Sample records for amine catalyzed silica

  1. Zinc catalyzed Guanylation reaction of Amines with Carbodiimides ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    016-1096-y. Zinc catalyzed Guanylation reaction of Amines with Carbodiimides/. Isocyanate leading to Guanidines/Urea derivatives formation. JAYEETA BHATTACHARJEE, MITALI SACHDEVA, INDRANI BANERJEE and. TARUN K PANDA.

  2. Calcium(ii)-catalyzed enantioselective conjugate additions of amines. (United States)

    Uno, Brice E; Dicken, Rachel D; Redfern, Louis R; Stern, Charlotte M; Krzywicki, Greg G; Scheidt, Karl A


    The direct enantioselective chiral calcium(ii)·phosphate complex (Ca[CPA] 2 )-catalyzed conjugate addition of unprotected alkyl amines to maleimides was developed. This mild catalytic system represents a significant advance towards the general convergent asymmetric amination of α,β-unsaturated electrophiles, providing medicinally relevant chiral aminosuccinimide products in high yields and enantioselectivities. Furthermore, the catalyst can be reused directly from a previously chromatographed reaction and still maintain both high yield and selectivity.

  3. Zinc catalyzed Guanylation reaction of Amines with Carbodiimides ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 128; Issue 6. Zinc catalyzed Guanylation reaction of Amines with Carbodiimides/ Isocyanate leading to Guanidines/Urea derivatives formation. JAYEETA BHATTACHARJEE MITALI SACHDEVA INDRANI BANERJEE TARUN K PANDA. Regular Article Volume 128 Issue 6 June 2016 ...

  4. Zinc catalyzed Guanylation reaction of Amines with Carbodiimides ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DOI 10.1007/s12039-016-1096-y. Zinc catalyzed Guanylation reaction of Amines with Carbodiimides/ ... A possible mechanism involving penta-coordinated zinc transition state for the catalytic reaction is presented. Keywords. Carbodiimide ... or receptors through hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions. They are ...

  5. Mesoporous Silica: A Suitable Adsorbent for Amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahzadeh-Ghom Sara


    Full Text Available Abstract Mesoporous silica with KIT-6 structure was investigated as a preconcentrating material in chromatographic systems for ammonia and trimethylamine. Its adsorption capacity was compared to that of existing commercial materials, showing its increased adsorption power. In addition, KIT-6 mesoporous silica efficiently adsorbs both gases, while none of the employed commercial adsorbents did. This means that KIT-6 Mesoporous silica may be a good choice for integrated chromatography/gas sensing micro-devices.

  6. Highly Aminated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles with Cubic Pore Structure

    KAUST Repository

    Suteewong, Teeraporn


    Mesoporous silica with cubic symmetry has attracted interest from researchers for some time. Here, we present the room temperature synthesis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles possessing cubic Pm3n symmetry with very high molar ratios (>50%) of 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane. The synthesis is robust allowing, for example, co-condensation of organic dyes without loss of structure. By means of pore expander molecules, the pore size can be enlarged from 2.7 to 5 nm, while particle size decreases. Adding pore expander and co-condensing fluorescent dyes in the same synthesis reduces average particle size further down to 100 nm. After PEGylation, such fluorescent aminated mesoporous silica nanoparticles are spontaneously taken up by cells as demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy.

  7. Nickel-Catalyzed Amination of Aryl Sulfamates and Carbamates Using an Air-Stable Precatalyst (United States)

    Hie, Liana; Ramgren, Stephen D.; Mesganaw, Tehetena; Garg, Neil K.


    A facile nickel-catalyzed method to achieve the amination of synthetically useful aryl sulfamates and carbamates is reported. Contrary to most Ni-catalyzed amination reactions, this user-friendly approach relies on an air-stable Ni(II) precatalyst, which, when employed with a mild reducing agent, efficiently delivers aminated products in good to excellent yields. The scope of the method is broad with respect to both coupling partners and includes heterocyclic substrates. PMID:22849697

  8. on the elementary steps of acid zeolite catalyzed amination of light alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veefkind, V.A.; Lercher, J.A.


    Potential elementary reaction steps in solid acid catalyzed amination of light alcohols are critically compared using hydrogen mordenite as (model) catalyst and the open mechanistic questions have been addressed. Transient kinetic experiments combined with in situ infrared spectroscopy and isotopic

  9. Nickel-Catalyzed Synthesis of Primary Aryl and Heteroaryl Amines via C–O Bond Cleavage

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Huifeng


    A nickel-catalyzed protocol for the conversion of aryl and heteroaryl alcohol derivatives to primary and secondary aromatic amines via C(sp2)-O bond cleavage is described. The new amination protocol can be applied to a range of substrates bearing diverse functional groups and uses readily available benzophenone imines as an effective nitrogen source.

  10. Catalytic Ester and Amide to Amine Interconversion: Nickel-Catalyzed Decarbonylative Amination of Esters and Amides by C−O and C−C Bond Activation

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Huifeng


    An efficient nickel-catalyzed decarbonylative amination reaction of aryl and heteroaryl esters has been achieved for the first time. The new amination protocol allows the direct interconversion of esters and amides into the corresponding amines and represents a good alternative to classical rearrangements as well as cross coupling reactions.

  11. Iridium-Catalyzed Condensation of Primary Amines To Form Secondary Amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentz-Petersen, Linda Luise Reeh; Jensen, Paw; Madsen, Robert


    Symmetric secondary amines are readily obtained by heating a neat primary amine with 0.5 mol% of bis(dichloro[eta(5)-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl]iridium). The products are isolated by direct distillation in good yields.......Symmetric secondary amines are readily obtained by heating a neat primary amine with 0.5 mol% of bis(dichloro[eta(5)-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl]iridium). The products are isolated by direct distillation in good yields....

  12. Silver-catalyzed synthesis of amides from amines and aldehydes (United States)

    Madix, Robert J; Zhou, Ling; Xu, Bingjun; Friend, Cynthia M; Freyschlag, Cassandra G


    The invention provides a method for producing amides via the reaction of aldehydes and amines with oxygen adsorbed on a metallic silver or silver alloy catalyst. An exemplary reaction is shown in Scheme 1: (I), (II), (III). ##STR00001##

  13. Room-temperature Cu-catalyzed N-arylation of aliphatic amines in neat water. (United States)

    Wang, Deping; Zheng, Yanwen; Yang, Min; Zhang, Fuxing; Mao, Fangfang; Yu, Jiangxi; Xia, Xiaohong


    A room-temperature and PTC-free copper-catalyzed N-arylation of aliphatic amines in neat water has been developed. Using a combination of CuI and 6,7-dihydroquinolin-8(5H)-one oxime as the catalyst and KOH as the base, a wide range of aliphatic amines are arylated with various aryl and heteroaryl halides to give the corresponding products in up to 95% yield.

  14. Boron-Catalyzed N-Alkylation of Amines using Carboxylic Acids. (United States)

    Fu, Ming-Chen; Shang, Rui; Cheng, Wan-Min; Fu, Yao


    A boron-based catalyst was found to catalyze the straightforward alkylation of amines with readily available carboxylic acids in the presence of silane as the reducing agent. Various types of primary and secondary amines can be smoothly alkylated with good selectivity and good functional-group compatibility. This metal-free amine alkylation was successfully applied to the synthesis of three commercial medicinal compounds, Butenafine, Cinacalcet. and Piribedil, in a one-pot manner without using any metal catalysts. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Palladium-Catalyzed Enantioselective C-H Activation of Aliphatic Amines Using Chiral Anionic BINOL-Phosphoric Acid Ligands. (United States)

    Smalley, Adam P; Cuthbertson, James D; Gaunt, Matthew J


    The design of an enantioselective Pd(II)-catalyzed C-H amination reaction is described. The use of a chiral BINOL phosphoric acid ligand enables the conversion of readily available amines into synthetically valuable aziridines in high enantiomeric ratios. The aziridines can be derivatized to afford a range of chiral amine building blocks incorporating motifs readily encountered in pharmaceutically relevant molecules.

  16. Nickel-Catalyzed Decarbonylative Silylation, Borylation, and Amination of Arylamides via a Deamidative Reaction Pathway

    KAUST Repository

    Rueping, Magnus


    A nickel-catalyzed decarbonylative silylation, borylation, and amination of amides has been developed. This new methodology allows the direct interconversion of amides to arylsilanes, arylboronates, and arylamines and enables a facile route for carbon–heteroatom bond formations in a straightforward and mild fashion.

  17. Iridium‐Catalyzed Condensation of Amines and Vicinal Diols to Substituted Piperazines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentz-Petersen, Linda Luise Reeh; Nordstrøm, Lars Ulrik Rubæk; Madsen, Robert


    A straightforward procedure is described for the synthesis of piperazines from amines and 1,2‐diols. The heterocyclization is catalyzed by [Cp*IrCl2]2 and sodium hydrogen carbonate and can be achieved with either toluene or water as solvent. The transformation does not require any stoichiometric ...

  18. Ni-Catalyzed Carbon-Carbon Bond-Forming Reductive Amination. (United States)

    Heinz, Christoph; Lutz, J Patrick; Simmons, Eric M; Miller, Michael M; Ewing, William R; Doyle, Abigail G


    This report describes a three-component, Ni-catalyzed reductive coupling that enables the convergent synthesis of tertiary benzhydryl amines, which are challenging to access by traditional reductive amination methodologies. The reaction makes use of iminium ions generated in situ from the condensation of secondary N-trimethylsilyl amines with benzaldehydes, and these species undergo reaction with several distinct classes of organic electrophiles. The synthetic value of this process is demonstrated by a single-step synthesis of antimigraine drug flunarizine (Sibelium) and high yielding derivatization of paroxetine (Paxil) and metoprolol (Lopressor). Mechanistic investigations support a sequential oxidative addition mechanism rather than a pathway proceeding via α-amino radical formation. Accordingly, application of catalytic conditions to an intramolecular reductive coupling is demonstrated for the synthesis of endo- and exocyclic benzhydryl amines.

  19. Construction of dispirocyclohexanes via amine-catalyzed [2 + 2 + 2] annulations of Morita-Baylis-Hillman acetates with exocyclic alkenes. (United States)

    Chen, Rongshun; Xu, Silong; Fan, Xia; Li, Hanyuan; Tang, Yuhai; He, Zhengjie


    Amine-catalyzed [2 + 2 + 2] annulations of one molecule of Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) acetates 1 with two molecules of 2-(arylmethylidene)indane-1,3-diones 2 or methyleneindolinones 4 have been developed under very mild conditions, which produce multistereogenic dispirocyclohexanes 3 and 5, respectively, in moderate to excellent yields and good diastereoselectivity. This amine-catalyzed annulation constitutes a novel and efficient method for the construction of dispirocyclohexane motifs, and also showcases the divergent catalysis between amines and phosphines with regard to the corresponding phosphine-catalyzed [3 + 2] annulations.

  20. Pd/C Catalyzed Carbonylation of Azides in the Presence of Amines. (United States)

    Zhao, Jin; Li, Zongyang; Yan, Shuaihu; Xu, Shiyang; Wang, Ming-An; Fu, Bin; Zhang, Zhenhua


    A facile and efficient Pd/C-catalyzed carbonylation of both aliphatic and aromatic azides in the presence of amines is reported. Serving as the widely existed fragments in an array of biological pharmaceuticals, functionalized unsymmetrical ureas were straightforwardly synthesized by using readily available and cheap azides with amines under CO atmosphere, with the extrusion of N2 as the only byproduct. It was found that not only aryl azides but also benzyl and alkyl azides were suited for this methodology. Another feature of this procedure was the employment of a highly efficient palladium charcoal catalytic system.

  1. Selective Palladium(II)-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Methylene β-C-H Bonds in Aliphatic Amines. (United States)

    Cabrera-Pardo, Jaime R; Trowbridge, Aaron; Nappi, Manuel; Ozaki, Kyohei; Gaunt, Matthew J


    Palladium(II)-catalyzed C-H carbonylation reactions of methylene C-H bonds in secondary aliphatic amines lead to the formation of trans-disubstituted β-lactams in excellent yields and selectivities. The generality of the C-H carbonylation process is aided by the action of xantphos-based ligands and is important in securing good yields for the β-lactam products. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Visible light catalyzed Mannich reaction between tert-amines and silyl diazoenolates. (United States)

    Pramanik, Mukund M D; Nagode, Savita B; Kant, Ruchir; Rastogi, Namrata


    The present work documents the α-C-H functionalization of tertiary amines via the visible light catalyzed Mannich reaction with silyl diazoenolates. The reaction takes place at room temperature with an organic dye, Rose Bengal, as a photocatalyst and oxygen as the oxidant. The resulting multifunctional products bearing an α-diazo-β-keto group undergo Rh-carbenoid mediated cyclization, affording stable ammonium ylides in high yields.

  3. Synthesis of Indolines by a Zn-Mediated Mannich Reaction/Pd-Catalyzed Amination Sequence. (United States)

    Presset, Marc; Pignon, Antoine; Paul, Jérôme; Le Gall, Erwan; Léonel, Eric; Martens, Thierry


    1,2-Disubstituted indolines have been prepared in fair to good yields by a Zn-mediated organometallic Mannich reaction, followed by an intramolecular Pd-catalyzed aromatic amination. The reactions are easy to set up and compatible with a large variety of simple or commercially available reagents. The method was further extended to the preparation of a 1,2,3-trisubstituted indoline.

  4. Amine-modified ordered mesoporous silica: Effect of pore size on carbon dioxide capture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zeleňák, V.; Badaničová, M.; Halamová, D.; Čejka, Jiří; Zukal, Arnošt; Murafa, Nataliya; Goerigk, G.


    Roč. 144, č. 2 (2008), s. 336-342 ISSN 1385-8947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : mesoporous silica * hexagonal * amine * carbon dioxide Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.813, year: 2008

  5. Iridium- and Ruthenium-Catalyzed N-alkylation of Amines with Alcohols and Amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentz-Petersen, Linda Luise Reeh

    Many biologically active molecules contain one or more nitrogen atoms. Consequently, CN bond formation is a crucial area in the development of pharmaceuticals. The main part of this thesis is devoted to environmentally benign syntheses of different nitrogen scaffolds. Iridium and ruthenium...... experiments of the iridium catalyzed reactions revealed that the Voigt isomerization of the α-imino alcohol intermediate to the corresponding α-imino ketone plays a significant role. Synthesis of indoles Anilines and vicinal diols were reacted in the presence of a ruthenium complex (RuCl3 with PPh3...

  6. A Process Concept for High-Purity Production of Amines by Transaminase-Catalyzed Asymmetric Synthesis: Combining Enzyme Cascade and Membrane-Assisted ISPR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Börner, Tim; Rehn, Gustav; Grey, Carl


    For the amine transaminase (ATA)-catalyzed synthesis of chiral amines, the choice of donor substrate is of high importance for reaction and process design. Alanine was investigated as an amine donor for the reductive amination of a poorly water-soluble ketone (4-phenyl-2-butanone) in a combined...

  7. Transglutaminase-catalyzed amination of pea protein peptides using the biogenic amines histamine and tyramine. (United States)

    Lu, Xinyao; Hrynets, Yuliya; Betti, Mirko


    Biogenic amines (BAs) are produced by the enzymatic decarboxylation of amino acids, and are well-known for their toxicity to humans. This study describes a new method using microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) to covalently link BAs such as histamine (HIS) and tyramine (TYR) to the glutamine residues of alcalase-hydrolyzed pea protein (PPH). The incubation of PPH and HIS and TYR in the presence of MTGase at 37 °C led to the formation of conjugates, as determined by liquid chromatography, after derivatization with dansyl chloride. Seventy-six % of HIS and 65% of TYR were covalently incorporated to PPH by MTGase. The incubation of PPH and TYR in the presence of MTGase exhibited a 52% DPPH radical scavenging activity at 10 mg mL -1 . Conjugation via MTGase improved the antioxidant status by reducing lipid peroxidation. This study emphasizes that the application of MTGase can effectively reduce histamine and tyramine content while simultaneously enhancing antioxidative capacity of PPH. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Kinetic mechanism and structural requirements of the amine-catalyzed decarboxylation of oxaloacetic acid. (United States)

    Thalji, Nabil K; Crowe, William E; Waldrop, Grover L


    The kinetic and chemical mechanism of amine-catalyzed decarboxylation of oxaloacetic acid at pH 8.0 has been reevaluated using a new and versatile assay. Amine-catalyzed decarboxylation of oxaloacetic acid proceeds via the formation of an imine intermediate, followed by decarboxylation of the intermediate and hydrolysis to yield pyruvate. The decrease in oxaloacetic acid was coupled to NADH formation by malate dehydrogenase, which allowed the rates of both initial carbinolamine formation (as part of the imination step) and decarboxylation to be determined. By comparing the rates observed for a variety of amines and, in particular, diamines, the structural and electronic requirements for diamine-catalyzed decarboxylation at pH 8.0 were identified. At pH 8.0, monoamines were found to be very poor catalysts, whereas some diamines, most notably ethylenediamine, were excellent catalysts. The results indicate that the second amino group of diamines enhances the rate of imine formation by acting as a proton shuttle during the carbinolamine formation step, which enables diamines to overcome high levels of solvation that would otherwise inhibit carbinolamine, and thus imine, formation. The presence of the second amino group may also enhance the rate of the carbinolamine dehydration step. In contrast to the findings of previous reports, the second amino group participates in the reaction by enhancing the rate of decarboxylation via hydrogen-bonding to the imine nitrogen to either stabilize the negative charge that develops on the imine during decarboxylation or preferentially stabilize the reactive imine over the unreactive enamine tautomer. These results provide insight into the precise catalytic mechanism of several enzymes whose reactions are known to proceed via an imine intermediate.

  9. Iridium(III)-catalyzed direct C-7 amination of indolines with organic azides. (United States)

    Shin, Kwangmin; Chang, Sukbok


    Iridium-catalyzed regioselective C-7 amination of indolines has been achieved with organic azides as a facile nitrogen source. The developed procedure is convenient to perform even at room temperature and applicable to a wide range of substrates with high catalytic activity. Various types of organic azides (sulfonyl, aryl, and alkyl derivatives) were all successfully reacted under the present conditions as the viable reactant. Furthermore, indoline substrates bearing easily removable N-protecting groups such as N-Boc or N-Cbz could readily be employed, highlighting the synthetic utility of this methodology.

  10. Mechanistic Investigation of the Ruthenium–N-Heterocyclic-Carbene-Catalyzed Amidation of Alcohols and Amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarov, Ilya; Fristrup, Peter; Madsen, Robert


    The mechanism of the ruthenium–N-heterocyclic-carbene-catalyzed formation of amides from alcohols and amines was investigated by experimental techniques (Hammett studies, kinetic isotope effects) and by a computational study by using dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT/ M06......, but that it is one of several slow steps in the catalytic cycle. Rapid scrambling of hydrogen and deuterium at the a position of the alcohol was observed with deuterium-labeled substrates, which implies that the catalytically active species is a ruthenium dihydride. The experimental results were supported...

  11. Selective Palladium(II)-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Methylene β-C-H Bonds in Aliphatic Amines.


    Cabrera-Pardo, Jaime R; Trowbridge, Aaron; Nappi, Manuel; Ozaki, Kyohei; Gaunt, Matthew James


    Pd(II)-catalyzed C–H carbonylation of methylene C–H bonds in secondary aliphatic amines leads to the formation trans-disubstituted β-lactams in excellent yields and selectivities. The generality of the C–H carbonylation process is aided by the action of xantphos-based ligands and is important in securing good yields of the β-lactam products. EPSRC (EP/100548X/1), ERC (ERC-STG-259711), Royal Society (Wolfson Award), Marie Curie Foundation and Herchel Smith Foundation.


    A simple, facile, and chemoselective N-benzyloxycarbonylation of amines using silica-sulfuric acid that proceeds under solvent-free conditions at room temperature has been achieved. These reactions are applicable to a wide variety of primary (aliphatic, cyclic) secondary amines, ...

  13. Rhodium-catalyzed direct C-H amination of benzamides with aryl azides: a synthetic route to diarylamines. (United States)

    Ryu, Jaeyune; Shin, Kwangmin; Park, Sae Hume; Kim, Ji Young; Chang, Sukbok


    No muss, no fuss: A rhodium-catalyzed direct intermolecular C-H amination of benzamides and ketoximes using aryl azides as the amine source has been developed. The reaction exhibits a broad substrate scope with excellent functional-group tolerance, requires no external oxidants, releases N(2) as the only by-product, and produces diarylamines in high yields. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. An activated sulfonylating agent that undergoes general base-catalyzed hydrolysis by amines in preference to aminolysis. (United States)

    Tsang, Wing Y; Ahmed, Naveed; Hemming, Karl; Page, Michael I


    Activated sulfonyl derivatives, similar to acyl ones, usually undergo aminolysis with amines in water as nucleophilic attack by the amine is preferred to hydrolysis. However, despite being active sulfonyl derivatives, four-membered heterocyclic sulfonamides, beta-sultams, do not undergo aminolysis in aqueous solution but preferentially react to give hydrolysis products only. The rate of the reaction of beta-sultams in buffered solutions of simple primary amines shows a first-order dependence on amine concentrations attributed to general base-catalyzed hydrolysis by the amine. Even N-benzyl-4,4-dimethyl-3-oxo-beta-sultam, which is both a beta-sultam and a beta-lactam, undergoes hydrolysis at the sulfonyl center rather than aminolysis at either the sulfonyl or acyl center. The solvent kinetic isotope effects (SKIE, k(H(2)O)/k(D(2)O)) for the amine-catalyzed hydrolyses are 1.4 and 1.9 for the hydrolysis of N-benzoyl-beta-sultam and N-benzyl-4,4-dimethyl-3-oxo-beta-sultam, respectively, compatible with a general base-catalyzed mechanism. The amine-catalyzed hydrolysis gives a Bronsted beta value of +0.9 for both N-benzoyl beta-sultam and N-benzyl-4,4-dimethyl-3-oxo-beta-sultam, indicating that the general base amine is almost fully protonated in the transition state. A general base-catalyzed mechanism for hydrolysis rather than nucleophilic attack was also deduced for the reaction of N-benzyl-4,4-dimethyl-3-oxo-beta-sultam with carboxylate anions based on a SKIE of 1.7-1.9 and rate constants which fit the Bronsted plot for amines. In contrast to acyl transfer reactions, those for sulfonyl transfer appear to show an inverse reactivity-selectivity relationshipthe most active compounds being the most selective. The lack of reactivity of beta-sultams toward amine nucleophiles appears to be related to the mechanism of ring opening of beta-sultams with a decreased reactivity toward amines relative to hydroxide ion, probably related to the expulsion of the relatively poor

  15. Ru(II)-catalyzed selective C-H amination of xanthones and chromones with sulfonyl azides: synthesis and anticancer evaluation. (United States)

    Shin, Youngmi; Han, Sangil; De, Umasankar; Park, Jihye; Sharma, Satyasheel; Mishra, Neeraj Kumar; Lee, Eui-Kyung; Lee, Youngil; Kim, Hyung Sik; Kim, In Su


    A ketone-assisted ruthenium-catalyzed selective amination of xanthones and chromones C-H bonds with sulfonyl azides is described. The reactions proceed efficiently with a broad range of substrates with excellent functional group compatibility. This protocol provides direct access to 1-aminoxanthones, 5-aminochromones, and 5-aminoflavonoid derivatives known to exhibit potent anticancer activity.

  16. N-Arylation of amines, amides, imides and sulfonamides with arylboroxines catalyzed by simple copper salt/EtOH system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The coupling of arylboroxines with a variety of amines, amides, imides and sulfonamides catalyzed by a copper salt/EtOH system has been developed. In the absence of a base or additive the corresponding N-arylation products were obtained in moderate to excellent yields.

  17. Amine-modified ordered mesoporous silica: The effect of pore size on CO2 capture performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lin; Yao, Manli; Hu, Xin; Hu, Gengshen; Lu, Jiqing; Luo, Mengfei; Fan, Maohong


    Highlights: • Larger pore size could decrease the mass transfer resistance and increase the interaction between CO 2 and TEPA. • The CO 2 uptakes of sorbents were enhanced in the presence of moisture. • The sorbents are stable and regenerable under test conditions. - Abstract: The objective of current research is to investigate the effect of pore size of mesoporous silica supports on the CO 2 capture performance of solid amine sorbents. Two ordered mesoporous silicas (OMS) with different pore sizes (5.6 nm and 7.6 nm) were synthesized as tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) supports. A serious of techniques, such as physical adsorption, infrared spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis were used to characterize the solid amine sorbents. The CO 2 capture performances of the sorbents were evaluated using breakthrough method with a fixed-bed reactor equipped with an online mass spectrometer. The experimental results indicate that the pore size has significant influence on CO 2 capture performance. Larger pore size could decrease the mass transfer resistance and increase the interaction between CO 2 and TEPA. Therefore, OMS-7.6 is better than OMS-5.6 as amine support. The highest CO 2 sorption capacities achieved with OMS-7.6 with 50 wt% TEPA loading (OMS-7.6-50) in the absence and presence of moisture are 3.45 mmol/g and 4.28 mmol/g, respectively, under the conditions of 10.0% CO 2 /N 2 mixture at 75 °C. Cyclic CO 2 adsorption–desorption experiments indicate that the solid amine sorbents are fairly stable and regenerable

  18. Amide Synthesis from Alcohols and Amines Catalyzed by Ruthenium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Johan Hygum; Osztrovszky, Gyorgyi; Nordstrøm, Lars Ulrik Rubæk


    The direct synthesis of amides from alcohols and amines is described with the simultaneous liberation of dihydrogen. The reaction does not require any stoichiometric additives or hydrogen acceptors and is catalyzed by ruthenium N-heterocyclic carbene complexes. Three different catalyst systems......,3-diisopropylimidazolium chloride, tricyclopentylphosphonium tetrafluoroborate, and base. The second system uses the complex [RuCl2(IiPr)(p-cymene)] together with tricyclohexylphosphine and base, whereas the third system employs the Hoveyda-Grubbs 1st-generation metathesis catalyst together with 1,3-diisopropylimidazolium...... not show any significant differences in reactivity, which indicates that the same catalytically active species is operating. The reaction is believed to proceed by initial dehydrogenation of the primary alcohol to the aldehyde that stays coordinated to ruthenium and is not released into the reaction...

  19. Silica Fume Functionalized With Amine-Based Additives as a Modifier to Enhance Asphalt Resistance to Oxidation (United States)

    Abutalib, Nader Turki

    This dissertation investigates the practical feasibility of functionalizing silica fume particles with the amine groups in Bio-binder and pure APTES chemical to disperse silica fume in asphalt binder matrix to produce silica-fume-modified binder (SFMB). Dispersed silica fume was then introduced to asphalt to reduce oxidative aging. It has been widely reported that asphalt binder oxidation is one of the phenomena that reduces the service life of asphalt pavement by negatively affecting its rheological properties. This in turn can lead to a more brittle pavement, which is more prone to cracks due to thermal stress and traffic loading. It has been shown that the introduction of 4% silica fume to asphalt can reduce asphalt oxidative aging. However, the challenge with a higher percentage of silica fume was found to be the agglomeration of nano- particles to form micro-size clusters, which can reduce the effectiveness of silica fume while making asphalt binder more susceptible to shear. Therefore, this dissertation studies the effectiveness of functionalizing the SFMB to reduce asphalt oxidative aging while alleviating the agglomeration effect. To do so, various percentages of bio-binder (BB) and bio-char (BC) were introduced to SFMB, and the rheological properties and high-temperature performance of each specimen were evaluated by measuring the rotational viscosity and complex shear modulus before and after oxidative aging. It is hypothesized that fine-graded BC and BB with nano- to micro-level particles can be used to reduce asphalt oxidation and create a new generation of low- agglomeration SFMB with higher resistance to oxidative aging. To further study the effects of functionalization on dispersion of silica fume, silica fume particles were produced with different functional groups: amine (APTES) groups and phosphonate (THPMP) groups. Agglomeration studies using a scanning electron microscope and zeta potential analysis indicate that modifying asphalt binder with

  20. Primary Amine-Clustered DNA Aptamer for DNA-Protein Conjugation Catalyzed by Microbial Transglutaminase. (United States)

    Takahara, Mari; Wakabayashi, Rie; Minamihata, Kosuke; Goto, Masahiro; Kamiya, Noriho


    DNA-protein conjugates are promising biomolecules for use in areas ranging from therapeutics to analysis because of the dual functionalities of DNA and protein. Conjugation requires site-specific and efficient covalent bond formation without impairing the activity of both biomolecules. Herein, we have focused on the use of a microbial transglutaminase (MTG) that catalyzes the cross-linking reaction between a glutamine residue and a primary amine. In a model bioconjugation, a highly MTG-reactive Gln (Q)-donor peptide (FYPLQMRG, FQ) was fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (FQ-EGFP) and a primary amine-clustered DNA aptamer was enzymatically synthesized as a novel acyl-acceptor substrate of MTG, whose combination leads to efficient and convenient preparation of DNA-protein conjugates with high purity. Dual functionality of the obtained DNA-EGFP conjugate was evaluated by discrimination of cancer cells via c-Met receptor recognition ability of the DNA aptamer. The DNA aptamer-EGFP conjugate only showed fluorescence toward cells with c-Met overexpression, indicating the retention of the biochemical properties of the DNA and EGFP in the conjugated form.

  1. Enzymatic C(sp3)-H Amination: P450-Catalyzed Conversion of Carbonazidates into Oxazolidinones. (United States)

    Singh, Ritesh; Kolev, Joshua N; Sutera, Philip A; Fasan, Rudi


    Cytochrome P450 enzymes can effectively promote the activation and cyclization of carbonazidate substrates to yield oxazolidinones via an intramolecular nitrene C-H insertion reaction. Investigation of the substrate scope shows that while benzylic/allylic C-H bonds are most readily aminated by these biocatalysts, stronger, secondary C-H bonds are also accessible to functionalization. Leveraging this "non-native" reactivity and assisted by fingerprint-based predictions, improved active-site variants of the bacterial P450 CYP102A1 could be identified to mediate the aminofunctionalization of two terpene natural products with high regio- and stereoselectivity. Mechanistic studies and KIE experiments show that the C-H activation step in these reactions is rate-limiting and proceeds in a stepwise manner, namely, via hydrogen atom abstraction followed by radical recombination. This study expands the reactivity scope of P450-based catalysts in the context of nitrene transfer transformations and provides first-time insights into the mechanism of P450-catalyzed C-H amination reactions.

  2. Important roles of enthalpic and entropic contributions to CO2 capture from simulated flue gas and ambient air using mesoporous silica grafted amines. (United States)

    Alkhabbaz, Mustafa A; Bollini, Praveen; Foo, Guo Shiou; Sievers, Carsten; Jones, Christopher W


    The measurement of isosteric heats of adsorption of silica supported amine materials in the low pressure range (0-0.1 bar) is critical for understanding the interactions between CO2 and amine sites at low coverage and hence to the development of efficient amine adsorbents for CO2 capture from flue gas and ambient air. Heats of adsorption for an array of silica-supported amine materials are experimentally measured at low coverage using a Calvet calorimeter equipped with a customized dosing manifold. In a series of 3-aminopropyl-functionalized silica materials, higher amine densities resulted in higher isosteric heats of adsorption, clearly showing that the density/proximity of amine sites can influence the amine efficiency of adsorbents. In a series of materials with fixed amine loading but different amine types, strongly basic primary and secondary amine materials are shown to have essentially identical heats of adsorption near 90 kJ/mol. However, the adsorption uptakes vary substantially as a function of CO2 partial pressure for different primary and secondary amines, demonstrating that entropic contributions to adsorption may play a key role in adsorption at secondary amine sites, making adsorption at these sites less efficient at the low coverages that are important to the direct capture of CO2 from ambient air. Thus, while primary amines are confirmed to be the most effective amine types for CO2 capture from ambient air, this is not due to enhanced enthalpic contributions associated with primary amines over secondary amines, but may be due to unfavorable entropic factors associated with organization of the second alkyl chain on the secondary amine during CO2 adsorption. Given this hypothesis, favorable entropic factors may be the main reason primary amine based adsorbents are more effective under air capture conditions.

  3. Important Roles of Enthalpic and Entropic Contributions to CO 2 Capture from Simulated Flue Gas and Ambient Air Using Mesoporous Silica Grafted Amines

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhabbaz, Mustafa A.


    © 2014 American Chemical Society. The measurement of isosteric heats of adsorption of silica supported amine materials in the low pressure range (0- 0.1 bar) is critical for understanding the interactions between CO2 and amine sites at low coverage and hence to the development of efficient amine adsorbents for CO2 capture from flue gas and ambient air. Heats of adsorption for an array of silica-supported amine materials are experimentally measured at low coverage using a Calvet calorimeter equipped with a customized dosing manifold. In a series of 3-aminopropylfunctionalized silica materials, higher amine densities resulted in higher isosteric heats of adsorption, clearly showing that the density/proximity of amine sites can influence the amine efficiency of adsorbents. In a series of materials with fixed amine loading but different amine types, strongly basic primary and secondary amine materials are shown to have essentially identical heats of adsorption near 90 kJ/mol. However, the adsorption uptakes vary substantially as a function of CO2 partial pressure for different primary and secondary amines, demonstrating that entropic contributions to adsorption may play a key role in adsorption at secondary amine sites, making adsorption at these sites less effi cient at the low coverages that are important to the direct capture of CO2 from ambient air. Thus, while primary amines are confirmed to be the most effective amine types for CO2 capture from ambient air, this is not due to enhanced enthalpic contributions associated with primary amines over secondary amines, but may be due to unfavorable entropic factors associated with organization of the second alkyl chain on the secondary amine during CO2 adsorption. Given this hypothesis, favorable entropic factors may be the main reason primary amine based adsorbents are more effective under air capture conditions.

  4. Dehydrogenative Synthesis of Imines from Alcohols and Amines Catalyzed by a Ruthenium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggi, Agnese; Madsen, Robert


    A new method for the direct synthesis of imines from alcohols and amines is described where hydrogen gas is liberated. The reaction is catalyzed by the ruthenium N-heterocyclic carbene complex [RuCl2(IiPr)(p-cymene)] in the presence of the ligand DABCO and molecular sieves. The imination can...... be applied to a variety of primary alcohols and amines and can be combined with a subsequent addition reaction. A deuterium labeling experiment indicates that the catalytically active species is a ruthenium dihydride. The reaction is believed to proceed by initial dehydrogenation of the alcohol...... to the aldehyde, which stays coordinated to ruthenium. Nucleophilic attack of the amine affords the hemiaminal, which is released from ruthenium and converted into the imine....

  5. Yb(OTf){sub 3}-catalyzed one-pot three component synthesis for tertiary amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bum Seok; Kim, Ji Hye; Nam, Tae Kyu; Jang, Doo Ok [Dept. of Chemistry, Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)


    Tertiary amine functionality is found in many natural bioactive products such as alkaloids, amino acids, nucleic acids, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. Tertiary amines have also been used as building blocks for nitrogen-containing organic compounds and synthetic polymers. A one-pot method for direct reductive amination of aldehydes has been developed to synthesize tertiary amines using HMDS as a nitrogen source in the presence of Yb(OTf ){sub 3}. With a stoichiometric amount of HMDS, the reaction afforded the desired tertiary amines without competitive reduction of the parent carbonyl compounds. This reaction offers a convenient and efficient protocol for synthesizing aromatic and aliphatic tertiary amines under mild reaction conditions.

  6. Pd-Catalyzed Acetoxylation of γ-C(sp3)-H Bonds of Amines Directed by a Removable Bts-Protecting Group. (United States)

    Zheng, Yong; Song, Weibin; Zhu, Yefu; Wei, Bole; Xuan, Lijiang


    Pd-catalyzed acetoxylation of γ-C(sp 3 )-H bonds directed by Bts-protected amines using inexpensive PhI(OAc) 2 as oxidant is reported. The Bts-protecting group is easily introduced and removed under mild conditions. This protocol provides an important strategy for the construction of γ-hydroxyl amine derivatives.

  7. Decomposition of formic acid over silica encapsulated and amine functionalised gold nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Kunov-Kruse, Andreas Jonas; Kegnæs, Søren


    Formic acid has recently attracted considerable attention as a safe and convenient source of hydrogen for sustainable chemical synthesis and renewable energy storage. Here, we show that silica encapsulated and amine functionalised gold nanoparticles are highly active catalysts for the production...... of hydrogen by vapour phase decomposition of formic acid. The core-shell catalysts are prepared in a reverse micelle system that makes it possible to control the size of the Au nanoparticles and the thickness of the SiO2 shells, which has a large impact on the catalytic activity. The smallest gold...... nanoparticles are 2.2 ± 0.3 nm in diameter and have a turnover frequency (TOF) of up to 958 h−1 at a temperature of 130 °C. Based on detailed in situ ATR-FTIR studies and results from kinetic isotope labelling experiments we propose that the active site is a low-coordinated and amine functionalised Au atom...

  8. Carboxylate-Assisted Iridium-Catalyzed C-H Amination of Arenes with Biologically Relevant Alkyl Azides. (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Hu, Xuejiao; Wang, Zhen; Yang, Tiantian; Sun, Hao; Li, Guigen; Lu, Hongjian


    An iridium-catalyzed C-H amination of arenes with a wide substrate scope is reported. Benzamides with electron-donating and -withdrawing groups and linear, branched, and cyclic alkyl azides are all applicable. Cesium carboxylate is crucial for both reactivity and regioselectivity of the reactions. Many biologically relevant molecules, such as amino acid, peptide, steroid, sugar, and thymidine derivatives can be introduced to arenes with high yields and 100 % chiral retention. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Iron-Catalyzed Reaction of Urea with Alcohols and Amines: A Safe Alternative for the Synthesis of Primary Carbamates. (United States)

    Peña-López, Miguel; Neumann, Helfried; Beller, Matthias


    A general study of the iron-catalyzed reaction of urea with nucleophiles is here presented. The carbamoylation of alcohols allows for the synthesis of N-unsubstituted (primary) carbamates, including present drugs (Felbamate and Meprobamate), without the necessity to apply phosgene and related derivatives. Using amines as nucleophiles gave rise to the respective mono- and disubstituted ureas via selective transamidation reaction. These atom-economical transformations provide a direct and selective access to valuable compounds from cheap and readily available urea using a simple Lewis-acidic iron(II) catalyst. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Amine-Functionalized Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles: A New Nanoantibiotic for Bone Infection Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedraza Daniel


    Full Text Available This manuscript reports an effective new alternative for the management of bone infection by the development of an antibiotic nanocarrier able to penetrate bacterial biofilm, thus enhancing antimicrobial effectiveness. This nanosystem, also denoted as “nanoantibiotic”, consists in mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs loaded with an antimicrobial agent (levofloxacin, LEVO and externally functionalized with N-(2-aminoethyl-3- aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (DAMO as targeting agent. This amine functionalization provides MSNs of positive charges, which improves the affinity towards the negatively charged bacteria wall and biofilm. Physical and chemical properties of the nanoantibiotic were studied using different characterization techniques, including Xray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, N2 adsorption porosimetry, elemental chemical analysis, dynamic light scattering (DLS, zeta (ζ-potential and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. “In vial” LEVO release profiles and the in vitro antimicrobial effectiveness of the different released doses were investigated. The efficacy of the nanoantibiotic against a S. aureus biofilm was also determined, showing the practically total destruction of the biofilm due to the high penetration ability of the developed nanosystem. These findings open up promising expectations in the field of bone infection treatment.

  11. Amine-Functionalized Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles: A New Nanoantibiotic for Bone Infection Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedraza Daniel


    Full Text Available This manuscript reports an effective new alternative for the management of bone infection by the development of an antibiotic nanocarrier able to penetrate bacterial biofilm, thus enhancing antimicrobial effectiveness. This nanosystem, also denoted as “nanoantibiotic”, consists in mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs loaded with an antimicrobial agent (levofloxacin, LEVO and externally functionalized with N-(2-aminoethyl-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (DAMO as targeting agent. This amine functionalization provides MSNs of positive charges, which improves the affinity towards the negatively charged bacteria wall and biofilm. Physical and chemical properties of the nanoantibiotic were studied using different characterization techniques, including Xray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, N2 adsorption porosimetry, elemental chemical analysis, dynamic light scattering (DLS, zeta (ζ -potential and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. “In vial” LEVO release profiles and the in vitro antimicrobial effectiveness of the different released doses were investigated. The efficacy of the nanoantibiotic against a S. aureus biofilm was also determined, showing the practically total destruction of the biofilm due to the high penetration ability of the developed nanosystem. These findings open up promising expectations in the field of bone infection treatment.

  12. α,β-Unsaturated imines via Ru-catalyzed coupling of allylic alcohols and amines. (United States)

    Rigoli, Jared W; Moyer, Sara A; Pearce, Simon D; Schomaker, Jennifer M


    A convenient synthesis of α,β-unsaturated imines requiring only an allylic alcohol, an amine and a Ru catalyst has been developed. The use of large excesses of oxidant and the purification of sensitive intermediates can be avoided.

  13. Reductive amination of ketones catalyzed by whole cell biocatalysts containing imine reductases (IREDs). (United States)

    Maugeri, Zaira; Rother, Dörte


    The asymmetric reductive amination of ketones represents an elegant and convenient way to obtain chiral amines. Recently, several examples have been reported in which isolated imine reductases (IREDs) have been used for this type of reaction leading to promising results. In this work we focus on the applicability of whole cell biocatalysts (recombinant E. coli cells heterologously overexpressing an IRED) to simplify its preparation and to cut on catalyst production costs. Thirteen IREDs were screened towards six different ketones, using methylamine as amine donor. The targeted amines were formed with low to very high conversions and good to excellent stereoselectivity, depending on both, the ketone amine pair used for the reaction, as well as the applied IRED. It was further proven that a micro-aqueous reaction environment was applicable showing similar activity trends for the various reductive aminations but predominantly reduced conversions. A preparative scale experiment in a buffered environment was conducted leading to 93% conversion and 99% stereoselectivity of the product (1S,3R)-N,3-dimethylcyclohexylamine. As the whole cells intrinsic glucose dehydrogenase could be used for cofactor regeneration, no enzyme addition had to be applied, making this biocatalyst formulation particularly cost efficient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of polyvinylpyrrolidone on mesoporous silica morphology and esterification of lauric acid with 1-butanol catalyzed by immobilized enzyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jinyu; Zhou, Guowei, E-mail:; Jiang, Bin; Zhao, Minnan; Zhang, Yan


    Mesoporous silica materials with a range of morphology evolution, i.e., from curved rod-shaped mesoporous silica to straight rod-shaped mesoporous silica, were successfully prepared using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and triblock copolymer as dual template. The effects of PVP molecular weight and concentration on mesoporous silica structure parameters were studied. Results showed that surface area and pore volume continuously decreased with increased PVP molecular weight. Mesoporous silica prepared with PVP K30 also possessed larger pore diameter, interplanar spacing (d{sub 100}), and cell parameter (a{sub 0}) than that prepared with PVP K15 and PVP K90. In addition, with increased PVP concentration, d{sub 100} and a{sub 0} continuously decreased. The mechanism of morphology evolution caused by the change in PVP concentration was investigated. The conversion rate of lauric acid with 1-butanol catalyzed by immobilized Porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) was also evaluated. Results showed that PPL immobilized on amino-functionalized straight rod-shaped mesoporous silica maintained 50% of its esterification conversion rate even after five cycles of use with a maximum conversion rate was about 90.15%. - Graphical abstract: Curved rod-shaped mesoporous silica can be obtained at low and the highest PVP concentration, while straight rod-shaped mesoporous silica can be obtained at higher PVP concentration. - Highlights: • Mesoporous silica with morphology evolution from CRMS to SRMS were prepared. • Effects of PVP molecular weight and concentration on silica morphology were studied. • A possible mechanism for the formation of morphology evolution SiO{sub 2} was proposed. • Esterification of lauric acid with 1-butanol catalyzed by immobilized PPL.

  15. MOF-derived cobalt nanoparticles catalyze a general synthesis of amines. (United States)

    Jagadeesh, Rajenahally V; Murugesan, Kathiravan; Alshammari, Ahmad S; Neumann, Helfried; Pohl, Marga-Martina; Radnik, Jörg; Beller, Matthias


    The development of base metal catalysts for the synthesis of pharmaceutically relevant compounds remains an important goal of chemical research. Here, we report that cobalt nanoparticles encapsulated by a graphitic shell are broadly effective reductive amination catalysts. Their convenient and practical preparation entailed template assembly of cobalt-diamine-dicarboxylic acid metal organic frameworks on carbon and subsequent pyrolysis under inert atmosphere. The resulting stable and reusable catalysts were active for synthesis of primary, secondary, tertiary, and N -methylamines (more than 140 examples). The reaction couples easily accessible carbonyl compounds (aldehydes and ketones) with ammonia, amines, or nitro compounds, and molecular hydrogen under industrially viable and scalable conditions, offering cost-effective access to numerous amines, amino acid derivatives, and more complex drug targets. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  16. Amberlite IRA-400 Cl resin catalyzed synthesis of secondary amines and transformation into N-((1H-indol-3-yl (heteroaryl methyl-N-heteroaryl benzenamines and bis-indoles via multicomponent reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurusamy Harichandran


    Full Text Available A one-pot Amberlite IRA-400 Cl resin catalyzed the in-situ generation of imines from various aldehydes and primary amines followed by reduction with sodium borohydride affording corresponding secondary amines. The secondary amines thus obtained were utilized for the IRA-400 Cl resin catalyzed multicomponent synthesis of 3-aminoalkylated indoles using a number of aldehydes and indole. Mild condition, easy work-up, and environmentally benign nature of the synthetic strategy make it both practical and attractive.

  17. Ready synthesis of free N-H 2-arylindoles via the copper-catalyzed amination of 2-bromo-arylacetylenes with aqueous ammonia and sequential intramolecular cyclization. (United States)

    Wang, Huifeng; Li, Yaming; Jiang, Linlin; Zhang, Rong; Jin, Kun; Zhao, Defeng; Duan, Chunying


    A wide range of free N-H 2-arylindoles were synthesised via the copper(II)-catalyzed amination of 2-bromo-arylacetylenes with aqueous ammonia and sequential intramolecular cyclization. The convenience and atom economy of aqueous ammonia, and the low cost of the copper catalytic system make this protocol readily superior in practical application.

  18. Acid-catalyzed reductive amination of aldoses with 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonate. (United States)

    Evangelista, R A; Guttman, A; Chen, F T


    The reductive amination of monosaccharides with 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonate (APTS) in seven different organic acids including the commonly used acetic acid was investigated by capillary electrophoresis (CE) with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. The correlation between the yields of the saccharide-APTS adducts and pKa of the organic acid catalyst is consistent with general acid catalysis of the rate-determining step of the reductive amination reaction. Derivatization in the presence of organic acids of higher strength than acetic acid produced substantially higher yields of APTS-sugar adducts, an effect which is more pronounced for N-acetylamino sugars. Optimum yields were obtained using citric acid as a catalyst. Conversion of a few nanomoles of neutral saccharides to the APTS derivatives is achieved at 75 degrees C in less than 60 min.

  19. Ligand-controlled, tunable silver-catalyzed C-H amination. (United States)

    Alderson, Juliet M; Phelps, Alicia M; Scamp, Ryan J; Dolan, Nicholas S; Schomaker, Jennifer M


    The development of readily tunable and regioselective C-H functionalization reactions that operate solely through catalyst control remains a challenge in modern organic synthesis. Herein, we report that simple silver catalysts supported by common nitrogenated ligands can be used to tune a nitrene transfer reaction between two different types of C-H bonds. The results reported herein represent the first example of ligand-controlled and site-selective silver-promoted C-H amination.

  20. Copper(II)/amine synergistically catalyzed enantioselective alkylation of cyclic N-acyl hemiaminals with aldehydes. (United States)

    Sun, Shutao; Mao, Ying; Lou, Hongxiang; Liu, Lei


    The first catalytic asymmetric alkylation of N-acyl quinoliniums with aldehydes has been described. A copper/amine synergistic catalytic system has been developed, allowing the addition of functionalized aldehydes to a wide range of electronically varied N-acyl quinoliniums in good yields with excellent enantiocontrol. The synergistic catalytic system was also effective for N-acyl dihydroisoquinoliniums and β-caboliniums, demonstrating the general applicability of the protocol in the enantioselective alkylation of diverse cyclic N-acyl hemiaminals.

  1. Amine-catalyzed direct aldol reactions of hydroxy- and dihydroxyacetone: biomimetic synthesis of carbohydrates. (United States)

    Popik, Oskar; Pasternak-Suder, Monika; Leśniak, Katarzyna; Jawiczuk, Magdalena; Górecki, Marcin; Frelek, Jadwiga; Mlynarski, Jacek


    This article presents comprehensive studies on the application of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines as efficient organocatalysts for the de novo synthesis of ketoses and deoxyketoses. Mimicking the actions of aldolase enzymes, the synthesis of selected carbohydrates was accomplished in aqueous media by using proline- and serine-based organocatalysts. The presented methodology also provides direct access to unnatural L-carbohydrates from the (S)-glyceraldehyde precursor. Determination of the absolute configuration of all obtained sugars was feasible using a methodology consisting of concerted ECD and VCD spectroscopy.

  2. Mechanistic insight into benzenethiol catalyzed amide bond formations from thioesters and primary amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuhr-Hansen, Nicolai; Bork, Nicolai; Strømgaard, Kristian


    in the aromatic thioester amidation reaction. Under similar conditions, cysteine-free ligation was achieved by coupling a fully side-chain protected 15 amino acid phosphopeptide thioester to the free N-terminal of a side-chain protected 9 amino acid peptide producing the corresponding 24 amino acid phosphopeptide.......The influence of arylthiols on cysteine-free ligation, i.e. the reaction between an alkyl thioester and a primary amine forming an amide bond, was studied in a polar aprotic solvent. We reacted the ethylthioester of hippuric acid with cyclohexylamine in the absence or presence of various quantities...

  3. The impact of aminated surface ligands and silica shells on the stability, uptake, and toxicity of engineered silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonventre, Josephine A.; Pryor, Joseph B.; Harper, Bryan J.; Harper, Stacey L., E-mail: [Oregon State University, Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology (United States)


    Inherent nanomaterial characteristics, composition, surface chemistry, and primary particle size, are known to impact particle stability, uptake, and toxicity. Nanocomposites challenge our ability to predict nanoparticle reactivity in biological systems if they are composed of materials with contrasting relative toxicities. We hypothesized that toxicity would be dominated by the nanoparticle surface (shell vs core), and that modulating the surface ligands would have a direct impact on uptake. We exposed developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) to a series of ∼70 nm amine-terminated silver nanoparticles with silica shells (AgSi NPs) to investigate the relative influence of surface amination, composition, and size on toxicity. Like-sized aminated AgSi and Si NPs were more toxic than paired hydroxyl-terminated nanoparticles; however, both AgSi NPs were more toxic than the Si NPs, indicating a significant contribution of the silver core to the toxicity. Incremental increases in surface amination did not linearly increase uptake and toxicity, but did have a marked impact on dispersion stability. Mass-based exposure metrics initially supported the hypothesis that smaller nanoparticles (20 nm) would be more toxic than larger particles (70 nm). However, surface area-based metrics revealed that toxicity was independent of size. Our studies suggest that nanoparticle surfaces play a critical role in the uptake and toxicity of AgSi NPs, while the impact of size may be a function of the exposure metric used. Overall, uptake and toxicity can be dramatically altered by small changes in surface functionalization or exposure media. Only after understanding the magnitude of these changes, can we begin to understand the biologically available dose following nanoparticle exposure.

  4. Improved Synthesis of 5-Substituted 1H-Tetrazoles via the [3+2] Cycloaddition of Nitriles and Sodium Azide Catalyzed by Silica Sulfuric Acid (United States)

    Du, Zhenting; Si, Changmei; Li, Youqiang; Wang, Yin; Lu, Jing


    A silica supported sulfuric acid catalyzed [3+2] cycloaddition of nitriles and sodium azide to form 5-substituted 1H-tetrazoles is described. The protocol can provide a series of 5-substituted 1H-tetrazoles using silica sulfuric acid from nitriles and sodium azide in DMF in 72%–95% yield. PMID:22606004

  5. Rh2(II)-catalyzed intramolecular aliphatic C-H bond amination reactions using aryl azides as the N-atom source. (United States)

    Nguyen, Quyen; Sun, Ke; Driver, Tom G


    Rhodium(II) dicarboxylate complexes were discovered to catalyze the intramolecular amination of unactivated primary, secondary, or tertiary aliphatic C-H bonds using aryl azides as the N-atom precursor. While a strong electron-withdrawing group on the nitrogen atom is typically required to achieve this reaction, we found that both electron-rich and electron-poor aryl azides are efficient sources for the metal nitrene reactive intermediate. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  6. Rh2(II)-Catalyzed Intramolecular Aliphatic C–H Bond Amination Reactions Using Aryl Azides as the N-Atom Source (United States)

    Nguyen, Quyen; Sun, Ke; Driver, Tom G.


    Rhodium(II) dicarboxylate complexes were discovered to catalyze the intramolecular amination of unactivated primary-, secondary-, or tertiary aliphatic C–H bonds using aryl azides as the N-atom precursor. While a strong electron-withdrawing group on the nitrogen atom is typically required to achieve this reaction, we found that both electron-rich- and electron-poor aryl azides are efficient sources for the metal nitrene reactive intermediate. PMID:22519742

  7. Phenanthroline-based metal–organic frameworks for Fe-catalyzed C sp3 –H amination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thacker, Nathan C. [Department of Chemistry; University of Chicago; Chicago; USA; Ji, Pengfei [Department of Chemistry; University of Chicago; Chicago; USA; Lin, Zekai [Department of Chemistry; University of Chicago; Chicago; USA; Urban, Ania [Department of Chemistry; University of Chicago; Chicago; USA; Lin, Wenbin [Department of Chemistry; University of Chicago; Chicago; USA


    We report here the synthesis of a robust and highly porous Fe-phenanthroline-based metal–organic framework (MOF) and its application in catalyzing challenging inter- and intramolecular C–H amination reactions. For the intermolecular amination reactions, a FeBr2-metalated MOF selectively functionalized secondary benzylic and allylic C–H bonds. The intramolecular amination reactions utilizing organic azides as the nitrene source required the reduction of the FeBr2-metalated MOF with NaBHEt3to generate the active catalyst. For both reactions, Fe or Zr leaching was less than 0.1%, and MOFs could be recycled and reused with no loss in catalytic activity. Furthermore, MOF catalysts were significantly more active than the corresponding homogeneous analogs. This work demonstrates the great potential of MOFs in generating highly active, recyclable, and reusable earth abundant metal catalysts for challenging organic transformations.

  8. Bulk gold catalyzed oxidation reactions of amines and isocyanides and iron porphyrin catalyzed N-H and O-H bond insertion/cyclization reactions of diamines and aminoalcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klobukowski, Erik [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    This work involves two projects. The first project entails the study of bulk gold as a catalyst in oxidation reactions of isocyanides and amines. The main goal of this project was to study the activation and reactions of molecules at metal surfaces in order to assess how organometallic principles for homogeneous processes apply to heterogeneous catalysis. Since previous work had used oxygen as an oxidant in bulk gold catalyzed reactions, the generality of gold catalysis with other oxidants was examined. Amine N-oxides were chosen for study, due to their properties and use in the oxidation of carbonyl ligands in organometallic complexes. When amine N-oxides were used as an oxidant in the reaction of isocyanides with amines, the system was able to produce ureas from a variety of isocyanides, amines, and amine N-oxides. In addition, the rate was found to generally increase as the amine N-oxide concentration increased, and decrease with increased concentrations of the amine. Mechanistic studies revealed that the reaction likely involves transfer of an oxygen atom from the amine N-oxide to the adsorbed isocyanide to generate an isocyanate intermediate. Subsequent nucleophilic attack by the amine yields the urea. This is in contrast to the bulk gold-catalyzed reaction mechanism of isocyanides with amines and oxygen. Formation of urea in this case was proposed to proceed through a diaminocarbene intermediate. Moreover, formation of the proposed isocyanate intermediate is consistent with the reactions of metal carbonyl ligands, which are isoelectronic to isocyanides. Nucleophilic attack at coordinated CO by amine N-oxides produces CO{sub 2} and is analogous to the production of an isocyanate in this gold system. When the bulk gold-catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenation of amines was examined with amine N-oxides, the same products were afforded as when O{sub 2} was used as the oxidant. When the two types of oxidants were directly compared using the same reaction system and

  9. Reinforcement of natural rubber by silica/silane in dependence of different amine types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayichelaeh, C.; Reuvekamp, L. A. E. M.; Dierkes, W. K.; Blume, A.; Noordermeer, J. W. M.; Sahakaro, K.


    Diphenyl guanidine (DPG) is the most commonly used secondary accelerator in silica-reinforced rubber compounds because of its additional positive effect on the silanization reaction and deactivation of free silanol groups that are left over after the silanization. However, because of health and

  10. Formation of silver nanoparticles in an acid-catalyzed silica colloidal solution (United States)

    Jiang, Zhong-Jie; Liu, Chun-Yan; Liu, Yun


    In a weak basic, weak acidic or neutral water-alcohol solution, silver nanoparticles were generated by the reduction of Ag + ions in the present of colloidal silica. Silica as a substrate played an important role in the formation of Silver particles. The plasmon band of silver particles supported on the surface of silica was considerably shifted to longer wavelength compared with the pure silver sol. The shift in absorption spectra was explained in terms of surface effects induced by the interaction of silver and silica, as well as size effects and irregular shape.

  11. Importance of glutamate 87 and the substrate α-amine for the reaction catalyzed by D-arginine dehydrogenase. (United States)

    Ball, Jacob; Bui, Quan V V; Gannavaram, Swathi; Gadda, Giovanni


    Pseudomonas aeruginosa D-arginine dehydrogenase (PaDADH) catalyzes the oxidation of D-arginine to iminoarginine, which is non-enzymatically hydrolyzed to 2-ketoarginine and ammonia. Here, site-directed mutagenesis and pH effects were used to investigate binding and catalysis of zwitterionic and cationic substrates for the enzyme. An unprotonated group with apparent pKa value ⩾7.9 is required for binding D-arginine or D-lysine, but not D-methionine or D-leucine. This group is E87, as suggested by its replacement with leucine. An unprotonated group with pKa of 9.5, which persists in the H48F and E87L variants, is required for amine oxidation with all substrates. Since Y53 and Y249 were previously ruled out, the pKa is assigned to the substrate α-NH3(+) group, which previous QM/MM and Kd pH-profile demonstrated to be protonated for preferred binding to the enzyme. Lack of pH effects on the (D)kred with D-leucine established 9.5 as the intrinsic pKa, and D-leucine as a non-sticky substrate. D-Arginine, D-lysine and D-methionine and their corresponding iminoproducts were significantly stickier than D-leucine, as indicated by apparent pKa values <9.5 in both kcat/Km and kcat. Restricted proton movements in catalysis were established from hollowed kcat pH profiles in wild-type PaDADH with D-lysine and in the H48F and E87L enzymes with D-arginine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Transition-metal-catalyzed C-N bond forming reactions using organic azides as the nitrogen source: a journey for the mild and versatile C-H amination. (United States)

    Shin, Kwangmin; Kim, Hyunwoo; Chang, Sukbok


    Owing to the prevalence of nitrogen-containing compounds in functional materials, natural products and important pharmaceutical agents, chemists have actively searched for the development of efficient and selective methodologies allowing for the facile construction of carbon-nitrogen bonds. While metal-catalyzed C-N cross-coupling reactions have been established as one of the most general protocols for C-N bond formation, these methods require starting materials equipped with functional groups such as (hetero)aryl halides or their equivalents, thus generating stoichiometric amounts of halide salts as byproducts. To address this aspect, a transition-metal-catalyzed direct C-H amination approach has emerged as a step- and atom-economical alternative to the conventional C-N cross-coupling reactions. However, despite the significant recent advances in metal-mediated direct C-H amination reactions, most available procedures need harsh conditions requiring stoichiometric external oxidants. In this context, we were curious to see whether a transition-metal-catalyzed mild C-H amination protocol could be achieved using organic azides as the amino source. We envisaged that a dual role of organic azides as an environmentally benign amino source and also as an internal oxidant via N-N2 bond cleavage would be key to develop efficient C-H amination reactions employing azides. An additional advantage of this approach was anticipated: that a sole byproduct is molecular nitrogen (N2) under the perspective catalytic conditions. This Account mainly describes our research efforts on the development of rhodium- and iridium-catalyzed direct C-H amination reactions with organic azides. Under our initially optimized Rh(III)-catalyzed amination conditions, not only sulfonyl azides but also aryl- and alkyl azides could be utilized as facile amino sources in reaction with various types of C(sp(2))-H bonds bearing such directing groups as pyridine, amide, or ketoxime. More recently, a new

  13. Synthesis of nanocrystalline LaF3 doped silica glasses by hydrofluoric acid catalyzed sol–gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagayama, Shuhei; Kajihara, Koichi; Kanamura, Kiyoshi


    Highlights: ► Silica glasses doped by LaF 3 nanocrystals are obtained by HF-catalyzed sol–gel method. ► The processing time (∼1 week) is much shorter than that of previous studies. ► The uptake of SiF groups in the glass matrix greatly reduces the SiOH concentration. ► Effects of sintering conditions and properties of Er 3+ -doped samples are presented. - Abstract: Silica glasses doped with LaF 3 nanocrystals were prepared by HF-catalyzed sol–gel method. HF was used both as fluorine source and as catalyst of the sol–gel reaction, making it possible to shorten the processing time with reducing the concentration of SiOH groups to ∼10 18 cm −3 . The resultant glasses are transparent at visible spectral range, and the optical loss at the ultraviolet absorption edge is dominated by the Rayleigh scattering from LaF 3 crystallites. The size of LaF 3 crystallites increases with an increase in the sintering temperature and time, and is smaller than ∼40 nm in samples showing good visible transparency. Green upconversion photoluminescence is observed in an Er 3+ -doped sample under excitation at 980 nm.

  14. Effect of amine counterion type on the retention of basic compounds on octadecyl silane bonded silica-based and polybutadiene-coated zirconia phases. (United States)

    Yang, Xiqin; Dai, Jun; Carr, Peter W


    In a previous paper, we compared the mixed-mode retention characteristics of cationic solutes on octadecyl silane-bonded silica (ODS) and polybutadiene-coated zirconia (PBD-ZrO2) phases. It is well recognized that both reversed-phase and ion-exchange interactions contribute to the retention of cations on ODS phases. The reversed-phase interaction results from the bonded hydrocarbon chain; the ion-exchange interaction originates in the ionized residual silanol groups. These two types of interactions also exist on the PBD-ZrO2 phase. The polybutadiene contributes to the reversed-phase interaction and the ionized zirconol, but primarily, the adsorbed Lewis base anions, such as phosphate or fluoride, contribute to the ion-exchange interaction. We have shown that on ODS phases, reversed-phase interactions are much more important, whereas the opposite is true of PBD-ZrO2 phases. In this work, we investigate the effect of several amine mobile phase counterions on the retention of cationic solutes on ODS and PBD-ZrO2 phases. The effects of the chain length and the type of amine (1 degree, 2 degrees, 3 degrees) counterion on the retention of basic compounds were studied. In contrast to older studies of type A silica-based phases, the results show that the chain length and type of the amine blocker do not have a large effect on the retention of basic compounds with the newer type B silica-based materials. However, on the PBD-ZrO2 phase, very striking differences in retention were observed with different amine counterions. We show that the molecular geometry of the amine counterion has a significant effect on the retention of basic solutes on the PBD-ZrO2 phase.

  15. Palladium-catalyzed aryl amination-heck cyclization cascade: A one-flask approach to 3-substituted Indoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Pedersen, Henrik; Bang-Andersen, B.


    Two for the price of one: A Pd/dppf-based catalyst provides access to the title compounds from 1,2-dihalogenated aromatic compounds and allylic amines in a single reaction flask. The initial aryl amination step occurs with excellent selectivity for the aryl iodide to ensure the formation of a sin......Two for the price of one: A Pd/dppf-based catalyst provides access to the title compounds from 1,2-dihalogenated aromatic compounds and allylic amines in a single reaction flask. The initial aryl amination step occurs with excellent selectivity for the aryl iodide to ensure the formation...

  16. Ionic Liquid-Silica Precursors via Solvent-Free Sol-Gel Process and Their Application in Epoxy-Amine Network: A Theoretical/Experimental Study. (United States)

    Perchacz, Magdalena; Donato, Ricardo Keitel; Seixas, Leandro; Zhigunov, Alexander; Konefał, Rafał; Serkis-Rodzeń, Magdalena; Beneš, Hynek


    This work describes the solvent-free sol-gel synthesis of epoxy-functionalized silica-based precursors in the presence of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) containing different anions: chloride (Cl - ) and methanesulfonate (MeSO 3 - ). The IL-driven sol-gel mechanisms were investigated in detail using experimental characterizations ( 29 Si NMR and ATR FTIR spectroscopy) and a theoretical computational method based on density functional theory (DFT). We observed complex IL influence on both hydrolysis and condensation steps, involving especially H-bonding and Coulomb coupling stabilization of the process intermediates. The obtained IL-silica precursors and their further xerogels were widely characterized (rheology measurements, MALDI TOF, 29 Si NMR, ATR FTIR, and DFT simulation), which allowed observation of their precise silica structures and established their most energetically favorable conformations. The detected silica structures were dependent on the IL type and varied from highly condensed 3D cage-like to branched ladder-like and cyclic ones. The application of prepared IL-silica precursors as reinforcing additives into the epoxy-amine network led to an improvement in the organic/inorganic interphase interactions through chemical and physical bonding. Uniform and well-dispersed silica aggregates, in the size of ∼30 nm, were formed when ≤6.8 wt % of each IL-silica precursor was applied into the epoxy-amine network. The use of imidazolium-based ILs contributed to a significant improvement in thermomechanical properties of hybrids and reduced their UV absorption ability compared to that of the reference matrix. All hybrids exhibited an increase in energy to break (up to ∼53%), elongation at break (up to ∼43%), shear storage modulus in the rubbery region (up to 4 times), and thermo-oxidative stability.

  17. The interaction of diamines and polyamines with the peroxidase-catalyzed metabolism of aromatic amines: a potential mechanism for the modulation of aniline toxicity. (United States)

    Michail, Karim; Aljuhani, Naif; Siraki, Arno G


    Synthetic and biological amines such as ethylenediamine (EDA), spermine, and spermidine have not been previously investigated in free-radical biochemical systems involving aniline-based drugs or xenobiotics. We aimed to study the influence of polyamines in the modulation of aromatic amine radical metabolites in peroxidase-mediated free radical reactions. The aniline compounds tested caused a relatively low oxidation rate of glutathione in the presence of horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and H2O2; however, they demonstrated marked oxygen consumption when a polyamine molecule was present. Next, we characterized the free-radical products generated by these reactions using spin-trapping and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry. Primary and secondary but not tertiary polyamines dose-dependently enhanced the N-centered radicals of different aniline compounds catalyzed by either HRP or myeloperoxidase, which we believe occurred via charge transfer intermediates and subsequent stabilization of aniline-derived radical species as suggested by isotopically labeled aniline. Aniline/peroxidase reaction product(s) were monitored at 435 nm by kinetic spectrophotometry in the presence and absence of a polyamine additive. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, the dimerziation product of aniline, azobenzene, was significantly amplified when EDA was present. In conclusion, di- and poly-amines are capable of enhancing the formation of aromatic-amine-derived free radicals, a fact that is expected to have toxicological consequences.

  18. Organic ligand-free alkylation of amines, carboxamides, sulfonamides, and ketones by using alcohols catalyzed by heterogeneous Ag/Mo oxides. (United States)

    Cui, Xinjiang; Zhang, Yan; Shi, Feng; Deng, Youquan


    Complicated and expensive organic ligands are normally essential in fine chemical synthesis at preparative or industrial levels. The synthesis of fine chemicals by using heterogeneous catalyst systems without additive organic ligand is highly desirable but severely limited due to their poor generality and rigorous reaction conditions. Here, we show the results of carbon-nitrogen or carbon-carbon bond formation catalyzed by an Ag/Mo hybrid material with specific Ag(6) Mo(10) O(33) crystal structure. 48 nitrogen- or oxygen-containing compounds, that is, amines, carboxamides, sulfonamides, and ketones, were successfully synthesized through a borrowing-hydrogen mechanism. Up to 99 % isolated yields were obtained under relatively mild conditions without additive organic ligand. The catalytic process shows promise for the efficient and economic synthesis of amine, carboxamide, sulfonamide, and ketone derivatives because of the simplicity of the system and ease of operation. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Theoretical Mechanism Studies on the Enantioselectivity of aza-MBH-type Reaction of Nitroalkene to N-tosylimine Catalyzed by Thiourea-tertiary Amine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Nan; Wang, Huatian; Wang, Yangping [Shandong Agricultural Univ., Taian (China)


    The enantioselective aza-Morita Baylis Hillman reaction of nitroalkene and N-tosylimine catalyzed by thiourea-tertiary amine has been investigated using density functional theory. Enantioselectivity is dominated by the cooperative effect of non-covalent and weak covalent interactions imposed by different units of catalyst. As Lewis base, the tertiary amine unit activates nitroalkene via weak covalent bond. The weak covalent interaction orients the reaction in a major path with smaller variations of this bond. The aromatic ring unit activates N-tosylimine via π-π stacking. The non-covalent interaction selects the major path with smaller changes of the efficient packing areas. Thiourea unit donates more compact H-bonded network for species of the major path. The calculated ee value in xylene solution phase (97.6%) is much higher than that in N,N-Dimethylformamide (27.2%). Our conclusion is also supported by NBO analysis.

  20. Desorption Kinetics and Mechanisms of CO2 on Amine-Based Mesoporous Silica Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Teng


    Full Text Available Tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA-based mesoporous MCM-41 is used as the adsorbent to determine the CO2 desorption kinetics of amine-modified materials after adsorption. The experimental data of CO2 desorption as a function of time are derived by zero-length column at different temperatures (35, 50, and 70 °C and analyzed by Avrami’s fractional-order kinetic model. A new method is used to distinguish the physical desorption and chemical desorption performance of surface-modified mesoporous MCM-41. The activation energy Ea of CO2 physical desorption and chemical desorption calculated from Arrhenius equation are 15.86 kJ/mol and 57.15 kJ/mol, respectively. Furthermore, intraparticle diffusion and Boyd’s film models are selected to investigate the mechanism of CO2 desorption from MCM-41 and surface-modified MCM-41. For MCM-41, there are three rate-limiting steps during the desorption process. Film diffusion is more prominent for the CO2 desorption rates at low temperatures, and pore diffusion mainly governs the rate-limiting process under higher temperatures. Besides the surface reaction, the desorption process contains four rate-limiting steps on surface-modified MCM-41.

  1. Electrophilic reactions at single bonds. Ionic chlorination of hydrocarbons catalyzed by silica gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.G.; La Fuente, G. de; Trujillo, J.


    Chlorination of adamantane, bicyclo(3.3.1)nonane, bicyclo(2.2.2)octane, bicyclo(3.2.1)octane, norbornane and 2,5-dimethylhexane, absorbed on silica gel with chlorine, was studied. High yield of ionic chlorination at bridgehead carbon was achieved with the less-strained hydrocarbons. (author)

  2. Helicene-Based Phosphite Ligands in Asymmetric Transition-Metal Catalysis: Exploring Rh-Catalyzed Hydroformylation and Ir-Catalyzed Allylic Amination

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krausová, Zuzana; Sehnal, Petr; Bondzic, B. P.; Chercheja, S.; Eilbracht, P.; Stará, Irena G.; Šaman, David; Starý, Ivo

    -, 20/21 (2011), s. 3849-3857 ISSN 1434-193X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1766; GA MŠk LC512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : asymmetric catalysis * helical structures * P ligands * hydroformylation * amination Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.329, year: 2011

  3. Amine bridges grafted mesoporous silica, as a prolonged/controlled drug release system for the enhanced therapeutic effect of short life drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Fozia; Ahmed, Khalid; Airoldi, Claudio; Gaisford, Simon; Buanz, Asma; Rahim, Abdur; Muhammad, Nawshad; Volpe, Pedro L.O.


    Hybrid mesoporous silica SBA-15, with surface incorporated cross-linked long hydrophobic organic bridges was synthesized using stepwise synthesis. The synthesized materials were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, X-rays diffraction, thermogravimetry and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The functionalized material showed highly ordered mesoporous network with a surface area of 629.0 m 2 g −1 . The incorporation of long hydrophobic amine chains on silica surface resulted in high drug loading capacity (21% Mass/Mass) and prolonged release of ibuprofen up till 75.5 h. The preliminary investigations suggests that the synthesized materials could be proposed as controlled release devices to prolong the therapeutic effect of short life drugs such as ibuprofen to increase its efficacy and to reduce frequent dosage. - Highlights: • Silica SBA-15 was synthesized and modified with long hydrophobic amine linkers. • These materials were characterized using different techniques. • The modified material showed high drug loading capacity and control ibuprofen release in biological fluids.

  4. Efficient conversion of levulinic acid into alkyl levulinates catalyzed by sulfonic mesostructured silicas


    Melero, J.A.; Morales, G.; Iglesias, J.; Paniagua, M.; Hernández, B.; Penedo, S.


    Línea Investigación: Línea 8. Producción de biocombustibles Sulfonic mesoporous silicas have demonstrated an outstanding catalytic performance in the esterification of levulinic acid with different alcohols to produce alkyl levulinates, a family of chemicals considered to be excellent oxygenated fuel extenders for gasoline, diesel and biodiesel. Catalyst screening indicated that propylsulfonic acid-modified SBA-15 material was the most active one, among tested materials, due to a combinati...

  5. YCl3-Catalyzed Highly Selective Ring Opening of Epoxides by Amines at Room Temperature and under Solvent-Free Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuttichai Natongchai


    Full Text Available A simple, efficient, and environmentally benign approach for the synthesis of β-amino alcohols is herein described. YCl3 efficiently carried out the ring opening of epoxides by amines to produce β-amino alcohols under solvent-free conditions at room temperature. This catalytic approach is very effective, with several aromatic and aliphatic oxiranes and amines. A mere 1 mol % concentration of YCl3 is enough to deliver β-amino alcohols in good to excellent yields with high regioselectivity.

  6. Asymmetric additions of thioglycolates and N-Boc aldimines catalyzed by a bifunctional tertiary-amine squaramide. (United States)

    Feng, Bo-Xu; Wang, Bin; Li, Xin


    A highly enantioselective asymmetric addition reaction of thioglycolates and N-Boc aldimines was promoted by a bifunctional tertiary-amine squaramide catalyst. As a result, a number of chiral N,S-acetal derivatives were efficiently synthesized with good enantioselectivities.

  7. Auto-Tandem Catalysis in Ionic Liquids: Synthesis of 2-Oxazolidinones by Palladium-Catalyzed Oxidative Carbonylation of Propargylic Amines in EmimEtSO₄. (United States)

    Mancuso, Raffaella; Maner, Asif; Ziccarelli, Ida; Pomelli, Christian; Chiappe, Cinzia; Della Ca', Nicola; Veltri, Lucia; Gabriele, Bartolo


    A convenient carbonylative approach to 2-oxazolidinone derivatives carried out using an ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate, EmimEtSO₄) as the solvent is presented. It is based on the sequential concatenation of two catalytic cycles, both catalyzed by the same metal species (auto-tandem catalysis): the first cycle corresponds to the oxidative monoaminocarbonylation of the triple bond of propargylic amines to give the corresponding 2-ynamide intermediates, while the second one involves the cyclocarbonylation of the latter to yield 2-(2-oxooxazolidin-5-ylidene)-acetamides. Reactions are carried out using a simple catalytic system consisting of PdI₂ in conjunction with an excess of KI, and the catalyst/solvent system could be recycled several times without appreciable loss of activity after extraction of the organic product with Et₂O.

  8. A computational mechanistic study of Pd(ii)-catalyzed γ-C(sp3)-H olefination/cyclization of amines: the roles of bicarbonate and ligand effect. (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Biao; Tian, Ying-Ying; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Lu-Lin; Chen, De-Zhan


    The detailed mechanism of palladium-catalyzed γ-C(sp3)-H olefination/cyclization of triflyl-protected amines was investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The olefinated intermediate was initially formed in the first catalytic cycle involving ligand exchange, bicarbonate-assisted C(sp3)-H bond cleavage, alkene insertion and 'reductive β-hydride elimination'. The following syn-addition and reductive elimination furnish the aza-Wacker product. The first step of reductive elimination is the rate-determining step. The mechanism unveils the important roles of bicarbonate: aiding the C-H activation and abstracting the β-proton in the second step of reductive elimination. The parallel bridging mode in the metal-olefin intermediate facilitates the syn-addition, explaining the experimentally observed stereoselectivity. The effect of the monodentate pyridine-based ligands is also discussed.

  9. Unsaturated Fatty Acid Esters Metathesis Catalyzed by Silica Supported WMe5

    KAUST Repository

    Riache, Nassima


    Metathesis of unsaturated fatty acid esters (FAEs) by silica supported multifunctional W-based catalyst is disclosed. This transformation represents a novel route towards unsaturated di-esters. Especially, the self-metathesis of ethyl undecylenate results almost exclusively on the homo-coupling product whereas with such catalyst, 1-decene gives ISOMET (isomerization and metathesis olefin) products. The olefin metathesis in the presence of esters is very selective without any secondary cross-metathesis products demonstrating that a high selective olefin metathesis could operate at 150 °C. Additionally, a cross-metathesis of unsaturated FAEs and α-olefins allowed the synthesis of the corresponding ester with longer hydrocarbon skeleton without isomerisation.

  10. Silica-gel Catalyzed Facile Synthesis of 3,4-Dihydropyrimidinones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Sameer; Aware, Umesh; Patil, Amit; Rohera, Vinita; Jain, Mukul; Patel, Pankaj [Zydus Research Centre, Sarkhej-Bavla N.H., Ahmedabad (India); Ghate, Manjunath [Nirma University, Ahmedabad (India)


    We have developed a mild and highly effective procedure for the one-pot synthesis of substituted dihydropyrimidinones in high yields using silica gel as a green, highly efficient and recyclable heterogeneous catalyst. Our approach can be applied to the preparation of a wide range of synthetic analogues for structure-activity studies. Investigations in this direction are ongoing. The pyrimidinone ring is a basic substructure of numerous biologically active alkaloids and pharmaceutical products. These cores are regarded as one of the most important groups of drug-like scaffolds. 3,4-dihydropyrimidinones above are known to exhibit variety of pharmacological activity such as calcium channel modulation, mitotic kinesin Eg5 inhibition, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial activity, etc.

  11. Hydroformylation of dihydrofurans catalyzed by rhodium complex encapsulated hexagonal mesoporous silica

    KAUST Repository

    Khokhar, Munir


    HRh(CO)(PPh3)3 encapsulated hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS) is found to be an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for the selective hydroformylation of 2,3-dihydrofuran (2,3DHF) and 2,5-dihydrofuran (2,5DHF). The Rh-complex encapsulated in situ in the organic phase of template inside the pores of HMS was found to act as nano phase reactors. Conversion of 2,3-DHF and 2,5-DHF and selectivity of the corresponding aldehydes were thoroughly investigated by studying the reaction parameters: catalyst amount, substrate concentration, partial as well as total pressure of CO and H2, and temperature. The selectivity for the formation of tetrahydrofuran-2-carbaldehyde (THF-2-carbaldehyde) from the hydroformylation of 2,3-DHF was found to be more than the selectivity of the formation of tetrahydrofuran-3-carbaldehyde (THF-3-carbaldehyde) from 2,5-DHF. The reaction paths are suggested and discussed for the selective formation of the corresponding aldehydes. The catalyst was elegantly separated and effectively recycled for six times.

  12. Direct, Intermolecular, Enantioselective, Iridium-Catalyzed Allylation of Carbamates to Form Carbamate-Protected, Branched Allylic Amines (United States)

    Weix, Daniel J.; Marković, Dean; Ueda, Mitsuhiro; Hartwig, John F.


    The direct reaction between carbamates and achiral allylic carbonates to form branched, conveniently protected primary allylic amines with high regioselectivity and enantioselectivity is reported. This process occurs without base or with 0.5 equiv K3PO4 in the presence of a metalacyclic iridium catalyst containing a labile ethylene ligand. The reactions of aryl, heteroaryl and alkyl-substituted allylic carbonates with BocNH2, FmocNH2, CbzNH2, TrocNH2, TeocNH2, and 2-oxazolidinone occur in good yields, with high selectivity for the branched isomer, and high enantioselectivities (98% average ee). PMID:19552468

  13. CYP-450 isoenzymes catalyze the generation of hazardous aromatic amines after reaction with the azo dye Sudan III. (United States)

    Zanoni, Thalita Boldrin; Lizier, Thiago M; Assis, Marilda das Dores; Zanoni, Maria Valnice B; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma


    This work describes the mutagenic response of Sudan III, an adulterant food dye, using Salmonella typhimurium assay and the generation of hazardous aromatic amines after different oxidation methods of this azo dye. For that, we used metabolic activation by S9, catalytic oxidation by ironporphyrin and electrochemistry oxidation in order to simulate endogenous oxidation conditions. The oxidation reactions promoted discoloration from 65% to 95% of Sudan III at 1 × 10(-4)molL(-1) and generation of 7.6 × 10(-7)molL(-1) to 0.31 × 10(-4)molL(-1) of aniline, o-anisidine, 2-methoxi-5-methylaniline, 4-aminobiphenyl, 4,4'-oxydianiline; 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane and 2,6-dimethylaniline. The results were confirmed by LC-MS-MS experiments. We also correlate the mutagenic effects of Sudan III using S. typhimurium with the strain TA1535 in the presence of exogenous metabolic activation (S9) with the metabolization products of this compound. Our findings clearly indicate that aromatic amines are formed due to oxidative reactions that can be promoted by hepatic cells, after the ingestion of Sudan III. Considering that, the use of azo compounds as food dyestuffs should be carefully controlled. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. OMS-2-Supported Cu Hydroxide-Catalyzed Benzoxazoles Synthesis from Catechols and Amines via Domino Oxidation Process at Room Temperature. (United States)

    Meng, Xu; Wang, Yanmin; Wang, Yuanguang; Chen, Baohua; Jing, Zhenqiang; Chen, Gexin; Zhao, Peiqing


    In the presence of manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) supported copper hydroxide Cu(OH) x /OMS-2, aerobic synthesis of benzoxazoles from catechols and amines via domino oxidation/cyclization at room temperature is achieved. This heterogeneous benzoxazoles synthesis initiated by the efficient oxidation of catechols over Cu(OH) x /OMS-2 tolerates a variety of substrates, especially amines containing sensitive groups (hydroxyl, cyano, amino, vinyl, ethynyl, ester, and even acetyl groups) and heterocycles, which affords functionalized benzoxazoles in good to excellent yields by employing low catalyst loading (2 mol % Cu). The characterization and plausible catalytic mechanism of Cu(OH) x /OMS-2 are described. The notable features of our catalytic protocol such as the use of air as the benign oxidant and EtOH as the solvent, mild conditions, ease of product separation, being scalable up to the gram level, and superior reusability of catalyst (up to 10 cycles) make it more practical and environmentally friendly for organic synthesis.

  15. Pd-Catalyzed Amination in the Synthesis of a New Family of Macropolycyclic Compounds Comprising Diazacrown Ether Moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei A. Yakushev


    Full Text Available N,N'-bis(bromobenzyl and N,N'-bis(halopyridinyl derivatives of diaza-12-crown-4, diaza-15-crown-5 and diaza-18-crown-6 ethers were synthesized in high yields. The Pd-catalyzed macrocyclization reactions of these compounds were carried out using a variety of polyamines and oxadiamines were carried out to give novel macrobicyclic and macrotricyclic compounds of the cryptand type. The dependence of the yields of macropolycycles on the nature of the starting diazacrown derivatives and polyamines was established. Generally N,N'-bis(3-bromobenzyl-substituted diazacrown ethers and oxadiamines provided better yields of the target products. The highest yield of the macrobicyclic products reached 57%.

  16. Mechanism of cobalt(II) porphyrin-catalyzed C−H amination with organic azides: radical nature and H-atom abstraction ability of the key cobalt(III)-nitrene intermediates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyaskovskyy, V.; Olivos Suarez, A.I.; Lu, H.; Jiang, H.; Zhang, X.P.; de Bruin, B.


    The mechanism of cobalt(II) porphyrin-catalyzed benzylic C-H bond amination of ethylbenzene, toluene, and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin) using a series of different organic azides [N3C(O)OMe, N3SO2Ph, N3C(O)Ph, and N3P(O)(OMe)2] as nitrene sources was studied by means of density functional

  17. Method for the production of primary amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldenius, Kai-Uwe; Ditrich, Klaus; Breurer, Michael; Navickas, Vaidotas; Janssen, Dick; Crismaru, Ciprian; Bartsch, Sebastian


    The present invention relates to a novel enzymatically catalyzed method for the production of aliphatic primary amines, which method comprises the enzymatic oxidation of a primary aliphatic alcohol catalyzed by an alcohol dehydrogenase, amination of the resulting oxocompound catalyzed by a

  18. Amine-free reversible hydrogen storage in formate salts catalyzed by ruthenium pincer complex without pH control or solvent change. (United States)

    Kothandaraman, Jotheeswari; Czaun, Miklos; Goeppert, Alain; Haiges, Ralf; Jones, John-Paul; May, Robert B; Prakash, G K Surya; Olah, George A


    Due to the intermittent nature of most renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind, energy storage is increasingly required. Since electricity is difficult to store, hydrogen obtained by electrochemical water splitting has been proposed as an energy carrier. However, the handling and transportation of hydrogen in large quantities is in itself a challenge. We therefore present here a method for hydrogen storage based on a CO2 (HCO3 (-) )/H2 and formate equilibrium. This amine-free and efficient reversible system (>90 % yield in both directions) is catalyzed by well-defined and commercially available Ru pincer complexes. The formate dehydrogenation was triggered by simple pressure swing without requiring external pH control or the change of either the solvent or the catalyst. Up to six hydrogenation-dehydrogenation cycles were performed and the catalyst performance remained steady with high selectivity (CO free H2 /CO2 mixture was produced). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Structural Changes of Silica Mesocellular Foam Supported Amine-Functionalized CO 2 Adsorbents Upon Exposure to Steam

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Wen


    Three classes of amine-functionalized mesocellular foam (MCF) materials are prepared and evaluated as CO2 adsorbents. The stability of the adsorbents under steam/air and steam/nitrogen conditions is investigated using a Parr autoclave reactor to simulate, in an accelerated manner, the exposure that such adsorbents will see under steam stripping regeneration conditions at various temperatures. The CO2 capacity and organic content of all adsorbents decrease after steam treatment under both steam/air and steam/nitrogen conditions, primarily due to structural collapse of the MCF framework, but with additional contributions likely associated with amine degradation during treatment under harsh conditions. Treatment with steam/air is found to have stronger effect on the CO2 capacity of the adsorbents compared to steam/nitrogen. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  20. [Fe(F20 TPP)Cl]-catalyzed amination with arylamines and {[Fe(F20 TPP)(NAr)](PhI=NAr)} + . Intermediate assessed by high-resolution ESI-MS and DFT calculations. (United States)

    Liu, Yungen; Chen, Guo-Qiang; Tse, Chun-Wai; Guan, Xianguo; Xu, Zheng-Jiang; Huang, Jie-Sheng; Che, Chi-Ming


    Amination of CH bonds catalyzed by transition metal complexes via nitrene/imide insertion is an appealing strategy for CN bond formation, and the use of iminoiodinanes, or their in situ generated forms from 'PhI(OAc)2 +primary amides (such as sulfonamides, sulfamates, and carbamates)', as nitrogen sources for the amination reaction has been well documented. In this work, a 'metal catalyst+PhI(OAc)2 +primary arylamines' amination protocol has been developed using [Fe(F20 TPP)Cl] (H2 F20 TPP=meso-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin) as a catalyst. This catalytic method is applicable for both intra- and intermolecular amination of sp(2) and sp(3) CH bonds (>27 examples), affording the amination products, including natural products such as rutaecarpine, in moderate-to-good yields. ESI-MS analysis and DFT calculations lend support for the involvement of {[Fe(F20 TPP)(NC6 H4 -p-NO2 )](PhI=NC6 H4 -p-NO2 )} + . intermediate in the catalysis. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of azoic dyes based on pyrazolone derivatives catalyzed by an acidic ionic liquid supported on silica-coated magnetite nanoparticle (United States)

    Isaad, Jalal; El Achari, Ahmida


    Novel family of azoic dyes pyrazolone based were prepared by an efficient and rapid methodology through diazotization reaction of different pyrazolone amine derivatives, in the presence of acidic ionic liquid supported on silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles as acidic catalyst at room temperature and under solvent-free conditions. The attractive advantages of the present process include short reaction times, milder and cleaner conditions, higher purity and yields, easy isolation of products, easier work-up procedure and lower generation of waste or pollution. This catalyst was easily separated by an external magnet and the recovered catalyst was reused several times without any significant loss of activity. Therefore, this method provides improved protocol over the existing methods.

  2. Entrapment of Enzymes and Carbon Nanotubes in Biologically Synthesized Silica: Glucose Oxidase-catalyzed Direct Electron Transfer, Preprint

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Invitski, Dmitri; Artyuskova, Kateryna; Rincon, Rosalba A; Atanassov, Plamen; Luckarift, Heather R; Johnson, Glenn R


    This work demonstrates a new approach for building bio-inorganic interfaces by integrating biomimetically-derived silica with single-walled carbon nanotubes to create a conductive matrix for immobilization of enzymes...

  3. Differently-catalyzed silica-based precursors as functional additives for the epoxy-based hybrid materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perchacz, Magdalena; Beneš, Hynek; Zhigunov, Alexander; Serkis, Magdalena; Pavlova, Ewa


    Roč. 99, 2 September (2016), s. 434-446 ISSN 0032-3861 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05146S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : epoxy-silica hybrid material * solvent-free sol-gel process * silica-based precursor Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.684, year: 2016

  4. Cyclooctane metathesis catalyzed by silica-supported tungsten pentamethyl [(ΞSiO)W(Me)5]: Distribution of macrocyclic alkanes

    KAUST Repository

    Riache, Nassima


    Metathesis of cyclic alkanes catalyzed by the new surface complex [(ΞSiO)W(Me)5] affords a wide distribution of cyclic and macrocyclic alkanes. The major products with the formula CnH2n are the result of either a ring contraction or ring expansion of cyclooctane leading to lower unsubstituted cyclic alkanes (5≤n≤7) and to an unprecedented distribution of unsubstituted macrocyclic alkanes (12≤n≤40), respectively, identified by GC/MS and by NMR spectroscopies.

  5. Anisotropic silica mesostructures for DNA encapsulation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    functionalizing the pores of silica with amine group, the amount of DNA loaded on the rods decreases which is due to a reduction in the pore size upon grafting of amine groups. Keywords. Surfactant; reverse micellar method; silica mesostructures; surface area. 1. Introduction. Amorphous silica nanoparticles are important ...

  6. Highly diastereo- and enantioselective [3+2] annulation of isatin-derived Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates with trifluoropyruvate catalyzed by tertiary amines. (United States)

    Zhong, Neng-Jun; Wei, Feng; Xuan, Qing-Qing; Liu, Li; Wang, Dong; Chen, Yong-Jun


    An enantioselective [3+2] annulation of Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates with trifluoropyruvate catalyzed by modified cinchona alkaloids was developed in good to excellent yields with excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivities.

  7. Selective N-alkylation of amines using nitriles under hydrogenation conditions: facile synthesis of secondary and tertiary amines. (United States)

    Ikawa, Takashi; Fujita, Yuki; Mizusaki, Tomoteru; Betsuin, Sae; Takamatsu, Haruki; Maegawa, Tomohiro; Monguchi, Yasunari; Sajiki, Hironao


    Nitriles were found to be highly effective alkylating reagents for the selective N-alkylation of amines under catalytic hydrogenation conditions. For the aromatic primary amines, the corresponding secondary amines were selectively obtained under Pd/C-catalyzed hydrogenation conditions. Although the use of electron poor aromatic amines or bulky nitriles showed a lower reactivity toward the reductive alkylation, the addition of NH(4)OAc enhanced the reactivity to give secondary aromatic amines in good to excellent yields. Under the same reaction conditions, aromatic nitro compounds instead of the aromatic primary amines could be directly transformed into secondary amines via a domino reaction involving the one-pot hydrogenation of the nitro group and the reductive alkylation of the amines. While aliphatic amines were effectively converted to the corresponding tertiary amines under Pd/C-catalyzed conditions, Rh/C was a highly effective catalyst for the N-monoalkylation of aliphatic primary amines without over-alkylation to the tertiary amines. Furthermore, the combination of the Rh/C-catalyzed N-monoalkylation of the aliphatic primary amines and additional Pd/C-catalyzed alkylation of the resulting secondary aliphatic amines could selectively prepare aliphatic tertiary amines possessing three different alkyl groups. According to the mechanistic studies, it seems reasonable to conclude that nitriles were reduced to aldimines before the nucleophilic attack of the amine during the first step of the reaction.

  8. Silica functionalized Cu(II) acetylacetonate Schiff base complex: An efficient catalyst for the oxidative condensation reaction of benzyl alcohol with amines (United States)

    Anbarasu, G.; Malathy, M.; Karthikeyan, P.; Rajavel, R.


    Silica functionalized Cu(II) acetylacetonate Schiff base complex via the one pot reaction of silica functionalized 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane with acetyl acetone and copper acetate has been reported. The synthesized material was well characterized by analytical techniques such as FT-IR, UV-DRS, XRD, SEM-EDX, HR-TEM, EPR, ICP-AES and BET analysis. The characterization results confirmed the grafting of Cu(II) Schiff base complex on the silica surface. The catalytic activity of synthesized silica functionalized Cu(II) acetylacetonate Schiff base complex was evaluated through the oxidative condensation reaction of benzyl alcohol to imine.

  9. Rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric arylation of cyclic N-sulfonyl aryl alkyl ketimines: efficient access to highly enantioenriched α-tertiary amines. (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Wang, Zheng; Xu, Ming-Hua


    A simple catalyst system of Rh(I)/sulfur-olefin with exceptional catalytic performance has been developed for the highly enantioselective arylation of cyclic N-sulfonyl aryl alkyl ketimines with arylboroxines/arylboronic acids. Optically active α-arylalkyl-substituted benzosultams and benzosulfamidates which are generally difficult to obtain were easily prepared with excellent stereocontrol (up to 99.9% ee). The synthetic utility of the approach was demonstrated by the facile construction of NMDA antagonist FR115427 and benzoxazinone derivatives. This protocol offers new opportunities for the efficient synthesis of diverse chiral α-tertiary amines.

  10. Ionic liquid-silica precursors via solvent-free sol-gel process and their application in epoxy-amine network: a theoretical/experimental study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perchacz, Magdalena; Donato, R. K.; Seixas, L.; Zhigunov, Alexander; Konefal, Rafal; Serkis-Rodzen, Magdalena; Beneš, Hynek


    Roč. 9, č. 19 (2017), s. 16474-16487 ISSN 1944-8244 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-08273S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : 3D POSS structures * epoxy-silica hybrid material * IL-silica precursor Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 7.504, year: 2016

  11. Purification and characterization of amine oxidase from Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amine oxidases (AO) are a group of enzymes that catalyze oxidative deamination of various amines and thus are of potential use in analytical applications. Amine oxidase from five-day-old Vigna mungo L. seedlings (VAO) was purified using ammonium sulfate fractionation and Q-Sepharose chromatography to 544 ...

  12. Mesoporous Silica with Site-Isolated Amine and Phosphotungstic Acid Groups: A Solid Catalyst with Tunable Antagonistic Functions for One-Pot Tandem Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiju N. R.; Syed K.; Alberts A.; Brown D. and Rothenberg G.


    A bifunctional solid catalyst is prepared by combining acid and base functions on mesoporous silica supports. The co-existence of these functions is shown by a two-step reaction sequence in one pot. Excellent product yields, which cannot be obtained by separated acid and base functions in one pot, show the validity of our concept.

  13. Bioinspired thermo- and pH-responsive polymeric amines: multimolecular aggregates in aqueous media and matrices for silica/polymer nanocomposites. (United States)

    Danilovtseva, Elena N; Aseyev, Vladimir; Belozerova, Olga Yu; Zelinskiy, Stanislav N; Annenkov, Vadim V


    Polymeric amines have been intensively studied for application in smart systems and as matrices for the design of composite materials, including bioinspired substances. A new thermo- and pH-responsive polymer was obtained by radical polymerization of N-(3-(diethylamino)propyl)-N-methylacrylamide. Upon heating, the polymer precipitated from aqueous solutions above pH 9; the observed cloud point was dependent on the polymer concentration and decreased from 95°C at pH 9 to 40°C at pH 11. The basicity of the polymer decreased at elevated temperatures owing to an increase in the hydrophobicity-driven compaction of the macromolecules. Dynamic light scattering analysis demonstrated that the formation of large multimolecular associates with radius 1000-2000 nm was initiated from 1 to 2°C below the cloud point. The new polymer is demonstrated to be an effective matrix for various siliceous composite structures, including 200-300 nm solid spherical raspberry-like particles and hollow hemispherical particles of more than 1000 nm diameter. Condensation of silicic acid in the presence of polymeric amines is a model reaction in biosilicification studies, and the obtained data are also discussed from the perspective of the matrix hypothesis for biosilica formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Amine-Promoted Organosilicate Hydrolysis Mechanism at Near-Neutral pH (United States)

    Delak, K. M.; Sahai, N.


    Proteins bearing polylysine moeities and histidine and serine amino-aicd residues, isolated from diatoms and sponges, are known to promote biological nanoporous silica formation [1, 2]. Using 29Si NMR, we have shown quantitatively that monoamines and small polyamines can chemically accelerate the hydrolysis and condensation rates of organosilicate starting materials, in biomimetic silica synthesis pathways, at circum- neutral pHs and room temperature [3, 4]. The present study is focused on understanding the mechanistic role of these amines in catalyzing the hydrolysis step that precedes condensation [5]. We conducted 29Si NMR experimental studies over a range of temperature and pHs for the hydrolysis rates of trimethylethoxysilane (TMES), a model compound with only one hydrolyzable bond. Experimental results were combined with quantum mechanical hybrid Density Functional Theory calculations of putative intermediate and transition state structures for TMES and tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS) which has four hydrolyzable bonds. Comparison of calculated energies with experimentally-determined activation energies indicated that amines promote TMES hydrolysis mainly due to the amine's acidity at neutral pH. The proton released by the amine is transferred to the organosilicate, producing a protonated, ethoxy leaving group that can be displaced by water in an SN2 reaction. For TMOS, the activation energy of proton-transfer coupled with SN2 substitution is comparable to that for Corriu's nucleophile-activated nucleophilic displacement mechanism [6], such that the mechanism of amine-catalyzed hydrolysis is mostly dependent on the ambient pH conditions as well as the type of amine. The molecular mechanisms of hydrolysis and aggregation are reflected, ultimately, on the larger scale in the silica morphology where amines promoting faster hydrolysis result in glassy products compared to slower hydrolyzing amines forming particulate silica [7, 8]. REFERENCES [1] Kroger N

  15. Quinoline-2-carboimine copper complex immobilized on amine functionalized silica coated magnetite nanoparticles: a novel and magnetically retrievable catalyst for the synthesis of carbamates via C-H activation of formamides. (United States)

    Sharma, R K; Dutta, Sriparna; Sharma, Shivani


    In the present study, we report the synthesis of a highly efficient and magnetically retrievable catalytic system (Cu-2QC@Am-SiO2@Fe3O4) through the covalent immobilization of quinoline-2-carboxaldehyde (2QC) on an amine functionalized silica coated ferrite nanosupport followed by metallation with copper acetate. The structure of the organic-inorganic hybrid nanomaterial has been confirmed using various physicochemical techniques such as Powder X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (ED-XRF), Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy (ICP) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometry (VSM). The resulting nanocatalyst exhibits a remarkable catalytic efficacy in the synthesis of industrially and pharmaceutically significant carbamates via the C-H activation of formamides under solvent free conditions. The most important attribute of the present methodology is that the catalyst can be recovered simply through an external magnetic force and reused several times without any significant deterioration in its activity. Furthermore, the heterogeneity test has been carried out in order to ensure the intrinsic stability of the nanostructured catalyst. The activity of the Cu-2QC@Am-SiO2@Fe3O4 nanocatalyst has been found to be far more superior in comparison with the literature precedents in terms of the product yield, cost and reusability of the catalyst. Besides, ambient reaction conditions, simple workup procedure, wide substrate scope and cost effectiveness are some of the other outstanding features of this protocol that make it economical and sustainable.

  16. New solid phase extractors for selective separation and preconcentration of mercury (II) based on silica gel immobilized aliphatic amines 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde Schiff's bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, Ezzat M.; Saleh, Mohamed B.; Ahmed, Salwa A.


    2-Thiophenecarboxaldhyde is chemically bonded to silica gel surface immobilized monoamine, ethylenediamine and diethylenetriamine by a simple Schiff's base reaction to produce three new SP-extractors, phases (I-III). The selectivity properties of these phases toward Hg(II) uptake as well as eight other metal ions: Ca(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) were extensively studied and evaluated as a function of pH of metal ion solution and equilibrium shaking time by the batch equilibrium technique. The data obtained clearly indicate that the new SP-extractors have the highest affinity for retention of Hg(II) ion. Their Hg(II) uptake in mmol g -1 and distribution coefficient as log K d values are always higher than the uptake of any other metal ion along the range of pH used (pH 1.0-10.0). The uptake of Hg(II) using phase I was 2.0 mmol g -1 (log K d 6.6) at pH 1.0 and 2.0. 1.8 mmol g -1 (log K d 4.25), 1.6 mmol g -1 (log K d 3.90) and 1.08 mmol g -1 (log K d 3.37) at pH 3.0, 5.0 and 8.0, respectively. Selective separation of Hg(II) from the other eight coexisting metal ions under investigation was achieved successfully using phase I at pH 2.0 either under static or dynamic conditions. Hg(II) was completely retained while Ca(II), Co(II) and Cd(II) ions were not retained. Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Pb(II) and Fe(III) showed very low percentage retention values to be 0.74, 0.97, 3.5 and 6.3%, respectively. Moreover, the high recovery values (95.5 ± 0.5, 95.8 ± 0.5 and 99.0% ± 1.0) of percolating two liters of doubly distilled water, drinking tap water and Nile river water spiked with 5 ng/l of Hg(II) over 100 mg of phase I packed in a minicolumn and used as a thin layer enrichment bed demonstrate the accuracy and validity of the new SP-extractors for preconcentration of the ultratrace amount of spiked Hg(II) prior to the determination by borohydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) with no matrix interference. The detection

  17. Anisotropic silica mesostructures for DNA encapsulation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ca nanostructures for DNA encapsulation studies and observed a loading capacity of ∼8 μg mg−1 of the sample. On functionalizing the pores of silica with amine group, the amount of DNA loaded on the rods decreases which is due to a reduction in the pore size upon grafting of amine groups. Keywords. Surfactant; reverse ...

  18. Selective Oxidation of Cyclohexene, Toluene and Ethyl Benzene Catalyzed by Bis-(L-tyrosinatocopper(II, Immersed in a Magnetite-Infused Silica Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massomeh Ghorbanloo


    Full Text Available Bis-(L-tyrosinatocopper(II was reacted with 3-(chloropropyl-trimethoxysilane functionalized silica that has infused magnetite to yield a magnetically separable catalyst in which the copper carboxylate is covalently linked to the silica matrix through the silane linkage. The immobilized catalyst has been characterized by spectroscopic studies (such as FT-IR, EPR, Magnetic Measurement, SEM and chemical analyses. The immobilized catalytic system functions as an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for oxidation of cyclohexene, toluene and ethyl benzene in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (as an oxidant and sodium bicarbonate (a co-catalyst. The reaction conditions have been optimized for solvent, temperature and amount of oxidant and catalyst. Comparison of the encapsulated catalyst with the corresponding homogeneous catalyst showed that the heterogeneous catalyst had higher activity and selectivity than the homogeneous catalyst. The immobilized catalyst could be readily recovered from the reaction mixture by using a simple magnet, and  reused up to five times without any loss of activity.

  19. High surface area Au-SBA-15 and Au-MCM-41 materials synthesis: tryptophan amino acid mediated confinement of gold nanostructures within the mesoporous silica pore walls. (United States)

    Selvakannan, Pr; Mantri, Kshudiram; Tardio, James; Bhargava, Suresh K


    Advantages of confining the gold nanostructures formation within the mesoporous silica pore walls during its silica condensation and consequent improvement in the textural properties such as specific surface area, pore volume, pore diameter have been demonstrated, while retaining gold nanostructures within the silica walls. This has been achieved by tryptophan mediated confinement of gold nanoparticles formation within the condensing silica framework, to obtain Au-SBA-15 (SSA 1247 m(2)/g, V(t)~1.37 cm(3)/g) and Au-MCM-41 (SSA 1287 m(2)/g, V(t)~1.1 cm(3)/g), mesoporous silica materials having the combination of very high surface area from the porous support as well as gold nanoparticles infiltrated silica walls. Choice of tryptophan for this purpose is that it has an indole group, which was known to reduce gold ions to form gold nanoparticles and its amine and carboxylic acid groups, catalyze the hydrolysis of silica precursors in a wide range of pH. These properties have been utilized in restricting the gold nanostructures formation inside the condensing silica phase without affecting the self assembly between the silica precursors and the triblock copolymer (for SBA-15) or cetyltrimethylammonium bromide template (for MCM-41). The polytryptophan and the gold nanostructures, which were encapsulated within the silica framework and upon removal of the template by calcination resulting in the formation mesoporous materials wherein the silica walls become microporous due to the removal of occluded polytryptophan and the resulting microchannels contain very small gold nanostructures. Hence, the resulting materials have very high surface area, high pore volume and narrow pore size distribution as compared to their parent SBA-15, MCM-41 and SBA-15, MCM-41 post functionalized with gold nanoparticles inside the pores. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Asymmetric Mannich Reaction of Aryl Methyl Ketones with Cyclic Imines Benzo[e][1,2,3]oxathiazine 2,2-Dioxides Catalyzed by Cinchona Alkaloid-based Primary Amines. (United States)

    Cui, Xiao-Yu; Duan, Hui-Xin; Zhang, Yongna; Wang, You-Qing


    Aryl ketones represent problematic substrates for asymmetric Mannich reactions due to a large steric hindrance exhibited by such compound species. A highly enantioselective direct Mannich reaction of aryl methyl ketones with cyclic imine benzo[e][1,2,3]oxathiazine 2,2-dioxides could be successfully carried out utilizing a combination of cinchona alkaloid-derived primary amines with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA); the primary amines feature a superior catalytic efficacy over secondary amines with a variety of sterically hindered carbonyl compounds as substrates. The reaction proceeded well with various cyclic imines in 89-97 % ee and with various aryl methyl ketones in 85-98 % ee. Moreover, the aryl carbonyl of a Mannich product could be transformed to ketoxime, which further undergoes a Beckmann rearrangement to produce an amide compound while maintaining enantioselectivity. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Ruthenium-complex catalyzed N-(cyclo)alkylation of aromatic amines with diols. Selective synthesis of N-(n-hydroixyalkyl)anilines of type PhNH(CH2)nOH and of some bioactive arylpiperazines,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Abbenhuis, R.A.T.M.; Boersma, J.


    A new class of well-defined neutral mono-, and dicationic ruthenium(II) complexes containing a neutral terdentate donor system [C5H3N(CH2E)(2)-2,6] (E = PPh2 (PNP) or NMe2 (NN'N)) has been found effective as catalyst precursor in N-(cyclo)alkylation reactions of aromatic amines with diols

  2. Harvesting silica nanoparticles from rice husks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Weixing; Martin, Jarett C.; Zhang Ning; Ma Chao; Han Aijie; Sun Luyi


    Biogenic silica nanoparticles were synthesized using rice husks (RHs) as the raw material via controlled pyrolysis. The characterization results showed that the morphology of the synthesized silica was highly related to the pretreatment of RHs and the pyrolysis conditions. Particularly, potassium cations in RHs were found to catalyze the melting of silica, during which the amorphous silica were converted to crystalline phase. Two hours of pyrolysis at 700 °C appeared to be ideal to synthesize silica nanoparticles with a diameter of ca. 20–30 nm. Higher temperature and longer duration of pyrolysis led to undesired melting of silica nanoparticles, while too low a temperature cannot effectively remove carbonous residues. Such amorphous silica nanoparticles with narrow size distribution and high purity are expected to replace silica gel and fumed silica for various applications.

  3. Diastereoselective Hydrogenation and Kinetic Resolution of Imines Using Rhodium/Diphosphine Catalyzed Hydrogenation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, Cornelis; Vries, Johannes G. de


    Kinetic resolution of racemic α-methylbenzyl amine can be achieved with 98% ee. of the remaining amine at 70% conversion using the Rhodium/2S,4S-BDPP catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of imines. The same catalyst will hydrogenate optically pure α-methylbenzyl amines with a diastereoselectivity of

  4. Polymer-silica hybrids for separation of CO2 and catalysis of organic reactions (United States)

    Silva Mojica, Ernesto

    Porous materials comprising polymeric and inorganic segments have attracted interest from the scientific community due to their unique properties and functionalities. The physical and chemical characteristics of these materials can be effectively exploited for adsorption applications. This dissertation covers the experimental techniques for fabrication of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and silica (SiO2) porous supports, and their functionalization with polyamines for developing adsorbents with potential applications in separation of CO2 and catalysis of organic reactions. The supports were synthesized by processes involving (i) covalent cross-linking of PVA, (ii) hydrolysis and poly-condensation of silica precursors (i,e,. sol-gel synthesis), and formation of porous structures via (iii) direct templating and (iv) phase inversion techniques. Their physical structure was controlled by the proper combination of the preparation procedures, which resulted in micro-structured porous materials in the form of micro-particles, membranes, and pellets. Their adsorption characteristics were tailored by functionalization with polyethyleneimine (PEI), and their physicochemical properties were characterized by vibrational spectroscopy (FTIR, UV-vis), microscopy (SEM), calorimetry (TGA, DSC), and adsorption techniques (BET, step-switch adsorption). Spectroscopic investigations of the interfacial cross-linking reactions of PEI and PVA with glutaraldehyde (GA) revealed that PEI catalyzes the cross-linking reactions of PVA in absence of external acid catalysts. In-situ IR spectroscopy coupled with a focal plane array (FPA) image detector allowed the characterization of a gradient interface on a PEI/PVA composite membrane and the investigation of the cross-linking reactions as a function of time and position. The results served as a basis to postulate possible intermediates, and propose the reaction mechanisms. The formulation of amine-functionalized CO2 capture sorbents was based on the

  5. Photocatalytic splitting of CS2 to S8 and a carbon-sulfur polymer catalyzed by a bimetallic ruthenium(II) compound with a tertiary amine binding site: toward photocatalytic splitting of CO2? (United States)

    Livanov, Konstantin; Madhu, Vedichi; Balaraman, Ekambaram; Shimon, Linda J W; Diskin-Posner, Yael; Neumann, Ronny


    The catalytic photocleavage of CS(2) to S(8) and a (C(x)S(y))(n) polymer with visible light using a dinuclear ruthenium(II) compound with a bipyridine units for photoactivity and a vicinal tertiary amine binding site for CS(2) activation was studied. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR, ESI-MS and elemental analysis. CS(2) photocleavage was significant (240 turnovers, 20 h) to yield isolable S(8) and a (C(x)S(y))(n) polymer. A mononuclear catalyst or one without an amine binding site showed significantly less activity. XPS of the (C(x)S(y))(n) polymer showed a carbon/sulfur ratio ∼1.5-1.6 indicating that in part both C-S bonds of CS(2) had been cleaved. Catalyst was also included within the polymer. The absence of peaks in the (1)H NMR verified the (C(x)S(y))(n) nature of the polymer, while (13)C NMR and IR indicated that the polymer had multiple types of C-S and C-C bonds.

  6. Catalyst Deactivation Reactions : The Role of Tertiary Amines Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novarino, Elena; Rios, Itzel Guerrero; van der Veer, Siebe; Meetsma, Auke; Hessen, Bart; Bouwkamp, Marco W.


    Decamethylzirconocene cation [Cp*2ZrMe](+) (2) decomposes in bromobenzene-d(5) solution to generate sigma-aryl species [Cp*Zr-2(2-C6H4Br-kappa Br,C)][B(C6F5)(4)] (3). This a-bond metathesis reaction is catalyzed by tertiary amines via a two-step mechanism, in which the amine acts as a proton relay.

  7. Multifunctional magnetite and silica-magnetite nanoparticles: Synthesis, surface activation and applications in life sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campo, Aranzazu del; Sen, Tapas; Lellouche, Jean-Paul; Bruce, Ian J.


    A method for the introduction of amine groups onto the surface of magnetite and silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles has been established based on the condensation of aminopropyltriethoxysilane. Amine-modified particles were grafted with an oligonucleotide and used in the capture of a complimentary sequence. The particles' efficiency at capture was observed to correlate directly with amine group surface density

  8. Acetylation and oxygenation transformations catalyzed by silica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acetylation of alcohols in refluxing ethyl acetate, and oxidation of aniline and cyclohexanol with 34 % H2O2 in the presence of H3PW12O40 and its supported forms on SiO2 (20 %, 40 %, and 60 % by weight) as active solid acid catalysts were performed under mild reaction conditions with moderate to good yields and with ...

  9. Method for Preparation of Amides from Alcohols and Amines by Extrusion of Hydrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a method for preparation of carboxamides using alcohols and amines as starting materials in a dehydrogenative coupling reaction catalyzed by a ruthenium N-heterocyciic carbene (NHC) complex, which may be prepared in situ.......The present invention relates to a method for preparation of carboxamides using alcohols and amines as starting materials in a dehydrogenative coupling reaction catalyzed by a ruthenium N-heterocyciic carbene (NHC) complex, which may be prepared in situ....

  10. Synthesis of propargylic and allenic carbamates via the C-H amination of alkynes. (United States)

    Grigg, R David; Rigoli, Jared W; Pearce, Simon D; Schomaker, Jennifer M


    Propargylic amines are important intermediates for the synthesis of nitrogen-containing heterocycles. The insertion of a nitrene into a propargylic C-H bond has not been explored, despite the attention directed toward the Rh-catalyzed amination of other types of C-H bonds. In this communication, the conversion of a series of homopropargylic carbamates to propargylic carbamates and aminated allenes is described. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  11. One-pot Sequential Reactions Featuring a Copper-catalyzed Amination Leading to Pyrido[2',1':2,3]imidazo[4,5-c]quinolines and Dihydropyrido[2',1':2,3]imidazo[4,5-c]quinolines. (United States)

    Fan, Xue-Sen; Zhang, Ju; Li, Bin; Zhang, Xin-Ying


    Tetracyclic skeletons combining an imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine moiety with a quinoline framework such as pyrido[2',1':2,3]imidazo[4,5-b]quinoline are stimulating increasing interests since they are close isosteres of a series of powerful antiproliferative compounds. In this paper, we report a novel methodology for the synthesis of pyrido[2',1':2,3]imidazo[4,5-c]quinolines through one-pot sequential reactions of commercially available or readily obtainable 2-aminopyridines, 2-bromophenacyl bromides, aqueous ammonia, and aldehydes. Moreover, dihydropyrido[2',1':2,3]imidazo[4,5-c]quinolines could also be obtained in a similar manner by using various ketones as the substrates in place of aldehydes. Notably, the whole procedure combines condensation/amination/cyclization reactions in one pot to give complex compounds in a simple and practical manner. Compared with literature methods, the synthetic strategy reported herein has the advantages of readily available starting materials, structural diversity of products, good functional group tolerance, and obviation of step-by-step operations. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Microwave assisted highly efficient one-pot multi-component synthesis of novel 2-(tetrasubstituted-1H-pyrrol-3-yl-4H-chroman-4-ones catalyzed by heterogeneous reusable silica gel supported polyphosphoric acid (PPA/SiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kumar


    Full Text Available A solvent-free, eco-friendly and facile approach for the synthesis of highly functionalized tetrasubstituted pyrroles has been reported through one-pot four-component reaction of aldehyde, amine, nitroalkane and 1,3-diketone using silica gel supported polyphosphoric acid (PPA–SiO2 under microwave condition. The reaction occured through the in situ formation of β-keto enamine and nitrostyrene analog following Michael addition and finally intramolecular annulation affording the products in good yields. The key features of the present method include clean reaction, mild conditions, low catalyst loading, straightforward, high to excellent yields, short reaction time, avoiding use of harmful metal catalyst and organic solvent, environmentally friendly compared to the existing methods, recovery and reusability of catalyst and easy workup procedure.

  13. Electrochemical C-H Amination by Cobalt Catalysis in a Renewable Solvent. (United States)

    Sauermann, Nicolas; Mei, Ruhuai; Ackermann, Lutz


    Syntheses of substituted anilines primarily rely on palladium-catalyzed coupling chemistry with prefunctionalized aryl electrophiles. While oxidative aminations have emerged as powerful alternatives, they largely produce undesired metal-containing by-products in stoichiometric quantities. In contrast, described herein is the unprecedented electrochemical C-H amination by cobalt-catalyzed C-H activation. The environmentally benign electrocatalysis avoids stoichiometric metal oxidants, can be conducted under ambient air, and employs a biomass-derived, renewable solvent for sustainable aminations in an atom- and step-economical manner with H 2 as the sole byproduct. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Development of chiral terminal-alkene-phosphine hybrid ligands for palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitutions. (United States)

    Liu, Zhaoqun; Du, Haifeng


    A variety of novel chiral terminal-alkene-phosphine hybrid ligands were successfully developed from diethyl L-tartrate for palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylations, etherifications, and amination to give the desired products in excellent yields and ee's.

  15. Graphene oxide catalyzed cis-trans isomerization of azobenzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongha Shin


    Full Text Available We report the fast cis-trans isomerization of an amine-substituted azobenzene catalyzed by graphene oxide (GO, where the amine functionality facilitates the charge transfer from azobenzene to graphene oxide in contrast to non-substituted azobenzene. This catalytic effect was not observed in stilbene analogues, which strongly supports the existence of different isomerization pathways between azobenzene and stilbene. The graphene oxide catalyzed isomerization is expected to be useful as a new photoisomerization based sensing platform complementary to GO-based fluorescence quenching methods.

  16. Ligand-Enabled γ-C(sp(3))-H Olefination of Amines: En Route to Pyrrolidines. (United States)

    Jiang, Heng; He, Jian; Liu, Tao; Yu, Jin-Quan


    Pd(II)-catalyzed olefination of γ-C(sp(3))-H bonds of triflyl (Tf) and 4-nitrobenzenesulfonyl (Ns) protected amines is achieved. Subsequent aza-Wacker oxidative cyclization or conjugate addition of the olefinated intermediates provides a variety of C-2 alkylated pyrrolidines. Three pyridine- and quinoline-based ligands are developed to match different classes of amine substrates, demonstrating a rare example of ligand-enabled C(sp(3))-H olefination reactions. The use of Ns protecting group to direct C(sp(3))-H activation of alkyl amines is also a significant step toward practical C-H functionalizations of alkyl amines.

  17. Modular functionalization of allenes to aminated stereotriads. (United States)

    Adams, Christopher S; Boralsky, Luke A; Guzei, Ilia A; Schomaker, Jennifer M


    Nitrogen-containing stereotriads, compounds with three adjacent stereodefined carbons, are commonly found in biologically important molecules. However, the preparation of molecules bearing these motifs can be challenging. Herein, we describe a modular oxidation protocol which converts a substituted allene to a triply functionalized amine of the form C-X/C-N/C-Y. The key step employs a Rh-catalyzed intramolecular conversion of the allene to a strained bicyclic methylene aziridine. This reactive intermediate is further elaborated to the target products, often in one reaction vessel and with effective transfer of the axial chirality of the allene to point chirality in the stereotriad.

  18. Silica Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Ghahramani


    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to heavy metals, organic solvents and silica is associated with a variety of renal manifestations. Improved understanding of occupational renal disease provides insight into environmental renal disease, improving knowledge of disease pathogenesis. Silica (SiO2 is an abundant mineral found in sand, rock, and soil. Workers exposed to silica include sandblasters, miners, quarry workers, masons, ceramic workers and glass manufacturers. New cases of silicosis per year have been estimated in the US to be 3600–7300. Exposure to silica has been associated with tubulointerstitial disease, immune-mediated multisystem disease, chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. A rare syndrome of painful, nodular skin lesions has been described in dialysis patients with excessive levels of silicon. Balkan endemic nephropathy is postulated to be due to chronic intoxication with drinking water polluted by silicates released during soil erosion. The mechanism of silica nephrotoxicity is thought to be through direct nephrotoxicity, as well as silica-induced autoimmune diseases such as scleroderma and systemic lupus erythematosus. The renal histopathology varies from focal to crescentic and necrotizing glomerulonephritis with aneurysm formation suggestive of polyarteritis nodosa. The treatment for silica nephrotoxicity is non-specific and depends on the mechanism and stage of the disease. It is quite clear that further research is needed, particularly to elucidate the pathogenesis of silica nephropathy. Considering the importance of diagnosing exposure-related renal disease at early stages, it is imperative to obtain a thorough occupational history in all patients with renal disease, with particular emphasis on exposure to silica, heavy metals, and solvents.

  19. Characterization of the in vitro binding and inhibition kinetics of primary amine oxidase/vascular adhesion protein-1 by glucosamine.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Olivieri, Aldo


    Primary-amine oxidase (PrAO) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of endogenous and exogenous primary amines and also functions, in some tissues, as an inflammation-inducible endothelial factor, known as vascular adhesion protein-1. VAP-1 mediates the slow rolling and adhesion of lymphocytes to endothelial cells in a number of inflammatory conditions, including inflammation of the synovium.

  20. Surface treatment of silica nanoparticles for stable and charge-controlled colloidal silica (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Hye Min; Lee, Won-Jae; Lee, Chang-Woo; Kim, Tae-il; Lee, Jong-Kwon; Jeong, Jayoung; Paek, Seung-Min; Oh, Jae-Min


    An attempt was made to control the surface charge of colloidal silica nanoparticles with 20 nm and 100 nm diameters. Untreated silica nanoparticles were determined to be highly negatively charged and have stable hydrodynamic sizes in a wide pH range. To change the surface to a positively charged form, various coating agents, such as amine containing molecules, multivalent metal cation, or amino acids, were used to treat the colloidal silica nanoparticles. Molecules with chelating amine sites were determined to have high affinity with the silica surface to make agglomerations or gel-like networks. Amino acid coatings resulted in relatively stable silica colloids with a modified surface charge. Three amino acid moiety coatings (L-serine, L-histidine, and L-arginine) exhibited surface charge modifying efficacy of L-histidine > L-arginine > L-serine and hydrodynamic size preservation efficacy of L-serine > L-arginine > L-histidine. The time dependent change in L-arginine coated colloidal silica was investigated by measuring the pattern of the backscattered light in a Turbiscan™. The results indicated that both the 20 nm and 100 nm L-arginine coated silica samples were fairly stable in terms of colloidal homogeneity, showing only slight coalescence and sedimentation. PMID:25565824

  1. Sponges with covalently tethered amines for high-efficiency carbon capture

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Genggeng


    © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Adsorption using solid amine sorbents is an attractive emerging technology for energy-efficient carbon capture. Current syntheses for solid amine sorbents mainly based on physical impregnation or grafting-to methods (for example, aminosilane-grafting) lead to limited sorbent performance in terms of stability and working capacity, respectively. Here we report a family of solid amine sorbents using a grafting-from synthesis approach and synthesized by cationic polymerization of oxazolines on mesoporous silica. The sorbent with high amount of covalently tethered amines shows fast adsorption rate, high amine efficiency and sorbent capacity well exceeding the highest value reported to date for lowerature carbon dioxide sorbents under simulated flue gas conditions. The demonstrated efficiency of the new amine-immobilization chemistry may open up new avenues in the development of advanced carbon dioxide sorbents, as well as other nitrogen-functionalized systems.

  2. Chlorodiethylaluminum supported on silica: A dinuclear aluminum surface species with bridging μ2-Cl-ligand as a highly efficient co-catalyst for the Ni-catalyzed dimerization of ethene

    KAUST Repository

    Kermagoret, Anthony


    Silica-supported chloro alkyl aluminum co-catalysts (DEAC@support) were prepared via Surface Organometallic Chemistry by contacting diethylaluminum chloride (DEAC) and high specific surface silica materials, i.e. SBA-15, MCM-41, and Aerosil SiO2. Such systems efficiently activate NiCl 2(PBu3)2 for catalytic ethene dimerization, with turnover frequency (TOF) reaching up to 498,000 molC2H4/ (molNi h) for DEAC@MCM-41. A detailed analysis of the DEAC@SBA-15 co-catalyst structure by solid-state aluminum-27 NMR at high-field (17.6 T and 20.0 T) and ultrafast spinning rates allows to detect six sites, characterized by a distribution of quadrupolar interaction principal values CQ and isotropic chemical shifts δiso. Identification of the corresponding Al-grafted structures was possible by comparison of the experimental NMR signatures with these calculated by DFT on a wide range of models for the aluminum species (mono- versus di-nuclear, mono- versus bis-grafted with bridging Cl or ethyl). Most of the sites were identified as dinuclear species with retention of the structure of DEAC, namely with the presence of μ2-Cl-ligands between two aluminum, and this probably explains the high catalytic performance of this silica-supported co-catalysts. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Enzymatic network for production of ether amines from alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacio, Cyntia M.; Crismaru, Ciprian G.; Bartsch, Sebastian


    We constructed an enzymatic network composed of three different enzymes for the synthesis of valuable ether amines. The enzymatic reactions are interconnected to catalyze the oxidation and subsequent transamination of the substrate and to provide cofactor recycling. This allows production...... for reactions containing 10mM alcohol and up to 280mM ammonia corresponded well to predicted conversions. The results indicate that efficient amination can be driven by high concentrations of ammonia and may require improving enzyme robustness for scale-up....

  4. Amine Functionalized Porous Network

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed


    Amine groups can be introduced in porous materials by a direct (one pot) or post-synthetic modification (PSM) process on aldehyde groups, and the resulting porous materials have increased gas affinity.

  5. Gold/acid-co-catalyzed direct microwave-assisted synthesis of fused azaheterocycles from propargylic hydroperoxides. (United States)

    Alcaide, Benito; Almendros, Pedro; Quirós, M Teresa


    The gold-acid-co-catalyzed synthesis of nine series of fused azaheterocycles with structural diversity starting from the same synthons as readily available propargylic hydroperoxides and aromatic amines has been achieved. The overall tandem process consists in a gold-catalyzed hydroperoxide rearrangement/Michael reaction followed by a final acid-catalyzed cyclization. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Yttrium (III chloride catalyzed Mannich reaction: An efficient procedure for the synthesis of β-amino carbonyl compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswarlu Yekkirala


    Full Text Available Yttrium (III chloride catalyzed Mannich reaction of aldehydes with ketones and amines in acetonitrile at reflux temperature to give various β-amino carbonyl compounds in very good yields.

  7. Production of Primary Amines by Reductive Amination of Biomass-Derived Aldehydes/Ketones. (United States)

    Liang, Guanfeng; Wang, Aiqin; Li, Lin; Xu, Gang; Yan, Ning; Zhang, Tao


    Transformation of biomass into valuable nitrogen-containing compounds is highly desired, yet limited success has been achieved. Here we report an efficient catalyst system, partially reduced Ru/ZrO 2 , which could catalyze the reductive amination of a variety of biomass-derived aldehydes/ketones in aqueous ammonia. With this approach, a spectrum of renewable primary amines was produced in good to excellent yields. Moreover, we have demonstrated a two-step approach for production of ethanolamine, a large-market nitrogen-containing chemical, from lignocellulose in an overall yield of 10 %. Extensive characterizations showed that Ru/ZrO 2 -containing multivalence Ru association species worked as a bifunctional catalyst, with RuO 2 as acidic promoter to facilitate the activation of carbonyl groups and Ru as active sites for the subsequent imine hydrogenation. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Selective Hydrogenation of Nitriles to Primary Amines by using a Cobalt Phosphine Catalyst. (United States)

    Adam, Rosa; Bheeter, Charles Beromeo; Cabrero-Antonino, Jose R; Junge, Kathrin; Jackstell, Ralf; Beller, Matthias


    A general procedure for the catalytic hydrogenation of nitriles to primary amines by using a non-noble metal-based system is presented. Co(acac) 3 in combination with tris[2-(dicyclohexylphosphino)ethyl]phosphine efficiently catalyzes the selective hydrogenation of a wide range of (hetero)aromatic and aliphatic nitriles to give the corresponding amines. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Kinetics and thermodynamics of amine and diamine signaling by a trifluoroacetyl azobenzene reporter group. (United States)

    Mertz, Eric; Beil, James B; Zimmerman, Steven C


    [reaction: see text] (Trifluoroacetyl)azobenzene dyes were previously employed as amine reporter groups (chemosensors) in a dendrimer-based monomolecular imprinting system. Kinetic and binding studies with a range of amines and diamines show that the highly selective signaling observed for alkane diamines by these imprinted dendrimers arises from a kinetic effect due to intramolecular general base-catalyzed carbinolamine formation with the dye itself. The relationship between diamine structure and carbinolamine stability and rate of formation is described.

  10. Fluorinated Amine Stereotriads via Allene Amination. (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Gerstner, Nels C; Oxtoby, Lucas J; Guzei, Ilia A; Schomaker, Jennifer M


    The incorporation of fluorine into organic scaffolds often improves the bioactivity of pharmaceutically relevant compounds. C-F/C-N/C-O stereotriad motifs are prevalent in antivirals, neuraminidase inhibitors, and modulators of androgen receptors, but are challenging to install. An oxidative allene amination strategy using Selectfluor rapidly delivers triply functionalized triads of the form C-F/C-N/C-O, exhibiting good scope and diastereoselectivity for all syn products. The resulting stereotriads are readily transformed into fluorinated pyrrolidines and protected α-, β-, and γ-amino acids.

  11. Ultrasound promoted rapid and green synthesis of thiiranes from epoxides in water catalyzed by chitosan-silica sulfate nano hybrid (CSSNH) as a green, novel and highly proficient heterogeneous nano catalyst. (United States)

    Behrouz, Somayeh; Soltani Rad, Mohammad Navid; Piltan, Mohammad Amin


    The synthesis and characterization of chitosan-silica sulfate nano hybrid (CSSNH) as a novel, green and highly efficient heterogeneous nano catalyst is described. The catalytic activity of this new biopolymeric nano catalyst was investigated in the ultrasonic assisted green synthesis of structurally diverse thiiranes from epoxides using thiourea in water at room temperature. CSSNH was characterized using some different microscopic and spectroscopic techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N 2 adsorption isotherm, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The green nature, cheapness, efficiency, ease of preparation, handling and reusability of this new catalyst makes this catalyst to be useful for green industrial processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Enzymatic treatment of sulfonated aromatic amines generated from reductive degradation of reactive azo dyes. (United States)

    Biswas, Mousumi Mani; Taylor, Keith E; Bewtra, Jatinder K; Biswas, Nihar


    Anaerobic degradation, an effective treatment process of textile industry effluent, generates sulfonated aromatic amines, which are carcinogenic, mutagenic, and resistant to microbial degradation. These aromatic amines can be effectively removed by oxidative polymerization catalyzed by peroxidase enzyme. The amines, generated in this study from the anaerobic reduction by zero-valent iron of two reactive azo dyes (Reactive Red 2 [RR2] and Reactive Black 5 [RB5]), were successfully removed (90%) by Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase (ARP). For better understanding of the process, enzymatic treatment of two model compounds, diphenylamine (DPA) and 2-amino-8-naphthol-3,6-disulfonic acid (ANDSA), were also studied. Diphenylamine has a similar diarylamine bond as RR2. The ANDSA has a similar structure as the dye reduction products. The secondary amine bond in DPA and RR2 were oxidized by ARP. Enzymatic reaction of sulfonated aromatic amines generated soluble colored compounds, which were removed by coagulant. Optimum reaction parameters were also determined.

  13. Factors influencing phase-disengagement rates in solvent-extraction systems employing tertiary amine extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, B.A.; McDowell, W.J.


    The primary purpose of the present investigation was to examine the effects of amine size and structure on phase disengagement. Nine commercial tertiary amines were tested together with four laboratory-quality amines for uranium extraction and both organic-continuous (OC) and aqueous-continuous (AC) phase disengagement under Amex-type conditions. Synthetic acid sulfate solutions with and without added colloidal silica and actual ore leach solutions were used as the aqueous phases. Phase disengagement results were correlated with amine size and branching and solution wetting behavior on a silicate (glass) surface. The results suggest that the performance of some Amex systems may be improved by using branched chain tertiary amine extractants of higher molecular weight than are now normally used

  14. The interaction of encapsulated pharmaceutical drugs with a silica matrix. (United States)

    Morais, Everton C; Correa, Gabriel G; Brambilla, Rodrigo; Radtke, Claudio; Baibich, Ione Maluf; dos Santos, João Henrique Z


    A series of seven drugs, namely, fluoxetine, gentamicin, lidocaine, morphine, nifedipine, paracetamol and tetracycline, were encapsulated. The encapsulated systems were characterized using a series of complementary techniques: Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), diffusive reflectance spectroscopy in the UV-vis region (DRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). According to the DRS spectra, most of the encapsulated systems showed a band shift of the maximum absorption when compared with the corresponding bare pharmaceutical. Additionally, after encapsulation, the drugs exhibited infrared band shifts toward higher wavenumbers, which in turn provided insight into potential sites for interaction with the silica framework. The amine group showed a band shift in the spectra of almost all the drugs (except nifedipine and tetracycline). This finding indicates the possibility of a hydrogen bonding interaction between the drug and the silica via electron donation from the amine group to the silica framework. XPS confirmed this interaction between the pharmaceuticals and the silica through the amine group. A correlation was observed between the textural characteristics of the solids and the spectroscopic data, suggesting that the amine groups from the pharmaceuticals were more perturbed upon encapsulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Discrete complexes immobilized onto click-SBA-15 silica: controllable loadings and the impact of surface coverage on catalysis. (United States)

    Nakazawa, Jun; Smith, Brian J; Stack, T Daniel P


    Azidopropyl functionalized mesoporous silica SBA-15 were prepared with variable azide loadings of 0.03-0.7 mmol g(-1) (~2-50% of maximal surface coverage) through a direct synthesis, co-condensation approach. These materials are functionalized selectively with ethynylated organic moieties through a copper-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) or "click" reaction. Specific loading within a material can be regulated by either the azide loading or limiting the alkyne reagent relative to the azide loading. The immobilization of ferrocene, pyrene, tris(pyridylmethyl)amine (TPA), and iron porphyrin (FeTPP) demonstrates the robust nature and reproducibility of this two-step synthetic attachment strategy. Loading-sensitive pyrene fluorescence correlates with a theoretically random surface distribution, rather than a uniform one; site-isolation of tethered moieties ~15 Å in length occurs at loadings less than 0.02 mmol g(-1). The effect of surface loading on reactivity is observed in the oxygenation of SBA-15-[Cu(I)(TPA)]. SBA-15-[Mn(II)(TPA)]-catalyzed epoxidation exhibits a systematic dependence on surface loading. A comparison of homogeneous, site-isolated and site-dense complexes provides insight into catalyst speciation and ligand activity.

  16. Silica precipitation by synthetic minicollagens. (United States)

    Weiher, Felix; Schatz, Michaela; Steinem, Claudia; Geyer, Armin


    Oligomeric Pro-Hyp-Gly- (POG-) peptides, wherein the collagenous triple helix is supported by C-terminal capping, exhibit silica precipitation properties (O, Hyp = (2S,4R)hydroxyproline). As quantified by a molybdate assay, the length of the covalently tethered triple helix (number of POG units) determines the amount of amorphous silica obtained from silicic acid solution. Although lacking charged side chains, the synthetic collagens precipitate large quantities of silicic acid resulting in micrometer-sized spheres of varying surface morphologies as analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Similar precipitation efficiencies on a fast time scale of less than 10 min were previously described only for biogenic diatom proteins and sponge collagen, respectively, which have a considerably higher structural complexity and limited accessibility. The minicollagens described here provide an unexpected alternative to the widely used precipitation conditions, which generally depend on (poly-)amines in phosphate buffer. Collagen can form intimate connections with inorganic matter. Hence, silica-enclosed collagens have promising perspectives as composite materials.

  17. Characterization of particulate amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundel, L.A.; Chang, S.G.; Clemenson, M.S.; Markowitz, S.S.; Novakov, T.


    The reduced nitrogen compounds associated with ambient particulate matter are chemically characterized by means of ESCA and proton activation analysis. Ambient particulate samples collected on silver filters in Berkeley, California were washed with water and organic solvents, and ESCA and proton activation analysis were performed in order to determine the composition of various nitrogen compounds and the total nitrogen content. It is found that 85% of the amines originally present in ambient particulate matter can be removed by water extraction, whereas the ammonium and nitrate are completely removed. An observed increase in ammonium ion in the extract, compared with its concentration in the original sample, coupled with the commensurate decrease in amine concentration, is attributed to the hydrolysis of amide groups, which may cause analytical methods based on extraction to yield erroneous results

  18. Organocatalytic asymmetric allylic amination of Morita–Baylis–Hillman carbonates of isatins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Zhang


    Full Text Available The investigation of a Lewis base catalyzed asymmetric allylic amination of Morita–Baylis–Hillman carbonates derived from isatins afforded an electrophilic pathway to access multifunctional oxindoles bearing a C3-quaternary stereocenter, provided with good to excellent enantioselectivity (up to 94% ee and in high yields (up to 97%.

  19. Organocatalytic asymmetric allylic amination of Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates of isatins. (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Zhang, Shan-Jun; Zhou, Qing-Qing; Dong, Lin; Chen, Ying-Chun


    The investigation of a Lewis base catalyzed asymmetric allylic amination of Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates derived from isatins afforded an electrophilic pathway to access multifunctional oxindoles bearing a C3-quaternary stereocenter, provided with good to excellent enantioselectivity (up to 94% ee) and in high yields (up to 97%).

  20. Three-step synthesis of l-ido-1-deoxynojirimycin derivatives by reductive amination in water, "borrowing hydrogen" under neat conditions and deprotection. (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Zhou, Gang; Nie, Huifang; Chen, Weiping


    In this communication, we describe a three-step synthesis of l-ido-1-deoxynojirimycin derivatives starting from readily available 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzyl-d-glucopyranose via Ir-catalyzed reductive amination in water, "borrowing hydrogen" under neat conditions, and Pd-catalyzed debenzylation.

  1. The economics of amine usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fountain, M.J.


    The EPRI computer programm, 'Aminemod', a PWR chemistry model, has been used to compare the technical advantages of the 'advanced' amines, ethanolamine, 1,2 diaminoethane and 5 aminopentanol over morpholine in generating an elevated pH in the moisture separator and the economics of using these amines has been assessed by using an MS Excel spreadsheet in conjunction with Aminemod. The advanced amines are capable of achieving 1 pH unit above neutrality, the EPRI target for prevention of erosion-corrison, at acceptable cost and, compared with 'conventional' amines, at considerably reduced ionic load on the condensate polisher. The exercise demonstrates that it is essential to evaluate the effect of an amine dosing regime on the total operating cost and that it is not possible to prejudge the economic outcome on the basis of an amine's purchase price. (orig.)

  2. Chemo- and Enantioselective Intramolecular Silver-Catalyzed Aziridinations. (United States)

    Ju, Minsoo; Weatherly, Cale D; Guzei, Ilia A; Schomaker, Jennifer M


    Asymmetric nitrene-transfer reactions are a powerful tool for the preparation of enantioenriched amine building blocks. Reported herein are chemo- and enantioselective silver-catalyzed aminations which transform di- and trisubstituted homoallylic carbamates into [4.1.0]-carbamate-tethered aziridines in good yields and with ee values of up to 92 %. The effects of the substrate, silver counteranion, ligand, solvent, and temperature on both the chemoselectivity and ee value were explored. Stereochemical models were proposed to rationalize the observed absolute stereochemistry of the aziridines, which undergo nucleophilic ring opening to yield enantioenriched amines with no erosion in stereochemical integrity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Alumina-entrapped Ag catalyzed nitro compounds coupled with alcohols using borrowing hydrogen methodology. (United States)

    Liu, Huihui; Chuah, Gaik Khuan; Jaenicke, Stephan


    Supported silver catalysts were reported for the first time to be able to catalyze the coupling reaction between nitroarenes and alcohols via the borrowing hydrogen scheme. The recyclable, non-leaching catalyst is synthesized by the entrapment method, which allows entrapping of silver nanoparticles in an alumina matrix. Alcohols, acting as the reducing agents for nitro-groups, alkylated the resultant amines smoothly over these silver catalysts giving a yield of >98% towards the N-substituted amines. In this process, multiple steps were realized in one-pot over a single catalyst with very high efficiency. It offers another clean and economic way to achieve amination of alcohols.

  4. A novel fabrication of meso-porous silica film by sol-gol of TEOS. (United States)

    Yin, Ming-zhi; Yao, Xi; Zhang, Liang-ying


    A homogeneous crack-free nano- or meso-porous silica films on silicon was fabricated by colloidal silica sol derived by hydrolyzing tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) catalyzing with (C4H9)4N+OH- in water medium. The solution with ratio of H2O/TEOS> or =15, R4N+ and glycerol as templates, combining with the hydrolyzed intermediate, controlled the silica aggregating; the templated silica film with heterostructure was developed into homogeneous nano-porous then meso-porous silica films after being annealed from 750 degrees C to 850 degrees C; the formation mechanism of the porous silica films was discussed; morphologies of the silica films were characterized. The refractive indexes of the porous silica films were 1.256-1.458, the thermal conductivity < 0.7 W/m/K. The fabricating procedure and the sequence had not been reported before.

  5. Intramolecular C(sp(3))H amination of arylsulfonyl azides with engineered and artificial myoglobin-based catalysts. (United States)

    Bordeaux, Melanie; Singh, Ritesh; Fasan, Rudi


    The direct conversion of aliphatic CH bonds into CN bonds provides an attractive approach to the introduction of nitrogen-containing functionalities in organic molecules. Following the recent discovery that cytochrome P450 enzymes can catalyze the cyclization of arylsulfonyl azide compounds via an intramolecular C(sp(3))H amination reaction, we have explored here the CH amination reactivity of other hemoproteins. Various heme-containing proteins, and in particular myoglobin and horseradish peroxidase, were found to be capable of catalyzing this transformation. Based on this finding, a series of engineered and artificial myoglobin variants containing active site mutations and non-native Mn- and Co-protoporphyrin IX cofactors, respectively, were prepared to investigate the effect of these structural changes on the catalytic activity and selectivity of these catalysts. Our studies showed that metallo-substituted myoglobins constitute viable CH amination catalysts, revealing a distinctive reactivity trend as compared to synthetic metalloporphyrin counterparts. On the other hand, amino acid substitutions at the level of the heme pocket were found to be beneficial toward improving the stereo- and enantioselectivity of these Mb-catalyzed reactions. Mechanistic studies involving kinetic isotope effect experiments indicate that CH bond cleavage is implicated in the rate-limiting step of myoglobin-catalyzed amination of arylsulfonyl azides. Altogether, these studies indicate that myoglobin constitutes a promising scaffold for the design and development of CH amination catalysts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Intramolecular C(sp3)—H amination of arylsulfonyl azides with engineered and artificial myoglobin-based catalysts (United States)

    Bordeaux, Melanie; Singh, Ritesh; Fasan, Rudi


    The direct conversion of aliphatic C—H bonds into C—N bonds provides an attractive approach to the introduction of nitrogen-containing functionalities in organic molecules. Following our recent discovery that cytochrome P450 enzymes can catalyze the cyclization of arylsulfonyl azide compounds via an intramolecular C(sp3)—H amination reaction, we have explored here the C—H amination reactivity of other hemoproteins. Various heme-containing proteins, and in particular myoglobin and horseradish peroxidase, were found to be capable of catalyzing this transformation. Based on this finding, a series of engineered and artificial myoglobin variants containing active site mutations and non-native Mn- and Co-protoporphyrin IX cofactors, respectively, were preparedWmvestigate the effect of these structural changes on the catalytic activity and selectivity of to these catalysts. Our studies showed that metallo-substituted myoglobins constitute viable C—H amination catalysts, revealing a distinctive reactivity trend as compared to synthetic metalloporphyrin counterparts. On the other hand, amino acid substitutions at the level of the heme pocket were found to be beneficial toward improving the stereo- and enantioselectivity of these Mb-catalyzed reactions. Mechanistic studies involving kinetic isotope effect experiments indicate that C—H bond cleavage is implicated in the rate-limiting step of myoglobin-catalyzed amination of arylsulfonyl azides. Altogether, these studies indicate that myoglobin constitutes a promising scaffold for the design and development of C— H amination catalysts. PMID:24890656

  7. Exposure to heterocyclic amines. (United States)

    Wakabayashi, K; Ushiyama, H; Takahashi, M; Nukaya, H; Kim, S B; Hirose, M; Ochiai, M; Sugimura, T; Nagao, M


    Many mutagenic heterocyclic amines (HAs) have been isolated from cooked foods and pyrolysates of amino acids and proteins, and the carcinogenicity of 10 of these HAs in rodents and of 1 in monkeys has been reported. Quantification of these carcinogenic HAs in various kinds of cooked foods indicated that the level of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was highest (0.56-69.2 ng/g), that of 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) was second highest (0.64-6.44 ng/g), and those of other HAs were 0.03-2.50 ng/g. Heterocyclic amines were found in urine samples of 10 healthy volunteers consuming a normal diet, but HAs were not detectable in urine samples of three patients receiving parenteral alimentation. These results strongly suggest that humans are continuously exposed to HAs derived from food in the normal diet. Based on quantitative data on the levels of HAs in cooked foods and urine samples, the daily exposures to PhIP and MeIQx were estimated to be 0.1-13.8 micrograms and 0.2-2.6 micrograms per person, respectively. These levels of carcinogenic HAs are in the same range as those of other carcinogens such as N-nitrosodimethylamine and benzo[a]pyrene to which humans are exposed.

  8. Quantitative Analysis and Efficient Surface Modification of Silica Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hak-Sung Jung


    Full Text Available Aminofunctional trialkoxysilanes such as aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS and (3-trimethoxysilylpropyldiethylenetriamine (DETAS were employed as a surface modification molecule for generating monolayer modification on the surface of silica (SiO2 nanoparticles. We were able to quantitatively analyze the number of amine functional groups on the modified SiO2 nanoparticles by acid-base back titration method and determine the effective number of amine functional groups for the successive chemical reaction by absorption measurements after treating with fluorescent rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC molecules. The numbers of amine sites measured by back titration were 2.7 and 7.7 ea/nm2 for SiO2-APTMS and SiO2-DETAS, respectively, while the numbers of effective amine sites measured by absorption calibration were about one fifth of the total amine sites, namely, 0.44 and 1.3 ea/nm2 for SiO2-APTMS(RITC and SiO2-DETAS(RITC, respectively. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the reactivity of amino groups on the surface-modified silica nanoparticles could be maintained in ethanol for more than 1.5 months without showing any significant differences in the reactivity.

  9. Synthesis of novel carbon/silica composites based strong acid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hydrophobic acid-catalyzed reactions proceed in poor or with no catalytic activity (Nakajima et al 2009). The novel car- bon/silica composites based solid acid was synthesized for the purpose. However, the new method added the step of impregnating sucrose to the channels of SBA-15, which fur- ther added to the cost for ...

  10. Mesoporous silica supported Pd/Ag bimetallic nanoparticles as a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Priyanka Verma


    Sep 19, 2017 ... bUnit of Elements Strategy Initiative for Catalysts and Batteries, Kyoto University, Katsura, Kyoto 615-8520,. Japan. cJST, PRESTO, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, ... Silver-based bimetallic Pd/Ag plasmonic catalysts supported on mesoporous silica catalyze the chemoselective reduction of nitrostyrene (NS) to ...

  11. Gold(III)-catalyzed three-component coupling reaction (TCC) selective toward furans. (United States)

    Li, Jian; Liu, Li; Ding, Dong; Sun, Jiangtao; Ji, Yangxuan; Dong, Jialing


    An efficient three-component coupling reaction toward a variety of furan derivatives has been developed. This cascade transformation proceeds via the gold-catalyzed coupling reaction of phenylglyoxal derivatives, secondary amines, and terminal alkynes, under the reaction conditions, that undergoes cyclization into the furan core.

  12. Aerobic oxidation of cyclohexene catalyzed by NiO/MCM-41 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aerobic oxidation of cyclohexene catalyzed by NiO/MCM-41 nanocomposites in the gas phase. AMIN EBADIa,∗, MAJID MOZAFFARIb and SANAZ SHOJAEIa. aDepartment of Chemistry, Kazerun Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kazerun, Iran. bDepartment of Chemistry, Shahrood Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood ...

  13. Nitridated fibrous silica (KCC-1) as a sustainable solid base nanocatalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Bouhrara, Mohamed


    We observed that support morphology has dramatic effects on the performance of nitridated silica as a base. By simply replacing conventional silica supports (such as SBA-15 and MCM-41) with fibrous nanosilica (KCC-1), we observed multifold enhancement in the catalytic activity of the nitridated solid base for Knoevenagel condensations and transesterification reactions. This enhancement of the activity can be explained by amine accessibility, which is excellent in KCC-1 due to its open and flexible fibrous structure, that facilitates penetration and interaction with basic amine sites. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  14. Catalyzing RE Project Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Kate; Elgqvist, Emma; Walker, Andy; Cutler, Dylan; Olis, Dan; DiOrio, Nick; Simpkins, Travis


    This poster details how screenings done with REopt - NREL's software modeling platform for energy systems integration and optimization - are helping to catalyze the development of hundreds of megawatts of renewable energy.

  15. Muon Catalyzed Fusion (United States)

    Armour, Edward A.G.


    Muon catalyzed fusion is a process in which a negatively charged muon combines with two nuclei of isotopes of hydrogen, e.g, a proton and a deuteron or a deuteron and a triton, to form a muonic molecular ion in which the binding is so tight that nuclear fusion occurs. The muon is normally released after fusion has taken place and so can catalyze further fusions. As the muon has a mean lifetime of 2.2 microseconds, this is the maximum period over which a muon can participate in this process. This article gives an outline of the history of muon catalyzed fusion from 1947, when it was first realised that such a process might occur, to the present day. It includes a description of the contribution that Drachrnan has made to the theory of muon catalyzed fusion and the influence this has had on the author's research.

  16. Diastereoselective Synthesis of Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical Tetrahydropyridines Catalyzed by Bi(III) Immobilized on Triazine Dendrimer Stabilized Magnetic Nanoparticles. (United States)

    Asadi, Beheshteh; Landarani-Isfahani, Amir; Mohammadpoor-Baltork, Iraj; Tangestaninejad, Shahram; Moghadam, Majid; Mirkhani, Valiollah; Amiri Rudbari, Hadi


    Unsymmetrical 1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine-3-carboxylates were obtained for the first time from a five-component Fe 3 O 4 @TDSN-Bi(III)-catalyzed reaction of aryl aldehydes, aryl amines, and ethyl acetoacetate. This magnetically separable catalyst enabled the selective incorporation of two different aryl amines or two different aryl aldehydes into the product, and provided excellent yields, short reaction times, mild reaction conditions, satisfactory catalyst recyclability, and low catalyst loading.

  17. Standard CGIF interoperability in Amine


    Kabbaj, A.; Launders, I.; Polovina, S.


    The adoption of standard CGIF by CG tools will enable interoperability between them to be achieved, and in turn lead to the interoperability between CG tools and other tools. The integration of ISO Common Logic’s standard CGIF notation in the Amine platform is presented. It also describes the first steps towards full interoperability between the Amine CG tool (through its Synergy component) and CharGer, a representative CG tool that supports similar interoperability and for process (or ‘activ...

  18. Immobilized Ionic Liquid-Catalyzed Synthesis of Pyrano[3,2-b]indole Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Damavandi


    Full Text Available An ionic liquid-catalyzed synthesis of 2-amino-4,5-dihydro-4-arylpyrano[3,2-b]indole-3-carbonitrile derivatives through a novel three-component condensation of 3-hydroxyindole, aromatic aldehydes and malononitrile in the presence of silica supported ionic liquid of [pmim]HSO4SiO2 (silica supported 1-methyl-3-(triethoxysilylpropylimidazolium hydrogensulfate as an efficient catalyst is described.

  19. Rhodium catalysts bound to functionalized mesoporous silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitterwolf, Thomas E.; Newell, J D.; Carver, Colin T.; Addleman, Raymond S.; Linehan, John C.; Fryxell, Glen E.


    Phosphine and amine functionalized mesoporous silica materials were metallated with Rh(CO)2(i-Pr2NH)Cl or Rh2(CO)4Cl2, respectively, to yield catalysts containing the Rh(PPh2R)2(CO)Cl or Rh(CO)2(NH2R)Cl, where R is a propyl chain bonded to the silica surface, reactive centers. In order to ascertain the effect of pore size on rates of hydroformylation catalysis both 35 and 45 ? pore size materials were used. Using the hydroformylation of octene as a reference reaction, the phosphine based, 45 ? catalysts were 1.5-1.3 times faster than the amine based, 45 ? materials were 2.6-2.1 times faster than the 35 ? catalysts, and the 45 ? materials. The orientation of the catalyst relative to the functionalized surface, and the steric environment around the catalyst active site appear to be significant in determining rate of reaction. The ability of the surface bound phosphine catalysts to affect hydroformylation was strongly influenced by the steric constraints of the substrate. Terminal alkenes were readily hydroformylated and norbornene was slowly hydroformylated, but pinene, trans-cyclododecene, cyclohexene and cholesterol were nonreactive to the catalytic center.

  20. Dynamics of CO 2 Adsorption on Amine Adsorbents. 2. Insights Into Adsorbent Design

    KAUST Repository

    Bollini, Praveen


    Packed bed breakthrough experiments are reported for commercial zeolite 13X and 3-aminopropyl-functionalized SBA-15 silica materials with three different amine loadings. Mass and heat transfer dynamics for all four materials are modeled successfully. Amine adsorbents with open pores are found to exhibit faster mass diffusion rates compared to zeolite 13X. When amine loading is increased by coupling aminopropyl groups, premature breakthrough combined with a long tail is observed. Contrary to conventional physisorbants, finite heat losses to the column wall do not explain the long breakthrough tail. A rate model that accounts for heterogeneity in diffusion was found to accurately capture the breakthrough shape of the high loading material. Batch uptake measurements support the hypothesis that slow diffusion through the polymer phase is what hampers adsorption kinetics in the high amine loading adsorbent. The results emphasize the importance of designing materials that are not overloaded with amine sites, as excessive amine loadings can lead to depressed adsorption kinetics and premature column breakthrough. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  1. Silica Synthesis by Sponges: Unanticipated Molecular Mechanism (United States)

    Morse, D. E.; Weaver, J. C.


    Oceanic diatoms, sponges and other organisms synthesize gigatons per year of silica from silicic acid, ultimately obtained from the weathering of rock. This biogenic silica exhibits a remarkable diversity of structures, many of which reveal a precision of nanoarchitectural control that exceeds the capabilities of human engineering. In contrast to the conditions of anthropogenic and industrial manufacture, the biological synthesis of silica occurs under mild physiological conditions of low temperatures and pressures and near-neutral pH. In addition to the differentiation between biological and abiotic processes governing silica formation, the biomolecular mechanisms controlling synthesis of these materials may offer insights for the development of new, environmentally benign routes for synthesis of nanostructurally controlled silicas and high-performance polysiloxane composites. We found that the needle-like silica spicules made by the marine sponge, Tethya aurantia, each contain an occluded axial filament of protein composed predominantly of repeating assemblies of three similar subunits we named "silicateins." To our surprise, analysis of the purified protein subunits and the cloned silicatein DNAs revealed that the silicateins are highly homologous to a family of hydrolytic enzymes. As predicted from this finding, we discovered that the silicatein filaments are more than simple, passive templates; they actively catalyze and spatially direct polycondensation to form silica, (as well as the phenyl- and methyl-silsesquioxane) from the corresponding silicon alkoxides at neutral pH and low temperature. Catalytic activity also is exhibited by the silicatein subunits obtained by disaggregation of the protein filaments and those produced from recombinant DNA templates cloned in bacteria. This catalytic activity accelerates the rate-limiting hydrolysis of the silicon alkoxide precursors. Genetic engineering, used to produce variants of the silicatein molecule with

  2. Study of Catalyst, Aging Time and Surfactant Effects on Silica Inorganic Polymer Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pakizeh


    Full Text Available In the present study the sol-gel method is used for synthesis of amorphous nanostructure silica polymer using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS as silicon source. This polymer can be used in manufacturing of nanoporous asymmetricmembranes. The effect of catalyst on silica particle size has been studied under acidic and basic conditions.زAcid-catalyzed reaction leads to the formation of fine particles while the base-catalyzed reaction produceslarger particles. The presence of cationic template surfactant namely cetyl pyridinium bromide (CPBزdirects the structural formation of the polymer by preventing the highly branched polymeric clusters. This will increase the effective area of the produced silica membrane. Nitrogen physisorption tests by Brunaver- Emmett-Teller (BET and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH methods revealed that the surface area of the membrane increases significantly around 5-folds when acid-catalyzed reaction is used. 29Si-NMR test is also used to study the aging time effect on the level of silica polymer branching. The results show that in acidic condition, aging time up to three weeks can still affect branching. The calcinations process in which the organic materials and CPB (surfactant are burned and released from the silica particles, is studied on template free silica materials as well as templated silica materials using TGA and DTA techniques.

  3. Amine Swingbed Payload Project Management (United States)

    Walsch, Mary; Curley, Su


    The International Space Station (ISS) has been designed as a laboratory for demonstrating technologies in a microgravity environment, benefitting exploration programs by reducing the overall risk of implementing such technologies in new spacecraft. At the beginning of fiscal year 2010, the ISS program manager requested that the amine-based, pressure-swing carbon dioxide and humidity absorption technology (designed by Hamilton Sundstrand, baselined for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, and tested at the Johnson Space Center in relevant environments, including with humans, since 2005) be developed into a payload for ISS Utilization. In addition to evaluating the amine technology in a flight environment before the first launch of the Orion vehicle, the ISS program wanted to determine the capability of the amine technology to remove carbon dioxide from the ISS cabin environment at the metabolic rate of the full 6 ]person crew. Because the amine technology vents the absorbed carbon dioxide and water vapor to space vacuum (open loop), additional hardware needed to be developed to minimize the amount of air and water resources lost overboard. Additionally, the payload system would be launched on two separate Space Shuttle flights, with the heart of the payload-the swingbed unit itself-launching a full year before the remainder of the payload. This paper discusses the project management and challenges of developing the amine swingbed payload in order to accomplish the technology objectives of both the open -loop Orion application as well as the closed-loop ISS application.

  4. Catalytic dehydrogenative N-((triisopropylsilyl)oxy)carbonyl (Tsoc) protection of amines using iPr3SiH and CO2. (United States)

    Tanaka, S; Yamamura, T; Nakane, S; Kitamura, M


    A versatile method has been found to catalyze the dehydrogenative N-((triisopropylsilyl)oxy)carbonyl (Tsoc) protection of amines using Pd/C, volatile iPr3SiH and CO2 gas without the liberation of any salts. A simple filtration/evaporation process facilitates the easy isolation of the product, thereby enhancing the utility of Tsoc as an amine-protecting group in organic synthesis.

  5. Carbon Monoxide Chemisorption- Characterization and Testing of Prepared Nickel Catalysts for Amination of Ethanol


    Hanafi Setiawan, Achmad


    Three types of nickel metal catalyst supported on silica gel have been prepared using impregnation, ion exchanged sodium hydroxide and ion exchanged ammonia methods, in order to investigate the influence of preparation methods on metal dispersion and their activities for amination of ethanol. All the catalyst samples had a nominal nickel loading of 5 % (w/w). After preparation, the catalysts were activated by a drying stage followed by calcination and reduction. The result of transferring the...

  6. Synthesis and properties of highly dispersed ionic silica-poly(ethylene oxide) nanohybrids.

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, Nikhil J


    We report an ionic hybrid based on silica nanoparticles as the anion and amine-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) as a cation. The charge on the nanoparticle anion is carried by the surface hydroxyls. SAXS and TEM reveal an exceptional degree of dispersion of the silica in the polymer and high degree of order in both thin film and bulk forms. In addition to better dispersion, the ionic hybrid shows improved flow characteristics compared to silica/PEO mixtures in which the ionic interactions are absent.

  7. Enzyme-controlled nitrogen-atom transfer enables regiodivergent C-H amination. (United States)

    Hyster, Todd K; Farwell, Christopher C; Buller, Andrew R; McIntosh, John A; Arnold, Frances H


    We recently demonstrated that variants of cytochrome P450BM3 (CYP102A1) catalyze the insertion of nitrogen species into benzylic C-H bonds to form new C-N bonds. An outstanding challenge in the field of C-H amination is catalyst-controlled regioselectivity. Here, we report two engineered variants of P450BM3 that provide divergent regioselectivity for C-H amination-one favoring amination of benzylic C-H bonds and the other favoring homo-benzylic C-H bonds. The two variants provide nearly identical kinetic isotope effect values (2.8-3.0), suggesting that C-H abstraction is rate-limiting. The 2.66-Å crystal structure of the most active enzyme suggests that the engineered active site can preorganize the substrate for reactivity. We hypothesize that the enzyme controls regioselectivity through localization of a single C-H bond close to the iron nitrenoid.

  8. Magnetic particles-based biosensor for biogenic amines using an optical oxygen sensor as a transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospiskova, K.; Sebela, M.; Safarik, I.; Kuncova, G.


    We have developed a fibre optic biosensor with incorporated magnetic microparticles for the determination of biogenic amines. The enzyme diamine oxidase from Pisum sativum was immobilized either on chitosan-coated magnetic microparticles or on commercial microbeads modified with a ferrofluid. Both the immobilized enzyme and the ruthenium complex were incorporated into a UV-cured inorganic-organic polymer composite and deposited on a lens that was connected, by optical fibres, to an electro-optical detector. The enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of amines under consumption of oxygen. The latter was determined by measuring the quenched fluorescence lifetime of the ruthenium complex. The limits of detection for the biogenic amines putrescine and cadaverine are 25-30 μmol L -1 , and responses are linear up to a concentration of 1 mmol L -1 . (author)

  9. Rhodium Catalyzed Decarbonylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Suárez, Eduardo José; Kahr, Klara; Riisager, Anders


    Rhodium catalyzed decarbonylation has developed significantly over the last 50 years and resulted in a wide range of reported catalyst systems and reaction protocols. Besides experimental data, literature also includes mechanistic studies incorporating Hammett methods, analysis of kinetic isotope...

  10. Ligand-Enabled γ-C(sp3)–H Olefination of Amines: En Route to Pyrrolidines (United States)

    Jiang, Heng; He, Jian; Liu, Tao


    Pd(II)-catalyzed olefination of γ-C(sp3)–H bonds of triflyl (Tf) and 4-nitrobenzenesulfonyl (Ns) protected amines is achieved. Subsequent aza-Wacker oxidative cyclization or conjugate addition of the olefinated intermediates provides a variety of C-2 alkylated pyrrolidines. Three pyridine- and quinoline-based ligands are developed to match different classes of amine substrates, demonstrating a rare example of ligand-enabled C(sp3)–H olefination reaction. The use of Ns protecting group to direct C(sp3)–H activation of alkyl amine is also a significant step towards practical C–H functionalizations of alkyl amines. PMID:26796676

  11. Microporous silica membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boffa, Vittorio; Yue, Yuanzheng


    Hydrothermal stability is a crucial factor for the application of microporous silica-based membranes in industrial processes. Indeed, it is well established that steam exposure may cause densification and defect formation in microporous silica membranes, which are detrimental to both membrane...... permeability and selectivity. Numerous previous studies show that microporous transition metal doped-silica membranes are hydrothermally more stable than pure silica membranes, but less permeable. Here we present a quantitative study on the impact of type and concentration of transition metal ions...... on the microporous structure, stability and permeability of amorphous silica-based membranes, providing information on how to design chemical compositions and synthetic paths for the fabrication of silica-based membranes with a well accessible and highly stabile microporous structure....

  12. Synthesis of Dihydrobenzofurans via Palladium-Catalyzed Heteroannulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozhkov, Roman Vladimirovich [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Palladium-catalyzed heteroannulation of 1,3-dienes with 3-iodo-2-alkenols, and 2-iodo-2-alkenols, as well as their amino analogs, affords the corresponding cyclic ethers and amines respectively. The presence of a β-hydrogen in the vinylic halide results in β-hydride elimination giving the corresponding alkyne. The presence of a bulky group in the α-position of the vinylic halide results in failure or reduced amounts of annulation products. A chloride source, pyridine base and electron-rich phosphine are essential for this reaction.

  13. potential bag filter for volatile organic amines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Mar 22, 2018 ... be described as a potential bag filter for volatile organic amines. Keywords. Volatile organic amines; hydrogen ..... this bag filter, which can capture volatile amines to form. Figure 8. Thermal ellipsoid plot of ..... huber H, Baumann M and Amann A 2013 Blood and breath levels of selected volatile organic ...

  14. Electrochromatographic performance of conventional and polar-embedded C16 silica monolithic stationary phases. (United States)

    Ye, Fanggui; Huang, Baojun; Wang, Shun; Zhao, Shulin


    A novel monolithic silica column that has a polar-embedded amide-secondary amine group linking with C16 functionality for RP-CEC is described. The amide-secondary aminealkyloxysilane was synthesized by the reaction of 3-(2-aminoethylamino) propyltrimethoxysilane with hexadecanoyl chloride. Then, the silylant agent was bonded to the silica monolith matrix to produce hexadecanamide-secondary amine bonded silica (HDAIS) monolithic column. The electrochromatographic performance of HDAIS monolithic column for the separation of neutral, basic and polar solutes was studied, which was compared to that using the hexadecyl bonded silica monolithic column. The HDAIS monolithic column displayed reduced hydrophobic retention characteristics in the separation of five hydrophobic n-alkylbenzenes and four polar phenols when compared to the hexadecyl bonded silica monolithic column. A very much reduced silanol activity of HDAIS monolithic column was observed in the separation of test basic mixture including four aromatic amines, atenolol and metoprolol with 10 mM borate buffer (pH 7.5) containing 30% v/v ACN as the mobile phase. The comparison results indicate good performance for both polar and basic mixtures on HDAIS monolithic column in RP-CEC, and also show promising results for further applications.

  15. Preparation and evaluation of zirconia-coated silica monolith for capillary electrochromatography. (United States)

    Shi, Z-G; Feng, Y-Q; Xu, L; Zhang, M; Da, S-L


    Silica monoliths were fabricated inside fused-silica capillaries. Then the monolithic columns were coated with membrane-like zirconia. The zirconia-coated silica monoliths exhibited different EOF behavior comparing with that of bare silica monoliths. The magnitude and direction could be manipulated by changing the running buffers. Due to the amphoteric characteristic of zirconia, the silica monoliths with zirconia surface facilitate the separation of basic compounds. Aromatic amines and alkaloids were separated without obvious peak tailing. The zirconia surface was easily modified with octadecylphosphonic acid for the separation of neutral compounds. Column efficiency as high as 90,000 and 80,000m(-1) was obtained for beberine and naphthalene, respectively. Furthermore, the zirconia coating increased the stability of the monolithic columns. Even after being exposed to severe condition, there was no apparently efficiency decrease for the test samples.

  16. Synthesis of optically active bifunctional building blocks through enantioselective copper-catalyzed allylic alkylation using Grignard reagents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zijl, Anthoni W.; Lopez, Fernando; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.


    Enantioselective copper-catalyzed allylic alkylations were performed on allylic bromides with a protected hydroxyl or amine functional group using several Grignard reagents and Taniaphos L1 as a ligand. The terminal olefin moiety in the products was transformed into various functional groups without

  17. Rh-Catalyzed Asymmetric Hydrogenation of Prochiral Olefins with a Dynamic Library of Chiral TROPOS Phosphorus Ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monti, Chiara; Gennari, Cesare; Piarulli, Umberto; Vries, Johannes G. de; Vries, André H.M. de; Lefort, Laurent


    A library of 19 chiral tropos phosphorus ligands, based on a flexible (tropos) biphenol unit and a chiral P-bound alcohol (11 phosphites) or secondary amine (8 phosphoramidites), was synthesized. These ligands were screened, individually and as a combination of two, in the rhodium-catalyzed

  18. Crystalline Silica Primer (United States)



    Crystalline silica is the scientific name for a group of minerals composed of silicon and oxygen. The term crystalline refers to the fact that the oxygen and silicon atoms are arranged in a threedimensional repeating pattern. This group of minerals has shaped human history since the beginning of civilization. From the sand used for making glass to the piezoelectric quartz crystals used in advanced communication systems, crystalline silica has been a part of our technological development. Crystalline silica's pervasiveness in our technology is matched only by its abundance in nature. It's found in samples from every geologic era and from every location around the globe. Scientists have known for decades that prolonged and excessive exposure to crystalline silica dust in mining environments can cause silicosis, a noncancerous lung disease. During the 1980's, studies were conducted that suggested that crystalline silica also was a carcinogen. As a result of these findings, crystalline silica has been regulated under the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Hazard Communication Standard (HCS). Under HCS, OSHAregulated businesses that use materials containing 0.1% or more crystalline silica must follow Federal guidelines concerning hazard communication and worker training. Although the HCS does not require that samples be analyzed for crystalline silica, mineral suppliers or OSHAregulated

  19. Silica from Ash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silica (SiOz) is one of the valuable inorganic multipurpose chemical compounds. It can exist in gel, crystalline and amorphous forms. It is the most abundant material on the earth's crust. However, manufacture of pure silica is energy intensive. A variety of industrial processes, involving conven- tional raw materials require ...

  20. On the role of the colloidal stability of mesoporous silica nanoparticles as gene delivery vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebrián, Virginia; Yagüe, Clara; Arruebo, Manuel; Martín-Saavedra, Francisco M.; Santamaría, Jesus; Vilaboa, Nuria


    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles have been synthesized and functionalized with four different types of molecules containing amino groups, i.e., with primary amines only, with quaternary amines, with quaternized cyclic amines, or with polyethylenimine (PEI), which is formed by primary, secondary, and tertiary amines. These nanoparticles were then incubated with reporter plasmids and the ability of the resulting complexes to transfect human cells was studied. Only nanoparticles functionalized with PEI were efficient for transfection. The agglomeration behavior and the electrokinetic potential of the nanoparticle–plasmid complexes have been studied, as well as their cell internalization behavior using a fluorescent-labeled plasmid that allows its monitorization by confocal microscopy. The results indicate that the efficiency of PEI-functionalized nanoparticles for transfection resides to some extent in the different characteristics imparted to the nanoparticles regarding agglomeration and surface charge behavior.

  1. On the role of the colloidal stability of mesoporous silica nanoparticles as gene delivery vectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebrian, Virginia [Hospital Universitario La Paz-IdiPAZ (Spain); Yaguee, Clara; Arruebo, Manuel, E-mail: [University of Zaragoza, Aragon Nanoscience Institute (INA), C/Mariano Esquillor, Edif. I-D (Spain); Martin-Saavedra, Francisco M. [Hospital Universitario La Paz-IdiPAZ (Spain); Santamaria, Jesus [CIBER de Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, CIBER-BBN (Spain); Vilaboa, Nuria [Hospital Universitario La Paz-IdiPAZ (Spain)


    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles have been synthesized and functionalized with four different types of molecules containing amino groups, i.e., with primary amines only, with quaternary amines, with quaternized cyclic amines, or with polyethylenimine (PEI), which is formed by primary, secondary, and tertiary amines. These nanoparticles were then incubated with reporter plasmids and the ability of the resulting complexes to transfect human cells was studied. Only nanoparticles functionalized with PEI were efficient for transfection. The agglomeration behavior and the electrokinetic potential of the nanoparticle-plasmid complexes have been studied, as well as their cell internalization behavior using a fluorescent-labeled plasmid that allows its monitorization by confocal microscopy. The results indicate that the efficiency of PEI-functionalized nanoparticles for transfection resides to some extent in the different characteristics imparted to the nanoparticles regarding agglomeration and surface charge behavior.

  2. Solid amine sorbents for CO2 capture by chemical adsorption: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Erdal Ünveren


    Full Text Available Amines are well-known for their reversible reactions with CO2, which make them ideal for CO2 capture from several gas streams, including flue gas. In this respect, selective CO2 absorption by aqueous alkanolamines is the most mature technology but the process is energy intensive and has also corrosion problems. Both disadvantages can be diminished to a certain extent by chemical adsorption of CO2 selectively. The most important element of the chemical adsorption of CO2 involves the design and development of a suitable adsorbent which consist of a porous support onto which an amine is attached or immobilized. Such an adsorbent is often called as solid amine sorbent. This review covers solid amine-based studies which are developed and published in recent years. First, the review examines several different types of porous support materials, namely, three mesoporous silica (MCM-41, SBA-15 and KIT-6 and two polymeric supports (PMMA and PS for CO2 adsorption. Emphasis is given to the synthesis, modifications and characterizations -such as BET and PXRD data-of them. Amination of these supports to obtain a solid amine sorbent through impregnation or grafting is reviewed comparatively. Focus is given to the adsorption mechanisms, material characteristics, and synthesis methods which are discussed in detail. Significant amount of original data are also presented which makes this review unique. Finally, relevant CO2 adsorption (or equilibrium capacity data, and cyclic adsorption/desorption performance and stability of important classes of solid amine sorbents are critically reviewed. These include severa PEI or TEPA impregnated adsorbents and APTES-grafted systems.

  3. One-pot Reductive Amination of carbonyl Compounds with Nitro Compounds by Transfer Hydrogenation over Co-Nxas catalyst. (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Zhang, Zehui


    A new method was developed for the synthesis of secondary amines through the one-pot reductive amination of carbonyl compounds with nitro compounds using formic acid as the hydrogen donor over a heterogeneous non-noble-metal catalyst (Co-N x /C-800-AT, generated by the pyrolysis of the cobalt phthalocyanine/silica composite at 800°C under a N 2 atmosphere and subsequent etching by HF). Both nitrogen and cobalt were of considerable importance in the transfer hydrogenation reactions with formic acid. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Carbanion as a Superbase for Catalyzing Thiol–Epoxy Photopolymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Dong


    Full Text Available Photobase generator (PBG-mediated thiol–epoxy photopolymerization has received widedspread attention due to its versatility in various applications. Currently, nearly all reported PBGs release amines as active species. The formed amines induce odor, yellowing, and potential toxicity. In this study, a series of novel thioxanthone-based PBGs, which were able to generate carbanion via decarboxylation under LED light irradiation, were designed and straightforwardly prepared. The formed carbanion can be used as a superbase to catalyze thiol–epoxy polymerization efficiently. Investigation on 1H NMR and FT-IR confirmed the generation of carbanion intermediates. The counteranion significantly affected the photodecarboxylation efficiency. The study of photopolymerization tests, based on real-time FT-IR and dielectric analysis measurements, indicated that the generated carbanion exhibited faster polymerization rate and higher epoxy conversion than traditional superbase 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU. In differential scanning calorimeter, thermogravimetric, and nanoindentation tests, comparable thermal and mechanical properties of the photocured films catalyzed by novel PBGs were obtained. The high initiation ability combined with straightforward synthesis makes these PBGs promising candidates for commercialization.

  5. Biogenic Amines in Insect Antennae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna I. Zhukovskaya


    Full Text Available Insect antenna is a multisensory organ, each modality of which can be modulated by biogenic amines. Octopamine (OA and its metabolic precursor tyramine (TA affect activity of antennal olfactory receptor neurons. There is some evidence that dopamine (DA modulates gustatory neurons. Serotonin can serve as a neurotransmitter in some afferent mechanosensory neurons and both as a neurotransmitter and neurohormone in efferent fibers targeted at the antennal vessel and mechanosensory organs. As a neurohormone, serotonin affects the generation of the transepithelial potential by sensillar accessory cells. Other possible targets of biogenic amines in insect antennae are hygro- and thermosensory neurons and epithelial cells. We suggest that the insect antenna is partially autonomous in the sense that biologically active substances entering its hemolymph may exert their effects and be cleared from this compartment without affecting other body parts.

  6. Catalyzed Ceramic Burner Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Amy S., Dr.


    Catalyzed combustion offers the advantages of increased fuel efficiency, decreased emissions (both NOx and CO), and an expanded operating range. These performance improvements are related to the ability of the catalyst to stabilize a flame at or within the burner media and to combust fuel at much lower temperatures. This technology has a diverse set of applications in industrial and commercial heating, including boilers for the paper, food and chemical industries. However, wide spread adoption of catalyzed combustion has been limited by the high cost of precious metals needed for the catalyst materials. The primary objective of this project was the development of an innovative catalyzed burner media for commercial and small industrial boiler applications that drastically reduce the unit cost of the catalyzed media without sacrificing the benefits associated with catalyzed combustion. The scope of this program was to identify both the optimum substrate material as well as the best performing catalyst construction to meet or exceed industry standards for durability, cost, energy efficiency, and emissions. It was anticipated that commercial implementation of this technology would result in significant energy savings and reduced emissions. Based on demonstrated achievements, there is a potential to reduce NOx emissions by 40,000 TPY and natural gas consumption by 8.9 TBtu in industries that heavily utilize natural gas for process heating. These industries include food manufacturing, polymer processing, and pulp and paper manufacturing. Initial evaluation of commercial solutions and upcoming EPA regulations suggests that small to midsized boilers in industrial and commercial markets could possibly see the greatest benefit from this technology. While out of scope for the current program, an extension of this technology could also be applied to catalytic oxidation for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Considerable progress has been made over the course of the grant

  7. Trace Amines and Cocaine Abuse


    Li, Jun-Xu


    Cocaine addiction remains a clinical challenge with no effective pharmacotherapy available. Trace amine associated receptor (TAAR) 1 represents a promising drug target for the modulation of dopaminergic system and stimulant abuse. This Viewpoint discusses the emerging data which strongly suggest that TAAR 1 functions as a molecular “brake” that controls the addiction-related effects of cocaine and could be a novel drug target for the development of efficacious pharmacothe...

  8. Amine promiscuity and toxicology analysis. (United States)

    Lee, Esther C Y; Steeno, Gregory; Wassermann, Anne Mai; Zhang, Liying; Shah, Falgun; Price, David A


    Drug discovery programs often face challenges to obtain sufficient duration of action of the drug (i.e. seek longer half-lives). If the pharmacodynamic response is driven by free plasma concentration of the drug then extending the plasma drug concentration is a valid approach. Half-life is dependent on the volume of distribution, which in turn can be dependent upon the ionization state of the molecule. Basic compounds tend to have a higher volume of distribution leading to longer half-lives. However, it has been shown that bases may also have higher promiscuity. In this work, we describe an analysis of in vitro pharmacological profiling and toxicology data investigating the role of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines in imparting promiscuity and thus off-target toxicity. Primary amines are found to be less promiscuous in in vitro assays and have improved profiles in in vivo toxicology studies compared to secondary and tertiary amines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Copper-catalyzed intermolecular trifluoromethylazidation of alkenes: convenient access to CF3 -containing alkyl azides. (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Qi, Xiaoxu; Liang, Zhaoli; Chen, Pinhong; Liu, Guosheng


    A novel copper-catalyzed intermolecular trifluoromethylazidation of alkenes has been developed under mild reaction conditions. A variety of CF3 -containing organoazides were directly synthesized from a wide range of olefins, including activated and unactivated alkenes, and the resulting products can be easily transformed into the corresponding CF3 -containing amine derivatives. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of unprotected NH imines assisted by a thiourea. (United States)

    Zhao, Qingyang; Wen, Jialin; Tan, Renchang; Huang, Kexuan; Metola, Pedro; Wang, Rui; Anslyn, Eric V; Zhang, Xumu


    Asymmetric hydrogenation of unprotected NH imines catalyzed by rhodium/bis(phosphine)-thiourea provided chiral amines with up to 97% yield and 95% ee. (1)H NMR studies, coupled with control experiments, implied that catalytic chloride-bound intermediates were involved in the mechanism through a dual hydrogen-bonding interaction. Deuteration experiments proved that the hydrogenation proceeded through a pathway consistent with an imine. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Palladium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Benzylic Substitution of Secondary Benzyl Carbonates with Nitrogen and Oxygen Nucleophiles. (United States)

    Najib, Atifah; Hirano, Koji; Miura, Masahiro


    A Pd/(R)-BINAP-catalyzed asymmetric benzylic substitution of secondary benzyl carbonates with amides and amines proceeds to form the corresponding optically active benzylamines in good yields with a high enantiomeric ratio. The reaction occurs in a dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformation (DYKAT) manner. Additionally, the asymmetric Pd catalysis can also be applicable to phenol nucleophiles, thus delivering chiral ethers with acceptable yields and enantioselectivity.

  12. Supercritical carbon dioxide as solvent and temporary protecting group for rhodium-catalyzed hydroaminomethylation. (United States)

    Wittmann, K; Wisniewski, W; Mynott, R; Leitner, W; Kranemann, C L; Rische, L T; Eilbracht, P; Kluwer, S; Ernsting, J M; Elsevier, C J


    Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) acts simultaneously as solvent and temporary protecting group during homogeneously rhodium-catalyzed hydroaminomethylation of ethyl methallylic amine. Cyclic amines are formed as the major products in scCO,, whereas the cyclic amide is formed preferentially in conventional solvents. Multinuclear high-pressure NMR spectroscopy revealed that this selectivity switch is mainly due to reversible formation of the carbamic acid in the solvent CO2, which reduces the tendency for intramolecular ring closure at the Rh-acyl intermediate. These results substantiate the general concept of using scCO2 as a protective medium for amines in homogeneous catalysis and demonstrate for the first time its application for selectivity control.

  13. Surface Immobilization of pH-Responsive Polymer Brushes on Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles by Enzyme Mimetic Catalytic ATRP for Controlled Cargo Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Zhou


    Full Text Available Peroxidase mimetic catalytic atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP was first used to install tertiary amine-functionalized polymer brushes on the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs in a facile and highly efficient manner. Poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (PDMAEMA brushes-grafted MSNs were fabricated by biocompatible deuterohemin-β-Ala-His-Thr-Val-Glu-Lys (DhHP-6-catalyzed surface-initiated ATRP (SI-ATRP. The resulting organic–inorganic hybrid nanocarriers were fully characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, SEM, TEM, Elemental analysis, Zeta-potential, and N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms, which demonstrated the successful coating of pH-responsive polymers on the MSN surface. Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G dyes were further loaded within the mesopores of this nanocarrier, and the release of Rh6G out of MSNs in a controlled fashion was achieved upon lowing the solution pH. The electrostatic repulsion of positively-charged tertiary ammonium of PDMAEMAs in acidic environments induced the stretching out of polymer brushes on MSN surfaces, thus opening the gates to allow cargo diffusion out of the mesopores of MSNs.

  14. Amine-oxide hybrid materials for acid gas separations

    KAUST Repository

    Bollini, Praveen


    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on porous silica materials functionalized with amine-containing organic species are emerging as an important class of materials for the adsorptive separation of acid gases from dilute gas streams. In particular, these materials are being extensively studied for the adsorption of CO 2 from simulated flue gas streams, with an eye towards utilizing these materials as part of a post-combustion carbon capture process at large flue gas producing installations, such as coal-fired electricity-generating power plants. In this Application Article, the utilization of amine-modified organic-inorganic hybrid materials is discussed, focusing on important attributes of the materials, such as (i) CO 2 adsorption capacities, (ii) adsorption and desorption kinetics, and (iii) material stability, that will determine if these materials may one day be useful adsorbents in practical CO 2 capture applications. Specific research needs and limitations associated with the current body of work are identified. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. High residue contents indebted by platinum and silica synergistic action during the pyrolysis of silicone formulations. (United States)

    Delebecq, Etienne; Hamdani-Devarennes, Siska; Raeke, Julia; Lopez Cuesta, José-Marie; Ganachaud, François


    The synergistic role of platinum and silica as a way to increase the final residue of pyrolized silicone was investigated and explained, giving new interpretations. Conditions were first set to study the thermal degradation of silicones in the presence of platinum based on the simplest silicone/silica/platinum formulation. Numerous parameters, e.g., platinum and silica content or silica surface modifications, were varied to track their influences on the final residues. A thorough DSC study, together with SEM/EDX and Pyrolysis/GC-MS analyses, led us to propose a three-stage process. The key parameter governing thermal stability and final content of the residue is the conjugated actions of immobilizing/cross-linking PDMS chains. Silica particles tether silicone chains through physical interactions, i.e., hydrogen bonding, facilitating a platinum radically catalyzed cross-linking reaction. Practical implications and possible improvements on LSR formulations are finally given.

  16. Silica aerogel Cerenkov counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumi, S.; Masaike, A.; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshimura, Y.; Kawai, H.


    In order to obtain silica aerogel radiators of good quality, the prescription used by Saclay group has been developed. We have done several experiments using beams from KEK.PS to test the performance of a Cerenkov counter with aerogel modules produced in KEK. It turned out that these modules had excellent quality. The production rate of silica aerogel in KEK is 15 -- 20 litres a week. Silica aerogel modules of 20 x 10 x 3 cm 3 having the refractive index of 1.058 are successfully being used by Kyoto University group in the KEK experiment E92 (Σ). Methodes to produce silica aerogel with higher refractive index than 1.06 has been investigated both by heating an module with the refractive index of 1.06 and by hydrolyzing tetraethyl silicate. (author)

  17. Cellulose-silica aerogels. (United States)

    Demilecamps, Arnaud; Beauger, Christian; Hildenbrand, Claudia; Rigacci, Arnaud; Budtova, Tatiana


    Aerogels based on interpenetrated cellulose-silica networks were prepared and characterised. Wet coagulated cellulose was impregnated with silica phase, polyethoxydisiloxane, using two methods: (i) molecular diffusion and (ii) forced flow induced by pressure difference. The latter allowed an enormous decrease in the impregnation times, by almost three orders of magnitude, for a sample with the same geometry. In both cases, nanostructured silica gel was in situ formed inside cellulose matrix. Nitrogen adsorption analysis revealed an almost threefold increase in pores specific surface area, from cellulose aerogel alone to organic-inorganic composite. Morphology, thermal conductivity and mechanical properties under uniaxial compression were investigated. Thermal conductivity of composite aerogels was lower than that of cellulose aerogel due to the formation of superinsulating mesoporous silica inside cellulose pores. Furthermore, composite aerogels were stiffer than each of reference aerogels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Electrochemical Sensors: Functionalized Silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryxell, Glen E.; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana


    This chapter summarizes recent devellopment of electrochemical sensors based on functionlized mesoporous silica materials. The nanomatrials based sensors have been developed for sensitive and selective enrironmental detection of toxic heavy metal and uranium ions.

  19. Thermal, Catalytic Conversion of Alkanes to Linear Aldehydes and Linear Amines. (United States)

    Tang, Xinxin; Jia, Xiangqing; Huang, Zheng


    Alkanes, the main constituents of petroleum, are attractive feedstocks for producing value-added chemicals. Linear aldehydes and amines are two of the most important building blocks in the chemical industry. To date, there have been no effective methods for directly converting n-alkanes to linear aldehydes and linear amines. Here, we report a molecular dual-catalyst system for production of linear aldehydes via regioselective carbonylation of n-alkanes. The system is comprised of a pincer iridium catalyst for transfer-dehydrogenation of the alkane using t-butylethylene or ethylene as a hydrogen acceptor working sequentially with a rhodium catalyst for olefin isomerization-hydroformylation with syngas. The system exhibits high regioselectivity for linear aldehydes and gives high catalytic turnover numbers when using ethylene as the acceptor. In addition, the direct conversion of light alkanes, n-pentane and n-hexane, to siloxy-terminated alkyl aldehydes through a sequence of Ir/Fe-catalyzed alkane silylation and Ir/Rh-catalyzed alkane carbonylation, is described. Finally, the Ir/Rh dual-catalyst strategy has been successfully applied to regioselective alkane aminomethylation to form linear alkyl amines.

  20. Low-temperature specific heat and thermal conductivity of silica aerogels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sleator, T.; Bernasconi, A.; Posselt, D.


    Specific-heat and thermal-conductivity measurements were made on a series of base-catalyzed silica aerogels at temperatures between 0.05 and 20 K. Evidence for a crossover between regimes of characteristically different excitations was observed. The data analysis indicates a "bump" in the density...

  1. Dynamic properties of silica aerogels as deduced from specific-heat and thermal-conductivity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernasconi, A.; Sleator, T.; Posselt, D.


    The specific heat C(p) and the thermal conductivity lambda of a series of base-catalyzed silica aerogels have been measured at temperatures between 0.05 and 20 K. The results confirm that the different length-scale regions observed in the aerogel structure are reflected in the dynamic behavior...

  2. Low-temperature specific-heat and thermal-conductivity of silica aerogels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernasconi, A.; Sleator, T.; Posselt, D.


    Specific heat, C(p), and thermal conductivity, lambda, have been measured on a series of base-catalyzed silica aerogels at temperatures between 0.05 and 20 K. Results for both C(p)(T) and lambda(T) confirm that the different length-scale regions observed in the aerogel structure are reflected...

  3. Multifunctional antireflection coatings based on novel hollow silica-silica nanocomposites. (United States)

    Zhang, Xianpeng; Lan, Pinjun; Lu, Yuehui; Li, Jia; Xu, Hua; Zhang, Jing; Lee, YoungPak; Rhee, Joo Yull; Choy, Kwang-Leong; Song, Weijie


    Antireflection (AR) coatings that exhibit multifunctional characteristics, including high transparency, robust resistance to moisture, high hardness, and antifogging properties, were developed based on hollow silica-silica nanocomposites. These novel nanocomposite coatings with a closed-pore structure, consisting of hollow silica nanospheres (HSNs) infiltrated with an acid-catalyzed silica sol (ACSS), were fabricated using a low-cost sol-gel dip-coating method. The refractive index of the nanocomposite coatings was tailored by controlling the amount of ACSS infiltrated into the HSNs during synthesis. Photovoltaic transmittance (TPV) values of 96.86-97.34% were obtained over a broad range of wavelengths, from 300 to 1200 nm; these values were close to the theoretical limit for a lossy single-layered AR coating (97.72%). The nanocomposite coatings displayed a stable TPV, with degradation values of less than 4% and 0.1% after highly accelerated temperature and humidity stress tests, and abrasion tests, respectively. In addition, the nanocomposite coatings had a hardness of approximately 1.6 GPa, while the porous silica coatings with an open-pore structure showed more severe degradation and had a lower hardness. The void fraction and surface roughness of the nanocomposite coatings could be controlled, which gave rise to near-superhydrophilic and antifogging characteristics. The promising results obtained in this study suggest that the nanocomposite coatings have the potential to be of benefit for the design, fabrication, and development of multifunctional AR coatings with both omnidirectional broadband transmission and long-term durability that are required for demanding outdoor applications in energy harvesting and optical instrumentation in extreme climates or humid conditions.

  4. Catalyzing alignment processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær; Jørgensen, Ulrik


    time and in combination with other social processes establish more aligned and standardized environmental performance between countries. However, examples of the introduction of environmental management suggests that EMS’ only plays a minor role in developing the actual environmental objectives......This paper describes how environmental management systems (EMS) spur the circulation of processes that support the constitution of environmental issues as specific environ¬mental objects and objectives. EMS catalyzes alignmentprocesses that produce coherence among the different elements involved....... They are here used to describe the context in which environmental management is implemented. Based on findings from contributions to a research program studying the implementation and impact of EMS in different settings, we highlight the diverse roles that these systems play in the Thai context. EMS may over...

  5. Application of C18-functional magnetic nanoparticles for extraction of aromatic amines from human urine. (United States)

    Jiang, Chunzhu; Sun, Ying; Yu, Xi; Gao, Yan; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yuanpeng; Zhang, Hanqi; Song, Daqian


    In this paper, a novel method using C18-functional ultrafine magnetic silica nanoparticles (C18-UMS NPs) as adsorbents was developed for rapid extraction and enrichment of aromatic amines from urine. C18-UMS NPs were prepared by chemical coprecipitation, silanization and alkylation. The aromatic amines can be adsorbed on C18-UMS NPs and isolated easily from the matrix with an external magnetic field. After desorption with acetonitrile, the aromatic amines were determined by ultra fast liquid chromatography. The experimental parameters, such as pH value of sample solution, amount of C18-UMS NPs, extraction time, type and volume of desorption solvent, and desorption time were optimized. The analytical performances of the present method were also evaluated. The limits of detection for 1-aminonaphthalene, 4-aminobiphenyl, 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane and 4-aminophenylthioether were 1.3, 0.88, 1.1 and 1.1 ng mL(-1), respectively. The results showed that the present method was simple, highly efficient and rapid for the extraction and enrichment of aromatic amines from urine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Production of margarine fats by enzymatic interesterification with silica-granulated Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase in a large-scale study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hong; Xu, Xuebing; Nilsson, Jörgen


    Interesterification of a blend of palm stearin and coconut oil (75:25, w/w), catalyzed by an immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase by silica granulation, Lipozyme TL IM, was studied for production of margarine fats in a 1- or 300-kg pilot-scale batch-stirred tank reactor. Parameters and reusa......Interesterification of a blend of palm stearin and coconut oil (75:25, w/w), catalyzed by an immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase by silica granulation, Lipozyme TL IM, was studied for production of margarine fats in a 1- or 300-kg pilot-scale batch-stirred tank reactor. Parameters...

  7. Kinetics of silica polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weres, O.; Yee, A.; Tsao, L.


    The polymerization of silicic acid in geothermal brine-like aqueous solutions to produce amorphous silica in colloidal form has been studied experimentally and theoretically. A large amount of high quality experimental data has been generated over the temperature rang 23 to 100{sup 0}C. Wide ranges of dissolved silica concentration, pH, and sodium chloride concentration were covered. The catalytic effects of fluoride and the reaction inhibiting effects of aluminum and boron were studied also. Two basic processes have been separately studied: the formation of new colloidal particles by the homogeneous nucleation process and the deposition of dissolved silica on pre-existing colloidal particles. A rigorous theory of the formation of colloidal particles of amorphous silica by homogeneous nucleation was developed. This theory employs the Lothe-Pound formalism, and is embodied in the computer code SILNUC which quantitatively models the homogeneous nucleation and growth of colloidal silica particles in more than enough detail for practical application. The theory and code were extensively used in planning the experimental work and analyzing the data produced. The code is now complete and running in its final form. It is capable of reproducing most of the experimental results to within experimental error. It is also capable of extrapolation to experimentally inaccessible conditions, i.e., high temperatures, rapidly varying temperature and pH, etc.

  8. Intolerance to dietary biogenic amines : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, SC; van Dusseldorp, M; Bottema, KC; Dubois, AEJ

    Objective: To evaluate the scientific evidence for purported intolerance to dietary biogenic amines. Data Sources: MEDLINE was searched for articles in the English language published between January 1966 and August 2001. The keyword biogenic amin* was combined with hypersens*, allergen intoler*, and

  9. Surface amination of poly(acrylonitrile)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartwig, Andreas; Mulder, M.H.V.; Smolders, C.A.; Smolders, C.A.


    The surface amination of poly (acrylonitrile) by ammonia plasma treatment has been studied. Furthermore, two other surface modification techniques have been investigated, the plasma chemical decomposition of an amino group containing chemical (tris-(2-aminoethyl)amine) onto the polymer surface and

  10. Intolerance to dietary biogenic amines: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.C.; Dusseldorp, M. van; Bottema, K.C.; Dubois, A.E.J.


    Objective: To evaluate the scientific evidence for purported intolerance to dietary biogenic amines. Data Sources: MEDLINE was searched for articles in the English language published between January 1966 and August 2001. The keyword biogenic amin* was combined with hypersens*, allerg*, intoler*, and

  11. A new nanocomposite polymer electrolyte based on poly(vinyl alcohol) incorporating hypergrafted nano-silica

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Xian-Lei


    Solid-state nanocomposite polymer electrolytes based on poly(vinyl alcohol)(PVA) incorporating hyperbranched poly(amine-ester) (HBPAE) grafted nano-silica (denoted as SiO2-g-HBPAE) have been prepared and investigated. Through surface pretreatment of nanoparticles, followed by Michael-addition and a self-condensation process, hyperbranched poly(amine-ester) was directly polymerized from the surface of nano-silica. Then the hypergrafted nanoparticles were added to PVA matrix, and blended with lithium perchlorate via mold casting method to fabricate nanocomposite polymer electrolytes. By introducing hypergrafted nanoparticles, ionic conductivity of solid composite is improved significantly at the testing temperature. Hypergrafted nano-silica may act as solid plasticizer, promoting lithium salt dissociation in the matrix as well as improving segmental motion of matrix. In addition, tensile testing shows that such materials are soft and tough even at room temperature. From the dielectric spectra of nanocomposite polymer electrolyte as the function of temperature, it can be deduced that Arrhenius behavior appears depending on the content of hypergrafted nano-silica and concentration of lithium perchlorate. At a loading of 15 wt% hypergrafted nano-silica and 54 wt% lithium perchlorate, promising ionic conductivities of PVA nanocomposite polymer electrolyte are achieved, about 1.51 × 10 -4 S cm-1 at 25 °C and 1.36 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 100 °C. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. Investigation into the role of silica in lithium polysulfide adsorption for lithium sulfur battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Miso; Kang, Sung-Hwan; Manuel, James; Zhao, Xiaohui; Cho, Kwon Koo; Ahn, Jou Hyeon


    Highlights: • Amine functionalized silica nanoparticles (AFSN) were prepared. • Polysulfide adsorption studies were carried out with silica nanoparticles and AFSN. • Sulfur cathodes were prepared with SN and AFSN for Li–S batteries. • AFSN showed excellent polysulfide adsorption. - Abstract: A new type of sulfur electrodes with the ability for polysulfide adsorption was prepared by incorporating silica nanoparticles (SN) or amine functionalized silica nanoparticles (AFSN). AFSN was synthesized by a simple and cost-effective method. The functionalization and surface morphology of silica were confirmed with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Polysulfide adsorption studies were carried out using UV–vis spectrometer, which confirmed the excellent adsorption of polysulfides by AFSN. Interaction of polysulfides with SN or AFSN was studied using FTIR and FT-Raman spectroscopy. The effective polysulfide adsorption by SN and AFSN leads to good and stable cycle performance of lithium sulfur cells. The results show that the incorporation of SN or AFSN with sulfur is a promising method to prepare cathode material for lithium sulfur batteries

  13. Poly(ethyleneimine) infused and functionalized Torlon®-silica hollow fiber sorbents for post-combustion CO2 capture

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Fuyue Stephanie


    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials functionalized with amine-containing reagents are emerging as an important class of materials for capturing carbon dioxide from flue gas. Polymeric silica hollow fiber sorbents are fabricated through the proven dry-jet/wet-quench spinning process. In our study, a new technique for functionalizing polymeric silica hollow fiber sorbents with poly(ethyleneimine), followed by a post-spinning infusion step was studied. This two step process introduces a sufficient amount of poly(ethyleneimine) to the polymeric silica hybrid material support to improve the CO2 sorption capacity due to the added amine groups. The poly(ethyleneimine) infused and functionalized hollow fiber sorbents are also characterized by a thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA) to assess their CO2 sorption capacities. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dynamics of CO 2 Adsorption on Amine Adsorbents. 1. Impact of Heat Effects

    KAUST Repository

    Bollini, Praveen


    The packed bed heat and mass transfer dynamics of CO2 adsorption onto a 3-aminopropylsilyl-functionalized SBA-15 silica material are reported. Concentration measurements at the outlet of the packed bed and temperature profiles inside the bed are measured simultaneously. Heat and mass transfer models in conjunction with the linear driving force rate model are used to simulate the concentration and temperature profiles in the bed. The heat and mass transfer processes in the amine adsorbent packed bed are successfully captured by the model, and comparison of isothermal and nonisothermal models reveals that isothermal models provide an accurate description of the dynamic mass transport behavior in the adsorption column under the experimental conditions used in this study. The results help establish that under certain experimental conditions, heat effects in amine adsorbent packed beds have a negligible effect on CO2 breakthrough, and simple isothermal models can be used to accurately assess adsorption kinetics. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  15. End-labeled amino terminated monotelechelic glycopolymers generated by ROMP and Cu(I-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Okoth


    Full Text Available Functionalizable monotelechelic polymers are useful materials for chemical biology and materials science. We report here the synthesis of a capping agent that can be used to terminate polymers prepared by ring-opening metathesis polymerization of norbornenes bearing an activated ester. The terminating agent is a cis-butene derivative bearing a Teoc (2-trimethylsilylethyl carbamate protected primary amine. Post-polymerization modification of the polymer was accomplished by amidation with an azido-amine linker followed by Cu(I-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition with propargyl sugars. Subsequent Teoc deprotection and conjugation with pyrenyl isothiocyanates afforded well-defined end-labeled glycopolymers.

  16. Extraction of sulphates by long chain amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boirie, Ch.


    The extraction of sulphuric acid by long chain amines in organic solution has been studied with a view to determining the value of the stability constants of the amine sulphates and bi-sulphates formed. We have concentrated chiefly on uranium sulphate and thorium sulphate. The formulae of the complexes extractable with amines have been established, as well as the corresponding dissociation constants. We have observed that for uranium sulphate the formula of the complex depends only on the nature of the amine, whereas for thorium this formula varies with the amine structure. From the formulae determined and the value of the constants calculated, we have been able to establish the best conditions for uranium and thorium extraction and also for a separation of these two elements. Finally we propose an application of this study to the determination of uranium in ores, where the separation of uranium by this method is particularly easy and complete. (author) [fr

  17. Silica coated ionic liquid templated mesoporous silica nanoparticles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Silica coated ionic liquid templated mesoporous silica nanoparticles. E.D.M. Isa, M. B. A. Rahman, H. Ahmad. Abstract. A series of long chain pyridinium based ionic liquids 1-tetradecylpyridinium bromide, 1-hexadecylpyridinium bromide and 1-1-octadecylpyridinium bromide were used as templates to prepare silica coated ...

  18. Thermodynamics of mixtures containing amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Juan Antonio [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain)], E-mail:; Mozo, Ismael; Garcia de la Fuente, Isaias; Cobos, Jose Carlos [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain); Riesco, Nicolas [Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, LE113TU Leicestershire (United Kingdom)


    Mixtures with dimethyl or trimethylpyridines and alkane, aromatic compound or 1-alkanol have been examined using different theories: DISQUAC, Flory, the concentration-concentration structure factor, S{sub CC}(0), or the Kirkwood-Buff formalism. DISQUAC represents fairly well the available experimental data, and improves theoretical calculations from Dortmund UNIFAC. Two important effects have been investigated: (i) the effect of increasing the number of methyl groups attached to the aromatic ring of the amine; (ii) the effect of modifying the position of the methyl groups in this ring. The molar excess enthalpy, H{sup E}, and the molar excess volume, V{sup E}, decrease in systems with alkane or methanol as follows: pyridine > 3-methylpyridine > 3,5-dimethylpyridine and pyridine > 2-methylpyridine > 2,4-dimethylpyridine > 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine, which has been attributed to a weakening of the amine-amine interactions in the same sequences. This is in agreement with the relative variation of the effective dipole moment, {mu}-bar, and of the differences between the boiling temperature of a pyridine base and that of the homomorphic alkane. For heptane solutions, the observed H{sup E} variation, H{sup E} (3,5-dimethylpyridine) > H{sup E} (2,4-dimethylpyridine) > H{sup E} (2,6-dimethylpyridine), is explained similarly. Calculations on the basis of the Flory model confirm that orientational effects become weaker in systems with alkane in the order: pyridine > methylpyridine > dimethylpyridine > trimethylpyridine. S{sub CC}(0) calculations show that steric effects increase with the number of CH{sub 3}- groups in the pyridine base, and that the steric effects exerted by methyl groups in positions 2 and 6 are higher than when they are placed in positions 3 and 5. The hydrogen bond energy in methanol mixtures is independent of the pyridine base, and it is estimated to be -35.2 kJ mol{sup -1}. Heterocoordination in these solutions is due in part to size effects. Their

  19. Primary amine/CSA ion pair: A powerful catalytic system for the asymmetric enamine catalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Chen


    A novel ion pair catalyst containing a chiral counteranion can be readily derived by simply mixing cinchona alkaloid-derived diamine with chiral camphorsulfonic acid (CSA). A mixture of 9-amino(9-deoxy)epi-quinine 8 and (-)-CSA was found to be the best catalyst with matching chirality, enabling the direct amination of α-branched aldehydes to proceed in quantitative yields and with nearly perfect enantioselectivities. A 0.5 mol % catalyst loading was sufficient to catalyze the reaction, and a gram scale enantioselective synthesis of biologically important α-methyl phenylglycine has been successfully demonstrated. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  20. Silica reinforced triblock copolymer gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theunissen, E.; Overbergh, N.; Reynaers, H.


    The effect of silica and polymer coated silica particles as reinforcing agents on the structural and mechanical properties of polystyrene-poly(ethylene/butylene)-polystyrene (PS-PEB-PS) triblock gel has been investigated. Different types of chemically modified silica have been compared in order...

  1. Precursor Mediated Synthesis of Nanostructured Silicas: From Precursor-Surfactant Ion Pairs to Structured Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hesemann


    Full Text Available The synthesis of nanostructured anionic-surfactant-templated mesoporous silica (AMS recently appeared as a new strategy for the formation of nanostructured silica based materials. This method is based on the use of anionic surfactants together with a co-structure-directing agent (CSDA, mostly a silylated ammonium precursor. The presence of this CSDA is necessary in order to create ionic interactions between template and silica forming phases and to ensure sufficient affinity between the two phases. This synthetic strategy was for the first time applied in view of the synthesis of surface functionalized silica bearing ammonium groups and was then extended on the formation of materials functionalized with anionic carboxylate and bifunctional amine-carboxylate groups. In the field of silica hybrid materials, the “anionic templating” strategy has recently been applied for the synthesis of silica hybrid materials from cationic precursors. Starting from di- or oligosilylated imidazolium and ammonium precursors, only template directed hydrolysis-polycondensation reactions involving complementary anionic surfactants allowed accessing structured ionosilica hybrid materials. The mechanistic particularity of this approach resides in the formation of precursor-surfactant ion pairs in the hydrolysis-polycondensation mixture. This review gives a systematic overview over the various types of materials accessed from this cooperative ionic templating approach and highlights the high potential of this original strategy for the formation of nanostructured silica based materials which appears as a complementary strategy to conventional soft templating approaches.

  2. Catalyzed deuterium fueled tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, F.H.


    Catalyzed deuterium fuel presents several advantages relative to D-T. These are, freedom from tritium breeding, high charged particle power fraction and lowered neutron energy deposition in the blanket. Higher temperature operation, lower power densities and increased confinement are simultaneously required. However, the present study has developed designs which have capitalized upon the advantages of catalyzed deuterium to overcome the difficulties associated with the fuel while obtaining high efficiency

  3. Silica from Ash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and may change the product characteristics (colour, etc.). This method of quality assessment is more suitable to workers at the processing site as it does not involve lab-scale analysis. Process. The initial step is extraction of silica from ash as sodium silicate using caustic soda. This reaction is carried out at a temperature.

  4. Aniline incorporated silica nanobubbles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Sep 14, 2006 ... persed in diverse media. 2. Experimental. 2.1 Materials. Chloroauric acid, trisodium citrate, ... molecules such as ciprofloxacin, we could see the same kind of carbon onion structures inside the silica .... molecule. The supernatant, after precipitation of ani- line@SiO2 by centrifugation, did not show aniline.

  5. Hydrothermal stability of silica, hybrid silica and Zr-doped hybrid silica membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Hove, Marcel; Luiten-Olieman, Mieke W.J.; Huiskes, Cindy; Nijmeijer, Arian; Winnubst, Louis


    Hybrid silica membranes have demonstrated to possess a remarkable hydrothermal stability in pervaporation and gas separation processes allowing them to be used in industrial applications. In several publications the hydrothermal stability of pure silica or that of hybrid silica membranes are

  6. Tunable, chemoselective amination via silver catalysis. (United States)

    Rigoli, Jared W; Weatherly, Cale D; Alderson, Juliet M; Vo, Brian T; Schomaker, Jennifer M


    Organic N-containing compounds, including amines, are essential components of many biologically and pharmaceutically important molecules. One strategy for introducing nitrogen into substrates with multiple reactive bonds is to insert a monovalent N fragment (nitrene or nitrenoid) into a C-H bond or add it directly to a C═C bond. However, it has been challenging to develop well-defined catalysts capable of promoting predictable and chemoselective aminations solely through reagent control. Herein, we report remarkable chemoselective aminations that employ a single metal (Ag) and a single ligand (phenanthroline) to promote either aziridination or C-H insertion by manipulating the coordination geometry of the active catalysts.

  7. Incidence of biogenic amines in foods implications for the Gambia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amines are found in food. Biogenic amines are a class of amines, which result from decarboxylation. They are food quality indicators. Health-wise biogenic amines play positive roles and have adverse effects as well; they are a public health concern. Certain conditions make it possible for them to be produced. These could ...

  8. Regio- and Stereoselective Conjugate Addition of Aldehydes to β-Tosyl Enones under the Catalysis of a Binaphthyl-Modified Chiral Amine. (United States)

    Kano, Taichi; Sugimoto, Hisashi; Maruyama, Hiroki; Maruoka, Keiji


    A simple axially chiral amine catalyst promoted the regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselective conjugate addition of aldehydes to β-tosyl enones, which serve as ynone surrogates. The adducts were readily converted by treatment with L-selectride into less accessible enones with a γ stereogenic center. Such compounds cannot be prepared through the amine-catalyzed conjugate addition of aldehydes to ynones. The obtained enones underwent further conjugate addition of diorganozinc compounds in the presence of a copper catalyst. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Paramagnetic titanium(III) and zirconium(III) metallocene complexes as precatalysts for the dehydrocoupling/dehydrogenation of amine-boranes. (United States)

    Helten, Holger; Dutta, Barnali; Vance, James R; Sloan, Matthew E; Haddow, Mairi F; Sproules, Stephen; Collison, David; Whittell, George R; Lloyd-Jones, Guy C; Manners, Ian


    Complexes of Group 4 metallocenes in the +3 oxidation state and amidoborane or phosphidoborane function as efficient precatalysts for the dehydrocoupling/dehydrogenation of amine-boranes, such as Me(2) NH⋅BH(3). Such Ti(III) -amidoborane complexes are generated in [Cp(2)Ti]-catalyzed amine-borane dehydrocoupling reactions, for which diamagnetic M(II) and M(IV) species have been previously postulated as precatalysts and intermediates. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Selective Reductive Elimination at Alkyl Palladium(IV) by Dissociative Ligand Ionization: Catalytic C(sp3)-H Amination to Azetidines. (United States)

    Nappi, Manuel; He, Chuan; Whitehurst, William G; Chappell, Ben G N; Gaunt, Matthew J


    A palladium(II)-catalyzed γ-C-H amination of cyclic alkyl amines to deliver highly substituted azetidines is reported. The use of a benziodoxole tosylate oxidant in combination with AgOAc was found to be crucial for controlling a selective reductive elimination pathway to the azetidines. The process is tolerant of a range of functional groups, including structural features derived from chiral α-amino alcohols, and leads to the diastereoselective formation of enantiopure azetidines. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Structural evolution of silica sols modified with formamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenza R.F.S.


    Full Text Available In this work we investigated the influence of formamide on the acid-catalyzed sol-gel process by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Three silica sols were studied: Sol catalyzed with nitric acid without formamide, sol catalyzed with nitric acid containing formamide and sol catalyzed with a mixture of nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid and modified with formamide. Following the time evolution of both the Si-(OH stretching vibration at around 950 cm-1 and the Si-O-(Si vibration between 1040 cm-1 and 1200 cm-1 we were able to describe the structural evolution of each sol. The curve of evolution of Si-(OH stretching vibration corresponding to sol A has a simple asymptotic evolution. In the case of formamide containing sol, we observed a two-step structural evolution indicating that for the system containing formamide the polymerization goes through a temporary stabilization of oligomers, which can explain the non-variation of the Si-O(H bond wavenumber for a certain time. Gelation times were of several days for gels without formamide and few hours for gels containing additive. The presence of additive resulted in a highly interconnected gel.

  12. Graphite Oxide and Aromatic Amines : Size Matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spyrou, Konstantinos; Calvaresi, Matteo; Diamanti, Evmorfi A. K.; Tsoufis, Theodoros; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra; Zerbetto, Francesco


    Experimental and theoretical studies are performed in order to illuminate, for first time, the intercalation mechanism of polycyclic aromatic molecules into graphite oxide. Two representative molecules of this family, aniline and naphthalene amine are investigated. After intercalation, aniline

  13. Anodic selective functionalization of cyclic amine derivatives


    Onomura, Osamu


    Anodic reactions are desirable methods from the viewpoint of Green Chemistry, since no toxic oxidants are necessary for the oxidation of organic molecules. This review introduces usefulness of anodic oxidation and successive reaction for selective functionalization of cyclic amine derivatives.

  14. A room temperature copper catalyzed N-selective arylation of β-amino alcohols with iodoanilines and aryl iodides


    Das, Priyabrata; De Brabander, Jef K.


    An efficient method is described for the synthesis of N-(2-aminophenyl)-2-hydroxyethylamines via a copper catalyzed N-selective arylation of β-amino alcohols with iodoanilines. The corresponding coupling products are useful intermediates for the synthesis of a variety of N-2-hydroxyethyl-substituted benzimidazoles, benzimidazolones, and iminobenzimidazoles. We found that 2-iodoaniline only arylates certain amino alcohols but not amines lacking a hydroxyl group. We also demonstrate the arylati...

  15. General Dialdehyde Click Chemistry for Amine Bioconjugation. (United States)

    Elahipanah, Sina; O'Brien, Paul J; Rogozhnikov, Dmitry; Yousaf, Muhammad N


    The development of methods for conjugating a range of molecules to primary amine functional groups has revolutionized the fields of chemistry, biology, and material science. The primary amine is a key functional group and one of the most important nucleophiles and bases used in all of synthetic chemistry. Therefore, tremendous interest in the synthesis of molecules containing primary amines and strategies to devise chemical reactions to react with primary amines has been at the core of chemical research. In particular, primary amines are a ubiquitous functional group found in biological systems as free amino acids, as key side chain lysines in proteins, and in signaling molecules and metabolites and are also present in many natural product classes. Due to its abundance, the primary amine is the most convenient functional group handle in molecules for ligation to other molecules for a broad range of applications that impact all scientific fields. Because of the primary amine's central importance in synthetic chemistry, acid-base chemistry, redox chemistry, and biology, many methods have been developed to efficiently react with primary amines, including activated carboxylic acids, isothiocyanates, Michael addition type systems, and reaction with ketones or aldehydes followed by in situ reductive amination. Herein, we introduce a new traceless, high-yield, fast click-chemistry method based on the rapid and efficient trapping of amine groups via a functionalized dialdehyde group. The click reaction occurs in mild conditions in organic solvents or aqueous media and proceeds in high yield, and the starting dialdehyde reagent and resulting dialdehyde click conjugates are stable. Moreover, no catalyst or dialdehyde-activating group is required, and the only byproduct is water. The initial dialdehyde and the resulting conjugate are both straightforward to characterize, and the reaction proceeds with high atom economy. To demonstrate the broad scope of this new click

  16. Ligand-Controlled Synthesis of Azoles via Ir-Catalyzed Reactions of Sulfoxonium Ylides with 2-Amino Heterocycles. (United States)

    Phelps, Alicia M; Chan, Vincent S; Napolitano, José G; Krabbe, Scott W; Schomaker, Jennifer M; Shekhar, Shashank


    An iridium-catalyzed method was developed for the synthesis of imidazo-fused pyrrolopyrazines. The presence or absence of a nitrogenated ligand controlled the outcome of the reaction, leading to simple β-keto amine products in the absence of added ligand and the cyclized 7- and 8-substituted-imidazo[1,2-a]pyrrolo[2,3-e]pyrazine products in the presence of ligand. This catalyst control was conserved across a variety of ylide and amine coupling partners. The substrate was shown to act as a ligand for the iridium catalyst in the absence of other ligands via NMR spectroscopy. Kinetic studies indicated that formation of the Ir-carbene was reversible and the slow step of the reaction. These mechanistic investigations suggest that the β-keto amine products form via an intramolecular carbene N-H insertion, and the imidazopyrrolopyrazines form via an intermolecular carbene N-H insertion.

  17. Production of margarine fats by enzymatic interesterification with silica-granulated Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase in a large-scale study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hong; Xu, Xuebing; Nilsson, Jörgen


    Interesterification of a blend of palm stearin and coconut oil (75:25, w/w), catalyzed by an immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase by silica granulation, Lipozyme TL IM, was studied for production of margarine fats in a 1- or 300-kg pilot-scale batch-stirred tank reactor. Parameters...

  18. One pot glucose detection by [Fe(III)(biuret-amide)] immobilized on mesoporous silica nanoparticles: an efficient HRP mimic. (United States)

    Malvi, Bharmana; Panda, Chakadola; Dhar, Basab B; Gupta, Sayam Sen


    An [Fe(III)(biuret-amide)] complex has been immobilized onto mesoporous silica nanoparticles via Cu(I) catalyzed azide-alkyne click chemistry. This hybrid material functions as an efficient peroxidase mimic and was successfully used for the quantitative determination of hydrogen peroxide and glucose via a one-pot colorimetric assay. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  19. Structure and growth of polymeric niobia-silica mixed-oxide sols for microporous molecular sieving membranes: A SAXS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffa, V.; Castricum, H.L.; Garcia, Ruben; Schmuhl, R.; Petukhov, Andrei V.; Blank, David H.A.; ten Elshof, Johan E.


    Branched polymeric niobia-silica (NS) mixed-oxide sols with a Nb:Si molar ratio between 0.33 and 0.8 were made by acid-catalyzed sol−gel synthesis and characterized using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The growth rate of NS sols after addition of a niobium

  20. Enhancing amine terminals in an amine-deprived collagen matrix.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tiong, William H C


    Collagen, though widely used as a core biomaterial in many clinical applications, is often limited by its rapid degradability which prevents full exploitation of its potential in vivo. Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer, a highly branched macromolecule, possesses versatile multiterminal amine surface groups that enable them to be tethered to collagen molecules and enhance their potential. In this study, we hypothesized that incorporation of PAMAM dendrimer in a collagen matrix through cross-linking will result in a durable, cross-linked collagen biomaterial with free -NH 2 groups available for further multi-biomolecular tethering. The aim of this study was to assess the physicochemical properties of a G1 PAMAM cross-linked collagen matrix and its cellular sustainability in vitro. Different amounts of G1 PAMAM dendrimer (5 or 10 mg) were integrated into bovine-derived collagen matrices through a cross-linking process, mediated by 5 or 25 mM 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) in 5 mM N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) and 50 mM 2-morpholinoethane sulfonic acid buffer at pH 5.5. The physicochemical properties of resultant matrices were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), collagenase degradation assay, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and ninhydrin assay. Cellular sustainability of the matrices was assessed with Alamar Blue assay and SEM. There was no significant difference in cellular behavior between the treated and nontreated groups. However, the benefit of incorporating PAMAM in the cross-linking reaction was limited when higher concentrations of either agent were used. These results confirm the hypothesis that PAMAM dendrimer can be incorporated in the collagen cross-linking process in order to modulate the properties of the resulting cross-linked collagen biomaterial with free -NH 2 groups available for multi-biomolecular tethering.

  1. Heterocycles by Transition Metals Catalyzed Intramolecular Cyclization of Acetylene Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizer, S.A.; Yerzhanov, K.B.; Dedeshko, E.C.


    Review shows the new strategies in the synthesis of heterocycles, having nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur atoms, via transition metals catalyzed intramolecular cyclization of acetylenic compounds on the data published at the last 30 years, Unsaturated heterocyclic compounds (pyrroles and pyrroline, furans, dihydro furans and benzofurans, indoles and iso-indoles, isoquinolines and isoquinolinones, aurones, iso coumarins and oxazolinone, lactams and lactones with various substitutes in heterocycles) are formed by transition metals, those salts [PdCl 2 , Pd(OAc) 2 , HgCl 2 , Hg(OAc) 2 , Hg(OCOCF 3 ) 2 , AuCl 3 ·2H 2 O, NaAuCl 4 ·2H 2 O, CuI, CuCl], oxides (HgO) and complexes [Pd(OAc) 2 (PPh 3 )2, Pd(PPh 3 ) 4 , PdCl 2 (MeCN) 2 , Pd(OAc ) 2 /TPPTS] catalyzed intramolecular cyclization of acetylenic amines, amides, ethers, alcohols, acids, ketones and βdiketones. More complex hetero polycyclic systems typical for natural alkaloids can to obtain similar. Proposed mechanisms of pyrroles, isoquinolines, iso indoles and indoles, benzofurans and iso coumarins, thiazolopyrimidinones formation are considered. (author)

  2. PEGylated bioreducible poly(amido amine)s for non-viral gene delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, C.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.


    A facile method for PEGylated bioreducible poly(amido amine)s is described by a one-pot Michael-type addition polymerization of N, N′-cystaminebisacrylamide (CBA) with a mixture of 4-amino-1-butanol (ABOL) and mono-tert-butoxycarbonyl (Boc) PEG diamine. By this approach, two Boc-amino-PEGylated

  3. Bioreducible poly(amido amine)s for non-viral gene delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, C.


    This thesis describes the design and development of bioreducible poly(amido amine)s as non-viral vectors for gene delivery in vitro and in vivo. The structural influences of these polymers on their physico-chemical properties and gene delivery properties, transfection capability and cytotoxicity in

  4. Investigation of transition metal-catalyzed nitrene transfer reactions in water. (United States)

    Alderson, Juliet M; Corbin, Joshua R; Schomaker, Jennifer M


    Transition metal-catalyzed nitrene transfer is a powerful method for incorporating new CN bonds into relatively unfunctionalized scaffolds. In this communication, we report the first examples of site- and chemoselective CH bond amination reactions in aqueous media. The unexpected ability to employ water as the solvent in these reactions is advantageous in that it eliminates toxic solvent use and enables reactions to be run at increased concentrations with lower oxidant loadings. Using water as the reaction medium has potential to expand the scope of nitrene transfer to encompass a variety of biomolecules and highly polar substrates, as well as enable pH control over the site-selectivity of CH bond amination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Highly selective formation of imines catalyzed by silver nanoparticles supported on alumina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Poreddy, Raju; Engelbrekt, Christian


    -2 in the gas phase. The use of an efficient and selective Ag catalyst for the oxidative dehydrogenation of alcohol in the presence of amines gives a new green reaction protocol for imine synthesis. (C) 2014, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B......The oxidative dehydrogenation of alcohols to aldehydes catalyzed by Ag nanoparticles supported on Al2O3 was studied. The catalyst promoted the direct formation of imines by tandem oxidative dehydrogenation and condensation of alcohols and amines. The reactions were performed under mild conditions...... and afforded the imines in high yield (up to 99%) without any byproducts other than H2O. The highest activity was obtained over 5 wt% Ag/Al2O3 in toluene with air as oxidant. The reactions were also performed under oxidant-free conditions where the reaction was driven to the product side by the production of H...

  6. Morphology conserving aminopropyl functionalization of hollow silica nanospheres in toluene (United States)

    Dobó, Dorina G.; Berkesi, Dániel; Kukovecz, Ákos


    Inorganic nanostructures containing cavities of monodisperse diameter distribution find applications in e.g. catalysis, adsorption and drug delivery. One of their possible synthesis routes is the template assisted core-shell synthesis. We synthesized hollow silica spheres around polystyrene cores by the sol-gel method. The polystyrene template was removed by heat treatment leaving behind a hollow spherical shell structure. The surface of the spheres was then modified by adding aminopropyl groups. Here we present the first experimental evidence that toluene is a suitable alternative functionalization medium for the resulting thin shells, and report the comprehensive characterization of the amino-functionalized hollow silica spheres based on scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption, FT-IR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and electrokinetic potential measurement. Both the presence of the amino groups and the preservation of the hollow spherical morphology were unambiguously proven. The introduction of the amine functionality adds amphoteric character to the shell as shown by the zeta potential vs. pH function. Unlike pristine silica particles, amino-functionalized nanosphere aqueous sols can be stable at both acidic and basic conditions.

  7. Primary, secondary, and tertiary amines for CO2 capture: designing for mesoporous CO2 adsorbents. (United States)

    Ko, Young Gun; Shin, Seung Su; Choi, Ung Su


    CO(2) emissions, from fossil-fuel-burning power plants, the breathing, etc., influence the global worming on large scale and the man's work efficiency on small scale. The reversible capture of CO(2) is a prominent feature of CO(2) organic-inorganic hybrid adsorbent to sequester CO(2). Herein, (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane (APTMS), [3-(methylamino)propyl] trimethoxysilane (MAPTMS), and [3-(diethylamino) propyl] trimethoxysilane (DEAPTMS) are immobilized on highly ordered mesoporous silicas (SBA-15) to catch CO(2) as primary, secondary, and tertiary aminosilica adsorbents. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to analyze the immobilized APTMS, MAPTMS, and DEAPTMS on the SBA-15. We report an interesting discovery that the CO(2) adsorption and desorption on the adsorbent depend on the amine type of the aminosilica adsorbent. The adsorbed CO(2) was easily desorbed from the adsorbent with the low energy consumption in the order of tertiary, secondary, and primary amino-adsorbents while the adsorption amount and the bonding-affinity increased in the reverse order. The effectiveness of amino-functionalized (1(o), 2(o), and 3(o) amines) SBA-15s as a CO(2) capturing agent was investigated in terms of adsorption capacity, adsorption-desorption kinetics, and thermodynamics. This work demonstrates apt amine types to catch CO(2) and regenerate the adsorbent, which may open new avenues to designing "CO(2) basket". Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Iodine-Catalyzed Polysaccharide Esterification (United States)

    A review is provided of the recent reports to use iodine-catalyzed esterification reaction to produce esters from polysaccharides. The process entails reaction of the polysaccharide with an acid anhydride in the presence of a catalytic level of iodine, and in the absence of additional solvents. T...

  9. Hydrothermal stability of microporous silica and niobia-silica membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffa, V.; Blank, David H.A.; ten Elshof, Johan E.


    The hydrothermal stability of microporous niobia–silica membranes was investigated and compared with silica membranes. The membranes were exposed to hydrothermal conditions at 150 and 200 °C for 70 h. The change of pore structure before and after exposure to steam was probed by single-gas permeation

  10. Development of acid stable, hyper-crosslinked, silica-based reversed-phase liquid chromatography supports for the separation of organic bases. (United States)

    Ma, Lianjia; Luo, Hao; Dai, Jun; Carr, Peter W


    A new generation of extremely acid stable "hyper-crosslinked" (HC) phases have been developed with good plate counts for basic drug separations. In our previous work, we successfully developed an approach for synthesizing HC stationary phases on silica substrates using aluminum trichloride catalyzed Friedel-Crafts (F-C) chemistry to improve the stability of silica-based RPLC stationary phases at low pH. However, the performance of basic analytes on these HC phases under acidic conditions was unusually poor compared to that of conventional silica-based C18 phases. The effects of the specific F-C catalysts used and the specific silica substrate on the chromatographic properties of HC phases have been studied. Modified synthetic strategies that give both good observed plate counts for basic analytes under acidic conditions and very good low pH stability without compromising other chromatographic properties of the hyper-crosslinked phases have been developed. Replacement of aluminum trichloride with tin tetrachloride as the catalyst for the F-C chemistry and use of a very high purity silica result in significantly improved plate counts for basic analytes. In formic acid buffered mobile phases, which are highly compatible with electrospray ionization LC-MS, basic analytes showed much better performance on the tin tetrachloride catalyzed HC phases than on any conventional commercial phase tested. The tin tetrachloride catalyzed HC phase is as stable as the original aluminum trichloride catalyzed HC phases, and much more stable than the bench mark acid stable commercial phase.

  11. Biogenic amines in meat and meat products. (United States)

    Ruiz-Capillas, Claudia; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco


    It has been recognized for some time that biogenic amines occur in a wide range of foods, among them meat and meat products. Meat is an important component of the diet in developed countries. The presence of these amines in food is of interest for two reasons: firstly, for toxicological reasons, in the sense that high levels of dietary biogenic amines can be toxic for certain consumers, and secondly, for their role as possible quality indicators. Based on these two premises, the present article offers a new analysis on aspects of toxicology and on the use of biogenic amines as a quality control method, as well as on their presence in meat and meat products. The article focuses particularly on factors affecting the production of biogenic amines, with reference to various parameters relating to microorganisms, meat raw materials, and processing conditions. A better understanding of the factors determining their formation (i.e., microorganisms, raw materials used, and technological processes applied) and their effects could lead to ways of controlling their production, limiting their presence in the end product, and hence, rendering them less toxic.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor


    Full Text Available Twenty-five samples of different Slovak wines before and after filtration were analysed in order to determine the content of eight biogenic amines (tryptamine, phenylalanine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine. The method involves extraction of biogenic amines from wine samples with used dansyl chloride. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC was used for determination of biogenic amines equipped with a Rapid Resolution High Definition (RRHD, DAD detectors and Extend-C18 LC column (50 mm x 3.0 mm ID, 1.8 μm particle size. In this study the highest level of biogenic amine in all wine samples represent tryptamine (TRM with the highest content 170.9±5.3 mg/L in Pinot Blanc wine. Phenylalanine (PHE cadaverine (CAD, histamine (HIS and spermidine (SPD were not detected in all wines; mainly SPD was not detected in 16 wines, HIS not detected in 14 wines, PHE and CAD not detected in 2 wines. Tyramine (TYR, spermine (SPN and putrescine (PUT were detected in all wines, but PUT and SPN in very low concentration. The worst wine samples with high biogenic amine content were Saint Laurent (BF, Pinot Blanc (S and Pinot Noir (AF.

  13. Phosphine-Catalyzed Asymmetric Umpolung Addition of Trifluoromethyl Ketimines to Morita-Baylis-Hillman Carbonates. (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Yue, Zhenting; Zhang, Junyou; Lv, Xi; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Junliang


    A novel phosphine-catalyzed, highly enantioselective umpolung addition of trifluoromethyl ketimines to Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates was developed and it provides facile access to optically active trifluoromethyl amines with a chiral tertiary stereocenter under mild reaction conditions. The salient features of this reaction include general substrate scope, mild reaction conditions, good yields, high enantioselectivity, ease of scale-up to gram scale, and further transformations of the products. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Cooperative Metal–Ligand Catalyzed Intramolecular Hydroamination and Hydroalkoxylation of Allenes Using a Stable Iron Catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    El-Sepelgy, Osama


    A new iron-catalyzed chemoselective intramolecular hydroamination and hydroalkoxylation of the readily available α-allenic amines and alcohols to valuable unsaturated 5-membered heterocycles, 2,3-dihydropyrrole and 2,3-dihydrofuran, is reported. Effective selectivity control is achieved by a metal–ligand cooperative activation of the substrates. The mild reaction conditions and the use of low amounts of an air and moisture stable iron catalyst allow for the hydrofunctionalization of a wide range of allenes bearing different functional groups in good yields in the absence of base or any sensitive additives.

  15. Mesoporous Silica Supported Au Nanoparticles with Controlled Size as Efficient Heterogeneous Catalyst for Aerobic Oxidation of Alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Chu


    Full Text Available A series of Au catalysts with different sizes were synthesized and employed on amine group functionalized ordered mesoporous silica solid supports as catalyst for the aerobic oxidation of various alcohols. The mesoporous silica of MCM-41 supported Au nanoparticles (Au-1 exhibited the smallest particle size at ~1.8 nm with superior catalytic activities owing to the confinement effect of the mesoporous channels. Au-1 catalyst is also very stable and reusable under aerobic condition. Therefore, this presented work would obviously provide us a platform for synthesizing more size-controlled metal catalysts to improve the catalytic performances.

  16. Autoinduced catalysis and inverse equilibrium isotope effect in the frustrated Lewis pair catalyzed hydrogenation of imines. (United States)

    Tussing, Sebastian; Greb, Lutz; Tamke, Sergej; Schirmer, Birgitta; Muhle-Goll, Claudia; Luy, Burkhard; Paradies, Jan


    The frustrated Lewis pair (FLP)-catalyzed hydrogenation and deuteration of N-benzylidene-tert-butylamine (2) was kinetically investigated by using the three boranes B(C6F5)3 (1), B(2,4,6-F3-C6H2)3 (4), and B(2,6-F2-C6H3)3 (5) and the free activation energies for the H2 activation by FLP were determined. Reactions catalyzed by the weaker Lewis acids 4 and 5 displayed autoinductive catalysis arising from a higher free activation energy (2 kcal mol(-1)) for the H2 activation by the imine compared to the amine. Surprisingly, the imine reduction using D2 proceeded with higher rates. This phenomenon is unprecedented for FLP and resulted from a primary inverse equilibrium isotope effect. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Catalyst for hydrogen-amine D exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtslander, W.J.; Johnson, R.E.


    A process is claimed for deuterium isotopic enrichment (suitable for use in heavy water production) by amine-hydrogen exchange in which the exchange catalyst comprises a mixture of alkyl amides of two metals selected from the group consisting of the alkali metals. Catalyst mixtures comprising at least one of the alkali amides of lithium and potassium are preferred. At least one of the following benefits are obtained: decreased hydride formation, decreased thermal decomposition of alkyl amide, increased catalyst solubility in the amine phase, and increased exchange efficiency. 11 claims

  18. Base metal dehydrogenation of amine-boranes (United States)

    Blacquiere, Johanna Marie [Ottawa, CA; Keaton, Richard Jeffrey [Pearland, TX; Baker, Ralph Thomas [Los Alamos, NM


    A method of dehydrogenating an amine-borane having the formula R.sup.1H.sub.2N--BH.sub.2R.sup.2 using base metal catalyst. The method generates hydrogen and produces at least one of a [R.sup.1HN--BHR.sup.2].sub.m oligomer and a [R.sup.1N--BR.sup.2].sub.n oligomer. The method of dehydrogenating amine-boranes may be used to generate H.sub.2 for portable power sources, such as, but not limited to, fuel cells.

  19. Fracture Behavior of Silica- and Rubber-Nanoparticle-Toughed Epoxies (United States)

    Labak, Amelia K.

    Particle-toughened crosslinked epoxies are popular materials for a variety of applications, including the microelectronics industry. For this application, the properties of these materials, such as a high fracture toughness and a low coefficient of thermal expansion, are highly appealing. In order to achieve these properties, inorganic particles are often added into the matrix. For this study, both inorganic and organic particles-toughened epoxies are investigated in the hopes of finding an optimized system. In particular, in this study, micron-sized silica and nano-sized rubbery block copolymers are added to an amine-cured epoxy matrix. A series of rubber-only and silica-only systems are investigated for their contribution to the fracture toughness. Then, a series of hybrid systems are investigated. The hypothesis is that the rubber will contribute toughness through rubber particle cavitation and matrix void growth and the silica will contribute toughness through crack pinning and bridging and particle debonding. In the hybrid systems, these mechanisms will take place at a different scale. Therefore, the nanoscale mechanisms of the rubber will be able to function at the same time as the micron sized mechanisms of the silica and the resultant toughness will be synergistically higher. The results from this study show an interesting contribution from the rubber particles both in the rubber-only systems and the hybrid system. Ultimately, there was a marked increase in the fracture toughness of the hybrid systems, although not synergistic. This increase indicates that it would be possible to create an optimized hybrid system from the combined addition of these particles.

  20. Copper-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition polymer networks (United States)

    Alzahrani, Abeer Ahmed

    The click reaction concept, introduced in 2001, has since spurred the rapid development and reexamination of efficient, high yield reactions which proceed rapidly under mild conditions. Prior to the discovery of facile copper catalysis in 2002, the thermally activated azide-alkyne or Huisgen cycloaddition reaction was largely ignored following its discovery in large part due to its slow kinetics, requirement for elevated temperature and limited selectivity. Now, arguably, the most prolific and capable of the click reactions, the copper-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction is extremely efficient and affords exquisite control of the reaction. The orthogonally and chemoselectivity of this reaction enable its wide utility across varied scientific fields. Despite numerous inherent advantages and widespread use for small molecule synthesis and solution-based polymer chemistry, it has only recently and rarely been utilized to form polymer networks. This work focuses on the synthesis, mechanisms, and unique attributes of the CuAAC reaction for the fabrication of functional polymer networks. The photo-reduction of a series of copper(II)/amine complexes via ligand metal charge transfer was examined to determine their relative efficiency and selectivity in catalyzing the CuAAC reaction. The aliphatic amine ligands were used as an electron transfer species to reduce Cu(II) upon irradiation with 365 nm light while also functioning as an accelerating agent and as protecting ligands for the Cu(I) that was formed. Among the aliphatic amines studied, tertiary amines such as triethylamine (TEA), tetramethyldiamine (TMDA), N,N,N',N",N"-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine (PMDTA), and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTETA) were found to be the most effective. The reaction kinetics were accelerated by increasing the PMDETA : Cu(II) ratio with a ratio of ligand to Cu(II) of 4:1 yielding the maximum conversion in the shortest time. The sequential and orthogonal nature of the photo

  1. Improvement of thermal stability of polypropylene using DOPO-immobilized silica nanoparticles. (United States)

    Dong, Quanxiao; Ding, Yanfen; Wen, Bin; Wang, Feng; Dong, Huicong; Zhang, Shimin; Wang, Tongxin; Yang, Mingshu


    After the surface silylation with 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, silica nanoparticles were further modified by 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO). The immobilization of DOPO on silica nanoparticles was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance, and thermogravimetric analysis. By incorporating the DOPO-immobilized silica nanoparticles (5 wt%) into polypropylene matrix, the thermal oxidative stability exhibited an improvement of 62 °C for the half weight loss temperature, while that was only 26 °C increment with incorporation of virgin silica nanoparticles (5 wt%). Apparent activation energies of the polymer nanocomposites were estimated via Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method. It was found that the incorporation of DOPO-immobilized silica nanoparticles improved activation energies of the degradation reaction. Based on the results, it was speculated that DOPO-immobilized silica nanoparticles could inhibit the degradation of polypropylene and catalyze the formation of carbonaceous char on the surface. Thus, thermal stability was significantly improved.

  2. Trypsin-Catalyzed Deltamethrin Degradation


    Xiong, Chunrong; Fang, Fujin; Chen, Lin; Yang, Qinggui; He, Ji; Zhou, Dan; Shen, Bo; Ma, Lei; Sun, Yan; Zhang, Donghui; Zhu, Changliang


    To explore if trypsin could catalyze the degradation of non-protein molecule deltamethrin, we compared in vitro hydrolytic reactions of deltamethrin in the presence and absence of trypsin with ultraviolet-visible (UV/Vis) spectrophotometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In addition, acute oral toxicity of the degradation products was determined in Wistar rats. The results show that the absorption peak of deltamethrin is around 264 nm, while the absorption peaks of deltameth...

  3. Development of new microporous silica membranes for gas separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camelia Barboiu; Alejandro Mourgues; Beatrice Sala; Serge de Perthuis; Camelia Barboiu; Alejandro Mourgues; Beatrice Sala; Anne Julbe; Jose Sanchez


    This paper presents the synthesis and the application of molecular sieving ceramic membranes to purify hydrogen or helium from various gas mixtures. The membranes prepared in this work consist of an ultra-microporous silica-based separative layer produced via a sol-gel process. Ultra microporous silica containing boron is synthesized by the acid catalyzed hydrolysis and condensation of tetra-ethyl-ortho-silicate in ethanol. The layer is deposited inside a tubular asymmetric alumina support with a meso-porous y alumina inner layer. The thickness of the silica layers after treatment is about 200 nm, estimated from their cross-section SEM micrographs. Ultra-microporous membranes (with pore sizes less than 0.7 nm) are thus required to get high selectivity. Such membranes enable to carry out gas separation up to 500 deg C under a transmembrane pressure lower than 8 bars. He and H 2 permeance values close to 10 -7 mol.m -2 s -1 Pa -1 are obtained, associated with ideal selectivities α(He/CO 2 ) and α(H 2 /CO 2 ) between 10 and 20 at 300 deg C. (authors)

  4. 40 CFR 721.640 - Amine substituted metal salts. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amine substituted metal salts. 721.640... Substances § 721.640 Amine substituted metal salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine substituted metal salts...

  5. Oxidative nucleophilic aromatic amination of nitrobenzenes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khutorianskyi, Viktor V.; Sonawane, Manoj R.; Pošta, Martin; Klepetářová, Blanka; Beier, Petr


    Roč. 52, č. 45 (2016), s. 7237-7240 ISSN 1359-7345 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/12/0072 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : C-H amination * bond formation * substitution Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 6.319, year: 2016


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Siregar


    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to explore the idea belong to Qosim Amin "Tahrir al-Mar'ah" as the main theme  of Qasim Amin reformation is an idea that is based on the spirit of liberation and empowerment of women. This idea emerged as a reflection and manifestation of concern intellectualism against the reality of Egyptian woman, who had reached the threshold of tolerance limits area . By using library research method, this research used book, journal, and others as the data resouces. As the cosequency, content analysis was used to analyse the data. Qasim Amin stresses that Islam should be granted rights of women in proportion tha is the right in education and acquire  same right in tasting educational right between men and women, because Islaic value is full of fairness and required the responsibility to Allah. The resut of this research shows that Qosim Amin concern on vision and educational issues in his Idea. There was an awareness of Egytianson the important position of women on education, chance of women to wear veily the government’s attention on the revision of religions justice. These changes have in fired the Egypt women todays.

  7. Fate and biodegradability of sulfonated aromatic amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, N.C.G.; Leeuwen, van A.; Voorthuizen, van E.M.; Slenders, P.; Prenafeta, F.X.; Temmink, H.; Lettinga, G.; Field, J.A.


    Ten sulfonated aromatic amines were tested for their aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability and toxicity potential in a variety of environmental inocula. Of all the compounds tested, only two aminobenzenesulfonic acid (ABS) isomers, 2- and 4-ABS, were degraded. The observed degradation occurred only

  8. Microbiological, physicochemical properties and biogenic amine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty three strained yoghurt samples were collected from local open markets in different provinces of Turkey (Afyon [AF], Aydın [AY], Burdur [B], Isparta [I] and Muğla [M]). Physicochemical and microbiological properties, as well as biogenic amine content, were examined in each of the samples. The dry matter (17.90 to ...

  9. New adducts of Lapachol with primary amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Mirelly D.F.; Litivack-Junior, Jose T.; Antunes, Roberto V.; Silva, Tania M.S.; Camara, Celso A., E-mail: ccelso@dq.ufrpe.b [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica


    New adducts of lapachol with neat primary aliphatic amines were obtained in a solvent-free reaction in good to reasonable yields (52 to 88%), at room temperature. The new compounds containing a phenazine moiety were obtained from suitable functionalized aminoalkyl compounds, including ethanolamine, 3-propanolamine, 2-methoxy-ethylamine, 3-methoxy-propylamine, n-butylamine and 2-phenetylamine. (author)

  10. Innovative Route to Prepare of Au/C Catalysts by Replication of Gold-containing Mesoporous Silicas

    KAUST Repository

    Kerdi, Fatmé


    Gold-catalyzed aerobic epoxidations in the liquid phase are generally performed in low-polarity solvents, in which conventional oxide-supported catalysts are poorly dispersed. To improve the wettability of the catalytic powder and, thus, the efficiency of the catalyst, gold nanoparticles (NPs) have been dispersed on meso-structured carbons. Gold is first introduced in functionalized mesostructured silica and particles are formed inside the porosity. Silica pores are then impregnated with a carbon precursor and the composite material is heated at 900 °C under vacuum or nitrogen. Silica is then removed by acid leaching, leading to partially encapsulated gold particles in mesoporous carbon. Carbon prevents aggregation of gold particles at high temperature, both the mean size and distribution being similar to those observed in silica. However, while Au@SiO2 exhibit significant catalytic activity in the aerobic oxidation of trans-stilbene in the liquid phase, its Au@C mesostructured replica is quite inactive.

  11. Periodic mesoporous silica gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.T.; Martin, J.E.; Odinek, J.G. [and others


    We have synthesized monolithic particulate gels of periodic mesoporous silica by adding tetramethoxysilane to a homogeneous alkaline micellar precursor solution. The gels exhibit 5 characteristic length scales over 4 orders of magnitude: fractal domains larger than the particle size (>500 nm), particles that are {approximately}150 to 500 nm in diameter, interparticle pores that are on the order of the particle size, a feature in the gas adsorption measurements that indicates pores {approximately}10-50 nm, and periodic hexagonal arrays of {approximately}3 nm channels within each particle. The wet gel monoliths exhibit calculated densities as low as {approximately}0.02 g/cc; the dried and calcined gels have bulk densities that range from {approximately}0.3-0.5 g/cc. The materials possess large interparticle ({approximately}1.0-2.3 cc/g) and intraparticle ({approximately}0.6 cc/g) porosities.

  12. Combining Solvent Isotope Effects with Substrate Isotope Effects in Mechanistic Studies of Alcohol and Amine Oxidation by Enzymes* (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Paul F.


    Oxidation of alcohols and amines is catalyzed by multiple families of flavin-and pyridine nucleotide-dependent enzymes. Measurement of solvent isotope effects provides a unique mechanistic probe of the timing of the cleavage of the OH and NH bonds, necessary information for a complete description of the catalytic mechanism. The inherent ambiguities in interpretation of solvent isotope effects can be significantly decreased if isotope effects arising from isotopically labeled substrates are measured in combination with solvent isotope effects. The application of combined solvent and substrate (mainly deuterium) isotope effects to multiple enzymes is described here to illustrate the range of mechanistic insights that such an approach can provide. PMID:25448013

  13. Uranium diphosphonates templated by interlayer organic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Anna-Gay D.; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.; Ewing, Rodney C.


    The hydrothermal treatment of uranium trioxide and methylenediphosphonic acid with a variety of amines (2,2-dipyridyl, triethylenediamine, ethylenediamine, and 1,10-phenanthroline) at 200 °C results in the crystallization of a series of layered uranium diphosphonate compounds, [C 10 H 9 N 2 ]{UO 2 (H 2 O)[CH 2 (PO 3 )(PO 3 H)]} (Ubip2), [C 6 H 14 N 2 ]{(UO 2 ) 2 [CH 2 (PO 3 )(PO 3 H)] 2 ·2H 2 O} (UDAB), [C 2 H 10 N 2 ] 2 {(UO 2 ) 2 (H 2 O) 2 [CH 2 (PO 3 ) 2 ] 2 ·0.5H 2 O} (Uethyl), and [C 12 H 9 N 2 ]{UO 2 (H 2 O)[CH 2 (PO 3 )(PO 3 H)]} (Uphen). The crystal structures of the compounds are based on UO 7 units linked by methylenediphosphonate molecules to form two-dimensional anionic sheets in Ubip2 and UDAB, and one-dimensional anionic chains in Uethyl and Uphen, which are charge balanced by protonated amine molecules. Interaction of the amine molecules with phosphonate oxygens and water molecules results in extensive hydrogen bonding in the interlayer. These amine molecules serve both as structure-directing agents and charge-balancing cations for the anionic uranium phosphonate sheets and chains in the formation of the different coordination geometries and topologies of each structure. Reported herein are the syntheses, structural and spectroscopic characterization of the synthesized compounds. - Graphical abstract: The Raman spectra of the synthesized compounds and an illustration of the stacking of the layers with the diprotonated triethylenediamine molecules in [C 6 H 14 N 2 ]{(UO 2 ) 2 [CH 2 (PO 3 )(PO 3 H)] 2 ·2H 2 O} UDAB. Solvent water molecules are removed for clarity. The corresponding Raman spectra for the complexes synthesized is also shown. The structure is constructed from UO 7 pentagonal bipyramids (yellow), oxygen=red, phosphorus=magenta, carbon=black, and nitrogen=blue. Highlights: ► Organic amines act both as charge-balancing and as structure-directing agents. ► Extensive hydrogen bonding interactions with solvent water molecules and amines

  14. Enantioselective Transamination in Continuous Flow Mode with Transaminase Immobilized in a Macrocellular Silica Monolith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludivine van den Biggelaar


    Full Text Available ω-Transaminases have been immobilized on macrocellular silica monoliths and used as heterogeneous biocatalysts in a continuous flow mode enantioselective transamination reaction. The support was prepared by a sol-gel method based on emulsion templating. The enzyme was immobilized on the structured silica monoliths both by adsorption, and by covalent grafting using amino-functionalized silica monoliths and glutaraldehyde as a coupling agent. A simple reactor set-up based on the use of a heat-shrinkable Teflon tube is presented and successfully used for the continuous flow kinetic resolution of a chiral amine, 4-bromo-α-methylbenzylamine. The porous structure of the supports ensures effective mass transfer and the reactor works in the plug flow regime without preferential flow paths. When immobilized in the monolith and used in the flow reactor, transaminases retain their activity and their enantioselectivity. The solid biocatalyst is also shown to be stable both on stream and during storage. These essential features pave the way to the successful development of an environmentally friendly process for chiral amines production.

  15. Effect of Synthesis Time on Morphology of Hollow Porous Silica Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian CHEN


    Full Text Available Hollow porous silica microspheres may be applicable as containers for the controlled release in drug delivery systems (DDS, foods, cosmetics, agrochemical, textile industry, and in other technological encapsulation use. In order to control the surface morphological properties of the silica microspheres, the effect of synthesis time on their formation was studied by a method of water-in-oil (W/O emulsion mediated sol-gel techniques. An aqueous phase of water, ammonium hydroxide and a surfactant Tween 20 was emulsified in an oil phase of 1-octanol with a stabilizer, hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC, and a surfactant, sorbitan monooleate (Span 80 with low hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB value. Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS as a silica precursor was added to the emulsion. The resulting silica particles at different synthesis time 24, 48, and 72 hours were air-dried at room temperature and calcinated at 773 K for 3 hours. The morphology of the particles was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and the particle size distribution was measured by laser diffraction. The specific surface areas were studied by 1-point BET method, and pore sizes were measured by Image Tool Software. Both dense and porous silica microspheres were observed after all three syntheses. Hollow porous silica microspheres were formed at 24 and 48 hours synthesis time. Under base catalyzed sol-gel solution, the size of silica particles was in the range of 5.4 μm to 8.2 μm, and the particles had surface area of 111 m2/g – 380 m2/g. The longer synthesis time produced denser silica spheres with decreased pore sizes.DOI:

  16. Antibacterial and antioxidative activity of O-amine functionalized chitosan. (United States)

    Tamer, Tamer M; Hassan, Mohamed A; Omer, Ahmed M; Valachová, Katarína; Eldin, Mohamed S Mohy; Collins, Maurice N; Šoltés, Ladislav


    Cinnamaldehyde was immobilized to O-amine functionalized chitosan via a coupling reaction. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed N-cinnamyl substitution. Wetting analyses demonstrate more hydrophobicity in the N-cinnamyl substituted O-amine functionalized chitosan compared to chitosan or unsubstituted O-amine functionalized chitosan. Thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry demonstrates that the prepared N-cinnamyl substituted O-amine functionalized chitosan exhibits higher thermostability than unmodified chitosan at temperatures in which polysaccharides are commonly stored and utilised. The N-cinnamyl substituted O-amine functionalized chitosan, against four different bacteria strains [two gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) and two gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa)], displays promotion of inhibition activity against these bacterial strains. Finally, the antioxidative activity of the N-cinnamyl substituted O-amine functionalized chitosan was compared with those activities of chitosan and O-amine functionalized chitosan. This was evaluated by uninhibited and inhibited hyaluronan degradation and ABTS assay. The N-cinnamyl substituted O-amine functionalized chitosan shows a lower activity towards donating a hydrogen radical compared to chitosan or O-amine functionalized chitosan. On the other hand, the N-cinnamyl substituted O-amine functionalized chitosan exhibited a higher ability to scavenge the ABTS + cation radical compared to chitosan and O-amine functionalized chitosan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database (United States)

    SRD 74 Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database (Web, free access)   The Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions Database contains thermodynamic data on enzyme-catalyzed reactions that have been recently published in the Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data (JPCRD). For each reaction the following information is provided: the reference for the data, the reaction studied, the name of the enzyme used and its Enzyme Commission number, the method of measurement, the data and an evaluation thereof.

  18. Silica-Immobilized Enzyme Reactors (United States)


    metal affinity binding between the ‘his- tag’ and a metal coating ( cobalt ) upon the agarose packing material. The peptide forms silica in situ and...of a nitro group to hydroxylamine resulting in a large electronic change which can be exploited for a variety of biotechnological applications...combined system, or individually as single sequential units will allow for development of complex catalytic sequences. Biologically-derived silica

  19. Cyclic aldimines as superior electrophiles for Cu-catalyzed decarboxylative Mannich reaction of β-ketoacids with a broad scope and high enantioselectivity. (United States)

    Zhang, Heng-Xia; Nie, Jing; Cai, Hua; Ma, Jun-An


    A novel Cu-catalyzed enantioselective decarboxylative Mannich reaction of cyclic aldimines with β-ketoacids is described. The cyclic structure of these aldimines, in which the C═N bond is constrained in the Z geometry, appears to be important, allowing Mannich condensation to proceed in high yields with excellent enantioselectivities. A chiral chroman-4-amine was synthesized from the decarboxylative Mannich product in several steps without loss of enantioselectivity.

  20. "Hydro-metathesis" of olefins: A catalytic reaction using a bifunctional single-site tantalum hydride catalyst supported on fibrous silica (KCC-1) nanospheres

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek


    Tantalizing hydrocarbons: Tantalum hydride supported on fibrous silica nanospheres (KCC-1) catalyzes, in the presence of hydrogen, the direct conversion of olefins into alkanes that have higher and lower numbers of carbon atoms (see scheme). This catalyst shows remarkable catalytic activity and stability, with excellent potential of regeneration. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Extraction of some acids using aliphatic amines; Extraction de quelques acides par des amines aliphatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matutano, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    Hydrochloric, nitric, sulphuric, perchloric, phosphoric, acetic and formic acids in aqueous solution (0.05 to 10 M) are extracted by amberlite LA2 and trilaurylamine in solution, 5 per cent by volume, in kerosene and xylene respectively. The extraction process consists of: neutralization of the amine salt; a 'molecular extraction', i.e. an extraction using an excess of acid with respect to the stoichiometry of the amine salt. According to the behaviour of the acid during the extraction, three groups may be distinguished: completely dissociated acids, carboxylic acids, phosphoric acid. This classification is also valid for the extraction of the water which occurs simultaneously with that of the acid. An extraction mechanism is put forward for formic acid and the formation constant of its amine salt is calculated. (author) [French] Les acides chlorhydrique, nitrique, sulfurique, perchlorique, phosphorique, acetique et formique, en solution aqueuse - 0,05 a 10 M - sont extraits par l'amberlite LA2 et la trilaurylamine en solution, a 5 pour cent en volume, dans le kerosene et le xylene respectivement. L'extraction comprend: une neutralisation de l'amine par l'acide avec formation d'un sel d'amine; une 'extraction moleculaire', c'est-a-dire une extraction d'acide en exces par rapport a la stoechiometrie du sel d'amine. Suivant le comportement des acides au cours de l'extraction nous distinguons trois groupes: acides entierement dissocies, acides carboxyliques, acide phosphorique. Cette classification est egalement valable pour l'extraction de l'eau qui est simultanee a celle de l'acide. Un mecanisme d'extraction pour l'acide formique est propose et nous calculons la constante de formation de son sel d'amine. (auteur)

  2. Metabolism and Biomarkers of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Molecular Epidemiology Studies: Lessons Learned from Aromatic Amines (United States)


    Aromatic amines and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are structurally related classes of carcinogens that are formed during the combustion of tobacco or during the high-temperature cooking of meats. Both classes of procarcinogens undergo metabolic activation by N-hydroxylation of the exocyclic amine group, to produce a common proposed intermediate, the arylnitrenium ion, which is the critical metabolite implicated in toxicity and DNA damage. However, the biochemistry and chemical properties of these compounds are distinct and different biomarkers of aromatic amines and HAAs have been developed for human biomonitoring studies. Hemoglobin adducts have been extensively used as biomarkers to monitor occupational and environmental exposures to a number of aromatic amines; however, HAAs do not form hemoglobin adducts at appreciable levels and other biomarkers have been sought. A number of epidemiologic studies that have investigated dietary consumption of well-done meat in relation to various tumor sites reported a positive association between cancer risk and well-done meat consumption, although some studies have shown no associations between well-done meat and cancer risk. A major limiting factor in most epidemiological studies is the uncertainty in quantitative estimates of chronic exposure to HAAs and, thus, the association of HAAs formed in cooked meat and cancer risk has been difficult to establish. There is a critical need to establish long-term biomarkers of HAAs that can be implemented in molecular epidemioIogy studies. In this review article, we highlight and contrast the biochemistry of several prototypical carcinogenic aromatic amines and HAAs to which humans are chronically exposed. The biochemical properties and the impact of polymorphisms of the major xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes on the biological effects of these chemicals are examined. Lastly, the analytical approaches that have been successfully employed to biomonitor aromatic amines and HAAs, and

  3. Development of a general non-noble metal catalyst for the benign amination of alcohols with amines and ammonia. (United States)

    Cui, Xinjiang; Dai, Xingchao; Deng, Youquan; Shi, Feng


    The N-alkylation of amines or ammonia with alcohols is a valuable route for the synthesis of N-alkyl amines. However, as a potentially clean and economic choice for N-alkyl amine synthesis, non-noble metal catalysts with high activity and good selectivity are rarely reported. Normally, they are severely limited due to low activity and poor generality. Herein, a simple NiCuFeOx catalyst was designed and prepared for the N-alkylation of ammonia or amines with alcohol or primary amines. N-alkyl amines with various structures were successfully synthesized in moderate to excellent yields in the absence of organic ligands and bases. Typically, primary amines could be efficiently transformed into secondary amines and N-heterocyclic compounds, and secondary amines could be N-alkylated to synthesize tertiary amines. Note that primary and secondary amines could be produced through a one-pot reaction of ammonia and alcohols. In addition to excellent catalytic performance, the catalyst itself possesses outstanding superiority, that is, it is air and moisture stable. Moreover, the magnetic property of this catalyst makes it easily separable from the reaction mixture and it could be recovered and reused for several runs without obvious deactivation. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Silica nanoparticles and biological dispersants: genotoxic effects on A549 lung epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, David M., E-mail: [Heriot-Watt University, Nanosafety Research Group, School of Life Sciences (United Kingdom); Varet, Julia, E-mail: [Institute of Occupational Medicine (United Kingdom); Johnston, Helinor, E-mail:; Chrystie, Alison; Stone, Vicki, E-mail: [Heriot-Watt University, Nanosafety Research Group, School of Life Sciences (United Kingdom)


    Silica nanoparticle exposure could be intentional (e.g. medical application or food) or accidental (e.g. occupational inhalation). On entering the body, particles become coated with specific proteins depending on the route of entry. The ability of silica particles of different size and charge (non-functionalized 50 and 200 nm and aminated 50 and 200 nm) to cause genotoxic effects in A549 lung epithelial cells was investigated. Using the modified comet assay and the micronucleus assay, we examined the effect of suspending the particles in different dispersion media [RPMI or Hanks’ balanced salt solution (HBSS), supplemented with bovine serum albumin (BSA), lung lining fluid (LLF) or serum] to determine if this influenced the particle’s activity. Particle characterisation suggested that the particles were reasonably well dispersed in the different media, with the exception of aminated 50 nm particles which showed evidence of agglomeration. Plain 50, 200 nm and aminated 50 nm particles caused significant genotoxic effects in the presence of formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase when dispersed in HBSS or LLF. These effects were reduced when the particles were dispersed in BSA and serum. There was no significant micronucleus formation produced by any of the particles when suspended in any of the dispersants. The data suggest that silica particles can produce a significant genotoxic effect according to the comet assay in A549 cells, possibly driven by an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism which may be modified depending on the choice of dispersant employed.

  5. Silica nanoparticles and biological dispersants: genotoxic effects on A549 lung epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, David M.; Varet, Julia; Johnston, Helinor; Chrystie, Alison; Stone, Vicki


    Silica nanoparticle exposure could be intentional (e.g. medical application or food) or accidental (e.g. occupational inhalation). On entering the body, particles become coated with specific proteins depending on the route of entry. The ability of silica particles of different size and charge (non-functionalized 50 and 200 nm and aminated 50 and 200 nm) to cause genotoxic effects in A549 lung epithelial cells was investigated. Using the modified comet assay and the micronucleus assay, we examined the effect of suspending the particles in different dispersion media [RPMI or Hanks’ balanced salt solution (HBSS), supplemented with bovine serum albumin (BSA), lung lining fluid (LLF) or serum] to determine if this influenced the particle’s activity. Particle characterisation suggested that the particles were reasonably well dispersed in the different media, with the exception of aminated 50 nm particles which showed evidence of agglomeration. Plain 50, 200 nm and aminated 50 nm particles caused significant genotoxic effects in the presence of formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase when dispersed in HBSS or LLF. These effects were reduced when the particles were dispersed in BSA and serum. There was no significant micronucleus formation produced by any of the particles when suspended in any of the dispersants. The data suggest that silica particles can produce a significant genotoxic effect according to the comet assay in A549 cells, possibly driven by an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism which may be modified depending on the choice of dispersant employed

  6. Acrolein contributes strongly to antimicrobial and heterocyclic amine transformation activities of reuterin. (United States)

    Engels, Christina; Schwab, Clarissa; Zhang, Jianbo; Stevens, Marc J A; Bieri, Corinne; Ebert, Marc-Olivier; McNeill, Kristopher; Sturla, Shana J; Lacroix, Christophe


    Glycerol/diol dehydratases catalyze the conversion of glycerol to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA), the basis of a multi-component system called reuterin. Reuterin has antimicrobial properties and undergoes chemical conjugation with dietary heterocyclic amines (HCAs). In aqueous solution reuterin is in dynamic equilibrium with the toxicant acrolein. It was the aim of this study to investigate the extent of acrolein formation at various physiological conditions and to determine its role in biological and chemical activities. The application of a combined novel analytical approach including IC-PAD, LC-MS and NMR together with specific acrolein scavengers suggested for the first time that acrolein, and not 3-HPA, is the active compound responsible for HCA conjugation and antimicrobial activity attributed to reuterin. As formation of the HCA conjugate was observed in vivo, our results imply that acrolein is formed in the human gut with implications on detoxification of HCAs. We propose to re-define the term reuterin to include acrolein.

  7. Preparation, characterisation and application of polyamine-silica hybrids in the epoxidation of α,β-unsaturated olefins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E.G. Mdoe


    Full Text Available Polyamine-silica hybrids were prepared by a one-pot sol-gel method via a neutral amine templating route. At low loadings (ca. 1 mmol organic group per g of silica the resultant materials displayed properties typical of M41S-type materials, namely, high surface area (typically 600 m2 g-1 and controlled porosity with an average pore diameter of 3.6 nm. However, the materials were amorphous at loading above 1.2 mmol organic group per g of silica. The materials were used as heterogeneous base catalysts in the epoxidation of electron deficient olefins. The yields of the epoxide product ranged between 52% and 76%, depending on the loading of the catalytic group.

  8. High efficiency nanocomposite sorbents for CO2 capture based on amine-functionalized mesoporous capsules

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Genggeng


    A novel high efficiency nanocomposite sorbent for CO2 capture has been developed based on oligomeric amine (polyethylenimine, PEI, and tetraethylenepentamine, TEPA) functionalized mesoporous silica capsules. The newly synthesized sorbents exhibit extraordinary capture capacity up to 7.9 mmol g-1 under simulated flue gas conditions (pre-humidified 10% CO 2). The CO2 capture kinetics were found to be fast and reached 90% of the total capacities within the first few minutes. The effects of the mesoporous capsule features such as particle size and shell thickness on CO2 capture capacity were investigated. Larger particle size, higher interior void volume and thinner mesoporous shell thickness all improved the CO2 capacity of the sorbents. PEI impregnated sorbents showed good reversibility and stability during cyclic adsorption-regeneration tests (50 cycles). © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. Deuterium exchange between hydrofluorocarbons and amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, W.B.; Bigeleisen, J.; Tuccio, S.A.


    The invention consists of a process for obtaining a compound enriched in deuterium which comprises the known method of exposing a gaseous hydrofluorocarbon to infrared laser radiation of a predetermined frequency to selectively cause a chemical reaction involving hydrofluorocarbon molecules containing deuterium without substantially affecting hydrofluorocarbon molecules not containing deuterium, thereby producing, as reaction products, a compound enriched in deuterium and hydrofluorocarbon depleted in deuterium; combined with a new method, which comprises enriching the deuterium content of the depleted hydrofluorocarbon by contacting the depleted hydrofluorocarbon with an alkali metal amide and an amine having a concentration of deuterium at least that which will yield an increase in deuterium concentration of the hydrofluorocarbon upon equilibration, whereby the amine becomes depleted in deuterium

  10. Organic chemistry. Strain-release amination. (United States)

    Gianatassio, Ryan; Lopchuk, Justin M; Wang, Jie; Pan, Chung-Mao; Malins, Lara R; Prieto, Liher; Brandt, Thomas A; Collins, Michael R; Gallego, Gary M; Sach, Neal W; Spangler, Jillian E; Zhu, Huichin; Zhu, Jinjiang; Baran, Phil S


    To optimize drug candidates, modern medicinal chemists are increasingly turning to an unconventional structural motif: small, strained ring systems. However, the difficulty of introducing substituents such as bicyclo[1.1.1]pentanes, azetidines, or cyclobutanes often outweighs the challenge of synthesizing the parent scaffold itself. Thus, there is an urgent need for general methods to rapidly and directly append such groups onto core scaffolds. Here we report a general strategy to harness the embedded potential energy of effectively spring-loaded C-C and C-N bonds with the most oft-encountered nucleophiles in pharmaceutical chemistry, amines. Strain-release amination can diversify a range of substrates with a multitude of desirable bioisosteres at both the early and late stages of a synthesis. The technique has also been applied to peptide labeling and bioconjugation. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Catalyst for hydrogen-amine D exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtslander, W.J.; Johnson, R.E.


    In a process for enrichment of deuterium by contacting hydrogen with an amine (such as methylamine), an alkali metal amide (such as potassium methylamide) is used as a catalyst. The present improvement is to use a mixture of two metal amides (e.g. lithium methylamide plus potassium methylamide) in order to prevent precipitation of a hydride and to reduce thermal decomposition of the catalyst. (NDH)

  12. Whole cell biotransformation for reductive amination reactions


    Klatte, Stephanie; Lorenz, Elisabeth; Wendisch, Volker F


    Whole cell biotransformation systems with enzyme cascading increasingly find application in biocatalysis to complement or replace established chemical synthetic routes for production of, e.g., fine chemicals. Recently, we established an Escherichia coli whole cell biotransformation system for reductive amination by coupling a transaminase and an amino acid dehydrogenase with glucose catabolism for cofactor recycling. Transformation of 2-keto-3-methylvalerate to l-isoleucine by E. coli cells w...

  13. Asymmetric Aminalization via Cation-Binding Catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Sang Yeon; Liu, Yidong; Oh, Joong Suk


    Asymmetric cation-binding catalysis, in principle, can generate "chiral" anionic nucleophiles, where the counter cations are coordinated within chiral environments. Nitrogen-nucleophiles are intrinsically basic, therefore, its use as nucleophiles is often challenging and limiting the scope...... of the reaction. Particularly, a formation of configurationally labile aminal centers with alkyl substituents has been a formidable challenge due to the enamine/imine equilibrium of electrophilic substrates. Herein, we report enantioselective nucleophilic addition reactions of potassium phthalimides to Boc-protected...

  14. Efficient CO2 sorbents based on silica foam with ultra-large mesopores

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Genggeng


    A series of high-capacity, amine impregnated sorbents based on a cost-effective silica foam with ultra-large mesopores is reported. The sorbents exhibit fast CO2 capture kinetics, high adsorption capacity (of up to 5.8 mmol g-1 under 1 atm of dry CO2), as well as good stability over multiple adsorption-desorption cycles. A simple theoretical analysis is provided relating the support structure to sorbent performance. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. Fibrous nano-silica (KCC-1)-supported palladium catalyst: Suzuki coupling reactions under sustainable conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Fihri, Aziz


    Noble amines recycled: Fibrous high-surface-area nano-silica functionalized with aminopropyl groups and loaded with well-dispersed Pd nanoparticles is evaluated for the Suzuki coupling of aromatic halides. It is active for the reaction of a range of aryl bromides and iodides as well as chlorides with aryl boronic acids in good to excellent yields. The catalyst can be recovered and reused for a number of cycles with negligible loss in activity. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Gas Separation through Bilayer Silica, the Thinnest Possible Silica Membrane. (United States)

    Yao, Bowen; Mandrà, Salvatore; Curry, John O; Shaikhutdinov, Shamil; Freund, Hans-Joachim; Schrier, Joshua


    Membrane-based gas separation processes can address key challenges in energy and environment, but for many applications the permeance and selectivity of bulk membranes is insufficient for economical use. Theory and experiment indicate that permeance and selectivity can be increased by using two-dimensional materials with subnanometer pores as membranes. Motivated by experiments showing selective permeation of H 2 /CO mixtures through amorphous silica bilayers, here we perform a theoretical study of gas separation through silica bilayers. Using density functional theory calculations, we obtain geometries of crystalline free-standing silica bilayers (comprised of six-membered rings), as well as the seven-, eight-, and nine-membered rings that are observed in glassy silica bilayers, which arise due to Stone-Wales defects and vacancies. We then compute the potential energy barriers for gas passage through these various pore types for He, Ne, Ar, Kr, H 2 , N 2 , CO, and CO 2 gases, and use the data to assess their capability for selective gas separation. Our calculations indicate that crystalline bilayer silica, which is less than a nanometer thick, can be a high-selectivity and high-permeance membrane material for 3 He/ 4 He, He/natural gas, and H 2 /CO separations.

  17. The role of genetic polymorphisms in metabolism of carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines. (United States)

    Turesky, R J


    More than twenty heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) have been identified in grilled meats, fish, poultry, and tobacco smoke condensate. HAAs are carcinogens and induce tumors at multiple sites in experimental laboratory animals. Because of the widespread occurrence of HAAs in foods, these chemicals may contribute to the etiology of several common human cancers that are associated with frequent consumption of grilled meats including colon, rectum, prostate, and breast. HAAs require metabolism in order to exert their genotoxic effects. Metabolic activation occurs by N-hydroxylation, a reaction catalyzed by cytochromes p450 (CYP). Some N-hydroxy-HAA metabolites may directly react with DNA, but further metabolism by N-acetyltransferases (NATs) or sulfotransferases (SULTs) may occur to form highly reactive N-acetoxy or N-sulfonyloxy esters that readily react with DNA bases. The N-acetoxy ester of the HAA 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is detoxified by glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), which catalyze the reduction of the reactive intermediate back to the parent amine. Some HAAs also undergo detoxification through conjugation reactions with the phase II enzymes such as UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) or SULTs to form stable, polar products that are readily eliminated. All of these xenobiotic metabolism enzyme systems (XMEs) display common genetic polymorphisms, which may affect protein expression, protein stability, catalytic activity, and thus, the biological potency of these procarcinogens. In this review, the roles of common genetic polymorphisms of XMEs involved in HAA metabolism and cancer risk are discussed.

  18. Rett syndrome - Stimulation of endogenous biogenic amines (United States)

    Pelligra, R.; Norton, R. D.; Wilkinson, R.; Leon, H. A.; Matson, W. R.


    Transient hypercapnic hyperoxemia was induced in two Rett syndrome children by the administration of a gaseous mixture of 80 percent O2 and 20 percent CO2. Time course studies of neurotransmitters and their metabolites showed an immediate and marked increase in central biogenic amine turnover following inhalation of the gas mixture. The increased turnover of biogenic amines was associated with improved clinical changes. This suggests a coupled relationship and provides further support for an etiological role of neurotransmitter dysfunction in Rett syndrome. In a complementary study, elevation of pulmonary CO2 by application of a simple rebreathing device resulted in improvement of abnormal blood gases and elimination of the Cheyne-Stokes-like respiratory pattern of the Rett syndrome. Near normalization of the EEG occurred when a normal respiratory pattern was imposed by means of a respirator. Taken together, these results lead to the preliminary conclusion that cerebral hypoxemia secondary to abnormal respiratory function may contribute to diminished production of biogenic amines in Rett syndrome.

  19. Influence of the silica fillers on the ageing of epoxy resins under irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benard, F.


    Various studies were carried out on the ageing of epoxy resins under irradiations. In all cases, pure polymers were studied. The aim of our work managed by the CEA and the CNRS consists on studying the part of fillers and particularly the part of silica on ageing process under electron beam irradiations. Because of their wide use in industrial applications and especially in nuclear environment, the DGEBA-TETA resins (Diglycidylether of Bisphenol A - Triethylenetetramine) were chosen. Those epoxy resins are difficult to analyse because of their insolubility. Some pure and nano-metric silica filled chemical models which chemical structure very close to the one the DGEBA/TETA resin were synthesized and analysed with classical methods in organic chemistry. A major phenomenon of rupture of the C-O and C-N chemical bonds with creation of phenolic extremities, methylketone extremities, of primary and tertiary amines and notably enamine functions were revealed by the analyses. The quantitative 1 H and 13 C NMR analyses revealed the screen effect due to the silica and the reactions between the chemical species created by the irradiations and the silica surface. Thermic and thermodynamic analyses of the different epoxy resins in function of the irradiation dose and of the kind of silica showed the decrease of the glass transition temperature, of the relaxation temperature and of the crosslink density confirming the major phenomenon of bond ruptures during irradiations. With silica, the decrease of the crosslink density is slowed. This phenomenon can be explained with interactions between the nano-metric silica surface and the epoxy resin offsetting the effect of the chain rupture on the resin mechanical properties. The 13 C solid state NMR analyses confirmed the choice of the chemical models and permitted to detect the chemical species created by the irradiations. The analyse of the polarization transfers with 13 C CP-MAS NMR spectroscopy revealed the stiffening of the nano

  20. Tunable differentiation of tertiary C-H bonds in intramolecular transition metal-catalyzed nitrene transfer reactions. (United States)

    Corbin, Joshua R; Schomaker, Jennifer M


    Metal-catalyzed nitrene transfer reactions are an appealing and efficient strategy for accessing tetrasubstituted amines through the direct amination of tertiary C-H bonds. Traditional catalysts for these reactions rely on substrate control to achieve site-selectivity in the C-H amination event; thus, tunability is challenging when competing C-H bonds have similar steric or electronic features. One consequence of this fact is that the impact of catalyst identity on the selectivity in the competitive amination of tertiary C-H bonds has not been well-explored, despite the potential for progress towards predictable and catalyst-controlled C-N bond formation. In this communication, we report investigations into tunable and site-selective nitrene transfers between tertiary C(sp 3 )-H bonds using a combination of transition metal catalysts, including complexes based on Ag, Mn, Rh and Ru. Particularly striking was the ability to reverse the selectivity of nitrene transfer by a simple change in the identity of the N-donor ligand supporting the Ag(i) complex. The combination of our Ag(i) catalysts with known Rh 2 (ii) complexes expands the scope of successful catalyst-controlled intramolecular nitrene transfer and represents a promising springboard for the future development of intermolecular C-H N-group transfer methods.

  1. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles for treating spinal cord injury (United States)

    White-Schenk, Désirée.; Shi, Riyi; Leary, James F.


    An estimated 12,000 new cases of spinal cord injury (SCI) occur every year in the United States. A small oxidative molecule responsible for secondary injury, acrolein, is an important target in SCI. Acrolein attacks essential proteins and lipids, creating a feed-forward loop of oxidative stress in both the primary injury area and the surrounding areas. A small molecule used and FDA-approved for hypertension, hydralazine, has been found to "scavenge" acrolein after injury, but its delivery and short half-life, as well as its hypertension effects, hinder its application for SCI. Nanomedical systems broaden the range of therapeutic availability and efficacy over conventional medicine. They allow for targeted delivery of therapeutic molecules to tissues of interest, reducing side effects of untargeted therapies in unwanted areas. Nanoparticles made from silica form porous networks that can carry therapeutic molecules throughout the body. To attenuate the acrolein cascade and improve therapeutic availability, we have used a one-step, modified Stober method to synthesize two types of silica nanoparticles. Both particles are "stealth-coated" with poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) (to minimize interactions with the immune system and to increase circulation time), which is also a therapeutic agent for SCI by facilitating membrane repair. One nanoparticle type contains an amine-terminal PEG (SiNP-mPEG-Am) and the other possesses a terminal hydrazide group (SiNP-mPEG-Hz). The former allows for exploration of hydralazine delivery, loading, and controlled release. The latter group has the ability to react with acrolein, allowing the nanoparticle to scavenge directly. The nanoparticles have been characterized and are being explored using neuronal PC-12 cells in vitro, demonstrating the potential of novel silica nanoparticles for use in attenuating secondary injury after SCI.


    Johnson, Bryan J.; Cohen, Jordi; Welford, Richard W.; Pearson, Arwen R.; Schulten, Klaus; Klinman, Judith P.; Wilmot, Carrie M.


    The accessibility of large substrates to buried enzymatic active sites is dependent upon the utilization of proteinaceous channels. The necessity of these channels in the case of small substrates is questionable as diffusion through the protein matrix is often assumed. Copper amine oxidases (CAOs) contain a buried protein-derived quinone cofactor and a mononuclear copper center that catalyze the conversion of two substrates, primary amines and molecular oxygen, to aldehydes and hydrogen peroxide respectively. The nature of molecular oxygen migration to the active site in the enzyme from Hansenula polymorpha2 (HPAO) is explored using a combination of kinetic, X-ray crystallographic and computational approaches. A crystal structure of HPAO in complex with xenon gas, which serves as an experimental probe for molecular oxygen binding sites, reveals buried regions of the enzyme suitable for transient molecular oxygen occupation. Calculated O2 free energy maps using CAO crystal structures in the absence of xenon, correspond well with later experimentally observed xenon sites in these systems, and allow the visualization of O2 migration routes of differing probabilities within the protein matrix. Site-directed mutagenesis designed to block individual routes has little effect on overall kcat/Km[O2], supporting multiple dynamic pathways for molecular oxygen to reach the active site. PMID:17409383

  3. A novel carbohydrate labeling method utilizing transfer hydrogenation-mediated reductive amination. (United States)

    Kovács, Zsuzsanna; Papp, Gábor; Horváth, Henrietta; Joó, Ferenc; Guttman, András


    One of the most frequently used high-resolution glycan analysis methods in the biopharmaceutical and biomedical fields is capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF) detection. Glycans are usually labeled by reductive amination with a charged fluorophore containing a primary amine, which reacts with the aldehyde group at the reducing end of the glycan structures. In this reaction, first a Schiff base is formed that is reduced to form a stable conjugate by a hydrogenation reagent, such as sodium cyanoborohydride. In large scale biopharmaceutical applications, such as clone selection for glycoprotein therapeutics, hundreds of reactions are accomplished simultaneously, so the HCN generated in the process poses a safety concern. To alleviate this issue, here we propose catalytic hydrogen transfer from formic acid catalyzed by water-soluble iridium(III)- and ruthenium(II)-phosphine complexes as a novel alternative to hydrogenation. The easily synthesized water-soluble iridium(III) and the ruthenium(II) hydrido complexes showed high catalytic activity in carbohydrate labeling. This procedure is environmentally friendly and reduces the health risks for the industry. Using carbohydrate standards, oligosaccharides released from glycoproteins with highly sialylated (fetuin), high mannose (ribonuclease B) and mixed sialo and neutral (human plasma) N-glycans, we demonstrated similar labeling efficiencies for iridium(III) dihydride to that of the conventionally used sodium cyanoborohydride based reaction. The derivatization reaction time was less than 20min with no bias towards the above mentioned specific glycan structures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cell Wall Amine Oxidases: New Players in Root Xylem Differentiation under Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip A. Ghuge


    Full Text Available Polyamines (PAs are aliphatic polycations present in all living organisms. A growing body of evidence reveals their involvement as regulators in a variety of physiological and pathological events. They are oxidatively deaminated by amine oxidases (AOs, including copper amine oxidases (CuAOs and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD-dependent polyamine oxidases (PAOs. The biologically-active hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is a shared compound in all of the AO-catalyzed reactions, and it has been reported to play important roles in PA-mediated developmental and stress-induced processes. In particular, the AO-driven H2O2 biosynthesis in the cell wall is well known to be involved in plant wound healing and pathogen attack responses by both triggering peroxidase-mediated wall-stiffening events and signaling modulation of defense gene expression. Extensive investigation by a variety of methodological approaches revealed high levels of expression of cell wall-localized AOs in root xylem tissues and vascular parenchyma of different plant species. Here, the recent progresses in understanding the role of cell wall-localized AOs as mediators of root xylem differentiation during development and/or under stress conditions are reviewed. A number of experimental pieces of evidence supports the involvement of apoplastic H2O2 derived from PA oxidation in xylem tissue maturation under stress-simulated conditions.

  5. Post-column derivatization capillary electrochromatography for detection of biogenic amines in tuna-meat. (United States)

    Oguri, Shigeyuki; Okuya, Yukie; Yanase, Yukiko; Suzuki, Sayaka


    A system to perform post-column derivatization capillary electrochromatography (CEC) was developed for the first time. The system mainly included a 4-microm (O.D.) silica packed column (200 mm effective length x 0.1 mm inner diameter I.D.) with micro-magnetic particles (MMPs) frits, a T-junction connector, an in-line fluorescence detector and a high-voltage power supply. The system was evaluated by using histamine (HA) as a standard biogenic amine for this study. A 5 microM HA solution was loaded at the anodic site of the capillary column by applying 3 kV for 5s. Then, HA was electrophoretically eluted with a 20mM phosphate buffer (pH 7) by applying 3 kV, and was derivatized with 3mM o-phthalaldehyde (OPA)/N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in 100 mM borate (pH 10), which was continuously delivered through the reagent-loading capillary tube by gravity into the T-junction connector. HA derivative was finally detected with the in-line fluorescence detector (lambda(Ex)=340 nm, lambda(Em)=450 nm) at 9.7 min after sample loading. To test the utility of this system, it was next employed for its ability to detect the presence of HA and other kinds of biogenic amines, including cadaverine (Cad), spermidine (Spm) and tyramine (Tyr) in tuna-meat, once the validity of the method had been confirmed.

  6. Simulation of Peptide Binding to Silica and Silica Mineralization (United States)

    Emami, F. S.; Heinz, H.; Berry, R. J.; Varshney, V.; Farmer, B. L.; Naik, R. R.; Patwardhan, S. V.; Perry, C. C.


    The purpose of this study is to identify the nature of the interaction of peptides with silica surfaces and their effect on mineralization. Classical force fields (CVFF, PCFF) have been extended for silica aiming at the computation of surface properties in quantitative agreement with experiment, taking explicitly into account water molecules, pH, and surface coverage with peptides. We focus on the interaction of five short peptides (pep1, pep4, 82-4, H4, R5) identified by biopanning with regular and amorphous silica surfaces (Q3 and Q2) to understand the relation between peptide sequence and affinity to the surface. Results of the atomistic molecular dynamics simulation indicate adsorption energies, binding constants and conformational changes upon adsorption. The comparison of NMR chemical shifts in solution and on the surface in computation and experiment further aids in understanding the mechanism of binding.

  7. Carbon dioxide adsorption on amine-impregnated mesoporous materials prepared from spent quartz sand. (United States)

    Su, Yiteng; Peng, Lihong; Shiue, Angus; Hong, Gui-Bing; Qian, Zhang; Chang, Chang-Tang


    Mesoporous MCM-41 was synthesized using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as a cationic surfactant and spent quartz sand as the silica source. Modification of the mesoporous structure to create an absorbent was then completed using 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane. Amine-Quartz-MCM (The A-Q-MCM) adsorbents were then characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption, elemental analysis (EA), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), as well as the carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption/desorption performance. In this study, spent quartz sand was utilized to synthesize Quartz-MCM (Q-MCM) and the amine functionalized material, A-Q-MCM, which exhibited a higher uptake of CO2 at room temperature compared with the nongrafted material. The results showed that Q-MCM is similar to MCM-41 synthesized using commercial methods. The surface area, pore volume, and pore diameter were found to be as high as 1028 m2/g, 0.907 cm3/g, and 3.04 nm, respectively. Under the condition of CO2 concentration of 5000 ppm, retention time of 50 cc/min, and the dosage of 1 g/cm3, the mean adsorption capacity of CO2 onto A-Q-MCM was about 89 mg/g, and the nitrogen content of A-Q-MCM was 2.74%. The adsorption equilibrium was modeled well using a Freundlich isotherm. Implications: In this study, spent quartz sand was utilized to synthesize Q-MCM. The amine functionalized material exhibited a higher uptake of CO2 at room temperature compared with the nongrafted material. The results showed that Q-MCM is similar to MCM-41 synthesized using commercial methods. The adsorption equilibrium was modeled well using a Freundlich isotherm.

  8. Comparison of kinetic properties of amine oxidases from sainfoin and lentil and immunochemical characterization of copper/quinoprotein amine oxidases. (United States)

    Zajoncová, L; Frébort, I; Luhová, L; Sebela, M; Galuszka, P; Pec, P


    Kinetic properties of novel amine oxidase isolated from sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) were compared to those of typical plant amine oxidase (EC from lentil (Lens culinaris). The amine oxidase from sainfoin was active toward substrates, such as 1,5-diaminopentane (cadaverine) with K(m) of 0.09 mM and 1,4-diaminobutane (putrescine) with K(m) of 0.24 mM. The maximum rate of oxidation for cadaverine at saturating concentration was 2.7 fold higher than that of putrescine. The amine oxidase from lentil had the maximum rate for putrescine comparable to the rate of sainfoin amine oxidase with the same substrate. Both amine oxidases, like other plant Cu-amine oxidases, were inhibited by substrate analogs (1,5-diamino-3-pentanone, 1,4-diamino-2-butanone and aminoguanidine), Cu2+ chelating agents (diethyltriamine, 1,10-phenanthroline, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 2,2'-bipyridyl, imidazole, sodium cyanide and sodium azide), some alkaloids (L-lobeline and cinchonine), some lathyrogens (beta-aminopropionitrile and aminoacetonitrile) and other inhibitors (benzamide oxime, acetone oxime, hydroxylamine and pargyline). Tested by Ouchterlony's double diffusion in agarose gel, polyclonal antibodies against the amine oxidase from sainfoin, pea and grass pea cross-reacted with amine oxidases from several other Fabaceae and from barley (Hordeum vulgare) of Poaceae, while amine oxidase from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger did not cross-react at all. However, using Western blotting after SDS-PAGE with rabbit polyclonal antibodies against the amine oxidase from Aspergillus niger, some degree of similarity of plant amine oxidases from sainfoin, pea, field pea, grass pea, fenugreek, common melilot, white sweetclover and Vicia panonica with the A. niger amine oxidase was confirmed.

  9. Pumping Iron and Silica Bodybuilding (United States)

    Mcnair, H.; Brzezinski, M. A.; Krause, J. W.; Parker, C.; Brown, M.; Coale, T.; Bruland, K. W.


    The availability of dissolved iron influences the stoichiometry of nutrient uptake by diatoms. Under nutrient replete conditions diatoms consume silicic acid and nitrate in a 1:1 ratio, this ratio increases under iron stress. Using the tracers 32Si and PDMPO, the total community and group-specific silica production rates were measured along a gradient of dissolved iron in an upwelling plume off the California coast. At each station, a control (ambient silicic acid) and +20 µM silicic acid treatment were conducted with each tracer to determine whether silicic acid limitation controlled the rate of silica production. Dissolved iron was 1.3 nmol kg-1 nearshore and decreased to 0.15 nmol kg-1 offshore. Silicic acid decreased more rapidly than nitrate, it was nearly 9 µM higher in the nearshore and 7 µM lower than nitrate in the middle of the transect where the iron concentration had decreased. The rate of diatom silica production decreased in tandem with silicic acid concentration, and silica production limitation by low silicic acid was most pronounced when iron concentrations were >0.4 nmol kg-1. The composition of the diatom assemblage shifted from Chaetoceros spp. dominated nearshore to a more sparse pennate-dominated assemblage offshore. Changes in taxa-specific silica production rates will be reported based on examination of PDMPO labeled cells using confocal microscopy.

  10. Amine promoted, metal enhanced degradation of Mirex under high temperature conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jallad, Karim N.; Lynn, Bert C.; Alley, Earl G.


    In this study, zero-valent metal dehalogenation of mirex was conducted with amine solvents at high temperatures. Mirex was treated with excess amine in sealed glass tube reactors under nitrogen. The amines used were n-butyl amine (l), ethyl amine (l), dimethyl amine (g), diethyl amine (l), triethyl amine (l), trimethyl amine (g) and ammonia (g). The metals used were copper, zinc, magnesium, aluminum and calcium. The most suitable amine solvent and metal were selected by running a series of reactions with different amines and different zero-valent metals, in order to optimize the conditions under which complete degradation of mirex takes place. These dehalogenation reactions illustrated the role of zero-valent metals as reductants, whereas the amine solvents acted as proton donors. In this study, we report that mirex was completely degraded with diethyl amine (l) in the presence of copper at 100 deg. C and the hydrogenated products accounted for more than 94 of the degraded mirex

  11. Low-cost route for synthesis of mesoporous silica materials with high silanol groups and their application for Cu(II) removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yangang; Huang Sujun; Kang Shifei; Zhang Chengli; Li Xi


    Graphical abstract: A simple and low-cost route to synthesize mesoporous silica materials with high silanol groups has been demonstrated by means of a sol–gel process using citric acid as the template and acid catalyst, further studies on the adsorption of Cu(II) onto the representative amine-functionalized mesoporous silica showed that it had a high Cu(II) removal efficiency. Highlights: ► A low-cost route to synthesize mesoporous silica with high silanol groups was demonstrated. ► Citric acid as the template and acid catalyst for the reaction of tetraethylorthosilicate. ► Water extraction method was an effective technique to remove template which can be recycled. ► The mesoporous silica with high silanol groups was easily modified by functional groups. ► A high Cu(II) removal efficiency on the amine-functionalized mesoporous silica. - Abstract: We report a simple and low-cost route for the synthesis of mesoporous silica materials with high silanol groups by means of a sol–gel process using citric acid as the template, tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as the silica source under aqueous solution system. The citric acid can directly work as an acid catalyst for the hydrolysis of TEOS besides the function as a pore-forming agent in the synthesis. It was found that by using a water extraction method the citric acid template in as-prepared mesoporous silica composite can be easily removed and a high degree of silanol groups were retained in the mesopores, moreover, the citric acid template in the filtrate can be recycled after being dried. The structural properties of the obtained mesoporous silica materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and nitrogen adsorption–desorption analysis. Furthermore, an adsorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solution on the representative amine-functionalized mesoporous silica was investigated

  12. Fullerene-catalyzed reduction of azo derivatives in water under UV irradiation

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Yong


    Metal-free fullerene (C60) was found to be an effective catalyst for the reduction of azo groups in basic aqueous solution under UV irradiation in the presence of NaBH4. Use of NaBH4 by itself is not sufficient to reduce the azo dyes without the assistance of a metal catalyst such as Pd and Ag. Experimental and theoretical results suggest that C 60 catalyzes this reaction by using its vacant orbital to accept the electron in the bonding orbital of azo dyes, which leads to the activation of the N=N bond. UV irradiation increases the ability of C60 to interact with electron-donor moieties in azo dyes. Filling a vacancy: Experimental and theoretical methods have been combined to show that C60-catalyzed reductions of azo compounds form aromatic amines under UV irradiation (see scheme). The obtained results show that C60 acts as an electron acceptor to catalyze the reduction of azo compounds, and the role of UV irradiation is to increase the ability of C60 to interact with electron-donor moieties in azo compounds. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. New potential of the reductive alkylation of amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusak, K N; Ignatovich, Zh V; Koroleva, E V


    Available data on the reductive alkylation of amines with carbonyl compounds — a key method for the preparation of secondary and tertiary amines — are described systematically. The review provides information on the relevant reducing agents and catalysts and on the use of chiral catalysts in stereo- and enantiocontrolled reactions of amine synthesis. The effect of the reactant and catalyst structures on the reaction rates and chemo- and stereo(enantio)selectivity is considered. The bibliography includes 156 references

  14. Studies of Immobilized Homogeneous Metal Catalysts on Silica Supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanger, Keith James [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The tethered, chiral, chelating diphosphine rhodium complex, which catalyzes the enantioselective hydrogenation of methyl-α-acetamidocinnamate (MAC), has the illustrated structure as established by 31P NMR and IR studies. Spectral and catalytic investigations also suggest that the mechanism of action of the tethered complex is the same as that of the untethered complex in solution. The rhodium complexes, [Rh(COD)H]4, [Rh(COD)2]+BF4-, [Rh(COD)Cl]2, and RhCl3• 3H2O, adsorbed on SiO2 are optimally activated for toluene hydrogenation by pretreatment with H2 at 200 C. The same complexes on Pd-SiO2 are equally active without pretreatments. The active species in all cases is rhodium metal. The catalysts were characterized by XPS, TEM, DRIFTS, and mercury poisoning experiments. Rhodium on silica catalyzes the hydrogenation of fluorobenzene to produce predominantly fluorocyclohexane in heptane and 1,2-dichloroethane solvents. In heptane/methanol and heptane/water solvents, hydrodefluorination to benzene and subsequent hydrogenation to cyclohexane occurs exclusively. Benzene inhibits the hydrodefluorination of fluorobenzene. In DCE or heptane solvents, fluorocyclohexane reacts with hydrogen fluoride to form cyclohexene. Reaction conditions can be chosen to selectively yield fluorocyclohexane, cyclohexene, benzene, or cyclohexane. The oxorhenium(V) dithiolate catalyst [-S(CH2)3s-]Re(O)(Me)(PPh3) was modified by linking it to a tether that could be attached to a silica support. Spectroscopic investigation and catalytic oxidation reactivity showed the heterogenized catalyst's structure and reactivity to be similar to its homogeneous analog. However, the immobilized catalyst offered additional advantages of recyclability, extended stability, and increased resistance to deactivation.

  15. Silica Aerogel: Synthesis and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti L. Gurav


    Full Text Available Silica aerogels have drawn a lot of interest both in science and technology because of their low bulk density (up to 95% of their volume is air, hydrophobicity, low thermal conductivity, high surface area, and optical transparency. Aerogels are synthesized from molecular precursors by sol-gel processing. Special drying techniques must be applied to replace the pore liquid with air while maintaining the solid network. Supercritical drying is most common; however, recently developed methods allow removal of the liquid at atmospheric pressure after chemical modification of the inner surface of the gels, leaving only a porous silica network filled with air. Therefore, by considering the surprising properties of aerogels, the present review addresses synthesis of silica aerogels by the sol-gel method, as well as drying techniques and applications in current industrial development and scientific research.

  16. Evaluation of amine inhibitors for suitability as crevice buffering agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaweera, P.; Hettiarachchi, S.


    This report describes the results of a research effort to evaluate the suitability of some selected amines and amino acids as a crevice-buffering agents in pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generators. The amines may be useful for buffering acid crevices, and the amino acids, because they contain both acidic and basic groups, may be useful for acidic and caustic crevices. Five commercially available amines and two amino acids were studied during this research. The study involved (1) the hydrolysis of these commercially available amines and amino acids, including measurement of their kinetics of decomposition, in simulated steam generator bulk water at 290 C, and (2) determination of their thermal stability in a simulated crevice environment. The study showed that, although the high-molecular-weight amines undergo hydrothermal decomposition, they have a better buffering capacity than their low-molecular-weight counterparts at 290 C. The amines provide effective crevice buffering by increasing the pH of the crevice solution by as much as 2.84 and to 4.24 units in the experimental setup used in this program. It was concluded that polyamines provide excellent buffering of the simulated crevice environment at 290 C and morpholine remains the best low-molecular-weight amine investigated. However, detailed volatility studies of the amines were not considered in this work. Such data would be needed before in-plant testing to ensure that the amines can concentrate in steam generator crevices to the levels assumed in this study

  17. Bioengineering of the silica-polymerizing enzyme silicatein-alpha for a targeted application to hydroxyapatite. (United States)

    Natalio, Filipe; Link, Thorben; Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz C; Cui, Fu-Zhai; Wang, Xiaohong; Wiens, Matthias


    Since its discovery, numerous biotechnological approaches have aimed to explore the silica-polymerizing catalytic activity of the enzyme silicatein. In vivo, silicatein catalyzes polymerization of amorphous silica nanospheres from soluble precursors. In vitro, it directs the formation of nanostructured biosilica. This is of interest for various applications that strive to benefit from both the advantages of the biological system (i.e., silica synthesis under physiological conditions) and the cell mineralization-stimulating effect of biosilica. However, so far immobilization of silicatein has been hampered by the complex multistep procedure required. In addition, the chemical surface modifications involved not only restrict the choice of carrier materials but also render application of silicatein to hydroxyapatite (HA) of mineralized tissue impossible. Here we describe the bioengineering of silicatein, adapted for application in the fields of bone regeneration, tissue engineering, and dental care. Inspired by Glu-rich sequences of mammalian proteins that confer binding affinity to HA, a novel protein-tag was developed, the Glu-tag. Following expression of Glu-tagged silicatein, the HA-binding capacity of the enzyme is demonstrated in combination with synthetic and dental HA. Furthermore, immobilized Glu-tagged silicatein catalyzes synthesis of biosilica coatings on both synthetic HA nanofibrils and dental HA. Hence, Glu-tagged silicatein reveals a considerable biomedical potential with regenerative and prophylactic implementations. 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of silica RO membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Ayumi; Kawamoto, Takashi; Matsuyama, Emi; Utsumi, Keisuke; Nomura, Mikihiro; Sugimoto, Masaki; Yoshikawa, Masato


    Silica based membranes have been developed by using a counter diffusion CVD method. Effects of alkyl groups in the silica precursors and deposition temperatures had investigated in order to control pore sizes of the silica membranes. In this study, this type of a silica membrane was applied for RO separation. Effects of silica sources, deposition temperatures and post treatments had been investigated. Tetramethoxysilane (TMOS), Ethyltrimethoxysilane (ETMOS) and Phenyltrimethoxysilane (PhTMOS) were used as silica precursors. A counter diffusion CVD method was carried out for 90 min at 270 - 600degC on γ-alumina capillary substrates (effective length: 50 mm, φ: 4 nm: NOK Co.). O 3 or O 2 was introduced into the inside of the substrate at the O 2 rate of 0.2 L min -1 . Ion beam irradiation was carried out for a post treatment using Os at 490 MeV for 1.0 x 10 10 ions cm -2 or 3.0 x 10 10 ions cm -2 . Single gas permeance was measured by using H 2 , N 2 and SF 6 . RO tests were employed at 3.0 or 5.4 MPa for 100 mg L -1 of feed NaCl solution. First, effects of the silica sources were investigated. The total fluxes increased by increasing N 2 permeance through the silica membrane deposited by ETMOS. The maximum NaCl rejection was 28.2% at 12.2 kg m -2 h -1 of the total flux through the membrane deposited at 270degC. N 2 permeance was 9.6 x 10 -9 mol m -2 s -1 Pa -1 . While, total fluxes through the membrane deposited by using PhTMOS were smaller than those through the ETMOS membranes. The phenyl groups for the PhTMOS membrane must be important for the hydrophobic properties through the membrane. Next, effects of ion beam irradiation were tested for the TMOS membranes. Water is difficult to permeate through the TMOS membranes due to the low N 2 permeance through the membrane (3.1 x 10 -11 mol m -2 s -1 Pa -1 ). N 2 permeance increased to 7.3 x 10 -9 mol m -2 s -1 Pa -1 by the irradiation. Irradiation amounts had little effects on N 2 permeance. However, NaCl rejections

  19. Synthesis of colloidal silica dumbbells. (United States)

    Johnson, Patrick M; van Kats, Carlos M; van Blaaderen, Alfons


    We describe the synthesis and characterization of stable suspensions of monodisperse fluorescently labeled silica dumbbell particles. Pure dispersions of silica dumbbells with center-to-center lengths from 174 nm to 2.3 microm were produced with a variety of aspect ratios. Individual particles in concentrated dispersions of these particles could be imaged with confocal microscopy. These particles can be used as a colloidal model system for addressing fundamental questions about crystal and glass formation of low-aspect-ratio anisotropic particles. They also have potential in photonic applications and electro-optical devices.

  20. Recent advances in the ruthenium(ii)-catalyzed chelation-assisted C-H olefination of substituted aromatics, alkenes and heteroaromatics with alkenes via the deprotonation pathway. (United States)

    Manikandan, Rajendran; Jeganmohan, Masilamani


    The transition-metal-catalyzed chelation-assisted alkenylation at the inert C-H bond of aromatics with alkenes is one of the efficient methods to synthesize substituted vinylarenes in a highly regio- and stereoselective manner. Palladium, rhodium and ruthenium complexes are frequently used as catalysts for this type of transformation. The present review describes the recent advances in the ruthenium-catalyzed chelation-assisted alkenylation at the C-H bond of aromatics, alkenes and heteroaromatics with alkenes via the deprotonation pathway. Several directing groups including 2-pyridyl, carbonyl, amidine, amide, amine, imidate, sulphonic acid, triazole, cyano, oxazolidinone and hydontoin are widely used in the reaction. The scope, limitation and mechanistic investigation of the alkenylation reactions are discussed elaborately. This feature article includes all the reported ruthenium-catalyzed alkenylation reactions via the deprotonation pathway until the end of March 2017.

  1. Solid-State NMR and DFT Studies on the Formation of Well-Defined Silica-Supported Tantallaaziridines: From Synthesis to Catalytic Application

    KAUST Repository

    Hamzaoui, Bilel


    Single-site, well-defined, silica-supported tantallaaziridine intermediates [≡Si-O-Ta(η2-NRCH2)(NMe2)2] [R=Me (2), Ph (3)] were prepared from silica-supported tetrakis(dimethylamido)tantalum [≡Si-O-Ta(NMe2)4] (1) and fully characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and 1H,13C HETCOR and DQ TQ solid-state (SS) NMR spectroscopy. The formation mechanism, by β-H abstraction, was investigated by SS NMR spectroscopy and supported by DFT calculations. The C-H activation of the dimethylamide ligand is favored for R=Ph. The results from catalytic testing in the hydroaminoalkylation of alkenes were consistent with the N-alkyl aryl amine substrates being more efficient than N-dialkyl amines. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Niobia-silica and silica membranes for gas separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffa, V.


    This thesis describes the development of ceramic membranes suitable for hydrogen separation and CO2 recovery from gaseous streams. The research work was focused on the three different parts of which gas selective ceramic membranes are composed, i.e., the microporous gas selective silica layer, the

  3. Structure of silica-supported catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladden, L.F.; Vignaux, M.; Griffiths, R.W.; Jackson, S.D.; Jones, J.R.; Sharratt, A.P.; Robertson, F.J.; Webb, G.


    Neutron diffraction and SANS studies of silica supported metal catalysts have indicated that more active metal:silica catalysts are produced when the silica support has a relatively high content of three-membered rings in its network structure. SANS studies also suggest that the more active catalysts possess a bimodal metal particle size distribution. (orig.)

  4. Sonochemical coating of magnetite nanoparticles with silica. (United States)

    Dang, Feng; Enomoto, Naoya; Hojo, Junichi; Enpuku, Keiji


    Magnetite nanoparticles were coated with silica through the hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) under ultrasonic irradiation. The ultrasonic irradiation was used to prevent the agglomeration of the magnetite particles and accelerate the hydrolysis and condensation of TEOS. TEM, DLS, XRF, VSM, TG and sedimentation test were used to characterize the silica-coated magnetite particles. The dispersibility of silica-coated magnetite particles in aqueous solution was improved significantly and the agglomerate particle size was decreased to 110 nm. It was found that the agglomerate particle size of silica-coated magnetite particles was mainly decided by the coating temperature and the pH value in the silica-coating process. The weight ratio of silica in silica-coated magnetite particles was mainly decided by the pH value in the silica-coating process. The dispersibility of silica-coated magnetite particles was mainly decided by the agglomerate particle size of the suspension. The oxidation of magnetite particles in air was limited through the coated silica. The magnetism of silica-coated magnetite particles decreased slightly after silica-coating.

  5. 21 CFR 584.700 - Hydrophobic silicas. (United States)


    ...) Product. Amorphous fumed hydrophobic silica or precipitated hydrophobic silica (CAS Reg. No. 68611-0944... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrophobic silicas. 584.700 Section 584.700 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE IN FEED AND...

  6. A Simple and Mild Acylation of Alcohols, Phenols, Amines, and Thiols with a Reusable Heteropoly Acid Catalyst (H6P2W18O62·24 H2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo P. Romanelli


    Full Text Available The acylation of alcohols, phenols, thiols, and amines with varied substitution using acid anhydrides is efficiently catalyzed by Wells-Dawson heteropoly acid (H6P2W18O62·24 H2O. Reactions proceed with very good to excellent yield in air at room temperature, using toluene as solvent (40 examples. The bulk catalyst was easily reused without appreciable loss of its activity.

  7. A One-Pot Selective Synthesis of N-Boc Protected Secondary Amines: Tandem Direct Reductive Amination/N-Boc Protection


    Neelarapu, Raghupathi; Petukhov, Pavel A.


    A one-pot tandem direct reductive amination of aldehydes with primary amines resulting in N-Boc secondary amines using a (Boc)2O/sodium triacetoxyborohydride (STAB) system is reported. The tandem procedure is efficient, selective, and versatile, giving excellent yields of N-Boc protected secondary amines even in those cases where the products are prone to intramolecular lactamization

  8. A One-Pot Selective Synthesis of N-Boc Protected Secondary Amines: Tandem Direct Reductive Amination/N-Boc Protection. (United States)

    Neelarapu, Raghupathi; Petukhov, Pavel A


    A one-pot tandem direct reductive amination of aldehydes with primary amines resulting in N-Boc secondary amines using a (Boc)(2)O/sodium triacetoxyborohydride (STAB) system is reported. The tandem procedure is efficient, selective, and versatile, giving excellent yields of N-Boc protected secondary amines even in those cases where the products are prone to intramolecular lactamization.

  9. Covalent immobilization of oxylipin biosynthetic enzymes on nanoporous rice husk silica for production of cis(+)-12-oxophytodienoic acid. (United States)

    Le, Thu Bao; Han, Chong Soo; Cho, Kyoungwon; Han, Oksoo


    Soybean lipoxygenase, recombinant rice allene oxide synthase-1 and rice allene oxide cyclase were covalently immobilized on nanoporous rice husk silica using two types of linkers: glutardialdehyde and polyethylene glycol. The immobilization efficiency achieved using glutardialdehyde-linked rice husk silica was higher than that achieved using polyethylene glycol-linked rice husk silica (50-92% and 25-50%, respectively). Immobilization on both types of matrices significantly decreased the specific activities of the immobilized enzymes. Solid-phase reaction yields of the enzymes were determined relative to the yields observed for the solution-phase reactions. Yields of the solid-phase reactions catalyzed by immobilized soybean lipoxygenase, rice allene oxide synthase-1, and rice allene oxide cyclase ranged from 50% to 230% and were dependent on both the enzymes and linkers used. Production of cis(+)-12-oxophytodienoic acid from α-linolenic acid by consecutive reactions using all three enzymes in a co-immobilization system resulted in 83.6% and 65.1% yields on glutardialdehyde-linked and epichlorohydrin-polyethylene glycol-linked rice husk silica, respectively. Our results suggest that immobilization of biosynthetic enzymes of the octadecanoid pathway on rice husk silica may be an efficient method for the in vitro production of oxylipins. Additionally, enzyme immobilizations on rice husk silica matrices may be more broadly applicable for producing physiologically important compounds in other biosynthetic pathways.

  10. Functionalized silica materials for electrocatalysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    electrochemical sensors and biosensors.1–5 Templated routes to synthesize silica materials give rise to well- ordered structures with pores and interconnected chan- nels, whereas a .... 2.2 Fabrication of electrodes. An aqueous colloidal solution (0.5–1.0%) of the res- pective material was prepared together with 0.01% poly.

  11. Poling of Planar Silica Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Jesper; Kristensen, Martin; Jensen, Jesper Bo


    UV-written planar silica waveguides are poled using two different poling techniques, thermal poling and UV-poling. Thermal poling induces an electro-optic coefficient of 0.067 pm/V. We also demonstrate simultaneous UV-writing and UV-poling. The induced electro-optic effect shows a linear dependence...

  12. Functionalized silica materials for electrocatalysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To increase the efficiency of the electrocatalytic process and to increase the electrochemical accessibility of the immobilized electrocatalysts, functionalized and non-functionalized mesoporous organo-silica (MCM41-type-materials) are used in this study. These materials possess several suitable properties to be durable ...

  13. Trypsin-catalyzed deltamethrin degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunrong Xiong

    Full Text Available To explore if trypsin could catalyze the degradation of non-protein molecule deltamethrin, we compared in vitro hydrolytic reactions of deltamethrin in the presence and absence of trypsin with ultraviolet-visible (UV/Vis spectrophotometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. In addition, acute oral toxicity of the degradation products was determined in Wistar rats. The results show that the absorption peak of deltamethrin is around 264 nm, while the absorption peaks of deltamethrin degradation products are around 250 nm and 296 nm. In our GC setting, the retention time of undegraded deltamethrin was 37.968 min, while those of deltamethrin degradation products were 15.289 min and 18.730 min. The LD50 of deltamethrin in Wistar rats is 55 mg/kg, while that of deltamethrin degradation products is 3358 mg/kg in female rats and 1045 mg/kg in male rates (61-fold and 19-fold reductions in toxicity, suggesting that trypsin could directly degrade deltamethrin, which significantly reduces the toxicity of deltamethrin. These results expand people's understanding of the functions of proteases and point to potential applications of trypsin as an attractive agent to control residual pesticides in the environment and on agricultural products.

  14. Silica-Coated Liposomes for Insulin Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Dwivedi


    Full Text Available Liposomes coated with silica were explored as protein delivery vehicles for their enhanced stability and improved encapsulation efficiency. Insulin was encapsulated within the fluidic phosphatidylcholine lipid vesicles by thin film hydration at pH 2.5, and layer of silica was formed above lipid bilayer by acid catalysis. The presence of silica coating and encapsulated insulin was identified using confocal and electron microscopy. The native state of insulin present in the formulation was evident from Confocal Micro-Raman spectroscopy. Silica coat enhances the stability of insulin-loaded delivery vehicles. In vivo study shows that these silica coated formulations were biologically active in reducing glucose levels.

  15. Colorimetric-based detection of TNT explosives using functionalized silica nanoparticles. (United States)

    Idros, Noorhayati; Ho, Man Yi; Pivnenko, Mike; Qasim, Malik M; Xu, Hua; Gu, Zhongze; Chu, Daping


    This proof-of-concept study proposes a novel sensing mechanism for selective and label-free detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). It is realized by surface chemistry functionalization of silica nanoparticles (NPs) with 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES). The primary amine anchored to the surface of the silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NH2) acts as a capturing probe for TNT target binding to form Meisenheimer amine-TNT complexes. A colorimetric change of the self-assembled (SAM) NP samples from the initial green of a SiO2-NH2 nanoparticle film towards red was observed after successful attachment of TNT, which was confirmed as a result of the increased separation between the nanoparticles. The shift in the peak wavelength of the reflected light normal to the film surface and the associated change of the peak width were measured, and a merit function taking into account their combined effect was proposed for the detection of TNT concentrations from 10-12 to 10-4 molar. The selectivity of our sensing approach is confirmed by using TNT-bound nanoparticles incubated in AptamerX, with 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) and toluene used as control and baseline, respectively. Our results show the repeatable systematic color change with the TNT concentration and the possibility to develop a robust, easy-to-use, and low-cost TNT detection method for performing a sensitive, reliable, and semi-quantitative detection in a wide detection range.

  16. Thermodynamics of organic mixtures containing amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Juan Antonio [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain)]. E-mail:; Mozo, Ismael [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain); Fuente, Isaias Garcia de la [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain); Cobos, Jose Carlos [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain)


    Binary mixtures containing pyridine (PY), or 2-methylpyridine (2MPY) or 3-methylpyridine (3MPY) or 4-methylpyridine (4MPY) and an organic solvent as benzene, toluene, alkane, or 1-alkanol are investigated in the framework of DISQUAC. The corresponding interaction parameters are reported. The model describes accurately a whole set of thermodynamic properties: vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE), liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE), solid-liquid equilibria (SLE), molar excess Gibbs energies (G{sup E}), molar excess enthalpies (H{sup E}), molar excess heat capacities at constant pressure (C{sub P}{sup E}) and the concentration-concentration structure factor (S{sub CC}(0)). It is remarkable that DISQUAC correctly predicts the W-shaped curve of the C{sub P}{sup E} of the pyridine + n-hexadecane system. The model can be applied successfully to mixtures with strong positive or negative deviations from the Raoult's law. DISQUAC improves the theoretical results from UNIFAC (Dortmund version). The replacement of pyridine by a methylpyridine leads to a weakening of the amine-amine interactions, ascribed to the steric effect caused by the methyl group attached to the aromatic ring. This explains that for a given solvent (alkane, 1-alkanol) H{sup E}(pyridine)>H{sup E}(methylpyridine)

  17. Thermodynamics of organic mixtures containing amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Juan Antonio; Mozo, Ismael; Fuente, Isaias Garcia de la; Cobos, Jose Carlos


    Binary mixtures containing pyridine (PY), or 2-methylpyridine (2MPY) or 3-methylpyridine (3MPY) or 4-methylpyridine (4MPY) and an organic solvent as benzene, toluene, alkane, or 1-alkanol are investigated in the framework of DISQUAC. The corresponding interaction parameters are reported. The model describes accurately a whole set of thermodynamic properties: vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE), liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE), solid-liquid equilibria (SLE), molar excess Gibbs energies (G E ), molar excess enthalpies (H E ), molar excess heat capacities at constant pressure (C P E ) and the concentration-concentration structure factor (S CC (0)). It is remarkable that DISQUAC correctly predicts the W-shaped curve of the C P E of the pyridine + n-hexadecane system. The model can be applied successfully to mixtures with strong positive or negative deviations from the Raoult's law. DISQUAC improves the theoretical results from UNIFAC (Dortmund version). The replacement of pyridine by a methylpyridine leads to a weakening of the amine-amine interactions, ascribed to the steric effect caused by the methyl group attached to the aromatic ring. This explains that for a given solvent (alkane, 1-alkanol) H E (pyridine)>H E (methylpyridine)

  18. Reducing tube bundle deposition with alternative amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, C.W.; Klimas, S.J.; Frattini, P.L.


    Particle deposition rates have been measured in a high-temperature loop for magnetite and hematite depositing onto Inconel-600 under flow-boiling conditions with pH controlled using one of the following amines: morpholine, ammonia, ethanolamine, or dimethylamine. Hematite particles deposited at rates an order of magnitude greater than those measured for magnetite, although the hematite deposition rate dropped when the loop was operated under reducing conditions. The magnetite deposition rate was influenced by the amine used to control the pH, with the relative rate decreasing in the following series: morpholine (1) : ethanolamine (0.72) ammonia (0.51) : dimethylamine (0.25). These trends in deposition rate are discussed in terms of the surface chemistry of the corrosion products. Deposition rates for both magnetite and hematite increased significantly once the mixture quality exceeded about 0.3, which may be related to a change in the heat transfer mechanism from nucleate boiling to two-phase forced convection through a thin film. (author)

  19. Uranium incorporation into amorphous silica. (United States)

    Massey, Michael S; Lezama-Pacheco, Juan S; Nelson, Joey M; Fendorf, Scott; Maher, Kate


    High concentrations of uranium are commonly observed in naturally occurring amorphous silica (including opal) deposits, suggesting that incorporation of U into amorphous silica may represent a natural attenuation mechanism and promising strategy for U remediation. However, the stability of uranium in opaline silicates, determined in part by the binding mechanism for U, is an important factor in its long-term fate. U may bind directly to the opaline silicate matrix, or to materials such as iron (hydr)oxides that are subsequently occluded within the opal. Here, we examine the coordination environment of U within opaline silica to elucidate incorporation mechanisms. Precipitates (with and without ferrihydrite inclusions) were synthesized from U-bearing sodium metasilicate solutions, buffered at pH ∼ 5.6. Natural and synthetic solids were analyzed with X-ray absorption spectroscopy and a suite of other techniques. In synthetic amorphous silica, U was coordinated by silicate in a double corner-sharing coordination geometry (Si at ∼ 3.8-3.9 Å) and a small amount of uranyl and silicate in a bidentate, mononuclear (edge-sharing) coordination (Si at ∼ 3.1-3.2 Å, U at ∼ 3.8-3.9 Å). In iron-bearing synthetic solids, U was adsorbed to iron (hydr)oxide, but the coordination environment also contained silicate in both edge-sharing and corner-sharing coordination. Uranium local coordination in synthetic solids is similar to that of natural U-bearing opals that retain U for millions of years. The stability and extent of U incorporation into opaline and amorphous silica represents a long-term repository for U that may provide an alternative strategy for remediation of U contamination.

  20. Can laccases catalyze bond cleavage in lignin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Line; Sitarz, Anna Katarzyna; Kalyani, Dayanand


    Modification of lignin is recognized as an important aspect of the successful refining of lignocellulosic biomass, and enzyme-assisted processing and upcycling of lignin is receiving significant attention in the literature. Laccases (EC 1.103.2) are taking the centerstage of this attention, since...... these enzymes may help degrading lignin, using oxygen as the oxidant. Laccases can catalyze polymerization of lignin, but the question is whether and how laccases can directly catalyze modification of lignin via catalytic bond cleavage. Via a thorough review of the available literature and detailed...... illustrations of the putative laccase catalyzed reactions, including the possible reactions of the reactive radical intermediates taking place after the initial oxidation of the phenol-hydroxyl groups, we show that i) Laccase activity is able to catalyze bond cleavage in low molecular weight phenolic lignin...

  1. Acetylation and oxygenation transformations catalyzed by silica-supported dodecatungstophosphoric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Tayebee


    Full Text Available Acetylation of alcohols in refluxing ethyl acetate, and oxidation of aniline and cyclohexanol with 34 % H2O2 in the presence of H3PW12O40 and its supported forms on SiO2 (20 %, 40 %, and 60 % by weight as active solid acid catalysts were performed under mild reaction conditions with moderate to good yields and with 100 % selectivity. It is found that the supported H3PW12O40 was in general 1.4-2.3 times more efficient than the unsupported catalyst in the acetylation and oxygenation reactions. Easy work-up and effective recycling of the heterogeneous catalyst were distinct advantages of the catalytic heterogeneous system.

  2. Ni/Silica catalyzed acetylation of phenols and naphthols: An eco-friendly approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manawwer Alam


    Full Text Available A method for 10% Ni/SiO2 catalyst is developed for acetylation of phenol, substituted phenols, naphthols, substituted alcohols under mild liquid phase conditions affording aromatic esters with maximum conversions of 50–80% and 100% selectivity. The catalyst showed remarkable reusability for up to 4 cycles. This methodology is eco-friendly, economic with Ni/SiO2 catalysts exhibiting no loss of activity the first report for acetylation of substituted phenols to esters with 10% Ni/SiO2 catalyst.

  3. Cyclodimerization of Stilbenes and Styrenes Catalyzed by Heteropolyacid Supported on Silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lantaño


    Full Text Available Several stilbenes and styrenes have been treated with heteropolyacid] (HPA supported over silice. The compounds obtained were characterized by 1H and 13C- NMR and the yields were compared with those obtained using H2SO4 (c and ethyl poliphosphate] (PPE.

  4. Surface properties and water treatment capacity of surface engineered silica coated with 3-(2-aminoethyl) aminopropyltrimethoxysilane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majewski, Peter, E-mail: [School of Advanced Manufacturing and Mechanical Engineering, Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Adelaide (Australia); Keegan, Alexandra [Microbiology Research, Australian Water Quality Centre, South Australian Water Corporation, Adelaide (Australia)


    This study's focus was on the water-based, one-pot preparation and characterisation of silica particles coated with 3-(2-aminoethyl)aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (Diamo) and the efficiency of the material in removing the pathogens Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium immunogenum, Vibrio cholerae, poliovirus, and Cryptosporidium parvum. The water-based processing resulted in Diamo coated silica particles with significantly increased positive surface charge as determined by zeta potential measurements. In addition, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry of pure and Diamo coated silica confirmed the presence of Diamo on the surface of the particles. Thermogravimetric measurements and chemical analysis of the silica indicated a surface concentration of amine groups of about 1 mmol/g{sub silica}. Water treatment tests with the pathogens showed that a dose of about 10 g appeared to be sufficient to remove pathogens from pure water samples which were spiked with pathogen concentrations between about 10{sup 2} and 10{sup 4} cfu/mL.

  5. Copper-Catalyzed Oxidative Dehydrogenative Carboxylation of Unactivated Alkanes to Allylic Esters via Alkenes (United States)


    We report copper-catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenative carboxylation (ODC) of unactivated alkanes with various substituted benzoic acids to produce the corresponding allylic esters. Spectroscopic studies (EPR, UV–vis) revealed that the resting state of the catalyst is [(BPI)Cu(O2CPh)] (1-O2CPh), formed from [(BPI)Cu(PPh3)2], oxidant, and benzoic acid. Catalytic and stoichiometric reactions of 1-O2CPh with alkyl radicals and radical probes imply that C–H bond cleavage occurs by a tert-butoxy radical. In addition, the deuterium kinetic isotope effect from reactions of cyclohexane and d12-cyclohexane in separate vessels showed that the turnover-limiting step for the ODC of cyclohexane is C–H bond cleavage. To understand the origin of the difference in products formed from copper-catalyzed amidation and copper-catalyzed ODC, reactions of an alkyl radical with a series of copper–carboxylate, copper–amidate, and copper–imidate complexes were performed. The results of competition experiments revealed that the relative rate of reaction of alkyl radicals with the copper complexes follows the trend Cu(II)–amidate > Cu(II)–imidate > Cu(II)–benzoate. Consistent with this trend, Cu(II)–amidates and Cu(II)–benzoates containing more electron-rich aryl groups on the benzamidate and benzoate react faster with the alkyl radical than do those with more electron-poor aryl groups on these ligands to produce the corresponding products. These data on the ODC of cyclohexane led to preliminary investigation of copper-catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenative amination of cyclohexane to generate a mixture of N-alkyl and N-allylic products. PMID:25389772

  6. Amine-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as robust support for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and 2,2 -(ethylenedioxy)bis(ethylamine) (EDBE) as amine precursors. These aminated nanoparticles were used as support for the immobilization of lipase, an important industrial enzyme. Lipase was immobilized via glutaraldehyde coupling agent. These functionalized nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, FTIR, TEM,.

  7. Efficient acetylation of primary amines and amino acids in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present methodology illustrates the efficient acetylation of primary amines and amino acids in brine solution by means of acetyl chloride under weakly basic condition in the presence of sodium acetate and/or triethyl amine followed by trituration with aqueous saturated bicarbonate solution. This effort represents the first ...

  8. Linear free energy relationship in reactions between diphenyl amine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 118; Issue 3. Linear free energy relationship in reactions between diphenyl amine and benzyl bromides. S Ranga Reddy P Manikyamba. Volume ... Keywords. Diphenyl amine; substituent effect; reaction constant; isokinetic temperature; linear free energy relationship.

  9. Conditions allowing the formation of biogenic amines in cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, H.M.L.J.


    A study was undertaken to reveal the conditions that allow the formation of biogenic amines in cheese.

    The starters most commonly used in the Dutch cheese industry do not have decarboxylative properties. Only if the milk or curd is contaminated with non-starter bacteria, amine

  10. Amine-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as robust support for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    surface were prepared through solvothermal method, using poly(ethylene imine) (PEI), ethanolamine (EA), and 2,2 -(ethylenedioxy)bis(ethylamine) (EDBE) as amine precursors. These aminated nanoparticles were used as support for the immobilization of lipase, an important industrial enzyme. Lipase was immobilized via.

  11. Predicting the phospholipophilicity of monoprotic positively charged amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droge, S T J; Hermens, J L M; Gutsell, S; Rabone, J; Hodges, G


    The sorption affinity of eighty-six charged amine structures to phospholipid monolayers (log KIAM) was determined using immobilized artificial membrane high-performance liquid chromatography (IAM-HPLC). The amine compounds covered the most prevalent types of polar groups, widely ranged in structural

  12. Diesel fuel containing polyalkylene amine and Mannich base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harle, O.L.


    Disclosed is a fuel additive and fuel composition. The additive comprises a mixture of a polyalkylene amine and the reaction product of an alkylphenol, an aldehyde and an amine. The additive provides surprising stability in preventing thermal degradation of fuels, particularly fuels for compression ignition engines.

  13. Biodiesel production by enzyme-catalyzed transesterification


    Stamenković Olivera S.; Lazić Miodrag L.; Veljković Vlada B.; Skala Dejan U.


    The principles and kinetics of biodiesel production from vegetable oils using lipase-catalyzed transesterification are reviewed. The most important operating factors affecting the reaction and the yield of alkyl esters, such as: the type and form of lipase, the type of alcohol, the presence of organic solvents, the content of water in the oil, temperature and the presence of glycerol are discussed. In order to estimate the prospects of lipase-catalyzed transesterification for industrial appli...

  14. Peptidyl prolyl isomerase Pin1-inhibitory activity of D-glutamic and D-aspartic acid derivatives bearing a cyclic aliphatic amine moiety. (United States)

    Nakagawa, Hidehiko; Seike, Suguru; Sugimoto, Masatoshi; Ieda, Naoya; Kawaguchi, Mitsuyasu; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Miyata, Naoki


    Pin1 is a peptidyl prolyl isomerase that specifically catalyzes cis-trans isomerization of phosphorylated Thr/Ser-Pro peptide bonds in substrate proteins and peptides. Pin1 is involved in many important cellular processes, including cancer progression, so it is a potential target of cancer therapy. We designed and synthesized a novel series of Pin1 inhibitors based on a glutamic acid or aspartic acid scaffold bearing an aromatic moiety to provide a hydrophobic surface and a cyclic aliphatic amine moiety with affinity for the proline-binding site of Pin1. Glutamic acid derivatives bearing cycloalkylamino and phenylthiazole groups showed potent Pin1-inhibitory activity comparable with that of known inhibitor VER-1. The results indicate that steric interaction of the cyclic alkyl amine moiety with binding site residues plays a key role in enhancing Pin1-inhibitory activity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Organically Modified Silica Nanoparticles Interaction with Macrophage Cells: Assessment of Cell Viability on the Basis of Physicochemical Properties. (United States)

    Kumar, Dhiraj; Mutreja, Isha; Keshvan, Prashant C; Bhat, Madhusudan; Dinda, Amit K; Mitra, Susmita


    Silica nanoparticles have drawn a lot of attention for nanomedicine application, and this is attributed to their biocompatibility and ease of surface functionalization. However, successful utilization of these inorganic systems for biomedical application depends on their physicochemical properties. This study, therefore, discusses in vitro toxicity of organically modified silica nanoparticles on the basis of size, shape, and surface properties of silica nanoparticles. Spherical- and oval-shaped nanoparticles having hydroxyl and amine groups were synthesized in Tween 80 micelles using different organosilanes. Nanoparticles of similar size and morphology were considered for comparative assessment. "As-prepared" nanoparticles were characterized in terms of size, shape, and surface properties using ZetaSizer, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared to establish the above parameters. In vitro analysis in terms of nanoparticle-based toxicity was performed on J-774 (macrophage) cell line using propidium iodide-4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindol and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays. Fluorescent dye-entrapped nanoparticles were used to visualize the uptake of the nanoparticles by macrophage cells. Results from cell studies suggested low levels of toxicity for different nanoparticle formulations studied, therefore are suitable for nanocarrier application for poorly soluble molecules. On the contrary, the nanoparticles of similar size and shape, having amine groups and low net negative charge, do not exhibit any in vitro cytotoxicity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  16. Can laccases catalyze bond cleavage in lignin? (United States)

    Munk, Line; Sitarz, Anna K; Kalyani, Dayanand C; Mikkelsen, J Dalgaard; Meyer, Anne S


    Modification of lignin is recognized as an important aspect of the successful refining of lignocellulosic biomass, and enzyme-assisted processing and upcycling of lignin is receiving significant attention in the literature. Laccases (EC are taking the centerstage of this attention, since these enzymes may help degrading lignin, using oxygen as the oxidant. Laccases can catalyze polymerization of lignin, but the question is whether and how laccases can directly catalyze modification of lignin via catalytic bond cleavage. Via a thorough review of the available literature and detailed illustrations of the putative laccase catalyzed reactions, including the possible reactions of the reactive radical intermediates taking place after the initial oxidation of the phenol-hydroxyl groups, we show that i) Laccase activity is able to catalyze bond cleavage in low molecular weight phenolic lignin model compounds; ii) For laccases to catalyze inter-unit bond cleavage in lignin substrates, the presence of a mediator system is required. Clearly, the higher the redox potential of the laccase enzyme, the broader the range of substrates, including o- and p-diphenols, aminophenols, methoxy-substituted phenols, benzenethiols, polyphenols, and polyamines, which may be oxidized. In addition, the currently available analytical methods that can be used to detect enzyme catalyzed changes in lignin are summarized, and an improved nomenclature for unequivocal interpretation of the action of laccases on lignin is proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of polyimide silica hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, S.M.


    Flexible-chain polyimide (PIF) was synthesized from 4, 4'-oxydianiline (ODA) and pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) and the stiff-chain polyimide (PI S ) was derived from 1, 5-diaminonepthaline (DAN) and pyromellitic anhydride (PMDA). Molecular composites of polyimide were prepared by embedding the stiff-chain polyimide (PIS) in to ductile matrix of flexible-polyimide (PI F ) by blending their respective poly(amic acid) solution (20:80). Blend of rigid and flexible polyimide (20:80) was reinforced with silica up to 35 wt % by sol-gel process to form the silica reinforced molecular composite (SRMC). Silica reinforced molecular composite (SRMC) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetry (TG) and tensile testing (TT). FTIR results showed the shifting of Si - O - Si peak toward lower wave number with the increase in the silica wt % indicates the increase in the silica particle size. The oxidative degradation of SRMC showed an improvement of 23 degree C in composite having 30 wt% silica contents. Similarly, modulus of SRMC was increased as the concentration of silica was increased. Silica reinforced (co-)polyimide (SRCO) was prepared from the same monomers DAN, ODA and PMDA (20:80:100) and reinforced with different of silica up to 35 wt%. Comparison of thermo-mechanical properties of SRMC with SRCO was also done. Both the composite showed similar peak shift to low wave number with the increase in the wt% of silica was observed as in the case of SRMC. TG results of SRCO showed the 13 degree C improvement in the oxidative degradation with 30 wt% silica content. Tensile testing shows the 80% increase in the modulus with 35 wt% silica content. The result showed that SRMC are 15 degree C more stable than SRCO with 30 wt% silica. SRMC have 15% more modulus than SRCO with 30 wt% silica. This shows that thermo mechanical stability of SRMC's over SRCO's composites. (author)

  18. Bioinspired enzymatic synthesis of silica nanocrystals provided by recombinant silicatein from the marine sponge Latrunculia oparinae. (United States)

    Shkryl, Yury N; Bulgakov, Victor P; Veremeichik, Galina N; Kovalchuk, Svetlana N; Kozhemyako, Valery B; Kamenev, Dmitrii G; Semiletova, Irina V; Timofeeva, Yana O; Shchipunov, Yury A; Kulchin, Yury N


    The process of silica formation in marine sponges is thought to be mediated by a family of catalytically active structure-directing enzymes called silicateins. It has been demonstrated in biomimicking syntheses that silicateins facilitated the formation of amorphous SiO2. Here, we present evidence that the silicatein LoSiLA1 from the marine sponge Latrunculia oparinae catalyzes the in vitro synthesis of hexa-tetrahedral SiO2 crystals of 200–300 nm. This was possible in the presence of the silica precursor tetrakis-(2-hydroxyethyl)-orthosilicate that is completely soluble in water and biocompatible, experiences hydrolysis–condensation at neutral pH and ambient conditions.

  19. Preparation of hollow silica nanospheres in O/W microemulsion system by hydrothermal temperature changes (United States)

    Wang, Dandan; Li, Xiuyan; Liu, Zuohua; Shi, Xue; Zhou, Guowei


    Hollow silica nanospheres with wrinkled or smooth surfaces were successfully fabricated through a hydrothermal method. In this method, oil-in-water microemulsion (composed of cyclohexane, water, ethanol, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide), and polyvinylpyrrolidone were utilized as template and capping agent, respectively. In such a facile synthesis, we can well realize the morphological transformation of spheres with radially oriented mesochannels to hollow structures of silica nanoparticle only by regulating the hydrothermal temperature from 100 °C to 200 °C. Synthesized samples with different mesostructures were then used as supports to immobilize Candida rugosa lipase (CRL). The immobilized CRL was employed as a new biocatalyst for biodiesel production through the esterification of heptanoic acid with ethanol. The conversion ratio of heptanoic acid with ethanol catalyzed by the immobilized CRL was also evaluated. Results of this study suggest that the prepared samples have potential applications in biocatalysis.

  20. Biogenic amines degradation by microorganisms isolated from cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Butor


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of microorganisms able to degrade biogenic amines and their identification. Individual microorganisms were obtained by isolation from commercially available foodstuffs and food produced in the technological laboratories of Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlín and subsequently identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The results of MALDI-TOF MS identification were verified by 16S rRNA sequenation. In this work was studied the ability of 5 bacterial strains positive to biogenic amines degradation isolated from dairy products to decrease biogenic amines content in vitro and quantified reduction in the concentration of biogenic amines tryptamine, β-phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine. The level of degradation (decrease of biogenic amines was determined on the base of the ability to grow in media with biogenic amines as the sole source carbon and nitrogen. The isolated strains with the ability of degradation of one or more biogenic amines were cultured in medium supplemented with relevant biogenic amines, the media derivatized with dansyl chloride and these amines separated by HPLC at a wavelength of 254 nm. From five tested strains identified as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Enterobacter cloacae, Rhizobium radiobacter and Acinetobacter pitii, isolated from gouda type cheese, the greatest ability of degradation was observed in Bacillus subtilis, which was capable to degrade almost all amount of histamine, cadaverine and putrescine. Other four strains showed a lower rate of degradation than Bacillus subtilis, but the ability to degrade biogenic amines with these microorganisms was still significant.

  1. Heterocyclic amines produced in cooked food: unavoidable xenobiotics. (United States)

    Sugimura, T; Wakabayashi, K; Ohgaki, H; Takayama, S; Nagao, M; Esumi, H


    Humans are continuously exposed to naturally occurring and industrial xenobiotics in their daily lives. Heterocyclic amines, which are formed during the cooking of proteinaceous foods, have been categorized as a new class of naturally occurring xenobiotics. They are divided into 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoline (IQ)- and non-IQ-types. The amounts and proportion of total mutagenicity contributed by the IQ-type heterocyclic amines in cooked food are greater than those of the non-IQ-types. Precursors of the IQ-type heterocyclic amines including IQ, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) are creatinine, amino acids and sugars in meat and fish. Both types of heterocyclic amines are carcinogenic in mice and rats. All heterocyclic amines except PhIP frequently induce cancers in the liver, while PhIP induces lymphomas in mice and carcinomas of the colon and mammary gland in rats. Based on quantitative analysis of heterocyclic amines in cooked food and levels of excretion of unchanged heterocyclic amines in human urine, total heterocyclic amine intake was calculated to be around 0.4-16 micrograms/person per day. As in the case of other naturally occurring xenobiotics, and degree of exposure is small and is presumably insufficient alone to account for the development of human cancer. Nevertheless, a linear relationship has been demonstrated between DNA adduct levels and a wide range of doses of MeIQx in animals. In addition, combined treatment with five heterocyclic amines yielded additive or synergistic effects in the development of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci. Taking these results and current observations of multiple genetic alterations in human cancers into consideration together, heterocyclic amines are probably involved in the development of human cancer in the presence of other carcinogens, tumor promoters and factors stimulating cancer progression.

  2. Bioreducible poly(amido amine)s with oligoamine side chains: synthesis, characterization, and structural effects on gene delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, C.; Blaauboer, Cees-Jan; Mateos timoneda, Miguel; Lok, Martin C.; Steenbergen, Mies; Hennink, Wim E.; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Feijen, Jan; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.


    A group of bioreducible poly(amido amine)s containing multiple disulfide linkages in main chain and oligoamines in side chain (SS–PAOAs) were prepared by Michael-type polyaddition of N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl (N-Boc) protected oligoamine to the disulfide-containing cystaminebisacrylamide, followed by

  3. Rapid Microwave-Assisted Copper-Catalyzed Nitration of Aromatic Halides with Nitrite Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paik, Seung Uk; Jung, Myoung Geun [Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    A rapid and efficient copper-catalyzed nitration of aryl halides has been established under microwave irradiation. The catalytic systems were found to be the most effective with 4-substituted aryl iodides leading to nearly complete conversions. Nitration of aromatic compounds is one of the important industrial processes as underlying intermediates in the manufacture of a wide range of chemicals such as dyes, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and explosives. General methods for the nitration of aromatic compounds utilize strongly acidic conditions employing nitric acid or a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids, sometimes leading to problems with poor regioselectivity, overnitration, oxidized byproducts and excess acid waste in many cases of functionalized aromatic compounds. Several other nitrating agents or methods avoiding harsh reaction conditions have been explored using metal nitrates, nitrite salts, and ionic liquid-mediated or microwave-assisted nitrations. Recently, copper or palladium compounds have been successfully used as efficient catalysts for the arylation of amines with aryl halides under mild conditions.

  4. Sol-gel synthesis and characterization of silica polyamine composites: applications to metal ion capture. (United States)

    Allen, Jesse J; Rosenberg, Edward; Johnston, Erik; Hart, Carolyn


    A sol-gel method has been developed for the synthesis of composite materials analogous to the previously reported and commercialized silica polyamine composite (SPC) materials made from amorphous silica. Monolithic xerogels were formed using a two-step procedure with no templating agent using acid catalyzed followed by base catalyzed hydrolysis. This reaction was followed by (1)H NMR. Initial sol-gels were formed using a methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMOS) and 3-chloropropyltrimethoxysilane (CPTMOS) mixture. Elemental analyses and (13)C CPMAS NMR confirmed incorporation of both monomeric units into the surface structure. Some control over surface morphology was achieved by adjusting synthetic conditions. The resulting xerogels were reacted with poly(allylamine) (PAA) to give composite materials which showed much lower metal ion capacities than the commercially available amorphous silica analogs. The low degree of reaction of the chloropropyl groups indicated they were not surface-available to the polyamine. Addition of tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) produced a structural matrix and resulted in higher chloride utilization (reaction of surface chloropropyl groups with the polyamine). The ratio of the three siloxane monomeric components was varied until the resulting polyamine composite xerogels had metal capacities comparable with the commercialized SPC materials. These composites had narrower average pore size distributions and fewer small pores. Further modification of these composites with metal selective ligands showed material characteristics similar to those of commercially available SPC materials. Subjecting a composite made by the sol-gel route to one thousand load-strip cycles with Cu(2+) shows essentially no loss in metal capacity, and this robustness compares favorably with that observed for the SPC made from amorphous silica gels. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  5. Synthesis and characterization of bisimide amines and bisimide amine-cured epoxy resins (United States)

    Scola, D. A.


    An attempt is made to develop tough, moisture resistant, high char yield epoxy resins by means of novel bisimide amine (BIA) hardener curing agents and a state-of-the-art epoxy resin system. The BIAs are isolated as mixtures containing monomer, oligomer, and polymeric species, and then characterized by elemental analysis and high pressure liquid chromatography. The bisimide amine-cured epoxies (IMEs) were characterized with respect to moisture absorption, thermal properties, and physical and mechanical properties, as well as in the role of matrices in Celion 6000/IME composites. The relative toughness characteristics of each IME formulation was measured by the 10 deg off-axis tensile test, measuring the uniaxial tensile strength, shear strength, and shear-strain-to-failure of the composite systems.

  6. Electrochemical characterization of aminated acrylic conducting polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, Norma Mohammad; Heng, Lee Yook; Ling, Tan Ling


    New attempt has been made to synthesize aminated acrylic conducting polymer (AACP) using precursor of phenylvinylsulfoxide (PVS). The process was conducted via the integration of microemulsion and photopolymerization techniques. It has been utilized for covalent immobilization of amino groups by the adding of N-achryiloxisuccinimide (NAS). Thermal eliminating of benzene sulfenic acids from PVS has been done at 250 °C to form electroactive polyacetylene (PA) segment. Characterization of AACP has been conducted using fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and linear sweep cyclic voltammetry (CV). A range of 0.3-1.25μm particle size obtained from SEM characterization. A quasi-reversible system performed as shown in electrochemical study

  7. Whole cell biotransformation for reductive amination reactions (United States)

    Klatte, Stephanie; Lorenz, Elisabeth; Wendisch, Volker F


    Whole cell biotransformation systems with enzyme cascading increasingly find application in biocatalysis to complement or replace established chemical synthetic routes for production of, e.g., fine chemicals. Recently, we established an Escherichia coli whole cell biotransformation system for reductive amination by coupling a transaminase and an amino acid dehydrogenase with glucose catabolism for cofactor recycling. Transformation of 2-keto-3-methylvalerate to l-isoleucine by E. coli cells was improved by genetic engineering of glucose metabolism for improved cofactor regeneration. Here, we compare this system with different strategies for cofactor regeneration such as cascading with alcohol dehydrogenases, with alternative production hosts such as Pseudomonas species or Corynebacterium glutamicum, and with improving whole cell biotransformation systems by metabolic engineering of NADPH regeneration. PMID:24406456

  8. Biogenic amines in Portuguese traditional foods and wines. (United States)

    Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Pinho, Olívia


    The presence of biogenic amines in foodstuffs is an important food safety problem because of the implication of these compounds in food intolerance and intoxication. The separation and quantification of biogenic amines in foods is normally performed by chromatographic techniques. This review contains descriptions of the quantification of biogenic amines in Portuguese traditional fermented and/or ripened foods and wines, including Protected Denomination of Origin cheeses, dry-cured sausages, and Portuguese wines (including Port wines), using different analytical methods based on high-pressure liquid chromatography (UV or diode array and/or fluorometric detectors) and gas chromatography (with a mass spectrometry detector). The evolution of biogenic amines during fermentation, ripening, aging, or storage of those products was also evaluated. Biogenic amine concentrations ranged widely within individual food items, and storage, transport, and handling conditions can influence to some extent the biogenic amines present and their concentrations. Traditional foods are an important part of the Portuguese diet, and a high intake of harmful amounts of biogenic amines from traditional Portuguese fermented foods is possible. However, extensive research is needed to extend the current limited database.

  9. Cure reaction of epoxy resins catalyzed by graphite-based nanofiller (United States)

    Corcione, C. Esposito; Acocella, Maria Rosaria; Giuri, Antonella; Maffezzoli, Alfonso; Guerra, Gaetano


    A significant effort was directed to the synthesis of graphene stacks/epoxy nanocomposites and to the analysis of the effect of a graphene precursor on cure reaction of a model epoxy matrix. A comparative thermal analysis of epoxy resins filled with an exfoliated graphite oxide eGO were conducted. The main aim was to understand the molecular origin of the influence of eGO on the Tg of epoxy resins. The higher Tg values previously observed for low curing temperatures, for epoxy resins with graphite-based nanofillers, were easily rationalized by a catalytic activity of graphitic layers on the reaction between the epoxy and amine groups of the resin, which leads to higher crosslinking density in milder conditions. A kinetic analysis of the cure mechanism of the epoxy resin associated to the catalytical activity of the graphite based filler was performed by isothermal DSC measurements. The DSC results showed that the addition of graphite based filler greatly increased the enthalpy of epoxy reaction and the reaction rate, confirming the presence of a catalytic activity of graphitic layers on the crosslinking reaction between the epoxy resin components (epoxide oligomer and di-amine). A kinetic modelling analysis, arising from an auto-catalyzed reaction mechanism, was finally applied to isothermal DSC data, in order to predict the cure mechanism of the epoxy resin in presence of the graphite based nanofiller.

  10. Inorganic-organic hybrid silica based tin complex as a novel, highly efficient and recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for the one-pot preparation of spirooxindoles in water. (United States)

    Ghahremanzadeh, Ramin; Rashid, Zahra; Zarnani, Amir-Hassan; Naeimi, Hossein


    In the present study, a tin complex immobilized on silica gel as a novel, green, highly efficient and heterogeneous reusable catalyst was synthesized by grafting 2-amino benzamide onto the silica gel surface as a result of the reaction between isatoic anhydride and 3-aminopropyl-functionalized silica gel, followed by complexing with tin chloride. The resulting organic-inorganic hybrid material was evaluated in the one-pot three-component synthesis of spiro[indoline-pyrazolo[4',3':5,6]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine]trione derivatives in water via the condensation reaction of isatins, barbituric acids, and 1H-pyrazol-5-amines. All the reactions were completed in short reaction times and all the products were obtained in high to excellent yields with high purity. In addition, the synthesized novel catalyst could be separated from the reaction mixture by simple filtration and can be reused up to seven runs without significant loss in activity.

  11. Amine functionalized nanodiamond promotes cellular adhesion, proliferation and neurite outgrowth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, A P; Dugan, J M; Gill, A A; Haycock, J W; Claeyssens, F; Fox, O J L; May, P W


    In this study, we report the production of amine functionalized nanodiamond. The amine functionalized nanodiamond forms a conformal monolayer on a negatively charged surface produced via plasma polymerization of acrylic acid. Nanodiamond terminated surfaces were studied as substrates for neuronal cell culture. NG108-15 neuroblastoma-glyoma hybrid cells were successfully cultured upon amine functionalized nanodiamond coated surfaces for between 1 and 7 d. Additionally, primary dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and Schwann cells isolated from Wistar rats were also successfully cultured over a period of 21 d illustrating the potential of the coating for applications in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. (paper)

  12. Gold-catalyzed aerobic epoxidation of trans-stilbene in methylcyclohexane. Part I: Design of a reference catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Guillois, Kevin


    The kinetics of the heterogeneous gold-catalyzed aerobic epoxidation of stilbene in the liquid phase has been shown to be hindered by diffusion limitations, due to the use of supports which are unsuitable to apolar reaction media. The choice of these supports is generally dictated by the ability of standard methods of preparation to stabilize highly dispersed gold nanoparticles on them. Hence, new methods need to be designed in order to produce catalytically active gold nanoparticles on hydrophobic supports in general and on passivated silicas in particular. By investigating Tsukuda\\'s method to produce colloidal solutions of gold nanoparticles upon reduction of the triphenylphosphine gold chloride complex in solution, we found that direct reduction of AuPPh3Cl in the presence of a commercially available silica support functionalized with dimethylsiloxane, Aerosil R972, leads, in a highly reproducible and potentially scalable way, to the best catalyst ever reported for this reaction. (C) 2011 Elsevier BM. All rights reserved.

  13. Silica supported nickel catalysts : Tracer studies.


    Sharratt, Andrew Paul.


    A series of silica supported catalysts were prepared by impregnation of the support materials with a nickel(II) nitrate precursor under standard conditions. The catalysts and silicas were characterised using temperature programmed reduction (TPR) techniques, neutron diffraction, small angle neutron scattering, and 29Si magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR). These analyses revealed one significant variable in the silicas:- the surface concentration of strained siloxane ring...

  14. Ammonia and hydrazine. Transition-metal-catalyzed hydroamination and metal-free catalyzed functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, Guy [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)


    The efficient and selective preparation of organic molecules is critical for mankind. For the future, it is of paramount importance to find catalysts able to transform abundant and cheap feedstocks into useful compounds. Acyclic and heterocyclic nitrogen-containing derivatives are common components of naturally occurring compounds, agrochemicals, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals; they are also useful intermediates in a number of industrial processes. One of the most widely used synthetic strategies, allowing the formation of an N-C bond, is the addition of an N-H bond across a carbon-carbon multiple bond, the so-called hydroamination reaction. This chemical transformation fulfills the principle of “green chemistry” since it ideally occurs with 100% atom economy. Various catalysts have been found to promote this reaction, although many limitations remain; one of the most prominent is the lack of methods that permit the use of NH3 and NH2NH2 as the amine partners. In fact, ammonia and hydrazine have rarely succumbed to homogeneous catalytic transformations. Considering the low cost and abundance of ammonia (136 million metric tons produced in 2011) and hydrazine, catalysts able to improve the reactivity and selectivity of the NH3- and NH2NH2-hydroamination reaction, and more broadly speaking the functionalization of these chemicals, are highly desirable. In the last funded period, we discovered the first homogeneous catalysts able to promote the hydroamination of alkynes and allenes with ammonia and the parent hydrazine. The key feature of our catalytic systems is that the formation of catalytically inactive Werner complexes is reversible, in marked contrast to most of the known ammonia and hydrazine transition metal complexes. This is due to the peculiar electronic properties of our neutral ancillary ligands, especially their strong donating capabilities. However, our catalysts currently require

  15. Characteristic of Hybrid Cellulose-Amino Functionalized POSS-Silica Nanocomposite and Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivalingam Ramesh


    Full Text Available Recently, cellulose has much attention as an emerging renewable nanomaterial which holds promising properties having unique piezoelectricity, insulating, and biodegradable nature for various applications. Also, the modified properties of cellulose by appropriate chemical modifications in various functional groups with outstanding properties or significantly improved physical, chemical, biological, and electronic properties will widen the way for it to be utilized in different usages. Therefore, in this paper, cellulose-functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS based materials were considered an important class of high-performance hybrid nanocomposite materials. To functionalize the regenerated cellulose, amino functionalized POSS material was synthesized via sol-gel covalent crosslinking process in presence of amino coupling agent. In this reaction, tetraethoxsilane (TEOS and γ-aminopropyltriethoxy silane (γ-APTES as coupling agent for metal precursors were selected. The chemical structure of cellulose-amine functionalized bonding and covalent crosslinking hybrids was confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR spectral analysis. From the TEM results, well-dispersed hybrid cellulose-functionalized POSS-silica composites are observed. The resulting cellulose-POSS-silica hybrid nanocomposites materials provided significantly improved the optical transparency, and thermal and morphological properties to compare the cellulose-silica hybrid materials. Further, antimicrobial test against pathogenic bacteria was carried out.

  16. Non-hydrolytic formation of silica and polysilsesquioxane particles from alkoxysilane monomers with formic acid in toluene/tetrahydrofuran solutions (United States)

    Boday, Dylan J.; Tolbert, Stephanie; Keller, Michael W.; Li, Zhe; Wertz, Jason T.; Muriithi, Beatrice; Loy, Douglas A.


    Silica and polysilsesquioxane particles are used as fillers in composites, catalyst supports, chromatographic separations media, and even as additives to cosmetics. The particles are generally prepared by hydrolysis and condensation of tetraalkoxysilanes and/or organotrialkoxysilanes, respectively, in aqueous alcohol solutions. In this study, we have discovered a new, non-aqueous approach to prepare silica and polysilsesquioxane particles. Spherical, nearly monodisperse, silica particles (600-6,000 nm) were prepared from the reaction of tetramethoxysilane with formic acid (4-8 equivalents) in toluene or toluene/tetrahydrofuran solutions. Polymerization of organotrialkoxysilanes with formic acid failed to afford particles, but bridged polysilsesquioxane particles were obtained from monomers with two trialkoxysilyl group attached to an organic-bridging group. The mild acidic conditions allowed particles to be prepared from monomers, such as bis(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)tetrasulfide, which are unstable to Stöber or base-catalyzed emulsion polymerization conditions. The bridged polysilsesquioxane particles were generally less spherical and more polydisperse than silica particles. Both silica and bridged polysilsesquioxane nanoparticles could be prepared in good yields at monomer concentrations considerably higher than used in Stöber or emulsion approaches.

  17. Cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, I-Ju [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    This dissertation mainly focuses on the investigation of the cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. We are interested in the study of endocytosis and exocytosis behaviors of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with desired surface functionality. The relationship between mesoporous silica nanoparticles and membrane trafficking of cells, either cancerous cells or normal cells was examined. Since mesoporous silica nanoparticles were applied in many drug delivery cases, the endocytotic efficiency of mesoporous silica nanoparticles needs to be investigated in more details in order to design the cellular drug delivery system in the controlled way. It is well known that cells can engulf some molecules outside of the cells through a receptor-ligand associated endocytosis. We are interested to determine if those biomolecules binding to cell surface receptors can be utilized on mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials to improve the uptake efficiency or govern the mechanism of endocytosis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) is a small peptide recognized by cell integrin receptors and it was reported that avidin internalization was highly promoted by tumor lectin. Both RGD and avidin were linked to the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials to investigate the effect of receptor-associated biomolecule on cellular endocytosis efficiency. The effect of ligand types, ligand conformation and ligand density were discussed in Chapter 2 and 3. Furthermore, the exocytosis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles is very attractive for biological applications. The cellular protein sequestration study of mesoporous silica nanoparticles was examined for further information of the intracellular pathway of endocytosed mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials. The surface functionality of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials demonstrated selectivity among the materials and cancer and normal cell lines. We aimed to determine

  18. Airborne silica levels in an urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Berardis, B. [Dipartimento di Tecnologie e Salute, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena, 299, 00161 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail:; Incocciati, E. [CONTARP Consulenza Tecnica Accertamento Rischi e Prevenzione, INAIL Direzione Generale, 00143 Rome (Italy); Massera, S. [CONTARP Consulenza Tecnica Accertamento Rischi e Prevenzione, INAIL Direzione Generale, 00143 Rome (Italy); Gargaro, G. [CONTARP Consulenza Tecnica Accertamento Rischi e Prevenzione, INAIL Direzione Generale, 00143 Rome (Italy); Paoletti, L. [Dipartimento di Tecnologie e Salute, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena, 299, 00161 Rome (Italy)


    In order to evaluate the exposure levels of the general population we studied the concentrations of silica particles in the inhalable particulate fraction (PM10) in different meteorological-climate periods in an urban area of Rome. In order to determine the concentration and the granulometric spectrum of silica particles, PM10 sampled by a cascade impactor was analysed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and by scanning electron microscopy equipped with a thin-window system for X-ray microanalysis (SEM/EDX). Over the period September 2004-October 2005 the abundance of silica particles as evaluated by SEM/EDX ranged from 1.6 to 10.4% of the total PM10 particulate, with a weight concentration of free crystalline silica, evaluated by XRD, in the range 0.25-2.87 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. The mean diameter of silica particles ranged from 0.3 to 10.5 {mu}m, with more than 87% of particles having a diameter of less than 2.5 {mu}m. The correlations between SEM/EDX and XRD data seem to suggest that the airborne silica particles in the urban location studied were mainly in the form crystalline silica. A strong relationship was found between the meteorological-climate conditions and the concentration level of free crystalline silica. This result suggests that the Southern winds from the Sahara desert carry an important amount of silica particles into Mediterranean Europe.

  19. Nanoporous silica membranes with high hydrothermal stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boffa, Vittorio; Magnacca, Giualiana; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Despite the use of sol-gel derived nanoporous silica membranes in substitution of traditional separation processes is expected leading to vast energy savings, their intrinsic poor steam-stability hampers their application at an industrial level. Transition metal ions can be used as dopant...... to improve the stability of nanoporous silica structure. This work is a quantitative study on the impact of type and concentration of transition metal ions on the microporous structure and stability of amorphous silica-based membranes, which provides information on how to design chemical compositions...... and synthetic paths for the fabrication of silica-based membranes with a well accessible and highly stabile nanoporous structure...

  20. Oil absorption in mesoporous silica particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radislav Filipović


    Full Text Available Mesoporous silica particles were prepared from highly basic sodium silicate solutions, having different silica modulus and SiO2 concentrations, by adding sulphuric acid at different temperatures. Pore structure of prepared silica particles (aggregates is strongly influenced by processing conditions and easy controllable in broad range of the specific surface area, pore size, pore volume and size distribution. It is shown that there is a clear correlation between volume of absorbed oil and processing parameters used in preparation of silica aggregates. Thus, oil absorption is higher in the samples prepared from sodium silicate solution with higher SiO2 concentration and at higher synthesis temperature.

  1. Practical Hydrogen Loading of Air Silica Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Jensen, Jesper Bo Damm


    A method for hydrogen-loading air-silica optical fibres has been developed allowing out-diffusion times comparable to standard step-index fibres. Examples of the first grating written in Ge-doped air-silica fibres using a 266nm UV-laser are shown.......A method for hydrogen-loading air-silica optical fibres has been developed allowing out-diffusion times comparable to standard step-index fibres. Examples of the first grating written in Ge-doped air-silica fibres using a 266nm UV-laser are shown....

  2. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a biomolecule delivery vehicle in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Hashmath I., E-mail: [Deakin University, Centre for Chemistry and Biotechnology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences (Australia); Yi, Zhifeng [Deakin University, Institute for Frontier Materials (Australia); Rookes, James E. [Deakin University, Centre for Chemistry and Biotechnology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences (Australia); Kong, Lingxue X. [Deakin University, Institute for Frontier Materials (Australia); Cahill, David M. [Deakin University, Centre for Chemistry and Biotechnology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences (Australia)


    We report the uptake by wheat, lupin and Arabidopsis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles functionalised with amine cross-linked fluorescein isothiocyanate (MSN-APTES-FITC). The preparation of these particles at room temperature enabled the synthesis of 20 nm particles that contained a network of interconnected pores around 2 nm in diameter. The uptake and distribution of these nanoparticles were examined during seed germination, in roots of plants grown in a hydroponic system and in whole leaves and roots of plants via vacuum infiltration. The nanoparticles did not affect seed germination in lupin and there was no phytotoxicity. Following germination of wheat and lupin grown in a nutrient solution containing nanoparticles, they were found within cells and cell walls of the emerging root and in the vascular transport elements, the xylem, and in other associated cells. In leaves and roots of Arabidopsis the nanoparticles were found, following vacuum infiltration of whole seedlings, to be taken up by the entire leaf and they were principally found in the intercellular spaces of the mesophyll but also throughout much of the root system. We propose that MSNs could be used as a novel delivery system for small molecules in plants.

  3. Extraction separation studies of uranium(VI) by amine oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejaz, M.


    The extraction of uranium(VI) by two amine oxides, 4-(5-nonyl)pyridine oxide and trioctylamine oxide has been studied. The extraction behavior of these two N-oxides is compared. The dependence of extraction on the type of amine oxide and acid, nature of organic diluent, and amine oxide concentration has been investigated. The influence of the concentration of the metal and salting-out agents is described. The possible mechanism of extraction is discussed in the light of the results of extraction isotherms, loading radiodata, and log-log plots of amine oxide concentration vs distribution ratio. The separation factors for a number of metal ions are reported, and the separation of uranium from some fission elements has also been achieved

  4. Next Generation Life Support (NGLS): Rapid Cycle Amine Swing Bed (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swingbed has been identified as a technology with high potential to meet the stringent requirements for the next generation spacesuit's...

  5. Amine reclaiming technologies in post-combustion carbon dioxide capture. (United States)

    Wang, Tielin; Hovland, Jon; Jens, Klaus J


    Amine scrubbing is the most developed technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. Degradation of amine solvents due to the presence of high levels of oxygen and other impurities in flue gas causes increasing costs and deterioration in long term performance, and therefore purification of the solvents is needed to overcome these problems. This review presents the reclaiming of amine solvents used for post combustion CO2 capture (PCC). Thermal reclaiming, ion exchange, and electrodialysis, although principally developed for sour gas sweetening, have also been tested for CO2 capture from flue gas. The three technologies all have their strengths and weaknesses, and further development is needed to reduce energy usage and costs. An expected future trend for amine reclamation is to focus on process integration of the current reclaiming technologies into the PCC process in order to drive down costs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Two simple amine hydrochlorides from the soft coral Lobophytum strictum

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Naik, C.G.; Das, B.; Kamat

    Two simple amine hydrochlorides, viz., 1-amino-1, 1-dimethyl-3-oxo-butane hydrochloride (1) (Diacetonamine) and 2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidone hydrochloride (2) have been isolated from the fraction of the methanolic extract of the soft coral...

  7. Health Problems of Epoxy Resins and Amine-curing Agents (United States)

    Bourne, L. B.; Milner, F. J. M.; Alberman, K. B.


    Epoxy resins were first introduced about 10 years ago. Toxic effects, particularly dermatitis, have been frequently described. An investigation into the possible causes of pathological sequelae following the use of epoxy resin/amine mixtures has been undertaken. The cause of most cases of dermatitis and sensitization appears to be uncombined amine which is present in recent mixtures and persists in hardened resin for long periods. The results of experiments with two of the most commonly used resin/amine mixtures confirm this. Cold-cured resins are more dangerous and remain so even when hardened. A simple theory is suggested for the mechanism of the reaction between epoxy resins, amines, and biological systems. This theory leads logically to the handling precautions outlined. Images PMID:13651551

  8. Combining solvent isotope effects with substrate isotope effects in mechanistic studies of alcohol and amine oxidation by enzymes. (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Paul F


    Oxidation of alcohols and amines is catalyzed by multiple families of flavin- and pyridine nucleotide-dependent enzymes. Measurement of solvent isotope effects provides a unique mechanistic probe of the timing of the cleavage of the OH and NH bonds, necessary information for a complete description of the catalytic mechanism. The inherent ambiguities in interpretation of solvent isotope effects can be significantly decreased if isotope effects arising from isotopically labeled substrates are measured in combination with solvent isotope effects. The application of combined solvent and substrate (mainly deuterium) isotope effects to multiple enzymes is described here to illustrate the range of mechanistic insights that such an approach can provide. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Enzyme Transition States from Theory and Experiment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Recent advances in osmium-catalyzed hydrogenation and dehydrogenation reactions. (United States)

    Chelucci, Giorgio; Baldino, Salvatore; Baratta, Walter


    CONSPECTUS: A current issue in metal-catalyzed reactions is the search for highly efficient transition-metal complexes affording high productivity and selectivity in a variety of processes. Moreover, there is also a great interest in multitasking catalysts that are able to efficiently promote different organic transformations by careful switching of the reaction parameters, such as temperature, solvent, and cocatalyst. In this context, osmium complexes have shown the ability to catalyze efficiently different types of reactions involving hydrogen, proving at the same time high thermal stability and simple synthesis. In the catalytic reduction of C═X (X = O, N) bonds by both hydrogenation (HY) and transfer hydrogenation (TH) reactions, the most interest has been focused on homogeneous systems based on rhodium, iridium, and in particular ruthenium catalysts, which have proved to catalyze chemo- and stereoselective hydrogenations with remarkable efficiency. By contrast, osmium catalysts have received much less attention because they are considered less active on account of their slower ligand exchange kinetics. Thus, this area remained almost neglected until recent studies refuted these prejudices. The aim of this Account is to highlight the impressive developments achieved over the past few years by our and other groups on the design of new classes of osmium complexes and their applications in homogeneous catalytic reactions involving the hydrogenation of carbon-oxygen and carbon-nitrogen bonds by both HY and TH reactions as well as in alcohol deydrogenation (DHY) reactions. The work described in this Account demonstrates that osmium complexes are emerging as powerful catalysts for asymmetric and non-asymmetric syntheses, showing a remarkably high catalytic activity in HY and TH reactions of ketones, aldehydes, imines, and esters as well in DHY reactions of alcohols. Thus, for instance, the introduction of ligands with an NH function, possibly in combination with a

  10. Facile and Green Synthesis of Saturated Cyclic Amines. (United States)

    Hameed, Arruje; Javed, Sadia; Noreen, Razia; Huma, Tayyaba; Iqbal, Sarosh; Umbreen, Huma; Gulzar, Tahsin; Farooq, Tahir


    Single-nitrogen containing saturated cyclic amines are an important part of both natural and synthetic bioactive compounds. A number of methodologies have been developed for the synthesis of aziridines, azetidines, pyrrolidines, piperidines, azepanes and azocanes. This review highlights some facile and green synthetic routes for the synthesis of unsubstituted, multisubstituted and highly functionalized saturated cyclic amines including one-pot, microwave assisted, metal-free, solvent-free and in aqueous media.

  11. Facile and Green Synthesis of Saturated Cyclic Amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arruje Hameed


    Full Text Available Single-nitrogen containing saturated cyclic amines are an important part of both natural and synthetic bioactive compounds. A number of methodologies have been developed for the synthesis of aziridines, azetidines, pyrrolidines, piperidines, azepanes and azocanes. This review highlights some facile and green synthetic routes for the synthesis of unsubstituted, multisubstituted and highly functionalized saturated cyclic amines including one-pot, microwave assisted, metal-free, solvent-free and in aqueous media.

  12. Dispersant additives derived from lactone modified amido-amine adducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, A.; Lundberg, R.D.


    This patent describes a lactone modified dispersant additive. It comprises one adduct of a polyolefin of 300 to 10,000 number average molecular weight substituted with at least 0.8 (e.g., from about 1 to 4) dicarboxylic acid producing moieties (preferably acid or anhydride moieties) per polyolefin molecule, an amido-amine or thioamido-amine characterized by being a reaction product of at least a polyamine and an alpha, beta-unsaturated compound.

  13. Diesel fuel containing polyalkylene amine and Mannich base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harle, O.L.


    The fuel composition for diesel engines is characterized in that it contains a hydrocarbon with a boiling range of 120-455/sup 0/C as main component and as additive 5 to 300 ppm of a polyakylene amine, as well as 5 to 300 ppm of the reaction product of an alkyl phenol, an aldehyde and an amine (Mannich base). This additive composition increases the oxidation and thermal stability of the fuel.

  14. Decoding nitric oxide release rates of amine-based diazeniumdiolates. (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Ni; Collins, Jack; Holland, Ryan J; Keefer, Larry K; Ivanic, Joseph


    Amine-based diazeniumdiolates (NONOates) have garnered widespread use as nitric oxide (NO) donors, and their potential for nitroxyl (HNO) release has more recently been realized. While NO release rates can vary significantly with the type of amine, half-lives of seconds to days under physiological conditions, there is as yet no way to determine a priori the NO or HNO production rates of a given species, and no discernible trends have manifested other than that secondary amines produce only NO (i.e., no HNO). As a step to understanding these complex systems, here we describe a procedure for modeling amine-based NONOates in water solvent that provides an excellent correlation (R(2) = 0.94) between experimentally measured dissociation rates of seven secondary amine species and their computed NO release activation energies. The significant difference in behavior of NONOates in the gas and solvent phases is also rigorously demonstrated via explicit additions of quantum mechanical water molecules. The presented results suggest that the as-yet unsynthesized simplest amine-based NONOate, the diazeniumdiolated ammonia anion [H2N-N(O)═NO(-)], could serve as an unperturbed HNO donor. These results provide a step forward toward the accurate modeling of general NO and/or HNO donors as well as for the identification of tailored prodrug candidates.

  15. Scope and Limitations of Auxiliary-Assisted, Palladium-Catalyzed Arylation and Alkylation of sp2 and sp3 C-H Bonds (United States)

    Nadres, Enrico T.; Santos, Gerson Ivan Franco; Shabashov, Dmitry; Daugulis, Olafs


    The scope of palladium-catalyzed, auxiliary-assisted direct arylation and alkylation of sp2 and sp3 C-H bonds of amine and carboxylic acid derivatives has been investigated. The method employs a palladium acetate catalyst, substrate, aryl, alkyl, benzyl, or allyl halide, and inorganic base in t-amyl alcohol or water solvent at 100-140 °C. Aryl and alkyl iodides as well as benzyl and allyl bromides are competent reagents in this transformation. Picolinic acid auxiliary is used for amine γ-functionalization and 8-aminoquinoline auxiliary is used for carboxylic acid β-functionalization. Some optimization of base, additives, and solvent is required for achieving best results. PMID:24090404

  16. Scope and limitations of auxiliary-assisted, palladium-catalyzed arylation and alkylation of sp2 and sp3 C-H bonds. (United States)

    Nadres, Enrico T; Santos, Gerson Ivan Franco; Shabashov, Dmitry; Daugulis, Olafs


    The scope of palladium-catalyzed, auxiliary-assisted direct arylation and alkylation of sp(2) and sp(3) C-H bonds of amine and carboxylic acid derivatives has been investigated. The method employs a palladium acetate catalyst, substrate, aryl, alkyl, benzyl, or allyl halide, and inorganic base in tert-amyl alcohol or water solvent at 100-140 °C. Aryl and alkyl iodides as well as benzyl and allyl bromides are competent reagents in this transformation. The picolinic acid auxiliary is used for amine γ-functionalization, and the 8-aminoquinoline auxiliary is used for carboxylic acid β-functionalization. Some optimization of base, additives, and solvent is required for achieving best results.

  17. Design, Synthesis and Biological Activity of Novel Reversible Peptidyl FVIIa Inhibitors Rh-Catalyzed Enantioselective Synthesis of Diaryl Amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Morten

    This thesis describes two different projects. The first project deals with the design, synthesis and biological activity of novel reversible peptidyl FVIIa inhibitors (Chapter 1–3). FVIIa was launced as NovoSeven R over a decade ago by Novo Nordisk for the treatment of hemophilia A and B complica......This thesis describes two different projects. The first project deals with the design, synthesis and biological activity of novel reversible peptidyl FVIIa inhibitors (Chapter 1–3). FVIIa was launced as NovoSeven R over a decade ago by Novo Nordisk for the treatment of hemophilia A and B...

  18. Hydrogen generation from formic acid catalyzed by a metal complex under amine-free and aqueous conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Kuo-Wei


    The present invention provides a class of catalyst compounds that can safely and effectively release hydrogen gas from a chemical substrate without producing either noxious byproducts or byproducts that will deactivate the catalyst. The present invention provides catalysts used to produce hydrogen that has a satisfactory and sufficient lifespan (measured by turnover number (TON)), that has stability in the presence of moisture, air, acid, or impurities, promote a rapid reaction rate, and remain stable under the reaction conditions required for an effective hydrogen production system. Described herein are compounds for use as catalysts, as well as methods for producing hydrogen from formic acid and/or a formate using the disclosed catalysts. The methods include contacting formic acid and/or a formate with a catalyst as described herein, as well as methods of producing formic acid and/or a formate using the disclosed catalyst and methods for generating electricity using the catalysts described herein.

  19. Synthesis of Amidines from Amides Using a Nickel-Catalyzed Decarbonylative Amination through CO Extrusion Intramolecular Recombination Fragment Coupling. (United States)

    Liu, Xiangqian; Yue, Huifeng; Jia, Jiaqi; Guo, Lin; Rueping, Magnus


    A catalytic synthesis of amidines from amides has been established for the first time. The newly developed CO extrusion recombination process takes advantage of an inexpensive nickel(II) catalyst and provides the corresponding amidines with high efficiency. The intramolecular fragment coupling shows excellent chemoselectivity, starts from readily available amides, and provides a valuable alternative amidine synthesis protocol. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Brain perfusion imaging with iodinated amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, H.F.


    Traditional nuclear medicine brain study using 99m Tc pertechnetate, glucoheptonate or diethlenetriaminepentacetic acid (DTPA) and planar imaging has experienced a significant decline in the past 10 years. This is mainly due to the introduction of X-ray CT and more recently the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging, by which detailed morphology of the brain, including the detection of breakdown of the blood-brain barrier, can be obtained. The nuclear medicine brain imaging is only prescribed as a complementary test when X-ray CT is negative or equivocal and clinical suspicion remains. The attention of nuclear medicine brain imaging has been shifted from the detection of the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier to the study of brain function-perfusion, metabolism, and receptor binding, etc. The functional brain imaging provides diagnostic information usually unattainable by other radiological techniques. In this article, the iodinated amines as brain perfusion imaging agents are reviewed. Potential clinical application of these agents is discussed

  1. In situ silica coating-directed synthesis of orthorhombic methylammonium lead bromide perovskite quantum dots with high stability. (United States)

    Yang, Mu; Peng, Hong-Shang; Zeng, Fan-Long; Teng, Feng; Qu, Zhen; Yang, Di; Wang, Yi-Quan; Chen, Gen-Xiang; Wang, Da-Wei


    Luminescent perovskite quantum dots (QDs) had attracted great attention by virtue of the merits of color-tunable and narrow-band emissions. However, sofar reported perovskite QDs suffered from instability more or less. In this work, a type of silica-coated orthorhombic CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 QDs (SiO 2 -QDs) with greatly improved stability was reported. The SiO 2 -QDs were one-pot synthesized using a reprecipitation-encapsulation method assisted with an amine functional silane, which not conly controlled the crystallization of QDs, but also encapsulated QDs with a silica layer simultaneously. More interestingly, the in situ encapsulation of silica shell induced the presence of orthorhombic perovskite that was thought to be unstable at room temperature. This is the first report of orthorhombic CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 QDs, as far as we are concerned. The orthorhombic SiO 2 -QDs exhibited narrow-band green luminescence with a quantum yield of 78%, and a high production yield of ∼70wt%. Moreover, stability of SiO 2 -QDs was considerably improved due to silica-coating. White-LEDs were also successfully fabricated with the green SiO 2 -QDs and a red commercial phosphors using a noncontact configuration. These results demonstrated that the orthorhombic SiO 2 -QDs held great promise for high-performance display or lighting technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of I-123-labeled amines for brain studies: localization of I-123 iodophenylalkyl amines in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winchell, H.S.; Baldwin, R.M.; Lin, T.H.


    Localization in rat brain of forty iodophenylalkyl amines labeled with I-123 was evaluated in an attempt to develop I-123-labeled amines useful for brain studies. For the amines studied, the highest activity in brain and the brain-to-blood activity ratios ranked p > m > o as related to iodine position on the benzene ring: for alkyl groups the rank order was α-methylethyl > ethyl > methyl > none; for N additions it was single lipophilic group > H > two lipophilic groups. It is suggested that introduction of a halogen into the ring structure of many amines results in greater concentration of the agent in brain than is seen with the nonhalogenated parent compound. The agent N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine was chosen for further study because, in the rat, it showed high brain activity (1.57%/g) and brain-blood ratio (12.6) at 5 min

  3. Role of surface chemistry in modified ACF (activated carbon fiber)-catalyzed peroxymonosulfate oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shiying, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Marine Environment and Ecology, Ministry of Education, Qingdao 266100 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Environment and Geological Engineering (MEGE), Qingdao 266100 (China); Li, Lei [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Xiao, Tuo [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); China City Environment Protection Engineering Limited Company, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zheng, Di; Zhang, Yitao [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China)


    Highlights: • ACF can efficiently activate peroxymonosulfate to degrade organic pollutants. • Basic functional groups may mainly increase the adsorption capacity of ACF. • C1, N1, N2 have promoting effect on the ACF catalyzed PMS oxidation. • Modification by heat after nitric acid is also a way of ACF regeneration. - Abstract: A commercial activated carbon fiber (ACF-0) was modified by three different methods: nitration treatment (ACF-N), heat treatment (ACF-H) and heat treatment after nitration (ACF-NH), and the effects of textural and chemical properties on the ability of the metal-free ACF-catalyzed peroxymonosulfate (PMS) oxidation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5), an azo dye being difficultly adsorbed onto ACF, in aqueous solution were investigated in this work. Surface density of functional groups, surface area changes, surface morphology and the chemical state inside ACF samples were characterized by Boehm titration, N{sub 2} adsorption, scanning electron microscopy in couple with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. XPS spectra deconvolution was applied to figure out the importance of surface nitrogen-containing function groups. We found that π-π, pyridine and amine have promoting effect on the catalytic oxidation while the −NO{sub 2} has inhibitory effect on the ACF/PMS systems for RB5 destroy. Sustainability and renewability of the typical ACF-NH for catalytic oxidation of RB5 were also discussed in detail. Information about our conclusions are useful to control and improve the performance of ACF-catalyzed PMS oxidation for organic pollutants in wastewater treatment.

  4. Palladium catalyzed hydrogenation of bio-oils and organic compounds (United States)

    Elliott, Douglas C [Richland, WA; Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Hart, Todd R [Kennewick, WA; Neuenschwander, Gary G [Burbank, WA


    The invention provides palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of bio-oils and certain organic compounds. Experimental results have shown unexpected and superior results for palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of organic compounds typically found in bio-oils.

  5. Enyne Metathesis Catalyzed by Ruthenium Carbene Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Carina Storm; Madsen, Robert


    Enyne metathesis combines an alkene and an alkyne into a 1,3-diene. The first enyne metathesis reaction catalyzed by a ruthenium carbene complex was reported in 1994. This review covers the advances in this transformation during the last eight years with particular emphasis on methodology...

  6. Biodiesel production by enzyme-catalyzed transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković Olivera S.


    Full Text Available The principles and kinetics of biodiesel production from vegetable oils using lipase-catalyzed transesterification are reviewed. The most important operating factors affecting the reaction and the yield of alkyl esters, such as: the type and form of lipase, the type of alcohol, the presence of organic solvents, the content of water in the oil, temperature and the presence of glycerol are discussed. In order to estimate the prospects of lipase-catalyzed transesterification for industrial application, the factors which influence the kinetics of chemically-catalysed transesterification are also considered. The advantages of lipase-catalyzed transesterification compared to the chemically-catalysed reaction, are pointed out. The cost of down-processing and ecological problems are significantly reduced by applying lipases. It was also emphasized that lipase-catalysed transesterification should be greatly improved in order to make it commercially applicable. The further optimization of lipase-catalyzed transesterification should include studies on the development of new reactor systems with immobilized biocatalysts and the addition of alcohol in several portions, and the use of extra cellular lipases tolerant to organic solvents, intracellular lipases (i.e. whole microbial cells and genetically-modified microorganisms ("intelligent" yeasts.

  7. Enzyme-Catalyzed Transetherification of Alkoxysilanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G. Taylor


    Full Text Available We report the first evidence of an enzyme-catalyzed transetherification of model alkoxysilanes. During an extensive enzymatic screening in the search for new biocatalysts for silicon-oxygen bond formation, we found that certain enzymes promoted the transetherification of alkoxysilanes when tert-butanol or 1-octanol were used as the reaction solvents.

  8. Muon catalyzed fusion under compressive conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cripps, G.; Goel, B.; Harms, A.A.


    The viability of a symbiotic combination of Muon Catalyzed Fusion (μCF) and high density generation processes has been investigated. The muon catalyzed fusion reaction rates are formulated in the temperature and density range found under moderate compressive conditions. Simplified energy gain and power balance calculations indicate that significant energy gain occurs only if standard type deuterium-tritium (dt) fusion is ignited. A computer simulation of the hydrodynamics and fusion kinetics of a spherical deuterium-tritium pellet implosion including muons is performed. Using the muon catalyzed fusion reaction rates formulated and under ideal conditions, the pellet ignites (and thus has a significant energy gain) only if the initial muon concentration is approximately 10 17 cm -3 . The muons need to be delivered to the pellet within a very short-time (≅ 1 ns). The muon pulse required in order to make the high density and temperature muon catalyzed fusion scheme viable is beyond the present technology for muon production. (orig.) [de

  9. Synthesis of uniform carbon at silica nanocables and luminescent silica nanotubes with well controlled inner diameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Haisheng; Yu Shuhong; Ren Lei; Yang Yipeng; Zhang Wei


    Uniform carbon at silica nanocables and silica nanotubes with well-controlled inner diameters can be synthesized in an easy way by a sacrificial templating method. This was performed using carbon nanofibres as hard templates that were synthesized previously by a hydrothermal carbonization process. Silica nanotubes with well-controlled inner diameters were synthesized from carbon at silica core-shell nanostructures by removal of the core carbon component. The inner diameters of the as-prepared silica nanotubes can be well controlled from several nanometres to hundreds of nanometres by adjusting the diameters of the carbon nanofibres. The silica nanotubes synthesized by this method display strong photoluminescence in ultraviolet at room temperature. Such uniform silica nanotubes might find potential applications in many fields such as encapsulation, catalysis, chemical/biological separation, and sensing

  10. Silica gel matrix immobilized Chlorophyta hydrodictyon africanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 5, 2015 ... immobilization of 300 mg per gram silica. Maximum immobilization was 400 mg biomass per gram silica. Sorption capacity increased with an increase in initial dye concentration and reached equilibrium within. 30 min. Three models were used to simulate kinetic data and the pseudo–second order model ...

  11. Subclinical nephrotoxicity associated with occupational silica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine early signs of renal injury due to occupational silica exposure. Design: Cross-sectional analytical research. Settings: Kenyatta National Hospital for the referent population and Clayworks ceramics, bricks and tiles factory for the assessment of occupational silica exposure. Subjects: Thirty three ...

  12. Medium-range order in metamict silicas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, L.C.; Hobbs, L.W.


    The first sharp diffraction peak from various forms of aperiodic silica was studied. Materials examined include vitreous silica, electron-metallic quartz, neutron-metallic quartz, and Si + ion-implanted quartz. The peak is attributed to the dominant structural rings existing in the materials, or modification thereof. The anomalous behavior of this peak is also discussed

  13. Bioinspired synthesis of new silica structures. (United States)

    Patwardhan, Siddharth V; Mukherjee, Niloy; Steintz-Kannan, Miriam; Clarson, Stephen J


    Silicon and oxygen are the two most abundant elements in the Earth's crust but despite the vast scientific literature on crystalline and amorphous silica, new chemistries, structures and applications continue to be discovered for compounds formed from these elements--thus we present here for the first time the formation of new amorphous silica structures that were uniquely synthesized by a bioinspired synthetic system.

  14. Silica gel matrix immobilized Chlorophyta hydrodictyon africanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlorophyta hydrodictyon africanum was immobilized on a silica gel matrix to improve its mechanical properties. The algae-silica gel adsorbent was used for batch sorption studies of a cationic dye, methylene blue (MB). Optimum adsorption was obtained with a dosage of 0.8 g bio sorbent. Results from sorption studies ...

  15. Active and passive silica waveguide integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hübner, Jörg; Guldberg-Kjær, Søren Andreas


    in existing and future networks without affecting the power budget of the system. Silica on silicon technology offers a unique possibility to selectively dope sections of the integrated circuit with erbium where amplification is desired. Some techniques for active/passive integration are reviewed and a silica...

  16. Magnetic core-shell silica particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claesson, E.M.


    This thesis deals with magnetic silica core-shell colloids and related functionalized silica structures. Synthesis routes have been developed and optimized. The physical properties of these colloids have been investigated, such as the magnetic dipole moment, dipolar structure formation and

  17. Bioinspired Design and Computational Prediction of Iron Complexes with Pendant Amines for the Production of Methanol from CO2 and H2. (United States)

    Chen, Xiangyang; Yang, Xinzheng


    Inspired by the active site structure of [FeFe]-hydrogenase, we built a series of iron dicarbonyl diphosphine complexes with pendant amines and predicted their potentials to catalyze the hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol using density functional theory. Among the proposed iron complexes, [(P(tBu)2N(tBu)2H)FeH(CO)2(COOH)](+) (5COOH) is the most active one with a total free energy barrier of 23.7 kcal/mol. Such a low barrier indicates that 5COOH is a very promising low-cost catalyst for high-efficiency conversion of CO2 and H2 to methanol under mild conditions. For comparison, we also examined Bullock's Cp iron diphosphine complex with pendant amines, [(P(tBu)2N(tBu)2H)FeHCp(C5F4N)](+) (5Cp-C5F4N), as a catalyst for hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol and obtained a total free energy barrier of 27.6 kcal/mol, which indicates that 5Cp-C5F4N could also catalyze the conversion of CO2 and H2 to methanol but has a much lower efficiency than our newly designed iron complexes.

  18. Synthesis of N-Boc-Propargylic and Allylic Amines by Reaction of Organomagnesium Reagents with N-Boc-Aminals and Their Oxidation to N-Boc-Ketimines. (United States)

    Kano, Taichi; Kobayashi, Ryohei; Maruoka, Keiji


    Previously inaccessible N-Boc-protected propargylic and allylic amines were synthesized by the reaction between N-Boc-aminals and organomagnesium reagents through the in situ generated N-Boc-imine intermediates. The obtained N-Boc-propargylic amines could be readily converted into unprecedented N-Boc-ketimines by oxidation with manganese dioxide.

  19. FTIR thermal analysis on organofunctionalized silica gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foschiera José L.


    Full Text Available Silica gel modified with organic groups is widely used as a stationary phase for liquid chromatography. Grafting synthesis can be used to obtain stable modified silica gel surfaces. In this work, silica gel (10 nm of pore diameter and surface area of 320 m² g-1 was chemically modified with 3-chloropropyltrimethoxysilane or 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane and reacted with aniline, p-anisidine, benzylamine and 3-phenylpropylchloride in order to yield aromatic groups immobilized on the silica gel surface. Infrared spectroscopy was utilized for characterization of the aromatic groups grafted on the silica gel surface, using a quartz cell. The solids were heated at several temperatures in high vacuum and the infrared band areas of the organic groups were used to evaluate the thermal stability.

  20. The Pozzolanic reaction of silica fume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede


    Silica fume is a very important supplementary cementitious binder in High-Performance and Ultra High-Performance Concretes. Through its pozzolanic reaction the silica fume densifies the concrete micro-structure, in particular it strengthens the paste-aggregate interfacial transition zone....... In the present paper different aspects of the pozzolanic reaction of silica fume are investigated. These include chemical shrinkage, isothermal heat development and strength development. Key data for these are given and compared with theoretical calculations, and based on presented measurements the energy...... of activation of the pozzolanic reaction of silica fume is estimated. The results show that the pozzolanic reaction of silica fume has notable differences from Portland cement hydration....

  1. Kinetics of aggregation growth with competition between catalyzed birth and catalyzed death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haifeng; Gao Yan; Lin Zhenquan


    An aggregation growth model of three species A, B and C with the competition between catalyzed birth and catalyzed death is proposed. Irreversible aggregation occurs between any two aggregates of the like species with the constant rate kernels I n (n = 1,2,3). Meanwhile, a monomer birth of an A species aggregate of size k occurs under the catalysis of a B species aggregate of size j with the catalyzed birth rate kernel K(k,j) = Kkj v and a monomer death of an A species aggregate of size k occurs under the catalysis of a C species aggregate of size j with the catalyzed death rate kernel L(k,j)=Lkj v , where v is a parameter reflecting the dependence of the catalysis reaction rates of birth and death on the size of catalyst aggregate. The kinetic evolution behaviours of the three species are investigated by the rate equation approach based on the mean-field theory. The form of the aggregate size distribution of A species a k (t) is found to be dependent crucially on the competition between the catalyzed birth and death of A species, as well as the irreversible aggregation processes of the three species: (1) In the v k (t) satisfies the conventional scaling form; (2) In the v ≥ 0 case, the competition between the catalyzed birth and death dominates the process. When the catalyzed birth controls the process, a k (t) takes the conventional or generalized scaling form. While the catalyzed death controls the process, the scaling description of the aggregate size distribution breaks down completely

  2. In situ visualization and effect of glycerol in lipase-catalyzed ethanolysis of rapeseed oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yuan; Nordblad, Mathias; Nielsen, Per M.


    Immobilized lipases can be used in biodiesel production to overcome many disadvantages of the conventional base-catalyzed process. However, the glycerol by-product poses a potential problem for the biocatalytic process as it is known to inhibit immobilized lipases, most likely by clogging...... of the catalyst particles. In this paper, this negative effect was further investigated and confirmed in ethanolysis of rapeseed oil. A dyeing method was developed for in situ visualization of glycerol in order to study its partitioning and accumulation during the ethanolysis reaction. The method was used...... to illustrate the interaction of glycerol with immobilized lipases and thus provided an aid for screening supports for lipase immobilization according to their interaction with glycerol. Glycerol was found to have great affinity for silica, less for polystyrene and no affinity for supports made from...

  3. Selective side-chain oxidation of alkyl aromatic compounds catalyzed by cerium modified silver catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Matthias Josef; Schimmoeller, Bjoern; Hansen, Thomas Willum


    . In addition, flame-made catalysts were more stable against silver leaching compared to the impregnated catalysts. The structure of the silver catalysts was studied in detail both by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy suggesting metallic silver to be required for catalytic......Silver supported on silica effectively catalyzes the aerobic side-chain oxidation of alkyl aromatic compounds under solvent-free conditions. Toluene, p-xylene, ethylbenzene and cumene were investigated as model substrates. Typically, the reaction was performed at ambient pressure; only for toluene...... an elevated pressure was required. Carboxylic acids, such as benzoic acid or p-toluic acid, additionally increased the reaction rate while CeO2 could act both as a promoter and an inhibitor depending on the substrate and the reaction conditions. Silver catalysts were prepared both by standard impregnation...

  4. An efficient process for pd-catalyzed C-N cross-coupling reactions of aryl iodides: insight into controlling factors. (United States)

    Fors, Brett P; Davis, Nicole R; Buchwald, Stephen L


    An investigation into Pd-catalyzed C-N cross-coupling reactions of aryl iodides is described. NaI is shown to have a significant inhibitory effect on these processes. By switching to a solvent system in which the iodide byproduct was insoluble, reactions of aryl iodides were accomplished with the same efficiencies as aryl chlorides and bromides. Using catalyst systems based on certain biarylphosphine ligands, aryl iodides were successfully reacted with an array of primary and secondary amines in high yields. Lastly, reactions of heteroarylamines and heteroaryliodides were also conducted in high yields.

  5. Hg/Pt-catalyzed conversion of bromo alkynamines/alkynols to saturated and unsaturated γ-butyrolactams/lactones via intramolecular electrophilic cyclization. (United States)

    Kiran Kumar, Yalla; Ranjith Kumar, Gadi; Sridhar Reddy, Maddi


    Convenient and general Hg(ii)/Pt(iv) catalyzed syntheses of γ-butyrolactams and α,β-unsaturated γ-butyrolactones/lactams are described via intramolecular electrophilic cyclizations of bromoalkynes with tosylamino and hydroxyl tethers. The reaction features the use of wet solvents, the exclusion of any base and additive, mild conditions and practical yields. We also synthesised few chiral lactams through this pathway. Additionally, it is shown that the NHTs group distanced further from the homopropargylic position assists regioselective bromoalkyne hydration to yield useful α-bromoketones. Furthermore, Boc protected bromo homo propargyl amines undergo 6-endo-dig cyclization through Boc oxygen to give bromomethylene substituted oxazinones.

  6. Determination of rate constants of N-alkylation of primary amines by 1H NMR spectroscopy. (United States)

    Li, Chenghong


    Macromolecules containing N-diazeniumdiolates of secondary amines are proposed scaffolds for controlled nitrogen oxide (NO) release medical applications. Preparation of these compounds often involves converting primary amine groups to secondary amine groups through N-alkylation. However, N-alkylation results in not only secondary amines but tertiary amines as well. Only N-diazeniumdiolates of secondary amines are suitable for controlled NO release; therefore, the yield of secondary amines is crucial to the total NO load of the carrier. In this paper, (1)H NMR spectroscopy was used to estimate the rate constants for formation of secondary amine (k1) and tertiary amine (k2) for alkylation reagents such as propylene oxide (PO), methyl acrylate (MA), and acrylonitrile (ACN). At room temperature, the ratio of k2/k1 for the three reactions was found to be around 0.50, 0.026, and 0.0072.

  7. The ozonolysis of primary aliphatic amines in fine particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zahardis


    Full Text Available The oxidative processing by ozone of the particulate amines octadecylamine (ODA and hexadecylamine (HDA is reported. Ozonolysis of these amines resulted in strong NO2 and NO3 ion signals that increased with ozone exposure as monitored by photoelectron resonance capture ionization aerosol mass spectrometry. These products suggest a mechanism of progressive oxidation of the particulate amines to nitroalkanes. Additionally, a strong ion signal at 125 m/z is assigned to the ion NO3 (HNO3. For ozonized mixed particles containing ODA or HDA + oleic acid (OL, with pO3≥3×10–7 atm, imine, secondary amide, and tertiary amide products were measured. These products most likely arise from reactions of amines with aldehydes (for imines and stabilized Criegee intermediates (SCI or secondary ozonides (for amides from the fatty acid. The routes to amides via SCI and/or secondary ozonides were shown to be more important than comparable amide forming reactions between amines and organic acids, using azelaic acid as a test compound. Finally, direct evidence is provided for the formation of a surface barrier in the ODA + OL reaction system that resulted in the retention of OL at high ozone exposures (up to 10−3 atm for 17 s. This effect was not observed in HDA + OL or single component OL particles, suggesting that it may be a species-specific surfactant effect from an in situ generated amide or imine. Implications to tropospheric chemistry, including particle bound amines as sources of oxidized gas phase nitrogen species (e.g.~NO2, NO3, formation of nitrogen enriched HULIS via ozonolysis of amines and source apportionment are discussed.

  8. Mutagenic activity and heterocyclic amine content of the human diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knize, M.G.; Dolbeare, F.A.; Cunningham, P.L.; Felton, J.S.


    The mutagenic activity and the mass amount of heterocyclic amines responsible for the mutagenic activity have been measured in some cooked foods. Cooked meats are the predominant source of mutagenic activity in the diet with values ranging from 0 to 10,000 revertants per gram reported in the Ames/Salmonelia test with strain TA98. Several heterocyclic amines are present and have been quantified using solid-phase extraction followed by HPLC. Frying at higher temperatures and for longer times produces the greatest mutagenic response, and concomitantly, the largest amounts of heterocyclic amines. Most of the mutagenic activity in fried meat samples can be accounted for by MelQx, DiMelQx and IQ, although other heterocylic amines are present and PHIP mutagenic activity becomes significant at higher temperatures. Non-meat products such as baked breads can also form significant mutagenic activity, particularly when overcooked. Commercially prepared hamburgers made from meat substitutes such as tofu, wheat gluten or tempeh and fried at 210{degrees}C have up to 10% of the mutagenic activity of a fried beef patty cooked under the same conditions. When detected, amounts of heterocyclic amines in fried beef patties range from a total of 0.35 ng/g for commercial beef hamburgers to 142 ng/g for a beef patty cooked over a barbecue. Dietary intake is expected to have a large range, from less than one microgram per day to over 50 micrograms per day based on current knowledge of known heterocyclic amine chemicals and heterocyclic amine-containing foods.

  9. Biogenic amines in Italian Pecorino cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eSchirone


    Full Text Available The quality of distinctive artisanal cheeses is closely associated with the territory of production and its traditions. Pedoclimatic characteristics, genetic autochthonous variations and anthropic components create an environment so specific that it would be extremely difficult to reproduce elsewhere. Pecorino cheese is included in this sector of the market and is widely diffused in Italy (approximately 53.727t of production. Pecorino is a common name given to indicate Italian cheeses made exclusively from pure ewes' milk characterized by a high content of fat matter and it is mainly produced in the middle and south of Italy by traditional procedures from raw or thermized milk. The microbiota plays a major role in the development of the organoleptic characteristics of the cheese but it can also be responsible for the accumulation of undesirable substances, such as biogenic amines (BA. Several factors can contribute to the qualitative and quantitative profiles of BA’s in Pecorino cheese such as environmental hygienic conditions, pH, salt concentration, aw, fat content, pasteurization of milk, decarboxylase microorganisms, starter cultures, temperature and time of ripening, storage, part of the cheese (core, edge and the presence of cofactor. Generally, the total content of BA’s can range from about 100-2400 mg/kg, with a prevalence of toxicologically important BA’s, tyramine and histamine. The presence of BA in Pecorino cheeses is becoming increasingly important to consumers and cheese-maker alike, due to the potential threats of toxicity to humans and consequent trade implications.

  10. Facile Synthesis of N-Tosyl Aza-Baylis-Hillman Adducts of Acrylamide via a Pd-Catalyzed Hydration of Nitrile to Amide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Sun; Kim, Yu Mi; Kim, Jae Nyoung


    We developed an efficient palladium-catalyzed two-step protocol for the synthesis of N-tosyl aza-Baylis-Hillman adducts of acrylamide. The method involved the preparation of the corresponding Baylis-Hillman adducts of acrylonitrile and the following Pd-catalyzed hydration of nitrile with acetaldoxime. The Baylis-Hillman reaction, which involves the coupling of activated vinyl compounds with electrophiles under the catalytic influence of a tertiary amine, gives rise to adducts, so called Baylis-Hillman adducts, with a new stereocenter and has proven to be a very useful carbon-carbon bond-forming method in the synthesis of highly functionalized molecules. As the activated vinyl compounds, various compounds have been used in the Baylis-Hillman reaction including acrylates, acrylonitrile, vinyl ketones, vinyl sulfones and acrylamides. However, among the activated vinyl compounds acrylamide has not been used much for the synthesis of the corresponding Baylis-Hillman adducts due to its sluggish reactivity

  11. Facile Synthesis of N-Tosyl Aza-Baylis-Hillman Adducts of Acrylamide via a Pd-Catalyzed Hydration of Nitrile to Amide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Sun; Kim, Yu Mi; Kim, Jae Nyoung [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    We developed an efficient palladium-catalyzed two-step protocol for the synthesis of N-tosyl aza-Baylis-Hillman adducts of acrylamide. The method involved the preparation of the corresponding Baylis-Hillman adducts of acrylonitrile and the following Pd-catalyzed hydration of nitrile with acetaldoxime. The Baylis-Hillman reaction, which involves the coupling of activated vinyl compounds with electrophiles under the catalytic influence of a tertiary amine, gives rise to adducts, so called Baylis-Hillman adducts, with a new stereocenter and has proven to be a very useful carbon-carbon bond-forming method in the synthesis of highly functionalized molecules. As the activated vinyl compounds, various compounds have been used in the Baylis-Hillman reaction including acrylates, acrylonitrile, vinyl ketones, vinyl sulfones and acrylamides. However, among the activated vinyl compounds acrylamide has not been used much for the synthesis of the corresponding Baylis-Hillman adducts due to its sluggish reactivity.

  12. Morphological Control of Multifunctional Mesoporous Silica Nanomaterials for Catalysis Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Seong [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    I found an efficient method to control the morphology of the organically monofunctionalized mesoporous silica materials by introducing different types of organoalkoxysilanes in a base-catalyzed co-condensation reaction. The monofunctionalized materials exhibit different particle morphologies relative to the pure MCM-41 material. The concentration dependence of the morphology is a critical factor to determine the final particle shape. A proposed mechanism of the shape evolution is also offered. After understanding the role of organoalkoxysilanes in producing various well-shaped nanomaterials, I also obtained a series of bifunctional mesoporous silica materials with certain particle morphology. A series of bifunctional mesoporous silica nanospheres (MSNs) whose physicochemical properties was investigated via solid state NMR techniques and Cu2+ adsorption capacity tests, The ratio of two different organic groups inside of mesopores of these MSNs could be fine-tuned. These MSNs serve as a useful model system to study substrate selectivity in catalytic reactions and sorption phenomena. For example, the Cu2+ adsorption capacity of these materials was dictated by the chemical nature of the mesopores generated by the different organic functional groups. An investigation of the substrate selectivity of the bifunctionalized MSNs in a competitive nitroaldol reaction using an equimolar amount of two competing 4-nitrobenzaldehyde derivatives was performed. Shape-controlled bifunctional MSNs were employed as the catalysts. The properties of the MSNs were investigated using various spectroscopic methods and electron microscopy. The more hydrophobic the surface organic groups are, the higher the ratio of hydrophobic final product. This is the first example to demonstrate the selection of substrate using physicochemical nature of the mesopore surface other than the conventional shape selection in zeolite systems. I also created a cooperative dual catalyst

  13. Morphological control of multifunctionalized mesoporous silica nanomaterials for catalysis applications (United States)

    Huh, Seong

    I found an efficient method to control the morphology of the organically monofunctionalized mesoporous silica materials by introducing different types of organoalkoxysilanes in a base-catalyzed co-condensation reaction. The monofunctionalized materials exhibit different particle morphologies relative to the pure MCM-41 material. The concentration dependence of the morphology is a critical factor to determine the final particle shape. A proposed mechanism of the shape evolution is also offered. After understanding the role of organoalkoxysilanes in producing various well-shaped nanomaterials, I also obtained a series of bifunctional mesoporous silica materials with certain particle morphology. A series of bifunctional mesoporous silica nanospheres (MSNs) whose physicochemical properties was investigated via solid state NMR techniques and Cu 2+ adsorption capacity tests. The ratio of two different organic groups inside of mesopores of these MSNs could be fine-tuned. These MSNs serve as a useful model system to study substrate selectivity in catalytic reactions and sorption phenomena. For example, the Cu2+ adsorption capacity of these materials was dictated by the chemical nature of the mesopores generated by the different organic functional groups. An investigation of the substrate selectivity of the bifunctionalized MSNs in a competitive nitroaldol reaction using an equimolar amount of two competing 4-nitrobenzaldehyde derivatives was performed. Shape-controlled bifunctional MSNs were employed as the catalysts. The properties of the MSNs were investigated using various spectroscopic methods and electron microscopy. The more hydrophobic the surface organic groups are, the higher the ratio of hydrophobic final product. This is the first example to demonstrate the selection of substrate using physicochemical nature of the mesopore surface other than the conventional shape selection in zeolite systems. I also created a cooperative dual catalyst system that is capable of

  14. Amine-synthesizing enzyme N-substituted formamide deformylase: screening, purification, characterization, and gene cloning. (United States)

    Fukatsu, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Yoshiteru; Goda, Masahiko; Higashibata, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Michihiko


    N-substituted formamide was produced through the hydration of an isonitrile by isonitrile hydratase in the isonitrile metabolism. The former compound was further degraded by a microorganism, strain F164, which was isolated from soil through an acclimatization culture. The N-substituted formamide-degrading microorganism was identified as Arthrobacter pascens. The microbial degradation was found to proceed through an enzymatic reaction, the N-substituted formamide being hydrolyzed to yield the corresponding amine and formate. The enzyme, designated as N-substituted formamide deformylase (NfdA), was purified and characterized. The native enzyme had a molecular mass of approximately 61 kDa and consisted of two identical subunits. It stoichiometrically catalyzed the hydrolysis of N-benzylformamide (an N-substituted formamide) to benzylamine and formate. Of all of the N-substituted formamides tested, N-benzylformamide was the most suitable substrate for the enzyme. However, no amides were accepted as substrates. The gene (nfdA) encoding this enzyme was also cloned. The deduced amino acid sequence of nfdA exhibited the highest overall sequence identity (28%) with those of regulatory proteins among known proteins. Only the N-terminal region (residues 58-72) of NfdA also showed significant sequence identity (27-73%) to that of each member of the amidohydrolase superfamily, although there was no similarity in the overall sequence except in the above limited region.

  15. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Ambient Air Using Amine-Grafted Mesoporous Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Wagner


    Full Text Available Anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2 have been identified as a major contributor to climate change. An attractive approach to tackle the increasing levels of CO2 in the atmosphere is direct extraction via absorption of CO2 from ambient air, to be subsequently desorbed and processed under controlled conditions. The feasibility of this approach depends on the sorbent material that should combine a long lifetime with nontoxicity, high selectivity for CO2, and favorable thermodynamic cycling properties. Adsorbents based on pore-expanded mesoporous silica grafted with amines have previously been found to combine high CO2 adsorption capacity at low partial pressures with operational stability under highly defined laboratory conditions. Here we examine the real potential and functionality of these materials by using more realistic conditions using both pure CO2, synthetic air, and, most importantly, ambient air. Through a combination of thermogravimetric analysis and Fourier transform infrared (TGA-FTIR spectroscopy we address the primary functionality and by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT spectroscopy the observed degradation of the material on a molecular level.

  16. Amine-functionalized diatom frustules: a platform for specific and sensitive detection of nitroaromatic explosive derivative. (United States)

    Selvaraj, Viji; Thomas, Neethi; Anthuvan, Allen Joseph; Nagamony, Ponpandian; Chinnuswamy, Viswanathan


    In the present study, an attempt was made to develop a proof of concept for the detection of nitroaromatic explosive derivatives through the photoluminescence (PL) quenching process using functionalized diatom frustules as a sensing platform. The diatom frustules are composed of nanostructured, highly porous biogenic silica material and emit strong, visible blue PL upon UV excitation. PL-active biosilica was isolated from the marine diatom Nitzschia sp. and was amine-functionalized to develop a sensing platform. Functionalized diatom frustules were further characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope and a series of spectroscopic methods. When nitroaromatic compounds were bound to the functionalized diatom frustules biosilica, the PL intensity from the functionalized biosilica was partially quenched due to the electrophilic nature of the nitro (-NO) groups. The quenching process confirmed the Meisenheimer complex formation and was investigated by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and time-resolved photoluminescence studies. The developed platform was further evaluated for its sensitivity and specificity, and the limit of detection (LOD) of the assay was determined as 1 μM for a series of nitroaromatic explosive compounds. In conclusion, the developed sensing platform will have great utility in the development of on-site detection platforms for sensitive detection of warfare explosive nitroaromatic compounds from the environment.

  17. Fast CE analysis of adrenergic amines in different parts of Citrus aurantium fruit and dietary supplements. (United States)

    Mercolini, Laura; Mandrioli, Roberto; Trerè, Teria; Bugamelli, Francesca; Ferranti, Anna; Raggi, Maria Augusta


    A CE method has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of the adrenergic amines synephrine, octopamine and tyramine in Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) fruit extracts and in dietary supplements. The analytes were separated on a fused silica capillary (50 microm id, 40.0 cm effective length, 48.5 cm total length) using a BGE composed of phosphate buffer (pH 2.5, 50 mM) and applying a 30 kV potential. The samples were injected hydrodynamically at 50 mbar for 25 s. The use of photodiode array detection (lambda=195 nm) allowed the quantification of the analytes and the control of peak purity. The method has been fully validated, obtaining satisfactory values of precision and extraction yield. The analytes are extracted with water from the dried whole fruits or fruit parts (endocarp, mesocarp and exocarp) or from the commercial formulations and directly injected into the CE apparatus. The results obtained were satisfactory in terms of precision (RSD 89%). Thus, the method has demonstrated to be suitable for the qualitative and quantitative determination of synephrine, octopamine and tyramine in C. aurantium extracts, for dietary supplement quality control and for food adulteration identification.

  18. Lipase immobilization for catalytic applications obtained using fumed silica deposited with MAPLE technique (United States)

    Bloisi, Francesco; Califano, Valeria; Perretta, Giuseppe; Nasti, Libera; Aronne, Antonio; Di Girolamo, Rocco; Auriemma, Finizia; De Rosa, Claudio; Vicari, Luciano R. M.


    Lipases are enzymes used for catalyzing reactions of acylglycerides in biodiesel production from lipids, where enzyme immobilization on a substrate is required. Silica nanoparticles in different morphologies and configurations are currently used in conjunction with biological molecules for drug delivery and catalysis applications, but up to date their use for triglycerides has been limited by the large size of long-chain lipid molecules. Matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE), a laser deposition technique using a frozen solution/suspension as a target, is widely used for deposition of biomaterials and other delicate molecules. We have carried out a MAPLE deposition starting from a frozen mixture containing fumed silica and lipase in water. Deposition parameters were chosen in order to increase surface roughness and to promote the formation of complex structures. Both the target (a frozen thickened mixture of nanoparticles/catalyst in water) and the deposition configuration (a small target to substrate distance) are unusual and have been adopted in order to increase surface contact of catalyst and to facilitate access to long-chain molecules. The resulting innovative film morphology (fumed silica/lipase cluster level aggregation) and the lipase functionality (for catalytic biodiesel production) have been studied by FESEM, FTIR and transesterification tests.

  19. Sol-gel derived flexible silica aerogel as selective adsorbent for water decontamination from crude oil. (United States)

    Abolghasemi Mahani, A; Motahari, S; Mohebbi, A


    Oil spills are the most important threat to the sea ecosystem. The present study is an attempt to investigate the effects of sol-gel parameters on seawater decontamination from crude oil by use of flexible silica aerogel. To this goal, methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) based silica aerogels were prepared by two-step acid-base catalyzed sol-gel process, involving ambient pressure drying (APD) method. To investigate the effects of sol-gel parameters, the aerogels were prepared under two different acidic and basic pH values (i.e. 4 and 8) and varied ethanol/MTMS molar ratios from 5 to 15. The adsorption capacity of the prepared aerogels was evaluated for two heavy and light commercial crude oils under multiple adsorption-desorption cycles. To reduce process time, desorption cycles were carried out by using roll milling for the first time. At optimum condition, silica aerogels are able to uptake heavy and light crude oils with the order of 16.7 and 13.7, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Amine-Mediated Enzymatic Carboxylation of Phenols Using CO2as Substrate Increases Equilibrium Conversions and Reaction Rates. (United States)

    Pesci, Lorenzo; Gurikov, Pavel; Liese, Andreas; Kara, Selin


    A variety of strategies is applied to alleviate thermodynamic and kinetic limitations in biocatalytic carboxylation of metabolites in vivo. A key feature to consider in enzymatic carboxylations is the nature of the cosubstrate: CO 2 or its hydrated form, bicarbonate. The substrate binding and activation mechanism determine what the actual carboxylation agent is. Dihydroxybenzoic acid (de)carboxylases catalyze the reversible regio-selective ortho-(de)carboxylation of phenolics. These enzymes have attracted considerable attention in the last 10 years due to their potential in substituting harsh conditions typical of chemical carboxylations (100-200 °C, 5-100 bar) with, ideally, greener ones (20-40 °C, 1 bar). They are reported to use bicarbonate as substrate, needed in large excess to overcome thermodynamic and kinetic limitations. Therefore, CO 2 can be used as substrate by these enzymes only if it is converted into bicarbonate in situ. In this contribution, we report the simultaneous amine-mediated conversion of CO 2 into bicarbonate and the ortho-carboxylation of different phenolic molecules catalyzed by 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (de)carboxylase from Aspergillus oryzae. Our results show that under the newly developed conditions a significant thermodynamic (up to twofold increase in conversion) and kinetic improvement (up to approx. fivefold increase in rate) of the biocatalytic carboxylation of catechol is achieved. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. The effect of high temperature sol-gel polymerization parameters on the microstructure and properties of hydrophobic phenol-formaldehyde/silica hybrid aerogels. (United States)

    Seraji, Mohamad Mehdi; Sameri, Ghasem; Davarpanah, Jamal; Bahramian, Ahmad Reza


    Phenol-formaldehyde/silica hybrid aerogels with different degree of hydrophobicity were successfully synthesized via high temperature sol-gel polymerization. Tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) were used as precursor and co-precursor of the hydrophobic silica-based phase, respectively. The hydrolysis step of silica based sols were conducted by acid catalyzed reactions and HCl was used as hydrolysis catalyst. The chemical structure of prepared hybrid aerogels was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The effect of MTES/TEOS proportion and catalyst content on the morphology and microstructure of samples were investigated by FE-SEM and C, Si mapping analysis. The acid catalyzed hydrolysis of TEOS and MTES sols leads to formation of a sol with primarily silica particles in the organic-inorganic hybrid sol and varying colloid growth mechanisms were occurred with change in MTES and HCl molar ratio. With the increasing of MTES content, the microstructure of samples changed from uniform colloidal network, core-shell structure to polymeric structure with a huge phase separation. The increasing of HCl mole fraction leads to smaller particle size. Moreover, the shrinkage of samples was decreased and water contact angles of the resulted aerogels were increased from 40 to 156.8° with the increases of MTES content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comprehensive Study of the Impact of Steam on Polyethyleneimine on Silica for CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammache, Sonia; Hoffman, James S.; Gray, McMahan L.; Fauth, Daniel J.; Howard, Bret H.; Pennline, Henry W.


    An amine sorbent, prepared by impregnation of polyethyleneimine on silica, was tested for steam stability. The stability of the sorbent was investigated in a fixed bed reactor using multiple steam cycles of 90 vol % H2O/He at 105 °C, and the gas effluent was monitored with a mass spectrometer. CO2 uptake of sorbent was found to decrease with repeated exposure to steam. Characterization of the spent sorbent using N2 physisorption, SEM, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the decrease in CO2 loading can possibly be attributed to a reagglomeration of the amine in the pores of the silica. No support effect was found in this study. The commercial SiO2 used, Cariact G10, was found to be stable under the conditions used. While it was found that subjecting the sorbent to several steam cycles decreased its CO2 uptake, a continuous exposure of the sorbent to steam did not have a significant performance impact. Finally, a silanated sorbent, consisting of a mixture of PEI and aminopropyl-triethoxysilane on SiO2 support, was also investigated for steam stability. Similarly to the nonsilanated sorbent, the CO2 loading of this sorbent decreased upon steam exposure, although a mechanism for this change has not been postulated at this time.

  3. Can an amine be a stronger acid than a carboxylic acid? The surprisingly high acidity of amine-borane complexes. (United States)

    Martín-Sómer, Ana; Lamsabhi, Al Mokhtar; Yáñez, Manuel; Dávalos, Juan Z; González, Javier; Ramos, Rocío; Guillemin, Jean-Claude


    The gas-phase acidity of a series of amine-borane complexes has been investigated through the use of electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), with the application of the extended Cooks kinetic method, and high-level G4 ab initio calculations. The most significant finding is that typical nitrogen bases, such as aniline, react with BH(3) to give amine-borane complexes, which, in the gas phase, have acidities as high as those of either phosphoric, oxalic, or salicylic acid; their acidity is higher than many carboxylic acids, such as formic, acetic, and propanoic acid. Indeed the complexation of different amines with BH(3) leads to a substantial increase (from 167 to 195 kJ mol(-1)) in the intrinsic acidity of the system; in terms of ionization constants, this increase implies an increase as large as fifteen orders of magnitude. Interestingly, this increase in acidity is almost twice as large as that observed for the corresponding phosphine-borane analogues. The agreement between the experimental and the G4-based calculated values is excellent. The analysis of the electron-density rearrangements of the amine and the borane moieties indicates that the dative bond is significantly stronger in the N-deprotonated anion than in the corresponding neutral amine-borane complex, because the deprotonated amine is a much better electron donor than the neutral amine. On the top of that, the newly created lone pair on the nitrogen atom in the deprotonated species, conjugates with the BN bonding pair. The dispersion of the extra electron density into the BH(3) group also contributes to the increased stability of the deprotonated species. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Size and surface modification of amorphous silica particles determine their effects on the activity of human CYP3A4 in vitro (United States)

    Imai, Shunji; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Morishita, Yuki; Yoshida, Tokuyuki; Uji, Miyuki; Nagano, Kazuya; Mukai, Yohei; Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Tsutsumi, Yasuo


    Because of their useful chemical and physical properties, nanomaterials are widely used around the world - for example, as additives in food and medicines - and such uses are expected to become more prevalent in the future. Therefore, collecting information about the effects of nanomaterials on metabolic enzymes is important. Here, we examined the effects of amorphous silica particles with various sizes and surface modifications on cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) activity by means of two different in vitro assays. Silica nanoparticles with diameters of 30 and 70 nm (nSP30 and nSP70, respectively) tended to inhibit CYP3A4 activity in human liver microsomes (HLMs), but the inhibitory activity of both types of nanoparticles was decreased by carboxyl modification. In contrast, amine-modified nSP70 activated CYP3A4 activity. In HepG2 cells, nSP30 inhibited CYP3A4 activity more strongly than the larger silica particles did. Taken together, these results suggest that the size and surface characteristics of the silica particles determined their effects on CYP3A4 activity and that it may be possible to develop silica particles that do not have undesirable effects on metabolic enzymes by altering their size and surface characteristics.

  5. Choosing amine-based absorbents for CO2 capture. (United States)

    Gomes, João; Santos, Samuel; Bordado, João


    CO2 capture from gaseous effluents is one of the great challenges faced by chemical and environmental engineers, as the increase in CO2 levels in the Earth atmosphere might be responsible for dramatic climate changes. From the existing capture technologies, the only proven and mature technology is chemical absorption using aqueous amine solutions. However, bearing in mind that this process is somewhat expensive, it is important to choose the most efficient and, at the same time, the least expensive solvents. For this purpose, a pilot test facility was assembled and includes an absorption column, as well as a stripping column, a heat exchanger between the two columns, a reboiler for the stripping column, pumping systems, surge tanks and all necessary instrumentation and control systems. Some different aquous amine solutions were tested on this facility and it was found that, from a set of six tested amines, diethanol amine is the one that turned out to be the most economical choice, as it showed a higher CO2 loading capacity (0.982 mol of CO2 per mol of amine) and the lowest price per litre (25.70 €/L), even when compared with monoethanolamine, the benchmark solvent, exhibiting a price per litre of 30.50 €/L.

  6. Chromosomal localization of the human vesicular amine transporter genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, D.; Finn, P.; Liu, Y.; Roghani, A.; Edwards, R.H.; Klisak, I.; Kojis, T.; Heinzmann, C.; Sparkes, R.S. (UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States))


    The physiologic and behavioral effects of pharmacologic agents that interfere with the transport of monoamine neurotransmitters into vesicles suggest that vesicular amine transport may contribute to human neuropsychiatric disease. To determine whether an alteration in the genes that encode vesicular amine transport contributes to the inherited component of these disorders, the authors have isolated a human cDNA for the brain transporter and localized the human vesciular amine transporter genes. The human brain synaptic vesicle amine transporter (SVAT) shows unexpected conservation with rat SVAT in the regions that diverge extensively between rat SVAT and the rat adrenal chromaffin granule amine transporter (CGAT). Using the cloned sequences with a panel of mouse-human hybrids and in situ hybridization for regional localization, the adrenal CGAT gene (or VAT1) maps to human chromosome 8p21.3 and the brain SVAT gene (or VAT2) maps to chromosome 10q25. Both of these sites occur very close to if not within previously described deletions that produce severe but viable phenotypes. 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. In situ infrared study of the effect of amine density on the nature of adsorbed CO2 on amine-functionalized solid sorbents. (United States)

    Tumuluri, Uma; Isenberg, Mathew; Tan, Chung-Sung; Chuang, Steven S C


    In situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the nature of adsorbed CO2 on class I (amine-impregnated) and class II (amine-grafted) sorbents with different amine densities. Adsorbed CO2 on amine sorbents exists in the form of carbamate-ammonium ion pairs, carbamate-ammonium zwitterions, and carbamic acid. The adsorbed CO2 on high-amine density sorbents showed that the formation of ammonium ions correlates with the suppression of CH stretching intensities. An HCl probing technique was used to resolve the characteristic infrared bands of ammonium ions, clarifying that the band observed around 1498 cm(-1) is a combination of the deformation vibration of ammonium ion (NH3(+)) at 1508 and 1469 cm(-1) and the deformation vibration of NH in carbamate (NHCOO(-)) at 1480 cm(-1). Carbamate and carbamic acid on sorbents with low amine density desorbed at a rate faster than those on sorbents with high amine density after switching the flow from CO2 to Ar at 55 °C. Evaluation of the desorption temperature profiles showed that the temperature required to achieve the maximal desorption of CO2 (Tmax. des) increases with amine density. The adsorbed CO2 on sorbents with high amine density is stabilized via hydrogen bonding interactions with adjacent amine sites. These sorbents require higher temperature to desorb CO2 than those with low amine density.

  8. Silica-Gentamicin Nanohybrids: Synthesis and Antimicrobial Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Ahmed Mosselhy


    Full Text Available Orthopedic applications commonly require the administration of systemic antibiotics. Gentamicin is one of the most commonly used aminoglycosides in the treatment and prophylaxis of infections associated with orthopedic applications, but gentamicin has a short half-life. However, silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs can be used as elegant carriers for antibiotics to prolong their release. Our goal is the preparation and characterization of SiO2-gentamicin nanohybrids for their potential antimicrobial administration in orthopedic applications. In vitro gentamicin release profile from the nanohybrids (gentamicin-conjugated SiO2 NPs prepared by the base-catalyzed precipitation exhibited fast release (21.4% during the first 24 h and further extension with 43.9% release during the five-day experiment. Antimicrobial studies of the SiO2-gentamicin nanohybrids versus native SiO2 NPs and free gentamicin were performed against Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens and Escherichia coli (E. coli. SiO2-gentamicin nanohybrids were most effective against B. subtilis. SiO2 NPs play no antimicrobial role. Parallel antimicrobial studies for the filter-sterilized gentamicin were performed to assess the effect of ultraviolet (UV-irradiation on gentamicin. In summary, the initial fast gentamicin release fits the need for high concentration of antibiotics after orthopedic surgical interventions. Moreover, the extended release justifies the promising antimicrobial administration of the nanohybrids in bone applications.

  9. Silica-Gentamicin Nanohybrids: Synthesis and Antimicrobial Action. (United States)

    Mosselhy, Dina Ahmed; Ge, Yanling; Gasik, Michael; Nordström, Katrina; Natri, Olli; Hannula, Simo-Pekka


    Orthopedic applications commonly require the administration of systemic antibiotics. Gentamicin is one of the most commonly used aminoglycosides in the treatment and prophylaxis of infections associated with orthopedic applications, but gentamicin has a short half-life. However, silica nanoparticles (SiO₂ NPs) can be used as elegant carriers for antibiotics to prolong their release. Our goal is the preparation and characterization of SiO₂-gentamicin nanohybrids for their potential antimicrobial administration in orthopedic applications. In vitro gentamicin release profile from the nanohybrids (gentamicin-conjugated SiO₂ NPs) prepared by the base-catalyzed precipitation exhibited fast release (21.4%) during the first 24 h and further extension with 43.9% release during the five-day experiment. Antimicrobial studies of the SiO₂-gentamicin nanohybrids versus native SiO₂ NPs and free gentamicin were performed against Bacillus subtilis ( B. subtilis ), Pseudomonas fluorescens ( P. fluorescens ) and Escherichia coli ( E. coli ). SiO₂-gentamicin nanohybrids were most effective against B. subtilis . SiO₂ NPs play no antimicrobial role. Parallel antimicrobial studies for the filter-sterilized gentamicin were performed to assess the effect of ultraviolet (UV)-irradiation on gentamicin. In summary, the initial fast gentamicin release fits the need for high concentration of antibiotics after orthopedic surgical interventions. Moreover, the extended release justifies the promising antimicrobial administration of the nanohybrids in bone applications.

  10. Experimental investigation of muon-catalyzed fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.E.


    Data will be presented from the first experimental determination of the total yield of the muon-catalyzed fusion reaction: μ - + d + t → μ - + 4 He + n + 17.6 MeV. In this reaction, an elementary particle known as the muon induces fusion without being affected by the nuclear reaction. Thus, it serves as a catalyst in the usual sense. The muon catalyzes many fusion reactions before decaying into an electron and neutrinos. The process is known as cold fusion since it proceeds rapidly for temperatures in the range from room temperature to about 800 0 C. An obvious advantage over thermal fusion approaches is that there is no plasma to contain. On the other hand, the muons which drive the reaction must be continually produced using a particle accelerator

  11. Analytical rheology of metallocene-catalyzed polyethylenes (United States)

    Shanbhag, Sachin; Takeh, Arsia


    A computational algorithm that seeks to invert the linear viscoelastic spectrum of single-site metallocene-catalyzed polyethylenes is presented. The algorithm uses a general linear rheological model of branched polymers as its underlying engine, and is based on a Bayesian formulation that transforms the inverse problem into a sampling problem. Given experimental rheological data on unknown single-site metallocene- catalyzed polyethylenes, it is able to quantitatively describe the range of values of weight-averaged molecular molecular weight, MW , and average branching density, bm , consistent with the data. The algorithm uses a Markov-chain Monte Carlo method to simulate the sampling problem. If, and when information about the molecular weight is available through supplementary experiments, such as chromatography or light scattering, it can easily be incorporated into the algorithm, as demonstrated. Financial support from NSF DMR 0953002.

  12. Fluorine-Based DRIE of Fused Silica (United States)

    Yee, Karl; Shcheglov, Kirill; Li, Jian; Choi, Daniel


    A process of deep reactive-ion etching (DRIE) using a fluorine-based gas mixture enhanced by induction-coupled plasma (ICP) has been demonstrated to be effective in forming high-aspect-ratio three-dimensional patterns in fused silica. The patterns are defined in part by an etch mask in the form of a thick, high-quality aluminum film. The process was developed to satisfy a need to fabricate high-aspect-ratio fused-silica resonators for vibratory microgyroscopes, and could be used to satisfy similar requirements for fabricating other fused-silica components.

  13. Fused Silica and Other Transparent Window Materials (United States)

    Salem, Jon


    Several transparent ceramics, such as spinel and AlONs are now being produced in sufficient large areas to be used in space craft window applications. The work horse transparent material for space missions from Apollo to the International Space Station has been fused silica due in part to its low coefficient of expansion and optical quality. Despite its successful use, fused silica exhibits anomalies in its crack growth behavior, depending on environmental preconditioning and surface damage. This presentation will compare recent optical ceramics to fused silica and discuss sources of variation in slow crack growth behavior.

  14. Iridium-Catalyzed Selective Isomerization of Primary Allylic Alcohols. (United States)

    Li, Houhua; Mazet, Clément


    This Account presents the development of the iridium-catalyzed isomerization of primary allylic alcohols in our laboratory over the past 8 years. Our initial interest was driven by the long-standing challenge associated with the development of a general catalyst even for the nonasymmetric version of this seemingly simple chemical transformation. The added value of the aldehyde products and the possibility to rapidly generate molecular complexity from readily accessible allylic alcohols upon a redox-economical isomerization reaction were additional sources of motivation. Certainly influenced by the success story of the related isomerization of allylic amines, most catalysts developed for the selective isomerization of allylic alcohols were focused on rhodium as a transition metal of choice. Our approach has been based on the commonly accepted precept that hydrogenation and isomerization are often competing processes, with the latter being usually suppressed in favor of the former. The cationic iridium complexes [(Cy3P)(pyridine)Ir(cod)]X developed by Crabtree (X = PF6) and Pfaltz (X = BArF) are usually considered as the most versatile catalysts for the hydrogenation of allylic alcohols. Using molecular hydrogen to generate controlled amounts of the active form of these complexes but performing the reaction in the absence of molecular hydrogen enabled deviation from the typical hydrogenation manifold and favored exclusively the isomerization of allylic alcohols into aldehydes. Isotopic labeling and crossover experiments revealed the intermolecular nature of the process. Systematic variation of the ligand on the iridium center allowed us to identify the structural features beneficial for catalytic activity. Subsequently, three generations of chiral catalysts have been investigated and enabled us to reach excellent levels of enantioselectivity for a wide range of 3,3-disubstituted aryl/alkyl and alkyl/alkyl primary allylic alcohols leading to β-chiral aldehydes. The

  15. Pharmacological potential of biogenic amine-polyamine interactions beyond neurotransmission. (United States)

    Sánchez-Jiménez, F; Ruiz-Pérez, M V; Urdiales, J L; Medina, M A


    Histamine, serotonin and dopamine are biogenic amines involved in intercellular communication with multiple effects on human pathophysiology. They are products of two highly homologous enzymes, histidine decarboxylase and l-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase, and transmit their signals through different receptors and signal transduction mechanisms. Polyamines derived from ornithine (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) are mainly involved in intracellular effects related to cell proliferation and death mechanisms. This review summarizes structural and functional evidence for interactions between components of all these amine metabolic and signalling networks (decarboxylases, transporters, oxidases, receptors etc.) at cellular and tissue levels, distinct from nervous and neuroendocrine systems, where the crosstalk among these amine-related components can also have important pathophysiological consequences. The discussion highlights aspects that could help to predict and discuss the effects of intervention strategies. © 2013 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. Amorphous silica biomineralizations in Schoenoplectus californicus (Cyperaceae): their relation with maturation stage and silica availability


    Fernández Honaine, Mariana; Borrelli, Natalia Lorena; Osterrieth, Margarita Luisa; del Río, Laura Sombra


    The factors involved on the silicification process in Cyperaceae are scarcely known. In this study we analyse the effect of maturation stage and silica availability on the production of amorphous silica biomineralizations in culms of Schoenoplectus californicus. Young and senescent culms were collected from ponds with different silica availability. Two complementary methodologies (calcination and staining techniques), light and scanning electron microscopy and EDS were applied for amorpho...

  17. Amine Metabolism Is Influenced by Dietary Protein Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya K. Kar


    Full Text Available Growth in world population will inevitably leads to increased demand for protein for humans and animals. Protein from insects and blood plasma are being considered as possible alternatives, but more research on their nutritional quality and health effects is needed. Here, we studied the effect of dietary protein source on metabolism and metabolic amine profiles in serum and urine of mice. Groups of mice were fed semi-purified diets containing 300 g/kg of soybean meal, casein, partially delactosed whey powder, spray-dried plasma protein, wheat gluten meal, and yellow mealworm. Feed and water intake as well as body weight gain were measured for 28 days. After 14 and 28 days, serum and urine samples were collected for measurement of a large panel of amine metabolites. MetaboAnalyst 3.0 was used for analysis of the raw metabolic data. Out of 68 targeted amine metabolites, we could detect 54 in urine and 41 in blood serum. Dietary protein sources were found to have profound effects on host metabolism, particularly in systemic amine profiles, considered here as an endophenotype. We recommend serum over urine to screen for the amine metabolic endophenotype based on partial least squares discriminant analysis. We concluded that metabolites like alpha-aminobutyric acid and 1-methylhistidine are sensitive indicators of too much or too little availability of specific amino acids in the different protein diets. Furthermore, we concluded that amine metabolic profiles can be useful for assessing the nutritional quality of different protein sources.

  18. Diffusion of coloured silica nanoparticles into human hair


    Gomes, Jaime Rocha; Sampaio, Sandra; Maia, Frederico


    A novel method for dyeing human hair fibres using coloured silica nanoparticles of 206 nm has been developed. Diffusion of coloured silica nanoparticles into hair fibres has been investigated; silica nanoparticles do not penetrate at all, or do so only sparingly, into the structure of Caucasian virgin hair. However, coloured silica nanoparticles diffused readily into bleached hair fibres. Scanning electron microscopy showed that coloured silica nanoparticles were present mainly in...

  19. Interfacial interaction between the epoxidized natural rubber and silica in natural rubber/silica composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tiwen [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Jia, Zhixin, E-mail: [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Luo, Yuanfang; Jia, Demin [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Peng, Zheng [Agricultural Product Processing Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agriculture Sciences, Zhanjiang 524001 (China)


    Highlights: • Substantiate the ring open reaction between Si-OH of silica and epoxy groups of ENR. • ENR can act as a bridge between NR and silica to enhance the interfacial interaction. • As a modifier, ENR gets the potential to be used in the tread of green tire for improving the wet skid resistance apparently. - Abstract: The epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) as an interfacial modifier was used to improve the mechanical and dynamical mechanical properties of NR/silica composites. In order to reveal the interaction mechanism between ENR and silica, the ENR/Silica model compound was prepared by using an open mill and the interfacial interaction of ENR with silica was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and stress–strain testing. The results indicated that the ring-opening reaction occurs between the epoxy groups of ENR chains and Si-OH groups on the silica surfaces and the covalent bonds are formed between two phases, which can improve the dispersion of silica in the rubber matrix and enhance the interfacial combination between rubber and silica. The ring-opening reaction occurs not only in vulcanization process but also in mixing process, meanwhile, the latter seems to be more important due to the simultaneous effects of mechanical force and temperature.

  20. Nonsolvent application of ionic liquids: organo-catalysis by 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cation based room-temperature ionic liquids for chemoselective N-tert-butyloxycarbonylation of amines and the influence of the C-2 hydrogen on catalytic efficiency. (United States)

    Sarkar, Anirban; Roy, Sudipta Raha; Parikh, Naisargee; Chakraborti, Asit K


    1-Alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cation based ionic liquids efficiently catalyze N-tert-butyloxycarbonylation of amines with excellent chemoselectivity. The catalytic role of the ionic liquid is envisaged as "electrophilic activation" of di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (Boc(2)O) through bifurcated hydrogen bond formation with the C-2 hydrogen of the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cation and has been supported by a downfield shift of the imidazolium C-2 hydrogen of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([bmim][NTf(2)]) from δ 8.39 to 8.66 in the presence of Boc(2)O in the (1)H NMR and a drastic reduction of the catalytic efficiency with 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium ionic liquids that are devoid of the C-2 hydrogen. The differential time required for reaction with aromatic and aliphatic amines has offered means for selective N-t-Boc formation during inter and intramolecular competitions. Preferential N-t-Boc formation with secondary aliphatic amine has been achieved in the presence of primary aliphatic amine. Comparison of the catalytic efficiency for N-t-Boc formation with a common substrate revealed that [bmim][NTf(2)] is superior to the reported Lewis acid catalysts.

  1. Imidazole catalyzes chlorination by unreactive primary chloramines (United States)

    Roemeling, Margo D.; Williams, Jared; Beckman, Joseph S.; Hurst, James K.


    Hypochlorous acid and simple chloramines (RNHCl) are stable biologically-derived chlorinating agents. In general, the chlorination potential of HOCl is much greater than that of RNHCl, allowing it to oxidize or chlorinate a much wider variety of reaction partners. However, in this study we demonstrate by kinetic analysis that the reactivity of RNHCl can be dramatically promoted by imidazole and histidyl model compounds via intermediary formation of the corresponding imidazole chloramines. Two biologically relevant reactions were investigated—loss of imidazole-catalyzed chlorinating capacity and phenolic ring chlorination using fluorescein and the tyrosine analog, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (HPA). HOCl reacted stoichiometrically with imidazole, N-acetylhistidine (NAH), or imidazoleacetic acid to generate the corresponding imidazole chloramines which subsequently decomposed. Chloramine (NH2Cl) also underwent a markedly accelerated loss in chlorinating capacity when NAH was present, although in this case NAHCl did not accumulate, indicating that the catalytic intermediate must be highly reactive. Mixing HOCl with 1-methylimidazole (MeIm) led to very rapid loss in chlorinating capacity via formation of a highly reactive chlorinium ion (MeImCl+) intermediate; this behavior suggests that the reactive forms of the analogous imidazole chloramines are their conjugate acids, e.g., the imidazolechlorinium ion (HImCl+). HOCl-generated imidazole chloramine (ImCl) reacted rapidly with fluorescein in a specific acid-catalyzed second order reaction to give 3′-monochloro and 3′,5′-dichloro products. Equilibrium constants for the transchlorination reactions: HOCl + HIm = H2O + ImCl and NH2Cl + HIm = NH3 + ImCl were estimated from the dependence of the rate constants upon [HIm]/[HOCl] and literature data. Acid catalysis again suggests that the actual chlorinating agent is HImCl+; consistent with this interpretation, MeIm markedly catalyzed fluorescein chlorination by HOCl

  2. Biogenic amines in smear and mould-ripened cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Pleva


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was the monitoring of six biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, phenylethylamine, tryptamine, putrescine, and cadaverine and two polyamines (spermidine and spermine in 30 samples of dairy products purchased in the Czech Republic, namely in 15 samples of mould-ripened cheeses and in 15 samples of smear-ripened cheeses. A further goal was the microbiological analysis of the individual samples of cheeses (total count of microorganisms, number of enterobacteria, enterococci, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and moulds. The monitored biogenic amines were analyzed by a high performance liquid chromatography equipped with a UV/VIS DAD detector. The amount of enterobacteria in fresh cheese exceeded 105 CFU.g‑1. In smear-ripened cheese flavourless (Romadur type, the amount was >103 CFU.g-1 and 104-105 CFU.g-1 in smear-ripened cheese with flavour. Biogenic amines were observed in two groups of blue cheeses (white veined cheese and blue veined cheese and smear-ripened cheeses. In both groups, there is a possibility of the presence of biogenic amines because the number of microorganisms and concentration of free amino acids increase during ripening. In ten samples of soft smear-ripening acid cheese and in smear-ripened cheese, the total content of biogenic amines were 22-1000 and in 5 samples of these cheeses, it was in range 1000-6000 The total amount of biogenic amines in the blue cheeses were in range 40-600 The presense of the tyramine was observed in the all analysed cheeses. The tyramine producing strains generated more than 900 of this biogenic amine. The production of tryptamine in the analysed cheeses was not proved by this study. The results of this study show that biogenic amines and polyamines are common in cheese. However, in some cases, they can pose a significant health danger for consumers. Any legislative control authority does not monitor them, as they are secondary metabolites even

  3. Mesoporous amine-bridged polysilsesquioxane for CO2 capture

    KAUST Repository

    Qi, Genggeng


    A novel class of amine-supported sorbents based on amine-bridged mesoporous polysilsesquioxane was developed via a simple one-pot sol-gel process. The new sorbent allows the incorporation of a large amount of active groups without sacrificing surface area or pore volume available for CO2 capture, leading to a CO2 capture capacity of 3.2 mmol g−1 under simulated flue gas conditions. The sorbent is readily regenerated at 100°C and exhibits good stability over repetitive adsorption-desorption cycling.

  4. Determination of Biogenic Amines in Different Shrimp Species for Export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myat Myat Thaw; Oo Aung; Aung Myint; Bisswanger, Hans


    This study is part of the project on the ''Quality Assurance of Different Shrimp Species for Export''. Local shrimp samples were collected from Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries and various private enterprises. Contents of biogenic amines were determined by using benzoyl chloride derivatization method with HPLC (reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography). Based on the biogenic amines, quality index of shrimps were correlated with freshness index so that the grade of shrimp samples can be classified as excellent, good, and acceptable. All sizes of shrimps such as extra large, large, medium were found to excceptable respectively

  5. Status of application of amines in US PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millett, P.J. [iSagacity, Half Moon Bay, CA (United States); Fruzzetti, K. [Electric Power Reserch Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)


    Prior to 1990, the majority of US units with pressurized water reactors (PWRs) were using ammonia as the primary pH control agent in secondary systems. Morpholine was used in one plant that did not employ condensate polishers. With the introduction of ethanolamine and other advanced amines in 1992, US PWRs could now get the benefit of improved pH control and still operate condensate polishers in the H-OH form. In this paper, the current practice with amines in US PWRs is reviewed with consideration for the optimization of pH control in secondary systems. (orig.)

  6. Microscopic polyangiitis secondary to silica exposure. (United States)

    Vega Miranda, Juliana; Pinto Peñaranda, Luis Fernando; Márquez Hernández, Javier Darío; Velásquez Franco, Carlos Jaime


    There is sufficient evidence of the capacity of silica to induce autoimmunity in patients with some type of genetic susceptibility. There are several autoimmune diseases related to this exposure (rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, systemic sclerosis). Nodular silicosis (clinical expression of this exposure in lungs) generates apoptosis, inflammation, loss of tolerance and a respiratory burst. There is evidence that relates silica with induction of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, but, until it is better explained, the reports of systemic vasculitis secondary to silica exposure are inconclusive. We describe a case of a patient with a history of occupational exposure to silica who developed microscopic polyangiitis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Nanoengineered silica: Properties, applications and toxicity. (United States)

    Mebert, Andrea M; Baglole, Carolyn J; Desimone, Martin F; Maysinger, Dusica


    Silica nanoparticles are widely used for biomedical purposes, but also in cosmetic products, food, the car industry, paints, etc. Considering their mega production, one should not ignore their potential hazardous effects on humans, flora and fauna. Human exposure to nanosilica can occur unintentionally in daily life and in industrial settings. Here, we review the common methods of silica nanoparticle production and its applications in biomedical investigations and nanotoxicology. The use of silica nanoparticles in biomedicine is discussed in terms of drug delivery, their responsiveness to different stimuli, theranostic applications and their uses in the food and cosmetic industries. Advantages and limitations of silica nanoparticles are presented and the effects of these nanoparticles are discussed in relation to their route of entry and impact on biochemical and epigenetic processes in human and animal cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of Nano Silica on Alkyd Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolic, Miroslav

    . The present work centers on the reinforcement of alkyd binders emulsified in water and used in exterior wood coatings with nano silica. Raman spectroscopy was used throughout the study to maintain the reproducibility of results as it was found that colloidal nano silica can increase or decrease the speed...... of alkyd curing affecting the tested mechanical properties. Hydrophilic, colloidal nano silica was seen to have limited effect in improving the mechanical properties due to problems in properly dispersing and attaining good surface interactions with the hydrophobic alkyd polymer. Efforts in increasing...... nano silica which was incorporated in the pure alkyd and then subsequently emulsified. When the change in the coating formulation increases the stiffness of the exterior wood coating, as happens with the addition of nano particles, there is a concern for the long term performance due to possibility...

  9. Blocked-micropores, surface functionalized, bio-compatible and silica-coated iron oxide nanocomposites as advanced MRI contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darbandi, Masih; Laurent, Sophie; Busch, Martin; Li Zian; Yuan Ying; Krüger, Michael; Farle, Michael; Winterer, Markus; Vander Elst, Luce; Muller, Robert N.; Wende, Heiko


    Biocompatible magnetic nanoparticles have been found promising in several biomedical applications for tagging, imaging, sensing and separation in recent years. In this article, a systematic study of the design and development of surface-modification schemes for silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) via a one-pot, in situ method at room temperature is presented. Silica-coated IONP were prepared in a water-in-oil microemulsion, and subsequently the surface was modified via addition of organosilane reagents to the microemulsion system. The structure and the morphology of the as synthesized nanoparticles have been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and measurement of N 2 adsorption–desorption. Electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopic (TEM) images of the nanoparticles showed the highly crystalline nature of the IONP structures. Nitrogen adsorption indicates microporous and blocked-microporous structures for the silica-coated and amine functionalized silica-coated IONP, respectively which could prove less cytotoxicity of the functionalized final product. Besides, the colloidal stability of the final product and the presence of the modified functional groups on top of surface layer have been proven by zeta-potential measurements. Owing to the benefit from the inner IONP core and the hydrophilic silica shell, the as-synthesized nanocomposites were exploited as an MRI contrast enhancement agent. Relaxometric results prove that the surface functionalized IONP have also signal enhancement properties. These surface functionalized nanocomposites are not only potential candidates for highly efficient contrast agents for MRI, but could also be used as ultrasensitive biological-magnetic labels, because they are in nanoscale size, having magnetic properties, blocked-microporous and are well dispersible in biological environment.

  10. Amine functionalization of carbon nanotubes for the preparation of CNT based polyactide composites - A comparative study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kesavan Pillai, Sreejarani


    Full Text Available This work describes a comparison between two chemical functionalization strategies for the amine functionalization of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). In the first procedure, the CNTs are functionalized in direct amination process that avoids the use...

  11. Nonporous Silica Nanoparticles for Nanomedicine Application


    Tang, Li; Cheng, Jianjun


    Nanomedicine, the use of nanotechnology for biomedical applications, has potential to change the landscape of the diagnosis and therapy of many diseases. In the past several decades, the advancement in nanotechnology and material science has resulted in a large number of organic and inorganic nanomedicine platforms. Silica nanoparticles (NPs), which exhibit many unique properties, offer a promising drug delivery platform to realize the potential of nanomedicine. Mesoporous silica NPs have bee...

  12. Monomers for thermosetting and toughening epoxy resins. [glycidyl amine derivatives, propargyl-containing amines, and mutagenic testing of aromatic diamines (United States)

    Pratt, J. R.


    Eight glycidyl amines were prepared by alkylating the parent amine with epichlorohydrin to form chlorohydrin, followed by cyclization with aqueous NaOH. Three of these compounds contained propargyl groups with postcuring studies. A procedure for quantitatively estimating the epoxy content of these glycidyl amines was employed for purity determination. Two diamond carbonates and several model propargly compounds were prepared. The synthesis of three new diamines, two which contain propargyloxy groups, and another with a sec-butyl group is in progress. These materials are at the dinitro stage ready for the final hydrogenation step. Four aromatic diamines were synthesized for mutagenic testing purposes. One of these compounds rapidly decomposes on exposure to air.

  13. Development of Solid-State Electrochemiluminescence (ECL Sensor Based on Ru(bpy32+-Encapsulated Silica Nanoparticles for the Detection of Biogenic Polyamines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maria Spehar-Délèze


    Full Text Available A solid state electrochemiluminescence (ECL sensor based on Ru(bpy32+-encapsulated silica nanoparticles (RuNP covalently immobilised on a screen printed carbon electrode has been developed and characterised. RuNPs were synthesised using water-in-oil microemulsion method, amino groups were introduced on their surface, and they were characterised by transmission electron microscopy. Aminated RuNPs were covalently immobilised on activate screen-printed carbon electrodes to form a solid state ECL biosensor. The biosensor surfaces were characterised using electrochemistry and scanning electron microscopy, which showed that aminated nanoparticles formed dense 3D layers on the electrode surface thus allowing immobilisation of high amount of Ru(bpy32+. The developed sensor was used for ECL detection of biogenic polyamines, namely spermine, spermidine, cadaverine and putrescine. The sensor exhibited high sensitivity and stability.

  14. Grassy Silica Nanoribbons and Strong Blue Luminescence (United States)

    Wang, Shengping; Xie, Shuang; Huang, Guowei; Guo, Hongxuan; Cho, Yujin; Chen, Jun; Fujita, Daisuke; Xu, Mingsheng


    Silicon dioxide (SiO2) is one of the key materials in many modern technological applications such as in metal oxide semiconductor transistors, photovoltaic solar cells, pollution removal, and biomedicine. We report the accidental discovery of free-standing grassy silica nanoribbons directly grown on SiO2/Si platform which is commonly used for field-effect transistors fabrication without other precursor. We investigate the formation mechanism of this novel silica nanostructure that has not been previously documented. The silica nanoribbons are flexible and can be manipulated by electron-beam. The silica nanoribbons exhibit strong blue emission at about 467 nm, together with UV and red emissions as investigated by cathodoluminescence technique. The origins of the luminescence are attributed to various defects in the silica nanoribbons; and the intensity change of the blue emission and green emission at about 550 nm is discussed in the frame of the defect density. Our study may lead to rational design of the new silica-based materials for a wide range of applications.

  15. A protocol for amide bond formation with electron deficient amines and sterically hindered substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Hansen, Maria E; Pandey, Sunil K; Christiansen, Elisabeth


    A protocol for amide coupling by in situ formation of acyl fluorides and reaction with amines at elevated temperature has been developed and found to be efficient for coupling of sterically hindered substrates and electron deficient amines where standard methods failed.......A protocol for amide coupling by in situ formation of acyl fluorides and reaction with amines at elevated temperature has been developed and found to be efficient for coupling of sterically hindered substrates and electron deficient amines where standard methods failed....

  16. Grafting of polymer onto silica surface in the presence of γ-ray irradiated silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, A.; Yokoyama, R.; Takami, M.; Chen, J.; Ohta, M.; Tsubokawa, N.


    Complete text of publication follows. We have reported the graft polymerization of vinyl monomers initiated by surface radicals formed by the decomposition of azo and peroxide groups previously introduced onto the surface. In addition, the grafting of polymers onto carbon black has been reported by the reaction of polymer radicals with the surface. On the other hand, it is well known that the relatively stable radicals are generated on the surface by the γ-ray irradiation. In this paper, the grafting of polystyrene onto silica surface during the thermal polymerization of styrene in the presence of γ-ray irradiated silica, grafting mechanism and thermal stability of grafted polymer will be discussed. The grafting of polymers onto silica surface by irradiation of polymer-adsorbed silica was also investigated. Silica obtained from Mitsubishi Chemical Co., Japan was used after pulverization: the particle size was 0.037-0.088 mm. Irradiation was performed in Cs-137 source at room temperature. The silica was irradiated at 50 Gy with dose rate of 3.463 Gy/min. Into a polymerization tube, styrene and irradiated silica was charged and the polymerization was carried out under argon under stirring. The percentage of polystyrene grafting was determined from weight loss when polystyrene-grafted silica was heated at 600 deg C by a thermal analyzer. Untreated silica did not affect the thermal polymerization of styrene. On the contrary, the thermal polymerization of styrene was remarkably retarded in the presence of the irradiated silica at 60 deg C. Similar tendency was reported during the polymerization of vinyl monomers in the presence of carbon black. In the initial stage of the polymerization in the presence of the irradiated silica below 50 deg C, the polymerization was accelerated. During the polymerization in the presence of irradiated silica, polystyrene was grafted onto the surface: the percentage of grafting was 5-11%. The amount of polystyrene grafted onto silica

  17. Mercury Binding Sites in Thiol-Functionalized Mesostructured Silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billinge, Simon J.L.; McKimmey, Emily J.; Shatnawi, Mouath; Kim, HyunJeong; Petkov, Valeri; Wermeille, Didier; Pinnavaia, Thomas J.


    Thiol-functionalized mesostructured silica with anhydrous compositions of (SiO 2 ) 1-x (LSiO 1.5 ) x , where L is a mercaptopropyl group and x is the fraction of functionalized framework silicon centers, are effective trapping agents for the removal of mercuric(II) ions from water. In the present work, we investigate the mercury-binding mechanism for representative thiol-functionalized mesostructures by atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data and by Raman spectroscopy. The mesostructures with wormhole framework structures and compositions corresponding to x = 0.30 and 0.50 were prepared by direct assembly methods in the presence of a structure-directing amine porogen. PDF analyses of five mercury-loaded compositions with Hg/S ratios of 0.50-1.30 provided evidence for the bridging of thiolate sulfur atoms to two metal ion centers and the formation of chain structures on the pore surfaces. We find no evidence for Hg-O bonds and can rule out oxygen coordination of the mercury at greater than the 10% level. The relative intensities of the PDF peaks corresponding to Hg-S and Hg-Hg atomic pairs indicate that the mercury centers cluster on the functionalized surfaces by virtue of thiolate bridging, regardless of the overall mercury loading. However, the Raman results indicate that the complexation of mercury centers by thiolate depends on the mercury loading. At low mercury loadings (Hg/S (le) 0.5), the dominant species is an electrically neutral complex in which mercury most likely is tetrahedrally coordinated to bridging thiolate ligands, as in Hg(SBu t ) 2 . At higher loadings (Hg/S 1.0-1.3), mercury complex cations predominate, as evidenced by the presence of charge-balancing anions (nitrate) on the surface. This cationic form of bound mercury is assigned a linear coordination to two bridging thiolate ligands.

  18. Where is Idi Amin? On violence, ethics and social memory in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The former Uganda dictator, Amin Dada, recently died in a Saudi hospital, after spending the last twenty four years of his life in exile. Given Amin's brutal dictatorship and the notoriety of his regime in. Uganda one would have expected that there has been a lot of public discussion about Amin's legacy and his continuing ...

  19. Mechanism of the N-Hydroxylation of Primary and Secondary Amines by Cytochrome P450

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seger, Signe T.; Rydberg, Patrik; Olsen, Lars


    Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) metabolize alkyl- and arylamines, generating several different products. For the primary and secondary amines, some of these reactions result in hydroxylated amines, which may be toxic. Thus, when designing new drugs containing amine groups, it is important to be able...

  20. Laboratory evaluation of borate:amine:copper derivatives In wood for fungal decay protection (United States)

    George Chen


    This study aimed to evaluate borate:amine:copper derivatives in wood for fungal decay protection as well as the permanence of copper and boron in wood. Each of four derivatives of borate:amine:copper prevented fungal decay in wood. Disodium tetraborate decahydrate (borax):amine:copper derivatives with 0.61-0.63% retention after water leaching prevented decay by...