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Sample records for amifostine ameliorates recognition

  1. Amifostine ameliorates recognition memory defect in acute radiation syndrome caused by relatively low-dose of gamma radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hae-June; Kim, Joong-Sun; Song, Myoung-Sub; Seo, Heung-Sik; Yang, Miyoung; Kim, Jong Choon; Jo, Sung-Kee; Shin, Taekyun; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Sung-Ho

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether amifostine (WR-2721) could attenuate memory impairment and suppress hippocampal neurogenesis in adult mice with the relatively low-dose exposure of acute radiation syndrome (ARS). These were assessed using object recognition memory test, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay, and immunohistochemical markers of neurogenesis [Ki-67 and doublecortin (DCX)]. Amifostine treatment (214 mg/kg, i.p.) prior to irradiation significan...

  2. Amelioration of early radiation effects in oral mucosa (mouse) by intravenous or subcutaneous administration of amifostine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischer, G. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technical Univ., Dresden (Germany); Doerr, W. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technical Univ., Dresden (Germany); Experimental Center, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technical Univ., Dresden (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    Purpose: to quantify the reduction of radiation-induced oral mucositis by amifostine as a function of administration route. Material and methods: mucosal ulceration of lower mouse tongue epithelium was analyzed. Amifostine was injected at 1.8 mg/injection subcutaneously (s.c.) or intravenously (i.v.), 45 min or 10 min prior to irradiation. With single-dose irradiation, a single amifostine injection was given. During daily fractionated irradiation (5 x 3 Gy) for 1 week, amifostine was administered s.c. or i.v. twice (days 0, 3), or s.c. on all irradiation days (days 0-4). With ten fractions over 2 weeks, five s.c. injections were given in week 1 (days 0-4) or week 2 (days 7-11), or both. Two i.v. injections were given either in week 1 (days 0, 3) or week 2 (days 7, 10). All fractionation protocols were terminated by graded test doses to generate full dose-effect curves. Results: in a single-dose control experiment, the ED{sub 50} (dose after which ulcer induction is expected in 50% of the mice) was 11.7 {+-} 1.4 Gy. Intravenous application of amifostine increased the ED{sub 50} to 14.0 {+-} 1.4 Gy (p = 0.024), while s.c. administration had no significant effect. The ED{sub 50} for test irradiation after 5 x 3 Gy was 5.8 {+-} 1.4 Gy. Two s.c. or i.v. amifostine injections yielded ED{sub 50} values of 7.2 {+-} 1.1 Gy (p = 0.0984) or 7.6 {+-} 1.2 Gy (p = 0.0334); five s.c. injections increased the ED{sub 50} to 8.2 {+-} 0.9 Gy (p = 0.0039). The ED{sub 50} after 10 x 3 Gy/2 weeks was 6.6 {+-} 1.8 Gy. Subcutaneous or intravenous administration of amifostine in week 1 yielded a significant increase in ED{sub 50} to 9.4 {+-} 2.5 Gy (p = 0.0099) and 10.0 {+-} 2.2 Gy (p = 0.0014). By contrast, amifostine administration in week 2 had no significant effect. Administration in weeks 1 and 2 resulted in an ED{sub 50} of 10.8 {+-} 3.6 Gy (p= 0.0053). Conclusion: amifostine during daily fractionated irradiation is effective only if administered in the initial treatment phase, i

  3. Amifostine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amifostine is used protect the kidneys from harmful effects of the chemotherapy drug cisplatin in patients that ... this medication for the treatment of ovarian cancer. Amifostine is also used to decrease dryness in the ...

  4. Infliximab ameliorates AD-associated object recognition memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Choi, Seong-Min; Jho, Jihoon; Park, Man-Seok; Kang, Jisu; Park, Se Jin; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Jo, Jihoon; Kim, Hyun Hee; Kim, Byeong C

    2016-09-15

    Dysfunctions in the perirhinal cortex (PRh) are associated with visual recognition memory deficit, which is frequently detected in the early stage of Alzheimer's disease. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-dependent long-term depression (mAChR-LTD) of synaptic transmission is known as a key pathway in eliciting this type of memory, and Tg2576 mice expressing enhanced levels of Aβ oligomers are found to have impaired mAChR-LTD in this brain area at as early as 3 months of age. We found that the administration of Aβ oligomers in young normal mice also induced visual recognition memory impairment and perturbed mAChR-LTD in mouse PRh slices. In addition, when mice were treated with infliximab, a monoclonal antibody against TNF-α, visual recognition memory impaired by pre-administered Aβ oligomers dramatically improved and the detrimental Aβ effect on mAChR-LTD was annulled. Taken together, these findings suggest that Aβ-induced inflammation is mediated through TNF-α signaling cascades, disturbing synaptic transmission in the PRh, and leading to visual recognition memory deficits. PMID:27265784

  5. Residual chromosomal damage after radiochemotherapy with and without amifostine detected by 24-color FISH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuechler, A.; Wendt, T.G. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Friedrich Schiller Univ., Jena (Germany); Dreidax, M.; Liehr, T.; Claussen, U. [Inst. of Human Genetics and Anthropology, Friedrich Schiller Univ., Jena (Germany); Pigorsch, S.U.; Dunst, J. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Martin Luther Univ., Halle (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    other group either. Conclusion: While there was a significant amifostine-mediated clinical amelioration of normal tissue toxicity, the comparison of residual chromosomal damage 2-3 years after completion of radiochemotherapy was characterized by a high interindividual variation, and no equivalent difference could be detected between the two groups. (orig.)

  6. Radioprotection of human endothelial cells with amifostine

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    Andreopoulos, D.; Schleicher, U.M.; Ammon, J. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiotherapie - Onkologie; Cotarelo, C.L.; Hand, S. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Pathologie

    1999-11-01

    Materials and methods: We studied the effect of amifostine on radiation sensitivity of human endothelial cells and several tumor cell lines (HeLa, MIA PaCa-2 and BxPC-3). The cells were incubated in medium with a concentration of 1 {mu}g/{mu}l amifostine and after 1 hour irradiated with 10 or 20 Gy single dose. Proliferation index was measured by BrdU assay after another 8 and 24 hours. Results: The results show a higher proliferation rate of endothelial cells following radiation plus amifostine, compared with radiation alone. Amifostine induced an increase of proliferation in the control-non-irradiated human endothelial cells. After irradiation with 10 Gy single dose the proliferation of amifostine treated human endothelial cells was still higher. Amifostine exerts no apparent proliferative effect on the tumor cells. Conclusions: The results presented indicate that amifostine acts as an activation of proliferation of the human endothelial cells in a simple in-vitro system and indicate that amifostine supplementation prior to radiation therapy might exert a radioprotective effect to healthy tissue without spurring tumor growth. (orig.) [German] Material und Methode: Humane Endothelzellen und verschiedene Tumorzellinien (HeLa, MIA PaCa-2 and BxPC-3) wurden fuer eine Stunde mit 1 {mu}g/{mu}l Amifostin inkubiert und dann mit Dosen von 10 und 20 Gy bestrahlt. Die Proliferationsaktivitaet wurde mittels BrdU-Assay nach acht und 24 Stunden gemessen. Ergebnisse: Amifostin fuehrt zu einer verstaerkten Proliferation der unbestrahlten Endothelzellen. Nach der Bestrahlung mit 10 Gy Einzeitdosis zeigen die Endothelzellen mit Amifostin-Zusatz eine staerkere Proliferation als die Zellen ohne Amifostin. Ein protektiver Effekt auf die Tumorzellinien war nicht feststellbar. Schlussfolgerung: Die bisherigen Ergebnisse zeigen, dass Amifostin einen radioprotektiven Effekt auf humane Endothelzellen ausuebt und deren Proliferation stimuliert, ohne jedoch die Proliferation der Tumorzellen

  7. Ameliorative effect of membrane-associated estrogen receptor G protein coupled receptor 30 activation on object recognition memory in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Takashi; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Kirino, Yutaka

    2016-07-01

    Membrane-associated estrogen receptor "G protein-coupled receptor 30" (GPR30) has been implicated in spatial recognition memory and protection against neuronal death. The present study investigated the role of GPR30 in object recognition memory in an Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model (5XFAD) by using novel object recognition (NOR) test. Impairment of long-term (24 h) recognition memory was observed in both male and female 5XFAD mice. Selective GPR30 agonist, G-1, ameliorated this impairment in female 5XFAD mice, but not in male mice. Our study demonstrated the ameliorative role of GPR30 in NOR memory impaired by AD pathology in female mice. PMID:27423484

  8. Radioprotection of human endothelial cells with amifostine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials and methods: We studied the effect of amifostine on radiation sensitivity of human endothelial cells and several tumor cell lines (HeLa, MIA PaCa-2 and BxPC-3). The cells were incubated in medium with a concentration of 1 μg/μl amifostine and after 1 hour irradiated with 10 or 20 Gy single dose. Proliferation index was measured by BrdU assay after another 8 and 24 hours. Results: The results show a higher proliferation rate of endothelial cells following radiation plus amifostine, compared with radiation alone. Amifostine induced an increase of proliferation in the control-non-irradiated human endothelial cells. After irradiation with 10 Gy single dose the proliferation of amifostine treated human endothelial cells was still higher. Amifostine exerts no apparent proliferative effect on the tumor cells. Conclusions: The results presented indicate that amifostine acts as an activation of proliferation of the human endothelial cells in a simple in-vitro system and indicate that amifostine supplementation prior to radiation therapy might exert a radioprotective effect to healthy tissue without spurring tumor growth. (orig.)

  9. Evaporation of the role of mannitol in radioprotection of amifostine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Mannitol is present in the ethyol (the trade name of amifostine) as an excipient. The mechanism of radioprotection of amifostine is radical scavenging. Since mannitol is another known radical scavenger, we studied the probable additive or synergistic effect of mannitol on the effect of amifostine. Materials and methods: Mice were irradiated with Co-60 γ-ray in the presence 400 mg/kg mannitol alone or in combination with 400 mg/kg amifostine. Survival of mice was assessed within 30 days after irradiation (lethal radiation dose 50/30). Moreover, the protective effect of drugs was evaluated using micronuclei assay. Slides were prepared using femoral bone marrow flush and stained in May-Giemsa. The frequency of micronuclei was determined in polychromatic erythrocytes for each sample. Results: Similar lethal radiation dose 50/30 was observed for irradiated mice in the presence of amifostine alone or in combinations with mannitol. High frequency of micronuclei was produced by 3 Gy γ-rays. Amifostine reduced radiation induced micronuclei dramatically, but mannitol had no effect on γ-rays induced micronuclei. Combination of mannitol with amifostine did not change the effect of amifostine alone. Conclusion: Radioprotection of ethyol is due to the effect of amifostine. Presence of mannitol apparently has no role in radioprotective effect of amifostine

  10. Clinical use of radioprotector amifostine (YM-08310)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Iku; Mitsuhashi, Norio; Itoh, Jun (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1984-11-01

    Radiotherapy was conducted at the Department of Radiology, Gunma University Hospital using amifostine (YM-08310) as a radioprotective agent. The subjects were patients suffering malignant tumors between 1978 and 1980, and comprised 52 with tumors in the head and neck region, 39 in the abdomino-pelvic region and 16 miscellaneous, totalling 107 in all. Amifostine was administered intravenously in a dose on principle, of 100 mg, 30 minutes prior to irradiation; the radioprotection provided by amifostine against reaction of the dermatomucosa caused by irradiation of head and neck region and against diarrhea caused by irradiation of the abdomino-pelvic region was investigated. 1. Side effects were observed in 10%, but there were no cases in which radiotherapy was interrupted for that reason. Most side effects were manifested as digestive organ symptoms and were most frequently observed in cases with drop infusion. 2. Clinical efficacy was evaluated at 80% or higher in cases with irradiation of the head and neck region, and deterioration in balanced diet content, which is an index of mucositis, was curbed in 70%. In the group administered amifostine thoses cases which required parenteral alimentation were significantly lower than the control group at 30 Gy or higher. 3. Control of diarrhea was feasible in 60% of patients irradiated in the abdomino-pelvic region. Moreover, despite the occurrence of diarrhea, the administration is considered to have adequate efficacy.

  11. Binding of amifostine to human serum albumin: a biophysical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yifu; Wu, Han; Zhao, Guoqing; Shi, Ying

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this present work is to investigate the interaction between amifostine and human serum albumin (HSA) in simulated physiological conditions by spectroscopic methods to reveal potential toxic effects of the drug. The results reflected that amifostine caused fluorescence quenching of HSA through a static quenching process, which was further confirmed by the electrochemical experiments. The binding constants at 290, 297 and 304 K were obtained as 2.53 × 10(5) /M, 8.13 × 10(4) /M and 3.59 × 10(4) /M, respectively. There may be one binding site of amifostine on HSA. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that the interaction between amifostine and HSA was driven mainly by hydrogen bonding and electrostatic forces. Synchronous fluorescence spectra, circular dichroism and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results showed amifostine binding slightly changed the conformation of HSA with secondary structural content changes. Förster resonance energy transfer study revealed high possibility of energy transfer with amifostine-Trp-214 distance of 3.48 nm. The results of the present study may provide valuable information for studying the distribution, toxicological and pharmacological mechanisms of amifostine in vivo. PMID:24962599

  12. Amifostine - a radioprotector in locally advanced head and neck tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenekaes, K.G.; Wagner, W. [Paracelsus-Strahlenklinik, Osnabrueck (Germany); Prott, F.J. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenonkologie

    1999-11-01

    Purpose: There are some preliminary informations about the beneficial use of amifostine in avoiding side effects in patients with head and neck tumors who underwent radiotherapy. Patients and method: Amifostine was given as daily intravenous application (500 mg) 10 to 15 minutes prior to radiotherapy in 20 patients. The results were compared with another collective of patients which was similar. Results: According to the WHO score mucositis became manifest in 10 patients (Grade I) and 4 patients (Grade II) in the amifostine group vs 9 patients (Grade II), 6 patients (Grade III) and 1 patient (Grade IV) in the control group. Xerostomia has been seen in 15 patients (Grade I) and 5 patients (Grade II) after administration of amifostine. Without the drug 2 patients suffered from xerostomia (Grade I), 8 patients (Grade II) and 8 patients (Grade III), respectively. Administering amifostine had been feasible and non problematic. Only a small rate of toxic side effects like nausea (11%) or emesis (4%) was documented. Conclusions: Amifostine is an effective radioprotector decreasing acute and late side effects in patients with head and neck tumors. (orig.) [German] Zielsetzung: Bisher gibt es nur wenige Informationen ueber den Nutzen von Amifostin bezueglich der Verminderung oder Vermeidung von Nebenwirkungen einer Radiatio bei Patienten mit Tumoren im HNO-Trakt. Patienten und Methode: Amifostin wurde als intravenoese Kurzinfusion mit einer Dosis von 500 mg zehn bis 15 Minuten vor der Bestrahlung bei 20 Patienten appliziert. Die unter Radiatio aufgetretenen Nebenwirkungen wurden nach WHO bzw. nach dem Oral Assessment Guide nach Eilers ausgewertet und mit einem entsprechenden historischen Kollektiv der Klinik verglichen. Ergebnisse: In der Amifostin-Gruppe wurde bei zehn Patienten eine Mukositis Grad I und bei vier Patienten eine Mukositis Grad II nach WHO beobachtet. Grad-III- und Grad-IV-Nebenwirkungen traten nicht auf. In der Kontrollgruppe waren dagegen bei neun

  13. Efficacy and tolerability of amifostine in elderly cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Barutca, Sabri; Meydan, Nezih; Akar, Harun; Yavasoglu, Irfan; Kadikoylu, Gurhan; Bolaman, Zahit

    2004-01-01

    Background: Amifostine is a cytoprotective agent used to prevent cisplatin nephrotoxicity. It is associated with dose-limiting acute toxicities of emetic symptoms (nausea and vomiting) and transient hypotension.

  14. Radioprotection of hematopoietic progenitors by low dose amifostine prophylaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Seed, Thomas M.; Inal, Cynthia E.; Singh, Vijay K

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Amifostine is a highly efficacious cytoprotectant when administered in vivo at high doses. However, at elevated doses, drug toxicity manifests for general, non-clinical radioprotective purposes. Various strategies have been developed to avoid toxic side-effects: The simplest is reducing the dose. In terms of protecting hematopoietic tissues, where does this effective, non-toxic minimum dose lie? Material and methods C3H/HEN mice were administered varying doses of amifostine (25–100 mg...

  15. The Effect of Amifostine on Submandibular Gland Histology after Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Junn, Jacqueline C.; Sciubba, James J.; Justin A Bishop; Eva Zinreich; Mei Tang; Levine, Marshall A.; Robert A. Palermo; Carole Fakhry; Blanco, Ray G.; Saunders, John R.; Califano, Joseph A.; Ha, Patrick K.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of amifostine on submandibular gland histology in patients receiving chemoradiation therapy. Methods. We conducted a retrospective submandibular gland histologic slide review of HNSCC patients receiving chemoradiation for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with three different levels of amifostine exposure. We used six scoring parameters: fatty replacement, lobular architecture degeneration, interstitial fibrosis, ductal degen...

  16. The Effect of Amifostine on Submandibular Gland Histology after Radiation

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    Jacqueline C. Junn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of amifostine on submandibular gland histology in patients receiving chemoradiation therapy. Methods. We conducted a retrospective submandibular gland histologic slide review of HNSCC patients receiving chemoradiation for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with three different levels of amifostine exposure. We used six scoring parameters: fatty replacement, lobular architecture degeneration, interstitial fibrosis, ductal degeneration, acinar degeneration, and inflammatory component presence. Results. Differences in gender, tumor stage, amifostine dose, age, number of days after neck dissection, and smoking history (pack years exposure were not significant between the three groups, although there was a difference between groups in the primary subsite (P=0.006. The nonparametric Cuzick's test for histologic parameters with varied amifostine treatment showed no significance among the three groups. Conclusions. Although patients did not receive a full dose of amifostine due to side effects, varying doses of amifostine had no apparent evident cytoprotective effects in three groups of cancer patients treated with primary chemoradiation.

  17. Normal tissue radioprotection by amifostine via Warburg-type effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukourakis, Michael I; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Zois, Christos E; Kalamida, Dimitra; Pouliliou, Stamatia; Karagounis, Ilias V; Yeh, Tzu-Lan; Abboud, Martine I; Claridge, Timothy D W; Schofield, Christopher J; Sivridis, Efthimios; Simopoulos, Costantinos; Tokmakidis, Savvas P; Harris, Adrian L

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of Amifostine (WR-2721) mediated radioprotection is poorly understood. The effects of amifostine on human basal metabolism, mouse liver metabolism and on normal and tumor hepatic cells were studied. Indirect calorimetric canopy tests showed significant reductions in oxygen consumption and of carbon dioxide emission in cancer patients receiving amifostine. Glucose levels significantly decreased and lactate levels increased in patient venous blood. Although amifostine in vitro did not inhibit the activity of the prolyl-hydroxylase PHD2, experiments with mouse liver showed that on a short timescale WR-1065 induced expression of the Hypoxia Inducible Factor HIF1α, lactate dehydrogenase LDH5, glucose transporter GLUT2, phosphorylated pyruvate dehydrogenase pPDH and PDH-kinase. This effect was confirmed on normal mouse NCTC hepatocytes, but not on hepatoma cells. A sharp reduction of acetyl-CoA and ATP levels in NCTC cells indicated reduced mitochondrial usage of pyruvate. Transient changes of mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species ROS production were evident. Amifostine selectively protects NCTC cells against radiation, whilst HepG2 neoplastic cells are sensitized. The radiation protection was correlates with HIF levels. These findings shed new light on the mechanism of amifostine cytoprotection and encourage clinical research with this agent for the treatment of primary and metastatic liver cancer. PMID:27507219

  18. Evaluation of protective effect of amifostine on dacarbazine induced genotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etebari, M; Jafarian-Dehkordi, A; Lame, V

    2015-01-01

    Anticancer therapy with alkylating agents has been used for many years. Dacarbazine (DTIC) as an alkylating agent is used alone or in combination with other chemotherapy drugs. In order to inhibit the formation of secondary cancers resulting from chemotherapy with DTIC, preventional strategies is necessary. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the genoprotective effect of amifostine on the genotoxic effects of DTIC in cell culture condition. To determine the optimum genotoxic concentration of DTIC, HepG2 cells were incubated with various DTIC concentrations including 5, 10 and 20 μg/ml for 2 h and the genotoxic effects were evaluated by the comet assay. The result of this part of the study showed that incubation of HepG2 cells with DTIC at 5 μg/ml was sufficient to produce genotoxic effect. In order to determine the protective effects of amifostine on genotoxicity induced by DTIC, HepG2 cells were incubated with different concentrations of amifostine (2, 3 and 5 mg/ml) for 1 h which was followed by incubation with DTIC at 5 μg/ml for 2 h. One hour incubation of cells with different concentrations of amifostine before incubation with DITC indicated that at least 5 mg/ml concentration of amifostine can prevent genotoxic effects induced by DTIC on HepG2 cells under described condition. In conclusion amifostine could prevent DNA damage induced by DTIC on HepG2 cells. PMID:26430459

  19. Normal tissue radioprotection by amifostine via Warburg-type effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukourakis, Michael I.; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Zois, Christos E.; Kalamida, Dimitra; Pouliliou, Stamatia; Karagounis, Ilias V.; Yeh, Tzu-Lan; Abboud, Martine I.; Claridge, Timothy D. W.; Schofield, Christopher J.; Sivridis, Efthimios; Simopoulos, Costantinos; Tokmakidis, Savvas P.; Harris, Adrian L.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of Amifostine (WR-2721) mediated radioprotection is poorly understood. The effects of amifostine on human basal metabolism, mouse liver metabolism and on normal and tumor hepatic cells were studied. Indirect calorimetric canopy tests showed significant reductions in oxygen consumption and of carbon dioxide emission in cancer patients receiving amifostine. Glucose levels significantly decreased and lactate levels increased in patient venous blood. Although amifostine in vitro did not inhibit the activity of the prolyl-hydroxylase PHD2, experiments with mouse liver showed that on a short timescale WR-1065 induced expression of the Hypoxia Inducible Factor HIF1α, lactate dehydrogenase LDH5, glucose transporter GLUT2, phosphorylated pyruvate dehydrogenase pPDH and PDH-kinase. This effect was confirmed on normal mouse NCTC hepatocytes, but not on hepatoma cells. A sharp reduction of acetyl-CoA and ATP levels in NCTC cells indicated reduced mitochondrial usage of pyruvate. Transient changes of mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species ROS production were evident. Amifostine selectively protects NCTC cells against radiation, whilst HepG2 neoplastic cells are sensitized. The radiation protection was correlates with HIF levels. These findings shed new light on the mechanism of amifostine cytoprotection and encourage clinical research with this agent for the treatment of primary and metastatic liver cancer. PMID:27507219

  20. Pharmacokinetics of cisplatin with and without amifostine in tumour- bearing nude mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korst, A.E.C.; Boven, E.; Sterre, M.L.T. van der; Fichtinger-Schepman, A.M.J.; Vijgh, W.J.F. van der

    1998-01-01

    Amifostine (Ethyol, WR-2721) is in use in the clinic as a protector against platinum-induced toxicities. We have previously reported that amifostine induced a potentiation of the antitumour activity of carboplatin in human ovarian cancer xenografts. An influence of amifostine on the pharmacokinetics

  1. Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis induced by amifostine during head and neck radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amifostine is an organic thiophosphate prodrug used for cytoprotection against toxic effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In a European prospective study of SJS/TEN, six patients were suspected to have SJS/TEN associated with amifostine. Our findings suggest that the risk of life-threatening cutaneous adverse reactions to amifostine could be significantly increased

  2. Alteration of radiation induced hematotoxicity by Amifostine (Ethyol {sup trademark}); Veraenderte bestrahlungsinduzierte Haematotoxizitaet durch Amifostin (Ethyol {sup trademark})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momm, F.; Bechtold, C.; Fischer, K.; Tsekos, A.; Henke, M. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. Roentgen- und Strahlentherapie

    1999-11-01

    Background: Radiotherapy - even of small volumes - can decrease leukocyte counts. We examined whether the radioprotector amifostine can reduce this hematotoxicity. Patients and methods: Twenty-six patients undergoing radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were evaluated. All were given 60 (to 70) Gy 5x2 Gy per week in standard radiation techniques. Thirteen patients are randomized to receive 200 mg/m{sup 2} amifostine i.v., 30 minutes before radiation. Blood counts and differentials were determined before, during and following radiotherapy. Differences of these parameters are calculated and compared by t-test. Results: The blood hemoglobin and the thrombocyte levels did not change during the radiotherapy course, neither for the amifostine treated, nor the control patients. Similarly the leukocyte counts of amifostine treated patients did not change during irradiation. The control patients, however, had a decrease of leukocytes from 8.4 to 6.0x10{sup 3}/{mu}l, p=0.03, and the reduction of the neutrophilic granulocyte count was more impressive for these patients. Conclusion: In this explorative study amifostine diminished radiation induced leukocyte toxicity. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund: Eine Strahlentherapie - selbst kleiner Volumina - kann die Blutbildung beeintraechtigen. Wir untersuchten die Wirkung des Radioprotektors Amifostin auf diese Haematotoxizitaet. Patienten und Methoden: 26 Patienten mit Kopf-Hals-Tumoren wurden evaluiert. Sie wurden mit 60 (bis 70) Gy und einer Fraktionierung von 5mal 2 Gy/Woche in Standardtechnik bestrahlt, 13 von ihnen wurden zusaetzlich - nach Randomisierung - mit Amifostin (200 mg/m{sup 3} intravenoes, 30 Minuten vor jeder Fraktion) behandelt. Vor, waehrend und nach der Radiotherapie wurden Haemoglobinwert, Thrombozytenzahl, Leukozytenzahl und Differentialblutbild bestimmt. Die Veraenderungen dieser Werte waehrend der Bestrahlung wurden als Differenz bestimmt und mit einem t-Test verglichen. Ergebnisse: Die

  3. Supportive use of amifostine in patients with head and neck tumors undergoing radio-chemotherapy. Is it possible to limit the duration of the application of amifostine?

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    Peters, K.; Muecke, R.; Hamann, D.; Ziegler, P.G.; Fietkau, R. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie

    1999-11-01

    Background: Amifostine is a new cancer-supporting agent to protect normal tissue in patients receiving radio-chemotherapy. The main question of our study is whether the application of amifostine can be limited on the duration of chemotherapy in patients with advanced head and neck tumors undergoing radio-chemotherapy. Patients and methods: In a randomized study 14 patients were treated with amifostine (500 mg, day 1 to 5 and 29 to 33) during concurrent radio-chemotherapy with carboplatin (70 mg/m{sup 2}, day 1 to 5 and 29 to 33), 14 patients were treated without amifostine. The analyzed parameters were dermatitis, mucositis, skin temperature, white blood and platelet count, creatinine and scintigram of salivary glands. Median survival of the amifostine group was 19 months, of the control group 10 months. Results: There were no relevant differences in all analyzed parameters between both arms of the study. Conclusion: Our form of amifostine application is probably not able to obtain a relevant reduction of the toxicity of radio-chemotherapy. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund: Amifostin wird supportiv eingesetzt, um die Toxizitaet einer Chemotherapie und/oder Bestrahlung zu reduzieren. In einer randomisierten Studie untersuchten wir, ob die Amifostin-Gabe zeitlich auf die Tage der Chemotherapie bei simultaner Radiochemotherapie begrenzt werden kann. Patienten und Methode: Bisher wurden 28 Patienten mit fortgeschrittenen Tumoren im Kopf-Hals-Bereich randomisiert. Im Behandlungsarm (14 Patienten) wurde Amifostin (500 mg) an den Tagen 1 bis 5 und 29 bis 33 einer Radiochemotherapie mit Carboplatin (70 mg/m{sup 2}; Tag 1 bis 5 und 29 bis 33) appliziert. Bei 14 Patienten erfolgte die Radiochemotherapie ohne Amifostin. Die untersuchten Parameter waren Haut- und Schleimhautreaktion, Haupttemperatur, Leukozyten, Thrombozyten, Kreatinin und Speicheldruesenszintigraphie. Ergebnisse: Die Auswertung ergab bei allen untersuchten Parametern keinen wesentlichen Unterschied zwischen den

  4. Radioprotective effects of amifostine in vitro and in vivo measured with the comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The authors investigated whether a potential radioprotective effect of amifostine (WR-2721) after in vitro or in vivo administration can be detected with the comet assay. Moreover, it was determined whether radioprotection by WR-2721 is dependent on the concentration of amifostine or alkaline phosphatase (AP, the enzyme which activates the prodrug). Furthermore, the authors tried to detect possible interindividual differences in radioprotection by amifostine. Material and methods: In vitro administration of amifostine: Freshly isolated lymphocytes from two healthy volunteers were incubated with different concentrations of AP (0-210 U/ml) and amifostine (0-5,000 μg/ml). In vivo administration of amifostine: Blood samples were collected from six postoperative rectal cancer patients before and after intravenous administration of amifostine 500 mg (no pretreatment with radio- or chemotherapy). Leukocytes and lymphocytes were irradiated and repaired in vitro and investigated with the alkaline comet assay. The radioprotective effect was evaluated by calculating dose-modifying factors (DMFs) and the paired t-test. Results: Amifostine alone did not alter the radiation-induced DNA damage in vitro. The addition of at least 0.5-1 U/ml AP was required. A significant radioprotective effect (p<0.05) was seen after administration of amifostine in vitro for all concentrations investigated (250-5,000 μg/ml, initial DNA damage). A comparable radioprotective effect after in vivo administration of 500 mg amifostine was measured with a mean DMF of 0.87. Interindividual differences were present in vivo and in vitro. Conclusion: Amifostine 500 mg intravenously yields an adequate radioprotective concentration. The effect was only marginally improved by extreme concentrations of amifostine in vitro experiments. The comet assay is capable of detecting small changes in radiosensitivity by amifostine. (orig.)

  5. Radioprotective effects of amifostine in vitro and in vivo measured with the comet assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, A.-C.; Pigorsch, S.; Dunst, J. [Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany). Department of Radiotherapy; Beyer, C. [Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany). Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry; Lautenschlaeger, C. [Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Germany). Institute of Biomathematics

    2004-08-01

    Purpose: The authors investigated whether a potential radioprotective effect of amifostine (WR-2721) after in vitro or in vivo administration can be detected with the comet assay. Moreover, it was determined whether radioprotection by WR-2721 is dependent on the concentration of amifostine or alkaline phosphatase (AP, the enzyme which activates the prodrug). Furthermore, the authors tried to detect possible interindividual differences in radioprotection by amifostine. Material and methods: In vitro administration of amifostine: Freshly isolated lymphocytes from two healthy volunteers were incubated with different concentrations of AP (0-210 U/ml) and amifostine (0-5,000 {mu}g/ml). In vivo administration of amifostine: Blood samples were collected from six postoperative rectal cancer patients before and after intravenous administration of amifostine 500 mg (no pretreatment with radio- or chemotherapy). Leukocytes and lymphocytes were irradiated and repaired in vitro and investigated with the alkaline comet assay. The radioprotective effect was evaluated by calculating dose-modifying factors (DMFs) and the paired t-test. Results: Amifostine alone did not alter the radiation-induced DNA damage in vitro. The addition of at least 0.5-1 U/ml AP was required. A significant radioprotective effect (p<0.05) was seen after administration of amifostine in vitro for all concentrations investigated (250-5,000 {mu}g/ml, initial DNA damage). A comparable radioprotective effect after in vivo administration of 500 mg amifostine was measured with a mean DMF of 0.87. Interindividual differences were present in vivo and in vitro. Conclusion: Amifostine 500 mg intravenously yields an adequate radioprotective concentration. The effect was only marginally improved by extreme concentrations of amifostine in vitro experiments. The comet assay is capable of detecting small changes in radiosensitivity by amifostine. (orig.)

  6. Reduction of renal uptake of radiolabeled octreotate by amifostine coadministration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Melis (Marleen); R. Valkema (Roelf); E.P. Krenning (Eric); M. de Jong (Marcel)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractMegalin-mediated renal retention of radiolabeled somatostatin analogs may lead to nephrotoxicity during peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). The cytoprotective agent amifostine protected rats from long-term nephrotoxicity after PRRT with 177Lu-DOTA,Tyr3-octreotate. This study de

  7. Combined use of Amifostine and Misonidazole in experimental radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukiyama, Iwao (National Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital)

    1983-04-01

    Combined effects of radioprotective (Amifostine) and radiosensitizing (Misonidazole) agents on normal and malignant tissues were studied. Two assays were used : ED50, the dose nessesary to induce complete epilation in half the irradiated mice : and TRT50, the time required for half the irradiated tumors to decrease to half th irradiated volume. Irradiation was performed under air-breathing conditions or tourniquet-induced local hypoxia. Four methods of treatment were used, the first group of mice received no drug prior to exposure ; the second received 200mg Misonidazole per Kg body weight intraperitoneally 30 minutes before exposure ; the third received 200mg Amifostine per body weight intraperitoneally 30 minutes before exposure ; and the forth received both of these drugs as described above. Under air-breathing conditions, a greater radioprotective effect was observed in the mice treated with Amifostine alone. An unexpectedly great radiosensitizing effect for normal tissues was observed in the mice treated with Misonidazole alone. In the mice treated with both drugs, the sensitizing effect of Misonidazole against mormal tissue was not evident. Only the protective effect was observed. Under hypoxic conditions there was no effect on normal tissue protection when the mice were treated with Amifostine alone and higher radiosensitizing effect on normal tissue was observed than under air-breathing conditions when the mice were treated with Misonidazole alone. No radioprotective effects were observed with transplantable mouse tumors when the mice were treated with Amifostine alone. A greater radiosensitizing effect was observed with fractionated (400rad x 5) irradiation than with single doses (2000rad x 1) when the mice were treated with Misonidazole alone. Highly radiosensitizing effects were noted under hypoxic conditions than air-breathing conditions. Similar results were obtained in animals treated with both drugs.

  8. The Protective Effect of Amifostine on Radiation-Induced Proctitis: Systemic Versus Topical Application

    OpenAIRE

    Cem Uzal; Atakan Sezer; Ufuk Usta; Necdet Süt; Alaattin Özen; Mehmet Ali Yağcı

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of intrarectal administration of amifostine in radiation-induced proctitis compared to intraperitoneal administration.Materials and Methods: Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control (CONT), irradiation alone (RT), intraperitoneal amifostine plus irradiation (IPAMI), and intrarectal amifostine plus irradiation (IRAMI). The rats in the RT, IPAMI and IRAMI groups were irradiated ind...

  9. The Protective Effect of Amifostine on Radiation-Induced Proctitis: Systemic Versus Topical Application

    OpenAIRE

    UZAL, Cem; ALAS, Ruşen Coşar; USTA, UFUK; Süt, Necdet; ÖZEN, Alaattin; Yağcı, Mehmet Ali

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of intrarectal administration of amifostine in radiation-induced proctitis compared to intraperitoneal administration. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control (CONT), irradiation alone (RT), intraperitoneal amifostine plus irradiation (IPAMI), and intrarectal amifostine plus irradiation (IRAMI). The rats in the RT, IPAMI and IRAMI groups were irr...

  10. Amifostine (WR2721) Confers DNA Protection to In Vivo Cisplatin-Treated Murine Peripheral Blood Leukocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto González, E. A.; Fuchs, A. G.; Sánchez, González S.

    2009-01-01

    Amifostine [S-2-3-aminopropil amino ethyl phosphorotioic acid], a modulator agent for antineoplastic drugs involved in free radicals generation has given controversial results in cisplatin treated leukocytes in vitro. We have evaluated the amifostine protection over leukocytes in vivo, using comet assay. Groups of five OF1 male mice were given one of three doses of amifostine (56, 105 and 200 mg/Kg) after a cisplatin single injection (10 mg/Kg). Serum malonyldialdehide levels, catalase and su...

  11. SOD2 Mediates Amifostine-Induced Protection against Glutamate in PC12 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ji Jia; Lei Zhang; Xiaolei Shi; Mingchun Wu; Xiang Zhou; Xiaonan Liu; Tingting Huo

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cytoprotectant amifostine attenuates radiation-induced oxidative injury by increasing intracellular manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) in peripheral tissue. However, whether amifostine could protect neuronal cells against oxidative injury has not been reported. The purpose of this study is to explore the protection of amifostine in PC12 cells. Methods. PC12 cells exposed to glutamate were used to mimic neuronal oxidative injury. SOD assay kit was taken to evaluate intracellular...

  12. Prevention of radiation-induced liver and kiney toxicity: a role for amifostine

    OpenAIRE

    KALDIR, Mine Uğuzalp; Çaloğlu, Vuslat Yürüt; ALAS, Ruşen Coşar; ÇERMİK, Tevfik Fikret; Altaner, Şemsi; ESKİOCAK, Sevgi; Saynak, Mert; TOKATLI, Füsun; KOÇAK, Zafer; UZAL, Cem

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To investigate the protective effect of amifostine against radiation induced liver and kidney injury of rats, using scintigraphic and histopathologic parameters. METHODS Female Wistar Albino rats were randomly allocated to 3 groups: control, radiotherapy alone (RT), and amifostine+RT (n=10). Single-dose of 600 cGy X-ray was performed with a single field compromised liver and right kidney. Amifostine was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 400 mg/kg, 30 minutes before irrad...

  13. Respiratory Effects of Amifostine and DRDE-07: Probable Prophylactic Agents of Sulphur Mustard in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Seema Singh; Vimal Malviya; Anshoo Gautam; Ram Singh; Uma Pathak; Raza, S K; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2006-01-01

    Amifostine (S-2[3-aminopropylamino]ethyl phosphorothioate) and one of its analogues,DRDE-07 (S-2[2-aminoethylamino]ethyl phenyl sulphide) are promising prophylactic agents forsulphur mustard (SM; a blistering agent) toxicity. When given orally, DRDE-07 was more effectivethan amifostine as a prophylactic agent against SM administered percutaneously. Variouspharmacological and toxicological studies are required before the introduction of a chemical asa drug. The respiratory effects of amifostin...

  14. Respiratory Effects of Amifostine and DRDE-07: Probable Prophylactic Agents of Sulphur Mustard in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Singh

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Amifostine (S-2[3-aminopropylamino]ethyl phosphorothioate and one of its analogues,DRDE-07 (S-2[2-aminoethylamino]ethyl phenyl sulphide are promising prophylactic agents forsulphur mustard (SM; a blistering agent toxicity. When given orally, DRDE-07 was more effectivethan amifostine as a prophylactic agent against SM administered percutaneously. Variouspharmacological and toxicological studies are required before the introduction of a chemical asa drug. The respiratory effects of amifostine and DRDE-07 were carried out in rats using a bodyplethysmograph fitted with a volumetric pressure transducer for sensing the respiratory flowsignals. The signals were amplified, digitised, and stored on a personal computer for furtheranalysis. After taking control recordings of respiratory signals, different doses (0.5 LD50, 1.0 LD50and 2.0 LD50 of amifostine and DRDE-07 were administered orally (LD50 amifostine = 2262 mg/kg; DRDE-07 = 1599 mg/kg, and the respiratory changes were monitored for 4 h. Amifostine andDRDE-07 showed a uniform breathing pattern even in 2.0 LD50 dose. However, a significant dosedependentdecrease in respiratory frequency was observed following amifostine administration.DRDE-07 did not show any significant change. The tidal volume was not altered significantlyboth in amifostine and DRDE-07 administered animals. The study shows that DRDE-07, even inlethal doses, may not affect the respiration immediately, whereas, amifostine may decrease therespiratory frequency.

  15. Improvement of the in vitro safety profile and cytoprotective efficacy of amifostine against chemotherapy by PEGylation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Ding, Yanping; Ji, Tianjiao; Zhao, Xiao; Wang, Hai; Zhao, Xiaozheng; Zhao, Ruifang; Wei, Jingyan; Qi, Sheng; Nie, Guangjun

    2016-05-15

    Amifostine, an organic thiophosphate prodrug, has been clinically utilized for selective protection of normal tissues with high expression of alkaline phosphatase from oxidative damage elicited by chemotherapy or radiotherapy. However, the patients receiving amifostine suffer from severe dose-dependent adverse effects. Strategies for improvement of the protective efficacy and toxicity profile of amifostine are urgently required. Here we constructed a PEGylated amifostine (PEG-amifostine) through conjugation of amifostine to the 4-arm PEG (5000Da) by a mild one-step reaction. The relatively large PEG-amifostine molecules clustered into spherical nanoparticles, resulting in distinct hydrolysis properties, cell uptake profile and antioxidative activity compared with the free small molecules. PEGylation prolonged the hydrolysis time of amifostine, providing sustained transformation to its functional metabolites. PEG-amifostine could be internalized into cells and translocated to acidic organelles in a time-dependent manner. The intrinsic cytotoxicity of amifostine, which is related to the reductive reactivity of its metabolites and their ability to diffuse readily, was attenuated after PEGylation. This modification impeded the interaction between free sulfhydryls and functional biomolecules, providing PEG-amifostine with an improved safety profile in vitro. Moreover, PEG-amifostine showed higher efficiency in the elimination of reactive oxygen species and prevention of cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity compared with free amifostine. Overall, our study for the first time developed a PEGylated form of amifostine which significantly improved the efficacy and decreased the adverse effects of this antioxidant in vitro with great promise for clinical translation. In vivo study is urgently needed to confirm and redeem the cytoprotective effects of the PEG-amifostine in chemotherapy. PMID:26944193

  16. Protective effects of amifostine on ischemia-reperfusion injury of rat kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Arducoglu Merter

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Amifostine could decrease the degree and severity of necrosis after reperfusion. Amifostine could not prevent membrane lipid peroxidation caused by superoxide anion radicals in kidney but they could protect tissues from the harmful effects of ischemia/reperfusion injury by increasing the level of reduced GSH which is a well-known oxygen radical eliminator.

  17. Influence of amifostine on the pharmacokinetics of cisplatin in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korst, A.E.C.; Sterre, M.L.T. van der; Gall, H.E.; Fichtinger-Schepman, A.M.J.; Vermorken, J.B.; Vijgh, W.J.F. van der

    1998-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of cisplatin was investigated in 13 patients receiving 18 courses of cisplatin alone or in combination with amifostine to investigate the influence of amifostine (WR 2721; Ethyol) on the pharmacokinetics of cisplatin. Cisplatin was administered as a 1-h i.v. infusion, whereas am

  18. Amifostine Treatment of a Patient with Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Tekgündüz, Emre; ERİKÇİ, ALEV AKYOL; Ahmet ÖZTÜRK

    2009-01-01

    The prognosis for the majority of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients without a donor is dismal whether conventional salvage chemotherapy regimens or investigational strategies are used, and most of these patients will eventually die of their disease. There is no standard chemotherapy regimen that provides durable complete remission in patients with refractory AML. Beneficial effects of amifostine, either alone or in combination with conventional chemotherapy, was demonstrated in patients w...

  19. Evaluation of protective effect of amifostine on dacarbazine induced genotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Etebari, M.; Jafarian-Dehkordi, A.; Lame, V.

    2015-01-01

    Anticancer therapy with alkylating agents has been used for many years. Dacarbazine (DTIC) as an alkylating agent is used alone or in combination with other chemotherapy drugs. In order to inhibit the formation of secondary cancers resulting from chemotherapy with DTIC, preventional strategies is necessary. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the genoprotective effect of amifostine on the genotoxic effects of DTIC in cell culture condition. To determine the optimum genotoxic concentr...

  20. Amifostine (WR2721) Drug Controls Radiation Induced Damage in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amifostine is a pro-drug in which selectivity is largely determined by the preferential formation and uptake of its cytoprotective metabolite, WR-1065, in normal tissues as a result of differences in membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase activity. Animals were categorized into four groups as follows: control group, WR-2721-intraperitoneally injected group at a dose of 100 mg/ kg, 1.5 Gy gamma-irradiated groups for 5 days (day post day) receiving final dose up to 7.5 Gy and WR-2721 injected group at 30 minutes before exposing to every fractionated dose of gamma-irradiation. Animals were sacrificed after 7 and 16 days after the final exposure to gamma-irradiation. The results obtained showed increased levels of plasma creatinine, plasma urea, plasma total protein, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin and gamma glutamyle transferase (gamma GT) and decreased levels of Albumin/ Globulin ratio (NG) in irradiated animal group compared with the control one. Administration of Amifostine before radiation exposure has significantly improved the radiation-induced changes in all these tested parameters. It could be concluded that application of Amifostine may minimize radiation damage and attenuate the side effects resulted from radiotherapy exposure

  1. [Amifostine used in the treatment of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Xia; Zhu, Hong-Li; Lu, Xue-Chun; Fan, Hui; Yao, Shan-Qian; Ma, Jian; Yang, Qing-Ming; Cai, Li-Li; Zhuang, Xiao-Meng; Yang, Yang

    2007-02-01

    The study was aimed to investigate the curative effects and adverse effects of amifostine in the treatment of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Amifostine (AMF) was used alone (4/12) or combined with recombinant human erythropoietin (rh-EPO) (8/12) in 12 MDS patients. The therapeutic regimen was adopted with AMF 0.4 g/day for 5 days, then took a break of 2 days and then went on for 3 weeks consecutively, that was reputed as one treatment cycle. rh-EPO 6 000 U was used for 3 days per week. The results showed that 12 patients all attained hematological improvement in peripheral blood. 11 cases showed major effective response rate (91.7%), while 1 case showed minor response rate (8.3%). The effective response rate of hemoglobin, leukocytes and platelets was 100%, 75% and 58.3% respectively. The intervals of red cell transfusions (RCT) in 2 cases living on red cell transfusion before AMF treatment were prolonged after AMF treatments, and the amount of each RCT was decreased obviously. The side effect was usually discomfort of digestive system, but all patients can endure. In conclusion, Amifostine is a potential drug in the treatment of MDS patients with safety especially to those elder patients who often suffered from other multiple organ disfunctions, and the curative effect will be improved by more treatment cycles. PMID:17490528

  2. Amifostine: An Effective Prophylactic Agent against Sulphur Mustard Toxicity (Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Pathak

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Amifostine, S-2-(aminopropylamino ethylphosphorothioate and two of its analogues have been evaluated as prophylactic agent against SM toxicity. The compounds were administered intraperitoncally (i.p. at 0.2 LD/sub59 dose in mice 30 min prior to dermal application of SM. The protective efficacy was determined by observing the mortality for 14 days. The protection offered by amifostine was better than its analogues. Subsequent study on time-dependent protection, carried out with amifostine (0.2 LD/sub50, i.p. provided significant protection when the drug was administered as 30 min pre-treatment and simultaneous treatment against SM at 155 mg.kg/-1 dose (equal to 19-fold LD/sub50. Furthermore, oral administration of amifostine (30 min pre-treatment showed similar results. These findings suggest that amifostine is a promising prophylactic agent against SM toxicity.

  3. The Role of Amifostine in Treating Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura%氨磷汀在治疗特发性血小板减少性紫癜中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳英; 李明阳; 刘波; 张伟; 朱宏丽

    2012-01-01

    特发性血小板减少性紫癜(ITP)并不少见,该病诊断不难,治疗方法多.但本例患者高龄、既往治疗出现副作用,用药受限,常规药物效果不佳,经氨磷汀治疗而使患者得以痊愈,目前已随访观察5个月无复发.结合文献,氨磷汀对高龄、难治性病例安全有效,提示氨磷汀可能是ITP治疗中一种较有潜力的药物.%This is to discuss Amifostine mechanism by analyzing one case with Idiopathic Thromhocytopenic Purpura (ITP). ITP is not difficult to diagnozed. Many drugs are used to treat it. One 92 —year—old male patient with 1TP was not ameliorated by routine treatment. Finally he was cured by Amifostine . Then he was followed —up for 5 months without recurrence. We can say that Amifostine is safe and effective, further more it is possible a potentional medicine to cure elderly serious ITP.

  4. Animal experimental studies on the modification of radiogenic mucositis enoralis through amifostin; Modifikation der radiogenen Mucositis enoralis durch Amifostin: tierexperimentelle Untersuchungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischer, G. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Doerr, W. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany)]|[Experimentelles Zentrum, Medizinische Fakultaet Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to quantify the protective effect of amifostin administered intravenously and subcutaneously in conjunction with one-time irradiation and fractionated irradiation regimes. Ulceration of the mouse lingual mucous membrane equivalent to RTOG/EORTC stage III confluent mucositis served as a clinically relevant parameter. In summary it can be said that the mucoprotective effect of amifostin is clearly dependent on when it is given. It is only effective when administered at the start of fractionated irradiation. It has no effect when administered at a later time, possibly even masking the effect of earlier doses. Amifostin administered subcutaneously, a mode which has been associated with markedly fewer side-effects in clinical studies, and after a suitably adapted time interval following irradiation is just as effective as when it is injected intravenously. [German] In der vorliegenden Untersuchung sollte der protektive Effekt von Amifostin bei intravenoeser und subkutaner Applikation in Verbindung mit Einzeitbestrahlung und fraktionierten Bestrahlungsprotokollen quantifiziert werden. Als klinisch relevanter Endpunkt wurde die Ulzeration der Zungenschleimhaut der Maus, entsprechend einer konfluenten Mukositis Grad III RTOG/EORTC, verwendet. Zusammenfassend ist festzustellen, dass der mukoprotektive Effekt von Amifostin eindeutig abhaengig ist vom Zeitraum der Verabreichung. Nur die Gabe zu Beginn der fraktionierten Bestrahlung is wirksam. Eine spaetere Applikation zeigt keine Wirkung und kann unter Umstaenden sogar die Wirkung der fruehen Applikation maskieren. Die subkutane Gabe von Amifostin, die in klinischen Studien mit deutlich weniger Nebenwirkungen assoziiert ist, ist - bei modifiziertem zeitlichen Abstand zur Bestrahlung - ebenso wirksam wie die intravenoese Injektion. (orig.)

  5. Amifostine is a potent radioprotector of salivary glands in radioiodine therapy. Structural and ultrastructural findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutta, H. [Dept. of Anatomy, Christian Albrecht Univ. of Kiel (Germany); Dept. of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Univ. Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Kampen, U. [Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Christian Albrecht Univ. of Kiel (Germany); Sagowski, C. [Dept. of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Univ. Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Brenner, W. [Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Christian Albrecht Univ. of Kiel (Germany); Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Bohuslavizki, K.H. [Nuclear Medicine, Hamburg (Germany); Paulsen, F. [Dept. of Anatomy, Christian Albrecht Univ. of Kiel (Germany); Dept. of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Martin-Luther-Univ. of Halle-Wittenberg, Halle/Saale (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    Background and purpose: salivary gland impairment following high-dose radioiodine treatment is well recognized. Since differentiated thyroid cancer has a good prognosis, reduction of long-term side effects is important. This study investigates the radioprotective effects of amifostine in salivary glands of rabbits receiving high-dose radioiodine therapy so as to obtain deeper insight in changes on the cellular and ultrastructural level. Material and methods: a total of 20 rabbits were investigated. High-dose radioiodine therapy applying 1 GBq {sup 131}I was performed in 16 animals. Eight of these 16 animals received 200 mg/m{sup 2} body surface amifostine prior to high-dose radioiodine therapy. Four additional rabbits served as controls, two receiving amifostine, the other two no treatment at all. Subsequently, salivary glands (submandibular and parotid glands, respectively) of all animals were examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. Results: parenchymal damage of both parotid and submandibular glands, specially acinar structures comprising cell organelles and nuclei, of animals pretreated with amifostine was much less pronounced than in animals without amifostine pretreatment. Conclusion: the results indicate that parenchymal damage in salivary glands induced by high-dose radioiodine therapy can significantly be reduced by amifostine. Therefore, amifostine therapy may increase quality of life in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer after radioiodine treatment. (orig.)

  6. Amifostine is a potent radioprotector of salivary glands in radioiodine therapy. Structural and ultrastructural findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: salivary gland impairment following high-dose radioiodine treatment is well recognized. Since differentiated thyroid cancer has a good prognosis, reduction of long-term side effects is important. This study investigates the radioprotective effects of amifostine in salivary glands of rabbits receiving high-dose radioiodine therapy so as to obtain deeper insight in changes on the cellular and ultrastructural level. Material and methods: a total of 20 rabbits were investigated. High-dose radioiodine therapy applying 1 GBq 131I was performed in 16 animals. Eight of these 16 animals received 200 mg/m2 body surface amifostine prior to high-dose radioiodine therapy. Four additional rabbits served as controls, two receiving amifostine, the other two no treatment at all. Subsequently, salivary glands (submandibular and parotid glands, respectively) of all animals were examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. Results: parenchymal damage of both parotid and submandibular glands, specially acinar structures comprising cell organelles and nuclei, of animals pretreated with amifostine was much less pronounced than in animals without amifostine pretreatment. Conclusion: the results indicate that parenchymal damage in salivary glands induced by high-dose radioiodine therapy can significantly be reduced by amifostine. Therefore, amifostine therapy may increase quality of life in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer after radioiodine treatment. (orig.)

  7. Ion-pair strategy for enabling amifostine oral absorption: rat in situ and in vivo experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiei, N; Mangas-Sanjuan, V; González-Álvarez, I; Foroutan, M; Shafaati, A; Zarghi, A; Bermejo, M

    2013-07-16

    This study shows the effect of ion pair formation on intestinal absorption and oral bioavailability of amifostine. Amifostine is a prodrug used as a highly potent and selective radiotherapy and chemotherapy protectant but due to its low lipophilicity and charge at physiological pH range, its trans epithelial transport and its potential for oral drug delivery is very low. Ion pair formation with negatively charged counter ions was evaluated by in situ rat perfusion studies as a possible strategy to enhance intestinal absorption of amifostine. Succinic acid, phthalic acid and benzoic acid were used as counter ions. Rat intestinal perfusion studies confirmed a statistically significant increase in amifostine permeability in the presence of the counter ions in the order of succinic>phthalic>benzoic. Rat pharmacokinetic studies in vivo were performed to calculate oral absolute bioavailability of amifostine alone and with ion pairs in order to confirm the in situ perfusion results and the applicability of the ion pair approach. Intravenous and intraduodenal administrations were done in rats using a permanent jugular vein cannulation technique and a duodenal cannulation method to avoid drug degradation in stomach. In vivo oral bioavailability studies demonstrated a 20-30-fold increase in amifostine bioavailability with succinic acid depending on counter ion ratio and 10-fold increase with phthalic acid as ion pair. In summary ion pair strategy with succinic acid could enable amifostine oral administration on enteric coated formulations. PMID:23643735

  8. Protective effect of amifostine on dental health after radiotherapy of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The cytoprotective agent amifostine has been shown to reduce the radiation-induced acute and chronic xerostomia in head and neck cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether or not amifostine also reduces the incidence of dental caries associated with the radiation-induced xerostomia. Methods and Materials: The dental status before and 1 year after radiotherapy was retrospectively compared in 35 unselected patients treated as part of the prospective randomized and multicenter open-label Phase III study (WR-38) at the University Hospitals of Heidelberg, Freiburg, and Erlangen. The WR-38 study compared radiotherapy in head and neck cancer with and without concomitant administration of amifostine. Results: Patient and treatment characteristics (particularly the radiation dose and percentage of parotids included in the treatment volume) were equally distributed between the patients who received (n = 17) or did not receive (n = 18) amifostine. Fifteen patients of the amifostine group showed no deterioration of the dental status 1 year after radiotherapy as compared to 7 patients who did not receive the cytoprotector (p = 0.015, two-tailed Fisher exact test). Conclusion: Our data suggest a protective effect of amifostine on the dental health after radiotherapy of the head and neck. The dental status should be used as a primary endpoint in future studies on amifostine.

  9. Radiochemotherapy With Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Amifostine for Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer: A Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiotherapy (RT) combined with cisplatin or cetuximab is the standard of care for patients with locally advanced head/neck cancer (LA-HNC). The feasibility of radiochemotherapy with cisplatin and cetuximab, supported with amifostine, was herein investigated. Methods and Materials: Forty-three patients with LA-HNC were recruited. Conformal hypofractionated/accelerated RT with amifostine cytoprotection (2.7 Gy/fraction, 21 fractions in 4 weeks) was combined with cisplatin (30 mg/m2/week) and cetuximab (standard weekly regimen) therapy. The dose of amifostine was individualized according to tolerance. Results: A high daily amifostine dose (750-1,000 mg) was tolerated by 41.8% of patients, and a standard dose (500 mg) was tolerated by 34.9% of patients. A high amifostine dose was linked to reduced RT delays (p = 0.0003). Grade 3 to 4 (3-4) mucositis occurred in 7/43 (16.2%) patients, and fungal infections occurred in 18/43 (41.8%) patients. Radiation dermatitis was not aggravated. Interruption of cetuximab due to acneiform rash was necessary in 23.3% of patients, while amifostine-related fever and rash were not observed. Severe late radiation sequelae consisted of laryngeal edema (9% laryngeal cases) and cervical strictures (33% of hypopharyngeal cases). Good salivary function was preserved in 6/11 (54.5%) nasopharyngeal cancer patients. The complete response rate was 68.5%, reaching 77.2% in patients with minor radiotherapy delays. The 24-month local control and survival rates were 72.3% and 91%, respectively (median follow-up was 13 months.). Conclusions: In this feasibility study, weekly administration of cisplatin and cetuximab was safely combined with accelerated RT, supported with amifostine, at the cost of a high incidence of acneiform rash but a reduced incidence of amifostine-related fever/rash. A high daily dose of amifostine allows completion of therapy with minor delays.

  10. Cytoprotective Efficacy of Amifostine Against Radiation- Induced Rectal Toxicity: Objective and Subjective Grading Scales for Radiomucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Kouvaris

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Curative radiation therapy of pelvic malignancies, frequently results in doselimitingtoxicities such as serous, mucoid, or more rarely, bloody diarrhea. Several studieshave evaluated the cytoprotective effects of amifostine in preventing rectal mucositisassociated with radiation treatment. We searched Medline for published comparativestudies that evaluated the use of amifostine to reduce radiation-induced toxicity associatedwith pelvic irradiation. In ten studies there was an evidence-based cytoprotection (P less than 0.05by amifostine. Although results are variable, current evidence suggests that amifostine mayhave a radioprotective effect in the rectal mucosa, particularly when administeredintrarectally. Significant improvements were seen in both symptomatic and objective(rectosigmoidoscopy end points. There is a need to conduct well-designed clinical trialswith sufficient numbers of participants to confirm these findings together with a costbenefitstudy. Objective measurements using rectosigmoidoscopy are superior tosubjective measures such as WHO or RTOG/EORTC toxicity grading scales.

  11. Assessment of the effect of local application of amifostine on acute radiation-induced oral mucositis in guinea pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chang Jiang; Wang, Sheng Zi; Wang, Shu Yi; Zhang, Yan Ping

    2014-01-01

    The aim of present study was to assess the radioprotective effects of the local application of amifostine to treat acute buccal mucositis in guinea pigs. A total of 32 guinea pigs were randomized into four groups: (Group A) topically administered 50 mg of amifostine plus radiotherapy (RT); (Group B) 100 mg amifostine plus RT; (Group C) normal saline plus RT; and (Group D) normal saline plus sham RT. The opportunity for administration was 15 min before irradiation. When administered, the cotto...

  12. 氨磷汀的合成%Synthesis of Amifostine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷华; 张春红; 米成根; 程度; 黄文才

    2012-01-01

    N-(2-溴乙基)-1,3-丙二胺二氢溴酸盐和硫代磷酸钠在PEG 600作用下缩合,反应结束后加入三乙胺-乙醇混合液析出氨磷汀粗品,收率92.0%,纯度94.6%;再经过水-乙醇两次精制后可得到纯度99.0%以上的细胞保护剂氨磷汀精制品,精制率53%.%Amifostine, the cytoprotective agent, was synthesized from iV-(2-bromoethyl)-l,3-propanediamine dihydrobromide by condensation with sodium thiophosphate in the presence of PEG 600 in water and precipitation after addition of triethylamine and ethanol to give crude amifostine with a yield of 92.0% and purity of 94.6%, the crude product was purified twice with H2O-EtOH to afford the product with purity of above 99.0%, with the refining rate of 53%.

  13. Chromosomale Residualschäden nach Radiochemotherapie mit und ohne Gabe von Amifostin

    OpenAIRE

    Claussen, Mareike Franziska

    2007-01-01

    Hintergrund: Amifostin ist eine radioprotektiv wirkende Substanz, die zur Verringerung der akuten Nebenwirkungen bei konventionell fraktionierter Radiotherapie angewandt wird. In der vorliegenden Studie wurde Amifostin bei Patienten eingesetzt, die wegen eines Rektumkarzinoms eine postoperative Radiochemotherapie erhielten. Es wurde bereits beschrieben, dass diese Patienten nach zusätzlicher Amifostingabe eine geringere Akuttoxizität an Haut und Darm zeigten. Nun sollte festgestellt werden, o...

  14. Cytoprotective Efficacy of Amifostine Against Radiation- Induced Rectal Toxicity: Objective and Subjective Grading Scales for Radiomucositis

    OpenAIRE

    John R. Kouvaris; Kouloulias, Vassilis E.

    2008-01-01

    Curative radiation therapy of pelvic malignancies, frequently results in doselimitingtoxicities such as serous, mucoid, or more rarely, bloody diarrhea. Several studieshave evaluated the cytoprotective effects of amifostine in preventing rectal mucositisassociated with radiation treatment. We searched Medline for published comparativestudies that evaluated the use of amifostine to reduce radiation-induced toxicity associatedwith pelvic irradiation. In ten studies there was an evidence-based c...

  15. Amifostine: An Effective Prophylactic Agent against Sulphur Mustard Toxicity (Short Communication)

    OpenAIRE

    Uma Pathak; Raza, S K; Kumar, P.; Vijayaraghavan, R.; D. K. Jaiswal

    2002-01-01

    Amifostine, S-2-(aminopropylamino) ethylphosphorothioate and two of its analogues have been evaluated as prophylactic agent against SM toxicity. The compounds were administered intraperitoncally (i.p.) at 0.2 LD/sub59 dose in mice 30 min prior to dermal application of SM. The protective efficacy was determined by observing the mortality for 14 days. The protection offered by amifostine was better than its analogues. Subsequent study on time-dependent protection, carried out with amifo...

  16. Protective effects of amifostine on ischemia-reperfusion injury of rat kidneys

    OpenAIRE

    Ayse Arducoglu Merter; Burhan Mayir; Okan Erdogan; Taner Colak

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Amifostine is a drug which can eliminate free oxygen radicals that appear in the body after radiation or chemotherapeutic agent exposure. It is used to decrease the renal toxicity of cisplatin. The aim of this study was to determine the role of amifostine in warm ischemia kidney model for prevention of ischemia/reperfusion injury and also to find out the mechanism for prevention from ischemia/reperfusion injury if such an effect does exist. Materials and Methods: Adult female ...

  17. The protective effect of amifostine on ultraviolet B-exposed xeroderma pigmentosum mice

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, SL; Christiansen, D; Kazmier, FR; Besch-Williford, CL; Concannon, MJ

    2010-01-01

    Background: Amifostine is a pharmaceutical agent that is used clinically to counteract the side-effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. It acts as a free radical scavenger that protects against harmful DNA cross-linking. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of amifostine on the development of skin cancer in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) mice exposed to ultraviolet B radiation (UVB). Methods: Twenty-five XP mice were equally divided into five groups. Group 1 (control) received ...

  18. Assessment of the Cytoprotective Efficacy of Amifostine with Quantitative Salivary Gland Scintigraphy

    OpenAIRE

    Bilgehan Karadayı; Müge Akmansu; Ahmet Dirier; Özgür Akdemir

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of our study was to assess and confirm the radioprotective effect of amifostine in protecting major salivary glands with dynamic quantitative scintigraphic evaluation.The study design was non-randomized clinical trial. There were 26 patients with head and neck cancer who receive primary or adjuvant radiotherapy in the head and neck region. Amifostine administrations were done before radiotherapy in one group while the control group did not take the drug. The primary end-poi...

  19. Ultrasensitive detection of amifostine and alkaline phosphatase based on the growth of CdS quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Weidan; Liu, Siyu; Liu, Xiaotong; Su, Xingguang

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we reported a simple and sensitive fluorescence nanosensor for rapid detection of amifostine and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The novel nanosensor was based on the fluorescence "turn on-off" of CdS quantum dots (QDs). Firstly, Cd(2+) cation could react with S(2-) anion to generate fluorescent CdS QDs in the presence of amifostine. The fluorescence (FL) intensity of amifostine-capped CdS QDs (Amifostine-CdS QDs) was increased with the increasing amounts of amifostine, and could be used for amifostine detection. However, amifostine could be converted to 2-(3-aminopropylamino) ethanethiol (WR1065) in the presence of ALP based on the dephosphorylation of ALP. Under the optimum conditions, the affinity of WR1065 to CdS QDs was weaker than that of amifostine. Therefore the new generation of WR1065-CdS QDs would reduce the FL intensity with the increase of ALP concentration, and the fluorescence of CdS QDs was turn off. The metabolic process of amifostine in the presence of alkaline phosphatase could be also studied via the change of FL intensity of CdS QDs. The present method was cost-effective, convenient, and does not require any complicated synthetic procedures. PMID:26452927

  20. Influence of single and multiple doses of amifostine on the efficacy and the pharmacokinetics of carboplatin in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Korst, A. E.; Boven, E.; van der Sterre, M. L.; Fichtinger-Schepman, A M; van der Vijgh, W. J.

    1997-01-01

    We have previously reported that amifostine potentiates the anti-tumour activity of carboplatin in mice. The present study was carried out in well-established human ovarian cancer xenografts OVCAR-3, A2780 and FMa grown subcutaneously in the nude mouse. It was found that a single dose of amifostine resulted in a higher increase in the anti-tumour activity of carboplatin than three doses of amifostine. A single dose of amifostine increased the AUC (area under the curve) values of total platinu...

  1. SOD2 Mediates Amifostine-Induced Protection against Glutamate in PC12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Jia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cytoprotectant amifostine attenuates radiation-induced oxidative injury by increasing intracellular manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2 in peripheral tissue. However, whether amifostine could protect neuronal cells against oxidative injury has not been reported. The purpose of this study is to explore the protection of amifostine in PC12 cells. Methods. PC12 cells exposed to glutamate were used to mimic neuronal oxidative injury. SOD assay kit was taken to evaluate intracellular Cu/Zn SOD (SOD1 and SOD2 activities; western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining were performed to investigate SOD2 protein expression; MTT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, release and cell morphology were used to evaluate cell injury degree, and apoptotic rate and cleaved caspase-3 expression were taken to assess apoptosis; mitochondrial superoxide production, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS, and glutathione (GSH and catalase (CAT levels were evaluated by reagent kits. Results. Amifostine increased SOD2 activity and expression, decreased cell injury and apoptosis, reduced mitochondrial superoxide production and intracellular ROS generation, and restored intracellular GSH and CAT levels in PC12 cells exposed to glutamate. SOD2-siRNA, however, significantly reversed the amifostine-induced cytoprotective and antioxidative actions. Conclusion. SOD2 mediates amifostine-induced protection in PC12 cells exposed to glutamate.

  2. Effects of amifostine on radiation-induced apoptosis in mouse ovary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Hee; Yoon Yong Dal [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    The present study was designed to assess the radioprotective effects of amifostine on ovarian follicles. Three week-old female mice with or without pretreatment of amifostine were irradiated with 6.42 Gy of {gamma} -ray. Ovaries were collected 0 and 6h after irradiation. DNA fragmentation pattern and expression of genes and activity of proteins related with apoptosis were investigated by means of RT-PCR and Western blot. Proliferation of granulosa cells was reduced and incidence rate of follicular atresia was increased in ovarian follicles in {gamma} -ray irradiated mice compared to those in control or amifostine-treated group. DNA fragmentation was increased in time-dependent manner in granulosa cells of all irradiated groups. However, no difference between amifostine pre-treated group and irradiated groups was found and the expression of p53 as tumor suppressor gene and Bax as one of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family was increased in irradiated mice ovaries. PARP as DNA damage sensor was cleaved and its upstream regulator, Caspase-3 was activated. Fas (CD95), one of membrane bound receptor which initiated apoptosis pathway was expressed by {gamma} -ray. Pretreatment of amifostine before irradiation, however, inhibited the expression of p53 and Bax, the cleavage of PARP and the activation of Caspase-3. In conclusion, amifostine has an inhibitory effect on gonadal cell apoptosis induced by {gamma} -ray irradiation, through lowering the expression of apoptotic signaling peptide and the activation of DNA repair enzymes.

  3. The Protective Effect of Amifostine on Radiation-Induced Proctitis: Systemic Versus Topical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Uzal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of intrarectal administration of amifostine in radiation-induced proctitis compared to intraperitoneal administration.Materials and Methods: Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control (CONT, irradiation alone (RT, intraperitoneal amifostine plus irradiation (IPAMI, and intrarectal amifostine plus irradiation (IRAMI. The rats in the RT, IPAMI and IRAMI groups were irradiated individually with a single dose of 17.5 Gy to the pelvis. Amifostine was administered by the intraperitoneal (200 mg/kg or intrarectal (2000 mg/kg route before irradiation. Histopathologic analysis of the rectum was performed 14 days after irradiation. Results: Significant radiation damage appeared in all histopathologic parameters and was reduced by amifostine. Pretreatment with IPAMI significantly reduced the inflammatory infiltrate in the lamina propria (p=0.021, cryptitis (p=0.002 and crypt abscess (p=0.015. However, the protective effect of IRAMI was significant for all parameters with equal or higher significance than IPAMI, including the eosinophil leucocytes count (p=0.02, and distortion of the crypts (p=0.008, and was also significant for regenerative/reparative atypia (p=0.013. Conclusion: Intrarectal high dose topical administration of amifostine is more effective in the prevention of radiation-induced proctitis compared to its intraperitoneal systemic administration.

  4. The effect of amifostine on differentiation of the human megakaryoblastic Dami cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Tao; Yang, Bo; Hu, Bo; Chi, Xiao-Hua; Luo, Long-Long; Yang, Hong-Qi; Lang, Xiao-Ling; Geng, Jing; Qiao, Chun-Xia; Li, Yan; Wu, Xiao-Xiong; Zhu, Hong-Li; Lv, Ming; Lu, Xue-Chun

    2016-08-01

    Amifostine is a cytoprotective drug that was initially used to control and treat nuclear radiation injury and is currently used to provide organ protection in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Clinical studies have also found that amifostine has some efficacy in the treatment of cytopenia caused by conditions such as myelodysplastic syndrome and immune thrombocytopenia, both of which involve megakaryocyte maturation defects. We hypothesized that amifostine induced the differentiation of megakaryocytes and investigated this by exposing the human Dami megakaryocyte leukemia cell line to amifostine (1 mmol/L). After 12 days of amifostine exposure, optical microscopy showed that the proportion of Dami cells with diameters >20 μm had increased to 24.63%. Transmission electron microscopy identified the development of a platelet demarcation membrane system, while flow cytometry detected increased CD41a expression and decreased CD33 expression on the Dami cell surface. Ploidy analysis found that the number of polyploid cells with >4N DNA content increased to 27.96%. We did not detect any elevation in the mRNA or protein levels of megakaryocytic differentiation-associated transcription factors GATA-binding factor 1 (GATA-1) and nuclear factor, erythroid 2 (NF-E2), but nuclear import assay revealed an increased nuclear translocation of these proteins. These findings indicate that amifostine induced the differentiation of Dami cells into mature megakaryocytes via a mechanism involving increased nuclear translocation of the transcription factors, NF-E2 and GATA-1. PMID:27228575

  5. Intermittent use of amifostine during postoperative radiochemotherapy and acute toxicity in rectal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From September 1997 through October 1998, 30 patients with stage II/III rectal cancer underwent postoperative radiochemotherapy at our department. All patients had undergone curative (R0) resection and received 50.4 Gy to the pelvis with a 3-field technique using a belly board followed by a boost of 5.4 Gy to the presacral space in conventional fractionation with 1.8 Gy per fraction. 5-FU chemotherapy was administered as 120-hours continuous infusion in the first and fifth radiation week via a central venous catheter in a daily dosage of 1000 mg/m2. All patients were offered to participate in a phase-II study using additional amifostine. Fifteen patients participated and received 500 mg amifostine daily on chemotherapy days (days 1 to 5 and 29 to 33) immediately prior to the daily radiation fraction. Fifteen patients did not participate and served as non-randomized control. The study was approved by the ethical committee of the Martin-Luter-University and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Results: The distribution of patients' characteristics and prognostic parameters was comparable in both groups. Side effects of amifostine were mild and included hypotension (53% grade I, 7% grade II) and nausea (47% grade I, 13% grade II). Antiemetics were not routinely used. All patients completed radiochemotherapy plus amifostine without unplanned breaks or dose reductions. One patients developed a cerebral infraction which was considered to be not related to the use of amifostine. As compared to the non-randomized control group, patients with additional amifostine had less acute skin and bowel toxicity (maximum erythema score 1.47±0.64 without vs 0.87±0.52 with amifostine, p=0.009 and maximum diarrhea score 1.07±1.03 vs 0.40±0.63, p=0.044). Oral 5-FU-related mucositis and hematological toxicity were not significantly different. (orig.)

  6. A randomized phase II study of paclitaxel with carboplatin +/- amifostine as first line treatment in advanced ovarian carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vos, F Y F L; Bos, A M E; Schaapveld, M; de Swart, C A M; de Graaf, H; van der Zee, A G J; Boezen, H M; de Vries, E G E; Willemse, P H B

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Will amifostine (A) protect against chemotherapy-induced neuro- and myelotoxicity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ninety ovarian cancer patients were randomized to receive standard paclitaxel + carboplatin without (PC) or preceded by amifostine 740 mg/m(2) (PC + A). RESULTS: The mean baseline valu

  7. Effect of Amifostine on Survival Among Patients Treated With Radiotherapy : A Meta-Analysis of Individual Patient Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bourhis, Jean; Blanchard, Pierre; Maillard, Emilie; Brizel, David M.; Movsas, Benjamin; Buentzel, Jens; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Leong, Swan Swan; Levendag, Peter; Pignon, Jean Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Controversy exists regarding whether or not amifostine might reduce the efficacy of cancer treatment. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the impact of amifostine on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in patients treated with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy

  8. Outcome of local application of amifostine (WR-1065) on epirubicin-induced oral mucositis. A phase II study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokman, MA; Wachters, FM; Koopmans, P; Burgerhof, JGM; Groen, HJM; Spijkervet, FKL; Uges, DRA; Hospers, GAP

    2004-01-01

    Background: Intravenous administration of amifostine reduces chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Preclinical experiments showed a reduction in radiation-induced mucositis after local application of the active metabolite of amifostine (WR-1065). This study evaluated the effect of local application of WR-1

  9. Radiotherapy alone, versus radiotherapy with amifostine 3 times weekly, versus radiotherapy with amifostine 5 times weekly - A prospective randomized study in squamous cell head and neck cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jellema, Anke Petra; Slotman, Ben J.; Muller, Martin J.; Leemans, C. Rene; Smeele, Ludi E.; Hoekman, Klaas; Aaronson, Neil K.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether non-daily intravenous administration of amifostine was as effective as daily intravenous administration with regard to the reduction of the incidence of Grade 2 or greater xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancer. METHOD

  10. Review on salivary glad protection by amifostine in high-dose radiodine treatment; Uebersicht ueber die Moeglichkeiten des Speicheldruesenschutzes durch Amifostin bei ablativer Radioiodtherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohuslavizki, K.H.; Klutmann, S.; Mester, J.; Clausen, M. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Brenner, W.; Henze, E. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1999-06-01

    This study investigated the radioprotective effects of the thiol compound amifostine in animals and humans receiving high-dose radioiodine therapy. From these data derived in an animal model, in a retrospective study with a limited number of patients, and in a prospective double-blind, placebo-controlled patient study we may conclude that parenchymal damage in salivary glands caused by high-dose radioiodine therapy can significantly be reduced by amifostine which may improve quality of life of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. (orig.) [Deutsch] Da der SH-Gruppendonator Amifostin stark in Speicheldruesen angereichert wird, sollte seine zytoprotektive Wirkung auf Speicheldruesen bei der Radioiodtherapie im Tiermodell, in einem Heilversuch und in einer doppelblind, plazebokontrollierten Studie ueberprueft werden. Die hier im Rahmen eines Tiermodells, im Rahmen eines Heilversuches und prospektiv durch eine doppelblinde, plazebokontrollierten Studie nachgewiesene zytoprotektive Wirkung von Amifostin auf Speicheldruesen laesst den Schluss zu, dass klinisch fassbare Speicheldruesenschaedigungen nach multiplen Radioiodtherapien im Rahmen der Behandlung des differenzierten Schilddruesenkarzinoms weitgehend vermieden werden koennen. (orig.)

  11. Intermittent use of amifostine during postoperative radiochemotherapy and acute toxicity in rectal cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunst, J.; Semlin, S.; Pigorsch, S.; Mueller, A.C.; Reese, T. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Abt. fuer Radiotherapie

    2000-09-01

    From September 1997 through October 1998, 30 patients with stage II/III rectal cancer underwent postoperative radiochemotherapy at our department. All patients had undergone curative (R0) resection and received 50.4 Gy to the pelvis with a 3-field technique using a belly board followed by a boost of 5.4 Gy to the presacral space in conventional fractionation with 1.8 Gy per fraction. 5-FU chemotherapy was administered as 120-hours continuous infusion in the first and fifth radiation week via a central venous catheter in a daily dosage of 1000 mg/m{sup 2}. All patients were offered to participate in a phase-II study using additional amifostine. Fifteen patients participated and received 500 mg amifostine daily on chemotherapy days (days 1 to 5 and 29 to 33) immediately prior to the daily radiation fraction. Fifteen patients did not participate and served as non-randomized control. The study was approved by the ethical committee of the Martin-Luter-University and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Results: The distribution of patients' characteristics and prognostic parameters was comparable in both groups. Side effects of amifostine were mild and included hypotension (53% grade I, 7% grade II) and nausea (47% grade I, 13% grade II). Antiemetics were not routinely used. All patients completed radiochemotherapy plus amifostine without unplanned breaks or dose reductions. One patients developed a cerebral infraction which was considered to be not related to the use of amifostine. As compared to the non-randomized control group, patients with additional amifostine had less acute skin and bowel toxicity (maximum erythema score 1.47{+-}0.64 without vs 0.87{+-}0.52 with amifostine, p=0.009 and maximum diarrhea score 1.07{+-}1.03 vs 0.40{+-}0.63, p=0.044). Oral 5-FU-related mucositis and hematological toxicity were not significantly different. (orig.) [German] Zwischen September 1997 und Oktober 1998 wurden 15 Patienten mit postoperativer

  12. Pre-treatment with amifostine protects against cyclophosphamide-induced disruption of taste in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabanita Mukherjee

    Full Text Available Cyclophosphamide (CYP, a commonly prescribed chemotherapy drug, has multiple adverse side effects including alteration of taste. The effects on taste are a cause of concern for patients as changes in taste are often associated with loss of appetite, malnutrition, poor recovery and reduced quality of life. Amifostine is a cytoprotective agent that was previously shown to be effective in preventing chemotherapy-induced mucositis and nephrotoxicity. Here we determined its ability to protect against chemotherapy-induced damage to taste buds using a mouse model of CYP injury. We conducted detection threshold tests to measure changes in sucrose taste sensitivity and found that administration of amifostine 30 mins prior to CYP injection protected against CYP-induced loss in taste sensitivity. Morphological studies showed that pre-treatment with amifostine prevented CYP-induced reduction in the number of fungiform taste papillae and increased the number of taste buds. Immunohistochemical assays for markers of the cell cycle showed that amifostine administration prevented CYP-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and also protected against loss of mature taste cells after CYP exposure. Our results indicate that treatment of cancer patients with amifostine prior to chemotherapy may improve their sensitivity for taste stimuli and protect the taste system from the detrimental effects of chemotherapy.

  13. Assessment of the Cytoprotective Efficacy of Amifostine with Quantitative Salivary Gland Scintigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgehan Karadayı

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of our study was to assess and confirm the radioprotective effect of amifostine in protecting major salivary glands with dynamic quantitative scintigraphic evaluation.The study design was non-randomized clinical trial. There were 26 patients with head and neck cancer who receive primary or adjuvant radiotherapy in the head and neck region. Amifostine administrations were done before radiotherapy in one group while the control group did not take the drug. The primary end-point was wash-out rate as the quantitative scintigraphic parameter and changing patterns after radiotherapy were compared. Parotid wash-out rate showed some healing at the 3rd month of radiotherapy in the amifostine group, but not in the control group. Submandibular wash-out rate showed some worsening at the 3rd month of radiotherapy in the control group, but not in the amifostine group. Radioprotective effect of amifostine in major salivary glands can be observed with the testing tool of dynamic quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy.

  14. Efficacy of amifostine in protection against doxorubicin-induced acute cardiotoxic effects in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragojević-Simić Viktorija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Amifostine (AMI is a broad-spectrum cytoprotector which protects against variety of radio- and chemotherapy-related toxicities without decreasing their antitumor action. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential protective effects of AMI against acute cardiotoxic effects of doxorubicin (DOX in male Wistar rats. Methods. AMI (300 mg/kg ip was given 30 min before DOX (6 mg/kg and 10mg/kg b.w., iv. The evaluation of DOXinduced cardiotoxic effects, as well as cardioprotective efficacy of AMI was performed 48 h after their administration by determining serum activities of enzymes known to be markers of cardiac damage (creatine kinase - CK, aspartate aminotransferase - AST, lactate dehydrogenase - LDH, and its isoenzyme α-hydroxybutirate dehydrogenase - α- HBDH, as well as the histopathological and ultrastructural analysis of the heart tissue. Results. AMI successfully prevented a significant increase in serum activity of CK, AST, LDH and α-HBDH in animals treated with DOX in the dose of 6 mg/kg (121.14 ± 18.37 vs 167.70 ± 44.24; 771.42 ± 161.99 vs 1057.00 ± 300.00; 3230.00 ± 1031.73 vs 4243.10 ± 904.06; 202.57 ± 42.46 vs 294.90 ± 80.20 UI/l, respectively, and ameliorated DOX-induced structural damage of the rat myocardium. Pretreatment with AMI in rats given 10 mg/kg DOX reduced the cardiac damage score (CDS from 2.62 ± 0.51 to 1.62 ± 0.51, i.e. to the CDS value obtained with the lower dose of DOX (6 mg/kg. The ultrastructural analysis of the rat myocardium showed that AMI successfully protected the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes and reduced mitochondria damage induced by DOX given in the dose of 6 mg/kg. Besides, capillaries were less morphologically changed and apoptosis of endothelial cells was extremely rare in AMI-protected animals. AMI itself did not cause any prominent changes in the examined parameters in comparison with the control rats. Conclusion. AMI provided a significant protection against DOX

  15. Clinical study of the radioprotective effects of Amifostine (YM-08310, WR-2721) on chronic radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, I.; Nagai, T.; Miyaishi, K.; Maehara, Y.; Niibe, H.

    1986-06-01

    We have previously reported that Amifostine, a radioprotective agent, was effective in treating acute radiation mucositis in the head and neck region. We found that when a considerable amount of Amifostine accumulates in the salivary glands, it may be useful in preventing chronic disturbances of salivary secretion. We have observed an increase in the uptake of Ga-67-citrate to the salivary glands when they were irradiated. In this paper, the radioprotective effects of Amifostine, in treating chronic radiation injury of the salivary glands, were studied, using the cessation of an increase in uptake of Ga-67-citrate after radiotherapy as the criterion. The subjects were 105 patients, (280 salivary glands in Ga-scintigrams) with malignancy of the head and neck region treated by irradiation from 1978 to 1984. Ga-negative glands were recognized in 97%, that is, 36 out of 37 glands, before irradiation, and the figure decreased to 19%, seven out of 37, within 1 to 2 weeks (10Gy less than or equal to) after the start of radiotherapy. In patients who were irradiated with more than 30 Gy and in whom scintigraphy was performed at 6 months or more after radiotherapy, Ga-negative glands were recognized in 18 out of 41 glands, 44%, with Amifostine, compared with 13%, four out of 32 glands, without Amifostine. A difference was recognized between these two groups in the negative change in Ga-67 uptake after radiotherapy (p less than 0.05). These facts suggest that Amifostine may have a radioprotective effect on chronic radiation injury.

  16. A Phase I Clinical and Pharmacology Study Using Amifostine as a Radioprotector in Dose-escalated Whole Liver Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Mary, E-mail: maryfeng@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Smith, David E. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Normolle, Daniel P. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Knol, James A. [Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Pan, Charlie C.; Ben-Josef, Edgar [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Lu Zheng; Feng, Meihua R.; Chen Jun [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ensminger, William [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: Diffuse intrahepatic tumors are difficult to control. Whole-liver radiotherapy has been limited by toxicity, most notably radiation-induced liver disease. Amifostine is a prodrug free-radical scavenger that selectively protects normal tissues and, in a preclinical model of intrahepatic cancer, systemic amifostine reduced normal liver radiation damage without compromising tumor effect. We hypothesized that amifostine would permit escalation of whole-liver radiation dose to potentially control microscopic disease. We also aimed to characterize the pharmacokinetics of amifostine and its active metabolite WR-1065 to optimize timing of radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: We conducted a radiation dose-escalation trial for patients with diffuse, intrahepatic cancer treated with whole-liver radiation and intravenous amifostine. Radiation dose was assigned using the time-to-event continual reassessment method. A companion pharmacokinetic study was performed. Results: Twenty-three patients were treated, with a maximum dose of 40 Gy. Using a logistical regression model, compared with our previously treated patients, amifostine increased liver tolerance by 3.3 {+-} 1.1 Gy (p = 0.007) (approximately 10%) with similar response rates. Peak concentrations of WR-1065 were 25 {mu}M with an elimination half-life of 1.5 h; these levels are consistent with radioprotective effects of amifostine in patients. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate for the first time that amifostine is a normal liver radioprotector. They further suggest that it may be useful to combine amifostine with fractionated or stereotactic body radiation therapy for patients with focal intrahepatic cancer.

  17. 氨磷汀的合成%Synthesis of Amifostine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛远湖; 汤磊; 王建塔

    2014-01-01

    Amifostine , a cytoprotector , was synthesized by reaction of 2 -Aminoethanol with acrylonitrile and via condensation, bromination, salification, and purified.The structures of the intermediates and final product were characterized by IR and 1 HNMR, and the purity was measured via HPLC by contrast with standard substance.By optimizing each step , the total yield was raised to 37.3%and purity of 99.2%.%以2-羟基乙胺为原料,与丙烯腈反应后经还原、溴代、成盐、精制得细胞保护剂氨磷汀,中间体及终产物结构经红外、氢谱确证,并通过HPLC与终产物标准品对照测得其纯度。新的工艺对各步反应进行了优化,收率达37.3%,纯度达99.2%。

  18. Radioprotective effects of cystamine or amifostine (WR-2721) in mammals exposed to gamma rays or neutrons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuna, P.; Dostál, M.; Neruda, O.; Petýrek, P.; Podzimek, F.; Svoboda, V.; Šimša, J.; Špelda, S.; Vodička, I.; Volenec, K.; Knajfl, J.; Severa, J.; Vávrová, J.; Skopec, F.; Filip, S.; Rešl, M.; Heřmanská, J.; Prouza, Z.; Navrátil, L.; Spurný, František; Pitterman, P.; Listík, E.

    Praha: ČVUT v Praze, 2006 - (Losinská, J.), s. 156-158 ISBN 80-01-03575-1. [Dny radiační ochrany /28./. Luhačovice (CZ), 20.11.2006-24.11.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : amifostine * gamma irradiation * neutron Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality

  19. Combined therapy with amifostine plus erythropoietin for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musto, Pellegrino; Santini, Valeria; Balestri, Francesca;

    2002-01-01

    Twelve patients with myelodysplasia were treated with amifostine plus recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) for 6 weeks. A complete erythroid response was obtained in 2/12(16.6%) and a partial response in 4/12 (33.3%). Two of 8 patients with a platelet count < 100 x 10(9)/L had a complete...

  20. Radioprotective effect of amifostine on parotid gland functioning is region dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, AWT; Faber, H; Vissink, A; Coppes, RP

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To investigation the protective ability of amifostine during partial irradiation of the rat parotid gland. Methods and Materials: Single-dose X-ray irradiation was performed by use of collimators with conformal radiation portals for either the 100% volume (15 Gy) or the 50% cranial/caudal p

  1. Systematic review of amifostine for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolatou-Galitis, Ourania; Sarri, Triantafyllia; Bowen, Joanne; Di Palma, Mario; Kouloulias, Vassilios E.; Niscola, Pasquale; Riesenbeck, Dorothea; Stokman, Monique; Tissing, Wim; Yeoh, Eric; Elad, Sharon; Lalla, Rajesh V.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the available literature from 1966 until December 31, 2010 and define clinical practice guidelines for the use of amifostine for the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis in cancer patients. A systematic review was conducted by the Mucositis Study Group of th

  2. Radioprotective effect of amifostine on parotid gland functioning is region dependent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigation the protective ability of amifostine during partial irradiation of the rat parotid gland. Methods and Materials: Single-dose X-ray irradiation was performed by use of collimators with conformal radiation portals for either the 100% volume (15 Gy) or the 50% cranial/caudal partial parotid gland volumes (30 Gy). Amifostine was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 250 mg per kg body weight, 25 minutes before irradiation. Saliva flow rates, gland weights, and the tissues of the individual lobes were investigated up to 1 year after treatment. Results: A clear protective effect of amifostine was found against loss of saliva flow, the altered appearance of gross morphology, loss of gland weight, and histopathologic changes for the 100% volume gland irradiations and for the 50% volume cranial irradiations but not for the 50% volume caudal irradiations. Conclusions: The protective ability of amifostine is strongly dependent on the irradiated glandular region and observed for later damage only. The major effect of the drug seems to be the prevention of volume effects caused by secondary damage that occurs in shielded parts of the gland. The results of the present study show that understanding of the anatomy and physiology of organs that are to be spared is necessary to ensure optimal preservation of function

  3. Effect of amifostine on patient assessed clinical benefit in irradiated head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine if head and neck (H/N) cancer patients receiving daily amifostine during radiation therapy (RT) experienced clinical benefit (improvement in their ability to carry out normal functions with reduced discomfort) compared to nonamifostine treated patients. Methods and Materials: This was an open-label, multi-institutional randomized trial in 303 H/N cancer patients treated with RT +amifostine. Clinical benefit was measured using an 8-item validated Patient Benefit Questionnaire (PBQ) during and up to 11 months after RT. Results: 301 patients completed one or more PBQ assessments. Amifostine patients had significantly better PBQ scores (p < 0.05) than controls. The improvement in PBQ scores was most significant during chronic xerostomia. Conclusions: Amifostine use results in improved Patient Benefit Questionnaire (PBQ) scores, which is indicative of improved oral toxicity related outcomes and improved clinical benefit. Less oral toxicity should lead to preservation of late dental and oral health, and improvements in activities such as diet, nutrition, and sleep

  4. Cytoprotective effects of amifostine, ascorbic acid and N-acetylcysteine against methotrexate-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Akbulut, Sami; Elbe, Hulya; Eris, Cengiz; Dogan, Zumrut; Toprak, Gulten; Otan, Emrah; Erdemli, Erman; TURKOZ, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the potential role of oxidative stress and the possible therapeutic effects of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), amifostine (AMF) and ascorbic acid (ASC) in methotrexate (MTX)-induced hepatotoxicity.

  5. Amifostine modulates radio-induced apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocytes in head and neck cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head and neck cancer is treated mainly with surgery and radiotherapy. Xerostomia and mucositis are common adverse effects of radiation therapy. One of the strategies aimed at decreasing radiation toxicity is the use of radioprotective agents, such as amifostine. We previously reported that radio induced apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocytes was statistically associated with normal tissue toxicity in the form of severe xerostomia. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of amifostine on the radiation-induced apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients suffering head and neck cancer. Eighteen consecutive patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were included in the study. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated before and after the treatment with amifostine. Then, cells were irradiated at 0, 1, 2 and 8 Gy during 24 hours. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry using annexin V/propidium iodide. As expected, radio-induced apoptosis values fitted to a semi logarithmic equation as follows: RIA=βln(Gy)+α. The administration of amifostine prior to radiation therapy modulates radio-induced apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocytes: 13.68 vs. 13.37 (P=0.027), 19.11 vs. 17.64 (P=0.001) and 30.70 vs. 28.84 (P=0.001), before and after the administration of the drug for 1, 2 and 8 Gy respectively. α and β decreased significantly after the administration of the drug: 13.58 vs. 12.99 (P=0.009) and 8.21 vs. 7.53 (P=0.017), respectively. Our results provide new information about the biological actions of amifostine in vivo. (author)

  6. Protective effect of Ginkgo flavonoids, amifostine, and leuprorelin against platinum-induced ovarian impairment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Z; Wang, H L; Du, H

    2014-01-01

    Platinum-induced ovarian impairment is a consequence of treatment for malignant ovarian tumors. We compared the protective effects of Ginkgo flavonoids, amifostine, and leuprorelin on ovarian impairment in rats. Fifty rats were randomly divided into the A, B, C, D, and E groups, which were given saline, cisplatin, cisplatin plus Ginkgo flavonoids, cisplatin plus amifostine, and cisplatin plus leuprorelin, respectively. Ovarian weight was significantly greater in groups C and D compared with group B (83.5 ± 6.7 and 86.8 ± 10 vs 56.8 ± 5.4 mg). The total follicle numbers were higher in groups C, D, and E than in group B (60.5 ± 3.9, 63.8 ± 5.1, and 67.7 ± 3.5 vs 49.6 ± 4.5), and the apoptotic index was reduced in groups C, D, and E compared with group B (35.7 ± 2.0, 37.4 ± 1.6, and 30.5 ± 2.9 vs 65.3 ± 2.9%). The ovaries in groups B, C, and D had higher protein and mRNA expression levels of cytoplasmic Cytochrome c (Cyt-c) and apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apf-1) compared to group A; the Cyt-c mRNA expression was five-fold higher. The mRNA expression of Cyt-c and Apf-1 were significantly lower in groups C, D, and E compared with group B. Administration of leuprorelin, flavonoids, or amifostine protected rats against the ovarian impairment induced by prior intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin. The efficacy of leuprorelin was superior to that of Ginkgo flavonoids and amifostine, but there was no difference between the effects of Ginkgo flavonoids and amifostine. PMID:25078583

  7. Effect of Amifostine on Locally Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated with Radiotherapy: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shengye; Zhang, Yiping; Zhang, Suzhan; Ma, Shenglin

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective Controversy exists on whether amifostine can reduce the efficacy and decrease the side effects of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated by radiotherapy. The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of amifostine in NSCLC patients treated with radiotherapy. Methods Open published randomized controlled trials on the efficacy and side effects of amifostine in NSCLC patients treated with radiotherapy were collected from Medline, Cochrane...

  8. Comparison of the protective roles of L-carnitine and amifostine against radiation-induced acute ovarian damage by histopathological and biochemical methods

    OpenAIRE

    Vuslat Yurut-Caloglu; Murat Caloglu; Sevgi Eskiocak; Ebru Tastekin; Alaattin Ozen; Nukhet Kurkcu; Fulya Oz-Puyan; Zafer Kocak; Cem Uzal

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the radioprotective efficacies of L-carnitine (LC) and amifostine against radiation-induced acute ovarian damage. Materials and Methods: Forty-five, 3-month-old Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to six groups. Control (CONT, n = 7); irradiation alone RT: radiation therapy (RT, n = 8); amifostine plus irradiation (AMI + RT, n = 8); LC plus irradiation (LC + RT, n = 8); LC and sham irradiation (LC, n = 7); and amifostine and sham irradia...

  9. In vitro effect of amifostine on haematopoietic progenitors exposed to carboplatin and non-alkylating antineoplastic drugs: haematoprotection acts as a drug-specific progenitor rescue.

    OpenAIRE

    Pierelli, L.; Scambia, G; Fattorossi, A; Bonanno, G.; Battaglia, A; Perillo, A.; Menichella, G.; Panici, P. B.; Leone, G; Mancuso, S.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the protective ability of amifostine on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-derived colony-forming unit (CFU) and PB CD34+ cells which were previously exposed in vitro to etoposide, carboplatin, doxorubicin and taxotere. Amifostine pretreatment protected PBMC-derived CFU from the toxic effect of etoposide, carboplatin and taxotere. A significant detrimental effect was exerted by amifostine on the growth of doxorubicin-treated PBMC-derived CFU. Liquid cultures of PB CD34+ cel...

  10. Prophylactic use of amifostine to prevent radiochemotherapy-induced mucositis and xerostomia in head-and-neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the prophylactic properties of amifostine against acute and late toxicities from radiochemotherapy in patients with head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Fifty patients were randomized to receive conventional radiotherapy (RT) (2-Gy fractions, 5 days weekly, to a total of 60-74 Gy, depending on the tumor localization and TNM classification) and carboplatin (90 mg/m2 infusion once per week before RT). Amifostine (300 mg/m2) was administered in the study group only 15-30 min before RT for 6-7.5 weeks. The primary study end point was the grading of acute and late nonhematologic toxicities (mucositis, dysphagia, xerostomia) induced by radiochemotherapy. Secondary end points included treatment duration, hematologic toxicity, and clinical outcome. Results: The treatment duration was significantly shorter in the amifostine-treated group (p=0.013), because treatment interruptions were more frequent in the control group. Acute toxicities (mucositis and dysphagia) were less severe in the amifostine-treated group. By Week 3, all in the control group experienced Grade 2 mucositis compared with only 9% in the amifostine-treated group (p<0.0001). By Week 5, 52.2% of the patients in the control group experienced Grade 4 mucositis compared with 4.5% in the amifostine-treated group (p=0.0006). Similar results were obtained for dysphagia. At 3 months of follow-up, only 27% of patients in the study group experienced Grade 2 xerostomia compared with 73.9% in the control group (p=0.0001). Eighteen months after cessation of therapy, the proportion of patients with Grade 2 xerostomia was 4.5% vs. 30.4% for each respective treatment group (p=0.047). Cytoprotection with amifostine did not affect treatment outcome, with 90.9% complete responses in the amifostine-treated group compared with 78.3% in the control group (p=0.414). Conclusion: Amifostine was effective in reducing mucositis and dysphagia resulting from radiochemotherapy in patients with head

  11. Randomized phase II exploratory study of prophylactic amifostine in cancer patients who receive radical radiotherapy to the pelvis

    OpenAIRE

    Karavasilis Vasileios; Panelos Ioannis; Capizzello Antonio; Tolis Christos; Bai Maria; Batistatou Anna; Tsekeris Pericles; Briasoulis Evangelos; Katsanos Konstantinos H; Christodoulou Dimitrios; Tsianos Epameinondas V

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of prophylactic amifostine in reducing the risk of severe radiation colitis in cancer patients receiving radical radiotherapy to the pelvis. Methods Patients with pelvic tumours referred for radical radiotherapy who consented participation in this trial, were randomly assigned to receive daily amifostine (A) (subcutaneously, 500 mg flat dose) before radiotherapy or radiotherapy alone (R). Sigmoidoscopy and blinded biopsies were ...

  12. The cytoprotective drug amifostine modifies both expression and activity of the pro-angiogenic factor VEGF-A.

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchecareilh M; Rezvani HR; Canron X; Dedieu S; Mazurier F; Sinisi R; Zanda M.; Moenner M; Bikfalvi A; North S

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Amifostine (WR-2721, delivered as Ethyol®) is a phosphorylated aminothiol compound clinically used in addition to cis-platinum to reduce the toxic side effects of therapeutic treatment on normal cells without reducing their efficacy on tumour cells. Its mechanism of action is attributed to the free radical scavenging properties of its active dephosphorylated metabolite WR-1065. However, amifostine has also been described as a potent hypoxia-mimetic compound and as a strong...

  13. Amifostine reduces the seminiferous epithelium damage in doxorubicin-treated prepubertal rats without improving the fertility status

    OpenAIRE

    Miraglia Sandra M; Sasso-Cerri Estela; Vendramini Vanessa

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Amifostine is an efficient cytoprotector against toxicity caused by some chemotherapeutic drugs. Doxorubicin, a potent anticancer anthracycline, is known to produce spermatogenic damage even in low doses. Although some studies have suggested that amifostine does not confer protection to doxorubicin-induced testicular damage, schedules and age of treatment have different approach depending on the protocol. Thus, we proposed to investigate the potential cytoprotective action...

  14. Assessment of the effect of local application of amifostine on acute radiation-induced oral mucositis in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang Jiang; Wang, Sheng Zi; Wang, Shu Yi; Zhang, Yan Ping

    2014-09-01

    The aim of present study was to assess the radioprotective effects of the local application of amifostine to treat acute buccal mucositis in guinea pigs. A total of 32 guinea pigs were randomized into four groups: (Group A) topically administered 50 mg of amifostine plus radiotherapy (RT); (Group B) 100 mg amifostine plus RT; (Group C) normal saline plus RT; and (Group D) normal saline plus sham RT. The opportunity for administration was 15 min before irradiation. When administered, the cotton pieces that had been soaked with 0.5 ml amifostine solution or saline were applied gently on the buccal mucosa of each guinea pig for 30 min. The animals in Groups A, B and C were irradiated individually with a single dose of 30 Gy to the bilateral buccal mucosa. Eight days after irradiation, the animals were scored macroscopically; they were then euthanized, and the buccal mucosal tissues were processed for hematoxylin-eosin staining and ICAM-1 immunohistochemical analysis. In Groups A and B, the mean macroscopic scores were 2.9 ± 0.6 and 2.4 ± 1.1, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). However, when they were separately compared with Group C (4.4 ± 0.7), a noticeable difference was obtained (P amifostine-treated groups were better than in Group C. The results demonstrated that topical administration of amifostine to the oral mucosa is effective treatment of acute radiation-induced mucositis. PMID:24706999

  15. Amifostine reduces the seminiferous epithelium damage in doxorubicin-treated prepubertal rats without improving the fertility status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miraglia Sandra M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amifostine is an efficient cytoprotector against toxicity caused by some chemotherapeutic drugs. Doxorubicin, a potent anticancer anthracycline, is known to produce spermatogenic damage even in low doses. Although some studies have suggested that amifostine does not confer protection to doxorubicin-induced testicular damage, schedules and age of treatment have different approach depending on the protocol. Thus, we proposed to investigate the potential cytoprotective action of amifostine against the damage provoked by doxorubicin to prepubertal rat testes (30-day-old by assessing some macro and microscopic morphometric parameters 15, 30 and 60 days after the treatment; for fertility evaluation, quantitative analyses of sperm parameters and reproductive competence in the adult phase were also carried out. Methods Thirty-day-old male rats were distributed into four groups: Doxorubicin (5 mg/kg, Amifostine (400 mg/kg, Amifostine/Doxorubicin (amifostine 15 minutes before doxorubicin and Sham Control (0.9% saline solution. "Standard One Way Anova" parametric and "Anova on Ranks" non-parametric tests were applied according to the behavior of the obtained data; significant differences were considered when p Results The rats killed 30 and 60 days after doxorubicin treatment showed diminution of seminiferous epithelium height and reduction on the frequency of tubular sections containing at least one type of differentiated spermatogonia; reduction of sperm concentration and motility and an increase of sperm anomalous forms where observed in doxorubicin-treated animals. All these parameters were improved in the Amifostine/Doxorubicin group only when compared to Doxorubicin group. Such reduction, however, still remained below the values obtained from the Sham Control group. Nevertheless, the reproductive competence of doxorubicin-treated rats was not improved by amifostine pre-administration. Conclusions These results suggest that

  16. Selective radioprotection of hepatocytes by systemic and portal vein infusions of amifostine in a rat liver tumor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The tolerance of the liver to radiation is too low to permit an effective dose to be delivered to patients who have diffuse intrahepatic cancer. In this study we evaluated whether systemic or portal venous administration of the aminothiol compound, amifostine, could protect the normal liver from the effects of ionizing radiation without compromising tumor cell kill in a rat liver tumor model. Methods and Materials: Rats implanted with liver tumors were infused with 200 mg/kg amifostine over 15 min via the femoral or portal vein. The livers were irradiated with a single 6-Gy fraction 15-20 min after the termination of amifostine infusion. Protection of the liver was assessed by an in vitro hepatocyte micronucleus assay and tumor protection by an in vivo-in vitro clonogenic survival assay. Tissue levels of the active metabolite, free WR-1065, were determined in the tumor and in the normal liver using a specific HPLC assay with electrochemical detection. Results: After a 6-Gy fraction, the frequency of hepatocyte micronuclei after administration of saline, systemic amifostine, and portal venous amifostine was 18.7±1%, 6.8±1%, and 9.9±2%, respectively, corresponding to a radiation equivalent effect of 6 Gy ± 0.5, 1.8 Gy ± 0.3, and 2.5 Gy ± 1.3, respectively. Both amifostine conditions showed considerably less radiation effect than saline-treated controls (p<0.01); the two amifostine conditions did not differ (p=0.3). The surviving fraction of tumor cells was not affected by amifostine treatment and was 0.03±0.02 and 0.05±0.03 for systemic and portal venous delivery and 0.06±0.02 for control animals (ANOVA analysis showed no significant difference of the means p=0.34). Portal venous delivery produced significantly less WR-1065 in the tumor compared to systemic administration (54 μM ± 36 vs. 343 μM ± 88, respectively, p 0.03). Conclusions: Both systemic and portal venous administration of amifostine effectively protect hepatocytes from ionizing

  17. Cytoprotection with amifostine in the simultaneous radio-chemotherapy of recurrent head and neck cancer; Zytoprotection mit Amifostin im Rahmen der Radiochemotherapie bei vorbestrahlten Kopf-Hals-Karzinomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buentzel, J.; Weinaug, R.; Kuettner, K. [Zentralklinikum gGmbH Suedthueringen, Suhl (Germany). Klinik fuer Hals-Nasen-Ohren-Heilkunde, Plastische Operationen; Glatzel, M.; Froehlich, D. [Zentralklinikum gGmbH Suedthueringen, Suhl (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie; Schuth, J. [Essex Pharma, Muenchen (Germany)

    1999-11-01

    Purpose: The radiotherapeutic possibilities are limited for patients with a recurrent or second head and neck cancer if the patient was already irradiated in the first therapy. In the presented study we investigated the changes of this situation due to the usage of amifostine in the case of re-irradiation (simultaneous radio-chemotherapy). Patients and methods: Between 1995 and 1997 we treated 14 patients with a recurrent or second malignancy of the head and neck region by a simultaneous radio-chemotherapy (20x1.5 Gy, Carboplatin 70 mg/m{sup 2} BSA on days 1 to 5 and 16 to 20, 500 mg amifostine prior to every carboplatin infusion). Six out of 14 patients got an additional brachytherapy (10 to 15 Gy) to increase the local dose because of a residual tomor. In 4 cases the treatment was an adjunctive one, following the surgical tumor debulking. Results: We have seen 3 complete remissions (21.4%), and 8 partial remissions (57.1%). The median time of observation in 13 months now. Three out of 14 patients died, 2 because of the tumor. Hematological toxicities: Side effects Grade 2 WHO were seen only in 1 patient. Acute non-hematological toxicities: Mucositis Grade 0/1 in 7 patients, mucositis Grade 2 in 7 patients, dysphagia Grade 0/1 in 9 patients, dysphagia Grade 2 in 5 patients, xerostomia Grade 1 in 9 patients, xerostomia Grade 2 in 3 patients. We registrated only 1 serious late toxicity due to radio-chemotherapy: 4 months after brachytherapy a patient (with laryngectomy) developed a submental fistula. Conclusion: These first results suggest that the usage of amifostine offers new potential ways for re-irradiation of patients with recurrent or second malignancies in the head neck region. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Bei einem Rezidiv- oder Zweitkarzinom im Kopf-Hals-Bereich sind die radiotherapeutischen Moeglichkeiten bei bereits vorbestrahlten Patienten sehr begrenzt. Inwieweit die Integration des selektiven Zytoprotektivums Amifostin in eine nochmalige Radiochemotherapie

  18. The rat acute-phase protein {alpha}{sub 2}-macroglobulin plays a central role in amifostine-mediated radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirjana, Mihailovic; Goran, Poznanovic; Nevena, Grdovic; Melita, Vidakovic; Svetlana, Dinic; Ilijana, Grigorov; Desanka, Bogojevic, E-mail: mista@ibiss.bg.ac.r [Department of Molecular Biology, Institute for Biological Research ' Sinisa Stankovic' , University of Belgrade, Bulevar despota Stefana 142, 11060 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-09-15

    Previously we reported that elevated circulating concentrations of the acute-phase (AP) protein {alpha}{sub 2}-macroglobulin ({alpha}{sub 2}M), either as typically occurring in pregnant female rats or after administration to male rats, provides radioprotection, displayed as 100% survival of experimental animals exposed to total-body irradiation with 6.7 Gy (LD{sub 50/30}) x-rays, that is as effective as that afforded by the synthetic radioprotector amifostine. The finding that amifostine administration induces a 45-fold increase in {alpha}{sub 2}M in the circulation led us to hypothesise that {alpha}{sub 2}M assumes an essential role in both natural and amifostine-mediated radioprotection in the rat. In the present work we examined the activation of cytoprotective mechanisms in rat hepatocytes after the exogenous administration of {alpha}{sub 2}M and amifostine. Our results showed that the IL6/JAK/STAT3 hepatoprotective signal pathway, described in a variety of liver-injury models, upregulated the {alpha}{sub 2}M gene in amifostine-pretreated animals. In both {alpha}{sub 2}M- and amifostine-pretreated rats we observed the activation of the Akt signalling pathways that mediate cellular survival. At the cellular level this was reflected as a significant reduction of irradiation-induced DNA damage that allowed for the rapid and complete restoration of liver mass and ultimately at the level of the whole organism the complete restoration of body weight. We conclude that the selective upregulation of {alpha}{sub 2}M plays a central role in amifostine-provided radioprotection.

  19. Hypofractionated and Accelerated Radiotherapy With Subcutaneous Amifostine Cytoprotection as Short Adjuvant Regimen After Breast-Conserving Surgery: Interim Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Short radiotherapy schedules might be more convenient for patients and overloaded radiotherapy departments, provided late toxicity is not increased. We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of a hypofractionated and highly accelerated radiotherapy regimen supported with cytoprotection provided by amifostine in breast cancer patients treated with breast-conserving surgery. Methods and Materials: A total of 92 patients received 12 consecutive fractions of radiotherapy (3.5 Gy/fraction for 10 fractions) to the breast and/or axillary/supraclavicular area and 4 Gy/fraction for 2 fractions to the tumor bed). Amifostine at a dose of 1,000 mg/d was administered subcutaneously. The follow-up of patients was 30-60 months (median, 39). Results: Using a dose individualization algorithm, 77.1% of patients received 1,000 mg and 16.3% received 750 mg of amifostine daily. Of the 92 patients, 13% interrupted amifostine because of fever/rash symptoms. Acute Grade 2 breast toxicity developed in 6.5% of patients receiving 1,000 mg of amifostine compared with 46.6% of the rest of the patients (p < .0001). The incidence of Grade 2 late sequelae was less frequent in the high amifostine dose group (3.2% vs. 6.6%; p = NS). Grade 1 lung fibrosis was infrequent (3.3%). The in-field relapse rate was 3.3%, and an additional 2.2% of patients developed a relapse in the nonirradiated supraclavicular area. c-erbB-2 overexpression was linked to local control failure (p = .01). Distant metastasis appeared in 13% of patients, and this was marginally related to more advanced T/N stage (p = .06). Conclusion: Within a minimal follow-up of 2.5 years after therapy, hypofractionated and accelerated radiotherapy with subcutaneous amifostine cytoprotection has proved a well-tolerated and effective regimen. Longer follow-up is required to assess the long-term late sequelae.

  20. Salivary gland protection by amifostine in high-dose radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy using 100 to 120 MBq Tc-99m-pertechnetate was performed in 17 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer prior to and 3 months after radioiodine treatment with 6 GBq I-131. Eight patients were treated with 500 mg/m2 amifostine prior to high-dose radioiodine treatment and compared retrospectively with 9 control patients. Xerostomia was graded according to WHO criteria. In 9 control patients high-dose radioiodine treatment significantly (p<0.01) reduced Tc-99m-pertechnetate uptake by 35.4±22.0% and 31.7±21.1% in parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. Of these 9 patients, 3 exhibited xerostomia Grade I (WHO). In contrast, in 8 amifostine-treated patients, there was no significant (p=0.878) decrease in parenchymal function following high-dose radioiodine treatment, and xerostomia did not occur in any of them. (orig.)

  1. A pilot study of topical intrarectal application of amifostine for prevention of late radiation rectal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Clinical symptomatic late injury to the rectal wall occurs in about one-third of patients with prostate cancer treated with external beam irradiation. Reducing the physical dose to the anterior rectal wall without a similar reduction in the posterior peripheral zone is difficult because of the proximity of the prostate to the anterior rectal wall. On the basis of our previous observations in an animal model that intrarectal application of amifostine resulted in very high concentrations of amifostine and its active metabolite WR-1065 in the rectal wall, a Phase I dose-escalation clinical trial was undertaken. Methods and Materials: Twenty-nine patients with localized prostate cancer were accrued. Eligibility criteria included histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma, Karnofsky performance status ≥70, and no pelvic lymphadenopathy or distant metastases. The total dose to the prostate was 70.2 Gy in 20 patients and 73.8 Gy in 9 patients. Therapy was delivered using a 4-field technique with three-dimensional conformal planning. Amifostine was administered intrarectally as an aqueous solution 30 min before irradiation on the first 15 days of therapy. Amifostine was escalated in cohorts from 500 to 2500 mg. Proctoscopy was performed before therapy and at 9 months after completion. Most patients underwent repeat proctoscopy at 18 months. On Days 1 and 10 of radiotherapy, serum samples were collected for pharmacokinetic studies. The clinical symptoms (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale) and a proctoscopy score were assessed during follow-up. Results: All patients completed therapy with no amifostine-related toxicity at any dose level. The application was feasible and well tolerated. No substantial systemic absorption occurred. With a median follow-up of 26 months, 9 patients (33%) developed rectal bleeding (8 Grade 1, 1 Grade 2). At 9 months, 16 and 3 patients developed Grade 1 and Grade 2 telangiectasia, respectively. This was mostly confined to the anterior

  2. Pre-Treatment with Amifostine Protects against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Disruption of Taste in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Nabanita Mukherjee; Carroll, Brittany L.; Spees, Jeffrey L.; Delay, Eugene R.

    2013-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CYP), a commonly prescribed chemotherapy drug, has multiple adverse side effects including alteration of taste. The effects on taste are a cause of concern for patients as changes in taste are often associated with loss of appetite, malnutrition, poor recovery and reduced quality of life. Amifostine is a cytoprotective agent that was previously shown to be effective in preventing chemotherapy-induced mucositis and nephrotoxicity. Here we determined its ability to protect aga...

  3. Effect of Dexrazoxane and Amifostine on the Vertebral Bone Quality of Doxorubicin Treated Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    F Mwale; Marguier, G.; Ouellet, J.A; Petit, A.; Epure, L.M; Antoniou, J; Chalifour, L E

    2008-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is widely used in combination cocktails for treatment of childhood hematological cancers and solid tumors. A major factor limiting DOX usage is DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. However, it is not known whether protectants like dexrazoxane (DXR) and amifostine (AMF) can prevent DOX-mediated bone damage. The present study investigated whether administration of AMF alone or in combination with DXR would prevent any DOX-mediated bone damage. Male rat pups were treated with DOX, DXR, ...

  4. Amifostine Protection Against Mitomycin-induced Chromosomal Breakage in Fanconi Anaemia Lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Miriam T. P.; Salas, Carlos E.; Fernanda S. G. Kehdy; Camelo, Ricardo M.

    2008-01-01

    Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a rare genetic chromosomal instability syndrome caused by impairment of DNA repair and reactive oxygen species (ROS) imbalance. This disease is also related to bone marrow failure and cancer. Treatment of these complications with radiation and alkylating agents may enhance chromosomal breakage. We have evaluated the effect of amifostine (AMF) on basal and mitomycin C (MMC)-induced chromosomal breakage in FA blood cells using the micronucleus assay. The basal micronucle...

  5. Amifostine use in radiation-induced kidney damage. Preclinical evaluation with scintigraphic and histopathologic parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaldir, M. [The Ministry of Health, Numune Hospital, Erzurum (Turkey); Cosar-Alas, R.; Yurut-Caloglu, V.; Saynak, M.; Caloglu, M.; Kocak, Z.; Tokatli, F.; Uzal, C. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya Univ., Edirne (Turkey); Cermik, T.F. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya Univ., Edirne (Turkey); Altaner, S. [Dept. of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya Univ., Edirne (Turkey); Tuere, M. [Dept. of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya Univ., Edirne (Turkey); Parlar, S. [Dept. of Medical Radiophysics, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya Univ., Edirne (Turkey)

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: to assess the degree of protective effects of amifostine on kidney functions via semiquantitative static renal scintigraphy and histopathologic analysis. Material and methods: 30 female albino rats were divided into three equal groups as control (CL), radiotherapy alone (RT), and radiotherapy + amifostine (RT+AMI). The animals in the CL and RT groups were given phosphate-buffered saline, whereas the animals in the RT+AMI group received amifostine (200 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection 30 min before irradiation. RT and RT+AMI groups were irradiated with a single dose of 6 Gy using a {sup 60}Co unit at a source-skin distance of 80 cm to the whole right kidney. They were followed up for 6 months. CL, RT, and RT+AMI groups underwent static kidney scintigraphy at the beginning of the experiment and, again, on the day before sacrificing. Histopathologically, tubular atrophy and fibrosis of the kidney damage were evaluated. Results: after irradiation, the median value of right kidney function was 48% (44-49%) and 50.5% (49%-52%) in RT and RT+AMI groups, respectively (p = 0.0002). Grade 1 kidney fibrosis was observed to be 60% in the RT group, while it was only 30% in the RT+AMI group. Grade 2 kidney fibrosis was 30% and 0% in the RT and RT+AMI group, respectively. Grade 1 tubular atrophy was 70% and 50% in the RT and RT+AMI group, respectively. Grade 2 tubular atrophy effect was the same in both groups (10%). Conclusion: static kidney scintigraphy represents an objective and reproducible method to noninvasively investigate kidney function following irradiation. Amifostine produced a significant reduction in radiation-induced loss of renal function. (orig.)

  6. Salivary gland protection by amifostine in high-dose radioiodine therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohuslavizki, K.H.; Klutmann, S.; Bleckmann, C.; Mester, J.; Clausen, M. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Brenner, W.; Lassmann, S.; Henze, E. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Clinic of Nuclear Medicine

    1999-02-01

    Quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy using 100 to 120 MBq Tc-99m-pertechnetate was performed in 17 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer prior to and 3 months after radioiodine treatment with 6 GBq I-131. Eight patients were treated with 500 mg/m{sup 2} amifostine prior to high-dose radioiodine treatment and compared retrospectively with 9 control patients. Xerostomia was graded according to WHO criteria. In 9 control patients high-dose radioiodine treatment significantly (p<0.01) reduced Tc-99m-pertechnetate uptake by 35.4{+-}22.0% and 31.7{+-}21.1% in parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. Of these 9 patients, 3 exhibited xerostomia Grade I (WHO). In contrast, in 8 amifostine-treated patients, there was no significant (p=0.878) decrease in parenchymal function following high-dose radioiodine treatment, and xerostomia did not occur in any of them. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen eines Heilversuchs wurde eine limitierte Anzahl von Patienten untersucht. Vor und drei Monate nach Gabe von 6 GBq I-131 wurde eine quantitative Speicheldruesenszintigraphie mit 100 bis 120 MBq Tc-99m-Pertechnetat an 17 Patienten mit differenzierten Schilddruesenkarzinomen durchgefuehrt. Acht Patienten erhielten vor Radiojodtherapie 500 mg/m{sup 2} Amifostin und wurden mit einer historischen Kontrollgruppe aus neun Patienten verglichen. Eine Xerostomie wurde nach WHO-Kriterien beurteilt. Die Patienten der Kontrollgruppe wiesen sowohl fuer die Glandulae parotides als auch fuer die Glandulae submandibulares eine signifikante Verminderung der Tc-99m-Pertechnetat-Aufnahme um 35,4{+-}22,0% bzw. 31,7{+-}21,1% als Zeichen einer Parenchymschaedigung auf. Bei drei dieser neuen Patienten fand sich eine Xerostomie Grad I (WHO). Im Gegensatz dazu konnte bei den mit Amifostin behandelten Patienten keine signifikante Verminderung der Parechymfunktion festgestellt werden (p=0,878). Dementsprechend wies keiner dieser Patienten eine Xerostomie auf. (orig.)

  7. WR-1065, the Active Metabolite of Amifostine, Mitigates Radiation-Induced Delayed Genomic Instability

    OpenAIRE

    Dziegielewski, Jaroslaw; Janet E. Baulch; Goetz, Wilfried; Coleman, Mitchell C.; Douglas R Spitz; Murley, Jeffrey S.; David J Grdina; Morgan, William F.

    2008-01-01

    Compounds that can protect cells from the effects of radiation are important for clinical use, in the event of an accidental or terrorist-generated radiation event, and for astronauts traveling in space. One of the major concerns regarding the use of radio-protective agents is that they may protect cells initially, but predispose surviving cells to increased genomic instability later. In this study we used WR-1065, the active metabolite of amifostine, to determine how protection from direct e...

  8. Use of amifostine in the treatment of recurrent solid tumours in children

    OpenAIRE

    Sidi, V; Arsos, G; Papakonstantinou, E; Hatzipantelis, E; Fragandrea, I; N. Gombakis; Koliouskas, E

    2007-01-01

    Preclinical and clinical evaluation of amifostine (AMI) administration in conjunction with systemic chemotherapy supports its role as a cytoprotective agent of normal tissues without loss of impairing the antitumour effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents. Since only a limited number of clinical studies has been performed using AMI in paediatric pts with malignancies we investigated the protective effect of AMI against carboplatin-induced myelotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in a paediatric grou...

  9. Prophylactic Administration of Amifostine Protects Vessel Thickness in the Setting of Irradiated Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Erin E.; Deshpande, Sagar S.; Nelson, Noah S.; Felice, Peter A.; Donneys, Alexis; Rodriguez, Jose J.; Deshpande, Samir S.; Buchman, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Although often beneficial in the treatment of head and neck cancer (HNC), radiation therapy (XRT) leads to the depletion of vascular supply and eventually decreased perfusion of the tissue. Specifically, previous studies have demonstrated the depletion of vessel volume fraction (VVF) and vessel thickness (VT) associated with XRT. Amifostine (AMF) provides protection from the detrimental effects of radiation damage, allowing for reliable post-irradiation fracture healing in the murine mandible...

  10. Radioiodine-induced kidney damage and protective effect of amifostine: An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Aktoz, T; Durmus-Altun, G; Usta, U; Torun, N; Ergulen, A; Atakan, I H

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ablative radioiodine-131 (131I) therapy is used in the standart treatment procedure of thyroid carcinoma and procedures using 131I represent the majority of Nuclear Medicine therapeutic procedures. The principal route of 131I excretion after the administration of 131I is the urine. Amifostine is an organic thiophosphate ester prodrug and the kidney concentrations of the active metabolite WR-1065 are about 100 times higher than tumour concentrations. To our knowledge, there is no p...

  11. Comparison of uroprotective efficacy of mesna and amifostine in Cyclophosphamide- induced hemorrhagic cystitis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kanat Ozkan; Kurt E; Yalcinkaya U; Evrensel T; Manavoglu O

    2006-01-01

    Background:Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a dose limiting side effect of cyclophosphamide (CYP). AIM: In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of amifostine in the protection of CYP-induced HC and compare its efficacy with mesna. SETTING AND DESIGN: This animal study was conducted in the Experimental Animals Breeding and Research Center of the Medical Faculty of Uludag University. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats (150-200 g; 10 rats per group) were randomly assigned to four ...

  12. Amifostin in subkutaner Anwendung bei Patienten mit Kopf-Hals-Tumoren

    OpenAIRE

    Wilder, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Hintergrund: Amifostin (Ethyol®), ein phosphorylierter Aminothioalkohol mit der chemischen Bezeichnung S-2[3-aminopropylamino]-ethyl-thiophosphorsäure, ist eine Substanz mit einem breiten zytoprotektiven Spektrum für die radio- und chemotherapeutisch induzierten Nebenwirkungen. Die Substanz fungiert dabei im Sinne einer Prodrug. Daraus wird, in Abhängigkeit von der alkalischen Phosphatase, der dephosphorylierte aktive Metaboliten WR-1065 gebildet. Dieser ist für die protektiven Wirkungen ...

  13. Daily amifostine given concomitantly to chemoradiation in head and neck cancer. A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: In patients with loco-regionally advanced head and neck cancer conventionally fractionated radiotherapy alone results in poor loco-regional control and survival rates. Treatment intensification by simultaneous administration of cytotoxic drugs produces higher acute morbidity. Therefore chemical radioprotection of normal tissues may be of clinical benefit. Patients and Methods: In a pilot study patients with advanced nonresectable head neck cancer treated with conventionally fractionated radical radiotherapy (60 to 66 Gy total doses) and concomitantly given 5-fluorouracil as protracted venous infusion, 250 mg/sqm/24 h over the entire treatment period were given amifostine 300 mg absolutely before each fraction. Acute treatment related mobidity was scored according to CTC classification and loco-regional control and survival rates were estimated. Comparison was made with a historical control group of identical chemoradiation but without amifostine application. Results: Chemoradiation induced oral mucositis was delayed and showed significant lower degrees at all 10 Gy increments (p0.05). No significant toxicity was recorded with respect to blood pressure, serum calcium, potassium, hematologic parameters, emesis, nausea or body weight loss. Progression free survival and overall survival probability at 2 years were not statistically different in both cohorts. Conclusion: Amifostine given before each fraction of radiotherapy over 6 weeks has no cumulative toxicity, was well tolerated and may reduce treatment induced oral mucositis. No tumor protective effect was observed. (orig.)

  14. Does Amifostine Reduce Metabolic Rate? Effect of the Drug on Gas Exchange and Acute Ventilatory Hypoxic Response in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaideep J. Pandit

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Amifostine is added to chemoradiation regimens in the treatment of many cancers on the basis that, by reducing the metabolic rate, it protects normal cells from toxic effects of therapy. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the metabolic rate (by gas exchange over 255 min in 6 healthy subjects, at two doses (500 mg and 1000 mg of amifostine infused over 15 min at the start of the protocol. We also assessed the ventilatory response to six 1 min exposures to isocapnic hypoxia mid-protocol. There was no change in metabolic rate with amifostine as measured by oxygen uptake (p = 0.113. However in carbon dioxide output and respiratory quotient, we detected a small decline over time in control and drug protocols, consistent with a gradual change from carbohydrate to fat metabolism over the course of the relatively long study protocol. A novel result was that amifostine (1000 mg increased the mean ± SD acute hypoxic ventilatory response from 12.4 ± 5.1 L/min to 20.3 ± 11.9 L/min (p = 0.045. In conclusion, any cellular protective effects of amifostine are unlikely due to metabolic effects. The stimulatory effect on hypoxic ventilatory responses may be due to increased levels of hypoxia inducible factor, either peripherally in the carotid body, or centrally in the brain.

  15. Two New Faces of Amifostine: Protector from DNA Damage in Normal Cells and Inhibitor of DNA Repair in Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Michal; Falk, Martin; Komůrková, Denisa; Falková, Iva; Bačíková, Alena; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Pagáčová, Eva; Štefančíková, Lenka; Weiterová, Lenka; Angelis, Karel J; Kozubek, Stanislav; Dušek, Ladislav; Galbavý, Štefan

    2016-04-14

    Amifostine protects normal cells from DNA damage induction by ionizing radiation or chemotherapeutics, whereas cancer cells typically remain uninfluenced. While confirming this phenomenon, we have revealed by comet assay and currently the most sensitive method of DNA double strand break (DSB) quantification (based on γH2AX/53BP1 high-resolution immunofluorescence microscopy) that amifostine treatment supports DSB repair in γ-irradiated normal NHDF fibroblasts but alters it in MCF7 carcinoma cells. These effects follow from the significantly lower activity of alkaline phosphatase measured in MCF7 cells and their supernatants as compared with NHDF fibroblasts. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry confirmed that the amifostine conversion to WR-1065 was significantly more intensive in normal NHDF cells than in tumor MCF cells. In conclusion, due to common differences between normal and cancer cells in their abilities to convert amifostine to its active metabolite WR-1065, amifostine may not only protect in multiple ways normal cells from radiation-induced DNA damage but also make cancer cells suffer from DSB repair alteration. PMID:26978566

  16. Does amifostine reduce metabolic rate? Effect of the drug on gas exchange and acute ventilatory hypoxic response in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Jaideep J; Allen, Caroline; Little, Evelyn; Formenti, Federico; Harris, Adrian L; Robbins, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Amifostine is added to chemoradiation regimens in the treatment of many cancers on the basis that, by reducing the metabolic rate, it protects normal cells from toxic effects of therapy. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the metabolic rate (by gas exchange) over 255 min in 6 healthy subjects, at two doses (500 mg and 1000 mg) of amifostine infused over 15 min at the start of the protocol. We also assessed the ventilatory response to six 1 min exposures to isocapnic hypoxia mid-protocol. There was no change in metabolic rate with amifostine as measured by oxygen uptake (p = 0.113). However in carbon dioxide output and respiratory quotient, we detected a small decline over time in control and drug protocols, consistent with a gradual change from carbohydrate to fat metabolism over the course of the relatively long study protocol. A novel result was that amifostine (1000 mg) increased the mean ± SD acute hypoxic ventilatory response from 12.4 ± 5.1 L/min to 20.3 ± 11.9 L/min (p = 0.045). In conclusion, any cellular protective effects of amifostine are unlikely due to metabolic effects. The stimulatory effect on hypoxic ventilatory responses may be due to increased levels of hypoxia inducible factor, either peripherally in the carotid body, or centrally in the brain. PMID:25894815

  17. Randomized phase II exploratory study of prophylactic amifostine in cancer patients who receive radical radiotherapy to the pelvis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karavasilis Vasileios

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of prophylactic amifostine in reducing the risk of severe radiation colitis in cancer patients receiving radical radiotherapy to the pelvis. Methods Patients with pelvic tumours referred for radical radiotherapy who consented participation in this trial, were randomly assigned to receive daily amifostine (A (subcutaneously, 500 mg flat dose before radiotherapy or radiotherapy alone (R. Sigmoidoscopy and blinded biopsies were scheduled to conduct prior to initiation and following completion of radiotherapy and again 6 to 9 months later. Radiation colitis was assessed by clinical, endoscopic and histolopathological criteria. Results A total 44 patients were enrolled in this trial, the majority with rectal (20 patients and cervical cancer (12 patients and were assigned 23 in R arm and 21 in the A arm. In total 119 sigmoidoscopies were performed and 18 patients (18/44, 40.9% were diagnosed with radiation colitis (15 grade 1 and 2, and 3 grade 3 and 4. Of them, 6 patients belonged to the A group (6/21, 28.6% and 12 to the R group (12/23, 52.2%. Acute and grade IV radiation colitis was only developed in four patients (17.4% in the R group. Amifostine side effects were mild. Amifostine treated patients were less likely to develop histologically detectable mucosal lesions, which indicate protection from acute mucosal injury. Conclusions Amifostine given subcutaneously can lower the risk of acute severe radiation colitis in patients who receive radical radiotherapy to pelvic tumors.

  18. Postmastectomy Hypofractionated and Accelerated Radiation Therapy With (and Without) Subcutaneous Amifostine Cytoprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koukourakis, Michael I., E-mail: targ@her.forthnet.gr [Department of Radiotherapy/Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Panteliadou, Marianthi; Abatzoglou, Ioannis M.; Sismanidou, Kyriaki [Department of Radiotherapy/Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Sivridis, Efthimios; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra [Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) provides major local control and survival benefits. More aggressive radiation therapy schemes may, however, be necessary in specific subgroups, provided they are safely administered. We report the tolerance and efficacy of a highly accelerated and hypofractionated regimen (HypoARC). Methods and Materials: One hundred twelve high-risk patients who had undergone mastectomy received 10 consecutive fractions of 3.5 Gy in 12 days (thoracic wall and axillary/supraclavicular areas). Two consecutive additional fractions of 4 Gy were given to the surgical scar area (electrons 8-10 MeV) and 1 3.5-Gy fraction to the axilla (in cases with extensive nodal involvement). A minimum follow-up of 24 months (median, 44 months) was allowed before analysis. Of 112 patients, 21 (18.7%) refused to receive amifostine, the remaining receiving tolerance-based individualized doses (500-1000 mg/day subcutaneously). Results: By use of a dose individualization algorithm, 68.1%, 11%, and 18.7% of patients received 1000 mg, 750 mg, and 500 mg/day of amifostine. Patchy moist skin desquamation outside and inside the booster fields was noted in 14 of 112 (12.5%) and 26 of 112 (23.2%) patients, respectively. No case of acute pneumonitis was recorded. High amifostine dose offered a significant skin protection. Within a median follow-up time of 44 months, moderate subcutaneous edema outside and within the booster thoracic area was noted in 5 of 112 (4.4%) and 8 of 112 (7.1%) cases, respectively. Intense asymptomatic radiographic findings of in field lung fibrosis were noted in 4 of 112 (3.6%) patients. Amifostine showed a significant protection against lung and soft tissue fibrosis. A 97% projected 5-year local relapse free survival and 84% 5-year disease-specific survival were recorded. Lack of steroid receptor expression, simple human epidermal growth factor 2 positivity, or triple negative phenotype defined higher metastasis rates but had no effect on

  19. Postmastectomy Hypofractionated and Accelerated Radiation Therapy With (and Without) Subcutaneous Amifostine Cytoprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) provides major local control and survival benefits. More aggressive radiation therapy schemes may, however, be necessary in specific subgroups, provided they are safely administered. We report the tolerance and efficacy of a highly accelerated and hypofractionated regimen (HypoARC). Methods and Materials: One hundred twelve high-risk patients who had undergone mastectomy received 10 consecutive fractions of 3.5 Gy in 12 days (thoracic wall and axillary/supraclavicular areas). Two consecutive additional fractions of 4 Gy were given to the surgical scar area (electrons 8-10 MeV) and 1 3.5-Gy fraction to the axilla (in cases with extensive nodal involvement). A minimum follow-up of 24 months (median, 44 months) was allowed before analysis. Of 112 patients, 21 (18.7%) refused to receive amifostine, the remaining receiving tolerance-based individualized doses (500-1000 mg/day subcutaneously). Results: By use of a dose individualization algorithm, 68.1%, 11%, and 18.7% of patients received 1000 mg, 750 mg, and 500 mg/day of amifostine. Patchy moist skin desquamation outside and inside the booster fields was noted in 14 of 112 (12.5%) and 26 of 112 (23.2%) patients, respectively. No case of acute pneumonitis was recorded. High amifostine dose offered a significant skin protection. Within a median follow-up time of 44 months, moderate subcutaneous edema outside and within the booster thoracic area was noted in 5 of 112 (4.4%) and 8 of 112 (7.1%) cases, respectively. Intense asymptomatic radiographic findings of in field lung fibrosis were noted in 4 of 112 (3.6%) patients. Amifostine showed a significant protection against lung and soft tissue fibrosis. A 97% projected 5-year local relapse free survival and 84% 5-year disease-specific survival were recorded. Lack of steroid receptor expression, simple human epidermal growth factor 2 positivity, or triple negative phenotype defined higher metastasis rates but had no effect on

  20. Daily amifostine given concomitantly to chemoradiation in head and neck cancer. A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trog, D.; Bank, P.; Wendt, T.G. [Friedrich-Schiller Univ., Jena (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Koscielny, S.; Beleites, E. [Friedrich-Schiller Univ., Jena (Germany). Dept. of Ear Nose Throat Diseases

    1999-09-01

    Background: In patients with loco-regionally advanced head and neck cancer conventionally fractionated radiotherapy alone results in poor loco-regional control and survival rates. Treatment intensification by simultaneous administration of cytotoxic drugs produces higher acute morbidity. Therefore chemical radioprotection of normal tissues may be of clinical benefit. Patients and Methods: In a pilot study patients with advanced nonresectable head neck cancer treated with conventionally fractionated radical radiotherapy (60 to 66 Gy total doses) and concomitantly given 5-fluorouracil as protracted venous infusion, 250 mg/sqm/24 h over the entire treatment period were given amifostine 300 mg absolutely before each fraction. Acute treatment related mobidity was scored according to CTC classification and loco-regional control and survival rates were estimated. Comparison was made with a historical control group of identical chemoradiation but without amifostine application. Results: Chemoradiation induced oral mucositis was delayed and showed significant lower degrees at all 10 Gy increments (p<0.05) except 60 Gy and over (p>0.05). No significant toxicity was recorded with respect to blood pressure, serum calcium, potassium, hematologic parameters, emesis, nausea or body weight loss. Progression free survival and overall survival probability at 2 years were not statistically different in both cohorts. Conclusion: Amifostine given before each fraction of radiotherapy over 6 weeks has no cumulative toxicity, was well tolerated and may reduce treatment induced oral mucositis. No tumor protective effect was observed. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund: Bei Patienten mit lokoregionaer fortgeschrittenen Karzinomen im Kopf-Hals-Bereich fuehrt die alleinige konventionell fraktionierte Radiotherapie zu unuenstigen lokoregionaeren Tumorkontrollraten und Ueberlebensraten. Die Therapieintensivierung durch simultane Radiochemotherapie fuehrt zu gesteigerter Akutmorbiditaet. Die chemische

  1. Results of definitive combined radio-chemotherapy in head and neck tumors with simultaneous salivary gland protection by amifostine administration; Ergebnisse der primaeren kombinierten Radiochemotherapie von Kopf-Hals-Tumoren mit simultaner Speicheldruesenprotektion durch Amifostin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultze, J.; Kimmig, B. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie

    1999-11-01

    Aim: Demonstration and critical evaluation of the use of cytoprotective agents in radiation therapy. Patients and methods: In 1996 9 patients with head and neck tumors were irradiated with a mean dose of 66 Gy and simultaneous application of amifostine. Primaries were in the oropharynx (3), tongue (2), tonsilla (2) as well as nasopharynx and soft palate. Parallel carboplatinum was administered 6 times with a dose of 100 mg/week and amifostine twice a week with 500 mg over 6 weeks. The evaluation was performed clinically and by sialoscintigraphy. Results: There were no lasting side effects, but episodes of hypotension in 7 to 9 patients and nausea. Radiogenic acute toxicity was nearly uneffected, complaints from xerostomia, however, were diminished. All patients showed increased dermal pigmentation and dermatitis. Sialoscintigraphies 6 months after therapy proved better salivary gland function with correlated better patient condition. Conclusion: Amifostine might gain a role in the prevention of lasting radiogenic xerostomia. The required dose is not yet clear. A broader use of amifostine would be favored by lower costs of the substance. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Es soll der Einsatz zytoprotektiver Substanzen in der Strahlentherapie vorgestellt und kritisch bewertet werden. Patienten und Methoden: Im Jahre 1996 wurde bei neun Patienten eine Strahlentherapie im Kopf-Hals-Bereich bis median 66 Gy Gesamtdosis mit gleichzeitiger Applikation von Amifostin durchgefuehrt. Zugrundeliegende Erkrankungen waren Oropharynxkarzinome (3), Zungengrund- und -randkarzinome (2), Tonsillenkarzinome (2) sowie ein Nasopharynx- und ein Gaumenbogenkarzinom. Parallel wurde sechsmal eine Carboplat-Applikation mit je 100 mg einmal pro Woche durchgefuehrt. Amifostin wurde in einer Dosis von 2mal 50 mg/Woche ueber sechs Wochen appliziert. Die Evaluation erfolgte klinisch sowie unter Hinzuziehung der quantitativen Speicheldruesenszintigraphie. Ergebnisse: Andauernde Nebenwirkungen durch die

  2. Raman spectroscopy delineates radiation-induced injury and partial rescue by amifostine in bone: a murine mandibular model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felice, Peter A; Gong, Bo; Ahsan, Salman; Deshpande, Sagar S; Nelson, Noah S; Donneys, Alexis; Tchanque-Fossuo, Catherine; Morris, Michael D; Buchman, Steven R

    2015-05-01

    Despite its therapeutic role in head and neck cancer, radiation administration degrades the biomechanical properties of bone and can lead to pathologic fracture and osteoradionecrosis. Our laboratories have previously demonstrated that prophylactic amifostine administration preserves the biomechanical properties of irradiated bone and that Raman spectroscopy accurately evaluates bone composition ex vivo. As such, we hypothesize that Raman spectroscopy can offer insight into the temporal and mechanical effects of both irradiation and amifostine administration on bone to potentially predict and even prevent radiation-induced injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (350-400 g) were randomized into control, radiation exposure (XRT), and amifostine pre-treatment/radiation exposure groups (AMF-XRT). Irradiated animals received fractionated 70 Gy radiation to the left hemi-mandible, while AMF-XRT animals received amifostine just prior to radiation. Hemi-mandibles were harvested at 18 weeks after radiation, analyzed via Raman spectroscopy, and compared with specimens previously harvested at 8 weeks after radiation. Mineral (ρ958) and collagen (ρ1665) depolarization ratios were significantly lower in XRT specimens than in AMF-XRT and control specimens at both 8 and 18 weeks. amifostine administration resulted in a full return of mineral and collagen depolarization ratios to normal levels at 18 weeks. Raman spectroscopy demonstrates radiation-induced damage to the chemical composition and ultrastructure of bone while amifostine prophylaxis results in a recovery towards normal, native mineral and collagen composition and orientation. These findings have the potential to impact on clinical evaluations and interventions by preventing or detecting radiation-induced injury in patients requiring radiotherapy as part of a treatment regimen. PMID:25319554

  3. Randomized phase III trial of postoperative radiochemotherapy {+-} amifostine in head and neck cancer. Is there evidence for radioprotection?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacha, P.; Fehlauer, F.; Mahlmann, B.; Marx, M.; Richter, E. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Luebeck (Germany); Hinke, A. [WiSP Research Inst., Langenfeld (Germany); Sommer, K. [Dept. of Head and Neck Surgery, Univ. of Luebeck (Germany); Feyerabend, T. [Practice for Radiation Therapy Bonn-Rhein-Sieg, Bonn (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    Purpose: Experimental and clincial data suggest a reduction of radiation-induced acute toxicity by amifostine (A). We investigated this issue in a randomized trial comparing radiochemotherapy (RT + CT) versus radiochemotherapy plus amifostine (RC + CT + A) in patients with head and neck cancer. Patients and Methods: 56 patients with oro-/hypopharynx or larynx cancer (T1-2 N1-2 G3, T3-4 N0-2 G1-3) were randomized to received RC + CT alone or RC + CT + A. Patients were irradiated up to 60 Gy (R0) or 70 Gy (R1/2) and received chemotherapy (70 mg/m{sup 2} carboplatin, day 1-5 week 1 and 5 of radiotherapy). 250 mg amifostine were applied daily before each radiotherapy session. Acute toxicity was evaluated according to the common toxicity criteria (CTC). As for acute xerostomia, patients with laryngeal cancer were excluded from evaluation. Results: 50 patients were evaluable (25 patients in the RC + CT, 25 patients in the RC + CT + A group). Clinical characteristics were well balanced in both treatment groups. Amifostine provided reduction in acute xerostomia and mucositis but had no obvious influence on Karnofsky performance status, body weight, cutaneous side effects, and alopecia. The differences between both groups were statistically significant for acute xerostomia and nonsignificant, but with a trend for mucositis. Conclusions: According to our results, there is a radioprotective effect on salivary glands and a potential effect on oral mucosa by amifostine in postoperative radiotherapy combined with carboplatin. To improve the radio- and chemoprotective effects of amifostine in clinical practice, the application of a higher dose (> 250 mg) seems to be necessary. (orig.)

  4. Assessment of the effect of local application of amifostine on acute radiation-induced oral mucositis in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of present study was to assess the radioprotective effects of the local application of amifostine to treat acute buccal mucositis in guinea pigs. A total of 32 guinea pigs were randomized into four groups: (Group A) topically administered 50 mg of amifostine plus radiotherapy (RT); (Group B) 100 mg amifostine plus RT; (Group C) normal saline plus RT; and (Group D) normal saline plus sham RT. The opportunity for administration was 15 min before irradiation. When administered, the cotton pieces that had been soaked with 0.5 ml amifostine solution or saline were applied gently on the buccal mucosa of each guinea pig for 30 min. The animals in Groups A, B and C were irradiated individually with a single dose of 30 Gy to the bilateral buccal mucosa. Eight days after irradiation, the animals were scored macroscopically; they were then euthanized, and the buccal mucosal tissues were processed for hematoxylin-eosin staining and ICAM-1 immunohistochemical analysis. In Groups A and B, the mean macroscopic scores were 2.9 ± 0.6 and 2.4 ± 1.1, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). However, when they were separately compared with Group C (4.4 ± 0.7), a noticeable difference was obtained (P < 0.05). No mucositis was observed in Group D. Comparisons of the expression of ICAM-1 were in agreement with the macroscopic data. Histologically, superficial erosion, exudate and ulcer formation were all observed in the RT groups; only the severity and extent were different. The microscopic observations in the amifostine-treated groups were better than in Group C. The results demonstrated that topical administration of amifostine to the oral mucosa is effective treatment of acute radiation-induced mucositis. (author)

  5. Randomized phase III trial of postoperative radiochemotherapy ± amifostine in head and neck cancer. Is there evidence for radioprotection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Experimental and clincial data suggest a reduction of radiation-induced acute toxicity by amifostine (A). We investigated this issue in a randomized trial comparing radiochemotherapy (RT + CT) versus radiochemotherapy plus amifostine (RC + CT + A) in patients with head and neck cancer. Patients and Methods: 56 patients with oro-/hypopharynx or larynx cancer (T1-2 N1-2 G3, T3-4 N0-2 G1-3) were randomized to received RC + CT alone or RC + CT + A. Patients were irradiated up to 60 Gy (R0) or 70 Gy (R1/2) and received chemotherapy (70 mg/m2 carboplatin, day 1-5 week 1 and 5 of radiotherapy). 250 mg amifostine were applied daily before each radiotherapy session. Acute toxicity was evaluated according to the common toxicity criteria (CTC). As for acute xerostomia, patients with laryngeal cancer were excluded from evaluation. Results: 50 patients were evaluable (25 patients in the RC + CT, 25 patients in the RC + CT + A group). Clinical characteristics were well balanced in both treatment groups. Amifostine provided reduction in acute xerostomia and mucositis but had no obvious influence on Karnofsky performance status, body weight, cutaneous side effects, and alopecia. The differences between both groups were statistically significant for acute xerostomia and nonsignificant, but with a trend for mucositis. Conclusions: According to our results, there is a radioprotective effect on salivary glands and a potential effect on oral mucosa by amifostine in postoperative radiotherapy combined with carboplatin. To improve the radio- and chemoprotective effects of amifostine in clinical practice, the application of a higher dose (> 250 mg) seems to be necessary. (orig.)

  6. A randomized trial of amifostine in patients with high-dose VIC chemotherapy plus autologous blood stem cell transplanation

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, J T; Vangerow, A von; Fels, L M; Knop, S.; Stolte, H.; Kanz, L; Bokemeyer, C

    2001-01-01

    This pilot study evaluates the degree of side effects during high-dose chemotherapy (HD-VIC) plus autologous bone marrow transplant (HDCT) and its possible prevention by the cytoprotective thiol-derivate amifostine. Additionally, the in-patient medical costs of both treatment arms were compared. 40 patients with solid tumours were randomized to receive HD-VIC chemotherapy with or without amifostine (910 mg/m2 at day 1–3) given as a short infusion prior to carboplatin and ifosfamide. Patients ...

  7. Does Amifostine Reduce Metabolic Rate? Effect of the Drug on Gas Exchange and Acute Ventilatory Hypoxic Response in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Jaideep J. Pandit; Caroline Allen; Evelyn Little; Federico Formenti; Harris, Adrian L.; Robbins, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Amifostine is added to chemoradiation regimens in the treatment of many cancers on the basis that, by reducing the metabolic rate, it protects normal cells from toxic effects of therapy. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the metabolic rate (by gas exchange) over 255 min in 6 healthy subjects, at two doses (500 mg and 1000 mg) of amifostine infused over 15 min at the start of the protocol. We also assessed the ventilatory response to six 1 min exposures to isocapnic hypoxia mid-protocol. ...

  8. The histopathological comparison of L-carnitine with amifostine for protective efficacy on radiation-induced acute small intestinal toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Caloglu; Vuslat Yurut Caloglu; Tulin Yalta; Omer Yalcin; Cem Uzal

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to compare the protective efficacy of l-carnitine (LC) to amifostine on radiation-induced acute small intestine damage. Materials and Methods: Thirty, 4-week-old Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to four groups - Group 1: control (CONT, n = 6), Group 2: irradiation alone (RT, n = 8), Group 3: amifostine plus irradiation (AMI+RT, n = 8), and Group 4: l-Carnitine plus irradiation (LC+RT, n = 8). The rats in all groups were irradiated individually...

  9. L-Carnitine Protection Against Cisplatin Nephrotoxicity In Rats: Comparison with Amifostin Using Quantitative Renal Tc 99m DMSA Uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Yakup Yürekli; Perihan Ünak; Çiğdem Yenisey; Türkan Ertay; Fazilet Zumrut Biber Müftüler; Emin İlker Medine

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we aimed to investigate the cytoprotective effect of L-carnitine against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and to compare its efficacy with that of amifostin by quantitative renal Tc 99m DMSA uptake. Material and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups of six animals each. 1) Control (saline; 5 ml/kg intraperitoneally); 2) L-carnitine (CAR; 300 mg/kg intraperitoneally); 3) Amifostine (AMI; 200 mg /kg intraperitoneally); 4) Cisplatin (CIS;7 mg/k...

  10. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of amifostine, DRDE-07, and their analogs, in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bhutia Yangchen; Vijayaraghavan Rajagopalan; Pathak Uma

    2010-01-01

    Objectives : To find out the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity, if any, of Amifostine [S-2(3 amino propyl amino) ethyl phosphorothioate], DRDE-07 [S-2(3 amino ethyl amino) ethyl phenyl sulphide] and their analogs DRDE-30 and DRDE-35, the probable prophylactic agent for sulphur mustard (SM). Materials and Methods : In order to find out the analgesic activities of the compounds two methods were employed, namely, acetic acid-induced writhing test and formalin-induced paw licking. The pe...

  11. Effects of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and amifostine in spinal cord reirradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieder, C.; Andratschke, N. [TU Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Price, R.E.; Rivera, B. [University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery; Ang, K. Kian [University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: To test whether insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and amifostine modulate the reirradiation tolerance of rat cervical spinal cord. Initial experiments by the authors' group suggested that administration of each agent alone significantly increased the median latent time to radiation myelopathy (RM) in previously unirradiated animals but did not change the dose-response relationship. Because of different modes of action, a follow-up study was undertaken to test the combined treatment. Material and Methods: The cervical spinal cord of 51 adult Fisher F-344 rats received a single fraction of 16 Gy, which corresponds to approximately 75% of the median paresis dose (ED{sub 50}), followed 5 months later by a second radiation dose, which ranged from 17 to 21 Gy. The study animals received a single intrathecal injection of 0.3 mg amifostine into the cisterna magna 30-60 min before reirradiation plus three subcutaneous doses of IGF-1 (700 {mu}g) starting from 24 h before to 24 h after reirradiation. Control animals received saline injections via the same routes. Animals were followed until RM developed or until 12 months from reirradiation. Histopathologic examinations were performed post mortem. Results: No animals showed any neurologic abnormalities before reirradiation. RM occurred in controls versus treated rats after a mean latency of 218 versus 314 days (19 Gy; p=0.11) and 104 versus 186 days (21 Gy; p=0.002) from second dose (Figure 1). ED{sub 50} was 18.2 versus 19.4 Gy (p=0.15; Figure 2). Treatment with IGF-1 and amifostine did not significantly influence the rates of tumor induction or intercurrent death. Conclusion: IGF-1 and amifostine significantly reduced RM rates after 21 Gy. The shift of the dose-response curve suggests an increase of the ED{sub 50} for single-dose treatment by approximately 7%. Thus, brief therapeutic intervention might slightly decrease radiation-induced neurotoxicity in a retreatment situation. (orig.)

  12. Results of definitive combined radio-chemotherapy in head and neck tumors with simultaneous salivary gland protection by amifostine administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Demonstration and critical evaluation of the use of cytoprotective agents in radiation therapy. Patients and methods: In 1996 9 patients with head and neck tumors were irradiated with a mean dose of 66 Gy and simultaneous application of amifostine. Primaries were in the oropharynx (3), tongue (2), tonsilla (2) as well as nasopharynx and soft palate. Parallel carboplatinum was administered 6 times with a dose of 100 mg/week and amifostine twice a week with 500 mg over 6 weeks. The evaluation was performed clinically and by sialoscintigraphy. Results: There were no lasting side effects, but episodes of hypotension in 7 to 9 patients and nausea. Radiogenic acute toxicity was nearly uneffected, complaints from xerostomia, however, were diminished. All patients showed increased dermal pigmentation and dermatitis. Sialoscintigraphies 6 months after therapy proved better salivary gland function with correlated better patient condition. Conclusion: Amifostine might gain a role in the prevention of lasting radiogenic xerostomia. The required dose is not yet clear. A broader use of amifostine would be favored by lower costs of the substance. (orig.)

  13. Radioprotective effects of ginsan and amifostine (WR-2721) against {gamma}-ray induction of micronuclei in mice bone marrow erythroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, Tatiana; Song, Jie Young; Han, Young Soo; Jung, In Sung; Yun, Yeon Sook [KIRAMS, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    It is common knowledge that the use of combinations of agents is a promising approach for maximizing radioprotection with minimal adverse effects. So it has been known that amifostine has powerful protective action against irradiation. However, its toxicity has limited its application in medicine or in hazardous radiation environments.

  14. Amifostine, a radioprotectant agent, protects rat brain tissue lipids against ionizing radiation induced damage: An FTIR microspectroscopic imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cakmak G.; Miller L.; Zorlu, F.; Severcan, F.

    2012-03-03

    Amifostine is the only approved radioprotective agent by FDA for reducing the damaging effects of radiation on healthy tissues. In this study, the protective effect of amifostine against the damaging effects of ionizing radiation on the white matter (WM) and grey matter (GM) regions of the rat brain were investigated at molecular level. Sprague-Dawley rats, which were administered amifostine or not, were whole-body irradiated at a single dose of 800 cGy, decapitated after 24 h and the brain tissues of these rats were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM). The results revealed that the total lipid content and CH{sub 2} groups of lipids decreased significantly and the carbonyl esters, olefinic=CH and CH{sub 3} groups of lipids increased significantly in the WM and GM after exposure to ionizing radiation, which could be interpreted as a result of lipid peroxidation. These changes were more prominent in the WM of the brain. The administration of amifostine before ionizing radiation inhibited the radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in the brain. In addition, this study indicated that FTIRM provides a novel approach for monitoring ionizing radiation induced-lipid peroxidation and obtaining different molecular ratio images can be used as biomarkers to detect lipid peroxidation in biological systems.

  15. Does amifostine have radioprotective effects on salivary glands in high-dose radioactive iodine-treated differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Chao; Wang, Guoming; Zuo, Shuyao [Qingdao University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Affiliated Hospital, Medical College, Qingdao, Shandong Province (China); Xie, Jiawei [Qingdao University, Medical College, Qingdao (China); Jiang, Zhongxin [Qingdao University, Affiliated Hospital, Medical College, Qingdao (China)

    2010-09-15

    To assess the effects of amifostine on salivary glands in radioactive iodine-treated differentiated thyroid cancer. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library for randomized controlled clinical trials which compared the effects of amifostine with those of placebo or acid-stimulating agents. Two randomized controlled clinical trials with a total of 130 patients were included. Both studies had a low risk of bias. There were no statistically significant differences between the effects of amifostine and acid-stimulating agents on the incidence of xerostomia (RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.01 to 9.52), the decrease of scintigraphically measured uptake of {sup 99m}Tc by the parotid (RR 0.30, 95% CI -2.28 to 2.88) or submandibular glands (RR 1.90, 95% CI -1.46 to 5.26) at 12 months, or the reduction in blood pressure (RR 5.00, 95% CI 0.25 to 99.16). Neither of the included trials investigated death from any cause, morbidity, health-related quality of life or costs. The results of two randomized controlled clinical trials suggest that amifostine has no significant radioprotective effects on salivary glands in radioactive iodine treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer. The use of acid-stimulating agents to increase salivation should remain the first choice during radioactive iodine treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer. Patients should also be well informed of the importance of hydration and acid stimulation. (orig.)

  16. Amifostine protects rat kidneys during peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with [177Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) using radiolabelled somatostatin analogues, the kidneys are the major dose-limiting organs, because of tubular reabsorption and retention of radioactivity. Preventing renal uptake or toxicity will allow for higher tumour radiation doses. We tested the cytoprotective drug amifostine, which selectively protects healthy tissue during chemo- and radiotherapy, for its renoprotective capacities after PRRT with high-dose [177Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate. Male Lewis rats were injected with 278 or 555 MBq [177Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate to create renal damage and were followed up for 130 days. For renoprotection, rats received either amifostine or co-injection with lysine. Kidneys, blood and urine were collected for toxicity measurements. At 130 days after PRRT, a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan was performed to quantify tubular uptake of 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), a measure of tubular function. Treatment with 555 MBq [177Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate resulted in body weight loss, elevated creatinine and proteinuria. Amifostine and lysine treatment significantly prevented this rise in creatinine and the level of proteinuria, but did not improve the histological damage. In contrast, after 278 MBq [177Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate, creatinine values were slightly, but not significantly, elevated compared with the control rats. Proteinuria and histological damage were different from controls and were significantly improved by amifostine treatment. Quantification of 99mTc-DMSA SPECT scintigrams at 130 days after [177Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate therapy correlated well with 1/creatinine (r 2 = 0.772, p 177Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate. Besides lysine, amifostine might be used in clinical PRRT as well as to maximise anti-tumour efficacy. (orig.)

  17. The histopathological comparison of L-carnitine with amifostine for protective efficacy on radiation-induced acute small intestinal toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Caloglu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to compare the protective efficacy of l-carnitine (LC to amifostine on radiation-induced acute small intestine damage. Materials and Methods: Thirty, 4-week-old Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to four groups - Group 1: control (CONT, n = 6, Group 2: irradiation alone (RT, n = 8, Group 3: amifostine plus irradiation (AMI+RT, n = 8, and Group 4: l-Carnitine plus irradiation (LC+RT, n = 8. The rats in all groups were irradiated individually with a single dose of 20 Gy to the total abdomen, except those in CONT. LC (300 mg/kg or amifostine (200 mg/kg was used 30 min before irradiation. Histopathological analysis of small intestine was carried out after euthanasia. Results: Pretreatment with amifostine reduced the radiation-induced acute degenerative damage (P = 0.009 compared to the RT group. Pretreatment with LC did not obtain any significant difference compared to the RT group. The vascular damage significantly reduced in both of the AMI+RT (P = 0.003 and LC+RT group (P = 0.029 compared to the RT group. The overall damage score was significantly lower in the AMI+RT group than the RT group (P = 0.009. There was not any significant difference between the LC+RT and RT group. Conclusions: Amifostine has a marked radioprotective effect against all histopathological changes on small intestinal tissue while LC has limited effects which are mainly on vascular structure.

  18. Amifostine Treatment Mitigates the Damaging Effects of Radiation on Distraction Osteogenesis in the Murine Mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Laura A; Nelson, Noah S; Donneys, Alexis; Farberg, Aaron S; Tchanque-Fossuo, Catherine N; Deshpande, Sagar S; Buchman, Steven R

    2016-08-01

    According to the American Society of Clinical Oncology, in 2012, more than 53,000 new cases of head and neck cancers (HNCs) were reported in the United States alone and nearly 12,000 deaths occurred relating to HNC. Although radiotherapy (XRT) has increased survival, the adverse effects can be unrelenting and their management is rarely remedial. Current treatment dictates surgical mandibular reconstruction using free tissue transfer. These complex operations entail extended hospitalizations and attendant complications often lead to delays in initiation of adjuvant therapy, jeopardizing prognosis as well as quality of life. The creation of new bone by distraction osteogenesis (DO) generates a replacement of deficient tissue from local substrate and could have immense potential therapeutic ramifications. Radiotherapy drastically impairs bone healing, precluding its use as a reconstructive method for HNC. We posit that the deleterious effects of XRT on bone formation could be pharmacologically mitigated. To test this hypothesis, we used a rodent model of DO and treated with amifostine, a radioprotectant, to assuage the XRT-induced injury on new bone formation. Amifostine had a profound salutary effect on bone regeneration, allowing the successful implementation of DO as a reconstructive technique. The optimization of bone regeneration in the irradiated mandible has immense potential for translation from the bench to the bedside, providing improved therapeutic options for patients subjected to XRT. PMID:27070667

  19. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of amifostine, DRDE-07, and their analogs, in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhutia Yangchen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To find out the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity, if any, of Amifostine [S-2(3 amino propyl amino ethyl phosphorothioate], DRDE-07 [S-2(3 amino ethyl amino ethyl phenyl sulphide] and their analogs DRDE-30 and DRDE-35, the probable prophylactic agent for sulphur mustard (SM. Materials and Methods : In order to find out the analgesic activities of the compounds two methods were employed, namely, acetic acid-induced writhing test and formalin-induced paw licking. The persistent pain model of formalin-induced hind paw licking was carried out to test the effect of the compounds on neurogenic pain or early phase (0 to 5 minutes and on the peripheral pain or the late phase (15 to 30 minutes. To test the effect of the compound in acute inflammation, carrageenan-induced hind paw edema was carried out. This model of inflammation involves a variety of mediators of inflammation. Results : DRDE-07 (81.7% and DRDE-30 (79.4% showed significant reduction in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. DRDE-07 (93.1%, DRDE-30 (82%, and DRDE-35 (61.3% showed significant reduction in the second or late phase of formalin-induced paw licking. All the analogs (more than 60% including amifostine (43.9% showed significant reduction of paw edema in the carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. Conclusion : The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of the antidotes were comparable with aspirin.

  20. Clinical study of radioprotective effects of amifostine (YM-08310, WR-2721) on long-term outcome for patients with cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsuhashi, Norio; Takahashi, Iku; Takahashi, Mitsuhiro; Hayakawa, Kazushige; Niibe, Hideo (Gumma Univ. School of Medicine (Japan))

    1993-06-15

    A retrospective analysis was performed to investigate the radioprotective effects of amifostine on the long-term outcome of radiation therapy for patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix. Eighty-three patients with histologically proven epidermoid carcinoma (Stage II-IVA disease) of the uterine cervix were treated with definite radiation therapy between January 1978 and December 1984. Forty-six patients were treated with radiation alone, whereas 37 patients were treated with radiation plus amifostine daily from the initiation of the course of radiation therapy. The median total dose of amifostine given was 1300 mg/m[sub 2], with a range of 280 mg/m[sup 2] to 3700 mg/m[sup 2]. The 5-year overall actuarial survival for the patients treated with radiation along and with radiation plus amifostine were: 72% and 88% in Stage II disease (p = 0.45); 52% and 50% in Stage III disease (p = 0.68); and 40% and 43% in Stage IVA disease (p = 0.51), respectively. The 5-year intra-pelvic recurrence rates in the patients treated with amifostine were almost the same as those observed in the patients treated without amifostine (0% vs. 6% in Stage II disease; 15% vs. 10% in Stage III disease; 25% vs. 40% in Stage IVA disease). There was also no statistically significant difference of the chronic rectal or bladder complication rate between the groups treated by each regimen. The authors concluded that any radioprotective effects of amifostine on tumor tissue and any beneficial effects of amifostine against chronic radiation injury were not observed in the patients with cervical cancer followed up for more than 5 years after radiation therapy. 17 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Effect of Amifostine in Head and Neck Cancer Patients Treated with Radiotherapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Based on Randomized Controlled Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Jundong Gu; Siwei Zhu; Xuebing Li; Hua Wu; Yang Li; Feng Hua

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Amifostine is the most clinical used chemical radioprotector, but its effect in patients treated with radiation is not consistent. METHODS: By searching Medline, CENTRAL, EMBASE, ASCO, ESMO, and CNKI databases, the published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the efficacy of amifostine in HNSCC patients treated with radiotherapy were collected. The pooled efficacy and side effects of this drug were calculated by RevMan software. RESULTS: Seventeen trials including a total o...

  2. Prevention of radiochemotherapy-induced toxicity with amifostine in patients with malignant orbital tumors involving the lacrimal gland: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner Richard; Curschmann Juergen; Ghadjar Pirus; Goldblum David; Aebersold Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background To use amifostine concurrently with radiochemotherapy (CT-RT) or radiotherapy (RT) alone in order to prevent dry eye syndrome in patients with malignancies located in the fronto-orbital region. Methods Five patients (2 males, 3 females) with diagnosed malignancies (Non-Hodgkin B-cell Lymphoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma) involving the lacrimal gland, in which either combined CT-RT or local RT were indicated, were prophylactically treated with amifostine (500 mg sc). Single R...

  3. Beneficial effect of the oxygen free radical scavenger amifostine (WR-2721 on spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury in rabbits

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    Karanikolas Menelaos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paraplegia is the most devastating complication of thoracic or thoraco-abdominal aortic surgery. During these operations, an ischemia-reperfusion process is inevitable and the produced radical oxygen species cause severe oxidative stress for the spinal cord. In this study we examined the influence of Amifostine, a triphosphate free oxygen scavenger, on oxidative stress of spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion in rabbits. Methods Eighteen male, New Zealand white rabbits were anesthetized and spinal cord ischemia was induced by temporary occlusion of the descending thoracic aorta by a coronary artery balloon catheter, advanced through the femoral artery. The animals were randomly divided in 3 groups. Group I functioned as control. In group II the descending aorta was occluded for 30 minutes and then reperfused for 75 min. In group III, 500 mg Amifostine was infused into the distal aorta during the second half-time of ischemia period. At the end of reperfusion all animals were sacrificed and spinal cord specimens were examined for superoxide radicals by an ultra sensitive fluorescent assay. Results Superoxide radical levels ranged, in group I between 1.52 and 1.76 (1.64 ± 0.10, in group II between 1.96 and 2.50 (2.10 ± 0.23, and in group III (amifostine between 1.21 and 1.60 (1.40 ± 0.19 (p = 0.00, showing a decrease of 43% in the Group of Amifostine. A lipid peroxidation marker measurement ranged, in group I between 0.278 and 0.305 (0.296 ± 0.013, in group II between 0.427 and 0.497 (0.463 ± 0.025, and in group III (amifostine between 0.343 and 0.357 (0.350 ± 0.007 (p Conclusion By direct and indirect methods of measuring the oxidative stress of spinal cord after ischemia/reperfusion, it is suggested that intra-aortic Amifostine infusion during spinal cord ischemia phase, significantly attenuated the spinal cord oxidative injury in rabbits.

  4. L-Carnitine Protection Against Cisplatin Nephrotoxicity In Rats: Comparison with Amifostin Using Quantitative Renal Tc 99m DMSA Uptake

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    Yakup Yürekli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we aimed to investigate the cytoprotective effect of L-carnitine against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and to compare its efficacy with that of amifostin by quantitative renal Tc 99m DMSA uptake. Material and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups of six animals each. 1 Control (saline; 5 ml/kg intraperitoneally; 2 L-carnitine (CAR; 300 mg/kg intraperitoneally; 3 Amifostine (AMI; 200 mg /kg intraperitoneally; 4 Cisplatin (CIS;7 mg/kg intraperitoneally; 5 Cisplatin plus L-carnitine (CIS + CAR; 6 Cisplatin plus amifostine (CIS + AMI. L-carnitine and amifostine were injected 30 minutes before cisplatin in Group 5 and 6. Tc 99m DMSA, 7.4 MBq/0.2 ml, was injected through the tail vein 72 hours after the drug administration. Rats were killed and kidneys removed by dissection 2 hours after the injection of the radiopharmaceutical. The percentage of the injected dose per gram of kidney tissue (%ID/g was calculated. Renal function was monitored by measuring BUN and plasma levels of creatinine. Lipid peroxidation and glutathione content were determined by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA and reduced glutathione (GSH in kidney tissue homogenates. Results: Tc 99m DMSA uptake per gram tissue of the kidney as %ID/g was 29.54±4.72, 29.86 ± 7.47 and 26.37 ± 4.54 in the control, CAR and AMI groups respectively. %ID/g was the lowest of all the groups, 11.60±3.59 (p<0.01, in the cisplatin group. Carnitine or amifostine administration 30 minutes before cisplatin injection resulted a significant increase in %ID/g, 21.28±7.73 and 18.97±3.24 respectively, compared to those of cisplatin-treated rats (p<0.002. A marked increase in plasma BUN and creatinine indicating nephrotoxicity and acute renal failure was observed in the cisplatin-treated group. MDA and GSH levels were concordant with cisplatin-induced oxidative stress in the kidney tissue. Conclusion: The results showed that L-carnitine significantly

  5. Cytoprotection with amifostine in radiotherapy or combined radio-chemotherapy of head and neck cancer; Zytoprotektion mit Amifostin in der Strahlentherapie bzw. Strahlen-/Chemotherapie von Kopf-Hals-Tumoren

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    Altmann, S.; Hoffmanns, H. [Krankenhaus Maria-Hilf, Moenchengladbach (Germany). Strahlentherapie und Radiologische Onkologie

    1999-11-01

    Background: A considerable amount of experimental and clinical data prove the cytoprotective effect of amifostine on normal tissue exposed to different types of antineoplastic treatments. The present study examines its influence on the short-term toxicity of either radiotherapy alone or combined radio-chemotherapy in patients with advanced head and neck cancer. Patients and methods: Twenty-three patients with advanced head and neck cancer, mainly Stage III and IV, were treated with preoperative radiation (n=1), pre- as well as postoperative radiotherapy (n=5), postoperative radiation (n=9) or combined postoperative radio-chemotherapy (n=6). Before each radiation application a total dose of 500 mg amifostine was administered intravenously over 15 minutes. The documentation of this unselected patient group was compared retrospectively to a historical control group comprising 17 patients. Results: In 15 patients (65%) of the amifostine group, therapy induced side effects such as mucositis and dermatitis of WHO Grade {<=}2 were detected, requiring interruptions of the radiotherapy (mean: 6.5, maximum 17 days). No mucosa or dermatologic toxicity of WHO Grade 3 or 4 was observed in this group. Significantly more acute toxicity was detected in the historical control group. Stomatitis or epitheliolysis of WHO Grade 3 occurred in 7 patients (41%). The side effects induced by the antineoplastic therapy caused an interruption of treatment in 15 patients (88%) (mean: 16, maximum 40 days; p=0.0016). Conclusion: The application of amifostine before each radiation treatment seems to result in a distinct reduction of short-term toxicity of radiotherapy or combined radio-chemotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer, allowing for a better adherence to the planned radiation time schedule. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund: Zahlreiche experimentelle und klinische Daten belegen die zytoprotektive Wirkung von Amifostin auf gesundes Gewebe bei Anwendung verschiedener antineoplastischer

  6. Amifostine (WR-2721, a cytoprotective agent during high-dose cyclophosphamide treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas: a phase II study

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    C.A. De Souza

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trials indicate that amifostine may confer protection on various normal tissues without attenuating anti-tumor response. When administered prior to chemotherapy or radiotherapy, it may provide a broad spectrum of cytoprotection including against alkylating drugs. The mechanism of protection resides in the metabolism at normal tissue site by membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase. Toxicity of this drug is moderate with hypotension, nausea and vomiting, and hypocalcemia being observed. We report a phase II study using amifostine as a protective drug against high-dose cyclophosphamide (HDCY (7 g/m2, used to mobilize peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC and to reduce tumor burden. We enrolled 29 patients, 22 (75.9% affected by aggressive and 7 (24.1% by indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL, who were submitted to 58 infusions of amifostine and compared them with a historical group (33 patients affected by aggressive NHL and treated with VACOP-B followed by HDCY. The most important results in favor of amifostine were the reduction of intensity of cardiac, pulmonary and hepatic toxicity, and a significant reduction of frequency and severity of mucositis (P = 0.04. None of the 29 patients died in the protected group, while in the historical group 2/33 patients died because of cardiac or pulmonary toxicity and 2 patients stopped therapy due to toxicity. Amifostine did not prevent the aplastic phase following HDCY. PBPC collection and hematological recovery were adequate in both groups. The number of CFU-GM (colony-forming units-granulocyte/macrophage colonies and mononuclear cells in the apheresis products was significantly higher in the amifostine group (P = 0.02 and 0.01, respectively. Side effects were mild and easily controlled. We conclude that amifostine protection should be useful in HDCY to protect normal tissues, with acceptable side effects.

  7. Prophylactic Efficacy of Amifostine, DRDE-07, and their Analogues against Percutaneously Administered Nitrogen Mustards and Sulphur Mustard

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    Manoj Sharma

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen mustards (HN-1, HN-2 and HN-3 and sulphur mustard are alkylating and blister-inducing chemical warfare agents. This study was aimed at investigating the prophylactic efficacy of amifostine, DRDE-07, and their analogues and some recommended antidotes against dermally-applied nitrogen mustards and sulphur mustard in preventing their systemic toxicity in mice. The antidotes were administered as single oral dose, 30 min prior to the mustard agent application. For DRDE-07, 0.2 LD50 (249 mg/kg was used and for other analogues, equimolar dose of DRDE-07 was used. For amifostine, N-acetyl cysteine, melatonin and sodium thiosulphate, oral dose was 185 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg respectively. The animals were observed for mortality for 14 days. The protection index (PI was calculated as a ratio of LD50 with treatment to LD50 without treatment. The protection of the antidotes was also determined by intraperitoneal route and half of the oral dose of the antidotes was given. The estimated percutaneous LD50 of HN-1, HN-2, HN-3 and sulphur mustard was 11.9 mg/kg, 20.0 mg/kg, 7.1 mg/kg and 7.1 mg/kg, respectively. Compounds that showed marginal protection against HN-1 were DRDE-10 and melatonin with a PI of 1.4. Compounds that showed marginal protection against HN-2 were amifostine, DRDE-07, DRDE-09, DRDE-30, DRDE-35 and melatonin with a PI of 1.4. Compounds that showed marginal protection against HN-3 were amifostine, DRDE-30, DRDE-35, sodium thiosulphate and melatonin with a PI of 1.7. In the case of sulphur mustard, DRDE-07, DRDE-10, DRDE-21, DRDE-30, and DRDE-35 gave a good protection with a PI of more than 5.0. Amifostine and sodium thiosulphate gave a PI of 4.5 and 4.0, respectively, while DRDE-09, N-acetyl cysteine and melatonin gave less protection against sulphur mustard. Intraperitoneally administered amifostine, DRDE-30, sodium thiosulphate and melatonin gave marginal protection against HN-2 with a PI of 1.2, while

  8. A randomized trial of amifostine as a cytoprotective agent in patients receiving chemotherapy for small cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, P. W. M.; Muers, M. F.; Peake, M D; Poulter, K M; Gurney, E M; Napp, V; Hepburn, P M; Brown, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    A randomized trial was conducted to determine whether administration of Amifostine with chemotherapy for small cell lung cancer could decrease the toxicity. 84 patients with small cell lung cancer of favourable prognosis (limited disease, performance status 0–1; limited disease with performance status 2 but normal sodium and alkaline phosphatase, or extensive diseas with performance status 0–1, normal sodium and alkaline phosphatase) received treatment with Ifosfamide 3 g/m2intravenously, Car...

  9. Raman spectroscopy delineates radiation-induced injury and partial rescue by amifostine in bone: a murine mandibular model

    OpenAIRE

    Felice, Peter A.; Gong, Bo; Ahsan, Salman; Deshpande, Sagar S.; Nelson, Noah S.; Donneys, Alexis; Tchanque-Fossuo, Catherine; Morris, Michael D.; Buchman, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Despite its therapeutic role in head and neck cancer, radiation administration degrades the biomechanical properties of bone and can lead to pathologic fracture and osteoradionecrosis. Our laboratories have previously demonstrated that prophylactic amifostine administration preserves the biomechanical properties of irradiated bone and that Raman spectroscopy accurately evaluates bone composition ex vivo. As such, we hypothesize that Raman spectroscopy can offer insight into the temporal and m...

  10. Beneficial effect of the oxygen free radical scavenger amifostine (WR-2721) on spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Karanikolas Menelaos; Koletsis Efstratios N; Georgiou Christos D; Grintzalis Konstantinos; Papapostolou Ioannis; Apostolakis Efstratios; Chronidou Fany; Papathanasopoulos Panagiotis; Dougenis Dimitrios

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Paraplegia is the most devastating complication of thoracic or thoraco-abdominal aortic surgery. During these operations, an ischemia-reperfusion process is inevitable and the produced radical oxygen species cause severe oxidative stress for the spinal cord. In this study we examined the influence of Amifostine, a triphosphate free oxygen scavenger, on oxidative stress of spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion in rabbits. Methods Eighteen male, New Zealand white rabbits were ane...

  11. Prophylactic Efficacy of Amifostine, DRDE-07, and their Analogues against Percutaneously Administered Nitrogen Mustards and Sulphur Mustard

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj Sharma; Vijayaraghavan, R.; Uma Pathak; K. Ganesan

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen mustards (HN-1, HN-2 and HN-3) and sulphur mustard are alkylating and blister-inducing chemical warfare agents. This study was aimed at investigating the prophylactic efficacy of amifostine, DRDE-07, and their analogues and some recommended antidotes against dermally-applied nitrogen mustards and sulphur mustard in preventing their systemic toxicity in mice. The antidotes were administered as single oral dose, 30 min prior to the mustard agent application. For DRDE-07, 0.2 LD50 (249 ...

  12. Potentiation of the Anti-Tumor Effect of Merocyanine 540-Mediated Photodynamic Therapy by Amifostine and Amphotericin B

    OpenAIRE

    Tsujino, Ichiro; Miyagi, Kiyoko; Sampson, Reynée W.; Sieber, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    Leukemia and lymphoma cells are much more sensitive to Merocyanine 540 (MC540)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) than normal pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells and normal granulocyte/macrophage progenitors (CFU-GM). By contrast, most solid tumor cells are only moderately sensitive to MC540-PDT. The limited activity against solid tumor cells has detracted from MC540's appeal as a broad-spectrum purging agent. We report here that non-cytotoxic concentrations of amifostine (Ethyol, Ethiofos,...

  13. Assessment of radioprotective effects of amifostine on human lymphocytes irradiated in vitro by gamma-rays using cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioprotective effect of amifostine as well as its ability to modulate the level of spontaneous and gamma-rays-induced genetic changes on human peripheral blood lymphocytes has been investigated. Amifostine, known as a potent radical scavenger, has been introduced as the most effective radioprotector, yet it is not completely approved for the clinical use. However, further in vitro and clinical studies are needed to clarify its mechanisms of action. Materials and Methods: Whole blood samples from healthy donors were exposed to various doses of gamma-rays. Lymphocytes in cultures were treated with amifostine at different concentrations (2, 4 and 6 m M) in the presence or in the absence of 1 U/ml alkaline phosphatase before or after gamma-irradiation. Standard procedure for the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay was used to assess the effect of amifostine on radiation induced micronucleus in bi nucleate lymphocytes. Results: Irradiated blood samples showed an increase in the total number of micronuclei (MN) significantly different from controls (p<0.05). However, pre-treatment of lymphocytes with amifostine in the presence of alkaline phosphatase, 15 minutes before irradiation, led to a significant decrease in the frequencies of MN and cells with more than one MN (p< O.05). Antifeminist, in its own, produced little or no protection. However, the addition of amifostine with alkaline phosphatase to the cell cultures 15 minutes after irradiation produced substantial radioprotection significantly different from the frequencies of MN induced by radiation alone (p< O.05). Conclusion: Results clearly indicated that gamma-rays induced MN in lymphocytes in a dose dependent manner. The highest protective effect was achieved when amifostine was phosphorylated by alkaline phosphatase and present before irradiation in the cellular environment, was indicating its radical scavenging mechanism of radioprotection. Since the administration of amifostine after irradiation

  14. Comparison of the protective roles of L-carnitine and amifostine against radiation-induced acute ovarian damage by histopathological and biochemical methods

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    Vuslat Yurut-Caloglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the radioprotective efficacies of L-carnitine (LC and amifostine against radiation-induced acute ovarian damage. Materials and Methods: Forty-five, 3-month-old Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to six groups. Control (CONT, n = 7; irradiation alone RT: radiation therapy (RT, n = 8; amifostine plus irradiation (AMI + RT, n = 8; LC plus irradiation (LC + RT, n = 8; LC and sham irradiation (LC, n = 7; and amifostine and sham irradiation (AMI, n = 7. The rats in the AMI + RT, LC + RT and RT groups were irradiated with a single dose of 20 Gy to the whole abdomen. LC (300 mg/kg and amifostine (200 mg/kg was given intraperitoneally 30 min before irradiation. Five days after irradiation, both antral follicles and corpus luteum in the right ovaries were counted, and tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP were measured. Results: Irradiation significantly decreased antral follicles and corpus luteum (P: 0.005 and P 0.05. The level of MDA and AOPP significantly increased after irradiation (P = 0.001 and P 0.005. The levels of both MDA and AOPP were also similar when LC + RT is compared with AMI + RT group (P > 0.005. Conclusions: L-carnitine and amifostine have a noteworthy and similar radioprotective effect against radiation-induced acute ovarian toxicity.

  15. Enhancement and in vitro evaluation of amifostine permeation through artificial membrane (PAMPA) via ion pairing approach and mechanistic selection of its optimal counter ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiei, N; Shafaati, A; Zarghi, A; Moghimi, H R; Foroutan, S M

    2014-01-23

    This study presents the results of in vitro evaluation of a series of organic counter ions that form ion pairs with amifostine. The selected counter ions have different lipophilicity, shape and flexibility. Intrinsic octanol buffer partition coefficient and binding constant of the ion pairs were calculated using quasi-equilibrium analysis. Permeation through hydrophobic PAMPA membranes of amifostine and its ion pairs with different counter ions was studied. Three counter ions, succinic acid, benzoic acid and phthalic acid demonstrated an increase in the apparent partition coefficient of amifostine in n-octanol. These counter ions were selected for permeability experiments in PAMPA membranes and an increase of the apparent permeability value Papp (cm/s) was also observed as a function of the counter ion concentration. Phthalic acid produced 1.6-fold increase of log PAB while for benzoic acid and succinic acid the values were 1.2 and 0.75-fold respectively. PAMPA permeability of amifostine significantly increased in the presence of phthalic acid (42-fold), benzoic acid (37-fold) and succinic acid (10.5-fold). This study showed that the permeability of amifostine across a lipophilic membrane was enhanced in the presence of counter-ions resulting ion pair formation. PMID:24161609

  16. The cytoprotective drug amifostine modifies both expression and activity of the pro-angiogenic factor VEGF-A

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    Bouchecareilh M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amifostine (WR-2721, delivered as Ethyol® is a phosphorylated aminothiol compound clinically used in addition to cis-platinum to reduce the toxic side effects of therapeutic treatment on normal cells without reducing their efficacy on tumour cells. Its mechanism of action is attributed to the free radical scavenging properties of its active dephosphorylated metabolite WR-1065. However, amifostine has also been described as a potent hypoxia-mimetic compound and as a strong p53 inducer; both effects are known to potently modulate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A expression. The angiogenic properties of this drug have not been clearly defined. Methods Cancer cell lines and endothelial cells were used in culture and treated with Amifostine in order to study (i the expression of angiogenesis related genes and proteins and (ii the effects of the drug on VEGF-A induced in vitro angiogenesis. Results We demonstrated that the treatment of several human cancer cell lines with therapeutical doses of WR-1065 led to a strong induction of different VEGF-A mRNA isoforms independently of HIF-1α. VEGF-A induction by WR-1065 depends on the activation of the eIF2alpha/ATF4 pathway. This up-regulation of VEGF-A mRNA was accompanied by an increased secretion of VEGF-A proteins fully active in stimulating vascular endothelial cells (EC. Nevertheless, direct treatment of EC with amifostine impaired their ability to respond to exogenous VEGF-A, an effect that correlated to the down-regulation of VEGFR-2 expression, to the reduction in cell surface binding of VEGF-A and to the decreased phosphorylation of the downstream p42/44 kinases. Conclusions Taken together, our results indicate that amifostine treatment modulates tumour angiogenesis by two apparently opposite mechanisms - the increased VEGF-A expression by tumour cells and the inhibition of EC capacity to respond to VEGF-A stimulation.

  17. Acupoint Sticking at Shenque (CV 8) with Ginger-preparedBan Xia (Rhizoma Pinelliae) for Nausea and Vomiting Induced by Amifostine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Li-na; Hu Hong-yan; Qiu Yi-ling; Zhou Yu-hong

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To observe the treatment effect of acupoint sticking at Shenque (CV 8) with ginger-preparedBan Xia (Rhizoma Pinelliae) on nausea and vomiting induced by Amifostine for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Methods: Totally 124 eligible subjects intervened by Amifostine were randomized into 2 groups by the visiting order,an observation group and a control group,62 in each group. The control group was intervened by conventional treatment, while the observation group was by acupoint sticking at Shenque (CV 8) with ginger-preparedBan Xia (Rhizoma Pinelliae) in addition to the same conventional treatment. The occurrence rate of nausea and vomiting in the two groups were observed. Results: After intervention, the occurrence rate of nausea and vomiting in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P Conclusion: Acupoint sticking at Shenque (CV 8) with ginger-prepared Ban Xia (Rhizoma Pinelliae)can produce a content effect on nausea and vomiting induced by Amifostine for MDS.

  18. Lung autophagic response following exposure of mice to whole body irradiation, with and without amifostine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zois, Christos E. [Department of Radiotherapy - Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis 68100 (Greece); Giatromanolaki, Alexandra [Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Kainulainen, Heikki [Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Botaitis, Sotirios [Department of Experimental Surgery, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Torvinen, Sira [Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Simopoulos, Constantinos [Department of Experimental Surgery, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Kortsaris, Alexandros [Department of Biochemistry, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Sivridis, Efthimios [Department of Pathology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Koukourakis, Michael I., E-mail: targ@her.forthnet.gr [Department of Radiotherapy - Oncology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis 68100 (Greece)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} We investigated the effect 6 Gy of WBI on the autophagic machinery of normal mouse lung. {yields} Irradiation induces dysfunction of the autophagic machinery in normal lung, characterized by decreased transcription of the LC3A/Beclin-1 mRNA and accumulation of the LC3A, and p62 proteins. {yields} The membrane bound LC3A-II protein levels increased in the cytosolic fraction (not in the pellet), contrasting the patterns noted after starvation-induced autophagy. {yields} Administration of amifostine, reversed all the LC3A and p62 findings, suggesting protection of the normal autophagic function. -- Abstract: Purpose: The effect of ionizing irradiation on the autophagic response of normal tissues is largely unexplored. Abnormal autophagic function may interfere the protein quality control leading to cell degeneration and dysfunction. This study investigates its effect on the autophagic machinery of normal mouse lung. Methods and materials: Mice were exposed to 6 Gy of whole body {gamma}-radiation and sacrificed at various time points. The expression of MAP1LC3A/LC3A/Atg8, beclin-1, p62/sequestosome-1 and of the Bnip3 proteins was analyzed. Results: Following irradiation, the LC3A-I and LC3A-II protein levels increased significantly at 72 h and 7 days. Strikingly, LC3A-II protein was increased (5.6-fold at 7 days; p < 0.001) only in the cytosolic fraction, but remained unchanged in the membrane fraction. The p62 protein, was significantly increased in both supernatant and pellet fraction (p < 0.001), suggesting an autophagosome turnover deregulation. These findings contrast the patterns of starvation-induced autophagy up-regulation. Beclin-1 levels remained unchanged. The Bnip3 protein was significantly increased at 8 h, but it sharply decreased at 72 h (p < 0.05). Administration of amifostine (200 mg/kg), 30 min before irradiation, reversed all the LC3A and p62 findings on blots, suggesting restoration of the normal autophagic function

  19. Prophylactic administration of Amifostine protects vessel thickness in the setting of irradiated bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Erin E; Deshpande, Sagar S; Nelson, Noah S; Felice, Peter A; Donneys, Alexis; Rodriguez, Jose J; Deshpande, Samir S; Buchman, Steven R

    2015-01-01

    Although often beneficial in the treatment of head and neck cancer (HNC), radiation therapy (XRT) leads to the depletion of vascular supply and eventually decreased perfusion of the tissue. Specifically, previous studies have demonstrated the depletion of vessel volume fraction (VVF) and vessel thickness (VT) associated with XRT. Amifostine (AMF) provides protection from the detrimental effects of radiation damage, allowing for reliable post-irradiation fracture healing in the murine mandible. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prophylactic ability of AMF to protect the vascular network in an irradiated field. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 17) were divided into 3 groups: control (C, n = 5), radiated (XRT, n = 7), and radiated mandibles treated with Amifostine (AMF XRT, n = 5). Both groups receiving radiation underwent a previously established, human equivalent dose of XRT totaling 35 Gy, equally fractionated over 5 days. The AMF XRT group received a weight dependent (0.5 mg AMF/5 g body weight) subcutaneous injection of AMF 45 min prior to XRT. Following a 56-day recovery period, mandibles were perfused, dissected, and imaged with μCT. ANOVA was used for comparisons between groups and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Stereologic analysis demonstrated a significant and quantifiable restoration of VT in AMF treated mandibles as compared to those treated with radiation alone (0.061 ± 0.011 mm versus 0.042 ± 0.004 mm, p = 0.027). Interestingly, further analysis demonstrated no significant difference in VT between control mandibles and those treated with AMF (0.067 ± 0.016 mm versus 0.061 ± 0.011 mm, p = 0.633). AMF treatment also showed an increase in VVF, however those results were not statistically significant from VVF values demonstrated by the XRT group. Our data support the contention that AMF therapy acts prophylactically to protect vessel thickness. Based on these findings, we support the continued

  20. Lung autophagic response following exposure of mice to whole body irradiation, with and without amifostine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → We investigated the effect 6 Gy of WBI on the autophagic machinery of normal mouse lung. → Irradiation induces dysfunction of the autophagic machinery in normal lung, characterized by decreased transcription of the LC3A/Beclin-1 mRNA and accumulation of the LC3A, and p62 proteins. → The membrane bound LC3A-II protein levels increased in the cytosolic fraction (not in the pellet), contrasting the patterns noted after starvation-induced autophagy. → Administration of amifostine, reversed all the LC3A and p62 findings, suggesting protection of the normal autophagic function. -- Abstract: Purpose: The effect of ionizing irradiation on the autophagic response of normal tissues is largely unexplored. Abnormal autophagic function may interfere the protein quality control leading to cell degeneration and dysfunction. This study investigates its effect on the autophagic machinery of normal mouse lung. Methods and materials: Mice were exposed to 6 Gy of whole body γ-radiation and sacrificed at various time points. The expression of MAP1LC3A/LC3A/Atg8, beclin-1, p62/sequestosome-1 and of the Bnip3 proteins was analyzed. Results: Following irradiation, the LC3A-I and LC3A-II protein levels increased significantly at 72 h and 7 days. Strikingly, LC3A-II protein was increased (5.6-fold at 7 days; p < 0.001) only in the cytosolic fraction, but remained unchanged in the membrane fraction. The p62 protein, was significantly increased in both supernatant and pellet fraction (p < 0.001), suggesting an autophagosome turnover deregulation. These findings contrast the patterns of starvation-induced autophagy up-regulation. Beclin-1 levels remained unchanged. The Bnip3 protein was significantly increased at 8 h, but it sharply decreased at 72 h (p < 0.05). Administration of amifostine (200 mg/kg), 30 min before irradiation, reversed all the LC3A and p62 findings on blots, suggesting restoration of the normal autophagic function. The LC3A and Beclin1 m

  1. Carboplatin combined with amifostine, a bone marrow protectant, in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer: a randomised phase II study.

    OpenAIRE

    Betticher, D. C.; Anderson, H.; Ranson, M.; Meely, K.; Oster, W; Thatcher, N

    1995-01-01

    Amifostine (WR-2721), a thiol compound, has been shown to protect normal tissue from alkylating agents and cisplatin-induced toxicity without loss of anti-tumour effects. To confirm this result, we conducted a phase II randomised trial to determine if the addition of amifostine reduces the toxicity of carboplatin without loss of anti-tumour activity in patients with inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). After the first course of carboplatin (600 mg m-2 i.v. infusion), 21 patients wer...

  2. Amifostine in Cancer Radiotherapy Injury Research%氨磷汀在肿瘤放射治疗损伤中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙先阁; 何奋军

    2013-01-01

    Amifostine is the only cytoprotective agent used in a broad range of clinical radiotherapy. In this paper,amifostine’s cytoprotective mechanisms in radiotherapy and its clinical application was reviewed.%氨磷汀(Amifostine)是临床唯一应用的广谱放射治疗细胞保护剂。文章就氨磷汀在肿瘤放射治疗中的保护机制及临床应用的相关文献进行综述。

  3. Safety Study of Amifostine for Injection%注射用氨磷汀安全性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张广伟; 徐晓月

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究注射用氨磷汀的安全性,为临床应用提供依据.方法 进行豚鼠全身主动过敏试验(ASA),首先隔日每只豚鼠每次腹腔注射供试品,共3次,再于首次注射后第14日和第21日由耳缘静脉注射供试品,观察动物过敏反应;进行大鼠被动皮肤过敏试验(PCA),大鼠皮内注射抗体血清,静脉注射伊文思蓝,观察蓝色反应斑;进行体外溶血试验,观察供试品在3h内有无溶血和凝聚现象;进行血管刺激试验,家兔连续5 d耳缘静脉注射供试品,观察其对注射局部血管的刺激.结果 注射用氨磷汀豚鼠全身主动过敏性试验及大鼠被动皮肤过敏性试验均未见过敏反应;体外溶血试验在3h内未见溶血和凝聚现象;血管刺激性试验病理组织学检查未见血管刺激性反应.结论 注射用氨磷汀安全、可靠.%Objective To evaluate the safety of Anifostine for Injection to provide the evidence for its clinical application. Methods The active systemic anaphylaxis(ASA) was investigated by guinea pigs, in which each guinea pig was allergized by intraperitoneal injecting Amifostine for Injection every other day, total 3 times. Amifostine for Injection was injected via ear vein for observing the anaphylactic reaction on 14 d and 21 d after the first injection. The rat passive cutaneous anaphylactic reaction was assayed by intravenous injection of Evans blue after intracutaneous injection of serum antibodies for observing blue reaction spots. In the in vitro hemolytic test, hemolysis and coagulation were observed in 3 h. In the vessel stimulation test, the local blood vessel stimulation was observed after injecting Amifostine For Injection for successive 5 d. Results There was no allergic reaction to the guinea pigs and rats, no hemolytic and coagulation reaction and no stimulation to ear vein. Conclusion Amifostine for Injection is safe and reliable.

  4. CCM-AMI, a Polyethylene Glycol Micelle with Amifostine, as an Acute Radiation Syndrome Protectant in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Hung; Kuo, Min-Liang; Wang, Jen-Ling; Liao, Wei-Chuan; Chang, Li-Ching; Chan, Leong-Perng; Lin, Johnson

    2015-09-01

    Acute radiation syndrome results from radiation exposure, such as in accidental nuclear disasters. Safe and effective radioprotectants, mitigators, and treatment drugs must be developed as medical countermeasures against radiation exposure. Here, the authors evaluated CCM-Ami, a novel polyethylene glycol micelle encapsulated with amifostine, for its radioprotective properties after total-body irradiation from a 60Co source. Male C57BL/6 mice (6-8 wk old) were intravenously injected with 45 mg kg(-1) of CCM-Ami 90 min before exposure to 7.2 and 8.5 Gy irradiation at a dose rate of 0.04 Gy min(-1). Both survival benefit and hematopoietic protection were observed after prophylactic CCM-Ami administration when compared with the effects measured in excipient control and amifostine groups. Pharmacokinetic results showed that after the intravenous injection, the plasma concentration of WR-1065, the active form of amifostine, was higher in CCM-Ami-treated mice than in amifostine-treated mice. These findings suggest that CCM-Ami-mediated hematopoietic protection plays a key role in enhancing survival of mice exposed to radiation toxicity and thus indicate that CCM-Ami is a radioprotectant that can be used safely and effectively in nuclear disasters. PMID:26222219

  5. Face Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Haugen, Liv Merete; Olavsbråten, Inge

    2007-01-01

    Machine based face recognition has been a popular research area for several years, and has numerous applications. This technology has now reached a point where there already exists good algorithms for recognition for standardized still images - which have little variation in e.g. lighting, facial expression and pose. We are however in lack of good algorithms that are able to do recognition from live video. The low quality of most surveillance cameras, together with non-standardized imaging c...

  6. A phase II randomized study of topical intrarectal administration of amifostine for the prevention of acute radiation-induced rectal toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouloulias, V.E. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Aretaieion Univ. Hospital, Univ. of Athens Medical School, Athens (Greece); Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical Univ. of Athens, Athens (Greece); Center of Radiation Oncology, YGEIA Diagnostic and Therapeutic Center of Athens, Athens (Greece); Kouvaris, J.R.; Kokakis, J.D.; Antypas, C.; Mallas, E.; Vosdoganis, S.P.; Vlahos, L.J. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Aretaieion Univ. Hospital, Univ. of Athens Medical School, Athens (Greece); Pissakas, G. [Radiotherapy Dept., Agios Savvas Anticancer Hospital, Athens (Greece); Matsopoulos, G. [Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical Univ. of Athens, Athens (Greece); Michopoulos, S. [Gastroenterology Unit, Alexandra General Hospital, Athens (Greece); Kostakopoulos, A. [Urology Dept., Sismanoglio Hospital, Univ. of Athens Medical School, Athens (Greece)

    2004-09-01

    Purpose: to investigate the cytoprotective effect of intrarectal amifostine administration on acute radiation-induced rectal toxicity. Patients and methods: 67 patients with T1b-2 NO MO prostate cancer were randomized to receive amifostine intrarectally (group A, n - 33) or not (group B, n = 34) before irradiation. Therapy was delivered using a four-field technique with three-dimensional conformal planning. In group A, 1,500 mg amifostine was administered intrarectally as an aqueous solution in a 40-ml enema. Two different toxicity scales were used: EORTC/RTOG rectal and urologic toxicity criteria along with a Subjective-RectoSigmoid (S-RS) scale based on the endoscopic terminology of the World Organization for Digestive Endoscopy. Objective measurements with rectosigmoidoscopy were performed at baseline and 1-2 days after the completion of radiotherapy. The area under curve for the time course of mucositis (RTOG criteria) during irradiation represented the mucositis index (MI). Results: intrarectal amifostine was feasible and well tolerated without any systemic or local side effects. According to the RTOG toxicity scale, five out of 33 patients showed grade 1 mucositis in group A versus 15 out of 34 patients with grade 1/2 in group B (p = 0.026). Mean rectal MI was 0.3 {+-} 0.1 in group A versus 2.2 {+-} 0.4 in group B (p < 0.001), while S-RS score was 3.9 {+-} 0.5 in group A versus 6.3 {+-} 0.7 in group B (p < 0.001). The incidence of urinary toxicity was the same in both groups. Conclusion: intrarectal administration of amifostine seems to have a cytoprotective efficacy in acute radiation-induced rectal mucositis. Further randomized studies are needed for definitive therapeutic decisions. (orig.)

  7. Effect of Amifostine on Locally Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated with Radiotherapy: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengye WANG

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Controversy exists on whether amifostine can reduce the efficacy and decrease the side effects of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC treated by radiotherapy. The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of amifostine in NSCLC patients treated with radiotherapy. Methods Open published randomized controlled trials on the efficacy and side effects of amifostine in NSCLC patients treated with radiotherapy were collected from Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBSE, CBM, CNKI, WANFANG, American Society of Clinical Oncology, and European Society of Medical Oncology databases. The pooled efficacy and side effects of amifostine in these patients were calculated using the statistics software Stata 11.0. Results Nine trials that included 769 (381 and 388 in each arm patients were analyzed. The pooled relative risk of complete, partial, and objective responses were 1.16 (95%CI: 0.90-1.50, Z=1.07, P=0.29, 1.02 (95%CI: 0.87-1.19, Z=0.21, P=0.83 and 1.06 (95%CI: 0.97-1.17, Z=1.31, P=0.20, respectively. The side effects in seven trials including 738 (367 and 371 in each arm patients were analyzed. The pooled relative risk of developing grades 3 to 4 esophagitis and pneumonitis were 0.51 (95%CI: 0.37-0.72, Z=3.88, P<0.001 and 0.51 (95%CI: 0.26-0.99, Z=1.98, P=0.04, respectively. Conclusion Amifostine can significantly decrease the risk of developing serious esophagitis and pneumonitis without reducing the response rate in NSCLC patients treated by radiotherapy.

  8. The protection of the myocardium by amifostine against mitoxantrone-induced acute cardiotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vefki Gürhan Kadıköylü

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Amifostine (AMI has been used for the prevention of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in several experimental and a few clinical studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AMI on lipid peroxidation, protective enzymes, and mitoxantrone (MITO-induced acute cardiotoxicity in the rat heart using biochemical tests and histopathological examinations.Materials and Methods: Thirty-six rats were divided into six groups (n=6 in each. Control rats were given intraperitoneal (i.p. serum saline and AMI group rats were given 200 mg/kg AMI i.p. Rats received MITO-2.5 and 5 mg/kg i.p. in the MITO-2.5 and MITO-5 groups. AMI 200 mg/kg i.p. was administered 30 min. before the same doses of MITO in the MITO-2.5+AMI and MITO-5+AMI groups. Results: The levels of cardiac enzymes such as creatinine phosphokinase-myocardial band and cardiac troponin T did not change. Malondialdehyde (MDA levels increased in MITO groups compared to controls. Catalase and glutathione (GSH levels in the MITO and MITO+AMI groups were higher than in controls. Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels were not different between MITO groups and controls. There was no difference in MDA levels between MITO+AMI groups and controls. Calcium deposition was not detected. The scores of fibrosis, apoptosis, inflammation, and degeneration in MITO groups were higher than in controls. The scores of fibrosis, degeneration and inflammation in MITO+AMI groups were lower. Conclusion: MITO caused lipid peroxidation and myocardial damage, and the myocardium increased catalase and GSH levels to prevent this damage. AMI can protect against MITO-induced acute cardiotoxicity, decreasing myocardial damage and lipid peroxidation.

  9. Amifostine Protection Against Mitomycin-induced Chromosomal Breakage in Fanconi Anaemia Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam T. P. Lopes

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Fanconi anaemia (FA is a rare genetic chromosomal instability syndrome caused by impairment of DNA repair and reactive oxygen species (ROS imbalance. This disease is also related to bone marrow failure and cancer. Treatment of these complications with radiation and alkylating agents may enhance chromosomal breakage. We have evaluated the effect of amifostine (AMF on basal and mitomycin C (MMC-induced chromosomal breakage in FA blood cells using the micronucleus assay. The basal micronuclei count was higher among FA patients than healthy subjects. Pre-treatment with AMF significantly inhibited micronucleation induced by MMC in healthy subjects (23.4 ± 4.0 – MMC vs 12.3 ± 2.9 – AMF →MMC MN/1000CB, p < 0.01, one way ANOVA as well as in FA patients (80.0 ± 5.8 – MMC vs 40.1 ± 5.8 – AMF →MMC MN/1000CB, p < 0.01, ANOVA. Release of ROS by peripheral blood mononuclear cells treated with AMF →MMC and measured by chemoluminometry showed that AMF-protection was statistically higher among FA patients than in healthy individuals. Based on these results we suggest that AMF prevents chromosomal breakage induced by MMC, probably by its antioxidant effect.

  10. Analysis of the cytoprotective effect of amifostine on the irradiated inner ear of guinea pigs: an experimental study Análise do efeito citoprotetor da amifostina na orelha interna irradiada de cobaias: estudo experimental

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Miranda Lessa; José Antônio Aparecido de Oliveira; Maria Rossato; Thomaz Ghilardi Netto

    2009-01-01

    Radiation can cause damage to the inner ear, from a simple hearing loss all the way to profound deafness. Amifostine is a cytoprotective substance extensively used during radio-chemotherapy for malignant tumors. AIM: the objective of the present investigation was to establish the antioxidant and radioprotective effects of amifostine on the organ of Corti of albino guinea pigs irradiated in the head and neck region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An experimental study conducted on four groups of guine...

  11. Influence of intravenous amifostine on xerostomia, tumor control, and survival after radiotherapy for head-and- neck cancer: 2-year follow-up of a prospective, randomized, phase III trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate chronic xerostomia and tumor control 18 and 24 months after initial treatment with amifostine in a randomized controlled trial of patients with head-and-neck cancer; at 12 months after radiotherapy (RT), amifostine had been shown to reduce xerostomia without changing tumor control. Methods and Materials: Adults with head-and-neck cancer who underwent once-daily RT for 5-7 weeks (total dose, 50-70 Gy) received either open-label amifostine (200 mg/m2 i.v.) 15-30 min before each fraction of radiation (n = 150) or RT alone (control; n = 153). Results: Amifostine administration was associated with a reduced incidence of Grade ≥2 xerostomia over 2 years of follow-up (p = 0.002), an increase in the proportion of patients with meaningful (>0.1 g) unstimulated saliva production at 24 months (p = 0.011), and reduced mouth dryness scores on a patient benefit questionnaire at 24 months (p < 0.001). Locoregional control rate, progression-free survival, and overall survival were not significantly different between the amifostine group and the control group. Conclusions: Amifostine administration during head-and-neck RT reduces the severity and duration of xerostomia 2 years after treatment and does not seem to compromise locoregional control rates, progression-free survival, or overall survival

  12. Acute toxicity of postoperative radiochemotherapy with amifostine vs radiochemotherapy alone in head and neck cancer patients. Preliminary results of a randomized trial; Nebenwirkungen einer postoperativen Radiochemotherapie mit Amifostin versus alleiniger Radiochemotherapie bei Kopf-Hals-Tumoren. Vorlaeufige Ergebnisse einer prospektiv randomisierten Untersuchung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacha, P.; Marx, M.; Engel, A.; Richter, E.; Feyerabend, T. [Medizinische Univ. Luebeck (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Nuklearmedizin

    1999-11-01

    Purpose: Experimental and clinical data suggest a reduction of radiation-induced acute toxicity by amifostine. We investigated this issue in a randomized trial comparing radiochemotherapy (RCT) versus radiochemotherapy and amifostine (RCT+A) in patients with head and neck cancer. Patients and methods: Forty-seven patients with pharyngeal or laryngeal cancer (T{sub 1-2}N{sub 1-2}G{sub 3},T{sub 3-4}N{sub 0-2}G{sub 1-3}) were randomized to receive RCT alone (21 patients) or RCT+A (21 patients). Patients were irradiated up to 60 Gy (R{sub 0}) or 70 Gy (R{sub 1/2}). Chemotherapy consisted of 70 mg/m{sup 2} carboplatin and was administered over 5 days in the 1st and 5th week of the radiotherapy course. 250 mg amifostine were applied daily just before each radiotherapy session. Acute toxicity was evaluated according to the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC). As for xerostomia no patients with laryngeal cancer were assessed because in these cases only small volumes of the salivary glands were within the treatment volume. To evaluate the overall toxicity a summarized CTC score of all observed side effects was calculated. Results: Forty-two patients were evaluable. Clinical characteristics (age, sex, Karnofsky index, tumor-staging) were well balanced in both treatment groups. Amifostine provided reduction in xerostomia and mucositis. Conclusions: According to our preliminary results amifostine has a radioprotective effect on salivary glands. Mucositis can be reduced during radiochemotherapy. At this point of patient accrual the difference between both groups are statistically not significant. To improve the radioprotective effects of amifostine in clinical practice the application of a higher dose (>250 mg) seems to be necessary. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Diese Untersuchung soll die Frage beantworten, ob bei der postoperativen Radiochemotherapie von Patienten mit HNO-Tumoren eine zusaetzliche Amifostin-Medikation Ausmass und Haeufigkeit akuter Strahlenreaktionen vermindert

  13. Fingerprint recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Diefenderfer, Graig T.

    2006-01-01

    The use of biometrics is an evolving component in today's society. Fingerprint recognition continues to be one of the most widely used biometric systems. This thesis explores the various steps present in a fingerprint recognition system. The study develops a working algorithm to extract fingerprint minutiae from an input fingerprint image. This stage incorporates a variety of image pre-processing steps necessary for accurate minutiae extraction and includes two different methods of ridge thin...

  14. Amifostine protects rat kidneys during peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with [{sup 177}Lu-DOTA{sup 0},Tyr{sup 3}]octreotate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolleman, Edgar J.; Forrer, Flavio; Bernard, Bert; Bijster, Magda; Valkema, Roelf; Krenning, Eric P.; Jong, Marion de [Erasmus MC, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Vermeij, Marcel [Erasmus MC, Department of Pathology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-05-15

    In peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) using radiolabelled somatostatin analogues, the kidneys are the major dose-limiting organs, because of tubular reabsorption and retention of radioactivity. Preventing renal uptake or toxicity will allow for higher tumour radiation doses. We tested the cytoprotective drug amifostine, which selectively protects healthy tissue during chemo- and radiotherapy, for its renoprotective capacities after PRRT with high-dose [{sup 177}Lu-DOTA{sup 0},Tyr{sup 3}]octreotate. Male Lewis rats were injected with 278 or 555 MBq [{sup 177}Lu-DOTA{sup 0},Tyr{sup 3}]octreotate to create renal damage and were followed up for 130 days. For renoprotection, rats received either amifostine or co-injection with lysine. Kidneys, blood and urine were collected for toxicity measurements. At 130 days after PRRT, a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan was performed to quantify tubular uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), a measure of tubular function. Treatment with 555 MBq [{sup 177}Lu-DOTA{sup 0},Tyr{sup 3}]octreotate resulted in body weight loss, elevated creatinine and proteinuria. Amifostine and lysine treatment significantly prevented this rise in creatinine and the level of proteinuria, but did not improve the histological damage. In contrast, after 278 MBq [{sup 177}Lu-DOTA{sup 0},Tyr{sup 3}]octreotate, creatinine values were slightly, but not significantly, elevated compared with the control rats. Proteinuria and histological damage were different from controls and were significantly improved by amifostine treatment. Quantification of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA SPECT scintigrams at 130 days after [{sup 177}Lu-DOTA{sup 0},Tyr{sup 3}]octreotate therapy correlated well with 1/creatinine (r {sup 2} = 0.772, p < 0.001). Amifostine and lysine effectively decreased functional renal damage caused by high-dose [{sup 177}Lu-DOTA{sup 0},Tyr{sup 3}]octreotate. Besides lysine, amifostine might be used in clinical PRRT as well

  15. Speech recognition based on pattern recognition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiner, Lawrence R.

    1990-05-01

    Algorithms for speech recognition can be characterized broadly as pattern recognition approaches and acoustic phonetic approaches. To date, the greatest degree of success in speech recognition has been obtained using pattern recognition paradigms. The use of pattern recognition techniques were applied to the problems of isolated word (or discrete utterance) recognition, connected word recognition, and continuous speech recognition. It is shown that understanding (and consequently the resulting recognizer performance) is best to the simplest recognition tasks and is considerably less well developed for large scale recognition systems.

  16. 氨磷汀引起低血压1例%Hypotension induced by amifostine in one patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王轶娜; 杨宇; 罗荧荃

    2003-01-01

    @@ 氨磷汀(amifostine)是美国FDA批准上市的第1个化疗前应用的正常细胞保护剂,又称WR-2721.临床前研究[1]和Ⅱ,Ⅲ期临床试验[2]已阐明氨磷汀能明显减少抗癌药物引起的骨髓、肾脏、神经和心脏等毒性.其主要的不良反应是低血压和胃肠道反应,作者未见国内有氨磷汀引起低血压的临床报道,我科收治的1名老年肺癌病人在使用氨磷汀时出现了严重低血压,现报道如下.

  17. Effect of amifostine in head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis based on randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jundong Gu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Amifostine is the most clinical used chemical radioprotector, but its effect in patients treated with radiation is not consistent. METHODS: By searching Medline, CENTRAL, EMBASE, ASCO, ESMO, and CNKI databases, the published randomized controlled trials (RCTs about the efficacy of amifostine in HNSCC patients treated with radiotherapy were collected. The pooled efficacy and side effects of this drug were calculated by RevMan software. RESULTS: Seventeen trials including a total of 1167 patients (604 and 563 each arm were analyzed in the meta-analysis. The pooled data showed that the use of amifostine significantly reduce the risk of developing Grade 3-4 mucositis (relative risk [RR],0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI],0.54-0.95; p<0.00001, Grade 2-4 acute xerostomia (RR,0.70; 95%CI,0.52-0.96; p = 0.02, or late xerostomia (RR,0.60; 95%CI,0.49-0.74; p<0.00001 and Grade 3-4 dysphagia (RR,0.39; 95%CI,0.17-0.92; p = 0.03. However, subgroup analysis demonstrated that no statistically significant reduction of Grade 3-4 mucositis (RR,0.97; 95% CI,0.74-1.26; p = 0.80, Grade 2-4 acute xerostomia (RR,0.35; 95%CI,0.02-5.44; p = 0.45, or late xerostomia (RR,0.40; 95%CI,0.13-1.24; p = 0.11 and Grade 3-4 dysphagia (RR,0.23; 95%CI,0.01-4.78; p = 0.35 was observed in patients treated with concomitant chemoradiotherapy. Compared with placebo or observation, amifostine does not show tumor protective effect in complete response (RR,1.02; 95%CI,0.89-1.17; p = 0.76 and partial response (RR,0.90; 95%CI, 0.56-1.44; p = 0.66. For the hematologic side effect, no statistical difference of Grade 3-4 leucopenia (RR,0.60; 95%CI,0.35-1.05; p = 0.07, anemia (RR,0.80; 95%CI, 0.42-1.53; p = 0.50 and thrombocytopenia (RR,0.43; 95%CI,0.16-1.15; p = 0.09 were found between amifostine and control groups. The most common amifostine related side effects were nausea, emesis, hypotension and allergic with an average incidence rate (Grade 3-4 of 5%, 6%, 4% and 4% respectively

  18. Radioprotection of salivary glands by amifostine in high-dose radioiodine treatment. Results of a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohuslavizki, K.H.; Klutmann, S.; Kroeger, S.; Buchert, R.; Bleckmann, C.; Mester, J.; Clausen, M. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. Nuklearmedizin; Brenner, W.; Henze, E. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1999-11-01

    Background and purpose: Parenchymal impairment of salivary glands following high-dose radioiodine treatment is a well-known side effect in general caused by free radicals. Therefore, the radioprotective effect of the radical scavenger amifostine was evaluated prospectively in patients receiving high-dose radioiodine treatment. Patients and methods: Parenchymal function was assessed by quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy performed in 50 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer prior to and 3 months after high-dose radioiodine treatment with either 3 GBq {sup 131}I (n=21) or 6 BGq {sup 131}I (n=29) in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Twenty-five patients treated with 500 mg/m{sup 2} amifostine intravenously prior to high-dose radioiodine treatment were compared to 25 control patients receiving physiological saline solution. Xerostomia was graded according to WHO-criteria. Results: In 25 control patients high-dose radioiodine treatment significantly (p<0.001) reduced parenchymal function of parotid and submandibular glands by 40.2{+-}14.1% and 39.9{+-}15.3%, respectively. Nine out of these 25 patients developed Grade I and 2 Grade II xerostomia. In contrast, in 25 amifostine-treated patients there was no significant (p=0.691) decrease in parenchymal function following high-dose radioiodine treatment, and xerostomia did not occur in any of them. Conclusion: Parenchymal damage of salivary glands induced by high-dose radioiodine treatment can be significantly reduced by amifostine which may improve quality of life of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund und Ziel: Eine Schaedigung der Speicheldruesen mit konsekutiver Xerostomie ist eine bekannte, durch freie Radikale verursachte Nebenwirkung der ablativen Radioiodtherapie bei Patienten mit differenziertem Schilddruesenkarzinom. Daher wurde der Effekt des Radikalfaengers Amifostin bei ablativer Radioiodtherapie geprueft. Patienten und Methoden: Es wurden insgesamt 50

  19. Application of amifostine in the chemotherapy of cancer patients%氨磷汀在肿瘤患者化疗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢龙; 布仁巴图

    2015-01-01

    目的:本文阐述了氨磷汀在肿瘤患者化疗中的作用机制和临床应用。氨磷汀可有效预防肿瘤化疗致肾、骨髓、外周神经及口腔黏膜毒性,疗效显著且耐受性好,有极好的应用前景。%In this paper,the author elaborates the action mechanism and clinical application of amifostine in the chemotherapy of cancer patients.Amifostine could effectively prevent the kidney,bone marrow,peripheral nerve and the oral mucosa toxicity caused by cancer chemotherapy.Its curative effect was remarkable and the tolerance was good.It had an excellent application prospect.

  20. Use of the cytoprotector amifostine in patients under chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy; Utilizacao do citoprotetor amifostina em pacientes durante tratamento oncologico com quimioterapia e/ou radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanchi, Clarissa; Suyenaga, Edna Sayuri; Perassolo, Magda Susana [Centro Universitario Feevale, Novo Hamburgo, RS (Brazil). Curso de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mails: clarissazanchi@gmail.com; suyenaga@feevale.br; magdaperassolo@feevale.br

    2008-07-01

    In recent years, several cytoprotective agents have been developed o protect normal cells form the toxic effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The ideal cytoprotectant agent would be that one able to allow the intensification of chemotherapy's dose.; to protect largest number of normal tissues and organs when used with a variety of chemotherapy agents; to confer specific protection for normal tissues; to preserve anti tumor effect and to have little and/or manageable toxicity and side effects. Amifostine fits in on these questions also presenting a broad spectrum of action. This paper aims the discussion of the use of cryoprotective amifostine, their main characteristics/functions, adverse effects, action mechanism, administration and recommended dosage. (author)

  1. Radioprotection of salivary glands by amifostine in high-dose radioiodine treatment. Results of a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Parenchymal impairment of salivary glands following high-dose radioiodine treatment is a well-known side effect in general caused by free radicals. Therefore, the radioprotective effect of the radical scavenger amifostine was evaluated prospectively in patients receiving high-dose radioiodine treatment. Patients and methods: Parenchymal function was assessed by quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy performed in 50 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer prior to and 3 months after high-dose radioiodine treatment with either 3 GBq 131I (n=21) or 6 BGq 131I (n=29) in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Twenty-five patients treated with 500 mg/m2 amifostine intravenously prior to high-dose radioiodine treatment were compared to 25 control patients receiving physiological saline solution. Xerostomia was graded according to WHO-criteria. Results: In 25 control patients high-dose radioiodine treatment significantly (p<0.001) reduced parenchymal function of parotid and submandibular glands by 40.2±14.1% and 39.9±15.3%, respectively. Nine out of these 25 patients developed Grade I and 2 Grade II xerostomia. In contrast, in 25 amifostine-treated patients there was no significant (p=0.691) decrease in parenchymal function following high-dose radioiodine treatment, and xerostomia did not occur in any of them. Conclusion: Parenchymal damage of salivary glands induced by high-dose radioiodine treatment can be significantly reduced by amifostine which may improve quality of life of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. (orig.)

  2. Amifostine (WR-2721), a cytoprotective agent during high-dose cyclophosphamide treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas: a phase II study

    OpenAIRE

    De Souza C.A.; Santini G; Marino G.; Nati S.; Congiu A. M.; Vigorito A.C.; Damasio E.

    2000-01-01

    Clinical trials indicate that amifostine may confer protection on various normal tissues without attenuating anti-tumor response. When administered prior to chemotherapy or radiotherapy, it may provide a broad spectrum of cytoprotection including against alkylating drugs. The mechanism of protection resides in the metabolism at normal tissue site by membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase. Toxicity of this drug is moderate with hypotension, nausea and vomiting, and hypocalcemia being observed. We...

  3. Amifostine as radioprotective agent for the rectal mucosa during irradiation of pelvic tumors. A phase II randomized study using various toxicity scales and rectosigmoidoscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouvaris, J.; Antypas, C.; Kokakis, J.; Vlahos, L. [Radiology-Radiotherapy Dept., National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece); Kouloulias, V. [Radiology-Radiotherapy Dept., National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece); Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Inst. of Communication and Computer Systems, National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece); Malas, E. [Endoscopy-Gastroenterology Unit, Dept. of Surgical Oncology, Aretaieion Univ. Hospital, Athens (Greece); Michopoulos, S. [Dept. of Gastroenterology, Alexandra General Hospital of Athens (Greece); Matsopoulos, G. [Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Inst. of Communication and Computer Systems, National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece)

    2003-03-01

    Aim: To evaluate the cytoprotective effect of amifostine against radiation-induced acute toxicity to the rectal mucosa. Patients and Methods: 36 patients irradiated for prostate or gynecologic cancer were randomized to receive amifostine (n = 18, group A) or not (n = 18, group B). The radiation-induced acute rectal toxicity was evaluated by using three different toxicity scales: WHO scale, EORTC/RTOG toxicity criteria, and a modified toxicity scale based on the LENT-SOMA grading scale and the endoscopic terminology of the World Organization for Digestive Endoscopy. The objective measurements were coming from flexible rectosigmoidoscopy performed at baseline and 1-2 days after completion of the radiotherapy schedule. Anterior-posterior fields were used in the gynecologic patients while 3-D conformal 4-field technique was applied in the prostate cancer patients. The area under the curve (AUC) for dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the rectum was also assessed during a 3-D treatment planning schedule, and no significant differences were assessed between the two groups, indicating a homogeneous dose-volume effect. Results: Amifostine was well tolerated. No grade 2 or higher WHO and EORTC/RTOG acute toxicity was noted in group A, while acute rectal toxicity ({>=} grade 1) was observed in 16/18 patients of group B versus 2/18 of group A (p < 0.001). The onset as well as the duration of acute rectal toxicity were significantly improved in group A (p = 0.002). Rectosigmoidoscopy revealed more severe rectal mucositis in noncytoprotected patients (group B), and modified LENT-SOMA overall mucositis grading score was significantly lower in group A (p = 0.003). Conclusion: Amifostine seems to have a significant cytoprotective efficacy in acute radiation-induced rectal mucositis in terms of symptomatic and objective endpoints. (orig.)

  4. Customer recognition and competition

    OpenAIRE

    Shy, Oz; Stenbacka , Rune

    2011-01-01

    We introduce three types of consumer recognition: identity recognition, asymmetric preference recognition, and symmetric preference recognition. We characterize price equilibria and compare profits, consumer surplus, and total welfare. Asymmetric preference recognition enhances profits compared with identity recognition, but firms have no incentive to exchange information regarding customer-specific preferences (symmetric preference recognition). Consumers would benefit from a policy panning ...

  5. Prevention of radiochemotherapy-induced toxicity with amifostine in patients with malignant orbital tumors involving the lacrimal gland: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greiner Richard

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To use amifostine concurrently with radiochemotherapy (CT-RT or radiotherapy (RT alone in order to prevent dry eye syndrome in patients with malignancies located in the fronto-orbital region. Methods Five patients (2 males, 3 females with diagnosed malignancies (Non-Hodgkin B-cell Lymphoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma involving the lacrimal gland, in which either combined CT-RT or local RT were indicated, were prophylactically treated with amifostine (500 mg sc. Single RT fraction dose, total dose and treatment duration were individually adjusted to the patient's need. Acute and late adverse effects were recorded using the RTOG score. Subjective and objective dry eye assessment was performed for the post-treatment control of lacrimal gland function. Results All patients have completed CT-RT or RT as indicated. The median total duration of RT was 29 days (range, 23 – 39 days and the median total RT dose was 40 Gy (range, 36 – 60 Gy. Median lacrimal gland exposure was 35.9 Gy (range, 16.8 – 42.6 Gy. Very good partial or complete tumor remission was achieved in all patients. The treatment was well tolerated without major toxic reactions. Post-treatment control did not reveal in any patient either subjective or objective signs of a dry eye syndrome. Conclusion The addition of amifostine to RT/CT-RT of patients with tumors localized in orbital region was found to be associated with absence of dry eye syndrome.

  6. Prevention of radiochemotherapy-induced toxicity with amifostine in patients with malignant orbital tumors involving the lacrimal gland: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To use amifostine concurrently with radiochemotherapy (CT-RT) or radiotherapy (RT) alone in order to prevent dry eye syndrome in patients with malignancies located in the fronto-orbital region. Five patients (2 males, 3 females) with diagnosed malignancies (Non-Hodgkin B-cell Lymphoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma) involving the lacrimal gland, in which either combined CT-RT or local RT were indicated, were prophylactically treated with amifostine (500 mg sc). Single RT fraction dose, total dose and treatment duration were individually adjusted to the patient's need. Acute and late adverse effects were recorded using the RTOG score. Subjective and objective dry eye assessment was performed for the post-treatment control of lacrimal gland function. All patients have completed CT-RT or RT as indicated. The median total duration of RT was 29 days (range, 23 – 39 days) and the median total RT dose was 40 Gy (range, 36 – 60 Gy). Median lacrimal gland exposure was 35.9 Gy (range, 16.8 – 42.6 Gy). Very good partial or complete tumor remission was achieved in all patients. The treatment was well tolerated without major toxic reactions. Post-treatment control did not reveal in any patient either subjective or objective signs of a dry eye syndrome. The addition of amifostine to RT/CT-RT of patients with tumors localized in orbital region was found to be associated with absence of dry eye syndrome

  7. Facial Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihalache Sergiu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available During their lifetime, people learn to recognize thousands of faces that they interact with. Face perception refers to an individual's understanding and interpretation of the face, particularly the human face, especially in relation to the associated information processing in the brain. The proportions and expressions of the human face are important to identify origin, emotional tendencies, health qualities, and some social information. From birth, faces are important in the individual's social interaction. Face perceptions are very complex as the recognition of facial expressions involves extensive and diverse areas in the brain. Our main goal is to put emphasis on presenting human faces specialized studies, and also to highlight the importance of attractiviness in their retention. We will see that there are many factors that influence face recognition.

  8. Improvement of the detection response time of gas sensors using the association of artificial neural networks with pattern recognition technique; Amelioration de la reponse temporelle de capteurs de gaz par reconnaissance de forme a l'aide de reseaux de neurones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordieu, Ch.; Rebiere, D. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Lab. IXL, UMR CNRS 5818, 33 (France); Pistre, J.; Planata, R. [Centre d' Etudes du Bouchet, 91 - Vert-le-Petit (France)

    1999-07-01

    The association of artificial neural networks (multilayer perceptrons) with a real time pattern recognition technique (shifting windows) allowed the development of systems for the detection and the quantification of gases. Shifting window technique is presented and offers an interesting way to improve the detection response time. The partial detector characterization with regard to its parameters was realized. Applications dealing with the detection of gas compounds using surface acoustic sensors permit to show the shifting window technique feasibility. (author)

  9. Melatonin can Ameliorate Radiation-Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammation-Related Deterioration of Bone Quality in Rat Femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakir, Zelal Ünlü; Demirel, Can; Kilciksiz, Sevil Cagiran; Gürgül, Serkan; Zincircioğlu, S Burhanedtin; Erdal, Nurten

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the radioprotective effects of melatonin on the biomechanical properties of bone in comparison to amifostine (WR-2721). Forty Sprague Dawley rats were divided equally into 5 groups namely; control (C), irradiation (R; single dose of 50 Gy), irradiation + WR-2721 (R + WR-2721; irradiation + 200 mg/kg WR-2721) radiation + melatonin 25 mg/kg (R + M25; irradiation + 25 mg/kg melatonin), and radiation + melatonin 50 mg/kg (R + M50; irradiation + 50 mg/kg melatonin). In order to measure extrinsic (organ-level mechanical properties of bone; the ultimate strength, deformation, stiffness, energy absorption capacity) and intrinsic (tissue-level mechanical properties of bone; ultimate stress, ultimate strain, elastic modulus, toughness) features of the bone, a three-point bending (TPB) test was performed for biomechanical evaluation. In addition, a bone mineral density (BMD) test was carried out. The BMD and extrinsic properties of the diaphyseal femur were found to be significantly higher in the R + M25 group than in group R (p < 0.05). A significant increase was observed in R + M50 (p < 0.05) in comparison to group R in the cross-sectional area of the femoral shaft and elastic modulus parameter. The protective effect of melatonin was similar to that of WR-2721. Thus, biomechanical quality of irradiated bone can be ameliorated by free radical scavenger melatonin. PMID:27052631

  10. Recognition intent and visual word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man-Ying; Ching, Chi-Le

    2009-03-01

    This study adopted a change detection task to investigate whether and how recognition intent affects the construction of orthographic representation in visual word recognition. Chinese readers (Experiment 1-1) and nonreaders (Experiment 1-2) detected color changes in radical components of Chinese characters. Explicit recognition demand was imposed in Experiment 2 by an additional recognition task. When the recognition was implicit, a bias favoring the radical location informative of character identity was found in Chinese readers (Experiment 1-1), but not nonreaders (Experiment 1-2). With explicit recognition demands, the effect of radical location interacted with radical function and word frequency (Experiment 2). An estimate of identification performance under implicit recognition was derived in Experiment 3. These findings reflect the joint influence of recognition intent and orthographic regularity in shaping readers' orthographic representation. The implication for the role of visual attention in word recognition was also discussed. PMID:19036609

  11. Amelioration of radiation stress by antioxidants and prooxidants: role of redox transcription factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of radiation countermeasures has emerged as a major area of research in radiation biology as ionizing radiation is finding wide applications in power generation, agriculture, food processing, disease diagnosis and therapy. Chemical agents used to alter tissue toxicity of radiation can be broadly divided into three categories based on the time of intervention in relation to radiation. These are: radioprotectors, mitigators, and therapeutic agents. Radiation causes injury to normal tissue by a dynamic process involving generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), their interactions with bio-molecules, intracellular signaling, cell-to-cell communication, inflammatory responses, tissue repair and cell death. Most of the radiation-induced damage to bio-molecules is caused by the formation of free radicals resulting from the radiolysis of water. However, antioxidants that neutralize free radicals failed to reach clinic. At present, no agent, approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, is available for the treatment of acute radiation syndrome (ARS), although amifostine is approved for prophylaxis of dry mouth (xerostomia) from radiotherapy of head and neck cancers. Therefore, researchers are employing new approaches to ameliorate radiation induced injury. Some of these include use of cytokines, NF-κB (Nuclear factor κB) activators, agents that induce G1 arrest, antibiotics and inhibitors of P53. We have used pro-oxidants to upregulate cytoprotective pathways as a novel strategy to protect against radiation induced hematopoietic syndrome. Different prooxidants including hydrogen peroxide, diethylmaleate, t-butylhydroperoxide and naphthoquinone and its derivatives protected lymphocytes against radiation induced cell death. Further studies were carried out with 1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ) to explore the molecular mechanism of the observed protection. Thiol containing antioxidants abrogated NQ mediated radioprotection in lymphocytes. Addition of NQ to

  12. Development and Validation of an HPLC Method for Determination of Amifostine and/or Its Metabolite (WR-1065) In Human Plasma Using OPA Derivatization and UV Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Samiei, Nasim; FOROUTAN, SEYED MOHSEN; Shafaati, Alireza; Zarghi, Afshin

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive and reproducible HPLC method was developed and validated for the analysis of amifostine (AMF) and/or its metabolite, WR-1065 in human plasma. The method involves the alkylation of free sulfydryl group with iodoacetic acid followed by derivatization of the drug and its metabolite with o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) and UVdetection at 340 nm. The derivatized AMF and WR-1065 were eluted in less than 11 min, and in the case of the metabolite with no interferences from the endogenous ...

  13. Concurrent administration of Docetaxel and Stealth® liposomal doxorubicin with radiotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer : excellent tolerance using subcutaneous amifostine for cytoprotection

    OpenAIRE

    Koukourakis, M I; Romanidis, K.; Froudarakis, M; Kyrgias, G; Koukourakis, G V; Retalis, G; Bahlitzanakis, N

    2002-01-01

    The substantial augmentation of the radiation sequelae during chemo–radiotherapy with novel drugs masks the real potential of such regimens. In this study we examined whether subcutaneous administration of amifostine can reduce the toxicity of a highly aggressive chemo–radiotherapy scheme with Stealth® liposomal doxorubicin (Caelyx®) and Docetaxel (Taxotere®) in non-small cell lung cancer. Twenty-five patients with stage IIIb non-small cell lung cancer were recruited in a phase I/II dose esca...

  14. Bevacizumab, Capecitabine, Amifostine, and Preoperative Hypofractionated Accelerated Radiotherapy (HypoArc) for Rectal Cancer: A Phase II Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Bevacizumab has established therapeutic activity in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy enhances the activity of radiotherapy in experimental models. We assessed the feasibility and efficacy of preoperative radiochemotherapy combined with bevacizumab in patients with rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Nineteen patients with radiologic T3 and/or N+ rectal carcinoma were treated with preoperative conformal hypofractionated accelerated radiotherapy (3.4 Gy in 10 consecutive fractions) supported with amifostine (500-1,000 mg daily), capecitabine (600 mg/m2 twice daily, 5 days per week), and bevacizumab (5 mg/kg every 2 weeks for 2 cycles). Surgery followed 6 weeks after the end of radiotherapy. A cohort of 14 sequential patients treated with the same regimen without bevacizumab was available for comparison. Results: Grade 2 or 3 diarrhea was noted in 7 of 19 patients (36.8%), which was statistically worse than patients receiving the same regimen without bevacizumab (p = 0.01). A higher incidence of Grade 2 or 3 proctalgia was also noted (21.1%) (p = 0.03). Bladder and skin toxicity was negligible. All toxicities regressed completely within 2 weeks after the end of therapy. Pathologic complete and partial response was noted in 7 of 19 cases (36.8%) and 8 of 19 cases (42.1%). Within a median follow-up of 21 months, none of the patients has had late complications develop and only 1 of 18 evaluable cases (5.5%) has had locoregional relapse. Conclusions: Bevacizumab can be safely combined with hypofractionated radiotherapy and capecitabine as a preoperative radiochemotherapy regimen for patients with rectal cancer. The high pathologic complete response rates urges the testing of bevacizumab in randomized studies.

  15. Neuronal dysfunction with aging and its amelioration

    OpenAIRE

    Ando, Susumu

    2012-01-01

    The author focused on the functional decline of synapses in the brain with aging to understand the underlying mechanisms and to ameliorate the deficits. The first attempt was to unravel the neuronal functions of gangliosides so that gangliosides could be used for enhancing synaptic activity. The second attempt was to elicit the neuronal plasticity in aged animals through enriched environmental stimulation and nutritional intervention. Environmental stimuli were revealed neurochemically and mo...

  16. Calcium ameliorates diarrhea in immune compromised children

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Sam X.; Bai, Harrison X; Gonzalez-Peralta, Regino; Mistry, Pramod K.; Gorelick, Fred S.

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of infectious diarrheas remains a challenge, particularly in immunocompromised patients in whom infections usually persist and resultant diarrhea is often severe and protracted. Children with infectious diarrhea who become dehydrated are normally treated with oral or intravenous rehydration therapy. Although rehydration therapy can replace the loss of fluid, it does not ameliorate diarrhea. Thus, over the past decades, there has been continuous effort to search for ways to safely st...

  17. Speaker recognition by voice

    OpenAIRE

    Kamarauskas, Juozas

    2009-01-01

    Questions of speaker’s recognition by voice are investigated in this dissertation. Speaker recognition systems, their evolution, problems of recognition, systems of features, questions of speaker modeling and matching used in text-independent and text-dependent speaker recognition are considered too. The text-independent speaker recognition system has been developed during this work. The Gaussian mixture model approach was used for speaker modeling and pattern matching. The automatic m...

  18. Iris Recognition Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Mei

    2006-01-01

    The demand on security is increasing greatly in these years and biometric recognition gradually becomes a hot field of research. Iris recognition is a new branch of biometric recognition, which is regarded as the most stable, safe and accurate biometric recognition method. In these years, much progress in this field has been made by scholars and experts of different countries. In this paper, some successful iris recognition methods are listed and their performance are compared. Furthermore, the existing problems and challenges are discussed.

  19. Cacao polyphenols ameliorate autoimmune myocarditis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempo, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Jun-Ichi; Watanabe, Ryo; Wakayama, Kouji; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Komuro, Issei; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2016-04-01

    Myocarditis is a clinically severe disease; however, no effective treatment has been established. The aim of this study was to determine whether cacao bean (Theobroma cacao) polyphenols ameliorate autoimmune myocarditis. We used an experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) model in Balb/c mice. Mice with induced EAM were treated with a cacao polyphenol extract (CPE, n=12) or vehicle (n=12). On day 21, hearts were harvested and analyzed. Elevated heart weight to body weight and fibrotic area ratios as well as high cardiac cell infiltration were observed in the vehicle-treated EAM mice. However, these increases were significantly suppressed in the CPE-treated mice. Reverse transcriptase-PCR revealed that mRNA expressions of interleukin (Il)-1β, Il-6, E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and collagen type 1 were lower in the CPE group compared with the vehicle group. The mRNA expressions of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (Nox)2 and Nox4 were increased in the vehicle-treated EAM hearts, although CPE treatment did not significantly suppress the transcription levels. However, compared with vehicle treatment of EAM hearts, CPE treatment significantly suppressed hydrogen peroxide concentrations. Cardiac myeloperoxidase activity, the intensity of dihydroethidium staining and the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB p65 were also lower in the CPE group compared with the vehicle group. Our data suggest that CPE ameliorates EAM in mice. CPE is a promising dietary supplement to suppress cardiovascular inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:26657007

  20. Means for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konynenburg, R.A. van; Farmer, J.C.

    1999-11-09

    A fuse and filter arrangement is described for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting in capacitive deionization water purification systems utilizing carbon aerogel, for example. This arrangement limits and ameliorates the effects of conducting particles or debonded carbon aerogel in shorting the electrodes of a system such as a capacitive deionization water purification system. This is important because of the small interelectrode spacing and the finite possibility of debonding or fragmentation of carbon aerogel in a large system. The fuse and filter arrangement electrically protect the entire system from shutting down if a single pair of electrodes is shorted and mechanically prevents a conducting particle from migrating through the electrode stack, shorting a series of electrode pairs in sequence. It also limits the amount of energy released in a shorting event. The arrangement consists of a set of circuit breakers or fuses with one fuse or breaker in the power line connected to one electrode of each electrode pair and a set of screens of filters in the water flow channels between each set of electrode pairs.

  1. Means for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Konynenburg, Richard A. (Livermore, CA); Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A fuse and filter arrangement for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting in capacitive deionization water purification systems utilizing carbon aerogel, for example. This arrangement limits and ameliorates the effects of conducting particles or debonded carbon aerogel in shorting the electrodes of a system such as a capacitive deionization water purification system. This is important because of the small interelectrode spacing and the finite possibility of debonding or fragmentation of carbon aerogel in a large system. The fuse and filter arrangement electrically protect the entire system from shutting down if a single pair of electrodes is shorted and mechanically prevents a conducting particle from migrating through the electrode stack, shorting a series of electrode pairs in sequence. It also limits the amount of energy released in a shorting event. The arrangement consists of a set of circuit breakers or fuses with one fuse or breaker in the power line connected to one electrode of each electrode pair and a set of screens of filters in the water flow channels between each set of electrode pairs.

  2. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition ameliorates deficits in motivational drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinowich Keri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apathy is frequently observed in numerous neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, as well as neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Apathy is defined as a lack of motivation characterized by diminished goal-oriented behavior and self-initiated activity. This study evaluated a chronic restraint stress (CRS protocol in modeling apathetic behavior, and determined whether administration of an anticholinesterase had utility in attenuating CRS-induced phenotypes. Methods We assessed behavior as well as regional neuronal activity patterns using FosB immunohistochemistry after exposure to CRS for 6 h/d for a minimum of 21 d. Based on our FosB findings and recent clinical trials, we administered an anticholinesterase to evaluate attenuation of CRS-induced phenotypes. Results CRS resulted in behaviors that reflect motivational loss and diminished emotional responsiveness. CRS-exposed mice showed differences in FosB accumulation, including changes in the cholinergic basal forebrain system. Facilitating cholinergic signaling ameliorated CRS-induced deficits in initiation and motivational drive and rescued immediate early gene activation in the medial septum and nucleus accumbens. Conclusions Some CRS protocols may be useful for studying deficits in motivation and apathetic behavior. Amelioration of CRS-induced behaviors with an anticholinesterase supports a role for the cholinergic system in remediation of deficits in motivational drive.

  3. Recognition of Problem Drinkers

    OpenAIRE

    Cornel, Michiel; van Zutphen, Wim M.

    1989-01-01

    General practitioners often see patients with problems related to drinking behaviour, but recognize only a small proportion of these problem drinkers. The authors discuss some mechanisms of this non-recognition phenomenon and suggest ways to enhance early recognition.

  4. Speech recognition and understanding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vintsyuk, T.K.

    1983-05-01

    This article discusses the automatic processing of speech signals with the aim of finding a sequence of works (speech recognition) or a concept (speech understanding) being transmitted by the speech signal. The goal of the research is to develop an automatic typewriter that will automatically edit and type text under voice control. A dynamic programming method is proposed in which all possible class signals are stored, after which the presented signal is compared to all the stored signals during the recognition phase. Topics considered include element-by-element recognition of words of speech, learning speech recognition, phoneme-by-phoneme speech recognition, the recognition of connected speech, understanding connected speech, and prospects for designing speech recognition and understanding systems. An application of the composition dynamic programming method for the solution of basic problems in the recognition and understanding of speech is presented.

  5. RECOGNITION OF CONTESTED STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Nanna; Ben-Ahmed, Michele; Bom, Thomas Falk; Ching, Rune Kieran; Steffensen, Lars Schmidt; Funningsstovu, Janus Hanusarson í

    2012-01-01

    Contested states have existed in many decades and been on the political agenda worldwide. A small group of entities in the world are aspiring for recognition and independence, while some entities gained recognition relatively smoothly. This project accounts for UN’s recognition process and investigates entities prospects of influencing the process for obtaining recognition. Based on theories of liberalism and constructivism as well as the opposing theories of international relations, re...

  6. 氨磷汀用于化疗患者的临床观察%Observation on the Clinical Effects of Amifostine for Patients Received Chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈黎; 范开席

    2003-01-01

    为观察氨磷汀(Amifostine)疗效及副作用,对 25 例恶性肿瘤患者化疗前应用氨磷汀后的多项临床指标进行自身对照分析.结果显示,氨磷汀能减轻化疗对骨髓、肝功能及神经系统的毒性,副作用有恶心、呕吐、一过性血压下降等.观察结果认为氨磷汀是一种很有前途的正常细胞保护药物.

  7. 化学保护剂阿米福汀在晚期胃癌病人中的应用%Chemoprotection of amifostine in advanced gastric cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚丽萍; 尹鸣

    2004-01-01

    目的研究化疗保护剂阿米福汀(amifostine)对晚期胃癌化疗病人的应用价值.方法采用自身对照,对比单纯化疗组与阿米福汀+静脉化疗组的毒副反应.结果阿米福汀+静脉化疗组消化道反应有所增加,总体毒副反应较单纯化疗组明显减少,但无统计学差异(P=0.225).结论阿米福汀作为高效、安全的化疗保护剂,值得在大剂量化疗以及既往化疗出现明显毒副反应的患者中应用.

  8. 氨磷汀在化疗中细胞保护作用的观察%Cell-protection effects of Amifostine for chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉蓓; 江丰收; 胡冰

    2004-01-01

    目的探讨Amifostine在肿瘤患者化疗中的细胞保护作用.方法对20例既往化疗前有Ⅰ°~Ⅳ°度血液学、肾脏、肝脏毒性的患者化疗前应用Amifostine.结果入组病人化疗前用amifostine与未用amifostine的血液学毒性、肾脏毒性的差异有显著性(P<0.05).结论Amifostine在化疗前应用是一种有效的细胞保护剂.

  9. Recognition and Teleportation

    OpenAIRE

    Fichtner, K. -H.; Freudenberg, W.; Ohya, M.

    2004-01-01

    We study a possible function of brain, in particular, we try to describe several aspects of the process of recognition. In order to understand the fundamental parts of the recognition process, the quantum teleportation scheme seems to be useful. We consider a channel expression of the teleportation process that serves for a simplified description of the recognition process in brain.

  10. Use of Coffee Pulp and Minerals for Natural Soil Ameliorant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujiyanto Pujiyanto

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In coffee plantation, solid waste of coffee pulp is usually collected as heap nearby processing facilities for several months prior being used as compost. The practice is leading to the formation of odor and liquid which contaminate the environment. Experiments to evaluate the effect of natural soil ameliorant derived from coffee pulp and minerals were conducted at The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Jember, East Java. The experiments were intended to optimize the use of coffee pulp to support farming sustainability and minimize negative impacts of solid waste disposal originated from coffee cherry processing. Prior to applications, coffee pulp was hulled to organic paste. The paste was then mixed with 10% minerals (b/b. Composition of the minerals was 50% zeolite and 50% rock phosphate powder. The ameliorant was characterized for their physical and chemical properties. Agronomic tests were conducted on coffee and cocoa seedling. The experiments were arranged according to Randomized Completely Design with 2 factors, consisted of natural ameliorant and inorganic fertilizer respectively. Natural ameliorant derived from coffee pulp was applied at 6 levels: 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 g dry ameliorant/seedling of 3 kg soil, equivalent to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% (b/b of ameliorant respectively. Inorganic fertilizer was applied at 2 levels: 0 and 2 g fertilizer/application of N-P-K compound fertilizer of 15-15-15 respectively. The inorganic fertilizer was applied 4 times during nursery of coffee and cocoa. The result of the experiment indicated that coffee pulp may be used as natural soil ameliorant. Composition of ameliorant of 90% coffee pulp and 10% of minerals has good physical and chemical characteristics for soil amelioration. The composition has high water holding capacity; cations exchange capacity, organic carbon and phosphorus contents which are favorable to increase soil capacity to support plant growth. Application of

  11. 氨磷汀防治奥沙利铂神经毒性的临床研究%Clinical Study of Amifostine for Preventing Oxaliplatin-Induced Neurotoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈旭烽; 王永辉; 楼建

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the clinical efficacy of amifostine in preventing neurotoxicity induced by oxaliplatin. Methods A total of 80 patients with colorectal cancer or gastric cancer were enrolled and randomly assigned to the experimental group (amifostine, 40 cases) and the control group(40 cases). All cases received the chemotherapy with FOLFOX4 regimen. The experimental group was given amifostine 8 mg, dexamethasone 5 mg amifostine 500 mg/m2 just before chemotherapy, while the control group was given only amifostine 8 mg and dexamethasone 5 mg. The neurological toxicity was assessed in each therapeutical cycle. Results Twenty- two point five percent cases in amifostine group occurred degree Ⅰ- Ⅱ peripheral neurotoxicity after 6 therapeutical cycles of chemotherapy, which was significantly lower than 47. 50% in the control group( P<0. 01). Seven point five percent cases in amifostine group occurred degree Ⅲ peripheral neurotoxicity,which was significantly lower than 17.50% in the control group(P <0. 05). The occurrence rate of other adverse reactions had no obvious difference between the two groups. Conclusion Amifostine could prevent the occurrence of oxaliplatin- induced neurotoxicity and reduce its severity in the patients with digestive tract tumors.%目的 研究氨磷汀防治奥沙利铂神经毒性的临床效果.方法 将80例奥沙利铂胃肠道肿瘤患者随机均分为试验组和对照组,所有患者均采用含奥沙利铂的FOLFOX4方案进行化学治疗,化学治疗前试验组使用昂丹司琼8 mg、地塞米松5 mg和氨磷汀500 mg/m2,对照组仅予昂丹司琼8 mg和地塞米松5 mg.每个治疗周期评估患者外周神经毒性.结果 6个周期的化学治疗后,氨磷汀组有22.50%的患者发生Ⅰ~Ⅱ度外周神经毒性,明显低于对照组的47.50%(P<0.01),有7.50%的患者发生Ⅲ度外周神经毒性,显著低于对照组的17.50%(P<0.05).其他化学治疗相关毒副反应发生率两

  12. Analysis of the cytoprotective effect of amifostine on the irradiated inner ear of guinea pigs: an experimental study Análise do efeito citoprotetor da amifostina na orelha interna irradiada de cobaias: estudo experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Miranda Lessa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Radiation can cause damage to the inner ear, from a simple hearing loss all the way to profound deafness. Amifostine is a cytoprotective substance extensively used during radio-chemotherapy for malignant tumors. AIM: the objective of the present investigation was to establish the antioxidant and radioprotective effects of amifostine on the organ of Corti of albino guinea pigs irradiated in the head and neck region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An experimental study conducted on four groups of guinea pigs were used; One group received only amifostine, one group was submitted to a single dose of 350 cGy and the other two were similarly irradiated but received amifostine doses of 100 or 200 mg/kg. All animals were slaughtered 30 days after the experiment, their bullae were removed and the damaged outer hair cells were counted. RESULT: The extent of injury was lower in the outer hair cells of the two groups treated with amifostine compared to the group that was only irradiated. There was no difference between the group treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg of amifostine. The group that received only amifostine had no cochlear damage. CONCLUSION: Amifostine is an effective cytoprotective substance in the Organ of Corti of irradiated guinea pigs.A radiação pode causar lesão na orelha interna podendo provocar surdez sensório-neural e inclusive levar à anacusia. A amifostina é uma substância citoprotetora seletiva de tecidos sadios, amplamente utilizada durante a radio e quimioterapia de tumores malignos. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo experimental foi verificar se existe efeito antioxidante e radioprotetor da amifostina no órgão de Corti de cobaias albinas irradiadas em região de cabeça e pescoço. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: O estudo realizado envolveu quatro grupos de animais: um grupo foi submetido à irradiação em dose única de 350cGy. Dois grupos receberam a mesma dose de radiação, porém receberam doses de 100 e 200mg/kg de amifostina, 30 minutos

  13. 观察氨磷汀对肺癌化疗患者血液学的保护作用%Hematological protective effects of amifostine for lung cancer chemotherapy patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕振选; 王丽萍; 樊青霞; 王留兴; 王瑞林

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the hematological protective effects of amifostine on lung cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Methods Fifty-seven patients were treated by two kinds of treatments: one was chemotherapy (control group), the other was chemotherapy plus amifostine (treatment group).Hematological toxicity was observed before and after chemotherapy.Results Hematological toxicity of treatment group reduced obviously,compared with control group. Conclusions Amifostine can apparently reduce the hematological toxicity of patients receiving chemotherapy.%目的 观察氨磷汀对肺癌化疗患者的减轻血液学毒性作用.方法 将57例肺癌患者分为对照组(化疗第1周期,未用氨磷汀)和治疗组(化疗第2周期,联用氨磷汀)进行自身对照观察,化疗前后监测血液学毒性.结果 化疗后血液学毒性治疗组较对照组明显降低.结论 氨磷汀可明显减少肺癌患者化疗相关性血液学毒性.

  14. Clinical study on amifostine for preventing bortezomib - induced peripheral neuropathy%阿米福汀在预防硼替佐米所致周围神经病变中的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建芳; 王洪涛; 李迎春; 苗苗; 刘卓刚

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of amifostine for preventing bortezomib - induced peripheral neuropathy. Methods A total of 54 cases of multiple myeloma in our hospital from June 2008 to June 2011 were retrospectively analyzed, 30 patients in control group received bortezomib and dexamethasone therapy and 24 patients in prevention group undergoing the additional amifostine. Results The rates of peripheral neuropathy in control group and prevention group were 46. 7% and 33.3% (P > 0. 05 ). Conclusion Amifostine has no significant preventive effect on bortezomib - induced peripheral neuropathy%目的 评价阿米福汀在预防硼替佐米所致周围神经病变中的疗效.方法 回顾性分析本院多发性骨髓瘤患者(MM)54例,对照组接受硼替佐米+地塞米松治疗(30例),预防组接受硼替佐米+地塞米松+阿米福汀治疗(24例).结果 对照组周围神经病变发病率为46.7%,预防组为33.3%,两组无显著性差异(P>0.05).结论 阿米福汀在预防硼替佐米所致周围神经病变中无明显作用.

  15. 磷酸钙骨水泥/氨磷汀/顺铂复合体体外药物缓释及体内修复骨缺损和抑瘤实验%Drug Delivery of CPC/Amifostine/Cisplatin Complex in vitro and Its Ability in Repairing Bone Defect and Eliminating Tumor in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彦宁; 刘淼; 任鹏宇

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨磷酸钙骨水泥/氨磷汀/顺铂(CPC/amifostine/cisplatin)复合体在填充和重建肿瘤性骨缺损中的可行性.方法 在体外测定CPC/amifostine/cisplatin复合体缓释药物的情况,建立兔股骨骨缺损和裸鼠骨肉瘤模型,植入CPC/amifostine/cisplatin复合体后测定缺损修复情况和对肿瘤的抑制能力.结果 CPC/amifostine/cisplatin复合体和CPC具有相似的骨修复情况,同时具有CPC所没有的持续缓释药物的能力和抑制骨肉瘤生长的能力.结论 CPC/amifostine/cisplatin复合体用作肿瘤性骨缺损的填充材料是可行的.

  16. Optical Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Francis T. S.; Jutamulia, Suganda

    2008-10-01

    Contributors; Preface; 1. Pattern recognition with optics Francis T. S. Yu and Don A. Gregory; 2. Hybrid neural networks for nonlinear pattern recognition Taiwei Lu; 3. Wavelets, optics, and pattern recognition Yao Li and Yunglong Sheng; 4. Applications of the fractional Fourier transform to optical pattern recognition David Mendlovic, Zeev Zalesky and Haldum M. Oxaktas; 5. Optical implementation of mathematical morphology Tien-Hsin Chao; 6. Nonlinear optical correlators with improved discrimination capability for object location and recognition Leonid P. Yaroslavsky; 7. Distortion-invariant quadratic filters Gregory Gheen; 8. Composite filter synthesis as applied to pattern recognition Shizhou Yin and Guowen Lu; 9. Iterative procedures in electro-optical pattern recognition Joseph Shamir; 10. Optoelectronic hybrid system for three-dimensional object pattern recognition Guoguang Mu, Mingzhe Lu and Ying Sun; 11. Applications of photrefractive devices in optical pattern recognition Ziangyang Yang; 12. Optical pattern recognition with microlasers Eung-Gi Paek; 13. Optical properties and applications of bacteriorhodopsin Q. Wang Song and Yu-He Zhang; 14. Liquid-crystal spatial light modulators Aris Tanone and Suganda Jutamulia; 15. Representations of fully complex functions on real-time spatial light modulators Robert W. Cohn and Laurence G. Hassbrook; Index.

  17. The effect of amifostine on Survivin expression in HL-60 cells in vitro%亚砷酸联合阿米福汀对HL-60细胞中Survivin表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武婕萍; 马梁明; 周永安; 朱镭

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨亚砷酸(As2O3)联合阿米福汀(AMI)诱导人髓系白血病细胞HL-60凋亡的可能机制.方法 不同浓度As2O3,单用和联合AMI对HL-60细胞进行不同时间干预,用MTT比色法检测细胞的生长抑制作用,用半定量RT-PCR法检测抑凋亡基因Survivin mRNA的表达水平.结果 As2O3组和联合组均可显著抑制HL-60细胞的增生,呈浓度依赖性,联合组对其抑制作用明显大于As2O3组.联合组降低Survivin的表达作用比As2O3组更明显.结论 As2O3通过下调抑凋亡基因Survivin的表达诱导HL-60凋亡;AMI可增强As2O3对Survivin的下调作用,增强HL-60细胞对As2O3的敏感性,发挥促凋亡效应.%Objective To explore the mechanisms of apoptosis induced by arsenic trioxide and amifostine in human acute promyelocytic leukemia cell lines HL-60 in vitro.Methods HL-60 cells were treated with different concentrations of arsenic trioxide alone and combined with amifostine.The inhibitory ratio of the ceils were measured by MTT assay.and the expression of Survivin Was detected by semiquantitate RT-PCR.Results Proliferation of HL-60 cells exposed to arsenic trioxide dwpped down with increasing dose of the dmg and this effect Was significantly hisher when arsenic trioxide Was used in combination with amifostine.Furthermore.there was a more significant decrease in Survivin expression in HL-60 cells treated with arsenic trioxide in combination with amifostine as compared to the cells treated only with arsenic trioxide.Conclusion Arsenic trioxide induced HL-60 cells to undergo apoptosis by downregulating the expression of Survivin. Amifostine enhanced the sensitivity of HL-60 cells to arsenic trioxide by downregulating the expression of Survivin,thus promoting apoptosis effect.

  18. Pattern recognition & machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Anzai, Y

    1992-01-01

    This is the first text to provide a unified and self-contained introduction to visual pattern recognition and machine learning. It is useful as a general introduction to artifical intelligence and knowledge engineering, and no previous knowledge of pattern recognition or machine learning is necessary. Basic for various pattern recognition and machine learning methods. Translated from Japanese, the book also features chapter exercises, keywords, and summaries.

  19. ANATOMY ON PATTERN RECOGNITION

    OpenAIRE

    MAYANK PARASHER; SHRUTI SHARMA; A .K. SHARMA,; J.P.Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Pattern Recognition is the science of recognizing patterns by machines. This is very wide research area as of today, because every newresearch tries to make machine as intelligent as human for recognizing patterns. Pattern recognition is an active research and an importanttrait of ‘artificial intelligence’. This review paper introduces pattern recognition, its fundamental definitions, and provides understanding of related research work. This paper presents different types of algorithms, their...

  20. Context dependent speech recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    Poor speech recognition is a problem when developing spoken dialogue systems, but several studies has showed that speech recognition can be improved by post-processing of recognition output that use the dialogue context, acoustic properties of a user utterance and other available resources to train a statistical model to use as a filter between the speech recogniser and dialogue manager. In this thesis a corpus of logged interactions between users and a dialogue system was used...

  1. Statistical Pattern Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Andrew R

    2011-01-01

    Statistical pattern recognition relates to the use of statistical techniques for analysing data measurements in order to extract information and make justified decisions.  It is a very active area of study and research, which has seen many advances in recent years. Applications such as data mining, web searching, multimedia data retrieval, face recognition, and cursive handwriting recognition, all require robust and efficient pattern recognition techniques. This third edition provides an introduction to statistical pattern theory and techniques, with material drawn from a wide range of fields,

  2. Amelioration of safety management in infrastructure projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Gopinath S.Mohite

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Accidents are a major public health concern, resulting in an estimated 1.2 million deaths and 50 million injuries worldwide each year specifically, the relationships between drivers' characteristics and road accidents are not fully understood. Many factors are involved in the accident occurrence at construction site. Some important elements that create a significant portion of accidents include: safety management error, poor training programs, human element, act of god, outdated procedure and no clear monitoring policy. Although some of these items are inevitable, but the occurrence of the largest part can be prevented. Therefore, for ameliorating the safety in a project each of these items should be analyzed and a practical approach introduced. In general, near miss, incident and accident are three dependent levels that mainly lead to injury. Risk and hazard are allocated in first level which means near miss, therefore, no on-time identification of hazard and risk causes to create incident and preventing accident in incident stage is unavoidable.

  3. Riboflavin ameliorates cisplatin induced toxicities under photoillumination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftekhar Hassan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cisplatin is an effective anticancer drug that elicits many side effects mainly due to induction of oxidative and nitrosative stresses during prolonged chemotherapy. The severity of these side effects consequently restricts its clinical use under long term treatment. Riboflavin is an essential vitamin used in various metabolic redox reactions in the form of flavin adenine dinucleotide and flavin mononucleotide. Besides, it has excellent photosensitizing property that can be used to ameliorate these toxicities in mice under photodynamic therapy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Riboflavin, cisplatin and their combinations were given to the separate groups of mice under photoilluminated condition under specific treatment regime. Their kidney and liver were excised for comet assay and histopathological studies. Furthermore, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy of riboflavin-cisplatin combination in vitro was also conducted to investigate any possible interaction between the two compounds. Their comet assay and histopathological examination revealed that riboflavin in combination with cisplatin was able to protect the tissues from cisplatin induced toxicities and damages. Moreover, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis of the combination indicated a strong molecular interaction among their constituent groups that may be assigned for the protective effect of the combination in the treated animals. CONCLUSION: Inclusion of riboflavin diminishes cisplatin induced toxicities which may possibly make the cisplatin-riboflavin combination, an effective treatment strategy under chemoradiotherapy in pronouncing its antineoplastic activity and sensitivity towards the cancer cells as compared to cisplatin alone.

  4. Paradigms in object recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broad range of approaches has been proposed and applied for the complex and rather difficult task of object recognition that involves the determination of object characteristics and object classification into one of many a priori object types. Our paper revises briefly the three main different paradigms in pattern recognition, namely Bayesian statistics, neural networks, and expert systems. (author)

  5. Recognition as care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlmark, Nanna; Whyte, Susan Reynolds; Harting, Janneke;

    2014-01-01

    -based and solidarity-based recognition to analyse what was at stake in these experiences, and we engage Annemarie Mol’s concept of a logic of care to show how recognition unfolded practically during the training. We propose that participants’ wider social context and experiences of misrecognition situated the training...

  6. Prediction and Bioinformatics Analysis of Human Gene Expression Profiling Regulated by Amifostine%依硫磷酸调控人类基因表达谱的预测及生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 脱朝伟; 蔡力力; 迟小华; 卢学春; 张峰; 脱帅; 朱宏丽; 刘丽宏; 严江伟

    2011-01-01

    Objective of this study was to perform bioinformatics analysis of the characteristics of gene expression profiling regulated by amifostine and predict its novel potential biological function to provide a direction for further exploring pharmacological actions of amifostine and study methods. Amifostine was used as a key word to search intemet-based free gene expression database including GEO, affymetrix gene chip database, GenBank, SAGE,GeneCard, InterPro, ProtoNet, UniProt and BLOCKS and the sifted amifostine-regulated gene expression profiling data was subjected to validity testing, gene expression difference analysis and functional clustering and gene annotation. The results showed that only one data of gene expression profiling regulated by amifostine was sifted from GEO database (accession: GSE3212). Through validity testing and gene expression difference analysis, significant difference (p <0.01 ) was only found in 2.14% of the whole genome (460/192000). Gene annotation analysis showed that 139 out of 460 genes were known genes, in which 77 genes were up-regulated and 62 genes were down-regulated. 13 out of 139 genes were newly expressed following amifostine treatment of K562 cells, however expression of 5 genes was completely inhibited. Functional clustering displayed that 139 genes were divided into 1 l categories and their biological function was involved in hematopoietic and immunologic regulation, apoptosis and cell cycle. It is concluded that bioinformatics method can be applied to analysis of gene expression profiling regulated by amifostine. Amifostine has a regulatory effect on human gene expression profiling and this action is mainly presented in biological processes including hematopoiesis,immunologic regulation, apoptosis and cell cycle and so on. The effect of amifostine on human gene expression need to be further testified in experimental condition.%本研究对依硫磷酸调控人类基因表达谱进行生物信息学分析,预测其可

  7. Handbook of Face Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Stan Z

    2011-01-01

    This highly anticipated new edition provides a comprehensive account of face recognition research and technology, spanning the full range of topics needed for designing operational face recognition systems. After a thorough introductory chapter, each of the following chapters focus on a specific topic, reviewing background information, up-to-date techniques, and recent results, as well as offering challenges and future directions. Features: fully updated, revised and expanded, covering the entire spectrum of concepts, methods, and algorithms for automated face detection and recognition systems

  8. Mobile intention recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Kiefer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Mobile Intention Recognition addresses problems of practical relevance for mobile system engineers: how can we make mobile assistance systems more intelligent? How can we model and recognize patterns of human behavior which span more than a limited spatial context? This text provides an overview on plan and intention recognition, ranging from the late 1970s to very recent approaches. This overview is unique as it discusses approaches with respect to the specificities of mobile intention recognition. This book covers problems from research on mobile assistance systems using methods from artific

  9. Amifostine alleviates radiation-induced lethal small bowel damage via promotion of 14-3-3σ-mediated nuclear p53 accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Eng-Yen; Wang, Feng-Sheng; Chen, Yu-Min; Chen, Yi-Fan; Wang, Chung-Chi; Lin, I-Hui; Huang, Yu-Jie; Yang, Kuender D

    2014-10-30

    Amifostine (AM) is a radioprotector that scavenges free radicals and is used in patients undergoing radiotherapy. p53 has long been implicated in cell cycle arrest for cellular repair after radiation exposure. We therefore investigated the protective p53-dependent mechanism of AM on small bowel damage after lethal whole-abdominal irradiation (WAI). AM increased both the survival rate of rats and crypt survival following lethal 18 Gy WAI. The p53 inhibitor PFT-α compromised AM-mediated effects when administered prior to AM administration. AM significantly increased clonogenic survival in IEC-6 cells expressing wild type p53 but not in p53 knockdown cells. AM significantly increased p53 nuclear accumulation and p53 tetramer expression before irradiation through the inhibition of p53 degradation. AM inhibited p53 interactions with MDM2 but enhanced p53 interactions with 14-3-3σ. Knockdown of 14-3-3σ also compromised the effect of AM on clonogenic survival and p53 nuclear accumulation in IEC-6 cells. For the first time, our data reveal that AM alleviates lethal small bowel damage through the induction of 14-3-3σ and subsequent accumulation of p53. Enhancement of the p53/14-3-3σ interaction results in p53 tetramerization in the nucleus that rescues lethal small bowel damage. PMID:25230151

  10. 阿米福汀保护肾脏的疗效观察%Amifostin in protection of kidney from cisplatinum injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔慧娟; 张树军; 李佩文; 管忠震; 孙晓菲; 沈铿; 吴明; 胡小电; 刘淑俊; 邸立军; 张树才

    2002-01-01

    目的观察阿米福汀(amifostin)保护肾脏免受顺铂(DDP)损害的疗效及药物不良反应和安全性.方法 193例恶性肿瘤患者随机分为化疗加阿米福汀组(观察组)和单纯化疗组(对照组),观察组102例,对照组91例.观察组和对照组患者于疗前和疗后不同时期分别测定其血象、血钙、肝功能、血尿素氮(BUN)、肌酐(Cr)、尿N-乙酰-β-D-氨基葡萄糖苷酶与肌酐比值(NAG/C)和尿微量白蛋白与肌酐的比值(MAB/C).结果观察组2个疗程的第2天,其MAB/C与疗前的差值低于对照组第2天的MAB/C与疗前的差值,经统计学检验,P0.05).阿米福汀的副作用为轻度的血压降低和恶心呕吐及部分患者低血钙.

  11. 氨磷汀治疗苯致骨髓增生异常综合征五例%Amifostine in treatment of five patients with myelodysplastic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱红兰; 沈志坚; 胡旭东; 胡永仙; 俞康

    2006-01-01

    长期接触苯可引起慢性苯中毒,以造血系统损害为主要表现,早期可出现白细胞下降、血小板减少,甚至全血细胞减少,严重者可引起再生障碍性贫血、骨髓增生异常综合征(MDS)或白血病.国内时有报道慢性苯中毒致MDS,但对于氨磷汀(amifostine,WR-2721)治疗苯致MDS的疗效尚无人报道.氨磷汀是一种特异性的全细胞保护剂,在国外已有人将其用于对抗MDS的无效造血.我们应用氨磷汀治疗苯致MDS患者并观察了其疗效,现将2003年10月至2005年8月我科收治5例患者的疗效报告如下.

  12. Development and Validation of an HPLC Method for Determination of Amifostine and/or Its Metabolite (WR-1065) In Human Plasma Using OPA Derivatization and UV Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiei, Nasim; Foroutan, Seyed Mohsen; Shafaati, Alireza; Zarghi, Afshin

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive and reproducible HPLC method was developed and validated for the analysis of amifostine (AMF) and/or its metabolite, WR-1065 in human plasma. The method involves the alkylation of free sulfydryl group with iodoacetic acid followed by derivatization of the drug and its metabolite with o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) and UVdetection at 340 nm. The derivatized AMF and WR-1065 were eluted in less than 11 min, and in the case of the metabolite with no interferences from the endogenous plasma peaks. Cystein was used as the internal standard. Analysis was carried out on a Eurosphere Performance (RP-18e, 100 × 4.6 mm) analytical column. The mobile phase was a mixture of methanol and phosphate buffer 0.03 M pH = 2.7 at a ratio of 40: 60v/v, respectively, with a flow rate of 1.5 mLmin(-1). Limit of detection was 0.5 µgmL(-1). The method involved a simple extraction procedure for AMF and/or its metabolite and analytical recovery was 90 ± 0.9%.The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 1-200 µgmL(-1). The coefficients of variation for intra-day and inter-day assays were less than 10%. PMID:26664371

  13. 氨磷汀对化疗药物抗卵巢癌细胞的影响%Effect of amifostine on chemistry anticese avarian cancer cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王根菊; 韩国荣; 叶银英; 余敏敏

    2006-01-01

    目的评价细胞保护剂氨磷汀(amifostine)对不同化疗药物抗卵巢癌细胞的影响.方法用MTT法分别测定顺铂、长春新碱、依托泊甙和丝裂霉素对体外培养的Ho-8910肿瘤细胞系的抑制作用,实验组加化疗药前30 min经600mg·L-1氨磷汀处理,对照组不用氨磷汀处理,余同实验组,培养后比较两组细胞增殖的抑瘤率.结果实验组与对照组比较,两组肿瘤细胞抑制率无显著性差异(P>0.05).结论氨磷汀不影响顺铂、依托泊甙、丝裂霉素和长春新碱对Ho-8910肿瘤细胞的抑制作用.

  14. Phase I North Central Cancer Treatment Group Trial-N9923 of escalating doses of twice-daily thoracic radiation therapy with amifostine and with alternating chemotherapy in limited stage small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The primary goal was to identify the maximum tolerable dose (MTD) of thoracic radiation therapy (TRT) that can be given with chemotherapy and amifostine for patients with limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (LSCLC). Methods and Materials: Treatment began with two cycles of topotecan (1 mg/m2) Days 1 to 5 and paclitaxel (175 mg/m2) Day 5 (every 3 weeks) given before and after TRT. The TRT began at 6 weeks. The TRT was given in 120 cGy fractions b.i.d. and the dose escalation (from 4,800 cGy, dose level 1, to 6,600 cGy, dose level 4) followed the standard 'cohorts of 3' design. The etoposide (E) (50 mg/day) and cisplatin (C) (3 mg/m2) were given i.v. before the morning TRT and amifostine (500 mg/day) was given before the afternoon RT. This was followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI). The dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were defined as Grade ≥4 hematologic, febrile neutropenia, esophagitis, or other nonhematologic toxicity, Grade ≥3 dyspnea, or Grade ≥2 pneumonitis. Results: Fifteen patients were evaluable for the Phase I portion of the trial. No DLTs were seen at dose levels 1 and 2. Two patients on dose level 4 experienced DLTs: 1 patient had a Grade 4 pneumonitis, dyspnea, fatigue, hypokalemia, and anorexia, and 1 patient had a Grade 5 hypoxia attributable to TRT. One of 6 patients on dose level 3 had a DLT, Grade 3 esophagitis. The Grade ≥3 toxicities seen in at least 10% of patients during TRT were esophagitis (53%), leukopenia (33%), dehydration (20%), neutropenia (13%), and fatigue (13%). The median survival was 14.5 months. Conclusion: The MTD of b.i.d. TRT was 6000 cGy (120 cGy b.i.d.) with EP and amifostine

  15. Human Emotion Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilbag Singh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of feature extraction of facial expressions with combination of neural network for the recognition of different facial emotions (happy, sad, angry, fear, surprised, neutral etc... Humans are capable of producing thousands of facial actions during communication that vary in complexity, intensity, and meaning. This paper analyses the limitations with existing system Emotion recognition using brain activity. In this paper by using an existing simulator I have achieved 97 percent accurate results and it is easy and simplest way than Emotion recognition using brain activity system. Purposed system depends upon human face as we know face also reflects the human brain activities or emotions. In this paper neural network has been used for better results. In the end of paper comparisons of existing Human Emotion Recognition System has been made with new one.

  16. Forensic speaker recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier

    2009-01-01

    The aim of forensic speaker recognition is to establish links between individuals and criminal activities, through audio speech recordings. This field is multidisciplinary, combining predominantly phonetics, linguistics, speech signal processing, and forensic statistics. On these bases, expert-based

  17. Work and Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willig, Rasmus

    2004-01-01

    -Pierre Le Goff, Christophe Dejours and Emmanuel Renault. In spite of many differences, their work is united by a critical description of the logic of work and its consequences for individual individuation. These theorists agree that the growth of autonomy, flexibility and mobility has destabilised......The article deals with the relationship between work and recognition, taking Axel Honneth’s social-philosophical theory of the struggle for recognition as its point of departure. In order to give sociological substance to Honneth’s theory, we turn to three contemporary social theorists - Jean...... individual and collective identity formation and has led to an increase in social pathological illnesses such as stress and depression. By juxtaposing these analyses with Honneth’s theory on recognition, we conclude that the contemporary logic of work is unable to provide adequate forms of recognition...

  18. Zinc Deficiency in Humans and its Amelioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashbir Singh Shivay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency in humans has recently received considerable attention. Global mortality in children under 5 years of age in 2004 due to Zn deficiency was estimated at 4,53,207 as against 6,66,771 for vitamin A deficiency; 20,854 for iron deficiency and 3,619 for iodine deficiency. In humans 2800-3000 proteins contain Zn prosthetic group and Zn is an integral component of zinc finger prints that regulate DNA transcription. Zinc is a Type-2 nutrient, which means that its concentration in blood does not decrease in proportion of the Zn deficiency. Adverse effects of Zn deficiency vary with age: low weight gain, diarrhoea, aneroxia and neurobehavioral disturbances are observed in infants, while skin changes and dwarfism are frequent in toddlers and adolescents. Common manifestations of Zn deficiency among elderly include hypogeusia, chronic non-healing ulcers and recurrent infections.Ameliorative measures of Zn deficiency in humans can be classified in two groups, namely, nutraceutical and biofortification of food grains. Nutraceutical interventions include pharmaceutical supplements, dietary supplements and dietary diversification, while biofortification of food grains can be achieved by genetic modification (GM of crops or by agronomic techniques that include soil or/and foliar fertilization of crops.The major disadvantage of nutraceutical approaches is that the major beneficiaries are urban people and the poor rural masses that need adequate Zn nutrition most are left out. Genetic biofortification of food grains requires large amounts of funds and a fairly long-period of time. Further, a large number of countries have not yet accepted genetically modified (GM foods. On the other hand agronomic biofortification of food grains yields immediate effects and rural and urban people are equally benefitted. Our studies have shown that Zn concentration in cereals (rice, wheat etc and pulses can be considerably increased by soil or/and foliar

  19. Evaluating music emotion recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental problem with nearly all work in music genre recognition (MGR)is that evaluation lacks validity with respect to the principal goals of MGR. This problem also occurs in the evaluation of music emotion recognition (MER). Standard approaches to evaluation, though easy to implement, do...... not reliably differentiate between recognizing genre or emotion from music, or by virtue of confounding factors in signals (e.g., equalization). We demonstrate such problems for evaluating an MER system, and conclude with recommendations....

  20. Towards Open World Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Bendale, Abhijit; Boult, Terrance

    2014-01-01

    With the of advent rich classification models and high computational power visual recognition systems have found many operational applications. Recognition in the real world poses multiple challenges that are not apparent in controlled lab environments. The datasets are dynamic and novel categories must be continuously detected and then added. At prediction time, a trained system has to deal with myriad unseen categories. Operational systems require minimum down time, even to learn. To handle...

  1. Automatic Licenses Plate Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Ronak P Patel; Narendra M Patel; Keyur Brahmbhatt

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the Smart Vehicle Screening System, which can be installed into a tollboothfor automated recognition of vehicle license plate information using a photograph of a vehicle. An automatedsystem could then be implemented to control the payment of fees, parking areas, highways, bridges ortunnels, etc. This paper contains new algorithm for recognition number plate using Morphological operation,Thresholding operation, Edge detection, Bounding box analysis for number plate extract...

  2. Human Emotion Recognition System

    OpenAIRE

    Dilbag Singh

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of feature extraction of facial expressions with combination of neural network for the recognition of different facial emotions (happy, sad, angry, fear, surprised, neutral etc..). Humans are capable of producing thousands of facial actions during communication that vary in complexity, intensity, and meaning. This paper analyses the limitations with existing system Emotion recognition using brain activity. In this paper by using an existing simulator I hav...

  3. Fingerprint Recognition System

    OpenAIRE

    Bhawna Negi; Varun Sharma

    2012-01-01

    The popular Biometric used to authenticate a person is Fingerprint which is unique and permanent throughout a person’s life. A minutia matching is widely used for fingerprint recognition and can be classified as ridge ending and ridge bifurcation. In this paper we projected Fingerprint Recognition using Minutia Score Matching method (FRMSM). For Fingerprint thinning, the Block Filter is used, which scans the image at the boundary to preserves the quality of the image and extract the minutiae ...

  4. Android object recognition framework

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsen, Mats-Gøran

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is a continuation of the author’s specialization project where the ultimate goal is to build an object recognition framework suitable for mobile devices in real world environments, where control over parameters such as illumination, distance, noise and availability of consistent network architectures are limited. Based on shortcomings related to object recognition performance and architectural issues the author’s goal was to increase the flexibility, usability and perfor...

  5. The Recognition Of Fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsass, Peter; Jensen, Bodil; Mørup, Rikke;

    2007-01-01

    Elsass P., Jensen B., Morup R., Thogersen M.H. (2007). The Recognition Of Fatigue: A qualitative study of life-stories from rehabilitation clients. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. 11 (2), 75-87......Elsass P., Jensen B., Morup R., Thogersen M.H. (2007). The Recognition Of Fatigue: A qualitative study of life-stories from rehabilitation clients. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. 11 (2), 75-87...

  6. Results of a planned interim toxicity analysis with trimodality therapy, including carboplatin AUC = 4, paclitaxel, 5-fluorouracil, amifostine, and radiation for locally advanced esophageal cancer: preliminary analyses and treatment recommendations from the North Central Cancer Treatment Group

    OpenAIRE

    Jatoi, Aminah; Martenson, James; Mahoney, Michelle R; Lair, Bradley S; Brindle, Jeffrey S; Nichols, Frank; Caron, Normand; Rowland, Kendrith; Tschetter, Loren; Alberts, Steven

    2004-01-01

    Purpose An aggressive trimodality approach from the Minnie Pearl Cancer Research Network [carboplatin AUC = 6, days 1 and 22; 5-fluorouracil 225 mg/m2 continuous infusion, days 1–42, paclitaxel 200 mg/m2, days 1 and 22; 45 Gy] has resulted in remarkable pathologic response rates but notable toxicity. This trial was designed to mitigate this toxicity by starting with a lower carboplatin dose, AUC = 4, and by adding subcutaneous amifostine. Methods This phase II trial included patients with loc...

  7. The intervention of amifostine in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura mouse%氨磷汀对免疫性血小板减少性紫癜动物模型小鼠的干预作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周国坚; 王桂明; 蔡小连

    2013-01-01

      目的探讨氨磷汀对免疫性血小板减少性紫癜(ITP)动物模型小鼠血小板、脾脏系数、骨髓巨噬细胞的影响。方法通过获取BALB/C 小鼠血小板抗体,接种到豚鼠身上,获取豚鼠抗小鼠血小板抗体(APS)。将APS腹腔注射BALB/C 小鼠建立免疫性血小板减少性紫癜动物模型,使用氨磷汀腹腔注射进行治疗,观察氨磷汀对模型小鼠的血小板、脾脏系数、骨髓巨噬细胞的影响。结果氨磷汀给药后均使ITP模型小鼠血小板计数上升、脾脏系数减少、骨髓成熟巨核细胞增多,与模型组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论氨磷汀对免疫性血小板减少性紫癜有较为明显的治疗效果。%Objective To study the effect of amifostine on mice models of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura(ITP). Methods Guinea pig anti mice platelet serum(GP-APS) was diluted with saline(1:4),and intravitreal injected into mice once in 2 days for 10 days.Two dosage of amifostine was intravitreal injected into mice in 10 days since mice models of ITP were established. Results Amifostine can enhance the amount of platelets,promote the mature of megakaryocyte of mice significantly and improve the histological pathology of spleen. Conclusion Amifostine is an effective and safety medicine in treating ITP, and can be used widely in clinic.

  8. Why recognition is rational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clintin P. Davis-Stober

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Recognition Heuristic (Gigerenzer and Goldstein, 1996; Goldstein and Gigerenzer, 2002 makes the counter-intuitive prediction that a decision maker utilizing less information may do as well as, or outperform, an idealized decision maker utilizing more information. We lay a theoretical foundation for the use of single-variable heuristics such as the Recognition Heuristic as an optimal decision strategy within a linear modeling framework. We identify conditions under which over-weighting a single predictor is a mini-max strategy among a class of a priori chosen weights based on decision heuristics with respect to a measure of statistical lack of fit we call ``risk''. These strategies, in turn, outperform standard multiple regression as long as the amount of data available is limited. We also show that, under related conditions, weighting only one variable and ignoring all others produces the same risk as ignoring the single variable and weighting all others. This approach has the advantage of generalizing beyond the original environment of the Recognition Heuristic to situations with more than two choice options, binary or continuous representations of recognition, and to other single variable heuristics. We analyze the structure of data used in some prior recognition tasks and find that it matches the sufficient conditions for optimality in our results. Rather than being a poor or adequate substitute for a compensatory model, the Recognition Heuristic closely approximates an optimal strategy when a decision maker has finite data about the world.

  9. Amantadine ameliorates dopamine-releasing deficits and behavioral deficits in rats after fluid percussion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eagle Yi-Kung Huang

    Full Text Available AIMS: To investigate the role of dopamine in cognitive and motor learning skill deficits after a traumatic brain injury (TBI, we investigated dopamine release and behavioral changes at a series of time points after fluid percussion injury, and explored the potential of amantadine hydrochloride as a chronic treatment to provide behavioral recovery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we sequentially investigated dopamine release at the striatum and behavioral changes at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after fluid percussion injury. Rats subjected to 6-Pa cerebral cortical fluid percussion injury were treated by using subcutaneous infusion pumps filled with either saline (sham group or amantadine hydrochloride, with a releasing rate of 3.6 mg/kg/hour for 8 weeks. The dopamine-releasing conditions and metabolism were analyzed sequentially by fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC. Novel object recognition (NOR and fixed-speed rotarod (FSRR behavioral tests were used to determine treatment effects on cognitive and motor deficits after injury. RESULTS: Sequential dopamine-release deficits were revealed in 6-Pa-fluid-percussion cerebral cortical injured animals. The reuptake rate (tau value of dopamine in injured animals was prolonged, but the tau value became close to the value for the control group after amantadine therapy. Cognitive and motor learning impairments were shown evidenced by the NOR and FSRR behavioral tests after injury. Chronic amantadine therapy reversed dopamine-release deficits, and behavioral impairment after fluid percussion injuries were ameliorated in the rats treated by using amantadine-pumping infusion. CONCLUSION: Chronic treatment with amantadine hydrochloride can ameliorate dopamine-release deficits as well as cognitive and motor deficits caused by cerebral fluid-percussion injury.

  10. Probabilistic Open Set Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Lalit Prithviraj

    Real-world tasks in computer vision, pattern recognition and machine learning often touch upon the open set recognition problem: multi-class recognition with incomplete knowledge of the world and many unknown inputs. An obvious way to approach such problems is to develop a recognition system that thresholds probabilities to reject unknown classes. Traditional rejection techniques are not about the unknown; they are about the uncertain boundary and rejection around that boundary. Thus traditional techniques only represent the "known unknowns". However, a proper open set recognition algorithm is needed to reduce the risk from the "unknown unknowns". This dissertation examines this concept and finds existing probabilistic multi-class recognition approaches are ineffective for true open set recognition. We hypothesize the cause is due to weak adhoc assumptions combined with closed-world assumptions made by existing calibration techniques. Intuitively, if we could accurately model just the positive data for any known class without overfitting, we could reject the large set of unknown classes even under this assumption of incomplete class knowledge. For this, we formulate the problem as one of modeling positive training data by invoking statistical extreme value theory (EVT) near the decision boundary of positive data with respect to negative data. We provide a new algorithm called the PI-SVM for estimating the unnormalized posterior probability of class inclusion. This dissertation also introduces a new open set recognition model called Compact Abating Probability (CAP), where the probability of class membership decreases in value (abates) as points move from known data toward open space. We show that CAP models improve open set recognition for multiple algorithms. Leveraging the CAP formulation, we go on to describe the novel Weibull-calibrated SVM (W-SVM) algorithm, which combines the useful properties of statistical EVT for score calibration with one-class and binary

  11. Analysis of amifostine content of amifostine PLGA microsphere by HPLC with pre-column derivatization%高效液相色谱-荧光胺柱前衍生法测定氨磷汀微球中氨磷汀的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙伟光; 卢婷利; 陈涛; 于洋

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To establish an HPLC method with pre-column derivatization to determine amifostine in amifostine PLGA microsphere. METHODS After pre-column derivatization with fluorescamine at alkaline condition, the derivatives were injected and separated on a Agilent HC-C18eolumn (250 minx 4. 6 mm,5 μm), with acetonitrile-water-10% phosphoric acid (25 :75:1 )as mobile phase. The fluorescence detector was operated at excitation and emission wavelengths of 395 and 480 nm, re-spectively. The flow rate was 1.0 mL min-1. RESULTS Arnifostine derivatives showed good linearity (r=0. 999 9) in the range of 0. 4-4. 0 mg. L-1. The average recoveries (r=3) of low, middle and high concentration were 95. 83%, 94. 66%,96. 15% with RSD of 1.6%, 1.8%, 1.5% respectively. CONCLUSION The method is simple, rapid, reliable and accurate.%目的:建立一种测定氨磷汀聚乳酸乙醇酸共聚物(PLGA)微球中氨磷汀含量的方法.方法:样品与荧光胺试剂碱性条件下衍生化后,以Agilent HC-C18柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm)分离,以乙晴-水-10%磷酸溶液(25:75:1)为流动相.流速为1mL·min-1,以荧光检测器检测,激发波长为395 nm,发射波长为480 nm.结果:氨磷汀样品在0.4~4.0 mg·L-1范围内与其峰面积有良好的线性关系(r=0.999 9).低、中、高3个浓度的回收率(n=9)分别为95.83%,94.66%,96.15%;RSD分别为1.6%,1.8%,1.5Z.结论:该方法灵敏度高,准确迅速,重复性好,能够满足氨磷汀微球中氨磷汀含量的分析测定.

  12. Clinically Meaningful Differences in Patient-Reported Outcomes With Amifostine in Combination With Chemoradiation for Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: An Analysis of RTOG 9801

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to analyze changes in quality of life (QOL) and symptoms from pretreatment to 6 weeks posttreatment in a Phase III randomized study (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9801) of amifostine (AM) vs. no AM in patients with Stages II-III non-small-cell lung cancer receiving paclitaxel and carboplatin as induction and then concurrently with hyperfractionated radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: One hundred thirty-eight patients with baseline and 6-week posttreatment QOL data were analyzed. There were no significant differences in baseline demographics between those who did and did not have QOL data. The QOL and symptoms were assessed by using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Global QOL and Pain subscales and the EORTC-Lung Cancer-13 symptom tool. Clinically relevant changes in QOL were characterized by 10-point differences in individual scores pre/post treatment. A daily diary of patient-rated difficulty swallowing and a weekly physician-rated dysphagia log (using National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria) were completed during treatment. Weight loss was monitored. Differences in outcomes were examined according to smoking status, alcohol use, and sex. Results: Patients receiving AM reported significantly greater pain reduction after chemoradiation (34% vs. no AM, 21%), less difficulty swallowing during chemoradiation, and less weight loss than patients not receiving AM. However, physician-rated assessments of dysphagia were not significantly different by treatment arm. There were no other significant changes in QOL or symptoms according to treatment arm, smoking status, alcohol use, or sex. Conclusions: Patient evaluations of difficulty swallowing and pain suggest benefits from AM use that are distinct from clinician-rated assessments

  13. Glycine preconditioning to ameliorate pulmonary ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommer, Sebastian-Patrick; Sommer, Stefanie; Sinha, Bhanu; Leyh, Rainer G.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of glycine (Gly) preconditioning on ischemia reperfusion (IR)-induced pulmonary mitochondrial injury to research the previously, in pig lungs, demonstrated Gly-dependent amelioration of pulmonary IR injury. IR injury was induced in rat lungs by 30 min pulmonary hilum c

  14. Designing urban parks that ameliorate the effects of climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, R.D.; Vanos, J.; Kenny, N.; Lenzholzer, S.

    2015-01-01

    Many inhabitants of cities throughout the world suffer from health problems and discomfort that are caused by overheating of urban areas, and there is compelling evidence that these problems will be exacerbated by global climate change. Most cities are not designed to ameliorate these effects althou

  15. Touchless palmprint recognition systems

    CERN Document Server

    Genovese, Angelo; Scotti, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    This book examines the context, motivation and current status of biometric systems based on the palmprint, with a specific focus on touchless and less-constrained systems. It covers new technologies in this rapidly evolving field and is one of the first comprehensive books on palmprint recognition systems.It discusses the research literature and the most relevant industrial applications of palmprint biometrics, including the low-cost solutions based on webcams. The steps of biometric recognition are described in detail, including acquisition setups, algorithms, and evaluation procedures. Const

  16. Effects of amifostine on microglial injury induced by glutamate%氨磷汀对谷氨酸所致N9小胶质细胞损伤的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张霞婧; 何二涛; 贾济; 朱萧玲; 王强; 朱正华; 胡胜; 陈绍洋

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察氨磷汀对谷氨酸( glutamate,Glu)所致N9小胶质细胞损伤的保护作用.方法 建立Glu损伤模型,探索最适氨磷汀浓度,实验分4组:空白对照组(Con组),正常培养小胶质细胞24 h;Glu损伤组(Glu组),含10 mmol/L Glu的培养基处理N9细胞24 h;氨磷汀组(Ami+Glu组),含1 mmol/L氨磷汀和10 mmol/L Glu的培养基处理N9细胞24 h;TBOA组(Ami+TBOA+Glu组),含100 μmol/L TBOA、1 mmol/L氨磷汀和10 mmol/L Glu的培养液培养N9小胶质细胞24h.采用四甲基偶氮唑盐(MTT)法检测细胞代谢率,检测培养液乳酸脱氢酶(lactate dehydrogenase,LDH)、超氧化物歧化酶(superoxide dismutase,SOD)、一氧化氮(nitrogen monoxide,NO)的含量,收集贴壁细胞超声破碎,检测谷胱甘肽(glutathione,GSH)含量.结果 与损伤组比较,1 mmol/L氨磷汀保护组细胞代谢率(88.9±1.7)%升高(P<0.05),LDH释放量(141±40)%减少(P<0.05),SOD含量(128±13)%增加(P<0.01),GSH含量(88±8)%增加(P<0.01),NO释放量(147±34)%下降(P<0.01);该作用可被兴奋性氨基酸转运体(excitatory amino acid transporter,EAAT)拮抗剂TBOA逆转.结论氨磷汀通过抗氧化机制减轻Glu对N9小胶质细胞的损伤.%Objective To investigate the effects of Amifostine on glutamate (Glu) induced microglia injury. Methods There are 4 groups:Con group,N9 microgial was cultured normally for 24 h,Glu group,N9 microgial was treated with 10 mmol/L Glu,Ami+Glu group,N9 microgial was treated with 1 mmol/L Amífostine and 10 mmol/L Glu,Ami+TBOA+Glu group,N9 microgial was treated with 100 μmol/L TBOA, 1 mmol/L Amifostine and 10 mmol/L Glu for 24 h.Metabolism of microglial,lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release,superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity,nitrogen monoxide (NO) release and glutathione (GSH) level were evaluated. Results As compared to control group,microglial metabolism (88.9±1.7)% increased (P<0.05),SOD activity (128±13)% increased (P<0.01) and GSH level(88±8)% increased

  17. Assessment research of the protective effect of Amifostine on radiation-induced lung injury of rats%阿米福汀对大鼠肺放射性肺损伤保护作用的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅欣; 章倩; 刘迎玫; 陈佳艺; 章真; 郭小毛

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose:Radiation-induced lung injury is a common complication in thoracic tumor after radiation therapy. How to protect the lung tissues from radiation injury is very important during radiotherapy. As a kind of radiation-protective agents, this study aimed to assess the protective effects of amifostine on acute lung tissues’ radiation-induced injury in the rats by radiated with chest wall tangent technology. Methods:Thirty-five female Fish-344 rats were randomized into 2 arms of 2 different fraction schedule:Conventional fraction, 20 rats were irradiated in 50 Gy per 25 fractions in 25 days. They were further randomized into 2 subgroups:10 with amifostine and 10 rats radiation alone without drug. Single fraction, 15 rats irradiated with 20 Gy in one fraction to the right lung. Three subgroups were randomized as:5 rats in irradiation plus amifostine;5 rats irradiation alone and 5 in control subgroup. Amifostine (140 mg/kg) was given intraperitoneally 30 minutes before irradiation. Breathing rate, weight variation and plasmas of transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β) 1 levels were recorded after irradiation. The lung tissue of irradiated side and the same side of control group were processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining, Masson’s and Weigen’s staining and TGF-β1 immunohistochemistry staining. Results:In both arms, breathing rate increased in rats got irradiated, however, the coming time of fastest breathing rate delayed in rats with amifostine. There is no difference among all subgroups of TGF-β1 level in the plasma. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson’s and Weigen’s staining revealed alveolar wall became thicker and the pulmonary tissue fibrosis in irradiation alone group. However, in the radiation with amifostine group, no matter what schedule of fractionation, much more of the lung architecture was preserved and fibrosis was lessened. Immunohistochemistry staining was expressed positive to strongly positive in irradiation

  18. Wavelets and Face Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Dao-Qing; Yan, Hong

    2007-01-01

    Wavelets have been successfully used in image processing. Their ability to capture localized spatial-frequency information of image motivates their use for feature extraction. We give an overview of using wavelets in the face recognition technology. Due to limit of space the use of Gabor wavelets is not covered in this survey. Interested readers are referred to section 8.3 for references.

  19. Recognition of fractal graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perepelitsa, VA; Sergienko, [No Value; Kochkarov, AM

    1999-01-01

    Definitions of prefractal and fractal graphs are introduced, and they are used to formulate mathematical models in different fields of knowledge. The topicality of fractal-graph recognition from the point of view, of fundamental improvement in the efficiency of the solution of algorithmic problems i

  20. FINGERPRINT RECOGNITION SYSTEM DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    SONMEZ, Öznur Sinem; OZTAS, Oguzhan

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a minutiae-based fingerprint recognition system is implemented which includes normalization, enhancement, thinning, extraction of minutiae, elimination of false minutiae, orientation estimation, core point detection, finding reference points and matching processes. Accordingly, the effects of enhancement and elimination of false minutiae processes, methods of reference point determination and low quality fingerprint images on system performance are analyzed using two different ...

  1. Autonomy and Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Giusti

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El presente ensayo contiene dos partes. En la primera se hace una breve descripción de las carencias de la reflexión moral a las que parece venir al encuentro el concepto de reconocimiento. Charles Taylor y Axel Honneth, protagonistas en estos debates, dan buenas razones para dirigir la discusión hacia el tema del reconocimiento, pero no coinciden ni en su definición, ni en el modo de recuperar la tesis de Hegel, ni tampoco en la forma de tratar la relación entre autonomía y reconocimiento. En la segunda parte se analiza la concepción propiamente hegeliana, con la intención de destacar el nexo esencial, no la ruptura, que existe entre la noción de reconocimiento y el modelo conceptual de la voluntad libre o del espíritu. Abstract:This essay is divided into two parts. The first one is a short description of the deficiencies of moral reflection, which seem to lead the discussion towards the concept of recognition. Charles Taylor and Axel Honneth, two of the protagonists of these debates, give very good reasons for turning the argument towards the issue of recognition, but they do not agree on its definition, on the way to recover the Hegelian thesis, or on how to approach the relationship between autonomy and recognition. The second part constitutes an analysis of the Hegelian conception of recognition, in order to highlight the essential link –rather than the rupture– between the notion of recognition and the conceptual model of free will or spirit.

  2. Galeotti on recognition as inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2008-01-01

    Anna Elisabetta Galeotti's theory of 'toleration as recognition' has been criticised by Peter Jones for being conceptually incoherent, since liberal toleration presupposes a negative attitude to differences, whereas multicultural recognition requires positive affirmation hereof. The paper spells...

  3. RECOGNITION AND ASSESSMENT IN ACCOUNTANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIMA FLORIN CONSTANTIN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The recognition and assessment of the component elements of the annual financial statements’ structures is crucial in order that the information released by them fulfils the qualitative characteristics and the reflected image is a “true and fair view”. Therefore, our approach takes into consideration the recognition and assessment methods for the component elements of the financial statements’ structures, as well as certain possible risks arising from the erroneous recognition or non-recognition of some of these elements.

  4. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Luuk; Veldhuis, Raymond; Quaglia, Adamo; Epifano, Calogera M.

    2012-01-01

    The improvements of automatic face recognition during the last 2 decades have disclosed new applications like border control and camera surveillance. A new application field is forensic face recognition. Traditionally, face recognition by human experts has been used in forensics, but now there is a

  5. 3D modelling and recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Marcos; Robinson, Alan; Alboul, Lyuba; Brink, Willie

    2006-01-01

    3D face recognition is an open field. In this paper we present a method for 3D facial recognition based on Principal Components Analysis. The method uses a relatively large number of facial measurements and ratios and yields reliable recognition. We also highlight our approach to sensor development for fast 3D model acquisition and automatic facial feature extraction.

  6. Projective Methods of Image Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Putyatin, Yevgeniy; Gorohovatsky, Vladimir; Gorohovatsky, Alexey; Peredriy, Elena

    2008-01-01

    We propose a method for image recognition on the base of projections. Radon transform gives an opportunity to map image into space of its projections. Projection properties allow constructing informative features on the base of moments that can be successfully used for invariant recognition. Offered approach gives about 91-97% of correct recognition.

  7. IRIS Based Human Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansi Jhamb, Vinod Kumar Khera

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores iris recognition for personal identification and verification. In this paper a newiris recognition technique is proposed using (Scale Invariant Feature Transform SIFT. Imageprocessingalgorithms have been validated on noised real iris image database. The proposedinnovative technique is computationally effective as well as reliable in terms of recognition rates.

  8. 依硫磷酸对人慢性髓细胞白血病K562细胞系增殖的抑制作用%Inhibitory effect of amifostine on proliferation of human chronic myeloblastic leukemia K562 cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玉; 迟小华; 杨波; 张峰; 井绪臣; 卢学春; 朱宏丽; 宋东晓; 刘丽宏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of amifostine on proliferation of K562 cells. Methods Amifostine was proportionally diluted to 0.2mg/ml, 0.5mg/ml, 0.75mg/ml, l.Omg/ml, 1.6mg/ml, and 3.2mg/ml groups. K562 cells were incubated with different concentrations of amifostine and cell growth status was chronologically observed under a microscope. Cell proliferation was detected by CCK-8 assay and cell growth curve was plotted for calculating inhibition ratio. Results Amifostine could remarkably inhibit the proliferation of K562 cells with a cell doubling time of 48h. Amifostine inhibited the proliferation of K.562 cells in a time-and dose- dependent manner. The proliferation of K562 cells was significantly inhibited 48h after treatment with amifostine at the concentration of 0.75mg/ml or higher(P<0.05). The greatest inhibitory rate was 91% in 3.2mg/ml amifostine group with numerous cells died. Conclusion Amifostine can inhibit the proliferation of K562 cells, which provides an experimental basis for the treatment of hematological toxicity which is correlated with chemotherapy for chronic myeloid leukemia with amifostine.%目的 观察依硫磷酸对人慢性髓细胞白血病K562细胞系增殖的抑制作用.方法 依硫磷酸(粉末)以1640培养液稀释成0.2mg/ml、0.5mg/ml、0.75mg/ml、1.0mg/ml、1.6mg/ml、3.2mg/ml共6个浓度组,分别处理增殖期人慢性髓细胞白血病K562细胞,镜下观察不同时间点各浓度组细胞生长情况,应用CCK-8法检测细胞增殖能力,绘制生长曲线,计算抑制率和半数抑制浓度(IC50).结果 依硫磷酸对K562细胞增殖具有抑制作用,细胞倍增时间为48h,并且具有时间和剂量依赖性.在给药48h>0.75mg/ml浓度的依硫磷酸对K562细胞增殖具有抑制作用(P<0.05),而3.2mg/ml浓度的依硫磷酸与K562细胞培养72h后对其增殖抑制作用最强,抑制率为91%.结论 依硫磷酸对K562细胞增殖具有抑制作用,为临床应用依硫磷酸治疗慢性髓细胞白血病提供了实验基础.

  9. Mannose-binding lectin blunts macrophage polarization and ameliorates lupus nephritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxing Cai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Deficiency in clearance of self nuclear antigens, including DNA, is the hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, a chronic autoimmnue disease characterized by the production of various autoantibodies, immune complex deposition and severe organ damage. Our previous studies revealed that administration of syngeneic BALB/c mice with activated lymphocyte-derived DNA (ALD-DNA could induce SLE disease. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL, a secreted pattern recognition receptor with binding activity to DNA, has been proved to be a modulator of inflammation, but whether MBL takes responsibility for DNA clearance, modulates the DNA-mediated immune responses, and is involved in the development of DNA-induced SLE disease remain poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The levels of serum MBL significantly decreased in lupus mice induced by ALD-DNA and were negatively correlated with SLE disease. MBL blunted macrophage M2b polarization by inhibiting the MAPK and NF-κB signaling while enhancing the activation of CREB. Furthermore, MBL suppressed the ability of ALD-DNA-stimulated macrophages to polarize T cells toward Th1 cells and Th17 cells. Importantly, MBL supplement in vivo could ameliorate lupus nephritis. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest MBL supplement could alleviate SLE disease and might imply a potential therapeutic strategy for DNA-induced SLE, which would further our understanding of the protective role of MBL in SLE disease.

  10. Vehicle License Plate Recognition Syst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi,R. B. Dubey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle license plate recognition system has greater efficiency for vehicle monitoring in automatic zone access control. This Plate recognition system will avoid special tags, since all vehicles possess a unique registration number plate. A number of techniques have been used for car plate characters recognition. This system uses neural network character recognition and pattern matching of characters as two character recognition techniques. In this approach multilayer feed-forward back-propagation algorithm is used. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested on several car plates and provides very satisfactory results.

  11. Audio-visual gender recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Xu, Xun; Huang, Thomas S.

    2007-11-01

    Combining different modalities for pattern recognition task is a very promising field. Basically, human always fuse information from different modalities to recognize object and perform inference, etc. Audio-Visual gender recognition is one of the most common task in human social communication. Human can identify the gender by facial appearance, by speech and also by body gait. Indeed, human gender recognition is a multi-modal data acquisition and processing procedure. However, computational multimodal gender recognition has not been extensively investigated in the literature. In this paper, speech and facial image are fused to perform a mutli-modal gender recognition for exploring the improvement of combining different modalities.

  12. Vehicle License Plate Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle license plate recognition system has greater efficiency for vehicle monitoring in automatic zone access control. This Plate recognition system will avoid special tags, since all vehicles possess a unique registration number plate. A number of techniques have been used for car plate characters recognition. This system uses neural network character recognition and pattern matching of characters as two character recognition techniques. In this approach multilayer feed-forward back-propagation algorithm is used. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested on several car plates and provides very satisfactory results.

  13. DWT BASED IRIS RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAYURI MEMANE

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The iris recognition is an emerging technology widely used due to various characteristics such as uniqueness,universal, stable, independent of genetics, acceptable etc. The recognition is carried out using discrete wavelet transform (DWT. It includes collection of iris database, carrying out preprocessing (includes separation ofpupil, normalization and feature extraction. Normalization includes polar to rectangular conversion. After this area of interest is selected from which features are extracted using DWT. It generates approximate, horizontal, vertical and diagonal coefficients. These are compared with the stored templates using hamming distance. If thetemplate is match with the stored one than the match ID is displayed. The unauthorized person is indicated by displaying ID equal to ‘00’

  14. Iris Recognition Using Wavelet

    OpenAIRE

    Khaliq Masood; Muhammad Younus Javed; Abdul Basit

    2013-01-01

    Biometric systems are getting more attention in the present era. Iris recognition is one of the most secure and authentic among the other biometrics and this field demands more authentic, reliable and fast algorithms to implement these biometric systems in real time. In this paper, an efficient localization technique is presented to identify pupil and iris boundaries using histogram of the iris image. Two small portions of iris have been used for polar transformation to reduce computational t...

  15. Automatic pattern recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Petheram, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    In this thesis the author presents a new method for the location, extraction and normalisation of discrete objects found in digital images. The extraction is by means of sub-pixcel contour following around the object. The normalisation obtains and removes the information concerning size, orientation and location of the object within an image. Analyses of the results are carried out to determine the confidence in recognition of patterns, and methods of cross correlation of object descriptions ...

  16. Infrared face recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Colin K.

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited This study continues a previous face recognition investigation using uncooled infrared technology. The database developed in an earlier study is further expanded to include 50 volunteers with 30 facial images from each subject. The automatic image reduction method reduces the pixel size of each image from 160 120 to 60 45 . The study reexamines two linear classification methods: the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher ...

  17. Facial Expression Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Neeta Sarode; Prof. Shalini Bhatia

    2010-01-01

    Facial expression analysis is rapidly becoming an area of intense interest in computer science and human-computer interaction design communities. The most expressive way humans display emotions is through facial expressions. In this paper a method is implemented using 2D appearance-based local approach for the extraction of intransient facial features and recognition of four facial expressions. The algorithm implements Radial Symmetry Transform and further uses edge projection analysis for fe...

  18. Recognition of Teaching Excellence*

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, Dana; Piascik, Peggy; Medina, Melissa; Pittenger, Amy; Rose, Renee; Creekmore, Freddy; Soltis, Robert; Bouldin, Alicia; Schwarz, Lindsay; Scott, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The 2008-2009 Task Force for the Recognition of Teaching Excellence was charged by the AACP Council of Faculties Leadership to examine teaching excellence by collecting best practices from colleges and schools of pharmacy, evaluating the literature to identify evidence-based criteria for excellent teaching, and recommending appropriate means to acknowledge and reward teaching excellence. This report defines teaching excellence and discusses a variety of ways to assess it, including student, a...

  19. AMELIORATIVE EFFECTS OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA IN SCIATICA PAIN INDUCED RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Thaakur Santhrani; Yaidikar Lavanya

    2012-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the ameliorative effect of Tinospora cordifolia in sciatic nerve root Ligation -induced sciatica pain in rats. Adult male albino rats weighing 130-150gm were used for the study, and were divided into seven groups and ligation was performed on left sciatic nerve in group II to group VII. Tail cold-hyperalgesia, motor co-ordination tests, foot deformity, and total calcium levels were estimated to assess the extent of sciatica. Superoxide dismutase ...

  20. Losartan ameliorates dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa and uncovers new disease mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Nyström, Alexander; Thriene, Kerstin; Mittapalli, Venugopal; Kern, Johannes S; Kiritsi, Dimitra; Dengjel, Jörn; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Genetic loss of collagen VII causes recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB)—a severe skin fragility disorder associated with lifelong blistering and disabling progressive soft tissue fibrosis. Causative therapies for this complex disorder face major hurdles, and clinical implementation remains elusive. Here, we report an alternative evidence-based approach to ameliorate fibrosis and relieve symptoms in RDEB. Based on the findings that TGF-β activity is elevated in injured RDEB skin,...

  1. Use of Coffee Pulp and Minerals for Natural Soil Ameliorant

    OpenAIRE

    Pujiyanto Pujiyanto

    2007-01-01

    In coffee plantation, solid waste of coffee pulp is usually collected as heap nearby processing facilities for several months prior being used as compost. The practice is leading to the formation of odor and liquid which contaminate the environment. Experiments to evaluate the effect of natural soil ameliorant derived from coffee pulp and minerals were conducted at The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Jember, East Java. The experiments were intended to optimize the use of cof...

  2. Antibiotics can ameliorate circulatory complications of liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bjørn Stæhr; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B

    2011-01-01

    Livercirrhosis can be complicated by a hyperdynamic circulatory syndrome. This is due to translocation of bacteria and bacterial product (bacterial DNA and endotoxins), which stimulate the splanchnic nitric oxide synthase and leads to splanchnic vasodilatation and haemodynamic derangement. This...... review focuses on how broad spectrum antibiotics can ameliorate the haemodynamic consequences of bacterial translocation. It is possible that the use of broad spectrum antibiotics in the future may be used to prevent other complications of liver cirrhosis than spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and...

  3. Response of Field Crops to Ameliorative Phosphorus Fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    KOVACEVIC, Vlado; Rastija, Mirta; KOMLJENOVIC, Ilija; BEGIC, Sabina; JOVIC, Jurica

    2014-01-01

    Different types of nutritional unbalances, including also low levels of plant available phosphorus (P), are often limiting factor of soil fertility in Croatia and in countries of the region, particularly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). Aim of this study was survey our recent investigations (eight stationary field experiments) of maize, soybean, wheat and barley responses to ameliorative P fertilization up to different levels (depending on the trial up to from 825 to 1580 kg P2O5 ha-1). Eithe...

  4. Clinical treatment of amifostine reduces radiation injury on head and neck cancer%氨磷汀减轻头颈部恶性肿瘤放疗损伤的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高玉伟; 尹立杰; 丁田贵; 王杰; 陈巍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the Influence of amifostine combined with three dimensional-conformal radiotherapy (3 D-CRT) of head and neck cancer radiation injury effects. Methods 216 cases of patients with head and neck cancer were randomly divided into treatment group and control group. 108 patients in the control group were given 3D-CRT,the others in the treatment group were applied amifostine before the application of radiation. Results The elevated rate of Karnofsky score in the two groups was significantly different (P < 0. 05 ). The effective rates were 75. 0% vs 58. 3% (P > 0. 05) . The major toxicity (mucositis、 xerostomia、dysphagia、blood system toxicity、nervous system toxicity) in the treatment group was lower than that in the control group (P < 0. 05) . Conclusions Amifostine can reduce the head and neck cancer radiation injury, and improving patients quality of life without adverse effect on clinical curative effect.%目的 探讨氨磷汀联合三维适形放疗对头颈部恶性肿瘤放疗损伤的影响.方法 216例头颈部恶性肿瘤患者随机分为治疗组和对照组.每组108例,行三维适形放疗治疗,总剂量50~72Gy分28 ~40次5.6 ~8周完成.治疗组放射治疗前静脉点滴氨磷汀注射剂.结果 治疗组有效率为75.0%,对照组有效率为58.3%,两组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).治疗组患者的生活质量评分提高率明显高于对照组,两组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).治疗组黏膜炎、口干、吞咽困难、血液系统毒性、神经系统毒性发生率均明显低于对照组,两组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 氨磷汀可减轻头颈部恶性肿瘤放疗损伤,提高患者生存质量,并不影响临床疗效.

  5. Amifostine Effect on Protecting Normal Tissue From Radiation Therapy Due to Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma%阿米福汀在鼻咽癌放疗中对正常组织的保护作用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琳; 于瑞莲; 梁良

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析阿米福汀在鼻咽癌放疗中对正常组织的保护作用。方法选取2010年1月至2012年12月我科收治入院的鼻咽癌患者42例,分为阿米福汀组和对照组。阿米福汀组于放疗前30 min静脉滴注阿米福汀,对照组则进行常规放疗治疗,观察和比较两组患者放疗后产生的皮肤损伤、口腔黏膜损伤、口干等急性放射性损伤以及恶心呕吐等毒副反应。结果经阿米福汀联合治疗的患者放射性皮肤损伤、口腔黏膜损伤、口干等反应较对照组患者轻,具有统计学意义。结论阿米福汀在鼻咽癌放疗中能够保护正常组织细胞,有效降低了患者放射性损伤。%Objective To evaluate Amifostine effect on protecting normal tissue from radiation therapy due to NPC . Methods Forty two patients of NPC were divided into two groups .Radiation therapy(70 Gy)was given to all the patients.Ami-fostin was injected into the patients before 30 min in the treatment group .The control group without Amifostine .The radiation-in-duced skin damage、catarrh of oral cavity、xerostomia and side-effect were evaluated respectively .Results The radiation-induced skin damage、catarrh of oral cavity and xerostomia in the treatment group were remarkly slighter than in the control group .Conclu-sion Amifostine is able to protect normal tissue from radiation therapy due to NPC .

  6. HUMAN SPEECH EMOTION RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshwari Selvaraj

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Emotions play an extremely important role in human mental life. It is a medium of expression of one’s perspective or one’s mental state to others. Speech Emotion Recognition (SER can be defined as extraction of the emotional state of the speaker from his or her speech signal. There are few universal emotions- including Neutral, Anger, Happiness, Sadness in which any intelligent system with finite computational resources can be trained to identify or synthesize as required. In this work spectral and prosodic features are used for speech emotion recognition because both of these features contain the emotional information. Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC is one of the spectral features. Fundamental frequency, loudness, pitch and speech intensity and glottal parameters are the prosodic features which are used to model different emotions. The potential features are extracted from each utterance for the computational mapping between emotions and speech patterns. Pitch can be detected from the selected features, using which gender can be classified. Support Vector Machine (SVM, is used to classify the gender in this work. Radial Basis Function and Back Propagation Network is used to recognize the emotions based on the selected features, and proved that radial basis function produce more accurate results for emotion recognition than the back propagation network.

  7. Techniques for automatic speech recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. K.

    1983-05-01

    A brief insight into some of the algorithms that lie behind current automatic speech recognition system is provided. Early phonetically based approaches were not particularly successful, due mainly to a lack of appreciation of the problems involved. These problems are summarized, and various recognition techniques are reviewed in the contect of the solutions that they provide. It is pointed out that the majority of currently available speech recognition equipments employ a "whole-word' pattern matching approach which, although relatively simple, has proved particularly successful in its ability to recognize speech. The concepts of time-normalizing plays a central role in this type of recognition process and a family of such algorithms is described in detail. The technique of dynamic time warping is not only capable of providing good performance for isolated word recognition, but how it is also extended to the recognition of connected speech (thereby removing one of the most severe limitations of early speech recognition equipment).

  8. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-04-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum - brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma - red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as a function of the origin of seaweed, there are several defining and consistent characteristics of seaweed biochar, in particular a relatively low C content and surface area but high yield, essential trace elements (N, P and K) and exchangeable cations (particularly K). The pH of seaweed biochar ranges from neutral (7) to alkaline (11), allowing for broad-spectrum applications in diverse soil types. We find that seaweed biochar is a unique material for soil amelioration that is consistently different to biochar derived from ligno-cellulosic feedstock. Blending of seaweed and ligno-cellulosic biochar could provide a soil ameliorant that combines a high fixed C content with a mineral-rich substrate to enhance crop productivity.

  9. 生物信息学方法优化依硫磷酸联合方案治疗骨髓增生异常综合征的应用研究%Application of bioinformatics analysis to optimize amifostine combination therapeutic regimen of myelodysplastic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢学春; 杨波; 朱宏丽; 范辉; 李素霞; 刘洋; 姚善谦

    2009-01-01

    Objective To apply bioinformatics analysis to study the potential mechanism of amifostine for the treatment of myelodysplastie syndrome (MDS) and optimize amifostine combination regimen to further improve the efficacy and prognosis of MDS. Methods Bioinformatics analysis: internetbased human gene expression open database was used to predict the genomic profiling by regulation of amifostine and gene expression of MDS. And then possible target genes of amifostine were screened to predict the feasibility of amifostine combination regimen. Finally, similar analysis of gene expression profiling was conducted to forecast the potential therapeutic drugs for MDS. Clinical investigation: eighteen patients with MDS, non-responding to traditional drugs, were enrolled. According to the latest WHO classification, the patients were divided into 7 patients of refractory anemia (RA), 2 patients of refractory anemia with ring siderublust (RAILS) and 9 patients of refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia (RCMD).Distributions of age was 19-91 years old (mean: 79). There were 17 males and 1 female. The regimen of amifostine plus recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) was used to treat the MDS patients.Administration formula was as follows : the intravenous drip of amifostine at a dosage of 0.4 gram per day was given 5 days weekly for 4 consecutive weeks ; the subcutaneous injection of rhEPO at a dosage of 6 000 IU was given 3 times weekly. Therapeutic effect was evaluated 2 weeks post-therapy. Results Approximately 2.6 percent of human gene involved in apoptosis, cell cycle and differentiation was regulated by amifostine.Especially, upregnlation of ELK1 expression, which belongs to downstream functional gene of EPO pathway,and downregulation of Cyclin D1 expression were successfully predicted. Based on the potential therapeutic mechanism amifostine for MDS, amifostine plus EPO had dual effects on MDS, i. e. promotion of hematopoiesis and inhibition of tumor cell

  10. Determination of Amifostine in Human Saliva by HPLC-MS/MS%高效液相色谱串联质谱法测定唾液中氨磷汀浓度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎长江; 欧美贤; 王胜资; 黄滔敏; 陈念祖

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To establish an HPLC-MS/MS method ( high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spec-trometry) for the direct determination of amifostine in human saliva. METHODS Saliva samples were collected from six adult healthy volunteers. After protein precipitation and addition of the internal standard (IS) huperzine-A ( HupA) , HPLC- MS/MS was used to analyze amifostine. The analysis was conducted using a ZIC-HILIC analytical column (2. 1 mm × 100 mm,3.5 μn). Electrospray i-onization was used with multiple reaction monitoring ( MRM) mode. RESULTS The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of the method was 0. 938 mg · L -1 ( S/N > 10). The standard curve was linear in the range of 0. 938 - 30 mg · L-1 ( r = 0. 999 1, n = 6 ). The inter-day and intra-day RSDs were all less than 15% for the low, medium and high concentration quality control samples (1. 0, 5. 0 and 25 mg · L ). The values of recovery were all more than 85%. CONCLUSION The method is direct, rapid, simple and sensitive, and suitable for the determination of amifostine in saliva samples.%目的 建立高效液相色谱串联质谱(HPLC-MS/MS)直接检测唾液中氨磷汀(amifostine,AMI)的方法.方法 收集6位健康成年志愿者唾液为基质,石杉碱甲(huperzine-A,HupA)为内标,采用蛋白沉淀法,用高效液相色谱串联质谱测定唾液中的氨磷汀.色谱柱为ZIC-HILIC亲水色谱分析柱(2.1 mm×100 mm,3.5μm),质谱分析采用多反应监测扫描模式(MRM),离子源为电喷雾离子源(ESI).结果 氨磷汀在唾液中检测到的线性范围为0.938~30 mg· L-1,线性关系良好,典型代表方程为:y=0.072x-0.00526 (r=0.999 1)(n=6),定量下限为0.938 mg· L-1(S/N> 10).唾液样品的低、中、高3个质控浓度(1.0、5.0和25 mg·L-1)批内、批间精密度(RSD)均小于15%,其方法回收率均大于85%.结论 本实验所建立的氨磷汀检测方法直接、快捷、简便、灵敏度高及定性好,适用于唾液中氨磷汀的测定及科学研究.

  11. Assessment of the protective effect of amifostine on radiation induced pulmonary injury%阿米福汀对放射性肺损伤保护作用的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯勤付; Vujaskovic; Z; 等

    2001-01-01

    目的用荷瘤和无瘤大鼠的放射性肺损伤模式评价阿米福汀(Amifostine,WR-2721)的放射性肺损伤保护作用. 方法选150~160?g的Fisher-344雌性大鼠,在右后胸壁种植R3230 AC 人乳腺癌细胞株,肿瘤长至直径为1.0~1.5?cm时和无肿瘤大鼠随机进入实验组.用4?MV X射线、剂量DT35?Gy?5分次5?d照射右全肺,每次照射前30?min腹腔内注射Amifostine(150?mg/kg).照射后观测呼吸频率、肿瘤大小和转化生长因子(TGF-β1)水平.当出现呼吸困难伴体重下降时,终止观察,否则在6个月后终止观察.肺组织进行羟脯胺酸和TGF-β1表达等生物学检测.结果治疗后第3?d体重下降明显,照射加Amifostine(15%)和单用Amifostine(11%)与单纯放射(7%)间有明显的差别.肿瘤生长延迟和肿瘤生长情况及因肿瘤肺转移死亡贡献生存率,用药与未用药者相似.无瘤大鼠单纯照射组的平均呼吸频率增加早(第9周开始)、幅度高(125~127次/min),照射加药组在第12周开始,115~118次/min(P<0.001).单纯照射组羟脯胺酸含量明显高于照射加amifostine组(P=0.042)、单用药组和对照组(P<0.01).血浆TGF-β1 含量在照射后1~3个月增加、2个月达高峰,单放组的TGF-β1含量[(5.32±1.21)?ng/mL]明显高于用药组[(2.80±0.23)?ng/mL](P=0.038).结论 Amifostine在分次照射时,能增加肺组织对放射性损伤的耐受,对肿瘤无保护作用,毒性反应轻.TGF-β1在肺损伤中起重要的作用,其含量变化与放射性肺损伤的程度相关.

  12. Advances in Speech Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Neustein, Amy

    2010-01-01

    This volume is comprised of contributions from eminent leaders in the speech industry, and presents a comprehensive and in depth analysis of the progress of speech technology in the topical areas of mobile settings, healthcare and call centers. The material addresses the technical aspects of voice technology within the framework of societal needs, such as the use of speech recognition software to produce up-to-date electronic health records, not withstanding patients making changes to health plans and physicians. Included will be discussion of speech engineering, linguistics, human factors ana

  13. Recognition Using Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Chunhui

    2012-01-01

    Multi-scale window scanning has been popular in object detection but it generalizes poorly to complex features (e.g. nonlinear SVM kernel), deformable objects (e.g. animals), and finer-grained tasks (e.g. segmentation). In contrast to that, regions are appealing as image primitives for recognition because: (1) they encode object shape and scale naturally; (2) they are only mildly affected by background clutter; and (3) they significantly reduce the set of possible object locations in images.I...

  14. Visual affect recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Stathopoulou, I-O

    2010-01-01

    It is generally known that human faces, as well as body motions and gestures, provide a wealth of information about a person, such as age, race, sex and emotional state. This monograph primarily studies the perception of facial expression of emotion, and secondarily of motion and gestures, with the purpose of developing a fully automated visual affect recognition system for use in modes of human/computer interaction. The book begins with a survey of the literature on emotion perception, followed by a description of empirical studies conducted with human participants and the construction of a '

  15. Human activity recognition and prediction

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a unique view of human activity recognition, especially fine-grained human activity structure learning, human-interaction recognition, RGB-D data based action recognition, temporal decomposition, and causality learning in unconstrained human activity videos. The techniques discussed give readers tools that provide a significant improvement over existing methodologies of video content understanding by taking advantage of activity recognition. It links multiple popular research fields in computer vision, machine learning, human-centered computing, human-computer interaction, image classification, and pattern recognition. In addition, the book includes several key chapters covering multiple emerging topics in the field. Contributed by top experts and practitioners, the chapters present key topics from different angles and blend both methodology and application, composing a solid overview of the human activity recognition techniques. .

  16. Recent progress in fingerprint recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Fingerprint recognition has been increasingly used to realize personal identification in civilian's daily life, such as ID card, fingerprints hard disk and so on. Great improvement has been achieved in the on-line fingerprint sensing technology and automatic fingerprint recognition algorithms. Various fingerprint recognition techniques, including fingerprint acquisition, classification, enhancement and matching, are highly improved. This paper overviews recent advances in fingerprint recognition and summarizes the algorithm proposed for every step with special focuses on the enhancement of low-quality fingerprints and the matching of the distorted fingerprint images. Both issues are believed to be significant and challenging tasks. In addition, we also discuss the common evaluation for the fingerprint recognition algorithm of the Fingerprint Verification Competition 2004 (FVC2004) and the Fingerprint Vendor Technology Evaluation 2003 (FpVTE2003), based on which we could measure the performance of the recognition algorithm objectively and uniformly.

  17. Monocular SLAM Supported Object Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Pillai, Sudeep; Leonard, John,

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we develop a monocular SLAM-aware object recognition system that is able to achieve considerably stronger recognition performance, as compared to classical object recognition systems that function on a frame-by-frame basis. By incorporating several key ideas including multi-view object proposals and efficient feature encoding methods, our proposed system is able to detect and robustly recognize objects in its environment using a single RGB camera in near-constant time. Through e...

  18. Embedded Systems for Iris Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Anushree S. Patil; Sushil M. Rajbhoj

    2015-01-01

    Iris Recognition increasingly used method of biometric authentication that involves pattern-recognition techniques of images of irides to uniquely identify a person. In this paper, IRIS biometrics has been chosen for implementation due to the reduced error rates and the robustness their algorithms provide. The goal of this paper is to design a detached system, to implement a working prototype of the techniques and methods used for iris recognition. A powerful ARM7TDMI-S core based...

  19. Speech recognition in university classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Wald, Mike; Bain, Keith; Basson, Sara H

    2002-01-01

    The LIBERATED LEARNING PROJECT (LLP) is an applied research project studying two core questions: 1) Can speech recognition (SR) technology successfully digitize lectures to display spoken words as text in university classrooms? 2) Can speech recognition technology be used successfully as an alternative to traditional classroom notetaking for persons with disabilities? This paper addresses these intriguing questions and explores the underlying complex relationship between speech recognition te...

  20. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Tauseef; Veldhuis, Raymond; Spreeuwers, Luuk

    2010-01-01

    Beside a few papers which focus on the forensic aspects of automatic face recognition, there is not much published about it in contrast to the literature on developing new techniques and methodologies for biometric face recognition. In this report, we review forensic facial identification which is the forensic experts‟ way of manual facial comparison. Then we review famous works in the domain of forensic face recognition. Some of these papers describe general trends in forensics [1], guidelin...

  1. Innovative Technique for Character Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Sumant Raj Chauhan; Punit Soni

    2010-01-01

    Development of OCRs for Indian script is an active area of activity today. Optical character recognition (OCR) is the mechanical or electronic translation of images of handwritten, typewritten or printed text (usually captured by a scanner) into machine-editable text. In simple words OCR is a visual recognition process that turns printed or written text into an electronic character based file. OCR is a field of research in pattern recognition, artificial intelligence and machine vision. India...

  2. Information theory and pattern recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Daemi, M.F.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis presents an account of an investigation into the use of information theory measures in pattern recognition problems. The objectives were firstly to determine the information content of the set of representations of an input image which are found at the output of an array of sensors; secondly to assess the information which may be used to allocate different patterns to appropriate classes in order to provide a means of recognition; and thirdly to assess the recognition capability o...

  3. Techniques in Facial Expression Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Avinash Prakash Pandhare; Umesh Balkrishna Chavan

    2016-01-01

    Facial expression recognition is gaining widespread importance as the applications related to Human – Computer interactions are increasing. This paper mentions various techniques and approaches that have been used in the field of facial expression recognition. Facial expression recognition takes place in various stages and these stages have been implemented by various approaches. Viola and Jones for face detection, Gabor filters for feature extraction, SVM classifiers for classifi...

  4. Markov Models for Handwriting Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Plotz, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Since their first inception, automatic reading systems have evolved substantially, yet the recognition of handwriting remains an open research problem due to its substantial variation in appearance. With the introduction of Markovian models to the field, a promising modeling and recognition paradigm was established for automatic handwriting recognition. However, no standard procedures for building Markov model-based recognizers have yet been established. This text provides a comprehensive overview of the application of Markov models in the field of handwriting recognition, covering both hidden

  5. Study of Face Recognition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Kaushik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of both face recognition and detection techniques is carried out using the algorithms like Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA and Line Edge Map (LEM. These algorithms show different rates of accuracy under different conditions. The automatic recognition of human faces presents a challenge to the pattern recognition community. Typically, human faces are different in shapes with minor similarity from person to person. Furthermore, lighting condition changes, facial expressions and pose variations further complicate the face recognition task as one of the difficult problems in pattern analysis.

  6. A SURVEY ON FACE RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.VINODINI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Face recognition is one of the most emerging and popular biometric authentication of a person, it presents a challenging problem in the field of image analysis and computer vision. Though there are various biometric traits such as iris, fingerprint and palm print etc., we focused on face recognition as it is socially acceptable and reliable. Here user identity plays a very important role to uniquely verify or authenticate the individual person. Many techniques were implemented in face recognition all having their respective pros and cons. In this paper, we presented an overview of face recognition techniques and its applications.

  7. Retina vascular network recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tascini, Guido; Passerini, Giorgio; Puliti, Paolo; Zingaretti, Primo

    1993-09-01

    The analysis of morphological and structural modifications of the retina vascular network is an interesting investigation method in the study of diabetes and hypertension. Normally this analysis is carried out by qualitative evaluations, according to standardized criteria, though medical research attaches great importance to quantitative analysis of vessel color, shape and dimensions. The paper describes a system which automatically segments and recognizes the ocular fundus circulation and micro circulation network, and extracts a set of features related to morphometric aspects of vessels. For this class of images the classical segmentation methods seem weak. We propose a computer vision system in which segmentation and recognition phases are strictly connected. The system is hierarchically organized in four modules. Firstly the Image Enhancement Module (IEM) operates a set of custom image enhancements to remove blur and to prepare data for subsequent segmentation and recognition processes. Secondly the Papilla Border Analysis Module (PBAM) automatically recognizes number, position and local diameter of blood vessels departing from optical papilla. Then the Vessel Tracking Module (VTM) analyses vessels comparing the results of body and edge tracking and detects branches and crossings. Finally the Feature Extraction Module evaluates PBAM and VTM output data and extracts some numerical indexes. Used algorithms appear to be robust and have been successfully tested on various ocular fundus images.

  8. Radically enhanced molecular recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Trabolsi, Ali

    2009-12-17

    The tendency for viologen radical cations to dimerize has been harnessed to establish a recognition motif based on their ability to form extremely strong inclusion complexes with cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) in its diradical dicationic redox state. This previously unreported complex involving three bipyridinium cation radicals increases the versatility of host-guest chemistry, extending its practice beyond the traditional reliance on neutral and charged guests and hosts. In particular, transporting the concept of radical dimerization into the field of mechanically interlocked molecules introduces a higher level of control within molecular switches and machines. Herein, we report that bistable and tristable [2]rotaxanes can be switched by altering electrochemical potentials. In a tristable [2]rotaxane composed of a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) ring and a dumbbell with tetrathiafulvalene, dioxynaphthalene and bipyridinium recognition sites, the position of the ring can be switched. On oxidation, it moves from the tetrathiafulvalene to the dioxynaphthalene, and on reduction, to the bipyridinium radical cation, provided the ring is also reduced simultaneously to the diradical dication. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  9. A note on inventory model for ameliorating items with time dependent second order demand rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobinda Chandra Panda

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper is concerned with the development of ameliorating inventory models. The ameliorating inventory is the inventory of goods whose utility increases over the time by ameliorating activation. Material and Methods: This study is performed according to two areas: one is an economic order quantity (EOQ model for the items whose utility is ameliorating in accordance with Weibull distribution, and the other is a partial selling quantity (PSQ model developed for selling the surplus inventory accumulated by ameliorating activation with linear demand. The aim of this paper was to develop a mathematical model for inventory type concerned in the paper. Numerical examples were presented show the effect of ameliorating rate on inventory polices.  Results and Conclusions:  The inventory model for items with Weibull ameliorating is developed. For the case of small ameliorating rate (less than linear demand rate, EOQ model is developed, and for the case where ameliorating rate is greater than linear demand rate, PSQ model is developed.  .  

  10. Potential of carnuba wax in ameliorating brittle fracture during tableting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhumwangho, M U; Okor, R S; Adogah, J T

    2009-01-01

    Carnuba wax (as binder) forms hard tablets even at low compression load attributable to its high plasticity. The aim of the present study is to investigate its potential in ameliorating brittle fracture (i.e., lamination and capping) a problem often encountered during tableting. Granules of paracetamol (test drug) were made by triturating the drug powder with the melted wax or starch mucilage (20%w/v). Resulting granules were separated into different size fractions which were separately compressed into tablets with and without a centre hole (as in- built defect) using different compression loads. The tablets were evaluated for tensile strength and the data used to calculate the brittle fracture index (BFI), using the expression: BFI = 0.5(T/T(0)-1) where T0 and T are the tensile strength of tablets with and without a centre hole respectively. The BFI values were significantly lower (pload further ameliorated the brittle fracture tendency of the tablets. Using granules with the larger particle size (850microm) and applying the lowest unit of load (6 arbitrary unit on the load scale of the tableting machine) the BFI values were 0.03 (carnuba wax tablets) and 0.11 (maize starch tablets). When the conditions were reversed (i.e., a highest load, 8 units and the smallest particle size, 212microm) the BFI values now became 0.17 (carnuba wax tablets) and 0.26 (maize starch tablets). The indication is that the use of large granules and low compression loads to form tablets can further enhance the potential of carnuba wax in ameliorating brittle fracture tendency of tablets during their manufacture. PMID:19168422

  11. Roscovitine ameliorates endotoxin-induced uveitis through neutrophil apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhao-Xin; Qiu, Suo; Lou, Bing-Sheng; Yang, Yao; Wang, Wen-Cong; Lin, Xiao-Feng

    2016-08-01

    Neutrophils have been recognized as critical response cells during the pathogenesis of endotoxin‑induced uveitis (EIU). Apoptosis of neutrophils induced by roscovitine has previously been demonstrated to ameliorate inflammation in several in vivo models. The present study aimed to assess whether roscovitine ameliorates EIU. EIU was induced in female C57BL/6 mice by a single intravitreal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 250 ng). The mice were divided into three groups as follows: LPS alone, LPS plus vehicle, LPS plus roscovitine (50 mg/kg). The mice were euthanized 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after LPS‑induced uveitis. Accumulation of inflammatory cells in the vitreous body was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, and quantified following hematoxylin and eosin staining. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick‑end labeling was performed to detect of apoptotic cells. The mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines were analyzed by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and the changes in protein levels were analyzed by western blotting. Inflammatory cells accumulated in the vitreous near the optic nerve head and the quantity peaked at 24 h after LPS injection. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the majority of the inflammatory cells were neutrophils. The number of infiltrating cells was similar in the LPS and LPS plus vehicle groups, while there were significantly less in the roscovitine group at 24 h. Apoptosis of neutrophils was observed between 12 and 48 h after roscovitine injection, while no apoptosis was observed in the other groups. The mRNA expression levels of GMCSF, CINC‑1 and ICAM‑1 peaked at 12 h after LPS injection, and decreased to normal levels at 72 h. This trend in mRNA expression was similar in the LPS and LPS plus vehicle groups; however, the expression levels decreased more quickly in the roscovitine group at 24 and 48 h. Following roscovitine administration, upregulated cleaved caspase 3 expression levels

  12. Administration of red ginseng ameliorates memory decline in aged mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yeonju; Oh, Seikwan

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been known that ginseng can be applied as a potential nutraceutical for memory impairment; however, experiments with animals of old age are few. Methods To determine the memory enhancing effect of red ginseng, C57BL/6 mice (21 mo old) were given experimental diet pellets containing 0.12% red ginseng extract (approximately 200 mg/kg/d) for 3 mo. Young and old mice (4 mo and 21 mo old, respectively) were used as the control group. The effect of red ginseng, which ameliorated m...

  13. Technical trend of OCR and recognition technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is comprised of nine chapters, which are introduction of optical character reader, the history and development of OCR, foundation of character recognition technology, print letter recognition, script character recognition with stroke matching method, On-line character recognition on summary of character recognition of on-line script, the ways of on-line script and on-line Hangeul recognition with syntactic analysis, construction of character recognition system and formation of Hangeul for character recognition. This book describes character recognition technology with various technique of optical character reader.

  14. The Legal Recognition of Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meulder, Maartje

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an analytical overview of the different types of explicit legal recognition of sign languages. Five categories are distinguished: constitutional recognition, recognition by means of general language legislation, recognition by means of a sign language law or act, recognition by means of a sign language law or act including…

  15. Iris Recognition Using Wavelet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaliq Masood

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Biometric systems are getting more attention in the present era. Iris recognition is one of the most secure and authentic among the other biometrics and this field demands more authentic, reliable and fast algorithms to implement these biometric systems in real time. In this paper, an efficient localization technique is presented to identify pupil and iris boundaries using histogram of the iris image. Two small portions of iris have been used for polar transformation to reduce computational time and to increase the efficiency of the system. Wavelet transform is used for feature vector generation. Rotation of iris is compensated without shifts in the iris code. System is tested on Multimedia University Iris Database and results show that proposed system has encouraging performance.

  16. Recognition Using Hybrid Classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadchy, Margarita; Keren, Daniel; Raviv, Dolev

    2016-04-01

    A canonical problem in computer vision is category recognition (e.g., find all instances of human faces, cars etc., in an image). Typically, the input for training a binary classifier is a relatively small sample of positive examples, and a huge sample of negative examples, which can be very diverse, consisting of images from a large number of categories. The difficulty of the problem sharply increases with the dimension and size of the negative example set. We propose to alleviate this problem by applying a "hybrid" classifier, which replaces the negative samples by a prior, and then finds a hyperplane which separates the positive samples from this prior. The method is extended to kernel space and to an ensemble-based approach. The resulting binary classifiers achieve an identical or better classification rate than SVM, while requiring far smaller memory and lower computational complexity to train and apply. PMID:26959677

  17. Chemical recognition software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, J.S.; Trahan, M.W.; Nelson, W.E.; Hargis, P.J. Jr.; Tisone, G.C.

    1994-12-01

    We have developed a capability to make real time concentration measurements of individual chemicals in a complex mixture using a multispectral laser remote sensing system. Our chemical recognition and analysis software consists of three parts: (1) a rigorous multivariate analysis package for quantitative concentration and uncertainty estimates, (2) a genetic optimizer which customizes and tailors the multivariate algorithm for a particular application, and (3) an intelligent neural net chemical filter which pre-selects from the chemical database to find the appropriate candidate chemicals for quantitative analyses by the multivariate algorithms, as well as providing a quick-look concentration estimate and consistency check. Detailed simulations using both laboratory fluorescence data and computer synthesized spectra indicate that our software can make accurate concentration estimates from complex multicomponent mixtures. even when the mixture is noisy and contaminated with unknowns.

  18. Chemical recognition software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, J.S.; Trahan, M.W.; Nelson, W.E.; Hargis, P.H. Jr.; Tisone, G.C.

    1994-06-01

    We have developed a capability to make real time concentration measurements of individual chemicals in a complex mixture using a multispectral laser remote sensing system. Our chemical recognition and analysis software consists of three parts: (1) a rigorous multivariate analysis package for quantitative concentration and uncertainty estimates, (2) a genetic optimizer which customizes and tailors the multivariate algorithm for a particular application, and (3) an intelligent neural net chemical filter which pre-selects from the chemical database to find the appropriate candidate chemicals for quantitative analyses by the multivariate algorithms, as well as providing a quick-look concentration estimate and consistency check. Detailed simulations using both laboratory fluorescence data and computer synthesized spectra indicate that our software can make accurate concentration estimates from complex multicomponent mixtures, even when the mixture is noisy and contaminated with unknowns.

  19. Automatic Speaker Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul,R. B. Dubey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Spoken language is used by human to convey many types of information. Primarily, speech convey message via words. Owing to advanced speech technologies, people's interactions with remote machines, such as phone banking, internet browsing, and secured information retrieval by voice, is becoming popular today. Speaker verification and speaker identification are important for authentication and verification in security purpose. Speaker identification methods can be divided into text independent and text-dependent. Speaker recognition is the process of automatically recognizing speaker voice on the basis of individual information included in the input speech waves. It consists of comparing a speech signal from an unknown speaker to a set of stored data of known speakers. This process recognizes who has spoken by matching input signal with pre- stored samples. The work is focussed to improve the performance of the speaker verification under noisy conditions.

  20. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Veldhuis, Raymond; Spreeuwers, Luuk

    2010-01-01

    Beside a few papers which focus on the forensic aspects of automatic face recognition, there is not much published about it in contrast to the literature on developing new techniques and methodologies for biometric face recognition. In this report, we review forensic facial identification which is t

  1. AMELIORATIVE EFFECTS OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA IN SCIATICA PAIN INDUCED RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaakur Santhrani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at investigating the ameliorative effect of Tinospora cordifolia in sciatic nerve root Ligation -induced sciatica pain in rats. Adult male albino rats weighing 130-150gm were used for the study, and were divided into seven groups and ligation was performed on left sciatic nerve in group II to group VII. Tail cold-hyperalgesia, motor co-ordination tests, foot deformity, and total calcium levels were estimated to assess the extent of sciatica. Superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and lipid peroxide (LPO levels were estimated to evaluate the extent of oxidative stress. The alcoholic and aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia was administered at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg/p.o for 15 days. Tinospora cordifolia attenuated sciatic nerve root Ligation-induced motor in-coordination, foot deformity, tail cold hyperalgesia, reversed ligation-induced alterations in lipid peroxides, total calcium, superoxide dismutase, catalase levels in a dose-dependent manner. Ameliorative effects of Tinospora cordifolia in ligation-induced sciatica may be due to its foot deformity, antioxidant, and calcium attenuating actions.

  2. Simvastatin ameliorates gentamicin-induced renal injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosadegh Jabbari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gentamicin nephrotoxicity is one of the most common causes of acute renal failure. Simvastatin is one of the antioxidative drugs, which has anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects and modulates the immune system. The present study was conducted to assess the effect of simvastatin on ameliorating the gentamicin-induced renal injury in 87 Sprague-Dawley rats, which were allocated randomly to 11 study groups: (A and (B groups with only gentamicin in 2 dosages; (C, (D, and (E gentamicin 50 mg/kg/day and simvastatin with different dosage; (F, (G, and (H gentamicin 80 mg/kg/day and simvastatin with different dosage; (I only simvastatin; (J Injected normal saline; (K control (no gentamicin and no simvastatin group. Our study intervention period for injection of drugs was 12 days. Serum creatinine level and clearance were measured in all groups. At the end of the study, the rats were killed and both kidneys were removed and processed for histopathologic examination using the standard methods. The 50 mg/kg/day dose was utilized because it induces a mild form of renal toxicity, whereas the 80 mg/kg/day dose cause a more severe degree of renal injury. Morphologic examination of specimens from all rats was qualitatively assessed with blindness to treatment groups and proximal tubular profiles that were presented in each file were counted. The results demonstrated amelioration of gentamicin-induced renal toxicity in rats by simvastatin due to its antioxidant drug dose-related effect.

  3. Losartan ameliorates dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa and uncovers new disease mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Alexander; Thriene, Kerstin; Mittapalli, Venugopal; Kern, Johannes S; Kiritsi, Dimitra; Dengjel, Jörn; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena

    2015-09-01

    Genetic loss of collagen VII causes recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB)-a severe skin fragility disorder associated with lifelong blistering and disabling progressive soft tissue fibrosis. Causative therapies for this complex disorder face major hurdles, and clinical implementation remains elusive. Here, we report an alternative evidence-based approach to ameliorate fibrosis and relieve symptoms in RDEB. Based on the findings that TGF-β activity is elevated in injured RDEB skin, we targeted TGF-β activity with losartan in a preclinical setting. Long-term treatment of RDEB mice efficiently reduced TGF-β signaling in chronically injured forepaws and halted fibrosis and subsequent fusion of the digits. In addition, proteomics analysis of losartan- vs. vehicle-treated RDEB skin uncovered changes in multiple proteins related to tissue inflammation. In line with this, losartan reduced inflammation and diminished TNF-α and IL-6 expression in injured forepaws. Collectively, the data argue that RDEB fibrosis is a consequence of a cascade encompassing tissue damage, TGF-β-mediated inflammation, and matrix remodeling. Inhibition of TGF-β activity limits these unwanted outcomes and thereby substantially ameliorates long-term symptoms. PMID:26194911

  4. Guanfacine ameliorates hypobaric hypoxia induced spatial working memory deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauser, H; Sahu, S; Kumar, S; Panjwani, U

    2014-01-17

    Hypobaric hypoxia (HH) observed at high altitude causes mild cognitive impairment specifically affecting attention and working memory. Adrenergic dysregulation and neuronal damage in prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been implicated in hypoxia induced memory deficits. Optimal stimulation of alpha 2A adrenergic receptor in PFC facilitates the spatial working memory (SWM) under the conditions of adrenergic dysregulation. Therefore the present study was designed to test the efficacy of alpha 2A adrenergic agonist, Guanfacine (GFC), to restore HH induced SWM deficits and PFC neuronal damage. The rats were exposed to chronic HH equivalent to 25,000ft for 7days in an animal decompression chamber and received daily treatment of GFC at a dose of 1mg/kg body weight via the intramuscular route during the period of exposure. The cognitive performance was assessed by Delayed Alternation Task (DAT) using T-Maze and PFC neuronal damage was studied by apoptotic and neurodegenerative markers. Percentage of correct choice decreased significantly while perseverative errors showed a significant increase after 7days HH exposure, GFC significantly ameliorated the SWM deficits and perseveration. There was a marked and significant increase in chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, neuronal pyknosis and fluoro Jade positive cells in layer II of the medial PFC in hypoxia exposed group, administration of GFC significantly reduced the magnitude of these changes. Modulation of adrenergic mechanisms by GFC may serve as an effective countermeasure in amelioration of prefrontal deficits and neurodegenerative changes during HH. PMID:24184415

  5. Oxidative Stress in Lead and Cadmium Toxicity and Its Amelioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Patra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been implicated to play a role, at least in part, in pathogenesis of many disease conditions and toxicities in animals. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species and free radicals beyond the cells intrinsic capacity to neutralize following xenobiotics exposure leads to a state of oxidative stress and resultant damages of lipids, protein, and DNA. Lead and cadmium are the common environmental heavy metal pollutants and have widespread distribution. Both natural and anthropogenic sources including mining, smelting, and other industrial processes are responsible for human and animal exposure. These pollutants, many a times, are copollutants leading to concurrent exposure to living beings and resultant synergistic deleterious health effects. Several mechanisms have been explained for the damaging effects on the body system. Of late, oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the lead- and cadmium-induced pathotoxicity. Several ameliorative measures to counteract the oxidative damage to the body system aftermath or during exposure to these toxicants have been assessed with the use of antioxidants. The present review focuses on mechanism of lead- and cadmium-induced oxidate damages and the ameliorative measures to counteract the oxidative damage and pathotoxicity with the use of supplemented antioxidants for their beneficial effects.

  6. Phytoceramide Shows Neuroprotection and Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seikwan Oh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The function and the role phytoceramide (PCER and phytosphingosine (PSO in the central nervous system has not been well studied. This study was aimed at investigating the possible roles of PCER and PSO in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured neuronal cells and memory function in mice. Phytoceramide showed neuro-protective activity in the glutamate-induced toxicity in cultured cortical neuronal cells. Neither phytosphingosine nor tetraacetylphytosphingosine (TAPS showed neuroproective effects in neuronal cells. PCER (50 mg/kg, p.o. recovered the scopolamine-induced reduction in step-through latency in the passive avoidance test; however, PSO did not modulate memory function on this task. The ameliorating effects of PCER on spatial memory were confirmed by the Morris water maze test. In conclusion, through behavioral and neurochemical experimental results, it was demonstrated that central administration of PCER produces amelioration of memory impairment. These results suggest that PCER plays an important role in neuroprotection and memory enhancement and PCER could be a potential new therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease.

  7. Curcumin ameliorates experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis by diverse immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan; Li, Heng; Zhang, Min; Yue, Long-Tao; Wang, Cong-Cong; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Ying; Duan, Rui-Sheng

    2016-07-28

    Curcumin is a traditional Asian medicine with diverse immunomodulatory properties used therapeutically in the treatment of many autoimmune diseases. However, the effects of curcumin on myasthenia gravis (MG) remain undefined. Here we investigated the effects and potential mechanisms of curcumin in experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG). Our results demonstrated that curcumin ameliorated the clinical scores of EAMG, suppressed the expression of T cell co-stimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86) and MHC class II, down-regulated the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-17, IFN-γ and TNF-α) and up-regulated the levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, shifted the balance from Th1/Th17 toward Th2/Treg, and increased the numbers of NKR-P1(+) cells (natural killer cell receptor protein 1 positive cells, including NK and NKT cells). Moreover, the administration of curcumin promoted the differentiation of B cells into a subset of B10 cells, increased the anti-R97-166 peptide IgG1 levels and decreased the relative affinity indexes of anti-R97-116 peptide IgG. In summary, curcumin effectively ameliorate EAMG, indicating that curcumin may be a potential candidate therapeutic agent for MG. PMID:27181511

  8. Pattern Recognition by Combined Invariants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaohong; ZHAO Rongchun

    2001-01-01

    A feature-based recognition of objectsor patterns independent of their position, size, orien-tation and other variations has been the goal of muchrecent research. The existing approaches to invarianttwo-dimensional pattern recognition are useless whenpattern is blurred. In this paper, we present a novelpattern recognition system which can solve the prob-lem by using combined invariants as image features.The classification technique we choose for our systemis weighted normalized cross correlation. The mean ofthe intraclass standard deviations of the kth featureover the total number of prototypes for each class isused as a weighting factor during the classification pro-cess to improve recognition accuracy. The feasibilityof our pattern recognition system and the invarianceof the combined features with respect to translation,scaling, rotation and blurring are approved by numer-ical experiments on head images.

  9. Optimizing Face Recognition Using PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Abdullah

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Principle Component Analysis PCA is a classical feature extraction and data representation technique widely used in pattern recognition. It is one of the most successful techniques in face recognition. But it has drawback of high computational especially for big size database. This paper conducts a study to optimize the time complexity of PCA (eigenfaces that does not affects the recognition performance. The authorsminimize the participated eigenvectors which consequently decreases the computational time. A comparison is done to compare the differences between the recognition time in the original algorithm and in the enhanced algorithm. The performance of the original and the enhanced proposed algorithm is tested on face94 face database. Experimental results show that the recognition time is reduced by 35% by applying our proposed enhanced algorithm. DET Curves are used to illustrate the experimental results.

  10. Intervention of D-glucose ameliorates the toxicity of streptozotocin in accessory sex organs of rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streptozotocin (STZ) is a naturally occurring compound isolated from Streptomyces achromogens. It is used extensively for inducing diabetes in experimental animals. Diabetes mellitus is known to have proven adverse effects on male sexual organs and their reproductive functions. The atrophy of prostate gland and other organs of the genitourinary tract were observed in experimental diabetic animals. STZ exhibits a structural resemblance to D-glucose due to the presence of sugar moiety in its structure. Pancreatic β-cells mainly contain GLUT1 and GLUT2 glucose transporters. Possibly due to structural resemblance, STZ and D-glucose, share a common recognition site for entry into the β-cells. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of D-glucose on STZ-induced toxicity in accessory sex organs of male rats. Animals were kept on overnight fasting. One group received vehicle and served as negative control, while all other groups were given STZ (45 mg/kg). Animals that received only STZ served as positive control. The effect of D-glucose was studied on STZ treated animals with different dosage of D-glucose (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg). Restoration of body weight, plasma glucose and plasma insulin was evident only at 1000 and 2000 mg/kg of D-glucose. The protective effect of D-glucose is evident only when it is administered simultaneously with STZ. In the present investigation, we report that simultaneous administration of D-glucose along with STZ ameliorates STZ-induced toxicity. This is evident from the restoration of accessory sex organ's weight, cellular morphology as well as insulin level

  11. 阿米福汀联合ESHAP方案治疗复发或难治性中高度恶性非霍奇金淋巴瘤的临床疗效%Clinical study on amifostine combined with ESHAP regimen in the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory intermediate or high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘隽; 朱琦; 胡钧培

    2006-01-01

    目的评价阿米福汀联合ESHAP(Amifostine-ESHAP)方案治疗复发或难治性中高度恶性非霍奇金淋巴瘤(NHL)的临床疗效和不良反应.方法采用Amifostine-ESHAP/ESHAP方案分组治疗38例复发或难治性中高度恶性NHL.结果Amifostine-ESHAP组21例患者共接受84个疗程化疗,10例完全缓解,4例部分缓解;ESHAP组17例患者共接受62个疗程化疗,7例完全缓解,3例部分缓解,总有效率分别为66.7%和58.8%,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);2组中老年和年轻患者总有效率差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).2组主要治疗相关的不良反应为骨髓抑制,Amifostine-ESHAP组重度白细胞减少和血小板减少发生率分别为14.3%和23.8%,明显低于ESHAP组(35.3%和41.2%,以老年患者为主),其中老年和年轻患者的不良反应发生率无显著差异.结论Amifostine-ESHAP方案是复发或难治性中高度恶性NHL,尤其是老年患者的有效挽救治疗方案,其中阿米福汀能有效预防化疗相关的骨髓抑制而不影响其疗效.

  12. 18 CFR 2.23 - Use of reserved authority in hydropower licenses to ameliorate cumulative impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... authority in hydropower licenses to ameliorate cumulative impacts. 2.23 Section 2.23 Conservation of Power... § 2.23 Use of reserved authority in hydropower licenses to ameliorate cumulative impacts. The... opportunity for hearing by the licensee and all interested parties. Hydropower licenses also contain...

  13. Kernel learning algorithms for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jun-Bao; Pan, Jeng-Shyang

    2013-01-01

    Kernel Learning Algorithms for Face Recognition covers the framework of kernel based face recognition. This book discusses the advanced kernel learning algorithms and its application on face recognition. This book also focuses on the theoretical deviation, the system framework and experiments involving kernel based face recognition. Included within are algorithms of kernel based face recognition, and also the feasibility of the kernel based face recognition method. This book provides researchers in pattern recognition and machine learning area with advanced face recognition methods and its new

  14. Side-View Face Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Santemiz, Pinar; Spreeuwers, Luuk J.; Veldhuis, Raymond N. J.; Biggelaar, van den, M.

    2011-01-01

    As a widely used biometrics, face recognition has many advantages such as being non-intrusive, natural and passive. On the other hand, in real-life scenarios with uncontrolled environment, pose variation up to side-view positions makes face recognition a challenging work. In this paper we discuss the use of side-view face recognition in house safety applications. Our goal is to recognize people as they pass through doors in order to estimate their location in the house. In order to preserve p...

  15. Side-View Face Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Santemiz, Pinar; Spreeuwers, Luuk J.; Veldhuis, Raymond N. J.

    2010-01-01

    Side-view face recognition is a challenging problem with many applications. Especially in real-life scenarios where the environment is uncontrolled, coping with pose variations up to side-view positions is an important task for face recognition. In this paper we discuss the use of side view face recognition techniques to be used in house safety applications. Our aim is to recognize people as they pass through a door, and estimate their location in the house. Here, we compare available databas...

  16. Logo Recognition Theory and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jingying

    2011-01-01

    Used by companies, organizations, and even individuals to promote recognition of their brand, logos can also act as a valuable means of identifying the source of a document. E-business applications can retrieve and catalog products according to their logos. Governmental agencies can easily inspect goods using smart mobile devices that use logo recognition techniques. However, because logos are two-dimensional shapes of varying complexity, the recognition process can be challenging. Although promising results have been found for clean logos, they have not been as robust for noisy logos. Logo Re

  17. Macromolecular recognition: Recognition of polymer side chains by cyclodextrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashidzume, Akihito; Harada, Akira

    2015-12-01

    The interaction of cyclodextrins (CD) with water soluble polymers possessing guest residues has been investigated as model systems in biological molecular recognition. The selectivity of interaction of CD with polymer-carrying guest residues is controlled by polymer chains, i.e., the steric effect of polymer main chain, the conformational effect of polymer main chain, and multi-site interaction. Macroscopic assemblies have been also realized based on molecular recognition using polyacrylamide-based gels possessing CD and guest residues.

  18. Post Stamp Perforation Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Koníček, Vladimír

    2008-01-01

    Rozpoznávání zoubkování poštovních známek je důležitým faktorem při posuzování pravosti poštovní známky. Typ a rozměr zoubkování mají výrazný vliv na cenu poštovní známky. Tato práce se zabývá navrhem detektoru zoubkování poštovních známek. Cílem práce je vytvořit aplikaci, která z fotografie určí zoubkování zobrazené poštovní známky. Aplikace pro práci s obrazy využívá knihovnu OpenCV. Post stamp perforation recognition is important factor in authentication of post stamps. Type and perfor...

  19. Flemingia macrophylla Extract Ameliorates Experimental Osteoporosis in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ya Ho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Flemingia macrophylla (Leguminosae, a native plant of Taiwan, is used as folk medicine. An in vitro study showed that a 75% ethanolic extract of F. macrophylla (FME inhibited osteoclast differentiation of cultured rat bone marrow cells, and the active component, lespedezaflavanone A (LDF-A, was isolated. It was found that oral administration of FME for 13 weeks suppressed bone loss in ovariectomized rats, an experimental model of osteoporosis. In addition, FME decreased urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations but did not inhibit serum alkaline phosphatase activities, indicating that it ameliorated bone loss via inhibition of bone resorption. These results suggest that FME may represent a useful remedy for the treatment of bone resorption diseases, such as osteoporosis. In addition, LDF-A could be used as a marker compound to control the quality of FME.

  20. Biochar Ameliorate Drought and Salt Stress in Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem Akhtar, Saqib

    due to its high adsorption capacity; decreasing osmotic stress by enhancing soil moisture content; and releasing mineral nutrients (particularly K+, Ca++, Mg++) into the soil solution - Growth, physiology and yield of plants were positively affected by biochar due to its ability to increase soil...... plant with halophytic plant growth promoting bacteria) approaches. The results showed that: - Biochar mitigated drought stress in plants by enhancing soil moisture availability due to its high porosity and large surface area - Biochar ameliorated salinity stress in plant by a high transient Na+ binding...... moisture content, improve nutrient acquisition and reduce Na+ uptake under drought and salinity stress, respectively - Biochar had long-term positive residual effect on plant growth and performance under salinity stress - Positive responses of biochar on plants could be further enhanced by adopting...

  1. 氨磷汀在血液肿瘤治疗中的应用与展望%Clinical application and expectation of amifostine applied during treatment of hematological malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任婧; 陈虎

    2009-01-01

    Although hemopoietic stem cell transplant have been used in treating malignant diseases of hematological system using high-dose chemotherapy and radiotherapy before transplant or non-transplant is very important. When the dose of chemotherapy and radiotherapy exceeds the ability the tissues can bear, normal tissue can be badly damaged, which limits the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Treatments of hematological malignancies are expected to achieve the best therapeutic efficacy and the least damage of normal cells and tissues. Amifostine is an inorganic thiophosphate eytoprotective agent,its chemname is S-2(3-aminopropyl) amino dihydrogen phosphate.h is a prodrug whose active constitutent is free thiol,it can clears free radicals produced from cytotoxic drugs and radiotherapy in tissues exposed to them. It is a broad-spectrum cytoprotective agent which can protect multifarious normal tissues against damage of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Using amifostine in proconditioning of hemopoietic stem cell transplant can lessen hematological and renal toxicity, it can also lessen renal toxicity produced by chemotherapeutics as platinum,cyclophosphamide and vincristine. The main purpose of this review is to discuss the cytoprotection of amifostine in hematological malignancies.%虽然干细胞移植治疗血液肿瘤取得了良好疗效,但大剂量放疗及化疗治疗血液肿瘤仍很重要,放疗或化疗对正常组织造成的严重损伤限制了其要达到的治疗效果.达到最大的治疗效果并对正常细胞和组织产生最小的破坏作用是临床工作者追求的目标.氨磷汀(商品名:阿米福汀)是无机硫代磷酸盐细胞保护剂,它的化学名是S-2-[(3-氨基丙基)氨基]-硫代乙醇磷酸酯.它是一种前体药物,活性成分为游离的硫羟基,可以清除细胞毒性药物在组织中产生的自由基.它是一种广谱选择性细胞保护剂,能保护多种正常组织免受化疗及放疗的损伤.

  2. Efficacy of amifostine combined with chemotherapy for patients with Ewing sarcoma or PNET%氨磷汀联合化疗治疗Ewing肉瘤/PNET的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翌庆; 刘云霞

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨氨磷汀联合化疗治疗Ewing肉瘤/PNET的疗效、不良反应和安全性.方法 32例Ewing肉瘤/PNET患者分为化疗加氨磷汀组(观察组)及单纯化疗组(对照组),观察组12例,对照组20例.行IFO-IFO-DDP-ADM化疗2周期后评价疗效、不良反应.结果 观察组完全缓解(CR)及非常好的部分缓解率(VGPR)为91.6%,对照组为90.0%,两组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).比较两组各种Ⅰ度~Ⅳ度不良反应发生率,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).比较两组发生的Ⅳ度不良反应,观察组Ⅳ度白细胞减少为25.0%,对照组为70.0%;观察组Ⅳ度粒细胞减少25.0%,对照组为75.0%,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 氨磷汀联合化疗治疗Ewing肉瘤/PNET不改变化疗疗效,不增加各种常见不良反应发生率;可以明显减少化疗后Ⅳ度白细胞及粒细胞减少的发生率,安全性好.%Objective To investigate the efficacy and adverse reactions of chemotherapy combined with amifostine for patients with Ewing sarcoma or primary neuroectodermal tumor ( PNET). Methods Thirty-two patients with Ewing sarcoma/PNET were divided into Group A ( amifostine group, n = 12) and Group B ( control group, n =20). After two cycles of IFO-IFO-DDP-ADM chemotherapy, the efficacy and adverse reaction of chemotherapy were observed. Results The rate of complete remission (CR) and very good partial response ( VGPR) was 91. 6% in Group A, and 90. 0% in Group B (P > 0. 05 ) . There was no significant difference in rate of adverse reaction I ~ IV between two groups (P > 0. 05 ) . The rate of IV leukopenia in Group A was 25. 0% and 70. 0% in Group B (P < 0. 05 ). The rate of W neutropenia in Group A was 25. 0% and 75. 0% in Group B ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion Amifostine combined with chemotherapy for patients with Ewing sarcoma/PNET may not change the efficacy or adverse reaction, while the rate of IV leukopenia and neutropenia would be reduced.

  3. Clinical efficacy and safety of amifostine on elderly patients with acute leukemia receiving chemotherapy%氨磷汀对老年急性白血病化疗患者的疗效与安全性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲志刚; 方炳木; 马光丽; 江锦红; 章俏雷; 汪笑秋; 王晓丽; 刘永华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of amifostine on elderly acute leukemia patients receiving chemotherapy.Methods Fifty-eight patients with acute leukemia treated with chemo-therapy and amifostine were recruited in this study and then divided into two groups, 28 cases in elderly group (≥60 years) and 30 cases in control group (0.05).After chemotherapy, there were 82 (80.4%) and 102 (80.3%) cases showing decreasing systolic blood pressure in elderly group and control group, respectively, and 71 ( 69.6%) and 83 ( 62.9%) cases showing decreasing diastolic blood pressure ( P >0.05).Conclusion The application of amifostine on elderly acute leukemia patients who has received chemotherapy is safe and could relieve chemotherapy-induced adverse reactions.%目的:评价氨磷汀在老年急性白血病化疗患者中的临床疗效及安全性。方法58例多次接受化疗和氨磷汀细胞保护治疗的急性白血病患者分为2组,老年组28例(年龄≥60岁)和对照组30例(年龄<60岁)。2组于化疗前15~30 min静脉推注氨磷汀600 mg· m-2,持续15 min,连续用4个周期,比较氨磷汀对2组患者恶心呕吐等化疗不良反应发生率及血压的影响。结果老年组与对照组患者恶心呕吐、皮疹、口干等不良反应发生率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);老年组患者收缩压下降82例次(80.4%),舒张压下降71例次(69.6%);对照组收缩压下降106例次(80.3%),舒张压下降83例次(62.9%),2组患者收缩压与舒张压下降比例差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论在接受化疗的老年急性白血病患者中用氨磷汀是安全的,可减少老年患者化疗相关不良反应。

  4. Dexmedetomidine preconditioning ameliorates kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempiäinen, Juha; Finckenberg, Piet; Mervaala, Elina E; Storvik, Markus; Kaivola, Juha; Lindstedt, Ken; Levijoki, Jouko; Mervaala, Eero M

    2014-01-01

    Kidney ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a common cause of acute kidney injury. We tested whether dexmedetomidine (Dex), an alpha2 adrenoceptor (α2-AR) agonist, protects against kidney I/R injury. Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into four groups: (1) Sham-operated group; (2) I/R group (40 min ischemia followed by 24 h reperfusion); (3) I/R group + Dex (1 μg/kg i.v. 60 min before the surgery), (4) I/R group + Dex (10 μg/kg). The effects of Dex postconditiong (Dex 1 or 10 μg/kg i.v. after reperfusion) as well as the effects of peripheral α2-AR agonism with fadolmidine were also examined. Hemodynamic effects were monitored, renal function measured, and acute tubular damage along with monocyte/macrophage infiltration scored. Kidney protein kinase B, toll like receptor 4, light chain 3B, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), sirtuin 1, adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expressions were measured, and kidney transciptome profiles analyzed. Dex preconditioning, but not postconditioning, attenuated I/R injury-induced renal dysfunction, acute tubular necrosis and inflammatory response. Neither pre- nor postconditioning with fadolmidine protected kidneys. Dex decreased blood pressure more than fadolmidine, ameliorated I/R-induced impairment of autophagy and increased renal p38 and eNOS expressions. Dex downregulated 245 and upregulated 61 genes representing 17 enriched Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, in particular, integrin pathway and CD44. Ingenuity analysis revealed inhibition of Rac and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 pathways, whereas aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathway was activated. Dex preconditioning ameliorates kidney I/R injury and inflammatory response, at least in part, through p38-CD44-pathway and possibly also through ischemic preconditioning. PMID:25505591

  5. Evaluation of water treatment sludge for ameliorating acid mine waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rensburg, L; Morgenthal, T L

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the liming effect of water treatment sludge on acid mine spoils. The study was conducted with sludge from a water purification plant along the Vaal River catchments in South Africa. The optimum application rate for liming acid spoils and the speed and depth with which the sludge reacted with the mine waste were investigated. Chemical analysis indicated that the sludge is suitable as a liming agent because of its alkaline pH (8.08), high bicarbonate concentration (183.03 mg L(-1)), and low salinity (electrical conductivity = 76 mS m(-1)). The high cation exchange capacity of 15.47 cmol(c) kg(-1) and elevated nitrate concentration (73.16 mg L(-1)) also increase its value as an ameliorative material. The soluble concentrations for manganese, aluminum, lead, and selenium were high at a pH of 5 although only selenium (0.83 mg L(-1)) warranted some concern. According to experimental results, the application of 10 Mg ha(-1) of sludge to acid gold tailings increased the leach water pH from 4.5 to more than 7.5 and also increased the medium pH from 2.4 to 7.5. The addition of sludge further reduced the solubility of iron, manganese, copper, and zinc in the ameliorated gold tailings, but increased the electrical conductivity. The liming tempo was highest in the coal discard profile that had a coarse particle size distribution and took the longest to move through the gold tailings that had a fine particle size distribution. Results from this study indicate that the water treatment sludge investigated is suitable as a liming agent for rehabilitation of acid mine waste. PMID:14535306

  6. Iris Recognition using Orthogonal Transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Mani Roja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Iris Recognition is a biometric recognition technique in which features of the iris are used to uniquely identify individuals. Iris recognition has over the years emerged as one of the most accuratebiometric techniques as opposed to other biometric techniques like face, signature and fingerprint. First, the iris image is pre processed using canny edge detector using a Gaussian filter. The iris edge and the pupil edge are extracted using image morphological operation, image opening. After normalization of red, green and blue components of the colour iris using Euclidean distance method, they are combined to form the localized colour iris. For feature vectors extraction, orthogonal transforms like discrete cosine transform, discrete sine transform and discrete Fourier transform have been considered. The proposed iris recognition system is very time efficient and it takes less than 1 second to grant authentication.

  7. Similarity measures for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Vezzetti, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Face recognition has several applications, including security, such as (authentication and identification of device users and criminal suspects), and in medicine (corrective surgery and diagnosis). Facial recognition programs rely on algorithms that can compare and compute the similarity between two sets of images. This eBook explains some of the similarity measures used in facial recognition systems in a single volume. Readers will learn about various measures including Minkowski distances, Mahalanobis distances, Hansdorff distances, cosine-based distances, among other methods. The book also summarizes errors that may occur in face recognition methods. Computer scientists "facing face" and looking to select and test different methods of computing similarities will benefit from this book. The book is also useful tool for students undertaking computer vision courses.

  8. Pattern recognition and string matching

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Xiuzhen

    2002-01-01

    The research and development of pattern recognition have proven to be of importance in science, technology, and human activity. Many useful concepts and tools from different disciplines have been employed in pattern recognition. Among them is string matching, which receives much theoretical and practical attention. String matching is also an important topic in combinatorial optimization. This book is devoted to recent advances in pattern recognition and string matching. It consists of twenty eight chapters written by different authors, addressing a broad range of topics such as those from classifica­ tion, matching, mining, feature selection, and applications. Each chapter is self-contained, and presents either novel methodological approaches or applications of existing theories and techniques. The aim, intent, and motivation for publishing this book is to pro­ vide a reference tool for the increasing number of readers who depend upon pattern recognition or string matching in some way. This includes student...

  9. Moment Invariants for Object Recognition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flusser, Jan

    Boca Raton: Wiley&Sons, 2015. ISBN 9780471346081 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : invariants * object recognition * moments Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/ZOI/flusser-0442976.pdf

  10. A Survey: Face Recognition Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Sharif; Sajjad Mohsin; Muhammad Younas Javed

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the existing techniques of face recognition are to be encountered along with their pros and cons to conduct a brief survey. The most general methods include Eigenface (Eigenfeatures), Hidden Markov Model (HMM), geometric based and template matching approaches. This survey actually performs analysis on these approaches in order to constitute face representations which will be discussed as under. In the second phase of the survey, factors affecting the recognition rates and proce...

  11. A SURVEY ON FACE RECOGNITION

    OpenAIRE

    R.VINODINI; DR.M.KARNAN

    2014-01-01

    Face recognition is one of the most emerging and popular biometric authentication of a person, it presents a challenging problem in the field of image analysis and computer vision. Though there are various biometric traits such as iris, fingerprint and palm print etc., we focused on face recognition as it is socially acceptable and reliable. Here user identity plays a very important role to uniquely verify or authenticate the individual person. Many techniques were implemented in face recogni...

  12. Theoretical Aspects of Molecular Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Harmat, Veronika; Náray-Szabó, Gábor

    2009-01-01

    Molecular recognition is a key process in non-covalent interactions, which determines, among others, host-guest complexation, drug action and protein-protein interaction. A simple and attractive formulation is the lock-and-key analogy defining the host as a lock accommodating the guest as a key. We stress three major aspects of molecular recognition, determining both complementarity between host and guest and similarity within a group of guest molecules. These aspects are: steric, i.e. maximi...

  13. Pattern Recognition Theory of Mind

    OpenAIRE

    de Paiva, Gilberto

    2009-01-01

    I propose that pattern recognition, memorization and processing are key concepts that can be a principle set for the theoretical modeling of the mind function. Most of the questions about the mind functioning can be answered by a descriptive modeling and definitions from these principles. An understandable consciousness definition can be drawn based on the assumption that a pattern recognition system can recognize its own patterns of activity. The principles, descriptive modeling and definiti...

  14. Educational perspectives on recognition theory

    OpenAIRE

    Hanhela, T. (Teemu)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The starting point for the research is to examine the educational perspectives of Axel Honneth’s recognition theory to find useful contents for educational institutions. The method of the thesis is conceptual analysis which gets a dual role: chapters two and three of the treatise define and analyse Honneth’s concept of recognition and its historic-philosophical context and with help of critical analyses, the articles (I, II and III) and chapter four of the dissertation connects t...

  15. Object Recognition Using Spatiotemporal Signatures

    OpenAIRE

    James V Stone

    1998-01-01

    The sequence of images generated by motion between observer and object specifies a spatiotemporal signature for that object. Evidence is presented that such spatiotemporal signatures are used in object recognition. Subjects learned novel, three-dimensional, rotating objects from image sequences in a continuous recognition task. During learning, the temporal order of images of a given object was constant. During testing, the order of images in each sequence was reversed, relative to its order ...

  16. Automatic Number Plate Recognition System

    OpenAIRE

    Rajshree Dhruw; Dharmendra Roy

    2014-01-01

    Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) is a mass surveillance system that captures the image of vehicles and recognizes their license number. The objective is to design an efficient automatic authorized vehicle identification system by using the Indian vehicle number plate. In this paper we discus different methodology for number plate localization, character segmentation & recognition of the number plate. The system is mainly applicable for non standard Indian number plates by recognizing...

  17. Facial Expressions Recognition Using Eigenspaces

    OpenAIRE

    Senthil Ragavan Valayapalayam Kittusamy; Venkatesh Chakrapani

    2012-01-01

    A challenging research topic is to make the Computer Systems to recognize facial expressions from the face image. A method of facial expression recognition, based on Eigenspaces is presented in this study. Here, the authors recognize the userâs facial expressions from the input images, using a method that was customized from eigenface recognition. Evaluation was done for this method in terms of identification correctness using two different Facial Expressions databases, Cohn-Kanade facial exp...

  18. Combinatorial approaches to gene recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roytberg, M A; Astakhova, T V; Gelfand, M S

    1997-01-01

    Recognition of genes via exon assembly approaches leads naturally to the use of dynamic programming. We consider the general graph-theoretical formulation of the exon assembly problem and analyze in detail some specific variants: multicriterial optimization in the case of non-linear gene-scoring functions; context-dependent schemes for scoring exons and related procedures for exon filtering; and highly specific recognition of arbitrary gene segments, oligonucleotide probes and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. PMID:9440930

  19. Speech Recognition Technology: Applications & Future

    OpenAIRE

    Pankaj Pathak

    2010-01-01

    Voice or speech recognition is "the technology by which sounds, words or phrases spoken by humans are converted into electrical signals, and these signals are transformed into coding patterns to which meaning has been assigned", .It is the technology needs a combination of improved artificial intelligence technology and a more sophisticated speech-recognition engine . Initially a primitive device is developed which could recognize speech, by AT & T Bell Laboratories in the 1940s. According to...

  20. Recognition Memory in Psychotic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ellis

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary data are reported from experiments in which Warrington's (1984 Recognition Memory Tests were given to patients with misidentification delusions including the Capgras type and to psychotic patients. The results showed a profound impairment on face recognition for most groups, especially those with the Capgras delusion. It was rare to find a patent whose score on the word test was anything but normal.

  1. Small Molecule GS-Nitroxide Ameliorates Ionizing Irradiation-Induced Delay in Bone Wound Healing in a Novel Murine Model

    OpenAIRE

    Gokhale, Abhay; Rwigema, Jean-Claude; Epperly, Michael; Glowacki, Julie; Wang, Hong; Wipf, Peter; Goff, Julie P.; Dixon, Tracy; Patrene, Ken; Greenberger, Joel S.

    2010-01-01

    We studied radioprotection and mitigation by mitochondrial-targeted Tempol (GS-nitroxide, JP4-039), in a mouse injury/irradiation model of combined injury (fracture/irradiation). Right hind legs of control C57BL/6NHsd female mice, mice pretreated with MnSOD-PL, JP4-039, or with amifostine were irradiated with single and fractionated doses of 0 to 20 Gy. Twenty-four hours later, unicortical holes were drilled into the tibiae of both hind legs; at intervals, tibias were excised, radiographed, a...

  2. Success with voice recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sferrella, Sheila M

    2003-01-01

    You need a compelling reason to implement voice recognition technology. At my institution, the compelling reason was a turnaround time for Radiology results of more than two days. Only 41 percent of our reports were transcribed and signed within 24 hours. In November 1998, a team from Lehigh Valley Hospital went to RSNA and reviewed every voice system on the market. The evaluation was done with the radiologist workflow in mind, and we came back from the meeting with the vendor selection completed. The next steps included developing a business plan, approval of funds, reference calls to more than 15 sites and contract negotiation, all of which took about six months. The department of Radiology at Lehigh Valley Hospital and Health Network (LVHHN) is a multi-site center that performs over 360,000 procedures annually. The department handles all modalities of radiology: general diagnosis, neuroradiology, ultrasound, CT Scan, MRI, interventional radiology, arthography, myelography, bone densitometry, nuclear medicine, PET imaging, vascular lab and other advanced procedures. The department consists of 200 FTEs and a medical staff of more than 40 radiologists. The budget is in the $10.3 million range. There are three hospital sites and four outpatient imaging center sites where services are provided. At Lehigh Valley Hospital, radiologists are not dedicated to one subspecialty, so implementing a voice system by modality was not an option. Because transcription was so far behind, we needed to eliminate that part of the process. As a result, we decided to deploy the system all at once and with the radiologists as editors. The planning and testing phase took about four months, and the implementation took two weeks. We deployed over 40 workstations and trained close to 50 physicians. The radiologists brought in an extra radiologist from our group for the two weeks of training. That allowed us to train without taking a radiologist out of the department. We trained three to six

  3. Voice congruency facilitates word recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Campeanu

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies of spoken word memory have shown that context congruency facilitates both word and source recognition, though the level at which context exerts its influence remains equivocal. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs while participants performed both types of recognition task with words spoken in four voices. Two voice parameters (i.e., gender and accent varied between speakers, with the possibility that none, one or two of these parameters was congruent between study and test. Results indicated that reinstating the study voice at test facilitated both word and source recognition, compared to similar or no context congruency at test. Behavioral effects were paralleled by two ERP modulations. First, in the word recognition test, the left parietal old/new effect showed a positive deflection reflective of context congruency between study and test words. Namely, the same speaker condition provided the most positive deflection of all correctly identified old words. In the source recognition test, a right frontal positivity was found for the same speaker condition compared to the different speaker conditions, regardless of response success. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the benefit of context congruency is reflected behaviorally and in ERP modulations traditionally associated with recognition memory.

  4. Ameliorated de novo transcriptome assembly using Illumina paired end sequence data with Trinity Assembler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Gopinath Bankar

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we aimed at obtaining an ameliorated de novo transcriptome assembly with sequence reads obtained from Illumina platform and assembled using Trinity Assembler. We found that, primary transcriptome assembly obtained as a result of Trinity can be ameliorated on the basis of transcript length, coverage, and depth and protein homology. Our approach to ameliorate is reproducible and could enhance the sensitivity and specificity of the assembled transcriptome which could be critical for validation of the assembled transcripts and for planning various downstream biological assays.

  5. Micro-Recognition - Erving Goffman as Recognition Thinker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Michael Hviid; Kristiansen, Søren

    2009-01-01

      The purpose of this article is to present, develop and exemplify the argument that Erving Goffman can be regarded as an important yet somewhat overlooked contributor to recognition theory in contemporary sociology. Despite often being neglected in this respect, this article provides an interpre......  The purpose of this article is to present, develop and exemplify the argument that Erving Goffman can be regarded as an important yet somewhat overlooked contributor to recognition theory in contemporary sociology. Despite often being neglected in this respect, this article provides an...... interpretation of Goffman as a major recognition theorist on the micro-level of social analysis by way of his ritual metaphor. Erving Goffman's sociology is conventionally approached and appreciated primarily through his famous dramaturgical metaphor that describes and comprehends social life through the......-structural or macro-sociological recognition claims and all contain a certain political or moral edge - Goffman rather provides a much more descriptive and micro-sociological account of the workings and necessity of recognition. In his ritual metaphorical perspective, social interaction to a large extent...

  6. Oracle Complexity and Nontransitivity in Pattern Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Bulitko, Vadim

    2000-01-01

    Different mathematical models of recognition processes are known. In the present paper we consider a pattern recognition algorithm as an oracle computation on a Turing machine. Such point of view seems to be useful in pattern recognition as well as in recursion theory. Use of recursion theory in pattern recognition shows connection between a recognition algorithm comparison problem and complexity problems of oracle computation. That is because in many cases we can take into account only the n...

  7. Ablation of MMP9 gene ameliorates paracellular permeability and fibrinogen-amyloid beta complex formation during hyperhomocysteinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradashvili, Nino; Tyagi, Reeta; Metreveli, Naira; Tyagi, Suresh C; Lominadze, David

    2014-09-01

    Increased blood level of homocysteine (Hcy), called hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) accompanies many cognitive disorders including Alzheimer's disease. We hypothesized that HHcy-enhanced cerebrovascular permeability occurs via activation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) and leads to an increased formation of fibrinogen-β-amyloid (Fg-Aβ) complex. Cerebrovascular permeability changes were assessed in C57BL/6J (wild type, WT), cystathionine-β-synthase heterozygote (Cbs+/-, a genetic model of HHcy), MMP9 gene knockout (Mmp9-/-), and Cbs and Mmp9 double knockout (Cbs+/-/Mmp9-/-) mice using a dual-tracer probing method. Expression of vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) and Fg-Aβ complex formation was assessed in mouse brain cryosections by immunohistochemistry. Short-term memory of mice was assessed with a novel object recognition test. The cerebrovascular permeability in Cbs+/- mice was increased via mainly the paracellular transport pathway. VE-cadherin expression was the lowest and Fg-Aβ complex formation was the highest along with the diminished short-term memory in Cbs+/- mice. These effects of HHcy were ameliorated in Cbs+/-/Mmp9-/- mice. Thus, HHcy causes activation of MMP9 increasing cerebrovascular permeability by downregulation of VE-cadherin resulting in an enhanced formation of Fg-Aβ complex that can be associated with loss of memory. These data may lead to the identification of new targets for therapeutic intervention that can modulate HHcy-induced cerebrovascular permeability and resultant pathologies. PMID:24865997

  8. 氨磷汀对化疗中外周血造血干/祖细胞的保护作用%The protective effects of amifostine on hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells against the chemotheraputic damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周敏; 陈宝安; 李翠萍; 高冲; 丁家华; 孙耘玉; 高峰; 邵泽叶

    2004-01-01

    目的评估氨磷汀(amifostine,AMF)在保护造血干/祖细胞免受化疗药物依托泊甙(etoposide,VP-16)损伤方面的作用.方法提取新鲜和冻存的外周血造血干细胞(PBSC)和HL-60细胞,分为AMF+VP-16组、VP-16组和空白对照组,用台盼蓝拒染法检测细胞活性,CFU-GM集落培养计数,流式细胞仪测定细胞的凋亡率.结果新鲜和冻存的PBSC样本中,AMF+VP-16组的细胞存活率和集落形成能力较VP-16组显著提高(均P<0.05);HL-60细胞样本中,AMF+VP-16组与VP-16组凋亡率的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论AMF能保护造血干/祖细胞免受化疗药物VP-16的损伤,并且不影响VP-16对HL-60细胞的杀伤效果.

  9. 阿米福汀对HL-60细胞中survivin表达的影响%Effect of amifostine on survivin expression in HL-60 cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武婕萍; 马梁明; 周永安

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨阿米福汀(WR-2721,amifostine,AMI)对人髓系白血病细胞HL-60中survivin表达的影响.方法 不同浓度AMI(1,10,1 000 μmol/L)干预HL-60细胞24,48,72 h,用MTT比色法检测细胞的生长抑制作用;用半定量RT-PCR方法检测抑凋亡基因survivin mRNA的表达水平.结果 阿米福汀可显著抑制HL-60细胞的增殖和下调抑凋亡基因survivin 的表达水平,且均有明显浓度和时间依赖性.结论 AMI可能通过下调抑凋亡基因survivin的表达,解除其抑制凋亡效应,从而抑制HL-60细胞的增殖.

  10. An Analysis of Chemoprotection with Amifostine in 25 Cases with Ovarian Carcinoma%氨磷汀对卵巢癌化疗患者的保护作用25例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋一玲; 张菡

    2007-01-01

    [目的] 探讨化疗保护剂氨磷汀(Amifostine)对卵巢癌化疗患者的应用价值.[方法] 25例卵巢癌患者接受单纯化疗组(紫杉醇+顺铂)与氨磷汀+静脉化疗组(紫杉醇+顺铂),化疗前后检测血常规、血生化、血清CA-125及影像学CT增强扫描,对比观察化疗药物的毒副反应和临床疗效.[结果] 与自身对照相比较,氨磷汀+静脉化疗组消化道反应有所增加(评分分别为35分及46分,P0.05).[结论] 氨磷汀作为高效、安全的化疗保护剂,值得在大剂量化疗以及既往化疗出现明显毒副反应的卵巢癌患者中应用.

  11. Effect of amifostine on chemistry anticese HeLa cell%氨磷汀对化疗药物抗宫颈癌HeLa细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王根菊; 韩国荣; 叶银英; 余敏敏

    2007-01-01

    目的:评价氨磷汀(amifostine)对不同化疗药物抗宫颈癌HeLa细胞的影响.方法:用MTT法分别测定顺铂、长春新碱、依托泊甙和丝裂霉素对体外培养的HeLa肿瘤细胞系的抑制作用,实验组加化疗药前30 min经600 mg·L-1氨磷汀处理,对照组则只用化疗药物处理,余同实验组,培养后比较两组细胞增殖的抑制率.结果:用氨磷汀在体外加药前30 min加入HeLa肿瘤细胞的实验组,与对照组比较,两组肿瘤细胞抑制率无显著性差异(P>0.05).结论:氨磷汀不影响顺铂、依托泊甙、丝裂霉素和长春新碱对HeLa肿瘤细胞的抑制作用.

  12. 氨磷汀静脉注射配合放射治疗的观察与护理%Observation and nursing care of patients accepting intravenous amifostine combining with radiotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李惠艳

    2010-01-01

    @@ 氨磷汀(amifostine,AMI)是抗肿瘤放射治疗时一种正常组织保护剂,又称WR-2721,静脉注射的AMI能迅速而精确地被正常组织摄取,其中的活性代谢产物WR-1065一旦进人组织细胞就开始发挥保护正常组织的作用,减轻放疗引起的细胞DNA损伤.正常组织摄取WR-1065的能力不一,应用过程中也会出现一些不良反应,氨磷汀的副反应主要是呕吐、血压下降、嗜睡,还出现四肢酸软、乏力、周身不适的感觉,从轻度皮疹到寒战的过敏症状罕有发生.

  13. Amifostine-conjugated pH-sensitive calcium phosphate-covered magnetic-amphiphilic gelatin nanoparticles for controlled intracellular dual drug release for dual-targeting in HER-2-overexpressing breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Ming; Chiang, Chih-Sheng; Huang, Wei-Chen; Su, Chia-Wei; Chiang, Min-Yu; Chen, Jian-Yi; Chen, San-Yuan

    2015-12-28

    We developed a surfactant-free method utilizing amifostine to stably link a targeting ligand (Herceptin) to amphiphilic gelatin (AG)-iron oxide@calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles with hydrophobic curcumin (CUR) and hydrophilic doxorubicin (DOX) encapsulated in the AG core and CaP shell (AGIO@CaP-CD), respectively. This multi-functional nanoparticle system has a pH-sensitive CaP shell and degradable amphiphilic gelatin (AG) core, which enables controllable sequential release of the two drugs. The dual-targeting system of AGIO@CaP-CD (HER-AGIO@CaP-CD) with a bioligand and magnetic targeting resulted in significantly elevated cellular uptake in HER2-overexpressing SKBr3 cells and more efficacious therapy than delivery of targeting ligand alone due to the synergistic cell multi-drug resistance/apoptosis-inducing effect of the CUR and DOX combination. This nanoparticle combined with Herceptin and iron oxide nanoparticles not only provided a dual-targeting functionality, but also encapsulated CUR and DOX as a dual-drug delivery system for the combination therapy. This study further demonstrated that the therapeutic efficacy of this dual-targeting co-delivery system can be improved by modifying the application duration of magnetic targeting, which makes this combination therapy system a powerful new tool for in vitro/in vivo cancer therapy, especially for HER2-positive cancers. PMID:26478017

  14. Kazakh Traditional Dance Gesture Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussipbekov, A. K.; Amirgaliyev, E. N.; Hahn, Minsoo

    2014-04-01

    Full body gesture recognition is an important and interdisciplinary research field which is widely used in many application spheres including dance gesture recognition. The rapid growth of technology in recent years brought a lot of contribution in this domain. However it is still challenging task. In this paper we implement Kazakh traditional dance gesture recognition. We use Microsoft Kinect camera to obtain human skeleton and depth information. Then we apply tree-structured Bayesian network and Expectation Maximization algorithm with K-means clustering to calculate conditional linear Gaussians for classifying poses. And finally we use Hidden Markov Model to detect dance gestures. Our main contribution is that we extend Kinect skeleton by adding headwear as a new skeleton joint which is calculated from depth image. This novelty allows us to significantly improve the accuracy of head gesture recognition of a dancer which in turn plays considerable role in whole body gesture recognition. Experimental results show the efficiency of the proposed method and that its performance is comparable to the state-of-the-art system performances.

  15. Embedded Systems for Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anushree S. Patil

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Iris Recognition increasingly used method of biometric authentication that involves pattern-recognition techniques of images of irides to uniquely identify a person. In this paper, IRIS biometrics has been chosen for implementation due to the reduced error rates and the robustness their algorithms provide. The goal of this paper is to design a detached system, to implement a working prototype of the techniques and methods used for iris recognition. A powerful ARM7TDMI-S core based micro controller LPC2148 is used to demonstrate the algorithms required for generating biometric templates from IRIS database for matching. The results from this device is compared to Matlab run PC which will give the insight required to compare the performance analysis of the algorithms in use proceedings.

  16. Mandarin recognition over the telephone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yuhung

    1996-06-01

    Mandarin Chinese is the official language in China and Taiwan, it is the native language of a quarter of the world population. As the services enabled by speech recognition technology (e.g. telephone voice dialing, information query) become more popular in English, we would like to extend this capability to other languages. Mandarin is one of the major languages under research in our laboratory. This paper describes how we extend our work in English speech recognition into Mandarin. We will described the corpus: Voice Across Taiwan, the training of a complete set of Mandarin syllable models, preliminary performance results and error analysis. A fast prototyping system was built, where a user can write any context free grammar with no restriction of vocabulary, then the grammar can be compiled into recognition models. It enables user to quickly test the performance of a new vocabulary.

  17. Sparse representation for vehicle recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnig, Nathan D.; Sakla, Wesam

    2014-06-01

    The Sparse Representation for Classification (SRC) algorithm has been demonstrated to be a state-of-the-art algorithm for facial recognition applications. Wright et al. demonstrate that under certain conditions, the SRC algorithm classification performance is agnostic to choice of linear feature space and highly resilient to image corruption. In this work, we examined the SRC algorithm performance on the vehicle recognition application, using images from the semi-synthetic vehicle database generated by the Air Force Research Laboratory. To represent modern operating conditions, vehicle images were corrupted with noise, blurring, and occlusion, with representation of varying pose and lighting conditions. Experiments suggest that linear feature space selection is important, particularly in the cases involving corrupted images. Overall, the SRC algorithm consistently outperforms a standard k nearest neighbor classifier on the vehicle recognition task.

  18. Mobile-Customer Identity Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhan; XU Ji-sheng; XU Min; SUN Hong

    2005-01-01

    By utilizing artificial intelligence and pattern recognition techniques, we propose an integrated mobile-customer identity recognition approach in this paper, based on customer's behavior characteristics extracted from the customer information database. To verify the effectiveness of this approach, a test has been run on the dataset consisting of 1 000 customers in 3 consecutive months. The result is compared with the real dataset in the fourth month consisting of 162 customers, which has been set as the customers for recognition. The high correct rate of the test (96.30%), together with 1.87% of the judge-by-mistake rate and 7.82% of the leaving-out rate, demonstrates the effectiveness of this approach.

  19. Text Recognition from an Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrinath Janvalkar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To achieve high speed in data processing it is necessary to convert the analog data into digital data. Storage of hard copy of any document occupies large space and retrieving of information from that document is time consuming. Optical character recognition system is an effective way in recognition of printed character. It provides an easy way to recognize and convert the printed text on image into the editable text. It also increases the speed of data retrieval from the image. The image which contains characters can be scanned through scanner and then recognition engine of the OCR system interpret the images and convert images of printed characters into machine-readable characters [8].It improving the interface between man and machine in many applications

  20. N, P and K storage efficiency on degraded peat soil through ameliorant application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Maftu’ah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The availability of nutrients, especially N, P, K in the degraded peat are very low. The high organic acids can decrease the soil pH, its causes the negatively charged nutrients such as nitrate and phosphate are also very low. Ameliorant contributes some cations both monovalent and polivalent which acts as a bridge cations, thus increasing the availability of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphate. The objective of research was to determine the storage efficiency of N, P, K on application of some ameliorants on degraded peat land. The experiment was conducted at the laboratory of ISARI, Banjarbaru. Peat soil collected from the degraded peat land at Kalampangan, Central Kalimantan. The treatments were 8 ameliorant formula and two control treatments (+NPK and -NPK. The treatments were arranged in CRD, with 3 replications, And using soil coloum (lysimeter. The leaching was conducted every once a week, with 1.25 liter of aquades and the volume of leachate would be recorded. N, P, K concentration in leachate were analyzed periodically at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after incubation. The results showed that the concentrations of N and K on each observation time were relatively same, but P increased significantly at 4 weeks after incubation. The highest concentrations of N, P, and K in leachate were ameliorant from 100% of chicken manure. The storage efficiency of N, P and K varied depending on the type of ameliorant. Ameliorant that improved storage efficiency of N and K was ameliorant which consist of 80% agricultural weed + 20% dolomite, whereas for P efficiency storage was on ameliorant which consist of 80% Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis + 20% dolomite.

  1. 磷酸钙骨水泥/氨磷汀/顺铂复合体理化特性及其修复骨缺损的实验研究%Physicochemical and sustained drug release properities of calcium phosphate cement/amifostine/cisplatin complex and its effect in repairing bone defect due to tumor resection in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彦宁; 刘淼; 任鹏宇

    2010-01-01

    目的 对磷酸钙骨水泥/氨磷汀/顺铂(CPC/amifostine/cisplatin)复合体用作肿瘤性骨缺损的填充材料进行可行性研究.方法 按照质量比为1000:2:5的比例将磷酸钙骨水泥、顺铂、氨磷汀复合制备成人工骨复合体,对其进行固化时间、力学强度、孔隙率测定和扫描电镜、体外药物缓释、对骨肉瘤细胞的杀伤作用实验观察以及体内修复兔股骨骨缺损的实验研究.结果 CPC/amifostine/cisplatin复合体在固化时间、力学强度、孔隙率方面同单纯磷酸钙复合体相比没有差别,具有可持续缓释药物的作用,且氨磷汀的加入不影响顺铂对骨肉瘤细胞的毒性作用,在兔体内可观察到材料本身的降解和新骨长人材料内部的病理学证据.结论 CPC/amifostine/cisplatin复合体用作骨缺损的填充材料对于局部残存肿瘤细胞的消灭和缺损本身的修复是可行的.

  2. Curcumin Ameliorates Ischemia-Induced Limb Injury Through Immunomodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Chen, Lianyu; Shen, Yi; Tan, Tao; Xie, Nanzi; Luo, Ming; Li, Zhihong; Xie, Xiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is increasing worldwide. Currently, there is no effective treatment for PAD. Curcumin is an ingredient of turmeric that has antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and anticancer properties. In the present study we investigated the potential effect of curcumin in protecting against ischemic limb injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS We used an established hindlimb ischemia mouse model in our study. Curcumin was administrated through intraperitoneal (I.P.) injection. Immunohistochemical staining and ELISA assays were performed. Treadmill training was used to evaluate skeletal muscle functions of animals. RESULTS Our experiments using in vivo treadmill training showed that curcumin treatment improved the running capacity of animals after ischemic injury. Histological analysis revealed that curcumin treatment significantly reduced the skeletal muscle damage and fibrosis associated with ischemic injury. In order to determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying curcumin-mediated tissue protection, immunohistochemical staining and ELISA assays were performed. The results showed that curcumin treatment led to less macrophage infiltration and less local inflammatory responses as demonstrated by decreasing TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6 levels. Further immunofluorescent staining of tissue slides indicated that curcumin treatment inhibited the NF-κB signaling pathway. Finally, curcumin can inhibit NF-kB activation induced by LPS in macrophages. CONCLUSIONS Our study results show that curcumin treatment can ameliorate hindlimb injury following ischemic surgery, which suggests that curcumin could be used for PAD treatment. PMID:27302110

  3. Oleuropein ameliorates arsenic induced oxidative stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogun, Metin; Ozcan, Ayla; Karaman, Musa; Merhan, Oguz; Ozen, Hasan; Kukurt, Abdulsamed; Karapehlivan, Mahmut

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potential preventive effect of oleuropein in an experimental arsenic toxicity in mice. For this purpose, mice were exposed to 5mg/kg/day sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) in drinking water and treated with 30mg/kg/day oleuropein for 15 days. At the end of the experiment, animals were sacrificed and selected organs were processed for biochemical and histopahtological investigations. Blood, liver, kidney and brain malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels were determined by colorimetric methods. Protein carbonyl content is measured by a commercial kit. Liver morphology and immunoreactivity for inducible NOS (iNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS) was evaluated microscopically. Level of NO was determined to decrease in blood and tissues whereas MDA increased in arsenic given mice. Tissue protein carbonyl content also increased in this group. Immunoreactivity for iNOS and eNOS was noted to increase with arsenic treatment. Oleuropein treatment had significant effects in normalizing the MDA and NO levels as well as protein carbonyl content. Immunohistochemical staining also showed reduction of the expression of iNOS and eNOS in liver. The results indicate that oleuropein ameliorates oxidative tissue damage by scavenging free radicals. PMID:27259345

  4. Soluble CD83 ameliorates experimental colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, J; Kreiser, S; Döbbeler, M; Nicolette, C; DeBenedette, M A; Tcherepanova, I Y; Ostalecki, C; Pommer, A J; Becker, C; Günther, C; Zinser, E; Mak, T W; Steinkasserer, A; Lechmann, M

    2014-07-01

    The physiological balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory processes is dysregulated in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) as in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Conventional therapy uses anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive corticosteroids to treat acute-phase symptoms. However, low remission rate and strong side effects of these therapies are not satisfying. Thus, there is a high medical need for new therapeutic strategies. Soluble CD83, the extracellular domain of the transmembrane CD83 molecule, has been reported to have interesting therapeutic and immunosuppressive properties by suppressing dendritic cell (DC)-mediated T-cell activation and inducing tolerogenic DCs. However, the expression and function of CD83 in IBD is still unknown. Here, we show that CD83 expression is upregulated by different leukocyte populations in a chemical-induced murine colitis model. Furthermore, in this study the potential of sCD83 to modulate colitis using an experimental murine colitis model was investigated. Strikingly, sCD83 ameliorated the clinical disease symptoms, drastically reduced mortality, and strongly decreased inflammatory cytokine expression in mesenteric lymph nodes and colon. The infiltration of macrophages and granulocytes into colonic tissues was vigorously inhibited. Mechanistically, we could show that sCD83-induced expression of indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase is essential for its protective effects. PMID:24424524

  5. PPARα agonist, fenofibrate, ameliorates age-related renal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Nim; Lim, Ji Hee; Kim, Min Young; Kim, Hyung Wook; Park, Cheol Whee; Chang, Yoon Sik; Choi, Bum Soon

    2016-08-01

    The kidney ages quickly compared with other organs. Expression of senescence markers reflects changes in the energy metabolism in the kidney. Two important issues in aging are mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a member of the ligand-activated nuclear receptor superfamily. PPARα plays a major role as a transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes involved in various processes. In this study, 18-month-old male C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups, the control group (n=7) and the fenofibrate-treated group (n=7) was fed the normal chow plus fenofibrate for 6months. The PPARα agonist, fenofibrate, improved renal function, proteinuria, histological change (glomerulosclerosis and tubular interstitial fibrosis), inflammation, and apoptosis in aging mice. This protective effect against age-related renal injury occurred through the activation of AMPK and SIRT1 signaling. The activation of AMPK and SIRT1 allowed for the concurrent deacetylation and phosphorylation of their target molecules and decreased the kidney's susceptibility to age-related changes. Activation of the AMPK-FOXO3a and AMPK-PGC-1α signaling pathways ameliorated oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Our results suggest that activation of PPARα and AMPK-SIRT1 signaling may have protective effects against age-related renal injury. Pharmacological targeting of PPARα and AMPK-SIRT1 signaling molecules may prevent or attenuate age-related pathological changes in the kidney. PMID:27130813

  6. Coniferyl Aldehyde Ameliorates Radiation Intestine Injury via Endothelial Cell Survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer treatments related gastrointestinal toxicity has also been recognized as a significant economic burden. Especially, extensive apoptosis of microvascular endothelial cell of the lamina propria is the primary lesion initiating intestinal radiation damage after abdominal radiation therapy. Coniferyl aldehyde (CA) is phenolic compounds isolated from cork stoppers, and one of the major pyrolysis products of lignin. Shi H. was support for the empirical use of CA as a medicinal food for cardiovascular diseases. CA has positive effect in broad way but there is no consequence in radiation induced intestine damage. Here, we investigate effect of CA on small intestine after abdominal IR to mice in this study. In this study, CA increased the survival rate in C3H mice against 13.5 Gy abdominal IR. We found CA protects small intestine via preventing endothelial cell apoptosis and enhancing their angiogenic activity. CA also showed protective effect on crypt cell survival. Endothelial cell survival may affect crypt cell protection against IR. From this data, we concluded that CA is effective for protection against abdominal radiation injury. CA could ameliorate side-effect of radiation therapy

  7. Pathways Implicated in Tadalafil Amelioration of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Arcangelis, Valeria; Strimpakos, Georgios; Gabanella, Francesca; Corbi, Nicoletta; Luvisetto, Siro; Magrelli, Armando; Onori, Annalisa; Passananti, Claudio; Pisani, Cinzia; Rome, Sophie; Severini, Cinzia; Naro, Fabio; Mattei, Elisabetta; Di Certo, Maria Grazia; Monaco, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Numerous therapeutic approaches for Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy (DMD and BMD), the most common X-linked muscle degenerative disease, have been proposed. So far, the only one showing a clear beneficial effect is the use of corticosteroids. Recent evidence indicates an improvement of dystrophic cardiac and skeletal muscles in the presence of sustained cGMP levels secondary to a blocking of their degradation by phosphodiesterase five (PDE5). Due to these data, we performed a study to investigate the effect of the specific PDE5 inhibitor, tadalafil, on dystrophic skeletal muscle function. Chronic pharmacological treatment with tadalafil has been carried out in mdx mice. Behavioral and physiological tests, as well as histological and biochemical analyses, confirmed the efficacy of the therapy. We then performed a microarray-based genomic analysis to assess the pattern of gene expression in muscle samples obtained from the different cohorts of animals treated with tadalafil. This scrutiny allowed us to identify several classes of modulated genes. Our results show that PDE5 inhibition can ameliorate dystrophy by acting at different levels. Tadalafil can lead to (1) increased lipid metabolism; (2) a switch towards slow oxidative fibers driven by the up-regulation of PGC-1α; (3) an increased protein synthesis efficiency; (4) a better actin network organization at Z-disk. PMID:26097015

  8. Bushen Yisui Capsule ameliorates axonal injury in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Fang; Lei Wang; Qi Zheng; Tao Yang; Hui Zhao; Qiuxia Zhang; Kangning Li; Li Zhou; Haiyang Gong; Yongping Fan

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary clinical study by our group demonstrated Bushen Yisui Capsule (formerly cal ed Er-huang Formula) in combination with conventional therapy is an effective prescription for the treat-ment of multiple sclerosis. However, its effect on axonal injury during early multiple sclerosis re-mains unclear. In this study, a MOG 35-55-immunized C57BL/6 mouse model of experimental au-toimmune encephalomyelitis was intragastrical y administered Bushen Yisui Capsule. The results showed that Bushen Yisui Capsule effectively improved clinical symptoms and neurological function of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In addition, amyloid precursor protein expression was down-regulated and microtubule-associated protein 2 was up-regulated. Experimental findings indicate that the disease-preventive mechanism of Bushen Yisui Capsule in experimental autoim-mune encephalomyelitis was mediated by amelioration of axonal damage and promotion of rege-neration. But the effects of the high-dose Bushen Yisui Capsule group was not better than that of the medium-dose and low-dose Bushen Yisui Capsule group in preventing neurological dysfunction.

  9. Coniferyl Aldehyde Ameliorates Radiation Intestine Injury via Endothelial Cell Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ye Ji; Jung, Myung Gu; Lee, Yoonjin; Lee, Haejune [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yunsil [Ewha Woman' s Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Younggyu [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Cancer treatments related gastrointestinal toxicity has also been recognized as a significant economic burden. Especially, extensive apoptosis of microvascular endothelial cell of the lamina propria is the primary lesion initiating intestinal radiation damage after abdominal radiation therapy. Coniferyl aldehyde (CA) is phenolic compounds isolated from cork stoppers, and one of the major pyrolysis products of lignin. Shi H. was support for the empirical use of CA as a medicinal food for cardiovascular diseases. CA has positive effect in broad way but there is no consequence in radiation induced intestine damage. Here, we investigate effect of CA on small intestine after abdominal IR to mice in this study. In this study, CA increased the survival rate in C3H mice against 13.5 Gy abdominal IR. We found CA protects small intestine via preventing endothelial cell apoptosis and enhancing their angiogenic activity. CA also showed protective effect on crypt cell survival. Endothelial cell survival may affect crypt cell protection against IR. From this data, we concluded that CA is effective for protection against abdominal radiation injury. CA could ameliorate side-effect of radiation therapy.

  10. Emodin ameliorates lipopolysaccharides-induced corneal inflammation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Ling; Chen; Jing-Jing; Zhang; Xin; Kao; Lu-Wan; Wei; Zhi-Yu; Liu

    2015-01-01

    · AIM: To investigate the effect of emodin on pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharides(LPS)-induced corneal inflammation in rats.· METHODS: Corneal infection was induced by pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS in Wistar rats. The inflammation induced by LPS were examined by slit lamp microscope and cytological checkup of aqueous humor.Corneal tissue structure was observed by hematoxylin and eosin(HE) staining. The activation of nuclear factor kappa B(NF-κB) was determined by Western blot.Messenger ribonucleic acid(m RNA) of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1) in LPS-challenged rat corneas were measured with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR).· RESULTS: Typical manifestations of acute corneal inflammation were observed in LPS-induce rat model,and the corneal inflammatory response and structure were improved in rats pretreated with emodin. Treatment with emodin could improve corneal structure, reduce corneal injure by reducing corneal inflammatory response. Emodin could inhibit the decreasing lever of inhibitor of kappa B alpha(IкBα) express, and the m RNA expression of TNF-α and ICAM-1 in corneal tissues was also inhibited by emodin. The differences were statistically significant between groups treated with emodin and those without treatment(P <0.01).·CONCLUSION: Emodin could ameliorate LPS-induced corneal inflammation, which might via inhibiting the activation of NF-κB.

  11. Transcranial amelioration of inflammation and cell death after brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Theodore L.; Nayak, Debasis; Atanasijevic, Tatjana; Koretsky, Alan P.; Latour, Lawrence L.; McGavern, Dorian B.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is increasingly appreciated to be highly prevalent and deleterious to neurological function. At present, no effective treatment options are available, and little is known about the complex cellular response to TBI during its acute phase. To gain insights into TBI pathogenesis, we developed a novel murine closed-skull brain injury model that mirrors some pathological features associated with mild TBI in humans and used long-term intravital microscopy to study the dynamics of the injury response from its inception. Here we demonstrate that acute brain injury induces vascular damage, meningeal cell death, and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that ultimately breach the glial limitans and promote spread of the injury into the parenchyma. In response, the brain elicits a neuroprotective, purinergic-receptor-dependent inflammatory response characterized by meningeal neutrophil swarming and microglial reconstitution of the damaged glial limitans. We also show that the skull bone is permeable to small-molecular-weight compounds, and use this delivery route to modulate inflammation and therapeutically ameliorate brain injury through transcranial administration of the ROS scavenger, glutathione. Our results shed light on the acute cellular response to TBI and provide a means to locally deliver therapeutic compounds to the site of injury.

  12. Osteitis pubis ameliorated after tooth extraction: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushi, Jun-ichi; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2013-03-01

    Osteitis pubis is a non-infective inflammation of the symphysis pubis, which is known to be associated with trauma, athletic exertion, urological or gynecological surgery, or with rheumatic conditions such as seronegative spondyloarthropathies. In this report, we describe a case of osteitis pubis whose symptoms were completely ameliorated following tooth extraction attributable to periodontitis. A 57-year-old female patient developed osteitis pubis, presenting with pain in the groin area with an elevated Creactive protein (CRP; 4.4 mg/dl) and radiological erosive changes in symphysis pubis. Prednisolone (5 mg/day) and etodolac were prescribed, but the patient's symptoms improved only partially and remained persistent. One year from the patient's first visit, three teeth were extracted due to severe chronic periodontitis, which she had been suffering from for years. Soon after the above tooth extraction, her symptoms appeared completely resolved, and the patient's CRP was decreased to nearly normal levels in 4 weeks. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-typing analysis revealed a positive result for HLA-A11, A24, and B54. Because HLA-B54 cross-reacts with HLA-B27, the patient's osteitis pubis was considered to be a form of reactive arthritis associated with periodontitis. PMID:23599946

  13. Apricot Kernel Oil Ameliorates Cyclophosphamide-Associated Immunosuppression in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Honglei; Yan, Haiyan; Tan, Siwei; Zhan, Ping; Mao, Xiaoying; Wang, Peng; Wang, Zhouping

    2016-08-01

    The effects of dietary apricot kernel oil (AKO), which contains high levels of oleic and linoleic acids and lower levels of α-tocopherol, were evaluated in a rat model of cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression. Rats had intraperitoneal injection with cyclophosphamide to induce immunosuppression and were then infused with AKO or normal saline (NS) for 4 weeks. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to detect antimicrobial factors in lymphocytes and anti-inflammatory factors in hepatocytes. Hematoxylin & eosin staining was conducted prior to histopathological analysis of the spleen, liver, and thymus. Significant differences were observed between the immune functions of the healthy control group, the normal saline group, and the AKO group. Compared to the normal saline-treated group, lymphocytes isolated from rats administered AKO showed significant improvement in immunoglobulin (Ig)A, IgM, IgG, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels (p cyclophosphamide-associated organ degeneration. These results suggested that AKO may enhance the immune system in vivo. These effects may reflect the activities of intermediate oleic and linoleic acid metabolites, which play a vital role in the immune system, and the α-tocopherol in AKO may further enhance this phenomenon. Thus, the use of AKO as a nutritional supplement can be proposed to ameliorate chemotherapy-associated immunosuppression. PMID:27262314

  14. Tryptanthrin ameliorates atopic dermatitis through down-regulation of TSLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Na-Ra; Moon, Phil-Dong; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2014-01-15

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin disease that greatly worsens quality of life. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) plays a decisive role in the development of AD. The purpose of this study is to examine whether tryptanthrin (TR) would suppress AD through the regulation of TSLP. We analyzed the effect of TR on the level of TSLP from phorbol myristate acetate/calcium ionophore A23187-activated human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells, in 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced AD-like skin lesions of NC/Nga mice, and in anti-CD3/anti-CD28-stimulated splenocytes. TR significantly suppressed the level of intracellular calcium and the production and mRNA expression of TSLP through the blockade of receptor-interacting protein 2/caspase-1/nuclear factor-κB pathway in the activated HMC-1 cells. TR also significantly suppressed the levels of histidine decarboxylase and IL-1β. Furthermore, TR ameliorated clinical symptoms in the AD model. TR significantly reduced the levels of TSLP, IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-6, TNF-α, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, and caspase-1 in AD skin lesions. Also, TR significantly reduced the serum levels of histamine and IL-4 in the AD model. Finally, TR significantly inhibited the production of IL-4, IFN-γ, and TNF-α from the stimulated splenocytes. Taken together, TR exhibits the potential to be a therapeutic agent for AD through down-regulation of TSLP. PMID:24295961

  15. Yangjing Capsule Ameliorates Spermatogenesis in Male Mice Exposed to Cyclophosphamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongle Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yangjing capsule (YC, a traditional Chinese compound herbal preparation, has been proven as an effective drug to improve spermatogenesis in clinical practice. However, its pharmacological mechanisms were not fully clarified. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of YC on spermatogenesis in the mouse model of spermatogenesis dysfunction induced by cyclophosphamide (CP. The administration of YC significantly increased the epididymal index, sperm count, and sperm motility of model mice. Histopathological changes demonstrated that CP caused obvious structural damage to testis, which were reversed by the administration of YC. Results from TUNEL assay showed that treatment with YC dramatically decreased the apoptosis of spermatogenic cell induced by CP. Moreover, YC treatment could inhibit the mRNA and protein expression of Bax to Bcl-2 and also raised expression of AR at both mRNA and protein levels. These data suggest that YC might ameliorate spermatogenesis in male mice exposed to CP through inhibiting the apoptosis of spermatogenic cell and enhancing the actions of testosterone in spermatogenesis.

  16. Cellulose supplementation early in life ameliorates colitis in adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorottya Nagy-Szakal

    Full Text Available Decreased consumption of dietary fibers, such as cellulose, has been proposed to promote the emergence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD: Crohn disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC] where intestinal microbes are recognized to play an etiologic role. However, it is not known if transient fiber consumption during critical developmental periods may prevent consecutive intestinal inflammation. The incidence of IBD peaks in young adulthood indicating that pediatric environmental exposures may be important in the etiology of this disease group. We studied the effects of transient dietary cellulose supplementation on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS colitis susceptibility during the pediatric period in mice. Cellulose supplementation stimulated substantial shifts in the colonic mucosal microbiome. Several bacterial taxa decreased in relative abundance (e.g., Coriobacteriaceae [p = 0.001], and other taxa increased in abundance (e.g., Peptostreptococcaceae [p = 0.008] and Clostridiaceae [p = 0.048]. Some of these shifts persisted for 10 days following the cessation of cellulose supplementation. The changes in the gut microbiome were associated with transient trophic and anticolitic effects 10 days following the cessation of a cellulose-enriched diet, but these changes diminished by 40 days following reversal to a low cellulose diet. These findings emphasize the transient protective effect of dietary cellulose in the mammalian large bowel and highlight the potential role of dietary fibers in amelioration of intestinal inflammation.

  17. Ameliorative property of Teucrium polium on second degree burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari Roya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traditionally, burn wound healing activities have been claimed for Teucrium polium. Teucrium polium possesses antioxidant and inflammatory activities and seems to ameliorate burn wound healing. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of Teucrium polium on burn healing in Balb/C mice. Materials and Methods: In this preclinical experimental study 56 mice were randomly designated into 4 equal groups. Burn wounds were made using a hot plate with a surface area of 1.5 cm2. Animals were treated with Teucrium 2%, Silver sulfadiazine or Vaseline 2 times per day for 21 days. The forth group received no treatment. Results: The percentage of burn wounds healing and total time required for complete healing were evaluated and compared in different groups. Data were analyzed using ANOVA test. Conclusion: Teucrium extract accelerated the burn wound healing more rapidly than control groups (p<0.01. Teucrium polium is effective on burn wounds healing and might be beneficial in these groups of patients.

  18. Acoustic modeling for emotion recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Anne, Koteswara Rao; Vankayalapati, Hima Deepthi

    2015-01-01

     This book presents state of art research in speech emotion recognition. Readers are first presented with basic research and applications – gradually more advance information is provided, giving readers comprehensive guidance for classify emotions through speech. Simulated databases are used and results extensively compared, with the features and the algorithms implemented using MATLAB. Various emotion recognition models like Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Regularized Discriminant Analysis (RDA), Support Vector Machines (SVM) and K-Nearest neighbor (KNN) and are explored in detail using prosody and spectral features, and feature fusion techniques.

  19. Discriminative learning for speech recognition

    CERN Document Server

    He, Xiadong

    2008-01-01

    In this book, we introduce the background and mainstream methods of probabilistic modeling and discriminative parameter optimization for speech recognition. The specific models treated in depth include the widely used exponential-family distributions and the hidden Markov model. A detailed study is presented on unifying the common objective functions for discriminative learning in speech recognition, namely maximum mutual information (MMI), minimum classification error, and minimum phone/word error. The unification is presented, with rigorous mathematical analysis, in a common rational-functio

  20. Amelioration and reforestation of sulfurous mine soils in Lusatia (eastern Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany nearly 1.550 km2 have been claimed by brown coal mining until now. Mine soils formed of carboniferous and sulfurous overburden are classified as sulfurous mine soils. They remain vegetation-free for decades and may be cultivated only after soil amelioration. The objective of amelioration is a sustained improvement of soil reaction. Lime requirement for the achievement of a certain pH-value is calculated from acid-base-balance (SBB). Lime fertilizers and base-rich brown coal ashes are used for amelioration. As ashes have several advantages, their application is recommended. The ameliorative application of lime fertilizer or brown coal ash should be incorporated intensively into the soil to a depth of 60 cm, better 100 cm. Amelioration includes a mineral fertilization with N, P and K. Afforestation with Pinus sylvestris, Pinus nigra, Larix decidua, Larix eurolepis. Tilia cordata, Quercus rubra and Quercus petraea on ameliorated mine soils show surprising good results. Multi-species stands have very positive effects on soil formation. Raw humus is formed under pine and larch, and under deciduous trees moder and mull with higher bioactivity and better development of water and nutrient balance in the topsoil are found. 55 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Interstate Recognition and Its Global Overcoming: Extra-territorial Recognition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubec, Marek

    Praha: Filosofia, 2015 - (Oliveira, N.; Hrubec, M.; Sobottka, E.; Saavedra, G.), s. 287-323 ISBN 978-80-7007-435-0 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-19416S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : recognition * interstate * international * global * extra-territorial * justice * Axel Honneth Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  2. Pattern recognition in speech and language processing

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Wu

    2003-01-01

    Minimum Classification Error (MSE) Approach in Pattern Recognition, Wu ChouMinimum Bayes-Risk Methods in Automatic Speech Recognition, Vaibhava Goel and William ByrneA Decision Theoretic Formulation for Adaptive and Robust Automatic Speech Recognition, Qiang HuoSpeech Pattern Recognition Using Neural Networks, Shigeru KatagiriLarge Vocabulary Speech Recognition Based on Statistical Methods, Jean-Luc GauvainToward Spontaneous Speech Recognition and Understanding, Sadaoki FuruiSpeaker Authentication, Qi Li and Biing-Hwang JuangHMMs for Language Processing Problems, Ri

  3. Non-intrusive appliance recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogsteen, G; Krist, J.O.; Bakker, V.; Smit, G.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Energy conservation becomes more important nowadays. The use of smart meters and, in the near future, smart appliances, are the key to achieve reduction in energy consumption. This research proposes a non-intrusive appliance monitor and recognition system for implementation on an embedded system. Th

  4. Speech Recognition on Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Zheng-Hua; Lindberg, Børge

    2010-01-01

    The enthusiasm of deploying automatic speech recognition (ASR) on mobile devices is driven both by remarkable advances in ASR technology and by the demand for efficient user interfaces on such devices as mobile phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs). This chapter presents an overview of ASR...

  5. Sphere recognition lies in NP

    OpenAIRE

    Schleimer, Saul

    2004-01-01

    We prove that the three-sphere recognition problem lies in the complexity class NP. Our work relies on Thompson's original proof that the problem is decidable [Math. Res. Let., 1994], Casson's version of her algorithm, and recent results of Agol, Hass, and Thurston [ArXiv, 2002].

  6. Named Entity Recognition for IDEAL

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Qianzhou; Xuan ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    This project explored how to apply Named Entity Recognition to large Twitter and web page datasets to extract useful entities such as people, organization, location, and date. In addition, this NER utility has been scaled to the MapReduce framework on the Hadoop cluster. A schema and software allow this to be integrated with IDEAL.

  7. Sphere Recognition: Heuristics and Examples

    OpenAIRE

    Joswig, Michael; Lutz, Frank H.; Tsuruga, Mimi

    2014-01-01

    Heuristic techniques for recognizing PL spheres using the topological software polymake are presented. These methods have been successful very often despite sphere recognition being known to be hard (for dimensions $d \\ge 3$) or even undecidable (for $d \\ge 5$). A deeper look into the simplicial complexes for which the heuristics failed uncovered a trove of examples having interesting topological and combinatorial properties.

  8. Target recognition by wavelet transform

    CERN Document Server

    Li Zheng Dong; He Wu Liang; Pei Chun Lan; Peng Wen; SongChen; Zheng Xiao Dong

    2002-01-01

    Wavelet transform has an important character of multi-resolution power, which presents pyramid structure, and this character coincides the way by which people distinguish object from coarse to fineness and from large to tiny. In addition to it, wavelet transform benefits to reducing image noise, simplifying calculation, and embodying target image characteristic point. A method of target recognition by wavelet transform is provided

  9. Innovative Technique for Character Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumant Raj Chauhan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Development of OCRs for Indian script is an active area of activity today. Optical character recognition (OCR is the mechanical or electronic translation of images of handwritten, typewritten or printed text (usually captured by a scanner into machine-editable text. In simple words OCR is a visual recognition process that turns printed or written text into an electronic character based file. OCR is a field of research in pattern recognition, artificial intelligence and machine vision. Indian scripts present great challenges to an OCR designer due to the large number of letters in the alphabet, the sophisticated ways in which they combine, and the complicated graphemes they result in. The problem is compounded by the unstructured manner in which popular fonts are designed. There is a lot of common structure in the different Indian scripts. All existing OCR systems developed for various Indian scripts do not provide sufficient efficiency due to various factors. The objective of this paper is to discuss a more efficient character recognition technique. This paper introduces a new technical approach to recognize Indian script characters which are unpredictable due to different problems in other OCR’s.

  10. Iris Recognition Using Fuzzy System

    OpenAIRE

    Prof.D.D.Patil; Prof.N.A.Nemade; K.M.Attarde

    2013-01-01

    By using biometric system automatic recognition of an individual is provided. Biometric systems include fingerprints, facial features, voice, hand geometry, handwriting, the retina and the one presented inthis thesis, the iris. Working of this system is simple. It captures the image and compare with exiting image. If match is found then access is granted.

  11. Face recognition for uncontrolled environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podilchuk, Christine; Hulbert, William; Flachsbart, Ralph; Barinov, Lev

    2010-04-01

    A new face recognition algorithm has been proposed which is robust to variations in pose, expression, illumination and occlusions such as sunglasses. The algorithm is motivated by the Edit Distance used to determine the similarity between strings of one dimensional data such as DNA and text. The key to this approach is how to extend the concept of an Edit Distance on one-dimensional data to two-dimensional image data. The algorithm is based on mapping one image into another and using the characteristics of the mapping to determine a two-dimensional Pictorial-Edit Distance or P-Edit Distance. We show how the properties of the mapping are similar to insertion, deletion and substitution errors defined in an Edit Distance. This algorithm is particularly well suited for face recognition in uncontrolled environments such as stand-off and other surveillance applications. We will describe an entire system designed for face recognition at a distance including face detection, pose estimation, multi-sample fusion of video frames and identification. Here we describe how the algorithm is used for face recognition at a distance, present some initial results and describe future research directions.(

  12. Mobile Visual Recognition on Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenwen Gui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the recognition of large-scale outdoor scenes on smartphones by fusing outputs of inertial sensors and computer vision techniques. The main contributions can be summarized as follows. Firstly, we propose an ORD (overlap region divide method to plot image position area, which is fast enough to find the nearest visiting area and can also reduce the search range compared with the traditional approaches. Secondly, the vocabulary tree-based approach is improved by introducing GAGCC (gravity-aligned geometric consistency constraint. Our method involves no operation in the high-dimensional feature space and does not assume a global transform between a pair of images. Thus, it substantially reduces the computational complexity and memory usage, which makes the city scale image recognition feasible on the smartphone. Experiments on a collected database including 0.16 million images show that the proposed method demonstrates excellent recognition performance, while maintaining the average recognition time about 1 s.

  13. Simultaneous Tracking and Activity Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredotti, Cristina Elena; Fleet, David J.; Hamilton, Howard J.;

    2011-01-01

    recognition, our framework performs these two tasks simultaneously. In particular, we adopt a Bayesian standpoint where the system maintains a joint distribution of the positions, the interactions and the possible activities. This turns out to be advantegeous, as information about the ongoing activities can...

  14. Target recognition by wavelet transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wavelet transform has an important character of multi-resolution power, which presents pyramid structure, and this character coincides the way by which people distinguish object from coarse to fineness and from large to tiny. In addition to it, wavelet transform benefits to reducing image noise, simplifying calculation, and embodying target image characteristic point. A method of target recognition by wavelet transform is provided

  15. Digital Recognition using Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh A.K. Al-Omari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Handwriting number recognition is a challenging problem researchers had been research into this area for so long especially in the recent years. In our study there are many fields concern with numbers, for example, checks in banks or recognizing numbers in car plates, the subject of digit recognition appears. A system for recognizing isolated digits may be as an approach for dealing with such application. In other words, to let the computer understand the Arabic numbers that is written manually by users and views them according to the computer process. Scientists and engineers with interests in image processing and pattern recognition have developed various approaches to deal with handwriting number recognition problems such as, minimum distance, decision tree and statistics. Approach: The main objective for our system was to recognize isolated Arabic digits exist in different applications. For example, different users had their own handwriting styles where here the main challenge falls to let computer system understand these different handwriting styles and recognize them as standard writing. Result: We presented a system for dealing with such problem. The system started by acquiring an image containing digits, this image was digitized using some optical devices and after applying some enhancements and modifications to the digits within the image it can be recognized using feed forward back propagation algorithm. The studies were conducted on the Arabic handwriting digits of 10 independent writers who contributed a total of 1300 isolated Arabic digits these digits divided into two data sets: Training 1000 digits, testing 300 digits. An overall accuracy meet using this system was 95% on the test data set used. Conclusion: We developed a system for Arabic handwritten recognition. And we efficiently choose a segmentation method to fit our demands. Our system successfully designs and implement a neural network which efficiently

  16. Public domain optical character recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garris, Michael D.; Blue, James L.; Candela, Gerald T.; Dimmick, Darrin L.; Geist, Jon C.; Grother, Patrick J.; Janet, Stanley A.; Wilson, Charles L.

    1995-03-01

    A public domain document processing system has been developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The system is a standard reference form-based handprint recognition system for evaluating optical character recognition (OCR), and it is intended to provide a baseline of performance on an open application. The system's source code, training data, performance assessment tools, and type of forms processed are all publicly available. The system recognizes the handprint entered on handwriting sample forms like the ones distributed with NIST Special Database 1. From these forms, the system reads hand-printed numeric fields, upper and lowercase alphabetic fields, and unconstrained text paragraphs comprised of words from a limited-size dictionary. The modular design of the system makes it useful for component evaluation and comparison, training and testing set validation, and multiple system voting schemes. The system contains a number of significant contributions to OCR technology, including an optimized probabilistic neural network (PNN) classifier that operates a factor of 20 times faster than traditional software implementations of the algorithm. The source code for the recognition system is written in C and is organized into 11 libraries. In all, there are approximately 19,000 lines of code supporting more than 550 subroutines. Source code is provided for form registration, form removal, field isolation, field segmentation, character normalization, feature extraction, character classification, and dictionary-based postprocessing. The recognition system has been successfully compiled and tested on a host of UNIX workstations. This paper gives an overview of the recognition system's software architecture, including descriptions of the various system components along with timing and accuracy statistics.

  17. Antiapoptotic Effect of Simvastatin Ameliorates Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Najah R.; Al-amran, Fadhil; Yousif, Maitham; Zamil, Suhaad T.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Myocardial ischemial reperfusion represents a clinically relevant problem associated with thrombolysis, angioplasty, and coronary bypass surgery. Injury of myocardium due to ischemial reperfusion includes cardiac contractile dysfunction, arrhythmias, and irreversible myocytes damage. These changes are considered to be the consequence of imbalance between the formation of oxidants and the availability of endogenous antioxidants in the heart. Objective. This study was undertaken to investigate the potential role of Simvastatin in the amelioration of myocardial I/R injury induced by ligation of coronary artery in a rat model. Materials and Methods. Adult male Swiss Albino rats were randomized into 4 equal groups. Group (1): sham group: rats underwent the same anesthetic and surgical procedures as those in the control group except ligation of LAD coronary artery, group (2): control group: rats were subjected to regional ischemia for 25 min and reperfusion for 2 hours by ligation of LAD coronary artery, group (3): control vehicle group: rats received vehicle of Simvastatin (normal saline) via IP injection and were subjected to regional ischemia for 25 min and reperfusion for 2 hours by ligation of LAD coronary artery, group (4): Simvastatin treated group: rats were pretreated with Simvastatin 1 mg/kg i.p. 1 hr before ligation of LAD coronary artery. At the end of experiment (2 hr of reperfusion), blood samples were collected from the heart for the measurement of plasma level of cardiac troponin I (cTnI). After that the heart was harvested and divided into 3 parts; one part was used for measurement of apoptosis, another part was homogenized for the measurement of tissue tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, and the last part for histopathology study. Results. Compared with the sham group, levels of myocardial TNF-α and IL-1β, IL-6

  18. Ear Recognition Based on Forstner and SIFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Chi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Extraction and expression of features are critical to improving the recognition rate of ear image recognition. This paper proposes a new ear recognition method based on SIFT(Scale-invariant feature transform and Forstner corner detection technology. Firstly, Forstner corner points and SIFT keypoints are detected respectively. Then taking Forstner corner into the SIFT algorithm to calculate their descriptor as the image feature vectors. Finally ear recognition based on these feature is carried out with Euclidean distance as similarity measurement. A bi-directional matching algorithm is utilized for improving recognition rate. Experiments on USTB database show that the recognition rate reaches more 94%. The Experimental results prove the effectiveness of the proposed method in term of recognition accuracy in comparison with previous methods. It is robust to rigid changes of ear image and provides a new approach to the research for ear recognition.

  19. PEG minocycline-liposomes ameliorate CNS autoimmune disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Minocycline is an oral tetracycline derivative with good bioavailability in the central nervous system (CNS. Minocycline, a potent inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9, attenuates disease activity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS. Potential adverse effects associated with long-term daily minocycline therapy in human patients are concerning. Here, we investigated whether less frequent treatment with long-circulating polyethylene glycol (PEG minocycline liposomes are effective in treating EAE. FINDINGS: Performing in vitro time kinetic studies of PEG minocycline-liposomes in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, we determined that PEG minocycline-liposome preparations stabilized with CaCl(2 are effective in diminishing MMP-9 activity. Intravenous injections of PEG minocycline-liposomes every five days were as effective in ameliorating clinical EAE as daily intraperitoneal injections of minocycline. Treatment of animals with PEG minocycline-liposomes significantly reduced the number of CNS-infiltrating leukocytes, and the overall expression of MMP-9 in the CNS. There was also a significant suppression of MMP-9 expression and proteolytic activity in splenocytes of treated animals, but not in CNS-infiltrating leukocytes. Thus, leukocytes gaining access to the brain and spinal cord require the same absolute amount of MMP-9 in all treatment groups, but minocycline decreases the absolute cell number. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that less frequent injections of PEG minocycline-liposomes are an effective alternative pharmacotherapy to daily minocycline injections for the treatment of CNS autoimmune diseases. Also, inhibition of MMP-9 remains a promising treatment target in EAE and patients with MS.

  20. Matrine ameliorates spontaneously developed colitis in interleukin-10-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cong; Xu, Zheng; Gai, Renhua; Huang, Kehe

    2016-07-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10)-deficient mice spontaneously develop T cell-mediated colitis. Previous reports have shown that Matrine may reduce the symptoms of acute colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). However, whether Matrine impacts chronic colitis remains unknown. In this study, we investigated whether Matrine could limit the symptoms of spontaneously developed colitis and its potential molecular mechanisms. IL-10 deficient mice were given Matrine or a PBS control by oral gavage daily for 4weeks and were euthanized at week 2 or week 4. We measured body weight, colon length and weight, and histological scores. We also evaluated the spontaneous secretion of IL-12/23p40, IFN-γ and IL-17 in colon explant cultures as well as IFN-γ and IL-17 secretion in unseparated mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells, and assessed IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA expression in colon tissue. In addition, we analyzed the proportions of CD4-positive and CD8-positive cells in unseparated MLN cells. Our results show that Matrine-treated mice exhibited better body weight recovery than controls and that histological scores and spontaneously secreted IL-12/23p40, IFN-γ and IL-17 in colon tissue were significantly decreased in treated mice compared with controls. The proportion of CD4-positive cells of MLNs in treated mice was significantly smaller than that in controls at week 4. Both cytokine production and mRNA expression of IFN-γ and IL-17 were significantly reduced in treated mice compared with controls. Taken together, our results indicate that Matrine may ameliorate spontaneously developed chronic colitis and could be considered as a therapeutic alternative for chronic colitis. PMID:27179305

  1. Glycine and Folate Ameliorate Models of Congenital Sideroblastic Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Murray, J Pedro; Prykhozhij, Sergey V; Dufay, J Noelia; Steele, Shelby L; Gaston, Daniel; Nasrallah, Gheyath K; Coombs, Andrew J; Liwski, Robert S; Fernandez, Conrad V; Berman, Jason N; McMaster, Christopher R

    2016-01-01

    Sideroblastic anemias are acquired or inherited anemias that result in a decreased ability to synthesize hemoglobin in red blood cells and result in the presence of iron deposits in the mitochondria of red blood cell precursors. A common subtype of congenital sideroblastic anemia is due to autosomal recessive mutations in the SLC25A38 gene. The current treatment for SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia is chronic blood transfusion coupled with iron chelation. The function of SLC25A38 is not known. Here we report that the SLC25A38 protein, and its yeast homolog Hem25, are mitochondrial glycine transporters required for the initiation of heme synthesis. To do so, we took advantage of the fact that mitochondrial glycine has several roles beyond the synthesis of heme, including the synthesis of folate derivatives through the glycine cleavage system. The data were consistent with Hem25 not being the sole mitochondrial glycine importer, and we identify a second SLC25 family member Ymc1, as a potential secondary mitochondrial glycine importer. Based on these findings, we observed that high levels of exogenous glycine, or 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-Ala) a metabolite downstream of Hem25 in heme biosynthetic pathway, were able to restore heme levels to normal in yeast cells lacking Hem25 function. While neither glycine nor 5-Ala could ameliorate SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia in a zebrafish model, we determined that the addition of folate with glycine was able to restore hemoglobin levels. This difference is likely due to the fact that yeast can synthesize folate, whereas in zebrafish folate is an essential vitamin that must be obtained exogenously. Given the tolerability of glycine and folate in humans, this study points to a potential novel treatment for SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia. PMID:26821380

  2. NAD+ biosynthesis ameliorates a zebrafish model of muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle F Goody

    Full Text Available Muscular dystrophies are common, currently incurable diseases. A subset of dystrophies result from genetic disruptions in complexes that attach muscle fibers to their surrounding extracellular matrix microenvironment. Cell-matrix adhesions are exquisite sensors of physiological conditions and mediate responses that allow cells to adapt to changing conditions. Thus, one approach towards finding targets for future therapeutic applications is to identify cell adhesion pathways that mediate these dynamic, adaptive responses in vivo. We find that nicotinamide riboside kinase 2b-mediated NAD+ biosynthesis, which functions as a small molecule agonist of muscle fiber-extracellular matrix adhesion, corrects dystrophic phenotypes in zebrafish lacking either a primary component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex or integrin alpha7. Exogenous NAD+ or a vitamin precursor to NAD+ reduces muscle fiber degeneration and results in significantly faster escape responses in dystrophic embryos. Overexpression of paxillin, a cell adhesion protein downstream of NAD+ in this novel cell adhesion pathway, reduces muscle degeneration in zebrafish with intact integrin receptors but does not improve motility. Activation of this pathway significantly increases organization of laminin, a major component of the extracellular matrix basement membrane. Our results indicate that the primary protective effects of NAD+ result from changes to the basement membrane, as a wild-type basement membrane is sufficient to increase resilience of dystrophic muscle fibers to damage. The surprising result that NAD+ supplementation ameliorates dystrophy in dystrophin-glycoprotein complex- or integrin alpha7-deficient zebrafish suggests the existence of an additional laminin receptor complex that anchors muscle fibers to the basement membrane. We find that integrin alpha6 participates in this pathway, but either integrin alpha7 or the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex is required in conjunction

  3. Black Cohosh Ameliorates Metabolic Disorders in Female Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Yu, Qiuxiao; Shen, Qiyang; Bai, Wenpei; Kang, Jihong

    2016-06-01

    Estrogen deficiency is associated with metabolic derangements in menopausal women. Black cohosh has been widely used as an alternative therapy in the treatment of menopausal syndrome. However, its role in metabolism needs to be defined. The aim of the present study was to investigate the long-term effect of black cohosh on glucose and lipid metabolism in a rat model of post-menopause. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were sham operated (SHAM), ovariectomized (OVX), OVX with the treatment of estradiol valerate (OVX + E), or OVX with the treatment of isopropanolic black cohosh extract (OVX + iCR). Body weight, body composition, and blood glucose levels of the animals were monitored. The rats were then sacrificed after 3 months of the treatments. At the end of the experiment, OVX + iCR and OVX + E rats exhibited a significant decrease in body weight gain, body and abdominal fat mass, serum triglycerides levels, hepatic fat accumulation, and adipocyte hypertrophy compared with OVX rats. In addition, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance were improved in OVX + iCR but not in OVX + E rats. No hepatotoxicity was detected in OVX + iCR animals. Furthermore, western blot analysis suggested the increased lipolysis in adipose tissue of OVX + iCR and OVX + E rats. Data from in vitro experiments using cultured primary rat adipocytes also showed that black cohosh could affect lipolysis of adipocytes. In conclusion, the long-term treatment of black cohosh at a proper dosage ameliorated metabolic derangements in OVX rats. Thus, this drug is promising for the treatment of metabolic disorders in menopausal and post-menopausal women. PMID:26414761

  4. Promoterless gene targeting without nucleases ameliorates haemophilia B in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzel, A; Paulk, N K; Shi, Y; Huang, Y; Chu, K; Zhang, F; Valdmanis, P N; Spector, L P; Porteus, M H; Gaensler, K M; Kay, M A

    2015-01-15

    Site-specific gene addition can allow stable transgene expression for gene therapy. When possible, this is preferred over the use of promiscuously integrating vectors, which are sometimes associated with clonal expansion and oncogenesis. Site-specific endonucleases that can induce high rates of targeted genome editing are finding increasing applications in biological discovery and gene therapy. However, two safety concerns persist: endonuclease-associated adverse effects, both on-target and off-target; and oncogene activation caused by promoter integration, even without nucleases. Here we perform recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated promoterless gene targeting without nucleases and demonstrate amelioration of the bleeding diathesis in haemophilia B mice. In particular, we target a promoterless human coagulation factor IX (F9) gene to the liver-expressed mouse albumin (Alb) locus. F9 is targeted, along with a preceding 2A-peptide coding sequence, to be integrated just upstream to the Alb stop codon. While F9 is fused to Alb at the DNA and RNA levels, two separate proteins are synthesized by way of ribosomal skipping. Thus, F9 expression is linked to robust hepatic albumin expression without disrupting it. We injected an AAV8-F9 vector into neonatal and adult mice and achieved on-target integration into ∼0.5% of the albumin alleles in hepatocytes. We established that F9 was produced only from on-target integration, and ribosomal skipping was highly efficient. Stable F9 plasma levels at 7-20% of normal were obtained, and treated F9-deficient mice had normal coagulation times. In conclusion, transgene integration as a 2A-fusion to a highly expressed endogenous gene may obviate the requirement for nucleases and/or vector-borne promoters. This method may allow for safe and efficacious gene targeting in both infants and adults by greatly diminishing off-target effects while still providing therapeutic levels of expression from integration. PMID:25363772

  5. Naringin ameliorates cognitive deficits in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianchu Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Previous research demonstrated that diabetes is one of the leading causes of learning and memory deficits. Naringin, a bioflavonoid isolated from grapefruits and oranges, has potent protective effects on streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Recently, the effects of naringin on learning and memory performances were monitored in many animal models of cognitive impairment. However, to date, no studies have investigated the ameliorative effects of naringin on diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD. In this study, we investigated the effects of naringin, using a STZ-injected rat model and explored its potential mechanism. Materials and Methods:Diabetic rats were treated with naringin (100 mg/kg/d for 7 days. The learning and memory function were assessed by Morris water maze test. The oxidative stress indicators [superoxide dismutase (SOD and malondialdehyde (MDA] and inflammatory cytokines (TNF-a, IL-1β, and IL-6 were measured in hippocampus using corresponding commercial kits. The mRNA and protein levels of PPARγ were evaluated by real time (RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Results:The results showed that supplementation of naringin improved learning and memory performances compared with the STZ group. Moreover, naringin supplement dramatically increased SOD levels, reduced MDA levels, and alleviated TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 compared with the STZ group in the hippocampus. The pretreatment with naringin also significantly increased PPARγ expression. Conclusion: Our results showed that naringin may be a promising therapeutic agent for improving cognitive decline in DACD.

  6. Amelioration of radiation damage by pentoxifylline treatment in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a methylxanthine derivative used to treat vascular diseases. It has antioxidant properties, an anti- tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) effect, increase erythrocyte flexibility and vasodilatation. An agent that increases blood flow and tissue oxygen content may contribute to enhanced healing of soft tissue, and inhibit inflammatory reactions. The mechanism of action of the anti-oxidant effect of pentoxifylline is not yet clear and it is an interesting field to explore. This study has investigated the antioxidant pathways through which PTX treatment (1200 mg/ l in drinking water) exerts its effect on radiation-induced changes. Blood reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and serum catalase (CAT), MDA, xanthine oxidase (XO) and xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH), total protein, albumin, uric acid, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and ascorbyl radical (AsR) were measured in female rats. Animals were divided into: Group 1: control, Group 2: administrated PTX for 8 days. Group 3: Exposed to fractionated radiation at the dose level of 4 Gy (2 Gy every 4 days) for 8 days and Group 4: received PTX two h post the onset of irradiation (4 Gy fractionated) till the end of the experiment. All animals were inspected after 8 days from the beginning of the experiment. Fractionated 4 Gy whole body gamma irradiation induced oxidative damage manifested in the significant decreases in blood GSH content, GSH-PX and CAT activities, total protein, albumin, uric acid, and XDH. Conversely, significant elevations were detected in plasma MDA, AOPP and AsR contents as well as XO activity. PTX treatment ameliorated radiation induced oxidative damage through its antioxidant properties and free radical scavenging ability that is partially mediated through inhibition of xanthine oxidase thus could play a role in regulating radiation complications.

  7. Ear Recognition Based on Forstner and SIFT

    OpenAIRE

    Ma Chi; Zhu Yongyong; Tian Ying

    2013-01-01

    Extraction and expression of features are critical to improving the recognition rate of ear image recognition. This paper proposes a new ear recognition method based on SIFT(Scale-invariant feature transform) and Forstner corner detection technology. Firstly, Forstner corner points and SIFT keypoints are detected respectively. Then taking Forstner corner into the SIFT algorithm to calculate their descriptor as the image feature vectors. Finally ear recognition based on these feature is carrie...

  8. Pattern recognition, machine intelligence and biometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Patrick S P

    2012-01-01

    ""Pattern Recognition, Machine Intelligence and Biometrics"" covers the most recent developments in Pattern Recognition and its applications, using artificial intelligence technologies within an increasingly critical field. It covers topics such as: image analysis and fingerprint recognition; facial expressions and emotions; handwriting and signatures; iris recognition; hand-palm gestures; and multimodal based research. The applications span many fields, from engineering, scientific studies and experiments, to biomedical and diagnostic applications, to personal identification and homeland secu

  9. Face Recognition Techniques - An evaluation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Asmahan M Altaher

    2015-01-01

    Face recognition is the ability of categorize a set of images based on certain discriminatory features. Classification of the recognition patterns can be difficult problem and it is still very active field of research. The paper introduces conceptual framework for descriptive study on techniques of face recognition systems. It aims to describe the previous researches have been study the face recognition system, in order scope on the algorithms, usages, benefits , challenges and problems in th...

  10. Recognition of an Independent Self-Consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Henrik Jøker

    2009-01-01

    Hegel's concept in the Phenomenology of the Spirit of the "recognition of an independent self-consciousness" is investigated as a point of separation for contemporary philosophy of recognition. I claim that multiculturalism and the theories of recognition (such as Axel Honneth's) based on empiric...... psychology neglect or deny crucial metaphysical aspects of the Hegelian legacy. Instead, I seek to point at an additional, "spiritual", level of recognition, based on the concept of the subject in Lacanian psychoanalysis....

  11. Arabic natural language processing: handwriting recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Belaïd, Abdel

    2008-01-01

    The automatic recognition of Arabic writing is a very young research discipline with very challenging and significant problems. Indeed, with the air of the Internet, of Multimedia, the recognition of Arabic is useful to contributing like its close disciplines, Latin writing recognition, speech recognition and Vision processing, in current applications around digital libraries, document security and in numerical data processing in general. Arabic is a Semitic language spoken and understood in ...

  12. Exemplar Based Recognition of Visual Shapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren I.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an approach of visual shape recognition based on exemplars of attributed keypoints. Training is performed by storing exemplars of keypoints detected in labeled training images. Recognition is made by keypoint matching and voting according to the labels for the matched keypoint....... The matching is insensitive to rotations, limited scalings and small deformations. The recognition is robust to noise, background clutter and partial occlusion. Recognition is possible from few training images and improve with the number of training images....

  13. Computing negentropy based signatures for texture recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela COLTUC; Laurentiu FRANGU; Ana-Elena LUNGU

    2007-01-01

    The proposed method aims to provide a new tool for texture recognition. For this purpose, a set of texture samples are decomposed by using the FastICA algorithm and characterized by a negentropy based signature. In order to do recognition, the texture signatures are compared by means of Minkowski distance. The recognition rates, computed for a set of 320 texture samples, show a medium recognition accuracy and the method may be further improved.

  14. Data structures, computer graphics, and pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Klinger, A; Kunii, T L

    1977-01-01

    Data Structures, Computer Graphics, and Pattern Recognition focuses on the computer graphics and pattern recognition applications of data structures methodology.This book presents design related principles and research aspects of the computer graphics, system design, data management, and pattern recognition tasks. The topics include the data structure design, concise structuring of geometric data for computer aided design, and data structures for pattern recognition algorithms. The survey of data structures for computer graphics systems, application of relational data structures in computer gr

  15. Employee recognition and performance: A field experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Bradler, C.; Dur, R.; Neckermann, S.; Non, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the results from a controlled field experiment designed to investigate the causal effect of public recognition on employee performance. We hired more than 300 employees to work on a three-hour data-entry task. In a random sample of work groups, workers unexpectedly received recognition after two hours of work. We find that recognition increases subsequent performance substantially, and particularly so when recognition is exclusively provided to the best performers. Remarkab...

  16. Age Dependent Face Recognition using Eigenface

    OpenAIRE

    Hlaing Htake Khaung Tin

    2013-01-01

    Face recognition is the most successful form of human surveillance. Face recognition technology, is being used to improve human efficiency when recognition faces, is one of the fastest growing fields in the biometric industry. In the first stage, the age is classified into eleven categories which distinguish the person oldness in terms of age. In the second stage of the process is face recognition based on the predicted age. Age prediction has considerable potential applications in human comp...

  17. 8 CFR 292.2 - Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... disposal adequate knowledge, information and experience. (b) Requests for recognition. An organization... non-profit religious, charitable, social service, or similar organization established in the United...). Such organization must establish to the satisfaction of the Board that: (1) It makes only...

  18. Natural Language Processing: Word Recognition without Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Khalid; Dardzinska, Agnieszka

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of automatic recognition of hand and machine-written cursive text using the Arabic alphabet focuses on an algorithm for word recognition. Describes results of testing words for recognition without segmentation and considers the algorithms' use for words of different fonts and for processing whole sentences. (Author/LRW)

  19. Effect of Soil Ameliorators on Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Communities that Colonize Seedlings of Pinus densiflora in Abandoned Coal Mine Spoils

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eun-Hwa; Eo, Ju-Kyeong; Lee, Chang-Seok; Eom, Ahn-Heum

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effect of soil ameliorators on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities in coal mine spoils was investigated. Organic fertilizers and slaked lime were applied as soil ameliorators in 3 abandoned coal mine spoils. One year after the initial treatment, roots of Pinus densiflora seedlings were collected and the number of ECM species, colonization rate, and species diversity were assessed. The results showed that the soil ameliorators significantly increased ECM colonization on...

  20. Hierarchical Recognition Scheme for Human Facial Expression Recognition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hameed Siddiqi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, human facial expressions recognition (FER has emerged as an important research area. Several factors make FER a challenging research problem. These include varying light conditions in training and test images; need for automatic and accurate face detection before feature extraction; and high similarity among different expressions that makes it difficult to distinguish these expressions with a high accuracy. This work implements a hierarchical linear discriminant analysis-based facial expressions recognition (HL-FER system to tackle these problems. Unlike the previous systems, the HL-FER uses a pre-processing step to eliminate light effects, incorporates a new automatic face detection scheme, employs methods to extract both global and local features, and utilizes a HL-FER to overcome the problem of high similarity among different expressions. Unlike most of the previous works that were evaluated using a single dataset, the performance of the HL-FER is assessed using three publicly available datasets under three different experimental settings: n-fold cross validation based on subjects for each dataset separately; n-fold cross validation rule based on datasets; and, finally, a last set of experiments to assess the effectiveness of each module of the HL-FER separately. Weighted average recognition accuracy of 98.7% across three different datasets, using three classifiers, indicates the success of employing the HL-FER for human FER.

  1. Embedded Face Detection and Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göksel Günlü

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The need to increase security in open or public spaces has in turn given rise to the requirement to monitor these spaces and analyse those images on‐site and on‐time. At this point, the use of smart cameras ‐ of which the popularity has been increasing ‐ is one step ahead. With sensors and Digital Signal Processors (DSPs, smart cameras generate ad hoc results by analysing the numeric images transmitted from the sensor by means of a variety of image‐processing algorithms. Since the images are not transmitted to a distance processing unit but rather are processed inside the camera, it does not necessitate high‐ bandwidth networks or high processor powered systems; it can instantaneously decide on the required access. Nonetheless, on account of restricted memory, processing power and overall power, image processing algorithms need to be developed and optimized for embedded processors. Among these algorithms, one of the most important is for face detection and recognition. A number of face detection and recognition methods have been proposed recently and many of these methods have been tested on general‐purpose processors. In smart cameras ‐ which are real‐life applications of such methods ‐ the widest use is on DSPs. In the present study, the Viola‐Jones face detection method ‐ which was reported to run faster on PCs ‐ was optimized for DSPs; the face recognition method was combined with the developed sub‐region and mask‐based DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform. As the employed DSP is a fixed‐point processor, the processes were performed with integers insofar as it was possible. To enable face recognition, the image was divided into sub‐ regions and from each sub‐region the robust coefficients against disruptive elements ‐ like face expression, illumination, etc. ‐ were selected as the features. The discrimination of the selected features was enhanced via LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis and then employed for

  2. Oxytocin ameliorates the immediate myocardial injury in heart transplant through down regulation of the neutrophil dependent myocardial apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Fadhil Al-Amran

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Oxytocin ameliorates myocardial injury in heart transplant through down-regulation the myocardial inflammatory response, reactive oxygen species, and neutrophil-dependant myocardial apoptosis.

  3. HPLC method using pre-column derivatization for determinating the content of amifostine%柱前衍生化HPLC法测定注射用氨磷汀的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄滔敏; 陈念祖; 王东蕾; 赖永华; 王胜资

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish a HPLC method for the determination of amifostine. Methods 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-C1) was used for derivatization. An agilent C18 column (4. 6 mm×150 mm, 5 μm) was adopted as stationary phase. Elution was carried out with acetonitrile (solvent A) and water (solvent B) at a flow-rate of 1 mL/min. Gradient HPLC was used with the solvent ratio changed from 30 : 70 (for 4 min) to 98 : 2 (from 4. 1 min to 10 min) for solvent A: B, respectively,and the rebalancing time was 7 min. The detection wavelength was 265 ran and the temperature of column was 25℃. Results Amifostine had a good linearity (r>0. 999,n = 6) in the range of 5 - 100 μg/mL. The recovery values were between 97% and 103% ,RSD<2. 0% (n = 3). The detection limit value was 100 ng/mL. The samples were stable in 6 hour and qualified between 90% and 110%. Conclusions The method was proved to be accurate,sensitive and reliable.%目的 建立一种测定注射用氨磷汀含量的HPLC法.方法 氨磷汀经氯甲酸芴甲酯(9-fluorenylmethylchloroformate,FMOC-C1)衍生化后用HPLC法分析.采用Agilent C18柱(150 mm×4.6 mm,5μm)色谱柱,流动相A:乙腈,B:水.0~4 min,A:B=30:70;4.1~10 rnin,A:B=98:2,每次进样前再平衡7min;柱温25℃,流速1 mL/min,检测波长265 nm.外标法计算含量.结果 在该色谱条件下,氨磷汀在5~100μg/mL浓度范围内有良好的线性关系(r>0.999,n=6),回收率为97%~103%(n=5),RSD< 2.0%(n=5).最低检测质量浓度为100 ng/mL.样品在6h内稳定.测得样品含量合格,在90%~110%之间.结论 经方法学实验验证,该方法简便、快速、结果准确、可靠、重现性好.

  4. 氨磷汀在骨肉瘤大剂量联合化疗中的骨髓保护作用%Marrow Protection Effect of Amifostine in Chemotherapy Patients with Osteosareoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翌庆; 刘云霞

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨氨磷汀在骨肉瘤大剂量多药联合化疗中使用对血液学毒性的影响.方法 42例骨肉瘤患者随机分为化疗加氨磷汀组(观察组)及单纯化疗组(对照组),各21例.行MTX-MTX-DDP-ADM化疗,比较化疗后血液学毒性的发生情况.结果 第3周期化疗后观察组Ⅳ.粒细胞减少为28.6%,对照组为66.7%,两组比较有显著性差异(P0.05).第4周期化疗后观察组Ⅳ.白细胞减少为33.3%,对照组为81.0%;观察组Ⅳ.粒细胞减少为33.3%,对照组为81.0%,两组比较均有显著性差异(P<0.01).比较两组患者输红细胞的均次数,观察组明显低于对照组(P<0.0l).结论 氨磷汀在骨肉瘤大剂量联合化疗中使用后可以明显减少化疗后发生Ⅳ.白细胞及粒细胞减少的发生率,降低输红细胞的均次数.对生存率无明显影响,安全性好.%OBJECTIVE To explore the effect of amifostine on bematological toxicity in chemotherapy patients with osteosareoma. METHODS Forty two patients were divided into treatment group and control group, 21 patients in each group. After MTX-MTX-DDP-ADM chemotherapy, the hematological toxicity of chemotherapy was observed. RESULTS After three cycles of chemotherapy, the rate of Ⅳ° neutropenia in treatment group was 28.6% , and 66.7% in control group(P<0.05). After four cycles of chemotherapy, the rate of Ⅳ° leukopenia in treatment group was 33.3%, and 81.0% in control group(P<0.01). The rate of Ⅳ° neutropenia in treatment group was 33.3%, and 81.0% in control group(P<0.01). Compared the average number of red blood cell transfusion with the two group, the number of treatment group was significantly lower than that of control group(P<0.0l). CONCLUSION After amifostine used in chemotherapy patients with osteosareoma, the rate of Ⅳ° leukopenia and neutropenia, as well as the average number of red blood cell transfusion was reduced. It has no influence on survival rate and it is safe.

  5. Effect of amifostine on lung uptake of paraquat and prevention from lung injury in rats%氨磷汀对百草枯染毒大鼠肺摄取及肺损伤的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳彩云; 张锡刚; 张天宏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of amifostine on lung uptake of PQ, and its preventive effect against lung injury. Methods 75 rats were randomly divided into the normal control group (n=S), the model group (n=10, further divided into 8h-model group and 24h- model group according to the samplingtime of 8h and 24h after poisioning, with 5 in each group), and the drug intervention group (n=60). Based on the dosage of amifostine [30mg/kg, 60mg/kg and lOOmg/kg (labelled as L, M and H)], interval time [0.7Sh and l.Sh (labelled with 1 and 2)] and sampling time (8h and 24h). The intervention group was divided into 12 groups: 8h-Ll, 8h-Ml, 8h-Hl, 8h-L2, 8h-M2, 8h-H2, 24h-Ll, 24h-Ml, 24h-Hl, 24h-L2, 24h-M2 and 24h-H2, with 5 rats in each group. Except the normal control group, these rats were poisoned by injecting 3Smg/kg of PQ; After lh, amifostine was injected three times into the rats of the drug intervention groups at different doses and interval time. All the 75 rats were sacrificed at 8h or 24h after poisioning, and lung tissue was harvested, and PQconcentration in the plasma and the lung tissue was determined. The contents of SOD and MDA were assayed. Results The PQ concentration of L drug intervention groups in the lung tissue was significantly lower than that of M and H drug intervention groups and model groups. The PQ_ concentration in the plasma in the drug intervention groups was not different from that in the model groups. Except for the H drug intervention groups, there was no significant change in SOD. Both SOD and MDA contents in the lung tissue were significantly different in the other drug intervention groups (SOD increased obviously while MDA was reduced obviously). SOD in the groups of 0.75h interval time was higher than that in the l.Sh interval time groups. Conclusion Repeated administration of low-dose of amifostine after poisioning can inhibit lung uptake of PQ in rats, and significantly reduce the oxidative damage induced by the PQ_poisoning.%目的

  6. Protective effect and mechanism of amifostine on intestinal acute radiation sickness%氨磷汀对小鼠肠型急性放射病的防护作用及其机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵致维; 崔宇; 王丽梅; 善亚君; 柳晓兰; 唐红卫; 从玉文

    2015-01-01

    目的 研究氨磷汀(amifostine,WR2721)对小鼠肠型急性放射病的防护作用及其机制.方法 建立小鼠肠型急性放射病模型.C57BL/6J小鼠随机分为对照组和WR2721给药组,接受15 Gy 60Co-γ全身照射,照后移植健康小鼠骨髓细胞,观察小鼠受照后30 d的存活率和平均生存时间,以及用隐窝细胞微克隆实验,研究照后3.5d隐窝细胞数量及小肠黏膜情况.结果 对照组小鼠均在10 d内死亡,WR2721给药组存活率提高到80%;对照组和WR2721给药组平均隐窝数分别为(6.1±0.7)个、(28.0±1.1)个,差异有统计学意义(P <0.0001);对照组和WR2721给药组绒毛高度分别为(51.48±2.04)μm、(73.29±3.24) μm,差异有统计学意义(P <0.0001).结论 WR2721对肠型急性放射病小鼠有保护作用,通过提高隐窝干细胞增殖活性,促进黏膜的恢复,提高小鼠的存活率.

  7. Assessment of changes of some functions of Ukrainian acid soils after chemical amelioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapko Yurij

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article was to determine the effectiveness of lime of different origin for chemical amelioration of soils and examine its impact on soil functions such as productivity, habitat, regulation of water quality, and the protective buffer biogeocenotic screen. Limy ameliorants were applied in small local field experiment on Luvic Chernozem, and experiment with lysimeter columns was carried out on Albic Luvisol. The number of the main groups of microflora and enzymatic activity of soil was determined in soil samples taken for the analysis from the root zone. Research concerning the influence of natural and industrial origin ameliorants on soil as habitat showed the correlation of sugar beets productivity with soil biogenic. The increase of biomultiplicity of soil microbiota after addition of a cement dust and negative influence of red sludge on soil as habitat for living organisms was observed. Research involving the influence of ameliorants on soil by lime as the protective buffer biogeocenotic screen was carried out using lysimeter columns. It was stated that the addition of limy ameliorants reduces mobility of heavy metals.

  8. Hand Gesture Recognition: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiqul Zaman Khan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hand gesture recognition system received great attention in the recent few years because of itsmanifoldness applications and the ability to interact with machine efficiently through human computerinteraction. In this paper a survey of recent hand gesture recognition systems is presented. Key issues ofhand gesture recognition system are presented with challenges of gesture system. Review methods of recentpostures and gestures recognition system presented as well. Summary of research results of hand gesturemethods, databases, and comparison between main gesture recognition phases are also given. Advantagesand drawbacks of the discussed systems are explained finally

  9. Optical pattern recognition with holographic filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holography process differs from photography as it can record information of three dimensional objects. In photography irradiance distribution of light scattered from object is recorded. There are various types of holograms depending upon the recording geometries. The optical pattern recognition is carried out by first making a hologram of an object. In this thesis the task of pattern recognition and introduction of optical pattern recognition with holographic filters as another method for pattern recognition is presented. Optical pattern recognition with the help of fourier transform holographic filter has been elaborated. (A.B.)

  10. Non Audio-Video gesture recognition system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciunescu, Razvan; Mihovska, Albena Dimitrova; Kyriazakos, Sofoklis;

    2016-01-01

    Gesture recognition is a topic in computer science and language technology with the goal of interpreting human gestures via mathematical algorithms. Gestures can originate from any bodily motion or state but commonly originate from the face or hand. Current research focus includes on the emotion...... recognition from the face and hand gesture recognition. Gesture recognition enables humans to communicate with the machine and interact naturally without any mechanical devices. This paper investigates the possibility to use non-audio/video sensors in order to design a low-cost gesture recognition device that...

  11. Research on Radar Emitter Attribute Recognition Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to solve emitter recognition problems in a practical reconnaissance environment, attribute mathematics is introduced. The basic concepts and theory of attribute set and attribute measure are described in detail. A new attribute recognition method based on attribute measure is presented in this paper. Application example is given, which demonstrates this new method is accurate and effective. Moreover, computer simulation for recognizing the emitter purpose is selected, and compared with classical statistical pattern recognition through simulation. The excellent experimental results demonstrate that this is a brand-new attribute recognition method as compared to existing statistical pattern recognition techniques.

  12. Face recognition using Krawtchouk moment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Sheeba Rani; D Devaraj

    2012-08-01

    Feature extraction is one of the important tasks in face recognition. Moments are widely used feature extractor due to their superior discriminatory power and geometrical invariance. Moments generally capture the global features of the image. This paper proposes Krawtchouk moment for feature extraction in face recognition system, which has the ability to extract local features from any region of interest. Krawtchouk moment is used to extract both local features and global features of the face. The extracted features are fused using summed normalized distance strategy. Nearest neighbour classifier is employed to classify the faces. The proposed method is tested using ORL and Yale databases. Experimental results show that the proposed method is able to recognize images correctly, even if the images are corrupted with noise and possess change in facial expression and tilt.

  13. Covert Face Recognition without Prosopagnosia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Ellis

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment is reported where subjects were presented with familiar or unfamiliar faces for supraliminal durations or for durations individually assessed as being below the threshold for recognition. Their electrodermal responses to each stimulus were measured and the results showed higher peak amplitude skin conductance responses for familiar than for unfamiliar faces, regardless of whether they had been displayed supraliminally or subliminally. A parallel is drawn between elevated skin conductance responses to subliminal stimuli and findings of covert recognition of familiar faces in prosopagnosic patients, some of whom show increased electrodermal activity (EDA to previously familiar faces. The supraliminal presentation data also served to replicate similar work by Tranel et al (1985. The results are considered alongside other data indicating the relation between non-conscious, “automatic” aspects of normal visual information processing and abilities which can be found to be preserved without awareness after brain injury.

  14. FINGER-VEIN RECOGNITION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Haritha Deepthi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As the Person‟s/Organization‟s Private information‟s are becoming very easy to access, the demand for a Simple, Convenient, Efficient, and a highly Securable Authentication System has been increased. In considering these requirements for data Protection, Biometrics, which uses human physiological or behavioral system for personal Identification has been found as a solution for these difficulties. However most of the biometric systems have high complexity in both time and space. So we are going to use a Real time Finger-Vein recognition System for authentication purposes. In this paper we had implemented the Finger Vein Recognition concept using MATLAB R2013a. The features used are Lacunarity Distance, Blanket Dimension distance. This has more accuracy when compared to conventional methods.

  15. Physics of Automatic Target Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Sadjadi, Firooz

    2007-01-01

    Physics of Automatic Target Recognition addresses the fundamental physical bases of sensing, and information extraction in the state-of-the art automatic target recognition field. It explores both passive and active multispectral sensing, polarimetric diversity, complex signature exploitation, sensor and processing adaptation, transformation of electromagnetic and acoustic waves in their interactions with targets, background clutter, transmission media, and sensing elements. The general inverse scattering, and advanced signal processing techniques and scientific evaluation methodologies being used in this multi disciplinary field will be part of this exposition. The issues of modeling of target signatures in various spectral modalities, LADAR, IR, SAR, high resolution radar, acoustic, seismic, visible, hyperspectral, in diverse geometric aspects will be addressed. The methods for signal processing and classification will cover concepts such as sensor adaptive and artificial neural networks, time reversal filt...

  16. Emotion Recognition using Speech Features

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, K Sreenivasa

    2013-01-01

    “Emotion Recognition Using Speech Features” covers emotion-specific features present in speech and discussion of suitable models for capturing emotion-specific information for distinguishing different emotions.  The content of this book is important for designing and developing  natural and sophisticated speech systems. Drs. Rao and Koolagudi lead a discussion of how emotion-specific information is embedded in speech and how to acquire emotion-specific knowledge using appropriate statistical models. Additionally, the authors provide information about using evidence derived from various features and models. The acquired emotion-specific knowledge is useful for synthesizing emotions. Discussion includes global and local prosodic features at syllable, word and phrase levels, helpful for capturing emotion-discriminative information; use of complementary evidences obtained from excitation sources, vocal tract systems and prosodic features in order to enhance the emotion recognition performance;  and pro...

  17. Face Recognition using Curvelet Transform

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Rami

    2011-01-01

    Face recognition has been studied extensively for more than 20 years now. Since the beginning of 90s the subject has became a major issue. This technology is used in many important real-world applications, such as video surveillance, smart cards, database security, internet and intranet access. This report reviews recent two algorithms for face recognition which take advantage of a relatively new multiscale geometric analysis tool - Curvelet transform, for facial processing and feature extraction. This transform proves to be efficient especially due to its good ability to detect curves and lines, which characterize the human's face. An algorithm which is based on the two algorithms mentioned above is proposed, and its performance is evaluated on three data bases of faces: AT&T (ORL), Essex Grimace and Georgia-Tech. k-nearest neighbour (k-NN) and Support vector machine (SVM) classifiers are used, along with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for dimensionality reduction. This algorithm shows good results, ...

  18. Face Recognition in Various Illuminations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh D. Parmar,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Face Recognition (FR under various illuminations is very challenging. Normalization technique is useful for removing the dimness and shadow from the facial image which reduces the effect of illumination variations still retaining the necessary information of the face. The robust local feature extractor which is the gray-scale invariant texture called Local Binary Pattern (LBP is helpful for feature extraction. K-Nearest Neighbor classifier is utilized for the purpose of classification and to match the face images from the database. Experimental results were based on Yale-B database with three different sub categories. The proposed method has been tested to robust face recognition in various illumination conditions. Extensive experiment shows that the proposed system can achieve very encouraging performance in various illumination environments.

  19. Individual Recognition in Ant Queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Heinze, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    recognize each other's unique facial color patterns [3] . Individual recognition is advantageous when dominance hierarchies control the partitioning of work and reproduction 2 and 4 . Here, we show that unrelated founding queens of the ant Pachycondyla villosa use chemical cues to recognize each other...... individually. Aggression was significantly lower in pairs of queens that had previously interacted than in pairs with similar social history but no experience with one another. Moreover, subordinates discriminated familiar and unfamiliar dominants in choice experiments in which physical contact, but not odor...... perception, was prevented and in tests with anaesthetized queens. The cuticular chemical profiles of queens were neither associated with dominance nor fertility and, therefore, do not represent status badges 5 and 6 , and nestmate queens did not share a common odor. Personal recognition facilitates...

  20. Gesture Recognition Based Mouse Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachit Puri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the maneuver of mouse pointer a nd performs various mouse operations such as left click, right click, double click, drag etc using ge stures recognition technique. Recognizing gestures is a complex task which involves many aspects such as mo tion modeling, motion analysis, pattern recognition and machine learning. Keeping all the essential factors in mind a system has been created which recognizes the movement of fingers and various patterns formed by them. Color caps have been used for fingers to distinguish it f rom the background color such as skin color. Thus recog nizing the gestures various mouse events have been performed. The application has been created on MATL AB environment with operating system as windows 7.

  1. Motion Primitives for Action Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Holte, Michael Boelstoft; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2007-01-01

    The number of potential applications has made automatic recognition of human actions a very active research area. Different approaches have been followed based on trajectories through some state space. In this paper we also model an action as a trajectory through a state space, but we represent...... the actions as a sequence of temporal isolated instances, denoted primitives. These primitives are each defined by four features extracted from motion images. The primitives are recognized in each frame based on a trained classifier resulting in a sequence of primitives. From this sequence we recognize...... different temporal actions using a probabilistic Edit Distance method. The method is tested on different actions with and without noise and the results show recognition rates of 88.7% and 85.5%, respectively....

  2. Phoneme Recognition Using Acoustic Events

    CERN Document Server

    Huebener, K; Huebener, Kai; Carson-Berndsen, Julie

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to phoneme recognition using nonsequential sub--phoneme units. These units are called acoustic events and are phonologically meaningful as well as recognizable from speech signals. Acoustic events form a phonologically incomplete representation as compared to distinctive features. This problem may partly be overcome by incorporating phonological constraints. Currently, 24 binary events describing manner and place of articulation, vowel quality and voicing are used to recognize all German phonemes. Phoneme recognition in this paradigm consists of two steps: After the acoustic events have been determined from the speech signal, a phonological parser is used to generate syllable and phoneme hypotheses from the event lattice. Results obtained on a speaker--dependent corpus are presented.

  3. 阿米福汀在局部晚期非小细胞肺癌放疗中的作用研究%Short-term Effect of Amifostine on Locally Advanced NSCLC Patients Treated with Radiotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林展; 严浩林; 朱海生; 梁雷锋

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨阿米福汀在局部晚期非小细胞肺癌(NSCLC)放疗中对近期疗效的影响及降低放射性食管炎和放射性肺炎的作用.方法 2008年1月-2010年2月我院放疗科收治62例局部晚期NSCLC患者,采用随机数字表法分为单纯三维适形放疗组(对照组)和阿米福汀+三维适形放疗组(试验组).试验组每次放疗前15~30 min给予阿米福汀300 mg/m2,静脉滴注.每周放疗5次,持续6周.放疗结束后6周评价两组患者的近期疗效.放疗期间每周记录1次放射性食管炎、放射性肺炎的发生率.结果 两组共44例患者完成了预定试验,对照组23例,试验组21例.对照组完全缓解(CR)1例,部分缓解(PR)11例,客观有效率为52%;试验组CR 2例,PR 12例,客观有效率为67%,两组客观有效率比较差异无统计学意义(χ2=0.95,P>0.05).对照组累计发生放射性食管炎15例(65%),放射性肺炎16例(70%);试验组累计发生放射性食管炎和放射性肺炎各5例(24%),两组放射性食管炎和放射性肺炎累计发生率比较,差异均有统计学意义(P值分别为0.017和0.003).结论 阿米福汀可以降低 NSCLC放疗中放射性食管炎和放射性肺炎的发生率,但不降低放疗的近期疗效.%Objective To evaluate the short - term effect of locally advanced NSCLC patients treated with radiotherapy and to understand its effect on alleviating radiation esophagitis and radiation pneumonitis. Methods 62 patients with locally advanced NSCLC admitted to radiotherapy department of our hospital from January 2008 to February 2010 were randomly divided into pure 3D conformal radiotherapy group ( control group ) and amifostine combined with 3D conformal radiotherapy group ( experiment group ). The experiment group was given 15 to 30 min intravenous drip of 300 mg/m amifostine. Six weeks after radiotherapy , the short - term effect of the two groups was assessed. During radiotherapy, the incidences of radiation esophagitis and radiation

  4. Liveness Detection for Face Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Gang; Wu, Zhaohui; Sun, Lin

    2008-01-01

    We investigate eyeblinks as a liveness detection clue against photo spoofing in face recognition. The advantages of eyeblink-based method are non-intrusion, no requirement of extra hardware. Undirected conditional graphical framework, which assumes dependencies among the observations and states, is employed to model eyeblink. A new-defined discriminative measure of eye states, called eye closity, can hasten inference as well as convey most effective discriminative information. Experiments dem...

  5. Hand Gestures Recognition and Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Gurung, Deepak; Jiang, Cansen; Deray, Jeremie; Sidibé, Désiré

    2013-01-01

    In this project we develop a system that uses low cost web cameras to recognise gestures and track 2D orientations of the hand. This report is organized as such. First in section 2 we introduce various methods we undertook for hand detection. This is the most important step in hand gesture recognition. Results of various skin detection algorithms are discussed in length. This is followed by region extraction step (section 3). In this section approaches like contours and convex hull to extract...

  6. Interfacial metal and antibody recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Tongqing; Hamer, Dean H.; Hendrickson, Wayne A.; Sattentau, Quentin J.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2005-01-01

    The unique ligation properties of metal ions are widely exploited by proteins, with approximately one-third of all proteins estimated to be metalloproteins. Although antibodies use various mechanisms for recognition, to our knowledge, none has ever been characterized that uses an interfacial metal. We previously described a family of CD4-reactive antibodies, the archetype being Q425. CD4:Q425 engagement does not interfere with CD4:HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein binding, but it blocks subse...

  7. Pattern recognition for earthquake detection

    OpenAIRE

    Joswig, Manfred

    1990-01-01

    The detector algorithms in use at date rely on negative decision logic: based on a model of the ambient noise process they detect all deviations, but many of them are false alarms. The principal alternative to this approach is pattern recognition, which tests on positive correlation with some known signal patterns. The Sonogram-detector realizes this scheme for single seismogram traces. Sonograms display spectral energy versus time. Suitably scaled, these images display only information wh...

  8. Biometric Recognition for Pet Animal

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Kumar; Sanjay Kumar Singh

    2014-01-01

    Missing, swapping, false insurance claims and reallocation of pet animals (dog) are global problems throughout the world and research done to solve this problem is minimal. Traditional biometrics and non-biometrics methods have their own boundaries and they fail to provide competent level of security to pet animal (dog). The work on animal identification based on their phenotype appearance (coat patterns) has been an active research area in recent years and automatic face recognition for...

  9. Lattice Parsing for Speech Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Chappelier, Jean-Cédric; Rajman, Martin; Aragües, Ramon; Rozenknop, Antoine

    1999-01-01

    A lot of work remains to be done in the domain of a better integration of speech recognition and language processing systems. This paper gives an overview of several strategies for integrating linguistic models into speech understanding systems and investigates several ways of producing sets of hypotheses that include more "semantic" variability than usual language models. The main goal is to present and demonstrate by actual experiments that sequential couplingmay be efficiently achieved byw...

  10. Offline arabic character recognition system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Several languages use the Arabic alphabets and arabic scripts present challenges because the letter shape is context sensitive. For the past three decades, there has been a mounting interest among researchers in this problem. In this paper we present an Arabic Character Recognition system and quence steps of recognizing Arabic text. These steps are separately discussed, and previous research work on each step is reviewed. Also in this paper we give some samples of Arabic fonts.

  11. Introduction to Statistical Pattern Recognition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pudil, Pavel; Somol, Petr; Haindl, Michal

    Plzeň : West Bohemian University, Pilsen, 2006 - (Troblova), s. 163-170 ISBN 80-7043-508-9. [MATEO - The European Network of Mechatronics Centres and Industrial Controllers 2006. Železná Ruda (CZ), 14.12.2006-16.12.2006] Grant ostatní: MMR(CZ) MAT-12-C4 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Pattern Recognition Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  12. Task specific image text recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Haim, Nadav

    2008-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of reading image text, which we define here as a digital image of machine printed text. Images of license plates, signs, and scanned documents fall into this category, whereas images of handwriting do not. Automatically reading image text is a very well researched problem, which falls into the broader category of Optical Character Recognition (OCR). Virtually all work in this domain begins by segmenting characters from the image and proceeds with a classifica...

  13. Cultural Identities: Transformation and Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Kostenko, Natalia

    2003-01-01

    Identity legitimacy is regarded as a key issue to understand the current post-communist world and to substantiate the identity recognition policy, that is a legitimate (for society) way of differentiation control. There are presented two ideal models of identity production: 1) based on essentialistic imperatives, and 2) close to constructivism in its various versions, like post-classical one. There are an a lyzed significant practices and figurative representations applied to identities.

  14. Organizing multivalency in carbohydrate recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christian; Despras, Guillaume; Lindhorst, Thisbe K

    2016-06-01

    The interactions of cell surface carbohydrates as well as of soluble glycoconjugates with their receptor proteins rule fundamental processes in cell biology. One of the supramolecular principles underlying and regulating carbohydrate recognition is multivalency. Many multivalent glycoconjugates have therefore been synthesized to study multivalency effects operative in glycobiology. This review is focused on smaller multivalent structures such as glycoclusters emphasizing carbohydrate-centered and heteromultivalent glycoconjugates. We are discussing primary, secondary and tertiary structural aspects including approaches to organize multivalency. PMID:27146554

  15. Neural Networks for Fingerprint Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Baldi, Pierre; Chauvin, Yves

    1993-01-01

    After collecting a data base of fingerprint images, we design a neural network algorithm for fingerprint recognition. When presented with a pair of fingerprint images, the algorithm outputs an estimate of the probability that the two images originate from the same finger. In one experiment, the neural network is trained using a few hundred pairs of images and its performance is subsequently tested using several thousand pairs of images originated from a subset of the database corresponding to...

  16. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Soweon; Anil K Jain

    2015-01-01

    Fingerprint recognition, which is considered to be a reliable means for human identification, has been used in many applications ranging from law enforcement and forensics to unlocking mobile phones. Despite its successful deployment, the fundamental premise of fingerprint-based identification—persistence and uniqueness of fingerprints—has not yet been well studied, resulting in challenges to the admissibility of friction ridge evidence in courts of law. This study investigates the tendency o...

  17. On speech recognition during anaesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Alapetite, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    This PhD thesis in human-computer interfaces (HCI, informatics) studies the case of the anaesthesia record used during medical operations and the possibility to supplement it with speech recognition facilities. Problems and limitations have been identified with the traditional paper-based anaesthesia record, but also with newer electronic versions, in particular ergonomic issues and the fact that anaesthesiologists tend to postpone the registration of the medications and other events during b...

  18. Neural mechanisms for voice recognition

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We investigated neural mechanisms that support voice recognition in a training paradigm with fMRI. The same listeners were trained on different weeks to categorize the mid-regions of voice-morph continua as an individual's voice. Stimuli implicitly defined a voice-acoustics space, and training explicitly defined a voice-identity space. The predefined centre of the voice category was shifted from the acoustic centre each week in opposite directions, so the same stimuli had different training h...

  19. SIRT2 ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ae Sin; Jung, Yu Jin; Kim, Dal; Nguyen-Thanh, Tung [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Kyung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sik [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Kwang [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won, E-mail: kwon@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-08

    deficiency of SIRT2 ameliorates iNOS, NO expression and reactive oxygen species production with suppressing LPS-induced activation of NFκB in macrophages.

  20. Withania Somnifera L Root Extract Ameliorates Toxin Induced Cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Maheswari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study the use of plants for medicinal purpose used locally in the treatment of various diseases and we examined for their antioxidant activity. Therefore, the present investigation is part of continuing programme related to the biochemical screening of local plants used in Ancient Indian Medicine, Ayurveda, Siddha and Yunani. An Aqueous root extract of Withania Somnifera (L. Dunal (Ashwagandha was evaluated for its protective effect (antioxidant effect against Cypermethrin (CM toxin induced oxidation in male albino rats. Cypermethrin, (CM toxin [(RS-3-phenoxybenzyl (IRS-cis-trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl-2,2-dimethyl cyclopropane carboxylate] a Type II pyrethroid pesticide is commonly used in agriculture and many other domestic applications for pest control. Studies have shown that cypermethrin (toxin induces lipid peroxidation and alters the antioxidant status in non-target organisms. Aqueous root extract of Withania Somnifera (L. Dunal (Ashwagandha, a source of several flavonoids and steroids is a potent antioxidant. In our present study, an attempt has been made to study the effect of Cypermethrin (CM toxin on biochemical parameters and ameliorating effect of Withania Somnifera (L. Dunal (Ashwagandha in male wistar rats. Adult male wistar rats were divided into four different groups. Group I Served as vehicle treated normal saline (Control, Group II Rats received intragastric tubing (Ig injection of cypermethrin (CM toxin1/10 LD50 (LD50 of CM is 250mg (25mg/kgbw/day in corn oil, Group III received Withania Somnifera (10% aqueous root extract (5ml of 10% extract per day, for 60 days Group IV Rats received Withania Somnifera aqueous root extract alone (5ml of 10% per day for 60 days treated. Cypermethirn (CM toxin induction leads to reduction in the levels of Enzymic and Non-Enzymic antioxidants levels. However, on treatment with Withania Somnifera aqueous root extract normalized the levels of all the biochemical and hematological

  1. SIRT2 ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    deficiency of SIRT2 ameliorates iNOS, NO expression and reactive oxygen species production with suppressing LPS-induced activation of NFκB in macrophages

  2. Gesture Recognition Technology: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALLAVI HALARNKAR

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Gesture Recognition Technology has evolved greatly over the years. The past has seen the contemporary Human – Computer Interface techniques and their drawbacks, which limit the speed and naturalness of the human brain and body. As a result gesture recognition technology has developed since the early 1900s with a view to achieving ease and lessening the dependence on devices like keyboards, mice and touchscreens. Attempts have been made to combine natural gestures to operate with the technology around us to enable us to make optimum use of our body gestures making our work faster and more human friendly. The present has seen huge development in this field ranging from devices like virtual keyboards, video game controllers to advanced security systems which work on face, hand and body recognition techniques. The goal is to make full use of themovements of the body and every angle made by the parts of the body in order to supplement technology to become human friendly and understand natural human behavior and gestures. The future of this technology is very bright with prototypes of amazing devices in research and development to make the world equipped with digital information at hand whenever and wherever required.

  3. Human recognition of familiar voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenndt, Stanley J

    2016-08-01

    Recognizing familiar voices is something we do every day. In quiet environments, it is usually easy to recognize a familiar voice. In noisier environments, this can become a difficult task. This paper examines how robust listeners are at identifying familiar voices in noisy, changing environments and what factors may affect their recognition rates. While there is previous research addressing familiar speaker recognition, the research is limited due to the difficulty in obtaining appropriate data that eliminates speaker dependent traits, such as word choice, along with having corresponding listeners who are familiar with the speakers. The data used in this study were collected in such a fashion to mimic conversational, free-flow dialogue, but in a way to eliminate many variables such as word choice, intonation, or non-verbal cues. These data provide some of the most realistic test scenarios to-date for familiar speaker identification. A pure-tone hearing test was used to separate listeners into normal hearing and hearing impaired groups. It is hypothesized that the results of the Normal Hearing Group will be statistically better. Additionally, the aspect of familiar speaker recognition is addressed by having each listener rate his or her familiarity with each speaker. Two statistical approaches showed that the more familiar a listener is with a speaker, the more likely the listener will recognize the speaker. PMID:27586746

  4. On speech recognition during anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alapetite, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    This PhD thesis in human-computer interfaces (informatics) studies the case of the anaesthesia record used during medical operations and the possibility to supplement it with speech recognition facilities. Problems and limitations have been identified with the traditional paper-based anaesthesia ...... accuracy. Finally, the last part of the thesis looks at the acceptance and success of a speech recognition system introduced in a Danish hospital to produce patient records.......This PhD thesis in human-computer interfaces (informatics) studies the case of the anaesthesia record used during medical operations and the possibility to supplement it with speech recognition facilities. Problems and limitations have been identified with the traditional paper-based anaesthesia...... inaccuracies in the anaesthesia record. Supplementing the electronic anaesthesia record interface with speech input facilities is proposed as one possible solution to a part of the problem. The testing of the various hypotheses has involved the development of a prototype of an electronic anaesthesia record...

  5. Face Recognition Incorporating Ancillary Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyoun Lee

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to vast variations of extrinsic and intrinsic imaging conditions, face recognition remained to be a challenging computer vision problem even today. This is particularly true when the passive imaging approach is considered for robust applications. To advance existing recognition systems for face, numerous techniques and methods have been proposed to overcome the almost inevitable performance degradation due to external factors such as pose, expression, occlusion, and illumination. In particular, the recent part-based method has provided noticeable room for verification performance improvement based on the localized features which have good tolerance to variation of external conditions. The part-based method, however, does not really stretch the performance without incorporation of global information from the holistic method. In view of the need to fuse the local information and the global information in an adaptive manner for reliable recognition, in this paper we investigate whether such external factors can be explicitly estimated and be used to boost the verification performance during fusion of the holistic and part-based methods. Our empirical evaluations show noticeable performance improvement adopting the proposed method.

  6. Infant Visual Attention and Object Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Greg D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the role visual attention plays in the recognition of objects in infancy. Research and theory on the development of infant attention and recognition memory are reviewed in three major sections. The first section reviews some of the major findings and theory emerging from a rich tradition of behavioral research utilizing preferential looking tasks to examine visual attention and recognition memory in infancy. The second section examines research utilizing neural measures of attention and object recognition in infancy as well as research on brain-behavior relations in the early development of attention and recognition memory. The third section addresses potential areas of the brain involved in infant object recognition and visual attention. An integrated synthesis of some of the existing models of the development of visual attention is presented which may account for the observed changes in behavioral and neural measures of visual attention and object recognition that occur across infancy. PMID:25596333

  7. Recognition and translation Arabic-French of Named Entities: case of the Sport places

    CERN Document Server

    Hamadou, Abdelmajid Ben; Fehri, Héla

    2010-01-01

    The recognition of Arabic Named Entities (NE) is a problem in different domains of Natural Language Processing (NLP) like automatic translation. Indeed, NE translation allows the access to multilingual information. This translation doesn't always lead to ex-pected result especially when NE contains a person name. For this reason and in order to ameliorate translation, we can transliterate some part of NE. In this context, we propose a method that integrates translation and transliteration together using the linguistic NooJ platform that is based on local grammars and transducers. In this paper, we focus on sport domain. We will firstly suggest a refinement of the typological model presented at the MUC-6 Conference. We will describe the integration of an Arabic transliteration module into translation system. Finally, we will detail our method and give the results of the evaluation.

  8. Acquired prosopagnosia without word recognition deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo, Tirta; Wright, Victoria; Tree, Jeremy J; Duchaine, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    It has long been suggested that face recognition relies on specialized mechanisms that are not involved in visual recognition of other object categories, including those that require expert, fine-grained discrimination at the exemplar level such as written words. But according to the recently proposed many-to-many theory of object recognition (MTMT), visual recognition of faces and words are carried out by common mechanisms [Behrmann, M., & Plaut, D. C. ( 2013 ). Distributed circuits, not circumscribed centers, mediate visual recognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17, 210-219]. MTMT acknowledges that face and word recognition are lateralized, but posits that the mechanisms that predominantly carry out face recognition still contribute to word recognition and vice versa. MTMT makes a key prediction, namely that acquired prosopagnosics should exhibit some measure of word recognition deficits. We tested this prediction by assessing written word recognition in five acquired prosopagnosic patients. Four patients had lesions limited to the right hemisphere while one had bilateral lesions with more pronounced lesions in the right hemisphere. The patients completed a total of seven word recognition tasks: two lexical decision tasks and five reading aloud tasks totalling more than 1200 trials. The performances of the four older patients (3 female, age range 50-64 years) were compared to those of 12 older controls (8 female, age range 56-66 years), while the performances of the younger prosopagnosic (male, 31 years) were compared to those of 14 younger controls (9 female, age range 20-33 years). We analysed all results at the single-patient level using Crawford's t-test. Across seven tasks, four prosopagnosics performed as quickly and accurately as controls. Our results demonstrate that acquired prosopagnosia can exist without word recognition deficits. These findings are inconsistent with a key prediction of MTMT. They instead support the hypothesis that face

  9. Repetitive training for ameliorating upper limbs spasm of hemiplegic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Zhu; Lin Liu; Weiqun Song

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The main aim of rehabilitation is to ameliorate motor function and use the damaged limbs in the activities of daily living.Several factors are needed in the self-recovery of the patients,and the most important one is to reduce spasm.Some mechanical repetitive movements can affect and change the excitability of motor neurons.OBJECTIVE:To observe the effect of repetitive training on ameliorating spasm of upper limbs of hemiplegic patients.DESIGN:A self-controlled observation before and after training.SETTING:Department of Rehabilitation,Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University.PARTICI PANTS: Seven hemiplegic patients induced by brain injury were selected from the Department of Rehabilitation,Xuanwu Hospital,Capital Medical University from March to June in 2005.Inclusive criteria:①Agreed and able to participate in the 30-minute training of hand function; ②Without disturbance of understanding.The patients with aphasia or apraxia,manifestation of shoulder pain,and severe neurological or mental defects.For the 7 patients,the Rivermead motor assessment(RMA)scores ranged 0-10 points,the Rivermead mobility index(RMI)ranged 1-3,and modified Ashworth scale(MAS)was grade 2-4.Their horizontal extension of shoulder joint was 0°-30°,anteflextion was 0°-50°,internal rotation was 50°-90°,external rotation was 0°-10°:and the elbow joint could extend for 15°-135°.METHODS:The viva 2 serial MOTOmed exerciser(Reck Company,Germany)was used.There were three phases of A-B-A.①The phase A lasted for 1 week.The patient sat on a chair facting to the MOTOmed screen.and did the circumduction of upper limbs forwardly,30 minutes a day and 5 days a week.②The phase B lasted for 3 weeks.The training consisted of forward circumduction of upper limbs for 15 minutes.followed by backward ones for 15 minutes and 5-minute rest.③The training in the phase A was performed again for 2 weeks.The extensions of upper limbs were recorded at phase A,the extension and flexion of

  10. Ameliorated de novo transcriptome assembly using Illumina paired end sequence data with Trinity Assembler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankar, Kiran Gopinath; Todur, Vivek Nagaraj; Shukla, Rohit Nandan; Vasudevan, Madavan

    2015-09-01

    Advent of Next Generation Sequencing has led to possibilities of de novo transcriptome assembly of organisms without availability of complete genome sequence. Among various sequencing platforms available, Illumina is the most widely used platform based on data quality, quantity and cost. Various de novo transcriptome assemblers are also available today for construction of de novo transcriptome. In this study, we aimed at obtaining an ameliorated de novo transcriptome assembly with sequence reads obtained from Illumina platform and assembled using Trinity Assembler. We found that, primary transcriptome assembly obtained as a result of Trinity can be ameliorated on the basis of transcript length, coverage, and depth and protein homology. Our approach to ameliorate is reproducible and could enhance the sensitivity and specificity of the assembled transcriptome which could be critical for validation of the assembled transcripts and for planning various downstream biological assays. PMID:26484285

  11. Vitamin E ameliorates aflatoxin-induced biochemical changes in the testis of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.J. Verma; Anita Nair

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To assess the effect of aflatoxin on biochemical changes in the testis of mice and the possibility of amelioration by vitamin E treatment. Methods: Adult male albino mice were orally administered with 25 or 50 tg of aflatoxin/animal/day (750 or 1500 μg/kg body weight) for 45 days. The testis was isolated and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: There was a significant, dose-dependent reduction in DNA, RNA, protein, sialic acid contents and the activities of succinic dehydrogenase, adenosine triphosphatase and alkaline phosphatase in the testis of aflatoxintreated mice as compared to the vehicle control. However, the acid phosphatase activity was significantly increased in the aflatoxin-treated mice. Vitamin E (2 mg/animal/day) treatment significantly ameliorated the aflatoxin-induced changes, except the acid and alkaline phosphatase activities in the high dose group. Conclusion: Vitamin E treatment ameliorates the aflatoxin-induced changes in the testis of mice.

  12. Atorvastatin ameliorates cognitive impairment, Aβ1-42 production and Tau hyperphosphorylation in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dongsheng; Liu, Huaxia; Li, Chenli; Wang, Fangyan; Shi, Yaosheng; Liu, Lingjiang; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Aiming; Zhang, Junfang; Wang, Chuang; Chen, Zhongming

    2016-06-01

    Amyloid-beta (Aβ) interacts with the serine/threonine protein kinase AKT (also known as protein kinase B)/glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) pathway and deactivates GSK3β signaling, which result in microtubule protein tau phosphorylation. Atorvastatin, a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, has been proven to improve learning and memory performance, reduce Aβ and phosphorylated tau levels in mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it still remains unclear whether atorvastatin is responsible for regulation of AKT/GSK3β signaling and contributes to subsequent down-regulation of Aβ1-42 and phosphorylated tau in APP/PS1 transgenic (Tg APP/PS1) mice. Herein, we aimed to investigate the possible impacts of atorvastatin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) on the memory deficit by behavioral tests and changes of AKT/GSK3β signaling in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex by western blot test in Tg APP/PS1 mice. The results showed that treatment with atorvastatin significantly reversed the memory deficit in the Tg APP/PS1 mice in a novel object recognition and the Morris water maze tests. Moreover, atorvastatin significantly attenuated Aβ1-42 accumulation and phosphorylation of tau (Ser396) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of Tg APP/PS1 mice. In addition, atorvastatin treatment also increased phosphorylation of AKT, inhibited GSK3β activity by increasing phosphorylation of GSK3β (Ser9) and decreasing the beta-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) expression. These results indicated that the memory ameliorating effect of atorvastatin may be, in part, by regulation the AKT/GSK3β signaling which may contribute to down-regulation of Aβ1-42 and tau hyperphosphorylation. PMID:26883430

  13. Iris Recognition Without Iris Normalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenina Birgale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In any real time biometric system processing speed and recognition time are crucial parameters. Reducing processing time involves many parameters like normalization, FAR, FRR, management of eyelid and eyelash occlusions, size of signature etc. Normalization consumes substantial amount of time of the system. This study contributes for improved iris recognition system with reduced processing time, False Acceptance Rate (FAR and False Rejection Rate (FRR. Approach: To improve system performance and reliability of a biometric system. It avoided the iris normalization process used traditionally in iris recognition systems. The technique proposed here used different masks to filter out iris image from an eye. Comparative study of different masks was done and optimized mask is proposed. The experiment was carried on CASIA database consisting of 756 iris images of 108 persons. Each person contributes seven images of eye (108×7 = 756 images in the database. Results: In the proposed method: (1 Normalization step is avoided; (2 Computational time is reduced by 0.3342 sec; (3 Iris signature size is reduced; (4 Improved performance parameters. (With reduced feature size, proposed method achieves 99.4866% accuracy, 0.0069% FAR, 1.0198% FRR and significant increase in speed of the system. Conclusion: Iris signature proposed was comparatively small just of 1×24 size. Though Daugman’s method gives best accuracy of 99.90% but the iris signature length used by that algorithm is comparatively very high that is 1×2048 phase vector. Also Daugman has used phase information in signature formation. Our method gives a accuracy of 99.474% with a signature of comparatively very small length. This has definitely contributed to improve the speed.

  14. Introduction to radar target recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Tait, P

    2006-01-01

    This new text provides an overview of the radar target recognition process and covers the key techniques being developed for operational systems. It is based on the fundamental scientific principles of high resolution radar, and explains how the techniques can be used in real systems, taking into account the characteristics of practical radar system designs and component limitations. It also addresses operational aspects, such as how high resolution modes would fit in with other functions such as detection and tracking. Mathematics is kept to a minimum and the complex techniques and issues are

  15. COMMERCIAL FUND, RECOGNITION AND ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOREL TRIF

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the immaterial investments within companies nowadays urges the specialists in accounting to find the ways to present more in the elements. In their studies researchers face the controversy reinvestments, as an asset in the balance sheet or an expense in the profit or loss account. The main goal of this paper is to analyze the difficulties in commercial fund. In the first part we will analyze various definitions of the problems concerning the commercial fund’s recognition and assessment. The paper also suggests that investments are really social and economic problems.

  16. Face Recognition using Gabor Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad MOHSIN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An Elastic Bunch Graph Map (EBGM algorithm is being proposed in this research paper that successfully implements face recognition using Gabor filters. The proposed system applies 40 different Gabor filters on an image. As aresult of which 40 images with different angles and orientation are received. Next, maximum intensity points in each filtered image are calculated and mark them as Fiducial points. The system reduces these points in accordance to distance between them. The next step is calculating the distances between the reduced points using distance formula. At last, the distances are compared with database. If match occurs, it means that the image is recognized.

  17. Face Recognition Techniques - An evaluation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Asmahan M Altaher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Face recognition is the ability of categorize a set of images based on certain discriminatory features. Classification of the recognition patterns can be difficult problem and it is still very active field of research. The paper introduces conceptual framework for descriptive study on techniques of face recognition systems. It aims to describe the previous researches have been study the face recognition system, in order scope on the algorithms, usages, benefits , challenges and problems in this felids, the paper proposed the face recognition as sensitive learning task experiments on a large face databases demonstrate of the new feature. The researcher recommends that there's a needs to evaluate the previous studies and researches, especially on face recognition field and 3D, hopeful for advanced techniques and methods in the near future.

  18. Parameters Optimization of Synergetic Recognition Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAOJun; DONGHuoming; SHAOJing; ZHAOJing

    2005-01-01

    Synergetic pattern recognition is a novel and effective pattern recognition method, and has some advantages in image recognition. Researches have shown that attention parameters λ and parameters B, C directly influence on the recognition results, but there is no general research theory to control these parameters in the recognition process. We abstractly analyze these parameters in this paper, and purpose a novel parameters optimization method based on simulated annealing algorithm. SA algorithm has good optimization performance and is used to search the global optimized solution of these parameters. Theoretic analysis and experimental results both show that the proposed parameters optimization method is effective, which can fully improve the performance of synergetic recognition approach, and the algorithm realization is simple and fast.

  19. Online recognition of the multiphase flow regime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The key reasons that the present method cannot be used to solve the industrial multi- phase flow pattern recognition are clarified firstly. The prerequisite to realize the online recognition is proposed and recognition rules for partial flow pattern are obtained based on the massive experimental data. The standard templates for every flow regime feature are calculated with self-organization cluster algorithm. The multi-sensor data fusion method is proposed to realize the online recognition of multiphase flow regime with the pressure and differential pressure signals, which overcomes the severe influence of fluid flow velocity and the oil fraction on the recognition. The online recognition method is tested in the practice, which has less than 10 percent measurement error. The method takes advantages of high confidence, good fault tolerance and less requirement of single sensor performance.

  20. Online recognition of the multiphase flow regime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI BoFeng; ZHANG ShaoJun; ZHAO Liang; ZHANG XiMin; GUO LieJin

    2008-01-01

    The key reasons that the present method cannot be used to solve the industrial multi-phase flow pattern recognition are clarified firstly. The prerequisite to realize the online recognition is proposed and recognition rules for partial flow pattern are obtained based on the massive experimental data. The standard templates for every flow regime feature are calculated with self-organization cluster algorithm. The multi-sensor data fusion method is proposed to realize the online recognition of multiphase flow regime with the pressure and differential pressure signals, which overcomes the severe influence of fluid flow velocity and the oil fraction on the recognition. The online recognition method is tested in the practice, which has less than 10 percent measurement error. The method takes advantages of high confidence, good fault tolerance and less requirement of single sensor performance.