads and the reaction carried out in a continuous-flow column bioreactor. By using a 450-mL column bioreactor containing 5.7 g of subtilisin immobilized on 570 g of glass beads, 1.6 kg of racemic 1-(1-naphthyl)ethylamine was resolved after 320 h of continuous operation with only a slight loss of the enzymatic activity. During the whole process, the optical purity of the chiral amine eluting from the column was higher than 90%. A facile procedure was developed for separating the unreacted (R)-amine from the (S)-amide and for the recycling of the solvent 3-methyl-3-pentanol and the active ester 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl butyrate.

  18. Intolerance to dietary biogenic amines: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.C.; Dusseldorp, M. van; Bottema, K.C.; Dubois, A.E.J.


    Objective: To evaluate the scientific evidence for purported intolerance to dietary biogenic amines. Data Sources: MEDLINE was searched for articles in the English language published between January 1966 and August 2001. The keyword biogenic amin* was combined with hypersens*, allerg*, intoler*, and

  19. Speaking Personally--with Amin Qazi (United States)

    Ragan, Lawrence


    This article provides an interview with Amin Quazi, the founding chief executive officer of Unizin, a university-owned consortium focused on the emerging digital teaching and learning ecosystem. Amin has a bachelor's degree in chemical engineering from The University of Iowa and a master's degree in business administration from the Carlson School…

  20. Intolerance to dietary biogenic amines : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, SC; van Dusseldorp, M; Bottema, KC; Dubois, AEJ


    Objective: To evaluate the scientific evidence for purported intolerance to dietary biogenic amines. Data Sources: MEDLINE was searched for articles in the English language published between January 1966 and August 2001. The keyword biogenic amin* was combined with hypersens*, allergen intoler*, and

  1. 溴化钾催化硫化物、硝酸铵和 SiO2-OSO3H 固体酸的氧化反应%Chemoselective Oxidation of Sulfides with Ammonium Nitrate and Silica Sulfuric Acid Catalyzed by KBr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A convenient and selective catalytic method for the sulfoxidation of aliphatic and aromatic sulfides by treatment of NH4NO3, silica sulfuric acid, wet SiO2 (50% w/w) and a catalytic amount of KBr in CH2Cl2 at room temperature was developed. Many sulfides can be selectively oxidized at room temperature in good to excellent yields. The reaction proceeds without over-oxidation to sulfones under mild conditions.

  2. Development of an efficient amine-functionalized glass platform by additional silanization treatment with alkylsilane. (United States)

    Kamisetty, Nagendra Kumar; Pack, Seung Pil; Nonogawa, Mitsuru; Devarayapalli, Kamakshaiah Charyulu; Kodaki, Tsutomu; Makino, Keisuke


    Aminosilane-treated molecular layers on glass surfaces are frequently used as functional platforms for biosensor preparation. All the amino groups present on the surface are not available in reactive forms, because surface amino groups interact with remaining unreacted surface silanol groups. Such nonspecific interactions might reduce the efficiency of chemical immobilization of biomolecules such as DNA, enzymes, antibodies, etc., in biosensor fabrication. To improve immobilization efficiency we have used additional surface silanization with alkylsilane (capping) to convert the remaining silanol groups into Si-O-Si linkages, thereby liberating the amino groups from nonspecific interaction with the silanol groups. We prepared different types of capped amine surface and evaluated the effect of capping on immobilization efficiency by investigating the fluorescence intensity of Cy3-NHS (N-hydroxysuccinimide) dye that reacted with amino groups. The results indicate that most of the capped amine surfaces resulted in enhanced efficiency of immobilization of Cy3-NHS compared with the untreated control amine surface. We found a trend that trialkoxysilanes had greater capping effects on immobilization efficiency than monoalkoxysilanes. It was also found that the aliphatic chain of alkylsilane, which does not participate in the capping of the silanol, had an important function in enhancing immobilization efficiency. These results would be useful for preparation of an amine-modified surface platform, with enhanced immobilization efficiency, which is essential for developing many kinds of biosensors on a silica matrix.

  3. Silica encapsulation of luminescent silicon nanoparticles: stable and biocompatible nanohybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurice, Vincent [CEA Saclay, DSM/IRAMIS/SPAM-LFP (France); Rivolta, Ilaria [University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Experimental Medicine (DIMS) (Italy); Vincent, Julien [CEA Saclay, DSM/IRAMIS/SPAM-LFP (France); Raccurt, Olivier [CEA Grenoble, Department of Nano Materials, NanoChemistry and NanoSafety Laboratory (DRT/LITEN/DTNM/LCSN) (France); Rouzaud, Jean-Noel [Ecole Normale superieure de Paris, Laboratoire de Geologie (France); Miserrochi, Giuseppe [University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Experimental Medicine (DIMS) (Italy); Doris, Eric [CEA, Service de Chimie Bioorganique et de Marquage, iBiTecS (France); Reynaud, Cecile; Herlin-Boime, Nathalie, E-mail: [CEA Saclay, DSM/IRAMIS/SPAM-LFP (France)


    This article presents a process for surface coating and functionalization of luminescent silicon nanoparticles. The particles were coated with silica using a microemulsion process that was adapted to the fragile silicon nanoparticles. The as-produced core-shell particles have a mean diameter of 35 nm and exhibit the intrinsic photoluminescence of the silicon core. The silica layer protects the core from aqueous oxidation for several days, thus allowing the use of the nanoparticles for biological applications. The nanoparticles were further coated with amines and functionalized with polyethylene glycol chains and the toxicity of the particles has been evaluated at the different stages of the process. The core-shell nanoparticles exhibit no acute toxicity towards lung cells, which is promising for further development.

  4. 15N NMR investigation of the covalent binding of reduced TNT amines to soil humic acid, model compounds, and lignocellulose. (United States)

    Thorn, K A; Kennedy, K R


    The five major reductive degradation products of TNT-4ADNT (4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene), 2ADNT (2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene), 2,4DANT (2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene), 2,6DANT (2,6-diamino-4-nitrotoluene), and TAT (2,4,6-triaminotoluene)-labeled with 15N in the amine positions, were reacted with the IHSS soil humic acid and analyzed by 15N NMR spectrometry. In the absence of catalysts, all five amines underwent nucleophilic addition reactions with quinone and other carbonyl groups in the soil humic acid to form both heterocyclic and nonheterocyclic condensation products. Imine formation via 1,2-addition of the amines to quinone groups in the soil humic acid was significant with the diamines and TAT but not the monoamines. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) catalyzed an increase in the incorporation of all five amines into the humic acid. In the case of the diamines and TAT, HRP also shifted the binding away from heterocyclic condensation product toward imine formation. A comparison of quantitative liquid phase with solid-state CP/MAS 15N NMR indicated that the CP experiment underestimated imine and heterocyclic nitrogens in humic acid, even with contact times optimal for observation of these nitrogens. Covalent binding of the mono- and diamines to 4-methylcatechol, the HRP catalyzed condensation of 4ADNT and 2,4DANT to coniferyl alcohol, and the binding of 2,4DANT to lignocellulose with and without birnessite were also examined.

  5. Metal-Mediated Couplings of Primary Alcohols with Amines and Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggi, Agnese; Madsen, Robert

    -O-glycosylations of unprotected phenyl 1-thioglycopyranosides Chemical glycosylation is of outstanding importance to access biologically relevant carbohydrate structures, but classical methods suffer from the disadvantage of extensive protecting group manipulations. Thus, approaches to reduce......The work presented in this thesis was performed at the Department of Chemistry of the Technical University of Denmark during a three year Ph.D. program. The thesis involves two distinct Projects related to organometallic and carbohydrate chemistry. Project 1: Dehydrogenative synthesis of imines...... from alcohols and amines catalyzed by a ruthenium N-heterocyclic carbene complex. The successful method development and application of a convenient and direct (one step) synthesis of imines from alcohols and amines is described. The developed method provides quick andextended access to structurally...

  6. Development of mechano-responsive polymeric scaffolds using functionalized silica nano-fillers for the control of cellular functions. (United States)

    Griffin, Michelle; Nayyer, Leila; Butler, Peter E; Palgrave, Robert G; Seifalian, Alexander M; Kalaskar, Deepak M


    We demonstrate an efficient method to produce mechano-responsive polymeric scaffolds which can alter cellular functions using two different functionalized (OH and NH2) silica nano-fillers. Fumed silica-hydroxyl and fumed silica-amine nano-fillers were mixed with a biocompatible polymer (POSS-PCU) at various wt% to produce scaffolds. XPS and mechanical testing demonstrate that bulk mechanical properties are modified without changing the scaffold's surface chemistry. Mechanical testing showed significant change in bulk properties of POSS-PCU scaffolds with an addition of silica nanofillers as low as 1% (PScaffolds modified with NH2 silica showed significantly higher bulk mechanical properties compared to the one modified with the OH group. Enhanced cell adhesion, proliferation and collagen production over 14days were observed on scaffolds with higher bulk mechanical properties (NH2) compared to those with lower ones (unmodified and OH modified) (Ppolymeric scaffolds, which can help to customize cellular responses for biomaterial applications.

  7. Dynamics of CO 2 Adsorption on Amine Adsorbents. 1. Impact of Heat Effects

    KAUST Repository

    Bollini, Praveen


    The packed bed heat and mass transfer dynamics of CO2 adsorption onto a 3-aminopropylsilyl-functionalized SBA-15 silica material are reported. Concentration measurements at the outlet of the packed bed and temperature profiles inside the bed are measured simultaneously. Heat and mass transfer models in conjunction with the linear driving force rate model are used to simulate the concentration and temperature profiles in the bed. The heat and mass transfer processes in the amine adsorbent packed bed are successfully captured by the model, and comparison of isothermal and nonisothermal models reveals that isothermal models provide an accurate description of the dynamic mass transport behavior in the adsorption column under the experimental conditions used in this study. The results help establish that under certain experimental conditions, heat effects in amine adsorbent packed beds have a negligible effect on CO2 breakthrough, and simple isothermal models can be used to accurately assess adsorption kinetics. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  8. Chemically responsive nanoporous pigments: colorimetric sensor arrays and the identification of aliphatic amines. (United States)

    Bang, Jin Ho; Lim, Sung H; Park, Erwin; Suslick, Kenneth S


    A general method has been developed for the preparation of microspheres of nanoporous pigments, their formulation into chemically responsive pigment inks, and the printing of these inks as colorimetric sensor arrays. Using an ultrasonic-spray aerosol-gel synthesis from chemically responsive dyes and common silica precursors, 16 different nanoporous pigment microspheres have been prepared and characterized. New colorimetric sensor arrays have been created by printing inks of these chemically responsive pigments as primary sensor elements; these arrays have been successfully tested for the detection, identification, and quantitation of toxic aliphatic amines. Among 11 structurally similar amines, complete identification of each analyte without confusion was achieved using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Furthermore, visual identification of ammonia gas was easily made at the IDLH (immediately dangerous to life or health), PEL (permissible exposure limits), and 0.1 PEL concentrations with high reproducibility.

  9. Kinetics of silica polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weres, O.; Yee, A.; Tsao, L.


    The polymerization of silicic acid in geothermal brine-like aqueous solutions to produce amorphous silica in colloidal form has been studied experimentally and theoretically. A large amount of high quality experimental data has been generated over the temperature rang 23 to 100{sup 0}C. Wide ranges of dissolved silica concentration, pH, and sodium chloride concentration were covered. The catalytic effects of fluoride and the reaction inhibiting effects of aluminum and boron were studied also. Two basic processes have been separately studied: the formation of new colloidal particles by the homogeneous nucleation process and the deposition of dissolved silica on pre-existing colloidal particles. A rigorous theory of the formation of colloidal particles of amorphous silica by homogeneous nucleation was developed. This theory employs the Lothe-Pound formalism, and is embodied in the computer code SILNUC which quantitatively models the homogeneous nucleation and growth of colloidal silica particles in more than enough detail for practical application. The theory and code were extensively used in planning the experimental work and analyzing the data produced. The code is now complete and running in its final form. It is capable of reproducing most of the experimental results to within experimental error. It is also capable of extrapolation to experimentally inaccessible conditions, i.e., high temperatures, rapidly varying temperature and pH, etc.

  10. Investigation into the role of silica in lithium polysulfide adsorption for lithium sulfur battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Miso; Kang, Sung-Hwan [Department of Materials Engineering and Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 900, Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Manuel, James; Zhao, Xiaohui [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Engineering Research Institute, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kwon Koo, E-mail: [Department of Materials Engineering and Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 900, Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jou Hyeon, E-mail: [Department of Materials Engineering and Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 900, Gajwa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • Amine functionalized silica nanoparticles (AFSN) were prepared. • Polysulfide adsorption studies were carried out with silica nanoparticles and AFSN. • Sulfur cathodes were prepared with SN and AFSN for Li–S batteries. • AFSN showed excellent polysulfide adsorption. - Abstract: A new type of sulfur electrodes with the ability for polysulfide adsorption was prepared by incorporating silica nanoparticles (SN) or amine functionalized silica nanoparticles (AFSN). AFSN was synthesized by a simple and cost-effective method. The functionalization and surface morphology of silica were confirmed with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Polysulfide adsorption studies were carried out using UV–vis spectrometer, which confirmed the excellent adsorption of polysulfides by AFSN. Interaction of polysulfides with SN or AFSN was studied using FTIR and FT-Raman spectroscopy. The effective polysulfide adsorption by SN and AFSN leads to good and stable cycle performance of lithium sulfur cells. The results show that the incorporation of SN or AFSN with sulfur is a promising method to prepare cathode material for lithium sulfur batteries.

  11. Poly(ethyleneimine) infused and functionalized Torlon®-silica hollow fiber sorbents for post-combustion CO2 capture

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuyue Stephanie


    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials functionalized with amine-containing reagents are emerging as an important class of materials for capturing carbon dioxide from flue gas. Polymeric silica hollow fiber sorbents are fabricated through the proven dry-jet/wet-quench spinning process. In our study, a new technique for functionalizing polymeric silica hollow fiber sorbents with poly(ethyleneimine), followed by a post-spinning infusion step was studied. This two step process introduces a sufficient amount of poly(ethyleneimine) to the polymeric silica hybrid material support to improve the CO2 sorption capacity due to the added amine groups. The poly(ethyleneimine) infused and functionalized hollow fiber sorbents are also characterized by a thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA) to assess their CO2 sorption capacities. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermodynamics of mixtures containing amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Juan Antonio [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain)], E-mail:; Mozo, Ismael; Garcia de la Fuente, Isaias; Cobos, Jose Carlos [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain); Riesco, Nicolas [Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, LE113TU Leicestershire (United Kingdom)


    Mixtures with dimethyl or trimethylpyridines and alkane, aromatic compound or 1-alkanol have been examined using different theories: DISQUAC, Flory, the concentration-concentration structure factor, S{sub CC}(0), or the Kirkwood-Buff formalism. DISQUAC represents fairly well the available experimental data, and improves theoretical calculations from Dortmund UNIFAC. Two important effects have been investigated: (i) the effect of increasing the number of methyl groups attached to the aromatic ring of the amine; (ii) the effect of modifying the position of the methyl groups in this ring. The molar excess enthalpy, H{sup E}, and the molar excess volume, V{sup E}, decrease in systems with alkane or methanol as follows: pyridine > 3-methylpyridine > 3,5-dimethylpyridine and pyridine > 2-methylpyridine > 2,4-dimethylpyridine > 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine, which has been attributed to a weakening of the amine-amine interactions in the same sequences. This is in agreement with the relative variation of the effective dipole moment, {mu}-bar, and of the differences between the boiling temperature of a pyridine base and that of the homomorphic alkane. For heptane solutions, the observed H{sup E} variation, H{sup E} (3,5-dimethylpyridine) > H{sup E} (2,4-dimethylpyridine) > H{sup E} (2,6-dimethylpyridine), is explained similarly. Calculations on the basis of the Flory model confirm that orientational effects become weaker in systems with alkane in the order: pyridine > methylpyridine > dimethylpyridine > trimethylpyridine. S{sub CC}(0) calculations show that steric effects increase with the number of CH{sub 3}- groups in the pyridine base, and that the steric effects exerted by methyl groups in positions 2 and 6 are higher than when they are placed in positions 3 and 5. The hydrogen bond energy in methanol mixtures is independent of the pyridine base, and it is estimated to be -35.2 kJ mol{sup -1}. Heterocoordination in these solutions is due in part to size effects. Their

  13. End-labeled amino terminated monotelechelic glycopolymers generated by ROMP and Cu(I-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Okoth


    Full Text Available Functionalizable monotelechelic polymers are useful materials for chemical biology and materials science. We report here the synthesis of a capping agent that can be used to terminate polymers prepared by ring-opening metathesis polymerization of norbornenes bearing an activated ester. The terminating agent is a cis-butene derivative bearing a Teoc (2-trimethylsilylethyl carbamate protected primary amine. Post-polymerization modification of the polymer was accomplished by amidation with an azido-amine linker followed by Cu(I-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition with propargyl sugars. Subsequent Teoc deprotection and conjugation with pyrenyl isothiocyanates afforded well-defined end-labeled glycopolymers.

  14. Copper-catalyzed aerobic C(sp2)-H functionalization for C-N bond formation: synthesis of pyrazoles and indazoles. (United States)

    Li, Xianwei; He, Li; Chen, Huoji; Wu, Wanqing; Jiang, Huanfeng


    A simple, practical, and highly efficient synthesis of pyrazoles and indazoles via copper-catalyzed direct aerobic oxidative C(sp(2))-H amination has been reported herein. This process tolerated a variety of functional groups under mild conditions. Further diversification of pyrazoles was also investigated, which provided its potential for drug discovery.

  15. Consecutive condensation, C-N and N-N bond formations: a copper- catalyzed one-pot three-component synthesis of 2H-indazole. (United States)

    Kumar, Manian Rajesh; Park, Ahbyeol; Park, Namjin; Lee, Sunwoo


    2H-Indazoles are synthesized using copper-catalyzed, one-pot, three-component reactions of 2-bromobenzaldehydes, primary amines, and sodium azide. A copper catalyst plays the key role in the formation of C-N and N-N bonds. This method has a broad substrate scope with a high tolerance for a variety of functional groups.

  16. Reusable ionic liquid-catalyzed oxidative coupling of azoles and benzylic compounds via sp(3) C-N bond formation under metal-free conditions. (United States)

    Liu, Wenbo; Liu, Chenjiang; Zhang, Yonghong; Sun, Yadong; Abdukadera, Ablimit; Wang, Bin; Li, He; Ma, Xuecheng; Zhang, Zengpeng


    The heterocyclic ionic liquid-catalyzed direct oxidative amination of benzylic sp(3) C-H bonds via intermolecular sp(3) C-N bond formation for the synthesis of N-alkylated azoles under metal-free conditions is reported for the first time. The catalyst 1-butylpyridinium iodide can be recycled and reused with similar efficacies for at least eight cycles.

  17. A general and efficient approach to 2H-indazoles and 1H-pyrazoles through copper-catalyzed intramolecular N-N bond formation under mild conditions. (United States)

    Hu, Jiantao; Cheng, Yongfeng; Yang, Yiqing; Rao, Yu


    A new efficient copper-catalyzed intramolecular amination reaction has been developed to readily synthesise a wide variety of multi-substituted 2H-indazole and 1H-pyrazole derivatives from easily accessible starting materials under mild conditions. A highly selective ligand for estrogen receptor β was prepared in three steps by employing this method.

  18. Primary amine/CSA ion pair: A powerful catalytic system for the asymmetric enamine catalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Chen


    A novel ion pair catalyst containing a chiral counteranion can be readily derived by simply mixing cinchona alkaloid-derived diamine with chiral camphorsulfonic acid (CSA). A mixture of 9-amino(9-deoxy)epi-quinine 8 and (-)-CSA was found to be the best catalyst with matching chirality, enabling the direct amination of α-branched aldehydes to proceed in quantitative yields and with nearly perfect enantioselectivities. A 0.5 mol % catalyst loading was sufficient to catalyze the reaction, and a gram scale enantioselective synthesis of biologically important α-methyl phenylglycine has been successfully demonstrated. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  19. Investigations of silica alcogel aging using coherent light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, Arlon J.; Ayers, Michael R.


    Light scattering methods have previously been used to monitor the formation of gels. In this report we present new light scattering techniques to study the properties of silica alcogels during the aging process. Monitoring one particular polarization transformation of scattered light with time reveals a clear increase in internal strain in standing alcogels with time. The stress birefringence coefficient of an acid-catalyzed SiO{sub 2} gel was found to be 3.4 x 10{sup 12} Brewsters. Additionally, the evolution of the stiffness of alcogels was investigated using laser speckle methods. Specifically, image analysis of specklegrams obtained during multi-frequency acoustic excitation of aging gels was used to non-destructively measure the hardening of alcogels. For an acid catalyzed gel with a theoretical density of {approx}0.05 g/cm{sup 3} SiO{sub 2}, the rate of hardening is found to be greatest between gelation and 2X the gel time, and drops considerably thereafter. The Young's modulus of the gel can be monitored over time with this method and was found to range from 6.2 x 10{sup 3} N/m{sup 2} after 6 hours to 2.2 x 10{sup 5} N/m{sup 2} after 24 hours for acid-catalyzed silica gels.

  20. Quantifying amine permeation sources with acid neutralization: calibrations and amines measured in coastal and continental atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Freshour


    Full Text Available An acid titration method for quantifying amine permeation rates was used to calibrate an Ambient pressure Proton transfer Mass Spectrometer (AmPMS that monitors ambient amine compounds. The method involves capturing amines entrained in a N2 flow by bubbling it through an acidified solution (~ 10−5 M HCl, and the amines are quantified via changes in solution pH with time. Home-made permeation tubes had permeation rates (typically tens of pmol s−1 that depended on the type of amine and tubing and on temperature. Calibrations of AmPMS yielded sensitivities for ammonia, methyl amine, dimethyl amine, and trimethyl amine that are close to the sensitivity assuming a gas-kinetic, ion-molecule rate coefficient. The permeation tubes were also designed to deliver a reproducible amount of amine to a flow reactor where nucleation with sulfuric acid was studied. The high proton affinity compound dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, linked to oceanic environments, was also studied and AmPMS is highly sensitive to it. AmPMS was deployed recently in two field campaigns and mixing ratios are reported for ammonia, alkyl amines, and DMSO and correlations between these species and with particle formation events are discussed.

  1. Synthetic Studies on Tricyclic Diterpenoids: Direct Allylic Amination Reaction of Isopimaric Acid Derivatives. (United States)

    Timoshenko, Mariya A; Kharitonov, Yurii V; Shakirov, Makhmut M; Bagryanskaya, Irina Yu; Shults, Elvira E


    A selective synthesis of 7- or 14-nitrogen containing tricyclic diterpenoids was completed according to a strategy in which the key step was the catalyzed direct allylic amination of methyl 14α-hydroxy-15,16-dihydroisopimarate with a wide variety of nitrogenated nucleophiles. It was revealed that the selectivity of the reaction depends on the nature of nucleophile. The catalyzed reaction of the mentioned diterpenoid allylic alcohol with 3-nitroaniline, 3-(trifluoromethyl)aniline, and 4-(trifluoromethyl)aniline yield the subsequent 7α-, 7β- and 14αnitrogen-containing diterpenoids. The reaction with 2-nitroaniline, 4-nitro-2-chloroaniline, 4-methoxy-2-nitroaniline, phenylsulfamide, or tert-butyl carbamate proceeds with the formation of 7α-nitrogen-substituted diterpenoids as the main products.

  2. Amine-Oxide Hybrid Materials for CO2 Capture from Ambient Air. (United States)

    Didas, Stephanie A; Choi, Sunho; Chaikittisilp, Watcharop; Jones, Christopher W


    Oxide supports functionalized with amine moieties have been used for decades as catalysts and chromatographic media. Owing to the recognized impact of atmospheric CO2 on global climate change, the study of the use of amine-oxide hybrid materials as CO2 sorbents has exploded in the past decade. While the majority of the work has concerned separation of CO2 from dilute mixtures such as flue gas from coal-fired power plants, it has been recognized by us and others that such supported amine materials are also perhaps uniquely suited to extract CO2 from ultradilute gas mixtures, such as ambient air. As unique, low temperature chemisorbents, they can operate under ambient conditions, spontaneously extracting CO2 from ambient air, while being regenerated under mild conditions using heat or the combination of heat and vacuum. This Account describes the evolution of our activities on the design of amine-functionalized silica materials for catalysis to the design, characterization, and utilization of these materials in CO2 separations. New materials developed in our laboratory, such as hyperbranched aminosilica materials, and previously known amine-oxide hybrid compositions, have been extensively studied for CO2 extraction from simulated ambient air (400 ppm of CO2). The role of amine type and structure (molecular, polymeric), support type and structure, the stability of the various compositions under simulated operating conditions, and the nature of the adsorbed CO2 have been investigated in detail. The requirements for an effective, practical air capture process have been outlined and the ability of amine-oxide hybrid materials to meet these needs has been discussed. Ultimately, the practicality of such a "direct air capture" process is predicated not only on the physicochemical properties of the sorbent, but also how the sorbent operates in a practical process that offers a scalable gas-solid contacting strategy. In this regard, the utility of low pressure drop monolith

  3. SiO2-Cu2O:An efficient and recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for N-benzylation of primary and secondary amines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manjulla Gupta; Satya Paul; Rajive Gupta


    A mild, effective, and selective procedure is reported for the mono N-benzylation and N,N- diben-zylation of primary amines as well as mono N-benzylation of secondary amines using sili-ca-supported copper(I) oxide in water. The silica-supported Cu2O was generated in situ by the reac-tion of Fehling solution and glucose at 100 °C onto activated silica. The catalyst was filtered, washed with water, and oven-dried, and was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The prepared Cu2O-SiO2 was found to be thermally stable up to 325 °C. The copper was uniformly distributed onto the surface of the silica, and the mean particle diameter was 7 nm. The catalyst served as a selective heterogenous catalyst for the N-benzylation of primary and secondary amines. The catalyst is recyclable and was used effectively upto fifth run without a significant loss of catalytic activity. Various reaction solvents including water, acetonitrile, and toluene were screened for N-benzylation of amines, and the success of the aqueous system highlights the low environmental impact of the procedure.

  4. Precursor Mediated Synthesis of Nanostructured Silicas: From Precursor-Surfactant Ion Pairs to Structured Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hesemann


    Full Text Available The synthesis of nanostructured anionic-surfactant-templated mesoporous silica (AMS recently appeared as a new strategy for the formation of nanostructured silica based materials. This method is based on the use of anionic surfactants together with a co-structure-directing agent (CSDA, mostly a silylated ammonium precursor. The presence of this CSDA is necessary in order to create ionic interactions between template and silica forming phases and to ensure sufficient affinity between the two phases. This synthetic strategy was for the first time applied in view of the synthesis of surface functionalized silica bearing ammonium groups and was then extended on the formation of materials functionalized with anionic carboxylate and bifunctional amine-carboxylate groups. In the field of silica hybrid materials, the “anionic templating” strategy has recently been applied for the synthesis of silica hybrid materials from cationic precursors. Starting from di- or oligosilylated imidazolium and ammonium precursors, only template directed hydrolysis-polycondensation reactions involving complementary anionic surfactants allowed accessing structured ionosilica hybrid materials. The mechanistic particularity of this approach resides in the formation of precursor-surfactant ion pairs in the hydrolysis-polycondensation mixture. This review gives a systematic overview over the various types of materials accessed from this cooperative ionic templating approach and highlights the high potential of this original strategy for the formation of nanostructured silica based materials which appears as a complementary strategy to conventional soft templating approaches.

  5. Thin supported silica membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zivkovic, Tijana


    This thesis discusses several transport-related aspects relevant for the application of thin supported silica membranes for gas separation and nanofiltration. The influence of support geometry on overall membrane performance is investigated. Planar (i.e., flat plate), tubular, and multichannel suppo

  6. Interaction energies of CO2·amine complexes: effects of amine substituents. (United States)

    Jorgensen, Kameron R; Cundari, Thomas R; Wilson, Angela K


    To focus on the identification of potential alternative amine carbon capture compounds, CO(2) with methyl, silyl, and trifluoromethyl monosubstituted and disubstituted amine compounds were studied. Interaction energies of these CO(2)·amine complexes were determined via two methods: (a) an ab initio composite method, the correlation consistent composite approach (ccCA), to determine interaction energies and (b) density functional theories, B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ and B97D/aug-cc-pVTZ. Substituent effects on the interaction energies were examined by interchanging electron donating and electron withdrawing substituents on the amine compounds. The calculations suggested two different binding modes, hydrogen bonding and acid-base interactions, which arise from the modification of the amine substituents, echoing previous work by our group on modeling protein·CO(2) interactions. Recommendations have been noted for the development of improved amine scrubber complexes.

  7. Pentaethylenehexamine-Loaded Hierarchically Porous Silica for CO2 Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changchun Ji


    Full Text Available Recently, amine-functionalized materials as a prospective chemical sorbent for post combustion CO2 capture have gained great interest. However, the amine grafting for the traditional MCM-41, SBA-15, pore-expanded MCM-41 or SBA-15 supports can cause the pore volume and specific surface area of sorbents to decrease, significantly affecting the CO2 adsorption-desorption dynamics. To overcome this issue, hierarchical porous silica with interparticle macropores and long-range ordering mesopores was prepared and impregnated with pentaethylenehexamine. The pore structure and amino functional group content of the modified silicas were analyzed by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, N2 adsorption, X-ray powder diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectra. Moreover, the effects of the pore structure as well as the amount of PEHA loading of the samples on the CO2 adsorption capacity were investigated in a fixed-bed adsorption system. The CO2 adsorption capacity reached 4.5 mmol CO2/(g of adsorbent for HPS−PEHA-70 at 75 °C. Further, the adsorption capacity for HPS-PEHA-70 was steady after a total of 15 adsorption-desorption cycles.

  8. Advance in the synthesis of aromatic amine via direct amination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Arylamines are very common and important organic molecules. Acting as important intermediates in medical and chemical industry, they are widely used in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, dyes, pesticides, rubber additives, isocyanates and heterocyclic compounds. The traditional methods for the synthesis of arylamines include several steps. The production of aniline, for example, includes the following steps: the production of nitro-benzene by the nitration of benzene, and the reduction of the resulting nitro-benzene by catalytic hydrogenation or other reduction ways[1-6]; or the substitution of phenol or chlorbenzene by amino groups, etc.[7-10]. There are several disadvantages for these methods: low atom utilization, strict operation condition, large amount of by-products and serious environmental pollution, which could not afford for the needs of a sustainable civilization. So there has been growing interest in the direct amination to produce arylamines recently. With the direct methods, the multi- step reaction may change into one step, the atom utilization can be evidently improved, and the by-products H2 or/and H2O are harmless to the environment.

  9. Biomimetic mineral self-organization from silica-rich spring waters (United States)

    García-Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Nakouzi, Elias; Kotopoulou, Electra; Tamborrino, Leonardo; Steinbock, Oliver


    Purely inorganic reactions of silica, metal carbonates, and metal hydroxides can produce self-organized complex structures that mimic the texture of biominerals, the morphology of primitive organisms, and that catalyze prebiotic reactions. To date, these fascinating structures have only been synthesized using model solutions. We report that mineral self-assembly can be also obtained from natural alkaline silica-rich water deriving from serpentinization. Specifically, we demonstrate three main types of mineral self-assembly: (i) nanocrystalline biomorphs of barium carbonate and silica, (ii) mesocrystals and crystal aggregates of calcium carbonate with complex biomimetic textures, and (iii) osmosis-driven metal silicate hydrate membranes that form compartmentalized, hollow structures. Our results suggest that silica-induced mineral self-assembly could have been a common phenomenon in alkaline environments of early Earth and Earth-like planets. PMID:28345049

  10. Influence of hydrophobic characteristic of organo-modified precursor on wettability of silica film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Violeta Purcar; Otilia Cinteza; Marius Ghiurea; Adriana Balan; Simona Caprarescu; Dan Donescu


    The objective of this study is to design new hybrid silica materials as templates with hydrophobic properties, prepared at room temperature by a base catalyzed sol–gel process. As silica sources, organoalkoxysilanes functionalized with short hydrophobic chains were used: tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), methyltriethoxysilane (MTES), vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES), octyltriethoxysilane (OTES) and isobutyltriethoxysilane (iTES). It was shown that hydrophobicity of the functionalized silica nanoparticles increased as a function of length of the aliphatic chains (MTES < iTES < OTES) or when, instead of a hydrophobic alkyl chains (substituting group of silica precursors), a monounsaturated group was used (VTES). It was observed that the samples responded in a specific way to each type (hydrophilic or hydrophobic) of the dropped liquid. Even though the experiments were limited to short hydrocarbon chains, they showed that there is a threshold to reach high hydrophobicity of the hybrid surface.

  11. Graphite Oxide and Aromatic Amines : Size Matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spyrou, Konstantinos; Calvaresi, Matteo; Diamanti, Evmorfi A. K.; Tsoufis, Theodoros; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra; Zerbetto, Francesco


    Experimental and theoretical studies are performed in order to illuminate, for first time, the intercalation mechanism of polycyclic aromatic molecules into graphite oxide. Two representative molecules of this family, aniline and naphthalene amine are investigated. After intercalation, aniline molec

  12. Amines as occupational hazards for visual disturbance (United States)

    JANG, Jae-Kil


    Various amines, such as triethylamine and N,N-dimethylethylamine, have been reported to cause glaucopsia in workers employed in epoxy, foundry, and polyurethane foam industries. This symptom has been related to corneal edema and vesicular collection of fluid within the corneal subepithelial cells. Exposure to amine vapors for 30 min to several hours leads to blurring of vision, a blue-grey appearance of objects, and halos around lights, that are probably reversible. Concentration-effect relationships have been established. The visual disturbance is considered a nuisance, as it could cause onsite accidents, impair work efficiency, and create difficulties in driving back home. Occupational exposure limits have been established for some amines, but there is shortage of criteria. Volatility factors, such as vapor pressure, should be considered in industrial settings to prevent human ocular risks, while trying to reduce levels of hazardous amines in the atmosphere. PMID:26538000

  13. Multiple amine oxidases in cucumber seedlings. (United States)

    Percival, F W; Purves, W K


    Cell-free extracts of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. National Pickling) seedlings were found to have amine oxidase activity when assayed with tryptamine as a substrate. Studies of the effect of lowered pH on the extract indicated that this activity was heterogeneous, and three amine oxidases could be separated by ion exchange chromatography. The partially purified enzymes were tested for their activities with several substrates and for their sensitivities to various amine oxidase inhibitors. One of the enzymes may be a monoamine oxidase, although it is inhibited by some diamine oxidase inhibitors. The other two enzymes have properties more characteristic of the diamine oxidases. The possible relationship of the amine oxidases to indoleacetic acid biosynthesis in cucumber seedlings is discussed.

  14. Aromatic amines sources, environmental impact and remediation


    Pereira, Luciana; Mondal, P. K.; Alves, M. M.


    Aromatic amines are widely used industrial chemicals as their major sources in the environment include several chemical industry sectors such as oil refining, synthetic polymers, dyes, adhesives, rubbers, perfume, pharmaceuticals, pesticides and explosives. They result also from diesel exhaust, combustion of wood chips and rubber and tobacco smoke. Some types of aromatic amines are generated during cooking, special grilled meat and fish, as well. The intensive use and production of these comp...

  15. Optical patterning of photosensitive thin film silica mesophases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Photosensitive films incorporating molecular photoacid generators compartmentalized within a silica-surfactant mesophase were prepared by an evaporation-induced self-assembly process. UV-exposure promoted localized acid-catalyzed siloxane condensation, enabling selective etching of unexposed regions, thereby serving as a resistless technique to prepare patterned mesoporous silica. The authors also demonstrated an optically-defined mesophase transformation (hexagonal {r_arrow} tetragonal) and patterning of refractive index and wetting behavior. Spatial control of structure and function on the macro- and mesoscales is of interest for sensor arrays, nano-reactors, photonic and fluidic devices, and low dielectric constant films. More importantly, it extends the capabilities of conventional lithography from spatially defining the presence or absence of film to spatial control of film structure and function.

  16. Structural evolution of silica sols modified with formamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenza R.F.S.


    Full Text Available In this work we investigated the influence of formamide on the acid-catalyzed sol-gel process by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Three silica sols were studied: Sol catalyzed with nitric acid without formamide, sol catalyzed with nitric acid containing formamide and sol catalyzed with a mixture of nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid and modified with formamide. Following the time evolution of both the Si-(OH stretching vibration at around 950 cm-1 and the Si-O-(Si vibration between 1040 cm-1 and 1200 cm-1 we were able to describe the structural evolution of each sol. The curve of evolution of Si-(OH stretching vibration corresponding to sol A has a simple asymptotic evolution. In the case of formamide containing sol, we observed a two-step structural evolution indicating that for the system containing formamide the polymerization goes through a temporary stabilization of oligomers, which can explain the non-variation of the Si-O(H bond wavenumber for a certain time. Gelation times were of several days for gels without formamide and few hours for gels containing additive. The presence of additive resulted in a highly interconnected gel.

  17. Kinetics of phenolic polymerization catalyzed by peroxidase in organic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y.P.; Huang, G.L; Yu, Y.T. [Nankai Univ., Tianjin (China). Inst. for Molecular Biology


    Phenolic polymerization was carried out by enzymatic catalysis in organic media, and its kinetics was studied by using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Phenols and aromatic amines with electron-withdrawing groups could hardly be polymerized by HRP catalysis, but phenols and aromatic amines with electron-donating groups could easily by polymerized. The reaction rate of either the para-substituted substrate or meta-substituted substrate was higher than that of ortho-substituted substrate. When ortho-position of hydroxy group of phenols was occupied by an electron-donating group and if another electron-donating group occupied para-position of hydroxy group, the reaction rate increased. Horseradish peroxidase and lactoperoxidase could easily catalyze the polymerization, but chloroperoxidase and laccase failed to yield polymers. Metallic ions such as Mn{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}, or Fe{sup 3+}, and Cu{sup 2+} could poison horseradish peroxidase to various extents, but ions such as Co{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and K{sup +} were not found to inhibit the reaction.

  18. Convenient synthesis of substituted pyrroles via a cerium (IV ammonium nitrate (CAN-catalyzed Paal–Knorr reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Kamal


    Full Text Available A screening of various cerium salts for promoting the Paal–Knorr pyrrole synthesis revealed the superiority of cerium (IV ammonium nitrate (CAN as a catalyst. Excellent yields of substituted pyrroles were obtained in CAN-catalyzed Paal–Knorr reactions of 1,4-diketones with various amines. The protocol is noteworthy for the mild reaction condition, short reaction times, scalability and easy isolation of products and high yields of the products.

  19. Enhancing amine terminals in an amine-deprived collagen matrix.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tiong, William H C


    Collagen, though widely used as a core biomaterial in many clinical applications, is often limited by its rapid degradability which prevents full exploitation of its potential in vivo. Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer, a highly branched macromolecule, possesses versatile multiterminal amine surface groups that enable them to be tethered to collagen molecules and enhance their potential. In this study, we hypothesized that incorporation of PAMAM dendrimer in a collagen matrix through cross-linking will result in a durable, cross-linked collagen biomaterial with free -NH 2 groups available for further multi-biomolecular tethering. The aim of this study was to assess the physicochemical properties of a G1 PAMAM cross-linked collagen matrix and its cellular sustainability in vitro. Different amounts of G1 PAMAM dendrimer (5 or 10 mg) were integrated into bovine-derived collagen matrices through a cross-linking process, mediated by 5 or 25 mM 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) in 5 mM N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) and 50 mM 2-morpholinoethane sulfonic acid buffer at pH 5.5. The physicochemical properties of resultant matrices were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), collagenase degradation assay, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and ninhydrin assay. Cellular sustainability of the matrices was assessed with Alamar Blue assay and SEM. There was no significant difference in cellular behavior between the treated and nontreated groups. However, the benefit of incorporating PAMAM in the cross-linking reaction was limited when higher concentrations of either agent were used. These results confirm the hypothesis that PAMAM dendrimer can be incorporated in the collagen cross-linking process in order to modulate the properties of the resulting cross-linked collagen biomaterial with free -NH 2 groups available for multi-biomolecular tethering.

  20. Structural Formation Studies of UV-Catalyzed Gels and Aerogels byLight Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, Arlon J.; Ayers, Michael R.


    The skeletal structure of aerogel is determined before, during, and after the gel is formed. Supercritical drying of aerogel largely preserves the pore structure that is determined near the time of gelation. To better understand these gel formation mechanisms we carried out measurements of the time evolution of light scattering in a series of gels prepared without conventional acid or base catalysis. Instead, ultraviolet light was used to catalyze the formation of silica gels made from the hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate and partly prehydrolyzed tetraethylorthosilicate in ethanol. Time evolution of light scattering provides information regarding the rate and geometrical nature of the assembly of the primary silica particles formed in the sol. UV-catalyzed gels show volumetric growth typical of acid-catalyzed gels, except when UV exposure is discontinued at the gel point, where gels then show linear chain formation typical of base-catalyzed gels. Long term UV exposure leads to coarsening of the pore network, a decrease in the clarity of the aerogel, and an increase in the surface area of the aerogel. Additionally, UV exposure up to the gel point leads to increased crystallinity in the final aerogel.

  1. Aniline incorporated silica nanobubbles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M J Rosemary; V Suryanarayanan; Ian Maclaren; T Pradeep


    We report the synthesis of stearate functionalized nanobubbles of SiO2 with a few aniline molecules inside, represented as C6H5NH2@SiO2@stearate, exhibiting fluorescence with red-shifted emission. Stearic acid functionalization allows the materials to be handled just as free molecules, for dissolution, precipitation, storage etc. The methodology adopted involves adsorption of aniline on the surface of gold nanoparticles with subsequent growth of a silica shell through monolayers, followed by the selective removal of the metal core either using sodium cyanide or by a new reaction involving halocarbons. The material is stable and can be stored for extended periods without loss of fluorescence. Spectroscopic and voltammetric properties of the system were studied in order to understand the interaction of aniline with the shell as well as the monolayer, whilst transmission electron microscopy has been used to study the silica shell.

  2. Iodine Supported on 3-Aminopropyl Silica Gel as Efficient Catalyst for Acetylation of Alcohols under Solvent-free Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    3-Aminopropyl silica gel (I2/APSG) was found to catalyze the acetylation of alcohols and phenols efficiently with acetic anhydride. The reaction is mild and selective with high yields. A wide variety of alcohols and phenols are selectively converted into the corresponding acetates using I2/APSG under solvent-free conditions at room tem-perature.

  3. Production of margarine fats by enzymatic interesterification with silica-granulated Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase in a large-scale study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hong; Xu, Xuebing; Nilsson, Jörgen


    Interesterification of a blend of palm stearin and coconut oil (75:25, w/w), catalyzed by an immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase by silica granulation, Lipozyme TL IM, was studied for production of margarine fats in a 1- or 300-kg pilot-scale batch-stirred tank reactor. Parameters...

  4. Diketene-based neat four-component synthesis of the dihydropyrimidinones and dihydropyridine backbones using silica sulfuric acid (SSA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadegh Rostamnia; Kamran Lamei


    Heterocyclic skeleton building blocks to afford dihydropyrimidinones and dihydropyridines based on neat adducts of diketene,alcohols and aldehydes via silica sulfuric acid (SSA) catalyzed ring opening of diketene in four-c6mponent Biginelli-type and Hantzsch-type reactions are presented.

  5. Bifunctional composite microspheres of silica/lanthanide-polyoxometalates/Au: Study on luminescence and catalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jun, E-mail:; Fan, Shaohua; Zhao, Weiqian; Lu, Xuelian; Li, Wuke


    In this paper, the synthesis and properties of composite silica microspheres grafted with gold nanoparticles and lanthanide-polyoxometalates are described. This synthesis employs polyethyleneimine as the crosslink polymer to immobilize the Au nanoparticles and lanthanide-polyoxometalates on silica spheres, which results in the formation of bifunctional composite microspheres of silica/lanthanide-polyoxometalates/Au. The composite material was found to be catalytically active in the oxidation of styrene, and benzaldehyde and styrene oxide were the main products. Catalyzed oxidation of styrene demonstrates the size-dependent activity of catalysts and the smaller catalyst shows the higher selectivity. Moreover, the composite particles show bright red luminescence under UV light, which could be seen by naked eyes. The luminescence properties of composite material and the effect of Au nanoparticles on the luminescence of Eu ion were investigated, and energy could be more effectively transferred from ligand to lanthanide ion when Au nanoparticles were grafted on silica spheres. The integration of luminescent components and Au particles makes it possible to label catalyst and monitor the catalyzed reactions. - Highlights: • The bifunctional composite microspheres were fabricated. • Both polyoxometalates and Au nanoparticles could be grafted on silica spheres. • The composite particles exhibit the excellent luminescence and catalytic activity. • The Au nanoparticles affect the luminescence properties of Eu{sup 3+} ions.

  6. Simple Fabrication of Mesoporous Silica with Remarkable High Temperature Stability at Neutral pH and Ambient Conditions from TEOS (United States)

    Hess, David; Vippagunta, Radha; Watkins, James


    Traditional silica synthesis processes can yield well ordered materials, but the synthesis conditions also lead to incomplete condensation of the silica network, which results in significant structural contraction upon calcination and limited thermal, hydrothermal and mechanical stability. Here we report the synthesis that, surprisingly, yields nearly complete condensation of the silica network (virtually all Q4 linkages) using cysteamine as the catalyst and polyoxyethylene surfactants as the structure directing agents in buffered solution at neutral pH and ambient temperature. Recently, small molecule bifunctional amines, including cysteamine, were evaluated by Morse and co-workers and found to produce silica from TEOS(JACS 2005, 127, 35). Our work combines the cysteamine catalyst system with structure-directing block copolymer surfactants at neutral pH and ambient temperature to produce mesoporous silica. The addition of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) to a solution of containing cysteamine, citrate buffer (pH 7.2) and 5wt Brij amphiphilic block copolymer (polyethylene oxide-polyethylene) yields mesoporous silica. The resulting mesoporous silica powder was analyzed using XRD, TGA, FTIR, TEM, and NMR. The materials were found to exhibit stability under extreme temperature calcinations (up to 800 C) in the presence of water. SAXS shows that 1.0 shrinkage upon calcination up to 800C. 29Si NMR analysis indicates a fully condensed silica network, Q4 linkages, in accordance with this observation.

  7. Mechanistic insight into benzenethiol catalyzed amide bond formations from thioesters and primary amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuhr-Hansen, Nicolai; Bork, Nicolai; Strømgaard, Kristian


    of thiophenol (PhSH) in a slurry of disodium hydrogen phosphate in dry DMF. Quantitative conversions into the resulting amide were observed within a few hours in the presence of equimolar amounts of thiophenol. Ab initio calculations showed that the reaction mechanism in DMF is similar to the well-known aqueous...

  8. Tandem amine and ruthenium-catalyzed hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol. (United States)

    Rezayee, Nomaan M; Huff, Chelsea A; Sanford, Melanie S


    This Communication describes the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide to methanol via tandem catalysis with dimethylamine and a homogeneous ruthenium complex. Unlike previous examples with homogeneous catalysts, this CO2-to-CH3OH process proceeds under basic reaction conditions. The dimethylamine is proposed to play a dual role in this system. It reacts directly with CO2 to produce dimethylammonium dimethylcarbamate, and it also intercepts the intermediate formic acid to generate dimethylformamide. With the appropriate selection of catalyst and reaction conditions, >95% conversion of CO2 was achieved to form a mixture of CH3OH and dimethylformamide.

  9. Multilayered Thin Films from Poly(amido amine)s and DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hujaya, S.D.; Engbersen, J.F.J.; Paulusse, J.M.J.


    Dip-coated multilayered thin films of poly(amido amine)s (PAAs) and DNA have been developed to provide surfaces with cell-transfecting capabilities. Three types of PAAs, differing in side chain functional groups, were synthesized and characterized for their properties in forming multilayered structu

  10. Accurate determination of aldehydes in amine catalysts or amines by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatization. (United States)

    Barman, Bhajendra N


    Carbonyl compounds, specifically aldehydes, present in amine catalysts or amines are determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography using ultraviolet detection of their corresponding 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones. The primary focus has been to establish optimum conditions for determining aldehydes accurately because these add exposure concerns when the amine catalysts are used to manufacture polyurethane products. Concentrations of aldehydes determined by this method are found to vary with the pH of the aqueous amine solution and the derivatization time, the latter being problematic when the derivatization reaction proceeds slowly and not to completion in neutral and basic media. Accurate determination of aldehydes in amines through derivatization can be carried out at an effective solution pH of about 2 and with derivatization time of 20min. Hydrochloric acid has been used for neutralization of an amine. For complete derivatization, it is essential to protonate all nitrogen atoms in the amine. An approach for the determination of an adequate amount of acid needed for complete derivatization has been described. Several 0.2M buffer solutions varying in pH from 4 to 8 have also been used to make amine solutions for carrying out derivatization of aldehydes. These solutions have effective pHs of 10 or higher and provide much lower aldehyde concentrations compared to their true values. Mechanisms for the formation of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones in both acidic and basic media are discussed.

  11. Reductive Amination of Aldehydes and Ketones with Primary Amines by Using Lithium Amidoborane as Reducing Reagent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐维亮; 郑学丽; 吴国涛; 陈萍


    A variety of secondary amines were obtained in high isolated yields in the reductive amination of aldehydes and ketones by using lithium amidoborane as reducing agent. Compared to ammonia borane, lithium amidoborane has higher reducibility, and thus, exhibits faster reaction rate.

  12. Modification of Silica Rice Husk Ash to Solid Ammonium Sulphate for Second Generation Biofuels Productions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasim Mohammed Hello


    Full Text Available A new approach has been demonstrated for the synthesis of solid ammonium sulphate attached to silica rice husk ash. The 3-(aminopropyltriethoxysilane was immobilized onto silica at room temperature to functionalize the silica with ammine end groups (–NH2. The amine group was sulphated with sulphuric acid to produce a novel micro-rod-like shaped acidic catalyst (as seen with TEM designated RHNH3SO4H (RH = rice husk. The TGA analysis shows that the catalyst is stable at temperatures below 200°C. The acidity measurement of the catalyst indicates that it has Brønsted acid sites. Cellulose extracted from waste of rice husk and cellulose extracted from office paper were hydrolysed to glucose in 6 h, and the glucose was hydrolysed afterwards to other products within 13 h. The catalyst is reusable many times without a significant loss of catalytic activity.

  13. Silica reinforced triblock copolymer gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theunissen, E.; Overbergh, N.; Reynaers, H.


    The effect of silica and polymer coated silica particles as reinforcing agents on the structural and mechanical properties of polystyrene-poly(ethylene/butylene)-polystyrene (PS-PEB-PS) triblock gel has been investigated. Different types of chemically modified silica have been compared in order...... to evaluate the influence of the compatibility between gel and filler. Time-resolved SANS and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) shows that the presence of silica particles affects the ordering of the polystyrene domains during gelsetting. The scattering pattern of silica-reinforced gels reveals strong...... a viscoclastic rubber to a plastic fluid and from a plastic fluid to a viscoelastic liquid are shifted to more elevated temperatures when silica is added to the triblock copolymer gel. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  14. Di-Isocyanate Crosslinked Aerogels with 1, 6-Bis (Trimethoxysilyl) Hexane Incorporated in Silica Backbone (United States)

    Vivod, Stephanie L.; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Nguyen, Baochau N.; Quade, Derek; Randall, Jason; Perry, Renee


    Silica aerogels are desirable materials for many applications that take advantage of their light weight and low thermal conductivity. Addition of a conformal polymer coating which bonds with the amine decorated surface of the silica network improves the strength of the aerogels by as much as 200 times. Even with vast improvement in strength they still tend to undergo brittle failure due to the rigid silica backbone. We hope to increase the flexibility and elastic recovery of the silica based aerogel by altering the silica back-bone by incorporation of more flexible hexane links. To this end, we investigated the use of 1,6-bis(trimethoxysilyl)hexane (BTMSH), a polysilsesquioxane precursor3, as an additional co-reactant to prepare silica gels which were subsequently cross-linked with di-isocyanate. Previously, this approach of adding flexibility by BTMSH incorporation was demonstrated with styrene cross-linked aerogels. In our study, we varied silane concentration, mol % of silicon from BTMSH and di-isocyanate concentration by weight percent to attempt to optimize both the flexibility and the strength of the aerogels.

  15. Primary, secondary, and tertiary amines for CO2 capture: designing for mesoporous CO2 adsorbents. (United States)

    Ko, Young Gun; Shin, Seung Su; Choi, Ung Su


    CO(2) emissions, from fossil-fuel-burning power plants, the breathing, etc., influence the global worming on large scale and the man's work efficiency on small scale. The reversible capture of CO(2) is a prominent feature of CO(2) organic-inorganic hybrid adsorbent to sequester CO(2). Herein, (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane (APTMS), [3-(methylamino)propyl] trimethoxysilane (MAPTMS), and [3-(diethylamino) propyl] trimethoxysilane (DEAPTMS) are immobilized on highly ordered mesoporous silicas (SBA-15) to catch CO(2) as primary, secondary, and tertiary aminosilica adsorbents. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to analyze the immobilized APTMS, MAPTMS, and DEAPTMS on the SBA-15. We report an interesting discovery that the CO(2) adsorption and desorption on the adsorbent depend on the amine type of the aminosilica adsorbent. The adsorbed CO(2) was easily desorbed from the adsorbent with the low energy consumption in the order of tertiary, secondary, and primary amino-adsorbents while the adsorption amount and the bonding-affinity increased in the reverse order. The effectiveness of amino-functionalized (1(o), 2(o), and 3(o) amines) SBA-15s as a CO(2) capturing agent was investigated in terms of adsorption capacity, adsorption-desorption kinetics, and thermodynamics. This work demonstrates apt amine types to catch CO(2) and regenerate the adsorbent, which may open new avenues to designing "CO(2) basket".

  16. The Origin of Anti-Markovnikov Regioselectivity in Alkene Hydroamination Reactions Catalyzed by [Rh(DPEphos)](.). (United States)

    Couce-Rios, Almudena; Lledós, Agustí; Ujaque, Gregori


    The development of regioselective anti-Markovnikov alkene's hydroamination is a long-standing goal in catalysis. The [Rh(COD)(DPEphos)](+) complex is the most general and regioselective group 9 catalyst for such a process. The reaction mechanism for intermolecular hydroamination of alkenes catalyzed by [Rh(DPEphos)](+) complex is analyzed by means of DFT calculations. Hydroamination (alkene vs. amine activation routes) as well as oxidative amination pathways are analyzed. According to the computational results the operating mechanism can be generally described by alkene coordination, amine nucleophilic addition, proton transfer through the metal center and reductive elimination steps. The mechanism for the formation of the oxidative amination side product goes via a β-elimination after the nucleophilic addition and metal center protonation steps. The origin of the regioselectivity for the addition process (Markovnikov vs. anti-Markovnikov additions) is shown to be not charge but orbitally driven. Remarkably, η(2) to η(1) slippage degree on the alkene coordination mode is directly related to the regioselective outcome.

  17. Surface properties and water treatment capacity of surface engineered silica coated with 3-(2-aminoethyl) aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (United States)

    Majewski, Peter; Keegan, Alexandra


    This study's focus was on the water-based, one-pot preparation and characterisation of silica particles coated with 3-(2-aminoethyl)aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (Diamo) and the efficiency of the material in removing the pathogens Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium immunogenum, Vibrio cholerae, poliovirus, and Cryptosporidium parvum. The water-based processing resulted in Diamo coated silica particles with significantly increased positive surface charge as determined by zeta potential measurements. In addition, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry of pure and Diamo coated silica confirmed the presence of Diamo on the surface of the particles. Thermogravimetric measurements and chemical analysis of the silica indicated a surface concentration of amine groups of about 1 mmol/gsilica. Water treatment tests with the pathogens showed that a dose of about 10 g appeared to be sufficient to remove pathogens from pure water samples which were spiked with pathogen concentrations between about 102 and 104 cfu/mL.

  18. CO2 capture from the atmosphere and simultaneous concentration using zeolites and amine-grafted SBA-15. (United States)

    Stuckert, Nicholas R; Yang, Ralph T


    CO(2) capture from the atmosphere and concentration by cyclic adsorption-desorption processes are studied for the first time. New high microporosity materials, zeolite types Li-LSX and K-LSX, are compared to zeolite NaX and amine-grafted SBA-15 with low amine content. Breakthrough performance showed low silica type X (LSX) to have the most promise for application in dry conditions and capable of high space velocities of at least 63,000 h(-1), with minimal spreading of the CO(2) breakthrough curve. Amine-grafted silica was the only adsorbent able to operate in wet conditions, but at a lower space velocity of 1500 h(-1), due to slower uptake rates. The results illustrate that the uptake rate is as important as the equilibrium adsorbed amount in determining the cyclic process performance. Li-LSX was found to have double the capacity of zeolite NaX at atmospheric conditions, also higher than all other reported zeolites. It is further demonstrated that by using a combined temperature and vacuum swing cycle, the CO(2) concentration in the desorption product is >90% for all adsorbents in pellet form. This is the first report of such high CO(2) product concentrations from a single cycle, using atmospheric air.

  19. Enhanced adsorption of quaternary amine using modified activated carbon. (United States)

    Prahas, Devarly; Wang, M J; Ismadji, Suryadi; Liu, J C


    This study examined different methodologies to modify activated carbon (AC) for the removal of quaternary amine, tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), from water. Commercial carbon (WAC) was treated by nitric acid oxidation (NA-WAC), silica impregnation (SM-WAC0.5), and oxygen plasma (P10-WAC), and their characteristics and adsorption capacity were compared. The Langmuir model fitted the equilibrium adsorption data well under different pH. The maximum adsorption capacity of WAC was 27.77 mg/g, while those of NA-WAC, SM-WAC 0.5, and P10-WAC were 37.46, 32.83 and 29.03 mg/g, respectively. Nitric acid oxidation was the most effective method for enhancing the adsorption capacity of TMAH. Higher pH was favorable for TMAH adsorption. Desorption study revealed that NA-WAC had no considerable reduction in performance even after five cycles of regeneration by 0.1 N hydrochloric acid. It was proposed that electrostatic interaction was the main mechanism of TMAH adsorption on activated carbon.

  20. Multistep divergent synthesis of benzimidazole linked benzoxazole/benzothiazole via copper catalyzed domino annulation. (United States)

    Liao, Jen-Yu; Selvaraju, Manikandan; Chen, Chih-Hau; Sun, Chung-Ming


    An efficient, facile synthesis of structurally diverse benzimidazole integrated benzoxazole and benzothiazoles has been developed. In a multi-step synthetic sequence, 4-fluoro-3-nitrobenzoic acid was converted into benzimidazole bis-heterocycles, via the intermediacy of benzimidazole linked ortho-chloro amines. The amphiphilic reactivity of this intermediate was designed to achieve the title compounds by the reaction of various acid chlorides and isothiocyanates in a single step through the in situ formation of ortho-chloro anilides and thioureas under microwave irradiation. A versatile one pot domino annulation reaction was developed to involve the reaction of benzimidazole linked ortho-chloro amines with acid chlorides and isothiocyanates. The initial acylation and urea formation followed by copper catalyzed intramolecular C-O and C-S cross coupling reactions furnished the angularly oriented bis-heterocycles which bear a close resemblance to the streptomyces antibiotic UK-1.

  1. Ruthenium-Catalyzed Transformations of Alcohols: Mechanistic Investigations and Methodology Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarov, Ilya; Madsen, Robert; Fristrup, Peter

    in the transition state of the turnover-determining step. The value of the kinetic isotope effect of 2.290.15 indicated that the C–H bond breakage is not the rate-determining step, but that it is one of several slow steps in the catalytic cycle. Experiments with deuterium-labeled alcohols and amines revealed......The mechanism of the ruthenium-catalyzed dehydrogenative synthesis of amides from alcohols and amines was studied in detail by employing the combination of experimental and theoretical techniques. The Hammett study revealed that a small positive charge is formed at the benzylic position...... alcohols to give esters. Addition of 16.7 mol% of Mg3N2 to the reaction mixture gave esters from aliphatic alcohols in similar yields but at lower temperature as compared with previously a reported catalytic system. This additive also suppressed the decarbonylation of aromatic alcohols. A previously...

  2. Highly selective formation of imines catalyzed by silver nanoparticles supported on alumina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Poreddy, Raju; Engelbrekt, Christian;


    The oxidative dehydrogenation of alcohols to aldehydes catalyzed by Ag nanoparticles supported on Al2O3 was studied. The catalyst promoted the direct formation of imines by tandem oxidative dehydrogenation and condensation of alcohols and amines. The reactions were performed under mild conditions...... and afforded the imines in high yield (up to 99%) without any byproducts other than H2O. The highest activity was obtained over 5 wt% Ag/Al2O3 in toluene with air as oxidant. The reactions were also performed under oxidant-free conditions where the reaction was driven to the product side by the production of H......-2 in the gas phase. The use of an efficient and selective Ag catalyst for the oxidative dehydrogenation of alcohol in the presence of amines gives a new green reaction protocol for imine synthesis. (C) 2014, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B...

  3. CCN activity of aliphatic amine secondary aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Tang


    Full Text Available Aliphatic amines can form secondary aerosol via oxidation with atmospheric radicals (e.g. hydroxyl radical and nitrate radical. The particle composition can contain both secondary organic aerosol (SOA and inorganic salts. The fraction of organic to inorganic materials in the particulate phase influences aerosol hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity. SOA formed from trimethylamine (TMA and butylamine (BA reactions with hydroxyl radical (OH is composed of organic material of low hygroscopicity (single hygroscopicity parameter, κ ≤ 0.25. Secondary aerosol formed from the tertiary aliphatic amine (TMA with N2O5 (source of nitrate radical, NO3, contains less volatile compounds than the primary aliphatic amine (BA aerosol. TMA + N2O5 form semi-volatile organics in low RH conditions that have κ ~ 0.20, indicative of slightly soluble organic material. As RH increases, several inorganic amine salts are formed as a result of acid-base reactions. The CCN activity of the humid TMA-N2O5 aerosol obeys Zdanovskii, Stokes, and Robinson (ZSR ideal mixing rules. Higher CCN activity (κ > 0.3 was also observed for humid BA+N2O5 aerosols compared with dry aerosol (κ ~ 0.2, as a result of the formation of inorganic salts such as NH4NO3 and butylamine nitrate (C4H11N · HNO3. Compared with TMA, BA+N2O5 reactions produce more volatile aerosols. The BA+N2O5 aerosol products under humid experiments were found to be very sensitive to the temperature within the stream-wise continuous flow thermal gradient CCN counter. The CCN counter, when set above a 21 °C temperature difference, evaporates BA+N2O5 aerosol formed at RH ≥ 30%; κ ranges from 0.4 to 0.7 and is dependent on the instrument supersaturation (ss settings. The aerosol behaves non-ideally, hence simple ZSR rules cannot be applied to the CCN results from the primary aliphatic amine system. Overall, aliphatic amine aerosol systems κ ranges from 0.2 < κ < 0.7. This work indicates that

  4. Kinetic study on Michael-type reactions of β-nitrostyrenes with cyclic secondary amines in acetonitrile: transition-state structures and reaction mechanism deduced from negative enthalpy of activation and analyses of LFERs. (United States)

    Um, Ik-Hwan; Kang, Ji-Sun; Park, Jong-Yoon


    A kinetic study is reported for the Michael-type reactions of X-substituted β-nitrostyrenes (1a-j) with a series of cyclic secondary amines in MeCN. The plots of pseudo-first-order rate constant k(obsd) vs [amine] curve upward, indicating that the reactions proceed through catalyzed and uncatalyzed routes. The dissection of k(obsd) into Kk2 and Kk3 (i.e., the rate constants for the uncatalyzed and catalyzed routes, respectively) revealed that Kk3 is much larger than Kk2, implying that the reactions proceed mainly through the catalyzed route when [amine] > 0.01 M. Strikingly, the reactivity of β-nitrostyrene (1g) toward piperidine decreases as the reaction temperature increases. Consequently, a negative enthalpy of activation is obtained, indicating that the reaction proceeds through a relatively stable intermediate. The Brønsted-type plots for the reactions of 1g are linear with β(nuc) = 0.51 and 0.61, and the Hammett plots for the reactions of 1a-j are also linear with ρX = 0.84 and 2.10 for the uncatalyzed and catalyzed routes, respectively. The reactions are concluded to proceed through six-membered cyclic transition states for both the catalyzed and uncatalyzed routes. The effects of the substituent X on reactivity and factors influencing β(nuc) and ρX obtained in this study are discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor


    Full Text Available Twenty-five samples of different Slovak wines before and after filtration were analysed in order to determine the content of eight biogenic amines (tryptamine, phenylalanine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine. The method involves extraction of biogenic amines from wine samples with used dansyl chloride. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC was used for determination of biogenic amines equipped with a Rapid Resolution High Definition (RRHD, DAD detectors and Extend-C18 LC column (50 mm x 3.0 mm ID, 1.8 μm particle size. In this study the highest level of biogenic amine in all wine samples represent tryptamine (TRM with the highest content 170.9±5.3 mg/L in Pinot Blanc wine. Phenylalanine (PHE cadaverine (CAD, histamine (HIS and spermidine (SPD were not detected in all wines; mainly SPD was not detected in 16 wines, HIS not detected in 14 wines, PHE and CAD not detected in 2 wines. Tyramine (TYR, spermine (SPN and putrescine (PUT were detected in all wines, but PUT and SPN in very low concentration. The worst wine samples with high biogenic amine content were Saint Laurent (BF, Pinot Blanc (S and Pinot Noir (AF.

  6. Biogenic amines in raw and processed seafood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierina eVisciano


    Full Text Available The presence of biogenic amines in raw and processed seafood, associated with either time/temperature conditions or food technologies is discussed in the present paper from a safety and prevention point of view. In particular, storage temperature, handling practices, presence of microbial populations with decarboxylase activity and availability of free amino acids are considered the most important factors affecting the production of biogenic amines in raw seafood. On the other hand, some food technological treatments such as salting, ripening, fermentation or marination can increase the levels of biogenic amines in processed seafood. The consumption of high amount of biogenic amines, above all histamine, can result in food borne poisoning which is a worldwide problem. The European Regulation established as maximum limits for histamine, in fishery products from fish species associated with high histidine amounts, values ranging from 100 to 200 mg/kg, while for products which have undergone enzyme maturation treatment in brine, the aforementioned limits rise to 200 and 400 mg/kg. Preventive measures and emerging methods aiming at controlling the production of biogenic amines are also reported for potential application in seafood industries.

  7. Amine permeation sources characterized with acid neutralization and sensitivities of an amine mass spectrometer (United States)

    Freshour, N. A.; Carlson, K. K.; Melka, Y. A.; Hinz, S.; Panta, B.; Hanson, D. R.


    An acid titration method for quantifying amine permeation rates was used to calibrate an Ambient pressure Proton transfer Mass Spectrometer (AmPMS) that monitors ambient amine compounds. The method involves capturing amines entrained in a N2 flow by bubbling it through an acidified solution (~10-5 M HCl), and the amines are quantified via changes in solution pH with time. Home-made permeation tubes had permeation rates (typically tens of pmol s-1) that depended on the type of amine and tubing and on temperature. Calibrations of AmPMS yielded sensitivities for ammonia, methylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine that are close to the sensitivity assuming a gas-kinetic, ion-molecule rate coefficient. The permeation tubes were also designed to deliver a reproducible amount of amine to a flow reactor where nucleation with sulfuric acid was studied. The high proton affinity compound dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), linked to oceanic environments, was also studied and AmPMS is highly sensitive to it. AmPMS was deployed recently in two field campaigns and, using these sensitivities, mixing ratios for ammonia and the alkyl amines are derived from the signals. Correlations between these species and with particle formation events are discussed.

  8. Silica Micro Encapsulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, P.; Whitbread-Jordan, M. [KEECO (United Kingdom)


    The article explains how Silica Micro Encapsulation (SME) water treatment technology may be transferred from metal mining to coal mining operations. KEECO has been developing a unique solution for treating acid rock drainage in the metal sulphide mining sector and following trials in metal mining operations (described in the article), is preparing to transfer the technology to the coal industry. SME technology comprises metal precipitation and encapsulation accomplished with proprietary chemical, KB-1, and a group of patented chemical dosing systems, the K-series, to dose KB-1 into contaminated liquid wastes as a dry powder. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. ZBLAN, Silica Fiber Comparison (United States)


    This graph depicts the increased signal quality possible with optical fibers made from ZBLAN, a family of heavy-metal fluoride glasses (fluorine combined zirconium, barium, lanthanum, aluminum, and sodium) as compared to silica fibers. NASA is conducting research on pulling ZBLAN fibers in the low-g environment of space to prevent crystallization that limits ZBLAN's usefulness in optical fiber-based communications. In the graph, a line closer to the black theoretical maximum line is better. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center

  10. Mesoporous Silica Supported Au Nanoparticles with Controlled Size as Efficient Heterogeneous Catalyst for Aerobic Oxidation of Alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Chu


    Full Text Available A series of Au catalysts with different sizes were synthesized and employed on amine group functionalized ordered mesoporous silica solid supports as catalyst for the aerobic oxidation of various alcohols. The mesoporous silica of MCM-41 supported Au nanoparticles (Au-1 exhibited the smallest particle size at ~1.8 nm with superior catalytic activities owing to the confinement effect of the mesoporous channels. Au-1 catalyst is also very stable and reusable under aerobic condition. Therefore, this presented work would obviously provide us a platform for synthesizing more size-controlled metal catalysts to improve the catalytic performances.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elhussein A.Taha; Jun-tao Wu; Kai Gao; Lin Guo


    Fumed silica/bisphenol A dicyanate ester (BADCy) nanocomposites were prepared by introducing different contents of nano-sized fumed SiO2 into the BADCy matrix.Two different average primary particle diameters of 12 and 40 nm were chosen.Dibutyltindilaurate (DBTDL) catalyst was chosen to catalyze the cyanate ester group into triazine group via cyclotrimerization reaction.The SEM micrographs indicated that the fumed SiO2 particles were homogeneously dispersed in the poly(bisphenol A dicyanate) matrix by means of ultrasonic treatment and the addition of a coupling agent.The FTIR spectroscopy shows that,not only DBTDL catalyzes the polymerization reaction but also-OH groups of the SiO2 particles surface help the catalyst for the complete polymerization of BADCy monomer.The thermal stability of the cured BADCy can be improved by adequate addition of fumed SiO2.A slight increase in the dielectric constant and dielectric loss values were identified by testing the dielectric properties of the prepared nanocomposite samples.By increasing the SiO2 content,there was a slight increasing in the thermal conductivity values of the tested samples.The obtained results proved that the fumed silica/BADCy nanocomposites had good thermal and dielectrical properties and can be used in many applications such as in the thermal insulation field.

  12. Interaction between hypocrellin and aliphatic amines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张曼华; 陈申; 夏万林; 蒋丽金; 陈德文


    The interaction of hypocrellin, including hypocrellin A (HA) and hypocrellin B (HB), with aliphatic amines in deaerated solutions has been studied by ESR and nanosecond transient absorption spectra. In polar solvents, the acid-base interaction between hypocrellin and amines was observed without irradiation. The signals of semiquinone radical anions of hypocrellm and the spin-trapping adduct of α-phenyl-N-tertbutyl-ratrone (PNB) with the aminoalkyl radicals have been detected in photoinduced ESR studies. The transient absorption of excited triplet state of HA and semiquinone radical anion of HA have been observed in laser flash photolysis studies.

  13. Synthesis of phenanthridines via palladium-catalyzed picolinamide-directed sequential C–H functionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Pearson


    Full Text Available We report a new synthesis of phenanthridines based on palladium-catalyzed picolinamide-directed sequential C–H functionalization reactions starting from readily available benzylamine and aryl iodide precursors. Under the catalysis of Pd(OAc2, the ortho-C–H bond of benzylpicolinamides is first arylated with an aryl iodide. The resulting biaryl compound is then subjected to palladium-catalyzed picolinamide-directed intramolecular dehydrogenative C–H amination with PhI(OAc2 oxidant to form the corresponding cyclized dihydrophenanthridines. The benzylic position of these dihydrophenanthridines could be further oxidized with Cu(OAc2, removing the picolinamide group and providing phenathridine products. The cyclization and oxidation could be carried out in a single step and afford phenathridines in moderate to good yields.

  14. Autoinduced catalysis and inverse equilibrium isotope effect in the frustrated Lewis pair catalyzed hydrogenation of imines. (United States)

    Tussing, Sebastian; Greb, Lutz; Tamke, Sergej; Schirmer, Birgitta; Muhle-Goll, Claudia; Luy, Burkhard; Paradies, Jan


    The frustrated Lewis pair (FLP)-catalyzed hydrogenation and deuteration of N-benzylidene-tert-butylamine (2) was kinetically investigated by using the three boranes B(C6F5)3 (1), B(2,4,6-F3-C6H2)3 (4), and B(2,6-F2-C6H3)3 (5) and the free activation energies for the H2 activation by FLP were determined. Reactions catalyzed by the weaker Lewis acids 4 and 5 displayed autoinductive catalysis arising from a higher free activation energy (2 kcal mol(-1)) for the H2 activation by the imine compared to the amine. Surprisingly, the imine reduction using D2 proceeded with higher rates. This phenomenon is unprecedented for FLP and resulted from a primary inverse equilibrium isotope effect.

  15. Enantioselective catalytic syntheses of alpha-branched chiral amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brase, S.; Baumann, T.; Dahmen, S.


    Chiral amines play a pivotal role in fine chemical and natural product syntheses and the design of novel materials.......Chiral amines play a pivotal role in fine chemical and natural product syntheses and the design of novel materials....

  16. Preparation and characterization of monodisperse large-porous silica microspheres as the matrix for protein separation. (United States)

    Xia, Hongjun; Wan, Guangping; Zhao, Junlong; Liu, Jiawei; Bai, Quan


    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a kind of efficient separation technology and has been used widely in many fields. Micro-sized porous silica microspheres as the most popular matrix have been used for fast separation and analysis in HPLC. In this paper, the monodisperse large-porous silica microspheres with controllable size and structure were successfully synthesized with polymer microspheres as the templates and characterized. First, the poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate) microspheres (PGMA-EDMA) were functionalized with tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) to generate amino groups which act as a catalyst in hydrolysis of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) to form Si-containing low molecular weight species. Then the low molecular weight species diffused into the functionalized PGMA-EDMA microspheres by induction force of the amino groups to form polymer/silica hybrid microspheres. Finally, the organic polymer templates were removed by calcination, and the large-porous silica microspheres were obtained. The compositions, morphology, size distribution, specific surface area and pore size distribution of the porous silica microspheres were characterized by infrared analyzer, scanning-electron microscopy, dynamic laser scattering, the mercury intrusion method and thermal gravimetric analysis, respectively. The results show that the agglomeration of the hybrid microspheres can be overcome when the templates were functionalized with TEPA as amination reagent, and the yield of 95.7% of the monodisperse large-porous silica microspheres can be achieved with high concentration of polymer templates. The resulting large-porous silica microspheres were modified with octadecyltrichlorosilane (ODS) and the chromatographic evaluation was performed by separating the proteins and the digest of BSA. The baseline separation of seven kinds of protein standards was achieved, and the column delivered a better performance when separating BSA digests

  17. Tertiary amines nucleophilicity in quaternization reaction with benzyl chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia S. Yutilova


    Full Text Available Quaternization reaction of tertiary amines with benzyl chloride was investigated. Reaction orders with respect to the reactants were determined. Kinetic scheme of quaternization reaction was found to be corresponding to reversible process. An influence of amines basicity and steric factor of alkyl substituent bound to the nitrogen atom on tertiary amines reactivity as nucleophiles was studied. It was shown that the rate constants of direct reaction step may serve as a measure of nucleophilicity of amines.

  18. Gold-Catalyzed Synthesis of Heterocycles (United States)

    Arcadi, Antonio


    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Synthesis of Heterocycles via Gold-Catalyzed Heteroatom Addition to Unsaturated C-C Bonds * Synthesis of Heterocyclic Derivatives through Gold-Catalyzed Cyclization of Polyunsaturated Compounds * Synthesis of Heterocyclic Compounds via α-Oxo Gold Carbenoid * Synthesis of Heterocyclic Derivatives through Gold-Catalyzed Cycloaddition Reactions * Synthesis of Heterocyclic Derivatives through Gold-Catalyzed Activation of Carbonyl Groups and Alcohols * Synthesis of Heterocyclic Compounds through Gold-Mediated C-H Bond Functionalization * Gold-Catalyzed Domino Cyclization/Oxidative Coupling Reactions * Conclusions * References

  19. Solar thermochemical reactions Ⅲ: A convenient one-pot synthesis of 1,2,4,5-tetrasubstituted imidazoles catalyzed by high surface area SiO2 and induced by solar thermal energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramadan A. Mekheimer; Afaf M. Abdel Hameed; Seham A.A. Mansour; Kamal Usef Sadek


    A simple, convenient and efficient method for the synthesis of 1,2,4,5-tetrasubstituted imidazole derivatives using benzoin, an aromatic aldehyde, an aromatic amine in the presence of ammonium acetate catalyzed by high surface area SiO2 and induced by free solar thermal energy was reported.

  20. Ir-Catalyzed Enantioselective Hydrogenation of 2H-1,4-Benzoxazines with a Chiral 1,2,3,4- Tetrahydro-l-naphthylamine Derived Phosphine-aminophosphine Ligand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡娟; 王道永; 郑卓; 胡向平


    Unsymmetrical hybrid chiral phosphine-aminophosphine ligand derived from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-l-naphthyl- amine has been found to be highly efficient in the Ir-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of various 3-aryl-2H-1,4-benzoxazines, providing good enantioselectivities (up to 95% ee) and high catalytic activity (S/C up to 5000).

  1. Cu(OAc)2/Pyrimidines-Catalyzed Cross-coupling Reactions of Aryl Iodides and Activated Aryl Bromides with Alkynes under Aerobic, Solvent-free and Palladium-free Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Ye-Xiang; DENG Chen-Liang; PI Shao-Feng; LI Jin-Heng; YIN Du-Lin


    Excellent results have been achieved in the Cu(OAc)2-catalyzed Sonogashira cross-couplings of aryl iodides and activated aryl bromides utilizing TBAF (tetrabutylammonium fluoride) as the base and 4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-amine as the ligand. It is noteworthy that the reaction is conducted under aerobic, solvent-free and palladium-free conditions.

  2. Silaffins in Silica Biomineralization and Biomimetic Silica Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin C. Lechner


    Full Text Available Biomineralization processes leading to complex solid structures of inorganic material in biological systems are constantly gaining attention in biotechnology and biomedical research. An outstanding example for biomineral morphogenesis is the formation of highly elaborate, nano-patterned silica shells by diatoms. Among the organic macromolecules that have been closely linked to the tightly controlled precipitation of silica in diatoms, silaffins play an extraordinary role. These peptides typically occur as complex posttranslationally modified variants and are directly involved in the silica deposition process in diatoms. However, even in vitro silaffin-based peptides alone, with and without posttranslational modifications, can efficiently mediate biomimetic silica precipitation leading to silica material with different properties as well as with encapsulated cargo molecules of a large size range. In this review, the biomineralization process of silica in diatoms is summarized with a specific focus on silaffins and their in vitro silica precipitation properties. Applications in the area of bio- and nanotechnology as well as in diagnostics and therapy are discussed.

  3. Copper-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition polymer networks (United States)

    Alzahrani, Abeer Ahmed

    The click reaction concept, introduced in 2001, has since spurred the rapid development and reexamination of efficient, high yield reactions which proceed rapidly under mild conditions. Prior to the discovery of facile copper catalysis in 2002, the thermally activated azide-alkyne or Huisgen cycloaddition reaction was largely ignored following its discovery in large part due to its slow kinetics, requirement for elevated temperature and limited selectivity. Now, arguably, the most prolific and capable of the click reactions, the copper-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction is extremely efficient and affords exquisite control of the reaction. The orthogonally and chemoselectivity of this reaction enable its wide utility across varied scientific fields. Despite numerous inherent advantages and widespread use for small molecule synthesis and solution-based polymer chemistry, it has only recently and rarely been utilized to form polymer networks. This work focuses on the synthesis, mechanisms, and unique attributes of the CuAAC reaction for the fabrication of functional polymer networks. The photo-reduction of a series of copper(II)/amine complexes via ligand metal charge transfer was examined to determine their relative efficiency and selectivity in catalyzing the CuAAC reaction. The aliphatic amine ligands were used as an electron transfer species to reduce Cu(II) upon irradiation with 365 nm light while also functioning as an accelerating agent and as protecting ligands for the Cu(I) that was formed. Among the aliphatic amines studied, tertiary amines such as triethylamine (TEA), tetramethyldiamine (TMDA), N,N,N',N",N"-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine (PMDTA), and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTETA) were found to be the most effective. The reaction kinetics were accelerated by increasing the PMDETA : Cu(II) ratio with a ratio of ligand to Cu(II) of 4:1 yielding the maximum conversion in the shortest time. The sequential and orthogonal nature of the photo

  4. Catalytic Amination of Alcohols, Aldehydes, and Ketones (United States)

    Klyuev, M. V.; Khidekel', M. L.


    Data on the catalytic amination of alcohols and carbonyl compounds are examined, the catalysts for these processes are described, and the problems of their effectiveness, selectivity, and stability are discussed. The possible mechanisms of the reactions indicated are presented. The bibliography includes 266 references.

  5. Fate and biodegradability of sulfonated aromatic amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, N.C.G.; Leeuwen, van A.; Voorthuizen, van E.M.; Slenders, P.; Prenafeta, F.X.; Temmink, H.; Lettinga, G.; Field, J.A.


    Ten sulfonated aromatic amines were tested for their aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability and toxicity potential in a variety of environmental inocula. Of all the compounds tested, only two aminobenzenesulfonic acid (ABS) isomers, 2- and 4-ABS, were degraded. The observed degradation occurred only

  6. Inhibition by N'-nitrosonornicotine of the catalytic activity of glutamate dehydrogenase in alpha-ketoglutarate amination. (United States)

    Mao, You-An; Zhong, Ke-Jun; Wei, Wan-Zhi; Wei, Xin-Liang; Lu, Hong-Bing


    The effect of N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), one of the tobacco-specific nitrosamines, on the catalytic activity of glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) in the alpha-ketoglutarate amination, using reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as coenzyme, was studied by a chronoamperometric method. The maximum reaction rate of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction and the Michaelis-Menten constant, or the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant, were determined in the absence and presence of NNN. NNN remarkably inhibited the bio-catalysis activity of GLDH, and was a reversible competitive inhibitior with K(i), estimated as 199 micromol l(-1) at 25 degrees C and pH 8.0.

  7. Biogenic nanostructured silica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Silicon is by far the most abundant element in the earth crust and also is an essential element for higher plants, yet its biology and mechanisms in plant tolerance of biotic and abiotic stresses are poorly understood. Based on the molecular mechanisms of the biosilicification in marine organisms such as diatoms and sponges, the cell wall template-mediated self-assembly of nanostructured silica in marine organisms and higher plants as well as the related organic molecules are discussed. Understanding of the templating and structure-directed effects of silicon-processing organic molecules not only offers the clue for synthesizing silicon-based materials, but also helps to recognize the anomaly of silicon in plant biology.

  8. Green Aza-Michael Reaction of Aliphatic Amines to á,(a)-Unsaturated Compounds in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li-Wen; XIA Chun-Gu


    The hydroamination of olefins is a long-standing goal for transition metal catalysis. And the metal-catalyzed addition of amines to carbon-carbon double bonds is an unsolved, synthetically important problem. Although recent advances have made using lanthanide and precious metal complexes, there are few excellent catalyst that display broad functional group tolerance and useful rates for an intermolecular aza-Michael addition. As such, the development of efficient synthetic methods leading to a-amino carbonyl compounds and derivatives has attracted much attention in organic synthesis. Although recent advances have made this route more attractive, development of cheaper, simpler, and more efficient metal catalyst is highly desirable. We also have been interested in developing a reaction that uses catalytic quantities of minimally toxic, readily available, economic reagent should greatly contribute to the creation of environmental benign processes.The recent interest in aqueous medium metal-mediated carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom and formations led to the contributors for such reactions. Furthermore, development of organic reactions in water will contribute to the progress of green and quasi-nature catalysis chemistry. Surprisingly however, there is few report on conjugate additions of amines to a,a-unsaturated carbonyl compounds in water.Herein, we report a new protocol that employs air stable copper salts as efficient catalyst in the aza-Michael reaction under mild reaction conditions. Advantages of the protocol include high-yielding reactions that can be conducted at ambient temperature; the use of readily available and stable copper salts as the catalyst, and the reaction was successfully performed in environmental benign solvent, water.Finally, we have utilized a variety of aliphatic amines successfully with different á,(a)-unsaturated compounds catalyzed by simple hydrophilic ionic liquid, bmimBF4 in water. Interestingly, all the aliphatic amines gave

  9. Morphologies and Superhydrophobicity of Hybrid Film Surfaces Based on Silica and Fluoropolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ailan QU; Xiufang WEN; Pihui PI; Jiang CHENG; Zhuoru YANG


    Fluoropolymer and different kinds of silica particles were used for controlling surface chemistry and morphology,respectively. A superhydrophobic surface originated from strawberry-like or quincunx-shaped composite silica particles was obtained. The dual size particles are obtained by utilizing the graft of different modified silica particles with epoxy functional group and amine functional group. This makes the surface of film form a composite interface to have irregular binary structure which plays an essential role in trapping air between the substrate surface and the liquid droplets to be necessary for high contact angle and low contact anglehysteresis. The maximum contact angle for water on the hybrid film is about 174±2° and the contact angle hysteresis is less than 2°. The surface morphologies, roughness and the wettability on the surface of films containing different structural silica particles were compared. It was shown that the hierarchical irregularly structure with a low roughness factor and high air-trapped ratio is indispensable for superhydrophobic surface.Although this structural surfaces based on composite silica particles play a vital role in governing the surface wettability, it is necessary to combine with a low surface energy to make the surface superhydrophobic.

  10. A new nanocomposite polymer electrolyte based on poly(vinyl alcohol) incorporating hypergrafted nano-silica

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Xian-Lei


    Solid-state nanocomposite polymer electrolytes based on poly(vinyl alcohol)(PVA) incorporating hyperbranched poly(amine-ester) (HBPAE) grafted nano-silica (denoted as SiO2-g-HBPAE) have been prepared and investigated. Through surface pretreatment of nanoparticles, followed by Michael-addition and a self-condensation process, hyperbranched poly(amine-ester) was directly polymerized from the surface of nano-silica. Then the hypergrafted nanoparticles were added to PVA matrix, and blended with lithium perchlorate via mold casting method to fabricate nanocomposite polymer electrolytes. By introducing hypergrafted nanoparticles, ionic conductivity of solid composite is improved significantly at the testing temperature. Hypergrafted nano-silica may act as solid plasticizer, promoting lithium salt dissociation in the matrix as well as improving segmental motion of matrix. In addition, tensile testing shows that such materials are soft and tough even at room temperature. From the dielectric spectra of nanocomposite polymer electrolyte as the function of temperature, it can be deduced that Arrhenius behavior appears depending on the content of hypergrafted nano-silica and concentration of lithium perchlorate. At a loading of 15 wt% hypergrafted nano-silica and 54 wt% lithium perchlorate, promising ionic conductivities of PVA nanocomposite polymer electrolyte are achieved, about 1.51 × 10 -4 S cm-1 at 25 °C and 1.36 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 100 °C. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  11. Innovative Route to Prepare of Au/C Catalysts by Replication of Gold-containing Mesoporous Silicas (United States)

    Kerdi, Fatmé; Caps, Valérie; Tuel, Alain

    Gold-catalyzed aerobic epoxidations in the liquid phase are generally performed in low-polarity solvents, in which conventional oxide-supported catalysts are poorly dispersed. To improve the wettability of the catalytic powder and, thus, the efficiency of the catalyst, gold nanoparticles (NPs) have been dispersed on meso-structured carbons. Gold is first introduced in functionalized mesostructured silica and particles are formed inside the porosity. Silica pores are then impregnated with a carbon precursor and the composite material is heated at 900 °C under vacuum or nitrogen. Silica is then removed by acid leaching, leading to partially encapsulated gold particles in mesoporous carbon. Carbon prevents aggregation of gold particles at high temperature, both the mean size and distribution being similar to those observed in silica. However, while Au@SiO2 exhibit significant catalytic activity in the aerobic oxidation of trans-stilbene in the liquid phase, its Au@C mesostructured replica is quite inactive.

  12. Innovative Route to Prepare of Au/C Catalysts by Replication of Gold-containing Mesoporous Silicas

    KAUST Repository

    Kerdi, Fatmé


    Gold-catalyzed aerobic epoxidations in the liquid phase are generally performed in low-polarity solvents, in which conventional oxide-supported catalysts are poorly dispersed. To improve the wettability of the catalytic powder and, thus, the efficiency of the catalyst, gold nanoparticles (NPs) have been dispersed on meso-structured carbons. Gold is first introduced in functionalized mesostructured silica and particles are formed inside the porosity. Silica pores are then impregnated with a carbon precursor and the composite material is heated at 900 °C under vacuum or nitrogen. Silica is then removed by acid leaching, leading to partially encapsulated gold particles in mesoporous carbon. Carbon prevents aggregation of gold particles at high temperature, both the mean size and distribution being similar to those observed in silica. However, while Au@SiO2 exhibit significant catalytic activity in the aerobic oxidation of trans-stilbene in the liquid phase, its Au@C mesostructured replica is quite inactive.

  13. 21 CFR 582.1711 - Silica aerogel. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Silica aerogel. 582.1711 Section 582.1711 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1711 Silica aerogel. (a) Product. Silica aerogel as a finely powdered microcellular silica foam...

  14. 21 CFR 182.1711 - Silica aerogel. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Silica aerogel. 182.1711 Section 182.1711 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN....1711 Silica aerogel. (a) Product. Silica aerogel as a finely powdered microcellular silica foam...

  15. 21 CFR 584.700 - Hydrophobic silicas. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrophobic silicas. 584.700 Section 584.700 Food... DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 584.700 Hydrophobic silicas. (a) Product. Amorphous fumed hydrophobic silica or precipitated hydrophobic silica (CAS Reg. No....

  16. TiO2 nanotubes and mesoporous silica as containers in self-healing epoxy coatings (United States)

    Vijayan P., Poornima; Al-Maadeed, Mariam Ali S. A.


    The potential of inorganic nanomaterials as reservoirs for healing agents is presented here. Mesoporous silica (SBA-15) and TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) were synthesized. Both epoxy-encapsulated TiO2 nanotubes and amine-immobilized mesoporous silica were incorporated into epoxy and subsequently coated on a carbon steel substrate. The encapsulated TiO2 nanotubes was quantitatively estimated using a ‘dead pore ratio’ calculation. The morphology of the composite coating was studied in detail using transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis. The self-healing ability of the coating was monitored using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS); the coating recovered 57% of its anticorrosive property in 5 days. The self-healing of the scratch on the coating was monitored using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results confirmed that the epoxy pre-polymer was slowly released into the crack. The released epoxy pre-polymer came into contact with the amine immobilized in mesoporous silica and cross-linked to heal the scratch.

  17. Interfacial Properties of Colloidal Silica Dispersions in Contact with Solutions of Fatty Amines in Hexane


    Whitby, C.P.; Ravera, Francesca; Fornasiero, D.; Ralston, J.; Liggieri, Libero


    Many natural phenomena and technologies are concerned with the interactions between micro- or nano-metre sized particles and surfactant molecules at liquid interfaces. Highly stable emulsions are produced by using surfactants to modify the surfaces of nanoparticles. Particle attachment to bubbles is controlled by surfactant adsorption in flotation technologies. So far, however, few experimental studies have explored the properties of these complex interfacial layers.

  18. Electrochemically protected copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition. (United States)

    Hong, Vu; Udit, Andrew K; Evans, Richard A; Finn, M G


    The copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction has found broad application in myriad fields. For the most demanding applications that require high yields at low substrate concentrations, highly active but air-sensitive copper complexes must be used. We describe here the use of an electrochemical potential to maintain catalysts in the active Cu(I) oxidation state in the presence of air. This simple procedure efficiently achieves excellent yields of CuAAC products from both small-molecule and protein substrates without the use of potentially damaging chemical reducing agents. A new water-soluble carboxylated version of the popular tris(benzyltriazolylmethyl)amine (TBTA) ligand is also described. Cyclic voltammetry revealed reversible or quasi-reversible electrochemical redox behavior of copper complexes of the TBTA derivative (2; E(1/2)=60 mV vs. Ag/AgCl), sulfonated bathophenanthroline (3; E(1/2)=-60 mV), and sulfonated tris(benzimidazoylmethyl)amine (4; E(1/2) approximately -70 mV), and showed catalytic turnover to be rapid relative to the voltammetry time scale. Under the influence of a -200 mV potential that was established by using a reticulated vitreous carbon working electrode, CuSO4 and 3 formed a superior catalyst. Electrochemically protected bioconjugations in air were performed by using bacteriophage Qbeta that was derivatized with azide moieties at surface lysine residues. Complete derivatization of more than 600 reactive sites per particle was demonstrated within 12 h of electrolysis with substoichiometric quantities of Cu3.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Binglin(Ho Pinglum); HUANG Wenqiang


    As a model of serine hydrolase, the condensation polymers of salicylic acid, formaldehyde and methyl amine, n-propyl amine, n-hexyl amine or n-lauryl amine were prepared by polycondensation catalyzed by sulfuric acid. It was confirmed by potentiometric titration and infrared spectrum that the polymers containing tertiary amino group possess the structure which resembles the internal salt of amino acid in weak basic and weak acidic solution:[-OOC-OH-CH2-H+N-R-CH2-]n R=alkyl group The catalytic reaction of the above polymers for hydrolysis of active ester,p-nitrophenyl acetate (PNPA),was studied .It was found kinetically that the most efficient catalytic effect of polymer was composed of two salicylic acid groups and one tertiary amino group in the polymer chain.The rates of hydrolysis of PNPA increase with increasing of pH values and length of the alkyl group in the side chain of the polymers and the effect of the conformation of the polymer containing tertiary amino group in the buffer solution on the catalytic activity was also investigated. Hydrolysis of PNPA catalyzed by the polymer made of salicylic acid, formaldehyde and n-lauryl amine follows the simple Michaelis-Menten type mechanism . The kinetics parameters were determined as :Km 6.7×10-5 M and Vmax 2.07×10-7 M·min-1.

  20. CCN activity of aliphatic amine secondary aerosol (United States)

    Tang, X.; Price, D.; Praske, E.; Vu, D.; Purvis-Roberts, K.; Silva, P. J.; Cocker, D. R., III; Asa-Awuku, A.


    Aliphatic amines can form secondary aerosol via oxidation with atmospheric radicals (e.g. hydroxyl radical and nitrate radical). The particle composition can contain both secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and inorganic salts. The fraction of organic to inorganic materials in the particulate phase influences aerosol hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity. SOA formed from trimethylamine (TMA) and butylamine (BA) reactions with hydroxyl radical (OH) is composed of organic material of low hygroscopicity (single hygroscopicity parameter, κ ≤ 0.25). Secondary aerosol formed from the tertiary aliphatic amine (TMA) with N2O5 (source of nitrate radical, NO3), contains less volatile compounds than the primary aliphatic amine (BA) aerosol. TMA + N2O5 form semi-volatile organics in low RH conditions that have κ ~ 0.20, indicative of slightly soluble organic material. As RH increases, several inorganic amine salts are formed as a result of acid-base reactions. The CCN activity of the humid TMA-N2O5 aerosol obeys Zdanovskii, Stokes, and Robinson (ZSR) ideal mixing rules. Higher CCN activity (κ > 0.3) was also observed for humid BA+N2O5 aerosols compared with dry aerosol (κ ~ 0.2), as a result of the formation of inorganic salts such as NH4NO3 and butylamine nitrate (C4H11N · HNO3). Compared with TMA, BA+N2O5 reactions produce more volatile aerosols. The BA+N2O5 aerosol products under humid experiments were found to be very sensitive to the temperature within the stream-wise continuous flow thermal gradient CCN counter. The CCN counter, when set above a 21 °C temperature difference, evaporates BA+N2O5 aerosol formed at RH ≥ 30%; κ ranges from 0.4 to 0.7 and is dependent on the instrument supersaturation (ss) settings. The aerosol behaves non-ideally, hence simple ZSR rules cannot be applied to the CCN results from the primary aliphatic amine system. Overall, aliphatic amine aerosol systems κ ranges from 0.2 systems.

  1. Effect of Synthesis Time on Morphology of Hollow Porous Silica Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian CHEN


    Full Text Available Hollow porous silica microspheres may be applicable as containers for the controlled release in drug delivery systems (DDS, foods, cosmetics, agrochemical, textile industry, and in other technological encapsulation use. In order to control the surface morphological properties of the silica microspheres, the effect of synthesis time on their formation was studied by a method of water-in-oil (W/O emulsion mediated sol-gel techniques. An aqueous phase of water, ammonium hydroxide and a surfactant Tween 20 was emulsified in an oil phase of 1-octanol with a stabilizer, hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC, and a surfactant, sorbitan monooleate (Span 80 with low hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB value. Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS as a silica precursor was added to the emulsion. The resulting silica particles at different synthesis time 24, 48, and 72 hours were air-dried at room temperature and calcinated at 773 K for 3 hours. The morphology of the particles was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and the particle size distribution was measured by laser diffraction. The specific surface areas were studied by 1-point BET method, and pore sizes were measured by Image Tool Software. Both dense and porous silica microspheres were observed after all three syntheses. Hollow porous silica microspheres were formed at 24 and 48 hours synthesis time. Under base catalyzed sol-gel solution, the size of silica particles was in the range of 5.4 μm to 8.2 μm, and the particles had surface area of 111 m2/g – 380 m2/g. The longer synthesis time produced denser silica spheres with decreased pore sizes.DOI:

  2. Functionalized silica materials for electrocatalysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vellaichamy Ganesan


    Electrocatalysis is an important phenomenon which is utilized in metal–air batteries, fuel cells, electrochemical sensors, etc. To increase the efficiency of the electrocatalytic process and to increase the electrochemical accessibility of the immobilized electrocatalysts, functionalized and non-functionalized mesoporous organo-silica (MCM41-type-materials) are used in this study. These materials possess several suitable properties to be durable catalysts and/or catalyst supports. Owing to the uniform dispersion of electrocatalysts (metal complex and/or metal nanoparticles (NPs)) on the functionalized and non-functionalized silica, an enormous increase in the redox current is observed. Long range channels of silica materials with pore diameter of 15–100 Å allowed metal NPs to accommodate in a specified manner in addition to other catalysts. The usefulness of MCM-41-type silica in increasing the efficiency of electrocatalysisis demonstrated by selecting oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrite reduction reactions as examples

  3. Effect of surface properties of silica nanoparticles on their cytotoxicity and cellular distribution in murine macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagano Kazuya


    Full Text Available Abstract Surface properties are often hypothesized to be important factors in the development of safer forms of nanomaterials (NMs. However, the results obtained from studying the cellular responses to NMs are often contradictory. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the surface properties of silica nanoparticles and their cytotoxicity against a murine macrophage cell line (RAW264.7. The surface of the silica nanoparticles was either unmodified (nSP70 or modified with amine (nSP70-N or carboxyl groups (nSP70-C. First, the properties of the silica nanoparticles were characterized. RAW264.7 cells were then exposed to nSP70, nSP70-N, or nSP70-C, and any cytotoxic effects were monitored by analyzing DNA synthesis. The results of this study show that nSP70-N and nSP70-C have a smaller effect on DNA synthesis activity by comparison to unmodified nSP70. Analysis of the intracellular localization of the silica nanoparticles revealed that nSP70 had penetrated into the nucleus, whereas nSP70-N and nSP70-C showed no nuclear localization. These results suggest that intracellular localization is a critical factor underlying the cytotoxicity of these silica nanoparticles. Thus, the surface properties of silica nanoparticles play an important role in determining their safety. Our results suggest that optimization of the surface characteristics of silica nanoparticles will contribute to the development of safer forms of NMs.

  4. “Low Cost” Pore Expanded SBA-15 Functionalized with Amine Groups Applied to CO2 Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Vilarrasa-García


    Full Text Available The CO2 adsorption capacity of different functionalized mesoporous silicas of the SBA-15 type was investigated and the influence of textural properties and the effect of the silicon source on the CO2 uptake studied. Several adsorbents based on SBA-15 were synthesized using sodium silicate as silicon source, replacing the commonly used tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS. Thus, we synthesized three couples of supports, two at room temperature (RT, RT-F, two hydrothermal (HT, HT-F and two hydrothermal with addition of swelling agent (1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene (TiPB, TiPB-F. Within each couple, one of the materials was synthesized with ammonium fluoride (NH4F. The supports were functionalized via grafting 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES and via impregnation with polyethylenimine ethylenediamine branched (PEI. The adsorption behavior of the pure materials was described well by the Langmuir model, whereas for the amine-silicas, a Dualsite Langmuir model was applied, which allowed us to qualify and quantify two different adsorption sites. Among the materials synthesized, only the SBA-15 synthesized at room temperatures (RT improved its properties as an adsorbent with the addition of fluoride when the silicas were functionalized with APTES. The most promising result was the TiPB-F/50PEI silica which at 75 °C and 1 bar CO2 captured 2.21 mmol/g.

  5. Nanoparticle strategies for cancer therapeutics: Nucleic acids, polyamines, bovine serum amine oxidase and iron oxide nanoparticles (Review). (United States)

    Agostinelli, Enzo; Vianello, Fabio; Magliulo, Giuseppe; Thomas, Thresia; Thomas, T J


    Nanotechnology for cancer gene therapy is an emerging field. Nucleic acids, polyamine analogues and cytotoxic products of polyamine oxidation, generated in situ by an enzyme-catalyzed reaction, can be developed for nanotechnology-based cancer therapeutics with reduced systemic toxicity and improved therapeutic efficacy. Nucleic acid-based gene therapy approaches depend on the compaction of DNA/RNA to nanoparticles and polyamine analogues are excellent agents for the condensation of nucleic acids to nanoparticles. Polyamines and amine oxidases are found in higher levels in tumours compared to that of normal tissues. Therefore, the metabolism of polyamines spermidine and spermine, and their diamine precursor, putrescine, can be targets for antineoplastic therapy since these naturally occurring alkylamines are essential for normal mammalian cell growth. Intracellular polyamine concentrations are maintained at a cell type-specific set point through the coordinated and highly regulated interplay between biosynthesis, transport, and catabolism. In particular, polyamine catabolism involves copper-containing amine oxidases. Several studies showed an important role of these enzymes in developmental and disease-related processes in animals through the control of polyamine homeostasis in response to normal cellular signals, drug treatment, and environmental and/or cellular stress. The production of toxic aldehydes and reactive oxygen species (ROS), H2O2 in particular, by these oxidases suggests a mechanism by which amine oxidases can be exploited as antineoplastic drug targets. The combination of bovine serum amine oxidase (BSAO) and polyamines prevents tumour growth, particularly well if the enzyme has been conjugated with a biocompatible hydrogel polymer. The findings described herein suggest that enzymatically formed cytotoxic agents activate stress signal transduction pathways, leading to apoptotic cell death. Consequently, superparamagnetic nanoparticles or other

  6. Development of a general non-noble metal catalyst for the benign amination of alcohols with amines and ammonia. (United States)

    Cui, Xinjiang; Dai, Xingchao; Deng, Youquan; Shi, Feng


    The N-alkylation of amines or ammonia with alcohols is a valuable route for the synthesis of N-alkyl amines. However, as a potentially clean and economic choice for N-alkyl amine synthesis, non-noble metal catalysts with high activity and good selectivity are rarely reported. Normally, they are severely limited due to low activity and poor generality. Herein, a simple NiCuFeOx catalyst was designed and prepared for the N-alkylation of ammonia or amines with alcohol or primary amines. N-alkyl amines with various structures were successfully synthesized in moderate to excellent yields in the absence of organic ligands and bases. Typically, primary amines could be efficiently transformed into secondary amines and N-heterocyclic compounds, and secondary amines could be N-alkylated to synthesize tertiary amines. Note that primary and secondary amines could be produced through a one-pot reaction of ammonia and alcohols. In addition to excellent catalytic performance, the catalyst itself possesses outstanding superiority, that is, it is air and moisture stable. Moreover, the magnetic property of this catalyst makes it easily separable from the reaction mixture and it could be recovered and reused for several runs without obvious deactivation.

  7. Silica exposure and systemic vasculitis.


    Mulloy, Karen B


    Work in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities has exposed workers to multiple toxic agents leading to acute and chronic diseases. Many exposures were common to numerous work sites. Exposure to crystalline silica was primarily restricted to a few facilities. I present the case of a 63-year-old male who worked in DOE facilities for 30 years as a weapons testing technician. In addition to silica, other workplace exposures included beryllium, various solvents and heavy metals, depleted uranium, a...

  8. Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database (United States)

    SRD 74 Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database (Web, free access)   The Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database contains thermodynamic data on enzyme-catalyzed reactions that have been recently published in the Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data (JPCRD). For each reaction the following information is provided: the reference for the data, the reaction studied, the name of the enzyme used and its Enzyme Commission number, the method of measurement, the data and an evaluation thereof.

  9. Catalytic dehydrogenation of amine borane complexes (United States)

    Mohajeri, Nahid (Inventor); Tabatabaie-Raissi, Ali (Inventor); Bokerman, Gary (Inventor)


    A method of generating hydrogen includes the steps of providing an amine borane (AB) complex, at least one hydrogen generation catalyst, and a solvent, and mixing these components Hydrogen is generated. The hydrogen produced is high purity hydrogen suitable for PEM fuel cells. A hydrolytic in-situ hydrogen generator includes a first compartment that contains an amine borane (AB) complex, a second container including at least one hydrogen generation catalyst, wherein the first or second compartment includes water or other hydroxyl group containing solvent. A connecting network permits mixing contents in the first compartment with contents in the second compartment, wherein high purity hydrogen is generated upon mixing. At least one flow controller is provided for controlling a flow rate of the catalyst or AB complex.

  10. Organic chemistry. Strain-release amination. (United States)

    Gianatassio, Ryan; Lopchuk, Justin M; Wang, Jie; Pan, Chung-Mao; Malins, Lara R; Prieto, Liher; Brandt, Thomas A; Collins, Michael R; Gallego, Gary M; Sach, Neal W; Spangler, Jillian E; Zhu, Huichin; Zhu, Jinjiang; Baran, Phil S


    To optimize drug candidates, modern medicinal chemists are increasingly turning to an unconventional structural motif: small, strained ring systems. However, the difficulty of introducing substituents such as bicyclo[1.1.1]pentanes, azetidines, or cyclobutanes often outweighs the challenge of synthesizing the parent scaffold itself. Thus, there is an urgent need for general methods to rapidly and directly append such groups onto core scaffolds. Here we report a general strategy to harness the embedded potential energy of effectively spring-loaded C-C and C-N bonds with the most oft-encountered nucleophiles in pharmaceutical chemistry, amines. Strain-release amination can diversify a range of substrates with a multitude of desirable bioisosteres at both the early and late stages of a synthesis. The technique has also been applied to peptide labeling and bioconjugation.

  11. Sonophotocatalytic Degradation of Amines in Water (United States)

    Verman, Mayank; Pankaj

    Hazardous effects of various amines, produced in the environment from the partial degradation of azo dyes and amino acids, adversely affect the quality of human life through water, soil and air pollution and therefore needed to be degraded. A number of such studies are already available in the literature, with or without the use of ultrasound, which have been summarized briefly. The sonochemical degradation of amines and in the combination with a photocatalyst, TiO2 has also been discussed. Similar such degradation studies for ethylamine (EA), aniline (A), diphenylamine (DPA) and naphthylamine (NA) in the presence of ultrasound, TiO2 and rare earths (REs); La, Pr, Nd, Sm and Gd, in aqueous solutions at 20 kHz and 250 W power have been carried out and reported, to examine the combinatorial efficacy of ultrasound in the presence of a photocatalyst and rare earth ions with reactive f-electrons.

  12. Amine chemistry. Update on impact on resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, Gregory; Kellogg, Douglas [Siemens Industry, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States). Technology and Lab Services; Wilkes, Marty [Siemens Industry, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States). Water Technologies Div.


    Impurity removal in the steam cycle and the associated prevention of corrosion and/or fouling of system components are the goals of ion exchange resins. However, in many instances (such as a switch to amine chemistry or a change in product specifications), resins do not remove, and, in fact, contribute impurities to the steam cycle. This paper reviews recent data compiled to determine the direct and indirect effects of amines on ion exchange resins used in the power industry. Water chemistries have improved in recent years, in large part due to changes in chemistry and resins, but it is necessary to continue to develop products, processes and techniques to reduce impurities and improve overall water chemistry in power plant systems. (orig.)

  13. Direct Nucleophilic Substitution of Free Allylic Alcohols in Water Catalyzed by FeCl3⋅6 H2O: Which is the Real Catalyst?


    Trillo Alarcón, María Paz; Baeza, Alejandro; Nájera Domingo, Carmen


    The allylic substitution reaction, and particularly the direct allylic amination reaction, of free allylic alcohols in water catalyzed by FeCl3⋅6 H2O is described. This novel environmentally-friendly methodology allows the use of a wide variety of nitrogenated nucleophiles such as sulfonamides, carbamates, benzamides, anilines, benzotriazoles, and azides, generally giving good yields of the corresponding substitution products. The synthetic applicability of the process is also demonstrated be...

  14. Directing Group in Decarboxylative Cross-Coupling: Copper-Catalyzed Site-Selective C-N Bond Formation from Nonactivated Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids. (United States)

    Liu, Zhao-Jing; Lu, Xi; Wang, Guan; Li, Lei; Jiang, Wei-Tao; Wang, Yu-Dong; Xiao, Bin; Fu, Yao


    Copper-catalyzed directed decarboxylative amination of nonactivated aliphatic carboxylic acids is described. This intramolecular C-N bond formation reaction provides efficient access to the synthesis of pyrrolidine and piperidine derivatives as well as the modification of complex natural products. Moreover, this reaction presents excellent site-selectivity in the C-N bond formation step through the use of directing group. Our work can be considered as a big step toward controllable radical decarboxylative carbon-heteroatom cross-coupling.

  15. "Hydro-metathesis" of olefins: A catalytic reaction using a bifunctional single-site tantalum hydride catalyst supported on fibrous silica (KCC-1) nanospheres

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek


    Tantalizing hydrocarbons: Tantalum hydride supported on fibrous silica nanospheres (KCC-1) catalyzes, in the presence of hydrogen, the direct conversion of olefins into alkanes that have higher and lower numbers of carbon atoms (see scheme). This catalyst shows remarkable catalytic activity and stability, with excellent potential of regeneration. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Confinement of a bioinspired nonheme Fe(II) complex in 2D hexagonal mesoporous silica with metal site isolation. (United States)

    Jollet, Véronique; Albela, Belén; Sénéchal-David, Katell; Jégou, Pascale; Kolodziej, Emilie; Sainton, Joëlle; Bonneviot, Laurent; Banse, Frédéric


    A mixed amine pyridine polydentate Fe(II) complex was covalently tethered in hexagonal mesoporous silica of the MCM-41 type. Metal site isolation was generated using adsorbed tetramethylammonium cations acting as a patterned silanol protecting mask and trimethylsilylazane as a capping agent. Then, the amine/pyridine ligand bearing a tethering triethoxysilane group was either grafted to such a pretreated silica surface prior to or after complexation to Fe(II). These two synthetic routes, denoted as two-step and one-step, respectively, were also applied to fumed silica for comparison, except that the silanol groups were capped after tethering the metal unit. The coordination of the targeted complex was monitored using UV-visible spectrophotometry and, according to XPS, the best control was achieved inside the channels of the mesoporous silica for the two-step route. For the solid prepared according to the one-step route, tethering of the complex occurred mainly at the entrance of the channel.

  17. High efficiency nanocomposite sorbents for CO2 capture based on amine-functionalized mesoporous capsules

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Genggeng


    A novel high efficiency nanocomposite sorbent for CO2 capture has been developed based on oligomeric amine (polyethylenimine, PEI, and tetraethylenepentamine, TEPA) functionalized mesoporous silica capsules. The newly synthesized sorbents exhibit extraordinary capture capacity up to 7.9 mmol g-1 under simulated flue gas conditions (pre-humidified 10% CO 2). The CO2 capture kinetics were found to be fast and reached 90% of the total capacities within the first few minutes. The effects of the mesoporous capsule features such as particle size and shell thickness on CO2 capture capacity were investigated. Larger particle size, higher interior void volume and thinner mesoporous shell thickness all improved the CO2 capacity of the sorbents. PEI impregnated sorbents showed good reversibility and stability during cyclic adsorption-regeneration tests (50 cycles). © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. O—Maltosylation of Heterocyclic Ketene Aminals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐占辉; 黄志镗


    The stereoselective synthesis of O-maltosides by reacting benzoyl-substituted heterocyclic ketene aminals 1 or 2 with acetylated maltosyl bromide 3 was investigated.Compounds 1 or 2 reacted with 3 in the presence of mercuric cyanide to give O-maltosides 4 or 5 with E-configuration.While 1 reacted with 3 in the presence of calcium hydride to give O-maltosides 6 with Zconfiguration.

  19. O-Maltosylation of Heterocyclic Ketene Aminals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU,Zhan-Hui(徐占辉); HUANG,Zhi-Tang(黄志镗)


    The stereoselective synthesis of O-maltosides by reacting benzoyl-substituted heterocyclic ketene aminals 1 or 2 with acetylated maltosyl bromide 3 was investigated. Compounds 1 or 2 reacted with 3 in the presence of mercuric cyanide to give O-maltosides 4 or 5 with E-configuration. While 1 reacted with 3 in the presence of calcium hydride to give O-maltosides 6 with Zconfiguration.

  20. Amine reactivity with charged sulfuric acid clusters (United States)

    Bzdek, B. R.; Ridge, D. P.; Johnston, M. V.


    The distribution of charged species produced by electrospray of an ammonium sulfate solution in both positive and negative polarities is examined using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). Positively-charged ammonium bisulfate cluster composition differs significantly from negatively-charged cluster composition. For positively-charged clusters all sulfuric acid is neutralized to bisulfate, whereas for negatively-charged clusters the degree of sulfuric acid neutralization is cluster size-dependent. With increasing cluster size (and, therefore, a decreasing role of charge), both positively- and negatively-charged cluster compositions converge toward ammonium bisulfate. The reactivity of negatively-charged sulfuric acid-ammonia clusters with dimethylamine and ammonia is also investigated by FTICR-MS. Two series of negatively-charged clusters are investigated: [(HSO4)(H2SO4)x]- and [(NH4)x(HSO4)x+1(H2SO4)3]-. Dimethylamine substitution for ammonia in [(NH4) x(HSO4) x+1(H2SO4)3]- clusters is nearly collision-limited, and subsequent addition of dimethylamine to neutralize H2SO4 to bisulfate is within one order of magnitude of the substitution rate. Dimethylamine addition to [(HSO4) (H2SO4) x]- clusters is either not observed or very slow. The results of this study indicate that amine chemistry will be evident and important only in large ambient negative ions (>m/z 400), whereas amine chemistry may be evident in small ambient positive ions. Addition of ammonia to unneutralized clusters occurs at a rate that is ~2-3 orders of magnitude slower than incorporation of dimethylamine either by substitution or addition. Therefore, in locations where amine levels are within a few orders of magnitude of ammonia levels, amine chemistry may compete favorably with ammonia chemistry.

  1. Whole cell biotransformation for reductive amination reactions


    Klatte, Stephanie; Lorenz, Elisabeth; Wendisch, Volker F.


    Whole cell biotransformation systems with enzyme cascading increasingly find application in biocatalysis to complement or replace established chemical synthetic routes for production of, e.g., fine chemicals. Recently, we established an Escherichia coli whole cell biotransformation system for reductive amination by coupling a transaminase and an amino acid dehydrogenase with glucose catabolism for cofactor recycling. Transformation of 2-keto-3-methylvalerate to l-isoleucine by E. coli cells w...

  2. Rett syndrome - Stimulation of endogenous biogenic amines (United States)

    Pelligra, R.; Norton, R. D.; Wilkinson, R.; Leon, H. A.; Matson, W. R.


    Transient hypercapnic hyperoxemia was induced in two Rett syndrome children by the administration of a gaseous mixture of 80 percent O2 and 20 percent CO2. Time course studies of neurotransmitters and their metabolites showed an immediate and marked increase in central biogenic amine turnover following inhalation of the gas mixture. The increased turnover of biogenic amines was associated with improved clinical changes. This suggests a coupled relationship and provides further support for an etiological role of neurotransmitter dysfunction in Rett syndrome. In a complementary study, elevation of pulmonary CO2 by application of a simple rebreathing device resulted in improvement of abnormal blood gases and elimination of the Cheyne-Stokes-like respiratory pattern of the Rett syndrome. Near normalization of the EEG occurred when a normal respiratory pattern was imposed by means of a respirator. Taken together, these results lead to the preliminary conclusion that cerebral hypoxemia secondary to abnormal respiratory function may contribute to diminished production of biogenic amines in Rett syndrome.

  3. Amine Swingbed Payload Testing on ISS (United States)

    Button, Amy B.; Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey J.


    One of NASA Johnson Space Center's test articles of the amine-based carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor sorbent system known as the CO2 And Moisture Removal Amine Swing-bed, or CAMRAS, was incorporated into a payload on the International Space Station (ISS). The intent of the payload is to demonstrate the spacecraft-environment viability of the core atmosphere revitalization technology baselined for the new Orion vehicle. In addition to the air blower, vacuum connection, and controls needed to run the CAMRAS, the payload incorporates a suite of sensors for scientific data gathering, a water save function, and an air save function. The water save function minimizes the atmospheric water vapor reaching the CAMRAS unit, thereby reducing ISS water losses that are otherwise acceptable, and even desirable, in the Orion environment. The air save function captures about half of the ullage air that would normally be vented overboard every time the cabin air-adsorbing and space vacuum-desorbing CAMRAS beds swap functions. The JSC team conducted 1000 hours of on-orbit Amine Swingbed Payload testing in 2013 and early 2014. This paper presents the basics of the payload's design and history, as well as a summary of the test results, including comparisons with prelaunch testing.

  4. Silica nanoparticles and biological dispersants: genotoxic effects on A549 lung epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, David M., E-mail: [Heriot-Watt University, Nanosafety Research Group, School of Life Sciences (United Kingdom); Varet, Julia, E-mail: [Institute of Occupational Medicine (United Kingdom); Johnston, Helinor, E-mail:; Chrystie, Alison; Stone, Vicki, E-mail: [Heriot-Watt University, Nanosafety Research Group, School of Life Sciences (United Kingdom)


    Silica nanoparticle exposure could be intentional (e.g. medical application or food) or accidental (e.g. occupational inhalation). On entering the body, particles become coated with specific proteins depending on the route of entry. The ability of silica particles of different size and charge (non-functionalized 50 and 200 nm and aminated 50 and 200 nm) to cause genotoxic effects in A549 lung epithelial cells was investigated. Using the modified comet assay and the micronucleus assay, we examined the effect of suspending the particles in different dispersion media [RPMI or Hanks’ balanced salt solution (HBSS), supplemented with bovine serum albumin (BSA), lung lining fluid (LLF) or serum] to determine if this influenced the particle’s activity. Particle characterisation suggested that the particles were reasonably well dispersed in the different media, with the exception of aminated 50 nm particles which showed evidence of agglomeration. Plain 50, 200 nm and aminated 50 nm particles caused significant genotoxic effects in the presence of formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase when dispersed in HBSS or LLF. These effects were reduced when the particles were dispersed in BSA and serum. There was no significant micronucleus formation produced by any of the particles when suspended in any of the dispersants. The data suggest that silica particles can produce a significant genotoxic effect according to the comet assay in A549 cells, possibly driven by an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism which may be modified depending on the choice of dispersant employed.

  5. Silica research in Glasgow

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, B W; Casey, M M; Clubley, D; Crooks, D R M; Danzmann, K; Elliffe, E J; Gossler, S; Grant, A; Grote, H; Heptonstall, A; Hough, J; Jennrich, O; Lück, H B; McIntosh, S A; Newton, G P; Palmer, D A; Plissi, M V; Robertson, D I; Robertson, N A; Rowan, S; Skeldon, K D; Sneddon, P; Strain, K A; Torrie, C I; Ward, H; Willems, P A; Willke, B; Winkler, W


    The Glasgow group is involved in the construction of the GEO600 interferometer as well as in R and D activity on technology for advanced gravitational wave detectors. GEO600 will be the first GW detector using quasi-monolithic silica suspensions in order to decrease thermal noise significantly with respect to steel wire suspensions. The results concerning GEO600 suspension mounting and performance will be shown in the first section. Section 2 is devoted to the present results from the direct measurement of thermal noise in mirrors mounted in the 10 m interferometer in Glasgow which has a sensitivity limit of 4 x 10 sup - sup 1 sup 9 m Hz sup - sup 1 sup / sup 2 above 1 kHz. Section 3 presents results on the measurements of coating losses. R and D activity has been carried out to understand better how thermal noise in the suspensions affects the detector sensitivity, and in section 4 a discussion on the non-linear thermoelastic effect is presented.

  6. In situ visualization and effect of glycerol in lipase-catalyzed ethanolysis of rapeseed oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yuan; Nordblad, Mathias; Nielsen, Per M.;


    Immobilized lipases can be used in biodiesel production to overcome many disadvantages of the conventional base-catalyzed process. However, the glycerol by-product poses a potential problem for the biocatalytic process as it is known to inhibit immobilized lipases, most likely by clogging...... to illustrate the interaction of glycerol with immobilized lipases and thus provided an aid for screening supports for lipase immobilization according to their interaction with glycerol. Glycerol was found to have great affinity for silica, less for polystyrene and no affinity for supports made from...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Liming; HUANG Meiyu; JIANG Yingyan


    A natural polymer catalyst, silica-supported chitosan palladium complex (abbr. as SiO2-CS-Pd) was found to catalyze the hydrogenation of phenol and cresols to corresponding cyclohexanones in high yield and 100% selectivity at 70℃ and 1.01325 × 105 Pa mild conditions. N/Pd molar ratio in the complex, temperature and solvents have much influence on the reaction. The reactivity order of reactants was found to be: phenol >m->p->ocresol. The catalyst is stable during the reaction and could be repeatedly used for several times without much decrease in its catalytic activity.

  8. Iridium-Catalyzed Allylic Substitution (United States)

    Hartwig, John F.; Pouy, Mark J.

    Iridium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitution has become a valuable method to prepare products from the addition of nucleophiles at the more substituted carbon of an allyl unit. The most active and selective catalysts contain a phosphoramidite ligand possessing at least one arylethyl substituent on the nitrogen atom of the ligand. In these systems, the active catalyst is generated by a base-induced cyclometalation at the methyl group of this substituent to generate an iridium metalacycle bound by the COD ligand of the [Ir(COD)Cl]2 precursor and one additional labile dative ligand. Such complexes catalyze the reactions of linear allylic esters with alkylamines, arylamines, phenols, alcohols, imides, carbamates, ammonia, enolates and enolate equivalents, as well as typical stabilized carbon nucleophiles generated from malonates and cyanoesters. Iridium catalysts for enantioselective allylic substitution have also been generated from phosphorus ligands with substituents bound by heteroatoms, and an account of the studies of such systems, along with a description of the development of iridium catalysts is included.

  9. Efficient CO2 sorbents based on silica foam with ultra-large mesopores

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Genggeng


    A series of high-capacity, amine impregnated sorbents based on a cost-effective silica foam with ultra-large mesopores is reported. The sorbents exhibit fast CO2 capture kinetics, high adsorption capacity (of up to 5.8 mmol g-1 under 1 atm of dry CO2), as well as good stability over multiple adsorption-desorption cycles. A simple theoretical analysis is provided relating the support structure to sorbent performance. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Fibrous nano-silica (KCC-1)-supported palladium catalyst: Suzuki coupling reactions under sustainable conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Fihri, Aziz


    Noble amines recycled: Fibrous high-surface-area nano-silica functionalized with aminopropyl groups and loaded with well-dispersed Pd nanoparticles is evaluated for the Suzuki coupling of aromatic halides. It is active for the reaction of a range of aryl bromides and iodides as well as chlorides with aryl boronic acids in good to excellent yields. The catalyst can be recovered and reused for a number of cycles with negligible loss in activity. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Aptamer-Functionalized Fluorescent Silica Nanoparticles for Highly Sensitive Detection of Leukemia Cells (United States)

    Tan, Juntao; Yang, Nuo; Hu, Zixi; Su, Jing; Zhong, Jianhong; Yang, Yang; Yu, Yating; Zhu, Jianmeng; Xue, Dabin; Huang, Yingying; Lai, Zongqiang; Huang, Yong; Lu, Xiaoling; Zhao, Yongxiang


    A simple, highly sensitive method to detect leukemia cells has been developed based on aptamer-modified fluorescent silica nanoparticles (FSNPs). In this strategy, the amine-labeled Sgc8 aptamer was conjugated to carboxyl-modified FSNPs via amide coupling between amino and carboxyl groups. Sensitivity and specificity of Sgc8-FSNPs were assessed using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. These results showed that Sgc8-FSNPs detected leukemia cells with high sensitivity and specificity. Aptamer-modified FSNPs hold promise for sensitive and specific detection of leukemia cells. Changing the aptamer may allow the FSNPs to detect other types of cancer cells.

  12. Targeting cancer cells through Mn(Ⅱ)-dpa grafted silica nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The unique properties of paramagnetic nanoscale metal-organic frameworks provide them with high potential as key probes and vectors in the next generation of biomedical applications.To increase the nanoparticle targeting at the tumor site,the grafting of Mn(Ⅱ)-dpa (dpa =di(picolyl)amines) on oxide nanoparticles (SiO2) is proposed.The new Mn(Ⅱ)-dpa-grafted silica nanoparticles can enhance the MR imaging area in cancer tissues and perturb the Ca2+-loaded mitochondria swelling.Experimental results indicate the cancer cells may be targeted through possible intracellular Ca2+ signaling mitochondria accumulating in vivo.

  13. Cell Wall Amine Oxidases: New Players in Root Xylem Differentiation under Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip A. Ghuge


    Full Text Available Polyamines (PAs are aliphatic polycations present in all living organisms. A growing body of evidence reveals their involvement as regulators in a variety of physiological and pathological events. They are oxidatively deaminated by amine oxidases (AOs, including copper amine oxidases (CuAOs and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD-dependent polyamine oxidases (PAOs. The biologically-active hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is a shared compound in all of the AO-catalyzed reactions, and it has been reported to play important roles in PA-mediated developmental and stress-induced processes. In particular, the AO-driven H2O2 biosynthesis in the cell wall is well known to be involved in plant wound healing and pathogen attack responses by both triggering peroxidase-mediated wall-stiffening events and signaling modulation of defense gene expression. Extensive investigation by a variety of methodological approaches revealed high levels of expression of cell wall-localized AOs in root xylem tissues and vascular parenchyma of different plant species. Here, the recent progresses in understanding the role of cell wall-localized AOs as mediators of root xylem differentiation during development and/or under stress conditions are reviewed. A number of experimental pieces of evidence supports the involvement of apoplastic H2O2 derived from PA oxidation in xylem tissue maturation under stress-simulated conditions.

  14. Determination of biogenic amines in beer and wine by capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Daniel, Daniela; Dos Santos, Vagner Bezerra; Vidal, Denis Tadeu Rajh; do Lago, Claudimir Lucio


    A capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry (CE-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous assessment of nine biogenic amines (spermine, spermidine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, phenylethylamine, tryptamine, tyramine, and urocanic acid) in commercial samples of beer and wine is introduced. The samples were submitted to a simple clean-up step with poly(vinylpolypyrrolidone) followed by filtration. Electrophoretic separation in a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-coated capillary using 0.5 mol L(-1) acetic acid (pH 2.5) as background electrolyte and detection by electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry was employed. The range of the correlation coefficients of the calibration curves of the analyzed compounds was 0.996-0.999, and the limits of detection and limits of quantification were in the range of 1-2 μg L(-1) and 3-8 μg L(-1), respectively. The recovery values for samples spiked at three concentration levels (0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg L(-1)) ranged from 87 to 113% with standard deviation not greater than 5.8%. The use of a PVA-coated silica capillary allows suppressing the electroosmotic flow and, consequently, increasing of the separation efficiency. The method was successfully used to determine biogenic amines in commercial samples of beer and wine.

  15. Carbon dioxide adsorption on amine-impregnated mesoporous materials prepared from spent quartz sand. (United States)

    Su, Yiteng; Peng, Lihong; Shiue, Angus; Hong, Gui-Bing; Qian, Zhang; Chang, Chang-Tang


    Mesoporous MCM-41 was synthesized using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as a cationic surfactant and spent quartz sand as the silica source. Modification of the mesoporous structure to create an absorbent was then completed using 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane. Amine-Quartz-MCM (The A-Q-MCM) adsorbents were then characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption, elemental analysis (EA), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), as well as the carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption/desorption performance. In this study, spent quartz sand was utilized to synthesize Quartz-MCM (Q-MCM) and the amine functionalized material, A-Q-MCM, which exhibited a higher uptake of CO2 at room temperature compared with the nongrafted material. The results showed that Q-MCM is similar to MCM-41 synthesized using commercial methods. The surface area, pore volume, and pore diameter were found to be as high as 1028 m2/g, 0.907 cm3/g, and 3.04 nm, respectively. Under the condition of CO2 concentration of 5000 ppm, retention time of 50 cc/min, and the dosage of 1 g/cm3, the mean adsorption capacity of CO2 onto A-Q-MCM was about 89 mg/g, and the nitrogen content of A-Q-MCM was 2.74%. The adsorption equilibrium was modeled well using a Freundlich isotherm. Implications: In this study, spent quartz sand was utilized to synthesize Q-MCM. The amine functionalized material exhibited a higher uptake of CO2 at room temperature compared with the nongrafted material. The results showed that Q-MCM is similar to MCM-41 synthesized using commercial methods. The adsorption equilibrium was modeled well using a Freundlich isotherm.

  16. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles for treating spinal cord injury (United States)

    White-Schenk, Désirée.; Shi, Riyi; Leary, James F.


    An estimated 12,000 new cases of spinal cord injury (SCI) occur every year in the United States. A small oxidative molecule responsible for secondary injury, acrolein, is an important target in SCI. Acrolein attacks essential proteins and lipids, creating a feed-forward loop of oxidative stress in both the primary injury area and the surrounding areas. A small molecule used and FDA-approved for hypertension, hydralazine, has been found to "scavenge" acrolein after injury, but its delivery and short half-life, as well as its hypertension effects, hinder its application for SCI. Nanomedical systems broaden the range of therapeutic availability and efficacy over conventional medicine. They allow for targeted delivery of therapeutic molecules to tissues of interest, reducing side effects of untargeted therapies in unwanted areas. Nanoparticles made from silica form porous networks that can carry therapeutic molecules throughout the body. To attenuate the acrolein cascade and improve therapeutic availability, we have used a one-step, modified Stober method to synthesize two types of silica nanoparticles. Both particles are "stealth-coated" with poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) (to minimize interactions with the immune system and to increase circulation time), which is also a therapeutic agent for SCI by facilitating membrane repair. One nanoparticle type contains an amine-terminal PEG (SiNP-mPEG-Am) and the other possesses a terminal hydrazide group (SiNP-mPEG-Hz). The former allows for exploration of hydralazine delivery, loading, and controlled release. The latter group has the ability to react with acrolein, allowing the nanoparticle to scavenge directly. The nanoparticles have been characterized and are being explored using neuronal PC-12 cells in vitro, demonstrating the potential of novel silica nanoparticles for use in attenuating secondary injury after SCI.

  17. Immobilized silver nanoparticles on silica gel as an efficient catalyst in nitroarene reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Reza Kiasat; Roya Mirzajani; Fakhri Ataeian; Mehdi Fallah-Mehrjardi


    Nanoparticles have properties that can be fine-tuned by their size as well as shape.Hence,there is significant current interest in preparing nano-materials of small size dispersity and to arrange them in close-packed aggregates.This letter describes a way of synthesising silver nanoparticles and their protection to aggregate by silica gel.The combination of catalytic quantities of immobilized silver nanoparticles with reductive ability of NaBH4 efficiently reduces aromatic nitroarenes to the corresponding amines in aqueous medium.Noteworthy is that highly chemoselective reactions were achieved in the presence of other functional groups such as halogen and carboxylic acid groups.The silver particles immobilized on silica gel are stable in the presence of oxygen for several months.

  18. Pineapple fruit bromelain recovery using recyclable functionalized ordered mesoporous silica synthesized from sugarcane leaf ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arumugam


    Full Text Available Bromelain, a protease enzyme found in Ananas comosus (Pineapple, was recovered from the fruit juice by adsorption using recyclable functionalized Santa Barbara Acid-15 (SBA-15 synthesized from sugarcane leaf ash. In this work, highly ordered mesoporous silica was synthesized from sugarcane leaf ash by a template-assisted method. It was successfully used as an adsorbent for the recovery of bromelain from pineapple fruit pulp. Amine-functionalized mesoporous silica exhibited a recovery efficiency of 97.89% and a 6.2-fold purification. It was also established that the adsorbent could be easily regenerated by adjusting the pH. In this study, the adsorbent was reused for three cycles without noticeable loss in recovery efficiency. Thus, adsroption using functionalized SBA-15 appears to be a promising alternate separation technique for the recovery of fruit bromelain.

  19. Synthesis of nanoporous silica with interior composite cells with synthetic block copolypeptide as template

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Nanoporous silica with unusual interior composite cells was synthesized with synthetic block copolypeptide Phe20-b-PBLG50 as template for the first time. Anilino-methyl triethoxy silane (AMTS) was used as an intermedium to interact with block copolypeptide Phe20-b-PBLG50 through π-π interaction between the phenyl groups of block copolypeptide and those of AMTS. Meanwhile, AMTS co-condenses together with tetraethoxylsilane (TEOS) after hydrolysis. The structure of composite vesicles due to the self-assembly of block copolypeptide in the organic solvent was immobilized and transcribed by the formation of silica. The formation of nanopores could be ascribed to the secondary structure of block copolypeptide and small molecular amine. Our results provide a new avenue to synthesize porous oxide materials with novel interior structures templated by the copolypeptide self-assembly under ambient conditions.

  20. Transition metal-catalyzed functionalization of pyrazines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikishkin, Nicolai I.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Verboom, Willem


    Transition metal-catalyzed reactions are generally used for carbon–carbon bond formation on pyrazines and include, but are not limited to, classical palladium-catalyzed reactions like Sonogashira, Heck, Suzuki, and Stille reactions. Also a few examples of carbon–heteroatom bond formation in pyrazine

  1. New potential of the reductive alkylation of amines (United States)

    Gusak, K. N.; Ignatovich, Zh V.; Koroleva, E. V.


    Available data on the reductive alkylation of amines with carbonyl compounds — a key method for the preparation of secondary and tertiary amines — are described systematically. The review provides information on the relevant reducing agents and catalysts and on the use of chiral catalysts in stereo- and enantiocontrolled reactions of amine synthesis. The effect of the reactant and catalyst structures on the reaction rates and chemo- and stereo(enantio)selectivity is considered. The bibliography includes 156 references.

  2. Infrared spectra of silica polymorphs (United States)

    Koike, C.; Noguchi, R.; Chihara, H.; Suto, H.; Ohtaka, O.; Imai, Y.; Matsumoto, T.; Tsuchiyama, A.

    The existence of silica within several debris disks has been suggested. We investigate the annealing conditions of α-cristobalite, and further prepare various types of silica, including α-cristobalite, α-quartz, coesite, stishovite, and fused quartz, which are natural, synthetic or commercial samples. We compare the results to previous studies and find that α-cristobalite synthesized at higher temperature than annealed silica. The interesting result of features similar to those of forsterite should be highlighted, where αcristobalite and coesite showed similar peaks at 16, 33, and 69 μm as forsterite. The 69 μm band for αcristobalite is especially very broad and strong, and shifts largely to a shorter wavelengths under cooling to low temperatures. The band for coesite, however, is very sharp, and shifts only a small amount to longer wavelengths under cooling to low temperatures. The peak positions of 16 and 69-μm band due to α-cristobalite can become index for temperature of silica dust. We discuss the possibility of silica detection around debris disks.

  3. Formation of asymmetrical structured silica controlled by a phase separation process and implication for biosilicification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Yuan Shi

    Full Text Available Biogenetic silica displays intricate patterns assembling from nano- to microsize level and interesting non-spherical structures differentiating in specific directions. Several model systems have been proposed to explain the formation of biosilica nanostructures. Of them, phase separation based on the physicochemical properties of organic amines was considered to be responsible for the pattern formation of biosilica. In this paper, using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS, Si(OCH2CH34 as silica precursor, phospholipid (PL and dodecylamine (DA were introduced to initiate phase separation of organic components and influence silica precipitation. Morphology, structure and composition of the mineralized products were characterized using a range of techniques including field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, transmission electron microscope (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA, infrared spectra (IR, and nitrogen physisorption. The results demonstrate that the phase separation process of the organic components leads to the formation of asymmetrically non-spherical silica structures, and the aspect ratios of the asymmetrical structures can be well controlled by varying the concentration of PL and DA. On the basis of the time-dependent experiments, a tentative mechanism is also proposed to illustrate the asymmetrical morphogenesis. Therefore, our results imply that in addition to explaining the hierarchical porous nanopatterning of biosilica, the phase separation process may also be responsible for the growth differentiation of siliceous structures in specific directions. Because organic amine (e.g., long-chair polyamines, phospholipids (e.g., silicalemma and the phase separation process are associated with the biosilicification of diatoms, our results may provide a new insight into the mechanism of biosilicification.

  4. Stepwise Synthesis of Mesoporous Carbon Nitride Functionalized by Melamine Based Dendrimer Amines for Adsorption of CO2 and CH4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Anbia


    Full Text Available In this study, a novel solid dendrimer amine (hyperbranched polymers was prepared using mesoporous carbon nitride functionalized by melamine based dendrimer amines. This adsorbent was denoted MDA-MCN-1. The process was stepwise synthesis and hard-templating method using mesoporous silica SBA-15 as a template. Cyanuric chloride and N,N-diisopropylethylamine (DIPEA, Merck were used for functionalization of the MCN-1. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis, Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS, X-ray diffraction (XRD and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA were used for characterization of the adsorbent. This material was used for carbon dioxide gas (CO2 and methane gas (CH4 adsorption at high pressure (up to 20 bar and room temperature. The volumetric method was used for the tests of the gas adsorption. The CO2 adsorption capacity of modified mesoporous carbon nitrides was about 4 mmol CO2 per g adsorbent. The methane adsorption capacity of this material was less than that CO2. Modified Mesoporous Carbon Nitride adsorbed about 3.52 mmol CH4 /g adsorbent. The increment of melamine based dendrimer generation on mesoporous surface increased adsorption capacity of both carbon dioxide and methane gases. According to the results obtained, the solid dendrimer amines, (MDA-MCN-1, performs excellently for CO2 and CH4 capture from flow gases and CO2 and CH4 storage.

  5. Exposure to crystalline silica in abrasive blasting operations where silica and non-silica abrasives are used. (United States)

    Radnoff, Diane L; Kutz, Michelle K


    Exposure to respirable crystalline silica is a hazard common to many industries in Alberta but particularly so in abrasive blasting. Alberta occupational health and safety legislation requires the consideration of silica substitutes when conducting abrasive blasting, where reasonably practicable. In this study, exposure to crystalline silica during abrasive blasting was evaluated when both silica and non-silica products were used. The crystalline silica content of non-silica abrasives was also measured. The facilities evaluated were preparing metal products for the application of coatings, so the substrate should not have had a significant contribution to worker exposure to crystalline silica. The occupational sampling results indicate that two-thirds of the workers assessed were potentially over-exposed to respirable crystalline silica. About one-third of the measurements over the exposure limit were at the work sites using silica substitutes at the time of the assessment. The use of the silica substitute, by itself, did not appear to have a large effect on the mean airborne exposure levels. There are a number of factors that may contribute to over-exposures, including the isolation of the blasting area, housekeeping, and inappropriate use of respiratory protective equipment. However, the non-silica abrasives themselves also contain silica. Bulk analysis results for non-silica abrasives commercially available in Alberta indicate that many contain crystalline silica above the legislated disclosure limit of 0.1% weight of silica per weight of product (w/w) and this information may not be accurately disclosed on the material safety data sheet for the product. The employer may still have to evaluate the potential for exposure to crystalline silica at their work site, even when silica substitutes are used. Limited tests on recycled non-silica abrasive indicated that the silica content had increased. Further study is required to evaluate the impact of product recycling

  6. Covalently anchored sulfonic acid on silica gel (SiO2-R-SO3H) as an efficient and reusable heterogeneous catalyst for the one-pot synthesis of 1,8-dioxooctahydroxanthenes under solvent-free conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gholam Hossein Mahdavinia; Mohammad A.Bigdeli; Yaser Saeidi Hayeniaz


    A highly efficient one-pot synthesis of 1,8-dioxooctahydroxanthenes under solvent-free conditions catalyzed by sulfonic acid covalently anchored onto the surface of silica gel is reported.All types of aldehydes,including aromatic,unsaturated,and heterocyclic,are used.The silica gel/sulfonic acid catalyst (SiO2-R-SO3H) is completely heterogeneous and can be recycled.

  7. Fullerene-catalyzed reduction of azo derivatives in water under UV irradiation

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Yong


    Metal-free fullerene (C60) was found to be an effective catalyst for the reduction of azo groups in basic aqueous solution under UV irradiation in the presence of NaBH4. Use of NaBH4 by itself is not sufficient to reduce the azo dyes without the assistance of a metal catalyst such as Pd and Ag. Experimental and theoretical results suggest that C 60 catalyzes this reaction by using its vacant orbital to accept the electron in the bonding orbital of azo dyes, which leads to the activation of the N=N bond. UV irradiation increases the ability of C60 to interact with electron-donor moieties in azo dyes. Filling a vacancy: Experimental and theoretical methods have been combined to show that C60-catalyzed reductions of azo compounds form aromatic amines under UV irradiation (see scheme). The obtained results show that C60 acts as an electron acceptor to catalyze the reduction of azo compounds, and the role of UV irradiation is to increase the ability of C60 to interact with electron-donor moieties in azo compounds. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. [Heterocyclic aromatic amines, food-derived mutagens: metabolism and relevance to cancer susceptibility]. (United States)

    Woziwodzka, Anna; Tarasewicz, Marta; Piosik, Jacek


    It is estimated that diet contributes to as much as one-third of cancer incidents. Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) are well-known mutagens/carcinogens found in thermal-processed meat and fish. HCAs require metabolic activation to exert their carcinogenic potential. First step in HCAs activation--the generation of N-hydroxy-HCA derivatives--is catalyzed by cytochrome P450, mainly isoenzyme CYP1A2. Further activation is carried out by N-acetyltransferases and sulfotransferases, which catalyze esterification of N-hydroxy-HCAs. The products of these reactions are highly genotoxic, capable of direct interaction with DNA by adduct formation. HCA-DNA adducts may cause errors in DNA replication and the generation of mutations, which, when not repaired, may contribute to cancer development. On the other hand, among enzymes involved in HCAs detoxication, UDP-glucuronosyltransferases and glutathione S-transferases can be mentioned. Balance between activation and detoxication processes of HCAs, together with genetically determined differences in HCA metabolism are crucial for the assessment of HCA-dependent cancer risk among individuals.

  9. Studies of Immobilized Homogeneous Metal Catalysts on Silica Supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanger, Keith James [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The tethered, chiral, chelating diphosphine rhodium complex, which catalyzes the enantioselective hydrogenation of methyl-α-acetamidocinnamate (MAC), has the illustrated structure as established by 31P NMR and IR studies. Spectral and catalytic investigations also suggest that the mechanism of action of the tethered complex is the same as that of the untethered complex in solution. The rhodium complexes, [Rh(COD)H]4, [Rh(COD)2]+BF4-, [Rh(COD)Cl]2, and RhCl3• 3H2O, adsorbed on SiO2 are optimally activated for toluene hydrogenation by pretreatment with H2 at 200 C. The same complexes on Pd-SiO2 are equally active without pretreatments. The active species in all cases is rhodium metal. The catalysts were characterized by XPS, TEM, DRIFTS, and mercury poisoning experiments. Rhodium on silica catalyzes the hydrogenation of fluorobenzene to produce predominantly fluorocyclohexane in heptane and 1,2-dichloroethane solvents. In heptane/methanol and heptane/water solvents, hydrodefluorination to benzene and subsequent hydrogenation to cyclohexane occurs exclusively. Benzene inhibits the hydrodefluorination of fluorobenzene. In DCE or heptane solvents, fluorocyclohexane reacts with hydrogen fluoride to form cyclohexene. Reaction conditions can be chosen to selectively yield fluorocyclohexane, cyclohexene, benzene, or cyclohexane. The oxorhenium(V) dithiolate catalyst [-S(CH2)3s-]Re(O)(Me)(PPh3) was modified by linking it to a tether that could be attached to a silica support. Spectroscopic investigation and catalytic oxidation reactivity showed the heterogenized catalyst's structure and reactivity to be similar to its homogeneous analog. However, the immobilized catalyst offered additional advantages of recyclability, extended stability, and increased resistance to deactivation.

  10. Silica Aerogel: Synthesis and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti L. Gurav


    Full Text Available Silica aerogels have drawn a lot of interest both in science and technology because of their low bulk density (up to 95% of their volume is air, hydrophobicity, low thermal conductivity, high surface area, and optical transparency. Aerogels are synthesized from molecular precursors by sol-gel processing. Special drying techniques must be applied to replace the pore liquid with air while maintaining the solid network. Supercritical drying is most common; however, recently developed methods allow removal of the liquid at atmospheric pressure after chemical modification of the inner surface of the gels, leaving only a porous silica network filled with air. Therefore, by considering the surprising properties of aerogels, the present review addresses synthesis of silica aerogels by the sol-gel method, as well as drying techniques and applications in current industrial development and scientific research.

  11. Efficient CO2 capture on low-cost silica gel modified by polyethyleneimine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke Wang; Hongyan Shang; Lin Li; Xinlong Yan; Zifeng Yan; Chenguang Liu; Qingfang Zha


    In this work,a series of polyethyleneimine (PEI) functionalized commercial silica gel were prepared by wet impregnation method and used as CO2 sorbent.The as-prepared sorbents were characterized by N2 adsorption,FT-IR and SEM techniques.CO2 capture was tested in a fixed bed reactor using a simulated flue gas containing 15.1% CO2 in a temperature range of 25-100 ℃.The effects of sorption temperature and amine content on CO2 uptake of the adsorbents were investigated.The silica gel with a 30 wt% PEI loading manifested the largest CO2 uptake of 93.4 mgCO2/gadsorbent (equal to 311.3 mgCO2/gPEI) among the tested sorbents under the conditions of 15.1% (v/v) CO2 in N2 at 75 ℃ and atmospheric pressure.Moreover,it was rather low-cost.In addition,the PEI-impregnated silica gel exhibited stable adsorption-desorption behavior during 5 consecutive test cycles.These results suggest that the PEI-impregnated silica gel is a promising and cost-effective sorbent for CO2 capture from flue gas and other stationary sources with low CO2 concentration.

  12. Amines and amine-related compounds in surface waters: a review of sources, concentrations and aquatic toxicity. (United States)

    Poste, Amanda E; Grung, Merete; Wright, Richard F


    This review compiles available information on the concentrations, sources, fate and toxicity of amines and amine-related compounds in surface waters, including rivers, lakes, reservoirs, wetlands and seawater. There is a strong need for this information, especially given the emergence of amine-based post-combustion CO2 capture technologies, which may represent a new and significant source of amines to the environment. We identify a broad range of anthropogenic and natural sources of amines, nitrosamines and nitramines to the aquatic environment, and identify some key fate and degradation pathways of these compounds. There were very few data available on amines in surface waters, with reported concentrations often below detection and only rarely exceeding 10 μg/L. Reported concentrations for seawater and reservoirs were below detection or very low, while for lakes and rivers, concentrations spanned several orders of magnitude. The most prevalent and commonly detected amines were methylamine (MA), dimethylamine (DMA), ethylamine (EA), diethylamine (DEA) and monoethanolamine (MEAT). The paucity of data may reflect the analytical challenges posed by determination of amines in complex environmental matrices at ambient levels. We provide an overview of available aquatic toxicological data for amines and conclude that at current environmental concentrations, amines are not likely to be of toxicological concern to the aquatic environment, however, the potential for amines to act as precursors in the formation of nitrosamines and nitramines may represent a risk of contamination of drinking water supplies by these often carcinogenic compounds. More research on the prevalence and toxicity of amines, nitrosamines and nitramines in natural waters is necessary before the environmental impact of new point sources from carbon capture facilities can be adequately quantified.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Bimodal Mesoporous Silica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiaofang; GUO Cuili; WANG Xiaoli; WU Yuanyuan


    Mesoporous silica with controllable bimodal pore size distribution was synthesized with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as chemical template for small mesopores and silica gel as physical template for large mesopores.The structure of synthesized samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy,X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N2 adsorption-desorption measurements.The experimental results show that bimodal mesoporous silica consists of small mesopores of about 3 nm and large mesopores of about 45 nm.The small mesopores which were formed on the external surface and pore walls of the silica gel had similar characters with those of MCM-41,while large mesopores were inherited from parent silica gel material.The pore size distribution of the synthesized silica can be adjusted by changing the relative content of TEOS and silica gel or the feeding sequence of silica gel and NH4OH.

  14. Amine reactivity with charged sulfuric acid clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Bzdek


    Full Text Available The distribution of charged species produced by electrospray of an ammonium sulfate solution in both positive and negative polarities is examined using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS. Positively-charged ammonium bisulfate cluster composition differs significantly from negatively-charged cluster composition. For positively-charged clusters all sulfuric acid is neutralized to bisulfate, whereas for negatively-charged clusters the degree of sulfuric acid neutralization is cluster size-dependent. With increasing cluster size (and, therefore, a decreasing role of charge, both positively- and negatively-charged cluster compositions converge toward ammonium bisulfate. The reactivity of negatively-charged sulfuric acid-ammonia clusters with dimethylamine and ammonia is also investigated by FTICR-MS. Two series of negatively-charged clusters are investigated: [(HSO4(H2SO4x] and [(NH4x(HSO4x+1(H2SO43]. Dimethylamine substitution for ammonia in [(NH4 x(HSO4 x+1(H2SO43] clusters is nearly collision-limited, and subsequent addition of dimethylamine to neutralize H2SO4 to bisulfate is within one order of magnitude of the substitution rate. Dimethylamine addition to [(HSO4 (H2SO4 x] clusters is either not observed or very slow. The results of this study indicate that amine chemistry will be evident and important only in large ambient negative ions (>m/z 400, whereas amine chemistry may be evident in small ambient positive ions. Addition of ammonia to unneutralized clusters occurs at a rate that is ~2–3 orders of magnitude slower than incorporation of dimethylamine either by substitution or addition

  15. Amine reactivity with charged sulfuric acid clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Bzdek


    Full Text Available The distribution of ionic species produced by electrospray of an ammonium sulfate solution in both positive and negative polarities is examined using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS. Positively-charged ammonium bisulfate cluster composition differs significantly from negatively-charged cluster composition. For positively-charged clusters all sulfuric acid is neutralized to bisulfate, whereas for negatively-charged clusters the degree of sulfuric acid neutralization is cluster size-dependent. With increasing cluster size (and, therefore, a decreasing role of charge, both positively- and negatively-charged cluster compositions converge toward ammonium bisulfate. The reactivity of negatively-charged sulfuric acid-ammonia clusters with dimethylamine and ammonia are also investigated by FTICR-MS. Two series of negatively-charged clusters are investigated: [(HSO4(H2SO4x] and [(NH4x(HSO4x+1(H2SO43]. Dimethylamine substitution for ammonia in [(NH4x(HSO4x+1(H2SO43] clusters is nearly collision-limited, and subsequent addition of dimethylamine to neutralize H2SO4 is within one order of magnitude of the substitution rate. Dimethylamine addition to [(HSO4(H2SO4x]clusters is either not observed or very slow. The results of this study indicate that amine chemistry will be evident and important only in large ambient negative ions (> m/z 400, whereas amine chemistry may be evident in small ambient positive ions. Addition of ammonia to unneutralized clusters occurs at a rate that is ~2–3 orders of magnitude slower than incorporation of dimethylamine either by

  16. Optothermal nonlinearity of silica aerogel

    CERN Document Server

    Braidotti, Maria Chiara; Fleming, Adam; Samuels, Michiel C; Di Falco, Andrea; Conti, Claudio


    We report on the characterization of silica aerogel thermal optical nonlinearity, obtained by z-scan technique. The results show that typical silica aerogels have nonlinear optical coefficient similar to that of glass $(\\simeq 10^{-12} $m$^2/$W), with negligible optical nonlinear absorption. The non\\-li\\-near coefficient can be increased to values in the range of $10^{-10} $m$^2/$W by embedding an absorbing dye in the aerogel. This value is one order of magnitude higher than that observed in the pure dye and in typical highly nonlinear materials like liquid crystals.

  17. Direct Synthesis of Protoberberine Alkaloids by Rh-Catalyzed C-H Bond Activation as the Key Step. (United States)

    Jayakumar, Jayachandran; Cheng, Chien-Hong


    A one-pot reaction of substituted benzaldehydes with alkyne-amines by a Rh-catalyzed C-H activation and annulation to afford various natural and unnatural protoberberine alkaloids is reported. This reaction provides a convenient route for the generation of a compound library of protoberberine salts, which recently have attracted great attention because of their diverse biological activities. In addition, pyridinium salt derivatives can also be formed in good yields from α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and amino-alkynes. This reaction proceeds with excellent regioselectivity and good functional group compatibility under mild reaction conditions by using O2 as the oxidant.

  18. Controlling Nitrosamines, Nitramines, and Amines in Amine-Based CO₂ Capture Systems with Continuous Ultraviolet and Ozone Treatment of Washwater. (United States)

    Dai, Ning; Mitch, William A


    Formation of nitrosamines and nitramines from reactions between flue gas NOx and the amines used in CO2 capture units has arisen as a significant concern. Washwater scrubbers can capture nitrosamines and nitramines. They can also capture amines, preventing formation of nitrosamines and nitramines downwind by amine reactions with ambient NOx. The continuous application of UV alone, or a combination of UV and ozone to the return line of a washwater treatment unit was evaluated to control the accumulation of nitrosamines, nitramines and amines in a laboratory-scale washwater unit. With model secondary amine solvents ranging from nonvolatile diethanolamine to volatile morpholine, application of 272-537 mJ/cm(2) UV incident fluence alone reduced the accumulation of nitrosamines and nitramines by approximately an order of magnitude. Modeling indicated that the gains achieved by UV treatment should increase over time, because UV treatment converts the time dependence of nitrosamine accumulation from a quadratic to a linear function. Ozone (21 mg/L) maintained low steady-state concentrations of amines in the washwater. While modeling indicated that more than 80% of nitrosamine accumulation in the washwater was associated with reaction of washwater amines with residual NOx, a reduction in nitrosamine accumulation rates due to ozone oxidation of amines was not fully realized because the ozonation products of amines reduced nitrosamine photolysis rates by competing for photons.

  19. Solid-State NMR and DFT Studies on the Formation of Well-Defined Silica-Supported Tantallaaziridines: From Synthesis to Catalytic Application

    KAUST Repository

    Hamzaoui, Bilel


    Single-site, well-defined, silica-supported tantallaaziridine intermediates [≡Si-O-Ta(η2-NRCH2)(NMe2)2] [R=Me (2), Ph (3)] were prepared from silica-supported tetrakis(dimethylamido)tantalum [≡Si-O-Ta(NMe2)4] (1) and fully characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and 1H,13C HETCOR and DQ TQ solid-state (SS) NMR spectroscopy. The formation mechanism, by β-H abstraction, was investigated by SS NMR spectroscopy and supported by DFT calculations. The C-H activation of the dimethylamide ligand is favored for R=Ph. The results from catalytic testing in the hydroaminoalkylation of alkenes were consistent with the N-alkyl aryl amine substrates being more efficient than N-dialkyl amines. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Niobia-silica and silica membranes for gas separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffa, Vittorio


    This thesis describes the development of ceramic membranes suitable for hydrogen separation and CO2 recovery from gaseous streams. The research work was focused on the three different parts of which gas selective ceramic membranes are composed, i.e., the microporous gas selective silica layer, the m

  1. Trace Amines and the Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1: Pharmacology, Neurochemistry, and Clinical Implications. (United States)

    Pei, Yue; Asif-Malik, Aman; Canales, Juan J


    Biogenic amines are a collection of endogenous molecules that play pivotal roles as neurotransmitters and hormones. In addition to the "classical" biogenic amines resulting from decarboxylation of aromatic acids, including dopamine (DA), norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin (5-HT), and histamine, other biogenic amines, present at much lower concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS), and hence referred to as "trace" amines (TAs), are now recognized to play significant neurophysiological and behavioral functions. At the turn of the century, the discovery of the trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), a phylogenetically conserved G protein-coupled receptor that is responsive to both TAs, such as β-phenylethylamine, octopamine, and tyramine, and structurally-related amphetamines, unveiled mechanisms of action for TAs other than interference with aminergic pathways, laying the foundations for deciphering the functional significance of TAs and its mammalian CNS receptor, TAAR1. Although, its molecular interactions and downstream targets have not been fully elucidated, TAAR1 activation triggers accumulation of intracellular cAMP, modulates PKA and PKC signaling and interferes with the β-arrestin2-dependent pathway via G protein-independent mechanisms. TAAR1 is uniquely positioned to exert direct control over DA and 5-HT neuronal firing and release, which has profound implications for understanding the pathophysiology of, and therefore designing more efficacious therapeutic interventions for, a range of neuropsychiatric disorders that involve aminergic dysregulation, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, mood disorders, and addiction. Indeed, the recent development of novel pharmacological tools targeting TAAR1 has uncovered the remarkable potential of TAAR1-based medications as new generation pharmacotherapies in neuropsychiatry. This review summarizes recent developments in the study of TAs and TAAR1, their intricate neurochemistry and

  2. Preparation and characterization of amine-functionalized sugarcane bagasse for CO2 capture. (United States)

    Luo, Shihe; Chen, Siyu; Chen, Shuixia; Zhuang, Linzhou; Ma, Nianfang; Xu, Teng; Li, Qihan; Hou, Xunan


    A low-cost solid amine adsorbent for CO2 capture was prepared by using sugarcane bagasse (SB), a dominant agro-industrial residue in the sugar and alcohol industry as raw materials. In this preparation process, acrylamide was grafted on SB, and the grafted fiber was then aminated with different type of amine reagents to introduce primary and secondary amine groups onto the surface of SB fibers. The graft and amination conditions were optimized. The prepared solid amine adsorbent showed remarkable CO2 adsorption capacity and the adsorption capacity of the solid amine adsorbent could reach 5.01 mmol CO2/g at room temperature. The comparison of adsorption capacities of amine fibers aminated with various amination agents demonstrated that fibers aminated with triethylenetetramine would obtain higher adsorption capacities and higher amine efficiency. These adsorbents also showed good regeneration performance, the regenerated adsorbent could maintain almost the same adsorption capacity for CO2 after 10 recycles.

  3. Synthesis and properties of Chitosan-silica hybrid aerogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, Michael R.; Hunt, Arlon J.


    Chitosan, a polymer that is soluble in dilute aqueous acid, is derived from chitin, a natural polyglucosamide. Aquagels where the solid phase consists of both chitosan and silica can be easily prepared by using an acidic solution of chitosan to catalyze the hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate. Gels with chitosan/TEOS mass ratios of 0.1-1.1 have been prepared by this method. Standard drying processes using CO{sub 2} give the corresponding aerogels. The amount of chitosan in the gel plays a role in the shrinkage of the aerogel during drying. Gels with the lowest chitosan/silica ratios show the most linear shrinkage, up to 24%, while those with the highest ratios show only a 7% linear shrinkage. Pyrolysis at 700 C under nitrogen produces a darkened aerogel due to the thermal decomposition of the chitosan, however, the aerogel retains its monolithic form. The pyrolyzed aerogels absorb slightly more infrared radiation in the 2-5 {micro}m region than the original aerogels. B.E.T. surface areas of these aerogels range from 470-750 m{sup 2}/g. Biocompatibility screening of this material shows a very high value for hemolysis, but a low value for cytotoxicity.

  4. Thermodynamics of organic mixtures containing amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Juan Antonio [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain)]. E-mail:; Mozo, Ismael [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain); Fuente, Isaias Garcia de la [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain); Cobos, Jose Carlos [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain)


    Binary mixtures containing pyridine (PY), or 2-methylpyridine (2MPY) or 3-methylpyridine (3MPY) or 4-methylpyridine (4MPY) and an organic solvent as benzene, toluene, alkane, or 1-alkanol are investigated in the framework of DISQUAC. The corresponding interaction parameters are reported. The model describes accurately a whole set of thermodynamic properties: vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE), liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE), solid-liquid equilibria (SLE), molar excess Gibbs energies (G{sup E}), molar excess enthalpies (H{sup E}), molar excess heat capacities at constant pressure (C{sub P}{sup E}) and the concentration-concentration structure factor (S{sub CC}(0)). It is remarkable that DISQUAC correctly predicts the W-shaped curve of the C{sub P}{sup E} of the pyridine + n-hexadecane system. The model can be applied successfully to mixtures with strong positive or negative deviations from the Raoult's law. DISQUAC improves the theoretical results from UNIFAC (Dortmund version). The replacement of pyridine by a methylpyridine leads to a weakening of the amine-amine interactions, ascribed to the steric effect caused by the methyl group attached to the aromatic ring. This explains that for a given solvent (alkane, 1-alkanol) H{sup E}(pyridine)>H{sup E}(methylpyridine)

  5. Electrochemiluminescence detection of TNT by resonance energy transfer through the formation of a TNT-amine complex. (United States)

    Qi, Wenjing; Xu, Min; Pang, Lei; Liu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Wei; Majeed, Saadat; Xu, Guobao


    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a widely used nitroaromatic explosive with significant detrimental effects on the environment and human health. Its detection is of great importance. In this study, both electrochemiluminescence (ECL)-based detection of TNT through the formation of a TNT-amine complex and the detection of TNT through electrochemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (ECRET) are developed for the first time. 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)-modified [Ru(phen)3](2+) (phen=1,10-phenanthroline)-doped silica nanoparticles (RuSiNPs) with uniform sizes of (73±3) nm were synthesized. TNT can interact with APTES-modified RuSiNPs through charge transfer from electron-rich amines in the RuSiNPs to the electron-deficient aromatic ring of TNT to form a red TNT-amine complex. The absorption spectrum of this complex overlaps with the ECL spectrum of the APTES-modified RuSiNPs/triethylamine system. As a result, ECL signals of the APTES-modified RuSiNPs/triethylamine system are turned off in the presence of TNT owing to resonance energy transfer from electrochemically excited RuSiNPs to the TNT-amine complex. This ECRET method has been successfully applied for the sensitive determination of TNT with a linear range from 1×10(-9) to 1×10(-6) M with a fast response time within 1 min. The limit of detection is 0.3 nM. The method exhibits good selectivity towards 2,4-dinitrotoluene, p-nitrotoluene, nitrobenzene, phenol, p-quinone, 8-hydroxyquinoline, p-phenylenediamine, K3[Fe(CN)6], Fe(3+), NO3(-), NO2(-), Cr(3+), Fe(2+), Pb(2+), SO3(2-), formaldehyde, oxalate, proline, and glycine.

  6. Ceria-Based Mixed Oxide Supported Nano-Gold as an Efficient and Durable Heterogeneous Catalyst for Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Amines to Imines Using Molecular Oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Ahmad Dar


    Full Text Available The present work is intended to determine the catalytic activity of Mixed Oxide supported gold for aerobic oxidative dehydrogenation of amines to imines using Ceria as a main constituent of the each support. The model catalysts Au/CeO2:TiO2 Au/CeO2:SiO2, Au/CeO2:ZrO2 and Au/CeO2:Al2Os were prepared by deposition co-precipitation method and deposition of gold was determined by EDEX analysis. The supported nano-gold catalyzes the dehydrogenation of secondary amines to imines without loss of activity. On recycling good amount of product yield is obtained. Oxidation of secondary amines to imines is carried at 100˚C and almost 90 % conversion was obtained with >99% selectivity. © 2012 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 26th December 2011; Revised: 7th June 2012; Accepted: 13rd June 2012[How to Cite: B.A. Dar, M. Sharma, B. Singh. (2012. Ceria-Based Mixed Oxide Supported Nano-Gold as an Efficient and Durable Heterogeneous Catalyst for Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Amines to Imines Using Molecular Oxygen. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7(1: 79-84.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.1.1257.79-84][How to Link / DOI: ] | View in 

  7. Effect of spermidine and its metabolites on the activity of pea seedlings diamine oxidase and the problems of biosensing of biogenic amines with this enzyme. (United States)

    Kivirand, K; Sõmerik, H; Oldekop, M-L; Rebane, R; Rinken, T


    Spermidine is one of the several biogenic amines, produced during the microbial decarboxylation of proteins. Individual biogenic amines in the formed mixtures are frequently analyzed with oxygen sensor based biosensors, as their content serves as a good biomarker for the determination of food quality. In these biosensors, diamine oxidase from pea seedlings (PSAO), catalyzing the oxidation of various biogenic amines by dissolved oxygen is commonly used for the bio-recognition of amines. However, in the presence of spermidine and/or its metabolite 1,3-diaminopropane, the activity of PSAO and the sensitivity of PSAO-based biosensors decrease due to inhibition. The inhibition constant of soluble spermidine, acting as an inhibiting substrate toward PSAO, was found to be (40±15) mM in freshly prepared solution and (0.28±0.05) mM in solution, incubated 30 days at room temperature. The inhibition constant of 1,3-diaminopropane, acting as a competitive inhibitor, was (0.43±0.12) mM as determined through the oxidation reaction of cadaverine. The metabolic half-life of soluble spermidine was 7 days at room temperature and 186 days at 4 °C. The kinetic measurements were carried out with an oxygen sensor; the composition of the solution of degraded spermidine was analyzed with MS.

  8. Ringing phenomenon in silica microspheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunhua Dong; Changling Zou; Jinming Cui; Yong Yang; Zhengfu Han; Guangcan Guo


    Whispering gallery modes in silica microspheres are excited by a tunable continuous-wave laser through the fiber taper. Ringing phenomenon can be observed with high frequency sweeping speed. The thermal nonlinearity in the microsphere can enhance this phenomenon. Our measurement results agree very well with the theoretical predictions by the dynamic equation.

  9. Conditions allowing the formation of biogenic amines in cheese.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, H.M.L.J.


    A study was undertaken to reveal the conditions that allow the formation of biogenic amines in cheese.The starters most commonly used in the Dutch cheese industry do not have decarboxylative properties. Only if the milk or curd is contaminated with non-starter bacteria, amine formation may be observ

  10. Amination of allylic alcohols in water at room temperature. (United States)

    Nishikata, Takashi; Lipshutz, Bruce H


    The "trick" to carrying out regiocontrolled aminations of allylic alcohols in water as the only medium is use of a nanomicelle's interior as the organic reaction solvent. When HCO(2)Me is present, along with the proper base and source of catalytic Pd, allylic amines are cleanly formed at room temperature.

  11. Effects of dietary amines on the gut and its vasculature. (United States)

    Broadley, Kenneth J; Akhtar Anwar, M; Herbert, Amy A; Fehler, Martina; Jones, Elen M; Davies, Wyn E; Kidd, Emma J; Ford, William R


    Trace amines, including tyramine and beta-phenylethylamine (beta-PEA), are constituents of many foods including chocolate, cheeses and wines and are generated by so-called 'friendly' bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Lactococcus and Enterococcus species, which are found in probiotics. We therefore examined whether these dietary amines could exert pharmacological effects on the gut and its vasculature. In the present study we examined the effects of tyramine and beta-PEA on the contractile activity of guinea-pig and rat ileum and upon the isolated mesenteric vasculature and other blood vessels. Traditionally, these amines are regarded as sympathomimetic amines, exerting effects through the release of noradrenaline from sympathetic nerve endings, which should relax the gut. A secondary aim was therefore to confirm this mechanism of action. However, contractile effects were observed in the gut and these were independent of noradrenaline, acetylcholine, histamine and serotonin receptors. They were therefore probably due to the recently described trace amine-associated receptors. These amines relaxed the mesenteric vasculature. In contrast, the aorta and coronary arteries were constricted, a response that was also independent of a sympathomimetic action. From these results, we propose that after ingestion, trace amines could stimulate the gut and improve intestinal blood flow. Restriction of blood flow elsewhere diverts blood to the gut to aid digestion. Thus, trace amines in the diet may promote the digestive process through stimulation of the gut and improved gastrointestinal circulation.

  12. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (United States)


    ... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting under... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dialkyldithiophosphoric...

  13. ELPI+ measurements of aerosol growth in an amine absorption column

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, J.; Brachert, L.; Desagher, D.; Thielens, M.L.; Khakharia, P.M.; Goetheer, E.L.V.; Schaber, K.


    Recently, studies have appeared pointing out that aerosols can dominate the total amine emission from amine based PCCC pilot plant scale installations. For the design of countermeasure types (upstream or downstream of the PCCC installation), it is crucial to have an idea of the aerosol size distribu

  14. Diagnostic and genetic studies on fibrin-stabilizing factor with a new assay based on amine incorporation. (United States)

    Lorand, L; Urayama, T; De Kiewiet, J W; Nossel, H L


    Fibrinoligase, the fibrin cross-linking enzyme, transiently appearing during the course of coagulation in normal blood, was shown to catalyze the incorporation of a fluorescent amine, monodansylcadaverine [or N-(5-aminopentyl)-5-dimethylamino-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide] into casein. The reaction provided the basis of a sensitive fluorimetric method for measuring the activity of the enzyme (and also of similar other transpeptidases, such as transglutaminase). In tests involving plasma, certain difficulties had to be overcome which were mainly due to the fact that the enzyme itself does not occur in citrated plasma. Only its precursor (fibrin-stabilizing factor or factor XIII) is present, still requiring limited proteolytic activation by thrombin. Thus, in order to measure amine incorporation with plasma as a source of the factor, thrombin must be added. This necessitated a differential desensitization of the intrinsic fibrinogen so that the latter could not clot and could not thereby interfere with amine incorporation. Also, the thrombin-inactivating capacity of plasma had to be saturated to enable full conversion of the factor to the transpeptidase. Concentrations of casein, monodansylcadaverine, calcium, and hydrogen ions were chosen to permit almost maximal velocity of amine incorporation. A linear relationship with regard to plasma concentration could be obtained only under such conditions. No similar assay is presently available for quantitatively evaluating fibrin-stabilizing factor levels in plasma.The amine incorporation test was applied to a clinical case of hereditary total fibrin-stabilizing factor deficiency. The effect of transfusion therapy was studied, and some of the patient's relatives were examined. Whereas a paternal aunt and uncle gave values well within the normal range, a brother and the mother proved to be partially deficient and could be considered as heterozygous carriers. The father appeared to have a reduced level of fibrin

  15. Influence of synthesis conditions and mesoporous structures on the gold nanoparticles supported on mesoporous silica hosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byunghwan [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, ChonAn, Korea; Ma, Zhen [ORNL; Zhang, Zongtao [ORNL; Park, Chulhwan [Kwangwoon University; Dai, Sheng [ORNL


    Loading gold on mesoporous materials via different methods has been actively attempted in the literature, but the knowledge about the influences of synthesis details and different mesoporous structures on the size and thermal stability of gold nanoparticles supported on mesoporous hosts is still limited. In this study, Au/HMS, Au/MCM-41, Au/MCM-48, Au/SBA-15, and Au/SBA-16 samples were prepared by modifying a variety of mesoporous silicas by amine ligands followed by loading HAuCl4 and calcination. The influences of different amine ligands ((3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane versus N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ethylenediamine), solvents (water versus ethanol), calcination temperatures (200 or 550 C), and mesoporous structures on the size of supported gold nanoparticles were systematically investigated employing nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Interestingly, while big and irregular gold particles situate on MCM-48 with bicontinuous three-dimensional pore structure and relatively small pore size (2.4 nm) upon calcination at 550 C, homogeneous and small gold nanoparticles maintain inside SBA-15 with one-dimensional pore structure and relatively big pore size (6.8 nm). Apparently, the pore structure and pore size of mesoporous silica hosts play a key role in determining the size and thermal stability of the supported gold nanoparticles. Our results may provide some useful clues for the rational design of supported metal catalysts by choosing suitable mesoporous hosts.

  16. Silica-Coated Liposomes for Insulin Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Dwivedi


    Full Text Available Liposomes coated with silica were explored as protein delivery vehicles for their enhanced stability and improved encapsulation efficiency. Insulin was encapsulated within the fluidic phosphatidylcholine lipid vesicles by thin film hydration at pH 2.5, and layer of silica was formed above lipid bilayer by acid catalysis. The presence of silica coating and encapsulated insulin was identified using confocal and electron microscopy. The native state of insulin present in the formulation was evident from Confocal Micro-Raman spectroscopy. Silica coat enhances the stability of insulin-loaded delivery vehicles. In vivo study shows that these silica coated formulations were biologically active in reducing glucose levels.

  17. Factors influencing biogenic amines accumulation in dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. eLinares


    Full Text Available Fermented foods are within the food products more often complained of having caused biogenic amines poisoning. Concerning milk-based fermented foods, cheese is the main product likely to contain significant levels of biogenic amines, specially tyramine, histamine and putrescine. Prompted by the increasing awareness of the risks related to dietary uptake of high biogenic amine loads, in this review we report about cheese elaboration and processing technological aspects affecting biogenic amines levels. Synthesis of biogenic amines is possible only when three conditions converge: i availability of the substrate amino acids; ii presence of microorganisms with the appropriate catabolic pathway activated; and iii environmental conditions favorable to the decarboxilation activity. These conditions depend on several factors such as milk treatment (pasteurization, use of starter cultures, NaCl concentration, time and temperature of ripening and preservation, pH… which will be discussed in this chapter.

  18. Biguanide-functionalized mesoporous SBA-15 silica as an efficient solid catalyst for interesterification of vegetable oils. (United States)

    Xie, Wenlei; Hu, Libing


    The biguanide-functionalized SBA-15 materials were fabricated by grafting of organic biguanide onto the SBA-15 silica through covalent attachments, and then this organic-inorganic hybrid material was employed as solid catalysts for the interesterification of triacylglycerols for the modification of vegetable oils. The prepared catalyst was characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, TEM, nitrogen adsorption-desorption and elemental analysis. The biguanide base was successfully tethered onto the SBA-15 silica with no damage to the ordered mesoporous structure of the silica after the organo-functionalization. The solid catalyst had stronger base strength and could catalyze the interesterification of triacylglycerols. The fatty acid compositions and triacylglycerol profiles of the interesterified products were noticeably varied following the interesterification. The reaction parameters, namely substrate ratio, reaction temperature, catalyst loading and reaction time, were investigated for the interesterification of soybean oil with methyl decanoate. The catalyst could be reused for at least four cycles without significant loss of activity.

  19. Peptidyl prolyl isomerase Pin1-inhibitory activity of D-glutamic and D-aspartic acid derivatives bearing a cyclic aliphatic amine moiety. (United States)

    Nakagawa, Hidehiko; Seike, Suguru; Sugimoto, Masatoshi; Ieda, Naoya; Kawaguchi, Mitsuyasu; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Miyata, Naoki


    Pin1 is a peptidyl prolyl isomerase that specifically catalyzes cis-trans isomerization of phosphorylated Thr/Ser-Pro peptide bonds in substrate proteins and peptides. Pin1 is involved in many important cellular processes, including cancer progression, so it is a potential target of cancer therapy. We designed and synthesized a novel series of Pin1 inhibitors based on a glutamic acid or aspartic acid scaffold bearing an aromatic moiety to provide a hydrophobic surface and a cyclic aliphatic amine moiety with affinity for the proline-binding site of Pin1. Glutamic acid derivatives bearing cycloalkylamino and phenylthiazole groups showed potent Pin1-inhibitory activity comparable with that of known inhibitor VER-1. The results indicate that steric interaction of the cyclic alkyl amine moiety with binding site residues plays a key role in enhancing Pin1-inhibitory activity.

  20. Surface properties and water treatment capacity of surface engineered silica coated with 3-(2-aminoethyl) aminopropyltrimethoxysilane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majewski, Peter, E-mail: [School of Advanced Manufacturing and Mechanical Engineering, Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Adelaide (Australia); Keegan, Alexandra [Microbiology Research, Australian Water Quality Centre, South Australian Water Corporation, Adelaide (Australia)


    This study's focus was on the water-based, one-pot preparation and characterisation of silica particles coated with 3-(2-aminoethyl)aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (Diamo) and the efficiency of the material in removing the pathogens Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium immunogenum, Vibrio cholerae, poliovirus, and Cryptosporidium parvum. The water-based processing resulted in Diamo coated silica particles with significantly increased positive surface charge as determined by zeta potential measurements. In addition, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry of pure and Diamo coated silica confirmed the presence of Diamo on the surface of the particles. Thermogravimetric measurements and chemical analysis of the silica indicated a surface concentration of amine groups of about 1 mmol/g{sub silica}. Water treatment tests with the pathogens showed that a dose of about 10 g appeared to be sufficient to remove pathogens from pure water samples which were spiked with pathogen concentrations between about 10{sup 2} and 10{sup 4} cfu/mL.

  1. TLC of alkaloids on cyanopropyl bonded stationary phases. Part II. Connection with RP18 and silica plates. (United States)

    Petruczynik, Anna; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika; Plech, Tomasz; Tuzimski, Tomasz; Hajnos, Michał Ł; Jóźwiak, Grzegorz; Gadzikowska, Maria; Rompała, Anna


    Some standards of the alkaloids and synthetic or natural mixtures are separated by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography (TLC) on different adsorbent layers. Normal- and reversed-phase systems are used to obtain significant differences in the separation selectivity. Optimization of the one-dimensional TLC separation of the alkaloids' standards is performed on cyanopropyl-silica, RP18W, and silica layers in various eluents containing (besides diluent and modifier) silanol blockers, such as diethyl amine or ammonia. The most selective systems are used for the separation of the alkaloids' mixtures by two-dimensional TLC with an adsorbent gradient method. The mixtures of alkaloids or plant extracts (Chelidonium majus, Fumaria officinalis, or Glaucium flavum) are chromatographed in system I; the plates are connected with the plate pre-coated with various adsorbent, and partly separated fractions are transferred to the second layer and developed in system II. CN-silica-RP18W and CN-silica-silica are used as the connected layers. The alkaloids are identified by R(F) values of standards, and the components of plant extracts are identified in both systems, and by the comparison of UV spectra obtained in diode array detector densitometry.

  2. Cyclodimerization of Stilbenes and Styrenes Catalyzed by Heteropolyacid Supported on Silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lantaño


    Full Text Available Several stilbenes and styrenes have been treated with heteropolyacid] (HPA supported over silice. The compounds obtained were characterized by 1H and 13C- NMR and the yields were compared with those obtained using H2SO4 (c and ethyl poliphosphate] (PPE.

  3. Amine Reactivity with Nanoclusters of Sulfuric Acid and Ammonia (United States)

    Johnston, M. V.; Bzdek, B. R.; DePalma, J.


    Alkyl amines have emerged as key species in new particle formation and growth. This interest is reinforced by ambient measurements of amines (e.g. Smith et al., 2010) and enhanced levels of nitrogen (e.g. Bzdek et al., 2011) during growth of newly formed particles. An important mechanism of amine uptake is aminium salt formation, either by substituting for ammonium ions that already exist in the particle or by opening new channels for salt formation that are not favorable with ammonia. This presentation will focus on recent experimental and computational work in our group to study amine uptake into charged nanoclusters of sulfuric acid and ammonia. In the experimental work, clusters are produced by electrospray of an ammonium sulfate solution and then drawn into a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer where a specific cluster is isolated and exposed to amine vapor. We find that amine reactivity is dependent on the size, composition and charge of the isolated cluster. For small clusters of either polarity, all ammonium ions reside on the surface and amine substitution occurs with near unit reaction probability. As the cluster size increases, an ammonium ion can be encapsulated in the center of the cluster, which provides a steric hindrance to amine substitution. Negatively charged clusters are more likely to be acidic than positively charged clusters. For acidic clusters, incoming amine molecules first substitute for preexisting ammonium ions and then add to the cluster until a "neutralized" aminium bisulfate composition is reached. Computational studies of these clusters provide fundamental insight into the thermodynamics and kinetics of amine uptake.

  4. Silica Pigments for Glossy Ink Jet Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Qi; Michael R. Sestrick; Yoshi Sugimoto; William A. Welsh


    Silica is a versatile pigment for ink jet media. Micronized silica gel is the worldwide standard for high performance matte ink jet media. For glossy ink jet media, several different forms of silica are widely used. Submicron silica gel dispersions, with either anionic or cationic surfaces, can be employed in either absorptive basecoat layers or in the glossy ink receptive top layer. Colloidal silica, with a variety of particle sizes and surface modifications, is utilized extensively in glossy top layers. It will show how various silica pigments can be utilized in glossy ink receptive coatings, both in cast based glossy media and RC based glossy media. Several novel silica pigments will be examined by relating the physical properties of the pigments and the formula variables to the print quality of the ink jet media.

  5. The Pozzolanic reaction of silica fume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede


    Silica fume is a very important supplementary cementitious binder in High-Performance and Ultra High-Performance Concretes. Through its pozzolanic reaction the silica fume densifies the concrete micro-structure, in particular it strengthens the paste-aggregate interfacial transition zone. In the ...... of activation of the pozzolanic reaction of silica fume is estimated. The results show that the pozzolanic reaction of silica fume has notable differences from Portland cement hydration.......Silica fume is a very important supplementary cementitious binder in High-Performance and Ultra High-Performance Concretes. Through its pozzolanic reaction the silica fume densifies the concrete micro-structure, in particular it strengthens the paste-aggregate interfacial transition zone....... In the present paper different aspects of the pozzolanic reaction of silica fume are investigated. These include chemical shrinkage, isothermal heat development and strength development. Key data for these are given and compared with theoretical calculations, and based on presented measurements the energy...

  6. Organically Modified Silica Nanoparticles Interaction with Macrophage Cells: Assessment of Cell Viability on the Basis of Physicochemical Properties. (United States)

    Kumar, Dhiraj; Mutreja, Isha; Keshvan, Prashant C; Bhat, Madhusudan; Dinda, Amit K; Mitra, Susmita


    Silica nanoparticles have drawn a lot of attention for nanomedicine application, and this is attributed to their biocompatibility and ease of surface functionalization. However, successful utilization of these inorganic systems for biomedical application depends on their physicochemical properties. This study, therefore, discusses in vitro toxicity of organically modified silica nanoparticles on the basis of size, shape, and surface properties of silica nanoparticles. Spherical- and oval-shaped nanoparticles having hydroxyl and amine groups were synthesized in Tween 80 micelles using different organosilanes. Nanoparticles of similar size and morphology were considered for comparative assessment. "As-prepared" nanoparticles were characterized in terms of size, shape, and surface properties using ZetaSizer, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared to establish the above parameters. In vitro analysis in terms of nanoparticle-based toxicity was performed on J-774 (macrophage) cell line using propidium iodide-4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindol and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays. Fluorescent dye-entrapped nanoparticles were used to visualize the uptake of the nanoparticles by macrophage cells. Results from cell studies suggested low levels of toxicity for different nanoparticle formulations studied, therefore are suitable for nanocarrier application for poorly soluble molecules. On the contrary, the nanoparticles of similar size and shape, having amine groups and low net negative charge, do not exhibit any in vitro cytotoxicity.

  7. Advances in lipase-catalyzed esterification reactions. (United States)

    Stergiou, Panagiota-Yiolanda; Foukis, Athanasios; Filippou, Michalis; Koukouritaki, Maria; Parapouli, Maria; Theodorou, Leonidas G; Hatziloukas, Efstathios; Afendra, Amalia; Pandey, Ashok; Papamichael, Emmanuel M


    Lipase-catalyzed esterification reactions are among the most significant chemical and biochemical processes of industrial relevance. Lipases catalyze hydrolysis as well as esterification reactions. Enzyme-catalyzed esterification has acquired increasing attention in many applications, due to the significance of the derived products. More specifically, the lipase-catalyzed esterification reactions attracted research interest during the past decade, due to an increased use of organic esters in biotechnology and the chemical industry. Lipases, as hydrolyzing agents are active in environments, which contain a minimum of two distinct phases, where all reactants are partitioned between these phases, although their distribution is not fixed and changes as the reaction proceeds. The kinetics of the lipase-catalyzed reactions is governed by a number of factors. This article presents a thorough and descriptive evaluation of the applied trends and perspectives concerning the enzymatic esterification, mainly for biofuel production; an emphasis is given on essential factors, which affect the lipase-catalyzed esterification reaction. Moreover, the art of using bacterial and/or fungal strains for whole cell biocatalysis purposes, as well as carrying out catalysis by various forms of purified lipases from bacterial and fungal sources is also reviewed.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of bisimide amines and bisimide amine-cured epoxy resins (United States)

    Scola, D. A.


    An attempt is made to develop tough, moisture resistant, high char yield epoxy resins by means of novel bisimide amine (BIA) hardener curing agents and a state-of-the-art epoxy resin system. The BIAs are isolated as mixtures containing monomer, oligomer, and polymeric species, and then characterized by elemental analysis and high pressure liquid chromatography. The bisimide amine-cured epoxies (IMEs) were characterized with respect to moisture absorption, thermal properties, and physical and mechanical properties, as well as in the role of matrices in Celion 6000/IME composites. The relative toughness characteristics of each IME formulation was measured by the 10 deg off-axis tensile test, measuring the uniaxial tensile strength, shear strength, and shear-strain-to-failure of the composite systems.

  9. Photophysical studies of newly derivatized mono substituted phthalocyanines grafted onto silica nanoparticles via click chemistry (United States)

    Fashina, Adedayo; Amuhaya, Edith; Nyokong, Tebello


    This work reports on the synthesis, characterization and photophysical studies of newly derived phthalocyanine complexes and the phthalocyanine-silica nanoparticles conjugates. The derived phthalocyanine complexes have one terminal alkyne group. The derived phthalocyanine complexes showed improved photophysical properties (ФF, ФT, ΦΔ and τT) compared to the respective phthalocyanine complexes from which they were derived. The derived phthalocyanine complexes were conjugated to the surface of an azide functionalized silica nanoparticles via copper (1) catalyzed cyclo-addition reaction. All the conjugates showed lower triplet quantum yields ranging from 0.37 to 0.44 compared to the free phthalocyanine complexes. The triplet lifetimes ranged from 352 to 484 μs for the conjugates and from 341 to 366 μs for the free phthalocyanine complexes.

  10. Bioinspired enzymatic synthesis of silica nanocrystals provided by recombinant silicatein from the marine sponge Latrunculia oparinae. (United States)

    Shkryl, Yury N; Bulgakov, Victor P; Veremeichik, Galina N; Kovalchuk, Svetlana N; Kozhemyako, Valery B; Kamenev, Dmitrii G; Semiletova, Irina V; Timofeeva, Yana O; Shchipunov, Yury A; Kulchin, Yury N


    The process of silica formation in marine sponges is thought to be mediated by a family of catalytically active structure-directing enzymes called silicateins. It has been demonstrated in biomimicking syntheses that silicateins facilitated the formation of amorphous SiO2. Here, we present evidence that the silicatein LoSiLA1 from the marine sponge Latrunculia oparinae catalyzes the in vitro synthesis of hexa-tetrahedral SiO2 crystals of 200–300 nm. This was possible in the presence of the silica precursor tetrakis-(2-hydroxyethyl)-orthosilicate that is completely soluble in water and biocompatible, experiences hydrolysis–condensation at neutral pH and ambient conditions.

  11. Preparation of hollow silica nanospheres in O/W microemulsion system by hydrothermal temperature changes (United States)

    Wang, Dandan; Li, Xiuyan; Liu, Zuohua; Shi, Xue; Zhou, Guowei


    Hollow silica nanospheres with wrinkled or smooth surfaces were successfully fabricated through a hydrothermal method. In this method, oil-in-water microemulsion (composed of cyclohexane, water, ethanol, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide), and polyvinylpyrrolidone were utilized as template and capping agent, respectively. In such a facile synthesis, we can well realize the morphological transformation of spheres with radially oriented mesochannels to hollow structures of silica nanoparticle only by regulating the hydrothermal temperature from 100 °C to 200 °C. Synthesized samples with different mesostructures were then used as supports to immobilize Candida rugosa lipase (CRL). The immobilized CRL was employed as a new biocatalyst for biodiesel production through the esterification of heptanoic acid with ethanol. The conversion ratio of heptanoic acid with ethanol catalyzed by the immobilized CRL was also evaluated. Results of this study suggest that the prepared samples have potential applications in biocatalysis.

  12. Evolution of microstructure in mixed niobia-hybrid silica thin films from sol-gel precursors. (United States)

    Besselink, Rogier; Stawski, Tomasz M; Castricum, Hessel L; ten Elshof, Johan E


    The evolution of structure in sol-gel derived mixed bridged silsesquioxane-niobium alkoxide sols and drying thin films was monitored in situ by small-angle X-ray scattering. Since sol-gel condensation of metal alkoxides proceeds much faster than that of silicon alkoxides, the incorporation of d-block metal dopants into silica typically leads to formation of densely packed nano-sized metal oxide clusters that we refer as metal oxide building blocks in a silica-based matrix. SAXS was used to study the process of niobia building block formation while drying the sol as a thin film at 40-80°C. The SAXS curves of mixed niobia-hybrid silica sols were dominated by the electron density contrast between sol particles and surrounding solvent. As the solvent evaporated and the sol particles approached each other, a correlation peak emerged. Since TEM microscopy revealed the absence of mesopores, the correlation peak was caused by a heterogeneous system of electron-rich regions and electron poor regions. The regions were assigned to small clusters that are rich in niobium and which are dispersed in a matrix that mainly consisted of hybrid silica. The correlation peak was associated with the typical distances between the electron dense clusters and corresponded with distances in real space of 1-3 nm. A relationship between the prehydrolysis time of the silica precursor and the size of the niobia building blocks was observed. When 1,2-bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane was first hydrolyzed for 30 min before adding niobium penta-ethoxide, the niobia building blocks reached a radius of 0.4 nm. Simultaneous hydrolysis of the two precursors resulted in somewhat larger average building block radii of 0.5-0.6 nm. This study shows that acid-catalyzed sol-gel polymerization of mixed hybrid silica niobium alkoxides can be rationalized and optimized by monitoring the structural evolution using time-resolved SAXS.

  13. Proline catalyzed α-aminoxylation reaction in the synthesis of biologically active compounds. (United States)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Dwivedi, Namrata


    The search for new and efficient ways to synthesize optically pure compounds is an active area of research in organic synthesis. Asymmetric catalysis provides a practical, cost-effective, and efficient method to create a variety of complex natural products containing multiple stereocenters. In recent years, chemists have become more interested in using small organic molecules to catalyze organic reactions. As a result, organocatalysis has emerged both as a promising strategy and as an alternative to catalysis with expensive proteins or toxic metals. One of the most successful and widely studied secondary amine-based organocatalysts is proline. This small molecule can catalyze numerous reactions such as the aldol, Mannich, Michael addition, Robinson annulation, Diels-Alder, α-functionalization, α-amination, and α-aminoxylation reactions. Catalytic and enantioselective α-oxygenation of carbonyl compounds is an important reaction to access a variety of useful building blocks for bioactive molecules. Proline catalyzed α-aminoxylation using nitrosobenzene as oxygen source, followed by in situ reduction, gives enantiomerically pure 1,2-diol. This molecule can then undergo a variety of organic reactions. In addition, proline organocatalysis provides access to an assortment of biologically active natural products including mevinoline (a cholesterol lowering drug), tetrahydrolipstatin (an antiobesity drug), R(+)-α-lipoic acid, and bovidic acid. In this Account, we present an iterative organocatalytic approach to synthesize both syn- and anti-1,3-polyols, both enantio- and stereoselectively. This method is primarily based on proline-catalyzed sequential α-aminoxylation and Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons (HWE) olefination of aldehyde to give a γ-hydroxy ester. In addition, we briefly illustrate the broad application of our recently developed strategy for 1,3-polyols, which serve as valuable, enantiopure building blocks for polyketides and other structurally diverse and

  14. Electrochemical characterization of aminated acrylic conducting polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Norma Mohammad [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Heng, Lee Yook [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Southeast Asia Disaster Prevention Research Initiative, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Ling, Tan Ling [Southeast Asia Disaster Prevention Research Initiative, Lestari Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)


    New attempt has been made to synthesize aminated acrylic conducting polymer (AACP) using precursor of phenylvinylsulfoxide (PVS). The process was conducted via the integration of microemulsion and photopolymerization techniques. It has been utilized for covalent immobilization of amino groups by the adding of N-achryiloxisuccinimide (NAS). Thermal eliminating of benzene sulfenic acids from PVS has been done at 250 °C to form electroactive polyacetylene (PA) segment. Characterization of AACP has been conducted using fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and linear sweep cyclic voltammetry (CV). A range of 0.3-1.25μm particle size obtained from SEM characterization. A quasi-reversible system performed as shown in electrochemical study.

  15. N-(3-Methylphenylquinoxalin-2-amine monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azila Idris


    Full Text Available The quinoxaline system in the title hydrate, C15H13N3·H2O, is roughly planar, the r.m.s. deviation for the 18 non-H atoms being 0.188 Å; this conformation features a short intramolecular C—H...N(pyrazine interaction. In the crystal, the amine H atom forms an N—H...O hydrogen bond to the water molecule, which in turn forms two O—H...N hydrogen bonds to the pyrazine N atoms of different organic molecules. These interactions lead to supramolecular arrays in the bc plane that are two molecules thick; additional π–π interactions stabilize the layers [ring centroid–centroid distance = 3.5923 (7 Å]. The layers stack along the a-axis direction via C—H...π contacts.

  16. Amine scrubbing for CO2 capture. (United States)

    Rochelle, Gary T


    Amine scrubbing has been used to separate carbon dioxide (CO2) from natural gas and hydrogen since 1930. It is a robust technology and is ready to be tested and used on a larger scale for CO2 capture from coal-fired power plants. The minimum work requirement to separate CO2 from coal-fired flue gas and compress CO2 to 150 bar is 0.11 megawatt-hours per metric ton of CO2. Process and solvent improvements should reduce the energy consumption to 0.2 megawatt-hour per ton of CO2. Other advanced technologies will not provide energy-efficient or timely solutions to CO2 emission from conventional coal-fired power plants.

  17. Whole cell biotransformation for reductive amination reactions (United States)

    Klatte, Stephanie; Lorenz, Elisabeth; Wendisch, Volker F


    Whole cell biotransformation systems with enzyme cascading increasingly find application in biocatalysis to complement or replace established chemical synthetic routes for production of, e.g., fine chemicals. Recently, we established an Escherichia coli whole cell biotransformation system for reductive amination by coupling a transaminase and an amino acid dehydrogenase with glucose catabolism for cofactor recycling. Transformation of 2-keto-3-methylvalerate to l-isoleucine by E. coli cells was improved by genetic engineering of glucose metabolism for improved cofactor regeneration. Here, we compare this system with different strategies for cofactor regeneration such as cascading with alcohol dehydrogenases, with alternative production hosts such as Pseudomonas species or Corynebacterium glutamicum, and with improving whole cell biotransformation systems by metabolic engineering of NADPH regeneration. PMID:24406456

  18. Unique regioselectivity in the C(sp3)-H α-alkylation of amines: the benzoxazole moiety as a removable directing group. (United States)

    Lahm, Günther; Opatz, Till


    The benzoxazol-2-yl- substituent was found to act as a removable activating and directing group in the Ir-catalyzed alkylation of C(sp(3))-H bonds adjacent to nitrogen in secondary amines. It can be easily introduced by oxidative coupling or by an SNAr reaction, and it can be removed by hydroxide or by hydride reduction. For 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines, activation exclusively takes place in the 3-position. A variety of activated as well as unactivated terminal olefins are suitable reaction partners.

  19. Rapid Microwave-Assisted Copper-Catalyzed Nitration of Aromatic Halides with Nitrite Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paik, Seung Uk; Jung, Myoung Geun [Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    A rapid and efficient copper-catalyzed nitration of aryl halides has been established under microwave irradiation. The catalytic systems were found to be the most effective with 4-substituted aryl iodides leading to nearly complete conversions. Nitration of aromatic compounds is one of the important industrial processes as underlying intermediates in the manufacture of a wide range of chemicals such as dyes, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and explosives. General methods for the nitration of aromatic compounds utilize strongly acidic conditions employing nitric acid or a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids, sometimes leading to problems with poor regioselectivity, overnitration, oxidized byproducts and excess acid waste in many cases of functionalized aromatic compounds. Several other nitrating agents or methods avoiding harsh reaction conditions have been explored using metal nitrates, nitrite salts, and ionic liquid-mediated or microwave-assisted nitrations. Recently, copper or palladium compounds have been successfully used as efficient catalysts for the arylation of amines with aryl halides under mild conditions.

  20. Synthesis of Unsymmetric Ureas by Selenium-Catalyzed Oxidative-Reductive Carbonylation with CO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Jian-Ting; LU Shi-Wei


    @@ Unsymmetric, substituted ureas that contain the peptide bond (NHCONH), many of which possess biological activities, are widely used as herbicides, agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals. [1,2] A series of unsymmetric ureascontaining substituted groups have been synthesized via selenium-catalyzed selective oxidative-reductive carbonylation of amines and nitro compounds with CO instead of phosgene in one-pot reaction. [3,4] These catalytic reactions are important from both synthetic and industrial points of view, because not only the reactions can be proceeded with high selectivity of higher than 99% towards desired unsymmetric ureas, but also there exists a phase-transfer process of the selenium catalyst in thereaction, so that the after-treatment of the catalysts and products from the reaction systems can be easily separated by simple phase separation.