Lawrence, Jean M.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Reynolds, Kristi; Beyer, Jennifer; Pettitt, David J.; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Marcovina, Santica M.; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Hamman, Richard F.
OBJECTIVE—To report the 2001 prevalence and 2002–2005 incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in Hispanic American youth and to describe the demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of these youth. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Data from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study, a population-based multicenter observational study of youth aged 0–19 years with physician-diagnosed diabetes, were used to estimate the prevalence and incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Information obtained by questionnaire, physical examination, and blood and urine collection was analyzed to describe the characteristics of youth who completed a study visit. RESULTS—Among Hispanic American youth, type 1 diabetes was more prevalent than type 2 diabetes, including in youth aged 10–19 years. There were no significant sex differences in type 1 or type 2 diabetes prevalence. The incidence of type 2 diabetes for female subjects aged 10–14 years was twice that of male subjects (P < 0.005), while among youth aged 15–19 years the incidence of type 2 diabetes exceeded that of type 1 diabetes for female subjects (P < 0.05) but not for male subjects. Poor glycemic control, defined as A1C ≥9.5%, as well as high LDL cholesterol and triglycerides were common among youth aged ≥15 years with either type of diabetes. Forty-four percent of youth with type 1 diabetes were overweight or obese. CONCLUSIONS—Factors such as poor glycemic control, elevated lipids, and a high prevalence of overweight and obesity may put Hispanic youth with type 1 and type 2 diabetes at risk for future diabetes-related complications. PMID:19246577
Henderson, Harold H.
This article, a revision of a paper presented at the West Virginia Statewide Bicentennial Conference last summer, discusses the problems of youth--in school and at work. These are of the first order in today's America. The author presents a kind of solution and pays his respects to the constraints. (Editor)
Paulis, Winifred D; Palmer, Millicent; Chondros, Patty; Kauer, Sylvia; van Middelkoop, Marienke; Sanci, Lena A
Literature suggests that overweight and obese young people use healthcare services more often, but this awaits confirmation in primary care. To identify health profiles of underweight, overweight and obese young people attending general practice and compare them to normal-weight youth and also to explore the weight-related health risks of eating and exercise behaviour in the four different weight categories. This study used a cross-sectional design with baseline data from a trial including 683 young people (14-24 years of age) presenting to general practice. Through computer-assisted telephone interviews data were obtained on number and type of health complaints and consultations, emotional distress, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and eating and exercise behaviour. General practitioners (GPs) were consulted more often by overweight (incidence rate ratio (IRR): 1.28, 95% CI (1.04 to 1.57)) and obese youth (IRR: 1.54, 95% CI (1.21 to 1.97), but not for different health problems compared with normal-weight youth. The reason for presentation was seldom a weight issue. Obese youth reported lower physical HRQoL. Obese and underweight youth were less likely to be satisfied with their eating behaviour than their normal-weight peers. Exercise levels were low in the entire cohort. Our study highlights the need for effective weight management given that overweight and obese youth consult their GP more often. Since young people do not present with weight issues, it becomes important for GPs to find ways to initiate the discussion about weight, healthy eating and exercise with youth. ISRCTN16059206. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Ingerski, Lisa M; Arnold, Trisha L; Banks, Gabrielle; Porter, Jerlym S; Wang, Winfred C
The objective of this study is to describe rates of clinic attendance of youth with sickle cell disease prescribed hydroxyurea and examine potential demographic and medical factors related to consistent clinic attendance. Participants included 148 youth diagnosed with sickle cell disease and prescribed hydroxyurea during a single calendar year. Clinic attendance and potential demographic and medical factors related to attendance were extracted via systematic retrospective medical chart review. Youth attended 90.3% of scheduled appointments and 85.1% of youth attended at least 80% of scheduled clinic appointments during the study window. Adjusting for other factors, multivariate analysis revealed families with fewer children in the household, families with private insurance, youth experiencing fever, and youth not experiencing pain during the calendar year were more likely to consistently attend clinic visits. Adherence to clinic appointments is critical to optimizing health outcomes for youth with sickle cell disease and integral for adequate monitoring of youth prescribed hydroxyurea, in particular. Findings may aid providers in appropriately identifying possible barriers to clinic attendance to develop attendance promotion interventions.
Women in the developing world continue to face obstacles that limit their ability to establish careers and become leaders in the fields of science, technology, ... analysis of South American youth in the Mercosur countries (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay) and their perception of rights, democracy and regional.
Holland, Nicole E.
Engagement in and transitions between academic institutions may be enhanced for African American urban youth if we consider the role of religiosity, spirituality, and places of worship. This article presents the manner by which African American university students, who attended public high schools, conveyed the influence of their religious and…
Miller, Walter B.
This report represents the findings of a study on violence by youth gangs in 12 major American cities, and deals with the following topics: (1) the rationale and methods for a national survey of youth gangs; (2) the existence and seriousness of the problem of youth gangs in 12 major American cities; (3) the size and scope of the youth gang…
Disparities in asthma management are a burden on African American youth. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the discourses of asthma management disparities (AMDs) in African American adolescents in Seattle to existing youth-related asthma policies in Washington State. Adolescents participated in a three-session photovoice…
Vellos, Renira E.; Vadeboncoeur, Jennifer A.
This article highlights the experiences of students and educators from a larger sociocultural study of participation and engagement at a senior alternative high school programme in British Columbia, Canada. Drawing on participant observation, active interviews and document analysis, school attendance was remediated as a meaningful social practice…
Martin, Abby; Nicholson, Tom
Little is known about long-term outcomes for homeless youth once they leave secondary school. The present study aimed to fill this gap. An online survey was completed by 29 ex-students who, during 1997-2011, attended a small alternative secondary school in an inner suburb of a large city in Australia. While at the school most achieved at least a…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Youth have been reported to be at a higher risk of acquiring STIs with significant adverse health and social consequences. Knowledge on the prevailing risky practices is an essential tool to guide preventive strategies. Methods Youth aged between 18 and 25 years attending an STI clinic were recruited. Social, sexual and demographic characteristics were elicited using a structured standard questionnaire. Blood samples were tested for syphilis and HIV infections. Urethral, high vaginal and cervical swabs were screened for common STI agents. Results A total of 304 youth were studied with mean age of 21.5 and 20.3 years for males and females respectively. 63.5% of youth were seeking STI care. The mean age of coitache was 16.4 and 16.2 years for males and females respectively. The first sexual partner was significantly older in females compared to male youth (23.0 vs 16.8 years (p Conclusion Most female youth seen at the STI clinic had their first sexual intercourse with older males. Youth were engaging in high risk unprotected sexual practices which were predisposing them to STIs and unplanned pregnancies. There is a great need to establish more youth-friendly reproductive health clinics, encourage consistent and correct use of condoms, delay in sexual debut and avoid older sexual partners in females.
Shillington, A. M.; Bousman, C. A.; Clapp, J. D.
Services for homeless youth traditionally provided shelter and nourishment but do little to break the cycle of homelessness. A more comprehensive approach to serve homeless youth is the drop-in center model that provides safe and easy-to-find facilities within communities to bridge the gap between the streets and transitional/permanent housing.…
Polo, Antonio J.; Lopez, Steven R.
Latino youth appear to be at higher risk for depression relative to youth from other ethnic groups. This study assessed the relationship between nativity and several forms of internalizing distress among Mexican American middle school students as well as sociocultural factors that may help explain this relationship. Immigrant Mexican American…
Forslund, Morris A.
Found that American Indian youths tend to experience more serious consequences of drinking than do White youths from the same area with regard to feeling high, getting drunk, passing out, suffering loss of memory, being stopped by police, having automobile accidents, and getting into trouble with parents. (Author/BEF)
El-Haj, Thea Renda Abu
This article explores an Arab American community arts organization as a site for promoting youth civic participation and social activism. Studying a citizenship education project outside the school walls, and focusing on the arts as a medium for this work, foregrounds the role of the symbolic for engaging youth as active participants in democratic…
Murry, Velma McBride; Berkel, Cady; Liu, Na
Although family-focused, evidence-based programs (EBPs) have the potential to reduce disparities in health and behavioral outcomes for youth, access to such programs is severely limited in the most affected areas, including African American communities in the rural South. As expanding the reach of EBPs is the primary goal of translational research, interest is growing in the potential of technology as a viable platform to disseminate services to areas with limited resources. To test whether African American families in the rural South would be willing to engage in a technology-based family-focused EBP to prevent adolescent risk behavior, we examined attendance using data from two arms of a three-arm community-based trial of the Pathways for African American Success (PAAS) program. In the overall study, sixth graders (N = 412) and their primary caregivers were randomly assigned to the following conditions: (a) in-person, small group sessions led by facilitators; (b) self-directed, technology-based sessions; or (c) a literature control with home-mailed educational materials. Results indicated that attendance was higher in the technology condition than in the small group condition. Parental age, education, and socioeconomic status did not limit attendance in the technology condition. We conclude from these results that the use of technology can be an acceptable strategy for disseminating parenting EBPs to African American families in the rural South.
Caswell, Shane V.; Ausborn, Ashley; Diao, Guoqing; Johnson, David C.; Johnson, Timothy S.; Atkins, Rickie; Ambegaonkar, Jatin P.; Cortes, Nelson
Background: Prior research has described the anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of professional, collegiate, and high school American football players. Yet, little research has described these factors in American youth football and their potential relationship with injury. Purpose: To characterize anthropometric and physical performance measures, describe the epidemiology of injury, and examine the association of physical performance measures with injury among children pa...
Begarie, Jerome; Maiano, Christophe; Leconte, Pascale; Ninot, Gregory
This study examines the prevalence of overweight and obesity and a panel of potential determinants among French youths and adults with an intellectual disability (ID). The sample used consisted of 1120 youths and adults with an ID, from 5 to 28 years old, attending a French special education school. The results indicated that 19.8% of the…
Frensch, Karen; Cameron, Gary; Preyde, Michele
Caregivers of 210 youth receiving residential treatment (RT) or intensive family services (IFS) in Ontario were interviewed about the long term community adaptation of youth after leaving these programs. School attendance and academic functioning data at admission, discharge, and 12-18 months post-discharge were analyzed to explore predictors of…
Карина Джаббаровна Тамбовцева
This article analyzes the methods of word formation in slangs used by the American youth. The relevance of the study is justified by a large interest to examine the ways of word formation in non-standard vocabulary and the sociolinguistic factors influencing this process. The aim of the study is to determine the most common methods of word formation among the American youth in their use of slang, i.e. to identify the sources of slangisms, characterize and support them by proper examples, anal...
Norvilitis, Jill M.; Reid, Howard M.; Ling, Sun; Chen, Sisi
Data were analyzed from 178 American and 153 Chinese college students who participated in a study examining motivation to attend college. Students in the two countries reported similar motivations for attending college, with career and personal reasons being most important and helping family least important. Also, the study assessed the influence…
McWilliams, Julia Ann; Bonet, Sally Wesley
This article examines how the pre-migratory experiences of 90 Bhutanese, Burmese, and Iraqi refugee youth shape their aspirations, needs and capabilities as they transition to postsecondary education and work in the American urban context. It further explores how their schooling experiences in precarious urban school districts influence their…
Toke, Arun Narayan, Ed.; And Others
To celebrate the "Decade of the Indigenous Peoples," this issue of a nonprofit children's magazine includes art and writings by Native American youth who share their ways of looking at and living life. Emphasizes the distinct customs, traditions, languages, and folklore of the different Native Nations and Tribes. (LZ)
Карина Джаббаровна Тамбовцева
Full Text Available This article analyzes the methods of word formation in slangs used by the American youth. The relevance of the study is justified by a large interest to examine the ways of word formation in non-standard vocabulary and the sociolinguistic factors influencing this process. The aim of the study is to determine the most common methods of word formation among the American youth in their use of slang, i.e. to identify the sources of slangisms, characterize and support them by proper examples, analyze them and generate an appropriate classification. The slang expressions are taken from movie scripts of modern American cinema for the young. A sample of about 1000 units served as data for this study. The authors use standard methods of data collection, observation of the subjects - native speakers of American English-, data classification and comparative analysis of the collected material. This article would be useful for researchers working in the field of colloquial vocabulary and social dialects, word-formation processes in language, for socio-linguists and teachers of English. The result of this research has been fruitful: based on slangisms collected from the scripts of modern American movies, the authors were able to classify methods of formation of American youth slang, describe them on the basis of empirical data and provide relevant examples.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper is based on data gathered from a 2006 survey of 1,098 "street children" in Northern Tanzania. It examines the role that school may play in preventing the migration of vulnerable youth to become homeless "street children". Specific focus is placed on the correlations found between children's attendance in school, their reports of abuse or support in their family, and their status of living "on the street" full-time or part-time. Methods This study is from quantitative interview data gathered from 1,098 children and youth between 5 and 24 years old on the streets of Moshi and Arusha, Tanzania, over a 48-hour period during the school year on October 26th and 27th, 2006. Respondents were given survey questions about their home, school and street life experiences, in order to measure the impact of outreach work being performed by a Tanzanian NGO. Interviewers used purposive sampling, approaching all young people who appeared to be under the age of 25 years within a number of precincts in each town known to be where 'street children' were known to congregate. Results Results suggest that regular attendance in school may be a significant protective factor for children in preventing migration to the street life. Statistical analysis revealed that those young people who dropped out of school had nearly 8 times higher chances for ending up on the streets permanently than those who attended school daily. Conclusions This study supports the new concept of "multi-layered social resilience", providing evidence from research completed by one NGO on how community-based organizations can help enhance resilience in a broader social context, spanning individuals, households and community structures.
Jongenelis, Michelle I; Pettigrew, Simone; Biagioni, Nicole
Mass-attended youth events represent a substantial public health challenge due to high levels of alcohol consumption and corresponding high rates of alcohol-related harm. Although previous research has documented the protective effect of high drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE) on alcohol consumption in general, there is a lack of research examining the role of DRSE in reducing consumption during mass-attended youth events and the factors associated with DRSE in these contexts. This study aimed to identify potentially modifiable factors that influence DRSE and drinking intentions to inform interventions designed to reduce alcohol-related harm during mass-attended events. Australian secondary school students (n = 586; 70% female) in their final two years of high school completed an online survey assessing their alcohol consumption intentions for Schoolies, their perceived degree of DRSE, and other individual and environmental factors. Path analysis was used to assess a mediational model examining factors associated with DRSE and alcohol consumption intentions. DRSE was found to be significantly associated with intended alcohol consumption during Schoolies. Specifically, leavers who believed they would not be able to refuse others' offers of alcoholic drinks reported significantly greater alcohol consumption intentions. Results also revealed that DRSE was enhanced in those respondents who believed there would be a variety of non-drinking activities and non-alcoholic beverages available to them during Schoolies. Results suggest the need to increase leavers' confidence in their ability to refuse unwanted alcoholic beverages and highlight the importance of providing celebration options that do not involve alcohol consumption.
Winterrowd, Erin; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Chavez, Ernest L.
Research suggests a link between friendships and suicidality among U.S. youth, but this link has not been confirmed across ethnicities. The relationship between friendships and suicidality among Mexican American and European American adolescents was examined in this study. Specifically, the role of friendship problems (i.e., social isolation, poor…
Garrett, Bridgette E.; Gardiner, Phillip S.; Wright, La Tanisha C.; Pechacek, Terry F.
Introduction Beginning in the late 1970s, a very sharp decline in cigarette smoking prevalence was observed among African American (AA) high school seniors compared with a more modest decline among whites. This historic decline resulted in a lower prevalence of cigarette smoking among AA youth that has persisted for several decades. Methods We synthesized information contained in the research literature and tobacco industry documents to provide an account of past influences on cigarette smoking behavior among AA youth to help understand the reasons for these historically lower rates of cigarette smoking. Results While a number of protective factors including cigarette price increases, religiosity, parental opposition, sports participation, body image, and negative attitudes towards cigarette smoking may have all played a role in maintaining lower rates of cigarette smoking among AA youth as compared to white youth, the efforts of the tobacco industry seem to have prevented the effectiveness of these factors from carrying over into adulthood. Conclusion Continuing public health efforts that prevent cigarette smoking initiation and maintain lower cigarette smoking rates among AA youth throughout adulthood have the potential to help reduce the negative health consequences of smoking in this population. Implications While AA youth continue to have a lower prevalence of cigarette smoking than white youth, they are still at risk of increasing their smoking behavior due to aggressive targeted marketing by the tobacco industry. Because AAs suffer disproportionately from tobacco-related disease, and have higher incidence and mortality rates from lung cancer, efforts to prevent smoking initiation and maintain lower cigarette smoking rates among AA youth have the potential to significantly lower lung cancer death rates among AA adults. PMID:26980860
Blum, Robert W.; And Others
Surveyed 13,454 rural Native American adolescents. Found 2 percent reported poor physical health and high rates of health-compromising behaviors, which were significantly correlated with physical or sexual abuse, suicide attempts, substance abuse, poor school performance, and poor nutrition. Academic risk was strongly associated with physical,…
Hidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Intense Emphasis" /> It is often asserted that youth gangs and organized crime have seized Central America. For theories on contemporary Central American violence, Costa Rica, El Salvador and Nicaragua present important test cases, which demonstrate the need to differentiate the diagnosis. This paper is concerned with the social construction of violence-related national and transnational myths as a precondition for policy
It is often asserted that youth gangs and organized crime have seized Central America. For theories on contemporary Central American violence, Costa Rica, El Salvador and Nicaragua present important test cases, which demonstrate the need to differentiate the diagnosis. This paper is concerned with the social construction of violence-related national and transnational myths as a precondition for policy
Bethea, Sharon L.
The present investigation considers the program outcomes of one community youth project, Leadership Excellence Inc., Oakland Freedom Schools. Oakland Freedom Schools are culturally relevant 6-week summer Language Arts enrichment programs for primarily inner-city African American youth aged 5 to 14 years. In this study, 79 African American youth…
Melnick, M J; Sabo, D F; Vanfossen, B
This study examined the educational effects of interscholastic athletic participation on a national, stratified, probability sample of African-American and Hispanic boys and girls drawn from the High School and Beyond Study (U.S. Department of Education, 1987). This two-year longitudinal analysis was based on questionnaire data from 3,686 minority youth who were sophomores in 1980 and seniors in 1982. The independent variable was athletic participation, and the dependent variables included senior year popularity, extracurricular involvement, grades, achievement test performance, dropout rates, and educational expectations. The control variables were socioeconomic status, school location, and sophomore measures of the dependent variables. In general, athletic participation enhanced popularity and contributed to greater involvement in extracurricular activities. Sports participation was generally unrelated to grades and standardized test scores. Depending on school location (i.e., urban, suburban, rural), athletic participation was significantly related to lower dropout rates for some minority youth. High school athletic participation was unrelated to educational expectations in the senior year. These findings show that high school athletic participation was a social resource for many minority youth, but only a modest academic resource for others. Equally clear, however, is the fact that not all racial or ethnic groups reap the same benefits from sport. More importantly, these findings strongly suggest that high school sport should only be considered one of many institutional forces converging in the lives of American minority youth. To assign sport more significance than these findings call for is to run the risk of oversimplifying and trivializing the very complex psychosocial processes which attend high school athletic participation.
Thibault, Janet M.; Sanders, Felicia J.; Jodice, Patrick G.R.
Research on breeding American Oystercatchers has focused on identifying factors that affect reproductive success but little attention has been paid to parent behavior during chick-rearing. Parental attendance of American Oystercatchers was measured in Bulls Bay and along the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Waterway) within the Cape Romain Region, South Carolina, USA, during 2006. Parental attendance rates averaged 90.9% in Bulls Bay and 81.4% along the Waterway. Daily survival of chicks was higher in Bulls Bay (0.989 ± 0.007) compared to the Waterway (0.966 ± 0.012). The extent of shellfish reefs (i.e. foraging areas) adjacent to nest sites was greater in Bulls Bay (5,633 ± 658 m2) compared to the Waterway (3,273 ± 850 m2). Mean parental attendance in Bulls Bay was higher for successful broods (90.5%) compared to failed broods (79.8%). In contrast, mean parental attendance along the Waterway was higher for failed broods (93.4%) compared to successful broods (67.5%). Less extensive shellfish reefs adjacent to nest sites along the Waterway appeared to require parents to depart more frequently to forage and the resultant reduction in attendance may have negatively affected chick survival. Bulls Bay may provide higher quality nesting habitat compared to the Waterway with respect to proximity to food resources and parental attendance. Management and conservation efforts for American Oystercatchers should consider the relationship between foraging and nesting habitat and variability in behavioral attributes, such as parental attendance, in relationship to environmental conditions which ultimately affect reproductive success.
Kulis, Stephen S; Robbins, Danielle E; Baker, Tahnee M; Denetsosie, Serena; Deschine Parkhurst, Nicholet A
This study examined sources of indigenous identity among urban American Indian youth that map the three theoretical dimensions of a model advanced by Markstrom: identification (tribal and ethnic heritage), connection (through family and reservation ties), and involvement in traditional culture and spirituality. Data came from self-administered questionnaires completed by 208 urban American Indian students from five middle schools in a large metropolitan area in the Southwest. Descriptive statistics showed most youth were connected to multiple indicators on all three dimensions of indigenous identity: native parental heritage, native best friends, past and current reservation connections, involvement with cultural practices, tribal language and spirituality, and alignment with native and mainstream cultural orientations. A latent class analysis identified five classes. There were two larger groups, one with strong native heritage and the highest levels of enculturation, and another that was more bicultural in orientation. The remaining three groups were smaller and about equal in size: a highly acculturated group with mixed parental ethnic heritage, those who had strong native heritage but were culturally disengaged, and a group with some mixed ethnic heritage that was low on indicators of enculturation. Evidence for the validity of the latent classes came from significant variations across the classes in scores on an American Indian ethnic identity (modified Phinney) scale, the students' open-ended descriptions of the main sources of their indigenous identities, and the better academic grades of classes that were more culturally engaged. Despite the challenges of maintaining cultural identities in the urban environment, most youth in this sample expressed a strong sense of indigenous identity, claimed personal and parental tribal heritage, remained connected to reservation communities, and actively engaged in Native cultural and spiritual life. (c) 2016 APA, all
Choi, Yoonsun; Lahey, Benjamin B.
Using data from a large nationally representative sample of adolescents attending school, this study tests the stereotype that youth of Asian Pacific Islander ethnicity (API) are the model minority. The results suggest that, except for substance use, API American youth do not report fewer delinquent behaviors than white youth; in fact, API American youth report slightly higher numbers of aggressive offenses than white youth, and female API American youth report greater numbers of nonaggressiv...
Malina, Robert M; Morano, Peter J; Barron, Mary; Miller, Susan J; Cumming, Sean P; Kontos, Anthony P; Little, Bertis B
To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among participants in youth American football 9 to 14 years of age. Cross-sectional, 653 boys, 8.7 to 14.6 years. Height and weight were measured; body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Overweight and obesity were defined by international (International Obesity Task Force [IOTF]) and United States (Centers for Disease Control [CDC]) criteria. Prevalence and 95% confidence interval were calculated. Player age, height, and weight and midparent height were used to predict mature height; current height was expressed as a percentage of predicted mature height as an estimate of maturity status. Overall 45.0% (41.2% to 48.9%) and 42.6% (38.8% to 46.5%) of players were overweight or obese by CDC and IOTF criteria, respectively. Prevalence was highest in early maturing boys. Based on position-activity at time of injury (n = 180), overweight and obesity were more common among offensive and defensive linemen. Overweight and obesity were more prevalent in youth football players than in national samples of American boys. Allowing for limitations of the BMI and the relative stability of the BMI from adolescence into adulthood, a relatively large number of football participants may be at risk for later overweight or obesity, and the risk appears to be greater for offensive and defensive line positions.
Seaton, Eleanor K.; Neblett, Enrique W., Jr.; Cole, Daphne J.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.
Perceptions of racial discrimination constitute significant risks to the psychological adjustment of minority youth. The present study examined the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and peer nominations of victimization among 173 (55% female) African American, European American and Latino youth. All respondents completed peer…
Conchas, Gilberto Q.; Lin, Alex R.; Oseguera, Leticia; Drake, Sean J.
Through a Multiple Marginality Framework, this exploratory case study highlights how African American male youth in an urban high school setting perceive the opportunity structure during the historic election of the first African American President. Youth optimism generated by Obama's election gives students a sense of hope despite the persistent…
Researchers will examine the meaning that young people, adults and mediators of youth demands attribute to the terms "youth rights" and "youth policies"; take inventory of the demands expressed by youth organizations and promote their recognition; bring young people of diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds ...
Stuart, Alesia K.
This study was conducted to research factors which influence rural African American males in their college attendance decision. The study was an attempt to discover specific influences in the higher education pursuit from aspiration to enrollment. As African American males and low income students represent lower enrollment figures in higher education, this study attempts to provide research which may improve these numbers. The literature which provides the theoretical frame is related to Hossler (et al., 1999) and his research entitled Going to College. Hossler's study recommended additional research to study African American males. Hossler concluded this participant segment was influenced by different factors than the majority of study participants. This qualitative study includes student interviews. Three high schools in three counties in the Black Belt of rural Alabama were the sites selected for participants. Thirty African American male seniors' responses were transcribed and coded to identify themes related to influences stated by the participants. The students' voices provided insight into their college enrollment pursuit. The findings indicate rural students lack the resources and academic preparation significant for higher education admission. African American males in rural Alabama tend to be first generation students and lack information important to college enrollment. The rural high schools lack the personnel, college and career guidance to ensure participants are aware and prepared to traverse the process of college enrollment. This study identifies policy development needs to address inadequacies that African American males attending rural schools encounter during secondary enrollment. Research participants state college aspirations. Problems arise as participants move from the aspiration stage toward enrollment. Several factors will limit higher education opportunities for the participants. Inadequate knowledge on ACT scores, college cost financial
Caswell, Shane V; Ausborn, Ashley; Diao, Guoqing; Johnson, David C; Johnson, Timothy S; Atkins, Rickie; Ambegaonkar, Jatin P; Cortes, Nelson
Prior research has described the anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of professional, collegiate, and high school American football players. Yet, little research has described these factors in American youth football and their potential relationship with injury. To characterize anthropometric and physical performance measures, describe the epidemiology of injury, and examine the association of physical performance measures with injury among children participating within age-based divisions of a large metropolitan American youth football league. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Demographic, anthropometric, and physical performance characteristics and injuries of 819 male children were collected over a 2-year period (2011-2012). Injury data were collected by the league athletic trainer (AT) and coaches. Descriptive analysis of demographic, anthropometric, and physical performance measures (40-yard sprint, pro-agility, push-ups, and vertical jump) were conducted. Incidence rates were computed for all reported injuries; rates were calculated as the number of injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs). Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify whether the categories of no injury, no-time-loss (NTL) injury, and time-loss (TL) injury were associated with physical performance measures. Of the 819 original participants, 760 (92.8%) completed preseason anthropometric measures (mean ± SD: age, 11.8 ± 1.2 years; height, 157.4 ± 10.7 cm; weight, 48.7 ± 13.3 kg; experience, 2.0 ± 1.8 years); 640 (78.1%) players completed physical performance measures. The mean (±SD) 40-yard sprint and pro-agility measures of the players were 6.5 ± 0.6 and 5.7 ± 0.5 seconds, respectively; the number of push-ups and maximal vertical jump height were 16.5 ± 9.3 repetitions and 42.3 ± 8.4 cm, respectively. Players assigned to different teams within age divisions demonstrated no differences in anthropometric measures; 40-yard dash and pro-agility times
Juan Pablo Soriano Gatica
Full Text Available This article carries out a brief summary of the evolution of the phenomenon of what are known as “Latino gangs” in Spain since the late 1990s. The upsurge of these new street youth organisations is closely linked with the mass arrival of thousands of young Latin Americans in Spain during the past decade, and the consequent integration challenges that this has brought for both the welcoming society and for the young newcomers. In the sphere of public policy inSpain, there have been two main approaches to the phenomenon: one which is more oriented towards repression than prevention, and the other, known as the “Barcelona model”, which has promoted a process of normalisation and integration of these groups into Spanish society. The second option makes it possible for different social actors to carry out coordinated actions, and may serve as a guideline for developing similar initiatives in different countries in Europe and Latin America.
Weglicki, Linda S; Templin, Thomas; Hammad, Adnan; Jamil, Hikmet; Abou-Mediene, Sharifa; Farroukh, Mona; Rice, Virginia Hill
To determine tobacco use rates (cigarette, water pipe smoking [WPS] or narghile) in Arab American compared to non-Arab youth. A convenience sample of 2,782 14- to 18-year-old high school students from a midwest community completed a 21-item tobacco use history survey. Seventy-one percent of the participants were ArA. Grades 9 through 12 were equally represented. Results included 'ever tried cigarettes [narghile]' (20%, 39%); 'smoked cigarettes [narghile] in the past 30 days' (7%, 22%); and 'regular smoking [narghile]' (3%, 15%) for ArA and non-Arab youths, respectively. Each was significantly related to grade and ethnicity. WPS for ArA and non-Arab youths was (38%, 21%); (17%, 11%); and (7%, 5%) for 'ever used,' 'used in the past 30 days,' and 'regular use,' respectively. Grade, ethnicity, and sex were significantly related to WPS. Cigarette smoking rates for non-Arab youth were lower than current national youth smoking rates but significantly higher than ArA youth. Rates for ArA youth were much lower than current national reported data. Rates of WPS for US youth, regardless of race or ethnicity, are not known. Findings from this study indicate that both ArA and non-Arab youth are experimenting and using WPS regularly. These results underscore the importance of assessing novel forms of tobacco use, particularly WPS, a growing phenomenon among US youth.
Chen, Edith; Miller, Gregory E; Yu, Tianyi; Brody, Gene H
In the present study, we investigated associations of macro-economic conditions - the Great Recession - with cellular epigenetic aging, allostatic load, and self-reported health, in a group that experiences significant health disparities, African Americans. A sample of 330 African American adolescents in Georgia was followed from pre-recession (2007, M age=16.6) to post-recession (2010, M age=19.3). Economic data were collected in both 2007 and 2010. Three groups were formed to represent economic trajectories across the period of the Great Recession (stable low economic hardship, downward mobility, and stable high economic hardship). At age 19, measures of cellular epigenetic aging (derived from leukocyte DNA methylation profiles, reflecting the disparity between a person's biological and chronological age), allostatic load (composite of blood pressure, C reactive protein, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and body mass index), and adolescent self-report of health were obtained. Linear trend analyses documented significant differences across all outcomes. The more time adolescents spent under economic hardship, the higher their epigenetic aging [estimate=1.421, SE=0.466, p=.002] and allostatic load [estimate=1.151, SE=0.375, p=.002] scores, and the worse their self-report of health [estimate=4.957, SE=1.800, p=.006]. Specific group comparisons revealed that adolescents in the downward mobility group had higher levels of allostatic load than adolescents in the stable low hardship group [p<.05]. Overall, these findings suggest that the health profiles of African American youth may in part be shaped by environmental macro-economic societal conditions, and that effects on biological markers can be detected relatively early in life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jun 26, 2017 ... ... inclusion and education for youth, sharing national and international experiences on the development of products and financial services targeted towards youth, and conducting a collaborative and critical reflection of the rights and responsibilities of youth in the formal economy were topics at the heart of ...
Reed, Donald B.
Gay youth enter high school with the knowledge that they are different and with the belief that heterosexuality is normal and that homosexuality is not normal. Also, gay youth enter high school with the belief that honesty and integrity are important personal values. Additionally, the gay youth enter high school without family knowledge of their…
This article focuses on the interaction between the larger community’s drug markets and youth and adult prison gangs, and the process that leads to specific adverse consequences both to the youth gangs as organizations, and to individual members. Described is the emergence of a restructured heroin market dominated by an adult prison gang. A major consequence of this was the increasing use of heroin among Mexican American gang members and their transformation from autonomous youth gangs to ext...
Goforth, Anisa N.; Nichols, Lindsey M.; Stanick, Cameo F.; Shindorf, Zachary R.; Holter, Olivia
Arab Americans are a culturally, linguistically, and religiously diverse group. Although there are an estimated 3.6 million Arab Americans in the USA, there is little discussion about how to best provide culturally responsive school-based mental health supports to Arab American youths. The purpose of this article is to (1) briefly describe the…
Compares European American and African American youth gangs in four historical periods (seaboard, immigrant, racially changing, and hypersegregated cities), showing that differences can be traced to race-specific effects of labor, housing, and consumer markets, government policies, local politics, and organized crime on their communities.…
Harper, Gary W.; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Benhorin, Shira; Watson, Susan E.; Boyer, Cherrie B.
This article presents findings from a qualitative evaluation of an HIV/STI (sexually transmitted infection) prevention intervention for urban African American youth (Project ÒRÉ), which was delivered to groups of 3 to 8 adolescents who were members of the same friendship network. Sixteen focus groups (N = 63) were conducted with youth following…
Lee, J. P.; Battle, R. S.; Lipton, R.; Soller, B.
Increased use of cigars has been noted among youth, as well as use of blunts (hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana). Three types of relationships have been previously hypothesized between use of tobacco and marijuana in substance use progression. We aimed to assess these relationships for Southeast Asian American youth and adults in an urban…
Lee, Courtland C.
Much has been written in recent years about the concept of empowerment, particularly as it relates to urban youth of color. The author agrees with Bemak et al.'s underlying premise that much of what is written about and practiced with respect to the empowerment of African American youth makes the assumption that counselors somehow empower young…
Diep, Cassandra S; Foster, Margaret J; McKyer, E Lisako J; Goodson, Patricia; Guidry, Jeffrey J; Liew, Jeffrey
Numerous studies have explored dietary practices among children, but there are limited studies on children of Asian background in the US. This review had three aims: (a) review literature regarding Asian-American youth's dietary behaviors, (b) critically evaluate the methodological quality of such research, and (c) provide recommendations for future nutrition-related research on Asian-American youth. The authors conducted a systematic literature review through MEDLINE (EBSCO), CINAHL Plus with Full Text (EBSCO), and Embase (Ovid); extracted descriptive data; and evaluated methodological quality. Thirteen articles were included. Major findings included: (a) frequent consumption of milk, fruit, meat, unenriched white rice, vegetables, and high-fat and high-sugar items among Asian-American children and (b) acculturation's influences on diet, resulting in Asian-American youth consuming diets characterized by both Asian and American foods. Findings from this review may inform education and promotion programs and services for Asian Americans in the US.
Weglicki, Linda S.; Templin, Thomas N.; Rice, Virginia Hill; Jamil, Hikmet; Hammad, Adnan
Background Water-pipe smoking is a rapidly growing form of tobacco use worldwide. Building on an earlier report of experimentation with cigarette and water-pipe smoking in a U.S. community sample of Arab-American youth aged 14–18 years, this article examines water-pipe smoking in more detail (e.g., smoking history, belief in harmfulness compared to cigarettes, family members in home who smoke water pipes) and compares the water-pipe–smoking behaviors of Arab-American youth with non–Arab-American youth in the same community. Methods A convenience sample of 1872 Arab-American and non–Arab-American high school students from the Midwest completed a 24-item tobacco survey. Data were collected in 2004–2005 and analyzed in 2007–2008. Results Arab-American youth reported lower percentages of ever cigarette smoking (20% vs 39%); current cigarette smoking (7% vs 22%); and regular cigarette smoking (3% vs 15%) than non–Arab-American youth. In contrast, Arab-American youth reported significantly higher percentages of ever water-pipe smoking (38% vs 21%) and current water-pipe smoking (17% vs 11%) than non–Arab-American youth. Seventy-seven percent perceived water-pipe smoking to be as harmful as or more harmful than cigarette smoking. Logistic regression showed that youth were 11.0 times more likely to be currently smoking cigarettes if they currently smoked water pipes. Youth were also 11.0 times more likely to be current water-pipe smokers if they currently smoked cigarettes. If one or more family members smoked water pipes in the home, youth were 6.3 times more likely to be current water-pipe smokers. The effects of ethnicity were reduced as a result of the explanatory value of family smoking. Conclusions Further research is needed to determine the percentages, patterns, and health risks of water-pipe smoking and its relationship to cigarette smoking among all youth. Additionally, youth tobacco prevention/cessation programs need to focus attention on water
Weglicki, Linda S; Templin, Thomas N; Rice, Virginia Hill; Jamil, Hikmet; Hammad, Adnan
Water-pipe smoking is a rapidly growing form of tobacco use worldwide. Building on an earlier report of experimentation with cigarette and water-pipe smoking in a U.S. community sample of Arab-American youth aged 14-18 years, this article examines water-pipe smoking in more detail (e.g., smoking history, belief in harmfulness compared to cigarettes, family members in home who smoke water pipes) and compares the water-pipe-smoking behaviors of Arab-American youth with non-Arab-American youth in the same community. A convenience sample of 1872 Arab-American and non-Arab-American high school students from the Midwest completed a 24-item tobacco survey. Data were collected in 2004-2005 and analyzed in 2007-2008. Arab-American youth reported lower percentages of ever cigarette smoking (20% vs 39%); current cigarette smoking (7% vs 22%); and regular cigarette smoking (3% vs 15%) than non-Arab-American youth. In contrast, Arab-American youth reported significantly higher percentages of ever water-pipe smoking (38% vs 21%) and current water-pipe smoking (17% vs 11%) than non-Arab-American youth. Seventy-seven percent perceived water-pipe smoking to be as harmful as or more harmful than cigarette smoking. Logistic regression showed that youth were 11.0 times more likely to be currently smoking cigarettes if they currently smoked water pipes. Youth were also 11.0 times more likely to be current water-pipe smokers if they currently smoked cigarettes. If one or more family members smoked water pipes in the home, youth were 6.3 times more likely to be current water-pipe smokers. The effects of ethnicity were reduced as a result of the explanatory value of family smoking. Further research is needed to determine the percentages, patterns, and health risks of water-pipe smoking and its relationship to cigarette smoking among all youth. Additionally, youth tobacco prevention/cessation programs need to focus attention on water-pipe smoking in order to further dispel the myth that
In this commentary, the author examines some contributions of the New London Group's theory of a pedagogy of multiliteracies, as well as recent critiques of how this framework has been applied in literacy research and instructional practice. She draws on her research with transnational youths--young people who claim multiple national affiliations…
Rufa, Anne K.; Fowler, Patrick J.
This study investigated the effects of kinship foster care on mental health outcomes among African American youth. Longitudinal data were used from a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents who were the subject of child protective services investigation from 1999 to 2000 (n=5,501). The secondary analyses focused on African American youth (n=225) placed into foster care. In structured interviews, current caregivers reported on youth internalizing and externalizing behaviors immediately following placement into out-of-home care and 18-months later. Path analysis tested a theoretical model that compared placements with kin to other formal out-of-home arrangements in context of setting characteristics, including aspects of caregiver and neighborhood disorder. Results suggested significant increases in internalizing symptoms over time for youth with more baseline mental health problems, as well as those placed in more distressed neighborhoods. Increased externalizing symptoms occurred among youth with greater baseline behavior problems, those placed in more problematic neighborhoods, and youth who experienced a placement change between assessments. Additionally, a combination of placement characteristics predicted increases in externalizing problems; youth placed in kinship foster care with older caregivers in poorer health exhibited greater increases in externalizing problems. Findings highlighted important contextual considerations for out-of-home placement among African American youth. PMID:26924865
This article focuses on the interaction between the larger community's drug markets and youth and adult prison gangs, and the process that leads to specific adverse consequences both to the youth gangs as organizations, and to individual members. Described is the emergence of a restructured heroin market dominated by an adult prison gang. A major consequence of this was the increasing use of heroin among Mexican American gang members and their transformation from autonomous youth gangs to extensions of the adult prison gangs or their demise. Data was collected from 160 members of 26 Mexican American youth gangs and key informants in San Antonio. Findings focus on organizational rules, drug market transformations, consequences on members, and the impact of heroin on the gang's organization. Discussed is how the dominance of prison gangs is related to the increased incarceration and recidivism rates of Mexican Americans and declining economic opportunities for urban minorities.
Stephenson, Stanley P., Jr.
Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth's continuous work history files, this paper examines how individual and market characteristics influence the unemployment rates of Hispanic youth. The results show that family income, marital status, post-school vocational education, age, and local unemployment rates significantly influence…
Choi, Yoonsun; Kim, Tae Yeun; Pekelnicky, Dina Drankus; Kim, Kihyun; Kim, You Seung
This study examined how cultural orientations influence youth perception of family processes in Korean American families and how these family processes, in turn, predict depressive symptoms and antisocial behaviors among youth. Family processes were examined separately for maternal and paternal variables. This study used survey data from Korean American families living in the Midwest (256 youth and their parents) across 2 time periods, spanned over a year. At the time of the first interview, the average age of youth was 13 (SD = 1.00). Using structural equation modeling, this study tested the hypothesized associations concurrently, longitudinally, and accounting for earlier outcomes. Results show that identity and behavioral enculturation in one's heritage culture are predictors of bonding with parents, which is notably protective for youth. The results highlight the critical effect of enculturation in enhancing youth perception of the parent-child relationship. Behavioral acculturation to mainstream culture, in contrast, predicts youth problems, although the effect may not necessarily always be via family processes. Similarly, Korean and English language proficiencies predict fewer youth problems, but not always by way of family processes. A few differences emerged across maternal and paternal variables, although there was much commonality in the hypothesized relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Quijada Cerecer, Patricia D.
Research indicates that high school campus climates are contentious for students of color, particularly as they negotiate institutional and personal racism. Unfortunately, minimal research centers on the experiences of American Indian youth. In response, this qualitative study explores American Indian responses to hostile campus climates. Using a…
Latino and Asian-Americans represent the fastest growing immigrant populations in the U.S. We aimed to review the current knowledge on the psychosocial factors that influence type 1 diabetes (T1D) care, education, and outcomes in Latino and Asian-American youth immigrants in the U.S., as well as cul...
El-Haj, Thea Renda Abu
Educators concerned with creating equitable school environments for Arab American students must focus on how contemporary global and national politics shape the lives of these youth and their families. Arab immigrants and Arab American citizens alike experience specific forms of racial oppression that hold implications for school curricula,…
Sutton, Madeline Y; Lasswell, Sarah M; Lanier, Yzette; Miller, Kim S
We reviewed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI)- behavioral interventions implemented with disproportionately affected black/African-American and Hispanic/Latino youth and designed to improve parent-child communications about sex. We compared their effectiveness in improving sex-related behavior or cognitive outcomes. A search of electronic databases identified peer-reviewed studies published between 1988 and 2012. Eligible studies were U.S.-based parent-child communication interventions with active parent components, experimental and quasiexperimental designs, measurement of youth sexual health outcomes, and enrollment of ≥ 50% black/African-American or Hispanic/Latino youth. We conducted systematic, primary reviews of eligible papers to abstract data on study characteristics and youth outcomes. Fifteen studies evaluating 14 interventions were eligible. Although youth outcome measures and follow-up times varied, 13 of 15 studies (87%) showed at least one significantly improved youth sexual health outcome compared with controls (p parent and child session attendance, promotion of parent/family involvement, sexuality education for parents, developmental and/or cultural tailoring, and opportunities for parents to practice new communication skills with their youth. Parent-child communication interventions that include parents of youth disproportionately affected by HIV/STIs can effectively reduce sexual risk for youth. These interventions may help reduce HIV/STI-related health disparities and improve sexual health outcomes. Published by Elsevier Inc.
This case study explores how six second-generation Japanese American youth recalled learning about cultural diversity at their high schools, particularly information that was intended to represent their identities as ethnic and racial minorities. Semi-structured interviews were used to investigate how the participants made sense of curricular…
Löfving-Gupta, Sandra; Lindblad, Frank; Stickley, Andrew; Schwab-Stone, Mary; Ruchkin, Vladislav
The psychological effects of community violence exposure among inner-city youth are severe, yet little is known about its prevalence and moderators among suburban middle-class youth. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of community violence exposure among suburban American youth, to examine associated posttraumatic stress and to evaluate factors related to severe vs. less severe posttraumatic stress, such as co-existing internalizing and externalizing problems, as well as the effects of teacher support, parental warmth and support, perceived neighborhood safety and conventional involvement in this context. Data were collected from 780 suburban, predominantly Caucasian middle-class high-school adolescents in the Northeastern US during the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) study. A substantial number of suburban youth were exposed to community violence and 24% of those victimized by community violence developed severe posttraumatic stress. Depressive symptoms were strongly associated with higher levels and perceived teacher support with lower levels of posttraumatic stress. Similar to urban youth, youth living in suburban areas in North American settings may be affected by community violence. A substantial proportion of these youth reports severe posttraumatic stress and high levels of comorbid depressive symptoms. Teacher support may have a protective effect against severe posttraumatic stress and thus needs to be further assessed as a potential factor that can be used to mitigate the detrimental effects of violence exposure.
Wood, Jeffrey J.; Lynne, Sarah D.; Langer, David A.; Wood, Patricia A.; Clark, Shaunna L.; Eddy, J. Mark; Ialongo, Nicholas
This study tests a model of reciprocal influences between absenteeism and youth psychopathology using three longitudinal datasets (Ns= 20745, 2311, and 671). Participants in 1st through 12th grades were interviewed annually or bi-annually. Measures of psychopathology include self-, parent-, and teacher-report questionnaires. Structural cross-lagged regression models were tested. In a nationally representative dataset (Add Health), middle school students with relatively greater absenteeism at study year 1 tended towards increased depression and conduct problems in study year 2, over and above the effects of autoregressive associations and demographic covariates. The opposite direction of effects was found for both middle and high school students. Analyses with two regionally representative datasets were also partially supportive. Longitudinal links were more evident in adolescence than in childhood. PMID:22188462
Winterrowd, Erin; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Chavez, Ernest L.
Research suggests a link between friendships and suicidality among U.S. youth but this link has not been confirmed across ethnicities. This study examined the relationship between friendships and suicidality among Mexican- and European-American adolescents. Specifically, the role of friendship problems (i.e., social isolation, poor quality friendships) and problematic friends (i.e., friends who were disconnected from school, delinquent friends) was explored. Participants were 648 community youth. Friends’ school disconnection was related to Mexican-American girls’ suicidal ideation while friends’ delinquency was associated with European-American youth suicidal behavior. Friendship factors were no longer associated with suicidality after controlling for suicidality correlates such as depression. These findings indicate that the relationship between friendships and suicidality varies by gender and ethnicity. They also suggest a dominant role of depression. PMID:21309824
Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.; Brown, Jerry; Van Brakle, Mischelle; Godette, Dionne C.
Bay City (pseudonym) is one of the nation's urban epicenters of the HIV epidemic. Although researchers have examined HIV risk behaviors among juvenile offenders detained in juvenile facilities, no study has examined these risk behaviors among youth offenders who have been waived to adult criminal court and detained in U.S. jails. In the present…
Lombe, Margaret; Yu, Mansoo; Nebbitt, Von; Earl, Tara
African American youths are overrepresented in urban public housing developments characterized by violence, poverty, and alternative market activities. Using Jessor and Jessor's problem behavior theory (PBT), the authors examined alcohol use and its correlates in a sample of African American youths from three public housing developments (N = 403).…
Faircloth, Susan C.
In this manuscript, I outline what I perceive to be the potential implications of the Trump presidency for the education of American Indian children and youth. In doing so, I argue that failure to provide adequate educational programs and services for American Indian children and youth represents an abrogation of the federal government's trust…
Schweigman, Kurt; Soto, Claradina; Wright, Serena; Unger, Jennifer
This study analyzed data from a large statewide sample of Native American adolescents throughout California to determine whether participation in cultural practices was associated with stronger ethnic identity. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) scale was used to measure the ethnic identity of 945 Native American adolescents (416 male, 529 female) aged 13 - 19 across California. Respondents who participated in cultural activities including pow-wows, sweat lodge, drum group and roundhouse dance reported significantly higher Native American ethnic identity than their counterparts who did not take part in cultural activities. The association between cultural activities and ethnic identity was only significant among urban youth and not among reservation youth. Higher grades in school were associated with ethnic identity among females but not among males. Findings from this study show a strong association between cultural activities and traditional practices with tribal enculturation among Native American youth in California. Cultural-based practices to enhance Native identity could be useful to improve mental and behavioral health among Native American youth.
Kam, Jennifer A.; Middleton, Ashley V.
Using primary socialization theory and theory of planned behavior, this study examined how targeted parent-child communication against substance use and parents' references to the negative consequences of their own past substance use (from the youth's perspective) directly and indirectly relate to Latino and European American youth's external…
Johnson, Katherine Abowd; Steeves, Elizabeth Anderson; Gewanter, Zoë Reznick; Gittelsohn, Joel
This study adapted Photovoice methodology for younger participants to better understand the perceptions of urban African American youth on their food environments and diets. Youth ( n = 17, ages 10-13 years) photographed and described, using novel narrative-based activities, the myriad places they regularly acquired "junk food" from environments saturated with such but differed in their assessments of the availability and desirability of more nutritious alternative foods. Youth often discussed specific foods as well as peers and adults in their lives as either entirely "healthy" or "unhealthy." This concrete thinking should be considered when designing messaging strategies to improve diets in similar populations. Overall, Photovoice is an engaging and effective method to engage youth in efforts to improve food environments and diets.
Ruiz, Sonia Y; Roosa, Mark W; Gonzales, Nancy A
Decades of research with European American middle-class families have found significant relations between parenting behavior and child self-esteem. Similar research with minority and low-income families is rare. The present study examined the relation between parenting practices and child self-esteem among 70 Mexican American and 161 European American youths. The analyses consisted of regressing child self-esteem on parenting practices (acceptance, rejection, inconsistent discipline, and hostile control), ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and the interactions between ethnicity, SES, and parenting practices. Several main effects and interactions were significant; for each interaction, behavior of low-income or Mexican American parents had less influence on children's self-esteem than did similar behavior by middle-class or European American parents.
A recent survey commissioned by the American Red Cross about the attitudes of the post-9/11 generation toward the Geneva Conventions reveals that 59% of youth, compared with 51% of adults, believe that torturing the enemy is always or sometimes acceptable. The Geneva Conventions are at the core of international humanitarian law (IHL) and protect…
Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa
Suicidal trends and related characteristics such as sociodemographic factors, psychological factors, and health behaviors can differ between countries. This study investigated the predictors of suicidal ideation and attempted suicide including health behaviors among American and Korean youth from two national representative data sets. In both…
The use of mobile technologies has been proposed for increasing access and designing innovative educational activities. Unfortunately, there is limited data on the current uses of cellular phones amongst low-income African American youth. In particular, there is little known about how this population may design on the rapidly adapting technology,…
Lofton, Saria; Julion, Wrenetha A.; McNaughton, Diane B.; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Keim, Kathryn S.
Obesity and overweight prevalence in African American (AA) youth continues to be one of the highest of all major ethnic groups, which has led researchers to pursue culturally based approaches as a means to improve obesity prevention interventions. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate culturally adapted obesity prevention…
Annang, Lucy; Lian, Brad; Fletcher, Faith E.; Jackson, Dawnyéa
African-American youth suffer disproportionately from sexual risk consequences including unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Parents educating young people about sex may be one approach to reduce sexual risk behaviour among this population. The purpose of this study was to determine young people's perceptions of parents'…
Kim, Jin E.; Park, Samuel S.; La, Amy; Chang, Jenss; Zane, Nolan
Objective The current study examined racial/ethnic differences in initial severity, session attendance, and counseling outcomes in a large and diverse sample of Asian American, Latino/a, and White student clients who utilized university counseling services between 2008 and 2012. Method We used archival data of 5,472 clients (62% female; M age = 23.1, SD = 4.3) who self-identified their race/ethnicity as being Asian American (38.9%), Latino/a (14.9%), or White (46.2%). Treatment engagement was measured by the number of counseling sessions attended; initial severity and treatment outcome were measured using the Outcome Questionnaire-45. Results Asian American clients, particularly Chinese, Filipino/a, Korean, and Vietnamese Americans, had greater initial severity compared to White clients. Asian Indian, Korean, and Vietnamese American clients used significantly fewer sessions of counseling than White clients after controlling for initial severity. All racial/ethnic minority groups continued to have clinically significant distress in certain areas (e.g., social role functioning) at counseling termination. Conclusions These findings highlight the need to devote greater attention to the counseling experiences of racial/ethnic minority clients, especially certain Asian American groups. Further research directions are provided. PMID:26390372
Kim, Jin E; Park, Samuel S; La, Amy; Chang, Jenss; Zane, Nolan
The current study examined racial/ethnic differences in initial severity, session attendance, and counseling outcomes in a large and diverse sample of Asian American, Latino/a, and White student clients who utilized university counseling services between 2008 and 2012. We used archival data of 5,472 clients (62% female; M age = 23.1, SD = 4.3) who self-identified their race/ethnicity as being Asian American (38.9%), Latino/a (14.9%), or White (46.2%). Treatment engagement was measured by the number of counseling sessions attended; initial severity and treatment outcome were measured using the Outcome Questionnaire-45. Asian American clients, particularly Chinese, Filipino/a, Korean, and Vietnamese Americans, had greater initial severity compared with White clients. Asian Indian, Korean, and Vietnamese American clients used significantly fewer sessions of counseling than White clients after controlling for initial severity. All racial/ethnic minority groups continued to have clinically significant distress in certain areas (e.g., social role functioning) at counseling termination. These findings highlight the need to devote greater attention to the counseling experiences of racial/ethnic minority clients, especially certain Asian American groups. Further research directions are provided. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
McMahon, Susan D; Felix, Erika D; Nagarajan, Thara
Although neighborhood stressors have a negative impact on youth, and social support can play a protective role, it is unclear what types and sources of social support may contribute to positive outcomes among at-risk youth. We examined the influences of neighborhood disadvantage and social support on global self-worth among low-income, urban African American youth, both concurrently and longitudinally. We examined social support from both a structural and functional perspective, and tested the main-effects and the stress-buffering models of social support. Participants included 82-130 youth, in 6th-8th grade, who completed self-report measures. Network support results suggest participants received emotional, tangible, and informational support most often from mothers and other female relatives, with friends, fathers, and teachers also playing important roles. Model testing accounted for neighborhood stressors and support from various sources, revealing support from close friends was associated with concurrent self-worth; whereas, parent support predicted self-worth longitudinally, above and beyond initial levels of self-worth. The findings provide evidence for the main-effects model of social support and not the stress-buffering model. Our findings illustrate the importance of extended family networks and the types of support that youth rely upon in African American impoverished communities, as well as how support contributes to global self-worth. Implications and suggestions for future research and intervention are discussed.
Balvanz, Peter; Dodgen, Leilani; Quinn, Jeff; Holloway, Tameiya; Hudspeth, Sandra; Eng, Eugenia
Childhood obesity continues to be a prominent health concern in the United States. Certain demographics of youth have a higher prevalence of obesity, including those living in rural settings, and African American females. Multiple determinants contribute to the childhood obesity epidemic, yet few studies have partnered with youth to investigate community-level determinants and solutions. This study involved youth to assess contextual determinants of childhood obesity in a community, create an action plan for the community, and report findings and actions pursued in partnership with a community-based organization (CBO) and a university. Seven African American female high school students were recruited to investigate factors that contribute to childhood obesity using photovoice, a methodology used in community-based participatory research (CBPR). Through photography and guided discussion, youth partners found a lack of access to healthy food and lack of safe recreation as primary contributors to obesity within their community. Social support from friends was believed to help prevent obesity. In response to findings, two projects were envisioned and implemented in the community, a walkability assessment and an intergenerational community garden. Throughout this study, youth proved to be reliable partners in research, provided unique perspectives while examining local factors perceived to contribute to childhood obesity, and offered thoughtful solutions.
Burrage, Rachel L; Gone, Joseph P; Momper, Sandra L
American Indian (AI) youth have some of the highest rates of suicide of any group in the United States, and the majority of AI youth live in urban areas away from tribal communities. As such, understanding the resources available for suicide prevention among urban AI youth is critical, as is understanding the challenges involved in accessing such resources. Pre-existing interview data from 15 self-identified AI community members and staff from an Urban Indian Health Organization were examined to understand existing resources for urban AI youth suicide prevention, as well as related challenges. A thematic analysis was undertaken, resulting in three principal themes around suicide prevention: formal resources, informal resources, and community values and beliefs. Formal resources that meet the needs of AI youth were viewed as largely inaccessible or nonexistent, and youth were seen as more likely to seek help from informal sources. Community values of mutual support were thought to reinforce available informal supports. However, challenges arose in terms of the community's knowledge of and views on discussing suicide, as well as the perceived fit between community values and beliefs and formal prevention models. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
Faro, Alyssa L; McKee, Laura G; Garcia, Randi L; Jones, Deborah J
African American (AA) adolescents face a greater risk of internalizing symptoms, including symptoms of both depression and anxiety, compared with other racial groups; yet, relatively less is known about the variables that contribute to internalizing symptoms. With the aim of advancing this work, this study examined factors that may buffer against such symptoms (maternal warmth, religiosity), as well as those that may confer additional risk (maternal psychopathology). One hundred ninety-three AA single mothers and their adolescent youth reported on religiosity, maternal warmth and depressive symptoms, and youth internalizing symptoms. Dyadic structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of mother and adolescent religiosity, maternal warmth, maternal depressive symptoms, and adolescent age on youth internalizing symptoms as reported by both the mother and the adolescent. Consistent with hypotheses, maternal depressive symptoms were significantly associated with youth internalizing symptoms (as reported by the adolescent). Further, the impact of maternal religiosity on self-reported youth internalizing symptoms and its subscales was moderated by adolescent age. Specifically, maternal religiosity was associated with fewer self-reported internalizing symptoms in young adolescents, whereas the effect waned in older youth. Possible predictive coprocesses such as maternal influence on adolescent religious choices and identity formation are explored in the context of adolescent internalizing symptomatology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Zimmerman, M A; Ramirez-Valles, J; Washienko, K M; Walter, B; Dyer, S
Enculturation is the process by which individuals learn about and identify with their ethnic minority culture. It is distinguished from acculturation which refers to the process by which an ethnic minority individual is assimilated into the majority culture. Three studies with Native American youths are reported that describe the development of a measure of enculturation for Native American youths. Development of a measure of enculturation provides a foundation upon which to build a body of literature that focuses on strengths in a youth's life rather than on deficits. Results of the first study (n = 120), a confirmatory factor analysis, indicated that cultural affinity, native American identity, and family involvement in traditional activities adequately represent the construct of ecnulturation. The study also provides some convergent validity for this interpretation. The second study examines factor invariance for enculturation among youths with data from over 2 years (n = 69). The factor structure was similar across time. The third study replicates the factor structure and validity analyses with a new sample (n = 42). Usefulness of the measure for assessing protective factors and stressing ethnicity over simple assessment of race categories is discussed.
Tiffany Zellner Lawrence
Full Text Available African American youth are affected disproportionately by sexually transmitted infections (STIs, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS, and teenage pregnancy when compared to other racial groups. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of the To Help Young People Establish (2 HYPE Abstinence Club, a behavioral intervention designed to promote delayed sexual activity among African American youth ages 12–18 in Atlanta, Georgia. The intervention included 20 h of curriculum and creative arts instruction. Pre- and post-intervention survey data collected from 2008–2010 were analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the intervention. Intervention (n = 651 and comparison (n = 112 groups were compared through analysis of variance and multivariate logistic regression models. There was a statistically significant increase in intervention youth who were thinking about being abstinent (p = 0.0005. Those who had not been engaged in sexual activity were two times more likely to plan abstinence compared to participants that had been previously sexually active previously (odds ratio 2.41; 95% confidence interval 1.62, 3.60. Significant results hold implications for subsequent community-based participatory research and practice that broadens the understanding of the relevance of marriage, as just one among other life success milestones that may hold more importance to African American youth in positioning the value of delayed and responsible sexual activity towards effective STIs, HIV/AIDS, and teen pregnancy risk reduction interventions.
Brody, Gene H; Chen, Yi-Fu; Kogan, Steven M; Murry, Velma McBride; Brown, Anita C
This report extends earlier accounts by addressing the effects of the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program across 65 months. Two hypotheses were tested: (a) Rural African American youths randomly assigned to participate in SAAF would demonstrate lower rates of alcohol use than would control youths more than 5 years later, and (b) SAAF's effects on deterring the onset of alcohol use in early adolescence would carry forward to mediate the program's long-term effects. African American youths in rural Georgia (mean age at pretest = 10.8 years) were assigned randomly to the SAAF group (n = 369) or to a control group (n = 298). Past-month alcohol use was assessed at pretest and at 9, 18, 29, 53, and 65 months after pretest. SAAF participants increased their alcohol use at a slower rate than did adolescents in the control condition across the follow-up assessments. At the 65-month assessment, SAAF participants reported having drunk alcohol half as often as did youths in the control group. Consistent with the second hypothesis, SAAF's effects on deterring initiation carried forward to account for its effects on alcohol use across time. Training in protective parenting processes and self-regulatory skills during preadolescence may contribute to a self-sustaining trajectory of disinterest in and avoidance of alcohol use during adolescence when peers begin to model and sanction it. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved
Brown, Ryan A.; Dickerson, Daniel L.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.
American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth exhibit high rates of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use, which is often linked to the social and cultural upheaval experienced by AI/ANs during the colonization of North America. Urban AI/AN youth may face unique challenges, including increased acculturative stress due to lower concentrations of AI/AN populations in urban areas. Few existing studies have explored cultural identity among urban AI/AN youth and its association with AOD use. Objectives This study used systematic qualitative methods with AI/AN communities in two urban areas within California to shed light on how urban AI/AN youth construct cultural identity and how this relates to AOD use and risk behaviors. Methods We conducted 10 focus groups with a total of 70 youth, parents, providers, and Community Advisory Board members and used team-based structured thematic analysis in the Dedoose software platform. Results We identified 12 themes: intergenerational stressors, cultural disconnection, AI/AN identity as protective, pan-tribal identity, mixed racial-ethnic identity, rural vs. urban environments, the importance of AI/AN institutions, stereotypes and harassment, cultural pride, developmental trajectories, risks of being AI/AN, and mainstream culture clash. Overall, youth voiced curiosity about their AI/AN roots and expressed interest in deepening their involvement in cultural activities. Adults described the myriad ways in which involvement in cultural activities provides therapeutic benefits for AI/AN youth. Conclusions Interventions that provide urban AI/AN youth with an opportunity to engage in cultural activities and connect with positive and healthy constructs in AI/AN culture may provide added impact to existing interventions. PMID:27450682
Brown, Ryan A; Dickerson, Daniel L; D'Amico, Elizabeth J
American Indian / Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth exhibit high rates of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use, which is often linked to the social and cultural upheaval experienced by AI/ANs during the colonization of North America. Urban AI/AN youth may face unique challenges, including increased acculturative stress due to lower concentrations of AI/AN populations in urban areas. Few existing studies have explored cultural identity among urban AI/AN youth and its association with AOD use. This study used systematic qualitative methods with AI/AN communities in two urban areas within California to shed light on how urban AI/AN youth construct cultural identity and how this relates to AOD use and risk behaviors. We conducted 10 focus groups with a total of 70 youth, parents, providers, and Community Advisory Board members and used team-based structured thematic analysis in the Dedoose software platform. We identified 12 themes: intergenerational stressors, cultural disconnection, AI/AN identity as protective, pan-tribal identity, mixed racial-ethnic identity, rural vs. urban environments, the importance of AI/AN institutions, stereotypes and harassment, cultural pride, developmental trajectories, risks of being AI/AN, and mainstream culture clash. Overall, youth voiced curiosity about their AI/AN roots and expressed interest in deepening their involvement in cultural activities. Adults described the myriad ways in which involvement in cultural activities provides therapeutic benefits for AI/AN youth. Interventions that provide urban AI/AN youth with an opportunity to engage in cultural activities and connect with positive and healthy constructs in AI/AN culture may provide added impact to existing interventions.
Smart, Eric; Aulakh, Adeeta; McDougall, Carolyn; Rigby, Patty; King, Gillian
Identify strategies youth perceive will optimize their engagement in goal pursuit in life skills and transition programs using an engagement framework involving affective, cognitive, and behavioral components. A qualitative descriptive design was used. Two semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven youth. The first was informed by a prior observation session, and the second occurred after the program ended and explored youths' perceptions of whether and how their engagement changed. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The analysis generated eight strategies youth considered effective. These were categorized under the three components of engagement. Affective strategies: (1) building a relationship on familiarity and reciprocity; and (2) guiding the program using youths' preferences and strengths. Cognitive strategies: (3) assisting youth to envision meaningful change; (4) utilizing youths' learning styles; and (5) promoting awareness of goal progress. Behavioral strategies: (6) ensuring youth access to a resource network; (7) providing youth multiple decision opportunities; and (8) enabling youth to showcase capabilities. Service providers together with youth are encouraged to consider the role of context and self-determination needs in order to optimize youth engagement in goal pursuit. Systematic approaches to studying engagement are necessary to learn how to maximize rehabilitation potential. Implications for Rehabilitation Service providers are encouraged to be aware of the nature of engagement strategies identified by youth. Comprehensive frameworks of engagement are essential to generate knowledge on the range of strategies service providers can use to engage clients in rehabilitation services. Strategies perceived by youth to optimize their engagement in goal pursuit in life skills and transition programs have subtle yet significant differences with strategies used in other rehabilitation settings like mental health and adult healthcare
Islam-Zwart, Kayleen; Cawston, Alvina
This study investigated the relationship between family history, sedentary behaviors, and childhood risk for type 2 diabetes. Participants were 480 students attending schools on or near an American Indian reservation. Data were collected through survey and BMI measurement. Children who frequently watched television or played video games did not…
Jensen, Jamie; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Hanson, Jessica D.
Research has determined that the prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) must occur preconceptually, either by reducing alcohol intake in women planning pregnancy or at risk for becoming pregnant, or by preventing pregnancy in women drinking at risky levels. One such AEP prevention programme with non-pregnant American-Indian (AI) women is…
May, Philip A.
Examines adolescent and young adult suicides, suicide attempts, and self-destructive behavior among the general population, American Indians, and Indians of New Mexico. Describes prevention and intervention efforts undertaken to lower suicide rates on one reservation. Contains 30 references. (SV)
Stanley, Linda R.; Miller, Kimberly A.; Beauvais, Fred; Walker, Patricia Silk; Walker, R. Dale
This study examines predictors of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) among an urban American Indian cohort who were followed from approximately age 11 to age 20. Approximately 27% of the sample had a lifetime diagnosis of alcohol abuse or dependence. The results indicated that externalizing, but not internalizing, behaviors, family conflict, and school…
Kaufman, Carol E; Desserich, Jennifer; Big Crow, Cecelia K; Holy Rock, Bonnie; Keane, Ellen; Mitchell, Christina M
American Indian adolescents have two to four times the rate of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) compared to whites nationally, they shoulder twice the proportion of AIDS compared to their national counterparts, and they have a 25% higher level of teen births. Yet little is known about the contemporary expectations, pressures, and norms that influence American Indian youth or how those might be shaped by today's lived cultural experiences, which frustrates attempts to mitigate the apparent disparity in sexual health. This paper used data from focus groups, in-depth interviews, and surveys with American Indian adolescents and young male and female adults from a Northern Plains tribe to contextualize sexual risk (and avoidance). Placing the findings within an adapted indigenist stress-coping framework, we found that youth faced intense pressures for early sex, often associated with substance use. Condoms were not associated with stigma, yet few seemed to value their importance for disease prevention. Youth encountered few economic or social recriminations for a teen birth. As such, cultural influences are important to American Indian sexual health and could be a key part of prevention strategies.
Oh, Sam S; Du, Randal; Zeiger, Andrew M; McGarry, Meghan E; Hu, Donglei; Thakur, Neeta; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Galanter, Joshua M; Eng, Celeste; Nishimura, Katherine Keiko; Huntsman, Scott; Farber, Harold J; Meade, Kelley; Avila, Pedro; Serebrisky, Denise; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Lenoir, Michael A; Ford, Jean G; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Thyne, Shannon M; Sen, Saunak; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R; Williams, Keoki; Kumar, Rajesh; Burchard, Esteban G
In the United States, Puerto Ricans and African Americans have lower prevalence of breastfeeding and worse clinical outcomes for asthma compared with other racial/ethnic groups. We hypothesize that the history of breastfeeding is associated with increased forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) % predicted and reduced asthma exacerbations in Latino and African American youths with asthma. As part of the Genes-environments & Admixture in Latino Americans (GALA II) Study and the Study of African Americans, asthma, Genes & Environments (SAGE II), we conducted case-only analyses in children and adolescents aged 8-21 years with asthma from four different racial/ethnic groups: African Americans (n = 426), Mexican Americans (n = 424), mixed/other Latinos (n = 255), and Puerto Ricans (n = 629). We investigated the association between any breastfeeding in infancy and FEV 1 % predicted using multivariable linear regression; Poisson regression was used to determine the association between breastfeeding and asthma exacerbations. Prevalence of breastfeeding was lower in African Americans (59.4%) and Puerto Ricans (54.9%) compared to Mexican Americans (76.2%) and mixed/other Latinos (66.9%; p < 0.001). After adjusting for covariates, breastfeeding was associated with a 3.58% point increase in FEV 1 % predicted (p = 0.01) and a 21% reduction in asthma exacerbations (p = 0.03) in African Americans only. Breastfeeding was associated with higher FEV 1 % predicted in asthma and reduced number of asthma exacerbations in African American youths, calling attention to continued support for breastfeeding.
Yeargin, Susan W; Cahoon, Erin; Hosokawa, Yuri; Mensch, James M; Dompier, Thomas P; Kerr, Zachary Y
Our study describes youth football (YFB) environmental conditions and the associated heat index (HI) risk category. An observational research design was utilized. Independent variables included month, time, event, and geographic location. Main outcome variables were frequency of events, average HI, and corresponding risk categorization. The HI was recorded with the day and time for each YFB event across 2 YFB seasons. Nearly half (49.8%) of events were in a high HI risk category and 20.0% should have been cancelled. The hottest HI values were recorded in July and August (83.2 ± 9.4°F to 87.2 ± 10.9°F; 24.0% of YFB events). The 7 to 10 am time frame was cooler (67.7 ± 14.5°F; 6.3% of YFB events) than other time frames ( P < .001). Hotter HI values were recorded in practices versus games (75.9 ± 14.1°F vs 70.6 ± 14.6°F; t = -6.426, P < .001). Starting the YFB season in September and holding weekend events in the early morning hours can decrease exposure to environmental heat stress.
Anna Maria Santiago
Full Text Available Using data from a natural experiment in Denver, we investigate whether the initiation of running away from home, aggressive or violent behavior, and marijuana use during adolescence are statistically related to the neighborhood contexts in which low-income Latino and African American youth were raised. Our analysis is based on retrospective child, caregiver, household, and neighborhood data for a sample of approximately 850 Latino and African American youth whose families were quasi-randomly assigned to public housing operated by the Denver (CO Housing Authority during part of their childhood. We used Cox PH models and accelerated failure time models to estimate ethnic differentials in the hazards and timing of initiation of these risky behaviors during adolescence. We found that multiple dimensions of neighborhood context—especially safety, ethnic and nativity composition, and socioeconomic status—strongly and robustly predicted initiation of running away, aggressive or violence behavior, and marijuana use during adolescence.
Liu, Jingwen; Bolland, John; Dick, Danielle; Mustanski, Brian; Kertes, Darlene A
This study examined effects of racial discrimination, community violence, and stressful life events on internalizing problems among African American youth from high poverty neighborhoods ( N = 607; 293 boys; M age = 16.0 years, SD = 1.44 years). Mediated effects via externalizing problems on these relations were also examined, given the high comorbidity rate between internalizing and externalizing problems. Externalizing problems partially mediated the effect of stressful life events on internalizing problems and fully mediated the effect of racial discrimination for boys but not for girls. Exposure to violence had a significant indirect effect on internalizing problems via externalizing problems. The findings call for greater attention to internalizing problems among African American youth and pathways to internalizing problems via externalizing problems.
Weinberg, M S; Lottes, I L; Shaver, F M
Theories of human sexuality have proposed that two factors reduce the double standard of sexuality and lead to a convergence of male and female sexual behavior: the degree of social benefits and amount of power women have in basic societal institutions and the extent to which a society accepts permissive sexual norms. As these factors increase, the strength of the double standard will decrease and the convergence between male and female behaviors will increase. Compared to the United States, Sweden has instituted more policies to promote gender equality and has been thought to accept more permissive premarital sexual attitudes. The focus of the research reported here is to examine country and gender differences in sexual attitudes and sexual behavior for a sample of university students in the United States (N = 407) and Sweden (N = 570). Results indicate that Swedish students endorsed more similar sexual standards for women and men and reported more accepting attitudes than did American students. For sexual behavior, American men reported the most sexual experience, Swedish men the least, with the women of both countries generally in the middle category. Notwithstanding this more permissive behavior on the part of American men, gender convergence with respect to sexual behavior is stronger in Sweden on several of the dimensions examined: age of first engaging in partner-related sexual activities for those who were sexually experienced, relationship with first partner, number of partners both in the last year and in their lifetime, and affective reactions to first coitus. Gender convergence, however, is weaker in Sweden than in the United States with respect to the incidence and frequency of various sexual activities and the degree of satisfaction with current sex life. Findings are discussed with respect to the questions they raise about the current theories that framed this research and the differential amount of sex education provided in the two countries.
Cody Ding; Jason Bornhop
In an effort to address the issue of overweight among youth, there is a growing body of research concerning the procurement food, the consequences of ingesting it and knowledge of the cultural cuisine rules (such as American cuisine may include hot dogs, hamburgers, fries and apple pie). However, there are few studies that examine the relationships between overweight and academic performance among adolescents. Based on the data collected by the World Health Organization in 1998, this study an...
Foutch, Victoria Marie
This study compared the responses of Native American youths ages 12-18 on the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2nd Edition (BASC-2) Self-Report-Adolescent (SRP-A) to a random sample of 200 from the BASC-2 normative sample. Two analyses were conducted: the first analysis was a 2x2 MANOVA (n = 162) comparing the two samples among composite…
Thompson, Loren Wright
The purpose of this study was to examine of stereotype vulnerability, sense of belonging and campus climate for African American college students at a Predominately White Institution (PWI) in the Southeast. This research used a sociocultural model to explore African American student perceptions at a PWI in the southeast of the United States. This…
Clifton, Daniel R; Onate, James A; Schussler, Eric; Djoko, Aristarque; Dompier, Thomas P; Kerr, Zachary Y
Variations in knee-sprain incidence among competition levels are unclear but may help inform prevention strategies in American football players. To describe the epidemiology of knee sprains in youth, high school, and collegiate football players. Descriptive epidemiology study. Injury and athlete-exposure (AE) data were collected from 3 injury-surveillance programs at the youth, high school, and collegiate competition levels. Data from 310 youth, 184 high school, and 71 collegiate football team-seasons were collected during the 2012 through 2014 seasons. Knee-sprain rates and risks were calculated for each competition level. Injury rate ratios (IRRs) and risk ratios (RRs) compared knee-sprain rates by competition level. Injury proportion ratios (IPRs) compared differences in surgery needs, recurrence, injury mechanism, and injury activity by competition level. Knee-sprain rates in youth, high school, and collegiate football were 0.16/1000 AEs, 0.25/1000 AEs, and 0.69/1000 AEs, respectively. Knee-sprain rates increased as the competition level increased (high school versus youth: IRR = 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12, 2.30; collegiate versus high school: IRR = 2.73; 95% CI = 2.38, 3.96). Knee-sprain risk was highest in collegiate (4.3%), followed by high school (2.0%) and youth (0.5%) athletes. Knee-sprain risk increased as the competition level increased (high school versus youth: RR = 3.73; 95% CI = 2.60, 5.34; collegiate versus high school: RR = 2.14; 95% CI = 1.83, 2.51). Collegiate football had the lowest proportion of knee sprains that were noncontact injuries (collegiate versus youth: IPR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.31, 0.95; collegiate versus high school: IPR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.44, 0.79) and the lowest proportion that occurred while being tackled (collegiate versus youth: IPR = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.26, 0.76; collegiate versus high school: IPR = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.51, 0.98). Knee-sprain incidence was highest in collegiate football
Murry, Velma McBride; Berkel, Cady; Chen, Yi-Fu; Brody, Gene H; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg
AIDS is the leading killer of African Americans between the ages of 25 and 44, many of whom became infected when they were teenagers or young adults. The disparity in HIV infection rate among African Americans youth residing in rural Southern regions of the United States suggests that there is an urgent need to identify ways to promote early preventive intervention to reduce HIV-related risk behavior. The Strong African American Families (SAAF) program, a preventive intervention for rural African American parents and their 11-year-olds, was specially designed to deter early sexual onset and the initiation and escalation of alcohol and drug use among rural African American preadolescents. A clustered-randomized prevention trial was conducted, contrasting families who took part in SAAF with control families. The trial, which included 332 families, indicated that intervention-induced changes occurred in intervention-targeted parenting, which in turn facilitated changes in youths' internal protective processes and positive sexual norms. Long-term follow up assessments when youth were 17 years old revealed that intervention-induced changes in parenting practices mediated the effect of intervention-group influences on changes in the onset and escalation of risky sexual behaviors over 65 months through its positive influence on adolescents' self-pride and their sexual norms. The findings underscore the powerful effects of parenting practices among rural African American families that over time serve a protective role in reducing youth's risk behavior, including HIV vulnerable behaviors.
Chen, E; Miller, G E; Yu, T; Brody, G H
Family relationships have been linked to obesity and related disorders in youth, but few studies have provided causal evidence of this association. This study tested the impact of a family psychosocial intervention on components of metabolic syndrome-a condition driven largely by abdominal obesity-in African American youth. In particular, the study tested whether effects were strongest among those who started at highest risk, that is, with high levels of unsupportive parenting at baseline. Randomized clinical trial of a community sample of 391 African American youth (mean age=11.2 years) conducted in 2001-2002, with follow-up metabolic syndrome assessment in 2014-2015. Participants were assigned either to receive a weekly family intervention or to a control group. The primary study outcome was the number of components of metabolic syndrome that were clinically elevated at age 25, including central adiposity, blood pressure, triglycerides, glucose and low high-density lipoproteins. Unsupportive parenting was measured by questionnaires at baseline. Significant interaction effects were found between group assignment and baseline unsupportive parenting on counts of metabolic syndrome components in youth (beta=-0.17, P=0.03). Among those who started with higher levels of unsupportive parenting at age 11, participation in the family intervention reduced the number of clinically elevated components of the metabolic syndrome at age 25 relative to the control group. No such effect was seen among those who started with good parenting. Mediation analyses suggested that changes in the psychosocial targets of the parenting intervention partially accounted for the effects amongst those high in unsupportive parenting at baseline (effect size=-0.350, s.e.=0.178). These findings suggest that efforts to improve family relationships may be able to ameliorate the detrimental effects that harsh and unsupportive parenting have on obesity-related outcomes such as metabolic syndrome in
Mellman, Thomas A; Aigbogun, Notalelomwan; Graves, Ruth Elaine; Lawson, William B; Alim, Tanya N
The occurrence of sleep paralysis (SP) absent narcolepsy appears to not be uncommon in African Americans and probably other non-European groups. Prior research has linked SP to trauma and psychiatric disorders and suggested a specific relationship to panic disorder in African Americans. The objective of our study was to evaluate relationships of SP with trauma, concurrent psychiatric symptoms and lifetime psychiatric diagnoses in an adult African American population recruited from primary care. Cross sectional study with surveys and diagnostic interviews; Patients attending primary care clinics filled out a survey that determined the 6 month prevalence and associated features of SP, a panic disorder screen, the self-rated Hamilton Depression Scale, and an inventory of trauma exposure. A subset of trauma-exposed participants (N = 142) received comprehensive diagnostic interviews that incorporated the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the Clinician Assessed PTSD Scale. Four hundred and forty-one adults participated (mean age-40.0 SD = 13.3, 68% female, 95% African American). Fourteen percent endorsed recent SP. In approximately 1/3 of those with SP, episodes also featured panic symptoms. SP was strongly associated with trauma history, and concurrent anxiety and mood symptoms. SP was not associated with specific psychiatric disorders other than lifetime (but not current) alcohol or substance use disorders. Our findings suggest that SP is not uncommon in adult African Americans and is associated with trauma and concurrent distress but not with a specific psychiatric diagnosis. Published 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Baldwin, Julie A; Brown, Betty G; Wayment, Heidi A; Nez, Ramona Antone; Brelsford, Kathleen M
The Sacred Mountain Youth Project was conducted to investigate risk and protective factors related to alcohol and drug use among American Indian youth. Findings indicated that stressful life events were positively associated with depressed mood, substance use, and risky behavior; cultural identity had no direct effects, but a secondary model showed that social support and protective family and peer influences were related to cultural identity. These findings suggest that the relationships between stressors and their negative sequelae are complex. Emphasis on protective processes that are culturally specific to American Indian youth may lead to effective alcohol and drug use prevention programs.
Yasui, Miwa; Dishion, Thomas J; Stormshak, Elizabeth; Ball, Alison
The current study examines the interrelations between observed parental cultural socialization and socialization of coping with discrimination, and youth outcomes among a sample of 92 American Indian adolescents and their parents in a rural reservation. Path analysis is used to examine the relationships among observed parental socialization (cultural socialization and socialization of coping with discrimination), and youth-reported perceived discrimination, ethnic identity and depression. Findings reveal that higher levels of observed parental cultural socialization and socialization of coping with discrimination predict lower levels of depression as reported by youth 1 year later. Path analyses also show that observed parental cultural socialization and socialization of coping with discrimination are positively associated with youth ethnic identity. These findings point to the importance of integrating familial socialization of culture and coping with discrimination in fostering resilience among American Indian youth.
Yasui, Miwa; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth; Ball, Alison
Objective The current study examines the interrelations between observed parental cultural socialization and socialization of coping with discrimination, and youth outcomes among a sample of 92 American Indian adolescents and their parents in a rural reservation. Method Path analysis is used to examine the relationships among observed parental socialization (cultural socialization and socialization of coping with discrimination), and youth-reported perceived discrimination, ethnic identity and depression. Results Findings reveal that higher levels of observed parental cultural socialization and socialization of coping with discrimination predict lower levels of depression as reported by youth 1 year later. Path analyses also show that observed parental cultural socialization and socialization of coping with discrimination are positively associated with youth ethnic identity. Conclusions These findings point to the importance of integrating familial socialization of culture and coping with discrimination in fostering resilience among American Indian youth. PMID:28503256
Leslie J. Francis
Full Text Available This study explores the properties of the New Indices of Religious Orientation Revised (NIROR among a sample of 521 Canadian adolescents attending a Baptist youth mission and service event, ranging in age from 12 to 19 years. This revision simplified the language of the original instrument to increase its accessibility among young people. The data support the internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the three revised nine-item scales designed to operationalise extrinsic religious orientation, intrinsic religious orientation, and quest religious orientation.
Kevin D. Lam
Full Text Available This paper is an analysis of the relationship between educational experiences, street life, and gang formation for Vietnamese American youth gang members in Southern California. I use critical narrative methodology to center the life and experiences of a Los Angeles area gang member. His narrative substantiates how racism in schools and on the streets works together to impact and inform gang formation. Schools were sites of inter-ethnic conflict and racialized tension, and streets were spaces for contentious interactions with the police. In addition, I place the Vietnamese American youth gang phenomenon in larger historical and political contexts such as Californias anti-youth legislation, representations of Asian American youth, and U.S. geo-politics and imperialismfactors that have serious material and ideological implications and consequences.
Kevin D. Lam
Full Text Available This paper is an analysis of the relationship between educational experiences, street life, and gang formation for Vietnamese American youth gang members in Southern California. I use critical narrative methodology to center the life and experiences of a Los Angeles area gang member. His narrative substantiates how racism in schools and on the streets works together to impact and inform gang formation. Schools were sites of inter-ethnic conflict and racialized tension, and streets were spaces for contentious interactions with the police. In addition, I place the Vietnamese American youth gang phenomenon in larger historical and political contexts such as California’s anti-youth legislation, representations of Asian American youth, and U.S. geo-politics and imperialism—factors that have serious material and ideological implications and consequences.
Neblett, Enrique W; Sosoo, Effua E; Willis, Henry A; Bernard, Donte L; Bae, Jiwoon; Billingsley, Janelle T
Racism constitutes a significant risk to the healthy development of African American youth. Fortunately, however, not all youth who experience racism evidence negative developmental outcomes. In this chapter, we examine person-centered analysis (PCA)-a quantitative technique that investigates how variables combine across individuals-as a useful tool for elucidating racial and ethnic protective processes that mitigate the negative impact of racism. We review recent studies employing PCA in examinations of racial identity, racial socialization, and other race-related experiences, as well as how these constructs correlate with and impact African American youth development. We also consider challenges and limitations of PCA and conclude with a discussion of future research and how PCA might be used to promote equity and justice for African American and other racial and ethnic minority youth who experience racism. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Perla, M E; Iman, Esmeralda; Campos, Leticia; Perkins, Alexandra; Liebman, Amy K; Miller, Mary E; Beaudet, Nancy J; Karr, Catherine J
Agricultural work is one of the most dangerous jobs for adolescents. Through a university-community partnership, the authors surveyed young primarily acculturated Latino-American farmworkers 14 to 18 years of age regarding their agricultural work experience. Topics included occupational health and safety education, work history, and information sources. The authors also evaluated the Rapid Clinical Assessment Tool (RCAT), a pictorial tool for identifying agricultural tasks to enhance discussion with clinical providers. One hundred forty youth with farmwork experience completed the survey; 6% reported a previous work-related injury or illness and 53% reported receiving some workplace health and safety training. Correct identification of legally restricted duties for youth varied but were generally low: participants identified working alone past 8 pm (57%), driving a forklift (56%), doing roofing work (39%), working in freezers (34%), and driving a delivery vehicle (30%). The Internet was identified as the most likely and reliable place youth would go to find information on workplace health and safety. Few (15%) reported clinician-initiated conversations on occupational health; however, a high proportion responded positively to questions regarding the usefulness of the RCAT for this purpose. This study highlights the need for workplace health and safety guidance for youth employed in agriculture. The results support Internet-based outreach and use of the RCAT to help facilitate occupational health discussions in clinical settings.
McBride, Chantee Earl
This study examines the life histories of three African American social studies teachers, focusing on the evolution and changes in their identities, perspectives, and attitudes related to their profession and instructional practice. In addition, the study addresses the significance of the teachers' racialized experiences as African Americans and…
Drawing on ethnographic data, this article examines the complex terrain that working-class Pakistani-American youth must negotiate in their daily lives. Specifically, the article illustrates how particular views of Islam and Americanization manifest in particular sites and within educational discourses, and the resulting dissonance that youth…
... Standards Oversight and Technology Committee Meetings Sheraton Boston Hotel, 39 Dalton Street, Boston, MA, 02199. May 8 (7:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m.) and May 9 (8:00 a.m.-1:00 p.m.), 2013 Further information regarding... American Electric Reliability Corporation For further information, please contact Jonathan First, 202-502...
Thomas, Deneia M.; Love, Keisha M.; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Tyler, Keneth M.; Brown, Carrie Lynn; Garriott, Patton O.
This study examined the relationships among self-efficacy beliefs, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and academic adjustment among 111 African American women in college. Results revealed that self-efficacy beliefs predicted Motivation to Know, Externally Regulated motivation, Identified motivation, and academic adjustment. Furthermore,…
Kerr, Zachary Y; Zuckerman, Scott L; Wasserman, Erin B; Covassin, Tracey; Djoko, Aristarque; Dompier, Thomas P
To our knowledge, little research has examined concussion across the youth/adolescent spectrum and even less has examined concussion-related outcomes (ie, symptoms and return to play). To examine and compare sport-related concussion outcomes (symptoms and return to play) in youth, high school, and collegiate football athletes. Athletic trainers attended each practice and game during the 2012 to 2014 seasons and reported injuries. For this descriptive, epidemiological study, data were collected from youth, high school, and collegiate football teams, and the analysis of the data was conducted between July 2015 and September 2015. The Youth Football Surveillance System included more than 3000 youth football athletes aged 5 to 14 years from 118 teams, providing 310 team seasons (ie, 1 team providing 1 season of data). The National Athletic Treatment, Injury, and Outcomes Network Program included 96 secondary school football programs, providing 184 team seasons. The National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program included 34 college football programs, providing 71 team seasons. We calculated the mean number of symptoms, prevalence of each symptom, and the proportion of patients with concussions that had long return-to-play time (ie, required participation restriction of at least 30 days). Generalized linear models were used to assess differences among competition levels in the mean number of reported symptoms. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of return to play at less than 24 hours and at least 30 days. Overall, 1429 sports-related concussions were reported among youth, high school, and college-level football athletes with a mean (SD) of 5.48 (3.06) symptoms. Across all levels, 15.3% resulted return to play at least 30 days after the concussion and 3.1% resulted in return to play less than 24 hours after the concussion. Compared with youth, a higher number of concussion symptoms were reported in high school athletes (β = 1.39; 95
Dompier, Thomas P; Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Hainline, Brian; Snook, Erin M; Hayden, Ross; Simon, Janet E
A report by the Institute of Medicine called for comprehensive nationwide concussion incidence data across the spectrum of athletes aged 5 to 23 years. To describe the incidence of concussion in athletes participating in youth, high school, and collegiate American football. Data were collected by athletic trainers at youth, high school, and collegiate football practices and games to create multiple prospective observational cohorts during the 2012 and 2013 football seasons. Data were collected from July 1, 2012, through January 31, 2013, for the 2012 season and from July 1, 2013, through January 31, 2014, for the 2013 season. The Youth Football Surveillance System included 118 youth football teams, providing 4092 athlete-seasons. The National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network program included 96 secondary school football programs, providing 11 957 athlete-seasons. The National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program included 24 member institutions, providing 4305 athlete-seasons. All injuries regardless of severity, including concussions, and athlete exposure information were documented by athletic trainers during practices and games. Injury rates, injury rate ratios, risks, risk ratios, and 95% CIs were calculated. Concussions comprised 9.6%, 4.0%, and 8.0% of all injuries reported in the Youth Football Surveillance System; National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network; and National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program, respectively. The game concussion rate was higher than the practice concussion rate across all 3 competitive levels. The game concussion rate for college athletes (3.74 per 1000 athlete exposures) was higher than those for high school athletes (injury rate ratio, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.50-2.31) and youth athletes (injury rate ratio, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.17-2.10). The practice concussion rate in college (0.53 per 1000 athlete exposures) was lower than that in high school (injury rate ratio, 0
Brown, Ryan A
Rural areas and American Indian reservations are hotspots for the use of crystal methamphetamine ("meth") in the United States, yet there is little ethnographic data describing meth use in these areas. This study draws upon three years of ethnographic work conducted with American Indian and White youth in Appalachia during the height of the meth epidemic. It describes how historical, cultural, and socioeconomic processes influence vulnerability to meth use in Appalachia, and highlights the role of social relationships and meaning-making in facilitating desistance and recovery from meth use. The first section shows how crystal meth filled a particular functional niche in the lives of many young men, alleviating boredom and anomie linked to recent socioeconomic changes and labor opportunities in the region, and intersecting with local understandings of masculinity and forms of military identity. Here, ethnographic and interview data converge to illustrate how social role expectations, recent socioeconomic change, and meth's pharmacological properties converge to create vulnerability to meth use in Appalachia. The second section draws upon two American Indian narratives of desistance. These youth described recently severed social relationships and acute feelings of social isolation during the initiation of meth use. Both also described dramatic close calls with death that facilitated their eventual desistance from use, involving repaired social relationships and the establishment of new lives and hope. These interviews illustrate how changes in social relationships were linked with both initiation and desistance from meth use, and how religious interpretations of near-death experiences structured narratives of cessation and redemption.
Aurpibul, Linda; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Musumari, Patou Masika; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Tarnkehard, Surapee
Introduction: The rural areas of Northern Thailand are home to a large cultural diversity of ethnic minority groups. Previous studies have shown that young people in rural Thailand have low levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and high sexual risks. We compared sexual behaviors between the lowland Thai youth and the youth from ethnic minority groups. Methods and findings: This is a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among high-school Thai and ethnic students in Chiang Mai. From a total 1...
Nelson, Devin S; Gerras, Julia M; McGlumphy, Kellye C; Shaver, Erika R; Gill, Amaanat K; Kanneganti, Kamala; Ajibewa, Tiwaloluwa A; Hasson, Rebecca E
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between environmental factors, including household education, community violence exposure, racial discrimination, and cultural identity, and BMI in African American adolescents. A community-based sample of 198 African American youth (120 girls, 78 boys; ages 11-19 years) from Washtenaw County, Michigan, were included in this analysis. Violence exposure was assessed by using the Survey of Children's Exposure to Community Violence; racial discrimination by using the Adolescent Discrimination Distress Index; cultural identity by using the Acculturation, Habits, and Interests Multicultural Scale for Adolescents; and household education by using a seven-category variable. Measured height and body weight were used to calculate BMI. Racial discrimination was positively associated with BMI, whereas household education was inversely associated with BMI in African American adolescents (discrimination: β = 0.11 ± 0.04, p = 0.01; education: β = -1.13 ± 0.47, p = 0.02). These relationships were significant when accounting for the confounding effects of stress, activity, diet, and pubertal development. Significant gender interactions were observed with racial discrimination and low household education associated with BMI in girls only (discrimination: β = 0.16 ± 0.05, p = 0.003; education: β = -1.12 ± 0.55, p = 0.045). There were no significant relationships between culture, community violence exposure, and BMI (all p's > 0.05). Environmental factors, including racial discrimination and low household education, predicted higher BMI in African American adolescents, particularly among girls. Longitudinal studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms by which these environmental factors increase obesity risk in African American youth.
Yu, Mansoo; Stiffman, Arlene Rubin
This study utilizes Bronfenbrenner's ecological model (1979) to examine multiple and interactive environmental (familial, social, and cultural) predictors of adolescent alcohol abuse/dependence symptoms. A stratified random sample of 401 American Indian youths was interviewed in 2001. The findings showed that family members' substance problems, peer misbehaviors, and participation in generic cultural activities positively predicted adolescent alcohol symptoms. Conversely, cultural pride/spirituality predicted fewer alcohol symptoms, and, importantly, religious affiliation moderated the effects of problematic peers and family members on adolescent alcohol symptoms. The findings suggest further study of intervention and prevention efforts regarding the benefits from consideration of the complex relationships among multiple environmental variables.
Hanson, Jessica D; McMahon, Tracey R; Griese, Emily R; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete
To examine the impact of gender norms on American Indian (AI) adolescents' sexual health behavior. The project collected qualitative data at a reservation site and an urban site through 24 focus groups and 20 key informant interviews. The reasons that AI youth choose to abstain or engage in sexual intercourse and utilize contraception vary based on gender ideologies defined by the adolescent's environment. These include social expectations from family and peers, defined roles within relationships, and gender empowerment gaps. Gender ideology plays a large role in decisions about contraception and sexual activity for AI adolescents, and it is vital to include redefinitions of gender norms within AI teen pregnancy prevention program.
Dec 1, 2011 ... Politics and Conflict in Africa4 offers readings on youth involvement in ... youth from a religious perspective seems primarily to be focused on education .... Conflict. An anthropological definition of war offered in No Peace, No War: An An- thropology of Contemporary Armed Conflicts28 is: 'All war is long-term ...
Murry, Velma McBride; Berkel, Cady; Brody, Gene H.; Miller, Shannon J.; Chen, Yi-fu
Data obtained from two waves of a longitudinal study of 671 rural African American families, with an 11-year-old preadolescent, were examined to test pathways through which racial and ethnic socialization influence youth's self-presentation and academic expectation and anticipation through the enhancement of youth self-pride. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that racial and ethnic socialization was linked with youth's expectation and anticipation for academic success, through youth self-pride, including racial identity and self-esteem, and academic self-presentation. The results highlight the need to disaggregate racial and ethnic socialization in order to better understand how these parenting domains uniquely forecast youth self-pride, as well as their orientation to education and academic success. PMID:19209975
Doyle, Otima; Clark Goings, Trenette; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana R; Lombe, Margaret; Stephens, Jennifer; Nebbitt, Von E
Structural factors associated with public housing contribute to living environments that expose families to adverse life events that may in turn directly impact parenting and youth outcomes. However, despite the growth in research on fathers, research on families in public housing has practically excluded fathers and the role fathers play in the well-being of their adolescents. Using a sample of 660 African American adolescents recruited from public housing, we examined the relationship between paternal caregivers' (i.e., fathers' and father figures') parenting practices and adolescents' depressive symptoms, attitudes toward deviance, and self-efficacy. Using a latent profile analysis (LPA), we confirmed a four-class model of paternal parenting practices ranging from high to low levels of monitoring and encouragement. Results from a one-way ANOVA indicated that paternal caregivers with high (compared to moderate) levels of encouragement and monitoring were associated with youth who reported less depressive symptoms, higher levels of self-efficacy, and less favorable attitudes toward deviance. Discriminant analysis results indicated that approximately half of the sample were correctly classified into two paternal caregiver classes. The findings provide evidence that some of these caregivers engage in parenting practices that support youths' psychological functioning. More research is needed to determine what accounts for the variability in levels of paternal encouragement and supervision, including environmental influences, particularly for paternal caregivers exhibiting moderate-to-low levels of paternal encouragement and monitoring. © 2016 Family Process Institute.
Mitchell, Christina M; Kaufman, Carol E; Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Beals, Janette; Keane, Ellen M
For adolescents, normative development encompasses learning to negotiate challenges of sexual situations; of special importance are skills to prevent early pregnancy, HIV, and other sexually transmitted diseases. Disparities in sexual risk among American Indian youth point to the importance of intervening to attenuate this risk. This study explored the impact of Circle of Life (COL), an HIV prevention intervention based on social cognitive theory, on trajectories of self-efficacy (refusing sex, avoiding sexual situations) among 635 students from 13 middle schools on one American Indian reservation. COL countered a normative decline of refusal self-efficacy among girls receiving the intervention by age 13, while girls participating at age 14 or older, girls in the comparison group, and all boys showed continuing declines. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.
Gloppen, Kari; McMorris, Barbara; Gower, Amy; Eisenberg, Marla
Bullying involvement as a victim or perpetrator is associated with depression and suicidality, and American Indian (AI) youth experience a disproportionately high rate of these mental health issues. This study assessed whether AI young people involved in bullying were more likely to experience negative mental health problems than AI youth who were not involved in bullying, and identified protective factors that might support this particularly vulnerable population. Data come from 1,409 8th, 9th, and 11th Grade AI students who completed the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey. Logistic regression models estimated associations between bullying involvement and internalizing symptoms and suicidality. Selected protective factors (internal assets, empowerment, positive student-teacher relationships, and feeling safe at school) were also examined as independent variables. All forms of bullying perpetration and victimization were associated with increased risk for mental health problems (odds ratio [OR]: 1.57-2.87). AI youth who reported higher levels of protective factors were less likely to report internalizing symptoms and suicidality even in the presence of bullying involvement. For example, AI youth who reported high levels of internal assets had half the odds of reporting internalizing symptoms compared with those with low levels of internal assets (OR = 0.53, confidence interval [CI] 0.38, 0.74). Findings suggest that, similar to a general sample of students, bullying-involved AI students are significantly more likely to experience mental health problems. Promoting school as a safe place and incorporating culturally relevant programming to promote internal assets such as positive identity, social competence, and empowerment among AI students could help reduce the negative effects of bullying involvement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Dickerson, Daniel L; Brown, Ryan A; Johnson, Carrie L; Schweigman, Kurt; D'Amico, Elizabeth J
American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) exhibit high levels of alcohol and drug (AOD) use and problems. Although approximately 70% of AI/ANs reside in urban areas, few culturally relevant AOD use programs targeting urban AI/AN youth exist. Furthermore, federally-funded studies focused on the integration of evidence-based treatments with AI/AN traditional practices are limited. The current study addresses a critical gap in the delivery of culturally appropriate AOD use programs for urban AI/AN youth, and outlines the development of a culturally tailored AOD program for urban AI/AN youth called Motivational Interviewing and Culture for Urban Native American Youth (MICUNAY). We conducted focus groups among urban AI/AN youth, providers, parents, and elders in two urban communities in northern and southern California aimed at 1) identifying challenges confronting urban AI/AN youth and 2) obtaining feedback on MICUNAY program content. Qualitative data were analyzed using Dedoose, a team-based qualitative and mixed methods analysis software platform. Findings highlight various challenges, including community stressors (e.g., gangs, violence), shortage of resources, cultural identity issues, and a high prevalence of AOD use within these urban communities. Regarding MICUNAY, urban AI/AN youth liked the collaborative nature of the motivational interviewing (MI) approach, especially with regard to eliciting their opinions and expressing their thoughts. Based on feedback from the youth, three AI/AN traditional practices (beading, AI/AN cooking, and prayer/sage ceremony) were chosen for the workshops. To our knowledge, MICUNAY is the first AOD use prevention intervention program for urban AI/AN youth that integrates evidence-based treatment with traditional practices. This program addresses an important gap in services for this underserved population. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Miguel A. Serra Valdés
Full Text Available Introduction: One of the infectious illnesses that have repercussion in Latin America are the Chagas illness. Objective: with the objective of identifying the students with positive serology for the illness of Chagas and describe the characteristics in the same thing with focussing epidemiological carried out to him the present study. Method: It become fulfilled a observational investigation, descriptive and prospectival. It decided the prevalencial in the Latin American students of medicine that resides in the school Salvador Allende in the period understanded between October of the 2009 to January of the 2010 by means of serology, other clinical studieses and examination. They took shelter the variables of the clinical records and of personal interview.. Results: Affected 50 of the Bolivian delegation. The prevalence went of 6.6% of this delegation. Have clinical symptoms. The detected alterations went the ventricular hypertrophy left and the disorders of transportation and of the rhythm for electrocardiogram. It predominated the masculine sex and the rural origin. It found variability in the results of laboratory, being positive in their country and negative in Cuba and vice versa. Single 56% fulfilled the treatment. The adverse reactions went minims. Conclusion: It constitutes a sanitary problem and demands a better diagnosis, control and follow-up.
This critical ethnography focused on five urban African American students, coming from economically disadvantaged homes in Philadelphia, who were considered at risk with regard to their position within society as well as within the small learning community of their low-academically performing school. As participants in the study, they were employed from June 11, 2001 from 9:00 AM until 1:00 PM and continuing until September 7, 2001 at $7.50 per hour under research grants from the Spencer Foundation and the National Science Foundation. Through this study, these five youth were provided with traditional and nontraditional opportunities to build understandings of some of the most essential concepts of physics as learners. Moreover, they also had the chance to work as research assistants, teacher educators and curriculum developers. The findings of the research conclusively reveal that African American, urban youth from some of the most challenging situations are capable of learning physics concepts. Moreover, the most success resulted when students' strategies of action were directed towards the objective of learning although, in the process of meaning-making, their personal goals unrelated to science were also met. In addition, the research results show that urban African American students come to school with strategies of action replete with cultural practices, symbols and their underlying meanings from fields outside of school including both the home and the neighborhood. These cultural resources, when triggered, then become apparent within learning environments and can powerfully assist learning when the desired outcomes of the student(s) are in tune with the objective of learning physics. Through the physics teaching and learning that occurred within this study, as well as their work as researchers, teacher educators and curriculum developers, April, Ebony, Markist, Pierre and Ya-Meer had opportunities to utilize their cultural capital to build new knowledge
Full Text Available This article reflects upon the social imaginary that sustains the dissemination of new information and communication technologies (ICTs as a condition for them to be accepted and granted social and subjective meaning. Based on applied research on digital literacy programs for Latin American youth, the paper delves into the construction of youth both as a category and as a social group. It analyzes the main characteristics and problems of youth in current environments, especially in Latin America, providing data on their access to ICTs. Based on a typology of the programs reviewed and a comparative analysis of adults and youth representations and assessment of ICTs, the article examines the dominant educational discourses and practices that encourage access to technology of excluded or at-risk youth population. It also discusses the ways in which these programs characterize and implement a gender equity approach.A partir de una investigación aplicada sobre programas de alfabetización digital de jóvenes latinoamericanas/os, el artículo ofrece una reflexión sobre los imaginarios sociales que sostienen la difusión de las nuevas tecnologías de información y comunicación (TIC como condición para su aceptación y asignación de sentido social y subjetivo. Incursiona en el proceso de construcción de la juventud como concepto y como grupo social, presentando las principales características y problemáticas que experimentan las y los jóvenes en los contextos actuales, especialmente en América Latina, y brinda datos sobre su acceso a las TIC. A través de una tipología de los programas estudiados y de un análisis comparado de las representaciones y valoraciones de las TIC por parte de adultos y jóvenes, interroga sobre los discursos y las prácticas educativas dominantes que incentivan el acceso de la juventud excluida o en riesgo al mundo tecnológico y sobre las formas en que caracterizan y aplican al enfoque de equidad de género.
Aurpibul, Linda; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Musumari, Patou Masika; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Tarnkehard, Surapee
The rural areas of Northern Thailand are home to a large cultural diversity of ethnic minority groups. Previous studies have shown that young people in rural Thailand have low levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and high sexual risks. We compared sexual behaviors between the lowland Thai youth and the youth from ethnic minority groups. This is a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among high-school Thai and ethnic students in Chiang Mai. From a total 1215 participants, 487 (40.1%) were lowland Thai and 728 (59.9%) were from ethnic minorities. Overall, 17.9% of respondents reported "ever had sex." Lowland Thai adolescents were more likely to have ever had sex compared with ethnic minority adolescents (AOR, 1.61; CI, 1.06-2.45; P< 0.01). A higher proportion of lowland Thai respondents reported having ≥ 2 lifetime sexual partners (51.9% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.003), or currently having a boy/girlfriend (59.9% vs. 45.3%, P< 0.001) compared to ethnic minority adolescents. Consistent condom use was low in both groups (22.6%). The common significant factors associated with "ever had sex" in both groups were "ever drunk alcohol in the past year" and "currently having a boy/girlfriend." Specifically, for lowland Thai youth, being around the age of 17 or 18 years and "ever used methamphetamine in the past year" were associated with increased odds of "ever had sex". For ethnic minority adolescents, being female and belonging to religions other than Buddhism were associated with decreased odds of "ever had sex". A substantially higher proportion of lowland Thai engage in risky sexual behaviors when compared to ethnic minorities. However, both groups remained vulnerable to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. To minimize sexual risks, education program and school-based interventions are warranted to increase awareness of young people about risky behaviors and to promote essential life skills.
Wyatt, Laura C; Ung, Tien; Park, Rebecca; Kwon, Simona C; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau
Suicide has become an increasing public health challenge, with growing incidence among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AA and NHPI) youth. Using an ecological framework, the purpose of this systematic review was to explicate risk and protective factors for depression or suicide among AA and NHPI youth from available peer reviewed research. The ecological framework provides a useful blueprint for translating social determinants of health to explain the experience of depression and suicidal behaviors among AA and NHPI youth. Sixty-six studies were extracted from PsychInfo, Ovid Med-line, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Policy and practice recommendations are offered in light of relevant themes that emerged. Further research and data disaggregation is needed to develop and strengthen population health strategies, interventions, and policies that address the underlying social conditions and cultural contexts of mental health disparities associated with depression and suicide among AA and NHPI youth.
Murry, Velma McBride; Berkel, Cady; Brody, Gene H; Miller, Shannon J; Chen, Yi-Fu
Data obtained from 2 waves of a longitudinal study of 671 rural African American families with an 11-year-old preadolescent were used to examine pathways through which racial and ethnic socialization influence youth self-presentation, academic expectations, and academic anticipation. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that racial and ethnic socialization were linked with youth expectations for and anticipation of academic success through youth self-pride, which included racial identity and self-esteem, and through academic self-presentation. The results highlight the need to disaggregate racial and ethnic socialization to attain a better understanding of the ways in which these parenting domains uniquely forecast youth self-pride and academic orientation.
Mauricio, Anne M; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Gonzales, Nancy A; Millsap, Roger E; Dumka, Larry E
We examined attendance trajectory profiles among 335 Mexican-American families participating in an 11-week universal intervention to explore if heterogeneity in attendance and thus dosage was associated with intervention response, defined as pre-to-2-year post (T2) reductions in child report of internalizing symptoms. We estimated trajectories accounting for the influence of baseline covariates, selected based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) and Latino family research, to understand covariate associations with trajectories. Results supported six attendance trajectory groups: non-attenders (NA), early dropouts-low internalizing (EDO-LI), early dropouts-high internalizing (EDO-HI), mid-program dropouts (MPDO), sustained attenders-low internalizing (SA-LI), and sustained attenders-high internalizing (SA-HI). All groups except EDO-HI showed significant pre-to-post change on child report of internalizing; however, trajectory groups reflecting more attendance did not have greater pre-to-post change. Nonetheless, child report of internalizing differentiated two subgroups of sustained attenders and two subgroups of early dropouts. These results suggest heterogeneity among families with similar patterns of attendance and highlight the importance of modeling this heterogeneity. Although life stress was a barrier to participation, there was minimal support for the HBM. Cultural influences, acculturation, and familism, played a more prominent role in distinguishing trajectories. As expected, the EDO-HI group was less acculturated than both sustained attender groups and reported weaker familism values than the SA-HI group. However, unexpectedly, the SA-LI group had lower familism than the EDO-LI group. The results suggest that the influence of culture on participation is nuanced and may depend on child symptomatology.
Moore, Erin; Berkley-Patton, Jannette; Bohn, Alexandria; Hawes, Starlyn; Bowe-Thompson, Carole
Parent-child sex communication has been shown to be protective against sexual risk among African American youth. The current study sought to use the theory of planned behavior as a framework for focus group discussions (N = 54 youth participants aged 12-19 years) to explore church youths' (a) sex beliefs and values (attitudes), (b) sources and evaluation of sex communication and education (subjective norms), (c) facilitator/barriers to adolescent sexual risk reduction and communication behaviors (perceived behavioral control), and (d) intentions to engage in these behaviors. Additionally, participants identified strategies for consideration in developing tailored parent-child-church sex communication education programs for use in African American churches. Themes suggested both positive and negative attitudes toward premarital sex and parents and churches as key sources of sex education and communication. Strategies to enhance parent-child-church sex communication are discussed in the context of these findings.
Seaton, Eleanor K
The present study examined the influence of cognitive development in the relationship between multiple types of racial discrimination and psychological well-being. A sample of 322 African American adolescents (53% female), aged 13-18, completed measures of cognitive development, racial discrimination, self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Based on the cognitive development measure, youth were categorized as having pre-formal or formal reasoning abilities. The results indicate no significant differences in perceptions of individual, cultural or collective/institutional racism between pre-formal reasoning and formal reasoning adolescents. However, the results do suggest that perceptions of collective/institutional racism were more harmful for the self-esteem of pre-formal reasoning youth than the self-esteem of formal reasoning youth. The implications for the racial discrimination literature among African American adolescents are discussed.
Martínez García, José Manuel; Martín López, María Jesús
Group violence among Latin American immigrant youth has led to ongoing debates in political, legal, and media circles, yet none of those many perspectives has arrived at a solid, empirically supported definition for the phenomenon. This study aims to explore the relationship between the immigrant experience and violent group behavior in youths from Latin America serving prison sentences in Justice Enforcement Centers in the Community of Madrid. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 juveniles, and content analysis was applied to the resulting transcripts, employing Grounded Theory to create an axial codification of intra- and inter-categorical contents, and Delphi panels for quality control. The research team delved into 62 topics, addressing participants' perceptions of the immigrant experience and its effects on five socialization settings (neighborhood, school, family, peer group, and significant other), and each one's relationship to violent behavior. The results led us to believe the young people's immigration experiences had been systematically examined. Their personal and social development was influenced by negative socioeconomic conditions, ineffective parental supervision, maladjustment and conflict at school, and experiences of marginalization and xenophobia. All those conditions favored affiliation with violent groups that provided them instrumental (economic and material), expressive, or affective support.
Dotterer, Aryn M.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.
This study investigated the links between racial discrimination and school engagement and the roles of racial socialization and ethnic identity as protective factors in those linkages in a sample of 148, sixth through twelfth grade African American adolescents from working and middle-class two-parent families. In home interviews, youth described…
Holland, Nicole E.
African American youth are generally as likely as their peers from other racial and ethnic groups to aspire to earn a college degree; yet, in spite of their aspirations these students remain under-represented in college enrollment and graduation. Part of the disparity between these students' aspirations and the realization of their goals may lie…
Sherwin, Gary H.; Schmidt, Stacy
Participant observations of two youth organizations identified more than 400 communications in which aggression served prosocial functions. Misinterpretation of these cultural communication codes could lead to overidentification of African American males in special education and, ultimately, correctional facilities. (Contains 41 references.) (JOW)
Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.
The present study examined whether combinations of ethnicity, gender, and age moderated the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being indicators (depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and life satisfaction) in a nationally representative sample of Black youth. The data were from the National Survey of American Life,…
Gold, Moniqueka E.
This study explored the effects of the physical features associated with albinism on three groups of African American youths (ages 14-19) with albinism: those with no disabilities, those with visual impairments, and those with oculocutaneous albinism. No significant differences in self-esteem were found among the three groups. (Contains…
Conchas, Gilberto Q.; Oseguera, Leticia; Vigil, James Diego
This article concentrates on the educational experiences of urban and suburban Mexican American youth, from recent immigrants to those that have been in the United States for generations. The article seeks to unravel the relationship between acculturation and school success by offering a holistic and longitudinal approach of three time periods:…
Okeke, Ndidi A; Howard, Lionel C; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J
The relation between academic race stereotype endorsement and academic self-concept was examined in two studies of seventh- and eighth-grade African Americans. Based on expectancy-value theory, the authors hypothesized that academic race stereotype endorsement would be negatively related to self-perceptions. Furthermore, it was anticipated that the relation between stereotype endorsement and self-perceptions would be moderated by racial centrality. The hypothesis was supported in two independent samples. Among students with high racial centrality, endorsement of traditional race stereotypes was linked to lower self-perceptions of academic competence. The stereotype/self-concept relation was nonsignificant among youth for whom race was less central to their identities. These results confirm the supposition of expectancy-value theory and illustrate the interweaving of group and individual identity with motivational beliefs.
Cheadle, Jacob E.; Hartshorn, Kelley J. Sittner
This study investigated the links between marijuana use trajectories and marijuana abuse/dependence (DSM-IV) using five waves of data from 718 North American Indigenous adolescents between 10 and 17 years from eight reservations sharing a common language and culture. Growth mixture models indicated that 15% of youth began using by 11–12 years of age and that another 20% began shortly thereafter. These early users had odds of abuse/dependence 6.5 times larger than abstainers. Girls were also unexpectedly found to be particularly at risk of early use, and this did not reflect other background and psychosocial factors, including friend use. While the timing, patterns, and consequences of use were similar to those reported for alcohol use previously, the social influences on use differed in important ways. PMID:23017929
Davis, Alexandra N; Carlo, Gustavo; Knight, George P
The present study aimed to extend research on parenting and positive development of Latino youth. Participants were 207 Mexican American adolescents (M age = 10.9 years, SD = 0.83 years; 50% girls) who completed measures of their parents' supportive and firm parenting, their own endorsement of respect and traditional gender role values, and their tendency to engage in six forms of prosocial behaviors. Maternal nativity was also considered as an initial predictor of parenting, adolescents' cultural values, and adolescents' prosocial behaviors. Overall, the results demonstrated that maternal nativity was associated with traditional gender roles and specific forms of prosocial behaviors. Parenting dimensions were differentially associated with respect and traditional gender role values and prosocial behaviors. Cultural values, in turn, were associated with multiple forms of prosocial behaviors. Gender differences in the processes were also explored.
Okeke, Ndidi A.; Howard, Lionel C.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.
The relation between academic race stereotype endorsement and academic self-concept was examined in two studies of seventh- and eighth-grade African Americans. Based on expectancy-value theory, the authors hypothesized that academic race stereotype endorsement would be negatively related to self-perceptions. Furthermore, it was anticipated that the relation between stereotype endorsement and self-perceptions would be moderated by racial centrality. The hypothesis was supported in two independent samples. Among students with high racial centrality, endorsement of traditional race stereotypes was linked to lower self-perceptions of academic competence. The stereotype/self-concept relation was nonsignificant among youth for whom race was less central to their identities. These results confirm the supposition of expectancy-value theory and illustrate the interweaving of group and individual identity with motivational beliefs. PMID:20625536
Full Text Available The rural areas of Northern Thailand are home to a large cultural diversity of ethnic minority groups. Previous studies have shown that young people in rural Thailand have low levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and high sexual risks. We compared sexual behaviors between the lowland Thai youth and the youth from ethnic minority groups.This is a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among high-school Thai and ethnic students in Chiang Mai. From a total 1215 participants, 487 (40.1% were lowland Thai and 728 (59.9% were from ethnic minorities. Overall, 17.9% of respondents reported "ever had sex." Lowland Thai adolescents were more likely to have ever had sex compared with ethnic minority adolescents (AOR, 1.61; CI, 1.06-2.45; P< 0.01. A higher proportion of lowland Thai respondents reported having ≥ 2 lifetime sexual partners (51.9% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.003, or currently having a boy/girlfriend (59.9% vs. 45.3%, P< 0.001 compared to ethnic minority adolescents. Consistent condom use was low in both groups (22.6%. The common significant factors associated with "ever had sex" in both groups were "ever drunk alcohol in the past year" and "currently having a boy/girlfriend." Specifically, for lowland Thai youth, being around the age of 17 or 18 years and "ever used methamphetamine in the past year" were associated with increased odds of "ever had sex". For ethnic minority adolescents, being female and belonging to religions other than Buddhism were associated with decreased odds of "ever had sex".A substantially higher proportion of lowland Thai engage in risky sexual behaviors when compared to ethnic minorities. However, both groups remained vulnerable to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. To minimize sexual risks, education program and school-based interventions are warranted to increase awareness of young people about risky behaviors and to promote essential life skills.
Wood, Jeffrey J; Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D; Langer, David A; Wood, Patricia A; Clark, Shaunna L; Eddy, J Mark; Ialongo, Nick
This study tests a model of reciprocal influences between absenteeism and youth psychopathology using 3 longitudinal datasets (Ns = 20,745, 2,311, and 671). Participants in 1st through 12th grades were interviewed annually or biannually. Measures of psychopathology include self-, parent-, and teacher-report questionnaires. Structural cross-lagged regression models were tested. In a nationally representative data set (Add Health), middle school students with relatively greater absenteeism at Study Year 1 tended toward increased depression and conduct problems in Study Year 2, over and above the effects of autoregressive associations and demographic covariates. The opposite direction of effects was found for both middle and high school students. Analyses with 2 regionally representative data sets were also partially supportive. Longitudinal links were more evident in adolescence than in childhood. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Kogan, Steven M; Cho, Junhan; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Allen, Kimberly A; Beach, Steven R H; Simons, Ronald L; Gibbons, Frederick X
Life History Theory (LHT), a branch of evolutionary biology, describes how organisms maximize their reproductive success in response to environmental conditions. This theory suggests that challenging environmental conditions will lead to early pubertal maturation, which in turn predicts heightened risky sexual behavior. Although largely confirmed among female adolescents, results with male youth are inconsistent. We tested a set of predictions based on LHT with a sample of 375 African American male youth assessed three times from age 11 to age 16. Harsh, unpredictable community environments and harsh, inconsistent, or unregulated parenting at age 11 were hypothesized to predict pubertal maturation at age 13; pubertal maturation was hypothesized to forecast risky sexual behavior, including early onset of intercourse, substance use during sexual activity, and lifetime numbers of sexual partners. Results were consistent with our hypotheses. Among African American male youth, community environments were a modest but significant predictor of pubertal timing. Among those youth with high negative emotionality, both parenting and community factors predicted pubertal timing. Pubertal timing at age 13 forecast risky sexual behavior at age 16. Results of analyses conducted to determine whether environmental effects on sexual risk behavior were mediated by pubertal timing were not significant. This suggests that, although evolutionary mechanisms may affect pubertal development via contextual influences for sensitive youth, the factors that predict sexual risk behavior depend less on pubertal maturation than LHT suggests.
Turner-Musa, Jocelyn O; Rhodes, Warren A; Harper, P Thandi Hicks; Quinton, Sylvia L
Substance use and HIV risk behaviors are increasing among African-American youth. Interventions that incorporate youth values and beliefs are needed to reduce this trajectory. Hip-hop plays an important role in the lives of many African-American youth and provides a context within which to prevent risky behaviors. The current study examines the efficacy of a hip-hop based substance use and HIV preventive intervention that targets African-American middle-school youth. The sample consists of 68 middle-school students who completed baseline and 6-month follow-up assessments. Findings suggest that students in the intervention group were significantly more likely to have higher knowledge of perception of drug risk and more knowledge about HIV/AIDS compared to students in the comparison group at the 6-month post-intervention assessment. Discussion is centered on implications of hip-hop as a viable approach for preventing substance use and HIV within a high-risk group.
Nebbitt, Von E; Williams, James Herbert; Lombe, Margaret; McCoy, Henrika; Stephens, Jennifer
African American adolescents are disproportionately represented in urban public housing developments. These neighborhoods are generally characterized by high rates of poverty, crime, violence, and disorganization. Although evidence is emerging on youths in these communities, little is known about their depressive symptoms, perceived efficacy, or frequency of substance use and sex-risk behavior. Further, even less is known about their exposure to community and household violence, their parents' behavior, or their sense of connection to their communities. Using a sample of 782 African American adolescents living in public housing neighborhoods located in four large U.S. cities, this article attempts to rectify the observed gap in knowledge by presenting a descriptive overview of their self-reported depressive symptoms; self-efficacy; frequencies of delinquent and sexual-risk behavior; and alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use. The self-reported ratings of their parents' behavior as well as their exposure to community and household violence are presented. Analytic procedures include descriptive statistics and mean comparisons between genders and across research cities. Results suggest several differences between genders and across research sites. However, results are not very different from national data. Implications for social work practice are discussed.
Tom, Miye Nadya
This paper presents a broad-reaching effort to interrogate enduring colonial legacies as experienced by Native American youth in the United States of America and Black Portuguese youth of Cape Verdean origin in Portugal. As part of its methodological approach, it uses hip-hop--a cultural movement composed of four elements including rap music--to…
Carlson, Sonia; Borrell, Luisa N.; Eng, Celeste; Nguyen, Myngoc; Thyne, Shannon; LeNoir, Michael A.; Burke-Harris, Nadine
Importance Asthma is a multifactorial disease composed of endotypes with varying risk profiles and outcomes. African Americans experience a high burden of asthma and of psychosocial stress, including racial discrimination. It is unknown which endotypes of asthma are vulnerable to racial/ethnic discrimination. Objective We examined the association between self-reported racial/ethnic discrimination and bronchodilator response (BDR) among African American youth with asthma ages 8 to 21 years (n = 576) and whether this association varies with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) level. Materials and methods Self-reported racial/ethnic discrimination was assessed by a modified Experiences of Discrimination questionnaire as none or any. Using spirometry, BDR was specified as the mean percentage change in forced expiratory volume in one second before and after albuterol administration. TNF-α was specified as high/low levels based on our study population mean. Linear regression was used to examine the association between self-reported racial/ethnic discrimination and BDR adjusted for selected characteristics. An interaction term between TNF-α levels and self-reported racial/ethnic discrimination was tested in the final model. Results Almost half of participants (48.8%) reported racial/ethnic discrimination. The mean percent BDR was higher among participants reporting racial/ethnic discrimination than among those who did not (10.8 versus 8.9, p = 0.006). After adjustment, participants reporting racial/ethnic discrimination had a 1.7 (95% CI: 0.36–3.03) higher BDR mean than those not reporting racial/ethnic discrimination. However, we found heterogeneity of this association according to TNF-α levels (p-interaction = 0.040): Among individuals with TNF-α high level only, we observed a 2.78 higher BDR mean among those reporting racial/ethnic discrimination compared with those not reporting racial/ethnic discrimination (95%CI: 0.79–4.77). Conclusions We found BDR to be
Shegog, Ross; Craig Rushing, Stephanie; Gorman, Gwenda; Jessen, Cornelia; Torres, Jennifer; Lane, Travis L; Gaston, Amanda; Revels, Taija Koogei; Williamson, Jennifer; Peskin, Melissa F; D'Cruz, Jina; Tortolero, Susan; Markham, Christine M
Sexually transmitted infection (STI) and birth rates among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth indicate a need for effective middle school HIV/STI and pregnancy prevention curricula to delay, or mitigate, the consequences of early sexual activity. While effective curricula exist, there is a dearth of curricula with content salient to AI/AN youth. Further, there is a lack of sexual health curricula that take advantage of the motivational appeal, reach, and fidelity of communication technology for this population, who are sophisticated technology users. We describe the adaptation process used to develop Native It's Your Game, a stand-alone 13-lesson Internet-based sexual health life-skills curriculum adapted from an existing promising sexual health curriculum, It's Your Game-Tech (IYG-Tech). The adaptation included three phases: (1) pre-adaptation needs assessment and IYG-Tech usability testing; (2) adaptation, including design document development, prototype programming, and alpha testing; and (3) post-adaption usability testing. Laboratory- and school-based tests with AI/AN middle school youth demonstrated high ratings on usability parameters. Youth rated the Native IYG lessons favorably in meeting the needs of AI/AN youth (54-86 % agreement across lessons) and in comparison to other learning channels (57-100 %) and rated the lessons as helpful in making better health choices (73-100 %). Tribal stakeholders rated Native IYG favorably, and suggested it was culturally appropriate for AI/AN youth and suitable for implementation in tribal settings. Further efficacy testing is indicated for Native IYG, as a potential strategy to deliver HIV/STI and pregnancy prevention to traditionally underserved AI/AN middle school youth.
Barrett, Nicole; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Elkins, Allison; Rivera, Ivonne; Evans, W Douglas; Edberg, Mark
Latinos consume more sugary drinks and less water than other demographic groups. Our objective was to understand beverage choice motivations and test promotional concepts that can encourage Central American Latino urban youth to drink more water. Two rounds of focus group discussions were conducted (n = 10 focus groups, 61 participants, 6-18 years old). Data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using inductive and deductive coding approaches. Youth motivations for drinking water were shaped by level of thirst, weather, energy, and perceptions of health benefits. Youth were discouraged from drinking water due to its taste and perceptions of the safety and cleanliness of tap water. Youth beverage preference depended on what their friends were drinking. Availability of water versus other beverages at home and other settings influenced their choice. Promotional materials that included mixed language, informative messages about the benefits of drinking water, and celebrities or athletes who were active, energized, and drinking water were preferred. A promotional campaign to increase water consumption among these Latino youth should include bicultural messages to underscore the power of water to quench true thirst, highlight the health benefits of drinking water, and address the safety of tap water.
Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.
The present study examined whether combinations of ethnicity, gender and age moderated the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being indicators (depressive symptoms, self-esteem and life satisfaction) in a nationally representative sample of Black youth. The data were from the National Survey of African Life (NSAL), which includes 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black adolescents. The results indicated main effects such that perceived discrimination was ...
McMahon, Susan D; Todd, Nathan R; Martinez, Andrew; Coker, Crystal; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Washburn, Jason; Shah, Seema
We use longitudinal multilevel modeling to test how exposure to community violence and cognitive and behavioral factors contribute to the development of aggressive and prosocial behaviors. Specifically, we examine predictors of self-, peer-, and teacher-reported aggressive and prosocial behavior among 266 urban, African American early adolescents. We examine lagged, within-person, between-person, and protective effects across 2 years. In general, results suggest that higher levels of violence exposure and aggressive beliefs are associated with more aggressive and less prosocial peer-reported behavior, whereas greater self-efficacy to resolve conflict peacefully is associated with less aggression across reporters and more teacher-reported prosocial behavior. Greater knowledge and violence prevention skills are associated with fewer aggressive and more prosocial teacher-reported behaviors. Results also suggest that greater self-efficacy and lower impulsivity have protective effects for youth reporting higher levels of exposure to community violence, in terms of teacher-reported aggressive behavior and peer-reported prosocial behavior. Differences among reporters and models are discussed, as well as implications for intervention.
Davis, BreAnna L.; Smith-Bynum, Mia A.; Saleem, Farzana T.; Francois, Tiffany; Lambert, Sharon F.
Racial socialization messages appear to have varying impacts on the adjustment of African American youth. To further explore this, we examined how two types of racial socialization messages might influence African American youth internalizing and externalizing behavior. The Youth Self Report was used to measure these behavior outcomes. Given that racial socialization messages may not be directly linked to behavior outcomes, we considered private regard, an aspect of racial identity, to serve as a mediator. Additionally, we examined global self-esteem as a mediator of the complex dynamic between racial socialization messages and behavior outcomes. Adolescents in our study completed paper assessments. Majority of the participants were female (56 %) and reside in a metropolitan area in the Mid-Atlantic region. Adolescent’s ages ranged from 14 to 17 years with the average age being 15 years old. Path analysis revealed cultural pride and alertness to discrimination messages varied in their relation to private regard. Results also indicated a strong linkage between private regard, global self-esteem, and internalizing behaviors. Interestingly, the linkage between private regard, global self-esteem and externalizing behaviors was not as robust. Further, private regard appeared to directly and indirectly impact externalizing behaviors. The implications of these findings for racial socialization strategies, identity development (racial and global) as it pertains to behavior problems for African American adolescents are discussed. PMID:28546737
Holt, Cheryl L; Wynn, Theresa A; Southward, Penny; Litaker, Mark S; Jeames, Sanford; Schulz, Emily
One way of developing culturally relevant health communication in the African American church setting is to develop spiritually based interventions, in which the health message is framed by relevant spiritual themes and scripture. In this article we describe the development of a community health advisor(CHA)-led intervention aimed at increasing informed decision making (IDM) for prostate cancer screening among church-attending African American men. Full-color print educational booklets were developed and pilot tested with extensive community participation of church-attending African American men age-eligible for screening. The intervention development phase consisted of ideas solicited from an advisory panel of African American men (N = 10), who identified core content and developed the spiritual themes. In the intervention pilot testing phase, prototypes of the intervention materials were pilot tested for graphic appeal in two focus groups (N = 16), and content was tested for acceptability and comprehension using individual cognitive response interviews (N = 10). Recommendations were made for project branding and logo and for use of graphics of real people in the educational materials. Significant feedback was obtained from the focus groups, on the graphics, colors, fonts, continuity, titles, and booklet size/shape. The importance of working closely with the community when developing interventions is discussed, as well as the importance of pilot testing of educational materials.
Weisz, John R.; Weiss, Bahr; Suwanlert, Somsong; Chaiyasit, Wanchai
Current widespread use of the same youth assessment measures and scales across different nations assumes that youth psychopathology syndromes do not differ meaningfully across nations. By contrast, the authors' syndromal sensitivity model posits 3 processes through which cultural differences can lead to cross-national differences in…
David Moya Malapeira
Full Text Available Administrative intervention on young people from Latin American origins and who belong to youth gangs can be relatively complex, at least from a legal standpoint. On one hand, the young people in question may possess varying types of legal status (foreigners-nationals, youths-adults, regular or irregular which determine the type of administrative intervention that is applied. On the other hand, the resources and routes of administrative intervention that currently exist (intervention on minors deemed to be socially at risk, youth justice, prosecution for crimes, etc. should be modulated and adapted to the peculiarities of these groups, and of the young people themselves. This study is based on the premise that, with certain exceptions, the youth gangs that exist in our cities still do not possess a criminal structure or organisation comparable to the Maras of Central America or the “Latino gangs”, but rather that their proliferation is a symptom of the lack of social integration and the educational failure of these young people in our society. As a consequence, the article stresses that in addition to policing and legal initiatives aimed at fighting crime, there is a need to reinforce social and educational resources to prevent this phenomenon and, particularly, a need to enlarge and make more flexible the non-regulated education-training services that currently exist in order that they should serve as a bridge for these young people’s insertion into the labour market, and thus to prevent their social and legal exclusion.
Estell, David B; Farmer, Thomas W; Cairns, Beverley D; Clemmer, Jason T
Examined 345 6th-grade rural African American youth (189 boys, 156 girls) over 3 years with regard to carrying weapons in school. Recent investigations with nationally representative and urban samples have shown that carrying weapons in school fits into a larger pattern of problem behaviors, including aggression and substance use, which are supported by affiliations with other deviant youth. Very little work to date has specifically examined weapon carrying in rural African American youth. This study found that weapon carriers in the first year were primarily male, more aggressive, and had higher rates of substance use than noncarriers. Concurrent peer affiliations were not related to weapon carrying in the first year. However, among those who were not carriers in the 1st year, transitioning into weapon carrying was related to both individual marijuana use and peer-group aggression and marijuana use. Finally, over the 3 years of the study, weapon carriers tended to maintain their high levels of aggression, drinking, and marijuana use.
Seaton, Eleanor K; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Sellers, Robert M; Jackson, James S
The present study examined whether combinations of ethnicity, gender, and age moderated the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being indicators (depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and life satisfaction) in a nationally representative sample of Black youth. The data were from the National Survey of American Life, which includes 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black adolescents. The results indicated main effects such that perceived discrimination was linked to increased depressive symptoms and decreased self-esteem and life satisfaction. Additionally, there were significant interactions for ethnicity, gender, and race. Specifically, older Caribbean Black female adolescents exhibited higher depressive symptoms and lower life satisfaction in the context of high levels of perceived discrimination compared with older African American male adolescents.
Stacey H. Chen
This paper documents the relation between risk attitude and college attendance. A measure of the degree of risk aversion is constructed based upon the National Longitudinal Survey for Youth. Statistics and estimation results suggest that risk aversion may have a negative impact on the decision to attend college. Several potential endogeneity problems are discussed.
... participants may be teachers, trainers, school administrators, and/or community leaders who work with youth... components of the proposal, including salaries and honoraria, should be kept as low as possible. All other...
Using a nationally representative sample of graduates from the high school class of 2003–2004, I test the warehouse hypothesis, which contends that youth are more likely to leave school and enter the labor force when there are available job opportunities (and vice versa). Using two measures of job opportunities—local unemployment rates and the percentage of local workers employed in jobs that require a bachelor’s degree—I find support for the warehouse hypothesis. In areas where unemployment is low, with ample jobs that do not require a bachelor’s degree, youth have higher odds of entering the labor force. In areas where unemployment is high, with few jobs that require only a high school diploma, youth have higher odds of entering college. The effect of unemployment on enrollment is more pronounced for low-income youth than for high-income youth, with both low- and high-income youth turning to four-year schools rather than two-year schools when job opportunities are limited. PMID:19771941
FitzGerald, Courtney A; Fullerton, Lynne; Green, Dan; Hall, Meryn; Peñaloza, Linda J
This study examined the 2013 New Mexico Youth Risk and Resiliency Survey (NM-YRRS) to determine whether cultural connectedness and positive relationships with adults protected against suicide attempts among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth and whether these relationships differed by gender. The sample included 2,794 AI/AN students in grades 9 to 12 who answered the question about past-year suicide attempts. Protective factor variables tested included relationships with adults at home, school, and the community. The language spoken at home was used as a proxy measure for cultural connectedness. Positive relationships with adults were negatively associated with the prevalence of past-year suicide attempts in bivariate analysis. However, language spoken at home was not associated with the prevalence of suicide attempts. Multivariate analysis showed that among girls, relationships with adults at home, at school, and in the community were independently associated with lower suicide-attempt prevalence. Among boys, only relationships with adults at home showed such an association. These results have important implications for the direction of future research about protective factors associated with AI/AN youth suicide risk as well as in the design of suicide intervention and prevention programs.
Full Text Available Teen films have often been a locus of censorial intervention due to the sensitive issues that youth-centred stories most typically address, especially when it comes to the representation of family life, juvenile delinquency, violence, youth sexuality and language. This paper offers an analysis of the dubbed versions of three mainstream youth films from the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s, namely Rebel Without a Cause (Nicholas Ray, 1955, Splendor in the Grass (Elia Kazan, 1961 and The Summer of 42 (Robert Mulligan, 1971, with the aim to investigate whether the strategies adopted in their linguistic transfer were shaped by censorial concerns or by differences in the way juvenile cultures were represented locally. The study is based on documentary evidence gleaned from archival research and translator manuscript analysis (Munday 2012, 2013.
Luk, Jeremy W; King, Kevin M; McCarty, Carolyn A; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth
While the interpretation and effects of parenting on developmental outcomes may be different across European and Asian/Pacific Islander (API) American youth, measurement invariance of parenting constructs has rarely been examined. Utilizing multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis, we examined whether the latent structure of parenting measures are equivalent or different across European and API American youth. Perceived parental warmth, psychological control, and knowledge were reported by a community sample of 325 adolescents (242 Europeans and 83 APIs). Results indicated that one item did not load on mother psychological control for API American youth. After removing this item, we found metric invariance for all parenting dimensions, providing support for cross-cultural consistency in the interpretation of parenting items. Scalar invariance was found for father parenting, whereas three mother parenting items were non-invariant across groups at the scalar level. After taking into account several minor forms of measurement non-invariance, non-invariant factor means suggested that API Americans perceived lower parental warmth and knowledge but higher parental psychological control than European Americans. Overall, the degree of measurement non-invariance was not extensive and was primarily driven by a few parenting items. All but one parenting item included in this study may be used for future studies across European and API American youth.
Tyser, Jason; Scott, Walter D; Readdy, Tucker; McCrea, Sean M
American Indian researchers and scholars have emphasized the importance of identifying variables that promote resilience and protect against the development of psychopathology in American Indian youth. The present study examined the role of self-regulation, specifically goal characteristics (i.e., goal self-efficacy, goal specificity, intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation, and goal conflict) and dispositional optimism, as well as cultural identity and self-reported academic grades in the depressive experiences of American Indian youth from a North American plains tribe. One hundred and sixty-four participants (53% female) completed measures of goal representations, cultural identity, dispositional optimism, academic performance, and depressive symptoms. Results supported a model in which higher goal self-efficacy, American Indian cultural identity, grade point average, and dispositional optimism each significantly predicted fewer depressive symptoms. Moreover, grade point average and goal self-efficacy had both direct and indirect (through dispositional optimism) relationships with depressive symptoms. Our findings underscore the importance of cognitive self-regulatory processes and cultural identity in the depressive experiences for these American Indian youth and may have implications for youth interventions attempting to increase resiliency and decrease risk for depressive symptoms.
Torres, Stephanie A; Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Walts, Katherine Kaufka; Richards, Maryse H
Currently, 15 million Mexican and Central American individuals live in the United States, with this number projected to rise in the next few decades (Lesser & Batalova, 2017; Zong & Batalova, 2017). Research has begun to investigate the impact of the nation's immigration practices and policies on immigrant Latino/a families and youth. Current immigration policies can create vulnerabilities, including fear and mistrust, discrimination, limited access to services, parent-child separation, and poverty. These experiences increase risk for poor mental health outcomes and may exacerbate prior exposure to traumas in the home country (e.g., violence) and during migration (e.g., extortion). This paper reviews current immigration policies for arriving Mexican and Central American immigrants and links to mental health among documented and undocumented immigrant families and youth. A discussion of positive policies and resources that may mitigate the damaging impact of immigration-related stress is included. Finally, social justice implications for clinicians and researchers are discussed, with culturally sensitive interventions, advocacy, and dissemination of research and policy as primary recommendations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Córdova, David; Mendoza Lua, Frania; Ovadje, Lauretta; Hong, Ethan; Castillo, Berenice; Salas-Wright, Christopher P
HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and drug abuse remain significant public health concerns in the United States, and African American and Hispanic youth are disproportionately affected. Although technology-based interventions are efficacious in preventing and reducing HIV/STI and licit/illicit drug use behaviors, relatively little is known regarding the state of the science of these interventions among African American and Hispanic youth. The aim of this review is to identify and examine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of technology-based HIV/STI and/or drug abuse preventive interventions for African American and Hispanic youth. We searched electronic databases (ie, PubMed, Proquest, PsycINFO, Ebscohost, Google Scholar) to identify studies between January 2006 and October 2016. RCTs of technology-based interventions targeting African American and Hispanic youth HIV/STI risk behaviors, including sexual risk, licit and illicit drug use, and HIV/STI testing were included. Our search revealed a total of three studies that used an RCT design and included samples comprised of >50% African American and/or Hispanic youth. The follow-up assessments ranged from two weeks to six months and the number of participants in each trial ranged from 72 to 141. The three interventions were theory-driven, interactive, and tailored. The long-term effects of the interventions were mixed, and outcomes included reductions in sex partners, licit drug use, and condomless anal sex acts. Although technology-based interventions seem promising in the prevention of HIV/STI and drug abuse among African American and Hispanic youth, more research is needed. ©David Córdova, Frania Mendoza Lua, Lauretta Ovadje, Ethan Hong, Berenice Castillo, Christopher P Salas-Wright. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 13.12.2017.
McGinnis, Theresa A.
In this article, I add to the critique of the myth of the American Dream by examining ethnographically the ways its dominant discourse is circulated to Khmer American middle school children of migratory agricultural workers. Drawing on social theories of discourse, I juxtapose the ideology embedded in the American Dream Discourse with the…
Seider, Scott; Rabinowicz, Samantha; Gillmor, Susan
The Serve Program at Ignatius University is a community service-learning program that combines academic study of philosophy with a yearlong field-based project at one of approximately 50 different sites. Half of these projects entail working with youth, while the other half entail working with adults. This mixed methods analysis found that college…
Whitaker, Damiya; Graham, Camelia; Severtson, Stevan Geoffrey; Furr-Holden, C. Debra; Latimer, William
Motivational theorists in psychology have moved away from individual-based approaches to socio-cognitive and socio-ecological models to explain student engagement and motivation for learning. Such approaches consider, for example, the influence of family and neighborhood environments as important constructs in youth behavior. In this study, links…
Millions of high school student-athletes in North America practice sport, and national federations communicate through their mission statements that this fosters student-athletes' positive development. The purpose of the current study was to review the recent literature to examine whether the educational claims made for youth development in the…
Social support and positive activity involvement are considered protective factors that can help offset the risks for youths living in impoverished areas. This study investigated whether insufficient social support and activity involvement are related to internalizing difficulties, such as depression, anxiety, loneliness, and low self-esteem.…
Coskun, Murat; Zoroglu, Salih; Ghaziuddin, Neera
This study compares youth (forced marriage, young marriage age, low literacy, honor killings); (b) substantial rural to urban migration which disrupts ties and exposes migrants to a less traditional cultural system; (c) shortage of mental health services; (d) and possibly, reduced religious education enrollment may be an additional factor.
Leenaars, Antoon A.; Lester, David
Investigated rates of birth, divorce, marriage, and unemployment for subgroups in Canada and the United States and their effects on suicide rates. In Canada, domestic integration and the economy predicted youth suicide rates more accurately than they did adult rates. The United States had less variation in predictors for age groups. (RJM)
Dodge, Kenneth A
Metaphors can both inspire and mislead the public. Current metaphors for youth violence are inconsistent with scientific evidence about how chronic violence develops and evoke inaccurate or harmful reactions. Popular, problematic metaphors include superpredator, quarantining the contagious, corrective surgery, man as computer, vaccine, and chronic disease. Four new metaphors that more accurately reflect the science of child development are proposed to shape the field. Preventive dentistry offers a lifelong system of universal, selected, and indicated intervention policies. Cardiovascular disease offers concepts of distal risk factors, proximal processes, equifinality and multifinality, and long-term prevention. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's public health model focuses on injury and the victim to elicit popular support. Public education for illiteracy offers concepts of long-term universal education coupled with specialized help for high-risk youths and goes beyond metaphor to represent a truly applicable framework. Research is proposed to test the scientific merit for and public receptivity to these metaphors.
Dodge, Kenneth A.
Metaphors can both inspire and mislead the public. Current metaphors for youth violence are inconsistent with scientific evidence about how chronic violence develops and evoke inaccurate or harmful reactions. Popular, problematic metaphors include superpredator, quarantining the contagious, corrective surgery, man as computer, vaccine, and chronic disease. Four new metaphors that more accurately reflect the science of child development are proposed to shape the field. Preventive dentistry off...
McPherson, Amy C; Rudzik, Alanna; Kingsnorth, Shauna; King, Gillian; Gorter, Jan Willem; Morrison, Andrea
Life skills programs aim to equip youth with physical disabilities with the foundational skills required for adulthood. This study explored the perceived impact of residential immersive life skills (RILS) programs on the lives of participants. Qualitative interviews were conducted with alumni of three RILS programs. Data were thematically analyzed using a phenomenological approach. Themes identified from fourteen interviews were: (1) enhancing higher-order skills; (2) new notions of independence; and (3) identity change, empowerment, and advocacy. Opportunities to learn and practise a variety of skills in a structured, facilitative environment led to increased competence and motivation to engage in independent activities. Engaging with peers undergoing similar experiences also helped some youth integrate disability into their identity. Providing youth with physical disabilities opportunities to engage with others sharing similar experiences and challenges is essential. The study contributes toward the development of evidence-based best practices for life skills programs.
Ruggles, Kelly V; Rajan, Sonali
To apply discovery-based computational methods to nationally representative data from the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions' Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System to better understand and visualize the behavioral factors associated with gun possession among adolescent youth. Our study uncovered the multidimensional nature of gun possession across nearly five million unique data points over a ten year period (2001-2011). Specifically, we automated odds ratio calculations for 55 risk behaviors to assemble a comprehensive table of associations for every behavior combination. Downstream analyses included the hierarchical clustering of risk behaviors based on their association "fingerprint" to 1) visualize and assess which behaviors frequently co-occur and 2) evaluate which risk behaviors are consistently found to be associated with gun possession. From these analyses, we identified more than 40 behavioral factors, including heroin use, using snuff on school property, having been injured in a fight, and having been a victim of sexual violence, that have and continue to be strongly associated with gun possession. Additionally, we identified six behavioral clusters based on association similarities: 1) physical activity and nutrition; 2) disordered eating, suicide and sexual violence; 3) weapon carrying and physical safety; 4) alcohol, marijuana and cigarette use; 5) drug use on school property and 6) overall drug use. Use of computational methodologies identified multiple risk behaviors, beyond more commonly discussed indicators of poor mental health, that are associated with gun possession among youth. Implications for prevention efforts and future interdisciplinary work applying computational methods to behavioral science data are described.
Turner, Alezandria K; Latkin, Carl; Sonenstein, Freya; Tandon, S Darius
To examine the association between symptoms of psychiatric disorder (i.e. depression, anxiety, and substance use) and sexual risk behavior in a sample of African-American adolescents and young adults in an employment training program. Baseline data were used from a pilot study of an intervention to reduce depressive symptoms among youth disconnected from school and the workforce. Participants were recruited from two employment training programs in East and West Baltimore (N=617; age 16-23 years). Data were collected through audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI). Mental health indicators were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the odds of sexual risk behavior for each mental health condition and combinations of conditions. Lack of condom use at last sex was significantly associated with elevated anxiety symptoms. Number of sexual partners was associated with elevated depression symptoms and substance use. Early sexual debut was associated with substance use in the past 30 days. Also, there were differences in the likelihood of engaging in sexual risk behavior comparing groups with different combinations of mental health problems to those with no symptoms of disorder or substance use. The results demonstrate the need for HIV prevention programs that target out-of-school youth, as they are likely to engage in risky sexual behavior. Our findings highlight the need to develop behavioral interventions that address disorder symptoms, substance use, and risky sexual behavior among youth in employment training programs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Finigan-Carr, Nadine M; Cheng, Tina L; Gielen, Andrea; Haynie, Denise L; Simons-Morton, Bruce
Aggressive and weapons carrying behaviors are indicative of youth violence. The theory of planned behavior is used in the current analysis to improve our understanding of violence-related behaviors. We examine the influence of perceived behavioral control (self-control and decision making) as a part of the overall framework for understanding the risk and protective factors for aggressive behaviors and weapons carrying. As the baseline assessment of an intervention trial, survey data were collected on 452 sixth-grade students (50% girls; 96.6% African American; mean age 12.0 years) from urban middle schools. A total of 18.4% carried a weapon in the prior 12 months, with boys more likely to carry a weapon than girls (22.5% vs. 14.2%, p = .02). Of the youth, 78.4% reported aggressive behaviors with no significant differences found between girls (81.3%) and boys (75.5%). In logistic regression models, having peers who engage in problem behaviors was found to be a significant risk factor. Youth with peers who engaged in numerous problem behaviors were five times more likely to be aggressive than those who reported little or no peer problem behaviors. Teens who reported that their parents opposed aggression (odds ratio [OR] = 0.76; confidence interval [CI] = 0.66, 0.88) and who used self-control strategies (OR = 0.59; CI = 0.39, 0.87) were found to report less aggressive behaviors. For weapons carrying, being a girl (OR = 0.56; CI = 0.32, 0.97) and self-control (OR = 0.52; CI = 0.29, 0.92) were protective factors. This study demonstrated that the theory of planned behavior may provide a useful framework for the development of violence prevention programs. Practitioners should consider integrating strategies for developing healthy relationships and improving self-control. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
Ramírez García, Jorge I; Manongdo, Jennifer A; Cruz-Santiago, Michelle
Youth substance use was investigated in a sample of Mexican-origin mothers and youth (93 dyads totaling 186 individuals). We tested the hypotheses that both acculturation and inner-city risk factors impact substance use largely because they undermine family relationships. Mothers and youth completed self-report measures of acculturation and enculturation. Youth completed questionnaires of family relationships, inner-city risk factors, and substance use. Youth substance use was measured with an index of lifetime alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use based on the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. As predicted, mother-youth (dyadic) acculturation/enculturation, as well as exposure to violence, were significantly associated with substance use. Family cohesion mediated the impact of violence exposure on substance use. However, both cohesion and violence had unique and significant associations with substance use. Furthermore, family relationships did not mediate the link between substance use and mother-youth acculturation or mother-youth enculturation. Results underscore the need to develop and test hypotheses that link Latino youth substance use with both acculturation and inner-city contexts that do not solely rely on family relationships as mediators.
Full Text Available The epidemiology of Chagas disease, until recently confined to areas of continental Latin America, has undergone considerable changes in recent decades due to migration to other parts of the world, including Spain. We studied the prevalence of Chagas disease in Latin American patients treated at a health center in Barcelona and evaluated its clinical phase. We make some recommendations for screening for the disease.We performed an observational, cross-sectional prevalence study by means of an immunochromatographic test screening of all continental Latin American patients over the age of 14 years visiting the health centre from October 2007 to October 2009. The diagnosis was confirmed by serological methods: conventional in-house ELISA (cELISA, a commercial kit (rELISA and ELISA using T cruzi lysate (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics (oELISA. Of 766 patients studied, 22 were diagnosed with T. cruzi infection, showing a prevalence of 2.87% (95% CI, 1.6-4.12%. Of the infected patients, 45.45% men and 54.55% women, 21 were from Bolivia, showing a prevalence in the Bolivian subgroup (n=127 of 16.53% (95% CI, 9.6-23.39%. ALL THE INFECTED PATIENTS WERE IN A CHRONIC PHASE OF CHAGAS DISEASE: 81% with the indeterminate form, 9.5% with the cardiac form and 9.5% with the cardiodigestive form. All patients infected with T. cruzi had heard of Chagas disease in their country of origin, 82% knew someone affected, and 77% had a significant history of living in adobe houses in rural areas.We found a high prevalence of T. cruzi infection in immigrants from Bolivia. Detection of T. cruzi-infected persons by screening programs in non-endemic countries would control non-vectorial transmission and would benefit the persons affected, public health and national health systems.
Temilola K. Salami
Full Text Available This study aims to explore the impact of specific facets of impulsivity as measured by the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS, as well as reasons for living in predicting suicidal ideation among African American college-aged students. The incremental validity of each facet of the UPPS interacting with reasons for living, a construct meant to buffer against risk for suicide, was explored in a sample of African American students (N = 130; ages 18–24. Results revealed significant interactions between reasons for living and two factors of impulsivity, (lack of premeditation and sensation seeking. Higher levels of sensation seeking and lack of premeditation in conjunction with lower reasons for living was associated with increased suicidal ideation. Neither urgency nor (lack of perseverance significantly interacted with reasons for living in association with suicidal ideation. These results suggest including elements of impulsivity, specifically sensation seeking and (lack of premeditation, when screening for suicidal ideation among African American youth. Future investigations should continue to integrate factors of both risk and protection when determining risk for suicide.
Salami, Temilola K; Brooks, Bianca A; Lamis, Dorian A
This study aims to explore the impact of specific facets of impulsivity as measured by the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS), as well as reasons for living in predicting suicidal ideation among African American college-aged students. The incremental validity of each facet of the UPPS interacting with reasons for living, a construct meant to buffer against risk for suicide, was explored in a sample of African American students (N = 130; ages 18-24). Results revealed significant interactions between reasons for living and two factors of impulsivity, (lack of) premeditation and sensation seeking. Higher levels of sensation seeking and lack of premeditation in conjunction with lower reasons for living was associated with increased suicidal ideation. Neither urgency nor (lack of) perseverance significantly interacted with reasons for living in association with suicidal ideation. These results suggest including elements of impulsivity, specifically sensation seeking and (lack of) premeditation, when screening for suicidal ideation among African American youth. Future investigations should continue to integrate factors of both risk and protection when determining risk for suicide.
Full Text Available This study investigated self-esteem and empowerment in three African American female cohort groups in an after school program. A sample of 136 students in the after school program comprised the three one-year female and male cohort groups. For this study, 71 African American females in the female cohort groups were analyzed. Social Cognitive Theory and Resiliency Theory were used to explore factors potentially influencing self-esteem and empowerment of an at-risk African American female population, with the after school program serving as a protective factor. Participants completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Developmental Assets Profile (DAP, but only DAP empowerment items were analyzed. No significant differences were found in self-esteem levels for the three separate female cohort groups. However, evidence was found for a positive correlation between self-esteem and empowerment. Study conclusions identify implications for after school program staff as they identify needs and conduct youth programs accordingly.
Belgrave, Faye Z.; Brome, Deborah Ridley; Hampton, Carl
Investigated the contribution of cultural variables, particularly Africentric values and racial identity, to the prediction of drug use, knowledge, and attitudes among African American youths, highlighting individual, peer, and family variables. Data from upper elementary students who participated in a prevention program indicated that Africentric…
Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Evans, Kristin
This article analyzes the construction of ethnic identity in the narratives of 100 young Asian Americans in a dance club/rave scene. Authors examine how illicit drug use and other consuming practices shape their understanding of Asian American identities, finding three distinct patterns. The first presents a disjuncture between Asian American…
Secor-Turner, Molly; Sieving, Renee; Garwick, Ann
Objective: To describe aspects of the social context that low-income, urban African American young women articulate as having influenced social messages they received during adolescence about pregnancy timing and childbearing. Methods: Individual interviews were conducted with 20 African American young women ages 18-22. Results: Findings clustered…
Tapia, Hugo A.; Kinnier, Richard T.; MacKinnon, David P.
This exploratory study compares the differences between 43 Mexican American gang members and 43 Mexican American adolescents who are not members of a gang on several demographic, educational, familial, cultural, and psychological variables. Differences were analyzed using "t" tests and chi-square analyses. discussion focuses on implications for…
McBride Murry, V.; Brody, Gene H.; McNair, Lily D.; Luo, Zupei; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Wills, Thomas Ashby
This study, an evaluation of the Strong African American Families Program, was designed to determine whether intervention-induced changes in targeted parenting behaviors were associated with young adolescents development of racial pride, self-esteem, and sexual identity. Participants were 332 African American mothers and their 11-year-old children…
Hodges, Janice; Pringle, Lajuan S.
The African American male psyche is a complicated multi-layered mixture of outside media influences, stereotypes, peer pressure, how they see themselves, and how they think others see them. This article describes how school and public librarians can help raise the literacy efforts of young African American males. It cites the need for libraries to…
Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather E; Wilson, Dawn K; Lyerly, Jordan E
This study obtained qualitative data from African American (AA) youth and caregiver dyads to inform the Families Improving Together (FIT) for Weight Loss Trial. Focus groups were conducted with 55 AA parent and caregiver dyads to gather perspectives on facilitators and barriers, motivators, and program preferences for health and weight loss using a socio-ecological framework. Four main themes emerged: using a positive health promotion framework for weight loss programs, social support and the role of parents in providing positive support, using a socio-ecological approach to examine factors that contribute to weight, and creating programs that are convenient, fun, and reduce barriers to participation. The findings from this study were used to develop the FIT intervention and indicate important individual, interpersonal, and environmental factors to consider when developing weight management and healthy lifestyle programs for AA families.
Kelly V Ruggles
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To apply discovery-based computational methods to nationally representative data from the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions' Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System to better understand and visualize the behavioral factors associated with gun possession among adolescent youth. RESULTS: Our study uncovered the multidimensional nature of gun possession across nearly five million unique data points over a ten year period (2001-2011. Specifically, we automated odds ratio calculations for 55 risk behaviors to assemble a comprehensive table of associations for every behavior combination. Downstream analyses included the hierarchical clustering of risk behaviors based on their association "fingerprint" to 1 visualize and assess which behaviors frequently co-occur and 2 evaluate which risk behaviors are consistently found to be associated with gun possession. From these analyses, we identified more than 40 behavioral factors, including heroin use, using snuff on school property, having been injured in a fight, and having been a victim of sexual violence, that have and continue to be strongly associated with gun possession. Additionally, we identified six behavioral clusters based on association similarities: 1 physical activity and nutrition; 2 disordered eating, suicide and sexual violence; 3 weapon carrying and physical safety; 4 alcohol, marijuana and cigarette use; 5 drug use on school property and 6 overall drug use. CONCLUSIONS: Use of computational methodologies identified multiple risk behaviors, beyond more commonly discussed indicators of poor mental health, that are associated with gun possession among youth. Implications for prevention efforts and future interdisciplinary work applying computational methods to behavioral science data are described.
Ruggles, Kelly V.; Rajan, Sonali
Objective To apply discovery-based computational methods to nationally representative data from the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions’ Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System to better understand and visualize the behavioral factors associated with gun possession among adolescent youth. Results Our study uncovered the multidimensional nature of gun possession across nearly five million unique data points over a ten year period (2001–2011). Specifically, we automated odds ratio calculations for 55 risk behaviors to assemble a comprehensive table of associations for every behavior combination. Downstream analyses included the hierarchical clustering of risk behaviors based on their association “fingerprint” to 1) visualize and assess which behaviors frequently co-occur and 2) evaluate which risk behaviors are consistently found to be associated with gun possession. From these analyses, we identified more than 40 behavioral factors, including heroin use, using snuff on school property, having been injured in a fight, and having been a victim of sexual violence, that have and continue to be strongly associated with gun possession. Additionally, we identified six behavioral clusters based on association similarities: 1) physical activity and nutrition; 2) disordered eating, suicide and sexual violence; 3) weapon carrying and physical safety; 4) alcohol, marijuana and cigarette use; 5) drug use on school property and 6) overall drug use. Conclusions Use of computational methodologies identified multiple risk behaviors, beyond more commonly discussed indicators of poor mental health, that are associated with gun possession among youth. Implications for prevention efforts and future interdisciplinary work applying computational methods to behavioral science data are described. PMID:25372864
Green, Harold D; de la Haye, Kayla; Tucker, Joan S; Golinelli, Daniela
To identify characteristics of social network members with whom homeless youth engage in drinking and drug use. A multi-stage probability sample of homeless youth completed a social network survey. Forty-one shelters, drop-in centers and known street hangouts in Los Angeles County. A total of 419 homeless youth, aged 13-24 years (mean age = 20.09, standard deviation = 2.80). Respondents described 20 individuals in their networks, including their substance use and demographics, and the characteristics of the relationships they shared, including with whom they drank and used drugs. Dyadic, multi-level regressions identified predictors of shared substance use. Shared drinking was more likely to occur with recent sex partners [odds ratio (OR) = 2.64, confidence interval (CI): 1.67, 4.18], drug users (OR = 4.57, CI: 3.21, 6.49), sexual risk takers (OR = 1.71, CI: 1.25, 2.33), opinion leaders (OR = 1.69, CI: 1.42, 2.00), support providers (OR = 1.41, CI: 1.03, 1.93) and popular people (those with high degree scores in the network) (OR = 1.07, CI: 1.01, 1.14). Shared drug use was more likely to occur with recent sex partners (OR = 2.44, CI: 1.57, 3.80), drinkers (OR = 4.53, CI: 3.05, 6.74), sexual risk takers (OR = 1.51, CI: 1.06, 2.17), opinion leaders (OR = 1.24, CI: 1.03, 1.50), support providers (OR = 1.83, CI: 1.29, 2.60) and popular people (OR = 1.16, CI: 1.08, 1.24). Homeless youth in the United States are more likely to drink or use drugs with those who engage in multiple risk behaviors and who occupy influential social roles (popular, opinion leaders, support providers, sex partners). Understanding these social networks may be helpful in designing interventions to combat substance misuse. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Dupont, H L; Haynes, G A; Pickering, L K; Tjoa, W; Sullivan, P; Olarte, J
A clinic was established at Universidad de las Americas, Cholula, Puebla, Mexico for the study of acute diarrhea rates in newly-arrived students and full-time students. Diarrhea occurred in 22 of 55 newlly-arrived U.S. summer students (40%), compared to 28 of 142 U.S. full-time students (20%), 4 of 29 Venezuelan summer and full-time students (14%) and 7 of 66 Mexican full-time students (11%) (the differences were significant, p less than 0.005). Recurrent episodes of diarrhea during the month of study occurred in 15% of U.S. summer students, 4% of U.S. full-time students, and were non-existent in students from Latin America. As well as the 61 students with diarrhea enrolled in the incidence study, all students who developed diarrhea at the univeristy were encouraged to visit the clinic. This gave a total population of 130 cases of diarrhea. The illness that developed in students form the U.S. varied widely, but it typically consisted of seven to 13 unformed stools during the first 48 hours of illness, with illness persiting three to five days. Illness tended to be more severe in the U.S. students. Fifty per cent of the U.S. students with diarrhea had "severe" illness (greater than or equal to 10 unformed stools in first 48 hours) compared to 23% of the Latin Americans. This study indicates that the agents responsible for diarrhea in Latin America are widespread and that resistance to infection develops after prolonged or repeated exposure.
This paper reviews the literature and existing databases for information on secular trends in the physical fitness of young Americans and describes changes in fitness during Basic Combat Training (BCT...
Byun, Soo-yong; Park, Hyunjoon
Using data from the Education Longitudinal Study, this study assessed the relevance of shadow education to the high academic performance of East Asian American students by examining how East Asian American students differed from other racial/ethnic students in the prevalence, purpose, and effects of using the two forms – commercial test preparation service and private one-to-one tutoring – of SAT coaching, defined as the American style of shadow education. East Asian American students were most likely to take a commercial SAT test preparation course for the enrichment purpose, and benefited most from taking this particular form of SAT coaching. However, this was not the case for private SAT one-to-one tutoring. While black students were most likely to utilize private tutoring for the remedial purpose, the impact of private tutoring was trivial for all racial/ethnic groups including East Asian American students. The authors discussed broader implications of the findings on racial/ethnic inequalities in educational achievement beyond the relevance of shadow education for the academic success of East Asian American students. PMID:24163483
Garcia, Antonio R; Greeson, Johanna K P; Kim, Minseop; Thompson, Allison; DeNard, Christina
Racial and ethnic disparities in delinquency among child welfare-involved youth are well documented. However, less is known about the mechanisms through which these disparities occur. This study explores the extent to which sets of variables predict the occurrence of juvenile delinquency and whether race/ethnicity moderates the strength of the relationships between (1) social, emotional, and behavioral (SEB) problems and delinquency and (2) mental health service use and delinquency. We used a nationally representative sample of 727 African American, Caucasian, and Latino youth between the ages of 12-17 who were referred to the child welfare system. Controlling for age, gender, placement instability, maltreatment history, poverty, and urbanicity, linear regression analyses revealed that African American and Latino youth engaged in more delinquent acts than Caucasian youth did. However, service use decreased the likelihood of engaging in more delinquent acts for African Americans. Additional efforts are needed to illuminate and address the contextual and organizational barriers to delivering effective mental health services as a strategy to reduce racial disparities in delinquent behavior. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Henderson, Rita Isabel; Hatfield, Jennifer; Kutz, Susan; Olemshumba, Saningo; Van Der Meer, Frank; Manyama, Mange; Bastien, Sheri
Records at the Endulen Hospital in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA), Tanzania, reveal that soil-transmitted helminth infections and protozoa are consistently in the top ten diagnoses for Maasai pastoralists, indicating a significant public health concern. Nevertheless, Maasai pastoralist adaptations to life in close proximity to livestock and to unreliable access to water raise important questions about experiences of, and resiliency to, parasitic infections. Though these infections are particularly prevalent among youth in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), a focus on resiliency highlights local capacity to recover from and prevent illness. For instance, how is human parasitism perceived and experienced among communities displaying behaviours that studies have associated with transmission of diarrhoeal diseases, such as open defecation? Among these communities, how is parasitism seen to impact the health and development of children? And, what resources are available to endure or mitigate this heavy disease burden among affected communities? This study draws on formative research carried out in May 2014 in anticipation of an innovative school-based and youth-driven water, sanitation and hygiene education intervention rolled out in two boarding schools in the NCA in subsequent months. The initiative is grounded in a One Health approach to health promotion, drawing on partnerships in medicine, public health and veterinary medicine to appreciate the unique interactions between humans, animals and the environment that shape well-being among pastoralist communities. Qualitative data generated through group discussions with secondary school youth (n=60), Maasai teachers (n=6) and a women's group (n=8) in the NCA convey existing knowledge of the prevalence, prevention and treatment of human parasitism. An underlying principle of the larger initiative is to engage youth as creative agents of change in developing and sustaining locally relevant health promotion
Diamond, Sarah; Bermudez, Rey; Schensul, Jean
Trends in ecstasy use in America during the past decade were reflected in mainstream, American rap-music lyrics between 1996 and 2003. Drawing on communication and cultural studies theory, this article provides a content analysis of 69 rap songs mentioning the club drug ecstasy. The songs are coded according to whether they contain positive, mixed…
The purpose of the study is to (a) predict adversarial attitudes toward male-female relationships and (b) explore the relationships between traditional agents of socialization and personal acceptance of negative images in rap videos by African American adolescents. Participants completed psychosocial measures, viewed videos, and completed surveys…
In response to the banning of Mexican American Studies in Tucson, students in the newly formed Chican@ Literature, Art, and Social Studies program displayed their resiliency in the face of the oppressive actions of the Tucson Unified School District and the state of Arizona. This article serves as a platform for the voices of these dedicated youth…
Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Bagdi, Aparna; Bradshaw, Catherine P.
Although there is a growing body of research documenting the deleterious effect of experiencing relational aggression, few studies have explored how children cope with relational aggression, especially when it occurs between close friends. Moreover, relational aggression is understudied among urban African American children. Using data from a…
Yin, Zenong; And Others
A survey of 2,216 low-SES Mexican American students in grades 4-6 investigated family, social, and psychological risk factors related to substance abuse. Use of major and minor substances was related to respondent score on an index of 11 risk factors. Relationship between major substance use and risk index was significantly greater for females…
Eitle, David; Eitle, Tamela McNulty
Despite evidence that American Indian (AI) adolescents are disproportionately involved in crime and delinquent behavior, there exists scant research exploring the correlates of crime among this group. We posit that Agnew's General Strain Theory (GST) is well suited to explain AI delinquent activity. Using the National Longitudinal Study of…
The decision to participate in visual arts studies in college and visual arts professions in adult life is the product of multiple factors, including the influences of family, community, peer group, mass culture, and K-12 schooling. Recognizing African American underrepresentation in visual arts studies and professions, this article explores how…
Through an examination of the visual rhetoric of identity presented by reality shows, especially "Here Comes Honey Boo Boo," this paper explores ways in which American reality television and related media images construct, deploy, and reiterate visual stereotypes about whites from rural regions of the United States. Its focus is the…
Issues such as joblessness, violence, and substance abuse have threatened some forms of civic life and community well-being in African American urban neighborhoods. And for young people, a diminished capacity for hope is one of the most significant threats to civic engagement. Community organizations are responding to this crisis by creating…
Kerr, Zachary Y.; Marshall, Stephen W.; Simon, Janet E.; Hayden, Ross; Snook, Erin M.; Dodge, Thomas; Gallo, Joseph A.; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.; Mensch, James; Murphy, Joseph M.; Nittoli, Vincent C.; Dompier, Thomas P.; Ragan, Brian; Yeargin, Susan W.; Parsons, John T.
Background: American youth football leagues are typically structured using either age-only (AO) or age-and-weight (AW) playing standard conditions. These playing standard conditions group players by age in the former condition and by a combination of age and weight in the latter condition. However, no study has systematically compared injury risk between these 2 playing standards. Purpose: To compare injury rates between youth tackle football players in the AO and AW playing standard conditions. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Athletic trainers evaluated and recorded injuries at each practice and game during the 2012 and 2013 football seasons. Players (age, 5-14 years) were drawn from 13 recreational leagues across 6 states. The sample included 4092 athlete-seasons (AW, 2065; AO, 2027) from 210 teams (AW, 106; O, 104). Injury rate ratios (RRs) with 95% CIs were used to compare the playing standard conditions. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to estimate RRs adjusted for residual effects of age and clustering by team and league. There were 4 endpoints of interest: (1) any injury, (2) non–time loss (NTL) injuries only, (3) time loss (TL) injuries only, and (4) concussions only. Results: Over 2 seasons, the cohort accumulated 1475 injuries and 142,536 athlete-exposures (AEs). The most common injuries were contusions (34.4%), ligament sprains (16.3%), concussions (9.6%), and muscle strains (7.8%). The overall injury rate for both playing standard conditions combined was 10.3 per 1000 AEs (95% CI, 9.8-10.9). The TL injury, NTL injury, and concussion rates in both playing standard conditions combined were 3.1, 7.2, and 1.0 per 1000 AEs, respectively. In multivariate Poisson regression models controlling for age, team, and league, no differences were found between playing standard conditions in the overall injury rate (RRoverall, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.4-2.6). Rates for the other 3 endpoints were also similar (RRNTL, 1.1 [95% CI, 0
Henes, Sarah T; Cummings, Doyle M; Hickner, Robert C; Houmard, Joseph A; Kolasa, Kathryn M; Lazorick, Suzanne; Collier, David N
The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics recommends the use of indirect calorimetry for calculating caloric targets for weight loss in obese youth. Practitioners typically use predictive equations since indirect calorimetry is often not available. The objective of this study was to compare measured resting energy expenditure (MREE) with that estimated using published predictive equations in obese pediatric patients. Youth aged 7 to 18 years (n = 80) who were referred to a university-based healthy weight clinic and who were greater than the 95th percentile BMI for age and gender participated. MREE was measured via a portable indirect calorimeter. Predicted energy expenditure (pEE) was estimated using published equations including those commonly used in children. pEE was compared to the MREE for each subject. Absolute mean difference between MREE and pEE, mean percentage accuracy, and mean error were determined. Mean percentage accuracy of pEE compared with MREE varied widely, with the Harris-Benedict, Lazzer, and Molnar equations providing the greatest accuracy (65%, 61%, and 60%, respectively). Mean differences between MREE and equation-estimated caloric targets varied from 197.9 kcal/day to 307.7 kcal/day. The potential to either overestimate or underestimate calorie needs in the clinical setting is significant when comparing EE derived from predictive equations with that measured using portable indirect calorimetry. While our findings suggest that the Harris-Benedict equation has improved accuracy relative to other equations in severely obese youth, the potential for error remains sufficiently great to suggest that indirect calorimetry is preferred.
Suarez-Balcazar, Yolanda; Friesema, Jennifer; Lukyanova, Valentina
While obesity impacts all ethnic groups in the United States, African Americans and Latinos are particularly at high risk for obesity. The purpose of this paper is to provide an analysis of the literature on evidence-based culturally competent strategies for addressing and preventing obesity and discuss roles for occupational therapists working with populations at risk for obesity in the school or therapeutic clinical environment. A review was conducted of over 80 research articles describing successful interventions conducted in schools and communities targeting African Americans and Latino children. Although unique single strategies are highlighted in this paper, obesity interventions are complex and involved a number of multilevel strategies. The results of the analysis of the literature are presented according to strategies that promote healthy eating, physical activity, and overall healthy lifestyles. Along with the cultural competent strategies, we recommend specific roles for occupational therapists in order to promote the implementation of each particular strategy. Lastly, implications for occupational therapy are discussed.
King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hill, Mallory K.
A total of 366 American Indian students in grades 7 through 12 completed the PRIDE questionnaire. Recent alcohol use was reported by 31.9% of students, whereas 26.7% reported frequent episodic heavy drinking. One in three students felt it was harmful/very harmful to use alcohol and less than half felt alcohol was easy/very easy to obtain. A series…
Judy Soojin Park
Full Text Available This article investigates the recent proliferation of Asian American participants in Electronic Dance Music (EDM festivals with a particular focus on those organized by Insomniac Events in Southern California. As Insomniac’s events aim to propagate an ethos of PLUR—Peace, Love, Unity and Respect—reminiscent of historical rave culture, these events promise a space where anyone, regardless of race, class, gender or sexuality, is accepted. Using an interview-based methodology paired with participant observation, I argue that Asian American youth’s status as “perpetual foreigners” and subsequent desire for cultural belonging have motivated their participation in events promoted by Insomniac. Nevertheless, the Asian American participants I interviewed defined notions of belonging, authenticity and subcultural capital in the EDM festival scene in relation to suburban middle-class whiteness and in opposition to urban hip-hop blackness. My research provides a much-needed study of nonwhite participants and how they negotiate their subjectivities in relation to the contemporary EDM festival scene.
Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; O'malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D
This article aims to contribute to the literature by reporting on a nationally representative study of U.S. youths regarding their self-reported reasons for abstaining from or quitting marijuana use and the relationships between such reasons and individual sociodemographic characteristics of gender and race/ethnicity. This article uses data from in-school surveys obtained from nationally representative cross-sectional samples of U.S. high school seniors from 1977 to 2005 (N = 82,106). Results indicate the following: (1) 50% of those reporting past-12-month marijuana use felt they should either stop or reduce their use; (2) among those saying they would not use marijuana in the coming year, the most frequently reported reasons cited were psychological and physical damage and not wanting to get high (reported by more than 60%), whereas the least frequently reported reasons included expense, concerns of having a bad trip, and availability (reported by fewer than 25%); and (3) clear differences existed in reported reasons by gender and race/ethnicity. A significant percentage of U.S. high school seniors who are recent marijuana users wish to either reduce or stop their marijuana use and are basing such desires on a wide variety of reasons that show significant gender and racial/ethnic variation. Marijuana prevention and cessation policy and programming could potentially be strengthened by incorporating the findings from these analyses.
McLeod, D L; Buscemi, J; Bohnert, A M
Latino youth have the highest rate of overweight and obesity across ethnic and racial groups, placing these individuals at increased risk for a variety of negative immediate and long-term health outcomes. Many studies have shown that acculturative factors play a role in this process for adults, while less is known about the impact of these factors for children and adolescents. This study systematically reviews the current literature on acculturative factors and obesity among Latino children. Three hundred and seventy-nine studies were independently reviewed by two coders for eligibility. Twenty-nine studies met eligibility criteria and were included in the final review. Results indicated that relations between acculturation and obesity among Latino children are equivocal. Across studies reviewed, the significance and directionality of this relation differed. Heterogeneity across studies reviewed, including age, specific population and measures used for assessing acculturation, likely contributed to the mixed results. To provide greater clarity on the role of acculturative factors on obesity, future studies should (i) utilize a longitudinal design; (ii) control for potential confounding factors such as socioeconomic status; and (iii) examine potential moderating and mediating influences. © 2016 World Obesity.
Tanamas, Stephanie K; Reddy, Sanil P; Chambers, Melissa A; Clark, Elena J; Dunnigan, Diana L; Hanson, Robert L; Nelson, Robert G; Knowler, William C; Sinha, Madhumita
The risk of early-onset type 2 diabetes associated with the severity of obesity in youth is not well understood. This study aims to determine metabolic alterations and type 2 diabetes risk among American Indian children who are obese or severely obese. Incidence rates of diabetes before 20 years (youth-onset) and 45 years were computed in 2728 children who were from 5 to Obesity was defined as age-sex-adjusted body mass index (BMI) ≥95th percentile, and its severity was quantified as the percentage of the 95th percentile (%BMI p95 ). In the younger cohort, 0.9% of those non-obese and 2.9% of those with 100% to obese and 9.8% of those with 100% to youth-onset diabetes was 3.8 and 4.9/1000 person-years in the child and adolescent cohorts, respectively, and before the age of 45 was 12.3 and 16.8/1000 person-years, respectively. Incidence rates of youth-onset diabetes in those with the most severe obesity (≥140%BMI p95 ) were 2.3 to 5.1 times as high as in those with the least severe obesity (100 to obesity in an American Indian population is a major driver of type 2 diabetes developing in adolescents and young adults. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Keays, Glenn; Friedman, Debbie; Gagnon, Isabelle
Introduction Little is known about Canadian youth football injuries. The objectives of this study were (a) to contrast the injuries in Canadian and American football players aged 6 to 17 years and (b) compare the injuries sustained during organized football with those in nonorganized football. Methods Using a retrospective cohort design based on data from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program and the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System a comparison of injuries was made. Results Trends in injuries were comparable. Proportions and odds of injuries were similar, except for a few exceptions. In Canada, more girls were injured and fractures were more prevalent. Compared with nonorganized football, organized football players were older, involved more males, and suffered more traumatic brain injuries and injuries to their lower extremities. Conclusion Canadian and American youth football injuries were similar. The type of football, be it organized or nonorganized, has an impact on injuries. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available From the start the Slovene benefit societies in the United States had a dual purpose: to provide their members with sickness and death benefits and to unite the immigrants by promoting cultural activities. With the growth of the second generation the Slovene benefit societies were faced with a new challenge: how to preserve their role not only as insurance companies, but also as cultural centers. New ways of involving the immigrants' daughters and sons- the second generation of Slovene-Americans - became a central issue for the future existence of these societies.
Trude, Angela Cristina Bizzotto; Kharmats, Anna Yevgenyevna; Hurley, Kristen Marie; Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Gittelsohn, Joel
Childhood obesity, one of the greatest challenges to public health, disproportionately affects low-income urban minority populations. Fruits and vegetables (FV) are nutrient dense foods that may be inversely associated with excessive weight gain. We aimed to identify the individual characteristic, psychosocial, and household factors influencing FV and fiber consumption in low-income African-American (AA) youth in Baltimore, MD. Cross-sectional analysis of data collected from 285 low-income AA caregiver-youth (age range: 10-14 y) dyads participating in the baseline evaluation of the B'More Healthy Communities for Kids obesity prevention trial. The Kid's Block FFQ was used to estimate daily intakes of FV (including 100 % fruit juice) and dietary fiber. Questionnaires were used to assess household socio-demographics, caregiver and youth food purchasing and preparation behavior, and youth psychosocial information. Ordered logit regression analyses were conducted to examine psychosocial and food-related behavior associated with FV and dietary fiber intake (quartile of intake) controlling for youth age, sex, BMI percentile, total calorie intake and household income. On average, youth consumed 1.5 ± 1.1 (M ± SD) servings of fruit, 1.8 ± 1.7 serving of vegetables, and 15.3 ± 10.9 g of fiber/day. There were no differences by gender, age or household income. Greater youth's healthy eating intentions and self-efficacy scores were associated with greater odds ratio for higher intake of FV and fiber (Intention: ORfruit 1.22; 95 % CI: 1.06-1.41, ORvegetable 1.31; 1.15-1.51 and ORfiber 1.46; 1.23-1.74, Self-efficacy: ORfruit 1.07; 1.03-1.12, ORvegetable 1.04; 1.01-1.09, ORfiber 1.10; 1.04-1.16). Youth receiving free/low-cost breakfast were more than twice as likely to have higher fiber intake than those who did not receive free breakfast (OR 2.7; 1.10; 6.9). In addition, youth shopping more frequently at supermarkets were more likely to have greater vegetable
Assini-Meytin, Luciana C.; Green, Kerry M.
Purpose To improve understanding of long-term socioeconomic consequences of teen parenting for men and women. Methods Analysis is based on the Woodlawn Study, a longitudinal study of an African American cohort from a socially disadvantaged community in Chicago; data were collected at childhood (N=1,242), adolescence (N=705), young adulthood (age 32, N=952), and midlife (age 42, N=833). This analysis focused on the 1050 individuals with data on teen parenting. We used propensity score matching to account for differences in background characteristics between teenage parents and their peers and multiple imputation to account for differential attrition. Results The regression models on matched samples showed that at age 32, in comparison to non-teen mothers, teenage mothers were more likely to be unemployed, live in poverty, depend on welfare, and have earned a GED or completed high school compared to finishing college. At age 32, teen fathers were more likely to be without a job compared to non-teen fathers. At age 42, the effect of teen parenting for women remained statistically significant for education and income. There were no significant associations between teen parenting and outcomes for men at age 42. Conclusions Socioeconomic consequences of teenage parenting among African Americans from disadvantaged background seem to be primarily concentrated in women and persist throughout adulthood. In addition to promoting the delay of parenting after the teenage years, it is critical to provide programs at early stages in the life course to mitigate the negative socioeconomic consequences of teenage motherhood as effects for women are broad. PMID:25769478
Xu, X; Su, S; Wang, X; Barnes, V; De Miguel, C; Ownby, D; Pollock, J; Snieder, H; Chen, W; Wang, X
There is emerging evidence suggesting the role of peripheral blood leukocytes in the pathogenesis of obesity and related diseases. However, few studies have taken a genome-wide approach to investigating gene expression profiles in peripheral leukocytes between obese and lean individuals with the consideration of obesity-related shifts in leukocyte types. We conducted this study in 95 African Americans (AAs) of both genders (age 14-20 years, 46 lean and 49 obese). Complete blood count with differential test (CBC) was performed in whole blood. Genome-wide gene expression analysis was obtained using the Illumina HumanHT-12 V4 Beadchip with RNA extracted from peripheral leukocytes. Out of the 95 participants, 64 had neutrophils stored. The validation study was based on real-time PCR with RNA extracted from purified neutrophils. CBC test suggested that, in males, obesity was associated with increased neutrophil percentage (P=0.03). Genome-wide gene expression analysis showed that, in males, the majority of the most differentially expressed genes were related to neutrophil activation. Validation of the gene expression levels of ELANE (neutrophil elastase) and MPO (myeloperoxidase) in purified neutrophils demonstrated that the expression of these two genes--important biomarkers of neutrophils activation--were significantly elevated in obese males (P=0.01 and P=0.02, respectively). The identification of increased neutrophil percentage and activation in obese AA males suggests that neutrophils have an essential role in the pathogenesis of obesity-related disease. Further functional and mechanistic studies on neutrophils may contribute to the development of novel intervention strategies reducing the burden associated with obesity-related health problems.
Rose, India D.; Friedman, Daniela B.
Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth are at disproportionate risk for HIV. Schools play an integral role in educating young people about sexual health in addition to providing sexual health services. This qualitative study examined SGM youths' perception of school sexual health education and services. A total of 42 self-identified African…
Kimmel, Allison; Williams, Terrinieka T; Veinot, Tiffany C; Campbell, Bettina; Campbell, Terrance R; Valacak, Mark; Kruger, Daniel J
High rates of youth pregnancy and STIs play a major role in the physical, mental, and emotional health of young people. Despite efforts to provide sexuality education through diverse channels, we know little about the ways in which young people perceive school- and community-based efforts to educate them about sexual health. Forty-eight African-American young people participated in six focus groups to discuss their sexuality education experiences. Three major themes emerged that highlight experiences and perspectives on optimal strategies for promoting sexual health. These themes were: 1) experiences with school-based sexuality education (SBSE); 2) seeking information outside of schools; and 3) general principles of youth-centered sexuality education. Young people in the focus groups expressed their varying satisfaction with SBSE due to the restricted content covered and lack of comfort with the instruction methods. Participants described how they reached outside of SBSE for sexuality education, turning to those in the community, including local organisations, health care providers, and peers, also expressing variability in satisfaction with these sources. Finally, participants identified three important principles for youth-centred sexuality education: trust and confidentiality, credibility, and self-determination. These findings give voice to the often-unheard perspectives of African-American young people. Based on their responses, it is possible to gain a better understanding of the optimal combination of school, family, peer and community-based efforts to support them as they move towards adulthood.
Angela Cristina Bizzotto Trude
Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity, one of the greatest challenges to public health, disproportionately affects low-income urban minority populations. Fruits and vegetables (FV are nutrient dense foods that may be inversely associated with excessive weight gain. We aimed to identify the individual characteristic, psychosocial, and household factors influencing FV and fiber consumption in low-income African-American (AA youth in Baltimore, MD. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of data collected from 285 low-income AA caregiver-youth (age range: 10–14 y dyads participating in the baseline evaluation of the B’More Healthy Communities for Kids obesity prevention trial. The Kid's Block FFQ was used to estimate daily intakes of FV (including 100 % fruit juice and dietary fiber. Questionnaires were used to assess household socio-demographics, caregiver and youth food purchasing and preparation behavior, and youth psychosocial information. Ordered logit regression analyses were conducted to examine psychosocial and food-related behavior associated with FV and dietary fiber intake (quartile of intake controlling for youth age, sex, BMI percentile, total calorie intake and household income. Results On average, youth consumed 1.5 ± 1.1 (M ± SD servings of fruit, 1.8 ± 1.7 serving of vegetables, and 15.3 ± 10.9 g of fiber/day. There were no differences by gender, age or household income. Greater youth’s healthy eating intentions and self-efficacy scores were associated with greater odds ratio for higher intake of FV and fiber (Intention: ORfruit 1.22; 95 % CI: 1.06–1.41, ORvegetable 1.31; 1.15–1.51 and ORfiber 1.46; 1.23–1.74, Self-efficacy: ORfruit 1.07; 1.03–1.12, ORvegetable 1.04; 1.01–1.09, ORfiber 1.10; 1.04–1.16. Youth receiving free/low-cost breakfast were more than twice as likely to have higher fiber intake than those who did not receive free breakfast (OR 2.7; 1.10; 6.9. In addition, youth shopping more
Bloodgood, Bonny; Inokuchi, Derek; Shawver, Willis; Olson, Kristina; Hoffman, Rosanne; Cohen, Elyse; Sarmiento, Kelly; Muthuswamy, Kavitha
Although much effort is underway by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other organizations to highlight the seriousness of traumatic brain injury, including concussions, among young athletes, little is known about how these athletes and their parents view this injury and how much they know about it. Online surveys were conducted with youth who participate in sports (n = 252) and with the parents of youth who participate in sports (n = 300) to explore the ways in which these audiences view concussion and messaging related to concussion. More than four out of five youth and parents reported that they had heard about concussions, although awareness was significantly higher for some subgroups, including parents of children 10-13 years old, and parents who reported using the Internet several times daily. Youth ages 13-15 years were significantly more likely to strongly agree that concussions are a "critical issue," as compared with youth ages 16-18 years. Among parents, significantly more mothers than fathers agreed that concussions are a critical issue. More than half of youth participants strongly disagreed that their friends would think they were "dumb for caring about concussions," with girls significantly more likely to strongly disagree than boys. When parents were asked to identify organizations they would trust as a reliable source of information for concussions, the most frequently cited organization was the CDC. Results of this study demonstrate a high level of awareness about concussion among youth athletes and parents of youth athletes. However, important distinctions among subgroups of both youth and parents-such as by race/ethnicity, age, sex, and Internet use-suggest directions for future communication and research efforts. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.
Delva, Jorge; Johnston, Lloyd D; O'Malley, Patrick M
Differences in the prevalence of youth at or above the 85th percentile of age- and gender-adjusted body mass index (BMI) by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status were examined among youth in 8th and 10th grades. The possible role of a number of lifestyle behaviors and family/parenting factors in explaining these differences was then explored. Cross-sectional survey data were used from nationally representative samples in the Monitoring the Future study from 1998 to 2003 (N=39,011 students). Data were analyzed in 2006. Minority, low-income males, and male youth were more likely have a BMI at or above the 85th percentile. Frequency of eating breakfast, eating fruits and vegetables, and exercising regularly were inversely associated with being at or above the 85th percentile. The number of hours youth spend per week watching television was positively associated with being at or above the 85th percentile. These lifestyle behaviors proved more important than the family/parenting variables examined. The overrepresentation of youth at risk of overweight or overweight among racial/ethnic minority and low-income populations mimics the excess morbidity of overweight and obesity-related health conditions in these same populations. Differences in lifestyle behaviors and family characteristics might help to explain these subgroup differences starting at an early age. While there is growing need to modify these behaviors in the population at large, the need is greatest among minorities and low-socioeconomic status youth.
Jette, Shannon; Roberts, Erica Blue
In this article, we utilise qualitative research techniques to explore how 14 urban American Indian (AI) females (aged 11-17) living in the state of Maryland discursively construct and experience health and the body, as well as how/if traditional culture shapes their understandings. In doing so, we address a significant gap in the knowledge base concerning the health beliefs of urban AI youth, and build upon research utilising a decolonising approach. Using a two-step process of thematic analysis and poststructuralist discourse analysis, we arrived at three key findings: (1) while youths are taught (and learn) mainstream lessons about health and bodily norms (mostly at school), they negotiate these lessons in complex and at times contradictory ways; (2) they do not view their AI status as conferring more or less risk upon them or their community; and (3) AI identity appears to be fluid in nature, becoming more salient, even a resource, in certain situations. We conclude with a discussion of the importance of spaces within the urban context in shaping youths' embodied subjectivities, and in particular, contrast the space of the school with that of the urban AI community centre. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.
Oosterhoff, Benjamin; Kaplow, Julie B; Layne, Christopher M; Pynoos, Robert S
Promoting trust in public officials and active political engagement is vital to sustaining a well-functioning democracy. Developmental psychologists propose that youths' beliefs about government and participation in politics are rooted in personal experiences within their communities. Previous studies have focused on how positive experiences within youths' families, schools, and communities facilitate greater social trust and political participation. However, less is known about how negative interpersonal experiences-such as criminal victimization-intersect with youths' beliefs about the trustworthiness, competence, and knowledge of government officials, and their participation in political activity. Using data from 39 waves of the Monitoring the Future study, the current study examined associations among youth victimization, beliefs about government, and participation in various political activities. Adolescents (N = 109,574; 50.9% female) enrolled in 12th grade across the United States reported on whether they had experienced various types of victimization during the previous year, their beliefs about government, and their participation in multiple forms of political activity. Adolescents who reported more frequent victimization experiences endorsed significantly greater discontent with government and were significantly more engaged in various forms of political activity. The magnitude and direction of these effects were generally consistent across different types of victimization, different demographic subgroups of youth, and different sociohistorical periods. Findings are interpreted from a social contract theory perspective, followed by a discussion of implications for building psychological theory and informing public policy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Goldstein, Benjamin I; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Matthews, Karen A; McIntyre, Roger S; Miller, Gregory E; Raghuveer, Geetha; Stoney, Catherine M; Wasiak, Hank; McCrindle, Brian W
In the 2011 "Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents," several medical conditions among youth were identified that predispose to accelerated atherosclerosis and early cardiovascular disease (CVD), and risk stratification and management strategies for youth with these conditions were elaborated. Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) among youth satisfy the criteria set for, and therefore merit inclusion among, Expert Panel tier II moderate-risk conditions. The combined prevalence of MDD and BD among adolescents in the United States is ≈10%, at least 10 times greater than the prevalence of the existing moderate-risk conditions combined. The high prevalence of MDD and BD underscores the importance of positioning these diseases alongside other pediatric diseases previously identified as moderate risk for CVD. The overall objective of this statement is to increase awareness and recognition of MDD and BD among youth as moderate-risk conditions for early CVD. To achieve this objective, the primary specific aims of this statement are to (1) summarize evidence that MDD and BD are tier II moderate-risk conditions associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and early CVD and (2) position MDD and BD as tier II moderate-risk conditions that require the application of risk stratification and management strategies in accordance with Expert Panel recommendations. In this scientific statement, there is an integration of the various factors that putatively underlie the association of MDD and BD with CVD, including pathophysiological mechanisms, traditional CVD risk factors, behavioral and environmental factors, and psychiatric medications. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Full Text Available There has been significant interest in the role of social media in the lives of adolescents, particularly as it relates to sexual risk. Researchers have focused on understanding usage behaviors, quantifying effects of social media exposure and activity, and using social media to intervene. Much of this work has focused on college students and non-minority youth. In this paper, we examine the growing body of literature around social media use among US minority youth and its intersection with sexual risk behavior. We introduce the concept of the “digital neighborhood” and examine the intersection of social media and sexual health in two domains: 1 sexual content in social media and 2 evidence of social media effects on sexual behavior. Finally, we discuss the opportunities and challenges for researchers and practitioners engaging youth of color.
Yeh, Fawn; Rhoades, Everett R; Tarpay, Martha; Eichner, June E
The aims of the present study were to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of asthma among a sample of American Indian youth and to evaluate survey instruments used in determining asthma prevalence and risk factors. Three hundred and fifty-two adolescents aged 9 to 21 years enrolled in an Indian boarding school completed an asthma screening. The survey instruments were a written questionnaire and a video-illustrated questionnaire prepared from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), school health records, and a health questionnaire. Participants also underwent spirometry testing. The prevalence of self-reported asthma varied from 12.7% to 13.4% depending upon the instrument used and the questions asked. A history of hay fever, respiratory infections, and family history of asthma were found to be risk factors for asthma by all instruments. Female gender and living on a reservation were significantly associated with asthma by some, but not all, instruments. Airway obstruction was highly associated with one asthma symptom (wheeze) shown in the video questionnaire. Associations for most risk factors with asthma were strongest for the video questionnaire. The prevalence of self-reported asthma among these American Indian youth was similar to rates reported for other ethnic groups. The video-based questionnaire may be the most sensitive tool for identifying individuals at risk for asthma.
Finigan-Carr, Nadine M.; Cheng, Tina L.; Gielen, Andrea; Haynie, Denise L.; Simons-Morton, Bruce
Aggressive and weapons carrying behaviors are indicative of youth violence. The theory of planned behavior is used in the current analysis to improve our understanding of violence-related behaviors. We examine the influence of perceived behavioral control (self-control and decision making) as a part of the overall framework for understanding the…
Bullinger, Monika; Sommer, Rachel; Pleil, Andreas; Mauras, Nelly; Ross, Judith; Newfield, Ron; Silverman, Lawrence; Rohenkohl, Anja; Fox, Janet; Quitmann, Julia
The European Quality of Life in Short Stature Youth (QoLISSY) is a novel condition-specific instrument developed to assess health related quality of life (HrQoL) in children/adolescents with short stature from patient and parent perspectives. Study objective was to linguistically validate and psychometrically test the American-English version of the QoLISSY instrument. Upon conversion of the British-English version to American-English, content validity and acceptance of the questionnaire were examined through focus group discussions with cognitive debriefing in 28 children/adolescents with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) or idiopathic short stature (ISS) and their parents. In the subsequent field test with 51 families and a re-test with 25 families the psychometric performance of the American-English version was examined and compared with the original European dataset. Pilot test results supported the suitability of the American-English version. Good internal consistency with Cronbach's Alpha ranging from 0.84 to 0.97 and high test-re-test reliabilities were observed in the field test. The QoLISSY was able to detect significant differences according to the degree of short stature with higher HrQoL for taller children. Correlations with a generic HrQoL tool support the QoLISSY's concurrent validity. The scale's operating characteristics were comparable to the original European data. Results support that the QoLISSY American-English version is a psychometrically sound short stature-specific instrument to assess the patient- and parent- perceived impact of short stature. The QoLISSY instrument is fit for use in clinical studies and health services research in the American-English speaking population.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide association studies found common variants in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO gene associated with adiposity in Caucasians and Asians but the association was not confirmed in African populations. Association of FTO variants with insulin resistance and energy intake showed inconsistent results in previous studies. This study aimed to assess the influence of FTO variant rs9939609 on adiposity, insulin resistance, energy intake and physical activity in European - (EA and African-American (AA youth. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in EA and AA youths. One thousand, nine hundred and seventy-eight youths (48.2% EAs, 47.1% male, mean age 16.5 years had measures of anthropometry. Percent body fat (%BF was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT by magnetic resonance imaging. Energy intake and physical activity were based on self report from up to 7 24-hour recalls. Physical activity was also measured by accelerometry. Results FTO rs9939609 was significantly associated with body mass index (BMI (P = 0.01, weight (P = 0.03 and waist circumference (P = 0.04, with per-allele effects of 0.4 kg/m2, 1.3 kg and 0.8 cm, respectively. No significant association was found between rs9939609 and %BF, VAT, SAAT or insulin resistance (P > 0.05, or between rs9939609 and energy intake or vigorous physical activity (P > 0.05. No significant interactions of rs9939609 with ethnicity, gender, energy intake or physical activity were observed (P > 0.05. Conclusions The FTO variant rs9939609 is modestly associated with BMI and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical activity. Moreover, these effects were similar for EAs and AAs. Improved understanding of the effect of the FTO variant will offer new insights into the etiology of excess adiposity.
Jaccard, James; Dittus, Patricia; Gonzalez, Bernardo; Bouris, Alida; Banspach, Stephen
Objectives. We evaluated the effectiveness of a parent-based add-on component to a school-based intervention to prevent cigarette smoking among African American and Latino middle school youths. Methods. Mother–adolescent dyads (n = 1386) were randomly assigned to 2 groups: (1) a school-based smoking-prevention intervention or (2) the same intervention with a parent-based add-on component called Raising Smoke-Free Kids. Mothers in the experimental condition received the parent add-on component. Mothers in the control condition received information on selecting a high school. All adolescents received a version of Project Towards No Tobacco Use (TNT). The primary outcome was a reduction in adolescent cigarette smoking. Follow-up data were obtained from 1096 mother–adolescent dyads at 15 months postintervention. Results. At follow-up, the odds of smoking cigarettes were reduced by 42% for adolescents in the parent add-on condition versus the TNT-only condition. Mothers in the parent add-on condition were more likely than were mothers in the TNT-only condition to set rules about risk-sensitive social activities and to be perceived as trustworthy by their child. Group differences also were found in the frequency and quality of mother–adolescent communication. Conclusions. Including parent add-on components in school-based smoking prevention programs can reduce smoking behavior on the part of inner-city middle school youths. PMID:20634469
Use of Media Technologies by Native American Teens and Young Adults: Evaluating Their Utility for Designing Culturally-Appropriate Sexual Health Interventions Targeting Native Youth in the Pacific Northwest
Craig Rushing, Stephanie Nicole
American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth are disproportionally burdened by high rates of sexually transmitted infections and teen pregnancy, heightening their need for sexual health interventions that are aligned to their unique culture and social context. Media technologies, including the Internet, cell phones, and video games, offer new…
Hardie, Jessica Halliday; Pearce, Lisa D.; Denton, Melinda Lundquist
This study examines changes in religious service attendance over time for a contemporary cohort of adolescents moving from middle to late adolescence. We use two waves of a nationally representative panel survey of youth from the National Study of Youth and Religion (NSYR) to examine the dynamics of religious involvement during adolescence. We…
Entner Wright, Bradley R.; Younts, C. Wesley
Studies of race and crime have emphasized the effects of social disadvantage and discrimination on increasing crime among African Americans. The authors extend this literature by examining various beliefs and institutions that have developed within African American communities that, in contrast, decrease criminal behavior. A model of…
Tabbah, Rhonda; Miranda, Antoinette Halsell; Wheaton, Joe E.
The purpose of this study was to explore the symbolic interaction theory in a sample of Arab American adolescents. Four areas of self-concept were investigated in relation to school environment, including perceived discrimination and social supports. Sixty-one Arab American adolescents (28 males and 33 females) between the ages of 12 and 18 years…
In this review, 39 articles published in the American journal of occupational therapy in 2008 and 2009 that were categorized in the practice area of children and youth were examined using content analysis. The most frequent type of research published was basic research, which accounted for 38.5% (n=15) of the 39 studies published on the topic. Instrument development and testing and effectiveness studies were the next two most frequently noted research approaches, accounting for 25.6% (n=10) and 20.5% (n=8) of the studies, respectively. Among the 8 effectiveness studies, the level of evidence distribution was as follows: Level I, 3; Level III, 2; Level IV, 1; and Level V, 2. Quantitative studies were the predominant research paradigm used with 76.9% (n=30) of the studies.
Abar, Beau; Carter, Kermit L.; Winsler, Adam
This study explored relations between religiosity, both parent and student, and maternal parenting style and student academic self-regulation, academic achievement, and risk behavior among African-American youth attending a parochial college. Eighty-five students completed self-report survey measures of religiosity, self-regulation, academic…
High youth unemployment rates may be a signal of difficult labor market entry for youth or may reflect high churning. The European and United States literature finds the latter conclusion while the Latin American literature suggests the former. This paper uses panel data to examine whether Latin American youth follow OECD patterns or are, indeed, unique. By decomposing transition matrices...
Salinero-Fort, Miguel Ángel; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; Bragado-Alvárez, Carmen; Abánades-Herranz, Juan Carlos; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen
This study compares the health-related quality of life of Spanish-born and Latin American-born individuals settled in Spain. Socio-demographic and psychosocial factors associated with health-related quality of life are analyzed. A cross-sectional Primary Health Care multi center-based study of Latin American-born (n = 691) and Spanish-born (n = 903) outpatients from 15 Primary Health Care Centers (Madrid, Spain). The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to assess health-related quality of life. Socio-demographic, psychosocial, and specific migration data were also collected. Compared to Spanish-born participants, Latin American-born participants reported higher health-related quality of life in the physical functioning and vitality dimensions. Across the entire sample, Latin American-born participants, younger participants, men and those with high social support reported significantly higher levels of physical health. Men with higher social support and a higher income reported significantly higher mental health. When stratified by gender, data show that for men physical health was only positively associated with younger age. For women, in addition to age, social support and marital status were significantly related. Both men and women with higher social support and income had significantly better mental health. Finally, for immigrants, the physical and mental health components of health-related quality of life were not found to be significantly associated with any of the pre-migration factors or conditions of migration. Only the variable "exposure to political violence" was significantly associated with the mental health component (p = 0.014). The key factors to understanding HRQoL among Latin American-born immigrants settled in Spain are age, sex and social support. Therefore, strategies to maintain optimal health outcomes in these immigrant communities should include public policies on social inclusion in the host society and
Salinero-Fort, Miguel Ángel; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; Bragado-Alvárez, Carmen; Abánades-Herranz, Juan Carlos; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen
Background This study compares the health-related quality of life of Spanish-born and Latin American-born individuals settled in Spain. Socio-demographic and psychosocial factors associated with health-related quality of life are analyzed. Methods A cross-sectional Primary Health Care multi center-based study of Latin American-born (n = 691) and Spanish-born (n = 903) outpatients from 15 Primary Health Care Centers (Madrid, Spain). The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to assess health-related quality of life. Socio-demographic, psychosocial, and specific migration data were also collected. Results Compared to Spanish-born participants, Latin American-born participants reported higher health-related quality of life in the physical functioning and vitality dimensions. Across the entire sample, Latin American-born participants, younger participants, men and those with high social support reported significantly higher levels of physical health. Men with higher social support and a higher income reported significantly higher mental health. When stratified by gender, data show that for men physical health was only positively associated with younger age. For women, in addition to age, social support and marital status were significantly related. Both men and women with higher social support and income had significantly better mental health. Finally, for immigrants, the physical and mental health components of health-related quality of life were not found to be significantly associated with any of the pre-migration factors or conditions of migration. Only the variable “exposure to political violence” was significantly associated with the mental health component (p = 0.014). Conclusions The key factors to understanding HRQoL among Latin American-born immigrants settled in Spain are age, sex and social support. Therefore, strategies to maintain optimal health outcomes in these immigrant communities should include public policies on
Byun, Soo-Yong; Irvin, Matthew J.; Meece, Judith L.
Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, this study documented college attendance patterns of rural youth in terms of the selectivity of first postsecondary institution of attendance, the timing of transition to postsecondary education, and the continuity of enrollment. The study also examined how these college attendance…
The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program remains an important source of financial support for low-income families of children with special health care needs and disabling conditions. In most states, SSI eligibility also qualifies children for the state Medicaid program, providing access to health care services. The Social Security Administration (SSA), which administers the SSI program, considers a child disabled under SSI if there is a medically determinable physical or mental impairment or combination of impairments that results in marked and severe functional limitations. The impairment(s) must be expected to result in death or have lasted or be expected to last for a continuous period of at least 12 months. The income and assets of families of children with disabilities are also considered when determining financial eligibility. When an individual with a disability becomes an adult at 18 years of age, the SSA considers only the individual's income and assets. The SSA considers an adult to be disabled if there is a medically determinable impairment (or combination of impairments) that prevents substantial gainful activity for at least 12 continuous months. SSI benefits are important for youth with chronic conditions who are transitioning to adulthood. The purpose of this statement is to provide updated information about the SSI medical and financial eligibility criteria and the disability-determination process. This statement also discusses how pediatricians can help children and youth when they apply for SSI benefits.
Hughes, Diane; Witherspoon, Dawn; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; West-Bey, Nia
The authors examined relationships between cultural socialization and preparation for bias and youth outcomes. Using data from 805 African American and White early adolescents attending school in an integrated middle-class suburban school district in the northeastern United States, the authors hypothesized that ethnic affirmation and self-esteem would mediate relations between ethnic-racial socialization and more distal academic and behavioral outcomes. Cultural socialization was positively associated with academic and behavioral outcomes, and these associations were partially mediated by ethnic affirmation and self-esteem. Preparation for bias was associated with more negative academic outcomes, and these relationships were fully mediated by ethnic affirmation and self-esteem. Relationships of preparation for bias to youth outcomes were generally stronger for White compared with African American youths. The risks and benefits of different socialization messages for youths in various ecological contexts are discussed.
Aoyagi, Keiko; Santos, Carlos E; Updegraff, Kimberly A
Gender identity felt pressure is negatively associated with adjustment indices, including self-esteem, among children and early adolescents, and both gender and ethnic-racial identity felt pressure are negatively associated with self-esteem among young adults. This study explored the longitudinal associations between gender identity and ethnic-racial identity felt pressure from family and peers to behave in either gender or race/ethnic-accordant ways, and self-esteem among a sample of 750 (49.2% female) African American (n = 194) and Latino/a youth (n = 556) (M = 12.10 years, SD = .97 years). For African Americans, the results revealed significant negative longitudinal associations between (a) ethnic-racial identity felt pressure from family at Time 1 and self-esteem at Time 2 and (b) ethnic-racial identity felt pressure from peers at Time 1 and self-esteem at Time 2, controlling for self-esteem at Time 1. These associations were not found among Latinos/as, nor were associations found between gender identity felt pressure from peers or family and self-esteem. The findings are discussed by drawing on the gender identity and ethnic-racial identity literatures.
Saewyc, Elizabeth M; Skay, Carol L; Hynds, Patricia; Pettingell, Sandra; Bearinger, Linda H; Resnick, Michael D; Reis, Elizabeth
This study explored the prevalence, disparity, and cohort trends in suicidality among bisexual teens vs. heterosexual and gay/lesbian peers in 9 population-based high school surveys in Canada and the U.S. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to calculate age-adjusted odds ratios separately by gender; 95% confidence intervals tested cohort trends where surveys were repeated over multiple years. Results showed remarkable consistency: bisexual youth reported higher odds of recent suicidal ideation and attempts vs. heterosexual peers, with increasing odds in most surveys over the past decade. Results compared to gay and lesbian peers were mixed, with varying gender differences in prevalence and disparity trends in the different regions.
Wright, Darlene R.; Fitzpatrick, Kevin M.
This cross-sectional study examined risk and asset factors thought to be associated with fighting among a sample of 1,642 African American children and adolescents in a central Alabama school district. Results show that poor grades, parental abuse, and gang affiliation were significant risk factors associated with higher frequency of fighting.…
Looks at how young people use historical knowledge, gained from media sources, to deal with current situations. A group of young African Americans draw on behavioral examples from the film, "Panther," instead of school-based learning, to give them ways to deal with the Ku Klux Klan in their neighborhood. (DAJ)
This article discusses how European and American communities in Korea organised the education of their own children from the "opening" of the country to foreign residents in the 1880s until the Second World War. Education serves as a lens to investigate these dominantly bourgeois communities of missionaries, merchants, experts and…
Seaton, Eleanor K.
The present study examined the influence of cognitive development in the relationship between multiple types of racial discrimination and psychological well-being. A sample of 322 African American adolescents (53% female), aged 13-18, completed measures of cognitive development, racial discrimination, self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Based on…
Bulck, H. van den; Simons, N.; Gorp, B. van
Objective: This study analyzed the framing of alcohol consumption in the American adolescent drama series The OC. Method: All 51 episodes of Seasons 1 and 2 of The OC were coded for visual and verbal references to beverage use on the level of the scene (n = 1,895) and on the level of the drinking
Fix, Rebecca L; Falligant, John Michael; Alexander, Apryl A; Burkhart, Barry R
Previous research has found differences in sexual behavior and types of sexual offending by offense category and racial/ethnic group. The present study examined effects of offense category, victim age, and race/ethnicity on sexual behavior. Data from 561 confined adolescents adjudicated for illegal sexual behavior (AISBs) and adolescents adjudicated for illegal nonsexual behavior (AINBs) were included in the present study. A hierarchical multinomial logistic regression was run to test whether sexual experiences and behaviors differentially predicted AINBs, AISBs with child victims, and AISBs with peer/adult victims. Results supported the utility of distinguishing AISBs by victim age. Comparisons between AISBs and AINBs indicated AISBs had more sexual abuse and were more sexually restricted, whereas AINBs reported more sexual behavior, reflecting a finding potentially mirroring sexual development, sexual experiences, and caregiver approaches to discussing sexuality. Over 60% of AINBs and 30% of AISBs reported behaviors that could be classified as distribution of child pornography. Within the group of AISBs, select racial/ethnic group differences emerged such that European American participants were more likely to have had intrafamilial sexual experiences and were far less likely to have had vaginal intercourse than African American AISBs. Future directions and implications regarding policies related to sexual education and sexting are discussed.
Arnold, Emily A; Sterrett-Hong, Emma; Jonas, Adam; Pollack, Lance M
The House Ball Community (HBC) is an understudied network of African American men who have sex with men and transgender women, who join family-like houses that compete in elaborate balls in cities across the United States. From 2011 to 2012, we surveyed 274 recent attendees of balls in the San Francisco Bay Area, focusing on social networks, social support, and HIV-related behaviours. Participants with a high percentage of alters who were supportive of HIV testing were significantly more likely to have tested in the past six months (p = .02), and less likely to have engaged in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the past three months (p = .003). Multivariate regression analyses of social network characteristics, and social support, revealed that testing in the past six months was significantly associated with social support for safer sex, instrumental social support, and age. Similarly, UAI in the past three months was significantly associated with social support for safer sex, homophily based on sexual identity and HIV status. HIV-related social support provided through the HBC networks was correlated with recent HIV testing and reduced UAI. Approaches utilising networks within alternative kinship systems, may increase HIV-related social support and improve HIV-related outcomes.
Siegel, Robert; Fals, Angela; Mirza, Nazrat; Datto, George; Stratbucker, William; Ievers-Landis, Carolyn E; Christison, Amy; Wang, Yu; Woolford, Susan J
Obesity is a major healthcare problem in youth and their social/electronic media (SEM) use has been described as a risk factor. Though much is known about the newer technologies youth use to communicate, little is known about what is used by those in weight management programs. The aim of this study was to determine what types of SEM, including sedentary and active video games, youth in weight management programs use and which they prefer for communicating with healthcare providers. This was a multisite study using a 24-question online SurveyMonkey® questionnaire. Youth, 12-17 years old, attending pediatric weight management programs at seven participating centers in the Childhood Obesity Multi Program Analysis and Study System network were eligible. There were 292 responders with a mean age of 14.2 years. Fifty-four percent were female, 36% Caucasian, 35% African American, and 33% were Hispanic. Ninety-four percent had access to a computer, 71% had Internet access, and 63% had smartphones. Whereas 87% had at least one gaming system at home, 50% reported they never played sedentary video games (71% of females vs. 25% males; p social media (6%). Face-to-face communication with healthcare providers is the preferred method for youth in pediatric weight management programs. They self-reported video game use less than previously described.
Halgunseth, Linda C; Jensen, Alexander C; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; McHale, Susan M
To advance understanding of youth religiosity in its sociocultural context, this study examined the associations between parents' and adolescents' religious beliefs and practices and tested the roles of parent and youth gender and youth ethnic identity in these linkages. The sample included 130 two-parent, African American families. Adolescents (49% female) averaged 14.43 years old. Mothers, fathers, and adolescents were interviewed in their homes about their family and personal characteristics, including their religious beliefs. In a series of 7 nightly phone calls, adolescents reported on their daily practices, including time spent in religious practices (e.g., attending services, prayer), and parents reported on their time spent in religious practices with their adolescents. Findings indicated that mothers' beliefs were linked to the beliefs of sons and daughters, but fathers' beliefs were only associated with the beliefs of sons. Mothers' practices were associated with youths' practices, but the link was stronger when mothers' held moderately strong religious beliefs. Fathers' practices were also linked to youth practices, but the association was stronger for daughters than for sons. Findings highlight the understudied role of fathers in African American families, the importance of examining religiosity as a multidimensional construct, and the utility of ethnic homogeneous designs for illuminating the implications of sociocultural factors in the development of African American youth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Bjornstad, Petter; Pyle, Laura; Nguyen, Nhung; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K; Bishop, Franziska K; Wadwa, R Paul; Maahs, David M
Most youth with type 1 diabetes do not meet the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) targets for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood pressure (BP), lipids, and body mass index (BMI). We hypothesized that ISPAD/ADA goal achievement at baseline would be associated with cardiorenal risk factors at baseline and 2 yr follow-up in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. We assessed the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between ISPAD/ADA goal achievement at baseline and cardiorenal health at baseline and 2-yr follow-up (n = 297; 15.4 ± 2.1 yr at baseline) in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Goal achievement was defined as HbA1c 35 mg/dL, triglycerides (TG) Adolescents with type 1 diabetes who met 1-3 goals, had significantly greater (P goals after adjusting for Tanner stage, sex, age, and diabetes duration. No statistically significant differences in the cardiorenal outcomes were observed between adolescents with type 1 diabetes who met 4-6 goals and non-diabetic controls (n = 96). In adolescents with type 1 diabetes, baseline ADA/ISPAD goal achievement was associated with cardiorenal protection at baseline and 2-yr follow-up. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lopez-Tamayo, Roberto; LaVome Robinson, W; Lambert, Sharon F; Jason, Leonard A; Ialongo, Nicholas S
African-American adolescents exposed to neighborhood disadvantage are at increased risk for engaging in problem behavior and academic underachievement. It is critical to identify the mechanisms that reduce problem behavior and promote better academic outcomes in this population. Based on social disorganization and socioecological theories, the current prospective study examined pathways from parental monitoring to academic outcomes via externalizing behavior at different levels of neighborhood disadvantage. A moderated mediation model employing maximum likelihood was conducted on 339 African-American students from 9th to 11th grade (49.3% females) with a mean age of 14.8 years (SD ± 0.35). The results indicated that parental monitoring predicted low externalizing behavior, and low externalizing behavior predicted better academic outcomes after controlling for externalizing behavior in 9th grade, intervention status, and gender. Mediation was supported, as the index of mediation was significant. Conversely, neighborhood disadvantage did not moderate the path from parental monitoring to externalizing behavior. Implications for intervention at both community and individual levels and study limitations are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
Psychological and sociomedical unemployment research have become an important feature of public concern in the industrialised world. This paper focuses on research into youth unemployment and health effects from an international perspective and investigates more closely the following areas: Unemployment and health: research and the political public Youth unemployment: extent and societal coping Young and unemployed--a special problem? a. Skill utilization and social support b. Psychiatric morbidity c. Vulnerability and age d. "Americanization" of youth The demand for a "social guarantee"
Rowley, Stephanie; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rouland, Karmen
We examined relations among African American mothers’ (N = 392) stereotypes about gender differences in mathematics, science, and reading performance, parents’ attributions about their children’s academic successes and failures, and their seventh and eighth grade children’s academic self-views (domain-specific ability attributions and self-concept). Parents’ stereotypes about gender differences in abilities were related to their ability attributions for their children’s successes and failures within academic domains. Mothers’ attributions, in turn, were related to children’s attributions, particularly among girls. Mothers’ attributions of their children’s successes to domain-specific ability were related to the self-concepts of daughters, and failure attributions were related to domain-specific self-concepts of sons. The influences of parents’ beliefs on young adolescents’ identity beliefs are discussed. PMID:23878519
Rowley, Stephanie; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rouland, Karmen
We examined relations among African American mothers' ( N = 392) stereotypes about gender differences in mathematics, science, and reading performance, parents' attributions about their children's academic successes and failures, and their seventh and eighth grade children's academic self-views (domain-specific ability attributions and self-concept). Parents' stereotypes about gender differences in abilities were related to their ability attributions for their children's successes and failures within academic domains. Mothers' attributions, in turn, were related to children's attributions, particularly among girls. Mothers' attributions of their children's successes to domain-specific ability were related to the self-concepts of daughters, and failure attributions were related to domain-specific self-concepts of sons. The influences of parents' beliefs on young adolescents' identity beliefs are discussed.
Assini-Meytin, Luciana C; Green, Kerry M
The aim of this study was to improve understanding of long-term socioeconomic consequences of teen parenting for men and women. Analysis is based on the Woodlawn Study, a longitudinal study of an African-American cohort from a socially disadvantaged community in Chicago; data were collected at childhood (N = 1,242), adolescence (N = 705), young adulthood (age 32 years, N = 952), and midlife (age 42 years, N = 833). This analysis focused on the 1,050 individuals with data on teen parenting. We used propensity score matching to account for differences in background characteristics between teenage parents and their peers and used multiple imputation to account for differential attrition. The regression models after propensity score matching showed that at the age of 32 years, in comparison to nonteen mothers, teenage mothers were more likely to be unemployed, live in poverty, depend on welfare, and have earned a GED or completed high school compared to finishing college. At the age of 32 years, teen fathers were more likely to be without a job than nonteen fathers. At the age of 42 years, the effect of teen parenting for women remained statistically significant for education and income. There were no significant associations between teen parenting and outcomes for men at the age of 42 years. Socioeconomic consequences of teenage parenting among African-Americans from disadvantaged background seem to be primarily concentrated in women and persist throughout adulthood. In addition to promoting the delay of parenting after the teenage years, it is critical to provide programs at early stages in the life course to mitigate the negative socioeconomic consequences of teenage motherhood as effects for women are broad. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Baker, Christina M; Staiano, Amanda E; Calvert, Sandra L
Digital production is a means through which African American adolescents communicate and express their experiences with peers. This study examined the content and the form of the digital productions of 24 urban, low-income African American adolescents who attended a summer academic program. The content of student digital productions focused on academic experiences and friendships. Their production styles revealed that youth used perceptually salient production features, such as rapid scene changes and loud rap music. The results suggest that when placed in a supportive, academic environment and provided with digital production resources, students who traditionally face barriers due to cultural and economic inequalities digitally express to their peers an interest in academics and positive peer relationships, and that these youth communicate their experiences through a shared production style that reflects their broader cultural experiences.
Rockefeller Foundation, New York, NY.
In the introduction to this conference report, the problem of youth unemployment is reviewed and youth unemployment rates for 1976 are analyzed. Lester C. Thurow's study is presented as a discussion of the problem of youth unemployment. He examined the impact of economic growth, looked at the significance of the effect of unemployment on youth,…
Demir, Enver Ahmet; Tutuk, Okan; Dogan, Hatice; Egeli, Duygu; Tumer, Cemil
The educators have underlined the importance of lecture attendance for decades. Nowadays, students have ample online educational sources, which began a debate on the necessity of in-class lectures. In the present study, we investigated the influence of lecture attendance on the exam success. To this aim, we adopted a novel approach and matched second-year medicine students' answers in three interim exams with the lectures related to those questions. Thereby, we were able to evaluate if attending lectures increases the chance of giving a correct answer to the exam question generated from the attended lecture. Furthermore, we examined students who had never taken the course before (first-time takers) and students who had failed and repeated the course (repeat takers) separately, since repeat takers may have attended a lecture previously. We found that first-time takers attended more lectures and gained higher total scores than repeat takers. Lecture-matched correct answers were significantly higher for attended lectures than for skipped lectures in all interim exams. Moreover, the correlation analyses revealed that the number of correct answers increases by lecture attendance in both first-time and repeat takers. These results indicate that in-class lectures still should be considered as an essential part of the medical physiology education, even in the internet era. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
United Nations Economic and Social Council, New York, NY.
The report is organized into three sections. Section 1, "Attendance and Organization of Work," is a general summary giving information on place and date, attendance, election of officers, and agenda, and summarizing the opening meeting, the consideration and adoption of the final report, and the closing meeting. Section 2, "Summary…
Schreiber, Jill C; Culbertson, Michael J
Increased religiosity is associated with a variety of improved outcomes, especially for youth in disadvantaged contexts. Although youth involved in child welfare may experience protective effects of religious participation or values, little is known about the impact of maltreatment on religious development. Using the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a nationally representative study of child welfare involved families, correlates of religious attendance and importance of religion for youth were investigated using weighted logistic regression at two waves 18 months apart. Youth self-reports of religious attendance and their ratings of its importance were associated with religious attendance of their caregivers, whether birth-parents or foster parents. Foster parents were more likely to attend religious services than birth parents. Increases in youth attendance from Wave 1 to Wave 2 were associated with high youth religious importance at Wave 1, whereas decreases in attendance were associated with moving between home and foster placements. Increases in religious importance from Wave 1 to Wave 2 were associated with religious attendance at Wave 1 and with the youth being Black. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The youth population bulge is often mentioned in discussions of youth unemployment and unrest in developing countries, most recently in explaining the “Arab Spring.” But the youth share of the population has fallen rapidly in recent decades in most countries, and is projected to continue to fall. Evidence on the link between youth population bulges and youth unemployment is mixed. It should not be assumed that declines in the relative size of the youth population will translate into falling y...
Clifford, Jack W.; And Others
Prepared by instructors and curriculum specialists, this course of study was designed to meet the individual needs of the dropout and/or hard-core unemployed youth by providing training as a service station attendant and light automotive maintenance mechanic. The achievement level of each student is determined at entry, and small instructional…
Cress, Ronald J.
The project described offers an approach to providing occupational skills to socially and educationally handicapped youth, specifically the skills necessary for a service station attendant in driveway salesmanship and auto care. The 10-page evaluation report presents project goals and objectives with evaluation data (represented graphically) and…
Mohanty, Madhu S.
Using data from the USA, the study demonstrates that an individual's completed years of schooling later in life is positively related to his/her frequency of religious attendance during youth. Using the propensity score matching technique, the study shows that this relationship is causal. This conclusion remains valid for youths of different…
Monica Ribeiro da Silva
Full Text Available O artigo aborda a temática das relações entre juventude e escolarização, propondo-se a discutir as razões de permanência e abandono no âmbito da educação profissional técnica de nível médio. Inicialmente, apresenta uma discussão conceitual sobre juventude, escola e trabalho para, em seguida, expor os resultados de duas pesquisas empíricas que se ocuparam de analisar o que levam os jovens a abandonar ou a permanecer na escola. Os dois cursos investigados foram definidos por possuírem, ambos, elevada procura, sendo que em um deles há alto índice de abandono, ao passo que o outro apresenta uma permanência acima da média se comparada a outras escolas de ensino médio. A análise sinaliza que a grande procura pelos cursos técnicos nas áreas pesquisadas deve-se ao fato de os jovens buscarem encontrar formação de qualidade superior, profissionalização em áreas que representam certo status ou, ainda, garantia de empregabilidade. Em uma das situações, ao se frequentar a escola, as ilusões iniciais dissolvem-se, problemas para acompanhar a realização do curso evidenciam-se e a relação entre a escola e o jovem mantém-se distante, o que leva ao abandono. Contrariamente, em outra situação, a permanência é explicada devido ao grau de experiências positivas que os jovens podem viver enquanto estão matriculados em uma instituição de tempo integral, interna e bem estruturada.The article deals with the theme of the relations between youth and schooling, proposing a discussion of the reasons for the attendance and dropout within the technical professional secondary education. Initially, it presents a conceptual discussion about youth, school and work, and then it puts forward the results of two empirical researches that analyzed the reasons why youngsters drop out from, or remain at, the school. The two courses investigated were chosen because they were both in high demand, with one of them displaying a high level of
Bender, Kimberly; Schau, Nicholas; Begun, Stephanie; Haffejee, Badiah; Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Hathaway, Jessica
Case management, a widely practiced form of service brokerage, is associated with a variety of positive outcomes for homeless youth, but it may be difficult to implement, as youth face logistical barriers to attending in-person meetings. As part of a larger clinical trial, the current study investigates the feasibility of providing electronic case management (ECM) to homeless youth, using cell-phones, texts, email, and Facebook. Youth were given prepaid cell-phones and a case manager who provided four ECM sessions every 2-3 weeks over a 3-month period. Contact logs were used to record how many youth engaged in ECM, how many attempts were necessary to elicit engagement, and youths' preferred technology methods for engaging. Although engagement in the number of ECM sessions varied, the majority of youth (87.5%) engaged in at least one ECM session. Youth (41%) most commonly needed one contact before they engaged in an ECM session, and the majority responded by the third attempt. While youth most commonly answered calls directly, their chosen method of returning calls was texting. The majority of youth (80%) described ECM positively, reporting themes of convenience, connection, and accountability. The use of ECM, particularly of texting, offers promising implications for providing services to homeless youth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hasniza Yahya; Rina Md. Anwar
Research has shown that student attendance has positive relationship with academic achievement. However, the manual process of taking attendance using paper does not allow the teacher to easily view and monitor individual attendance. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the use of dashboard in managing and monitoring student attendance. By using the attendance dashboard, teacher can easily track the attendance of a student and take necessary actions when needed.
Holland, Megan M.; DeLuca, Stefanie
Increasing numbers of low-income and minority youth are now pursuing shorter-duration sub-baccalaureate credentials at for-profit trade and technical schools. However, many students drop out of these schools, leaving with large debts and few job prospects. Despite these dismal outcomes, we know very little about students' experiences in for-profit…
Smith, Christian; Faris, Robert
This study used data from the Monitoring the Future Survey of high school seniors to examine the impact of religion on U.S. adolescents' participation in constructive youth activities. Overall, religion positively related to participation in constructive activities. Students who participated in religious activities tended to be less likely to…
Wang, Xiaoling; Pan, Yue; Zhu, Haidong; Hao, Guang; Huang, Yisong; Barnes, Vernon; Shi, Huidong; Snieder, Harold; Pankow, James; North, Kari; Grove, Megan; Guan, Weihua; Demerath, Ellen; Dong, Yanbin; Su, Shaoyong
Background: We conducted an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) on obesity in healthy youth and young adults and further examined to what extent identified signals influenced gene expression and were independent of cell type composition and obesity-related cardio-metabolic risk factors.
Isong, Inyang A; Richmond, Tracy; Kawachi, Ichiro; Avendaño, Mauricio
Several observational studies have revealed that children who receive nonparental childcare are at increased risk of obesity. However, this may be due to unmeasured confounding or selection into different types of childcare. It is not well established whether this association reflects a causal effect of childcare attendance on obesity risk. We examined the effect of attending childcare on children's BMI z scores, using nationally representative data of ∼10 700 children followed from age 9 months through kindergarten entry. We first employed ordinary least squares regression to evaluate longitudinal associations between childcare attendance at 24 months and BMI z scores at kindergarten entry, controlling for child, family, and neighborhood characteristics. Because type of childcare is associated with unobserved confounding factors, we repeated the analysis by using 2 quasi-experimental approaches: (1) individual fixed effect models, which control for all observed and unobserved time-invariant confounders; and (2) instrumental variable (IV) analysis. At 24 months, 48.7% of children were in nonparental childcare, and 35.1% of children were overweight/obese at kindergarten entry. In ordinary least squares models, compared with children in parental care, children in nonparental childcare at 24 months had higher BMI z scores at kindergarten entry (0.08 [SE 0.03], P = .01). By contrast, fixed effects and IV models revealed no significant effect of childcare on BMI z score (fixed effects model: β = 0.02 [SE 0.02], P = .62); IV model: β = 1.12 [SE 0.76], P = .14). We found no consistent associations between nonparental childcare and obesity. Previously reported significant associations may be confounded by unobserved family circumstances resulting in selection into different types of childcare. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
.... Findings cover results from questions on enlistment propensity, advertising awareness, recruiter contact, slogan recognition, media habits, and Internet usage among 16- to 24- year-old American youth...
.... Findings cover results from questions on enlistment propensity, advertising awareness, recruiter contact, slogan recognition, media habits, and Internet usage among 16- to 24- year-old American youth...
This study examined the outcomes of interventions used to address attendance issues at a middle school located in the Southern United States. School-wide interventions were implemented to address absenteeism of all students and individual interventions were implemented to address absenteeism with targeted students. An explanation of each…
Last month, Madeline Brozen and Jason Jones of the DEVELOP Program at John C. Stennis Space Center joined members from the program's national office at Langley Research Center to attend the Southern Growth Policies Board annual conference in Biloxi. Pictured are (l to r): Karen Allsbrook, Jonathan Gleason, Gov. Haley Barbour, Madeline Brozen, Lindsay Rogers and Tracey Silcox.
Kirk, Chris M.; Lewis, Rhonda K.; Nilsen, Corinne; Colvin, Deltha Q.
Despite an overall increase in college attendance, low-income youth and particularly those in the foster care system are less likely to attend college (Wolanin, 2005). Although youth in foster care report high educational aspirations, as little as 4% obtain a 4-year college degree (Nixon & Jones, 2007). The purpose of this study is to explore…
Fawcett, Bruce G.; Francis, Leslie J.; Henderson, Amanda J.; Robbins, Mandy; Linkletter, Jody
This study examines the views of 706 Canadian Baptist youth (between the ages of 14 and 18 years) on the moral issue of music copyright theft, and explores the influence on these views of age, sex, Sunday church attendance, personal prayer, personal Bible reading, and conservative Bible believing. The participants were attending Springforth 2005 (a major Canadian Baptist Youth Conference). The data demonstrate a high level of acceptance of music copyright theft, with only 26% of the participa...
DeBlassie, Adele M.; DeBlassie, Richard R.
Surveys literature on adolescents with respect to the possible causes of the educational lag in Hispanic youth. Presents possible contributing factors to the education lag, including culture shock many young Hispanics experience upon entrance into school. Offers suggestions for strategies to improve attainment levels of Hispanic American Youth.…
McCarty, Teresa L.; Romero-Little, Mary Eunice; Warhol, Larisa; Zepeda, Ofelia
This article offers a grounded view of language shift as experienced by Native American youth across a range of early- to late-shift settings. Drawing on data from a long-term ethnographic study, we demonstrate that the linguistic ecologies in which youth language choices play out are more complex than a unidirectional notion of shift might…
Stoneman, Zolinda; Jinnah, Hamida Amirali; Rains, Glen C.
The study discussed in this article examined the extent to which fathers were aware of unsafe farm behaviors engaged in by their youth. Fathers and youth provided information about the youth's behaviors on the farm, particularly related to tractors/large equipment. Fathers indicated whether they were familiar with the North American Guidelines for…
Cartwright, G F; Tabatabai, D; Beaudoin, M C; Naidoo, L
The self-actualization scores of 57 youths who attended a summer day camp for gifted students were assessed using the Reflections Of Self by Youth (ROSY). Significant sex differences were confirmed. Contrary to Lewis's significant difference (1996) in mean self-actualization between Grades 7 and 8, self-actualization scores in this study were uncorrelated with grade.
Gidley, J. M.; Wildman, P. H.
Survey of 22 rural Australian youth, aged 12-18 and not attending school or work, found that youth were strongly motivated towards creative, practical, and life skills learning. Describes a model of the phenomenon of "street kids" at the intersection of youth unemployment, homelessness, and truancy. Recommends establishment of pilot…
Three years of outcome data for foster youth (n = 106) discharged from a one-of-kind residential education service are presented. Findings were that 50% of respondents attended college at some point. Youth reported having 2 or 3 jobs a year with at least one bout of unemployment. Most of the non-college bound youth reported working in low-wage…
Kristin Geiser; Christina O'Guinn
Middle schools have the opportunity to positively impact the full development of young adolescents. Yet, initiatives that promote schools’ rigorous attention to specific academic outcomes can make it difficult to attend to other important and interconnected domains of adolescent development. How might middle schools intentionally situate academics within the broader frame of youth development? Youth in the Middle (YiM), a partnership between John W. Gardner Center for Youth and Their Communi...
Wenzel, Suzanne L; Hsu, Hsun-Ta; Zhou, Annie; Tucker, Joan S
Understanding factors associated with heavy drinking among homeless youth is important for prevention efforts. Social networks are associated with drinking among homeless youth, and studies have called for attention to racial differences in networks that may affect drinking behavior. This study investigates differences in network characteristics by the racial background of homeless youth, and associations of network characteristics with heavy drinking. (Heavy drinking was defined as having five or more drinks of alcohol in a row within a couple of hours on at least one day within the past 30 days.) A probability sample of 235 Black and White homeless youths ages 13-24 were interviewed in Los Angeles County. We used chi-square or one-way analysis of variance tests to examine network differences by race and logistic regressions to identify network correlates of heavy drinking among Black and White homeless youth. The networks of Black youth included significantly more relatives and students who attend school regularly, whereas the networks of White youth were more likely to include homeless persons, relatives who drink to intoxication, and peers who drink to intoxication. Having peers who drink heavily was significantly associated with heavy drinking only among White youth. For all homeless youth, having more students in the network who regularly attend school was associated with less risk of heavy drinking. This study is the first to our knowledge to investigate racial differences in network characteristics and associations of network characteristics with heavy drinking among homeless youth. White homeless youth may benefit from interventions that reduce their ties with peers who drink. Enhancing ties to school-involved peers may be a promising intervention focus for both Black and White homeless youth.
Background: Information on epidemiology of schistosomiasis in school age children and particularly non school attenders are scanty in northwestern Ethiopia. Objective: To assess the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni in school attenders and non-attenders in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A parasitological survey was ...
Fawcett, Bruce G.; Francis, Leslie J.; Henderson, Amanda J.; Robbins, Mandy; Linkletter, Jody
This study examines the views of 706 Canadian Baptist youth (between the ages of 14 and 18 years) on the moral issue of music copyright theft, and explores the influence on these views of age, sex, Sunday church attendance, personal prayer, personal Bible reading, and conservative Bible believing. The participants were attending Springforth 2005…
Bowie, Janice V; Parker, Lauren J; Beadle-Holder, Michelle; Ezema, Ashley; Bruce, Marino A; Thorpe, Roland J
Cigarette smoking poses a major public health problem that disproportionately affects Blacks and men. Religious attendance has been shown to be positively associated with health promotion and disease prevention among the Black population. In light of this evidence, this study examined if a similar relationship could be found for religious attendance and smoking in Black men. The National Survey of American Life (NSAL) study sampled 1,271 African American men and 562 Black Caribbean men. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association between religious attendance and cigarette smoking. After adjusting for age, marital status, household income, education, foreign born status, importance of prayer and major stress, men who reported attending religious services almost every day (odds ratio (OR) = 0.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.07, 0.62) and weekly (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.29, 0.77) had lower odds of being a current smoker compared to men who reported never attending religious services. Conclusions/Importance: Findings suggest a health benefit in attending religious services on cigarette smoking among Black men in a nationally representative sample. In spite of lower church attendance in Black men in general, our results demonstrate that religious service attendance may still serve as a buffer against cigarette use. Given the emergent attention on faith-based health promotion among men, this conclusion is relevant and timely.
Adair, Kirk; Swinton, Omari H.
The benefits from attendance of lectures have been established in the literature. This paper focuses on attendance not of the lecture, but of smaller labs. These labs are 50 minutes one-day-a-week sessions to emphasis material covered during lecture. Using a 200-student Principles of Economics class that covers microeconomics with six different labs, we investigate the effect of lab attendance on exam performance by taking into account individual characteristics. We find that lab attendance b...
Ash, Mary Callis
ASH, MARY CALLIS, Ph.D. Contributions to a Herpetological Community of Practice: Funds of Knowledge of Lumbee Youth. (2015) Directed by Dr. Catherine Matthews. 348 pp. American Indian K-12 students comprise less than 1% of the student population in the US. In southeastern North Carolina, the largest North Carolina tribe of American Indians, Lumbees, live and attend schools where they often perform poorly on standardized tests. The Lumbee Indians generally live in areas that are rural and economically disadvantaged and they speak a dialect of English, which is seldom heard except near their homeland. Away from their homeland, Lumbee speech is often construed as non-Standard English. The Lumbees have close knit family relationships and where you come from and where you live are important facts to assess. Because Lumbees live in rural areas, they are often involved in outdoor activities such as hunting, fishing, and gardening. They have a strong sense of place, particularly regarding the Lumber River, which runs through their homeland. Historically, schools, community organizations and universities have not provided sufficient informal science education opportunities for Lumbee youth. The purpose of this study was to document the experiences of nine Lumbee youths at a residential, week-long herpetological education experience for Lumbee students and others. The Funds of Knowledge (FoK) that these students brought to this experience and how these FoK were integrated into the herpetology program's Community of Practice (CoP) were examined. A mixed methods, ethnographically inspired, single case study was conducted and both qualitative and quantitative data were collected. Data collected included individual interviews, pre/post-tests, pre/post-surveys, observations and field notes. Analyses of qualitative and quantitative data demonstrated specific FoK of these Lumbee youths and the strategies they employed to be dynamic, contributing members of the informal science
Benner, Aprile D.; Wang, Yijie
In the current study, we examine patterns of school attendance across middle and high school with a diverse sample of 8,908 students (48% female; 54% Latino, 31% White, 13% African American, 2% Asian American). Attendance declined from middle through high school, but this overall pattern masked important variations. In total, 44% of students…
Zimmermann, Jacqueline F; Moscovitch, Morris; Alain, Claude
Attention to memory describes the process of attending to memory traces when the object is no longer present. It has been studied primarily for representations of visual stimuli with only few studies examining attention to sound object representations in short-term memory. Here, we review the interplay of attention and auditory memory with an emphasis on 1) attending to auditory memory in the absence of related external stimuli (i.e., reflective attention) and 2) effects of existing memory on guiding attention. Attention to auditory memory is discussed in the context of change deafness, and we argue that failures to detect changes in our auditory environments are most likely the result of a faulty comparison system of incoming and stored information. Also, objects are the primary building blocks of auditory attention, but attention can also be directed to individual features (e.g., pitch). We review short-term and long-term memory guided modulation of attention based on characteristic features, location, and/or semantic properties of auditory objects, and propose that auditory attention to memory pathways emerge after sensory memory. A neural model for auditory attention to memory is developed, which comprises two separate pathways in the parietal cortex, one involved in attention to higher-order features and the other involved in attention to sensory information. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Luk, Jeremy W; King, Kevin M; McCarty, Carolyn A; McCauley, Elizabeth; Vander Stoep, Ann
Parental warmth and knowledge are protective factors against substance use, whereas parental psychological control is a risk factor. However, the interpretation of parenting and its effects on developmental outcomes may vary cross-culturally. This study examined direct and indirect effects of three parenting dimensions on substance use across Asian/Pacific Islander (API) and European Americans. A community sample of 97 API and 255 European Americans were followed from Grades 6 to 12. Participants reported on parenting in Grade 7, academic achievement and externalizing behaviors in Grades 7 and 8, and substance use behaviors in Grades 7, 9, and 12. Direct effects of parenting were not moderated by race. Overall, mother psychological control was a risk factor for substance use problems in Grade 9, whereas father knowledge was protective against alcohol use in Grade 9, substance use problems in Grades 9 and 12, and alcohol dependence in Grade 12. Moderated mediation analyses indicated significant mediational links among European Americans only: Mother knowledge predicted fewer externalizing problems in Grade 8, which in turn predicted fewer substance use problems in Grades 9 and 12. Father warmth predicted better academic achievement in Grade 8, which in turn predicted fewer substance use problems in Grades 9 and 12, as well as alcohol and marijuana dependence in Grade 12. Better academic achievement and fewer externalizing behaviors explain how positive parenting reduces substance use risk among European Americans. Promoting father knowledge of adolescents' whereabouts can reduce substance use risk among both European and API Americans.
Natalya S. Grakhova
Full Text Available The article places the necessity to analyze youth position in Russian job market, considers current trends, such as youth job centres, youth labour and employment agencies, youth job centres and information centres.
because they lack collateral and experience. Youth feel they are distrusted by both the older generation and by Tanzanian institutions including, besides the financial institutions, the state and the private sector generally. Young entrepreneurs attending the workshop, and those aspiring to become one, mentioned the hurdle ...
Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Elmore, Corinn A.; Campbell, Cynthya L.; Wethington, Anna
The purpose of the current study was to examine the tripartite model of depression and anxiety in a community-based sample of 278 African American adolescents (M age = 12.89) from low-income communities and to identify stressors and coping strategies that were associated with the specific features of each disorder. Participants reported on…
This review situates how culture, difference, and identity are discursively constructed in "Millicent Min, Girl Genius" and "Stanford Wong Flunks Big-Time," two award-winning books written by critically acclaimed Asian American author Lisa Yee. Using contextual literacy approaches, the characters, cultural motifs, and physical settings in these…
Naar-King, Sylvie; Ellis, Deborah; Kolmodin, Karen; Cunningham, Phillippe; Secord, Elizabeth
African-American adolescents have the highest rates of asthma morbidity and mortality, yet there are few successful behavioral interventions to improve illness management for this group. Mental health providers have an opportunity to expand their services and impact by targeting adolescents with poor asthma management. We describe the adaptation…
Robinson, L E; Webster, E K; Whitt-Glover, M C; Ceaser, T G; Alhassan, S
This review assessed the effectiveness of pre-school- and school-based obesity prevention and/or treatment interventions targeting healthy eating, physical activity or obesity in African American children and adolescents. Systematic searches were conducted for English-printed research articles published between January 1980 and March 2013. Retained articles included experimental studies conducted in the United States that targeted ≥ 80% African American/black children and adolescents and/or studies whose results were stratified by race/ethnicity, and that were conducted in pre-schools/head start or schools (excluding after-school programmes). Of the 12,270 articles identified, 17 met the inclusion criteria (pre-school, n=2; elementary school, n=7; middle and secondary schools, n=8). Thirteen studies found significant improvements in nutrition (pre-school, n=1; elementary, n=7; secondary, n=5) and three found significant improvements in physical activity (pre-school, n=1; elementary, n=2) variables of interest. Two studies (pre-school, n=1; secondary, n=1) reported significant reductions in obesity in African American children. The evidence available suggests school-based interventions are effective in promoting healthy nutrition behaviours in African American children. Conclusions overall and, particularly, about effects on physical activity and obesity are limited due to the small number of studies, differences in assessment approaches and a lack of follow-up assessments. © 2014 World Obesity.
Koricich, Andrew; Chen, Xi; Hughes, Rodney P.
This study seeks to update past studies of rural youth by examining college attendance and choice decisions for students who graduated from rural high schools, while also conducting an examination of how the effects of socioeconomic status manifest differently by locale. Logistic regression is used to study the postsecondary attendance and…
Abar, Beau; Carter, Kermit L; Winsler, Adam
This study explored relations between religiosity, both parent and student, and maternal parenting style and student academic self-regulation, academic achievement, and risk behavior among African-American youth attending a parochial college. Eighty-five students completed self-report survey measures of religiosity, self-regulation, academic achievement, and risk behavior. Participants also completed youth report measures of parental religiosity and perceived maternal parenting style. Correlational analyses show authoritative parenting to be associated with high levels of academic performance and study skills. Additional correlations revealed that highly religious students tend to perform well academically, study better, and engage in fewer risk behaviors than youth less committed to religion. Although no direct relations were observed between parenting style and student religiosity, maternal parenting style was found to moderate relations between parental and student religiosity. Findings are discussed in terms of their relevance to the population studied.
Wilkerson, J Michael; Schick, Vanessa R; Romijnders, Kim A; Bauldry, Jessica; Butame, Seyram A
Evidence-based interventions that increase social support have the potential to improve the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth. Hatch Youth is a group-level intervention that provides services four nights a week to LGBTQ youth between 13 and 20 years of age. Each Hatch Youth meeting is organized into three 1-hour sections: unstructured social time, consciousness-raising (education), and a youth-led peer support group. Youth attending a Hatch Youth meeting between March and June 2014 (N = 108) completed a cross-sectional survey. Covariate adjusted regression models were used to examine the association between attendance, perceived social support, depressive symptomology, self-esteem, and coping ability. Compared to those who attended Hatch Youth for less than 1 month, participants who attended 1 to 6 months or more than 6 months reported higher social support (β 1-6mo. = 0.57 [0.07, 1.07]; β 6+mo. = 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI; 0.14, 0.75], respectively). Increased social support was associated with decreased depressive symptomology (β = -4.84, 95% CI [-6.56, -3.12]), increased self-esteem (β = 0.72, 95% CI [0.38, 1.06]), and improved coping ability (β = 1.00, 95% CI [0.66, 1.35]). Hatch Youth is a promising intervention that has the potential to improve the mental health and reduce risk behavior of LGBTQ youth.
Raphael, Steven P.
One of the most pressing and pervasive problems facing contemporary American society concerns the alarmingly high rates of joblessness suffered by inner-city African-American youth. Rates of black youth unemployment and joblessness far exceed those of white youth. For the year 1995, the unemployment rate for black youth workers between 16 and 19 years of age was approximately 37 percent for young black men and 34 percent for young black women. Furthermore, the rate of joblessness stood at 75 ...
DANIELLE CANDICE RAMIREZ
The number of people attending conventions is growing worldwide, yet there are gaps in our knowledge of convention attendee behaviour. Drawing upon social role theory, the purpose of this study was to identify the role that gender might have in the convention attendance decision. The findings revealed that although location was important for both males and females, money, timing and family/work responsibilities were more important on the decision to attend a convention for men. The results co...
Department of Homeland Security — The TAMS, supports time and attendance (payroll), overtime cap monitoring, overtime scheduling functions, budget reporting, staffing level reporting, and a variety...
Snyder, Jason; Forbus, Robert; Cistulli, Mark
The authors utilized an experimental design across six sections of a managerial communications course (N = 173) to test the impact of instructor verbal aggressiveness and class attendance policies on student class attendance. The experimental group received a policy based on the principle of social proof (R. B. Cialdini, 2001), which indicated…
Usera, John J
Culturally-based risk behavior prevention programs for American Indian elementary school children are sparse. Thus a group of American Indian educators collaborated in the creation of a program that helps children make healthy decisions based on their cultural and traditional value system. In this paper the effectiveness of Lakota Circles of Hope (LCH), an elementary school culturally-based prevention program was studied and evaluated. Three cohorts of fourth and fifth graders participated in a mixed methods quasi-experimental evaluative research design that included focus groups and surveys prior to and following the intervention. Five research questions regarding the program's impact on students' self-esteem and self-efficacy, Lakota identity, communication, conflict resolution and risk behaviors were addressed in this study. Participants were compared to non-participants in three American Indian reservation school sites. Educators completed a survey to record their observations and feedback regarding the implementation of the program within their respective school sites. The study provides preliminary evidence that, when delivered with fidelity, LCH contributes to statistically significant changes in risk behaviors, Lakota identity, respect for others, and adult and parent communication. A two-way multivariate analysis of variance with post hoc analysis of data collected from the LCH participants (N = 1392) were used to substantiate a significant increase in respect for others and a decrease in risk behaviors which included alcohol, tobacco, and substance use at the 0.10 alpha level. Significant positive improvements in parent and adult communication and an increased Lakota identity at the 0.01 alpha level were obtained. There were no significant differences in self-esteem and conflict resolution from pre to post intervention and in comparison with non LCH participating students.
Lemly, Diana C; Lawlor, Katherine; Scherer, Emily A; Kelemen, Skyler; Weitzman, Elissa R
Twenty percent of US youth have a chronic medical condition and many attend college. Guidelines for transition from pediatric to adult care do not address college health services, and little is known about their capacity to identify, support, and provide care for these youth. The objective of this study was to describe college health center policies, practices, and resources for youth with chronic medical conditions (YCMC). Survey of medical directors from health centers of a representative sample of 200 4-year US colleges with ≥ 400 enrolled undergraduate students. Patterns of identification, management, and support for youth with a general chronic medical condition and with asthma, diabetes, and depression, were investigated; χ(2) and Fisher exact tests were used to ascertain differences by institutional demographics. Directors at 153 institutions completed the survey (76.5% response rate). Overall, 42% of schools had no system to identify YCMC. However, almost a third (31%) did identify and add to a registry of incoming YCMC on review of medical history, more likely in private (P < .001) and small (<5000 students, P = .002) colleges; 24% of health centers contacted YCMC to check-in/make initial appointments. Most institutions could manage asthma and depression (83% and 69%, respectively); 51% could manage diabetes on campus. Relatively few US colleges have health systems to identify and contact YCMC, although many centers have capacity to provide primary care and management of some conditions. Guidelines for transition should address policy and practices for pediatricians and colleges to enhance comanagement of affected youth. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Basch, Charles E
To outline the prevalence and disparities of teen pregnancy among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which nonmarital teen births adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to address this problem. Literature review. In 2006, the birth rate among 15- to 17-year-old non-Hispanic Blacks (36.1 per 1000) was more than three times as high, and the birth rate among Hispanics (47.9 per 1000) was more than four times as high as the birth rate among non-Hispanic Whites (11.8 per 1000). Compared with women who delay childbearing until age 30, teen mothers' education is estimated to be approximately 2 years shorter. Teen mothers are 10-12% less likely to complete high school and have 14-29% lower odds of attending college. School-based programs have the potential to help teens acquire the knowledge and skills needed to postpone sex, practice safer sex, avoid unintended pregnancy, and if pregnant, to complete high school and pursue postsecondary education. Most students in US middle and high schools receive some kind of sex education. Federal policies and legislation have increased use of the abstinence-only-until-marriage approach, which is disappointing considering the lack of evidence that this approach is effective. Nonmarital teen births are highly and disproportionately prevalent among school-aged urban minority youth, have a negative impact on educational attainment, and effective practices are available for schools to address this problem. Teen pregnancy exerts an important influence on educational attainment among urban minority youth. Decisions about what will be taught should be informed by empirical data documenting the effectiveness of alternative approaches. © 2011, American School Health Association.
In this paper I describe and analyse how critical pedagogy, an approach to teaching and learning that encourages students to reflect on their socio-political contexts, may stimulate critical consciousness and dialogue at a youth radio show. The participants, who attended four diverse Cape Town high schools and predominantly lived in poor…
Krantz, Megan; Goldstein, Tina; Rooks, Brian; Merranko, John; Liao, Fangzi; Gill, Mary Kay; Diler, Rasim; Hafeman, Danella; Ryan, Neal; Goldstein, Benjamin; Yen, Shirley; Hower, Heather; Hunt, Jeffrey; Keller, Martin; Strober, Michael; Axelson, David; Birmaher, Boris
disorder at significantly greatest risk for sexual activity and sexual risk behavior. Attending to sexual risk behaviors in this population is warranted. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
News Education: Physics Education Networks meeting has global scale Competition: Competition seeks the next Brian Cox Experiment: New measurement of neutrino time-of-flight consistent with the speed of light Event: A day for all those who teach physics Conference: Students attend first Anglo-Japanese international science conference Celebration: Will 2015 be the 'Year of Light'? Teachers: Challenging our intuition in spectacular fashion: the fascinating world of quantum physics awaits Research: Science sharpens up sport Learning: Kittinger and Baumgartner: on a mission to the edge of space International: London International Youth Science Forum calls for leading young scientists Competition: Physics paralympian challenge needs inquisitive, analytical, artistic and eloquent pupils Forthcoming events
Education: Physics Education Networks meeting has global scale Competition: Competition seeks the next Brian Cox Experiment: New measurement of neutrino time-of-flight consistent with the speed of light Event: A day for all those who teach physics Conference: Students attend first Anglo-Japanese international science conference Celebration: Will 2015 be the 'Year of Light'? Teachers: Challenging our intuition in spectacular fashion: the fascinating world of quantum physics awaits Research: Science sharpens up sport Learning: Kittinger and Baumgartner: on a mission to the edge of space International: London International Youth Science Forum calls for leading young scientists Competition: Physics paralympian challenge needs inquisitive, analytical, artistic and eloquent pupils Forthcoming events
Heller, Sara B
Every day, acts of violence injure more than 6000 people in the United States. Despite decades of social science arguing that joblessness among disadvantaged youth is a key cause of violent offending, programs to remedy youth unemployment do not consistently reduce delinquency. This study tests whether summer jobs, which shift focus from remediation to prevention, can reduce crime. In a randomized controlled trial among 1634 disadvantaged high school youth in Chicago, assignment to a summer jobs program decreases violence by 43% over 16 months (3.95 fewer violent-crime arrests per 100 youth). The decline occurs largely after the 8-week intervention ends. The results suggest the promise of using low-cost, well-targeted programs to generate meaningful behavioral change, even with a problem as complex as youth violence. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Leung, May May; Tripicchio, Gina; Agaronov, Alen; Hou, Ningqi
To determine whether a single exposure to a Manga comic (Japanese comic art) with multiple messages promoting fruit intake influenced snack selection in minority urban youth. Fifty-seven youth (mean age 10.8 y; 54% female; 74% black/African American) attending after-school programs in Brooklyn, NY participated in a pilot study in which they were randomly assigned to receive the comic or a non-health-related newsletter. After reading their media, participants were offered a snack and could choose from among healthy/unhealthy options. Secondary outcomes included knowledge, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations related to fruit intake and media transportation. Data were analyzed using regression and paired t test. Comic group participants were significantly more likely to choose a healthy snack, compared to the Attention-control group (odds ratio = 3.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-12.1, P = .04). The Comic group reported increases in self-efficacy (P = .04) and greater transportation (immersion into media) (P = .006). Results suggest Manga comics may be a useful format to promote healthy snack selection in urban minority youth. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The objectives of this report are to: 1)provide background information on the : importance of improving employee attendance stressing the costs and associated : impacts of absenteeism; 2)summarize and review existing research and theories on : the ca...
Full Text Available This paper tends to study tourism attitudes among the youth. It argues that in studying tourism among the youth, it is necessary to consider youth’s other behavioral factors in addition to the youth subculture. Therefore, we should study the youth culture from the view point of “Consumption”. In this view, youth tourism is equal to consumption of time, space and signs. Using ongoing theoretical debates and division, we would attempt to explore various factors of youth tourism. This article shows that youth tourism and youth culture are so mutually interconnected that we should comprehend youth tourism based on youth culture and vise versa. In conclusion, analyzing the youth subculture which is rooted in their consumption attitudes, the study attempts to understand youth tourism.
Cepeda, Alice; Saint Onge, Jarron M; Nowotny, Kathryn M; Valdez, Avelardo
Research has found that among juveniles weak ties to informal social control entities such as parents, school, and conventional peers increase the probability of the initiation and continuation of deviant behaviors such as drug use and crime. Given the weak ties of formal social control mechanisms in highly disadvantaged communities, informal social control mechanisms are often an important deterrent that reduce or moderate engagement in deviant behaviors among serious and persistent offenders. This analysis examines the association between long-term gang membership and adolescent informal social control processes, drug use, and delinquency. This research is based on data from a study of 160 Mexican American male gang members between the ages of 16 and 20. Findings suggest that among gang members in this context, commonly studied informal control mechanisms such as the family and schools do not function to deter long-term gang membership that is associated with serious criminal and violent behavior and drug use. The implications for future research on desistance or continuation of antisocial behavior across the life course are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Adolescents attending special education for learning disabilities (SEL), special education for behavioural problems (SEB) and adolescents living in a residential youth care (RYC) institution present a complex risk profile including severe behavioural and emotional problems, deviant peer networks,
Rollins, Marlon R.; Cross, Tracy L.
This study examined the psychological changes that 272 students experienced while attending a residential school for gifted adolescents in the Midwest. This article shares the quantitative portion of a mixed-methods study. Outcome measurement data from the Youth Outcome Questionnaire Self-Report 2.0 (YOQ-SR) tracked students' level of…
Maynard, Brandy R.; Kjellstrand, Elizabeth K.; Thompson, Aaron M.
Objectives: This study examined the effects of Check & Connect (C&C) on the attendance, behavior, and academic outcomes of at-risk youth in a field-based effectiveness trial. Method: A multisite randomized block design was used, wherein 260 primarily Hispanic (89%) and economically disadvantaged (74%) students were randomized to treatment…
Isong, Inyang A; Richmond, Tracy; Kawachi, Ichiro; Avendano, Mauricio
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Several observational studies have revealed that children who receive nonparental childcare are at increased risk of obesity. However, this may be due to unmeasured confounding or selection into different types of childcare. It is not well established whether this association reflects a causal effect of childcare attendance on obesity risk. We examined the effect of attending childcare on children's BMI z scores, using nationally representative data of ∼10 700 child...
Clifton, Daniel R; Koldenhoven, Rachel M; Hertel, Jay; Onate, James A; Dompier, Thomas P; Kerr, Zachary Y
Variations in ankle injury rates and distributions among competition levels are unclear, but such data may help inform strategies to prevent ankle sprains during American football. To describe the epidemiological patterns of ankle sprains in youth, high school (HS), and collegiate American football. Descriptive epidemiological study. Data regarding youth, HS, and college football athletes were collected from 3 injury surveillance programs: (1) the Youth Football Safety Study (YFSS), (2) the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION), and (3) the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Injury Surveillance Program (ISP). During the 2012-2014 seasons, the YFSS, NATION, and NCAA ISP included 310, 184, and 71 football team-seasons, respectively. Athletic trainers (ATs) attended each practice and game and reported injuries and athlete-exposures (AEs) via their preferred injury documentation application. Ankle sprain rates for each type of ankle sprain were calculated overall, by event type (ie, practices and games), and specifically for severe injuries (ie, participation restriction time >21 days) and recurrent injuries (as defined by ATs). Rate ratios (RRs) were used to compare ankle sprain rates by competition level and event type. Injury proportion ratios (IPRs) were used to compare differences in severity, surgical needs, recurrence, injury mechanism, and injury activity by competition level. RRs and IPRs with 95% confidence intervals excluding 1.00 were considered statistically significant. A total of 124, 897, and 643 ankle sprains were reported in youth, HS, and college football, respectively. This led to respective rates of 0.59, 0.73, and 1.19 sprains per 1000 AEs. The ankle sprain rate in college football was higher than the rates in HS (RR = 1.64; 95% CI, 1.48-1.82) and youth (RR = 2.01; 95% CI, 1.65-2.43) football. The proportion of ankle sprains that were recurrent in youth football was higher than the proportions in HS (IPR
Mills, Britain A; Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Reingle Gonzalez, Jennifer M
Levels of drinking are unusually elevated among young adults on the U.S.-Mexico border, and this elevation can be largely explained by young border residents' unusually high frequency of bar attendance. However, this explanation complicates interpretation of high alcohol problem rates that have also been observed in this group. Because bar environments can lower the threshold for many types of problems, the extent to which elevated alcohol problems among young border residents can be attributed to drinking per se-versus this common drinking context-is not clear. Data were collected from multistage cluster samples of adult Mexican Americans on and off the U.S.-Mexico border (current drinker N = 1,351). After developing structural models of acute alcohol problems, estimates were subjected to path decompositions to disentangle the common and distinct contributions of drinking and bar attendance to problem disparities on and off the border. Additionally, models were estimated under varying degrees of adjustment to gauge the sensitivity of the results to sociodemographic, social-cognitive, and environmental sources of confounding. Consistent with previous findings for both drinking and other problem measures, acute alcohol problems were particularly elevated among young adults on the border. This elevation was entirely explained by a single common pathway involving bar attendance frequency and drinking. Bar attendance did not predict acute alcohol problems independently of drinking, and its effect was not moderated by border proximity or age. The common indirect effect and its component effects (of border youth on bar attendance, of bar attendance on drinking, and of drinking on problems) were surprisingly robust to adjustment for confounding in all parts of the model (e.g., fully adjusted indirect effect: b = 0.11, SE = 0.04, p Bar attendance and associated increases in drinking play a key, unique role in the high levels of acute alcohol problems among the border
Full Text Available This article, which stems from ethnographic research, shows the importance of faculty intervention in the classroom setting in encouraging student attendance. Our findings indicate that the habitus the educator establishes can either encourage youth to continue their studies, or lead them to drop out, thus placing them at risk of addictions, illegal activities, unemployment or low-paid jobs. The Pedagogy of Hope therefore provides an option for effecting large-scale changes in personal, school, family, community and socio-economic conditions. The paper’s conclusions include providing training to teaching faculties on coexistence issues; ensuring coordination between school and family, and emphasizing an integral approach to education as means of promoting school attendance.
This text deals with one of the neglected topics of contemporary social pedagogy which extends to developmental psychology and sociology. This topic is so-called cult of youth which is often mentioned in the academic literature, but has not been precisely conceptualized. This text was therefore focused on the definition of basic category, i.e. youth, and then discussed the relationship to the cult of youth and the individual elements that helps to form it. The cult of youth is associate...
Th e rise in residential mobility among families has created a pervasive issue in American schools that impacts the academic, social, and physical achievements of youth. This article aims to outline the profiles of two unique populations--migrant and military youth--impacted by residential mobility and provide recommendations for how their needs…
Peguero, Anthony A.
Extracurricular activity involvement is generally beneficial toward student progress and success. Little is known, however, about immigrant youth involvement in school-based extracurricular activities. The author examined the patterns of Latino and Asian American youth extracurricular involvement by focusing on the pertinent role of immigrant…
Kachgal, Tara M.
This article scrutinizes the efforts of a media advocacy group to redress the stigma of youth homosexuality among United States youth: a report published in 2003 by the Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation called, "How Youth Media Can Help Combat Homophobia Among American Teenagers." The report, authored by Rodger Streitmatter, concluded…
Flynn, Brian S.; Worden, John K.; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Dorwaldt, Anne L.; Connolly, Scott W.; Ashikaga, Takamaru
Mass media interventions are among the strategies recommended for youth cigarette smoking prevention, but little is known about optimal methods for reaching diverse youth audiences. Grades 4 through 12 samples of youth from four states (n = 1,230) rated smoking-prevention messages in classroom settings. Similar proportions of African American,…
Taylor, Carl S; Lerner, Richard M; von Eye, Alexander; Balsano, Aida Bilalbegovic; Dowling, Elizabeth M; Anderson, Pamela M; Bobek, Deborah L; Bjelobrk, Dragana
The Search Institute framework for conceptualizing developmental assets was used in a longitudinal study of African American male youth involved in gangs or in community-based organizations (CBOs) serving youth. Analyses of intraindividual change indicated that individual and ecological assets are linked to positive developmental trajectories among these youth.
Myers, Raquel; Chou, Chih-Ping; Sussman, Steve; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Pachon, Harry; Valente, Thomas W.
Research suggests that acculturation increases the risk of substance use among Hispanic youth. However, this process is not well understood. This study examined associations between acculturation and several substance use indicators among a sample of 714 Hispanic youth attending alternative high schools in southern California. Peer social…
The primary aim of this study was to determine the perceptions of youth on the use of condoms for HIV prevention in the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive design was used. The population included all youth from the ages of 15 to 19 years who attended two ...
Kelley, Michelle L; Bravo, Adrian J; Braitman, Abby L
This study examined the secondary effects of Behavioral Couples Treatment (BCT) for parents with substance use disorder on youth reports of internalizing symptoms (i.e., depressive and anxiety symptoms). Participants were 59 triads (father, mothers, and youth; 32 girls, 27 boys) in which one or both parents met criteria for drug or alcohol use disorder (or both). Mothers, fathers, and youth completed pretreatment, post-intervention, and 6-month post-intervention follow-up assessments. Two piecewise latent growth models examined whether number of sessions attended was associated with parents' relationship satisfaction or its growth over time, and in turn if parents' relationship satisfaction was uniquely associated with youth depressive/anxiety symptoms or their growth over time. A significant indirect effect at post-intervention revealed the number of sessions attended contributed to decreases in youth depressive symptoms via increases in mothers' and fathers' relationship satisfaction. Mothers' relationship satisfaction uniquely mediated the relationship between number of sessions attended and youth depressive symptoms at post-intervention. With regards to fathers, there was a non-significant trend such that increases in sessions attended was associated with decreases in youth depressive symptoms post- intervention via increasing relationship satisfaction among fathers. Findings suggest that BCT may have protective secondary effects in reducing youth reports of depressive symptoms among couples in which one or both parents have substance use disorder.
Wright, Wynne; Nault, Katherine
How can youth be educated and empowered to become responsible food citizens? Evidence from a university-community partnership with youth in Michigan is presented to illuminate participatory approaches to youth engagement in food systems. We found that youth have valuable knowledge to enhance our understanding of food environments. At the same…
This article addresses how capacity is conceived of and understood in youth media/civic education programming, and how beliefs about agency, development, relationality and youth manifests in the discourses, programmes, and practices of organizations operating youth media programmes. Through attention to a youth media and development programme in…
Carmona, Jasmin; Slesnick, Natasha; Guo, Xiamei; Murnan, Aaron; Brakenhoff, Brittany
Homeless youth have high rates of substance use and often lack connection to social services. Outreach is critical for connecting youth to services, but factors influencing their outreach engagement are unknown. This study examined predictors of meetings with outreach workers among 79 non-service connected, substance using homeless youth between 14 and 24 years of age. Results provide direction to service providers in that older age, higher levels of depressive symptoms, fewer drug-related problems, and no use of hard drugs within the prior 30 days predicted higher meeting attendance. Future research is needed testing strategies that overcome barriers to outreach engagement.
Gaihre, Santosh; Semple, Sean; Miller, Janice; Fielding, Shona; Turner, Steve
We tested the hypothesis that classroom carbon dioxide (CO2 ) concentration is inversely related to child school attendance and educational attainment. Concentrations of CO2 were measured over a 3-5 day period in 60 naturally ventilated classrooms of primary school children in Scotland. Concentrations of CO2 were related to the class average annual attendance and proportions attaining a national standard for reading, writing, and numeracy, adjusted for socioeconomic status and class size. The median (interquartile range, IQR) CO2 concentration averaged over the school day was 1086 ppm (922, 1310). In the model, Time Weighted Average CO2 concentrations were inversely associated with school attendance but not academic attainments. An increase of 100 ppm CO2 was associated with a reduced annual attendance of 0.2% (0.04, 0.4) roughly equivalent to 1 half day of school per annum, assuming schools are open on 190 days per year. Indoor temperature and relative humidity were not related to attendance or academic attainment. Inadequate classroom ventilation, as evidenced by CO2 concentration exceeding 1000 ppm, is not uncommon and may be associated with reduced school attendance. A relationship between inadequate classroom ventilation and adverse health outcomes in children may be present and this needs to be explored. © 2014, American School Health Association.
Barnes, Andrew J; Gilbertson, Jace; Chatterjee, Debanjana
Youth who are homeless with adult family members comprise 37% of the US homeless population, yet mental health among this group has not yet been well described. We aimed to compare the risk of suicidality, and factors that may protect against it, between family-homeless and nonhomeless youth. We used cross-sectional data, representing 62 034 eighth- to 12th-graders, to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of emotional distress, self-injury, suicidal ideation, and attempted suicide in the past 12 months for youth who experienced family homelessness in the past 12 months compared with housed youth, controlling for covariates. We then tested whether developmental assets moderated these outcomes. Four percent ( n = 4594) of youth (mean age 14.9 years) were homeless with an adult family member. Among these, 29.1% ( n = 1317; aOR: 2.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.34-2.69) reported self-injury, 21% ( n = 940; aOR: 2.30, 95% CI: 2.14-2.48) reported suicidal ideation, and 9.3% ( n = 416; aOR: 3.24, 95% CI: 2.91-3.60) reported suicide attempts. Developmental assets decreased the odds of these outcomes for all youth but were less protective for homeless youth. Youth experiencing recent family homelessness are at higher risk of suicidality than their nonhomeless peers, suggesting homelessness itself as a marker of risk. Factors that protect emotional health are less impactful among youth experiencing recent family homelessness. Thus, interventions among homeless youth may need to address social determinants of health such as stable housing and adversity in addition to developmental assets. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Ismayilova, Leyla; Hmoud, Olimat; Alkhasawneh, Esra; Shaw, Stacey; El-Bassel, Nabila
This study examines level of depression and factors associated with depression among female and male youth in Jordan. The study uses data from a cross-sectional survey conducted among a national sample of 14-25 year old youth attending educational institutions in Jordan (N = 8,129). On average, respondents reported frequently experiencing feelings of sadness (66 %), loss of joy (49 %) and loss of hope in living (43 %). Regression models demonstrated that higher levels of depressive symptoms were observed among females and among youth exposed to violence. Better parent-child relationships were associated with lower depression score. Among males depressive symptoms were associated with poor economic status, low assertiveness and a higher likelihood of alcohol use and smoking. There is a need for mental health prevention programs for youth in Jordan that enhance youth's social and emotional skills, strengthen parent-child relationships, and reduce violence in school, home and in the community.
Wyatt, J P; Weber, J E; Chudnofsky, C
The organisation of the American emergency health care system has changed rapidly during recent years, but it remains very different to the system in the United Kingdom. American emergency departments are organised around an attending physician based service, rather than a consultant led service. As a result, the work of the American emergency physician differs considerably from that of the United Kingdom A&E consultant. The problems associated with working in an attending physician based ser...
Greene, Kaylin M; Lee, Bora; Constance, Nicole; Hynes, Kathryn
Prior research suggests that youths' engagement in out-of-school time programs may be a crucial factor linking program participation to positive outcomes during adolescence. Guided by the theoretical concept of flow and by stage-environment fit theory, the present study explored correlates of engagement in youth programs. Engagement was conceptualized as the extent to which youth found the program activities enjoyable, interesting, and challenging. The current study examined how program content, monetary incentives, and youth demographic characteristics were linked to youth engagement among a sample of primarily low-income middle and high school youth attending 30 out-of-school programs (n = 435, 51 % female). Results from multilevel models suggested that program content and staff quality were strongly associated with youth engagement. Youth who reported learning new skills, learning about college, and learning about jobs through activities in the program were more engaged, as were youth who found the staff caring and competent. Results demonstrated that the link between learning content for the future and engagement was stronger for older youth than younger youth. In addition, there was a trend suggesting that providing a monetary incentive was associated negatively with youth engagement. Taken as a whole, these findings have important implications for researchers, practitioners, and policymakers interested in understanding the characteristics of out-of-school time programs that engage older youth.
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Attendance. 1305.8 Section 1305.8 Public Welfare..., RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, ENROLLMENT AND ATTENDANCE IN HEAD START § 1305.8 Attendance. (a) When the monthly average daily attendance rate in a center-based program falls below 85 percent, a Head Start program must...
birth attendants in their care of pregnant women are .... Postnatal care. The TBA normally visits any woman she has delivered during the traditional lying-in period of 8 days. She bathes the baby, gives him an enema when she considers this necessary, and offers ... instructed to kneel so that her heels press the wound edges ...
Burris, Alexandra M.
In the face of massive global extinction, the mission of zoos for conservation education has increasing importance. Zoos are in a unique position to affect the development of youth in ways that are consistent with cultivating pro-environmental behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine three intrinsic traits of youth important to the goals of conservation education: knowledge about animals, interest in animals, and value for animals. In particular, I explored the relationship between these three traits and the utterances and behaviors of youth zoo visitors during their visit. Using an embedded correlational data transformation mixed methods design, this study examined the experiences of 37 youth attending the zoo. Data collection sources included a drawing activity meant to assess the knowledge of youth about animals, Likert-type questionnaires meant to assess the youth's interest and value, and a semi-structured interview meant to ascertain critical moments from the youth's visit. The results of these instruments were paired with extensive video data of the youth's entire zoo visit. Results of the study indicated that youth organize their knowledge about animals around ecological and morphological concepts and that this forms the basis for their value of animals. The knowledge, interest, and value of youth zoo visitors did seem to correlate with some utterances and behaviors in the zoo, but learning talk was rare. Results also indicated that certain critical moments during the youth's visit were social in nature and centered on the behaviors of animals. These moments may be the most promising for influencing the development of knowledge, interest, and value. The discussion and implications sections of the study focus on the practical use of the findings for zoo education. The study points to the importance of studying intrinsic traits of youth as well as the important influences of the social and physical context on the development of these traits during
Full Text Available This author attended the first day of the 2005-06 Hmong New Year in Fresno,1 which was held during the week of December 26 to 31, 2005; and found it to be strongly influenced by commercial, political and informational/educational activities. This was the 30th annual Hmong New Year event celebrated in the United States and it appears to have developed itself into a unique Hmong American festival. It included many elements and traditions from the pre-1975 New Year of the Hmong of Laos. This includes the youth displaying their Hmong traditional costumes, the ball tossing, and the singing of traditional Hmong songs. On the other hand, this New Year event was also dominated by commercial, entertainment, political and informational/educational activities that appeared to be influenced by the American and Western concepts of the market economy, technology and freedom of expression. The Hmong New Yyear in the United States has become a festival that embraces two cultures, nurtured by the Hmong Diaspora and the long-time Hmong strengths of adaptability and flexibility.
Swenson, Rebecca R.; Houck, Christopher; Sarfati, David; Emerson, Erin; Donenberg, Geri; Brown, Larry K.
Being informed and using positive coping strategies are associated with engaging in health-promoting behaviors. We assessed whether the type of information source about HIV (personal or impersonal) and coping strategies (optimism, avoidance, or emotion-focused) are associated with HIV testing among adolescents attending therapeutic schools. Participants were 417 adolescents, ages 13 to 19, who attended one of 20 therapeutic day schools for emotionally/behaviorally disordered youth in two U.S....
Winston, Flaura K; Zonfrillo, Mark R; García-España, J Felipe; Miller, Ted R
To guide implementation of the Affordable Care Act 2010 by estimating anticipated increases in medically attended injuries and site of care by the young who are currently uninsured. The 2008 National Health Interview Survey was used to estimate injury episodes and care site for uninsured and insured youth ≤26 years old. Increases in medically attended injuries were estimated by assuming that rates and care site for the currently uninsured would match those of the currently insured once the uninsured receive coverage. In 2008, approximately 11 938 800 episodes of medically attended injuries occurred for youth ≤26 years. An anticipated 6.1% increase in medically attended injuries (737 081; 95% confidence interval = 564 000-879 000), the majority of which would be seen in the outpatient setting, could occur once all uninsured youth become insured. Injury prevention strategies and additional injury care training for primary care physicians may help ensure appropriate triage and optimal outcomes while containing costs.
The violent crime rate among American Indians is twice that of the United States as a whole. Tribal communities are also beset by high rates of domestic violence, child abuse and neglect, alcohol abuse, and gang involvement. Given such factors, it is not surprising that tribal youth are exposed to multiple risk factors for delinquency. Indeed,…
Rajan, Kumar B; Rajan, Rekha S; Manning, Lydia K; Evans, Denis A
To examine if attendance in live performances was associated with change in cognition among African Americans (AAs) and European Americans (EAs). The study consisted of 5,567 older adults with at least follow-up interview and analyzed using a linear mixed effects regression model adjusting for demographic and health variables. We found that frequent performance attendance was associated with slower decline in composite cognitive function among older AAs and EAs. Attending 10 or more performances per year was associated with 23% slower cognitive decline among AAs and 31% slower cognitive decline among EAs compared with those who never attend any performance. However, this difference was not significant ( p = .56). Attending live performances was also associated with slower decline in individual tests of perceptual speed, episodic memory, and mini-mental state exam (MMSE). Our findings suggest that live performances form a valuable component of arts engagement and should be encouraged for potential cognitive benefits.
An expert on the sociology of video games highlights the power of this medium to popularize violence among children. But few are aware that some of the most technologically potent products are violent war games now being produced at taxpayer expense. These are provided free as a recruiting tool by the United States military. The author contends…
Karla A. Henderson
Full Text Available Youth development specialists advocate that well designed, implemented, and staffed youth centered programs result in positive outcomes for young people. Youth organizations have provided opportunities for young people to participate in camping experiences for over a century. The purpose of this paper is to describe what program components were related to camp environments and positive youth development. We describe these program components related to positive youth development based on a large scale national study of ACA (American Camp Association accredited camps that included independent, religiously affiliated, government, and not-for-profit organizations. Based on the responses given by camp directors, contact and leadership from trained staff and the supportive relationships they provided were essential elements of camp. Other aspects leading to positive youth development in camps were program mission and structure along with elements of accountability, assessment of outcomes, and opportunities for skill building.
National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, 2010
Attending school and securing lawful status in the United States are two keys to safety and security for undocumented unaccompanied homeless youth. This brief is designed to provide young people, immigration attorneys and advocates, McKinney-Vento liaisons and educators with basic information to help them access these keys. After describing some…
The subject of entrepreneurship and its dynamics were examined and considered as the best strategies at tackling the problem of and its attendant consequences. Amongst which are timely government interventions in the area of providing finance, availing training opportunities for youth as well as creating an environment ...
Miller, Paul Chamness; Mikulec, Erin A.
In recent years, queer youth have been in the media spotlight on issues ranging from attending prom to suicide. As novice teachers adapt to their new profession, in order to truly meet the needs of all students, they must understand the variety of issues that impact their success. Where this topic is concerned, this article fills a major gap in…
Zapata, Lauren B; Bryant, Carol A; McDermott, Robert J; Hefelfinger, Jennie A
Obesity has become a national epidemic among youth. Declining physical activity and poor nutrition contribute to this epidemic. The purpose of this study was to obtain data on middle school students' physical activity and nutrition knowledge and practices. The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey was developed and distributed to a probability sample of Florida public middle schools (n = 73) in spring 2003, producing data from 4,452 students in grades 6-8. Results showed that less than one fourth of youth met expert recommendations for daily fruit and vegetable intake and less than one fifth identified the daily fruit and vegetable serving recommendation. Less than half of students reported eating breakfast daily. More non-Hispanic black youth reported not engaging in vigorous or moderate physical activity during the previous 7 days, and more girls and Hispanic youth reported not attending any physical education classes during the average school week. These findings demonstrate that dietary and physical activity behaviors and knowledge among these middle school youth are setting the stage for the obesity epidemic to continue.
Reports on the first Soviet-American meeting on psychology held in April, 1978 at the University of California at Irvine. The meeting was attended by 10 Soviets and about 30 Americans. The big difference between the two groups was that the Americans had small theories and lots of data, and the Russians had large theories and much less data. (BB)
Faizel Amri, Umar; Nur Wahidah Nik Hashim, Nik; Hazrin Hany Mohamad Hanif, Noor
In the department of engineering, students are required to fulfil at least 80 percent of class attendance. Conventional method requires student to sign his/her initial on the attendance sheet. However, this method is prone to cheating by having another student signing for their fellow classmate that is absent. We develop our hypothesis according to a verse in the Holy Qur’an (95:4), “We have created men in the best of mould”. Based on the verse, we believe each psychological characteristic of human being is unique and thus, their speech characteristic should be unique. In this paper we present the development of speech biometric-based attendance system. The system requires user’s voice to be installed in the system as trained data and it is saved in the system for registration of the user. The following voice of the user will be the test data in order to verify with the trained data stored in the system. The system uses PSD (Power Spectral Density) and Transition Parameter as the method for feature extraction of the voices. Euclidean and Mahalanobis distances are used in order to verified the user’s voice. For this research, ten subjects of five females and five males were chosen to be tested for the performance of the system. The system performance in term of recognition rate is found to be 60% correct identification of individuals.
Kalish, Robin E; Voigt, Bridget; Rahimian, Afsaneh; Dicara, Joseph; Sheehan, Karen
To identify key elements that contribute to the effectiveness of a youth development program, interviews were conducted with 35 former Chicago Youth Programs (CYP) participants who remained in the program until age 18 years and went on to attend college, and 25 participants who left the program (and are currently older than age 18). Of the college participants who remained in CYP until age 18, 97% reported that the program had helped them by providing tutoring, mentoring, and financial support. In comparison, only 56% of the CYP dropouts had completed some college, and nearly 50% reported being involved in illegal activities. Many of the CYP dropouts were drawn to illegal activities for financial reasons or because they felt there was inadequate adolescent programming. All reported benefiting from their CYP participation. Incorporating financial incentives or specific adolescent programming may lead to longer youth program participation and, perhaps, more positive outcomes.
Dohn, Michael N; Jiménez Méndez, Santa Altagracia; Nolasco Pozo, Maximinia; Altagracia Cabrera, Elizabet; Dohn, Anita L
Excessive alcohol consumption increases the years of life lost to premature death and disability worldwide. Religion is a mitigating factor in alcohol consumption. A survey in the Dominican Republic showed increasing church attendance by middle and high school students (N = 3,478) was associated with a delay in age at first alcoholic drink, fewer students who had consumed alcohol in the past month (current drinkers), lower alcohol consumption levels, fewer episodes of inebriation, and less heavy episodic alcohol consumption (all P attending youth as a subset of the adolescent social network when planning primary alcohol prevention programs for young people.
Grobe, Terry; Martin, Nancy; Steinberg, Adria
The National Fund for Workforce Solutions and Jobs for the Future, with support from the Rockefeller Foundation, launched the Youth/Industry Partnership Initiative (YIPI), to learn how employer-led industry partnerships could addressing the crisis of youth unemployment--7 percent of American youth (age 16-24) are neither in school or…
Michaels, Marcia L.; Barr, Alicia; Roosa, Mark W.; Knight, George P.
Global self-worth and five domains of self-esteem (scholastic competence, athletic competence, physical appearance, behavioral conduct, social acceptance) were tested for measurement equivalence in a sample of Anglo American, Mexican American, African American, and Native American youth aged 9 through 14 years. The results revealed that global…
Roesch, Gabrielle E.; Neuffer, Tamara; Zobrist, Kevin
The Summer Youth Forestry Institute (SYFI) was developed to inspire youth through experiential learning opportunities and early work experience in the field of natural resources. Declining enrollments in forestry and other natural resource careers has made it necessary to actively engage youth and provide them with exposure to careers in these…
In this article, the author discusses youth culture and raises concerns about the tricky social terrain modernity offers for youth identity. He discusses familiar "topoi" or thematics that seem to drive most work on youth culture, suggests that justice and fairness are moral imperatives, and that acknowledging the worthiness of difference is one…
Goodland, M. C.
Never has youth been better educated or more qualified to enter the job market, yet never has youth known such lack of employment. Ramifications of effects of unemployment on youth make unemployment a great values issue of today. Implications presented indicate Canada may be on the verge of social crisis. (Author/BEF)
Marimpi, Maria; Koning, Pierre
This paper performs a cross-country level analysis on the impact of the level of specific youth minimum wages on the labor market performance of young individuals. We use information on the use and level of youth minimum wages, as compared to the level of adult minimum wages as well as to the median
Full Text Available Young people in the Arab world increasingly have to struggle with economic hardship and difficulties to start their own lives, although the majority is better educated than ever before. The problematic labor market situation combined with weak public schemes to support young careers force large sections of young people to postpone their ambitions to marry. This period of delayed marriage is captured as 'waithood'. I will argue that this term is misleading. Two points of critique apply: The social dimension of waiting exceeds the status of remaining inactive until something expected happens; the ever-changing present continuously generates new realities. Simultaneously uncertainties and insecurities have dramatically expanded since 2011 and further limit livelihood opportunities and future perspectives, particularly of the youth. Young people are hence becoming both, increasingly frustrated and disadvantaged the longer they "wait", and even more dependent on parents and kin networks. This hinders them to develop their personality – they rather have to accommodate with values that are not always suitable to master the present requirements of a globalizing world. In this paper I will inquire, in how far young people of the Arab world have thus to be considered as a “contained youth”.
Perry, Samuel L; Hayward, George M
Pornography has become increasingly accessible in the United States, and particularly for younger Americans. While some research considers how pornography use affects the sexual and psychological health of adolescents and emerging adults, sociologists have given little attention to how viewing pornography may shape young Americans' connection to key social and cultural institutions, like religion. This article examines whether viewing pornography may actually have a secularizing effect, reducing young Americans' personal religiosity over time. To test for this, we use data from three waves of the National Study of Youth and Religion. Fixed-effects regression models show that more frequent pornography viewing diminishes religious service attendance, importance of religious faith, prayer frequency, and perceived closeness to God, while increasing religious doubts. These effects hold regardless of gender. The effects of viewing pornography on importance of faith, closeness to God, and religious doubts are stronger for teenagers compared to emerging adults. In light of the rapidly growing availability and acceptance of pornography for young Americans, our findings suggest that scholars must consider how increasingly pervasive pornography consumption may shape both the religious lives of young adults and also the future landscape of American religion more broadly.
Grossman, Arnold H.; Haney, Adam P.; Edwards, Perry; Alessi, Edward J.; Ardon, Maya; Howell, Tamika Jarrett
This qualitative study used five focus groups of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth attending public high schools to examine their experiences with school violence. Core themes focused on lack of community and empowerment leading to youth being without a sense of human agency in school. Negative attention themes were indicative…
Giraldo-García, Regina J.; Galletta, Anne
Tracing the nature of critical engagement and agency among youth in a participatory action research (PAR) collective, the study attends to the manner in which critical engagement and agency developed over time for the youth researchers. The focus of the project was to conduct a survey among ninth grade students concerning their early high school…
Fulcher, Leon C.
The knowledge base that underpins child and youth care work is re-examined through the device of musical metaphor, introducing six voices that impact on responsive practices with children, young people, and their families. The "Soul" of child and youth care is located in guarantees of physical safety and security and attending to bodily comforts,…
Swenson, Rebecca R.; Houck, Christopher D.; Barker, David; Zeanah, Paula D.; Brown, Larry K.
Given increased sexual risk-taking among youth with mental health problems, this study sought to understand the developmental trajectory of sexual self-esteem (SSE) among this vulnerable population and how it is impacted by sexual experiences. Participants were 185 adolescents who attended therapeutic/alternative schools in southern New England.…
Liu, Lenna L; Lawrence, Jean M; Davis, Cralen; Liese, Angela D; Pettitt, David J; Pihoker, Catherine; Dabelea, Dana; Hamman, Richard; Waitzfelder, Beth; Kahn, Henry S
Obesity's association with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is well established, but is less clear with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). We calculated the prevalence of overweight and obesity among diabetic youth in the USA from a six-center, population-based study of racially and ethnically diverse youth with diabetes, and we compared these rates with estimates among nondiabetic youth. Diabetic participants were examined in 2001-2004 for the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study (SEARCH) and nondiabetic participants were examined during the same years of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). 3953 diabetic youth and 7666 nondiabetic youth aged 3-19 yr. Overweight was defined as body mass index (BMI) from the 85th to obesity defined as > or = 95th percentile. Diabetes type was categorized as T1DM or T2DM based on physician diagnosis. Among youth with T2DM, the prevalence of overweight was 10.4% and obesity was 79.4%. Among youth with T1DM, 22.1% were overweight. The prevalence of overweight among youth with T1DM was higher than among those without diabetes overall (22.1% vs. 16.1%) (P obesity rate for T1DM was 12.6% overall (range Non-Hispanic White 10.7%-African-American 20.1%). As expected, most of the youth with T2DM were obese. Youth with T1DM had a higher prevalence of overweight, but not of obesity, than nondiabetic youth. Future studies of obesity among youth with diabetes of all types will further our understanding of the impact of obesity on diabetes both as a risk factor and a comorbidity.
... attendance to leadership developments hows approximately 0.370.m Conference attendance was highly recommended as a means of enhancing leadership development of academic librarians. Keywords: Experiential learning, self efficacy, attitude, Conference, Impact, Leadership, Teamwork, development, brainstorm, ...
Full Text Available Middle schools have the opportunity to positively impact the full development of young adolescents. Yet, initiatives that promote schools’ rigorous attention to specific academic outcomes can make it difficult to attend to other important and interconnected domains of adolescent development. How might middle schools intentionally situate academics within the broader frame of youth development? Youth in the Middle (YiM, a partnership between John W. Gardner Center for Youth and Their Communities (JGC at Stanford University and Kennedy Middle School in Redwood City, California, has pursued four areas of work that are central to developing a whole-school youth development approach. This article describes these work areas and offers preliminary evidence of progress.
Cloes, Marc; Emond, Catherine; Ledent, Maryse; Piéron, Maurice
Considering their sociocultural and economic impact, sport events represent a pertinent centre of interest for sport management research. Considering their frequent occurrence and importance to the survival of many associations such as sport clubs, schools, youth or neighbourhood committees, mass sport events could receive more attention than they actually do. In this paper attention was focused on participants and spectators attending the following five mass sport events organised in Walloni...
This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the career opportunities of airline flight attendants. General information about airline hiring policies for flight attendants are discussed, and the following information about the flight attendant job classification is provided: nature of the work, working conditions, where the jobs…
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Involuntary attendance. 785.28 Section 785.28 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... Lectures, Meetings and Training Programs § 785.28 Involuntary attendance. Attendance is not voluntary, of...
Education Partnerships, Inc., 2012
What steps can be taken to assure that High School students have the best attendance possible? It is commonly believed and well supported by research that students who attend school regularly are more successful than those who do not. The challenge for high schools is to design and implement attendance policies and programs that monitor,…
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compulsory attendance. 31.4 Section 31.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION FEDERAL SCHOOLS FOR INDIANS § 31.4 Compulsory attendance. Compulsory school attendance of Indian children is provided for by law. (60 Stat. 962; 25 U.S.C...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false School attendance. 3.667..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Adjustments and Resumptions § 3.667 School attendance... attendance if the child was at that time pursing a course of instruction at an approved educational...
What are the characteristics of successful student attendance programs for the high school? It is commonly believed and well supported by research that students who attend school regularly are more successful than those who do not. The challenge for high schools is to design and implement attendance policies and programs that monitor, encourage,…
David R. Perkins
Full Text Available Weather events have the potential to greatly impact business operations and profitability, especially in outdoor-oriented economic sectors such as Tourism, Recreation, and Leisure (TRL. Although a substantive body of work focuses on the macroscale impacts of climate change, less is known about how daily weather events influence attendance decisions, particularly relating to the physiological thermal comfort levels of each visitor. To address this imbalance, this paper focuses on ambient thermal environments and visitor behavior at the Phoenix and Atlanta zoos. Daily visitor attendances at each zoo from September 2001 to June 2011, were paired with the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET to help measure the thermal conditions most likely experienced by zoo visitors. PET was calculated using hourly atmospheric variables of temperature, humidity, wind speed, and cloud cover from 7 a.m. to 7 p.m. at each zoological park location and then classified based on thermal comfort categories established by the American Society of Heating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE. The major findings suggested that in both Phoenix and Atlanta, optimal thermal regimes for peak attendance occurred within “slightly warm” and “warm” PET-based thermal categories. Additionally, visitors seemed to be averse to the most commonly occurring thermal extreme since visitors appeared to avoid the zoo on excessively hot days in Phoenix and excessively cold days in Atlanta. Finally, changes in the daily weather impacted visitor attendance as both zoos experienced peak attendance on days with dynamic changes in the thermal regimes and depressed attendances on days with stagnant thermal regimes. Building a better understanding of how weather events impact visitor demand can help improve our assessments of the potential impacts future climate change may have on tourism.
Stone, Andrea L; Carlisle, Shauna K
This article examines the association between race and racial bullying (bullying due to one's race), in relation to youth substance use in school attending young adolescents in the United States. Weighted unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were run to assess if racial bullying involvement was associated with youth substance use. Data for this study come from the Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children survey (n = 7,585). An association between racial bullying status (not involve, bullying victim, bullying perpetrator, or mixed bullying victim/perpetrator) and youth substance was identified in this study. Racial bully perpetrators were most likely to have used cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana, followed by youth in the mixed victim/perpetrator group. When analyses were stratified by race, non-Hispanic White and Hispanic youth experienced an increased risk of cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use if in the perpetrator or mixed group (compared to those not involved with racial bullying). Non-Hispanic White and Asian youth were also more likely to report marijuana use if in the victim group. Non-Hispanic Black youth were more likely to use alcohol and marijuana if they were a perpetrator or in the mixed group, but they were not more likely to use cigarettes. Differences appear to exist in relation to racial bullying experience and substance across racial/ethnic group among youth in grades 7-10. Implications for prevention and educational professionals are discussed.
Howell, James C.
This bulletin provides an overview of the problems that youth gangs pose. It pinpoints the differences between youth gangs and adult criminal organizations and examines the risk factors that lead to youth gang membership. Some promising strategies being used to curb youth gang involvement are reviewed. The proliferation of youth gangs since 1980…
Mohamed, Inca A.; Wheeler, Wendy
This report focuses on leadership development, especially on efforts that promote youth engagement as a youth development strategy. Part 1 is an edited version of the publication, "Youth Leadership for Development: Civic Activism as a Component of Youth Development Programming." It provides an overview of youth development theory, including an…
Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Mehari, Krista; Bradshaw, Catherine P
Obese and overweight youth are at an increased risk for poor peer relations and psychosocial adjustment. Of particular concern is the high rate of bullying victimization experienced by obese and overweight youth. While it is known that victimized youth are at an increased risk for internalizing symptoms, few studies have examined if weight status exacerbates the association between victimization and internalizing symptoms. The current study drew upon data from over 43,000 youth attending 107 middle and high schools. Multilevel results suggested that compared with normal weight youth, both overweight and obese youth were at an increased risk for experiencing relational, verbal, and cyber victimization, with only obese youth being at an increased risk for experiencing physical victimization. Notably, the odds for experiencing cyber victimization were higher than the odds for experiencing other forms of victimization. Frequently victimized obese youth, but not frequently victimized overweight youth, had significantly higher levels of internalizing symptoms compared to their frequently victimized, normal-weight peers. Together, these findings highlight the increased risk for psychosocial adjustment problems among frequently victimized overweight and obese youth, suggesting these youth may require preventive interventions tailored to meet their unique needs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Bogard, Kimber L; Sherrod, Lonnie R
This study examined the relationships among three sets of variables in a sample of 299 diverse high school youth: (a) demographic variables such as ethnicity and immigrant status, (b) attitudes toward citizenship responsibilities, and (c) allegiances to three socializing institutions--family, school, and community. A measure of citizenship attitudes was found to identify two distinct constructs--Polity-Oriented and Civic-Oriented attitudes toward citizenship responsibilities, relating to the polity or nation-state, and to serving the community. European Americans were consistently lower on Polity-Oriented attitudes than Hispanic teens, and lower on family allegiance than other non-European American groups. Hispanic youth reported significantly lower community involvement than other non-European American groups as well as European American youth. Whereas the only significant correlation between allegiance and citizenship attitudes was between family allegiance and Polity-Oriented attitudes, there were multiple moderating effects of immigrant status and ethnicity. Results are discussed in terms of ethnicity and allegiances as contexts of socialization for the development of attitudes toward citizenship responsibilities.
An analysis of existing data on youth unemployment was used to (1) review the reasons for high and rising youth unemployment, (2) account for high youth unemployment in 1966, and (3) measure the importance of the various causes of rising youth unemployment. Summary findings included--(1) Relatively high rates of youth unemployment are to be…
Kolivoski, Karen M; Goodkind, Sara; Shook, Jeffrey J
Social workers are critical to promoting racial and social justice. "Crossover youth," a term used to describe youths who have contact with both the child welfare and juvenile justice systems, are an especially vulnerable but often overlooked population with whom social workers engage. A disproportionate number of crossover youth are African American. Empirical research on crossover youth is growing, but such scholarship rarely engages with a human rights and social justice perspective. African American children and youths have a distinct place within the history and current context of the child welfare and juvenile justice systems. These systems have historically excluded them or treated them differently; now, African American youths are overrepresented in each of them, and evidence suggests they are more likely to cross over. The purpose of this article is to describe the historical and current context of crossover youth, with a particular focus on African American youths, to provide the foundation for a discussion of what social workers can do to promote racial and social justice for crossover youth, including specific implications for practice and policy, as well as broader implications for human and civil rights. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.
Spano, Richard; Rivera, Craig; Bolland, John M.
Five waves of longitudinal data collected from 349 African American youth living in extreme poverty were used to determine if parental monitoring shielded youth from exposure to violence during adolescence. Semiparametric group-based modeling was used to identify trajectories of parental monitoring and exposure to violence from T1 to T5. Results…
Handy, Deborah J.; Rodgers, Kathleen Boyce; Schwieterman, Tiffany Anne
Youth and adult partners participated in youth asset mapping, a form of action research, to assess community assets and youth involvement opportunities. Qualitative data were analyzed to examine youths' feelings of empowerment and experiences with adult partners. Asset mapping contributed to youth empowerment, especially when adults were engaging…
Ledoux, Tracey; Watson, Kathy; Baranowski, Janice; Tepper, Beverly J; Baranowski, Tom
Reasons for inconsistent associations between overeating styles and adiposity among youth may include differences in effects by age, gender, or ethnicity; failure to control for social desirability of response; or adiposity measurement limitations. This study examined the relationship between overeating styles and multiple measures of adiposity, after controlling for social desirability and testing for moderation by ethnicity, age, and gender. Data from 304 9-10 year old children and 264 17-18 year old adolescents equally representing African American, Hispanic, and White ethnic groups were extracted from a larger cross-sectional study. Measures included the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (restrained, external, and emotional overeating subscales), the "Lie Scale" from the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, and measured weight, height, waist circumference, and triceps skinfold. BMI z-score and a global adiposity index were calculated. Mixed model linear regression showed restraint was positively and external eating was negatively related to measures of adiposity. African American youth had a stronger inverse association between emotional eating and adiposity than White or Hispanic youth. Relationships were not influenced by social desirability nor moderated by age or gender. Overeating styles are related to adiposity in nearly all youth but the nature of these associations are moderated by ethnicity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Olsson, Ulf; Petersson, Kenneth; Krejsler, John B.
governmentalization of Europe. Central questions are ‘who’ and ‘what’ the problematization of youth as political technology is about. Drawing on homologies in the coding of citizen, independent of age, the authors claim that problematization of youth is directed to all of us. We are all, in the name of youth...... Papers, scripts or memos concerning political arenas such as youth and education policies and the Bologna process. Theoretically the article draws on insights from post-Foucauldian traditions with a focus on mentalities, subject constructions, technologies and practices operating within the ongoing......, expected to constantly ‘adapt’ ourselves in compliance with the aim of the Lisbon process. Furthermore, as the Union itself is coded in a similar way, we may even claim that the EU, literally speaking, appears as a youth project in itself. Thus, the notion that youth can be seen as political rationality...
14TH IMISCOE ANNUAL CONFERENCE (ROTTERDAM, JUNE 28-30, 2017) 'Migration, Diversity and the City RESEARCH PANEL on behalf of Contested Childhood Research Group Working title Transforming childhood and youth: increasing diversity in European cities Chair and discussant : Rashmi Singla* and Marie...... the narrow understandings of children and youth as “first or second generation immigrants”, a range of ascribed categories such as children ‘left behind’ or youth and families in transnational settings, international exchange students, mobile youth, are included in these papers. Despite differences....... Differently emerging conceptualizations of childhood and youth are made explicit as the papers cover various settings, disciplines and theoretical and methodological approaches. However, all the papers foreground children and youth primarily representing the future of the societies they are involved in...
Golinelli, Daniela; Tucker, Joan S; Shadel, William G
Several studies have reported pronounced racial/ethnic differences in smoking behavior among homeless youth. Better understanding the factors underlying racial/ethnic differences in daily smoking among homeless youth may help inform programs to reduce smoking in this population. Data come from a probability sample of homeless youth in Los Angeles County collected between 2008 and 2009. The sample includes 116 African American, 99 Hispanic, and 119 White youth with ages ranging from 13 to 24 years. Chi-square tests were used to test the differences in daily smoking among African American, Hispanic, and White youth. Propensity score and doubly robust methods were used to produce a less biased estimate of the association between daily smoking and race/ethnicity after having removed the effect of potential confounders. The daily smoking rate for White youth was 70.1%, more than 31 percentage points than the rates for either African American or Hispanic youth. Propensity score analysis revealed that the majority of the racial/ethnic differences in smoking rates could be explained by differences in homelessness severity, although background characteristics and comorbidity were relevant as well. As programs are developed to reduce smoking among homeless youth, results suggest that additional outreach may be needed to engage White youth in services. Also, smoking prevention programs may benefit from incorporating a social network-based approach that assists youth in fostering relationships with lower-risk peers, as well as addressing other forms of substance use. Incorporating these elements may help reduce the large racial/ethnic disparities in daily smoking among homeless youth. This report extends the small existing literature on racial/ethnic differences in smoking among homeless youth in two important respects. First, it confirms differences in daily smoking, an important indicator of dependence, across racial/ethnic groups. Second, it seeks to understand the extent
AAS 2011 Youth Suicidal Behavior Fact Sheet 4,822 youth age 15-24 died by suicide. i We want to change that. Su icid eRat ebyRace , age s 15-24, ... often the first to know their friend is suicidal, and we need to help them know where to ... 2011 Youth Risk and Behavior Survey found that in the previous 12 months ...
Deborah L. Angell: The Bug Stops Here! Cheryl L. Barber: Successful Snacks - Food, Fitness and Food Safety Learning Activities. Darcy Batura: At-Risk Youth and Household Hazardous Waste Education. Katherine L. Cason: Nutrition Mission – A Multimedia Educational Tool for Youth . Patsy A. Ezell: An Interactive Food and Nutrition Education Program for Youth. Rhea Lanting: Got Calcium? Sandy McCurdy: Reaching Teens through a Food Safety Education Partnership. Patricia Mulkeen: Choosing 4-H Fitnes...
Pratt, Keeley J; Lazorick, Suzanne; Lamson, Angela L; Ivanescu, Andrada; Collier, David N
Changes in Quality of Life (QOL) measures over time with treatment of obesity have not previously been described for youth. We describe the changes from baseline through two follow up visits in youth QOL (assessed by the Pediatric Quality Life Inventory, PedsQL4.0), teen depression (assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ9A), Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI z-score. We also report caregiver proxy ratings of youth QOL. A sample of 267 pairs of youth and caregiver participants were recruited at their first visit to an outpatient weight-treatment clinic that provides care integrated between a physician, dietician, and mental health provider; of the 267, 113 attended a visit two (V2) follow-up appointment, and 48 attended visit three (V3). We investigated multiple factors longitudinally experienced by youth who are overweight and their caregivers across up to three different integrated care visits. We determined relationships at baseline in QOL, PHQ9A, and BMI z-score, as well as changes in variables over time using linear mixed models with time as a covariate. Overall across three visits the results indicate that youth had slight declines in relative BMI, significant increases in their QOL and improvements in depression. We encourage clinicians and researchers to track youth longitudinally throughout treatment to investigate not only youth's BMI changes, but also psychosocial changes including QOL.
Peters, J F
Some of the functions and dysfunctions of youth employment in contemporary society are discussed. The focus then shifts to a third variable: family dynamics. The research indicates that youth unemployment prolongs residence with parents. The younger the youth, the more tolerant are the parents of the unemployment. It was also found that a daughter's lack of employment in the summer months is more acceptable than a son's; that debts are part of the lifestyle of youth after age 18; that males incur more debts than do females; and that parents are the major source of financial loans.
Like many other African countries, Kenya has a large and growing youth population. Some of the youths are mobilized into militant and political networks; one of these is the Mungiki movement. The article explores Mungiki’s combination of politics, religion and Kikuyu traditions. Using the examples...... of snuff tobacco, revolutionary talk and generational exclusion, it is argued that one way of understanding the connection between the various elements is to look at specific youth practices that cut across apparently separate activities. This reveals that youth in the Mungiki discourse is a highly...
Depression is one of the most common psychological disorders experienced by adolescents. Research has shown depression rates are higher in Asian-American adolescents when compared to their European-American counterparts. This paper will investigate possible programs for preventing and responding to Asian-American youths' depression through a…
Okwumabua, Theresa M.; Walker, Kristin M.; Hu, Xiangen; Watson, Andrea
The current work presents exploratory research findings concerning African American students' attitudes toward online learning. The Online Tutoring Attitudes Scale (OTAS; Graff, 2003) was administered to 124 African American students in a positive youth development program. Findings suggest that African American students' attitudes toward…
Full Text Available Sub–Saharan Africa and Southern Asia lag behind other regions in the provision of antenatal care and skilled attendance at birth (although typically attended by a family member or villager and over 32 million of the 40 million births not attended by skilled health personnel in 2012 occurred in rural areas. Overall, one–quarter of women in developing nations still birth alone or with a relative to assist them.
Roche, Kathleen M; Ghazarian, Sharon R; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria Eugenia
Given educational risks facing Mexican-origin children of immigrant parents, it is important to understand how aspects of the acculturation process influence Mexican-origin youth's educational success. Drawing from selective assimilation theory, this study examined how cultural orientations across myriad facets of acculturation were associated with the educational attainment of second-generation Mexican immigrant youth. The sample included 755 Mexican-origin youth (50% female) in the "Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study." Results from structural equation models indicated that youth reporting greater facility in the English language and a stronger value on familism attained higher levels of education in young adulthood than did other youth. Parents' U.S. social ties and youth's value on early paid work were associated with less educational attainment. Innovative findings from this study indicate the importance of considering both Mexican and American cultural orientations across myriad facets of acculturation for understanding second-generation immigrant Mexican youth's educational attainment.
Fuligni, Andrew J.; Tseng, Vivian; Lam, May
Examined attitudes toward family obligations in American tenth and twelfth graders from Filipino, Chinese, Mexican, Central and South American, and European backgrounds. Found that even within a society emphasizing adolescent autonomy and independence, youths from families with collectivistic traditions retain their parents' familial values and…
Kivlighan, D Martin; Owen, Jesse; Antle, Becky
Relationship education programs (REPs) are an effective way to enhance relationship communication, prevent relational distress, and increase relationship quality. Most REPs are delivered in a group format; however, there is little known about the influence of group processes on outcomes for these programs, such as group members' attendance. Therefore, the current study applied a dispersion-consensus model to test the impact of attendance at the member and group levels on group members' REP outcomes. In a sample of 558 lower income, primarily African American participants, we examined whether individual and group attendance rates influenced posttreatment communication patterns and relationship quality. Results indicated that an individual group member's attendance was significantly and positively related to their posttreatment relationship quality, although this relationship is complex. Specifically, this relationship was stronger in groups with higher levels of attendance as well as groups with more attendance variability. In addition, results indicated that group members reported better posttreatment relationship quality in groups with less variability in members' attendance. However, we found a significant interaction between attendance consensus and variability, and an individual group member's posttreatment relationship quality, suggesting that group members report higher levels of relationship quality in groups where the attendance of the group as a whole is lower yet more consistent. No significant relationships were found for group member's posttreatment communication patterns. Our findings suggest that the rate and variability in the group's attendance, as well as an individual group member's own attendance significantly impacts their posttreatment relationship quality in complex ways. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Zapolski, Tamika C B; Fisher, Sycarah; Banks, Devin E; Hensel, Devon J; Barnes-Najor, Jessica
Ethnic identity is an important buffer against drug use among minority youth. However, limited work has examined pathways through which ethnic identity mitigates risk. School-aged youth (N = 34,708; 52 % female) of diverse backgrounds (i.e., African American (n = 5333), Asian (n = 392), Hispanic (n = 662), Multiracial (n = 2129), Native American (n = 474), and White (n = 25718) in grades 4-12 provided data on ethnic identity, drug attitudes, and drug use. After controlling for gender and grade, higher ethnic identity was associated with lower past month drug use for African American, Hispanic, and Multiracial youth. Conversely, high ethnic identity was associated with increased risk for White youth. An indirect pathway between ethnic identity, drug attitudes, and drug use was also found for African American, Hispanic, and Asian youth. Among White youth the path model was also significant, but in the opposite direction. These findings confirm the importance of ethnic identity for most minority youth. Further research is needed to better understand the association between ethnic identity and drug use for Multiracial and Hispanic youth, best ways to facilitate healthy ethnic identity development for minority youth, and how to moderate the risk of identity development for White youth.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to further the understanding of how parenting and the relationship between the parent and the youth influence adolescent alcohol use in Mexican American families, with particular attention to acculturation. Results indicated that parental warmth is a strong factor in predicting adolescent alcohol use among Mexican adolescents. The parent-youth relationship played an important role in lowering alcohol use for Mexican American youth. Acculturation has an impact on the level of warmth, control, and the parent-youth relationship for Mexican American families. Findings indicate that there are unique family mechanisms for Mexican American families that should be considered when developing prevention and treatment options.
Medina, Catherine; Luna, Gaye
Suicide is the second leading cause of death among school-aged students between the ages of 15 and 19. There is an increasing frequency of suicide and other self-destructive behaviors among Mexican American youth and students in special education classrooms for emotional and behavioral disabilities. Recognizing Mexican American youth in special…
Lloyd, Stacey W.; Ferguson, Yvonne Owens; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Ellison, Arlinda; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara J.; Youmans, Selena; Muhammad, Melvin R.; Wynn, Mysha; Adimora, Adaora; Akers, Aletha
Though African-American youth in the South are at high risk for HIV infection, abstinence until marriage education continues to be the only option in some public schools. Using community-based participatory research methods, we conducted 11 focus groups with African-American adults and youth in a rural community in North Carolina with high rates…
Eekelen, Willem van; De Luca, Loretta; Ismail, Magwa
Examines economic and social factors affecting youth employment in Egypt and describes three national programmes for the promotion of youth employment based on human resources development, direct job creation and support in self-employment and enterprise creation. Describes one public-private project in each case.
Wirtz, Willard; And Others
The document presents the proceedings of an international symposium analyzing the relationship among youth, education, and employment, with emphasis on youth employment trends and the need to find solutions for unemployment problems. The objectives are to evaluate the existing relationship in the light of changing values and expectations of young…
Original title: Lokaal jeugdbeleid. Local authorities have been given an important role in youth policy in the Netherlands. They are expected to develop preventive youth policy to increase the opportunities of young people and prevent them dropping out from society. At the request of the
Jobs For the Future, 2016
Youth unemployment has been a cause for concern in the United States for years. Youth unemployment costs society--through the loss of talent and costs of social supports and subsidies. Jobless young people are more vulnerable to a range of challenges, including the ills already plaguing their communities: high rates of unplanned pregnancy,…
Swahili, the national language. Only 1in 5can do basic math. Urban youth are almost 5 times more likely to have completed university than rural youth. Numeracy skills. Behavioral skills. Inter-personal skills. Problem-solving skills. Job-specific technical skills. ICT skills. Communication skills. Literacy skills. 0%. 36%. 34%.
Dec 1, 2011 ... nor funding, relief programmes and international aid, these discussions have made the 'youth' the .... to the definition of youth if the social science of Africa intends to do justice to the cultural, historical ... their introduction to capitalist regimes that turned them into cheap labour for the mines or plantations.
Apr 14, 2015 ... One of the thorny issues usually discussed by Nigerians is the issue of youth's unemployment ... productive sectors such as food and its security, environmental security among others. The youths have the ..... Micro lending programmes already put in place through micro-finance banks should be reformed to ...
UNCTAD; World Bank
This note provides examples that investors, civil society, and governments can follow to engage youth in participating in agriculture. Young people can be the driving force for the inclusive rural transformation needed to address the many challenges posed by growing populations, urbanization, and youth unemployment. Yet, many young people are frustrated by the lifestylesand opportunities a...
OECD Publishing, 2014
The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…
OECD Publishing, 2016
The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. The present report on Lithuania is the fourth of a new…
OECD Publishing, 2015
The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…
Linda Rothman; H. Pijnenburg; Rinie van Rijsingen
This article introduces the concept of alliance in youth care. The concept of (therapeutic) alliance originates in adult psychotherapy and related research. Alliance refers to the working relationship between youth care workers and their clients. Within this concept, personal (emotional) and task
Describes Youth Aliyah, department of Jewish Agency for Israel, which began in 1933 to rescue Jewish children from Nazi Germany, bring them to Israel, and place them in kibbutzim. Notes that, since its inception, Youth Aliyah has taken in Holocaust survivors and has taken active role in helping young immigrants to Israel in need of education and…
Bruce, Bertram; Lin, Ching-Chiu
A youth community informatics (YCI) research project intersected an inquiry learning model with the making of audiovisual podcasts to foster personal growth and community engagement in a group of Mexican American youth enrolled in an afterschool program. Specifically, the article describes the cycle of inquiry together with the development of a…
Mathews, Virginia H.
Describes the roles of various divisions of the American Library Association (ALA) in helping to pass the youth services resolution at the 1991 White House Conference on Library and Information Services (WHCLIS2). A sidebar contains the text of the resolution, which is entitled The Omnibus Children and Youth Literacy through Libraries Act. (LRW)
Gardner, Margo; Browning, Christopher; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Using longitudinal data from a subsample of Hispanic, African American, and White youth enrolled in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (N = 1,419), we examined the effects of both parental involvement in domestic violence and youth participation in organized out-of-school-time activities on internalizing symptoms during…
Regan, Mary Elana
Youth violence in the city of Philadelphia, PA, has reached epidemic proportions. The majority of homicides related to gun violence is most prevalent among African American males aged 19 to 24 years. Therefore, it is essential to implement youth violence prevention programs to a target population several years younger than this age group to…
Russ, Erin; Fryar, Garet
What happens to youth in foster care when they turn 18? Many face unprecedented challenges like homelessness, lack of financial resources, difficulty accessing educational opportunities, and unemployment. In this issue brief, The American Youth Policy Forum (AYPF) document these challenges and opportunities in three distinct yet overlapping areas…
In May 2000, the United States Department of Labor awarded sizable Youth Opportunity (YO) Grants to 36 high-poverty urban, rural, and Native American communities. These communities were among the most economically distressed communities in the nation, all characterized by high drop out rates, high youth unemployment rates, greater incidence of…
Weisz, John R.; Southam-Gerow, Michael A.; Gordis, Elana B.; Connor-Smith, Jennifer K.; Chu, Brian C.; Langer, David A.; McLeod, Bryce D.; Jensen-Doss, Amanda; Updegraff, Alanna; Weiss, Bahr
Community clinic therapists were randomized to (a) brief training and supervision in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for youth depression or (b) usual care (UC). The therapists treated 57 youths (56% girls), ages 8-15, of whom 33% were Caucasian, 26% were African American, and 26% were Latino/Latina. Most youths were from low-income families…
Grobe, Terry; Martin, Nancy; Steinberg, Adria
The National Fund for Workforce Solutions and Jobs for the Future, with support from the Rockefeller Foundation, launched the Youth/Industry Partnership Initiative (YIPI), to learn how employer-led industry partnerships could addressing the crisis of youth unemployment--7 percent of American youth (age 16-24) are neither in school or…
Aroian, Karen J
Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This descriptive qualitative study complements the few existing studies on Muslim American adolescents by obtaining in-depth description of the discrimination they encounter. The sample was 14 Muslim American adolescents who participated in one of two gender-specific focus groups about their discrimination experiences. Findings identified school settings as rife with discrimination toward Muslims, portrayed Muslim girls as at risk for harassment by strangers in public places, and illustrated how Muslim youth cope with discrimination. The study findings sensitize school nurses to the nature of the problem and provide direction for intervention.
Objective: A number of factors affect the clinic attendance compliance of the average adult Nigerian. The consequent default from treatment could affect the management outcome of such patients. This study was therefore, undertaken to evaluate the clinic attendance compliance pattern of adult hypertensive patients being ...
“Automated Attendance Management and Alert System (AAMAS)” was developed to help UiTM lecturers and Academic Affairs Department in monitoring students' absenteeism and improving the absenteeism record management. AAMAS provides various functions, from managing and recording students' attendance record ...
Leddon, Leo Levy, Jr.
The purpose of this research was to examine court cases dealing with compulsory attendance laws, also known as compulsory education laws, for the purpose of establishing the issues, outcomes, and trends in compulsory attendance litigation. In this manner, school officials could be provided guidance on dealing with issues surrounding the attendance…
Park, Sueuk; Pascarella, Ernest T.
Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study, 1988 (NELS: 88), this paper documents differences in the socioeconomic plans of students in two-year and four-year colleges. We found attendance at a two-year college led to a modest but statistically significant disadvantage in socioeconomic plans. However, the impact of attending a…
Sund, Kristian J.; Bignoux, Stephane
In this study we attempt to answer Romer’s (1993) question: “Should attendance be mandatory?” Contrary to many existing studies, we conclude that in the case of business and management programs the answer is ‘no’. In a study of over 900 undergraduate strategy students, spanning four academic years......, we examine the link between attendance and exam results. Unlike prior research on this topic, our findings show that attendance is not the best determinant of student performance. We find instead that the best determinant of student performance for third year bachelor students is their over......-all degree classification, which we see as a proxy for academic ability. We suggest that attendance may simply be a reflection of student conscientiousness, engagement and motivation. We also challenge the assumptions about gender differences found in prior research on student attendance and student...
Sund, Kristian J.; Bignoux, Stephane
In this study we attempt to answer Romer’s (1993) question: “Should attendance be mandatory?” Contrary to many existing studies, we conclude that in the case of business and management programs the answer is ‘no’. In a study of over 900 undergraduate strategy students, spanning four academic years......-all degree classification, which we see as a proxy for academic ability. We suggest that attendance may simply be a reflection of student conscientiousness, engagement and motivation. We also challenge the assumptions about gender differences found in prior research on student attendance and student......, we examine the link between attendance and exam results. Unlike prior research on this topic, our findings show that attendance is not the best determinant of student performance. We find instead that the best determinant of student performance for third year bachelor students is their over...
Joshi, Gagan; Faraone, Stephen V; Wozniak, Janet; Tarko, Laura; Fried, Ronna; Galdo, Maribel; Furtak, Stephannie L; Biederman, Joseph
To compare the clinical presentation of ADHD between youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ADHD and a sample of youth with ADHD only. A psychiatrically referred sample of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) youth with ADHD attending a specialized ambulatory program for ASD ( n = 107) and a sample of youth with ADHD attending a general child psychiatry ambulatory clinic ( n = 74) were compared. Seventy-six percent of youth with ASD met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) criteria for ADHD. The clinical presentation of ADHD in youth with ASD was predominantly similar to its typical presentation including age at onset (3.5 ± 1.7 vs. 4.0 ± 1.9; p = .12), distribution of diagnostic subtypes, the qualitative and quantitative symptom profile, and symptom severity. Combined subtype was the most frequent presentation of ADHD in ASD youth. Despite the robust presentation of ADHD, a significant majority of ASD youth with ADHD failed to receive appropriate ADHD treatment (41% vs. 24%; p = .02). A high rate of comorbidity with ADHD was observed in psychiatrically referred youth with ASD, with a clinical presentation typical of the disorder.
Over the past 100 years the state of Guanajuato has consistently been one of the highest migrant sending states in Mexico. Youth living in high migratory states such as Guanajuato are heavily influenced by the expectation that they will travel to the US, and research has shown that those who do not migrate may be looked down upon by members of their community. This secondary analysis looks at the connection between suicidal ideation and migration aspirations among a group of adolescents living in Guanajuato, Mexico. Data were originally collected in 2007 as part of a comprehensive health survey of youth attending an alternative high schooling program. Regression analyses show that suicidal ideation predicts intentions to migrate among both males and females, while other factors differentially influence the adolescents by gender. The results indicate that suicidal ideation may be associated with migration aspirations among Mexican youth living in high migratory communities. Study limitations and implications are discussed.
Riordan, Anne; Kelly, Erin H; Klaas, Sara J; Vogel, Lawrence C
Examine psychosocial outcomes of youth with spinal cord injury (SCI) as a function of neurological level (paraplegia/tetraplegia) and severity (American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale (AIS)). Survey research. Three pediatric SCI specialty centers in the USA. Participants Youth with SCI ages 5-18 with neurological impairment classifications of: tetraplegia AIS ABC (tetraplegia ABC), paraplegia AIS ABC (paraplegia ABC), or AIS D. Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, and Children's Depression Inventory. Three hundred and forty youth participated; 57% were male; 60% were Caucasian, 21% Hispanic, 7% African-American, 2% Native American, and 3% reported "other". Their mean age was 8.15 years (standard deviation (SD) = 5.84) at injury and 13.18 years (SD = 3.87) at interview. Ninety-six youth (28%) had tetraplegia ABC injuries, 191 (56%) paraplegia ABC injuries, and 53 (16%) AIS D injuries. Neurological impairment was significantly related to participation and quality of life (QOL). Specifically, youth with paraplegia ABC and AIS D injuries participated in more activities than youth with tetraplegia ABC (P = 0.002; P = 0.018, respectively) and youth with paraplegia ABC participated more often than youth with tetraplegia ABC (P = 0.006). Youth with paraplegia ABC reported higher social QOL than youth with tetraplegia ABC (P = 0.001) and AIS D injuries (P = 0.002). Groups did not differ regarding mental health. Interventions should target youth with tetraplegia ABC, as they may need support in terms of participation, and both youth with tetraplegia ABC and AIS D injuries in terms of social integration.
About 250 students selected by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) to participate in the 2009 Youth Forum made CERN a primary destination for this year’s World Youth Forum event. The 250 students participating in the 2009 Youth Forum attend a presentation in the Globe of Science and Innovation.On Tuesday 6 October, the group visited several sites including the Microcosm exhibition and the ATLAS cavern to get a glimpse of what CERN does and the exciting science that is studied here. Since 2001 and every three years, the ITU World Forum brings together young men and women, aged 18-23, to learn about new technologies and the world around them. This year’s group included participants from one hundred and twenty-five different countries. This was the first time that the event involved a visit to CERN. When asked why CERN was a destination, Pascal Biner, organizer of the visit for ITU, explained that CERN was a necessary stop given the Forum’s base in Gen...
Full Text Available The primary factor to ensure economic and social development and also to build a healthy society is the education system which plays a significant role in human capital formation and shapes the social structure and its outputs. In this context, there are some risks threatening the youth that is trying to position itself on the education-employment line and some critical areas in need of national policy intervention as well. Hence, by analyzing indicators on education and labor force, this study aims to reveal the amount of youth under risk and to identify these critical areas, while targeting to highlight the urgent need for policy development focusing on youth in dead end. Within the study, it is emphasized that the education system causes youth to face with the problems of access and quality, and that there is a significant amount of youth not in education and employment, while underlining the necessity of bringing especially this inactive youth in economy in addition to equipping with required qualifications for their active participation in social life. Thus, in order to hinder human capital loss additionally, there is policy need in two directions, as focusing on the education system to prevent new hopeless generations on the one hand, and on the inclusion of the disadvantaged youth on the other.
Brenner, Philip S
The nature of religious change and the future of religion have been central questions of social science since its inception. But empirical research on this question has been quite American-centric, encouraged by the conventional wisdom that the United States is an outlier of religiosity in the developed world, and, more pragmatically, by the availability of survey data. The dramatic growth in the number and reach of cross-national surveys over the past two decades has offered a corrective. These data have allowed research on religious trends in the United States, Canada, and Europe, putting American trends into comparative relief. This research synthesis reviews the past quarter century of cross-national comparative survey research on religious behavior, focusing on religious service attendance as a commonly measured behavior that is arguably more equivalent across societies and cultures than other measures of religiosity. The lack of evidence for religious revival is highlighted, noting instead declining rates of attendance in the United States and Canada, and either declining rates or low "bottomed-out" stability in Western Europe, most of Eastern Europe, and Australia and New Zealand. Finally, countries in Latin America, Africa, and Asia are discussed to the extent that research allows, before a call for future research-in these places in particular-is made in order to correct for the Western and Christian focus of much of the research on cross-national religious trends.
Brenner, Philip S.
The nature of religious change and the future of religion have been central questions of social science since its inception. But empirical research on this question has been quite American-centric, encouraged by the conventional wisdom that the United States is an outlier of religiosity in the developed world, and, more pragmatically, by the availability of survey data. The dramatic growth in the number and reach of cross-national surveys over the past two decades has offered a corrective. These data have allowed research on religious trends in the United States, Canada, and Europe, putting American trends into comparative relief. This research synthesis reviews the past quarter century of cross-national comparative survey research on religious behavior, focusing on religious service attendance as a commonly measured behavior that is arguably more equivalent across societies and cultures than other measures of religiosity. The lack of evidence for religious revival is highlighted, noting instead declining rates of attendance in the United States and Canada, and either declining rates or low “bottomed-out” stability in Western Europe, most of Eastern Europe, and Australia and New Zealand. Finally, countries in Latin America, Africa, and Asia are discussed to the extent that research allows, before a call for future research—in these places in particular—is made in order to correct for the Western and Christian focus of much of the research on cross-national religious trends. PMID:27274579
The globalization of youth culture complicates young people's relationship to democracy as traditionally conceived. More and more young people define themselves as cosmopolitan citizens, connected through popular culture, digital technologies, and migration histories to social geographies outside their own local and national contexts. Despite…
Berg, Carla; Choi, Won S; Kaur, Harsohena; Nollen, Nicole; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S
The aim of the present study was to identify contextual factors related to smoking among urban African-American and White adolescents. We administered a survey assessing demographic and psychosocial variables to 299 adolescents in an urban pediatric clinic in the Midwest. Results indicated that being female, older age, lower academic performance, depressive symptoms, less frequent church attendance, parental smoking, and parental attitudes toward smoking were related to adolescent smoking. After controlling for demographics, the multivariate model predicting adolescent smoking included depressive symptoms, less frequent church attendance, and parental disapproval of smoking. Given these findings, efforts to decrease adolescent smoking may be enhanced by attending to depressive symptoms demonstrated by adolescents as well as contextual factors including parental attitudes and church attendance.
Stone, C A; Palmer, J H; Saxby, P J; Devaraj, V S
Outpatient non-attendance is a common source of inefficiency in a health service, wasting time and resources and potentially lengthening waiting lists. A prospective audit of plastic surgery outpatient clinics was conducted during the six months from January to June 1997, to determine the clinical and demographic profile of non-attenders. Of 6095 appointments 16% were not kept. Using the demographic information, we changed our follow-up guidelines to reflect risk factors for multiple non-attendances, and a self-referral clinic was introduced to replace routine follow-up for high risk non-attenders. After these changes, a second audit in the same six months of 1998 revealed a non-attendance rate of 11%--i.e. 30% lower than before. Many follow-up appointments are sent inappropriately to patients who do not want further attention. This study, indicating how risk factor analysis can identify a group of patients who are unlikely to attend again after one missed appointment, may be a useful model for the reduction of outpatient non-attendance in other specialties.
Yin, Lishu; Huang, Li-Ching; Hare, Dwight
This in-depth study examined the perspectives of 17 Korean undergraduate exchange students attending a U.S. southern university during the 2005-2006 school year. The struggles and frustrations they experienced; the difficulties they encountered socially, culturally, and academically; their contributions to the American academic community; and…
Kozloff, Nicole; Adair, Carol E; Palma Lazgare, Luis I; Poremski, Daniel; Cheung, Amy H; Sandu, Rebeca; Stergiopoulos, Vicky
"Housing First" has been shown to improve housing stability in homeless individuals with mental illness, but had not been empirically tested in homeless youth. We aimed to evaluate the effect of "Housing First" on housing stability in homeless youth aged 18 to 24 years participating in At Home/Chez Soi, a 24-month randomized trial of "Housing First" in 5 Canadian cities. Homeless individuals with mental illness were randomized to receive "Housing First" (combined with assertive community treatment or intensive case management depending on their level of need) or treatment as usual. We defined our primary outcome, housing stability, as the percent of days stably housed as a proportion of days for which residence data were available. Of 2148 participants who completed baseline interviews and were randomized, 7% (n = 156) were youth aged 18 to 24 years; 87 received "Housing First" and 69 received treatment as usual. In an adjusted analysis, youth in "Housing First" were stably housed a mean of 437 of 645 (65%) days for which data were available compared with youth in treatment as usual, who were stably housed a mean of 189 of 582 (31%) days for which data were available, resulting in an adjusted mean difference of 34% (95% confidence interval, 24%-45%; P < .001). "Housing First" was associated with improved housing stability in homeless youth with mental illness. Future research should explore whether adaptations of the model for youth yield additional improvements in housing stability and other outcomes. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Bridge, Jeffrey A; Horowitz, Lisa M; Fontanella, Cynthia A; Grupp-Phelan, Jackie; Campo, John V
The goal of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention is to reduce suicide and suicide attempts in the U.S. by 40% in the next decade. In this paper, a public health approach is applied to suicide prevention to illustrate how reductions in youth suicide and suicidal behavior might be achieved by prioritizing research in two areas: (1) increasing access to primary care-based behavioral health interventions for depressed youth and (2) improving continuity of care for youth who present to emergency departments after a suicide attempt. Finally, some scientific, clinical, and methodologic breakthroughs needed to achieve rapid, substantial, and sustained reductions in youth suicide and suicidal behavior are discussed. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This research investigated the relationship between adolescent afterschool program attendance, self-esteem and feelings of community connectedness. Thirty-nine of the 61 at-risk adolescents enrolled in two federally funded, community based afterschool programs participated in the study. Participants completed a 10-item self-esteem questionnaire and a 5-item section of the Youth Involved in Community Issues Survey (YICI to measure perceptions of community connectedness. Attendance records were also collected from the sites. Data were analyzed using Pearson Correlations. Results indicated that there was not a significant relationship between the total variables. The individual item analysis, however, did find a significant relationship between adolescent community connectedness and self esteem items. Findings suggest that there is a relationship to be explored and strengthened through means of community outreach for adolescents. Conclusions from this study have important implications for youth practice. Specifically, program leaders need to help adolescents get involved in the community as contributing members.
Sidibe, Turquoise; Turner, Kea; Sparks, Alicia; Woods-Jaeger, Briana; Lightfoot, Alexandra
African Americans have the highest rate of new HIV infection in the United States. This photovoice study explored the perspectives and experiences of African American female youth and sought to understand how adolescent development impacts HIV risk. This study used the photovoice methodology with seven African American or Biracial female youth, in…
Chino, Michelle; Fullerton-Gleason, Lynne
To examine correlates of suicide attempts among American Indian adolescents living on reservations in New Mexico. Cross-sectional American Indian adolescents attending school in New Mexico, grades 6 to 12. Data from the Search Institute Profiles of Student Life Attitudes and Behaviors survey related to suicide attempts and student assets and risk behaviors. Hypothesized predictor variables derived from 39 survey questions were tested against one outcome variable relating to prior suicide attempts. Of 690 American Indian students included in the study, 24.2% indicated having attempted suicide one or more times in their lives. Salient assets included having neighbors who cared about them, adults who made them feel important, and having friends who did well in school. Notable risk factors were feeling depressed, drug and alcohol use, and having been the victim of violence. Adolescent suicide continues to be a major concern for American Indians. A focus on strengthening parent-child relationships and community support for families may increase resiliency among youth at risk.
Swaim, Randall C; Stanley, Linda R
Rates of marijuana use are consistently high among reservation-based American Indian adolescents. The roles of family are unique in this ethnic group and can serve as sources of both risk and protection for substance use. To assess the relationships between distal and proximal family factors and lifetime and current marijuana use among American Indian and white middle and high school students who attend the same schools on or near reservations. In-school surveys were administered to 3380 American Indian and 1562 white students from 35 middle schools and 17 high schools regarding levels of marijuana use and family characteristics. Three logistic regression models (Control, Control+Distal; Control+Distral+Proximal) estimated effects of multiple family variables on lifetime and current marijuana use. Strong effects were found for family structure, parental monitoring, family conflict, and family sanctions against marijuana use. Weaker effects were found for family participation in school events, and no relationship was found for family communication about marijuana. Anumber of similar results were found across ethnicity and middle and high school students. Family variables exert strong and largely consistent effects across reservation-based American Indian and white youth on lifetime and current marijuana use. Interventions that include a broad range of targeted family components may serve to both limit uptake and forestall increases in adolescent marijuana use in these two groups. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Jaccard, James; Johansson, Margaret; Turrisi, Robert
This research examined the relationship between acculturation-related variables and binge drinking behavior among nationally representative samples of Mexican American, Cuban American, and Puerto Rican youth. It explored the relationship between length of residence in the United States, type of language spoken in the home (Spanish vs. English) and binge drinking in each of these subgroups. Results suggest that Latino youths with no prior history of alcohol consumption remain largely unaffected by these acculturation-related variables. Youth with a previous history of alcohol consumption experience greater likelihood of binge drinking as a function of the acculturation-related variables, but the relationships are complex. PMID:15238055
Costo, Rupert; And Others
The document reports on The First Convocation of American Indian Scholars, which was attended by professional people, artists, traditional historians, etc. As noted, the 4-day convocation was conceived, organized, and directed entirely by Native Americans and was limited to 200 participants, among whom were 36 Native American students. The…
Battle, Juan; Lemelle, Anthony J., Jr.
Used data from the 1993 National Black Politics Study to examine the way gender worked in explaining African American attitudes toward gay men. Results indicated that African American females expressed more positive attitudes toward homosexual men than did African American males, and of the variables examined (including age, church attendance,…
Kornblum, William; Williams, Terry M.
Presents observations and comments based on a large-scale field study of youth unemployment. Discusses the inappropriateness and futility of some government programs and the needs of young people that are frequently forgotten in view of institutional demands. (MK)
du Pont, Pierre S.
A cooperative program among Delaware's public educators, local governments, businesses, labor unions, and community organizations helps to identify available jobs and place qualified high school graduates in them, in a highly successful attempt to reduce youth unemployment. (MSE)
Experts agree that the ability to attract and train young people is crucial in today's workplace. Cooperation between government, education, and the private sector is essential to eradicating the problem of youth unemployment. (JOW)
Full Text Available Journal was published by Turkey Ministry of Youth and Sports for young people in order to support academic studies which is semi annual and articles submitted for “blind referee” method.
... levels of academic achievement Low self-image or self-esteem Exposure to tobacco advertising Reducing Youth Tobacco Use ... Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding ...
Marketing techniques in youth services are useful for designing programs, collections, and services and for determining customer needs. The marketing mix--product, place, price, and practice--provides a framework for service analysis. (AEF)
OECD Observer, 1977
Discusses youth employment and unemployment in Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, and the United States; the trends, causes, consequences, policy goals, and specific measures needed to resolve problems. (SL)
... this? Submit Button Past Emails Safe Youth, Safe Schools Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... returning to school after a concussion. Get to School Safely Walk to School Safely Children face an ...
Full Text Available This study assesses the level of knowledge, interest, and awareness of archaeology among Kuwaiti youth in keeping with the social learning theory (Bandura 1977, which emphasises the social context in which learning takes place. According to this approach, individuals acquire through observation and imitation of significant others key concepts and cultural symbols. This study also focuses on students' perceptions of how the Kuwaiti government implements the archaeology law. Data were collected from a survey conducted in 2015 on a random sample of 1193 students from 12 high schools located in the 6 governorates in Kuwait. Two high schools (representing males and females from each governorate were selected. Emphasis was on students in the senior level of high school (17-18 years old as the last stage in the public schooling system in Kuwait. The study analysed the impact of students' gender, socioeconomic background, and personal exposure to archaeology on their attitudes toward archaeology. Analyses using Chi-square tests along with descriptive statistics revealed that students with highly educated parents and those attending schools in well-to-do communities were more likely to be knowledgeable about, interested in, and aware of the importance of archaeology. Students with personal exposure to archaeology are more interested in and concerned with archaeology than those with no experience. In addition, gender was a significant factor as males showed more knowledge of, interest in, and awareness of archaeology than females.
Kessl, Fabian; Otto, Hans-Uwe
The life conduct of marginalized groups has become subject to increasing levels of risk in advanced capitalist societies. In particular, children and young people are confronted with the harsh consequences of a “new poverty” in the contemporary era. The demographic complexion of today’s poverty is youthful, as a number of government reports have once again documented in recent years in Australia, Germany, France, Great Britain, the US or Scandinavian countries. Key youth studies have shown a ...
Børner Stax, Tobias
Based on a literature study this chapter reflects upon the existence of youth homelessness in Denmark. The chapter contains reflections upon the juridical measures directed towards youngsters living on the margin of the Danish society and presents two concrete project directed towards young people...... living rough. The chapter is taken form an anthology discussion youth homelessness in the different member states of the European Union....
care center, Eastern Cape. ... The purpose of the study was to examine the experiences of teenage mothers attending Nontyatyambo Health Care Centre regarding child care. A quantitative approach using a convenient sample of forty teenage ...
Hobbs, Renee; Moore, David Cooper
The youth media movement, which now has a place in countless venues, communities, and scholarly discourses, reflects an evolution of practices pioneered in the 1950s and 1960s as amateur filmmaking increasingly became a reality in American families and schools. In this paper, we examine the films of Robert J. Clark, Jr. as a representative early…
This digest describes three programs for middle and high school language minority students at risk of dropping out of school. Two of the programs are geared toward limited-English-proficient Hispanic youth, and the third, a vocational program, involves African-American students as well. The first program described is the Coca-Cola Valued Youth…
Peterson, Andrew R.; Kruse, Adam J.; Meester, Scott M.; Olson, Tyler S.; Riedle, Benjamin N.; Slayman, Tyler G.; Domeyer, Todd J.; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Smoot, M. Kyle
Background: There are approximately 2.8 million youth football players between the ages of 7 and 14 years in the United States. Rates of injury in this population are poorly described. Recent studies have reported injury rates between 2.3% and 30.4% per season and between 8.5 and 43 per 1000 exposures. Hypothesis: Youth flag football has a lower injury rate than youth tackle football. The concussion rates in flag football are lower than in tackle football. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Three large youth (grades 2-7) football leagues with a total of 3794 players were enrolled. Research personnel partnered with the leagues to provide electronic attendance and injury reporting systems. Researchers had access to deidentified player data and injury information. Injury rates for both the tackle and flag leagues were calculated and compared using Poisson regression with a log link. The probability an injury was severe and an injury resulted in a concussion were modeled using logistic regression. For these 2 responses, best subset model selection was performed, and the model with the minimum Akaike information criterion value was chosen as best. Kaplan-Meier curves were examined to compare time loss due to injury for various subgroups of the population. Finally, time loss was modeled using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: A total of 46,416 exposures and 128 injuries were reported. The mean age at injury was 10.64 years. The hazard ratio for tackle football (compared with flag football) was 0.45 (95% CI, 0.25-0.80; P = .0065). The rate of severe injuries per exposure for tackle football was 1.1 (95% CI, 0.33-3.4; P = .93) times that of the flag league. The rate for concussions in tackle football per exposure was 0.51 (95% CI, 0.16-1.7; P = .27) times that of the flag league. Conclusion: Injury is more likely to occur in youth flag football than in youth tackle football. Severe injuries and concussions were not significantly
Over the past decade, growing interest has been shown in African youth, but the abundant literature has dealt almost exclusively with the minority that attend school. Less advantaged youth are of interest primarily when involved in violent incidents. Exploratory studies of street youth were conducted in Kigali in August 1991 and in Bamako in October and November, 1993. Africa is a young continent, with half the population under 25 in most countries. Young people constitute the majority of the population everywhere, and are even more numerous among those leaving the countryside for the cities. But urban destinations are themselves in crisis, offering poor employment prospects, high prices and inflation, and growing gaps between the rich and poor. The great changes in African socioeconomic life have particularly affected the young. The entry of Africa into world socioeconomic systems has disordered traditional systems in which children were a source of labor and of old age support. The increasing numbers of unwanted pregnancies result from several factors, including breakdowns in traditional mores, extensive poverty, and slow spread of family planning. The increasing number of children and young people who break all ties with their families and live in the streets is a related phenomenon. Young people living completely in the streets and often associated with gangs should not be confused with young people who work in the streets for parts of each day but still live with their families. The scarcity of studies of street children partially explains the difficulty of estimating how many such children exist in African cities. The increase in street children results from the imbalance between population and essential resources, and the failure of traditional structures of economic, social, cultural, and political organization. The family and other elements of traditional solidarity that, until recently, were able to manage economic crises have grown less able to do so
Jeffrey L. PERRON
Full Text Available Homeless youth are among the most vulnerable individuals in North American society. The day-to-day stressors they face while living on the streets pose a great threat to their mental and physical health. A number of barriers that youth face in accessing care have been identified in the literature. This discussion article highlights work that has been done to apply geographic theory to issues of service access among homeless youth. To date, most such work has been theoretical in nature, with collaborations between geographers and homeless youth researchers to make applied recommendations for the location of services. Urban geographers and homeless youth researchers are implored to collaborate in order to make recommendations that will increase the access to service, particularly for rural homeless youth.
Kelly, M H; Murray, T S
The 1990 Contract encouraged general practitioners to participate in continuing medical education by providing a financial incentive. The study was designed: to determine the motivation of general practitioners attending education events; and to compare motivation and reasons for attendance pre- and post-Contract at commercial and non-commercial meetings, and at the different educational categories of Disease Management (DM), Health Promotion (HP) and Service Management (SM). Two structured questionnaires were used. The first was sent to all general practitioners in the West of Scotland and asked about motivation pre-1990 Contract and the second, post-Contract, looked at motivation and reasons for attending a course as part of post course assessment. This latter was part of a much larger study evaluating continuing medical education. A total of 1161 practitioners responded to questionnaire I and 552 general practitioners attended 27 randomly selected postgraduate meetings. Finance was a motivator in 3.8% pre-Contract, and this increased to 33.3% post-Contract and was the most commonly stated reason for attendance in 81.3%. Financial incentive had the biggest influence on those attending HP sessions (91.5%), then SM (87.2%) and finally DM (78.6% (chi 2 = 8.68; P hospitality provided more alluring than scheme meetings (chi 2 = 28.6; P events should be closely monitored.
Cheyne, Andrew; Mejia, Pamela; Nixon, Laura; Dorfman, Lori
After nearly a decade of concern over the role of food and beverage marketing to youth in the childhood obesity epidemic, American children and adolescents - especially those from communities of color - are still immersed in advertising and marketing environments that primarily promote unhealthy foods and beverages. Despite some positive steps, the evidence shows that the food and beverage industry self-regulation alone is not likely to significantly reduce marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages to youth. A variety of research is needed to monitor industry marketing of unhealthy products to young people, and identify the most promising approaches to improve children's food marketing environments. The continued presence of unhealthy marketing toward children despite years of industry self-regulation suggests it is time for stronger action by policymakers to protect young people from harmful marketing practices.