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Sample records for american tegumentary leishmaniasis

  1. Oral manifestations in the American tegumentary leishmaniasis.

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    Daniel Cesar Silva da Costa

    Full Text Available American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL can affect the skin or mucosa (mucocutaneous leishmaniasis - MCL including the oral cavity. MCL oral lesions are often confused with other oral diseases, delaying diagnosis and specific treatment, and increasing the likelihood of sequelae. Thus, increasing the knowledge of the evolution of ATL oral lesions can facilitate its early diagnosis improving the prognosis of healing.Evaluate the frequency of ATL oral lesion and describe its clinical, laboratory and therapeutic peculiarities.A descriptive transversal study was carried out, using data from medical records of 206 patients with MCL examined at the outpatient clinics-IPEC-Fiocruz between 1989 and 2013. Proportions were calculated for the categorical variables and the association among them was assessed by the Pearson's chi-square test. Measures of central tendency and dispersion were used for the continuous variables and their differences were assessed by both parametric (t test and non parametric (Mann-Whitney tests. P-values <0.05 were considered as significant.The most affected site was the nose, followed by the mouth, pharynx and larynx. Seventy eight (37.9% have oral lesions and the disease presented a lower median of the evolution time than in other mucous sites as well as an increased time to heal. The presence of oral lesion was associated with: the presence of lesions in the other three mucosal sites; a smaller median of the leishmanin skin test values; a longer healing time of the mucosal lesions; a higher recurrence frequency; and a smaller frequency of treatment finishing and healing. When the oral lesion was isolated, it was associated with an age 20 years lower than when the oral lesion was associated with other mucosal sites.Considering the worst therapy results associated with the presence of oral lesions, we suggest that lesions in this location represent a factor of worse prognosis for MCL.

  2. American tegumentary leishmaniasis: correlations among immunological, histopathological and clinical parameters*

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    Martins, Ana Luiza Grizzo Peres; Barreto, Jaison Antonio; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; Martins, Ana Claudia Grizzo Peres

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND American tegumentary leishmaniasis has an annual incidence of 1 to 1.5 million cases. In some cases, the patient's immune response can eliminate the parasite, and the lesion spontaneously resolves. However, when this does not occur, patients develop the disseminated form of the disease. OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between clinical, laboratory and pathological findings in cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis. METHODS A retrospective study of the medical records of 47 patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis. Clinical, laboratory and epidemiological data were collected, and semi-quantitative histopathological analyses were performed using the Spearman correlation coefficient (p Montenegro reaction, degree of granulomatous transformation and epithelioid cell count; duration of disease, Montenegro reaction and number of lymphocytes; epithelial hyperplasia and edema, hemorrhaging, and epithelial aggression; number of plasmocytes and number of parasites. The main negative correlations found were as follows: age and serology; time and parasite load; epithelial hyperplasia and degree of granulomatous transformation. CONCLUSION The long duration of the disease could be explained by the fact that lesions were relatively asymptomatic, and therefore ignored by patients with low literacy levels. Individuals may have simply waited for spontaneous healing, which proved to be dependent on the activation of hypersensitivity mechanisms. PMID:24626648

  3. Active surveillance of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in endemic areas in rural Bolivia

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    Vladimir Luna Tedesqui

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL, including mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL and localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL, is endemic in Bolivia. We describe the results of active surveillance of ATL from 2001 to 2006 and assess demographic data related to ATL epidemiology in the Yungas valleys. METHODS: Community-based active ATL surveillance was performed by the institutions SERVIR, CÁRITAS, and the Health Services Department of La Paz, whose files were reviewed retrospectively. A cross-sectional survey was carried out to assess demographic data in two communities. RESULTS: Two thousand nine hundred nine cases of ATL were detected from 2001 to 2006: 2,488 (85.5% corresponded to LCL and 421 (14.5% to MCL. A reduction in the proportion of mucosal cases was observed between 2001 and 2006. The proportion of MCL cases increased with age and was higher among males (15.5% versus 12.1%, p=0.018. The rate of positivity via direct observation of the parasite in dermal scrapings and in parasite cultivation was significantly higher for LCL than for MCL (p<0.001 and p=0.009, respectively. The rate of reactivity in the leishmanin skin test was higher in the group with mucosal lesions (p=0.012. The cross-sectional survey showed that 40% of the families had emigrated from the Altiplano. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to undertake continuous case detection of ATL in the area, where the disease presents a high rate of mucosal cases. Increasing incidence seems to be associated with immigration and continuous deforestation to expand the crop-growing areas.

  4. Treatment of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in special populations: a summary of evidence

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    Juliana Saboia Fontenele e Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to assess and synthesize the information available in the literature regarding the treatment of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in special populations. We searched MEDLINE (via PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS, SciELO, Scopus, Cochrane Library and mRCT databases to identify clinical trials and observational studies that assessed the pharmacological treatment of the following groups of patients: pregnant women, nursing mothers, children, the elderly, individuals with chronic diseases and individuals with suppressed immune systems. The quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE approach. The available evidence suggests that the treatments of choice for each population or disease entity are as follows: nursing mothers and children (meglumine antimoniate or pentamidine, patients with renal disease (amphotericin B or miltefosine, patients with heart disease (amphotericin B, miltefosine or pentamidine, immunosuppressed patients (liposomal amphotericin, the elderly (meglumine antimoniate, pregnant women (amphotericin B and patients with liver disease (no evidence available. The quality of evidence is low or very low for all groups. Accurate controlled studies are required to fill in the gaps in evidence for treatment in special populations. Post-marketing surveillance programs could also collect relevant information to guide treatment decision-making.

  5. Polymerase chain reaction with lesion scrapping for the diagnosis of human American tegumentary leishmaniasis

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    Eneide Aparecida Sabaini Venazzi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare the polymerase chain reaction (PCR using lesion scrapping with other conventional techniques for the diagnosis of the American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL. For this, patients with cutaneous lesions suspected to be ATL were studied. The DNA was amplified with the MP1L/MP3H primers. From the 156 studied patients, 79 (50.6% presented positive parasite direct search (PD, 81 (51.9% had positive Montenegro skin test (MST, and 90 (57.7% presented PD and/or MST positive. The PCR was positive in all of the positive-PD patients (100% sensitivity, in 91.1% of the positive PD and/or MST patients, and in 27.3% of the patients that presented negative PD and positive MST. The PCR positivity was similar to the PD (P = 0.2482 and inferior to the MST (P = 0.0455, and to the PD/MST association (P = 0.0133. The high PCR sensitivity, and positivity in those cases where the PD was negative, highlights the importance of this technique as an auxiliary tool for the diagnosis of ATL.

  6. Polymerase chain reaction with lesion scrapping for the diagnosis of human American tegumentary leishmaniasis.

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    Venazzi, Eneide Aparecida Sabaini; Roberto, Andréa Claudia Bekner Silva; Barbosa-Tessmann, Ione Parra; Zanzarini, Paulo Donizeti; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Silveira, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this work was to compare the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using lesion scrapping with other conventional techniques for the diagnosis of the American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL). For this, patients with cutaneous lesions suspected to be ATL were studied. The DNA was amplified with the MP1L/MP3H primers. From the 156 studied patients, 79 (50.6%) presented positive parasite direct search (PD), 81 (51.9%) had positive Montenegro skin test (MST), and 90 (57.7%) presented PD and/or MST positive. The PCR was positive in all of the positive-PD patients (100% sensitivity), in 91.1% of the positive PD and/or MST patients, and in 27.3% of the patients that presented negative PD and positive MST. The PCR positivity was similar to the PD (P = 0.2482) and inferior to the MST (P = 0.0455), and to the PD/MST association (P = 0.0133). The high PCR sensitivity, and positivity in those cases where the PD was negative, highlights the importance of this technique as an auxiliary tool for the diagnosis of ATL.

  7. Phase 1 study of an inactivated vaccine against American tegumentary leishmaniasis in normal volunteers in Brazil.

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    Marzochi, K B; Marzochi, M A; Silva, A F; Grativol, N; Duarte, R; Confort, E M; Modabber, F

    1998-01-01

    A Phase 1 double-blind placebo-controlled study was performed to evaluate a vaccine against American tegumentary leishmaniasis in 61 healthy male volunteers. Side effects and the immune response to the vaccine were evaluated, with 1- and 2- dose schemes, with intervals of 7 or 21 days, each dose containing 1440 mg of protein N antigen of a single strain of Leishmania amazonensis (PH8) diluted in merthiolated saline (1:10,000). Merthiolated saline and an inert substance were used as placebos. No significant clinical alterations were found following the respective injections in the vaccinated individuals as compared to the placebos, except for local pain, which was associated significantly with injection of the vaccine. The laboratory alterations we observed bore no association with the clinical findings and were unimportant. We observed no differences between the groups with regard to seroconversion of the Montenegro skin test. However, the group that received a single dose of the vaccine and the one that received two doses with a 21-day interval displayed cutaneous induration significantly larger than in the control group, with 100%, 100%, and 66% conversion in the skin test, respectively. We concluded that the vaccine does not present any major side effect that would contraindicate its use in healthy individuals.

  8. EVOLUTION OF AMERICAN TEGUMENTARY LEISHMANIASIS CASES REPORTED IN PARANÁ STATE, BRAZIL

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    ALCÂNTARA, Léia Regina de Souza; DEMARCHI, Izabel Galhardo; ARISTIDES, Sandra Mara Alessi

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Leishmaniases are infectious diseases caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. They are widely distributed worldwide and endemic in 88 countries in four continents. The present study analyzed the reported cases of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL) in Paraná State (Brazil) from January 2007 to December 2013. The data were grouped according to Regional Health (RH) districts and macroregions, which allowed visualization of the reality in each region in the state. A total of 2,879 ATL cases were reported and distributed among the 22 RH districts, with an average detection rate of 3.9 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The northwestern region accounted for 50.1% of the total cases, and the northern region accounted for 26.0-76.1% of the reported cases. The 6th RH district did not report any cases. The 7th, 9th, and 18th RH districts had a higher cure rate (> 80%), and lower cure rates were found in the 1st, 4th, and 12th RH districts. Reported unfavorable outcomes included treatment abandonment and death. Overall cure rates are based on the entire country, and unfavorable outcomes require greater attention of managers and health professionals to meet the goals of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. PMID:27680172

  9. Use of Recombinant Antigens for Sensitive Serodiagnosis of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis Caused by Different Leishmania Species

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    Sato, Camila Massae; Sanchez, Maria Carmen Arroyo; Celeste, Beatriz Julieta; Duthie, Malcolm S.; Guderian, Jeffrey; Reed, Steven G.; de Brito, Maria Edileuza Felinto; Campos, Marliane Batista; de Souza Encarnação, Helia Valeria; Guerra, Jorge; de Mesquita, Tirza Gabrielle Ramos; Pinheiro, Suzana Kanawati; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; Silveira, Fernando Tobias; de Assis Souza, Marina

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) (also known as cutaneous leishmaniasis [CL]) is caused by various species of protozoa of the genus Leishmania. The diagnosis is achieved on a clinical, epidemiological, and pathological basis, supported by positive parasitological exams and demonstration of leishmanin delayed-type hypersensitivity. Serological assays are not routinely used in the diagnosis because many are considered to have low sensitivity and the particular Leishmania species causing the disease can lead to variable performance. In the present study, we generated recombinant versions of two highly conserved Leishmania proteins, Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis-derived Lb8E and Lb6H, and evaluated both in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Recombinant Lb6H (rLb6H) had better performance and reacted with 100.0% of the ATL and 89.4% of the VL samples. These reactions with rLb6H were highly specific (98.5%) when compared against those for samples from healthy control individuals. We then assessed rLb6H against sera from ATL patients infected with different species of Leishmania prevalent in Brazil [Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, L. (Viannia) braziliensis, and L. (V.) guyanensis] and samples from patients with other infectious diseases. In analyses of 500 sera, ELISA using rLb6H detected all 219 ATL samples (sensitivity of 100.0%) with an overall specificity of 93.9% (considering healthy individuals and other infectious diseases patients). Only a minority of samples from Chagas disease patients possessed antibodies against rLb6H, and all of these responses were low (with a highest reactivity index of 2.2). Taken together, our data support further evaluation of rLb6H and the potential for its routine use in the serological diagnosis of ATL. PMID:27927927

  10. Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae in Governador Valadares, a transmission area for American tegumentary leishmaniasis in State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Ricardo Andrade Barata

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A study on the phlebotomine sandfly fauna was carried out in an endemic area for American tegumentary leishmaniasis in the municipality of Governador Valadares, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: Captures were undertaken using HP light traps in four districts, on three nights per month, for one year (from January to December 2008. Correlations between climatic factors (temperature, relative air humidity and rainfall and the numbers of sandflies collected was observed. RESULTS: 5,413 phlebotomine specimens were caught and were identified as belonging to 12 species. Of these specimens, 2,851 (52% were females and 2,562 (48% were males. CONCLUSIONS: Lutzomyia intermedia predominated (29.9% of the species caught, thus suggesting that they were responsible for transmission of American tegumentary leishmaniasis, together with L. whitmani, which was also found in the area (4.3%. The presence of L. longipalpis (11.9%, the main vector for visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil, is an important finding, which makes rigorous entomological surveillance of the area necessary.

  11. [Epidemiological aspects of canine American tegumentary leishmaniasis in the Municipality of Paraty, State of Rio de Janeiro, brazil].

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    Barbosa, G M; Marzochi, M C; Massard, C L; Lima, G P; Confort, E M

    1999-01-01

    American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is endemic in the State of Rio de Janeiro, with the highest incidence observed in the municipalities along the Southern coast. A total of 169 human cases were reported from 1993 to 1995 in the municipality of Paraty, representing 15% of all case reports in the State of Rio de Janeiro during that period. From March to December, 1996, a survey was conducted in endemic american tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) areas (Praia Grande, Taquari, Várzea do Machado, and Graúna) in Paraty. 326 households with 215 pet dogs were surveyed. The initial study consisted of taking venous blood samples to perform RIFI and ELISA tests. The canine skin test was performed during the same visit and was positive in 8.8% of dogs. Of the 215 dogs, 5 presented lesions suspected of ATL; biopsies and the vacuum aspiration technique were performed on these cases. Correlating the study areas with the results obtained, some dogs presented sub-clinical infection, highly relevant to studies on canine ATL infection in the State of Rio de Janeiro.

  12. Epidemiology of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis and Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in the Northwestern Argentina

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    Hoyos, Carlos L.; Cajal, Silvana P.; Juarez, Marisa; Marco, Jorge D.; Alberti D'Amato, Anahí M.; Cayo, Melina; Torrejón, Irma; Cimino, Rubén O.; Diosque, Patricio; Nasser, Julio R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Endemic areas of tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) in Salta, Argentina, present some overlap zones with the geographical distribution of Chagas disease, with mixed infection cases being often detected. Objectives. The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude of Leishmania sp. infection and potential associated risk factors, the serologic prevalence of T. cruzi, and the presence of T. cruzi-Leishmania sp. mixed infection in a region of the northwest of Argentina. Methods. Cross-sectional studies were conducted to detect TL prevalence and T. cruzi seroprevalence. A case-control study was conducted to examine leishmaniasis risk factors. Results. Prevalence of TL was 0.17%, seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection was 9.73%, and mixed infection proportion—within the leishmaniasic patients group—was 16.67%. The risk factors associated with TL transmission were sex, age, exposure to bites at work, staying outdoors more than 10 hours/day, bathing in the river, and living with people who had lesions or were infected during the study. Discussion. The endemic pattern of TL seems to involve exposure of patients to vectors in wild as well as peridomestic environment. Cases of T. cruzi infection are apparently due to migration. Therefore, a careful epidemiological surveillance is necessary due to the contraindication of antimonial administration to chagasic patients. PMID:27777950

  13. Leishmaniose tegumentar americana: apresentação pouco comum American tegumentary leishmaniasis: an unusual presentation

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    Antonio Carlos Martins Guedes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se caso de leishmaniose tegumentar americana com lesões proeminentes na face. Os critérios diagnósticos incluíram dados clínicos e epidemiológicos, intradermorreação de Montenegro, identificação de Leishmania pela reação em cadeia da polimerase e resposta clínica ao tratamento. A importância do relato se deve ao fato de se tratar de caso incomum de leishmaniose tegumentar americana.We report the case of a patient with American cutaneous leishmaniasis and prominent lesions on the face. Diagnostic criteria included clinical and epidemiological data, Montenegro's skin test, identification of Leishmania by means of polymerase chain reaction and clinical response to treatment. Our report is important to call attention to an unusual presentation of American cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  14. Influence of the nutritional status in the clinical and therapeutical evolution in adults and elderly with American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis.

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    Oliveira, A G L; Brito, P D; Schubach, A O; Oliveira, R V C; Saheki, M N; Lyra, M R; Salgueiro, M M; Terceiro, B F; Pimentel, M I F; Vasconcellos, E C; Valete-Rosalino, C M

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the nutritional status of adult and elderly patients with American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL). It was conducted a longitudinal study in 68 adult and elderly patients with ATL treating at the Surveillance Leishmaniasis Laboratory at the Evandro Chagas Clinical Research Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz), from 2009 to 2012. The nutritional assessment included the body mass index (BMI) and serum albumin levels. The clinical evolution (epithelialization and wound healing) was measured up to two years after ATL treatment. Most of the sample was composed of men (71%), adults (73%), with household income of 1-5 minimum wages (79%), and incomplete elementary school (48.5%). The predominant ATL form was cutaneous (72%), and 39% presented comorbidities, the most frequent was hypertension (30.8%). The most prevalent clinical and nutritional events were: recent decrease in food intake (23.9%); nasal obstruction (22.1%); oral ulcer (14.7%), anorexia and dysphagia (13.2% each) and odynophagia (10.3%). The total healing time was 115.00 (IR=80-230) days for skin lesions, and 120.00 (IR=104.50-223.50) days for mucous membrane lesions. Low body weight in 10%, and hypoalbuminemia in 12% of the patients have been observed. Low body weight was associated with age, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML), nasal obstruction, recent decrease in food intake and hypoalbuminemia. As for serum albumin depletion, association with the ML, dyspnea, dysphagia, odynophagia, recent decrease in food intake, absence of complete healing of the skin lesions, and increased healing time for mucous membrane lesions, was observed. The ML and their events that affect the alimentary intake have been related to the impairment of the nutritional status. Additionally, serum albumin depletion negatively affected the healing of the lesions, suggesting that a nutritional intervention can increase the effectiveness of the ATL treatment.

  15. Variability Modeling of Rainfall, Deforestation, and Incidence of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis in Orán, Argentina, 1985–2007

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    Rosales, Juan Carlos; Yang, Hyun Mo; Avila Blas, Orlando José

    2014-01-01

    American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is a disease transmitted to humans by the female sandflies of the genus Lutzomyia. Several factors are involved in the disease transmission cycle. In this work only rainfall and deforestation were considered to assess the variability in the incidence of ATL. In order to reach this goal, monthly recorded data of the incidence of ATL in Orán, Salta, Argentina, were used, in the period 1985–2007. The square root of the relative incidence of ATL and the corresponding variance were formulated as time series, and these data were smoothed by moving averages of 12 and 24 months, respectively. The same procedure was applied to the rainfall data. Typical months, which are April, August, and December, were found and allowed us to describe the dynamical behavior of ATL outbreaks. These results were tested at 95% confidence level. We concluded that the variability of rainfall would not be enough to justify the epidemic outbreaks of ATL in the period 1997–2000, but it consistently explains the situation observed in the years 2002 and 2004. Deforestation activities occurred in this region could explain epidemic peaks observed in both years and also during the entire time of observation except in 2005–2007. PMID:25580116

  16. Variability Modeling of Rainfall, Deforestation, and Incidence of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis in Orán, Argentina, 1985–2007

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    Juan Carlos Rosales

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL is a disease transmitted to humans by the female sandflies of the genus Lutzomyia. Several factors are involved in the disease transmission cycle. In this work only rainfall and deforestation were considered to assess the variability in the incidence of ATL. In order to reach this goal, monthly recorded data of the incidence of ATL in Orán, Salta, Argentina, were used, in the period 1985–2007. The square root of the relative incidence of ATL and the corresponding variance were formulated as time series, and these data were smoothed by moving averages of 12 and 24 months, respectively. The same procedure was applied to the rainfall data. Typical months, which are April, August, and December, were found and allowed us to describe the dynamical behavior of ATL outbreaks. These results were tested at 95% confidence level. We concluded that the variability of rainfall would not be enough to justify the epidemic outbreaks of ATL in the period 1997–2000, but it consistently explains the situation observed in the years 2002 and 2004. Deforestation activities occurred in this region could explain epidemic peaks observed in both years and also during the entire time of observation except in 2005–2007.

  17. Applicability of kDNA-PCR for routine diagnosis of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in a tertiary reference hospital.

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    Satow, Marcela M; Yamashiro-Kanashiro, Edite H; Rocha, Mussya C; Oyafuso, Luiza K; Soler, Rita C; Cotrim, Paulo C; Lindoso, José Angelo L

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the applicability of kDNA-PCR as a prospective routine diagnosis method for American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in patients from the Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas (IIER), a reference center for infectious diseases in São Paulo - SP, Brazil. The kDNA-PCR method detected Leishmania DNA in 87.5% (112/128) of the clinically suspected ATL patients, while the traditional methods demonstrated the following percentages of positivity: 62.8% (49/78) for the Montenegro skin test, 61.8% (47/76) for direct investigation, and 19.3% (22/114) for in vitro culture. The molecular method was able to confirm the disease in samples considered negative or inconclusive by traditional laboratory methods, contributing to the final clinical diagnosis and therapy of ATL in this hospital. Thus, we strongly recommend the inclusion of kDNA-PCR amplification as an alternative diagnostic method for ATL, suggesting a new algorithm routine to be followed to help the diagnosis and treatment of ATL in IIER.

  18. APPLICABILITY OF kDNA-PCR FOR ROUTINE DIAGNOSIS OF AMERICAN TEGUMENTARY LEISHMANIASIS IN A TERTIARY REFERENCE HOSPITAL

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    Marcela M. Satow

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY This study evaluated the applicability of kDNA-PCR as a prospective routine diagnosis method for American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL in patients from the Instituto de Infectologia Emílio Ribas (IIER, a reference center for infectious diseases in São Paulo - SP, Brazil. The kDNA-PCR method detected Leishmania DNA in 87.5% (112/128 of the clinically suspected ATL patients, while the traditional methods demonstrated the following percentages of positivity: 62.8% (49/78 for the Montenegro skin test, 61.8% (47/76 for direct investigation, and 19.3% (22/114 for in vitro culture. The molecular method was able to confirm the disease in samples considered negative or inconclusive by traditional laboratory methods, contributing to the final clinical diagnosis and therapy of ATL in this hospital. Thus, we strongly recommend the inclusion of kDNA-PCR amplification as an alternative diagnostic method for ATL, suggesting a new algorithm routine to be followed to help the diagnosis and treatment of ATL in IIER.

  19. Intestinal helminth coinfection is associated with mucosal lesions and poor response to therapy in American tegumentary leishmaniasis.

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    Azeredo-Coutinho, Rilza Beatriz G; Pimentel, Maria Inês; Zanini, Graziela Maria; Madeira, Maria F; Cataldo, Jamyra Iglesias; Schubach, Armando O; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; de Mello, Cintia Xavier; Mendonça, Sergio C F

    2016-02-01

    The most severe clinical form of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) due to Leishmania braziliensis is mucosal leishmaniasis (ML), characterized by destructive lesions in the facial mucosa. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 109 ATL patients from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, where ATL is caused by L. braziliensis, to evaluate the influence of intestinal parasite coinfections in the clinical course of ATL. Parasitological stool examination (PSE) was performed with samples from all patients by the sedimentation, Kato-Katz and Baermann-Moraes methods. The diagnosis of ATL was made from lesion biopsies by direct observation of amastigotes in Giemsa-stained imprints, isolation of Leishmania promastigotes or histopathological examination. All patients were treated with meglumine antimoniate. Patients with positive PSE had a frequency of mucosal lesions significantly higher than those with negative PSE (pAscaris lumbricoides (p<0.05), but not for protozoan infections. Patients with intestinal parasites had poor response to therapy (therapeutic failure or relapse) significantly more frequently than the patients with negative stool examination (p<0.005). A similar difference (p<0.005) was observed between patients with positive and negative results for intestinal helminths, but not for intestinal protozoa. Patients with positive PSE took significantly longer to heal than those with negative PSE (p<0.005). A similar difference was observed for intestinal helminth infections (p<0.005), but not for protozoan infections. Our results indicate a deleterious influence of intestinal helminth infections in the clinical course of ATL and evidence for the first time an association between ML and these coinfections, particularly with nematodes and A. lumbricoides.

  20. Alterations in Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions by the Use of Meglumine Antimoniate in American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis Patients

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    de Oliveira Bezerra, Débora Cristina; Oliveira de Barcelos, Renata; Carvalho de Castro, Ellen; Jardim Duarte, Claudia Cristina; de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes Oliveira, Raquel; Salgado de Sousa Torraca, Tania; de Araújo-Melo, Maria Helena; Pereira Bom Braga, Frederico; Ramos Ferreira Terceiro, Benivaldo; do Nascimento Brahim Paes, Lúcia Regina; de Oliveira Schubach, Armando

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (TL) is a neglected, non-contagious, infectious disease, caused by different protozoa species of the Leishmania genus that affects skin and mucous membranes. Meglumine Antimoniate (MA), the first drug of choice for TL treatment in Brazil, has already been associated with cochlear toxicity, which is defined as damages of the cochlea caused by exposure to chemical substances, resulting in reversible or irreversible hearing loss. Auditory monitoring for cochlear toxicity aims at the early detection of auditory disorders, enabling, when possible, hearing to be preserved or an early auditory rehabilitation. Although otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are used in this monitoring, there is no consensus on the criteria that define cochlear toxicity by this examination. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics of the OAEs in cochlear toxicity monitoring in TL patients using MA. Methods Prospective and longitudinal study of auditory monitoring of 35 patients with parasitological diagnosis of TL, with liminal tonal audiometry, high frequency audiometry, immitanciometry, distortion product evoked otoacoustic emissions (DPEOAEs) and transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) before treatment, at the end of treatment, one month after the end of treatment and two months after the end of treatment. Results 80% male, with median age of 44 years (IIQ: 22–59). In the pre-treatment evaluation: 11.4% complained of hearing loss and 20% of tinnitus, 48.6% presented auditory alterations in liminal tonal audiometry (LTA, 65.2% in high frequency audiometry (HFA), 26.6% in DPEOAE and 51.4% in TEOAE. No association was verified between genre and alterations in the EOAE examinations. We observed that patients that presented disorders in DPEOAE examinations were 17 years older than those without alterations and that patients that showed disorders in TEOAEO examinations were 34 years older than those without disorders. The presence

  1. STATUS OF THE AMERICAN TEGUMENTARY LEISHMANIASIS IN THE STATE OF RIO DE JANEIRO , BRAZIL, FROM 2004 TO 2013

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    VITA, Gilmar Ferreira; PEREIRA, Maria Angélica Vieira DA COSTA; FERREIRA, Ildemar; SANAVRIA, Argemiro; BARBOSA, Celso Guimarães; AURNHEIMER, Rita de Cássia Martins; de MELLO, Ericson Ramos; da SILVA, Claudia Bezerra; CABRAL, Rísia Brígida Gonçalves

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of the present study was to analyze the status of the American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL) in the state of Rio de Janeiro, from 2004 to 2013, through its spatiotemporal distribution. We also described variables considered relevant to the epidemiology of the disease, such as the clinical form, gender, ethnic group, age group, and progression of disease. This is a descriptive study, which used notified secondary data from the Brazilian Information System of Notifiable Diseases (SINAN), Ministry of Health, Brazil, regarding confirmed diagnoses. To help the calculation of coefficients of detection and mortality, we used population data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). We analyzed 1,470 cases of ATL with the predominance of the cutaneous clinical form (1,292/87.89%). The data has also revealed seven deaths, a predominance of males (922/62.72%), and a higher incidence of ATL in the white ethnic group (731/49.72%). We observed a high incidence of ATL in the group of 20 - 39 years old (477/32.44%). We concluded that there was a decrease in the number of ATL cases in the state of Rio de Janeiro, based on a coefficient of detection of 1.44/100.000 inhabitants in 2004 decreasing to 0.20/100.000 inhabitants in 2013. The localities with the highest occurrences of ATL were the metropolitan region (843 cases) and the municipality of Rio de Janeiro (740 cases). In 2005, the highest incidence of the disease was observed (351 cases) in the study. Among the variables selected to describe the epidemiology of the disease, the following categories: cutaneous clinical form, male patients, white ethnic group, and the age group of 20 - 39 years old were more affected than the others. PMID:27680176

  2. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in an American tegumentary leishmaniasis transmission area in northern Espírito Santo State, Brazil Fauna de flebotomíneos (Diptera, Psychodidae) em área de transmissão de leishmaniose tegumentar americana no norte do Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil

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    Thieres Marassati das Virgens; Claudiney Biral dos Santos; Israel de Souza Pinto; Kleber Silveira da Silva; Fernanda Cristina Leal; Aloísio Falqueto

    2008-01-01

    American tegumentary leishmaniasis is endemic to the Espírito Santo State, Brazil, where it is widely distributed. The composition of the phlebotomine sand fly fauna in an American tegumentary leishmaniasis focus was determined by monthly sampling, using Shannon light traps in an Atlantic Forest reserve and adjacent habitat that had been modified by human activity. Seasonal fluctuations in numbers of the most abundant species were also monitored from June 2004 to May 2006. Of the 6,176 specim...

  3. IFNG +874T/A polymorphism is not associated with American tegumentary leishmaniasis susceptibility but can influence Leishmania induced IFN-γ production

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    Sampaio Elizabeth P

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferon-gamma is a key cytokine in the protective responses against intracellular pathogens. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP located in the first intron of the human IFN-γ gene can putatively influence the secretion of cytokine with an impact on infection outcome as demonstrated for tuberculosis and other complex diseases. Our aim was to investigate the putative association of IFNG+874T/A SNP with American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL and also the influence of this SNP in the secretion of IFN-γ in vitro. Methods Brazilian ATL patients (78 cutaneous, CL, and 58 mucosal leishmaniasis, ML and 609 healthy volunteers were evaluated. The genotype of +874 region in the IFN-γ gene was carried out by Amplification Refractory Mutational System (ARMS-PCR. Leishmania-induced IFN-γ production on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC culture supernatants was assessed by ELISA. Results There are no differences between +874T/A SNP frequency in cases and controls or in ML versus CL patients. Cutaneous leishmaniasis cases exhibiting AA genotype produced lower levels of IFN-γ than TA/TT genotypes. In mucosal cases, high and low IFN-γ producers were clearly demonstrated but no differences in the cytokine production was observed among the IFNG +874T or A carriers. Conclusion Our results suggest that +874T/A polymorphism was not associated with either susceptibility or severity to leishmaniasis. Despite this, IFNG +874T/A SNP could be involved in the pathogenesis of leishmaniasis by influencing the amount of cytokine released by CL patients, although it could not prevent disease development. On the other hand, it is possible that in ML cases, other potential polymorphic regulatory genes such as TNF-α and IL-10 are also involved thus interfering with IFN-γ secretion.

  4. Maxadilan-simile expression in Nyssomyia neivai, a sandfly vector in an endemic region of Brazil, and its immunogenicity in patients with American tegumentary leishmaniasis

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    Aires, Juliana; Casanova, Claudio; Vernal, Sebastian; Nascimento, Margarida; Rodrigues, Sandra; Lerner, Ethan A; Roselino, Ana Maria

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Maxadilan (Max) is a salivary component in the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva 1912), a vector of visceral leishmaniasis. Max has a powerful vasodilatory effect and is a candidate vaccine that has been tested in experimental leishmaniasis. Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto 1926) is a vector of the pathogen responsible for American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) in Brazil. OBJECTIVE We searched for Max expression in Ny. neivai and for antibodies against Max in ATL patients. METHODS cDNA and protein were extracted from the cephalic segment, including salivary glands, of Ny. neivai and analysed by polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing, and blotting assays. The results were compared with data obtained from Lu. longipalpis samples. We quantified antibodies against Max in serum samples from 41 patients with ATL (31 and 10 with the cutaneous and mucocutaneous forms, respectively) and 63 controls from the endemic northeastern region of São Paulo state, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. FINDINGS Recognition of a Max-simile peptide by specific antibodies confirmed expression of a Max sequence in Ny. neivai (GenBank EF601123.1). Compared to controls, patients with ATL presented higher levels of antibodies against Max (p = 0.004); 24.4% of the patients with ATL and 3.2% of the controls presented anti-Max levels above the cutoff index (p = 0.014). The anti-Max levels were not associated with the specific clinical form of ATL, leishmanin skin test response, absence or presence of amastigotes in histopathologic exam, results of indirect immunofluorescence testing for leishmaniasis, or duration of cutaneous form disease. MAIN CONCLUSION High serum anti-Max levels did not protect patients against ATL, but confirmed previous natural exposure to Ny. neivai bites in this ATL endemic region. PMID:28177045

  5. Comparison of the sensitivity of imprint and scraping techniques in the diagnosis of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in a referral centre in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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    de Mello, Cintia Xavier; de Oliveira Schubach, Armando; de Oliveira, Raquel Vasconcellos Carvalho; Conceição-Silva, Fátima; Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; E Vasconcellos, Erica Camargo Ferreira; de Fátima Madeira, Maria

    2011-09-01

    American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is an infectious disease that presents a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations making parasitological tests important for its diagnosis. Direct examination, although considered of low sensitivity is still employed mainly in areas with poor laboratory infrastructure. The aim of this study was to standardize the method of collecting and reading the scraping procedure and to then compare sensitivity of this procedure on two sites of the lesion (outer edge-OE and inner edge-IE) and of the imprint against the reference method (isolation in culture) in a group of 110 patients treated at a Referral Center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. ATL diagnosis was confirmed in 40 patients (36.4%), 39 cases were caused by L. braziliensis and 1 by L. amazonensis. Imprint was positive in 28 patients and scraping in OE in 17 and in IE in 25 patients, resulting in sensitivity of 70%, 42.5%, and 62.5% respectively. When the three direct examinations were combined, sensitivity value attained 77.5%. Aspects related to ease and quality of the collected material, pain intensity and frequency of bleeding in the scraping procedure were also broached and discussed in this study. The parameters of accuracy presented indicate that the direct methods can be safely used in ATL diagnosis, principally in IE scraping, as it is easy to produce and the examination is not costly, which allows the procedure to be repeated at different moments which, in turn, increases the possibility of finding the parasite. Despite that the direct methods are technically widespread, they are not standardized and the parameters of accuracy are unknown. If we consider the high incidence of leishmaniasis in low-income areas, the implantation of standardized and selective methods would provide advances in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis.

  6. Phlebotominae fauna in a recent deforested area with American tegumentary leishmaniasis transmission (Puerto Iguazú, Misiones, Argentina): seasonal distribution in domestic and peridomestic environments.

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    Fernández, María Soledad; Lestani, Eduardo Ariel; Cavia, Regino; Salomón, Oscar Daniel

    2012-04-01

    Phlebotominae sand flies have been involved as vectors of Leishmania. In Argentina, Nyssomyia neivai and Nyssomyia whitmani are involved as the main vectors of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL). In the northeastern border of the country, an outbreak of ATL during 2004-2005 was associated with deforestation and subsequent settlement of farmers close to the edge of the forest. The aim of this work was to study the community composition of sand flies along time in farms located near primary and secondary forest in two environments: houses and pigsties. The association of abundance with temperature and precipitation was also evaluated for the most prevalent species. A total of 23,659 Phlebotominae belonging to the genera Nyssomyia, Migonemyia, Pintomyia, Evandromyia, Micropygomyia, Sciopemyia, Dampfomyia, Psathyromyia and Brumptomyia were captured. Ny. whitmani, which was the most abundant species, and Migonemyia migonei, which was the second most abundant species, were present throughout the year. Both species were positively associated with temperature, mostly up to 31-47 days, and with precipitation at 31 days before the sampling day. The abundance was higher in pigsties than in houses, but the time pattern was positively associated between both environments. These results confirm that Ny. whitmani is the dominant species in the study area and its presence throughout the year indicates a potential long period of ATL transmission. The presence of Mg. migonei as the second species in abundance is relevant, because it has been described as a secondary vector of the parasites of ATL and a putative vector of the agent of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. We discuss the role of the pigsty as the environment that attract more sandflies, taking into account the number of sand flies captured there, the distance from the home, and the association of sand fly abundance with each of the two environments.

  7. [Necessity to adopt and disseminate therapeutic schemes for the treatment of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in Paraná].

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    Teodoro, U; Spinoza, R P; La Salvia Filho, V; Guilherme, A L; Lima, A P; Junqueira, G M; Misuta, N M; Nerilo Sobrinho, A; de Lima, E M

    1991-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis has shown an endemic character in areas of North-North-west Paraná State, which were populated in 40's, where residual forests persist with intense modifications. The infection has been found mainly in males, but was found also in females and children and in many individuals of a same family. 513 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis notified to SUCAM by clinical diagnosis were investigated. Treatment was begun with Glucantime at State Health Centers or at SUCAM. Of 513 treated patients 260 (50.67%) were considered clinically cured. The remaining 253 (49.33%) abandoned treatment. The quantity of Glucantime supplied to the patients varied from 10 vials to more than 200, with or without intervals during the treatment. Two hundred and seventeen (85.46%) patients among 260 received from 10 to 75 vials. The occurrence of leishmaniasis in 163 (31.75%) women and in 34 (6.62%) children, of both sexes, up to 10 years old, suggests domiciliary transmission. It's not known if the 253 (49.33%) individuals who abandoned the treatment recovered. This high number shows the necessity of better knowledge of the consequences that can occur due to incomplete treatment.

  8. Leishmaniose tegumentar americana: casuística hospitalar no Rio de Janeiro American tegumentary Leishmaniasis: hospitalized cases in Rio de Janeiro

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    Nurimar C. Fernandes

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A leishmaniose tegumentar americana distribui-se amplamente no Brasil, e o Estado do Rio de Janeiro (capital e interior constitui área endêmica onde o vetor é encontrado dentro e ao redor das habitações. OBJETIVOS: Análise prospectiva de 48 casos de leishmaniose tegumentar americana atendidos no Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho/UFRJ, no período de 1990 a 2002. MÉTODOS: Todos os pacientes foram submetidos à biópsia de pele ou mucosa, teste de Montenegro e exame otorrinolaringológico; SbV (10 a 20mg/kg, no total de 10, 30 e 90 doses. foi empregado em 44 pacientes; em quatro casos, anfotericina B (0,5mg/kg/dose até dose cumulativa de 30mg/kg. RESULTADOS: 28 homens e 20 mulheres na faixa etária de 10 a 89 anos, dos quais 38 (79,1% infectados no Rio de Janeiro, apresentaram úlcera de membro inferior e comprometimento de mucosa nasal como manifestações mais freqüentes; 41 casos (85,4% foram reatores à intradermorreação de Montenegro (5mm; 17 casos (35,4% foram positivos para o achado de amastigotas em macrófagos no infiltrado inflamatório dérmico; predominou o processo inflamatório crônico granulomatoso; cura clínica foi observada em 47 casos; um caso evoluiu para óbito no décimo dia de tratamento. CONCLUSÕES: O estudo da leishmaniose tegumentar (HUCFF/UFRJ no período 1990/2002 evidenciou padrão conhecido nos aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e de resposta terapêutica ao antimonial (SbV e anfotericina B.BACKGROUND: American tegumentary Leishmaniasis is widely found in Brazil; the state of Rio de Janeiro (capital and hinterland is an endemic area where the vector is found inside and outside houses. OBJECTIVES: prospective study of 48 cases attended at the Teaching Hospital Clementino Fraga Filho - UFRJ, between 1990 - 2002. METHODS: All patients were submitted to skin or mucosa biopsy, Montenegro skin test and otorhinolaryngologic examination; SbV (10 - 20 mg/kg with 10, 30 and 90 doses was

  9. Aspectos epidemiológicos da leishmaniose tegumentar americana em Varzelândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil Epidemiological aspects of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in Varzelândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Adriana Guimarães Nunes

    2006-06-01

    tests. Cutaneous scars similar to those seen in American tegumentary leishmaniasis were found in 297 individuals (25.4%, 282 of whom were submitted to the intradermal test, while only 168 (59.6 were reactive. Initial leishmaniasis prevalence of 5.8% was recorded, and an annual leishmaniasis incidence rate of 4.6% was observed after one year of follow-up. The epidemiological characteristics observed in this location are suggestive of an endemic area with old colonization.

  10. Varicella zoster virus reactivation during or immediately following treatment of tegumentary leishmaniasis with antimony compounds

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    Andrea Barbieri Barros

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antimony compounds are the cornerstone treatments for tegumentary leishmaniasis. The reactivation of herpes virus is a side effect described in few reports. We conducted an observational study to describe the incidence of herpes zoster reactivation during treatment with antimony compounds. The global incidence of herpes zoster is approximately 2.5 cases per 1,000 persons per month (or 30 cases per 1,000 persons per year. The estimated incidence of herpes zoster in patients undergoing antimony therapy is higher than previously reported.

  11. [Epidemic outbreak of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Puerto Esperanza, Misiones, 1998].

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    Salomón, O D; Sosa Estani, S; Monzani, A S; Studer, C

    2001-01-01

    The province of Misiones reported 205 leishmaniasis cases during 1998, 98% of them from the locality of Puerto Esperanza. The reports of Puerto Esperanza Hospital (January to September 1998) for leishmaniasis were analysed (n: 129). The mainly reported lesion was the single cutaneous ulcer (97.2%), localized in the inferior limbs (72.5%), without any mucosa involvement. The results are consistent with the knowledge from other Argentinean leishmaniasis foci due to Leishmania (V.) braziliensis. The difference in incidence among sexes was not significant, leishmaniasis was reported in all age groups, and it was susceptible to the conventional treatment. The main focus was located in Km 1 neighbourhood, the transmission peak was during April 1998. The Montenegro skin test among general population (n: 205) did not show reactivity among asymptomatic people. The prevalent Phlebotominae species were Lutzomyia intermedia (79.7%) and Lu. whitmani (10.9%), among the 577 individuals belonging to 8 species collected. The Phlebotominae were abundant in peridomestic habitats of Km 1 neighbourhood, close to human dwellings, in places associated with residual primary forest and secondary vegetation. The results are discussed in the frame of surveillance and possible control strategies.

  12. Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae in Governador Valadares, a transmission area for American tegumentary leishmaniasis in State of Minas Gerais, Brazil Flebotomíneos (Diptera: Psychodidae em Governador Valadares, área de transmissão de leishmaniose tegumentar americana no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Ricardo Andrade Barata

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A study on the phlebotomine sandfly fauna was carried out in an endemic area for American tegumentary leishmaniasis in the municipality of Governador Valadares, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: Captures were undertaken using HP light traps in four districts, on three nights per month, for one year (from January to December 2008. Correlations between climatic factors (temperature, relative air humidity and rainfall and the numbers of sandflies collected was observed. RESULTS: 5,413 phlebotomine specimens were caught and were identified as belonging to 12 species. Of these specimens, 2,851 (52% were females and 2,562 (48% were males. CONCLUSIONS: Lutzomyia intermedia predominated (29.9% of the species caught, thus suggesting that they were responsible for transmission of American tegumentary leishmaniasis, together with L. whitmani, which was also found in the area (4.3%. The presence of L. longipalpis (11.9%, the main vector for visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil, is an important finding, which makes rigorous entomological surveillance of the area necessary.INTRODUÇÃO: Um estudo da fauna de flebotomíneos foi realizado em uma área endêmica para leishmaniose tegumentar americana no município de Governador Valadares, no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Capturas foram feitas com armadilhas luminosas HP em quatro bairros, três noites por mês, durante o período de janeiro a dezembro de 2008. A correlação entre fatores climáticos (temperatura, umidade relativa do ar e pluviosidade e o número de flebotomíneos coletados foi avaliada. RESULTADOS: Foram capturados 5.413 espécimes de flebotomíneos, distribuídos em 12 espécies, sendo 2.851 (52% fêmeas e 2.562 (48% machos. CONCLUSÕES: Lutzomyia intermedia foi predominante com 29,9% das espécies capturadas, sugerindo ser a responsável pela transmissão de LTA, juntamente com L. whitmani, que também foi encontrada na região (4,3%. A presença de L

  13. Distribuição geográfica e características epidemiológicas da leishmaniose tegumentar americana em áreas de colonização antiga do Estado do Paraná, Sul do Brasil Geographic distribution and epidemiological features of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in old rural settlements in Paraná State, Southern Brazil

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    Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Analisa-se a epidemiologia da leishmaniose tegumentar americana em municípios das mesorregiões norte central, centro ocidental e noroeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. O diagnóstico dos casos de leishmaniose tegumentar americana foi realizado na Universidade Estadual de Maringá, de 1987 a 2004. Conforme o provável local de infecção, os casos foram divididos em autóctones (infectaram-se no domínio doméstico ou alóctones (infectaram-se fora do domínio doméstico. Observou-se que em todos os anos do período houve atendimento de casos provenientes das mesorregiões supracitadas. Os municípios com maior número de casos notificados foram Maringá (458, Doutor Camargo (126, São Jorge do Ivaí (121, Terra Boa (114, Cianorte (98 e Colorado (95. De 1.938 casos, 66,9% eram do sexo masculino. Entre 667 casos autóctones, o número de mulheres afetadas pela doença foi semelhante ao de homens, com casos em menores de cinco anos de idade, fatos que não ocorreram entre os 794 casos alóctones. As condições necessárias à produção da leishmaniose tegumentar americana foram criadas no processo de construção do espaço rural das mesorregiões em pauta, particularmente no modelo de colonização e na crise da monocultura cafeeira.This study analyzes the epidemiology of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in the municipalities of the Central North, Central West, and Northwest mesoregions of Paraná State, Brazil. Diagnosis of American tegumentary leishmaniasis cases was performed at the State University in Maringá from 1987 to 2004. According to the probable site of infection, cases were classified as autochthonous (infection inside the household domain or allochthonous (outside the household domain. Municipalities with the most cases were Maringá (458, Doutor Camargo (126, São Jorge do Ivaí (121, Terra Boa (114, Cianorte (98, and Colorado (95. Of the total of 1,938 cases, 66.9% were male. Among the 667 autochthonous cases, similar

  14. Cross-protective efficacy from a immunogen firstly identified in Leishmania infantum against tegumentary leishmaniasis.

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    Martins, V T; Lage, D P; Duarte, M C; Costa, L E; Chávez-Fumagalli, M A; Roatt, B M; Menezes-Souza, D; Tavares, C A P; Coelho, E A F

    2016-02-01

    Experimental vaccine candidates have been evaluated to prevent leishmaniasis, but no commercial vaccine has been proved to be effective against more than one parasite species. LiHyT is a Leishmania-specific protein that was firstly identified as protective against Leishmania infantum. In this study, LiHyT was evaluated as a vaccine to against two Leishmania species causing tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL): Leishmania major and Leishmania braziliensis. BALB/c mice were immunized with rLiHyT plus saponin and lately challenged with promastigotes of the two parasite species. The immune response generated was evaluated before and 10 weeks after infection, as well as the parasite burden at this time after infection. The vaccination induced a Th1 response, which was characterized by the production of IFN-γ, IL-12 and GM-CSF, as well as by high levels of IgG2a antibodies, after in vitro stimulation using both the protein and parasite extracts. After challenge, vaccinated mice showed significant reductions in their infected footpads, as well as in the parasite burden in the tissue and organs evaluated, when compared to the control groups. The anti-Leishmania Th1 response was maintained after infection, being the IFN-γ production based mainly on CD4(+) T cells. We described one conserved Leishmania-specific protein that could compose a pan-Leishmania vaccine.

  15. Transmisión de la Leishmaniasis tegumentaria en la Argentina Transmission of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Argentina

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    Oscar D. Salomón

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La leishmaniasis tegumentaria ha experimentado en Argentina, desde 1985, un incremento de casos totales, de la frecuencia, intensidad y distribución de brotes epidémicos, y de la incidencia relativa en mujeres y en niños. Es necesario caracterizar los nuevas circunstancias de transmisión generadas en las últimas décadas para el diseño de estrategias apropiadas de control. Con dicho objeto, basados en indicadores epidemiológicos, entomológicos y en el análisis cualitativo de imágenes satelitales, se describen cuatro brotes epidémicos tomados como casos de estudio: Urugua-í (2004, Esperanza (1998, Alberdi (2003 y Monteros-Simoca (2004. A partir de dichas descripciones se caracterizaron cuatro ciclos: a silvestre con transmisión en vegetación primaria o residual; b silvestre con transmisión eventual peridoméstica por alteración de parches de vegetación residual; c silvestre con transmisión peridoméstica por contigüidad con vegetación residual; d peridoméstico en ambientes rurales, periurbano ruralizado o interfase urbano-rural. Todos los brotes epidémicos ocurridos desde 1985 se correspondieron con uno de estos ciclos, demostrando ser hasta el momento una tipificación abarcativa de la transmisión de leishmaniasis tegumentaria en la Argentina. De esta manera se categorizaron cuatro patrones epidémicos en el país, destacando a su vez la utilidad del análisis cualitativo, de datos de terreno e imágenes satelitales, como herramientas para comprender la epidemiología de la enfermedad y poder desarrollar medidas adecuadas de prevención y control.The total cases of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Argentina increased since 1985, as the frequency, intensity and geographic distribution of the epidemic outbreaks, and the relative incidence in women and children. The characterization of the new scenarios of transmission generated in the last decades is needed for the design of appropriate control measures. With this aim, four

  16. Towards a More Precise Serological Diagnosis of Human Tegumentary Leishmaniasis Using Leishmania Recombinant Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Ana Paula; Soto, Manuel; Costa, Jackson M. L.; Boaventura, Viviane S.; de Oliveira, Camila I.; Cristal, Juqueline R.; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Barral, Aldina

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to Leishmania induces a humoral immune response that can be used as a marker of parasite exposure. Methodology/Principal Findings Herein, ELISA was used to screen sera from patients with Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (TL) against different L. infantum-chagasi-derived recombinant proteins (rHSP70, rH2A, rH2B, rH3, rH4 and rKMP11). Among the recombinant proteins, rHSP70 and rH2A showed the best reactivity against human sera obtained from endemic areas of TL. Receiver-Operator Characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was used to identify the effectiveness of these proteins for serodiagnosis of TL. ROC curves confirmed the superior performance of rHSP70 and rH2A, in comparison to the other tested recombinant proteins. Additionally, we evaluated the specificity of the response to rHSP70 and rH2A by testing sera obtained from patients with Chagas' disease, Tuberculosis, Leprosy or Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. In this case, rHSP70 displayed an increased ability to discriminate diseases, in comparison to SLA. Conclusion Our results raise possibility of using rHSP70 for the serodiagnosis of TL PMID:23776617

  17. Towards a more precise serological diagnosis of human tegumentary leishmaniasis using Leishmania recombinant proteins.

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    Ana Paula Souza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exposure to Leishmania induces a humoral immune response that can be used as a marker of parasite exposure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Herein, ELISA was used to screen sera from patients with Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (TL against different L. infantum-chagasi-derived recombinant proteins (rHSP70, rH2A, rH2B, rH3, rH4 and rKMP11. Among the recombinant proteins, rHSP70 and rH2A showed the best reactivity against human sera obtained from endemic areas of TL. Receiver-Operator Characteristics (ROC curve analysis was used to identify the effectiveness of these proteins for serodiagnosis of TL. ROC curves confirmed the superior performance of rHSP70 and rH2A, in comparison to the other tested recombinant proteins. Additionally, we evaluated the specificity of the response to rHSP70 and rH2A by testing sera obtained from patients with Chagas' disease, Tuberculosis, Leprosy or Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. In this case, rHSP70 displayed an increased ability to discriminate diseases, in comparison to SLA. CONCLUSION: Our results raise possibility of using rHSP70 for the serodiagnosis of TL.

  18. Phlebotominae spatial distribution asssociated with a focus of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Las Lomitas, Formosa, Argentina, 2002

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    Oscar Daniel Salomón

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Las Lomitas, Formosa, Argentina, reported 96 cases of tegumentary leishmaniasis during 2002. The urban transmission was suggested although previous outbreaks were related with floods of the Bermejo river (BR 50 km from the village. Phlebotomine collections were performed during March 2002 to define the spatial distribution of risk, together with satellite imaginery. The phlebotomine/trap obtained was 1679.5 in the southern BR shore, 1.1 in the periruban-rural environment and 2.3 in the northern Pilcomayo river marshes. Lutzomyia neivai was the prevalent species (91.1% among the 2393 phlebotomine captured, and it was only found in the BR traps. The other species were L. migonei (7.9%, L. cortelezzii (0.9%, and Brumptomyia guimaraesi (0.1%. The satellite images analysis indicates that the fishing spots at the BR were significantlyoverflowed during the transmission peak, consistent with fishermen recollections. This spatial restricted flood might concentrate vectors, reservoirs, and humans in high places. Therefore, both the spatial distribution of vectors and the sensor remoting data suggests that in Las Lomitas area the higher transmission risk it is still related with the gallery forest of the BR, despite of the urban residence of the cases. The surveillance and control implications of these results are discussed.

  19. Phlebotominae sand flies associated with a tegumentary leishmaniasis outbreak, Tucumán Province, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Quintana, María Gabriela; Flores, Isolina; Andina, Ana María; Molina, Silvia; Montivero, Lucía; Rosales, Isabel

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of sand flies and cases of tegumentary leishmaniasis in the area surrounding JB Alberd city, and the proximities of Catamarca province were studied, after an increase of reported cases from JB Alberdi, Tucumán province, in 2003. Of 14 confirmed cases, 57% were females and 57% were less than 15 years old, suggesting peridomestic transmission. However, 86% of them lived close to the Marapa river forest gallery and related wooded areas. Over 1,013 sand flies were collected; Lutzomyia neivai (Pinto, 1926) was prevalent at all the sites (92.3%), while Lutzomyia migonei (França, 1920) (6.7%) and Lu. cortelezzii (Brèthes, 1923) (1%) were also found. The spatial distribution of Lu. neivai overlapped that of the cases, with higher abundance in microfocal hot spots close to the river in stable vegetated habitats or modified habitats with shadow and animal blood sources. The cumulative outcome of anthropic, ecological and climatic factors could have contributed to the onset of the outbreak.

  20. Health education and social representation: an experience with the control of tegumentary leishmaniasis in an endemic area in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Dener Carlos; Gazzinelli, Andréa; Silva, Carolina Angélica de Brito; Gazzinelli, Maria Flávia

    2006-11-01

    This study was developed in an endemic area of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with the objective of analyzing a health education process based on the social representations theory. The educational model was developed in two phases with 34 local residents. In the first phase, social representations of leishmaniasis were identified and analyzed. The second phase was based on the interaction between social representations and scientific knowledge. The results showed that social representations were structured in a central core by the terms "wound" and "mosquito" and in the peripheral system by the terms "mountains", "standing water", and "injection" related respectively to place, transmission, and treatment of the disease. We concluded that tegumentary leishmaniasis is viewed as a wound caused by a mosquito, portrayed by metaphors. The results of the second phase showed that social representations are systems that favor adherence to scientific knowledge, at times more rigidly in the central core, other times more flexibly when linked to the peripheral systems.

  1. Detecção de DNA de Leishmania braziliensis em pacientes de leishmaniose tegumentar americana Detección de DNA de Leishmania braziliensis en pacientes de leishmaniose tegumentaria americana Detection of Leishmania braziliensis DNA in American tegumentary leishmaniasis patients

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    Leila Martins

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado diagnóstico para leishmaniose tegumentar americana a partir de sangue de pacientes residentes em dois municípios endêmicos do estado de Pernambuco. O DNA de 119 amostras de sangue foi extraído e submetido a reação em cadeia da polimerase. Utilizaram-se primers do minicírculo do DNA do cinetoplasto (kDNA de Leishmania braziliensis, circulante em Pernambuco, cuja seqüência-alvo gera um fragmento de 750 pares de bases. No total 58 (48,7% indivíduos apresentaram amplificação positiva e 61 (51,3% negativa. Das amostras positivas para a PCR, 37 (≅ 64% pertenciam a indivíduos tratados e sem lesão. Conclui-se que a técnica de PCR é eficaz para identificar o DNA de leishmânia em material de biópsias e em sangue venoso.Fue realizado diagnóstico para leishmaniosis tegumentaria americana a partir de sangre de pacientes residentes en dos municipios endémicos del estado de Pernambuco (Noreste de Brasil. El DNA de 119 muestras de sangre fue extraído y sometido a la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. Se utilizaron primers del minicírculo del DNA del cinetoplasto (kDNA de Leishmania braziliensis, circulante en Pernambuco, cuya secuencia blanco genera un fragmento de 750 pares de bases. En total 58 (48,7% individuos presentaron amplificación positiva y 61 (51,3% negativa. De las muestras positivas para la PCR, 37 (≅64% pertenecían a individuos tratados y sin lesión. Se concluyó que la técnica de la PCR es eficaz para identificar el DNA de Leishmania en material de biopsias y en sangre venosa.Diagnostic tests for American tegumentary leishmaniasis were performed on blood samples of patients living in two endemic municipalities in the state of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. DNA was extracted from 119 samples and used as template for polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis. The tests used primers specific for the kinetoplast mini-circle DNA (kDNA of Leishmania braziliensis, a species circulating in Pernambuco, which

  2. The use of radionuclide DNA probe technology for epidemiological studies of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Mato Grosso state, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Fernandes, Octavio [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina Tropical; Heub, Marcia; Fontes, Cor Jesus [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso, Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Julio Muller; Carvalho, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro; Melo, Maria Norma de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Parasitologia

    2005-10-15

    DNA hybridisation, using probes labelled with 32 P, was used to type Leishmania samples isolated from patients living in endemic areas of Mato Grosso State (Brazil), and clinically diagnosed as having tegumentary leishmaniasis. k DNA cloned mini-circle probes specific for the Leishmania mexicana and Leishmania braziliensis complexes were used. The results showed that L. braziliensis is the predominant group infecting human patients in the state. Sixty-eight samples were typed, 64 samples (94.1%) belonging to the L. braziliensis complex and only four (5.9%) belonging to the L. mexicana complex. Accurate identification of the Leishmania permits better orientation of the medical follow-up, since clinical manifestations may vary depending on the complex to which the parasite belongs. The epidemiological information furnished by the identification of the Leishmania in given endemic area is also essential for the design of appropriate control measures. (author)

  3. OX40+ T lymphocytes and IFN-γ are associated with American tegumentary leishmaniasis pathogenesis Linfócitos T OX40+ e IFN-γ estão associados com a patogênese da leishmaniose tegumentar americana

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    Patrícia Luciana Batista Domingos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leishmaniases are zoonoses considered a public health problem, representing a complex group of diseases with a broad clinical spectrum and epidemiological diversity. Leishmaniasis is caused by several species of protozoa of the genus Leishmania. The evolution of the pathology and the resolution of the leishmaniasis are dependent mainly on the Leishmania species involved, although the cytokine profile plays an important role in the development of the immune response. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the immune response of patients affected by lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis by immunostaining of the OX40, CD20, IFN-γ and IL-4 proteins. METHODS: The tissue samples were collected from indolent skin ulcers confirmed as cutaneous leishmaniasis of 41 patients aged between six and 90 years. The lesions were submitted to OX40, CD20, INF-γ and IL-4 immunolabeling. RESULTS: We observed a statistically significant higher expression of IFN-γ compared with IL-4 (p=0.009. Besides, OX40 had higher expression when compared with CD20 (pFUNDAMENTOS: As leishmanioses são zoonoses consideradas um problema de saúde pública, representando um grupo de doenças complexas, com uma diversidade de amplo espectro clínico e epidemiológico. A leishmaniose é uma doença causada por várias espécies de protozoários do gênero Leishmania spp. A evolução da patologia e a resolução da leishmaniose são dependentes principalmente da espécie de Leishmania envolvida; embora o perfil das citocinas tenha um importante papel no desenvolvimento da resposta imune. OBJETIVOS: Proporcionar mais conhecimentos sobre os eventos inflamatórios na leishmaniose tegumentar através da avaliação da imunoexpressão de OX40, CD20, IFN-γ e IL-4. MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas amostras de tecido de 41 pacientes, com idade variando entre 6 a 90 anos, com úlceras indolentes na pele confirmados através de exames de diagnóstico como leishmaniose

  4. Identification and Biological Characterization of Leishmania (Viannia guyanensis Isolated from a Patient with Tegumentary Leishmaniasis in Goiás, a Nonendemic Area for This Species in Brazil

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    Alause da Silva Pires

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize clinical field isolates of Leishmania spp. obtained from patients with American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL who live in Goiás state, Brazil. The presumed areas of infection were in Goiás, Tocantins, and Pará states. Three isolates of parasites were identified as L. (Viannia braziliensis and one as L. (V. guyanensis. The in vitro growth profiles were found to be similar for all parasites. Nevertheless, in C57BL/6 mice, L. (V. guyanensis infection was better controlled than L. (V. braziliensis. Yet in C57BL/6 mice deficient in interferon gamma, L. (V. guyanensis lesions developed faster than those caused by L. (V. braziliensis isolates. In BALB/c mice, the development of lesions was similar for isolates from both species; however, on the 11th week of infection, amastigotes could not be observed in macrophages from L. (V. guyanensis-infected mice. Thus, L. (V. guyanensis can be circulating in Goiás, a state where autochthonous cases of this species had not yet been reported. Considering the difficulties to differentiate L. (V. guyanensis from L. (V. braziliensis at the molecular, morphological, and clinical (human and murine models levels, the presence of L. (V. guyanensis infections is possibly underestimated in several regions of Brazil.

  5. Severity of tegumentary leishmaniasis is not exclusively associated with Leishmania RNA virus 1 infection in Brazil

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    Luiza de Oliveira Ramos Pereira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania RNA virus (LRV has been shown to be a symbiotic component of Leishmania parasites in South America. Nested retro-transcription polymerase chain reaction was employed to investigate LRV1 presence in leishmaniasis lesions from Brazil. In endemic areas of Rio de Janeiro (RJ, no LRV1 infection was observed even with mucosal involvement. LRV1 was only detected in Leishmania (V. guyanensis cutaneous lesions from the northern region, which were obtained from patients presenting with disease reactivation after clinical cure of their primary lesions. Our results indicated that the severity of leishmaniasis in some areas of RJ, where Leishmania (V. brazi-liensis is the primary etiological agent, was not associated with Leishmania LRV1 infection.

  6. Reactivation of cutaneous and mucocutaneous tegumentary leishmaniasis in rheumatoid arthritis patients: an emerging problem?

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    Regina Maia de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic condition that is frequent in patients living in tropical areas exposed to leishmaniasis. RA therapy involves immunosuppressant drugs such as methotrexate (MTX, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and prednisone. We report an unusual presentation of cutaneous (CL or mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (ML in RA patients from an endemic area of leishmaniasis. A 51-year-old woman noted a cutaneous ulcer on her left ankle during MTX and prednisone RA therapy. Initially diagnosed as a venous stasis ulcer, the aspirate of the injury revealed the presence of Leishmania DNA. A 73-year-old woman presenting non-ulcerated, infiltrated and painful erythematous nodules inside her nostrils while receiving MTX, anti-TNF mAb, and prednisone for RA, had also the aspirate of injuries showing the presence of Leishmania DNA. Both patients healed after the therapy with liposomal amphotericin. The RA therapy has changed to low-dose prednisone, without further reactivation episodes. Both cases suggest that CL or ML can reactivate after administration of an immunosuppressant for RA treatment. Therefore, immunosuppressive treatments for RA should be carefully prescribed in patients from endemic areas or with a history of CL and ML.

  7. Occupationally Acquired American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

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    Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two occupationally acquired cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL: one accidental laboratory autoinoculation by contaminated needlestick while handling an ACL lesion sample, and one acquired during field studies on bird biology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays of patient lesions were positive for Leishmania, subgenus Viannia. One isolate was obtained by culture (from patient 2 biopsy samples and characterized as Leishmania (Viannia naiffi through an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA with species-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE. Patients were successfully treated with N-methyl-glucamine. These two cases highlight the potential risks of laboratory and field work and the need to comply with strict biosafety procedures in daily routines. The swab collection method, coupled with PCR detection, has greatly improved ACL laboratory diagnosis.

  8. The use of radionuclide DNA probe technology for epidemiological studies of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Mato Grosso state

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    Antero Silva Ribeiro de Andrade

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available DNA hybridisation, using probes labelled with 32P, was used to type Leishmania samples isolated from patients living in endemic areas of Mato Grosso State (Brazil, and clinically diagnosed as having tegumentary leishmaniasis. kDNA cloned mini-circle probes specific for the Leishmania mexicana and Leishmania braziliensis complexes were used. The results showed that L. braziliensis is the predominant group infecting human patients in the state. Sixty-eight samples were typed, 64 samples (94.1% belonging to the L. braziliensis complex and only four (5.9% belonging to the L. mexicana complex. Accurate identification of the Leishmania permits better orientation of the medical follow-up, since clinical manifestations may vary depending on the complex to which the parasite belongs. The epidemiological information furnished by the identification of the Leishmania in given endemic area is also essential for the design of appropriate control measuresHibridização, utilizando sondas de DNA marcadas com 32P, foi utilizada para a tipagem de amostras de Leishmania isoladas de pacientes do estado do Mato Grosso (Brasil, diagnosticados clinicamente como portadores de leishmaniose tegumentar. Sondas de minicírculos clonados de kDNA, específicas para os complexos Leishmania mexicana e Leishmania braziliensis, foram utilizadas. Os resultados demonstraram que o complexo L. brasiliensis é o grupo predominante infectando pacientes humanos no estado do Mato Grosso. Foram tipadas 68 amostras: 64 (94,1% foram identificadas como pertencentes ao complexo L. brasiliensis e somente 4 (5,9% como pertencentes ao complexo L. mexicana. A tipagem de Leishmania é importante para um melhor acompanhamento médico, uma vez que as manifestações clínicas podem variar em função do complexo ao qual o parasita pertence. A informação fornecida pela identificação também é essencial para a definição das medidas de controle mais adequadas e compreensão da epidemiologia da

  9. Nível de conhecimentos sobre Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana (LTA e uso de terapias alternativas por populações de uma área endêmica da Amazônia do Maranhão, Brasil Awareness of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL and use of alternative therapies in an endemic area in the Amazon Region in the State of Maranhão, Brazil

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    Rosilene da Conceição R. Moreira

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se estudo visando identificar e comparar que conhecimentos básicos e uso de terapias alternativas relativos à Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana (LTA, têm populações residentes em cinco áreas rurais (Sexta Vicinal, Quinta Vicinal, Trilha 410, Vila União e Buritizinho pertencentes ao município de Buriticupu, Maranhão. No período de setembro de 1997 a janeiro de 1998, aplicou-se questionários com perguntas abertas e fechadas, abordando aspectos epidemiológicos, modos de prevenção, clínica e terapêutica alternativa. A população estudada foi de 378 (19% indivíduos de um total de 1980 habitantes. Na Sexta Vicinal (35 indivíduos, Quinta Vicinal (63, Trilha 410 (96, Vila União (85 e Buritizinho (99. Dos entrevistados, 72% tinham poucos conhecimentos dos modos de transmissão, 96,9% já ouviram falar da doença, a maioria obteve informações com amigos, 60,7% conheciam a LTA como lésh. O Glucantime foi a droga mais citada para o tratamento, 29,6% relataram uso de plantas no local da lesão. O Citrus limon (limão foi a planta mais citada (15,4% dos entrevistados, o modo de uso mais freqüente era o pó espalhado sobre a lesão. Conclui-se que o nível de conhecimento sobre LTA foi incipiente, principalmente na prevenção e terapêutica, situação similar nas cinco áreas estudadas.The level of knowledge concerning American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL and use of alternative therapies was evaluated in five rural communities in Buriticupu, Maranhão State, Brazil. The study lasted from September 1997 to January 1998. Local inhabitants answered an interview on housing conditions, epidemiological aspects, prevention, standard clinical treatment, and alternative therapies. The study population was 378 (19% out of a total of 1,980 inhabitants, from Sexta Vicinal (35, Quinta Vicinal (63, Trilha 410 (96, Vila União (85, and Buritizinho (99. Of the interviewees, 72% had little knowledge of ATL transmission, 96% had heard

  10. Cross-protective efficacy of Leishmania infantum LiHyD protein against tegumentary leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major and Leishmania braziliensis species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Daniela Pagliara; Martins, Vívian Tamietti; Duarte, Mariana Costa; Costa, Lourena Emanuele; Tavares, Grasiele de Sousa Vieira; Ramos, Fernanda Fonseca; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel Angel; Menezes-Souza, Daniel; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Tavares, Carlos Alberto Pereira; Coelho, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz

    2016-06-01

    Vaccination can be considered the most cost-effective strategy to control neglected diseases, but nowadays there is not an effective vaccine available against leishmaniasis. In the present study, a vaccine based on the combination of the Leishmania-specific hypothetical protein (LiHyD) with saponin was tested in BALB/c mice against infection caused by Leishmania major and Leishmania braziliensis species. This antigen was firstly identified in Leishmania infantum and showed to be protective against infection of BALB/c mice using this parasite species. The immunogenicity of rLiHyD/saponin vaccine was evaluated, and the results showed that immunized mice produced high levels of IFN-γ, IL-12 and GM-CSF after in vitro stimulation with rLiHyD, as well as by using L. major or L. braziliensis protein extracts. After challenge, vaccinated animals showed significant reductions in the infected footpad swellings, as well as in the parasite burden in the infection site, liver, spleen, and infected paws draining lymph nodes, when compared to those that were inoculated with the vaccine diluent (saline) or immunized with saponin. The immunization of rLiHyD without adjuvant was not protective against both challenges. The partial protection obtained by the rLiHyD/saponin vaccine was associated with a parasite-specific IL-12-dependent IFN-γ secretion, which was produced mainly by CD4(+) T cells. In these animals, a decrease in the parasite-mediated IL-4 and IL-10 responses, associated with the presence of high levels of LiHyD- and parasite-specific IgG2a isotype antibodies, were also observed. The present study showed that a hypothetical protein that was firstly identified in L. infantum, when combined to a Th1 adjuvant, was able to confer a cross-protection against highly infective stationary-phase promastigotes of two Leishmania species causing tegumentary leishmaniasis.

  11. Características epidemiológicas da leishmaniose tegumentar americana em uma região endêmica do Estado da Bahia: III. Fauna flebotomínica Epidemiological characteristics of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in an endemic region of the State of Bahia: III. Phlebotomine fauna

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    Julio A. Vexenat

    1986-09-01

    Full Text Available A fauna flebotomínica da região de Três Braços, uma área endêmica de leishmaniose cutânea-mucosa localizada no sudeste do Estado da Bahia, na região cacaueira, é muito variada. Foram identificadas 30 espécies de Lutzomyia em 13.535 exemplares coletados entre os anos de 1976 e 1984. Lu. withmani foi a espécie altamente predominante no ambiente peridoméstico e no interior das residências, com percentuais de 99,0 e 97,5, respectivamente. Na floresta, as espécies predominantes foram Lu. ayrozai e Lu. yuilli, aparecendo Lu. whitmani com apenas 1,0% do total de exemplares examinados. Lu. flaviscutellata, vetor comprovado da Leishmania mexicana amazonensis, foi também coletada em baixos índices. Lu. wellcomei, vetor da L. braziliensis braziliensis na Serra dos Carajás, Pará, Brasil, não foi encontrada na região de Três Braços onde o parasito causando infecções humanas é predominantemente L. b. braziliensis. Embora não se tenha encontrado infecção natural por promastigotas em 1.832 fêmeas de diversas espécies examinadas, discute-se a possibilidade de Lu. whitmani ser um vetor da L.b. braziliensis na região, mantendo, provavelmente, a transmissão entre o cão e o homem.The phlebotomine fauna is highly varied in três Braços, an endemic area american cutaneous leishmaniasis, situated in the cacao growing region in the southeast of Bahia State, brazil. Thirty species of the Lutzomyia genus were identified in 13,535 spcecimens collected between 1976 and 1984. Lutzomyia whitmani was the dominant species accounting for 99% or flies in the periodomicile and 97.5% of those caught in homes. In the forest the predominant species were Lu. ayrozai and Lu. yulli. Lu whitmani accounted for only 1.0% of the specimens examined. Lu. flaviscutellata, the proven vector of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis, was also collected in small numbers, I.u. wellcomei, a known vector of L. braziliensis braziliensis in the Serra dos Carajás, Par

  12. Evaluation of the histopathological classifications of American cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis

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    A. L. Bittencourt

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the reliability of histopathological classifications of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis the authors compared the histopathological patterns of two biopsies taken simultaneously from the same patient, and classified the material according to Ridley et al. (1980, to Magalhães et al. (1986a, and to a more simplified classification with only three patterns. District histopathological aspects, were observed in different lesions or even in the same lesion. The authors concluded that histopathological patterns do not represent a stage of tegumentary leishmaniasis, thus they can not be correlated with prognosis and therapeutical response as suggested in the literature.

  13. [Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae) in area of transmission of american tegumentar leishmaniasis in the north coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, Marylene; Casanova, Cláudio; Mascarini, Luciene Maura; Wanderley, Dalva Marli Valério; Corrêa, Fernando Motta de Azevedo

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen, 30 and 104 cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis were recorded respectively, in 1993, 1994 and 1995, in the coast region of São Paulo State. Aiming to characterize the fauna and seasonal and hourly distributions of the phlebotominic species, adult specimens were captured fortnightly between November/95 and December/96. CDC light traps were used as of dusk intradomiciliarly, peridomiciliarly and in the forest for 12 hours. From the same moment on but only during 6 hours Shannon traps were set in the peridomicile 100 meters from the house. Quarterly this trap was used for 12 hours. The population density fluctuation as well as the occurrence of intra and extradomiciliarly predominant species were observed. In the different traps used and environments investigated Lutzomyia intermedia was the most abundant species.

  14. Asymptomatic infection with American cutaneous leishmaniasis: epidemiological and immunological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Narvaez, Fernando J; Loría-Cervera, Elsy Nalleli; Sosa-Bibiano, Erika I; Van Wynsberghe, Nicole R

    2016-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a major public health problem caused by vector-borne protozoan intracellular parasites from the genus Leishmania, subgenera Viannia and Leishmania. Asymptomatic infection is the most common outcome after Leishmania inoculation. There is incomplete knowledge of the biological processes explaining the absence of signs or symptoms in most cases while other cases present a variety of clinical findings. Most studies of asymptomatic infection have been conducted in areas of endemic visceral leishmaniasis. In contrast, asymptomatic ACL infection has been neglected. This review is focused on the following: (1) epidemiological studies supporting the existence of asymptomatic ACL infection and (2) immunological studies conducted to understand the mechanisms responsible for controlling the parasite and avoiding tissue damage. PMID:27759762

  15. Leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, M; Theander, T G

    2000-01-01

    Leishmania parasites are obligate intracellular protozoa, that produce clinical pictures, ranging from localised, self-healing ulcers to systemic, lethal diseases. The diseases caused by the parasites can be divided into cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniasis. Recovery from the infe......Leishmania parasites are obligate intracellular protozoa, that produce clinical pictures, ranging from localised, self-healing ulcers to systemic, lethal diseases. The diseases caused by the parasites can be divided into cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniasis. Recovery from...... the infection often leaves lifelong immunity. Leishmaniasis may occur in individuals who have been to the Mediterranean countries, the countries on the Horn of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, parts of Asia, and South and Central America. Co-infection of Leishmania parasites and HIV is a special problem....... Leishmaniasis can be treated with pentavalent compounds of antimony, but other drugs, including amphotericin B, are also affective. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Nov-13...

  16. American cutaneous leishmaniasis: presentation and problems of patient management

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    Jeffrey D. Chulay

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available We report our experience with the diagnosis and treatment of 60 patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis. They were infected in Panama (55, Brazil (4 or Colombia (I. Among 35 patients with a 3 week exposure in Panama, the mean maximum incubation period was 33 days (range 4-81 days. Diagnosis was delayed an average of 93 days after onset of skin lesions, due to the patient's delay in seeking medical attention (31 days, medical personnel's delay in considering the diagnosis (45 days, and the laboratory's delay in confirming the diagnosis (17 days. Forty-four patients (73% developed ulcers typical of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Sixteen additional patients (27% had atypical macular, papular, squamous, verrucous or acneiform skin lesions that were diagnosed only because leishmanial cultures were obtained. Of the 59 patients treated with pentavalent antimonial drugs, only 34 (58% were cured after the first course of treatment. Lesions which were at least 2 cm in diameter, ulcerated, or caused by Leishmania braziliensis were less likely to be cured after a single course of treatment than were lesions smaller than 2 cm, nonulcerated or caused by Leishmania mexicana or Leishmania donovani.

  17. Seroprevalence of CANINE LEISHMANIASIS AND American trypanosomiasis in dogs from Grenada, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canine leishmaniasis and American trypanosomiasis (AT) are caused by related hemoflagellated parasites, Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi, which share several common host species. Dogs are reservoirs for human infections with both pathogens. We determined the prevalence of antibodies to Leishman...

  18. Phlebotominae sand flies associated with a tegumentary leishmaniasis outbreak, Tucumán Province, Argentina Flebotomíneos associados com surto de leishmaniose tegumentar, na Província de Tucumán, Argentina

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    Oscar Daniel Salomón

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of sand flies and cases of tegumentary leishmaniasis in the area surrounding JB Alberd city, and the proximities of Catamarca province were studied, after an increase of reported cases from JB Alberdi, Tucumán province, in 2003. Of 14 confirmed cases, 57% were females and 57% were less than 15 years old, suggesting peridomestic transmission. However, 86% of them lived close to the Marapa river forest gallery and related wooded areas. Over 1,013 sand flies were collected; Lutzomyia neivai (Pinto, 1926 was prevalent at all the sites (92.3%, while Lutzomyia migonei (França, 1920 (6.7% and Lu. cortelezzii (Brèthes, 1923 (1% were also found. The spatial distribution of Lu. neivai overlapped that of the cases, with higher abundance in microfocal hot spots close to the river in stable vegetated habitats or modified habitats with shadow and animal blood sources. The cumulative outcome of anthropic, ecological and climatic factors could have contributed to the onset of the outbreak.Após um aumento nos casos notificados na cidade de JB Alberdi, Provincia de Tucumán, no ano de 2003, foram estudados a distribuição de flebotomíneos e casos de leishmaniose tegumentar nos arredores de JB Alberdi, e na área próxima à Província de Catamarca. De 14 casos confirmados, 57% foram mulheres e 57% tinham menos de 15 anos de idade, sugerindo transmissão peridomiciliar. Contudo, 86% dos casos residiam perto da galeria florestal do rio Marapa e perto de ilhas de vegetacão residual. De 1.013 flebotomíneos coletados, Lutzomyia neivai (Pinto, 1926 foi a espécie dominante em todos os sítios (92,3%. Também, se capturaram Lutzomyia migonei (França, 1920 (6,7% e Lutzomyia cortelezzii (Brèthes, 1923 (1%. A distribuicão espacial de Lu. neivai se sobrepõe com a dos casos com alta abundância em pontos quentes microfocais próximos ao rio, em habitats estáveis com vegetação, ou habitats modificados com sombras e fonte de sangue animal. O

  19. Espacialização da leishmaniose tegumentar na cidade do Rio de Janeiro Spatial distribution of tegumentary leishmaniasis in the city of Rio de Janeiro

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    Helia Kawa

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores analisam os determinantes históricos e espaciais da implantação, persistência e difusão da leishmaniose tegumentar na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, e sua articulação com os processos de organização e ocupação do espaço urbano na periferia da cidade, do início do século até o final da década de oitenta. A análise da distribuição dos surtos epidêmicos neste período, mostrou a presença de um conjunto de focos descontínuos, delimitados no tempo e no espaço e articulados pela dinâmica de valorização da terra urbana, constituindo uma grande zona endêmica de leishmaniose tegumentar caracterizada por unidades espaciais com riscos diferenciados da endemia. O modelo utilizado foi a análise do processo de ocupação e organização do espaço na periferia da cidade, considerando as novas funções dos elementos espaciais expressos através de diferentes relações de trabalho, uso do solo e valor da terra. O movimento de urbanização criou as condições necessárias à intensificação da endemia em focos bem definidos, onde o processo de trabalho possibilitou maior contato entre indivíduos suscetíveis e vetores.The authors analyze the historical and spatial determinants of the implantation, persistence, and spread of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro and the links between the disease and the organization of urban space and occupation processes on the periphery of the city beginning in the early 20th century through the 1980s. A pattern of outbreaks that was restricted and spatially discontinuous but sequenced was observed and seen to be linked to a dynamic process of urban real estate appreciation, comprising a large endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis. An analysis of the occupation and organization of urban space in the so-called Western Zone of Rio de Janeiro was conducted, considering new functions of spatial elements expressed through changing work relations, land use, and land

  20. An optimized nanoparticle delivery system based on chitosan and chondroitin sulfate molecules reduces the toxicity of amphotericin B and is effective in treating tegumentary leishmaniasis

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    Ribeiro TG

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tatiana G Ribeiro,1 Juçara R Franca,1 Leonardo L Fuscaldi,1 Mara L Santos,2 Mariana C Duarte,3 Paula S Lage,3 Vivian T Martins,4 Lourena E Costa,3 Simone OA Fernandes,1,5 Valbert N Cardoso,1,5 Rachel O Castilho,1,6 Manuel Soto,7 Carlos AP Tavares,4 André AG Faraco,1,6 Eduardo AF Coelho,3,8,* Miguel A Chávez-Fumagalli3,* 1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Faculdade de Farmácia, 2Departamento de Morfologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, 3Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde: Infectologia e Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, 4Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, 5Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Toxicológicas, 6Departamento de Produtos Farmacêuticos, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil; 7Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa (CSIC-UAM, Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain; 8Departamento de Patologia Clínica, COLTEC, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Amphotericin B (AmpB is active against leishmaniasis, but its use is hampered due to its high toxicity observed in patients. In this study, a nanoparticles-delivery system for AmpB (NQC-AmpB, containing chitosan and chondroitin sulfate molecules, was evaluated in BALB/c mice against Leishmania amazonensis. An in vivo biodistribution study, including biochemical and toxicological evaluations, was performed to evaluate the toxicity of AmpB. Nanoparticles were radiolabeled with technetium-99m and injected in mice. The products presented a similar biodistribution in the liver, spleen, and kidneys of the animals. Free AmpB induced alterations in the body weight of the mice, which, in the biochemical analysis, indicated hepatic and renal injury, as well as morphological damage to the kidneys of

  1. FIRST REPORT OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS CAUSED BYLeishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi IN AN URBAN AREA OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

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    LYRA, Marcelo Rosandiski; PIMENTEL, Maria Inês Fernandes; MADEIRA, Maria de Fátima; ANTONIO, Liliane de Fátima; LYRA, Janine Pontes de Miranda; FAGUNDES, Aline; SCHUBACH, Armando de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is an infectious disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, and transmitted by sandflies. In the state of Rio de Janeiro, almost all of the cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) are caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, while cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi. The resurgence of autochthonous VL cases in Rio de Janeiro is related to the geographic expansion of the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis and its ability to adapt to urban areas. We report the first case of leishmaniasis with exclusively cutaneous manifestations caused by L. (L.) infantum chagasi in an urban area of Rio de Janeiro. An eighty-one-year-old woman presented three pleomorphic skin lesions that were not associated with systemic symptoms or visceromegalies. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis identified L. (L.) infantum chagasi, but direct smear and PCR of bone narrow were negative for Leishmania sp. (suggesting exclusively cutaneous involvement). We discuss the different dermatological presentations of viscerotropic leishmaniasis of the New and Old World, and the clinical and epidemiological importance of the case. Etiologic diagnosis of ATL based upon exclusive clinical criteria may lead to incorrect conclusions. We should be aware of the constant changes in epidemiological patterns related to leishmaniases. PMID:26603237

  2. FIRST REPORT OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS CAUSED BY Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi IN AN URBAN AREA OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

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    Marcelo Rosandiski LYRA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL is an infectious disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, and transmitted by sandflies. In the state of Rio de Janeiro, almost all of the cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL are caused by Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, while cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL are caused by Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi. The resurgence of autochthonous VL cases in Rio de Janeiro is related to the geographic expansion of the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis and its ability to adapt to urban areas. We report the first case of leishmaniasis with exclusively cutaneous manifestations caused by L. (L. infantum chagasi in an urban area of Rio de Janeiro. An eighty-one-year-old woman presented three pleomorphic skin lesions that were not associated with systemic symptoms or visceromegalies. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis identified L. (L. infantum chagasi, but direct smear and PCR of bone narrow were negative for Leishmania sp. (suggesting exclusively cutaneous involvement. We discuss the different dermatological presentations of viscerotropic leishmaniasis of the New and Old World, and the clinical and epidemiological importance of the case. Etiologic diagnosis of ATL based upon exclusive clinical criteria may lead to incorrect conclusions. We should be aware of the constant changes in epidemiological patterns related to leishmaniases.

  3. Distribuição da leishmaniose tegumentar por imagens de sensoreamento remoto orbital, no Estado do Paraná, Brasil Tegumentary leishmaniasis distribution by satellite remote sensing imagery, in Paraná State, Brazil

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    Airton Pereira Lima

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A leishmaniose tegumentar (LT tem sua epidemiologia pouco conhecida no Estado do Paraná. OBJETIVOS: Verificar a distribuição geográfica dos casos de LT em quatro municípios do Paraná, usando imagens por sensoriamento remoto orbital (ISRO, correlacionando-a com a presença de vegetação remanescente e cursos d'água. MÉTODOS: A distribuição de 4.416 casos no Paraná, de 1993 a 1998, foi feita com informações da ficha de notificação da Secretaria de Saúde do Estado do Paraná. Por ISRO verificou-se a distribuição de 231 casos de LT e a correlação destes com as matas residuais e o grau de antropia nos municípios de Cianorte, Japurá, Jussara e São Tomé. RESULTADOS: Houve concentração de casos no Norte e Oeste do Paraná. As ISRO mostram que há relação muito íntima da LT com as áreas de mata nativa modificada, pequenas matas ciliares ou resquícios destas, nos municípios de Cianorte, Japurá, Jussara e São Tomé. CONCLUSÃO: Em Cianorte, Japurá, Jussara e São Tomé a LT tem íntima relação com áreas de mata nativa modificada, pequenas matas ciliares ou resquícios de ambas. Possivelmente, as áreas onde há mais casos de LT no Paraná guardam semelhanças com as desses municípios.BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of tegumentary Leishmaniasis (TL is poorly known in the State of Paraná. OBJECTIVES: To verify the geographical distribution of TL cases in four municipalities in the State of Paraná and correlate the notified TL cases with the presence of the remaining vegetation and water streams, using images by satellite monitoring. METHODS: The distribution of 4,416 cases of TL in the State of Paraná, from 1993 to 1998, was done according to the notification records used by the State of Paraná Health Secretariat. The distribution of 231 cases of TL and the correlation between these cases and the remaining forest, as well as the extent to which man has influenced the environment in Cianorte, Japur

  4. Health education and social representation: an experience with the control of tegumentary leishmaniasis in an endemic area in Minas Gerais, Brazil Educação em saúde e representações sociais: uma experiência no controle da leishmaniose tegumentar em área endêmica de Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Dener Carlos dos Reis

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed in an endemic area of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with the objective of analyzing a health education process based on the social representations theory. The educational model was developed in two phases with 34 local residents. In the first phase, social representations of leishmaniasis were identified and analyzed. The second phase was based on the interaction between social representations and scientific knowledge. The results showed that social representations were structured in a central core by the terms "wound" and "mosquito" and in the peripheral system by the terms "mountains", "standing water", and "injection" related respectively to place, transmission, and treatment of the disease. We concluded that tegumentary leishmaniasis is viewed as a wound caused by a mosquito, portrayed by metaphors. The results of the second phase showed that social representations are systems that favor adherence to scientific knowledge, at times more rigidly in the central core, other times more flexibly when linked to the peripheral systems.Desenvolvido em uma área endêmica em leishmaniose tegumentar, zona rural de Minas Gerais, Brasil, este estudo pretendeu analisar um processo educacional em saúde fundamentado na Teoria das Representações Sociais. Este modelo educativo foi desenvolvido em duas fases e destinado a 34 moradores da localidade. Na primeira fase, foram identificadas e analisadas as representações sociais vinculadas à doença. A segunda fase consistiu na interação entre as representações sociais e o conhecimento científico. Os resultados da primeira fase identificaram que as representações sociais estavam estruturadas no núcleo central pelos termos "ferida" e "mosquito", e no sistema periférico pelos termos "serra", "água parada" e "injeção" relacionados, respectivamente, a lugar, transmissão e tratamento da doença. Para os pesquisados, a leishmaniose tegumentar se

  5. American cutaneous leishmaniasis: presentation and problems of patient management

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    Jeffrey D. Chulay

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available We report our experience with the diagnosis and treatment of 60 patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis. They were infected in Panama (55, Brazil (4 or Colombia (I. Among 35 patients with a 3 week exposure in Panama, the mean maximum incubation period was 33 days (range 4-81 days. Diagnosis was delayed an average of 93 days after onset of skin lesions, due to the patient's delay in seeking medical attention (31 days, medical personnel's delay in considering the diagnosis (45 days, and the laboratory's delay in confirming the diagnosis (17 days. Forty-four patients (73% developed ulcers typical of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Sixteen additional patients (27% had atypical macular, papular, squamous, verrucous or acneiform skin lesions that were diagnosed only because leishmanial cultures were obtained. Of the 59 patients treated with pentavalent antimonial drugs, only 34 (58% were cured after the first course of treatment. Lesions which were at least 2 cm in diameter, ulcerated, or caused by Leishmania braziliensis were less likely to be cured after a single course of treatment than were lesions smaller than 2 cm, nonulcerated or caused by Leishmania mexicana or Leishmania donovani.Relatamos nossa experiência em 60 pacientes com leishmaniose tegumentar americana diagnosticada e tratada entre 1977 e 1982. Cinqüenta e cinco pacientes foram infectados no Panamá, 4 no Brasil, e 1 na Colômbia. Entre 35 pacientes com uma exposição de 3 semanas no Panamá, a média do período de incubação foi 33 dias (limite sobre 4 e 81 dias. O diagnóstico foi feito, em média, 93 dias depois do início das lesões de pele, devido a demora do paciente em procurar o serviço médico (31 dias, a demora do médico em considerar o diagnóstico (45 dias, e a demora do laboratório em confirmar o diagnóstico (17 dias. Quarenta e quatro pacientes (73% desenvolveram úlceras típicas de leishmaniose cutânea. Porém, 16 pacientes (27% tiveram lesões de pele at

  6. Leishmaniasis

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    ... be uncomfortable to sleep under such a closely woven bed net when it is hot. Treatment of ... College of the American Osteopathic Association. The AOCD now oversees 32 dermatology residency programs that are currently ...

  7. SOUTH AMERICAN COLLABORATION IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS ON LEISHMANIASIS: BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYSIS IN SCOPUS (2000-2011

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    Charles Huamaní

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Evaluate the production and the research collaborative network on Leishmaniasis in South America. Methods: A bibliometric research was carried out using SCOPUS database. The analysis unit was original research articles published from 2000 to 2011, that dealt with leishmaniasis and that included at least one South American author. The following items were obtained for each article: journal name, language, year of publication, number of authors, institutions, countries, and others variables. Results: 3,174 articles were published, 2,272 of them were original articles. 1,160 different institutional signatures, 58 different countries and 398 scientific journals were identified. Brazil was the country with more articles (60.7% and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ had 18% of Brazilian production, which is the South American nucleus of the major scientific network in Leishmaniasis. Conclusions: South American scientific production on Leishmaniasis published in journals indexed in SCOPUS is focused on Brazilian research activity. It is necessary to strengthen the collaboration networks. The first step is to identify the institutions with higher production, in order to perform collaborative research according to the priorities of each country.

  8. SOUTH AMERICAN COLLABORATION IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS ON LEISHMANIASIS: BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYSIS IN SCOPUS (2000-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huamaní, Charles; Romaní, Franco; González-Alcaide, Gregorio; Mejia, Miluska O.; Ramos, José Manuel; Espinoza, Manuel; Cabezas, César

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Evaluate the production and the research collaborative network on Leishmaniasis in South America. Methods: A bibliometric research was carried out using SCOPUS database. The analysis unit was original research articles published from 2000 to 2011, that dealt with leishmaniasis and that included at least one South American author. The following items were obtained for each article: journal name, language, year of publication, number of authors, institutions, countries, and others variables. Results: 3,174 articles were published, 2,272 of them were original articles. 1,160 different institutional signatures, 58 different countries and 398 scientific journals were identified. Brazil was the country with more articles (60.7%) and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ) had 18% of Brazilian production, which is the South American nucleus of the major scientific network in Leishmaniasis. Conclusions: South American scientific production on Leishmaniasis published in journals indexed in SCOPUS is focused on Brazilian research activity. It is necessary to strengthen the collaboration networks. The first step is to identify the institutions with higher production, in order to perform collaborative research according to the priorities of each country. PMID:25229217

  9. Urban Transmission of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Argentina: Spatial Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, José F.; Nasser, Julio R.; Cajal, Silvana P.; Juarez, Marisa; Acosta, Norma; Cimino, Rubén O.; Diosque, Patricio; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J.

    2010-01-01

    We used kernel density and scan statistics to examine the spatial distribution of cases of pediatric and adult American cutaneous leishmaniasis in an urban disease-endemic area in Salta Province, Argentina. Spatial analysis was used for the whole population and stratified by women > 14 years of age (n = 159), men > 14 years of age (n = 667), and children areas of the city. Scan statistic analysis for adult males, adult females, and children found 11, 2, and 8 clusters, respectively. Clusters for children had the highest odds ratios (P < 0.05) and were located in proximity of plantations and secondary vegetation. The data from this study provide further evidence of the potential urban transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Argentina. PMID:20207869

  10. American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Pontal of Paranapanema - SP, Brazil: ecological and entomological aspects

    OpenAIRE

    ALESSI, Claudia Álvares Calvo; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; José Roberto ALVES; CORBETT, Carlos Eduardo Pereira

    2009-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) occurs in epidemic outbreaks and in sporadic cases with small annual variation in the Pontal of Paranapanema, SP. There is little research on the sandfly fauna of this region. The last outbreaks were related to the Movement of the Landless Workers (MST) and with the ecological tourism in preserved forest of the Parque Estadual do Morro do Diabo (PEMD). AIM: identification of the sandfly fauna within the PEMD, mainly anthropophilic species already incrimi...

  11. Interventions for American cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis: a systematic review update.

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    Ludovic Reveiz

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is an important public health problem in the Americas. A Cochrane review published in 2009 analyzed 38 randomized controlled trials (RCT. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effects of therapeutic interventions for American cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. METHODS: All studies were extracted from PubMed, Embase, Lilacs (2009 to July, 2012 respectively, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (6-2012 and references of identified publications. RCTs' risk of bias was assessed. RESULTS: We identified 1865 references of interest; we finally included 10 new RCTs. The risk of bias scored low or unclear for most domains. Miltefosine was not significantly different from meglumine antimoniate in the complete cure rate at 6 months (4 RCT; 584 participants; ITT; RR: 1.12; 95%CI: 0.85 to 1.47; I2 78%. However a significant difference in the rate of complete cure favoring miltefosine at 6 months was found in L. panamensis and L. guyanensis (2 RCTs, 206 participants; ITT; RR: 1.22; 95%CI: 1.02 to 1.46; I2 0%. One RCT found that meglumine antimoniate was superior to pentamidine in the rate of complete cure for L. braziliensis (80 participants, ITT; RR: 2.21; 95%CI: 1.41 to 3.49, while another RCT assessing L. guyanensis did not find any significant difference. Although meta-analysis of three studies found a significant difference in the rate of complete cure at 3 months favoring imiquimod versus placebo (134 participants; ITT; RR: 1.45; 95%CI: 1.12 to 1.88; I2 0%, no significant differences were found at 6 and 12 months. Thermotherapy and nitric oxide were not superior to meglumine antimoniate. CONCLUSION: Therapeutic interventions for American cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis are varied and should be decided according to the context. Since mucosal disease is the more neglected form of leishmaniasis a multicentric trial should be urgently considered.

  12. Chemokines and chemokine receptors expression in the lesions of patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Nilka Luisa Diaz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL presents distinct active clinical forms with different grades of severity, known as localised (LCL, intermediate (ICL and diffuse (DCL cutaneous leishmaniasis. LCL and DCL are associated with a polarised T-helper (Th1 and Th2 immune response, respectively, whereas ICL, or chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis, is associated with an exacerbated immune response and a mixed cytokine expression profile. Chemokines and chemokine receptors are involved in cellular migration and are critical in the inflammatory response. Therefore, we evaluated the expression of the chemokines CXCL10, CCL4, CCL8, CCL11 and CXCL8 and the chemokine receptors CCR3, CXCR3, CCR5 and CCR7 in the lesions of patients with different clinical forms of ACL using immunohistochemistry. LCL patients exhibited a high density of CXCL10+, CCL4+ and CCL8+ cells, indicating an important role for these chemokines in the local Th1 immune response and the migration of CXCR3+ cells. LCL patients showed a higher density of CCR7+ cells than ICL or DCL patients, suggesting major dendritic cell (DC migration to lymph nodes. Furthermore, DCL was associated with low expression levels of Th1-associated chemokines and CCL11+ epidermal DCs, which contribute to the recruitment of CCR3+ cells. Our findings also suggest an important role for epidermal cells in the induction of skin immune responses through the production of chemokines, such as CXCL10, by keratinocytes.

  13. Association between HLA-C*04 and American cutaneous leishmaniasis in endemic region of southern Brazil.

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    Ribas-Silva, R C; Ribas, A D; Ferreira, E C; Silveira, T G V; Borelli, S D

    2015-11-23

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infectious disease with global repercussions. American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is endemic in southern Brazil and its pathogenesis varies according to parasite species, immune response, and host genetics. In terms of immunogenetics, many host genes, including HLA (human leukocyte antigen), could be involved in susceptibility to and protection against ACL. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between HLA class I genes (HLA-A, -B, and -C) and ACL in an endemic region of southern Brazil. The allele frequencies of 186 patients diagnosed with ACL and 278 healthy individuals were compared. HLA class I (HLA-A, -B, and -C) typing was carried out by PCR-SSO using Luminex technology. The results revealed an association between the HLA-C*04 allele and the patient study group, in which it appeared more frequently than in the control group [21.5 vs 13.49% (P = 0.0016 and Pc = 0.0258; OR = 1.7560; 95%CI = 1.2227-2.5240)], thereby suggesting an increased susceptibility to ACL. Additional allelic groups such as HLA-A*02, HLA-B*35, HLA-B*45, HLA-C*01, and HLA-C*15 were also implicated; however, further investigation is necessary to confirm their association with ACL. Therefore, the results obtained in this study demonstrate the involvement of HLA class I genes in the susceptibility or resistance to ACL, with significant association between HLA-C*04 and ACL susceptibility.

  14. El rol de tres pruebas de ELISA con antígenos de promastigotes de Leishmania braziliensis, L. amazonensis y L. guyanensis en el diagnóstico de leishmaniasis tegumentaria Role of three ELISA tests using promastigote homogenates of Leishmania braziliensis, L. amazonensis and L. guyanensis in the diagnosis of tegumentary leishmaniasis

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    José F. Gil

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Es importante conocer si la variabilidad de especies de Leishmania circulantes en una región afecta la performance de las pruebas de ELISA estandarizadas para el diagnostico de la leishmaniasis. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar la reactividad de la prueba de ELISA utilizando homogenados de promastigotes de Leishmania (V. braziliensis (ELISAb, L (L amazonensis (ELISAa y L (V. guyanensis (ELISAg frente a distintos grupos de sueros. Se estudiaron muestras de personas con leishmaniasis cutánea (n = 37, leishmaniasis mucocutánea (n = 8, no infectados (n = 52, infectadas por Trypanosoma cruzi (n = 11 e infecciones mixtas (n = 14. Se calcularon las sensibilidades, especificidades, cut off, valores predictivos, y se compararon las tres pruebas usando ANOVA, índice de concordancia kappa, comparación de curvas ROC e intervalos de confianza construidos por el método de bootstrap. Se encontraron diferencias significativas al comparar los niveles de DO de los sueros de pacientes con leishmaniasis cutánea respecto a los controles negativos, pero no se encontraron diferencias entre pruebas. Las sensibilidades calculadas fueron de 84.6% para ELISAb y ELISAa y de 88.5 para ELISAg, mientras que el valor de especificidad para las tres pruebas fue de 96.2. El índice de concordancia kappa y la comparación de curvas ROC mostraron performances similares para las tres pruebas (p = 0.225. La elevada reactividad obtenida para estas ELISAs frente a sueros de pacientes con leishmaniasis mucocutánea indica un importante potencial de esta técnica como complemento en el diagnóstico de la enfermedad.It is important to know whether the variability of species of Leishmania parasites circulating in a region affects the performance of the ELISA test for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the reactivity of the ELISA using homogenates of promastigotes of Leishmania (V. braziliensis (ELISAb, Leishmania (L amazonensis

  15. Changing epidemiology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in Brazil: a disease of the urban-rural interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Carlos C G; Lacerda, Henio G; Martins, Daniella R M; Barbosa, James D A; Monteiro, Gloria R; Queiroz, Jose W; Sousa, Jacira M A; Ximenes, Maria F F M; Jeronimo, Selma M B

    2004-04-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) was first reported from the south-western region of the state of Rio Grande do Norte in 1987. São Miguel municipality and adjacent areas have accounted for 90% of the American cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in the region since then. A population survey conducted in São Miguel and adjacent areas was undertaken to identify individuals with a history of ACL. The incidence of ACL, distribution by age and gender, clinical characteristics, family clustering, relationship to animals, association with skin test responses, and development of mucosal lesions were determined. Males and females were equally likely to be infected by Leishmania. Thirty-eight percent of the individuals tested were found to be Montenegro skin test positive. No difference in the Montenegro skin test was observed with gender, but the response increased with age. Among the 140 ACL cases treated in a 4-year period in São Miguel, five (3.6%) developed mucosal involvement. Sandflies capable of transmitting Leishmania were captured inside households and in the areas surrounding them. The high density of sandfly species potentially able to transmit Leishmania species and the age distribution of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis suggest that transmission of the parasite occurred inside or in close proximity to houses.

  16. Epidemiologic characterization of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic region of eastern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorquera, A; Ledezma, E; De Sousa, L; Garcia, A; Sanchez, J; Zerpa, J; Gonzalez, R; O'Daly, J A

    1998-05-01

    The status of American cutaneous leishmaniasis was investigated from 1985 to 1991 to provide an epidemiologic characterization of the disease in Bergantin, a rural community in the northeastern part of Anzoátegui State, Venezuela. The study revealed the presence of the infection during the period analyzed, with an average incidence of 50.2 cases per 10,000 inhabitants and this number has increased 1.5 times during the last two years. Three villages where clinical cases had been recorded were selected for a comparison of their prevalence data. These villages comprise the human population in the high and low altitude limits of Bergantin. Immunologic assessment of the inhabitants used two different antigen preparations to examine responses to parasites associated with the cutaneous and visceral forms of the disease. The leishmanin skin test (LST) was used in a sample of 276 individuals (46.3% of the inhabitants) and resulted in an overall positivity of 16.7%. The percentage of LST positivity varied with age and sex, yet analysis of this response and the prevalence for each village reflected the specific characteristics of these localities. La Montaña, situated at 800 meters above sea level, had the highest prevalence (800 cases per 10,000 inhabitants) and the most positive LST response (21.2%) in comparison with the two other villages situated at a lower altitude (300 meters above sea level).

  17. QBC® for the diagnosis of human and canine american visceral leishmaniasis: preliminary data

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    Liarte Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available "Quantitative Buffy Coat" (QBC® is a direct and fast fluorescent method used for the identification of blood parasites. Since Leishmania chagasi circulates in blood, we decided to test it in American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL. Bone marrow (BM and peripheral blood (PB of 49 persons and PB of 31 dogs were analyzed. QBC® was positive in BM of 11/11 patients with AVL and in 1/6 patients with other diseases. Amastigotes were identified in PB of 18/22 patients with AVL and in none without AVL. The test was positive in 30 out of the 31 seropositive dogs and in 28/28 dogs with Leishmania identified in other tissues. QBC® is a promising method for diagnosis of human AVL, and possibly for the exam of PB of patients with AVL/AIDS, for the control of the cure and for the identification of asymptomatic carriers. Because it is fast and easy to collect and execute, QBC® should be evaluated for programs of reservoir control.

  18. Leishmaniasis FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Leishmaniasis FAQs Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... leishmaniasis, could I get it again? What is leishmaniasis? Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that is found ...

  19. Host genetic factors in American cutaneous leishmaniasis: a critical appraisal of studies conducted in an endemic area of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Léa Cristina Castellucci; Lucas Frederico de Almeida; Sarra Elisabeth Jamieson; Michaela Fakiola; Edgar Marcelino Carvalho; Jenefer Mary Blackwell

    2014-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a vector-transmitted infectious disease with an estimated 1.5 million new cases per year. In Brazil, ACL represents a significant public health problem, with approximately 30,000 new reported cases annually, representing an incidence of 18.5 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Corte de Pedra is in a region endemic for ACL in the state of Bahia (BA), northeastern Brazil, with 500-1,300 patients treated annually. Over the last decade, population and family-b...

  20. Evaluación de la respuesta de isotipos de inmunoglobulina especifica a Leishmania en leishmaniasis tegumentaria Americana Evaluation of specific immunoglobin isotype response to Leishmania in American tegumentary leishmaniasis

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    Maricel Labrada

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de determinar las clases de anticuerpo producido contra el parásito y la cinética de los mismos en relación a la evolución de la infección, se estudiaron los sueros de 133 pacientes infectados con Leishmania del complejo braziliensis. Se utilizó la prueba de inmunofluorescencia indirecta y amastigotas de L. mexicana amazonensis como antígeno. En los sueros obtenidos al momento de consultar para el diagnóstico se encontró IgM en 54 de los sueros absorbidos con Straphylococcus aureus Cowan I y en 5 de los no absorbidos. La IgM sólo se encontro en los sueros de pacientes con tiempo devolución de las lesiones Leishmania-specific immunoglobulin subclass response was evaluated in 133 patients infected with Leishmania braziliensis. The indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT was employed with amastigotes of L. mexicana amazonensis as antigen. Among the 133 sera obtained at consultation fo rdiagnosis of active lesions, IgM was detected in 54 following absorption with Staphylococcus aureus Cowan strain I, and in 5 sera prior to absorption. IgM reactive with Leishmania antigen was only found in sera from patients whose lesions had envolved over past two months or less. Leishmania-specific IgG was detected in all sera prior to absorption. Sera obtained at the time of recurrence of after complete healing of lesions presented only specific IgC. The combined use of the Montenegro skin test and specific IgM increased the sensitivity of immunodiagnostic methods in patients with lesions of less than 2 months duration. Normal control volunteers were negative for specific IgM and unreactive to Montenegro skin testin. Among 16 patients with non-leishmanial lesion, 3 with sporotrichosis showed IgG reactive with Leishmania; none, including 4 with lesions of less than two months duration, showed specific IgM. We conclude that in patients infected with L. brasiliensis the presence of specific IgG and IgM is associated with the time of lesion evolution and the primary or recurrent nature of the lesions. In addition, the combined use of IgM titer and Montenegro reactivity is of potential utility in the diagnosis of early lesions.

  1. Leishmaniasis Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Leishmaniasis Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Leishmaniasis General Information Leishmaniasis FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology ...

  2. [American cutaneous leishmaniasis on the northern coastline of the State of São Paulo, 1993 to 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condino, Maria Lúcia Fadel; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Holcman, Márcia Moreira; Salum, Maria Rafaela Braga; Silva, Diogo Correa da; Novaes Júnior, René Antonio

    2008-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis acquired epidemic characteristics on the northern coastline of the State of São Paulo beginning in the 1990s. From secondary data, a descriptive study of the disease in the four municipalities making up this region over the period from 1993 to 2005 was conducted. The frequency of phlebotomine capture in the probable transmission locations was analyzed. 689 autochthonous cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were notified, with single and grouped cases, thus determining that the spatial distribution was heterogenous. There was synchronism and cyclicity of disease manifestation, at intervals of six to eight years. All ages were affected, with slight predominance among males, without association with any specific occupation. Among the 2,758 phlebotomines captured, Nyssomyia intermedia predominated (80.4%) inside homes and in areas surrounding them. The disease presented a transmission profile inside homes and in areas surrounding them, between the urban fringe and forests, and inside forests. In such cases, transmission would be more related to enzootic foci.

  3. Immunotherapy, immunochemotherapy and chemotherapy for American cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment Imunoterapia, imunoquimioterapia e quimioterapia no tratamento da leishmaniose tegumentar americana

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    Wilson Mayrink

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The first choice of treatment for American cutaneous leishmaniasis is the pentavalent antimonial drug. Although it has been shown that this treatment is mostly effective and indicated, some disadvantages should be taken into account such as side effects, long term treatment inconveniences and counter-indication for patients suffering from cardiopathy, nephropathy; yet, aging, pregnancy and other conditions. With the advent of the vaccine anti-American cutaneous leishmaniasis as a prophylactic measure, studies on therapy using the vaccine associated or not with other drugs have been performed by many investigators and it is currently among the alternative treatments and prevention measures for American cutaneous leishmaniasis. In conclusion, the association between antimony and vaccine (immunochemotherapy showed the same cure rate when compared with the standard treatment (100% and it was also able to reduce the salt volume in 17.9% and treatment length from 87 to 62 days, decreasing side effects.O tratamento de primeira escolha para leishmaniose tegumentar americana é o antimonial pentavalente. Embora este tratamento seja na maioria das vezes efetivo e indicado, devem ser consideradas as desvantagens tais como efeitos colaterais, longa duração do tratamento e contra-indicação para cardiopatas, nefropatas, idosos, grávidas e outras condições. Com o advento da vacina antileishmaniose tegumentar americana para fins profiláticos e terapêuticos, associando-a ou não a outros fármacos, muitas pesquisas têm sido desenvolvidas, sendo a vacina a principal entre os atuais recursos no tratamento e prevenção da leishmaniose tegumentar americana. Em conclusão, a associação do antimônio com a vacina (imunoquimioterapia apresentou o mesmo índice de cura em relação ao tratamento padrão (100%, e ainda reduziu o volume do sal em 17,9% e o tempo de cura significativamente, de 87 para 62 dias; conseqüentemente, reduzindo os efeitos colaterais.

  4. Comparative evaluation of phenol and thimerosal as preservatives for a candidate vaccine against American cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrink, Wilson; Tavares, Carlos Alberto Pereira; Deus, Rosangela Barbosa de; Pinheiro, Melina Barros; Guimarães, Tânia Mara Pinto Dabés; Andrade, Hélida Monteiro de; Costa, Carlos Alberto da; Toledo, Vicente de Paulo Coelho Peixoto da

    2010-02-01

    For decades thimerosal has been used as a preservative in the candidate vaccine for cutaneous leishmaniasis, which was developed by Mayrink et al. The use of thimerosal in humans has been banned due to its mercury content. This study addresses the standardization of phenol as a new candidate vaccine preservative. We have found that the proteolytic activity was abolished when the test was conducted using the candidate vaccine added to merthiolate (MtVac) as well as to phenol (PhVac). The Montenegro's skin test conversion rates induced by MtVac and by PhVac was 68.06% and 85.9%, respectively, and these values were statistically significant (p leishmaniasis.

  5. Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana: o caso do conjunto residencial Inocente Vila Nova Júnior no município de Maringá, Estado do Paraná, 2001-2004 - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v26i2.1586 American Tegumentary Leishmaniais: about the residential complex Inocente Vila Nova Júnior in Maringá, state of Paraná, 2001 – 2004 - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v26i2.1586

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    Nestor Alexandre Perehouskei

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A prevalência da Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana (LTA historicamente tem sido associada à degradação do meio ambiente em áreas urbanas e rurais. A LTA é uma doença de notificação obrigatória, mantendo-se endêmica em Maringá. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar a natureza dos casos de Leishmaniose ocorridos no Conjunto Residencial Inocente Vila Nova Júnior e as ações realizadas para o controle do vetor. As amostras foram coletadas junto ao banco de dados da Secretaria Municipal de Saúde, Coordenação Municipal de Epidemiologia, no qual foram levantados os casos de LTA de 2001 a 2003 no Sistema de Informação dos Agravos de Notificação (Sinan, verificando-se um surto da doença localizado no referido bairro e, após a investigação dos casos, considerados autóctones, foram desenvolvidas ações de combate ao vetor na reserva de mata do local. Com este estudo, avaliamos que as áreas verdes urbanas, consideradas como referência e sociabilidade do homem com a natureza, passa a ter caráter de espaço agravante, quando cria formas de vida dentro de um sistema de desequilíbrio que possa infectar o indivíduo. Portanto, são necessários estudos científicos e planejamento para essas áreas, resguardando suas funções e impactos na sociedade.The prevalence of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL has been historically associated with the degradation of the environment in urban and agricultural areas. The ATL is an illness of obliged notification, remaining endemic in Maringá. The aim of this work was to identify the nature of the cases of Leishmaniose occurred in the residential complex Inocente Vila Nova Júnior and the actions carried out for the vector’s control. The ATL samples were collected with the data base of the Secretaria Municipal de Saúde, Coordenação Municipal de Epidemiologia, Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN, from 2001 to 2003. After the investigation of the cases

  6. American cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs from an endemic urban area in Cianorte municipality, Paraná State, Brazil

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    DA Cerino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL was investigated in dogs from an urban endemic area in Cianorte, Paraná state, Brazil. Of 169 studied dogs, none presented suspected ACL lesions. Eleven animals (6.6% had anti-Leishmania braziliensis antibodies (titers > 40 detected by the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT while four (2.4% showed L. braziliensis-complex DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Although no associations were found between IFAT or PCR results and age, sex, origin, free-roaming animals or length of residence at the address, the majority of IFAT- or PCR-positive dogs were from the urban area of the city and were allowed to roam freely beyond their neighborhood. The presence of anti-Leishmania braziliensis antibodies and L. braziliensis-complex DNA in dogs from this urban area near a native-forest park indicates the importance of following up on these dogs to confirm the ACL diagnosis.

  7. Integrated Tools for American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Surveillance and Control: Intervention in an Endemic Area in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

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    Cheryl Gouveia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is a focal disease whose surveillance and control require complex actions. The present study aimed to apply integrated tools related to entomological surveillance, environmental management, and health education practices in an ACL-endemic area in Rio de Janeiro city, RJ, Brazil. The distribution of the disease, the particular characteristics of the localities, and entomological data were used as additional information about ACL determinants. Environmental management actions were evaluated after health education practices. The frequency of ACL vectors Lutzomyia (N. intermedia and L. migonei inside and outside houses varied according to environment characteristics, probably influenced by the way of life of the popular groups. In this kind of situation environmental management and community mobilization become essential, as they help both specialists and residents create strategies that can interfere in the dynamics of vector’s population and the contact between man and vectors.

  8. Host preferences of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis at an endemic focus of American visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, A C; Ferro, C; Tesh, R B

    1993-07-01

    Blood meals from 579 Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera:Psychodidae), collected in an endemic focus of American visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia, were identified by precipitin test. Sand fly collections were made during a 16-month period from the inside walls of two houses, a pigpen, and rock crevices in a small community (El Callejon) within the endemic area. Feeding patterns of the sand flies varied with locality and date of collection. Overall, bovine feedings predominated, but feedings were also recorded on pigs, equines, humans, dogs, opossums, birds, and reptiles. Calculation of the forage ratios for each host species indicated that cows and pigs were the preferred hosts of Lu. longipalpis in El Callejon. Results of this study suggest that Lu. longipalpis is an opportunistic feeder and is not highly anthropophilic nor strongly attracted to dogs.

  9. Infecções experimentaes na Leishmaniose visceral americana Experimental infections in american visceral leishmaniasis

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    Aristides Marques da Cunha

    1938-01-01

    sôro-agglutinação, conforme mostramos em trabalho anterior, não permite a separação das especies do genero Leishmania, pois todas ellas, quando recentemente isoladas, possuem identica constituição antigenica, que se modifica depois, pela conservação longo tempo em cultura. É esse facto, que deu logar ás conclusões contradictorias a que chegaram os autores que se ocuparam do assumpto bem como os primeiros resultados que obtivemos. Deante de todos esses factos, nos julgamos autorizados a concluir como já fizemos anteriormente, que o agente da Leishmaniose visceral americana é identico á Leishmania infantum. Ao terminar, queremos deixar consignados nossos agradecimentos ao Dr. E. chagas, por ter posto a nossa disposição as culturas de Leishmania por elle isoladas, tornando possivel deste modo, a execução do presente trabalho.With cultures isolated from cases of american visceral leishmaniasis we succeeded in obtaining experimental infections in hamsters (Cricetus cricetus, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mullata and dogs. Hamsters were infected with strains obtained from man and dogs, the intraperitoneal way having been always employed. When cultures recently isolated are used, infection is obtained practically in 100% of the animals inoculated. The first negative results obtained by us may be explained by the use of cultures isolated some time before (about 7 months 0 and which had lost already their virulence. In some cases external lesions are observed represented by alterations of the skin and swelling of the paws. The skin lesions are observed on the ventral surface and consist in depilation, erythema and exudation. The skin thus affected shows to be extremely friable, rupturing at the movements of the animal when hold. On post-mortem examination, besides the lesions pointed out, the animals present enlargement of the spleen. The parasites are very numerous in the spleen, liver, bone marrow, etc. The changed skin shows considerable hypertrophy of the

  10. Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae em área de transmissão de leishmaniose tegumentar americana no litoral norte do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae in area of transmission of american tegumentar leishmaniasis in the north coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Marylene de Brito

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available A região do litoral norte do Estado de São Paulo registrou 14, 30 e 104 casos de leishmaniose tegumentar americana nos anos de 1993, 1994 e 1995 respectivamente. Com objetivo de caracterizar a fauna e a distribuição sazonal e horária das espécies de flebotomíneos foram realizadas coletas quinzenais de formas adultas durante o período de dezembro de 1995 a novembro de 1996, utilizando-se armadilhas luminosas do tipo CDC, no interior da residência, no peridomicílio e na mata durante 12 horas a partir do crepúsculo vespertino. No peridomicílio foi utilizada, durante 6 horas também a partir do crepúsculo vespertino, armadilha de Shannon instalada a 100 metros da casa. A cada 3 meses esta armadilha foi utilizada durante 12 horas. Foram observadas flutuações das densidades populacionais, bem como as ocorrências intra e extradomiciliar das espécies predominantes. Lutzomyia intermedia foi a espécie mais abundante nas diferentes armadilhas utilizadas e nos ambientes investigados.Fourteen, 30 and 104 cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis were recorded respectively, in 1993, 1994 and 1995, in the coast region of São Paulo State. Aiming to characterize the fauna and seasonal and hourly distributions of the phlebotominic species, adult specimens were captured fortnightly between November/95 and December/96. CDC light traps were used as of dusk intradomiciliarly, peridomiciliarly and in the forest for 12 hours. From the same moment on but only during 6 hours Shannon traps were set in the peridomicile 100 meters from the house. Quarterly this trap was used for 12 hours. The population density fluctuation as well as the occurrence of intra and extradomiciliarly predominant species were observed. In the different traps used and environments investigated Lutzomyia intermedia was the most abundant species.

  11. Differential Expression of the Eicosanoid Pathway in Patients With Localized or Mucosal Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França-Costa, Jaqueline; Andrade, Bruno B; Khouri, Ricardo; Van Weyenbergh, Johan; Malta-Santos, Hayna; da Silva Santos, Claire; Brodyskn, Cláudia I; Costa, Jackson M; Barral, Aldina; Bozza, Patrícia T; Boaventura, Viviane; Borges, Valeria M

    2016-04-01

    Unfettered inflammation is thought to play critical role in the development of different clinical forms of tegumentary leishmaniasis. Eicosanoids are potent mediators of inflammation and tightly associated with modulation of immune responses. In this cross-sectional exploratory study, we addressed whether targets from the eicosanoid biosynthetic pathway, assessed by multiplexed expression assays in lesion biopsy and plasma specimens, could highlight a distinct biosignature in patients with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) or localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL). Differences in immunopathogenesis between MCL and LCL may result from an imbalance between prostaglandins and leukotrienes, which may serve as targets for future host-directed therapies.

  12. Comparative evaluation of phenol and thimerosal as preservatives for a candidate vaccine against American cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Mayrink

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available For decades thimerosal has been used as a preservative in the candidate vaccine for cutaneous leishmaniasis, which was developed by Mayrink et al. The use of thimerosal in humans has been banned due to its mercury content. This study addresses the standardization of phenol as a new candidate vaccine preservative. We have found that the proteolytic activity was abolished when the test was conducted using the candidate vaccine added to merthiolate (MtVac as well as to phenol (PhVac. The Montenegro's skin test conversion rates induced by MtVac and by PhVac was 68.06% and 85.9%, respectively, and these values were statistically significant (p < 0.05. The proliferative response of peripheral mononuclear blood cells shows that the stimulation index of mice immunized with both candidate vaccines was higher than the one in control animals (p < 0.05. The ability of the candidate vaccines to induce protection in C57BL/10 mice against a challenge with infective Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes was tested and the mice immunized with PhVac developed smaller lesions than the mice immunized with MtVac. Electrophoresis of phenol-preserved antigen revealed a number of proteins, which were better preserved in PhVac. These results do in fact encourage the use of phenol for preserving the immunogenic and biochemical properties of the candidate vaccine for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  13. American cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in the metropolitan region of Manaus, Brazil: association with climate variables over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira de Souza, Rodrigo Augusto; Andreoli, Rita Valéria; Toshie Kayano, Mary; Lima Carvalho, Afrânio

    2015-05-18

    A temporal series of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and other environmental parameters covering the years 2002- 2009 was used for the study of the potential association between the climate and the number of cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Manaus Metropolitan Region (MMR), State of Amazonas, Brazil. The results show that CL has a marked seasonality and a strong linkage with local climate conditions. Dry and warm conditions favor the vector, while the maximum number of CL cases occurs during the following wet season. This has a clear relation to the El Niño/La Niña Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the results presented here show that uncharacteristic dry conditions in the MMR follow El Niño after a lag period of 3 months, while wet conditions follow La Niña, again after a lag period of 3 months. El Niño brings dry conditions with warming of the land surface leading to increased growth of trees and bushes as indicated by rising NDVI values, eventually producing increased numbers of CL cases, with a peak of new cases occurring 4 to 5 months later. La Niña, on the other hand, produces wet and cool weather, which is less favorable for the leishmaniasis vector and therefore results in comparatively lower number of CL cases. Since these seasonal climate changes affect the dynamics of the CL vector, and thus the number of CL cases, a close watch of the ENSO phenomenon and the weather type it brings should be useful for monitoring and control of CL in the MMR.

  14. Cytokine profile in Montenegro skin test of patients with localized cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis Perfil de citocinas na intradermorreação de Montenegro em doentes de leishmaniose cutânea localizada e cutâneo-mucosa

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    Marcia Ferraz Nogueira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available American tegumentary leishmaniasis presents as two major clinical forms: localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL. The immune response in leishmaniasis is efficiently evaluated by the response to Leishmania antigen through the Montenegro skin test (MST. Both LCL and MCL present positive response to MST, indicating that the patients present cell-mediated immunity against the parasite - Leishmania. In spite of the presence of immunity in MCL, this is not sufficient to stop disease progression and prevent resistance to treatment. In this study we demonstrated interleukin (IL 2, 4, 5 and interferon (IFN gamma expression in biopsies of MST of ten patients with American tegumentary leishmaniasis. The obtained results were compared between LCL (n = 5 and MCL (n = 5 patients. The MST of MCL patients displayed a higher expression of IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5, in comparison to LCL. There was no significant difference in IFN-gamma expression between groups. The obtained results suggest the role of IL-4 and IL-5 in the maintenance of the immunopathogenic mechanism of the destructive lesions that characterize MCL.A leishmaniose tegumentar americana apresenta duas formas clínicas mais comuns: a leishmaniose cutânea localizada e a leishmaniose cutâneo-mucosa. A imunidade da leishmaniose é avaliada pela resposta ao antígeno Leishmania através da Intradermorreação de Montenegro. Estas duas formas apresentam resposta positiva, indicando que o paciente apresenta imunidade celular contra o parasita Leishmania. Apesar da presença da imunidade celular na leishmaniose cutâneo-mucosa, esta não é suficiente para barrar a progressão da doença e a resistência ao tratamento. Neste estudo, detectamos quatro citocinas por imunohistoquímica, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5 e IFN-gama nas biópsias da intradermorreação de Montenegro de pacientes com leishmaniose tegumentar americana (n = 10, cinco com leishmaniose cutânea e cinco com cut

  15. PANCREATIC TOXICITY AS AN ADVERSE EFFECT INDUCED BY MEGLUMINE ANTIMONIATE THERAPY IN A CLINICAL TRIAL FOR CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    LYRA, Marcelo Rosandiski; PASSOS, Sonia Regina Lambert; PIMENTEL, Maria Inês Fernandes; BEDOYA-PACHECO, Sandro Javier; VALETE-ROSALINO, Cláudia Maria; VASCONCELLOS, Erica Camargo Ferreira; ANTONIO, Liliane Fatima; SAHEKI, Mauricio Naoto; SALGUEIRO, Mariza Mattos; SANTOS, Ginelza Peres Lima; RIBEIRO, Madelon Noato; CONCEIÇÃO-SILVA, Fatima; MADEIRA, Maria Fatima; SILVA, Jorge Luiz Nunes; FAGUNDES, Aline; SCHUBACH, Armando Oliveria

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY American tegumentary leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by a protozoan of the genus Leishmania. Pentavalent antimonials are the first choice drugs for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), although doses are controversial. In a clinical trial for CL we investigated the occurrence of pancreatic toxicity with different schedules of treatment with meglumine antimoniate (MA). Seventy-two patients were allocated in two different therapeutic groups: 20 or 5 mg of pentavalent antimony (Sb5+)/kg/day for 20 or 30 days, respectively. Looking for adverse effects, patients were asked about abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or anorexia in each medical visit. We performed physical examinations and collected blood to evaluate serum amylase and lipase in the pre-treatment period, and every 10 days during treatment and one month post-treatment. Hyperlipasemia occurred in 54.8% and hyperamylasemia in 19.4% patients. Patients treated with MA 20 mg Sb5+ presented a higher risk of hyperlipasemia (p = 0.023). Besides, higher MA doses were associated with a 2.05 higher risk ratio (p = 0.003) of developing more serious (moderate to severe) hyperlipasemia. The attributable fraction was 51% in this group. Thirty-six patients presented abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or anorexia but only 47.2% of those had hyperlipasemia and/ or hyperamylasemia. These findings suggest the importance of the search for less toxic therapeutic regimens for the treatment of CL. PMID:27680173

  16. AMERICAN CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS WITH UNUSUAL CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND RESPONSE TO TREATMENT

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    Andrea Claudia Bekner Silva FERNANDES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical manifestations and prognosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL can be influenced by the immune response of the patient and the species of the parasite. A case of atypical clinical presentation of CL, with development of non-characteristic lesions, poor response to therapy, and a long time to resolution is reported. Confirmatory laboratory tests included parasite detection, indirect immunofluorescence, Montenegro skin test, polymerase chain reaction, and parasite identification by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. The parasite was identified as Leishmaniabraziliensis. The lesion was unresponsive to three complete courses of N-methylglucamine antimoniate intramuscular, and to treatment with pentamidine. The patient did not tolerate amphotericin B. The lesion finally receded after treatment with intravenous N-methylglucamine antimoniate. It is essential to ensure the accuracy of diagnosis and the appropriate treatment, which can include the use a second choice drug or a different route of administration.

  17. Study of sand fly fauna in an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis and canine visceral leishmaniasis in the municipality of Espírito Santo do Pinhal, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla-Jacques, Fernanda Elisa; Casanova, Cláudio; Prado, Angelo Pires do

    2010-03-01

    Canine American visceral leishmaniasis and American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) cases have been recorded in Espírito Santo do Pinhal. The aim of this study was to gather knowledge of the sand fly community and its population ecology within the municipality. Captures were made weekly over a period of 15 months in the urban, periurban and rural areas of the municipality, using automatic light traps. A total of 5,562 sand flies were collected, comprising 17 species. The most abundant species were Nyssomyia whitmani and Pintomyia pessoai in the rural area, Lutzomyia longipalpis and Ny. whitmani in the periurban area and Lu. longipalpis in the urban area. The highest species richness and greatest index species diversity were found in the rural area. The similarity index showed that urban and periurban areas were most alike. Lu. longipalpis was found in great numbers during both dry and humid periods. The presence of dogs infected with Leishmania infantum chagasi in the urban area indicates a high risk for the establishment of the disease in the region. A high abundance of Ny. whitmani and Pi. pessoai in the rural and periurban areas indicates the possibility of new cases of ACL occurring in and spreading to the periurban area of Espírito Santo do Pinhal.

  18. Study of sand fly fauna in an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis and canine visceral leishmaniasis in the municipality of Espírito Santo do Pinhal, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Fernanda Elisa Colla-Jacques

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Canine American visceral leishmaniasis and American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL cases have been recorded in Espírito Santo do Pinhal. The aim of this study was to gather knowledge of the sand fly community and its population ecology within the municipality. Captures were made weekly over a period of 15 months in the urban, periurban and rural areas of the municipality, using automatic light traps. A total of 5,562 sand flies were collected, comprising 17 species. The most abundant species were Nyssomyia whitmani and Pintomyia pessoai in the rural area, Lutzomyia longipalpis and Ny. whitmani in the periurban area and Lu. longipalpis in the urban area. The highest species richness and greatest index species diversity were found in the rural area. The similarity index showed that urban and periurban areas were most alike. Lu. longipalpis was found in great numbers during both dry and humid periods. The presence of dogs infected with Leishmania infantum chagasi in the urban area indicates a high risk for the establishment of the disease in the region. A high abundance of Ny. whitmani and Pi. pessoai in the rural and periurban areas indicates the possibility of new cases of ACL occurring in and spreading to the periurban area of Espírito Santo do Pinhal.

  19. American cutaneous leishmaniasis in horses from endemic areas in the north-central mesoregion of Paraná state, Brazil.

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    Vedovello Filho, D; Jorge, F A; Lonardoni, M V C; Teodoro, U; Silveira, T G V

    2008-04-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is an endemic disease in the north-west of Paraná state, Brazil, where it occurs in humans and dogs. Few studies have been undertaken on the occurrence of the disease in other domestic animals and horses. In this study we investigated the infection of horses by Leishmania in ACL-endemic rural areas. Direct agglutination test (DAT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were employed. Fifty-five horses from rural areas in the municipalities of Doutor Camargo, Ourizona, São Jorge do Ivaí, Ivatuba and Santa Fé (Agua do O) were analysed. DAT-detected antibody titres varied from 10 to 640, and 42 (76.3%) animals presented titres > or =20. PCR analyses led to the detection of Leishmania (Viannia) DNA in the blood samples of three (7.1%) of 42 animals. The presence of anti-L. (V.) braziliensis antibodies and Leishmania (Viannia) DNA in horses from endemic areas suggests their participation in the ACL transmission cycle.

  20. Validity of the polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of clinically suspected cases of American visceral leishmaniasis.

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    Pedrosa, Celia Maria Silva; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar; Almeida, Wendell Alexandre Pinheiro de; Rocha, Eliana Maria Mauricio da

    2013-01-01

    To test the validity of the polymerase chain reaction for diagnosing American visceral leishmaniasis, 88 suspected cases were studied. Diagnosis was confirmed in 47 (53.5%) and ruled out in 41 (46.5%) patients. Samples of bone marrow and peripheral blood were processed by polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the test and its agreement beyond chance with microscopy examination. The polymerase chain reaction was positive in bone marrow of 100% of the patients with amastigotes seen with microscopy examination, and in 59.5% in those where no parasite were seen. Agreement beyond chance between visualization of the parasite in bone marrow aspirates and polymerase chain reaction was considered weak (Kappa=0.41). Concordance between polymerase chain reaction of bone marrow aspirates and of peripheral blood was considered excellent (Kappa=0.88). The test turned out positive in all bone marrow aspirates of those with the disease and whereas the positivity rate was 58.5% among those without the disease, with specificity rate of 41.5%.

  1. Host genetic factors in American cutaneous leishmaniasis: a critical appraisal of studies conducted in an endemic area of Brazil

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    Léa Cristina Castellucci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is a vector-transmitted infectious disease with an estimated 1.5 million new cases per year. In Brazil, ACL represents a significant public health problem, with approximately 30,000 new reported cases annually, representing an incidence of 18.5 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Corte de Pedra is in a region endemic for ACL in the state of Bahia (BA, northeastern Brazil, with 500-1,300 patients treated annually. Over the last decade, population and family-based candidate gene studies were conducted in Corte de Pedra, founded on previous knowledge from studies on mice and humans. Notwithstanding limitations related to sample size and power, these studies contribute important genetic biomarkers that identify novel pathways of disease pathogenesis and possible new therapeutic targets. The present paper is a narrative review about ACL immunogenetics in BA, highlighting in particular the interacting roles of the wound healing gene FLI1 with interleukin-6 and genes SMAD2 and SMAD3 of the transforming growth factor beta signalling pathway. This research highlights the need for well-powered genetic and functional studies on Leishmania braziliensis infection as essential to define and validate the role of host genes in determining resistance/susceptibility regarding this disease.

  2. Epidemiological aspects of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in a periurban area of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    V. M. A. Passos

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the epidemiology of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL in a periurban area of the municipality of Sabará in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte (MRBH, an area until then considered free of the disease, a cross sectional survey was undertaken in 1990. The survey of the population consisted of 1119 interviews and 881 clinical examinations using Montenegro's skin test (MST. A low prevalence (3.7% of positive MST was encountered. The disease had been occuring in the area for about 20 years in the form of sporadic cases. The predominant species of sandfly both in domestic areas and nearby areas of secondary vegetation was Lutzomyia whitmani. A canine survey of delayed hypersensitivity to the antigen P10,000 identified only one dog with a positive reaction out of 113 examined. The transmission of ACL in MRBH was confirmed. The occurrence of the disease in women, children and individuals with no contact with forest areas as well as the presence of potential vector species in the domiciliar environment, suggests the transmission of the disease in this environment.

  3. Phlebotomine sand flies in Porteirinha, an area of American visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Ricardo Andrade Barata

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A study of the phlebotomine sand fly fauna was carried out in an endemic area of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL in the municipality of Porteirinha, in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. Captures were performed with CDC light traps in 7 districts, 5 days per month, during 2 consecutive years (January 2000 to December 2001. A total of 3240 sand flies were captured and identified. Sixteen species were found, among which 15 belonged to the genus Lutzomyia and one to the genus Brumptomyia. Lutzomyia longipalpis, a proven vector of AVL, was the predominant species (71.85% throughout the time period. The interference of climatic factors (temperature, humidity, and rainfall over the populational dynamics of the sand flies was determined. Statistical analysis of the data showed a significant correlation among the number of phlebotomine sand flies collected, rainfall, and humidity, whereas the effect of temperature was negligible, in that particular region. The amount of collected phlebotomine, the number of human cases, and the prevalence of canine AVL in the districts of Porteirinha are discussed.

  4. [Epidemiological characteristics of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic region of the State of Bahia. III. Phlebotomine fauna].

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    Vexenat, J A; Barretto, A C; Cuba, C C; Marsden, P D

    1986-01-01

    The phlebotomine fauna is highly varied in Três Braços, an endemic area of american cutaneous leishmaniasis, situated in the cacao growing region in the southeast of Bahia State, Brazil. Thirty spécies of the Lutzomyia genus were identified in 13,535 specimens collected between 1976 and 1984. Lutzomyia whitmani was the dominant species accounting for 99% of flies in the peridomicile and 97.5% of those caught in homes. In the forest the predominant species were Lu. ayrozai and Lu. yuilli. Lu. whitmani accounted for only 1.0% of the specimens examined. Lu. flaviscutellata, the proven vector of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis, was also collected in small numbers. Lu. wellcomei, a known vector of L. braziliensis braziliensis in the Serra dos Carajás, Pará, Brazil was not encountered in the Três Braços region where the parasite causing human infections is usually L.b. braziliensis. Although we have not encountered a natural infection with leishmanial promastigotes in 1,832 females of the various species examined, we discuss the probability that Lu. whitmani is the vector of L.b. braziliensis in the region maintaining transmission in dogs and man.

  5. Lutzomyia longipalpis and the eco-epidemiology of American visceral leishmaniasis, with particular reference to Brazil: a review

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    Ralph Lainson

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An historical review is given of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL, with particular reference to the eco-epidemiology of the disease in Brazil. Following the first records of AVL in this country, in 1934, the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912 was incriminated as the principal vector. It is now generally accepted, however, that there exist a number of cryptic species under the name of Lu. longipalpis s.l. and that variations in the quantity of the vasodilatory peptide maxadilan in the saliva of flies from different populations of Lu. longipalpis s.l., may account for the variable clinical manifestations of AVL seen in different geographic regions. Distribution of AVL has been shown to extend throughout most of South and Central America, with the domestic dog serving as the principal reservoir of infection for man. However, while one hypothesis suggests that the causative parasite is Leishmania infantum, imported from Europe with the Portuguese and Spanish colonists, the demonstration of a high rate of benign, inapparent infection in foxes in Amazonian Brazil raised an opposing suggestion that the parasite is indigenous to the Americas. Recent reports of similar infections in native marsupials, and possibly rodents, tend to support this view, particularly as Lu. longipalpis is primordially a silvatic sandfly. Although effective control measures in foci of the disease will diminish the number of canine and human infections, the presence of such an enzootic in a variety of native animals will render the total eradication of AVL unlikely.

  6. Environmental factors associated with American cutaneous leishmaniasis in a new Andean focus in Colombia

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    Ocampo, C. B.; Ferro, M. C.; Cadena, H.; Gongora, R.; Pérez, M.; Valderrama-Ardila, C. H.; Quinnell, R. J.; Alexander, N.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the environmental and ecological factors associated with Leishmania transmission and vector abundance in Chaparral, Tolima-Colombia. METHODS First, we compared the ecological characteristics, abundance of phlebotomies and potential reservoir hosts in the peridomestic environment (100 m radius) of randomly selected houses, between two townships with high and low cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence. Second, we examined peridomestic correlates of phlebotomine abundance in all 43 houses in the higher risk township. RESULTS The high transmission township had higher coverage of forest (23% vs. 8.4%) and shade coffee (30.7% vs. 11%), and less coffee monoculture (16.8% vs. 26.2%) and pasture (6.3% vs. 12.3%), compared to the low transmission township. Lutzomyia were more abundant in the high transmission township 2.5 vs. 0.2/trap/night. Lutzomyia longiflocosa was the most common species in both townships: 1021/1450 (70%) and 39/80 (49%). Numbers of potential wild mammal reservoirs were small, although four species were found to be infected with Leishmania (Viannia) spp. In the high transmission township, the overall peridomiciliary capture rate of L. longiflocosa was 1.5/trap/night, and the abundance was higher in houses located nearer to forest (ρ = −0.30, P = 0.05). CONCLUSION The findings are consistent with a domestic transmission cycle with the phlebotomies dependent on dense vegetation near the house. PMID:22882595

  7. Predictors of an unsatisfactory response to pentavalent antimony in the treatment of American visceral leishmaniasis

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    Santos Mácia A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Although treatment of visceral leishmaniasis with pentavalent antimony is usually successful, some patients require second-line drug therapy, most commonly with amphotericin B. To identify the clinical characteristics that predict an inadequate response to pentavalent antimony, a case-control study was undertaken in Teresina, Piaui, Brazil. Over a two-year period, there were 19 cases of VL in which the staff physicians of a hospital prescribed second-line therapy with amphotericin B after determining that treatment with pentavalent antimony had failed. The control group consisted of 97 patients that were successfully treated with pentavalent antimony. A chart review using univariate and multivariate analysis was performed. The cure rate was 90% with amphotericin B. The odds ratio for the prescription of amphotericin B was 10.2 for children less than one year old, compared with individuals aged over 10 years. Patients who presented coinfection had an OR of 7.1 while those on antibiotics had an OR of 2.8. These data support either undertaking a longer course of therapy with pentavalent antimony for children or using amphotericin B as a first-line agent for children and individuals with coinfections. It also suggests that chemoprophylaxis directed toward bacterial coinfection in small children with VL may be indicated.

  8. American Visceral Leishmaniasis: Factors Associated with Lethality in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Geraldine Madalosso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To identify factors associated with death in visceral leishmaniasis (VL cases. Patients and Methodology. We evaluated prognostic factors for death from VL in São Paulo state, Brazil, from 1999 to 2005. A prognostic study nested in a clinical cohort was carried out by data analysis of 376 medical files. A comparison between VL fatal cases and survivors was performed for clinical, laboratory, and biological features. Association between variables and death was assessed by univariate analysis, and the multiple logistic regression model was used to determine adjusted odds ratio for death, controlling confounding factors. Results. Data analysis identified 53 fatal cases out of 376 patients, between 1999 and 2005 in São Paulo state. Lethality was 14.1% (53/376, being higher in patients older than fifty years. The main causes of death were sepsis, bleeding, liver failure, and cardiotoxicity due to treatment. Variables significantly associated with death were severe anemia, bleeding, heart failure, jaundice, diarrhea, fever for more than sixty days, age older than fifty years, and antibiotic use. Conclusion. Educational health measures are needed for the general population and continuing education programs for health professionals working in the affected areas with the purpose of identifying and treating early cases, thus preventing the disease evolution towards death.

  9. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of feline leishmaniasis in Brazil

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    Luiz da Silveira Neto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tegumentary and visceral leishmaniasis are severe and unfortunately common parasitic diseases in Brazil. Among domestic animals, dogs are considered the main urban reservoir of the protozoan parasites, however, there is evidence that infected cats can also contribute towards the disease pool. The number of cats diagnosed with leishmaniasis has greatly increased in the last few years, highlighting the importance of thorough investigations on the role of the cat in the epidemiological cycle of the disease and in public health related issues. The main clinical manifestations of leishmaniasis suffered by cats, even when infected with Leishmania chagasi, a viscerotropic species, are skin abnormalities, which can be confounded with multiple other diseases. Indirect ELISA should be used as a screening test in epidemiological investigations for being a sensitive technique, followed by more specific laboratory tests. The standardization and validation of rapid, economical and reproducible diagnostic methods, to be employed in epidemiological surveillance, are still required

  10. Clinical and Parasitological Features of Patients with American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis that Did Not Respond to Treatment with Meglumine Antimoniate.

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    Jairo E Perez-Franco

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is a complicated disease producing about 67.000 new cases per year. The severity of the disease depends on the parasite species; however in the vast majority of cases species confirmation is not feasible. WHO suggestion for ACL produced by Leishmania braziliensis, as first line treatment, are pentavalent antimonial derivatives (Glucantime or Sodium Stibogluconate under systemic administration. According to different authors, pentavalent antimonial derivatives as treatment for ACL show a healing rate of about 75% and reasons for treatment failure are not well known.In order to characterise the clinical and parasitological features of patients with ACL that did not respond to Glucantime, a cross-sectional observational study was carried out in a cohort of 43 patients recruited in three of the Colombian Army National reference centers for complicated ACL. Clinical and paraclinical examination, and epidemiological and geographic information were recorded for each patient. Parasitological, histopathological and PCR infection confirmation were performed. Glucantime IC50 and in vitro infectivity for the isolated parasites were estimated.Predominant infecting Leishmania species corresponds to L. braziliensis (95.4% and 35% of the parasites isolated showed a significant decrease in in vitro Glucanatime susceptibility associated with previous administration of the medicament. Lesion size and in vitro infectivity of the parasite are negatively correlated with decline in Glucantime susceptibility (Spearman: r = (-0,548 and r = (-0,726; respectively.A negative correlation between lesion size and parasite resistance is documented. L. braziliensis was found as the main parasite species associated to lesion of patients that underwent treatment failure or relapse. The indication of a second round of treatment in therapeutic failure of ACL, produced by L. braziliensis, with pentavalent antimonial derivatives is discussable.

  11. Clinical and Parasitological Features of Patients with American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis that Did Not Respond to Treatment with Meglumine Antimoniate

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    Robayo, Marta L.; Lopez, Myriam C.; Daza, Carlos D.; Bedoya, Angela; Mariño, Maria L.; Saavedra, Carlos H.

    2016-01-01

    Background American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a complicated disease producing about 67.000 new cases per year. The severity of the disease depends on the parasite species; however in the vast majority of cases species confirmation is not feasible. WHO suggestion for ACL produced by Leishmania braziliensis, as first line treatment, are pentavalent antimonial derivatives (Glucantime or Sodium Stibogluconate) under systemic administration. According to different authors, pentavalent antimonial derivatives as treatment for ACL show a healing rate of about 75% and reasons for treatment failure are not well known. Methods In order to characterise the clinical and parasitological features of patients with ACL that did not respond to Glucantime, a cross-sectional observational study was carried out in a cohort of 43 patients recruited in three of the Colombian Army National reference centers for complicated ACL. Clinical and paraclinical examination, and epidemiological and geographic information were recorded for each patient. Parasitological, histopathological and PCR infection confirmation were performed. Glucantime IC50 and in vitro infectivity for the isolated parasites were estimated. Results Predominant infecting Leishmania species corresponds to L. braziliensis (95.4%) and 35% of the parasites isolated showed a significant decrease in in vitro Glucanatime susceptibility associated with previous administration of the medicament. Lesion size and in vitro infectivity of the parasite are negatively correlated with decline in Glucantime susceptibility (Spearman: r = (-)0,548 and r = (-)0,726; respectively). Conclusion A negative correlation between lesion size and parasite resistance is documented. L. braziliensis was found as the main parasite species associated to lesion of patients that underwent treatment failure or relapse. The indication of a second round of treatment in therapeutic failure of ACL, produced by L. braziliensis, with pentavalent antimonial

  12. Spatial analysis of areas likely to harbor American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

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    Isabela Pereira de Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil according to the favorability of occurrence. The Vista-SAGA Geo-environmental Analysis System (Sistema de Análise Geoambiental Vista-SAGA was used to create a database (theme maps and perform environmental analyses, signatures and combinations. The degrees of likelihood were obtained by evaluating soil use and plant cover; soil type and geomorphology (geo-environmental factors; and altitude and slope (topographic factors. The factors used in the analyses were selected based on results from the literature and according to the technical feasibility of their inclusion in the databases. Weights and grades were attributed to the factors and their categories, respectively, according to their relevance to the life cycle of parasites from genus Leishmania and parasite vectors. Based on the results of the environmental analyses, areas were classified and grouped to represent the spatial distribution of favorability. Areas were classified as very unfavorable, unfavorable, somewhat favorable, favorable and very favorable for ACL occurrence. The results of the signature analyses showed that the municipality included 6.81% very favorable areas, 65.14% favorable areas, 17.98% somewhat favorable areas, 2.39% unfavorable areas and 0.07% very unfavorable areas for ACL occurrence. The signature analyses of the results and theme maps were able to locate and characterize the ecosystem profiles in terms of risk of ACL occurrence, indicating that rural, peri-urban and urban areas of the municipality of Seropédica may be classified as favorable for the occurrence of this disease. The results of the present study may be used to support management decisions made by authorities responsible for ACL control and prevention in Seropédica. In addition, geoprocessing was found to be a low-cost alternative for data

  13. Nitric Oxide and Brazilian Propolis Combined Accelerates Tissue Repair by Modulating Cell Migration, Cytokine Production and Collagen Deposition in Experimental Leishmaniasis

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    Miranda, Milena Menegazzo; Panis, Carolina; Cataneo, Allan Henrique Depieri; da Silva, Suelen Santos; Kawakami, Natalia Yoshie; Lopes, Luiz Gonzaga de França; Morey, Alexandre Tadachi; Yamauchi, Lucy Megumi; Andrade, Célia Guadalupe Tardelli de Jesus; Cecchini, Rubens; da Silva, Jean Jerley Nogueira; Sforcin, José Maurício; Conchon-Costa, Ivete; Pavanelli, Wander Rogério

    2015-01-01

    The fact that drugs currently used in the treatment of Leishmania are highly toxic and associated with acquired resistance has promoted the search for new therapies for treating American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL). In this study, BALB/c mice were injected in the hind paw with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and subsequently treated with a combination of nitric oxide (NO) donor (cis-[Ru(bpy) 2imN(NO)](PF6)3) (Ru-NO), given by intraperitoneal injection, and oral Brazilian propolis for 30 days. Ru-NO reached the center of the lesion and increased the NO level in the injured hind paw without lesion exacerbation. Histological and immunological parameters of chronic inflammation showed that this combined treatment increased the efficacy of macrophages, determined by the decrease in the number of parasitized cells, leading to reduced expression of proinflammatory and tissue damage markers. In addition, these drugs in combination fostered wound healing, enhanced the number of fibroblasts, pro-healing cytokines and induced collagen synthesis at the lesion site. Overall, our findings suggest that the combination of the NO donor Ru-NO and Brazilian propolis alleviates experimental ATL lesions, highlighting a new therapeutic option that can be considered for further in vivo investigations as a candidate for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25973801

  14. Nitric oxide and Brazilian propolis combined accelerates tissue repair by modulating cell migration, cytokine production and collagen deposition in experimental leishmaniasis.

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    Milena Menegazzo Miranda

    Full Text Available The fact that drugs currently used in the treatment of Leishmania are highly toxic and associated with acquired resistance has promoted the search for new therapies for treating American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL. In this study, BALB/c mice were injected in the hind paw with Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis and subsequently treated with a combination of nitric oxide (NO donor (cis-[Ru(bpy 2imN(NO](PF63 (Ru-NO, given by intraperitoneal injection, and oral Brazilian propolis for 30 days. Ru-NO reached the center of the lesion and increased the NO level in the injured hind paw without lesion exacerbation. Histological and immunological parameters of chronic inflammation showed that this combined treatment increased the efficacy of macrophages, determined by the decrease in the number of parasitized cells, leading to reduced expression of proinflammatory and tissue damage markers. In addition, these drugs in combination fostered wound healing, enhanced the number of fibroblasts, pro-healing cytokines and induced collagen synthesis at the lesion site. Overall, our findings suggest that the combination of the NO donor Ru-NO and Brazilian propolis alleviates experimental ATL lesions, highlighting a new therapeutic option that can be considered for further in vivo investigations as a candidate for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  15. Leishmaniose tegumentar americana associada à AIDS: relato de quatro casos American cutaneous leishmaniasis associated with HIV/AIDS: report of four clinical cases

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    Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro Sampaio; Cristina Paula Salaro; Paula Resende; Carmen Déa Ribeiro de Paula

    2002-01-01

    A co-infecção leishmaniose tegumentar americana e AIDS é de relato recente na literatura, observando-se diversidade quanto ao comportamento clínico e imunológico destes pacientes. Relatamos quatro casos acompanhados no Hospital Universitário de Brasília, com diagnóstico de infecção por parasitas do gênero Leishmania e pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana, ilustrando diferentes apresentações clínicas, evoluções e respostas terapêuticas.The co-infection American cutaneous leishmaniasis and AID...

  16. El Conjuro: una práctica de cuidado cultural para la Leishmaniasis Cutánea Americana en Florián, Santander (Colombia The Pray: a cultural care practice for American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Florian, Santander (Colombia

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    Celmira Laza Vásquez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Justificación: La Leishmaniasis Cutánea Americana (LAC es una patología cutánea tropical endémica en Colombia, que en las últimas décadas ha recibido especial atención de los servicios nacionales de salud en cuanto al registro, atención básica y prevención entre otros, mejorando la epidemiología local y regional de esta dolencia en el país. Sin embargo, en el Departamento de Santander aún persiste un escaso conocimiento de las prácticas utilizadas por la población rural afectada en el cuidado cultural o genérico de la enfermedad. Objetivo: Describir las prácticas de cuidado, factores que determinan su uso y creencias culturales para la curación de la Leishmaniasis Cutánea Americana en la población rural del municipio de Florián-Santander (Colombia. Metodología: Estudio cualitativo descriptivo realizado en zona rural durante marzo de 2008, con la participaron pobladores y conjuradores de Florián Santander. La información se recolectó mediante entrevistas semi-estructuradas individuales, para realizar el posterior análisis de contenido. Resultados y conclusión: el Conjuro realizado por un Conjurador emergió como la práctica central de cuidado cultural, alrededor de la cual se realizan cuidados complementarios que incrementen la eficacia. La modesta situación socioeconómica, la deficiencia en infraestructura vial, la escasez de los medios de transporte, así como las creencias entorno al tratamiento médico con Glucantime®, se identificaron como los factores que ayudan a consolidar el Conjuro en la población rural como la práctica más utilizada para "sanar el encono".Justification: The American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is an endemic tropical cutaneous pathology in Colombia that during the last decade has received special attention from the national health services regarding the registry, basic attention and prevention among others, improving the local and regional epidemiology of this ailment in the country

  17. The use of different concentrations of leishmanial antigen in skin testing to evaluate delayed hypersensitivity in american cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    César A. Cuba Cuba

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Three concentrations of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis sonicated whole promastigote antigen (30, 9.6 and 3 ug N in 0.1 ml wereprepared and 0.1 ml of each inoculated intradermally intopatients who live in one endemic leishmaniasis region in Brazil. Patients were divided into groups with active cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL, healed cutaneous leishmaniasis (HCL, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML, and Controls (C. Skin reactions were recorded by measuring induration 48 hours after inoculation. Skin tests using 9.6 ugN/0.1 mlyielded the best diagnostic resultssince 97% of 30 patients with active lesions (cutaneous or mucosal and 83% with HCL showed reactions of 5 mm orgreater as compared with 4% Controls. Tests using 30ug N/O. 1 ml causedan unacceptable levei of skin reactions with necrosis (10% of ACL patients tested and 17% of HCL, respectively. Tests using 3 ug N/O. 1 ml were less sensitive since only 87% of patients with active lesions and 68% with HCL had reactions of 5mm orgreater. The 3 ug N/O. 1 ml dose was utilized to ask the questions whether skin delayed hypersensitivity decreased with time after the initial lesion and whether mucosal involvement is associated with enhaced hypersensitivity to leishmanial antigen. Decreased delayed hypersensitivity was noted only in those patients who had an initial lesion more than 30 years ago. The mean induration of the reaction in 10 patients with ML was 11.3 mm ± 7.15, in 41 patients with HCL, 9.27 mm ± 6.78 and in 20patients with ACL 10. 7 mm ± 6.10 mm. The percent of patients with 5 mm orgreater induration was ML 80%, HCL 71%, ACL 90%. Thus, we could not confirm an association between enhanced delayed hypersensitivity and mucosal involvement in leishmaniasis.

  18. Molecular detection of the blood meal source of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a transmission area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, Paraná State, Brazil.

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    Baum, Maurício; de Castro, Edilene Alcântara; Pinto, Mara Cristina; Goulart, Thais Marchi; Baura, Walter; Klisiowicz, Débora do Rocio; Vieira da Costa-Ribeiro, Magda Clara

    2015-03-01

    The feeding behavior of sand flies provides valuable information about the vector/host interactions and elucidates the epidemiological patterns of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) transmission. The aim of this study was to identify the blood meal sources of sand flies in endemic areas of leishmaniasis in Paraná State through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a prepronociceptin (PNOC) gene fragment and its subsequent DNA sequencing. Moreover, molecular assays were conducted to evaluate the sensitivity and reproducibility of the PNOC gene amplification. Besides that, a time-course digestion test of the blood using sand flies that fed artificially on BALB/c mice was performed. Of 1263 female sand flies collected in the field, 93 (3.6%) specimens were engorged and 27 allowed efficient amplification of the PNOC gene. These flies had fed on equine (Equus caballus), porcine (Sus scrofa) and canine (Canis lupus familiaris) species. The results also showed that the identification of the blood meal sources of the sand flies using the molecular method was directly linked to the level of digestion of the blood (time-course) and not to the amount of blood that had been ingested or to the presence of inhibitors in the blood.

  19. Eclectic feeding behavior of Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae in the transmission area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, state of Paraná, Brazil

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    Mauricio Baum

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The blood meal source of sandflies provides valuable information about the vector/host interaction and allows for an understanding of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL transmission mechanisms. The aim of this study was to identify the blood meal sources of Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in Brazil's State of Paraná using a precipitin test. Methods Sandflies were collected in the rural locality of Epitácio Pessoa within the City of Adrianópolis, State of Paraná, in southern Brazil. A total of 864 female sandflies were captured, and 862 (99.8% were identified as L. intermedia species. However, two unidentified specimens were considered to be part of the genus Lutzomyia. Results Among the females examined, 396 specimens presented reactions to a certain type of tested antiserum, and most (67.9% reacted to the simple type. These sandflies fed mainly on the blood of birds, opossums, and rodents, but specimens that fed on the blood of humans, dogs, horses, cattle, and cats were also found. Among the cross-reactions found (32.1%, bird/rodent, bird/opossum, bird/dog, bird/human, and horse/dog cross-reactions were the most common. Conclusions These results demonstrate a tendency in the eclectic feeding behavior of L. intermedia and support its potential role as a vector for ACL in the study area.

  20. An analysis of the spatiotemporal distribution of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in counties located along road and railway corridors in the State of Maranhao, Brazil

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    Vicente Silva Goncalves Neto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The incidence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is increasing in Latin America, especially in Brazil, where 256,587 cases were confirmed in the last decade. Methods This study used a Bayesian model to examine the spatial and temporal distribution of ACL cases between 2000 and 2009 in 61 counties of State of Maranhão located along the three main road and railway corridors. Results During the study period, 13,818 cases of ACL were recorded. There was a significant decrease in the incidence of ACL in the ten study years. The recorded incidence rate ranged from 7.36 to 241.45 per 100,000 inhabitants. The relative risk increased in 77% of the counties, decreased in 18% and was maintained in only five counties. Conclusions Although there was a decreased incidence of the disease, ACL was present in all of the examined municipalities, thus maintaining the risk of contracting this illness.

  1. Studies on the Feeding Habits of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae Populations from Endemic Areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil

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    Margarete Martins dos Santos Afonso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify potential blood feeding sources of L. (L. longipalpis specimens from populations in Northeastern Brazil, endemic areas of American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL and its correlation with the transmission of L. (L. i. chagasi. The ELISA technique was applied using bird, dog, goat, opossum, equine, feline, human, sheep, and rodent antisera to analyze 609 females, resulting in an overall positivity of 60%. In all municipalities, females showed higher positivity for bird followed by dog antiserum and sand fly specimens were also positive for equine, feline, human, sheep, goat, opossum, and rodent antisera. The finding for 17 combinations of two or three types of blood in some females corroborates the opportunistic habit of this sand fly species. The results demonstrating the association between L. (L. longipalpis and opossum suggest the need for further evaluation of the real role of this synanthropic mammal in the eco-epidemiology of AVL.

  2. Moonlight and blood-feeding behaviour of Lutzomyia intermedia and Lutzomyia whitmani (Diptera:Psychodidae:Phlebotominae, vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil

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    Nataly A Souza

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912 and L. whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho, 1939 (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae, two important vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil, occur in sympatry in the locality of Posse county, Petrópolis municipality, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We investigated the influence of the lunar cycle on the frequency of specimens of the two species caught while attempting to bite the collectors and in CDC light traps. Analysis of the numbers of sand flies captured in different lunar phases for two consecutive years in the peridomestic site and forest shows that there is a significant positive correlation between moonlight intensity and the numbers of L. intermedia and L. whitmani females collected while blood-feeding, whereas the opposite was observed for the CDC traps.

  3. Leishmaniose cutânea com desfecho fatal durante tratamento com antimonial pentavalente American cutaneous leishmaniasis with fatal outcome during pentavalent antimoniate treatment

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    Meiri Vanderlei Nogueira de Lima

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam o caso de paciente de 58 anos, hipertensa e diabética, com diagnóstico de leishmaniose tegumentar americana, tratada com antimoniato de N-metil-glucamina (15mg SbV/kg/dia, acompanhada pelo serviço de atenção básica em saúde e que evoluiu para óbito no 18º dia de tratamento.The authors report a case of a 58 years-old, hypertensive, diabetic female patient, with the diagnosis of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, undergoing treatment with Nmethyl glucamine antimoniate (15mg SbV/Kg/day. She was followed up by the basic health care service, but has died on the 18th treatment day.

  4. [American cutaneous leishmaniasis in municipalities in the northwestern region of Paraná State: use of remote sensing for analysis of vegetation types and places with disease occurrence].

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    Arraes, Sandra Mara Alessi Aristides; Veit, Renata Tonon; Bernal, Marcos Vinícius Zandonadi; Becker, Tânia Cristina Alexandrino; Nanni, Marcos Rafael

    2008-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis, an endemic disease in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil, is transmitted by phlebotomines to man and animals like dogs, armadillos, opossums and wild rodents. This disease has been occurring in places where forests have been felled and on the banks of rivers and lakes with arboreal vegetation, where man comes into contact with infected insects. This disease is a public health problem because of the occurrence of epidemic outbreaks throughout Paraná. Because of the importance of finding out about endemic areas, this study used epidemiological file data on patients attended between 1999 and 2004. These data were correlated with areas of forest felling that were identified by means of satellite remote sensing techniques and products. The results showed that the occurrences of cases in the municipalities of this region coincided with the presumed likely areas for patient infection.

  5. Association of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) population density with climate variables in Montes Claros, an area of American visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

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    Michalsky, Erika Monteiro; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; França-Silva, João Carlos; Rocha, Marilia Fonseca; Barata, Ricardo Andrade; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2009-12-01

    In the present paper, we evaluate the relationship between climate variables and population density of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Montes Claros, an area of active transmission of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in Brazil. Entomological captures were performed in 10 selected districts of the city, between September 2002-August 2003. A total of 773 specimens of L. longipalpiswere captured in the period and the population density could be associated with local climate variables (cumulative rainfall, average temperature and relative humidity) through a mathematical linear model with a determination coefficient (Rsqr) of 0.752. Although based on an oversimplified statistical analysis, as far as the vector is concerned, this approach showed to be potentially useful as a starting point to guide control measures for AVL in Montes Claros.

  6. Association of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae population density with climate variables in Montes Claros, an area of American visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Érika Monteiro Michalsky

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we evaluate the relationship between climate variables and population density of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Montes Claros, an area of active transmission of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL in Brazil. Entomological captures were performed in 10 selected districts of the city, between September 2002-August 2003. A total of 773 specimens of L. longipalpiswere captured in the period and the population density could be associated with local climate variables (cumulative rainfall, average temperature and relative humidity through a mathematical linear model with a determination coefficient (Rsqr of 0.752. Although based on an oversimplified statistical analysis, as far as the vector is concerned, this approach showed to be potentially useful as a starting point to guide control measures for AVL in Montes Claros.

  7. Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Paulo Silva de Almeida

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fauna of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae in areas with endemic American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecological aspects of the main vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL in four monitoring stations situated in the municipalities of Naviraí, Nova Andradina, Novo Horizonte do Sul and Rio Verde de Mato Grosso. For each monitoring station, the captures of sand flies were undertaken each month from July 2008 to June 2010 using CDC and Shannon traps. The CDC traps were installed simultaneously for three consecutive nights in three collection sites: intradomicile, peridomicile and edge of the forest. A Shannon trap was installed from dusk to 10 pm, inside the forest, one night per month. A total of 7,651 sand flies belonging to nine genera and twenty-nine species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (52.95%, Psathyromyia hermanlenti (10.91%, Psathyromyia runoides (9.16%, Nyssomyia whitmani (7.95%, Psathyromyia aragaoi (4. 89%, Nyssomyia antunesi (3.14% and Evandromyia bourrouli (2.20% were the most frequent species. Approximately 65% of the sand flies were collected in the forest environment. The municipalities presented significantly different indexes of species diversity. Naviraí presented the lowest species diversity index, however, it showed the highest abundance. Novo Horizonte do Sul had the highest species diversity index, but the lowest abundance (< 5%. It is noteworthy the occurrence of vector species of Leishmania in the areas studied, especially in Naviraí, where Ny. neivai presented high frequencies which may explain the increased number of ACL cases in this municipality.

  8. Laryngeal Leishmaniasis

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    Moraes, Bruno Teixeira de

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leishmaniasis is classified into three clinical presentations: visceral, coetaneous and mucocutaneous. The latter is usually secondary to hematogenous spread after months or years of skin infection and can manifest as infiltrative lesions, ulcerated or vegetating in nose, pharynx, larynx and mouth, associated or not with ganglionics infarction. Laryngeal involvement is part of the differential diagnosis of lesions in this topography as nonspecific chronic laryngitis, granulomatosis and even tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract presenting atypical evolution. Sometimes it is difficult for the correct diagnosis of Leishmaniasis, with description of cases in the literature were conducted improperly. Objective: The objective of this study is to report a case of laryngeal Leishmaniasis addressing the difficulty of diagnosis, complications and treatment applied. Case Report: A patient with pain throat, dysphagia, odynophagia, dysphonia and weight loss, with no improvement with symptomatic medication. At telelaringoscopy, infiltrative lesion showed nodular supraglottis. He underwent a tracheotomy for airway obstruction and biopsy with immunohistochemical study for a definitive diagnosis of laryngeal Leishmaniasis. The patient was referred to the infectious diseases that initiated treatment with N-methylglucamine antimoniate with satisfactory response to therapy. Final Comments: Faced with a clinical suspicion of granulomatous diseases, it is essential to follow protocol laboratory evaluation associated with histological injury, to get a precise definition etiological without prolonging the time of diagnosis. Medical treatment for mucosal Leishmaniasis, recommended by the World Health Organization, was adequate in the case of laryngeal disorders, with complete resolution of symptoms.

  9. Diagnosis of Leishmaniasis

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    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Leishmaniasis Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Leishmaniasis General Information Leishmaniasis FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology ...

  10. Phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae and species abundance in an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in southeastern Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Carlos Frederico Loiola

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the phlebotomine fauna and species abundance in domiciliary and peridomiciliary (hen-house and guava-tree environments, on a lake shore, a cultivated area of coffee and banana, and a forested area of Conceição da Aparecida municipality, southeastern the state of Minas Gerais, to provide information for the control and epidemiological surveillance of leishmaniasis in this area. The captures were carried out monthly between May 2001 and November 2002, with automatic light and Shannon traps. A total of 1444 sand flies were captured, 951 (76.5% with automatic light traps and 493 (23.5% with the Shannon trap. Thirteen species were captured, the most frequent being Nyssomyia whitmani (62.7%, Migonemyia migonei (21.4%, Pintomyia fischeri (6.9%, and Evandromyia lenti (3.6%. Species abundance was determined using the automatic light traps installed in the six environments. The most abundant species according to the standardized index of species abundance were Ny. whitmani (1.0 and Mg. migonei (0.82. In view of the dominance of these two species, known vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in other Brazilian areas, their participation in the transmission of the disease in this county is suggested. The diversity and evenness indexes in the domicile were the lowest due to the high frequency (83% of Ny. whitmani. The capture of Lutzomyia longipalpis, rarely recorded in the south-eastern and southern regions of Minas Gerais, is also noteworthy.

  11. Development and validation of PCR-based assays for diagnosis of American cutaneous leishmaniasis and identification of the parasite species.

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    Graça, Grazielle Cardoso da; Volpini, Angela Cristina; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; Oliveira Neto, Manoel Paes de; Hueb, Marcia; Porrozzi, Renato; Boité, Mariana Côrtes; Cupolillo, Elisa

    2012-08-01

    In this study, PCR assays targeting different Leishmania heat-shock protein 70 gene (hsp70) regions, producing fragments ranging in size from 230-390 bp were developed and evaluated to determine their potential as a tool for the specific molecular diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). A total of 70 Leishmania strains were analysed, including seven reference strains (RS) and 63 previously typed strains. Analysis of the RS indicated a specific region of 234 bp in the hsp70 gene as a valid target that was highly sensitive for detection of Leishmania species DNA with capacity of distinguishing all analyzed species, after polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). This PCR assay was compared with other PCR targets used for the molecular diagnosis of leishmaniasis: hsp70 (1400-bp region), internal transcribed spacer (ITS)1 and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6pd). A good agreement among the methods was observed concerning the Leishmania species identification. Moreover, to evaluate the potential for molecular diagnosis, we compared the PCR targets hsp70-234 bp, ITS1, G6pd and mkDNA using a panel of 99 DNA samples from tissue fragments collected from patients with confirmed CL. Both PCR-hsp70-234 bp and PCR-ITS1 detected Leishmania DNA in more than 70% of the samples. However, using hsp70-234 bp PCR-RFLP, identification of all of the Leishmania species associated with CL in Brazil can be achieved employing a simpler and cheaper electrophoresis protocol.

  12. Development and validation of PCR-based assays for diagnosis of American cutaneous leishmaniasis and identificatio nof the parasite species

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    Grazielle Cardoso da Graça

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, PCR assays targeting different Leishmania heat-shock protein 70 gene (hsp70 regions, producing fragments ranging in size from 230-390 bp were developed and evaluated to determine their potential as a tool for the specific molecular diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL. A total of 70 Leishmania strains were analysed, including seven reference strains (RS and 63 previously typed strains. Analysis of the RS indicated a specific region of 234 bp in the hsp70 gene as a valid target that was highly sensitive for detection of Leishmania species DNA with capacity of distinguishing all analyzed species, after polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorfism (PCR-RFLP. This PCR assay was compared with other PCR targets used for the molecular diagnosis of leishmaniasis: hsp70 (1400-bp region, internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6pd. A good agreement among the methods was observed concerning the Leishmania species identification. Moreover, to evaluate the potential for molecular diagnosis, we compared the PCR targets hsp70-234 bp, ITS1, G6pd and mkDNA using a panel of 99 DNA samples from tissue fragments collected from patients with confirmed CL. Both PCR-hsp70-234 bp and PCR-ITS1 detected Leishmania DNA in more than 70% of the samples. However, using hsp70-234 bp PCR-RFLP, identification of all of the Leishmania species associated with CL in Brazil can be achieved employing a simpler and cheaper electrophoresis protocol.

  13. [Cutaneous leishmaniasis].

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    Enk, C D; Gardlo, K; Hochberg, M; Ingber, A; Ruzicka, T

    2003-06-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by an obligate intracellular protozoa, Leishmania, which resides in macrophages. The parasite is transmitted by an infected female sandfly. The incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis approaches 2 million new cases per year with 90% of the cases occurring in the "Old World", while the "New World" accounts for the rest. Infection may be restricted to the skin with development of characteristic ulcers, or may affect the mucous membranes in its mucocutaneous form. The clinical diagnosis is verified by the presence of amastigotes in slit-skin smears. Therapeutic modalities include systemic treatments such as the pentavalent antimony compound sodium stibogluconate, liposomal formulations of amphotericin B, oral ketoconazole or itraconazole, as well as topical paromomycin sulphate, local heat, freezing with liquid nitrogen, or photodynamic therapy. An effective vaccine is not available.

  14. Sand fly vectors (Diptera, Psychodidae) of American visceral leishmaniasis areas in the Atlantic Forest, State of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil.

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    Pinto, Israel de Souza; Ferreira, Adelson Luiz; Valim, Valéria; Carvalho, Felipe dos Santos; da Silva, Giovana Marques; Falcão, Alda Lima; Dietze, Reynaldo; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sand fly fauna of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) endemic areas within the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor, State of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. The sand fly captures were performed between January, 1989 and December, 2003 in localities where autochthonous cases of AVL were recorded, as well as in their boundary areas. Sand flies were collected from surrounding houses and domestic animal shelters using two to five CDC automatic light traps, and manual captures were also performed using mouth aspirators in one illuminated Shannon trap during the first four hours of the night. We used cladistic analysis to determine the geographic relationships among the collected sand fly species as well as the index species for the occurrence of other sand flies. A total of 62,469 sand flies belonging to 17 species and eight genera was collected in 164 localities from nine municipalities with AVL records. The richness (S=17) and diversity (H=0.971) of sand flies were lower than in conservation areas and similar to modified environments in the Atlantic Forest of Espírito Santo. Lutzomyia longipalpis was identified in 79 localities. The cladistic analysis identified Evandromyia lenti as the index species for Lutzomyia longipalpis. The latter seems to be the main vector of AVL in the Central Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Corridor due to its high abundance and distribution matching the disease occurrence. Therefore, Evandromyia lenti may be used as an index species for the occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis.

  15. Natural Leishmania (Viannia) spp. infections in phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Brazilian Amazon region reveal new putative transmission cycles of American cutaneous leishmaniasis.

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    de Souza, Adelson Alcimar Almeida; Dos Santos, Thiago Vasconcelos; Jennings, Yara Lúcia Lins; Ishikawa, Edna Aoba Yassui; Barata, Iorlando da Rocha; Silva, Maria das Graças Soares; Lima, José Aprígio Nunes; Shaw, Jeffrey; Lainson, Ralph; Silveira, Fernando Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In Amazonian Brazil the etiological agents of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) belong to at least seven Leishmania species but little is known about the putative phlebotomine sand fly vectors in different biomes. In 2002-2003 a survey of the phlebotomine fauna was undertaken in the "Floresta Nacional do Tapajós", Belterra municipality, in the lower Amazon region, western Pará State, Brazil, where we recently confirmed the presence of a putative hybrid parasite, L. (V.) guyanensis × L. (V.) shawi shawi. Sand flies were collected from Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, Shannon traps and by aspiration on tree bases. Females were dissected and attempts to isolate any flagellate infections were made by inoculating homogenized midguts into Difco B(45) medium. Isolates were characterized by monoclonal antibodies and isoenzyme electrophoresis. A total of 9,704 sand flies, belonging to 68 species or subspecies, were collected. Infections were found in the following sand flies: L. (V.) naiffi with Psychodopygus hirsutus hirsutus (1) and Ps. davisi (2); and L. (V.) shawi shawi with Nyssomyia whitmani (3) and Lutzomyia gomezi (1). These results provide strong evidence of new putative transmission cycles for L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) s. shawi.

  16. Force of infection and evolution of lesions of canine tegumentary leishmaniasis in Northwestern Argentina

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    Jorge Diego Marco

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available A clinical-serological follow-up was carried out in a canine population in endemic foci of Leishmania braziliensis spread in northwestern Argentina. Each dog was studied in at least two visits, 309±15 days (X±SE apart. Some initially healthy dogs (n=52 developed seroconversion or lesions. The clinical evolution of the disease in dogs resembles in many aspects the human disease. Similarities include the long duration of most ulcers with occasional healing or appearance of new ones and the late appearance of erosive snout lesions in some animals. Yearly incidence rates of 22.7% for seroconversion and of 13.5% for disease were calculated as indicators of the force of infection by this parasite upon the canine population.

  17. Prevalência da infecção canina em áreas endêmicas de leishmaniose tegumentar americana, do município de Paracambi, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, no período entre 1992 e 1993 Prevalence of canine infection from endemic areas of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Paracambi District, Rio de Janeiro State, between 1992 and 1993

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    Ginelza Peres Lima dos Santos

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available No município de Paracambi, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, foi realizado um inquérito epidemiológico sobre a leishmaniose tegumentar americana na população canina residente em áreas endêmicas rural e semiurbana. Foram cadastrados 179 cães e 138 (77,1% foram examinados, segundo seus aspectos clínicos e desenvolvimento de hipersensibilidade tardia ao antígeno Imunoleish® e respostas sorológicas à reação de imunofluorescência indireta e ao ensaio imunoenzimático. Dos 9 (6,5.% animais portadores de lesões/cicatrizes suspeitas, 66,7% foram causadas por Leishmania sp; 44,4% produziram infecção em hamsters e apresentaram crescimento em meio de cultura, compatíveis com o comportamento de Leishmania do complexo braziliensis. A caracterização molecular (análises isoenzimáticas e do perfil de restrição do KDNA identificou 2 amostras como similares à Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis. A prevalência da infecção canina observada através do teste cutâneo, RIFI e ELISA foi, respectivamente, 10,1%, 16,7% e 27,8%. A presença das formas clínica/subclínica da LTA na população canina associada à infecção humana sugere que o cão pode atuar como possível fonte de infecção, assim como na disseminação da doença.In the district of Paracambi, State of Rio de Janeiro an epidemiological survey for American tegumentary leishmaniasis in canine population was carried out in endemic localities. A total of 179 dogs was registered and 138 (77.1% examined for their clinical aspects, development of delayed hypersensitivity (DHS with Imunoleish® antigen and serological responses by indirect immunofluorescent reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In 9 (6.5% dogs with active cutaneous lesions or suspect scars, 66.7% were caused by Leishmania sp; 44.4% produced infection in hamsters and showed growth in culture media, which was considered to be compatible with the species of Leishmania braziliensis complex. The molecular

  18. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Identification in Tegumentary Lesions of Patients with Paracoccidioidomycosis and Different Patterns of NETs Generation In Vitro.

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    Amanda Manoel Della Coletta

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a systemic mycosis, endemic in most Latin American countries, especially in Brazil. It is caused by the thermo-dimorphic fungus of the genus Paracoccidioides (Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii. Innate immune response plays a crucial role in host defense against fungal infections, and neutrophils (PMNs are able to combat microorganisms with three different mechanisms: phagocytosis, secretion of granular proteins, which have antimicrobial properties, and the most recent described mechanism called NETosis. This new process is characterized by the release of net-like structures called Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs, which is composed of nuclear (decondensed DNA and histones and granular material such as elastase. Several microorganisms have the ability of inducing NETs formation, including gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, viruses and some fungi. We proposed to identify NETs in tegumentary lesions of patients with PCM and to analyze the interaction between two strains of P. brasiliensis and human PMNs by NETs formation in vitro. In this context, the presence of NETs in vivo was evidenced in tegumentary lesions of patients with PCM by confocal spectrum analyzer. Furthermore, we showed that the high virulent P. brasiliensis strain 18 (Pb18 and the lower virulent strain Pb265 are able to induce different patterns of NETs formation in vitro. The quantification of extracellular DNA corroborates the idea of the ability of P. brasiliensis in inducing NETs release. In conclusion, our data show for the first time the identification of NETs in lesions of patients with PCM and demonstrate distinct patterns of NETs in cultures challenged with fungi in vitro. The presence of NETs components both in vivo and in vitro open new possibilities for the detailed investigation of immunity in PCM.

  19. Isolated lingual leishmaniasis

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    Habibzadeh F

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Fars Province, southern Iran. However, mucosal leishmaniasis is extremely uncommon. Herein, we report a patient with isolated lingual leishmaniasis in an immunocompetent 40-year-old man. The lesion was totally excised. The patient was cured completely and is doing well after four years of follow-up, with no medical treatment

  20. Histopathology of human American cutaneous leishmaniasis before and after treatment Histopatologia de leishmaniose tegumentar americana humana, antes e após o tratamento

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    A.C.C. Botelho

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemical therapy for the treatment of leishmaniasis is still inadequate, and a number of drugs and therapeutic programs are being tested. Besides treatment, the ultimate goal is an effective cure, and histopathological analyses of the lesion cicatrices constitute an important measure of treatment success, or otherwise, in this respect. In this paper, we describe histopathological patterns in cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in 32 patients from the municipality of Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil, before and after treatment with the following therapeutic methodos: l leishvacin + glucantime; 2 leishvacin + BCG associated with glucantime; 3 glucantime; 4 leishvacin + BCG. Lesion fragments were collected from all patients by biopsy prior to, and approximately 30 days after, each treatment which resulted in a clinical diagnosis of cure. Following the analysis of slides, the preparations were described from a histopathological point of view and grouped taking into account the prevalence or significance of the characteristic elements. This process resulted in the following classification: 1. exsudative reaction (ER; 2. exsudative giant cell reaction (EGCR; 3. exsudative productive reaction (EPR; 4. exsudative productive giant cell reaction (EPGCR; 5. exsudative productive necrotic reaction (EPNR; 6. necrotic exsudative reaction (NER; 7. productive exsudative reaction (PER, 8. productive giant cell reaction (PGCR; 9. productive exsudative giant cell reaction (PEGCR; 10. productive exsudative giant cell granulomatous reaction (PEGCGR; 11. productive reaction (PR and 12. productive cicatricial (cure reaction (PCR. After this analysis, it was noted that clinical cure did not always coincide with histopathological cure.A quimioterapia para a leishmaniose não é satisfatória e existem hoje, várias drogas e esquemas terapêuticos em teste. Além do tratamento ideal, busca-se um critério de cura efetivo, onde a análise da histopatologia da

  1. Impact of leishmaniasis on public health

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    L. B Camargo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by protozoans of the genus Leishmania transmitted by insects known as phlebotomines, which are found in wild or urban environments. It affects domestic and wild animals and transmission to man happens by accident. The disease occurs in tropical and sub-tropical areas, mainly in Asia, Europe, Africa, and the Americas. There are two forms that affect man: American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL and American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL. The latter is caused by three species of Leishmania: Leishmania (Leishmania donovani, Leishmania (Leishmania infantum, and Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi, which are grouped in the Leishmania (Leishmania donovani complex. Wild reservoir hosts of L. chagasi known so far are foxes and marsupials. In domestic environment, dogs are the most important reservoir hosts and sources of infection to the vectors Lutzomyia longipalpis. Leishmaniasis is difficult to control, causing epidemic outbreaks, thus being an important public health problem. Due to lesions caused by the mucocutaneous type and the severity of those caused by the visceral type in humans, visceral leishmaniasis is one of the main public health concerns. This paper is part of the monograph presented at the end of the residency program in the field of Zoonosis and Public Health at the School of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, São Paulo State University, UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, in 2005.

  2. Epidemiological profile of leishmaniasis at a reference service in the state of Alagoas, Brazil, from january 2000 to september 2008

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    Willian da Silva Nunes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease found in the continents of Europe, Asia, Africa and the Americas. In Brazil, the disease is an important public health problem, occurring in most states, but mainly in the Northeast region of the country, with the state of Alagoas having a significant number of confirmed cases. The present study establishes and discusses the epidemiological profile of cases of leishmaniases treated at the Reference Center of Alagoas, Hospital Escola Hélvio de Farias Auto, between January 2000 and October 2008. During thisperiod, records of 2,104 patients notified to the hospital Epidemiological Surveillance Center were reviewed. The epidemiology of leishmaniasis, both visceral and tegumentary, has shown a profile that has changed over throughout the years, with a decrease in the number of notified cases. Disease occurrence was associated with lower social economic classes, and affected mainly rural workers in general, housewives and students.

  3. [Management of cutaneous leishmaniasis in adults and children].

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    Minodier, P; Noël, G; Blanc, P; Uters, M; Retornaz, K; Garnier, J M

    2005-11-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis can present a variety of clinical features and courses. The causative Leishmania species is an important prognostic factor in immunocompetent patients. Local treatment modalities including topical paromomycin, cryotherapy, localized controlled heat, carbon dioxide laser therapy, or intralesional meglumine antimoniate can be effective against Leishmania major or Leishmania tropica. Oral fluconazole may be a second-line treatment. Parenteral antimonials are useful for persistent or recurrent Old World leishmaniasis. For New World leishmaniasis, parenteral antimonials represent the first-line treatment in all forms except those caused by Leishmania guyanensis in which pentamidine is preferable. Liposomal amphotericin B appears to be effective for treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis but further study will be needed. Results using oral Miltefosine are promising against Indian kala-azar (Leishmania donovani) but disappointing against South American leishmaniasis.

  4. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

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    Faeze Foroughi-Parvar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now.

  5. Geographical distribution of American cutaneous leishmaniasis and its phlebotomine vectors (Diptera: Psychodidae in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Baton Luke

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is a re-emerging disease in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. It is important to understand both the vector and disease distribution to help design control strategies. As an initial step in applying geographic information systems (GIS and remote sensing (RS tools to map disease-risk, the objectives of the present work were to: (i produce a single database of species distributions of the sand fly vectors in the state of São Paulo, (ii create combined distributional maps of both the incidence of ACL and its sand fly vectors, and (iii thereby provide individual municipalities with a source of reference material for work carried out in their area. Results A database containing 910 individual records of sand fly occurrence in the state of São Paulo, from 37 different sources, was compiled. These records date from between 1943 to 2009, and describe the presence of at least one of the six incriminated or suspected sand fly vector species in 183/645 (28.4% municipalities. For the remaining 462 (71.6% municipalities, we were unable to locate records of any of the six incriminated or suspected sand fly vector species (Nyssomyia intermedia, N. neivai, N. whitmani, Pintomyia fischeri, P. pessoai and Migonemyia migonei. The distribution of each of the six incriminated or suspected vector species of ACL in the state of São Paulo were individually mapped and overlaid on the incidence of ACL for the period 1993 to 1995 and 1998 to 2007. Overall, the maps reveal that the six sand fly vector species analyzed have unique and heterogeneous, although often overlapping, distributions. Several sand fly species - Nyssomyia intermedia and N. neivai - are highly localized, while the other sand fly species - N. whitmani, M. migonei, P. fischeri and P. pessoai - are much more broadly distributed. ACL has been reported in 160/183 (87.4% of the municipalities with records for at least one of the six incriminated or

  6. Leishmaniose tegumentar americana: histórico, epidemiologia e perspectivas de controle American cutaneous leishmaniasis: history, epidemiology and prospects for control

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    Sergio de Almeida Basano

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana (LTA é uma doença causada por protozoários do gênero Leishmania, transmitida ao homem pela picada de mosquitos flebotomíneos (Ordem Diptera; Família Psychodidae; Sub-Família Phlebotominae. No Brasil existem atualmente 6 espécies de Leishmania responsáveis pela doença humana, e mais de 200 espécies de flebotomíneos implicados em sua transmissão. Trata-se de uma doença que acompanha o homem desde tempos remotos e que tem apresentado, nos últimos 20 anos, um aumento do número de casos e ampliação de sua ocorrência geográfica, sendo encontrada atualmente em todos os Estados brasileiros, sob diferentes perfis epidemiológicos. Estima-se que, entre 1985 e 2003, ocorreram 523.975 casos autóctones, a sua maior parte nas regiões Nordeste e Norte do Brasil. Neste estudo, são discutidos aspectos relacionados ao tratamento e ao controle dessa doença, assim como também as dificuldades para a implementação dessas medidas. São apontadas alternativas que passam pela estruturação dos serviços de saúde, com respeito ao diagnóstico, no desenvolvimento de drogas de aplicação tópica ou por via oral, no desenvolvimento de vacinas, no controle diferenciado de vetores e no aprofundamento de estudos relacionados à biologia celular do parasita.American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL is an infectious disease transmitted by the bite of phlebotomines mosquitos (Order Diptera: Family Psychodidae: Sub-Family Phlebotominae and caused by protozoa from the genus Leishmania (ROSS 1903. In Brazil, there are six different species of Leishmania and more than 200 different species of phlebotomines. It's a disease that has been afflicting human beings for many centuries, and in Brazil, in the past two decades, there has been an important increase in the number of cases and also in its geographical distribution. Presently, ACL cases are registered in all Brazilian states under three different epidemiological

  7. Laryngeal leishmaniasis in Malta.

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    Fsadni, C; Fsadni, P; Piscopo, T; Mallia Azzopardi, C

    2007-02-01

    The localization of Leishmania spp. in the larynx is rare especially when not associated with immunosuppression or with visceral or cutaneous leishmaniasis. We present a case of isolated laryngeal leishmaniasis, the first of its kind documented in Malta and infrequently reported from the Mediterranean basin.

  8. A current perspective on leishmaniasis

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    Angela Clem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many challenges facing the successful control and eradication of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis is still endemic in many poverty stricken and war torn areas. Through the use of an extensive literature review, this article examined the global disease burden of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Surveillance and control measures for leishmaniasis being used by the World Health Organization were also discussed in this article. Finally, potential new treatments and possible vaccines for leishmaniasis were reviewed in this article.

  9. A Current Perspective on Leishmaniasis

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    Clem, Angela

    2010-01-01

    There are many challenges facing the successful control and eradication of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Leishmaniasis is still endemic in many poverty stricken and war torn areas. Through the use of an extensive literature review, this article examined the global disease burden of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Surveillance and control measures for leishmaniasis being used by the World Health Organization were also discussed in this article. Finally, potential new treatments and possible vaccines for leishmaniasis were reviewed in this article. PMID:20606967

  10. Busca ativa de casos de leishmaniose cutânea em humanos e cães em área periférica do município de Campo Mourão - PR, Brasil Active search of cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans and canines in the peripherical area of Campo Mourão - PR - Brazil

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    Luís Antonio Sangioni

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada uma busca ativa de casos de leishmaniose cutânea em humanos e cães, em área periférica da cidade de Campo Mourão - PR. No período de 01 a 30 de junho de 2004, uma equipe multidisciplinar visitou todas as residências e estabelecimentos comerciais situadas até 150m da margem superior e inferior do rio 119, que delimita o município. Todos os casos humanos suspeitos de Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana (LTA foram encaminhados para o Posto de Saúde de referência para receberem os devidos tratamentos e orientação profilática. Foram encontrados 6 (seis casos de pessoas suspeitas de LTA, sendo que 04 (quatro resultaram em diagnóstico negativo e 02 (dois em diagnóstico positivo. Nenhum cão apresentou lesão suspeita de LTA.An active search was done to identify cases of leishmaniasis in humans and dogs in a peripherical area of Campo Mourão, PR, Brazil. From the first to thirtieth June of 2004, a multidisciplinary professional team visited all residences located within 150 meters from the superior and inferior margins of the river 119, which delimits the city. All human cases of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL were directed to reference health care center for the appropriated treatment and prophylactic orientation. Six cases of persons suspected of ATL were found; four patients resulted in a negative diagnosis while two cases were positive. No dogs demonstrated lesions that were suggestive of ATL.

  11. Unusual Presentation of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Ocular Leishmaniasis

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    Doroodgar, Masoud; Doroodgar, Moein

    2017-01-01

    The leishmaniases are parasitic diseases that are transmitted to humans by infected female sandflies. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is one of 3 main forms of the disease. CL is the most common form of the disease and is endemic in many urban and rural parts of Iran and usually caused by two species of Leishmania: L. major and L. tropica. We report a case of unusual leishmaniasis with 25 lesions on exposed parts of the body and right eyelid involvement (ocular leishmaniasis). The patient was a 75-year-old male farmer referred to health care center in Aran va Bidgol city. The disease was diagnosed by direct smear, culture, and PCR from the lesions. PCR was positive for Leishmania major. PMID:28210511

  12. Unusual Presentation of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Ocular Leishmaniasis

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    Masoud Doroodgar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The leishmaniases are parasitic diseases that are transmitted to humans by infected female sandflies. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is one of 3 main forms of the disease. CL is the most common form of the disease and is endemic in many urban and rural parts of Iran and usually caused by two species of Leishmania: L. major and L. tropica. We report a case of unusual leishmaniasis with 25 lesions on exposed parts of the body and right eyelid involvement (ocular leishmaniasis. The patient was a 75-year-old male farmer referred to health care center in Aran va Bidgol city. The disease was diagnosed by direct smear, culture, and PCR from the lesions. PCR was positive for Leishmania major.

  13. American cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis resistant to meglumine antimoniate, but with good response to pentamidine: a case report.

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    Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Baptista, Cibele; Rubin, Evelyn Figueiredo; Vasconcellos, Erica de Camargo Ferreira e; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Salgueiro, Mariza de Matos; Saheki, Maurício Naoto; Rosalino, Cláudia Maria Valete; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Silva, Aline Fagundes da; Confort, Eliame Mouta; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    This is a case report of a Brazilian soldier with cutaneous leishmaniasis. The lesion relapsed following two systemic treatments with meglumine antimoniate. The patient was treated with amphotericin B, which was interrupted due to poor tolerance. Following isolation of Leishmania sp., six intralesional infiltrations of meglumine antimoniate resulted in no response. Leishmania sp promastigotes were again isolated. The patient was submitted to intramuscular 4 mg/kg pentamidine. Parasites from the first and second biopsies were identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis; those isolated from the first biopsy were more sensitive to meglumine antimoniate in vitro than those isolated from the second biopsy. No relapse was observed.

  14. American cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis resistant to meglumine antimoniate, but with good response to pentamidine: a case report

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    Maria Inês Fernandes Pimentel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of a Brazilian soldier with cutaneous leishmaniasis. The lesion relapsed following two systemic treatments with meglumine antimoniate. The patient was treated with amphotericin B, which was interrupted due to poor tolerance. Following isolation of Leishmania sp., six intralesional infiltrations of meglumine antimoniate resulted in no response. Leishmania sp promastigotes were again isolated. The patient was submitted to intramuscular 4mg/kg pentamidine. Parasites from the first and second biopsies were identified as Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis; those isolated from the first biopsy were more sensitive to meglumine antimoniate in vitro than those isolated from the second biopsy. No relapse was observed.

  15. Cloning and characterization of a V-ATPase subunit C from the American visceral leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis modulated during development and blood ingestion

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    JM Ramalho-Ortigão

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a serious tropical disease that affects approximately 500 thousand people worldwide every year. In the Americas, VL is caused by the parasite Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi mainly transmitted by the bite of the sand fly vector Lutzomyia longipalpis. Despite recent advances in the study of interaction between Leishmania and sand flies, very little is known about sand fly protein expression profiles. Understanding how the expression of proteins may be affected by blood feeding and/or presence of parasite in the vector's midgut might allow us to devise new strategies for controlling the spread of leishmaniasis. In this work, we report the characterization of a vacuolar ATPase subunit C from L. longipalpis by screening of a midgut cDNA library with a 220 bp fragment identified by means of differential display reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. The expression of the gene varies along insect development and is upregulated in males and bloodfed L. longipalpis, compared to unfed flies.

  16. Ecological aspects of the sandfly fauna (Diptera, Psychodidae in an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area under the influence of hydroelectric plants in Paranapanema river, State of Paraná, Brazil

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    Mariza Fordellone Rosa Cruz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: An epidemiological study was undertaken to identify determinant factors in the occurrence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in areas under the influence of hydroelectric plants in Paranapanema river, State of Paraná, Brazil. The ecological aspects of the phlebotomine fauna were investigated. METHODS: Sandflies were sampled with automatic light traps from February 2004 to June 2006 at 25 sites in the urban and rural areas of Itambaracá, and in Porto Almeida and São Joaquim do Pontal. RESULTS: A total of 3,187 sandflies of 15 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai predominated (34.4%, followed by Pintomyia pessoai (32.6%, Migonemyia migonei (11.6%, Nyssomyia whitmani (8.8%, and Pintomyia fischeri (2.7%, all implicated in the transmission of Leishmania. Males predominated for Ny. neivai, and females for the other vector species, with significant statistical differences (p < 0.001. Nyssomyia neivai, Pi. pessoai, Ny. whitmani, Brumptomyia brumpti, Mg. migonei, and Pi. fischeri presented the highest values for the Standardized Species Abundance Index (SSAI. The highest frequencies and diversities were found in the preserved forest in Porto Almeida, followed by forests with degradation in São Joaquim do Pontal and Vila Rural. CONCLUSIONS: Sandflies were captured in all localities, with the five vectors predominating. Ny. neivai had its highest frequencies in nearby peridomestic environments and Pi. pessoai in areas of preserved forests. The highest SSAI values of Ny. neivai and Pi. pessoai reflect their wider dispersion and higher frequencies compared with other species, which seems to indicate that these two species may be transmitting leishmaniasis in the area.

  17. [Occurrence of sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in leishmaniasis foci in an ecotourism area around the Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, Brazil].

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    Rebêlo, José Manuel Macário; Assunção Júnior, Antonildes Nascimento; Silva, Orleans; Moraes, Jorge Luiz Pinto

    2010-01-01

    The distribution and relative abundance of sand fly species were studied in the municipality of Barreirinhas, Maranhão State, Brazil, around the Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, from January to June 2005, August 2004, July 2005, and September/2008. A total of 6,658 specimens were captured. The most frequent species were Lutzomyia whitmani (46.6%), L. longipalpis (29.9%), L. evandroi (17.1%), and L. lenti (4.8%), while L. termitophila, L. flaviscutellata, L. migonei, L. infraspinosa, L. sordellii, L. wellcomei, L. antunesi, and L. trinidadensis represented 1.6%. The presence of Leishmania vector species explains the high detection rate for tegumentary leishmaniasis in 2000 (308.2), 2001 (310.9), 2002 (338.2), and 2005 (313.6) and active foci of human visceral leishmaniasis in the municipality of Barreirinhas.

  18. Chemotherapy of Leishmaniasis.

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    1978-12-01

    NOTES 1S. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side linscoeawy and identiIIy by block number) LEISHMANIA LEISHMANIASIS CHEMOTHERAPY ANTILEISHMANIAL PENTOSTAM...number of compounds was supplied by WRAIR for testing on four strains of Leishmania in December 1977. Preliminary data were supplied to WRAIR by the...j_ = L. tropica major (Strain LV39 from USSR) and the New World cutaneous leishmaniasis by L. mexicana amazonensis (Strain LV78 from Brazil). The test

  19. Leishmaniasis in the knee area

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    Bava Amadeo Javier; Rossi Maria Laura; Seley Celeste; Troncoso Alcides

    2010-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infection caused by species leishmaniae, which can produce two types of manifestations: visceral and cutaneous. In south America cutaneous leishmaniasis is more common than visceral leishmaniasis. A case of primary cutaneous leishmaniasis from Bolivia is presented for its rarity. The patient of our case showed an ulcerated lesion of the knee. Montenegro's intradermal test was positive. Giemsa-stained touch preparation of the skin biopsy revealed amastigotes inside macrophages, consistent with leishmaniasis. The patient was treated with meglumine antimoniate intramuscular (20 mg of Sb+/kg/day) three weeks, with complete cicatrization of the lesion.

  20. Phlebotominae sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: potential vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis agents in the area associated with the Santo Antônio Hydroelectric System in Western Amazonian Brazil

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    Allan Kardec Ribeiro Galardo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: An entomological study was conducted as part of a vector-monitoring program in the area associated with the Santo Antônio hydroelectric system in State of Rondônia, Western Amazonian Brazil. METHODS: Fourteen sampling sites were surveyed to obtain data on the potential vectors of Leishmania spp. in the area. Sand flies were collected from 2011 to 2014 during the months of January/February (rainy season, May/June (dry season, and September/October (intermediary season using light traps arranged in three vertical strata (0.5, 1, and 20m. RESULTS : A total of 7,575 individuals belonging to 62 species/subspecies were collected. The five most frequently collected sand flies were Psychodopygus davisi (Root (36.67%, Trichophoromyia ubiquitalis (Mangabeira (8.51%, Nyssomyia umbratilis (Ward & Fraiha (6.14%, Bichromomyia flaviscutellata (Mangabeira (5.74%, and Psychodopygus complexus (Mangabeira (5.25%. These species have been implicated in the transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis agents in the Brazilian Amazon region and described as potential vectors of this disease in the study area. CONCLUSIONS: Additional surveillance is needed, especially in areas where these five species of sand fly are found.

  1. The phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae of Guaraí, state of Tocantins, with an emphasis on the putative vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural settlement and periurban areas

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    Maurício Luiz Vilela

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Phlebotomine sandflies were captured in rural settlement and periurban areas of the municipality of Guaraí in the state of Tocantins (TO, an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL. Forty-three phlebotomine species were identified, nine of which have already been recognised as ACL vectors. Eleven species were recorded for the first time in TO. Nyssomyia whitmani was the most abundant species, followed by Evandromyia bourrouli, Nyssomyia antunesi and Psychodopygus complexus. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index and the evenness index were higher in the rural settlement area than in the periurban area. The evaluation of different ecotopes within the rural area showed the highest frequencies of Ev. bourrouli and Ny. antunesi in chicken coops, whereas Ny. whitmani predominated in this ecotope in the periurban area. In the rural settlement area, Ev. bourrouli was the most frequently captured species in automatic light traps and Ps. complexus was the most prevalent in Shannon trap captures. The rural settlement environment exhibited greater phlebotomine biodiversity than the periurban area. Ps. complexus and Psychodopygus ayrozai naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis were identified. The data identified Ny. whitmani as a potential ACL vector in the periurban area, whereas Ps. complexus was more prevalent in the rural environment associated with settlements.

  2. Leishmaniose tegumentar americana em centro de treinamento militar localizado na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco, Brasil American cutaneous leishmaniasis in military training unit localized in Zona da Mata of Pernambuco State, Brazil

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    Sinval P. Brandão-Filho

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Um surto de leishmaniose tegumentar americana ocorreu em 1996 em unidade de treinamento militar situada na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco, com o registro de 26 casos humanos. Um inquérito epidemiológico foi realizado através da realização de levantamento entomológico e da aplicação do Teste de Montenegro. Lutzomyia choti apresentou predominância de 89,9% dos flebótomos identificados. De 545 homens que participaram de treinamentos no período, 24,1% (incluindo os casos clínicos foram positivo para o Teste de Montenegro.An outbreak of American cutaneous leishmaniasis has been occurred in military training unit localized in 'Zona da Mata' of Pernambuco State, Brazil, where were registered 26 human cases. An epidemiological survey was carried out by entomological investigation and Montenegro skin test (MST. Lutzomyia choti presents predominance (89.9% in sandflies identified. Out of 545 men who realized training activities were 24.12% positive to MST.

  3. Leishmaniose tegumentar americana no Litoral Norte Paulista, período 1993 a 2005 American cutaneous leishmaniasis on the northern coastline of the State of São Paulo, 1993 to 2005

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    Maria Lúcia Fadel Condino

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A leishmaniose tegumentar americana adquiriu caráter epidêmico no Litoral Norte Paulista, desde a década de 1990. A partir de dados secundários, realizou-se estudo descritivo da doença no período de 1993 a 2005 nos quatro municípios que compõem a região e analisou-se a freqüência dos flebotomíneos capturados nos locais prováveis de transmissão. Foram notificados 689 casos autóctones de leishmaniose tegumentar, com casos isolados e agrupados, determinando uma distribuição espacial heterogênea, com sincronismo na manifestação e ciclicidade, em intervalo de seis a oito anos. Todas as faixas etárias foram acometidas, com ligeiro predomínio do sexo masculino, sem associação com uma ocupação. Capturou-se 2.758 flebotomíneos e a espécie Nyssomyia intermedia predominou (80,4%, no peri e intradomicílio. A doença apresentou perfil de transmissão peri e intradomiciliar, entre o periurbano e a mata, e no interior da mata. Neste caso, a transmissão estaria mais relacionada com os focos enzoóticos.American cutaneous leishmaniasis acquired epidemic characteristics on the northern coastline of the State of São Paulo beginning in the 1990s. From secondary data, a descriptive study of the disease in the four municipalities making up this region over the period from 1993 to 2005 was conducted. The frequency of phlebotomine capture in the probable transmission locations was analyzed. 689 autochthonous cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were notified, with single and grouped cases, thus determining that the spatial distribution was heterogenous. There was synchronism and cyclicity of disease manifestation, at intervals of six to eight years. All ages were affected, with slight predominance among males, without association with any specific occupation. Among the 2,758 phlebotomines captured, Nyssomyia intermedia predominated (80.4% inside homes and in areas surrounding them. The disease presented a transmission profile inside homes and

  4. Aspectos eco-epidemiológicos da leishmaniose tegumentar americana no Município de Campinas Eco-epidemiological aspects of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Municipality of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Antônio Ângelo Corte

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem um surto de leishmaniose tegumentar americana ocorrido no período de fevereiro de 1993 a setembro de 1994, nos Distritos de Sousas e Joaquim Egídio, Município de Campinas, SP. Ocorreram 25 casos, sete na área rural, nove na área peri-urbana e nove na urbana. Verifica-se uma mobilidade da ocorrência dos casos em direção rural-urbana. Em relação ao sexo, houve predomínio do masculino (60% sobre o feminino (40%, com 44% dos casos concentrados na faixa etária de 11 e trinta anos. Quanto à ocupação, 48% correspondem a estudantes, empregadas domésticas e donas-de-casa. Em 92% dos casos, a doença manifestou-se com lesão única, predominantemente localizadas nos membros inferiores e superiores. O surgimento desses casos na área está provavelmente associado à expansão urbana ocorrida nas décadas de 70-80 e acelerada mais recentemente.The authors describe an outbreak of American cutaneous leishmaniasis from February 1993 to September 1994 in the districts of Sousas and Joaquim Egídio, Campinas, São Paulo State. Out of a total of 25 cases, seven occurred in the countryside, nine in the periurban area, and nine in the urban area. The authors observed a shift in the occurrence of leishmaniasis cases from rural to urban areas. Cases in males predominated over females (60%/40%. Some 44% of the cases occurred in individuals ranging from 11 to 30 years of age. Some 48% of cases occurred in students, domestic workers, and housewives. In 90% of the cases, the disease presented as a single lesion, located predominantly on the upper and lower limbs. The appearance of cases in the region is probably related to the expansion of urban areas occurring in the 1970s and 1980s, a trend which intensified further more recently.

  5. Interferon Gamma in Leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a complex disease that is caused by parasites of the Leishmania genus. Leishmania are further classified into several complexes, each of which can engage in distinct interactions with mammalian hosts resulting in differing disease presentations. It is therefore not unexpected that host immune responses to Leishmania are variable. The induction of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and response to it in these infections has received considerable attention. In this review, we summarize o...

  6. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis

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    Clarisa B. Palatnik-De-Sousa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global-warming, co-infection with immunosuppressive diseases and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans

  7. The case of diagnosis of imported cutaneous leishmaniasis in Zaporozhye

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    V. G. Savelyev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Article presents the current data on the clinical and epidemiological issue of leishmaniasis. Methods and results. Leishmaniasis is endemic disease in 88 countries, mainly in tropical and subtropical climates. Probability of importation of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in our country is practically zero, but, given the rarity of this disease, we present own clinical observation of imported cutaneous leishmaniasis in Zaporozhye. At the beginning of the third millennium has greatly increased the urgency of tropical parasitic diseases, including leishmaniasis. According to WHO, the world's 14 million people are infected each year there is about 2 million new cases and about 350 million live in areas at risk. Leishmaniasis - a group of vector-borne protozoal disease in humans and animals characterized by lesions of the internal organs (visceral leishmaniasis or the skin and mucous membranes (cutaneous leishmaniasis, which is the vector mosquitoes. We present their own clinical observations of American cutaneous leishmaniasis imported. Patient S., 41 years was hospitalized in Zaporozhye Regional Clinical Hospital infectious on 07.17.2013, with suspected cutaneous leishmaniasis. From the history of the disease is known that for the first time in February 2013 the patient have got relative to blade area redness and bump that appeared above the skin, and had a magnitude of 2,3 mm brownish-red. To the doctor the patient has not addressed. After 1,5-2 months bump grew and he began to stand out ichor, which dries and formed a crust on top of the hump. Further small ulcers that did not bring discomfort and pain to the patient appeared. However, every month ulcer increased. In July, after vacation at sea, rose weeping sores and perifocal inflammation appeared. Ulcer size reached 2 cm in diameter. The patient first applied to the dermatologist at the beginning of July 2013. Dermatologist excluded secondary syphilis and tuberculosis skin and sent to an

  8. American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Pontal of Paranapanema - SP, Brazil: ecological and entomological aspects Leishmaniose cutânea americana no Pontal do Paranapanema, SP, Brasil: aspectos ecológicos e entomológicos

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    Claudia Álvares Calvo Alessi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL occurs in epidemic outbreaks and in sporadic cases with small annual variation in the Pontal of Paranapanema, SP. There is little research on the sandfly fauna of this region. The last outbreaks were related to the Movement of the Landless Workers (MST and with the ecological tourism in preserved forest of the Parque Estadual do Morro do Diabo (PEMD. AIM: identification of the sandfly fauna within the PEMD, mainly anthropophilic species already incriminated as vectors of ACL, as well as their seasonality, hourly frequency and data of the behavior. M&M: The captures were undertaken with CDC light and Shannon traps from 6:00 pm to 10:00 pm, monthly from May 2000 to December 2001. The temperature and relative humidity data were registered at hourly intervals. RESULTS: The captured species were: Brumptomyia brumpti, Nyssomyia neivai, Nyssomyia whitmani, Pintomyia fischeri and Pintomyia pessoai. The P. pessoai predominated (34.39% and N. neivai was less found (0.74%, only being captured in CDC traps. Shannon trap captured more sandflies (63.01% than the CDC traps (36.99%. Despite the environmental degradation anthropophilic species, indicates favorable bioecological conditions for persistence of vectors and potential transmission of leishmaniasis.LCA ocorre em surtos epidêmicos e casos esporádicos com pequena variação anual no Pontal do Paranapanema, SP. Há pouca pesquisa sobre a fauna flebotomínea na região. Os últimos surtos estão relacionados ao MST e turismo ecológico na floresta do Parque Estadual do Morro do Diabo (PEMD. OBJETIVO: identificar a fauna flebotomínea no PEMD, principalmente as espécies antropofílicas já incriminadas como vetores da LCA, também, sua sazonalidade, horários e dados de comportamento. M&M: As capturas foram feitas com armadilhas CDC e Shannon das 18 às 22h, mensalmente de maio de 2000 a dezembro de 2001. Dados de temperatura e umidade relativa foram registrados com

  9. [Tegumentary glands of the supra-anal pit of Scutigerellidae (Symphala, Myriapoda)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juberthie-Jupeau, L

    1975-01-01

    Tegumentary glands of the 'supra-anal pit' in the genus Scutigerella are ductule-associated glandular cells. The invaginated cavity consists of two distinct parts, the inner bearing microvilli collector. The efferent ductule penetrates into the upper part of the cavity by means of a receiving tubule, the wall of which is perforated and composed of two layers having different electron densities. The glandular cell cytoplasm is packed with smooth endoplasmic reticulum which arises from rough endoplasmic reticulum and by blebbing of the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope, blebs immediately losing their ribosomes. Secretion granules are released into the extracellular invaginated cavity between the microvilli and form an amorphous layer that covers the cuticular invagination of the 'supra-anal pit'.

  10. Leishmaniose tegumentar americana canina em municípios do norte do Estado do Paraná, Brasil Canine American cutaneous leishmaniasis in municipalities of northern Paraná State, Brazil

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    Paulo Donizeti Zanzarini

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA é endêmica no norte do Estado do Paraná, Brasil, afetando tanto o homem como os cães. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a ocorrência da doença na população canina em áreas endêmicas de LTA. No período de setembro de 1999 a julho de 2002, foram investigados cães em sete localidades rurais de cinco municípios onde ocorreram casos humanos autóctones da doença, utilizando métodos parasitológicos e sorológicos. Dos 67 cães estudados, 14 (20,9% tinham lesões sugestivas de LTA, dos quais 3 (21,4% estavam infectados por Leishmania sp. Trinta e sete (55,2% cães apresentaram imunofluorescência indireta positiva para Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis. Os resultados mostram a ocorrência simultânea de leishmaniose humana e canina e indicam a necessidade de estudos adicionais para esclarecer o papel do cão no ciclo de transmissão do parasito nessas áreas.American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is an endemic disease in northern Paraná State, where it affects humans and dogs. This study aimed to verify the occurrence of the canine disease in ACL endemic areas. From September 1999 to July 2002, dogs were investigated in 7 rural areas of 5 municipalities where autochthonous human cases of ACL had been reported. Parasitological and serological methods were used. Fourteen of 67 dogs studied (20.9% had lesions suggestive of ACL, of which 3 (21.4% were infected with Leishmania sp. Indirect immunofluorescence for Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis was positive in 37 (55.2% of 67 dogs. The results showed that human and canine ACL occur simultaneously and indicate the need for additional studies to elucidate the role of dogs in the ACL transmission cycle in the area studied.

  11. Linear B-cell epitope mapping of MAPK3 and MAPK4 from Leishmania braziliensis: implications for the serodiagnosis of human and canine leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes-Souza, Daniel; de Oliveira Mendes, Tiago Antônio; de Araújo Leão, Ana Carolina; de Souza Gomes, Matheus; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira

    2015-02-01

    The correct and early identification of humans and dogs infected with Leishmania are key steps in the control of leishmaniasis. Additionally, a method with high sensitivity and specificity at low cost that allows the screening of a large number of samples would be extremely valuable. In this study, we analyzed the potential of mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MAPK3) and mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 (MAPK4) proteins from Leishmania braziliensis to serve as antigen candidates for the serodiagnosis of human visceral and tegumentary leishmaniasis, as well as canine visceral disease. Moreover, we mapped linear B-cell epitopes in these proteins and selected those epitopes with sequences that were divergent in the corresponding orthologs in Homo sapiens, in Canis familiaris, and in Trypanosoma cruzi. We compared the performance of these peptides with the recombinant protein using ELISA. Both MAPK3 and MAPK4 recombinant proteins showed better specificity in the immunodiagnosis of human and canine leishmaniasis than soluble parasite antigens and the EIE-leishmaniose-visceral-canina-bio-manguinhos (EIE-LVC) kit. Furthermore, the performance of this serodiagnosis assay was improved using synthetic peptides corresponding to B-cell epitopes derived from both proteins.

  12. A canine leishmaniasis pilot survey in an emerging focus of visceral leishmaniasis: Posadas (Misiones, Argentina

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    Deschutter Jorge

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing number of reports are calling our attention to the worldwide spread of leishmaniasis. The urbanization of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL has been observed in different South American countries, due to changes in demographic and ecological factors. In May 2006, VL was detected for the first time in the city of Posadas (Misiones, Argentina. This event encouraged us to conduct a clinical and parasitological pilot survey on domestic dogs from Posadas to identify their potential role as reservoirs for the disease. Methods One hundred and ten dogs from the city of Posadas were included in the study. They were selected based on convenience and availability. All dogs underwent clinical examination. Symptomatology related to canine leishmaniasis was recorded, and peripheral blood and lymph node aspirates were collected. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected using rK39-immunocromatographic tests and IFAT. Parasite detection was based on peripheral blood and lymph node aspirate PCR targeting the SSUrRNA gene. Molecular typing was addressed by DNA sequence analysis of the PCR products obtained by SSUrRNA and ITS-1 PCR. Results According to clinical examination, 69.1% (76/110 of the dogs presented symptoms compatible with canine leishmaniasis. Serological analyses were positive for 43.6% (48/110 of the dogs and parasite DNA was detected in 47.3% (52/110. A total of 63 dogs (57.3% were positive by serology and/or PCR. Molecular typing identified Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi as the causative agent. Conclusions This work confirms recent findings which revealed the presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of L. infantum in this area of South America. This new VL focus could be well established, and further work is needed to ascertain its magnitude and to prevent further human VL cases.

  13. A review of Leishmaniasis in Eastern Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter K. Ngure; Albert Kimutai; Zipporah W. Ng'ang'a; Geoffrey Rukunga; Willy K. Tonui

    2009-01-01

    The review presents the epidemiology of leishmaniasis in the Eastern Africa region. We searched PUB MED and MEDLINE with several key words-namely,"leishmaniasis";"cutaneous"," diffuse cutaneous"," mucosal", and "visceral leishmaniasis";"kala azar" and "post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis"-for recont clinical and basic science articles related to leishmaniasis in countries in the Eastern Africa region. Poverty, wars, conflicts and migration have significantly aggravated leishmaniases in Eastern Africa. Of particular concern is the increasing incidence of Leishmania-HIV co-infection in Ethiopia where 20--40% of the persons affected by visceral leishmaniasis are HIV-co-infected. Sudan has the highest prevalence rate of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis(PKDL) in the world, a skin complication of visceral leishmaniasis(VL) that mainly afflicts children below age ten. In view of its spread to previously non-endemic areas and an increase in imported cases, leishmaniasis in Eastern Africa should be considered a health emergency.

  14. [Visceral leishmaniasis: new drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minodier, P; Robert, S; Retornaz, K; Garnier, J M

    2003-12-01

    The standard treatment of visceral leishmaniasis is pentavalent antimony (meglumine antimoniate or sodium stibogluconate), but toxicity is frequent with this drug. Moreover, antimony unresponsiveness is increasing, both in immunocompetent and in immunosuppressed patients. Amphotericin B is a polyene macrolide antibiotic that binds to sterols in cell membranes. It is the most active antileishmanial agent in use. Its infusion-related and renal toxicity may be reduced by lipid-based delivery. Liposomal amphotericin B (Ambisome) seems to be less toxic than other amphotericin B lipid formulations (Amphocil, Amphotec). Optimal drug regimens of Ambisome vary from one geographical area to another. In the Mediterranean Basin, a total dose of 18 to 24 mg/kg is safe and effective. Shortening the duration of treatment without decreasing the total dose (i.e., 10 mg/kg/day for 2 days) seems promising to reduce the global cost of the therapy.

  15. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talat, Humaira; Attarwala, Sharmeen; Saleem, Mubasshir

    2014-05-01

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector borne disease caused by various species of the Leishmania parasite. CL is endemic in the province of Balochistan in Pakistan. In certain instances a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-related immunocompromised is associated with atypical clinical presentation and occurrence of reactivated lesions of CL. Such presentations respond poorly to the standard treatment and frequent relapses are noted. We are reporting three cases of localized and disseminated CL due to Leishmania tropica which responded to meglumine antimoniate. Due to the fact that CL is endemic in Balochistan, we did not consider HIV infection as a causative organism. It was their presentation with history of weight loss and fever that prompted Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) tests for HIV, which turned out to be positive. CL is becoming visible as an opportunistic infection associated with HIV/AIDS and may even be the first symptom in HIV positive patients in an endemic area.

  16. Indigenous microbiota and Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, M E M; Carneiro, M B H; Dos Santos, L M; Vieira, L Q

    2016-01-01

    Animals are colonized by their indigenous microbiota from the early days of life. The estimated number of associated bacterial cells in humans is around of 10(14) per individual, most of them in the gut. Several studies have investigated the microbiota-host relationship, and the use of germfree animals has been an important tool in these studies. These animals, when infected with a pathogen, have shown to be sometimes more resistant and other times more susceptible than conventional animals. Leishmaniasis is a worldwide public health problem and presents a spectrum of clinical manifestations. However, very few studies have addressed the role of the indigenous microbiota on the outcome of this disease. In this review, we will highlight and discuss the data available on the ways by which the microbiota can influence the outcome of the disease in murine experimental models of cutaneous infection with Leishmania.

  17. Epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis

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    Ready PD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Paul D ReadyDisease Control Department, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UKAbstract: Leishmania species are the causative agents of leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease. These parasitic protozoans are usually transmitted between vertebrate hosts by the bite of blood sucking female phlebotomine sand flies. This review focuses on the two parasites causing most human visceral leishmaniasis (VL, which leads to substantial health problems or death for up to 400,000 people per year. Except for travel cases, Leishmania donovani infections are restricted to the (sub-tropics of Asia and Africa, where transmission is mostly anthroponotic, while Leishmania infantum occurs in the drier parts of Latin America as well as in the Mediterranean climate regions of the Old World, with the domestic dog serving as the main reservoir host. The prevalence of VL caused by L. infantum has been declining where living standards have improved. In contrast, infections of L. donovani continue to cause VL epidemics in rural areas on the Indian subcontinent and in East Africa. The current review compares and contrasts these continental differences and suggests priorities for basic and applied research that might improve VL control. Transmission cycles, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, prevention (including vector control, surveillance, transmission modeling, and international control efforts are all reviewed. Most case detection is passive, and so routine surveillance does not usually permit accurate assessments of any changes in the incidence of VL. Also, it is not usually possible to estimate the human inoculation rate of parasites by the sand fly vectors because of the limitations of survey methods. Consequently, transmission modeling rarely passes beyond the proof of principle stage, and yet it is required to help develop risk factor analysis for control programs. Anthroponotic VL

  18. Many faces of cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Bari Arfan Ul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is known for its clinical diversity and increasing numbers of new and rare variants of the disease are being reported these days. Aim: The aim of this descriptive study was to look for and report the atypical presentations of this common disease occurring in Pakistan. Methods: The study was carried out in three hospitals (MH, Rawalpindi; PAF Hospital, Sargodha; and CMH, Muzaffarabad from 2002 to 2006. Military and civilian patients of all ages, both males and females, belonging to central and north Punjab province and Kashmir were included in the study. Clinical as well as parasitological features of cutaneous leishmaniasis were studied. The unusual lesions were photographed and categorized accordingly using simple descriptive statistics. Results: Out of 718 patients of cutaneous leishmaniasis, 41 (5.7% had unusual presentations. The commonest among unusual morphologies was lupoid leishmaniasis 14 (34.1%, followed by sporotrichoid 5 (12.1%, paronychial 3 (7.3%, lid leishmaniasis 2 (4.9%, psoriasiform 2 (4.9%, mycetoma-like 2 (4.9%, erysipeloid 2 (4.9%, chancriform 2 (4.9%, whitlow 1 (2.4%, scar leishmaniasis 1 (2.4%, DLE-like 1 (2.4%, ′squamous cell carcinoma′-like 1 (2.4%, zosteriform 1 (2.4%, eczematous 1 (2.4%, verrucous 1 (2.4%, palmar/plantar 1 (2.4% and mucocutaneous 1 (2.4%. Conclusion: In Pakistan, an endemic country for CL, the possibility of CL should be kept in mind while diagnosing common dermatological diseases like erysipelas, chronic eczema, herpes zoster, paronychia; and uncommon disorders like lupus vulgaris, squamous cell carcinoma, sporotrichosis, mycetoma and other deep mycoses.

  19. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Dutch military

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Thiel, P.P.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is een tropische ziekte veroorzaakt door een parasiet die wordt overgebracht door de zandvlieg. Pieter-Paul van Thiel beschrijft de besmetting van militairen tijdens drie missies in Afghanistan, en jungletrainingen in Suriname en Belize. Bij een missie in Noord-Afghanistan in 2005 raak

  20. Voice disorders in mucosal leishmaniasis.

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    Ana Cristina Nunes Ruas

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is considered as one of the six most important infectious diseases because of its high detection coefficient and ability to produce deformities. In most cases, mucosal leishmaniasis (ML occurs as a consequence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. If left untreated, mucosal lesions can leave sequelae, interfering in the swallowing, breathing, voice and speech processes and requiring rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: To describe the anatomical characteristics and voice quality of ML patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive transversal study was conducted in a cohort of ML patients treated at the Laboratory for Leishmaniasis Surveillance of the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases-Fiocruz, between 2010 and 2013. The patients were submitted to otorhinolaryngologic clinical examination by endoscopy of the upper airways and digestive tract and to speech-language assessment through directed anamnesis, auditory perception, phonation times and vocal acoustic analysis. The variables of interest were epidemiologic (sex and age and clinic (lesion location, associated symptoms and voice quality. RESULTS: 26 patients under ML treatment and monitored by speech therapists were studied. 21 (81% were male and five (19% female, with ages ranging from 15 to 78 years (54.5+15.0 years. The lesions were distributed in the following structures 88.5% nasal, 38.5% oral, 34.6% pharyngeal and 19.2% laryngeal, with some patients presenting lesions in more than one anatomic site. The main complaint was nasal obstruction (73.1%, followed by dysphonia (38.5%, odynophagia (30.8% and dysphagia (26.9%. 23 patients (84.6% presented voice quality perturbations. Dysphonia was significantly associated to lesions in the larynx, pharynx and oral cavity. CONCLUSION: We observed that vocal quality perturbations are frequent in patients with mucosal leishmaniasis, even without laryngeal lesions; they are probably associated to disorders of some

  1. Treatment of visceral leishmaniasis

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    E M Moore

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The available treatment options for visceral leishmaniasis (VL have problems relating to efficacy, adverse effects and cost, making treatment a complex issue. We review the evidence relating to the different methods of treatment in relation to - efficacy and toxicity of the drugs in different areas of the world; ability to monitor side effects, length of treatment; ability of patients to pay for and stay safe during treatment, ability of the healthcare services to give intramuscular, intravenous or oral therapy; the sex and child-bearing potential of the patient and the immune status of the patient. The high mortality of untreated/ poorly treated VL infection makes the decisions paramount, but a unified and coordinated response by each area is likely to be more effective and informative to future policies than an ad hoc response. For patients in resource-rich countries, liposomal amphotericin B appears to be the optimal treatment. In South Asia, miltefosine is being used; the combination of single dose liposomal amphotericin B and short course miltefosine looks encouraging but has the problem of potential reproductive toxicities in females. In Africa, the evidence to switch from SSG is not yet compelling. The need to monitor and plan for evolving drug failure, secondary to leishmania parasite resistance, is paramount. With a few drugs the options may be limited; however, we await key ongoing trials in both Africa and India to explore the effects of combination treatment. If safe and reliable combinations are revealed by the ongoing studies, it is far from clear as to whether this will avoid leishmania parasite resistance. The development of new drugs to add to the armamentarium is paramount. Lessons can be learnt from the management of diseases such as tuberculosis and malaria in terms of planning the switch to combination treatment. As important as establishing the best choice for specific antileishmanial agent is ensuring treatment centers

  2. Visceral Leishmaniasis In A Native Kashmiri Boy

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    Deepti Mahajan, M.L. Bhat

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis, though widely prevalent in South Asia, is not seen in the Kashmir valley where the coldclimatic conditions create a hostile environment for the growth of the parasite or its vector, the sandfly.However, a few cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis have been documented from the hot and arid Uri belt ofKashmir. We present a case of visceral leishmaniasis in a boy hailing from Uri, a rarity in this region.

  3. Diagnóstico molecular para Leishmaniasis

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    Ysabel Montoya

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available El potencial diagnóstico de epitopes inmunodominantes seleccionados fue ensayado satisfactoriamente a fin de obtener una prueba serodiagnóstica alternativa para la Leishmaniasis Tegumentaria Americana. Dos proteínas recombinantes prometedoras de L. (v. peruviana referidas como T-26-U2/T26-U4 fueron reconocidas por sueros individuales de pacientes con Leishmaniasis Tegumentaria Americana usando Western Blot. La sensibilidad de la prueba fue de 86% con sueros permanentes con Leishmaniasis peruana.

  4. Leishmaniose tegumentar americana: estudo clínico, epidemiológico e laboratorial realizado no Hospital Universitário de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil American cutaneous leishmaniasis: clinical, epidemiological and laboratory studies conducted at a university teaching hospital in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Dias Negrão Murback

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana é zoonose de manifestações clínicas variadas, em expansão no Brasil, sendo o estado de Mato Grosso do Sul importante área endêmica. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar clínica, epidemiológica e laboratorialmente pacientes com Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana , atendidos no Hospital Universitário Maria Aparecida Pedrossian, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil (HU/UFMS. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo observacional do tipo transversal com abordagem descritiva e analítica. Foram avaliados, retrospectivamente, dados de pacientes suspeitos de Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana , atendidos no HU/UFMS de 1998 a 2008, e encaminhados ao Laboratório de Parasitologia/UFMS para complementação diagnóstica. Para a inclusão neste estudo foram considerados critérios clínicos e laboratoriais. RESULTADOS: Quarenta e sete pacientes foram incluídos no estudo. Houve predominância de homens de 45 a 59 anos, com a forma cutânea, lesão única, ulcerada, em áreas expostas do corpo e com duração menor que seis meses. O comprometimento de mucosas foi crescente com o aumento da idade e maior em pacientes que procuraram atendimento tardiamente. Intradermorreação de Montenegro foi o exame de maior sensibilidade e o encontro do parasito mostrou-se mais difícil em lesões antigas. CONCLUSÃO: Suspeição diagnóstica precoce é de extrema importância para diagnóstico preciso. Associação de exame parasitológico e imunológico torna mais seguro o diagnóstico laboratorial.BACKGROUND: American cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease with a wide variety of clinical manifestations that is expanding throughout Brazil, the state of Mato Grosso do Sul constituting a significant endemic area. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical, epidemiological and laboratory characteristics of patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis. Patients were recruited among those attending the Maria Aparecida Pedrossian Teaching

  5. Treatment strategies for mucocutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Emilio Palumbo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucocutaneous is an infection caused by a single celled parasite transmitted by sand fly bites. There are about 20 species of Leishmania that may cause mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Some Leishmania species are closely linked to humans and are therefore found in cities (L. tropica whereas some others are more traditionally associated with animal species and therefore considered zoonoses (L. major. The evidence for optimal treatment of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is patchy. Although the cutaneous form of the disease is often self-limiting, it does result in significant scarring and can spread to more invasive, mucocutaneous disease. Therefore, treatment may be considered to prevent these complications. Drugs for systemic and topical treatment are presented and discussed with regard to their application, use and adverse effects.

  6. Leishmaniasis cutis:report of two cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ke-jian; LIU Yue-hua; FANG Kai

    2005-01-01

    @@ Leishmaniasis cutis is a chronic dermatosis resulting from infestation by Leishmania of the skin.The diagnosis could not be established until a biopsy specimen revealed Leishman-Donovan(LD)bodies.We report two cases of leishmaniasis cutis diagnosed and treated recently in our department.

  7. Sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in an area of leishmaniasis transmission in the municipality of Rio Branco, state of Acre, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Araujo-Pereira, Thais; Fuzari, Andressa A; Filho, José Dilermado Andrade; de Pita-Pereira, Daniela; Britto, Constança; Reginaldo P Brazil

    2014-01-01

    Background Notifications concerning American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis have increased in recent years in the state of Acre, Brazil. Despite identification of distinct Leishmania species isolated from cutaneous lesions, there are still no records of visceral leishmaniasis in the state. However, studies on the sand fly fauna in this region are still limited. Findings Insects were collected from April 2011 to April 2012, using HP light traps distributed in four residential areas and one recreation...

  8. Oral mucosal involvement in visceral leishmaniasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunny Garg; Richik Tripathi; Kamlakar Tripathi

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis affects both the visceral and cutaneous tissues in body.OralMucosal involvement in leishmaniasis is rare and is often overlooked.We present a case17 year old boy from the north east region ofBihar who has a history of visceral leishmaniasis one year back, came to the department of oral surgery for treatment of persistent oral ulcers.Oral examination did not give any diagnostic information while systemic examination revealed enlarged spleen and low grade fever.Patient was screened for leishmaniasis by rK39 based immunochromatographic strip test which came to be positive.Biopsy of the ulcer as well as splenic and bone marrow aspirate confirmed the presence of leishmaniasis.Patient was administeredAmphotericinB for20 days following which significant clinical and haematological improvement followed.

  9. Ecological Aspects of Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) in Areas of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, in the Municipality of Paraty, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. I-Index of Abundance by Location and Type of Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, V R; Azevedo, A C R; Alves, J R C; Guimarães, A E; Aguiar, G M

    2015-09-01

    The description of the first and autochthonous case of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis in the municipality of Paraty, State of Rio de Janeiro, brought the interest of this study. Sand flies were captured over a 3-yr period. Using manual suction tubes, sand flies were collected from the inner and outer walls of homes, in the living spaces of domestic animals, and in Shannon light traps, which were set up outside homes and in the forest. CDC light traps were installed inside homes, around the exterior of the houses, and along the divide and within the forest. A total of 102,937 sand flies were collected, representing 23 species--three from the genus Brumptomyia and 20 from the genus Lutzomyia. Of these, six species, Lutzomyia intermedia, Lutzomyia fischeri, Lutzomyia migonei, Lutzomyia whitmani, and Lutzomyia pessoai have already been recorded as being naturally infected by Leishmania braziliensis, and one species, Lutzomyia ayrozai, by Leishmania naiffi. Lu. intermedia is the vector of Le. braziliensis in the study area, particularly inside the homes and on the exterior of the houses. Lu. fischeri can also act as vector of Le. braziliensis in domestic environments and particularly in the wild. The third-ranked Lu. migonei was the most abundant in kennels, suggesting its canine affinity. Lu. whitmani, ranked fourth, still has characteristics indicative of the wild, but with a significant number located on the edge of the forest, suggesting a selection process of adaptation to the anthropic environment.

  10. Leishmaniasis in the genital area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CABELLO Ismery

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Two patients from the gold mines of Bolivar State, Venezuela, presenting cutaneous leishmaniasis in the genital region, an unusual location, are described. The first patient showed an ulcerated lesion of the glans penis. Leishmanin skin test was positive. A biopsy specimen revealed a granulomatous infiltrate containing Leishmania parasites. In the second patient, Leishmanin skin test was positive, HIV and VDRL were negative. Leishmania parasites were present in a biopsy of an ulcerated lesion in the scrotum, with an indurated base, infiltrative borders with an yellowish exudate. Patients were treated with meglumine antimoniate and the lesions healed.

  11. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis with Unusual Presentation

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    N Bagherani

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nThis case report states a 25-year-old woman, residing in the city of Dezfool, Khuzestan Province, south of Iran with the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in June 2008. Her skin lesion had de­veloped from 8 months earlier as a nodule on her left arm, 1×3 cm in diameter. Because of sever­ity of the lesion, we prescribed meglumine antimoniate intralesionally with giving up her breast feeding. After 6 months follow-up, no recurrence was seen.

  12. Vaccine candidates for leishmaniasis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagill, Rajeev; Kaur, Sukhbir

    2011-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is a diverse group of clinical syndromes caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. The clinical manifestation of the disease varies from self-limiting cutaneous lesions to progressive visceral disease. It is estimated that 350 million people are at risk in 88 countries, with a global incidence of 1-1.5 million cases of cutaneous and 500,000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis. The key control measures mainly rely on early case detection and chemotherapy which has been hampered by the toxicity of drugs, side-effects and by the emergence of drug resistance in parasites. Control of reservoir host and vector is difficult due to operational difficulties and frequent relapses in the host. Therefore, the development of effective and affordable vaccine against leishmaniasis is highly desirable. Although considerable progress has been made over the last decade in understanding immune mechanisms underlying potential candidate antigens, including killed, live attenuated parasites, crude parasites, pure or recombinant Leishmania proteins or DNA encoding leishmanial proteins, as well as immunomodulators from sand fly saliva, very few candidate vaccines have progressed beyond the experimental stage. As such there is no vaccine against any form of human leishmaniasis. In recent years, however, much interest has been stimulated towards vaccination against leishmaniasis focused mainly on cutaneous leishmaniasis with fewer attempts against visceral leishmaniasis.

  13. Leishmaniasis in dogs: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a case of leishmaniasis in a 2.5-month-old dog imported from France. The clinical examination established a generally poor state of health, expressed cachexia, atrophy of the temporal musculature, weakness of movement, as well as abnormally long and brittle nails. There was also hyperkeratosis of the nose tip and paws. A histological examination of biopsy sections of the altered skin parts showed inflammatory changes in the area of the dermis, together with infiltration of macrophages and a smaller number of lymphocytes, plasmocytes and neutrophil granulocytes in the area around the sebaceous glands and hair follicles. The determined changes correspond to superficial dermatitis. Edema followed by partial degeneration of connective-tissue fibers is observed in connective tissue. A smaller number of intracellular parasitic forms was established in mononuclear cells. A smaller number of oval amastigotes with round dark red nucleis were observed in sections stained using the Gimza method in the cytoplasm of macrophages located in the dermis, but also extracellularly. It was concluded that the dog was diseased with leishmaniasis on the grounds of the clinical picture and the microscopic findings.

  14. Recent advances in leishmaniasis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiuman, Tatiana S; Santos, Adriana O; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Filho, Benedito P Dias; Nakamura, Celso V

    2011-08-01

    About 1.5 million new cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis and 500,000 new cases of visceral leishmaniasis occur each year around the world. For over half a century, the clinical forms of the disease have been treated almost exclusively with pentavalent antimonial compounds. In this review, we describe the arsenal available for treating Leishmania infections, as well as recent advances from research on plants and synthetic compounds as source drugs for treating the disease. We also review some new drug-delivery systems for the development of novel chemotherapeutics. We observe that the pharmaceutical industry should employ its modern technologies, which could lead to better use of plants and their extracts, as well as to the development of synthetic and semi-synthetic compounds. New studies have highlighted some biopharmaceutical technologies in the design of the delivery strategy, such as nanoparticles, liposomes, cochleates, and non-specific lipid transfer proteins. These observations serve as a basis to indicate novel routes for the development and design of effective anti-Leishmania drugs.

  15. T-cell response in human leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharazmi, A; Kemp, K; Ismail, A

    1999-01-01

    In the present communication we provide evidence for the existence of a Th1/Th2 dichotomy in the T-cell response to Leishmania antigens in human leishmaniasis. Our data suggest that the pattern of IL-4 and IFN-gamma response is polarised in these patients. Lymphocytes from individuals recovered...... from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) responded by IFN-gamma production following stimulation with Leishmania antigens whereas cells from patients recovered from visceral leishmaniasis (VL) showed a mixed pattern of IFN-gamma and IL-4 responses. The cells producing these cytokines were predominantly CD4......+. Furthermore, IL-10 plays an important role in the development of post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) from VL. The balance between the parasitic-specific T-cell response plays an important regulatory role in determining the outcome of Leishmania infections in humans....

  16. Development of Vaccines against Visceral Leishmaniasis

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    Krystal J. Evans

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease resulting in a global morbidity of 2,090 thousand Disability-Adjusted Life Years and a mortality rate of approximately 60,000 per year. Among the three clinical forms of leishmaniasis (cutaneous, mucosal, and visceral, visceral leishmaniasis (VL accounts for the majority of mortality, as if left untreated VL is almost always fatal. Caused by infection with Leishmania donovani or L. infantum, VL represents a serious public health problem in endemic regions and is rapidly emerging as an opportunistic infection in HIV patients. To date, no vaccine exists for VL or any other form of leishmaniasis. In endemic areas, the majority of those infected do not develop clinical symptoms and past infection leads to robust immunity against reinfection. Thus the development of vaccine for Leishmania is a realistic public health goal, and this paper summarizes advances in vaccination strategies against VL.

  17. Comportamento de Lutzomyia longipalpis, vetor principal da leishmaniose visceral americana, em Campo Grande, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul Behavior of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of American visceral leishmaniasis, in Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Araujo e Silva

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O município de Campo Grande, Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil, apresenta ocorrência de casos humanos e caninos de leishmaniose visceral desde 2002 e é classificado como área com transmissão intensa. O estudo foi realizado no período de maio de 2003 a abril de 2005, em parceria com a Fundação Nacional de Saúde e a Secretaria de Saúde do Estado, com o objetivo de conhecer o comportamento e a sazonalidade da espécie Lutzomyia longipalpis. As capturas foram realizadas com armadilhas luminosas, tipo CDC, em doze estações distribuídas na zona urbana. As estações com maior densidade situam-se na parte sul da cidade e a abundância relativa aumentou durante, ou logo após, as precipitações pluviométricas. Nos meses frios e secos a quantidade foi reduzida e a abundância relativa foi maior no peridomicílio. A borrifação com alphacypermetrina, em intervalos de quatro meses, contribuiu para a diminuição do vetor em três das quatro estações borrifadas e, das oito que não sofreram intervenção química, cinco tiveram aumento.The municipality of Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, has presented cases of canine and human visceral leishmaniasis since 2002, and is classified as an area of intense transmission. This study was carried out from May 2003 to April 2005, in partnership with the National Health Foundation and the State Health Department, with the objective of determining the behavior and seasonality of the species Lutzomyia longipalpis. Captures were accomplished using luminous traps of CDC type, at twelve stations distributed in the urban zone. The stations with the highest population densities were situated in the southern part of the city and the relative abundance increased during or immediately after rainfall. During the cold and dry months, the number of specimens was reduced and the relative abundance was higher in habitats surrounding homes. Spraying with alpha-cypermethrin at four-month intervals

  18. Immunity and immunosuppression in experimental visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goto H.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, and visceral leishmaniasis is a form in which the inner organs are affected. Since knowledge about immunity in experimental visceral leishmaniasis is poor, we present here a review on immunity and immunosuppression in experimental visceral leishmaniasis in mouse and hamster models. We show the complexity of the mechanisms involved and differences when compared with the cutaneous form of leishmaniasis. Resistance in visceral leishmaniasis involves both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and interleukin (IL-2, interferon (IFN- gamma, and IL-12, the latter in a mechanism independent of IFN- gamma and linked to transforming growth factor (TGF-ß production. Susceptibility involves IL-10 but not IL-4, and B cells. In immune animals, upon re-infection, the elements involved in resistance are different, i.e., CD8+ T cells and IL-2. Since one of the immunopathological consequences of active visceral leishmaniasis in humans is suppression of T-cell responses, many studies have been conducted using experimental models. Immunosuppression is mainly Leishmania antigen specific, and T cells, Th2 cells and adherent antigen-presenting cells have been shown to be involved. Interactions of the co-stimulatory molecule family B7-CTLA-4 leading to increased level of TGF-ß as well as apoptosis of CD4+ T cells and inhibition of macrophage apoptosis by Leishmania infection are other components participating in immunosuppression. A better understanding of this complex immune response and the mechanisms of immunosuppression in experimental visceral leishmaniasis will contribute to the study of human disease and to vaccine development.

  19. Case study for a vaccine against leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvar, Jorge; Croft, Simon L; Kaye, Paul; Khamesipour, Ali; Sundar, Shyam; Reed, Steven G

    2013-04-18

    Leishmaniasis in many ways offers a unique vaccine case study. Two reasons for this are that leishmaniasis is a disease complex caused by several different species of parasite that are highly related, thus raising the possibility of developing a single vaccine to protect against multiple diseases. Another reason is the demonstration that a leishmaniasis vaccine may be used therapeutically as well as prophylactically. Although there is no registered human leishmaniasis vaccine today, immunization approaches using live or killed organisms, as well as defined vaccine candidates, have demonstrated at least some degree of efficacy in humans to prevent and to treat some forms of leishmaniasis, and there is a vigorous pipeline of candidates in development. Current approaches include using individual or combined antigens of the parasite or of salivary gland extract of the parasites' insect vector, administered with or without formulation in adjuvant. Animal data obtained with several vaccine candidates are promising and some have been or will be entered into clinical testing in the near future. There is sufficient scientific and epidemiological justification to continue to invest in the development of vaccines against leishmaniasis.

  20. Epidemiology of human leishmaniasis in Greece, 1981-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkolfinopoulou, K; Bitsolas, N; Patrinos, S; Veneti, L; Marka, A; Dougas, G; Pervanidou, D; Detsis, M; Triantafillou, E; Georgakopoulou, T; Billinis, C; Kremastinou, J; Hadjichristodoulou, C

    2013-07-18

    Leishmaniasis is endemic and mandatorily notifiable in Greece. Epidemiological surveillance data for leishmaniasis in Greece between 1981 and 2011 are presented. In 1998, the notification system began distinguishing between visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis. The mean annual incidence of reported leishmaniasis cases between 1998 and 2011 was 0.36 per 100,000 population. Of a total 563 leishmaniasis cases reported after 1998, 523 (93%) were visceral leishmaniasis cases. Incidence of reported visceral leishmaniasis cases fluctuated during this period, generally decreasing after 2007, with a small re-increase in 2011. The mean annual incidence rate of reported visceral leishmaniasis cases was significantly higher in less than four year-olds (p islands. Between 1998 and 2011, Attica concentrated almost half of the reported visceral leishmaniasis cases, with incidence rates in western Attica and western Athens above 12.00 per 100,000 population. Compared to visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis had a rather sporadic distribution, with many prefectures appearing free of cases. From 2004, the notification also included risk factors and of 287 cases with known immune status, 44 (15%) were immunocompromised. Moreover having a dog at home was reported by 209 of 312 leishmaniasis cases (67%), whereas 229 of 307 cases (75%) reported the presence of stray dogs near their residence. Linking clinical surveillance data with laboratory data and improving collaboration with the veterinary public health sector are some of the future challenges for leishmaniasis surveillance in Greece.

  1. Estudo clínico, epidemiológico e terapêutico de 402 pacientes com leishmaniose tegumentar americana atendidos no Hospital Universitário de Brasília, DF, Brasil Clinical, epidemiological and therapeuthic study of 402 patients with american cutaneous leishmaniasis attended at University Hospital of Brasilia, DF, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Querido Name

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A leishmaniose tegumentar americana é doença em expansão no Brasil. A região Centro-Oeste é hoje a terceira em incidência e a primeira em crescimento da doença. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar pacientes com leishmaniose tegumentar americana atendidos no Hospital Universitário de Brasília, quanto a aspectos clinicoepidemiológicos e resposta ao tratamento com antimonial pentavalente. MÉTODOS: Estudo do tipo série de casos de 402 pacientes, segundo sexo, idade, ocupação, procedência, formas clínicas, métodos de diagnóstico, tratamento com antimonial pentavalente e efeitos colaterais, no período de 1/1/1994 a 28/2/2003. O acompanhamento foi de um ano pós-tratamento. RESULTADOS: Predomínio de homens, lavradores, de 20 a 39 anos, com a forma cutânea. A eficácia do antimonial foi maior em pacientes com forma cutânea tratados até seis meses depois do início dos sintomas, e em pacientes do sexo feminino (diferenças estatisticamente significativas na análise multivariada. O mesmo ocorreu para pacientes com forma mucocutânea, mas sem diferença estatística significante. Alterações eletrocardiográficas foram mais freqüentes no grupo tratado com 20mg SbV/kg/dia por 30 dias em relação ao tratado por 20 dias. Eosinofilia ocorreu em 17,5% dos casos. CONCLUSÕES: Tratamento precoce, sexo feminino e a forma cutânea apresentaram índices mais elevados de cura. Alterações do eletrocardiograma aumentaram com o tempo de tratamento com antimoniais. A eosinofilia como efeito colateral ao uso do antimonial merece maior investigação.BACKGROUND: American cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease with high prevalence and incidence in Brazil. The Brazilian Central-Western Region currently holds the third largest incidence and the first growth rate of this disease in the country. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate clinical, epidemiological and treatment features of patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis seen at the University Hospital of Bras

  2. Treatment Approaches for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Aytekin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a widespread tropical infection caused by numerous different species of Leishmania protozoa. In our country, CL is due frequently to L. major and L. tropica. Its clinical presentation is extremely diverse. Treatment of CL aims to prevent mucosal invasion, to accelerate the healing of skin lesions, and avoid disfiguring scar. Local and physical treatment modalities including topical paromomycin, cryotherapy, localized controlled heat, carbon dioxide laser therapy, or pentavalant antimonals can be effective against. Intralesional antimonals are still the drug of choice may patients. WHO recommends an injection of drug under edges of the lesions and the entire lesion until the surface has blanched. Parenteral antimonials are useful for large, persistent or recurrent lesions. Combinations with other drugs such as allopurinol, pentoxifylline must be used for antimony unresponsive lesions.

  3. Leishmaniasis: vaccine candidates and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhawana; Sundar, Shyam

    2012-06-06

    Leishmania is a protozoan parasite and a causative agent of the various clinical forms of leishmaniasis. High cost, resistance and toxic side effects of traditional drugs entail identification and development of therapeutic alternatives. The sound understanding of parasite biology is key for identifying novel drug targets, that can induce the cell mediated immunity (mainly CD4+ and CD8+ IFN-gamma mediated responses) polarized towards a Th1 response. These aspects are important in designing a new vaccine along with the consideration of the candidates with respect to their ability to raise memory response in order to improve the vaccine performance. This review is an effort to identify molecules according to their homology with the host and their ability to be used as potent vaccine candidates.

  4. Association of the Endobiont Double-Stranded RNA Virus LRV1 With Treatment Failure for Human Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania braziliensis in Peru and Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaui, Vanessa; Lye, Lon-Fye; Akopyants, Natalia S; Zimic, Mirko; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Garcia, Lineth; Maes, Ilse; De Doncker, Simonne; Dobson, Deborah E; Arevalo, Jorge; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Beverley, Stephen M

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis, caused in South America by Leishmania braziliensis, is difficult to cure by chemotherapy (primarily pentavalent antimonials [Sb(V)]). Treatment failure does not correlate well with resistance in vitro, and the factors responsible for treatment failure in patients are not well understood. Many isolates of L. braziliensis (>25%) contain a double-stranded RNA virus named Leishmaniavirus 1 (LRV1), which has also been reported in Leishmania guyanensis, for which an association with increased pathology, metastasis, and parasite replication was found in murine models. Here we probed the relationship of LRV1 to drug treatment success and disease in 97 L. braziliensis-infected patients from Peru and Bolivia. In vitro cultures were established, parasites were typed as L. braziliensis, and the presence of LRV1 was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, followed by sequence analysis. LRV1 was associated significantly with an increased risk of treatment failure (odds ratio, 3.99; P = .04). There was no significant association with intrinsic Sb(V) resistance among parasites, suggesting that treatment failure arises from LRV1-mediated effects on host metabolism and/or parasite survival. The association of LRV1 with clinical drug treatment failure could serve to guide more-effective treatment of tegumentary disease caused by L. braziliensis.

  5. Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    particle. Nevertheless, compared to amphotericin B deoxycholate, all three new formulations of lipidassociated amphotericin B do seem to be more...in Table 3. This table indicates that for both new formulations of amphotericin B, the site of increased tissue deposition is primarily the liver...1983. 54. Wlebe, V. J. and D’Gregorlo, M. W., Liposome encapsulated amphotericin B: a prom- ising new treatment for disseminated fungal infections

  6. Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... culture Montenegro skin test (not approved in the United States) Skin biopsy and culture Other tests that may be done include: Complete blood count Serologic testing Serum albumin Serum immunoglobulin levels ...

  7. Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Respond to Pre-Award Requests Manage Your Award Negotiation & Initial Award After Award ... New Trial Launched in West Africa to Evaluate Three Vaccination Strategies , April 6, 2017 Monoclonal Antibody Cures Marburg Infection ...

  8. L. (L. chagasi in aids and visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar co-infection L. (L. chagasi em lesões cutâneas na co-infecção aids-calazar

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    Ana Maria Roselino

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Concomitant skin lesions in visceral leishmaniasis (VL or kala-azar are rare, being more common the description of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis occurring post treatment of kala-azar. Skin lesions caused by Leishmania donovani are frequently seen in the aids-VL co-infection. In Brazil cutaneous or mucosal forms of tegumentary leishmaniasis concomitant with aids are more commonly registered. Here we present a case of aids-VL co-infection, with unusual cutaneous and digestive compromising attributed to L. (L. chagasi, with special attention to ecthymatous aspect of the lesion, allied to the absence of parasite on the histological skin biopsy.Lesões cutâneas, na vigência da leishmaniose visceral (LV ou calazar, são raramente observadas, sendo mais comum a ocorrência após o tratamento do calazar, conhecidas como lesões dérmicas pós calazar. Lesões cutâneas causadas por Leishmania donovani são freqüentemente observadas na co-infecção AIDS-LV. No Brasil, a concomitância das formas cutânea ou mucosa da leishmaniose tegumentar com a AIDS é mais comumente relatada. A seguir, relata-se um caso de co-infecção AIDS-LV com inusitado comprometimento digestivo e cutâneo, atribuído a L. (L. chagasi, chamando a atenção para o aspecto ectimatóide da lesão cutânea, aliado à ausência do parasito ao exame histopatológico da pele.

  9. Concomitant early mucosal and cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaventura, Viviane S; Cafe, Virginia; Costa, Jackson; Oliveira, Fabiano; Bafica, Andre; Rosato, Andrea; de Freitas, Luiz A R; Brodskyn, Claudia; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Barral, Aldina

    2006-08-01

    Mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) is often clinically silent until reaching a highly advanced state. In this prospective study, 6 of 220 patients with early cutaneous leishmaniasis were diagnosed with mucosal involvement by otorhinolaryngological examination (a rate similar to the reported rate of late ML). Detection of early ML may represent an important strategy in preventing severe mucosal destruction in human leishmaniasis.

  10. Vaccines for visceral leishmaniasis: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Keerti; Jain, N K

    2015-07-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis, which is also known as Kala-Azar, is one of the most severely neglected tropical diseases recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO). The threat of this debilitating disease continues due to unavailability of promising drug therapy or human vaccine. An extensive research is undergoing to develop a promising vaccine to prevent this devastating disease. In this review we compiled the findings of recent research with a view to facilitate knowledge on experimental vaccinology for visceral leishmaniasis. Various killed or attenuated parasite based first generation vaccines, second generation vaccines based on antigenic protein or recombinant protein, and third generation vaccines derived from antigen-encoding DNA plasmids including heterologous prime-boost Leishmania vaccine have been examined for control and prevention of visceral leishmaniasis. Vaccines based on recombinant protein and antigen-encoding DNA plasmids have given promising results and few vaccines including Leishmune®, Leishtec, and CaniLeish® have been licensed for canine visceral leishmaniasis. A systematic investigation of these vaccine candidates can lead to development of promising vaccine for human visceral leishmaniasis, most probably in the near future.

  11. [Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Minas Gerais].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Edelberto Santos; França-Silva, João Carlos; da Silva, Jaime Costa; Monteiro, Erika Michalsky; de Paula, Kenia Maria; Gonçalves, Caroline Macedo; Barata, Ricardo Andrade

    2007-01-01

    Between January and December 2000, systematic monthly capture of phlebotomine sandflies was undertaken by means of light traps of CDC type in Brejo do Mutambal, an endemic area for American cutaneous leishmaniasis located in the municipality of Varzelândia, State of Minas Gerais. Nineteen phlebotomine species were captured, totaling 6,756 specimens. The species correlated with ACL transmission were captured in low numbers, as follows: Lutzomyia intermedia (5.1%), L. migonei (0.4%) and L. whitmani (0.1%). Lutzomyia longipalpis was the predominant species captured (34.8%), thus also suggesting a risk of visceral leishmaniasis transmission. The proportion of sandflies captured in areas surrounding homes was 91.7 % while 8.3% were captured inside homes. The interference of climatic factors (temperature, relative air humidity and rainfall) on phlebotomine population dynamics was evaluated.

  12. Molecular Epidemiology for Vector Research on Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotomo Kato

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a protozoan disease caused by the genus Leishmania transmitted by female phlebotomine sand flies. Surveillance of the prevalence of Leishmania and responsive vector species in endemic and surrounding areas is important for predicting the risk and expansion of the disease. Molecular biological methods are now widely applied to epidemiological studies of infectious diseases including leishmaniasis. These techniques are used to detect natural infections of sand fly vectors with Leishmania protozoa and are becoming powerful tools due to their sensitivity and specificity. Recently, genetic analyses have been performed on sand fly species and genotyping using PCR-RFLP has been applied to the sand fly taxonomy. In addition, a molecular mass screening method has been established that enables both sand fly species and natural leishmanial infections to be identified simultaneously in hundreds of sand flies with limited effort. This paper reviews recent advances in the study of sand flies, vectors of leishmaniasis, using molecular biological approaches.

  13. Leishmaniasis vaccines: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modabber, Farrokh

    2010-11-01

    No vaccine exists against any form of leishmaniasis. Because recovery from infection is usually accompanied by a strong immunity and because it is possible to protect experimental animals against live challenge, hope for the development of a vaccine for humans has been high. However, leishmaniasis is a disease of the poor and the market for a vaccine is very limited. Until a few years ago, with minimal resources, only a pragmatic approach was possible for testing the first-generation vaccines (i.e. killed whole parasites). Recently, funding has become available for developing defined second-generation vaccines, including recombinant proteins and DNA constructs. With new adjuvants also being developed there is new hope, and several new vaccines are in development against leishmaniasis.

  14. Leishmaniasis visceral: senderos que confluyen, se bifurcan

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Daniel Salomón; Andrea Verónica Mastrángelo; María Soledad Santini; Silvina Ruvinsky; Tomás Orduna; Angel Sinagra; Concepción Luna; Adelina Riarte; Natalia Casas; Paola Amiotti

    2012-01-01

    La leishmaniasis visceral urbana es una zoonosis emergente en Argentina. En América es producida por Leishmania infantum, con el perro como reservorio principal e insectos flebotomíneos como vectores. En este artículo se presenta el conocimiento acumulado a partir de su emergencia y dispersión en el país, por los referentes del Programa Nacional de Leishmaniasis, en el diagnóstico clínico y de laboratorio, tratamiento, biología de vectores, manejo de reservorio, y el conflicto generado con la...

  15. Intraretinal hemorrhage associated with visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de Aragão

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Visceral Leishmaniasis, also know as Kala-azar, is a parasitic tropical disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania donovani. It is an endemic disease in many countries. It affects approximately 1,5 million people every year, and when associated with mal-nutrition and co-infection it may be fatal. Fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia is its typical clinical picture. Ocular manifestations of Kalaazar are relatively rare and can affect either anterior or posterior segment of the eye. We report a patient with kala-azar presenting intraretinal hemorrhages that regress completely after the successful treatment for visceral leishmaniasis.

  16. Vigilância de leishmaniose visceral americana em cães de área não endêmica, São Paulo Surveillance of American visceral leishmaniasis in dogs from a non-endemic area, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa San Martin Mouriz Savani

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se inquérito sorológico em cães domiciliados e errantes do Município de São José do Rio Preto, SP, para identificar animais infectados e detectar a possibilidade de transmissão da leishmaniose visceral americana. De novembro de 1998 a junho de 2000, 2.104 amostras de soros foram testadas por meio da reação de imunofluorescência indireta, empregando-se como antígeno formas promastigotas de Leishmania (L. chagasi. Observaram-se 2.092 amostras não reagentes e 12 reagentes. Dos cães com sorologia positiva foi possível realizar raspados de lesão em três animais. O material fixado em lâminas foi corado por Giemsa e, em apenas um, foram encontradas formas amastigotas características de Leishmania sp. Este resultado indica a necessidade de manutenção da vigilância sorológica canina e entomológica no município de São José do Rio Preto, a fim de detectar, precocemente, qualquer alteração na epidemiologia local.A serological survey among domestic and stray dogs of the municipality of São José do Rio Preto, Brazil, was conducted to identify infected animals and detect the chances of transmitting the American visceral leishmaniasis . From November 1998 to June 2000, 2,104 sera samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescence reaction, using as antigen promastigotes of Leishmania (L. chagasi. There were 2,092 no reactive samples and 12 reactive ones. Of the dogs with reactive serum it was possible to prepare lesion smears in only 3. The slide was stained by Giemsa method and only in one of them it was found amastigotes forms characteristic of Leishmania sp. This finding suggests the need of canine serological and entomological surveillance in São José do Rio Preto for an early detection of any local epidemiological changes.

  17. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in children with visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blázquez-Gamero, Daniel; Domínguez-Pinilla, Nerea; Chicharro, Carmen; Negreira, Sagrario; Galán, Pilar; Pérez-Gorricho, Beatriz; Calvo, Cristina; Prieto, Luis; De la Parte, María; Otheo, Enrique; Vivanco, Jose Luis; Ruiz-Contreras, Jesús

    2015-06-01

    Acquired hemophagocytic lymphohistiocitosis (HLH) syndrome can be a complication of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). A multicenter prospective study was conducted to determine the frequency of HLH syndrome in children with VL. Twenty-four children with VL were identified, and 10 (41%) developed HLH syndrome. VL should be ruled out in all children with HLH criteria living in or coming from endemic areas.

  18. Social and Economic Burden of Human Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwor, Ifeoma; Uzonna, Jude

    2016-03-01

    Leishmaniasis continues to pose a major public health problem worldwide. With new epidemics occurring in endemic areas and the spread of the disease to previously free areas because of migration, tourism, and military activities, there is a great need for the development of an effective vaccine. Leishmaniasis is a disease of the poor, occurring mostly in remote rural villages with poor housing and little or no access to modern health-care facilities. In endemic areas, diagnosis of any form of leishmaniasis puts a huge financial strain on an already meagre financial resource at both the individual and community levels. Most often families need to sell their assets (land and livestock) or take loans from informal financial outfits with heavy interest rates to pay for the diagnosis and treatment of leishmaniasis. Here, we discuss the disease with special emphasis on its socioeconomic impact on the affected individual and community. In addition, we highlight the reasons why continued research aimed at developing an effective Leishmania vaccine is necessary.

  19. Sexual and vertical transmission of visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchetti, Andreia P; Souza, Tayse D; Paixão, Tatiane A; Santos, Renato L

    2014-04-15

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important zoonosis caused by Leishmania infantum, which has in the domestic dog its principal vertebrate host. VL is usually transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies, however atypical routes of transmission have been described. In this review we discuss the the role of sexual and vertical transmissions, and their role in the maintenance of VL in canine populations.

  20. [Visceral leishmaniasis: not only a tropical disease].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuperus, F.J.C.; Oosterwijk, P.R.; Vos, A.; Remijn, J.A.; Dobbenburgh, A. van; Bisseling, T.M.

    2013-01-01

    We report 2 cases of visceral leishmaniasis in Dutch patients after a stay in Greece and the former Yugoslavia, respectively. Patient A, a 69-year-old woman, was referred to our department with abdominal pain. Additional examinations were suggestive of chronic liver disease. After a liver biopsy, wh

  1. Mefloquine in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correia Dalmo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated orally with a mefloquine dose of 4.2mg/kg/day for six days in the Teaching Hospital of the Faculdade de Medicina do Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, MG, Brazil. Three weeks later a new series was repeated. No patient was cured.

  2. Leishmaniasis visceral: senderos que confluyen, se bifurcan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Daniel Salomón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La leishmaniasis visceral urbana es una zoonosis emergente en Argentina. En América es producida por Leishmania infantum, con el perro como reservorio principal e insectos flebotomíneos como vectores. En este artículo se presenta el conocimiento acumulado a partir de su emergencia y dispersión en el país, por los referentes del Programa Nacional de Leishmaniasis, en el diagnóstico clínico y de laboratorio, tratamiento, biología de vectores, manejo de reservorio, y el conflicto generado con las acciones recomendadas en relación con los perros infectados. La detección temprana y el tratamiento precoz, con estrategias descentralizadas y horizontales, contribuirán a disminuir la morbimortalidad asociada a la leishmaniasis visceral. El control de su transmisión y dispersión requiere de un manejo ambiental integral y la tenencia responsable de perros. Se discuten los intereses y discursos en conflicto generados por la leishmaniasis visceral en el marco de la relación humano-perro, proponiendo la búsqueda de un discurso consensuado de riesgo.

  3. Diagnosis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis by Multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Heiat

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Annually, more than 14 million people are reported to be infected with Leishmaniasis all over the world. In Iran, this disease is seen in the form of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, of which the cutaneous form is more wide spread. In recent years, cutaneous leishmaniaisis is diagnosed by PCR utilizing specific primers in order to amplify different parasite genes including ribosomal RNA genes, kinetoplast DNA or tandem repeating sequences. The aim of this research was to detect early stage cutaneous leishmaniasis using Multiplex-PCR technique. Methods: In this study, 67 samples were prepared from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. DNA was extracted with phenolchloroform. Each specimen was analyzed using two different pairs of PCR primers. The sensitivity of each PCR was optimized on pure Leishmania DNA prior to use for diagnosis. Two standard parasites L. major and L. tropica were used as positive control. Results: DNA amplification fragments were two 115 bp and 683 bp for AB and UL primers, respectively. The sensitivity of two primers was not equal for detection of L. major and L. tropica. The sensivity of PCR with AB primer was 35 cells, while that for UL primer was 40 cells. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that PCR is a sensitive diagnostic assay for cutaneous leishmaniasis and could be employed as the new standard for routine diagnosis when species identification is not required. However, the ability to identify species is especially important in prognosis of the disease and in deciding appropriate therapy, especially in regions where more than one type of species and disease are seen by clinicians.

  4. [Visceral leishmaniasis in an HIV positive patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiere-Echazarreta, Natalia Lorena; Rodríguez-Campos, Esther Alicia; Morales-Esponda, Mario; Domínguez-Moreno, Rogelio; Cruz-Ortiz, Margarita; Rodríguez-Guzmán, Leoncio Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: la leishmaniasis visceral o kala azar es la presentación clínica más grave. En México, es una enfermedad rara por lo que su diagnóstico es tardío y generalmente culmina en la muerte del paciente. Se describe a un paciente VIH positivo que desarrolló leishmaniasis visceral. El objetivo es explicar sus características fisiopatológicas y de su tratamiento. Caso clínico: hombre de 45 años de edad, quien ingresó al hospital por cuadro crónico de diarrea sanguinolenta, distensión abdominal, dolor tipo cólico, pérdida de peso y fiebre. A la exploración física se identificó paciente febril con dolor en fosa iliaca derecha y hepatoesplenomegalia. La prueba ELISA para VIH resultó positiva y el ultrasonido hizo evidente una tumoración en ciego, por lo que se realizó biopsia. El informe histopatológico indicó que se trataba de leishmaniasis. Conclusiones: en los pacientes con leishmaniasis e infección por VIH existe pobre respuesta al tratamiento y la mortalidad es alta, causada por la menor respuesta inmune del huésped. En la literatura especializada se sugiere el tratamiento establecido para la infección por VIH combinado con miltefosine y anfotericina B liposomal para la leishmaniasis.

  5. Infectivity of seropositive dogs, showing different clinical forms of leishmaniasis, to Lutzomyia longipalpis phlebotomine sand flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalsky, Erika Monteiro; Rocha, Marília Fonseca; da Rocha Lima, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano; França-Silva, João Carlos; Pires, Marize Quinhone; Oliveira, Fernanda Santos; Pacheco, Raquel Silva; dos Santos, Sara Lopes; Barata, Ricardo Andrade; Romanha, Alvaro José; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2007-06-20

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a growing zoonosis with an increasing number of new cases and a rapid geographical spreading of the disease. In the present study, a canine survey was carried out in the city of Montes Claros (320,000 inhabitants), an endemic area of American visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total number of 4795 dogs were examined by serology, which showed a rate of seropositivity of 5%. Isoenzymatic analysis confirmed Leishmania infantum chagasi as the local aetiological agent of CVL. Canine tissues were assayed for the presence of Leishmania parasite DNA using different techniques. The infectivity of asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic and symptomatic seropositive dogs was tested by xenodiagnosis using laboratory reared Lutzomyia longipalpis. Rates of infection of 5.4%, 5.1% and 28.4% were found for the phlebotomine sand flies that fed in asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic and symptomatic dogs, respectively. Our results indicate that, under experimental conditions, symptomatic dogs are about four times more infective to VL vectors than oligosymptomatic or asymptomatic animals. The lower infectivity rates of dogs displaying any of the last two clinical forms of leishmaniasis, however, must be taken into account in the epidemiology of CVL.

  6. Thermoterapy effective and safer than miltefosine in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana López

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, pentavalent antimonials and miltefosine are the drugs of choice for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis; however, their toxicity, treatment duration, (treatment adherence problems, cost, and decreased parasite sensitivity make the search for alternative treatments of American cutaneous leishmaniasis necessary. Based on the results found in a controlled, open, randomized, phase III clinical trial, the efficacy and safety of miltefosine was compared to that of thermotherapy for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia. Adult patients from the Colombian army participated in the study; they received either 50 mg of miltefosine three times per day for 28 days by the oral route (n = 145 or a thermotherapy (Thermomed® application of 50 °C for 30 seconds over the lesion and surrounding area (n = 149. Both groups were comparable with respect to their sociodemographic, clinical, and parasitological characteristics. The efficacy of miltefosine by protocol and by intention to treat was 70% (85/122 patients and 69% (85/145 patients, respectively. The adverse effects were primarily gastrointestinal for miltefosine and pain at the lesion site after treatment for thermotherapy. No statistically significant difference was found in the efficacy analysis (intention to treat and protocol between the two treatments. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00471705.

  7. Lacrimal excretory system sequelae in patients treated for leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyama,Erika; Schellini,Silvana Artioli; Stolf,Hamilton Ometo; Nakajima,Vitor

    2006-01-01

    Leishmaniasis infection may involve destruction of nasal tissues resulting in lacrimal drainage system alteration. PURPOSE: To evaluate the frequency of lacrimal excretory system sequelae in patients treated for leishmaniasis. METHODS: Forty-five leishmaniasis-treated patients (90 nasolacrimal ducts) were submitted to lacrimal excretory system evaluation. All were evaluated by Jones I test and when it was abnormal, dacryocystography and nasal endoscopy were performed. This situation occurred ...

  8. Liposomal amphotericin B as a treatment for human leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Balasegaram, Manica; Ritmeijer, Koert; Lima, Maria Angeles; Burza, Sakib; Ortiz Genovese, Gemma; Milani, Barbara; Gaspani, Sara; Potet, Julien; Chappuis, François

    2012-01-01

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. Between 700,000 and 1.2 million cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis and between 200,000 and 400,000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which is fatal if left untreated, occur annually worldwide. Liposomal amphotericin B (LAMB), alone or in combination with other drugs, has been extensively studied as VL treatment, but data on routine field use are limited, and several challenges to patients' acc...

  9. Visceral leishmaniasis diagnosed in a patient with MALT lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Jeanette; Nørgaard, Peter; Himmelstrup, B

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of visceral leishmaniasis in a 66-year-old female with a history of MALT lymphoma in the gastrointestinal tract. The patient presented with major hemorrhage per rectum and perforation of the small intestine. Due to unexplained decreasing platelets, lymphoma bone marrow involvement...... was suspected and bone marrow examination was performed. Surprisingly, Leishman-Donovan bodies were detected. The low platelet count, caused by the combination of MALT lymphoma and visceral leishmaniasis, appears to have aggravated the symptoms of the intestinal lymphoma. Leishmaniasis should be suspected even...... among asymptomatic patients with immune compromising illnesses and a travel history to areas where leishmaniasis is endemic....

  10. Bone marrow leishmaniasis: a review of situation in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2011-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is an important tropical vector-borne disease. This infection can be seen in tropical area and it is considered to be one of the most important vector-borne infections at present. The general situation of the leishmaniasis in Thailand is hereby reviewed. Although Thailand is a tropical country, the leishmaniasis is not endemic but sporadic. The imported cases are documented in some literatures. The serious form of leishmaniasis, the visceral leishmaniasis is also detectable in Thailand. Also, the author performed an in depth literature review of the reports of bone marrow leishmaniasis, a specific kind of visceral leishmaniasis, in Thailand in order to summarize the characteristics of this infection among Thai patients. According to this review, there have been at least 5 reports in the literature of 6 cases of bone marrow leishmaniasis in the Thai population, of which no case was lethal. Concerning the clinical manifestations, all except had prolonged fever with unknown origin. From physical examination, all had hepatosplenomegaly. The striking findings were active hemophagocytosis with increased proliferation of lymphoidplasma cell line in the bone marrow and amastigotes of Leishmania donovani was demonstrated. Considering the treatment, pantavalent antimony compound was used and the excellent improvement and complete recovery. Finally, the author also discussed on the importance of leishmaniasis in Thailand relating to the present globalization and good traveling system.

  11. Immunogenicity of the P-8 amastigote antigen in the experimental model of canine visceral leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo, E.; S. Ahmed; Goldsmith-Pestana, K.; Nieto, J; Y Osorio; Travi,B; Moreno, J; McMahon-Pratt, D

    2006-01-01

    The P-8 proteoglycolipid complex (P-8 PGLC), an amastigote antigen of L. pifanoi, has been demonstrated to induce protection in mouse models, as well as to induce Tc1/Th1-like cellular responses in American cutaneous leishmaniasis patients. Because the immunization with P-8 PGLC in the murine model does not appear to be genetically restricted, we have studied the reactivity of the P-8 PGLC in L. infantum infected dogs. In this study, it is shown that PBMC from experimentally infected dogs (as...

  12. Evaluation of informative materials on leishmaniasis distributed in Brazil: criteria and basis for the production and improvement of health education materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zélia Maria Profeta da Luz

    Full Text Available Based on categories related to structure, content, language, and illustrations, the present study provides an evaluation of the quality of educational materials on leishmaniasis available to health services in Brazil. The 18 publications evaluated consisted of four handbooks, four guided studies, four booklets, and six leaflets. Of the total publications assessed, nine were produced by the Brazilian National Health Foundation (FUNASA, five by State and Municipal Health Departments jointly with FUNASA, and one by the Pan-American Health Organization. The evaluations were also performed by three professionals: a physician specialized in leishmaniasis, a parasitologist, and an information/communications expert. The publications failed to specify key items such as target public, objective, and bibliography. The illustrations, especially in the booklets and leaflets, failed to clarify the text, portrayed biased concepts, and omitted credits and scale. According to this study, informative materials on leishmaniasis distributed in Brazil present major limitations which jeopardize the quality of information they contain.

  13. Evaluation of informative materials on leishmaniasis distributed in Brazil: criteria and basis for the production and improvement of health education materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, Zélia Maria Profeta; Pimenta, Denise Nacif; Rabello, Ana; Schall, Virgínia

    2003-01-01

    Based on categories related to structure, content, language, and illustrations, the present study provides an evaluation of the quality of educational materials on leishmaniasis available to health services in Brazil. The 18 publications evaluated consisted of four handbooks, four guided studies, four booklets, and six leaflets. Of the total publications assessed, nine were produced by the Brazilian National Health Foundation (FUNASA), five by State and Municipal Health Departments jointly with FUNASA, and one by the Pan-American Health Organization. The evaluations were also performed by three professionals: a physician specialized in leishmaniasis, a parasitologist, and an information/communications expert. The publications failed to specify key items such as target public, objective, and bibliography. The illustrations, especially in the booklets and leaflets, failed to clarify the text, portrayed biased concepts, and omitted credits and scale. According to this study, informative materials on leishmaniasis distributed in Brazil present major limitations which jeopardize the quality of information they contain.

  14. Epistaxis in visceral leishmaniasis with hematological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigdel, B; Bhandary, S; Rijal, S

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To study the prevalence of epistaxis in visceral leismaniasis and its correlation with hematological profile. Methods. Out of 80 diagnosed cases of visceral leishmaniasis, 19 patients with epistaxis were included in the study. Diagnosis was made by Rk-39 from peripheral smear and LD bodies from bone marrow. Before starting anti-kala-azar treatment, nasal examination findings and hematological profile were noted. Study Design. Prospective cross-sectional hospital-based study. Results. Epistaxis was found in the age group of 7-66 years. Epistaxis was observed in 19 (23.8%) cases. One patient died because of epistaxis and neck hematoma. Conclusion. Epistaxis is a common ENT finding in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis like our case.

  15. Epistaxis in Visceral Leishmaniasis with Hematological Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sigdel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the prevalence of epistaxis in visceral leismaniasis and its correlation with hematological profile. Methods. Out of 80 diagnosed cases of visceral leishmaniasis, 19 patients with epistaxis were included in the study. Diagnosis was made by Rk-39 from peripheral smear and LD bodies from bone marrow. Before starting anti-kala-azar treatment, nasal examination findings and hematological profile were noted. Study Design. Prospective cross-sectional hospital-based study. Results. Epistaxis was found in the age group of 7–66 years. Epistaxis was observed in 19 (23.8% cases. One patient died because of epistaxis and neck hematoma. Conclusion. Epistaxis is a common ENT finding in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis like our case.

  16. Current scenario of drug development for leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Simon L; Seifert, Karin; Yardley, Vanessa

    2006-03-01

    Although three new drugs or drug formulations, liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome), miltefosine and paromomycin should be available for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) within the next year, they all suffer from limitations of either cost, specific toxicities or parenteral administration. As part of research to identify better treatments for VL and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), alternative and potentially cheaper formulations of amphotericin B, alklyphosphocholines other than miltefosine and improved formulations of paromomycin for CL have been identified. Other drugs or compounds that have demonstrated activity in experimental rodent models of infection include licochalcone derivatives, quinoline derivatives, bisphosphonates and a maesabalide; further chemistry based upon these leads is warranted. The process for discovery and development of new antileishmanials would also benefit from improved models, for example, transfected parasites, and non invasive methods of measuring parasite load in rodent models of infection.

  17. Epistaxis in Visceral Leishmaniasis with Hematological Correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Sigdel, B.; Bhandary, S.; Rijal, S

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To study the prevalence of epistaxis in visceral leismaniasis and its correlation with hematological profile. Methods. Out of 80 diagnosed cases of visceral leishmaniasis, 19 patients with epistaxis were included in the study. Diagnosis was made by Rk-39 from peripheral smear and LD bodies from bone marrow. Before starting anti-kala-azar treatment, nasal examination findings and hematological profile were noted. Study Design. Prospective cross-sectional hospital-based study. Result...

  18. Intraretinal hemorrhage associated with visceral leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de Aragão; Barreira,Ieda Maria A.; Leidiane Alexandre Pereira; Arrais,Barbara Lorena A.; Francisco Holanda Oliveira Neto; Everton Fernandes Vieira de Almeida; André Jucá Machado

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Visceral Leishmaniasis, also know as Kala-azar, is a parasitic tropical disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania donovani. It is an endemic disease in many countries. It affects approximately 1,5 million people every year, and when associated with mal-nutrition and co-infection it may be fatal. Fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia is its typical clinical picture. Ocular manifestations of Kalaazar are relatively rare and can affect either anterior or posterior segment...

  19. Recent advances in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by a haemoflagellate Leishmania. There are more than 21 species causing human infection. The infection is transmitted to humans through the bites of female sandflies belonging to 30 species. The disease manifests mainly in 3 forms: the visceral, the cutaneous and the mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The diagnosis of visceral form is conventionally made by the demonstration of amastigotes of the parasite in the aspirated fluid from the bone marrow, the spleen, and rarely from the lymph nodes, or the liver. The parasite demonstration and isolation rates are rather poor from cutaneous and mucocutaneous lesions due to low parasite load and high rate of culture contamination. Recently several recombinant proteins have been developed to accomplish accurate diagnosis. Recombinant kinesin protein of 39 kDa called rK 39 is the most promising of these molecules. The antigen used in various test formats has been proved highly sensitive and specific for visceral leishmaniasis. It is useful in the diagnosis of HIV-Leishmania co-infection and as a prognostic marker. Molecular techniques targeting various genes of the parasite have also been reported, the PCR being the most common molecular technique successfully used for diagnosis and for differentiation of species.

  20. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis – Dermoscopic Findings And Cryotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrev Hristo P.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a 60-year-old male patient who, three months after a holiday in Southern Greece, found a small ‘pimple’ on his back, which gradually got as big as a small walnut, the central part becoming ulcerated and scabby. Dermatological examination found an erythematous-to-livid nodular lesion on the right shoulder; it was 16 mm in diameter with central ulceration, covered with brownish crust which discharged pus-like secretion upon pressure. Microscope examination of Romanowsky-Giemsa stained lesion material detected amastigote forms of Leishmania tropica. The culture investigation and serological tests for leishmaniasis were negative. Dermoscopy of the lesion found the following features: erythema, hyperkeratosis, central ulceration covered with brownish crust, “yellow tears-like” structures and “white starburst-like” patterns, and various vascular structures (including dotted vessels, comma-shaped vessels, hairpin- and glomerular-like vessels. The patient was diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis and underwent four cryotherapy sessions every other week with excellent therapeutic results - complete resolution of infiltrate with subsequent gentle hypopigmented scarring. In conclusion, dermoscopy is an easily accessible non-invasive method which can be useful for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Cryotherapy is the treatment of choice for single skin lesions.

  1. Genetically modified organisms and visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhajer, Rudra; Ali, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniasis namely cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (ML), and visceral (VL), caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein, or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis.

  2. Testing Experimental Compounds against American Cutaneous and Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Imidazoles Although ketoconazole and its acid hydrolysate were reported effective against Trypanosoma cruzi in vivo and in vitro, and against amastigotes...these imidazoles against leishmania (27) and Trypanosoma cruzi (29). Therefore, it was suggested that Jrugs which selectively change hemoflagellate...against T. cruzi in vitro and in vivo (3,4), and -X’. " K’V8- -8- against amastigotes and promastigc es of Leishmania species in vitro (4), our tests

  3. Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis by Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in an agricultural settlement, endemic area for leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Brilhante

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cutaneous leishmaniasis has several species of Leishmania as agents, and a wide variety of wild and domestic animals as hosts and different species of phlebotomines as vectors. A case of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a dog coming from an agricultural settlement is described. This is the first report of parasitism in a dog by Le. (Viannia braziliensis in Mato Grosso do Sul State. Attention is called to the importance of including this protozoonosis in the differential diagnosis of dermopathies in dogs as also the need to assess the importance of the domestic dog as a possible reservoir of Le. braziliensis.

  4. Sensitivity of an immunoenzymatic test for detection of ant-L. brasiliensis antibodies compared to other tests used for the diagnosis of American cutaneous leishmaniasis Sensibilidade de teste imunoenzimático anti-L. braziliensis em relação a outros testes utilizados no diagnóstico da leishmaniose tegumentar americana

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    Maíra Peres Ferreira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is frequently based on clinical and epidemiological data associated with the results of laboratory tests. Some laboratory methods are currently being applied for the diagnosis of ACL, among them the indirect immunofluorescence reaction (IIFR, the Montenegro skin test (MST, histopathological examination, and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The performance of these methods varies in a considerable proportion of patients. After the standardization of an immunoenzymatic test (ELISA for the detection of IgG in the serum of patients with ACL using a crude Leishmania braziliensis antigen, the results obtained were compared to those of other tests routinely used for the diagnosis. The tests revealed the following sensitivity, when analyzed separately: 85% for ELISA IgG, 81% for PCR, 64.4% for MST, 58.1% for IIFR, and 34% for the presence of parasites in the biopsy. ELISA was positive in 75% of patients with ACL presenting a negative MST, in 84.8% of ACL patients with negative skin or mucous biopsies for the presence of the parasite, and in 100% of cases with a negative PCR. Thus, ELISA presented a higher sensitivity than the other tests and was useful as a complementary method for the diagnosis of ACL.O diagnóstico da Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana (LTA é feito com base nos dados clínicos e epidemiológicos e é confirmado por meio de diferentes métodos laboratoriais. Dentre estes, são utilizados, com desempenhos variáveis, a reação de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI, a reação intradérmica de Montenegro (IRM, a pesquisa de Leishmania em material de biópsia de pele ou mucosa e a reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de teste imunoenzimático (ELISA como método alternativo de diagnóstico da LTA, comparando seus resultados com os obtidos por outros métodos tradicionais de diagnóstico dessa doença. Foi utilizado teste

  5. A urbanização da leishmaniose tegumentar americana no município de Campinas - São Paulo (SP e região: magnitude do problema e desafios Urbanization of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Campinas - Sao Paulo (SP and region: problems and challenges

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    Lúcia Mensato Rebello da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS - A leishmaniose tegumentar americana ocupa o segundo lugar entre as protozoonoses por vetores no Brasil. OBJETIVOS - Descrever a distribuição da doença na macrorregião de Campinas-SP e identificar as principais dificuldades em sua prevenção. MÉTODOS - A área estudada abrange 42 municípios. Os dados foram coletados no Sistema Nacional de Agravos e de Notificação do Grupo de Vigilância Epidemiológica, de 1998 a 2004, da Superintendência de Controle de Endemias, do Centro de Zoonoses e foi feita revisão da literatura. RESULTADOS - Foram registrados 458 casos, de caráter endêmico e com maior ocorrência em Campinas e Jundiaí. A doença predominava na área urbana (57%, no sexo masculino (62% e acometia todas as faixas etárias. As espécies vetoras encontradas foram Lutzomyia intermedia sl, L. neivai, L. migonei, L. whitmani, L. fisheri, e L. pessoai. CONCLUSÕES - A leishmaniose tegumentar está distribuída amplamente na região (81% dos municípios estudados e predominava na área urbana (57%. As dificuldades encontradas em seu controle foram a crescente adaptação do vetor ao peridomicílio, a multiplicidade dos fatores envolvidos na transmissão e a resposta insuficiente às medidas de controle atuais. O acompanhamento do ambiente e da doença, o diagnóstico e o tratamento precoces, a notificação compulsória e o seguimento dos casos, além de investimento em pesquisas, campanhas e ações diretas junto aos pacientes são importantes para o controle da doença.BACKGROUND - American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL is ranked second among vector-transmitted zoonoses in Brazil. OBJECTIVES - This paper aims at verifying the distribution of this disease in Campinas-SP and surrounding region and to identify the main difficulties for preventive actions to this illness. METHODS - The Campinas area encloses 42 counties. Data from 1998 to 2004 were collected from the National System of Injuries and Notification in Campinas

  6. Leishmania braziliensis: isolation of carbohydrate-containing antigen and possibility of its use in the immunodiagnosis of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Leishmania braziliensis: isolamento de antígeno contendo carboidrato e a possibilidade de sua aplicação no imunodiagnóstico da Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana

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    T. G. V. Silveira

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania braziliensis is a causative agent of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL. The 034-JCG strain, isolated from a patient from the northern region of Paraná State, Brazil, was cultivated in Blood Agar Base medium, lyophilized and submitted to phenol-water extraction. The extract was treated with RNase I. The carbohydrate containing-antigen (Ag-CHO was immunogenic to rabbits and showed at least a fraction with some negative charge at pH 8.2. This antigen showed cross-reactivity with the phenol-water extract of the growth medium used for the culture of promastigotes and with the surface antigens of promastigotes. Its composition is: 24.3% of total sugars, from which 11.2% of galactose, 7.5% of mannose and 5.6% of ribose. Protein content was 5.4% and phosphate 18.5%. The antigenic activity was maintained after: repeated freezing-thawing; lyophilization; heating at 100ºC for 30 minutes; treatment with RNase, trichloroacetic acid and sodium metaperiodate. The precipitin line obtained is Periodic Acid Schiff positive. The application of the Ag-CHO in counterimmunoelectrophoresis reaction for the immunodiagnosis of ACL showed 60% sensitivity, and no cross-reaction with the five sera of Chagas' disease patients tested. The use of this antigen in a more sensitive technique, with more samples of sera, may improve these results.A Leishmania braziliensis é um dos agentes causadores da Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana (LTA. A cepa 034-JCG, isolada de paciente da região norte do estado do Paraná, Brasil, foi cultivada em meio Blood Agar Base, liofilizada e submetida a extração com fenol-água e o extrato obtido foi tratado com RNase I. O antígeno contendo carboidrato (Ag-CHO mostrou-se imunogênico para coelhos e apresentou pelo menos uma fração com poucas cargas negativas em pH 8,2. Este antígeno apresenta reação cruzada com extrato fenólico do meio de cultura usado para o cultivo de promastigotas e com antígenos de superfície de

  7. Bayesian geostatistical modeling of leishmaniasis incidence in Brazil.

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    Dimitrios-Alexios Karagiannis-Voules

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is endemic in 98 countries with an estimated 350 million people at risk and approximately 2 million cases annually. Brazil is one of the most severely affected countries. METHODOLOGY: We applied Bayesian geostatistical negative binomial models to analyze reported incidence data of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil covering a 10-year period (2001-2010. Particular emphasis was placed on spatial and temporal patterns. The models were fitted using integrated nested Laplace approximations to perform fast approximate Bayesian inference. Bayesian variable selection was employed to determine the most important climatic, environmental, and socioeconomic predictors of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For both types of leishmaniasis, precipitation and socioeconomic proxies were identified as important risk factors. The predicted number of cases in 2010 were 30,189 (standard deviation [SD]: 7,676 for cutaneous leishmaniasis and 4,889 (SD: 288 for visceral leishmaniasis. Our risk maps predicted the highest numbers of infected people in the states of Minas Gerais and Pará for visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our spatially explicit, high-resolution incidence maps identified priority areas where leishmaniasis control efforts should be targeted with the ultimate goal to reduce disease incidence.

  8. [Landscape-epidemiological zoning of Turkmenistan by leishmaniasis].

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    Ponirovskiĭ, E N; Darchenkova, N N

    2008-01-01

    Based on the long-term (1961-1992) study of the parasitic systems of zoonotic cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis in the context of a landscape, the authors made an epidemiological regional and typological zoning of Turkmenistan. Regional zoning identified 13 districts by zoonotic cutanenous leishmaniasis and 6 districts by visceral leishmaniasis. While typologically zoning according to the human hazard ofzoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, the authors divided the landscapes of Turkmenistan into 5 groups: hyperendemic; mesoendemic; hypoendemic; enzootic by cutaneous leishmaniasis, but not dangerous to man; nonenzootic by cutaneous leishmaniasis and not dangerous to man. While typologically zoning with respect with visceral leishmaniasis, the authors divided them into 4 groups: epidemically hazardous landscapes of sandy deserts and semisavanna low-mountain of South-Eastern Turkmenistan; epidemically hazardous landscapes of foothills, low-mountains, and middle mountains of Kopetdag; epidemiologically potentially dangerous landscapes of the piedmont plain of Kopetdag and the valley of the Murgab river; nonenzootic landscapes in terms of visceral leishmaniasis, and those not dangerous to man.

  9. Systematic Review of Biomarkers To Monitor Therapeutic Response in Leishmaniasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kip, Anke E; Balasegaram, Manica; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan H M; de Vries, Peter J; Dorlo, Thomas P C

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been a renewed interest in the development of new drugs for the treatment of leishmaniasis. This has spurred the need for pharmacodynamic markers to monitor and compare therapies specifically for visceral leishmaniasis, in which the primary recrudescence of parasites is a particu

  10. Cutaneous leishmaniasis with lymphadenopathy due to Leishmania donovani

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.R. Faber; J. Wonders; A.J. Jensema; E. Chocholova; P.A. Kager

    2009-01-01

    Summary We describe a case of cutaneous leishmaniasis with lymphadenopathy due to Leishmania donovani, which was successfully treated with oral miltefosine. Given the increased prevalence of travelling, patients presenting with lymph-node enlargement should have leishmaniasis included in the differe

  11. Localised Leishmaniasis of Oral Mucosa: Report of an Unusual Clinicopathological Entity

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    Deepak Passi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The term leishmaniasis comprises of a group of diseases caused by different species of a protozoan called Leishmania. There are three main clinical forms of leishmaniasis: visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Exclusive involvement of the mucosa is very rare. We present a case of mucosal leishmaniasis located in the oral cavity. The only manifestation of leishmaniasis disease in the described case was the appearance of an oral lesion. Treatment was provided in the form of antimoniates (oral miltefosine and systemic sodium stibogluconate. A review of literature is made on the subject.

  12. Urban distribution of Phlebotominae in a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus, Argentina

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    Oscar D Salomón

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and vector domestication are currently proposed as factors that contributed to the recent increase of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL. Is likely also urban transmission? Oran is the main city in the Argentinean hyper-endemic area of ACL, and human cases in urban residences are usually reported. In order to assess the spatial distribution of risk, phlebotomine traps were located in different environments of Oran. A total of 7,787 sand flies were captured: Lutzomyia neivai (98.1%, Lutzomyia migonei (1.2%, Lutzomyia cortelezzii (0.7%, and one Lutzomyia shannoni. During the season of transmission (April-May a single sand fly was obtained in one out of five urban sites, while a trap in a peri-urban pigsty captured up to 2,985 Lu. neivai/night. Captures performed in the other season of vector activity (September-October revealed that small-scale changes in the pigsty environment resulted in noticeable changes in the abundance of Lu. neivai. In addition, in a new neighbourhood, on the fringe of the city, 1,073 Lu. neivai/site were captured in the forested edge but one in the yard of the houses. Therefore, in this urban ACL focus the human-vector effective contact risk is still associated with peri-urban vegetation and ecotone modifications despite the urban residence of the cases.

  13. Estudo clínico randomizado comparando antimoniato de meglumina, pentamidina e anfotericina B para o tratamento da leishmaniose cutânea ocasionada por Leishmania guyanensis A randomized clinical trial comparing meglumine antimoniate, pentamidine and amphotericin B for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis by Leishmania guyanensis

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    Leandro Ourives Neves

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: O tratamento da leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA ainda constitui desafio, pois a maioria dos medicamentos é injetável e têm-se poucos ensaios clínicos randomizados comparando a eficácia das drogas. Além disso, é provável que as espécies de Leishmania tenham influência nas respostas terapêuticas. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar e comparar a eficácia e a segurança dos esquemas de tratamento na LTA, ocasionada por Leishmania (Viannia guyanensis. MÉTODOS: 185 pacientes foram selecionados, conforme critérios de elegibilidade, e distribuídos, aleatoriamente, em 3 grupos - 2 com 74 enfermos e outro com 37 - que receberam, respectivamente, antimoniato de meglumina, isotionato de pentamidina e anfotericina B em doses, períodos e vias de administração padronizados. Os enfermos foram reexaminados um, dois e seis meses após o final dos tratamentos. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença entre os grupos terapêuticos em relação ao sexo, idade, número ou local das lesões. A análise por intenção de tratar (ITT mostrou eficácias de 58,1% para a pentamidina e 55,5% para o antimoniato (p=0,857. O grupo da anfotericina B foi analisado separadamente, pois 28 (75,7% pacientes negaram-se a continuar no estudo após a randomização. Eventos adversos leves ou moderados foram relatados por 74 (40% pacientes, principalmente artralgia (20,3%, para o grupo do antimoniato, e dor (35,1% ou enduração (10,8% no local das injeções para a pentamidina. CONCLUSÕES: A pentamidina tem eficácia similar ao antimonial pentavalente para o tratamento da LTA ocasionada por L. guyanensis. Face aos baixos resultados de eficácia apresentados por ambas as drogas, necessita-se, com urgência, investigar novas opções terapêuticas para esta enfermidade.FUNDAMENTALS: American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL treatment remains a challenge, since most available drugs are injectable and only a small number of comparative, randomized clinical trials have been

  14. Immune regulation during chronic visceral leishmaniasis.

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    Faleiro, Rebecca J; Kumar, Rajiv; Hafner, Louise M; Engwerda, Christian R

    2014-07-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a chronic parasitic disease associated with severe immune dysfunction. Treatment options are limited to relatively toxic drugs, and there is no vaccine for humans available. Hence, there is an urgent need to better understand immune responses following infection with Leishmania species by studying animal models of disease and clinical samples from patients. Here, we review recent discoveries in these areas and highlight shortcomings in our knowledge that need to be addressed if better treatment options are to be developed and effective vaccines designed.

  15. Prevalence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Ramshir, Iran; an Epidemiological Study

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    Vazirianzadeh B.* PhD,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a prevalent parasitological disease with diverse clinical manifestations in Iran. Therefore, the present retrospective study carried out to describe the demographic features of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ramshir, Iran. Materials & Methods This descriptive study was performed on 136 cutaneous leishmaniasis patients whose data were recorded in the Ramshir health center during 2006-9. Demographic information of patients including age, sex, habitat and sites of lesions, month and years of incidence were recorded. The data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software. Findings Totally 79 patients (58.1% resided in urban areas and the born to 9 years (49.3% was recognized as the most infected age group. Hands (41.2% had the highest rates of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions followed by face (36.0% and foot (22.8%. The maximum number of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions was reported in March. Conclusion As cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ramshir seemed to be an endemic rural type, the appropriate preventing measures regarding to the rural cutaneous leishmaniasis should be considered to decrease incidence of the disease in the region.

  16. Leishmaniasis–HIV coinfection: current challenges

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    Lindoso, José Angelo Lauletta; Cunha, Mirella Alves; Queiroz, Igor Thiago; Moreira, Carlos Henrique Valente

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis – human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection can manifest itself as tegumentary or visceral leishmaniasis. Almost 35 countries have reported autochthonous coinfections. Visceral leishmaniasis is more frequently described. However, usual and unusual manifestations of tegumentary leishmaniasis have been reported mainly in the Americas, but the real prevalence of Leishmania infection in HIV-infected patients is not clear. Regarding the clinical manifestations, there are some reports showing unusual manifestations in visceral leishmaniasis and tegumentary leishmaniasis in HIV-infected patients; yet, the usual manifestations are more frequent. Leishmaniasis diagnosis relies on clinical methods, but serological tests are used to diagnose visceral leishmaniasis despite them having a low sensitivity to tegumentary leishmaniasis. The search for the parasite is used to diagnose both visceral leishmaniasis and tegumentary leishmaniasis. Nevertheless, in HIV-infected patients, the sensitivity of serology is very low. Drugs available to treat leishmaniasis are more restricted and cause severe side effects. Furthermore, in HIV-infected patients, these side effects are more prominent and relapses and lethality are more recurrent. In this article, we discuss the current challenges of tegumentary leishmaniasis and visceral leishmaniasis–HIV infection, focusing mainly on the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of leishmaniasis. PMID:27785103

  17. Causes of pediatric visceral leishmaniasis in southeastern iran.

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    Ali Hosseininasab

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is the most frequent cause of visceral leishmaniasis and L. tropica has been rarely linked to the disease in Iran. In this study, bone marrow aspirates were collected from 10 child patients, suspected with visceral leishmaniasis referred to the Pediatric Wards of Kerman Medical Hospitals, Kerman, Iran during 2002-2011. Leishmania species were identified by using nested PCR in all slides. The PCR samples from nine patients indicated L. infantum as principal causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis and one L.tropica as a minor species.

  18. Canine leishmaniasis: epidemiological risk and the experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Javier; Alvar, Jorge

    2002-09-01

    Increasing risk factors are making zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis a growing public health concern in many countries. Domestic dogs constitute the main reservoir of Leishmania infantum and Leishmania chagasi, and play a key role in the transmission to humans. New reagents and tools allow the detailed investigation of canine leishmaniasis, permitting the monitoring of the immunological status of dogs in both natural and experimental infections. Such studies are essential to determine the basis of the canine protective immune response and to establish a laboratory model, a significant aspect for the development of vaccines against canine leishmaniasis.

  19. Animal reservoirs for visceral leishmaniasis in densely populated urban areas.

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    Diniz, Soraia A; Silva, Fabiana L; Carvalho Neta, Alcina C; Bueno, Regina; Guerra, Rita M S N C; Abreu-Silva, Ana L; Santos, Renato L

    2008-02-01

    Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease of major public health and veterinary importance, affecting 88 countries with up to 2 million cases per year. This review emphasizes the animal reservoirs and spreading of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in urban areas, particularly in two Brazilian metropolitan areas, namely São Luis and Belo Horizonte, where the disease has become endemic in the past few years. Urbanization of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil during the last decades has created favorable epidemiological conditions for maintenance of the disease, with dense human populations sharing a tropical environment with abundant populations of the mammalian reservoir and the invertebrate vector, facilitating transmission of the disease.

  20. Genetically Modified Organisms and Visceral Leishmaniasis

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    NAHID eALI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases. Since the eradication of small pox in 1976, many other potentially life compromising if not threatening diseases have been dealt with subsequently. This event was a major leap not only in the scientific world already burdened with many diseases but also in the mindset of the common man who became more receptive to novel treatment options. Among the many protozoan diseases, the leishmaniases have emerged as one of the largest parasite killers of the world, second only to malaria. There are three types of leishmaniases namely cutaneous (CL, mucocutaneous (ML and visceral (VL, caused by a group of more than 20 species of Leishmania parasites. Visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar is the most severe form and almost fatal if untreated. Since the first attempts at leishmanization, we have killed parasite vaccines, subunit protein or DNA vaccines, and now we have live recombinant carrier vaccines and live attenuated parasite vaccines under various stages of development. Although some research has shown promising results, many more potential genes need to be evaluated as live attenuated vaccine candidates. This mini-review attempts to summarize the success and failures of genetically modified organisms used in vaccination against some of major parasitic diseases for their application in leishmaniasis.

  1. Natural Products: Insights into Leishmaniasis Inflammatory Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Igor A.; Mazotto, Ana Maria; Cardoso, Verônica; Alves, Renan L.; Amaral, Ana Claudia F.; Silva, Jefferson Rocha de Andrade; Pinheiro, Anderson S.; Vermelho, Alane B.

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease that affects several populations worldwide, against which there are no vaccines available and the chemotherapy is highly toxic. Depending on the species causing the infection, the disease is characterized by commitment of tissues, including the skin, mucous membranes, and internal organs. Despite the relevance of host inflammatory mediators on parasite burden control, Leishmania and host immune cells interaction may generate an exacerbated proinflammatory response that plays an important role in the development of leishmaniasis clinical manifestations. Plant-derived natural products have been recognized as bioactive agents with several properties, including anti-protozoal and anti-inflammatory activities. The present review focuses on the antileishmanial activity of plant-derived natural products that are able to modulate the inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo. The capability of crude extracts and some isolated substances in promoting an anti-inflammatory response during Leishmania infection may be used as part of an effective strategy to fight the disease. PMID:26538837

  2. The sandfly fauna, anthropophily and the seasonal activities of Pintomyia spinicrassa (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northeastern Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Fredy Galvis Ovallos; Yanis Ricardo Espinosa Silva; Nelson Fernandez; Reynaldo Gutierrez; Eunice Aparecida Bianchi Galati; Claudia Magaly Sandoval

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the sandfly fauna and the anthropophilic species in a coffee-growing area of Villanueva, Norte de Santander, Colombia, a focus of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, and to analyse the relationship between the most frequent species and rainfall, relative humidity and temperature, with the aim of contributing to epidemiological surveillance in the area. Sandfly collections were performed fortnightly between February 2006-September 2007 using automatic light t...

  3. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in germfree, gnotobiotic, and conventional mice

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    Enio Cardillo Vieira

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis was much more severe in conventional than in gnotobiotic mice as revealed by macro and microscopic examination. An inoculum of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis was used.

  4. First generation leishmaniasis vaccines: a review of field efficacy trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noazin, Sassan; Modabber, Farrokh; Khamesipour, Ali; Smith, Peter G; Moulton, Lawrence H; Nasseri, Kiumarss; Sharifi, Iraj; Khalil, Eltahir A G; Bernal, Ivan Dario Velez; Antunes, Carlos M F; Kieny, Marie Paule; Tanner, Marcel

    2008-12-09

    First generation candidate vaccines against leishmaniasis, prepared using inactivated whole parasites as their main ingredient, were considered as promising because of their relative ease of production and low cost. These vaccines have been the subject of many investigations over several decades and are the only leishmaniasis vaccine candidates which have undergone phase 3 clinical trial evaluation. Although the studies demonstrated the safety of the vaccines and several studies showed reasonable immunogenicity and some indication of protection, an efficacious prophylactic vaccine is yet to be identified. Despite this overall failure, these trials contributed significantly to increasing knowledge on human leishmaniasis immunology. To provide a collective view, this review discusses the methods and findings of field efficacy trials of first generation leishmaniasis vaccine clinical trials conducted in the Old and New Worlds.

  5. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS

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    Bittencourt Achiléa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is rarely reported in South America. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature. We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis three years after the diagnosis of AIDS. During treatment for visceral leishmaniasis he developed disseminated miliary papules. Microscopically, the skin biopsy showed a "saw-tooth" pattern with a lichenoid mononuclear infiltrate simulating lichen planus. The histopathological diagnosis was achieved through the finding of amastigotes. The authors discuss the clinicopathological aspects of this case based on a review of the specific literature.

  6. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS

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    Bittencourt Achiléa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is rarely reported in South America. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature. We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis three years after the diagnosis of AIDS. During treatment for visceral leishmaniasis he developed disseminated miliary papules. Microscopically, the skin biopsy showed a "saw-tooth" pattern with a lichenoid mononuclear infiltrate simulating lichen planus. The histopathological diagnosis was achieved through the finding of amastigotes. The authors discuss the clinicopathological aspects of this case based on a review of the specific literature.

  7. Cutaneous leishmaniasis: immune responses in protection and pathogenesis.

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    Scott, Phillip; Novais, Fernanda O

    2016-09-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a major public health problem and causes a range of diseases from self-healing infections to chronic disfiguring disease. Currently, there is no vaccine for leishmaniasis, and drug therapy is often ineffective. Since the discovery of CD4(+) T helper 1 (TH1) cells and TH2 cells 30 years ago, studies of cutaneous leishmaniasis in mice have answered basic immunological questions concerning the development and maintenance of CD4(+) T cell subsets. However, new strategies for controlling the human disease have not been forthcoming. Nevertheless, advances in our knowledge of the cells that participate in protection against Leishmania infection and the cells that mediate increased pathology have highlighted new approaches for vaccine development and immunotherapy. In this Review, we discuss the early events associated with infection, the CD4(+) T cells that mediate protective immunity and the pathological role that CD8(+) T cells can have in cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  8. Ancient Leishmaniasis in a Highland Desert of Northern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Antonietta Costa; Carney Matheson; Lucia Iachetta; Agustín Llagostera; Otto Appenzeller

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease endemic today in many areas of South America. METHODOLOGY: We discovered morphologic and molecular evidence of ancient infections in 4 female skulls in the archaeological cemetery of Coyo Oriente, in the desert of San Pedro de Atacama, Northern Chile. The boney facial lesions visible in the skulls could have been caused by a number of chronic infections including chronic Leishmaniasis. This diagnosis was confirmed using PCR-sequenced analyses...

  9. RENAL HISTOPATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN DOGS WITH VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS

    OpenAIRE

    Rosangela Silva Rigo; Cristiano Marcelo Espínola Carvalho; Michael Robin Honer; Gisele Braziliano de Andrade; Iandara Shetter Silva; Leonardo Rigo; Helen Rezende Figueiredo; Wanessa Teixeira Gomes Barreto

    2013-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis affects various organs including the kidneys; which can lead to renal failure and death. In order to verify this renal involvement, material was evaluated from 100 dogs naturally infected and with serological diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Inflammatory changes were present in 25.3% of the tubules, in 67.0% of interstitium and in 52.0% of glomeruli. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the presence of glomerulonephritis in symptomatic...

  10. Epidemiological surveillance of Leishmaniasis in Montenegro, 1992-2013

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    Medenica Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The diseases caused by Leishmania are spread worldwide and represent a significant public health problem. Objective. The aim of this study was to present the results of epidemiological surveillance of leishmaniasis in humans in Montenegro in the period from 1992 to 2013. Methods. The study was planned and realized as a descriptive epidemiological study. The sample included patients of leishmaniasis in Montenegro in the period from 1992 to 2013. The health and demographic data were collected from medical records. The disease was microbiologically proven in the patients. For statistical analysis the χ2-test was used, which examined the significance of the incidence rate. Results. During this period, 66 cases of leishmaniasis were identified (40 men and 26 women aged 0 to 62 (mean 15.61±16.76 years. A visceral form of the disease was diagnosed in 65 (98% patients, and one patient was diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis. The average incidence rate for the abovementioned period is 0.48 per 100,000 inhabitants. The highest average incidence rate was identified in patients up to seven years of age (3.50 per 100,000 inhabitants. The highest average incidence rates of leishmaniasis were identified in the coastal region of Montenegro, while seasonal distribution indicates that the disease occurs throughout the year with predominance in late spring and summer. Conclusion. The research has shown that Montenegro is among the countries with low incidence of leishmaniasis. Nevertheless, because of leishmaniasis re-emergence in the entire Mediterranean Basin, a comprehensive research of ecological and epidemiological characteristics of leishmaniasis, including better monitoring and notification system, is required.

  11. FLI1 polymorphism affects susceptibility to cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Castellucci, L; Jamieson, SE; Miller, EN; de Almeida, LF; J. Oliveira; Magalhães, A.; Guimarães, LH; LESSA, M.; E. Lago; Jesus,AR de; Carvalho, EM; Blackwell, JM

    2011-01-01

    Mapping murine genes controlling cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) identified Fli1 as a candidate influencing resistance to L. major and enhanced wound healing. We examine FLI1 as a gene controlling CL and mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) caused by L. braziliensis in humans. Intron 1 single nucleotide polymorphisms tagging promoter and enhancer elements were analysed in 168 nuclear families (250 CL; 87 ML cases) and replicated in 157 families (402 CL; 39 ML cases). Robust case-pseudocontrol logistic reg...

  12. Epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in Georgia.

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    Giorgi Babuadze

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the transmission and prevalence of Leishmania parasite infection of humans in two foci of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL in Georgia, the well known focus in Tbilisi in the East, and in Kutaisi, a new focus in the West of the country. The seroprevalence of canine leishmaniasis was investigated in order to understand the zoonotic transmission. Blood samples of 1575 dogs (stray and pet and 77 wild canids were tested for VL by Kalazar Detect rK39 rapid diagnostic tests. Three districts were investigated in Tbilisi and one in Kutaisi. The highest proportions of seropositive pet dogs were present in District #2 (28.1%, 82/292 and District #1 (26.9%, 24/89 in Tbilisi, compared to 17.3% (26/150 of pet dogs in Kutaisi. The percentage of seropositive stray dogs was also twice as high in Tbilisi (16.1%, n = 670 than in Kutaisi (8%, n = 50; only 2/58 wild animals screened were seropositive (2. 6%. A total of 873 Phlebotomine sand flies were collected, with 5 different species identified in Tbilisi and 3 species in Kutaisi; 2.3% of the females were positive for Leishmania parasites. The Leishmanin Skin Test (LST was performed on 981 human subjects in VL foci in urban areas in Tbilisi and Kutaisi. A particularly high prevalence of LST positives was observed in Tbilisi District #1 (22.2%, 37.5% and 19.5% for ages 5-9, 15-24 and 25-59, respectively; lower prevalence was observed in Kutaisi (0%, 3.2% and 5.2%, respectively; P<0.05. This study shows that Tbilisi is an active focus for leishmaniasis and that the infection prevalence is very high in dogs and in humans. Although exposure is as yet not as high in Kutaisi, this is a new VL focus. The overall situation in the country is alarming and new control measures are urgently needed.

  13. Phlebotominae: Vectores de Leishmaniasis en las provincias de Santa Fe y Entre Ríos, Argentina Phlebotominae: vectors of leishmaniasis in the provinces of Santa Fe and Entre Ríos, Argentina

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    Oscar D. Salomón

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La transmisión de leishmaniasis tegumentaria (LT se incrementó desde 1985 en 9 provincias argentinas. Santa Fe y Entre Ríos en dicho período no notificaron casos de transmisión autóctona comprobada, sin embargo en el año 2003 ocurrió un brote epidémico en Bella Vista, Corrientes, localidad que se encuentra en un área con continuidad ecológica y contigüidad geográfica con ambas provincias. Por ello, para determinar el riesgo potencial de transmisión de LT en las áreas próximas y al sur de Bella Vista se realizaron capturas de Phlebotominae en febrero del 2004, colectándose sobre las márgenes del río Paraná en Santa Fe (El Rabón, Villa Ocampo, Cayastá y en Entre Ríos (La Paz, La Celina-Villa Urquiza 860 ejemplares de Lutzomyia neivai (99.5% y Lu. migonei (0.5 %, ambas especies con capacidad vectorial para Leishmania (V. braziliensis. En Tartagal, Santa Fe, las capturas fueron consistentes con el paisaje de «chaco» residual: 7 ejemplares de Lu. nerivai, Lu. migonei y Lu. cortelezzii. Se destaca el riesgo potencial de transmisión epidémica de LT en estas provincias, especialmente por la tropicalización progresiva hacia el sur de la selva en galeria paranaense. Se recomiendan actividades de vigilancia clínica y vectorial.The transmission of tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL has increased in 9 provinces of Argentina since 1985. Santa Fe and Entre Ríos did not record in this period autochtonous probed cases: however, an epidemic outbreak took place in 2003 in Bella Vista, Corrientes, located in an area with ecological continuity and contiguous to both provinces. In order to evaluate the potential risk of transmission of LT, Phlebotominae were captured at locations close to and southern from Bella Vista during February 2004. The traps located on the shores of Parana river in Santa Fe (El Rabón, Villa Ocampo, Cayastá, and Entre Ríos (La Paz. La Celina-Villa Urquiza captured 860 individuals of Lutzomyia neivai (99.5% and Lu

  14. [Therapy of leishmaniasis in France: consensus on proposed guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, Pierre A; Rosenthal, Éric; Gangneux, Jean-Pierre; Lightburne, Edward; Couppié, Pierre; Morizot, Gloria; Lachaud, Laurence; Marty, Pierre; Dedet, Jean-Pierre

    2011-02-01

    Because it relies on potentially toxic, difficult-to-handle, or expensive compounds the therapy of leishmaniasis is still a complex issue in 2010, especially for visceral leishmaniasis in immuno-suppressed subjects, or in patients with cutaneous and mucosal involvement. This induces a wide diversity of observed therapeutic practices, some being sub-optimal. The Société de Pathologie Exotique organised a meeting dedicated to the therapy of leishmaniasis in France that led to the first consensus on therapeutic guidelines. Liposomal amphotericin B is the first-line option for visceral leishmaniasis both in immunocompetent, and immunosuppressed patients (cumulated doses of 20 mg/kg and 30-40 mg/kg, respectively). Secondary prophylaxis with either liposomal amphotericin B, pentamidine or meglumine antimoniate is proposed to patients with heavy immunosuppression until immunity has been restored for at least 6 months. While the efficacy of new topical formulations of paromomycin is being tested, patients with Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis may be left untreated, or be administered a combination of superficial cryotherapy plus intralesional antimony, or even--in complex situations--receive systemic therapy. The efficacy of a short course of pentamidine (L. guyanensis/L. panamensis) and a 20-day schedule of meglumine antimoniate (L. braziliensis) is solidly established. However, in well-defined situations, local therapy of New World cutaneous leishmaniasis is now considered acceptable.

  15. Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Portia M; Beaumier, Coreen M; Strych, Ulrich; Hayward, Tara; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2016-06-03

    A number of leishmaniasis vaccine candidates are at various stages of pre-clinical and clinical development. Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne neglected tropical disease (NTD) caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania and transmitted to humans by the bite of a sand fly. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, kala-azar) is a high mortality NTD found mostly in South Asia and East Africa, while cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a disfiguring NTD highly endemic in the Middle East, Central Asia, North Africa, and the Americas. Estimates attribute 50,000 annual deaths and 3.3 million disability-adjusted life years to leishmaniasis. There are only a few approved drug treatments, no prophylactic drug and no vaccine. Ideally, an effective vaccine against leishmaniasis will elicit long-lasting immunity and protect broadly against VL and CL. Vaccines such as Leish-F1, F2 and F3, developed at IDRI and designed based on selected Leishmania antigen epitopes, have been in clinical trials. Other groups, including the Sabin Vaccine Institute in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health are investigating recombinant Leishmania antigens in combination with selected sand fly salivary gland antigens in order to augment host immunity. To date, both VL and CL vaccines have been shown to be cost-effective in economic modeling studies.

  16. CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS CASE INVESTIGATION IN THE JACARE REGION OF NITEROI, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Amanda Codeço de; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Silva, Valmir Laurentino; Santos, Fernanda Nunes; Souza, Marcos Barbosa de; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Abrantes, Tuanne Rotti; Périssé, André Reynaldo Santos

    2015-01-01

    American visceral leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonosis in expansion in Brazil. Dogs are the main urban reservoir. Departing from a case of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Jacaré, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, an epidemiological canine and entomological study was performed to assess the extension of the disease at the location. Sample was collected around the case and the dogs identified by serological tests (rapid double platform immunochromatographic exams, immunoenzymatic assay/ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence/IFAT). The parasitological diagnosis was performed in animals positive in at least one of these tests. The entomological study was carried out by using light traps and manual collection. The associations between canine variables and outcome (ELISA and IFAT reagents) were assessed by the chi-square test and adjusted by multivariate logistic regression for those associations with p < 0.1 in the bivariate analysis. Seventeen cases of CVL were detected among 110 evaluated dogs (prevalence of 15.5%). Presence of ectoparasites (OR 6.5; 95% CI 1.1-37.4), animals with clinical signs (OR 9.5; 95% CI 1.2-76.6), and previous cases of CVL in the same house (OR 17.9; 95% CI 2.2-147.1) were associated with the outcome. Lutzomyia longipalpis was not detected. Our results are indicative of an ongoing transmission in the area.

  17. Immunogenicity of the P-8 amastigote antigen in the experimental model of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, E; Ahmed, S; Goldsmith-Pestana, K; Nieto, J; Osorio, Y; Travi, B; Moreno, J; McMahon-Pratt, D

    2007-02-09

    The P-8 proteoglycolipid complex (P-8 PGLC), an amastigote antigen of Leishmania pifanoi, has been demonstrated to induce protection in mouse models, as well as to induce Tc1/Th1-like cellular responses in American cutaneous leishmaniasis patients. Because the immunization with P-8 PGLC in the murine model does not appear to be genetically restricted, we have studied the reactivity of the P-8 PGLC in Leishmania infantum infected dogs. In this study, it is shown that PBMC from experimentally infected dogs (asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic) significantly proliferated in response to soluble leishmanial antigen (SLA) or the P-8 PGLC. Further, quantification of the gene expression induced by the stimulation with P-8 in asymptomatically infected dogs showed an up-regulation of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, which were three to 4-fold higher than that induced by soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA). While no measurable induction of IL-10 was observed, low levels of IL-4 mRNA were observed in response to both P-8 and SLA antigens. Thus, our studies establish that P-8 is recognized by infected canines and elicits a potentially curative/protective Th1-like immune response. The identification of Leishmania antigens that elicit appropriate immune responses across different host species (humans, canine) and disease manifestations (cutaneous or visceral) could be an advantage in generating a general vaccine for leishmaniasis.

  18. Therapeutic trial in experimental tegumentary leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis. A comparative study between mefloquine and aminosidine Ensaio terapêutico na leishmaniose tegumentar experimental causada por Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis. Um estudo comparativo entre mefloquina e aminosidine

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    Letícia Oba Galvão

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and eighty-two male inbred C57/BL/6 mice were infected with 3 x 106 Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes of the MHOM/BR/PH8 strain by means of a subcutaneous injection in the right ear. The animals were separated in three groups: 1 oral mefloquine hydrochloride treatment (16mg/kg/day/10 days, 2 intramuscular aminosidine (Paromomycin® treatment (20mg/kg/20 days and 3 control. Twenty six mice of each treated group were sacrificed, one at the end of treatment (nine weeks after inoculation, and one six weeks later (fifteen weeks after inoculation. Control Group animals were sacrificed at weeks six, nine and fifteen after inoculation. There was no significant difference between Group 1 (mefloquine and Group 3 (control subjects. Group 2 animals (aminosidine presented the smallest differences of all, both at the end of the treatment and six weeks later. The histopato-logical parameters have shown the following findings: a there was no significant difference between the mefloquine treated group and the control group; the group treated with aminosidine showed fewer of vacuolated macrophages than the control group, at week 9 (end of treatment. b both at the end of treatment and six weeks later, evaluation of tissue necrosis and tissue fibrosis revealed no differences between the treated groups. It was found that six weeks after the end of treatment, mice in the control group presented significantly more severe degrees of fibrosis than mice in the other groups. It can be concluded that mefloquine showed limited therapeutic effect in this experimental model, whereas aminosidine had a significant effect. Nevertheless, neither of them resulted in cure of the lesions.Foram utilizados 182 camundongos machos, isogênicos, da linhagem C57BL/6 inoculados na orelha direita com 3,0 x 10(6 formas promastigotas da cepa MHOM/BR/PH8 de Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis. Os animais foram separados em três grupos: 1 52 animais tratados com mefloquina (16mg/kg/dia/10 dias, 2 52 animais tratados com aminosidina [Paramomicina ®] (20mg/kg/dia/20 dias, 3 78 animais controles, não manipulados. Vinte e seis animais de cada grupo tratado foram sacrificados nove e quinze semanas após a inoculação. Animais do grupo controle foram sacrificados na sexta, nona e décima quinta semanas após a inoculação. Ao final do tratamento, em relação à curva de peso da orelhas, somente nos animais tratados com aminosidina, houve nítida redução do peso em comparação com grupo controle. Na histopatologia verificou-se: a não houve diferença entre o grupo tratado com mefloquina e o grupo controle; o grupo tratado com aminosidina, ao final do tratamento, teve menor infiltração por macrófagos vacuolizados; b as avaliações da extensão das áreas de necrose e do nível da fibrose tecidual não mostraram diferenças entre os grupos tratados. Os animais do grupo controle apresentaram fibrose mais acentuada, seis semanas após o fim do tratamento. Pode-se concluir que ocorreu efeito terapêutico reduzido com a mefloquina e houve significativa melhora com a aminosidina. Entretanto, em todos os grupos as lesões não chegaram a curar.

  19. Proteome Profiling of Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Santos, Claire; Attarha, Sanaz; Saini, Ravi Kanth; Boaventura, Viviane; Costa, Jackson; Khouri, Ricardo; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Brodskyn, Cláudia Ida; Souchelnytskyi, Serhiy

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we used proteomics and biological network analysis to evaluate the potential biological processes and components present in the identified proteins of biopsies from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients infected by Leishmania braziliensis in comparison with normal skin. We identified 59 proteins differently expressed in samples from infected and normal skin. Biological network analysis employing identified proteins showed the presence of networks that may be involved in the cell death mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. After immunohistochemical analyses, the expression of caspase-9, caspase-3, and granzyme B was validated in the tissue and positively correlated with the lesion size in CL patients. In conclusion, this work identified differentially expressed proteins in the inflammatory site of CL, revealed enhanced expression of caspase-9, and highlighted mechanisms associated with the progression of tissue damage observed in lesions. PMID:25207817

  20. NEWER DRUGS FOR VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS: A REVIEW

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    Krishna Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL is one of the most neglected tropical diseases worldwide. The diagnosis and treatment of this disease is quite complex. Sodium Antimony Gluconate (SAG which used to be a very effective treatment has now developed resistance and is potentially a cardio-toxic drug. Pentamidine has now been discarded because of adverse effect of diabetes mellitus. Amphotericin-B is an effective drug but can cause nephrotoxicity. Miltefosine is a new oral effective drug which has recently been introduced in the kala-azar elimination program in the Indian subcontinent. Paromomycin is an injectable aminoglycoside which is quite cheap but can cause ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Sitamaquine, an oral antimalarial drug is still in phase-II trial stage. Combination Therapy is been tried with good results. Single dose Ambisome (liposomal Amphotericin-B though costly is a very good alternative.

  1. Hyponatremia in visceral leishmaniasis Hiponatremia no calazar

    OpenAIRE

    Frederico A. Lima Verde; Francisco A.A. Lima Verde; Francisco José V. Veronese; Augusto S. Neto; Galdino Fuc; Emir M. Lima Verde

    2010-01-01

    There are few reports linking hyponatremia and visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). This is a study of 55 consecutive kala-azar patients and 20 normal individuals as a control group. Hyponatremia and serum hypo-osmolality were detected in 100% of kala-azar patients. High first morning urine osmolality (750.0 ± 52.0 vs. 894.5 ± 30.0mOsm/kg H2O, p < 0.05), and high 24-hour urine osmolality (426.0 ± 167.0 vs. 514.6 ± 132.0 mOsm/kg H2O, p < 0.05) demonstrated persistent antidiuretic hormone secret...

  2. Localized Leishmaniasis of the oral mucosa. A report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Marcos, José Antonio; Dean Ferrer, Alicia; Alamillos Granados, Francisco; Ruiz Masera, Juan José; Cortés Rodríguez, Begoña; Vidal Jiménez, Alfredo; García Lainez, Ana; Lozano Rodríguez-Mancheno, Aquiles

    2007-08-01

    The term leishmaniasis comprises a group of diseases caused by different species of a protozoon called Leishmania. Leishmaniasis is found worldwide, and is considered to be endemic in 88 countries. There are three main clinical forms of leishmaniasis: visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Exclusive involvement of the mucosa is very rare. We present a series of three cases of mucosal leishmaniasis located in the oral cavity. The fact that all three cases were recorded in Spain (an area where L. infantum is endemic), suggests that the latter was the causal agent. The only manifestation of leishmaniasis disease in the described cases was the appearance of an oral lesion. Treatment was provided in the form of meglumine antimoniate in two patients, with a favorable response. One of the patients left the hospital after diagnosis, without receiving treatment, and the subsequent course is not known. A review is made of the literature on the subject.

  3. LeishMan recommendations for treatment of cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis in travelers, 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blum, Johannes; Buffet, Pierre; Visser, Leo; Harms, Gundel; Bailey, Mark S; Caumes, Eric; Clerinx, Jan; van Thiel, Pieter P A M; Morizot, Gloria; Hatz, Christoph; Dorlo, Thomas P C; Lockwood, Diana N J

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) in travelers is still controversial. Over the last decade, national and international consortia have published recommendations for treating CL in travelers. These guidelines harmonize many issues, but there are some

  4. Leishmaniose tegumentar americana e suas relações sócio ambientais no município de Ubatuba-SP La leishmaniose tégumentaire américaine et ses relations avec le socio-environnement à Ubatuba-SP American cutaneous leishmaniasis and its relations with the social environment in Ubatuba-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen da Costa Gurgel

    2011-12-01

    de cas se produit dans la région nord du Brésil, mais est encore très présente sur le Littoral nord de l'État de São Paulo, une région de forte attraction touristique. Afin de comprendre l'influence des changements socio-environnementaux dans la dynamique de la maladie, nous avons analysé la distribution spatio-temporelle des cas déclarés entre 1998 et 2006 à Ubatuba dans l’Etat de São Paulo. Le type d’utilisation des terres et la variabilité du climat, considérés comme importants pour le développement et la prolifération de l'insecte vecteur, ont aussi été analysés. Les données ont été traitées grâce aux outils et techniques de SIG et de télédétection. L'intérêt pour cette recherche est apparu en raison de l'augmentation du nombre de cas signalés à partir de 2003, année durant laquelle on a enregistré une concentration des précipitations sur les premiers mois de l’année. Le climat chaud et humide de la région contribue à la prolifération des moustiques qui transmettent la maladie. L'analyse a montré la prévalence survenue chez les individus économiquement actifs et les hommes. Il existe également une relation significative entre le type d'utilisation des terres et la localisation de la maladie, ainsi que la proximité des habitats en forêt. Le facteur social semble également important, il fait référence au coût de l’immobilier qui est généralement moins élevé dans les périphéries urbaines situées à proximités des espaces boisés, secteurs où prolifèrent les insectes vecteurs. Le déplacement de la maladie semble également être influencé par les facteurs économiques et démographiques puisque  l'implantation des logements est souvent motivée par la situation financière du futur résident.The American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL is a vetorial disease that can be acquired when anyone is bitten by an infected mosquito. The majority of the cases occur in Northern parts of Brazil, although in the

  5. First Report on Ambisome-Associated Allergic Reaction in Two Sudanese Leishmaniasis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhtar, Maowia; Aboud, Mona; Kheir, Musa; Bakhiet, Sahar; Abdullah, Nazik; Ali, Ahmed; Hassan, Nadia; Elamin, Elwaleed; Elagib, Atif

    2011-01-01

    Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) and mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) are serious clinical forms of leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani parasites in Sudan. Although pentavalent antimonys are used as the first line of treatment of all clinical forms of leishmaniasis, persistent PKDL and ML patients are treated with liposomal amphotericin B (Ambisome) as a second-line drug. In this work, we report the development of allergic reactions by a PKDL and a ML Sudanese patient to Ambisome....

  6. Visceral leishmaniasis and HIV coinfection in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindoso, José Angelo; Cota, Gláucia Fernandes; da Cruz, Alda Maria; Goto, Hiro; Maia-Elkhoury, Ana Nilce Silveira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; de Sousa-Gomes, Márcia Leite; Santos-Oliveira, Joanna Reis; Rabello, Ana

    2014-09-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an endemic zoonotic disease in Latin America caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, which is transmitted by sand flies from the genus Lutzomyia. VL occurs in 12 countries of Latin America, with 96% of cases reported in Brazil. Recently, an increase in VL, primarily affecting children and young adults, has been observed in urban areas of Latin America. The area in which this spread of VL is occurring overlaps regions with individuals living with HIV, the number of whom is estimated to be 1.4 million people by the World Health Organization. This overlap is suggested to be a leading cause of the increased number of reported VL-HIV coinfections. The clinical progression of HIV and L. infantum infections are both highly dependent on the specific immune response of an individual. Furthermore, the impact on the immune system caused by either pathogen and by VL-HIV coinfection can contribute to an accelerated progression of the diseases. Clinical presentation of VL in HIV positive patients is similar to patients without HIV, with symptoms characterized by fever, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly, but diarrhea appears to be more common in coinfected patients. In addition, VL relapses are higher in coinfected patients, affecting 10% to 56.5% of cases and with a lethality ranging from 8.7% to 23.5% in Latin America, depending on the study. With regards to the diagnosis of VL, parasitological tests of bone marrow aspirates have proven to be the most sensitive test in HIV-infected patients. Serologic tests have demonstrated a variable sensitivity according to the method and antigens used, with the standard tests used for diagnosing VL in Latin America displaying lower sensitivity. For this review, few articles were identified that related to VL-HIV coinfections and originated from Latin America, highlighting the need for improving research within the regions most greatly affected. We strongly support the formation of a Latin American network for

  7. Visceral leishmaniasis and HIV coinfection in Latin America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Angelo Lindoso

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is an endemic zoonotic disease in Latin America caused by Leishmania (Leishmania infantum, which is transmitted by sand flies from the genus Lutzomyia. VL occurs in 12 countries of Latin America, with 96% of cases reported in Brazil. Recently, an increase in VL, primarily affecting children and young adults, has been observed in urban areas of Latin America. The area in which this spread of VL is occurring overlaps regions with individuals living with HIV, the number of whom is estimated to be 1.4 million people by the World Health Organization. This overlap is suggested to be a leading cause of the increased number of reported VL-HIV coinfections. The clinical progression of HIV and L. infantum infections are both highly dependent on the specific immune response of an individual. Furthermore, the impact on the immune system caused by either pathogen and by VL-HIV coinfection can contribute to an accelerated progression of the diseases. Clinical presentation of VL in HIV positive patients is similar to patients without HIV, with symptoms characterized by fever, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly, but diarrhea appears to be more common in coinfected patients. In addition, VL relapses are higher in coinfected patients, affecting 10% to 56.5% of cases and with a lethality ranging from 8.7% to 23.5% in Latin America, depending on the study. With regards to the diagnosis of VL, parasitological tests of bone marrow aspirates have proven to be the most sensitive test in HIV-infected patients. Serologic tests have demonstrated a variable sensitivity according to the method and antigens used, with the standard tests used for diagnosing VL in Latin America displaying lower sensitivity. For this review, few articles were identified that related to VL-HIV coinfections and originated from Latin America, highlighting the need for improving research within the regions most greatly affected. We strongly support the formation of a Latin

  8. Sandfly fauna of endemic leishmaniasis foci in Anzoátegui State, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, R; Jorquera, A; De Sousa, L; Ledezma, E; Devera, R

    2002-01-01

    A census of the sandfly fauna was undertaken in 1993-98 in 5 endemic leishmaniasis foci situated at different altitudes in Anzoátegui State, Venezuela. From the 17 species of Lutzomyia identified, we believe that Lu. ovallesi, Lu. panamensis and Lu. gomezi are the probable vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis, while Lu. evansi might transmit visceral leishmaniasis.

  9. The first canine visceral leishmaniasis outbreak in Campinas, State of São Paulo Southeastern Brazil

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    Andrea Paula Bruno von Zuben

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Early detection of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL outbreak in animals is crucial for controlling this disease in non-endemic areas. Methods Epidemiological surveillance (2009-2012 was performed in Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Results In 2009, Leishmania chagasi was positively identified in four dogs. Entomological research and three serological studies (2010-2012 were undertaken as monitoring measures; these approaches revealed a moderate prevalence of Leishmania present in 4% of the canine population. Nyssomyia whitmani and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the predominant species identified. Conclusions Detection of an AVL outbreak in dogs in an area with an evolving natural landscape containing sand flies is crucial for control programs.

  10. Renal leishmaniasis as unusual cause of nephrotic syndrome in an HIV patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Kerstin; Bogdan, Christian; Harrer, Thomas; Rech, Juergen

    2012-04-01

    Renal involvement is a rare complication in HIV-1-infected patients leading to various pathologies and clinical symptoms. In addition to the classic HIV-1-associated nephropathy with collapsing-type focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and characteristic tubulocystic changes, which is more common in Afro-American than in Caucasian HIV-1 patients, immune complex GNs such as membranous GN and membranoproliferative GN are particularly common renal manifestations. Besides HIV-1 itself, a number of opportunistic infections may cause renal disease in HIV-1-infected patients. In this study, we report an unusual case of HIV-1 infection with a severe renal manifestation of systemic leishmaniasis that developed years after repeated visits to Mediterranean countries. The case presents several remarkable clinical, pathologic, and therapeutic aspects that may be important for daily clinical practice.

  11. Survey of wild mammal hosts of cutaneous leishmaniasis parasites in panamá and costa rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Kadir; Calzada, José E; Saldaña, Azael; Rigg, Chystrie A; Alvarado, Gilbert; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal; Kitron, Uriel D; Adler, Gregory H; Gottdenker, Nicole L; Chaves, Luis Fernando; Baldi, Mario

    2015-03-01

    The eco-epidemiology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is driven by animal reservoir species that are a source of infection for sand flies that serve as vectors infecting humans with Leishmania spp parasites. The emergence and re-emergence of this disease across Latin America calls for further studies to identify reservoir species associated with enzootic transmission. Here, we present results from a survey of 52 individuals from 13 wild mammal species at endemic sites in Costa Rica and Panama where ACL mammal hosts have not been previously studied. For Leishmania spp. diagnostics we employed a novel PCR technique using blood samples collected on filter paper. We only found Leishmania spp parasites in one host, the two-toed sloth, Choloepus hoffmanni. Our findings add further support to the role of two-toed sloths as an important ACL reservoir in Central America.

  12. [The impact of climate change on leishmaniasis in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Chrystian Soares; Coelho, Alexandre Bragança; Féres, José Gustavo; Souza, Elvanio Costa de; Cunha, Dênis Antônio da

    2016-01-01

    This paper sought to assess how climate change will affect the proliferation of leishmaniasis in Brazil in three time frames: 2010-2039, 2040-2079 and 2080-2100, and with two climate change scenarios. The relation of temperature, precipitation and the number of hospital admissions due to leishmaniasis was estimated and projections were made using these results. Results show that precipitation has a strong relation with leishmaniasis incidence and projections show that by the end of the twenty-first century there will be a 15% growth in the annual number of hospital admissions due to leishmaniasis in Brazil, compared to the base scenario (1992-2002). In regional terms, projections indicate growth in every region, with the exception of the Mid-West. The highest relative growth will be in the South of the country, while the highest increase in absolute terms will be observed in the Northeast region. In general, the incidence of leishmaniasis will grow in Brazil due to climate change.

  13. Misdiagnosis and Mistreatment of Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis

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    Ahmed Mohamed El Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is a known complication of visceral leishmaniasis (VL caused by L. donovani. It is rare in VL caused by L. infantum and L. chagasi. In Sudan, it occurs with a frequency of 58% among successfully treated VL patients. In the majority of cases, PKDL can be diagnosed on the basis of clinical appearance, distribution of the lesions, and past history of treated VL. The ideal diagnostic method is to demonstrate the parasite in smears, by culture or PCR. Diagnosis is particularly difficult in patients who develop PKDL in the absence of previous history of visceral leishmaniasis. We describe a case of cutaneous leishmaniasis misdiagnosed as PKDL and 3 cases of PKDL who were either misdiagnosed or mistreated as other dermatoses. This caused exacerbation of their disease leading to high parasite loads in the lesions and dissemination to internal organs in one of the patients, who was also diabetic. The latter patient had L. major infection. A fourth patient with papulonodular lesions on the face and arms of 17-year duration and who was misdiagnosed as having PKDL is also described. He turned out to have cutaneous leishmaniasis due to L. major. Fortunately, he was not treated with steroids. He was cured with intravenous sodium stibogluconate.

  14. Pediatric visceral leishmaniasis in northwest of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdinia, Babak; Oliaei-Motlagh, Mohammad; Teimouri-Dereshki, Amir

    2016-11-01

    Leishmaniasis is one of the major health problems in Iran. Although the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is reported almost everywhere, the northwestern Iran is one of the major endemic regions.To do this study, clinical, laboratory as well as disease characteristics of children admitted to Children Cure and Health Hospital, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, were examined as the reference hospital for the treatment of VL in northwestern Iran.In this study, 156 children hospitalized in a pediatric hospital from 2000 to 2015 for VL were included. Gender, age, anemia, thrombocytopenia, increase in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), alanine transaminase (SGPT), and aspartate transaminase (SGOT), major clinical manifestations such as fever, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, treatment type, and the disease were studied.Among 156 patients examined in this study, 88 (56.41%) and 68 (43.59%) participants were male and female, respectively. The minimum and maximum ages of the infection were 4.5 months and 6 years, respectively. The mean age of the infected children was 17.94 months. Fever (94.24%) and splenomegaly (86.53%) were the most common symptoms of this disease among children. In addition, 49 (31.41%), 64 (41.02%), 18 (11.53%), 33 (21.15%), and 40 (25.64%) participants had leukopenia, hemoglobin count below 8, ESR above 100, ESR above 60, and platelets below 100,000, respectively. Moreover, 39 (25%) and 17 (10.89%) patients had high aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT). Also, 96.2% of the participants responded to the treatment with glucantime. The rate of mortality in this study was 3.2%.Clinically, almost all children had fever and splenomegaly at the onset of the disease. In addition, hepatic involvement was observed in all cases of mortality, cases with a lack of initial response, and those in need of auxiliary medication. Hepatic involvement appears to be related to the prognosis of the disease. In our study, bone marrow

  15. Leishmanization revisited: immunization with a naturally attenuated cutaneous Leishmania donovani isolate from Sri Lanka protects against visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Laura-Isobel; Zhang, Wen-Wei; Ranasinghe, Shanlindra; Matlashewski, Greg

    2013-02-27

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by Leishmania protozoa and associated with three main clinical presentations: cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Visceral leishmaniasis is the second most lethal parasitic disease after malaria and there is so far no human vaccine. Leishmania donovani is a causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in South East Asia and Eastern Africa. However, in Sri Lanka, L. donovani causes mainly cutaneous leishmaniasis, while visceral leishmaniasis is rare. We investigate here the possibility that the cutaneous form of L. donovani can provide immunological protection against the visceral form of the disease, as a potential explanation for why visceral leishmaniasis is rare in Sri Lanka. Subcutaneous immunization with a cutaneous clinical isolate from Sri Lanka was significantly protective against visceral leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice. Protection was associated with a mixed Th1/Th2 response. These results provide a possible rationale for the scarcity of visceral leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka and could guide leishmaniasis vaccine development efforts.

  16. Tuberous sclerosis with visceral leishmaniasis: a case report

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    Pandey Krishna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Visceral leishmaniasis, a tropical infectious disease, is a major public health problem in India. Tuberous sclerosis, a congenital neuro-ectodermosis, is an uncommon disease which requires life long treatment. Case presentation A 15-year-old Indian patient, presented to the outpatient department of our institute with a high-grade fever for two months, splenomegaly and a history of generalized tonic-clonic convulsions since childhood. The clinical and laboratory findings suggested visceral leishmaniasis with tuberous sclerosis. The patient was treated with miltefosine and antiepileptics. Conclusion The patient responded well and in a follow up six months after presentation, she was found free of visceral leishmaniasis and seizures. Diagnosis and treatment of this rare combination of diseases is difficult.

  17. Geographical distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis and sand flies in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakila, Ashraf; Bilqees, Fatima Mujib; Salim, Azra; Moinuddin, Moinuddin

    2006-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is found in all the four provinces of Pakistan; these are NWFP, Balochistan, Sindh and Punjab. In Balochistan the areas from where the patients came are Uthal, Quetta and Ormara. The highest number of patients came from Quetta and least from Ormara. The patients included in this study were from the Mangopir and Chakewara, areas of Karachi. The infection is endemic in this country and the recent epidemics in the Dadu District and Nawabshah indicate its importance in the locality. The sand fly vector is found in all four provinces of Pakistan that are listed here. It is quite obvious that presence of leishmaniasis indicates the presence of sand flies and cutaneous leishmaniasis is more common.

  18. Maiden Visit of Visceral Leishmaniasis to Malwa Region

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    Shirish S Nandedkar, Kamal Malukani, Amit Varma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral Leishmaniasis is a well known public health problem in eastern parts of India. So far the cases have not been reported from Malwa plateu of Madhya Pradesh, to the best of our knowledge and available literature. We report here two cases of Visceral Leishmaniasis first time from the Malwa region. Both the cases are from the migratory population of Bihar. The diseases like Leishmaniasis which were previously restricted to endemic areas of the country are spreading to non endemic areas along with the large migratory population, which is seen with the development of the country.. The cases are reported to inform the National health authorities to take proper steps to curb the spread of the disease to non -endemic areas and to emphasize the need of vector surveys in these areas.

  19. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in North Africa: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In North African countries, cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission has been increasing since the 1980s, with a significant increase in the incidence of cases and a spread of the geographical distribution. The disease currently represents a major public health problem with a productivity gap and an impediment for development, which results in dramatic socioeconomic and psycho-sanitary impacts. The incidence is more than thousands of cases every year in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. In Egypt, only a few dozen cases per year are reported, mainly in the Sinai Peninsula. Three Leishmania species, associated with distinct eco-epidemiological and clinical patterns, are involved, namely Leishmania infantum, L. major, and L. tropica. However, L. major is by far the most frequent in Algeria, Libya, and Tunisia, with more than 90% of the registered cases. It is mainly encountered in rural areas under semi-arid, arid and Saharan climates. Leishmania tropica is more prevalent in Morocco, reaching 30–40% of isolates in some districts. Much data is still missing concerning the risk factors of the infection and the lesion development, as well as vector and reservoir ecology and behavior. The knowledge of such parameters, following multidisciplinary and integrated approaches, is crucial for better management and control of the disease, that also faces a lack of resources and efficient control measures.

  20. Human visceral leishmaniasis: a picture from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalmaula, Giuma Harun; Barbadoro, Pamela; Marigliano, Anna; Illuminati, Diego; Di Stanislao, Francesco; D'Errico, Marcello Mario; Prospero, Emilia

    2013-12-01

    The aim of our study was to describe the distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Italy, focusing on HIV-infected patients, to estimate the burden of the disease and the public health actions that should be undertaken. A review of official notifications and hospitalization data has been performed. From 2006 to 2008, a total of 289 cases of VL were notified; the overall notification rate was 1.63/1,000,000 (95% CI 1.45-1.83). In total, 1192 VL-associated hospitalizations were detected, with a hospitalization rate of 6.71/1,000,000 (95% CI 6.34-7.10). For the age group "≤ 24 years", a statistically significant increase was detected (p<0.05). A total of 68.9% (n = 821) of hospitalizations were detected in HIV-positive patients. The geographic distribution of rates revealed a significant increase in the north-eastern area of the country. Our study confirms that the epidemiological pattern of VL is changing and that, in Italy, control measures and preventive strategies should be based on not only the official notification system but also hospital data. This would lead to the identification of areas of parasite spread and to the creation of awareness campaigns geared toward general practitioners in the affected areas. Easy case detection would allow for timely public health actions and strategies for the implementation of more effective interventions for reservoir control.

  1. Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis/HIV Coinfection Presented as a Diffuse Desquamative Rash

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    Guilherme Almeida Rosa da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease that is endemic in tropical areas and in the Mediterranean. This condition spreads to 98 countries in four continents, surpassing 12 million infected individuals, with 350 million people at risk of infection. This disease is characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical syndromes, caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, with various animal reservoirs, such as rodents, dogs, wolves, foxes, and even humans. Transmission occurs through a vector, a sandfly of the genus Lutzomyia. There are three main clinical forms of leishmaniasis: visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The wide spectrum of nonvisceral forms includes: localized cutaneous leishmaniasis, a papular lesion that progresses to ulceration with granular base and a large framed board; diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis; mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, which can cause disfiguring and mutilating injuries of the nasal cavity, pharynx, and larynx. Leishmaniasis/HIV coinfection is considered an emerging problem in several countries, including Brazil, where, despite the growing number of cases, a problem of late diagnosis occurs. Clinically, the cases of leishmaniasis associated with HIV infection may demonstrate unusual aspects, such as extensive and destructive lesions. This study aims to report a case of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis/HIV coinfection with atypical presentation of diffuse desquamative eruption and nasopharyngeal involvement.

  2. Aspectos ecológicos da leishmaniose tegumentar americana: 1. estudo experimental da freqüência de flebotomineos a ecótopos artificiais com referência especial a Psychodopygus intermedius Ecological aspects of American cutaneous leishmaniasis: 1. experimental study of the frequency of phlebotomine sandflies in artificial biotope with special reference to Psychodopygus intermedius

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    Almério de Castro Gomes

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de galinheiro como modelo experimental na observação do comportamento de Psychodopygus intermedius, desenvolvida na região do Vale do Ribeira, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, revelou uma estreita associação entre o flebotomíneo e biótopo artificial estudado. Sua maior densidade à margem da mata sugeriu a hipótese de estar adaptado ao efeito marginal. As investigações em ambiente florestal e extraflorestal demonstraram sua nítida preferência pelo último. Diversos aspectos discutidos explicam parcialmente a ocorrência de leishmaniose tegumentar nesse Estado.The use of chicken roosts as experimental models for observing the behavior of Psychodopygus intermedius in the Ribeira River Valley region of the State of S. Paulo (Brazil, showed that there is a close association between the biotope studied and the phlebotomine sandfly. Its greater frequency along the edge of woods suggested the hypothesis of its adaptation to the edge effect. Investigation of forest and extraforest environments showed the fly's clear preference for the latter. Several of the aspects discussed in the paper partially explain the occurrence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in S. Paulo State.

  3. Interest in paromomycin for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar

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    Wiwanitkit V

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Viroj Wiwanitkit1–31Wiwanitkit House, Bang Khae, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Hainan Medical University, Haikou, Hainan, People's Republic of China; 3Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji-Arakeji, Osun State, NigeriaAbstract: Leishmaniasis is an important vector-borne disease, and it is classified as one of the most important tropical fly-borne infections. This disease can cause two types of clinical manifestations: cutaneous forms and visceral forms. Visceral leishmaniasis, which is also called kala-azar, is a very serious infection that can be fatal. The management of visceral leishmaniasis requires informed diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Continuous research and development regarding the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis had led to many improvements. Paromomycin is a relatively new antibiotic drug that has been used for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis for several years. This article reviews and discusses the use of paromomycin for visceral leishmaniasis therapy.Keywords: visceral, leishmaniasis, paromomycin

  4. Possibilities and challenges for developing a successful vaccine for leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Saumya; Shankar, Prem; Mishra, Jyotsna; Singh, Sarman

    2016-05-12

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by different species of protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. It is a major health problem yet neglected tropical diseases, with approximately 350 million people worldwide at risk and more than 1.5 million infections occurring each year. Leishmaniasis has different clinical manifestations, including visceral (VL or kala-azar), cutaneous (CL), mucocutaneous (MCL), diffuse cutaneous (DCL) and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). Currently, the only mean to treat and control leishmaniasis is by rational medications and vector control. However, the number of available drugs is limited and even these are either exorbitantly priced, have toxic side effects or prove ineffective due to the emergence of resistant strains. On the other hand, the vector control methods are not so efficient. Therefore, there is an urgent need for developing a safe, effective, and affordable vaccine for the prevention of leishmaniasis. Although in recent years a large body of researchers has concentrated their efforts on this issue, yet only three vaccine candidates have gone for clinical trial, until date. These are: (i) killed vaccine in Brazil for human immunotherapy; (ii) live attenuated vaccine for humans in Uzbekistan; and (iii) second-generation vaccine for dog prophylaxis in Brazil. Nevertheless, there are at least half a dozen vaccine candidates in the pipeline. One can expect that, in the near future, the understanding of the whole genome of Leishmania spp. will expand the vaccine discovery and strategies that may provide novel vaccines. The present review focuses on the development and the status of various vaccines and potential vaccine candidates against leishmaniasis.

  5. High levels of plasma IL-10 and expression of IL-10 by keratinocytes during visceral leishmaniasis predict subsequent development of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasim, S; Elhassan, A M; Khalil, E A

    1998-01-01

    Some patients develop post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) after they have been treated for the systemic infection kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis). It has been an enigma why the parasites cause skin symptoms after the patients have been successfully treated for the systemic disease. We...... report here that PKDL development can be predicted before treatment of visceral leishmaniasis, and that IL-10 is involved in the pathogenesis. Before treatment of visceral leishmaniasis, Leishmania parasites were present in skin which appeared normal on all patients. However, IL-10 was detected...

  6. Trace elements in sera from patients with visceral leishmaniasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Bhattacharya, A. [Department of Zoology, Calcutta University, Calcutta (India); Chakraborty, A.; Sudarshan, M.; Jal, P.K.; Chintalapudi, S.N. [Inter University Consortium for DAE Facilities, Calcutta Centre 3/LB-8, Bidhan Nagar, Calcutta (India); Dutta, R.K. [Schonland Research Centre for Nuclear Sciences, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2000-07-01

    Trace elements are known to have pivotal role in human health and disease. Present investigation employed PIXE analysis to probe into the elemental profile of patients suffering from visceral Leishmaniasis. Remarkable alternations were observed in concentration of elements like Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn. The pattern of enhancement of elemental concentration corresponds to the progression of the disease. Additionally, our present data reflect probable correlation between alteration in trace elemental status and other pathological syndromes associated with Leishmaniasis. The possibility of considering trace elements as a diagnostic marker for a better understanding of the disease is discussed. (author)

  7. Laboratory diagnosis of human visceral leishmaniasis

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    Hercules Sakkas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, caused by the Leishmania donovani complex, is a vector-borne systemic disease, with a worldwide distribution causing high morbidity and mortality in the developing world. VL patients may be asymptomatic or they may present symptoms and findings of a systemic infection. The positive predictive value of clinical diagnosis in patients with typical symptoms is usually high, but more often, the signs and symptoms are inconclusive and mistaken with other co-endemic diseases. The fact that HIV co-infections often produce atypical presentations and the heterogeneity of Leishmania species, which is common in many endemic regions, also complicate the diagnosis. Despite that, some of the parasitological methods are still considered to be the reference standard for VL diagnosis due to their specificity. The development of serological and molecular tests has further enhanced the diagnostic approach of VL. Recombinant antigens have improved the performance of serodiagnostic tests, with DAT and the rK39 antigen based immunochromatographic test being the most appropriate methods for the serological diagnosis of VL. Molecular techniques, despite the fact that their implementation is often difficult and infeasible, have become increasingly relevant due to remarkable sensitivity and specificity, and to the variability of tested samples. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR has been shown to be superior than conventional PCR for the differentiation between active VL and asymptomatic infections, such as for the detection of VL-HIV coinfection. This review summarizes the available methods with their applications in the diagnosis of VL, and focuses on the recent developments in VL diagnostics.

  8. Aspectos ecológicos da leishmaniose tegumentar americana: 3. Observações naturais sobre o ritmo diário de Psychodopygus intermedius em ambiente florestal e extraflorestal Ecological aspects of American cutaneous leishmaniasis: 3. Natural observations on the daily rhythm of the activity of Psychodopygus intermedius in forested and neighbouring environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almério de Castro Gomes

    1983-02-01

    Full Text Available Pela primeira vez se determina a atividade diária de Psychodopygus intermedius em ambiente florestal residual e extraflorestal, em Pariquera-Açú, Região do Vale do Ribeira, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. A análise final revelou ter esse flebotomíneo atividade noturna nos dois ambientes. Contudo, houve divergência quanto ao pico de atividade máxima que oscilou entre 20 e 02 horas. Persistiu também a sua predominância no ambiente extraflorestal. Por outro lado, uma acentuada preferência pelo homem parece ter influenciado sua dispersão, pois demonstrou ser ubiquitária. A importância do evento reside na possibilidade de haver uma estreita associação alimentar Ps. intermedius-Homem. Subsequente, a infecção leishmaniótica poderá ocorrer ao nível do domicílio.The daily activity of Psychodopygus intermedius was measured for the first time, within and outside of a residual forest in the Ribeira Valley, S. Paulo State, Brazil. The results showed nocturnal activity in both environments, with different times of maximum activity occuring between 8 p.m. and 2 a.m. However, the most intense activity continued to take place outside the forest. A strong preference for humans seems to have contributed to Ps. intermedius' ubiquitous distribution. The importance of this fact lies in the possibility of there existing a close feeding association Ps. intermedius - Man. Hence cutaneous leishmaniasis infection may take place in the household environment.

  9. Deteccion de amastigotas en Leishmaniasis cutanea y mucocutanea por el metodo de inmunoperoxidasa, usando anticuerpo policlonal: sensibilidad y especificidad comparadas con metodos convencionales de diagnostico Detection of amastigotes in cuteneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis by the immunoperoxidase method, using polyclonal antibody sensibility and specifity compared with conventional diagnosis methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Salinas

    1989-03-01

    was evaluated in 265 biopsies with the purpose of increasing the sensitivity of the diagnostic histopathology of tegumentary lesions caused by subspecies of the Leishmania braziliensis complex. A diagnosis of leishmaniasis was established by parasitological methods (181 or clinical criteria (12 in 193 patients (72.8%. In the latter group of confirmed cases standard histochemstry and immunoperoxidase were compared with direct examination of tissue scraping and culture of lesion aspirates. The detection and localization of amastigotes was more efficient using the immunoperoxidase method (61.3% than conventional histopathology with hematoxilin and eosin (34.6% or direct examination of tissue scraping (43.9%. Howerver, culture of lesion aspirates was the most sensitive procedure (89.8%. The efficiency of the immunoperoxidase method was greater in recent lesions, being positive in 75% of cases with less than 3 months evolution, while 55.6%, 37.5% and 21.1% of cases with lesion evolution of 3-5.9, 6-11, and 12 months or greater, respectively, were positive. The combined use of the direct examination of lesion scraping and immunoperoxidase applied to histological sections of the biopsy from the lesion border allowed an etiologic diagnosis of 72% of confirmed cases. Cross-reactivity was observed with Paracoccidioides braziliensis but not with Mycobacterium leprae, Sporothrix schenckii, or Histoplasma capsulatum.

  10. Tegumentary and visceral leishmaniases in Brazil: emerging anthropozoonosis and possibilities for their control Leishmanioses tegumentar e visceral no Brasil: antropozoonoses emergentes e perspectivas de controle

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    Mauro Célio de A. Marzochi

    Full Text Available The existence of a number of different species of Leishmania, the persistent increase in the infection rate of diseases caused by this parasite (tegumentary and visceral forms, the different epidemiological situations found in regions of both recent and older colonization, and the trend towards urbanization have led to the adoption of different strategies to control leishmaniases in Brazil. The control measures involve studies related to the parasite, vectors, sources of infection (animal and human, clinical aspects, geographical distribution, historical and socioeconomic factors, integration of health services, and adequate technologies for diagnosis, treatment, and immunoprophylaxis. Finally, successful control requires work with human communities, involving education, provision of information, health promotion, and participation of these communities in the planning, development, and maintenance of control programs.A ocorrência de várias espécies de Leishmania, o contínuo aumento das afecções causadas por esses parasitas (formas tegumentares e visceral e as diferentes situações epidemiológicas encontradas, tanto em regiões de colonização recente quanto de colonização antiga, com tendência a urbanização, vem requerendo a adoção de diferentes estratégias para o controle dessas endemias no Brasil. Essas medidas demandam estudos relacionados aos parasitas, insetos vetores, fontes de infecção, aspectos clínicos, distribuição geográfica, fatores históricos e sócio-econômicos, integração dos serviços de saúde, tecnologias apropriadas de diagnóstico, tratamento e imunoprofilaxia. Finalmente, para o sucesso do controle, são requeridos esforços junto as comunidades humanas, envolvendo educação, provisão de informação, promoção da saúde e participação dessas comunidades no planejamento, desenvolvimento e manutenção dos programas adotados.

  11. Leishmaniasis in the middle East: incidence and epidemiology.

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    Nasir Salam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a major health problem worldwide, with several countries reporting cases of leishmaniasis resulting in loss of human life or a lifelong stigma because of bodily scars. The Middle East is endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis, with countries like Syria reporting very high incidence of the disease. Despite several countries establishing national control programs for containing the sandfly vector and treatment of infection, the disease continues to spread. In addition to the endemicity of the region for leishmaniasis, the Middle East has seen a great deal of human migration either for earning of livelihood or due to political upheaval in the region. These factors contribute to the spread and proliferation of the causative species Leishmania and its sandfly host. This review discusses the current epidemiological scenario in Iraq, Syria, Saudi Arabia, and Jordan, emphasizing the number of cases reported, vector species, Leishmania species, and treatment available. The data is primarily from WHO reports for each country and current and old literature.

  12. Epidemiological study on acute cutaneous leishmaniasis in Morocco

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    Kholoud Kahime

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: ZCL and ACL are still major health problems in Morocco. We highlight the spatiotemporal change of cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence through the country during the last ten years and we underline the correlation between ZCL incidence and the percentage of rural population in Morocco.

  13. Vaccines and vaccination strategies against human cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwor, Ifeoma; Uzonna, Jude

    2009-05-01

    One might think that the development of a vaccine against cutaneous leishmaniasis would be relatively straightforward because the type of immune response required for protection is known and natural immunity occurs following recovery from primary infection. However, there is as yet no effective vaccine against the disease in humans. Although vaccination in murine studies has yielded promising results, these vaccines have failed miserably when tested in primates or humans. The reasons behind these failures are unknown and remain a major hurdle for vaccine design and development against cutaneous leishmaniasis. In contrast, recovery from natural, deliberate or experimental infections results in development of long-lasting immunity to re-infection. This so called infection-induced resistance is the strongest anti-Leishmania immunity known. Here, we briefly review the different approaches to vaccination against cutaneous leishmaniasis and argue that vaccines composed of genetically modified (attenuated) parasites, which induce immunity akin to infection-induced resistance, may provide best protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans.

  14. [Visceral leishmaniasis and pregnancy in renal transplanted patient: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jaqueline de Almeida; Araújo, Ivan de Melo; Pavanetti, Luiz Carlos; Okamoto, Liene Shigaki; Dias, Mônica

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and potentially fatal disease caused by different Leishmania species, Leishmania chagasi prevailing in Brazil. Main symptoms include fever, malaise, anorexia, weight loss and abdominal enlargement with typically occurring hepatosplenomegaly Currently, VL is considered an opportunistic infection in immunocompromised hosts, including solid organ transplanted patients. The present study reports a case of VL associated to pregnancy after renal transplantation.

  15. [Cutaneous leishmaniasis in France: towards the end of injectable therapy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, P A; Morizot, G

    2003-01-01

    Today no drug likely to be efficient on the majority of human-infecting species, well tolerated, and easy to administer is available for the treatment of human cutaneous leishmaniasis. But recent progress has been made. Efficient against visceral leishmaniasis, orally administered miltefosine may supplant pentavalent antimonials for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis acquired in the New World. Right now, the reference treatment is still parenteral pentavalent antimonials 20 mg Sbv/kg/d for a duration that may probably be reduced from 20 to 10 days. The benefit/risk ratio of pentamidine still compares well with that of pentavalent antimonials for the treatment of lesions due to species belonging to the L. panamensis/L. guyanensis/L. shawi group. Pentamidine, which is easier to handle than antimonials, remains the reference treatment for cases from areas where these species predominate. Oral fluconazole is an improvement, readily available for cases from L. major foci. If its efficacy is confirmed in other foci and against other species, mechanisms will have to be implemented to make this therapeutic improvement affordable to poor patients in endemic countries. The development of an efficient and well tolerated topical treatment is still warranted. A new formulation of aminosidine is currently under evaluation. One can hope that the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis will soon become simpler, both for patients and doctors. For the benefits of this simplification to be rapidly affordable to all patients, the pharmaceutical and clinical research outlay must be maintained.

  16. Clinical pharmacology in leishmaniasis: treatment optimization of a neglected disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorlo, T.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents various novel applications of clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in the treatment of leishmaniasis, by which diverse clinically relevant issues, mainly related to the efficacy and safety of miltefosine, could be elucidated. Throughout this thesis, the added value of

  17. Ancient Leishmaniasis in a highland desert of Northern Chile.

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    Maria Antonietta Costa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease endemic today in many areas of South America. METHODOLOGY: We discovered morphologic and molecular evidence of ancient infections in 4 female skulls in the archaeological cemetery of Coyo Oriente, in the desert of San Pedro de Atacama, Northern Chile. The boney facial lesions visible in the skulls could have been caused by a number of chronic infections including chronic Leishmaniasis. This diagnosis was confirmed using PCR-sequenced analyses of bone fragments from the skulls of the affected individuals.Leishmaniasis is not normally found in the high-altitude desert of Northern Chile; where the harsh climate does not allow the parasite to complete its life cycle. The presence of Leishmaniasis in ancient skulls from the region implies infection by the protozoan in an endemic area-likely, in our subjects, to have been the lowlands of North-Eastern Argentina or in Southern Bolivia. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that the presence of the disease in ancient times in the high altitude desert of San Pedro de Atacama is the result of an exogamic system of patrilocal marriages, where women from different cultures followed their husbands to their ancestral homes, allowing immigrant women, infected early in life, to be incorporated in the Atacama desert society before they became disfigured by the disease. The present globalization of goods and services and the extraordinary facile movement of people across borders and continents have lead to a resurgence of infectious diseases and re-emergence of infections such as Leishmaniasis. We show here that such factors were already present millennia ago, shaping demographic trends and the epidemiology of infections just as they do today.

  18. Systemic hypertension in dogs with leishmaniasis: prevalence and clinical consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortadellas, Oscar; del Palacio, María Josefa Fernández; Bayón, Alejandro; Albert, Angel; Talavera, Jesús

    2006-01-01

    A prospective study was performed (November 1998 to December 2003) to determine the prevalence of systemic hypertension (SH) in dogs with glomerular disease secondary to leishmaniasis. One hundred and five dogs with leishmaniasis were screened and staged for the presence of renal disease (RD) and SH. For the purpose of the study, RD was defined as serum creatinine concentration > or = 1.4 mg/dL, a urine protein/creatinine ratio > or = 0.5, or both. SH was defined as a systolic blood pressure (SBP) > or =180 mm Hg or an SBP between 150 and 179 mm Hg in the presence of clinical manifestations of SH. Fifty-two (49.5%) of the dogs had some degree of RD, and 32 (61.5%) of these dogs were diagnosed with SH. Moreover, SH also was diagnosed in 3 dogs without RD. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), estimated by echocardiography, was the most frequently observed systemic consequence of hypertension, being present in 32 (91.4%) of the hypertensive dogs. Echocardiographic abnormalities were not detected in any of the 33 dogs with leishmaniasis without RD, which were used as controls. Ocular consequences of SH were observed in only 2 (5.7%) of the dogs with hypertension. We conclude that SH is prevalent in dogs with RD secondary to leishmaniasis, not only in the more severe stages but also in the early course of the illness before azotemia becomes apparent. Canine leishmaniasis may be a useful natural model to study SH secondary to glomerular disease.

  19. Current treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (Kala-azar: an overview

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    Premshanker S. Singh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL is also popularly known as kala-azar which was first reported in early forties and since then it continues to affect millions of people. The ranges of common drugs available for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis are limited. It mainly includes pentavalent antimonials e.g. stibogluconate (SbV, amphotericin B deoxycholate (AB, lipid formulations of amphotericin B (L-AB, miltefosine (MF and paromomycin (PM - all of which have limitations in terms of toxicity, variable efficacy, price and inconvenient treatment schedules. Most are parenteral except MF which is administered orally. Due to the parasite and #8217;s drug resistance, the most widely used (SbV of these drugs is now of little use in northern Bihar, India, which alone accounts for 50% of the worlds burden of visceral leishmaniasis. In areas of resistance to SbV, AB is highly effective. The formulation of AB in liposomes (L-AB has been a major advancement in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. However, despite a significant reduction in price, this treatment remains very expensive for endemic countries like India. Combination short course therapy has been reported by many researchers who found that it is equally effective as conventional monotherapy with added benefits of less side effects, better compliance and less resistance. The aim of this article is to review the current aspects of the treatment for leishmaniasis, giving an overview of current agents clinically used to new agents and modalities of treatment under development. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 810-817

  20. Drug resistance in Indian visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, S

    2001-11-01

    Throughout the world, pentavalent antimonial compounds (Sb(v)) have been the mainstay of antileishmanial therapy for more than 50 years. Sb(v) has been highly effective in the treatment of Indian visceral leishmaniasis (VL: kala-azar) at a low dose (10 mg/kg) for short durations (6-10 days). But in the early 1980s reports of its ineffectiveness emerged, and the dose of Sb(v) was eventually raised to 20 mg/kg for 30-40 days. This regimen cures most patients with VL except in India, where the proportion of patients unresponsive to Sb(v) has steadily increased. In hyperendemic districts of north Bihar, 50-65% patients fail treatment with Sb(v). Important reasons are rampant use of subtherapeutic doses, incomplete duration of treatment and substandard drugs. In vitro experiments have established emergence of Sb(v) resistant strains of Leishmania donovani, as isolates from unresponsive patients require 3-5 times more Sb(v) to reach similarly effectiveness against the parasite as in Sb(v) responders. Anthroponotic transmission in India has been an important factor in rapid increase in the Sb(v) refractoriness. Pentamidine was the first drug to be used and cured 99% of these refractory patients, but over time even with double the amount of initial doses, it cures only 69-78% patients now and its use has largely been abandoned in India. Despite several disadvantages, amphotericin B is the only drug available for use in these areas and should be used as first-line drug instead of Sb(v). The new oral antileishmanial drug miltefosine is likely to be the first-line drug in future. Unfortunately, development of newer antileishmanial drugs is rare; two promising drugs, aminosidine and sitamaquine, may be developed for use in the treatment of VL. Lipid associated amphotericin B has an excellent safety and efficacy profile, but remains out of reach for most patients because of its high cost.

  1. Management of visceral leishmaniasis with therapeutic vaccines

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    Rawat K

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Keerti Rawat,1 Narendra K Yadav,1 Sumit Joshi,1 Sneha Ratnapriya,1 Amogh A Sahasrabuddhe,2 Anuradha Dube1 1Division of Parasitology, 2Division of Molecular and Structural Biology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India Abstract: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, a phlebotomine-borne neglected tropical disease, is caused by parasites of the Leishmania donovani complex. While L. donovani infection is restricted to the Indian subcontinent and East Africa, where transmission is anthroponotic, Leishmania infantum occurs in Europe, North Africa, and parts of Latin America, where it is zoonotic in nature with dogs as reservoir hosts. Though the incidence of VL caused by L. infantum has been on the decline, L. donovani continues to cause epidemics periodically. By and large, a small proportion of L. donovani infection manifests as clinical disease but majority of the infected individuals remain asymptomatic and contribute to the perpetuation of the VL transmission cycle via the sand fly vector. This is one of the major stumbling blocks to World Health Organization initiatives to eliminate this deadly disease by 2020. These parasites reside within the host macrophages and impair the immune system of the infected individual, which ultimately results in marked immunosuppression. In the absence of any safe and effective vector control measure, attempts have been made to design therapeutic vaccine(s that can exclusively target infected macrophages. So far, two vaccines – a glycoprotein complex from L. donovani promastigote, fucose–mannose ligand with saponin, commercialized as Leishmune®, as well as a polyprotein vaccine formulation, Leish-111f + monophosphoryl lipid A plus squalene emulsion in combination with glucantime, have been successfully evaluated for their immunotherapeutic potential against canine VL. However, encouraging results obtained from several experimental trials so far against human VL

  2. Hyponatremia in visceral leishmaniasis Hiponatremia no calazar

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    Frederico A. Lima Verde

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available There are few reports linking hyponatremia and visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar. This is a study of 55 consecutive kala-azar patients and 20 normal individuals as a control group. Hyponatremia and serum hypo-osmolality were detected in 100% of kala-azar patients. High first morning urine osmolality (750.0 ± 52.0 vs. 894.5 ± 30.0mOsm/kg H2O, p Existem poucos relatos relacionando hiponatremia com a leshmaniose visceral (calazar. Este é um estudo de 55 pacientes portadores de calazar e um grupo controle de 20 indivíduos normais. Hiponatremia e hipo-osmolalidade sérica foram detectados em 100% dos pacientes portadores de calazar. A presença de alta osmolalidade da primeira urina da manhã (750,0 ± 52,0 vs. 894,5 ± 30 mOsm/Kg H2O, p < 0,05 e da urina de 24h (426,0 ± 167,0 vs. 514,6 ± 132,0 mOsm/Kg H2O, p < 0,05, demonstraram a presença de persistente secreção de hormônio antidiurético. A concentração de sódio urinário foi elevada (82,3 ± 44,2 vs. 110,3 ± 34,7 mEq/L, p < 0,05. Hipouricemia ocorreu em 61,8% dos pacientes e aumento da fração de excreção urinária de ácido úrico foi detectada em 74,5% dos casos. Aumento da velocidade de filtração glomerular estava presente em 25,4% dos pacientes. Não havia evidência clínica de depleção de volume extracelular. Valores normais de ADH plasmático foram observados nos pacientes com calazar. Não foi detectada disfunção renal ou endócrina. É provável, que a maioria dos pacientes com calazar apresente uma síndrome de secreção inapropriada de hormônio antidiurético.

  3. Intradermal Infection Model for Pathogenesis and Vaccine Studies of Murine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The levels of protection found in vaccine studies of murine visceral leishmaniasis are significantly lower than for cutaneous leishmaniasis; whether this is due to the high-challenge murine model employed and/or is a consequence of differences required in tissue-specific local immune responses is not understood. Consequently, an intradermal murine model of visceral leishmaniasis has been explored. Intradermal inoculation established a chronic infection in susceptible mice which was associated...

  4. Anthropogenic influence on the distribution, abundance and diversity of sandfly species (Diptera: Phlebotominae: Psychodidae, vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Panama

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    Anayansi Valderrama

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Panama, species of the genus Lutzomyia are vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL. There is no recent ecological information that may be used to develop tools for the control of this disease. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine the composition, distribution and diversity of Lutzomyia species that serve as vectors of ACL. Sandfly sampling was conducted in forests, fragmented forests and rural environments, in locations with records of ACL. Lutzomyia gomezi, Lutzomyia panamensis and Lutzomyia trapidoi were the most widely distributed and prevalent species. Analysis of each sampling point showed that the species abundance and diversity were greatest at points located in the fragmented forest landscape. However, when the samples were grouped according to the landscape characteristics of the locations, there was a greater diversity of species in the rural environment locations. The Kruskal Wallis analysis of species abundance found that Lu. gomezi and Lu. trapidoi were associated with fragmented environments, while Lu. panamensis, Lutzomyia olmeca bicolor and Lutzomyia ylephiletor were associated with forested environments. Therefore, we suggest that human activity influences the distribution, composition and diversity of the vector species responsible for leishmaniasis in Panama.

  5. Dispersal pattern of the sand fly Lutzomyia neivai (Diptera: Psychodidae in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic rural area in Southeastern Brazil

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    Cláudio Casanova

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The dispersal pattern of the sand fly Lutzomyia neivai was studied through mark-release-recapture experiments in an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic rural area in Southeastern Brazil. Over 6500 specimens were marked with fluorescent powder and released in forest edge and peridomicile habitats from August to November 1999, February and April 2000. Recapture attempts were made using Shannon and CDC traps up to eight successive nights after releases. A total of 493 (7.58% specimens were recaptured. The number of recaptured males and females of L. neivai in CDC traps was not affected by the distance between the trap and the release points. Approximately 90% of males and females recaptured in CDC traps were caught up to 70 m from the release points. The maximum female flight range recorded was 128 m. The average flight range per day was less than 60 m for males and females. Of the flies released in forest edge, approximately 16% of the recaptured females were caught in Shannon traps in the peridomicile habitat. The results indicate that the movements of L. neivai are spatially focal and the possibility of dispersion from forest to peridomicile habitat may be an important way of contracting leishmaniasis in dwellings.

  6. Molecular epidemiology of imported cases of leishmaniasis in Australia from 2008 to 2014.

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    Tamalee Roberts

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a vector borne disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Human leishmaniasis is not endemic in Australia though imported cases are regularly encountered. This study aimed to provide an update on the molecular epidemiology of imported leishmaniasis in Australia. Of a total of 206 biopsies and bone marrow specimens submitted to St Vincent's Hospital Sydney for leishmaniasis diagnosis by PCR, 55 were found to be positive for Leishmania DNA. All PCR products were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for identification of the causative species. Five Leishmania species/species complexes were identified with Leishmania tropica being the most common (30/55. Travel or prior residence in a Leishmania endemic region was the most common route of acquisition with ~47% of patients having lived in or travelled to Afghanistan. Cutaneous leishmaniasis was the most common manifestation (94% with only 3 cases of visceral leishmaniasis and no cases of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis encountered. This report indicates that imported leishmaniasis is becoming increasingly common in Australia due to an increase in global travel and immigration. As such, Australian clinicians must be made aware of this trend and consider leishmaniasis in patients with suspicious symptoms and a history of travel in endemic areas. This study also discusses the recent identification of a unique Leishmania species found in native kangaroos and a potential vector host which could create the opportunity for the establishment of a local transmission cycle within humans.

  7. New Approaches on Leishmaniasis Treatment and Prevention: A Review of Recent Patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Juliana F; de Figueiredo, Sônia M; Monteiro, Fabricio M; Rocha-Silva, Fabiana; Gaciele-Melo, Cidiane; Coelho, Sabrina S C; Lyon, Sandra; Caligiorne, Rachel B

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is considered a neglected tropical disease having a worldwide distribution. The disease is caused by protozoa belonging to the genus Leishmania, being clinically divided into visceral leishmaniasis (VL), cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL). Domestic dogs are the main parasite reservoir and effectively participate in the protozoa transmission. The human leishmaniasis treatment is based on a selection of therapeutic compounds, but the available drugs are toxic, presenting adverse side effects. The decision to treat or not to treat seropositive dogs is under discussion in some countries, because treatment is even more toxic to animals and, also, can generate drug resistant strains. Therefore, very few treatment choices have reached the clinic for this disease and there is an urgent need of new chemotherapy for both humans and animals. This study presents a review of new patents related to treatment and prevention of Leishmania infections. Some of these patents are related to new vaccine formulations for combating leishmaniasis. Likewise, the inventions related to the cream formulations for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis are very important, avoiding the side effects of drugs during the treatment. Furthermore, anti leishmaniasis products that are extracted from nature has increasingly been patented each year, demonstrating the importance of bioprospection studies to improve the armamentarium of anti leishmaniasis drugs.

  8. First report on Ambisome-associated allergic reaction in two Sudanese leishmaniasis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtar, Maowia; Aboud, Mona; Kheir, Musa; Bakhiet, Sahar; Abdullah, Nazik; Ali, Ahmed; Hassan, Nadia; Elamin, Elwaleed; Elagib, Atif

    2011-10-01

    Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) and mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) are serious clinical forms of leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani parasites in Sudan. Although pentavalent antimonys are used as the first line of treatment of all clinical forms of leishmaniasis, persistent PKDL and ML patients are treated with liposomal amphotericin B (Ambisome) as a second-line drug. In this work, we report the development of allergic reactions by a PKDL and a ML Sudanese patient to Ambisome. The findings warrant future close supervision of patients to be treated with the drug.

  9. Arylimidamide-Azole Combinations Against Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    drugs have ever been used for treatment against the Leishmania parasites used to infect the mice. Decrease of luminescence signal on day 32 for DB766...is also likely not due to a failure of drug efficacy but to the appearance of dark ulcers that quench the luminescence signal. Signal quenching is...Compounds Derived from the Medicines for Malaria Venture Open Access Box Against Intracellular Leishmania major Amastigotes. American Journal of Tropical

  10. In vitro activity of dicationic compounds against a North American foxhound isolate of Leishmania infantum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Hall, James E; Bakunova, Svetlana; Patrick, Donald A; Bakunov, Stanislav; Stephens, Chad E; Kumar, Arvind; Boykin, David W; Tidwell, Richard R

    2007-04-30

    Canine leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum is enzootic in the North American foxhound population. Currently available chemotherapy for canine leishmaniasis is not completely effective and relapses are common in treated dogs. Pentamidine and related aromatic diamidines possess broad spectrum antiprotozoal activity. The in vitro antileishmanial activities of 35 aromatic cationic molecules were determined, using pentamidine as the reference drug. The compounds were examined for activity against promastigotes of L. infantum isolated from a foxhound from Virginia. The compounds most active against Leishmania parasites were reversed amidines. Compound 9, a reversed amidine, exhibited the highest activity against L. infantum, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 0.0042 microM compared with 14.2 microM for pentamidine. Antileishmanial activities of nine compounds were at least 1000-fold higher relative to the reference drug. Results from this study indicate that several pentamidine-related compounds warrant further investigation as possible new agents for the treatment of canine leishmaniasis.

  11. RENAL HISTOPATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN DOGS WITH VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS

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    Rosangela Silva Rigo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis affects various organs including the kidneys; which can lead to renal failure and death. In order to verify this renal involvement, material was evaluated from 100 dogs naturally infected and with serological diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL. Inflammatory changes were present in 25.3% of the tubules, in 67.0% of interstitium and in 52.0% of glomeruli. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05 between the presence of glomerulonephritis in symptomatic and oligosymptomatic dogs. The membranous and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis were the most frequent, both with 18.0% frequency, followed by focal segmental glomerulosclerosis with 14.0%. Changes such as cylindruria, tubular and fibrosis hypertrophy, periglomerular inflammatory infiltrate, and multifocal and diffuse peritubular inflammatory infiltrate were observed. The findings are consistent with those of other authors indicating that renal involvement is common in CVL and the standards of membranous and membranoploriferative glomerulonephritis, as well as the tubulointerstitial involvement, are frequent.

  12. Renal histopathological findings in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, Rosangela Silva; Carvalho, Cristiano Marcelo Espínola; Honer, Michael Robin; Andrade, Gisele Braziliano de; Silva, Iandara Shetter; Rigo, Leonardo; Figueiredo, Helen Rezende; Barreto, Wanessa Teixeira Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis affects various organs including the kidneys; which can lead to renal failure and death. In order to verify this renal involvement, material was evaluated from 100 dogs naturally infected and with serological diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Inflammatory changes were present in 25.3% of the tubules, in 67.0% of interstitium and in 52.0% of glomeruli. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the presence of glomerulonephritis in symptomatic and oligosymptomatic dogs. The membranous and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis were the most frequent, both with 18.0% frequency, followed by focal segmental glomerulosclerosis with 14.0%. Changes such as cylindruria, tubular and fibrosis hypertrophy, periglomerular inflammatory infiltrate, and multifocal and diffuse peritubular inflammatory infiltrate were observed. The findings are consistent with those of other authors indicating that renal involvement is common in CVL and the standards of membranous and membranoploriferative glomerulonephritis, as well as the tubulointerstitial involvement, are frequent.

  13. Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

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    Maria Fátima Horta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis affects millions of people around the world. Several species of Leishmania infect mouse strains, and murine models closely reproduce the cutaneous lesions caused by the parasite in humans. Mouse models have enabled studies on the pathogenesis and effector mechanisms of host resistance to infection. Here, we review the role of nitric oxide (NO, reactive oxygen species (ROS, and peroxynitrite (ONOO− in the control of parasites by macrophages, which are both the host cells and the effector cells. We also discuss the role of neutrophil-derived oxygen and nitrogen reactive species during infection with Leishmania. We emphasize the role of these cells in the outcome of leishmaniasis early after infection, before the adaptive Th-cell immune response.

  14. Leishmaniasis worldwide and global estimates of its incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvar, Jorge; Vélez, Iván D; Bern, Caryn; Herrero, Mercé; Desjeux, Philippe; Cano, Jorge; Jannin, Jean; den Boer, Margriet

    2012-01-01

    As part of a World Health Organization-led effort to update the empirical evidence base for the leishmaniases, national experts provided leishmaniasis case data for the last 5 years and information regarding treatment and control in their respective countries and a comprehensive literature review was conducted covering publications on leishmaniasis in 98 countries and three territories (see 'Leishmaniasis Country Profiles Text S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6, S7, S8, S9, S10, S11, S12, S13, S14, S15, S16, S17, S18, S19, S20, S21, S22, S23, S24, S25, S26, S27, S28, S29, S30, S31, S32, S33, S34, S35, S36, S37, S38, S39, S40, S41, S42, S43, S44, S45, S46, S47, S48, S49, S50, S51, S52, S53, S54, S55, S56, S57, S58, S59, S60, S61, S62, S63, S64, S65, S66, S67, S68, S69, S70, S71, S72, S73, S74, S75, S76, S77, S78, S79, S80, S81, S82, S83, S84, S85, S86, S87, S88, S89, S90, S91, S92, S93, S94, S95, S96, S97, S98, S99, S100, S101'). Additional information was collated during meetings conducted at WHO regional level between 2007 and 2011. Two questionnaires regarding epidemiology and drug access were completed by experts and national program managers. Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence ranges were estimated by country and epidemiological region based on reported incidence, underreporting rates if available, and the judgment of national and international experts. Based on these estimates, approximately 0.2 to 0.4 cases and 0.7 to 1.2 million VL and CL cases, respectively, occur each year. More than 90% of global VL cases occur in six countries: India, Bangladesh, Sudan, South Sudan, Ethiopia and Brazil. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is more widely distributed, with about one-third of cases occurring in each of three epidemiological regions, the Americas, the Mediterranean basin, and western Asia from the Middle East to Central Asia. The ten countries with the highest estimated case counts, Afghanistan, Algeria, Colombia, Brazil, Iran, Syria, Ethiopia, North Sudan, Costa Rica

  15. Leishmaniasis worldwide and global estimates of its incidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alvar

    Full Text Available As part of a World Health Organization-led effort to update the empirical evidence base for the leishmaniases, national experts provided leishmaniasis case data for the last 5 years and information regarding treatment and control in their respective countries and a comprehensive literature review was conducted covering publications on leishmaniasis in 98 countries and three territories (see 'Leishmaniasis Country Profiles Text S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, S6, S7, S8, S9, S10, S11, S12, S13, S14, S15, S16, S17, S18, S19, S20, S21, S22, S23, S24, S25, S26, S27, S28, S29, S30, S31, S32, S33, S34, S35, S36, S37, S38, S39, S40, S41, S42, S43, S44, S45, S46, S47, S48, S49, S50, S51, S52, S53, S54, S55, S56, S57, S58, S59, S60, S61, S62, S63, S64, S65, S66, S67, S68, S69, S70, S71, S72, S73, S74, S75, S76, S77, S78, S79, S80, S81, S82, S83, S84, S85, S86, S87, S88, S89, S90, S91, S92, S93, S94, S95, S96, S97, S98, S99, S100, S101'. Additional information was collated during meetings conducted at WHO regional level between 2007 and 2011. Two questionnaires regarding epidemiology and drug access were completed by experts and national program managers. Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence ranges were estimated by country and epidemiological region based on reported incidence, underreporting rates if available, and the judgment of national and international experts. Based on these estimates, approximately 0.2 to 0.4 cases and 0.7 to 1.2 million VL and CL cases, respectively, occur each year. More than 90% of global VL cases occur in six countries: India, Bangladesh, Sudan, South Sudan, Ethiopia and Brazil. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is more widely distributed, with about one-third of cases occurring in each of three epidemiological regions, the Americas, the Mediterranean basin, and western Asia from the Middle East to Central Asia. The ten countries with the highest estimated case counts, Afghanistan, Algeria, Colombia, Brazil, Iran, Syria, Ethiopia, North

  16. Leishmaniasis recidiva cutis of the lips mimicking granulomatous cheilitis

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    Özlem Ekiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis recidiva cutis (LRC is an unusual form of acute cutaneous leishmaniasis. Herein, we present a case of LRC of the lips mimicking granulomatous cheilitis. An 8-year-old, Syrian child admitted with a swelling and disfigurement of his lips for 4 years. Abundant intra and extracellular Leishmania amastigotes were determined in the smear prepared from the lesion with Giemsa stain. Histopathology showed foamy histiocytes and leishmania parasites within the cytoplasm of macrophages in the epidermis and a dense dermal mixed type inflammatory cell infiltrate composed of lymphocytes, foamy histiocytes with multinucleated giant cells. On the basis of anamnestic data, the skin smears results, clinical and histopathologic findings, LRC was diagnosed. The patient was treated with meglumine antimoniate intramuscularly and fluconazole orally. Cryotherapy was applied to the residual papular lesions. The lesion improved markedly at the first month of the treatment.

  17. Leishmania infantum AS A CAUSATIVE AGENT OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN THE STATE OF MATO GROSSO DO SUL, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    CASTRO, Ludiele Souza; FRANÇA, Adriana de Oliveira; FERREIRA, Eduardo de Castro; HANS, Günther; HIGA, Minoru German; GONTIJO, Célia Maria Ferreira; PEREIRA, Agnes Antônia Sampaio; DORVAL, Maria Elizabeth Moraes C.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by different species of theLeishmania genus. Leishmania(Leishmania) infantum, causing cutaneous leishmaniasis, has been described in patients living in areas where visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. In this study, it was possible to characterize this species in seven slides from cutaneous tissue imprints from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. PMID:27007566

  18. Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis due to Visceral Leishmaniasis in an HIV Patient

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 47 Final Diagnosis: Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis Symptoms: Nephrotic syndrome Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Renal biopsy Specialty: Nephrology Objective: Rare disease Background: Visceral leishmaniasis is an important opportunistic disease in HIV-positive patients. The information available on the effects of such co-infection in the kidney is limited. We describe a patient with HIV/leishmania coinfection who developed nephrotic syndrome and membranoproliferative...

  19. Visceral leishmaniasis: immunology and prospects for a vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, P M; Aebischer, T

    2011-10-01

    Human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) is the most severe clinical form of a spectrum of neglected tropical diseases caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Caused mainly by L. donovani and L. infantum/chagasi, HVL accounts for more than 50 000 deaths every year. Drug therapy is available but costly, and resistance against several drug classes has evolved. Here, we review our current understanding of the immunology of HVL and approaches to and the status of vaccine development against this disease.

  20. Epidemiological study on acute cutaneous leishmaniasis in Morocco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kholoud Kahime; Samia Boussaa; Haddou Nhammi; Ali Boumezzough

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe and compare the epidemiological features of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) caused by Leishmania tropica, and zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) due to Leishmania major in Morocco. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of ZCL and ACL cases reported during the last ten years in Morocco (2004–2013). Epidemiological data were analyzed by using Pearson's correlation method as well as Tukey test and digital maps were produced for incidence repartition calculated by using ArcMap GIS version 10. Results: A total of 41 656 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were notified between 2004 and 2013 in Morocco. The mean incidence was 139 cases/100 000 population/10 years and it was significantly higher in 2010. In the spatial context, ACL form was the most common in Morocco, while ZCL was the most important in terms of the number of reported cases. For both forms, the highest incidence occurred in females and children (0–14 years). When analyzed according to the number of cases in each province, Errachidia (8 728 cases) and Azilal (3 523 cases) were the most affected by ZCL and ACL, respectively, while the highest incidence was noted in Zagora (231 cases/100 000 pop-ulation/10 years) and in Chichaoua (97 cases/100 000 population/10 years), for ZCL and ACL, respectively. Maps of incidence repartition were performed to identify the risk area of ZCL and ACL. Conclusions: ZCL and ACL are still major health problems in Morocco. We highlight the spatiotemporal change of cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence through the country during the last ten years and we underline the correlation between ZCL incidence and the percentage of rural population in Morocco.

  1. Liposomal amphotericin B for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Bern, C.; Adler-Moore, J.; Berenguer, J.; Boelaert, M; van den Boer, M.; Davidson, R N; Figueras, C; Gradoni, L.; Kafetzis, D. A.; Ritmeijer, E.; Rosenthal, E.; Royce, C; Russo, R; Sundar, S; Alvar, J.

    2006-01-01

    During the past decade, liposomal amphotericin B has been used with increasing frequency to treat visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The World Health Organization convened a workshop to review current knowledge and to develop guidelines for liposomal amphotericin B use for VL. In Europe, liposomal amphotericin B is widely used to treat VL. In Africa and Asia, the VL disease burden is high and drug access is poor; liposomal amphotericin B is available only through preferential pricing for nonprofit ...

  2. Liposomal Amphotericin B and Leishmaniasis: Dose and Response

    OpenAIRE

    Shyam Sundar; Jaya Chakravarty

    2010-01-01

    Liposomal amphotericin B has been used with increasing frequency to treat visceral leishmaniasis (VL). It is the treatment of choice for immunocompetent patients in the Mediterranean region and the preferred drug for HIV/VL co-infection. Although there is a regional variation in the susceptibility of the parasite a total dose of 20 mg/kg is effective in immunocompetent patients. Randomized clinical trials of liposomal amphotericin B in the treatment and secondary prophylaxis of HIV-VL coinfec...

  3. Spitz Nevus on the Earlobe Mimicking Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Özmen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Spitz nevus is a benign, usually acquired melanocytic tumor which is seen especially in children and adolescents. It usually appears as a pink or light-brown, smooth-surfaced, well-circumscribed and asymptomatic papulonodular lesion. A large group of dermatologic disorders should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Herein we present a case of Spitz nevus with a two month history of a nodular lesion on the earlobe which mimicks cutaneous leishmaniasis clinically.

  4. Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Fátima Horta; Bárbara Pinheiro Mendes; Eric Henrique Roma; Fátima Soares Motta Noronha; Juan Pereira Macêdo; Luciana Souza Oliveira; Myrian Morato Duarte; Leda Quercia Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis affects millions of people around the world. Several species of Leishmania infect mouse strains, and murine models closely reproduce the cutaneous lesions caused by the parasite in humans. Mouse models have enabled studies on the pathogenesis and effector mechanisms of host resistance to infection. Here, we review the role of nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and peroxynitrite (ONOO−) in the control of parasites by macrophages, which are both the host c...

  5. Testing Experimental Compounds against Leishmaniasis in Laboratory Animal Model Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    buoyant density analysis, monoclonal antibody typ- ing, and infectivity for sandflies . 2. In Vivo Screening a. Visceral Leishmaniasis Six groups of 6...the case in "pian bois" where vectors are anthoprophilic and multiple lesions (>0) abound (37). Whether environmental temperature has any effect upon...buoyant density, iso-enzymes, reaction with monoclonal antibody and development in sandflies (#3). Each of these was grown in 250 ml BA flasks overlaid

  6. Therapeutic enhancement of protective immunity during experimental leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senad Divanovic

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the tropics. Available therapies are problematic due to toxicity, treatment duration and emerging drug resistance. Mouse models of leishmaniasis have demonstrated that disease outcome depends critically on the balance between effector and regulatory CD4(+ T cell responses, something mirrored in descriptive studies of human disease. Recombinant IL-2/diphtheria toxin fusion protein (rIL-2/DTx, a drug that is FDA-approved for the treatment of cutaneous T cell lymphoma, has been reported to deplete regulatory CD4(+ T cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the potential efficacy of rIL-2/DTx as adjunctive therapy for experimental infection with Leishmania major. Treatment with rIL-2/DTx suppressed lesional regulatory T cell numbers and was associated with significantly increased antigen-specific IFN-γ production, enhanced lesion resolution and decreased parasite burden. Combined administration of rIL-2/DTx and sodium stibogluconate had additive biological and therapeutic effects, allowing for reduced duration or dose of sodium stibogluconate therapy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that pharmacological suppression of immune counterregulation using a commercially available drug originally developed for cancer therapy may have practical therapeutic utility in leishmaniasis. Rational reinvestigation of the efficacy of drugs approved for other indications in experimental models of neglected tropical diseases has promise in providing new candidates to the drug discovery pipeline.

  7. Treatment of canine Old World visceral leishmaniasis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noli, Chiara; Auxilia, Silvia T

    2005-08-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis is a systemic disease caused by Leishmania infantum. The aim of this systematic review was to identify and evaluate the evidence of efficacy of interventions for treatment or prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis, and to propose recommendations for or against their use. Forty-seven articles describing clinical trials published between 1980 and 2004 fulfilled selection criteria. The evaluation of clinical trials provided good evidence for recommending the use of meglumine antimoniate at a minimum dosage of 100 mg kg(-1) daily for at least 3-4 weeks, combined with allopurinol in order to obtain a good clinical efficacy and a reduced relapse rate. The evaluation of the articles also provided fair evidence for recommending the use of pentamidine (4 mg kg(-1) twice weekly) and aminosidine (5 mg kg(-1) twice daily) for 3-4 weeks. There was insufficient evidence for recommending the use of allopurinol alone, amphotericin B, buparvaquone, ketoconazole, enrofloxacin, and the combinations of metronidazole with spiramicyn or metronidazole with enrofloxacin. Fair evidence against the use of aminosidine at high dosages (20-80 mg kg(-1) per day) was proposed due to its side effects. Evaluation of articles on repellent measures against sand fly vectors of leishmaniasis provided good evidence for recommending deltamethrin collars and fair evidence for recommending spot-on permethrin.

  8. [Importance of drug carriers in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusai, T; Durand, R; Boulard, Y; Paul, M; Bories, C; Rivollet, D; Houin, R; Deniau, M

    1995-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is caused by hemoflagellate protozoa which are obligatory parasites of the mononuclear phagocyte system. Leishmaniasis causes high morbidity and mortality worldwide. The treatment of choice remains pentavalent antimonials, but high toxicity and failures have been reported. An alternative to conventional treatment is delivery anti-leishmania agents using colloidal carrier systems. Carriers improve drug activity against intracellular disease involving the mononuclear phagocyte system. The principle of drug delivery by carrier systems has been applied successfully for anticancer drugs. Recently complete remission of polyresistant visceral leishmaniasis was obtained by injection of liposomal amphotericin B. At present, no colloidal drug carrier for antimony derivatives is available, but pentamidine can be linked experimentally to methacrylate polymer nano-particles. Drug-loaded nanoparticles have been shown to be effective against amastigote leishmania both in vitro and in vivo. Another colloidal system of major interest for drug delivery, the liposome has already been loaded with amphotericin B and used for human therapy. The concept of particulate drug carriers opens the way for new chemotherapeutic approaches in the field of parasitology.

  9. Leishmaniasis recidivans in Ethiopia: cutaneous and mucocutaneous features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassoni, Federica; Daba, Frehiwot; Naafs, Bernard; Morrone, Aldo

    2017-01-30

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in Ethiopia. An unusual clinical form of this disease is leishmaniasis recidivans (LR), a prolonged, relapsing form of cutaneous leishmaniasis resembling tuberculosis of the skin that may persist for many years with a chronic and relapsing course. This rare variant has been shown to be caused by Leishmania tropica species in the Old World and by Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania panamensis, and Leishmania guyanensis in the New World, as reported in various studies. To our knowledge, there are no reports from Ethiopia, and mucocutaneous involvement of LR has not been described to date. This was a retrospective analysis of the patients seen at the Italian Dermatological Center in Mekelle on the Tigrean highlands over a three-year period (2008-2011). Seven patients with typical clinical features of LR were seen. Two of them presented with signs of mucosal involvement. To date, Leishmania aethiopica is shown to be the only species causing CL that is endemic in the Ethiopian highlands. Therefore, it had to be assumed that the lesions in these patients were caused by this species. The aims of this communication are to report, for the first time, the presence of LR, most likely due to Leishmania aethiopica, in Ethiopia, and to report mucosal involvement in this rare clinical form of CL.

  10. Two cases of primary endonasal leishmaniasis in Sardinia (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, Monica; Atzori, Laura; Aste, Natalia; Aste, Nicola

    2009-06-15

    Leishmaniasis is an endemic protozoan infection in Sardinia, one of the major islands of the Mediterranean Basin. We report two cases of endonasal primary Leishmaniasis, which is a very rare event in adult men who are immunocompetent, born in, and residents of Sardinia. The diagnosis was confirmed by the presence of intra and extracellular Leishmania amastigotes in the histological smear. Isoenzymatic characterization identified Leishmania infantum zymodeme MON-111 in both cases. Laboratory and instrumental investigations excluded visceral involvement. Treatment with meglumine antimoniate (Glucantim) intralesional administration, 1 ml weekly for 4-5 weeks, led to complete resolution. The unusual location is likely a reflection an uncommon site of inoculation of the protozoa, transmitted by flying vectors. The patients were a shepherd and a farmer, respectively, both professions at high risk of infection because of their habits of sleeping outdoors under trees or in country cottages during spring and summer and exposed to sand fly bites. Although mucosal involvement and infection by Leishmania infantum, a potential cause of visceral leishmaniasis, the Sardinian patients experienced a benign disease course considering muco-cutaneous forms described in the New World. Differential diagnosis and early detection are necessary in order to start effective treatment and prevent more serious complications.

  11. Eight cases of feline cutaneous leishmaniasis in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, K E; Porter, B F; Logan, K S; Hoffman, R J; Snowden, K F

    2010-11-01

    Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease caused by intracellular Leishmania protozoa that are transmitted by sandflies. The disease occurs in 3 forms: cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral. Cutaneous leishmaniasis has been reported in cats in Europe and South America and in 1 cat from Texas. Leishmania mexicana is endemic in Texas and has been reported to cause cutaneous lesions in humans. This article describes the pathology of 8 biopsy cases of feline cutaneous leishmaniasis presented to the Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory over a 3.5-year period. The median age of the cats was 3 years; each was presented with nodular, ulcerative lesions on the pinnae and less commonly on the muzzle and periorbital skin. Histologically, the lesions were nodular to diffuse histiocytic dermatitis with numerous amastigotes (2-4 μm) within macrophages and occasionally within the interstitium. Organisms were often contained within round, clear, intracellular vacuoles. In areas of necrosis, organisms were also free within the interstitium. The overlying epidermis was hyperkeratotic, hyperplastic, and often ulcerated. The organisms were not argyrophilic (Gomori methenamine silver), reacted poorly with periodic acid-Schiff reagent, and were inconsistently basophilic with Giemsa. Although not readily visible histologically, kinetoplasts were evident in amastigotes in cytologic preparations. The lesions were similar to those described for cutaneous L. mexicana infection in humans. In 5 of the 8 cats, Leishmania mexicana DNA was amplified from paraffin-embedded tissue by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced.

  12. Epidemiological Investigation of Canine Leishmaniasis in Southern Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Boussaa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs are the major reservoir of Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in the Mediterranean basin. In Morocco, canine leishmaniasis (CanL is usually believed to be widespread mainly, if not only, in the northern regions and few data are available about the situation in southern parts of the country. Here, we report the results of a preliminary, clinical, and serological study carried out in 2004–2007, in four provinces of southern Morocco. Serological analyses were processed using two different Elisa techniques, a homemade Elisa test and IDVET commercial kit, and confirmed by two different western blot (WB tests, homemade and LDBIO commercial kits. We highlighted the presence of CanL infection in southern regions, known until then as free of the disease: 19.8% (48/243 of examined dogs displayed clinical signs compatible with CanL and the seroprevalence was particularly high, respectively, 81.8% and 87.8% by Elisa and western blot tests. Our current developed and validated homemade (Elisa and WB tools will be cost-effective and useful for next large-scale epidemiological studies on Moroccan leishmaniasis animal reservoir.

  13. High levels of C-reactive protein in the peripheral blood during visceral leishmaniasis predict subsequent development of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasim, S; Theander, T G; ElHassan, A M

    2000-01-01

    Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a known sequel to visceral leishmaniasis in India and East Africa, and in Sudan about 50% of the kala-azar patients develop PKDL. In this study we followed kala-azar patients from diagnosis and up to 2 years after initiation of treatment. During...... and in keratinocytes during visceral leishmaniasis predict subsequent development of PKDL. The method however requires expensive equipment and reagents. The results of the present study indicate that kala-azar patients, who have a high risk of developing PKDL after treatment can be identified by measuring plasma CRP....

  14. American Religion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田甜

    2008-01-01

    It is said that American religion,as a great part of American culture,plays an important role in American culture. It is hoped that some ideas can be obtained from this research paper,which focuses on analyzing the great impact is produced to American culture by American religion. Finally, this essay gives two useful standpoints to English learners:Understunding American religion will help understand the American history, culture and American people,and help you to communic.ate with them better. Understanding American religion will help you understand English better.

  15. Searching for cutaneous leishmaniasis in tribals from Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Simi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : In India, indigenous cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL are mainly confined to the northwestern region. But now, more and more case reports are coming in from other parts of India. In January 2009, a 26-year-old lady residing in a forest area in Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala State presented with bluish red nodules on her upper extremities, of six months duration, which was clinically more in favor of cutaneous leishmaniasis. She had never gone out of the district of Thiruvananthapuram in her life. Aim : To investigate whether the patient hails from a new endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Setting and Design : An epidemiological investigation in the form of a survey was carried out in March 2009 by a multidisciplinary team among 63 persons residing in the Mele Aamala and Aayiramkala forest tribal settlements in Kuttichal Panchayat of Thiruvananthapuram district. Material and Methods : History taking and clinical examination of 38 persons in the area with special consideration to skin lesions was undertaken. Microbiological and histopathological examination of the skin lesions was done. Breeding places of sand fly and possible reservoirs of Leishmania were also simultaneously investigated. Statistical analysis used : The data obtained was tabulated as frequency and percentage. Chi-square test was done to find out the statistical significance of differences in distributions. Results : Out of the 38 persons examined, active lesions were found in 12 persons and six had healed lesions. Tissue samples were obtained from seven out of the 12 suspected cases. Four of them showed Leishman Donovan (LD bodies in tissue smears. Out of the cultures taken from three patients, one showed promastigote forms in Novy McNeal Nicolle (NNN medium. Histopathological study was done in five patients and two patients had LD bodies, one had epithelioid cell granuloma and the other two had mixed infiltrate with predominantly macrophages. All

  16. Leishmaniasis–HIV coinfection: current challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindoso JAL

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available José Angelo Lauletta Lindoso,1,2 Mirella Alves Cunha,3 Igor Thiago Queiroz,4 Carlos Henrique Valente Moreira2 1Laboratory of Soroepidemiology (LIM HC-FMUSP, São Paulo University, São Paulo, 2Instituto de Infectologia Emilio Ribas-SES, São Paulo, 3Department of Infectious Disease, Faculty of Medicine, São Paulo University, São Paulo, 4Hospital Giselda Trigueiro - SESAP, Natal, Brazil Abstract: Leishmaniasis – human immunodeficiency virus (HIV coinfection can manifest itself as tegumentary or visceral leishmaniasis. Almost 35 countries have reported autochthonous coinfections. Visceral leishmaniasis is more frequently described. However, usual and unusual manifestations of tegumentary leishmaniasis have been reported mainly in the Americas, but the real prevalence of Leishmania infection in HIV-infected patients is not clear. Regarding the clinical manifestations, there are some reports showing unusual manifestations in visceral leishmaniasis and tegumentary leishmaniasis in HIV-infected patients; yet, the usual manifestations are more frequent. Leishmaniasis diagnosis relies on clinical methods, but serological tests are used to diagnose visceral leishmaniasis despite them having a low sensitivity to tegumentary leishmaniasis. The search for the parasite is used to diagnose both visceral leishmaniasis and tegumentary leishmaniasis. Nevertheless, in HIV-infected patients, the sensitivity of serology is very low. Drugs available to treat leishmaniasis are more restricted and cause severe side effects. Furthermore, in HIV-infected patients, these side effects are more prominent and relapses and lethality are more recurrent. In this article, we discuss the current challenges of tegumentary leishmaniasis and visceral leishmaniasis–HIV infection, focusing mainly on the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of leishmaniasis. Keywords: leishmaniasis, HIV infection, coinfection, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis

  17. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: The Truth about the 'Flesh-Eating Disease' in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondragon-Shem, Karina; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro

    2016-06-01

    Recent news headlines claimed that corpses thrown into Syrian streets are causing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) outbreaks. However, leishmaniasis is only transmitted by blood-feeding sandflies, not through human remains. High CL prevalence in Syria may instead be attributed to the absence of disease control programs due to the disruption of health services.

  18. CAPA-Gene Products in the Haematophagous Sandfly Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) - Vector for Leishmaniasis Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Phlebotominae, Nematocera , Diptera) are responsible for transmission of leishmaniasis and other protozoan-borne diseases in humans, and...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Sandflies (Phlebotominae, Nematocera , Diptera) are responsible for transmission of leishmaniasis and other protozoan...AGPSATTGVWFGPRLa M. domestica AGGTSGLYAFPRVa ASLFNAPRVa – AGPSATTGVWFGPRLa Delia radicum GGGGTSGLFAFPRVa AGLFAQPRLa AGPSATTGVWFGPRLa Nematocera A

  19. Leishmaniasis isoleret til larynx som årsag til kronisk laryngitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Mikkel; Munch-Petersen, Helga Richert; Møller, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Mucosal leishmaniasis is uncommon outside Central and South America, where it is commonly caused by Leishmania (L.) braziliensis. We present a case of isolated laryngeal leishmaniasis detected in a 78-year-old male, who presented with chronic hoarseness. Histologic examination of biopsies taken...

  20. Oronasal leishmaniasis caused by a parasite with an unusual isoenzyme profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, M.; Suliman, A.; Hashim, F.A.

    1997-01-01

    A 45-year-old Sudanese man from western Sudan presented with oronasal leishmaniasis of three years duration. He had no history of previous kala-azar or cutaneous leishmaniasis. The parasite isolated from the oral mucosa was characterized by isoenzymes using 12 enzymes and by polymerase chain...

  1. Immunopathology of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL): T-cell phenotypes and cytokine profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismail, A; El Hassan, A M; Kemp, K

    1999-01-01

    In Sudan, post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) caused by Leishmania donovani develops in half of the patients treated for visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). In most patients lesions heal spontaneously, but in others symptoms are severe and persist for years. This study examined...

  2. Comparison of Proinflammatory Gene Expression in Lesions Caused by either Burn Injuries or Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Akhzari; Rezvan; Zolhavarieh; Moafi

    2016-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is a worldwide disease prevalent in tropical and sub-tropical countries in the world. Characterization of inflammatory responses produced in cutaneous Leishmaniasis has not yet been completed. The current study aims to assess and compare pro-inflammatory cytokines between burning injuries and Leishmania infection. Methods the specific primers were designed for 10 proinflammatory genes including CCL4, CCL3,...

  3. Can Saffron (Crocus sativus) be effective in the treatment of leishmaniasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherani, Nooshin

    2013-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by Leishmania, transmitted by the bite of some sandfly species. It is endemic in 88 countries throughout the world. Pentavalent antimonials are the standard therapy for leismaniasis. Saffron (crocus sativus) belongs to the iridaceae family. This paper will outline the benefits and challenges of repurposing saffron for treating leishmaniasis.

  4. Experimental challenge models for canine leishmaniasis in hamsters and dogs, optimization and application in vaccine research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poot, Jacqueline

    2006-01-01

    In dogs, leishmaniasis caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum is a serious and potentially fatal disease. This parasite can also cause zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in children and immunocompromised adults. A vaccine for dogs would not only be of great value in veterinary medicine bu

  5. Chemotherapy of leishmaniasis: recent advances in the treatment of visceral disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, J

    1998-12-01

    New lipid formulations of amphotericin B--AmBisome, Amphotec, and Abelcet--have dramatically decreased the toxicity associated with amphotericin B and have made this group of agents the treatment of choice for visceral leishmaniasis. An agent of a completely different chemical class, the aminoglycoside aminosidine, was 97% curative in India. This agent too may be used for visceral leishmaniasis.

  6. [Feline leishmaniasis: what's the epidemiological role of the cat?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancianti, F

    2004-06-01

    Feline leishmaniasis (FL) is a quite uncommon feature. Clinical disease has been described in cats since nineties begin. More than 40 reports in world literature have been referred, but the clinical cases have been only recently well defined. Most of the reports focus on infected cats living in endemic areas, even if, more recently FL due to Leishmania infantum was found in Sao Paulo State, in Brazil where autochthonous human or canine leishmaniasis cases have never reported. In Europe clinical cases of FL have been described from Portugal, France, Spain and Italy from 1996 to 2002. When a typing of the etiological agent was performed L. infantum was identified in all reported cases. In some endemic areas serological surveys have also been carried out in cats, using IHAT in Egypt, Western blot in France or IFAT in Italy. Sixty Egyptian cats had low serological antibody titers, from 1/32 to 1/128, in the endemic focus of canine leishmaniasis of Alpes Maritimes 12 out of 97 (12.5%) cats showed antibodies versus antigens 14 and/or 18 kDa of L. infantum. A previous survey by means of IFAT in Liguria and Toscana on 110 and 158 feline sera respectively reports a seroprevalence of 0.9% with low titer, while sera from Sicily seem to be positive at higher dilutions. Animals living in an endemic area can develop specific antibodies against leishmania and, in our experience, they can be evidentiated by means of IFAT. The antibody titers appear to be lower in affected cats than in dogs, even if the number of clinical cases is very scanty. PCR tests on feline blood samples are in progress, but preliminary results confirm the presence of leishmania DNA in such specimens. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the more frequent form in cats and it was reported from several countries. Typical signs include nodular to ulcer or crusty lesions on the nose, lips, ears, eyelids, alopecia: clinical signs of cutaneous FL are unspecific and in endemic area this infection must be taken into account

  7. Clinical and Epidemiologic Profile of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Colombian Children: Considerations for Local Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Victor M.; Cossio, Alexandra; Martinez, Javier D.; Saravia, Nancy Gore

    2013-01-01

    Treatment alternatives have seldom been evaluated in children with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). We examine the clinical/epidemiological profile of children with CL considering international guidelines for local treatment. Descriptive analyses were conducted using International Center for Medical Research and Training (CIDEIM) case reports of parasitologically diagnosed patients ≤ 14 years of age from 2004 to 2010. Eligibility for local treatment based on World Health Organization/Pan American Health Organization (WHO/PAHO) criteria was determined. Among 380 children, 90% presented lesions of < 3 months duration, 54% presented single lesions < 30 mm in diameter, and 45% were ≤ 5 years old. Lesions on the head and neck were more frequent among children 0–5 years, and lesions below the head/neck were more frequent among 11- to 14-year-old children (P = 0.004). Using PAHO and WHO criteria, 26% and 53% of children, respectively, were eligible for local treatment. Recommended local treatments for New World CL have potential but limited applicability in children. Individual risk–benefit assessment and effectiveness data in children may increase eligibility. PMID:23798581

  8. Larval microhabitats of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, C; Pardo, R; Torres, M; Morrison, A C

    1997-11-01

    An intensive search for the larval habitats of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) was conducted from November 1992 to October 1993 at a small rural community in Colombia where American visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. Emergence traps constructed from polyvinyl chloride pipes were used to sample a variety of soil microhabitats that included edge areas of covered pigpens, cattle corrals, the base of trees, and leaf litter at sites within 40 m of a house, rocks in fields located between 50 and 500 m from houses, and sites within a patch of secondary forest (rocks, base of palm trees, and leaf litter). The teneral status of the sand flies captured in the emergence traps was confirmed by laboratory studies that determined the rate of terminalia rotation in male L. longipalpis and the rate of cuticular growth layer formation of the thoracic phragma in both sexes of this species. A total of 58 teneral sand flies was captured during the study period (49 wk). Fifteen specimens were L. longipalpis; of these 11 (5 sand flies per square meter) were captured near pigpens, 3 (1.4 sand flies per square meter) were captured near rock resting sites, and 1 (1.6 sand flies per square meter) was collected at the base of a tree. The remainder of the sand flies were either L. trinidadensis (Newstead) or L. cayennensis (Flock & Abonnenc). Our results indicate that L. longipalpis larvae were dispersed widely in sites near houses, rather than concentrated in a few optimal microhabitats.

  9. Seasonal abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) at an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, A C; Ferro, C; Pardo, R; Torres, M; Devlin, B; Wilson, M L; Tesh, R B

    1995-07-01

    Ecological studies on the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) were conducted during 1990-1993 in a small rural community in Colombia where American visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. Standardized weekly sand fly collections made from pigpens and natural resting sites displayed a bimodal annual abundance cycle, with a small peak occurring in October-November and a larger one in April-May. Time series analysis was employed to quantify the associations between sand fly abundance and weather factors (temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall). In addition to a prominent 6-mo cycle. Fourier analysis of the collection data demonstrated that the L. longipalpis population also exhibited a 5- to 8-wk cycle that may represent the length of larval development. Autoregressive moving average models were fit to weekly collection data and their residuals were regressed against rainfall, temperature, and relative humidity. A significant positive association between female L. longipalpis abundance and the relative humidity and rainfall recorded 3 wk earlier was found, indicating that these factors may be of value in predicting sand fly abundance. Additionally, these data indicated that L. longipalpis larvae may become quiescent during adverse conditions.

  10. Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis following Treatment with 20 mg/kg Liposomal Amphotericin B (Ambisome) for Primary Visceral Leishmaniasis in Bihar, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sakib Burza; Prabhat Kumar Sinha; Raman Mahajan; Marta González Sanz; María Angeles Lima; Gaurab Mitra; Neena Verma; Pradeep Das

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The skin disorder Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) occurs in up to 10% of patients treated for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in India. The pathogenesis of PKDL is not yet fully understood. Cases have been reported in India following therapy with most available treatments, but rarely in those treated with liposomal amphotericin B (Ambisome). Between July 2007 and August 2012 with the support of the Rajendra Memorial Research Institute (RMRI), Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) ...

  11. Impact of leishmaniasis in women: a practical review with an update on my ISD-supported initiative to combat leishmaniasis in Yemen (ELYP

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    Mohamed A. Al-Kamel, MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stigma is synonymous with leishmaniasis, an endemic deadly flesh-eating disease in Yemen that affects predominantly poor rural women and children. Women with leishmaniasis often present late and experience not only physical deformities and the risk of death, but also the painful stigma of the disease and its consequences, a similar situation to that of leprosy decades ago. The International Society of Dermatology–sponsored community dermatology project Eradication of Leishmaniasis from Yemen Project has made a difference in the leishmaniasis situation in Yemen and addressed its magnitude. The program eradicated leishmaniasis from some areas, dealt with and improved its alarming prevalence among children and women who are the neglected and highest risk groups, and solved some issues associated with poor access to proper drugs. Medicine donation has enabled women with leishmaniasis to freely receive medicine they otherwise would not have been able to afford, reduced their mortality and morbidity, and minimized the extensive impact the socio-aesthetic stigma has on their lives. Our cause has attracted local and global attention to these problematic issues.

  12. Study of an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Venezuela: the role of domestic animals

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    Cruz Manuel Aguilar

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available During an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a locality (Las Rosas, Cojedes State, venezuela previously non-endemic, 12.9% of humans, 7% of dogs and 21.4% of donkeys (Equus asinus had lesions with paraites. The agent in the three hosts was identified as Leishmania braziliensis, subspecies braziliensis at least in man and donkey. The probable vector was Lutzomyia panamensis. No infection was found in a small sample of wild mammals examined. The outbreak was apparently linked with the importation of donkeys with ulcers, from endemic areas. The Authors call attention to the fact that not only in the foci of "uta", but also in areas of the other forms of American cutaneous leishmaniasis, dogs are frequently found infected. They emphasize the necessity of searching for the infection in donkeys and of performing hemocultures and xenodiagnosis with sandflies in human, canine and equine cases, to verify their possible role as sources of infection, and not merely as dead ends in the epidemiological chain of the disease.Durante um surto de leishmaniose tegumentar em Las Rosas, localidade previamente não endêmica do Estado Cojedes, Venezuela, 12,9% dos habitantes, 7% dos cães e 21,4% dos asnos (Equus asinus apresentavam lesões com parasitos. O agente etiológico nos tres hospedeiros foi identificado como Leishmania braziliensis, sendo da subespécie braziliensis pelo menos em pessoas e asnos. O transmissor provável foi Lutzomyia panamensis. Não comprovamos a infecção numa pequena amostra de mamíferos silvestres examinados. O surto esteve aparentemente relacionado com a importação de asnos com úlceras de áreas endêmicas. Chamamos a atenção para o fato de que não é apenas nos fócos de "uta", mas também nos de outras formas de leishmaniose tegumentar americana que os cães estão freqüentemente parasitados. Enfatizamos a necessidade de se procurar a infecção em asnos e de se proceder a hemoculturas e a xenodiagnósticos com

  13. Therapeutic effect of ursolic acid in experimental visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica A. Jesus

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is an important neglected tropical disease, affecting more than 12 million people worldwide. The available treatments are not well tolerated and present diverse side effects in patients, justifying the search for new therapeutic compounds. In the present study, the therapeutic potential and toxicity of ursolic acid (UA, isolated from the leaves of Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae, were evaluated in experimental visceral leishmaniasis. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of UA, hamsters infected with L. (L. infantum were treated daily during 15 days with 1.0 or 2.0 mg UA/kg body weight, or with 5.0 mg amphotericin B/kg body weight by intraperitoneal route. Fifteen days after the last dose, the parasitism of the spleen and liver was stimated and the main histopathological alterations were recorded. The proliferation of splenic mononuclear cells was evaluated and IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10 gene expressions were analyzed in spleen fragments. The toxicity of UA and amphotericin B were evaluated in healthy golden hamsters by histological analysis and biochemical parameters. Animals treated with UA had less parasites in the spleen and liver when compared with the infected control group, and they also showed preservation of white and red pulps, which correlate with a high rate of proliferation of splenic mononuclear cells, IFN-γ mRNA and iNOS production. Moreover, animals treated with UA did not present alterations in the levels of AST, ALT, creatinine and urea. Taken together, these findings indicate that UA is an interesting natural compound that should be considered for the development of prototype drugs against visceral leishmaniasis.

  14. Antissaliva Antibodies of Lutzomyia Longipalpis in area of Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Thiago Leite; Fernandes, Magda Freitas; Pontes, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury; Levay, Ana Paula Silva; Almeida da Cunha, Elenice Brandão; França, Adriana de Oliveira; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of antissaliva antibodies of Lutzomyia longipalpis in human hosts living in area of visceral leishmaniasis, located in the Center-West region of Brazil. The presence of antissaliva antibodies of L. longipalpis exhibited a strong correlation with the protection and development of antibodies against Leishmania sp. Of the 492 children studied, elevated antissaliva antibodies of L. longipalpis were detected in 38.4% of the participants. There was a higher percentage of positivity (64.7%) among children who exhibited anti-Leishmania sp. antibodies and among those who were positive in the delayed hypersensitivity test (34.8%).

  15. Wound healing genes and susceptibility to cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Castellucci, Léa; Jamieson, Sarra E; Almeida, Lucas; Oliveira, Joyce; Guimarães, Luiz Henrique; Lessa, Marcus; Fakiola, Michaela; Jesus, Amélia Ribeiro de; Miller, E. Nancy; Carvalho, Edgar M.; Blackwell, Jenefer M.

    2012-01-01

    Leishmania braziliensis causes cutaneous (CL) and mucosal (ML) leishmaniasis. In the mouse, Fli1 was identified as a gene influencing enhanced wound healing and resistance to CL caused by L. major. Polymorphism at FLI1 is associated with CL caused by L. braziliensis in humans, with an inverse association observed for ML disease. Here we extend the analysis to look at other wound healing genes, including CTGF, TGFB1, TGFBR1/2, SMADS 2/3/4/7 and FLII, all functionally linked along with FLI1 in ...

  16. Pharmacokinetic of antimony in mice with cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borborema, Samanta E.T.; Nascimento, Nanci do [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Molecular]. E-mails: samanta@usp.br; nnascime@ipen.br; Andrade Junior, Heitor F. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Molecular; Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); E-mail: hfandrad@usp.br; Osso Junior, Joao A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia]. E-mail: jaosso@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) remains a major world health problem, with about 1.5 million new cases each year. Caused by protozoa Leishmania, in South America, this infection can vary from a chronic skin ulcer, to an erosive mucosal disease and severe facial disfigurement. Pentavalent antimony (Sb{sup +5}) as sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) or meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) are main drugs for treating most forms of human leishmaniasis. For six decades, despite the recent developments, the effective therapy to cutaneous leishmaniasis has been based on long parenteral courses of such drugs, even though these are fairly costly, toxic and inconvenient to use, without adequate knowledge on their pharmacokinetics or mechanism of action. Pharmacokinetics studies could be based on bioactive traceable drugs, usually with radioactive isotopes, but antimony radioisotopes are unavailable commercially. Neutron irradiation is a powerful tool in the analysis of mineral content of samples, for antimony, there are at least two main isotopes that could be formed after neutron irradiation in nuclear reactor. The aim of the present study was to construct antimony salts with those radioisotopes to obtain tracers to compare the pharmacokinetic and the tissue distribution of neutron irradiated meglumine antimoniate in healthy and cutaneous leishmaniasis experimentally infected mice. Meglumine antimoniate, (Glucantime, Aventis, S.P, Brazil), was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor (IPEN/CNEN-SP), producing two radioisotopes {sup 122}Sb and {sup 124}Sb. Its biodistribution was verified in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) Amazonensis, which received a single intraperitoneal dose of the drug. At different times after injection, the tissues and blood were excised and activity measured in a NaI (Tl) scintillation counter. Compared with the healthy mice, experimentally infected mice had significantly lower maximum concentration of antimony

  17. Spatially Correlated Time Series and Ecological Niche Analysis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Afghanistan

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    Oyelola A. Adegboye

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is the third most common vector-borne disease and a very important protozoan infection. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the most common types of leishmaniasis infectious diseases with up to 1.2 million occurrences of new cases each year worldwide. A dynamic transmission multivariate time series model was applied to the data to account for overdispersion and evaluate the effects of three environmental layers as well as seasonality in the data. Furthermore, ecological niche modeling was used to study the geographically suitable conditions for cutaneous leishmaniasis using temperature, precipitation and altitude as environmental layers, together with the leishmaniasis presence data. A retrospective analysis of the cutaneous leishmaniasis spatial data in Afghanistan between 2003 and 2009 indicates a steady increase from 2003 to 2007, a small decrease in 2008, and then another increase in 2009. An upward trend and regularly repeating patterns of highs and lows were observed related to the months of the year, which suggests seasonality effect in the data. Two peaks were observed in the disease occurrence—January to March and September to December—which coincide with the cold period. Ecological niche modelling indicates that precipitation has the greatest contribution to the potential distribution of leishmaniasis.

  18. Imported cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major in a Chinese laborer who worked in Saudi Arabia*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Liu, Fang; Liu, Haibo; Hu, Wenxing; Sang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    We report an imported case of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a 37-year-old man from Saudi Arabia caused by Leishmania major. He presented with non-healing nodulo-ulcerative lesions with a "volcanic crater" on the lower limbs. It was clearly cutaneous leishmaniasis - a rare disease in China - as reflected by the patient's clinical history, the lesions' morphology, histopathological examination, culture and PCR analysis of the lesions. The patient was completely cured after two cycles of sodium stibogluconate treatment. This case report demonstrates that dermatologists should be aware of sporadic cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in non-endemic areas. PMID:27438208

  19. [Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Histologic classification and anatomoclinical correlations. Apropos of 102 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huaman, J A; Castillo, M C

    1990-01-01

    Two hundred and three skin and mucosal biopsies performed in 162 patients suffering from leishmaniasis, were studied retrospectively. They were classified according to Ridley into 5 histological groups of increasing severity. In cutaneous leishmaniasis, a high proportion of the biopsies belonged to groups III and IV. In mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, the percentage of groups III and VI was lower and group V was present in 20% of cases. In 16 patients, followed by repeated biopsies, we detected some variations of the histological group during the course of the disease. However, there were no positive correlations between clinicopathological features and prognosis.

  20. Post-kala-azar dermal Leishmaniasis in two different clinical contexts*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Daniel Holanda; Silva, Claúdia Elise Ferraz; Vasconcelos, Ana Carolina Depes Perdigao e; Cavalcanti, Silvana Maria de Morais; de Brito, Maria Edileuza Felinto; Medeiros, Angela Cristina Rapela

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil, visceral Leishmaniasis is caused by Leishmania chagasi. The development of cutaneous lesions in visceral leishmaniasis patients has been described in two different clinical contexts. Patients with compromised immunity can develop skin lesions as a direct consequence of a current visceral disease. Equally, patients with a history of kala-azar and progressive, immune improvement occasionally develop skin lesions as a consequence of immune reconstitution infl ammatory syndrome. These cases manifest in similar fashion to the classic form of post-kala-azar dermal Leishmaniasis. We describe different cases that exemplify these two clinical presentations. PMID:26312689

  1. Comparison of Three Methods for Diagnosis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

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    P Habibi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leishmaniasis is one of the infectious parasitic diseases of highest incidence in the world. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL has long been reported in Shiraz, Southern Iran. There is a need to find a sensitive and specific method for treatment and control of the disease.Methods: We have compared the sensitivity of the conventional methods microscopy and cultiva­tion of lesion scrapes against PCR amplification of parasite kinetoplast DNA from these sam­ples. The samples (n=219 were obtained from the patients clinically suspected of CL. The smears were stained with Giemsa for microscopy and cultured in Novy-Nicolle-McNeal (NNN blood agar for promastigote growth. For PCR, the dry smears were scraped off the slides and DNA was extracted.Results: The positive rates from 219 specimens were 76.71%, 50.68%, and 93.61% for micros­copy, cultivation, and PCR, respectively. The highest correlation was found between PCR and micros­copy method (P= 0.014. In PCR assay, 95.61%, 3.9%, and 0.49% of the samples were identi­fied as Leishmania major, L. tropica, and dermatropic L. infantum, respectively.Conclusion: The PCR method appears to be the most sensitive for the diagnosis of CL and is valu­able for identifying the other species of Leishmania with confusing dermatropic signs.

  2. Research priorities for Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a review and analysis of the research landscape for three diseases - Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis - that disproportionately afflict poor and remote populations with limited access to health services. It represents the work of the disease reference group on Chagas Disease, Human African Trypanosomiasis and Leishmaniasis (DRG3) which was established to identify key research priorities through review of research evidence and input from stakeholders' consultations. The diseases, which are caused by related protozoan parasites, are described in terms of their epidemiology and diseases burden, clinical forms and pathogenesis, HIV coinfection, diagnosis, drugs and drug resistance, vaccines, vector control, and health-care interventions. Priority areas for research are identified based on criteria such as public health relevance, benefit and impact on poor populations and equity, and feasibility. The priorities are found in the areas of diagnostics, drugs, vector control, asymptomatic infection, economic analysis of treatment and vector control methods, and in some specific issues such as surveillance methods or transmission-blocking vaccines for particular diseases. This report will be useful to researchers, policy and decision-makers, funding bodies, implementation organizations, and civil society. This is one of ten disease and thematic reference group reports that have come out of the TDR Think Tank, all of which have contributed to the development of the Global Report for Research on Infectious Diseases of Poverty, available at: www.who.int/tdr/stewardship/global_report/en/index.html.

  3. Recurrent cutaneous leishmaniasis Leishmaniose recidiva cútis

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    Ciro Martins Gomes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of an 18-year-old male patient who, after two years of inappropriate treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis, began to show nodules arising at the edges of the former healing scar. He was immune competent and denied any trauma. The diagnosis of recurrent cutaneous leishmaniasis was made following positive culture of aspirate samples. The patient was treated with N-methylglucamine associated with pentoxifylline for 30 days. Similar cases require special attention mainly because of the challenges imposed by treatment.Paciente do sexo masculino, 18 anos. Dois anos após tratamento insuficiente para leishmaniose tegumentar americana, apresentou, na mesma localização, lesão formada por cicatriz atrófica central e nódulos verrucosos na periferia. Era imunocompetente, hígido e negava qualquer trauma local. O diagnóstico de leishmaniose recidiva cutis foi feito através de cultura do aspirado da lesão. Realizou tratamento com N-metilglucamina (20mgSbV/kg/dia associado à pentoxifilina (1200mg/dia durante 30 dias alcançando cura clínica. Os casos semelhantes requerem atenção diferenciada pela dificuldade ao tratamento.

  4. Epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in Algeria: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Amel; Boughoufalah, Amel; Saegerman, Claude; De Deken, Redgi; Bouchene, Zahida; Soukehal, Abdelkrim; Berkvens, Dirk; Boelaert, Marleen

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum, is endemic in Algeria. This report describes a retrospective epidemiological study conducted on human VL to document the epidemiological profile at national level. All human VL cases notified by the National Institute of Public Health between 1998 and 2008 were investigated. In parallel all VL cases admitted to the university hospitals of Algiers were surveyed to estimate the underreporting ratio. Fifteen hundred and sixty-two human VL cases were reported in Algeria between 1998-2008 with an average annual reported incidence rate of 0.45 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, of which 81.42% were in the age range of 0-4 years. Cases were detected year-round, with a peak notification in May and June. One hundred and seventy patients were admitted to the university hospitals in Algiers in the same period, of which less than one in ten had been officially notified. Splenomegaly, fever, pallor and pancytopenia were the main clinical and laboratory features. Meglumine antimoniate was the first-line therapy for paediatric VL whereas the conventional amphotericin B was used for adult patients. Visceral leishmaniasis in Algeria shows the epidemiological profile of a paediatric disease with a decrease of the annual reported incidence rate. However, vigilance is required because of huge underreporting and an apparent propagation towards the south.

  5. Jaundice in pediatric visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar)pa-tients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AKMMamunur Rashid; MdAsrafuzzaman; Abdullah Al Mamun; Abdullah Al Mahboob

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Visceral leishmaniasis (Kala-azar)is endemic in many countries including Bangladesh.Clinical presentation of visceral leishmaniasis in children and adult may vary and at time may simulate many tropical and hepatobiliary diseases.Jaundice and ascites are not common in kala-azar patients.Methods:During the period of January 2005 to December 2006,all the records of the confirmed kala-azar patients presented with jaundice were included in this study.Kala-azar was confirmed by serology test ICT (Immuno Chromatography) and Bone Marrow study.Results:Total 12 kala-azar patients were encountered during this period.Among these twelve cases,presenting features were jaundice (7),splenomegaly (12),hepatomegaly (11)and asci-tes (4).Initial clinical diagnosis of chronic liver disease (CLD)was made in (5),Congenital hemolytic a-naemia in (1)and kala-azar in rest of the patients (6).Common leucopenia and relative lymphocytosis was not observed in any patients.Conclusion:Kala-azar may present with various clinical manifestation in chil-dren and adult.Jaundice can be considered to be a common manifestation particularly in pediatric kala-azar patients.Otherwise,it may mislead to another diagnosis if it is taken as a rare feature in kala-azar.

  6. Validity and reliability of enzyme immunoassays using Leishmania major or L. infantum antigens for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Maciel de Arruda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: American visceral leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum. Dogs are the main reservoirs in the domestic transmission cycle. The limited accuracy of diagnostic tests for canine leishmaniasis may contribute to the lack of impact of control measures recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The objective of this study was to estimate the accuracy of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays employing L. major or L. infantum antigens and their reliability between three laboratories of different levels of complexity. METHODS: A validation study of ELISA techniques using L. major or L. infantum antigens was conducted. Direct visualization of the parasite in hematoxylin/eosin-stained histopathological sections, immunohistochemistry, and isolation of the parasite in culture.were used as gold standard. An animal that was positive in at least one of the tests was defined as infected with L. infantum. Serum samples collected from 1,425 dogs were analyzed. Samples were separated in three aliquots and tested in three different laboratories. Sensitivity, specificity and the area under de ROC curve were calculated and the reliability was evaluated between the participant laboratories. RESULTS: The sensitivity was 91.8% and 89.8% for the L. major and L. infantum assays, respectively. The specificity was 83.75% and 82.7% for the L. major and L. infantum assays, respectively. The area under de ROC curve was 0.920 and 0.898 for L. major and L. infantum, respectively. The mean intraclass correlation coefficients between laboratories ranged from 0.890 to 0.948 when L. major was used as antigen, and from 0.818 to 0.879 when L. infantum was used. INTERPRETATION: ELISA tests using L. major or L. infantum antigens have similar accuracy and reliability. Our results do not support the substitution of the L. major antigen of the ELISA test currently used for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

  7. Effect of deltamethrin spraying on the sandfly populations in a focus of American cutaneous leismaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Alda Lima Falcão; Alberto Rocha Falcão; Claudio Teixeira Pinto; Célia Maria Ferreira Gontijo; Aloísio Falqueto

    1991-01-01

    The effect of deltamethrin of the sandfly population in a focus of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Viana, Espírito Santo State is desvribed. The phlebotomine population density was determined inside and outside houses during a one year period in a treated and untreated area. The results showed a significant reduction in the number of sandflies inside houses in the treated area compared with both the untreated area and the same area before sparying. Despite having a residual action for 12 ...

  8. First Cases of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi Infection in Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.A.M. van Thiel; T. van Gool; P.A. Kager; A. Bart

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Surinam is generally caused by infection by Leishmania guyanensis. We report three cases of infection with Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi, a Leishmania species not described from Surinam before. Treatment with pentamidine proved to be effective

  9. Genetic Control of Canine Leishmaniasis: Genome-Wide Association Study and Genomic Selection Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Quilez; Verónica Martínez; Woolliams, John A; Armand Sanchez; Ricardo Pong-Wong; Kennedy, Lorna J.; Quinnell, Rupert J.; Ollier, William E R; Xavier Roura; Lluís Ferrer; Laura Altet; Olga Francino

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The current disease model for leishmaniasis suggests that only a proportion of infected individuals develop clinical disease, while others are asymptomatically infected due to immune control of infection. The factors that determine whether individuals progress to clinical disease following Leishmania infection are unclear, although previous studies suggest a role for host genetics. Our hypothesis was that canine leishmaniasis is a complex disease with multiple loci responsible for...

  10. Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania aethiopica: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Johan van Griensven; Endalamaw Gadisa; Abraham Aseffa; Asrat Hailu; Abate Mulugeta Beshah; Ermias Diro

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania aethiopica is the etiological agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Ethiopia and can cause severe and complicated cases such as diffuse CL (DCL), mucocutaneous leishmaniasis or extensive CL, requiring systemic treatment. Despite the substantial burden, evidence-based treatment guidelines are lacking. We conducted a systematic review of clinical studies reporting on treatment outcomes of CL due to L aethiopica in order to help identify potentially efficacious medications on CL th...

  11. Visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum with renal involvement in HIV-infected patients

    OpenAIRE

    Vassallo, Matteo; Moranne, Olivier; Ambrosetti, Damien; Jeandel, Pierre-Yves; Pomares, Christelle; Cassuto, Elisabeth; Boscagli, Annick; Giraud, Guillaume; Montagne, Nathalie; Dentone, Chiara; Demacina, Ilaria; Villaggio, Barbara; Secondo, Giovanni; Ferrea, Giuseppe; Passeron, Corinne

    2014-01-01

    Background We describe histological, clinical findings and outcomes of renal involvement during Leishmania infantum infection in four HIV-infected patients in South France and North Italy hospital settings. Cases presentation Four HIV-infected Caucasian patients (age 24-49) performed renal biopsy during episodes of visceral leishmaniasis. They presented severe immunosuppression, frequent relapses of visceral leishmaniasis during a follow-up period of several years and partial or complete reco...

  12. First case of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ricardo V P F; Kent, Alida D; Adams, Emily R; van der Veer, Charlotte; Sabajo, Leslie O A; Mans, Dennis R A; de Vries, Henry J C; Schallig, Henk D F H; Lai A Fat, Rudy F M

    2012-05-01

    The main causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Suriname is Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis. This case report presents a patient infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, a species never reported before in Suriname. This finding has clinical implications, because L. braziliensis has a distinct clinical phenotype characterized by mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, a more extensive and destructive form of CL that requires different treatment. Clinicians should be aware that chronic cutaneous ulcers in patients from the Guyana region could be caused by L. braziliensis.

  13. Diagnostic methods to cutaneous leishmaniasis detection in domestic dogs and cats*

    OpenAIRE

    Trevisan, Daliah Alves Coelho; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; DEMARCHI, Izabel Galhardo

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by different species of Leishmania. In domestic animals such as dogs and cats, the diagnostic consists of clinical, epidemiological and serological tests, which changes among countries all around the world. Because of this diversity in the methods selected, we propose this systematic literature review to identify the methods of laboratory diagnosis used to detect cutaneous leishmaniasis in domestic dogs and cats in the Americas. Articles published in the last...

  14. Genetic control of canine leishmaniasis: genome-wide association study and genomic selection analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Quilez; Verónica Martínez; Woolliams, John A.; Armand Sanchez; Ricardo Pong-Wong; Kennedy, Lorna J; Rupert J Quinnell; William E. R. Ollier; Xavier Roura; Lluís Ferrer; Laura Altet; Olga Francino

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The current disease model for leishmaniasis suggests that only a proportion of infected individuals develop clinical disease, while others are asymptomatically infected due to immune control of infection. The factors that determine whether individuals progress to clinical disease following Leishmania infection are unclear, although previous studies suggest a role for host genetics. Our hypothesis was that canine leishmaniasis is a complex disease with multiple loci responsible for...

  15. A Novel Field Deployable Point of Care Diagnostic Test for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    14. ABSTRACT Leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan Leishmania and is generally transmitted by the bite of sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia or...diseases that can be used at the POC because it is highly sensitive, fast, inexpensive and able to work at most ambient temperatures . 15. SUBJECT...INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is caused by the protozoan Leishmania and is generally transmitted by the bite of sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia

  16. Preclinical Studies Evaluating Subacute Toxicity and Therapeutic Efficacy of LQB-118 in Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha-Júnior, Edézio Ferreira; Martins, Thiago Martino; Canto-Cavalheiro, Marilene Marcuzzo; Marques, Paulo Roberto; Portari, Elyzabeth Avvad; Coelho, Marsen Garcia Pinto; Netto, Chaquip Daher; Costa, Paulo Roberto Ribeiro; Sabino, Katia Costa de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the most severe form of leishmaniasis and is the second major cause of death by parasites, after malaria. The arsenal of drugs against leishmaniasis is small, and each has a disadvantage in terms of toxicity, efficacy, price, or treatment regimen. Our group has focused on studying new drug candidates as alternatives to current treatments. The pterocarpanquinone LQB-118 was designed and synthesized based on molecular hybridization, and it exhibited antiprotozoal and anti-leukemic cell line activities. Our previous work demonstrated that LQB-118 was an effective treatment for experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis. In this study, we observed that treatment with 10 mg/kg of body weight/day LQB-118 orally inhibited the development of hepatosplenomegaly with a 99% reduction in parasite load. An in vivo toxicological analysis showed no change in the clinical, biochemical, or hematological parameters. Histologically, all of the analyzed organs were normal, with the exception of the liver, where focal points of necrosis with leukocytic infiltration were observed at treatment doses 5 times higher than the therapeutic dose; however, these changes were not accompanied by an increase in transaminases. Our findings indicate that LQB-118 is effective at treating different clinical forms of leishmaniasis and presents no relevant signs of toxicity at therapeutic doses; thus, this framework is demonstrated suitable for developing promising drug candidates for the oral treatment of leishmaniasis. PMID:27067332

  17. Diagnostic methods to cutaneous leishmaniasis detection in domestic dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Daliah Alves Coelho; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Demarchi, Izabel Galhardo

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by different species of Leishmania. In domestic animals such as dogs and cats, the diagnostic consists of clinical, epidemiological and serological tests, which changes among countries all around the world. Because of this diversity in the methods selected, we propose this systematic literature review to identify the methods of laboratory diagnosis used to detect cutaneous leishmaniasis in domestic dogs and cats in the Americas. Articles published in the last 5 years were searched in PubMed, ISI Web of Science, LILACS and Scielo, and we selected 10 papers about cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs and cats in the Americas. In Brazil, often the indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) have been applied. Other countries like United States and Mexico have been using antigenic fractions for antibodies detections by Western blot. ELISA and Western blot showed a higher sensitivity and efficacy in the detection of leishmaniasis. Analysis of sensibility and specificity of the methods was rarely used. Although confirmatory to leishmaniasis, direct methods for parasites detection and polymerase chain reaction showed low positivity in disease detection. We suggested that more than one method should be used for the detection of feline and canine leishmaniasis. Serological methods such as Western blot and enzyme immunoassay have a high efficacy in the diagnosis of this disease.

  18. Diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis in the endemic area of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil by parasite, antibody and DNA detection assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, E S; van der Meide, W F; Schoone, G J; Gontijo, C M F; Schallig, H D F H; Brazil, R P

    2006-08-01

    Canine leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania chagasi (L. infantum) is found throughout the South American continent, including Brazil, and dogs are considered to be the main reservoir host for this parasite. To support the implementation of a diagnostic protocol for surveillance of the disease in the region of Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil) we have compared the sensitivity and specificity of two serological tests, indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and direct agglutination test (DAT), with the combination of direct microscopy-culture-PCR as the gold standard, using samples obtained from 103 dogs in the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. The currently used standard serodiagnostic test, IFAT, had a sensitivity of 100% and its specificity was 74% compared to the gold standard of the study. The sensitivity and specificity of the DAT were 100% and 91%, respectively. On the basis of this study it is recommended to change from the IFAT to DAT for the serodiagnosis of canine leishmaniasis because of the superior specificity of the test combined with its user-friendliness.

  19. ITS1 PCR-RFLP Diagnosis and Characterization of Leishmania in Clinical Samples and Strains from Cases of Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in States of the Mexican Southeast

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    Amalia Monroy-Ostria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available American cutaneous leishmaniasis includes a spectrum of clinical forms localized cutaneous, diffuse cutaneous, and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis which can be caused by different strains of Leishmania belonging to the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes which may coexist in the same endemic area. We evaluated the PCR-RFLP assay of the ITS1 genes for direct identification of Leishmania species in 163 clinical samples and 21 Mexican isolates of Leishmania. In relation to the Mexican isolates of Leishmania 52% displayed a pattern similar to the L. (L. mexicana, 5% showed a mixed pattern compatible with L. (L. mexicana and L. (V. braziliensis, eight with L. (L. amazonensis and L. (L. mexicana, and one to L. (V. braziliensis. Most of the clinical samples, 109/116 (94%, gave a pattern similar to that of the L. mexicana, two clinical samples gave similar patterns to that of Leishmania braziliensis, and 5 samples gave patterns that suggest a coinfection of L. (L. mexicana and L. (V. braziliensis or L. (L. mexicana and L. (L. amazonensis. The ITS1 PCR-RFLP assay is a multipurpose tool for diagnosis of Leishmania from clinical samples and enables determination of the infecting species of New World Leishmania in the field in relatively short time and low cost.

  20. Therapy of Venezuelan patients with severe mucocutaneous or early lesions of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis with a vaccine containing pasteurized Leishmania promastigotes and bacillus Calmette-Guerin: preliminary report

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    Jacinto Convit

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Severe mucocutaneous (MCL and diffuse (DCL forms of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL are infrequent in Venezuela. Chemotherapy produces only transitory remission in DCL, and occasional treatment failures are observed in MCL. We have evaluated therapy with an experimental vaccine in patients with severe leishmaniasis. Four patients with MCL and 3 with early DCL were treated with monthly intradermal injections of a vaccine containing promastigotes of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis killed by pasteurization and viable Bacillus Calmette- Guerin. Clinical and immunological responses were evaluated. Integrity of protein constituents in extracts of pasteurized promastigotes was evaluated by gel electrophoresis. Complete remission of lesions occurred after 5-9 injections in patients with MCL or 7-10 injections in patients with early DCL. DCL patients developed positive skin reactions, average size 18.7 mm. All have been free of active lesions for at least 10 months. Adverse effects of the vaccine were limited to local reactivity to BCG at the injection sites and fever in 2 patients. Extracts of pasteurized and fresh promastigotes did not reveal differences in the integrity of protein components detectable by gel electrophoresis. Immunotherapy with this modified vaccine offers an effective, safe option for the treatment of patients who do not respond to immunotherapy with vaccine containing autoclaved parasites or to chemotherapy .

  1. Ecological aspects of phlebotomines (Diptera: Psychodidae) in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Fernandes, Carlos Eurico; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2012-01-01

    Aspects of phlebotomine behavior were investigated in the city of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul state. The insects were captured weekly during December 2003 to November 2005, with Centers for Disease Control light traps at seven different sites including forests and residential areas. In total, 11,024 specimens (7,805 males and 3,219 females) were collected, from which 9,963 (90.38%) were identified as Lutzomyia longipalpis, the proven vector of American visceral leishmaniasis agent. The remaining 9.62% comprised 21 species. L. longipalpis was the most frequent species in all sampled sites, and the first in the ranking of standardized species abundance index. In residential areas this species clearly predominated in the peridomicile (90.96%), in contrast to the intradomicile (9.04%); in animal shelters, it was more numerous in hen houses and prevailed at ground level, inside, and at forest edge around the residences; this aspect is worrying because this insect may remain sheltered in forested environments during the use of insecticides in homes. In the forest environment, other probable or proven vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis agents were also captured such as Lutzomyia whitmani (=Nyssomyia whitmani, sensu Galati), Lutzomyia antunesi (=Nyssomyia antunesi, sensu Galati), and Lutzomyia flaviscutellata (=Bichromomyia flaviscutellata, sensu Galati).

  2. Leishmania spp. Epidemiology of Canine Leishmaniasis in the Yucatan Peninsula

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    A. López-Céspedes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine Leishmaniasis is widespread in various Mexican states, where different species of Leishmania have been isolated from dogs. In the present study, we describe the detection of L. braziliensis, L. infantum, and L. mexicana in serum of dogs from the states of Yucatan and Quintana Roo in the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico. A total of 412 sera were analyzed by ELISA using the total extract of the parasite and the iron superoxide dismutase excreted by different trypanosomatids as antigens. We found the prevalence of L. braziliensis to be 7.52%, L. infantum to be 6.07%, and L. mexicana to be 20.63%, in the dog population studied. The results obtained with ELISA using iron superoxide dismutase as the antigen were confirmed by western blot analysis with its greater sensitivity, and the agreement between the two techniques was very high.

  3. Agrochemicals against malaria, sleeping sickness, leishmaniasis and Chagas disease.

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    Matthias Witschel

    Full Text Available In tropical regions, protozoan parasites can cause severe diseases with malaria, leishmaniasis, sleeping sickness, and Chagas disease standing in the forefront. Many of the drugs currently being used to treat these diseases have been developed more than 50 years ago and can cause severe adverse effects. Above all, resistance to existing drugs is widespread and has become a serious problem threatening the success of control measures. In order to identify new antiprotozoal agents, more than 600 commercial agrochemicals have been tested on the pathogens causing the above mentioned diseases. For all of the pathogens, compounds were identified with similar or even higher activities than the currently used drugs in applied in vitro assays. Furthermore, in vivo activity was observed for the fungicide/oomyceticide azoxystrobin, and the insecticide hydramethylnon in the Plasmodium berghei mouse model, and for the oomyceticide zoxamide in the Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense STIB900 mouse model, respectively.

  4. Experimental models in vaccine research: malaria and leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, C; Gomes, R

    2013-02-01

    Animal models have a long history of being useful tools, not only to test and select vaccines, but also to help understand the elaborate details of the immune response that follows infection. Different models have been extensively used to investigate putative immunological correlates of protection against parasitic diseases that are important to reach a successful vaccine. The greatest challenge has been the improvement and adaptation of these models to reflect the reality of human disease and the screening of vaccine candidates capable of overcoming the challenge of natural transmission. This review will discuss the advantages and challenges of using experimental animal models for vaccine development and how the knowledge achieved can be extrapolated to human disease by looking into two important parasitic diseases: malaria and leishmaniasis.

  5. Vaccines for leishmaniasis: from proteome to vaccine candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Juliane; Aebischer, Toni

    2011-01-01

    Leishmania spp. cause a wide spectrum of tropical diseases which are threatening an estimated 350 million people around the globe. While in most cases non-fatal, the disease is associated with high morbidity, social stigmata and poverty. However, the most severe form visceral leishmaniasis can be fatal if left untreated. Chemotherapeutics are available but show high toxicity, costs and are prone to resistance development due to prolonged treatment periods. Healing is associated with a life-long resistance to re-infection and this argues for the feasibility of vaccination. However, despite much effort, no such vaccine has become available yet. Here, the status of vaccine development in this field is briefly summarized before the focus is set on the promise of reverse vaccinology for anti-Leishmania vaccine development in the post-genomic era. We report on our own experience with this approach using an instructive example of successful candidate vaccine antigen identification.

  6. Liposomal amphotericin B and leishmaniasis: Dose and response

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    Shyam Sundar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Liposomal amphotericin B has been used with increasing frequency to treat visceral leishmaniasis (VL. It is the treatment of choice for immunocompetent patients in the Mediterranean region and the preferred drug for HIV/VL co-infection. Although there is a regional variation in the susceptibility of the parasite a total dose of 20 mg/kg is effective in immunocompetent patients. Randomized clinical trials of liposomal amphotericin B in the treatment and secondary prophylaxis of HIV-VL coinfected patients is urgently needed to optimize treatment in this subset. With the availability of Liposomal amphotericin B at a preferential pricing in the endemic areas, short course combination therapy can become a viable alternative.

  7. Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV coinfection in East Africa.

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    Ermias Diro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL is an important protozoan opportunistic disease in HIV patients in endemic areas. East Africa is second to the Indian subcontinent in the global VL caseload and first in VL-HIV coinfection rate. Because of the alteration in the disease course, the diagnostic challenges, and the poor treatment responses, VL with HIV coinfection has become a very serious challenge in East Africa today. Field experience with the use of liposomal amphotericin B in combination with miltefosine, followed by secondary prophylaxis and antiretroviral drugs, looks promising. However, this needs to be confirmed through clinical trials. Better diagnostic and follow-up methods for relapse and prediction of relapse should also be looked for. Basic research to understand the immunological interaction of the two infections may ultimately help to improve the management of the coinfection.

  8. Liposomal amphotericin B for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Caryn; Adler-Moore, Jill; Berenguer, Juan; Boelaert, Marleen; den Boer, Margriet; Davidson, Robert N; Figueras, Concepcion; Gradoni, Luigi; Kafetzis, Dimitris A; Ritmeijer, Koert; Rosenthal, Eric; Royce, Catherine; Russo, Rosario; Sundar, Shyam; Alvar, Jorge

    2006-10-01

    During the past decade, liposomal amphotericin B has been used with increasing frequency to treat visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The World Health Organization convened a workshop to review current knowledge and to develop guidelines for liposomal amphotericin B use for VL. In Europe, liposomal amphotericin B is widely used to treat VL. In Africa and Asia, the VL disease burden is high and drug access is poor; liposomal amphotericin B is available only through preferential pricing for nonprofit groups in East Africa. Clinical trials and experience demonstrate high efficacy and low toxicity for liposomal amphotericin B (total dose, 20 mg/kg) in immunocompetent patients with VL. Combination trials in areas with antileishmanial drug resistance, and treatment and secondary prophylaxis trials in VL-human immunodeficiency virus-coinfected patients, are important to safeguard the current armamentarium and to optimize regimens. The public health community should work to broaden access to preferential liposomal amphotericin B pricing by public sector VL treatment programs.

  9. Diabetes melutus associated with pentamidine isethionate in diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Jackson Mauricio Lopes Costa

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case of a male patient from Bacabal, MA with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL, for at least nine years, with 168 lesions on his body. These were tumour-like nodules with some ulceratmi. He usedpentavalent antimonial (glucantime® and an association of gamma interferon plus glucantime with improvement of the lesions but relapsed later. Recently, pentamidine isethionate (pentacarinat® was given a dosage of 4mg/kg/weight/day on alternate days for 20 applications. After 3 months a similar course of 10 application was given 2 times. Later he developed diabetic signs with weight loss of 10kg, polydypsia, polyuria and xerostomia. The lower limbs lesions showed signs of activity. Blood glucose levels normalised and remain like this at moment. Attention is drawn to the fact that pentamidine isethionate should be used as a therapy option with care, obeyng rigorous laboratory controls including a glucose tolerance test.

  10. Propolis extract action in Leishmaniasis Ação do extrato de própolis na Leishmaniose

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    Julie Massayo Maeda Oda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a public health problem causing morbidity and mortality in over 80 countries and features a parasitic disease with several manifestations. In the New World occur Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL and American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL. The ACL is considered a disease polymorphic of skin and mucous membranes, grouped in different clinical forms: cutaneous leishmaniasis in the skin and mucosa and diffuse cutaneous, and the evolution of this disease is closely related to the mechanisms of escape of the protozoan Leishmania from the immune response, allowing the development of the disease and consequently the onset of clinical manifestations known. The World Health Organization recommends the pentavalent antimony as the first choice drugs. However, they usually give unsatisfactory results, requiring the development of new and affordable drugs for its treatment. It has been investigated that use of propolis it is related to exhibit several biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal,anti-ulcer agents, antiviral, anti-protozoan, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antitumor, among others. Recent studies have shown that green propolis active macrophages and stimulates lymphocytes B to produce antibodies. It was also reported that propolis shows a potential antileishmanial activity by reducing the diameter of the lesions, avoiding complications of the lesions by bacteria or by improving the immune response against the Leishmania through macrophages activation. The aim of this work was related the main activities leishmanicida using propolis, by searched the electronic literature PubMed and Scielo during the year 2009. A leishmaniose causa mortalidade e morbidade em mais de 80 países e caracteriza-se como uma doença parasitária com diversas manifestações, por isso constitui um sério problema de saúde pública. No Novo Mundo ocorre a Leishmaniose Visceral (LV e Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana (LTA. A LTA

  11. Development of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis after Leishmania Skin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Paulo R.; Carvalho, Augusto M.; Machado, Gustavo U.; Dantas, Marina L.; Arruda, Sérgio

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-year-old female with a previous history of a cutaneous ulcer suspicious of leishmaniasis 20 years ago presented with a new complaint of a depressed papular lesion 8 × 7 mm in the right lower extremity. The lesion was of 10-day duration. Because early cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) lesions may have a non-ulcerated appearance, a Leishmania skin test (LST) was performed on the forearm with a strong positive result (38 × 32 mm). After 8 days, the lesion in the leg, which was diagnosed as folliculitis, completely healed. However, a typical CL ulcer (26 × 24 mm) developed at the LST site. Histopathology of the new lesion did not identifiy parasites, but the findings were consistent with a diagnosis of CL. Further analysis identified amastigotes by immunohistochemical stain. Mononuclear cells harvested from the patient were stimulated with Leishmania antigen and showed high levels of production of both tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ): 2,943 pg/mL and 2,313 pg/mL, respectively. After 40 days of treatment with antimony and pentoxifylline, the ulcer resolved. The development of CL at the LST site suggests a strong Th1 immune response, and it is an in vivo documentation of the role of the host immune response in the pathology of CL. It teaches us that LST should be cautiously, if at all, used in patients with self-healing CL ulcers. PMID:22162702

  12. Environmental risk mapping of canine leishmaniasis in France

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    Ready Paul

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine leishmaniasis (CanL is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum, a Trypanosomatid protozoan transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. Leishmaniasis is endemic in southern France, but the influences of environmental and climatic factors on its maintenance and emergence remain poorly understood. From a retrospective database, including all the studies reporting prevalence or incidence of CanL in France between 1965 and 2007, we performed a spatial analysis in order to i map the reported cases in France, and ii produce an environment-based map of the areas at risk for CanL. We performed a Principal Component Analysis (PCA followed by a Hierarchical Ascendant Classification (HAC to assess if the locations of CanL could be grouped according to environmental variables related to climate, forest cover, and human and dog densities. For each group, the potential distribution of CanL in France was mapped using a species niche modelling approach (Maxent model. Results Results revealed the existence of two spatial groups of CanL cases. The first group is located in the Cévennes region (southern Massif Central, at altitudes of 200-1000 m above sea level, characterized by relatively low winter temperatures (1.9°C average, 1042 mm average annual rainfall and much forest cover. The second group is located on the Mediterranean coastal plain, characterized by higher temperatures, lower rainfall and less forest cover. These two groups may correspond to the environments favoured by the two sandfly vectors in France, Phlebotomus ariasi and Phlebotomus perniciosus respectively. Our niche modelling of these two eco-epidemiological patterns was based on environmental variables and led to the first risk map for CanL in France. Conclusion Results show how an ecological approach can help to improve our understanding of the spatial distribution of CanL in France.

  13. Vaccines for leishmaniasis in the fore coming 25 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B

    2008-03-25

    Human vaccination against leishmaniasis using live Leishmania was used in Middle East and Russia (1941-1980). First-generation vaccines, composed by killed parasites induce low efficacies (54%) and were tested in humans and dogs Phase III trials in Asia and South America since 1940. Second-generation vaccines using live genetically modified parasites, or bacteria or viruses containing Leishmania genes, recombinant or native fractions are known since the 1990s. Due to the loss of PAMPs, the use of adjuvants increased vaccine efficacies of the purified antigens to 82%, in Phase III dog trials. Recombinant second-generation vaccines and third-generation DNA vaccines showed average values of parasite load reduction of 68% and 59% in laboratory animal models, respectively, but their success in field trials had not yet been reported. This review is focused on vaccine candidates that show any efficacy against leishmaniasis and that are already in different phase trials. A lot of interest though was generated in recent years, by the studies going on in experimental models. The promising candidates may find a place in the forth coming years. Among them most probably are the multiple-gene DNA vaccines that are stable and do not require cold-chain transportation. In the mean time, second-generation vaccines with native antigens and effective adjuvants are likely to be licensed and used in Public Health control programs in the fore coming 25 years. To date, only three vaccines have been licensed for use: one live vaccine for humans in Uzbekistan, one killed vaccine for human immunotherapy in Brazil and a second-generation vaccine for dog prophylaxis in Brazil.

  14. Development of cutaneous leishmaniasis after leishmania skin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Paulo R; Carvalho, Augusto M; Machado, Gustavo U; Dantas, Marina L; Arruda, Sérgio

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-year-old female with a previous history of a cutaneous ulcer suspicious of leishmaniasis 20 years ago presented with a new complaint of a depressed papular lesion 8 × 7 mm in the right lower extremity. The lesion was of 10-day duration. Because early cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) lesions may have a non-ulcerated appearance, a Leishmania skin test (LST) was performed on the forearm with a strong positive result (38 × 32 mm). After 8 days, the lesion in the leg, which was diagnosed as folliculitis, completely healed. However, a typical CL ulcer (26 × 24 mm) developed at the LST site. Histopathology of the new lesion did not identifiy parasites, but the findings were consistent with a diagnosis of CL. Further analysis identified amastigotes by immunohistochemical stain. Mononuclear cells harvested from the patient were stimulated with Leishmania antigen and showed high levels of production of both tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ): 2,943 pg/mL and 2,313 pg/mL, respectively. After 40 days of treatment with antimony and pentoxifylline, the ulcer resolved. The development of CL at the LST site suggests a strong Th1 immune response, and it is an in vivo documentation of the role of the host immune response in the pathology of CL. It teaches us that LST should be cautiously, if at all, used in patients with self-healing CL ulcers.

  15. Occurrence of Trypanosoma caninum in areas overlapping with leishmaniasis in Brazil: what is the real impact of canine leishmaniasis control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, J H S; Almeida, A B P F; Figueiredo, F B; Sousa, V R F; Fagundes, A; Pinto, A G S; Baptista, C; Madeira, M F

    2012-07-01

    Trypanosoma caninum is a parasite of the Trypanosoma genus recently described in the natural infection of dogs in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Suspecting the existence of a natural cycle and the circulation of this new species, the objective of this study was the taxonomic identification of samples of Trypanosoma spp. isolated from dogs in different Brazilian regions. Parasites were solely obtained from skin fragments culture and characterized by nested-PCR targeting the partial sequence of 18S rRNA gene and PCR products were sequenced. Thirty-three samples, obtained in São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Goiás, Mato Grosso and Rio de Janeiro states were analyzed. PCR and sequencing showed that the isolates were genetically identical or closely similar and confirmed T. caninum identity. This report broadens the geographical distribution of T. caninum in Brazil and discusses the impact of the presence of this parasite in areas of canine leishmaniasis occurrence.

  16. Attraction of the cutaneous leishmaniasis vector Nyssomyia neivai (Diptera: Psychodidae) to host odour components in a wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Laboratory studies of host-seeking olfactory behaviour in sandflies have largely been restricted to the American visceral leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis. In comparison, almost nothing is known about the chemical ecology of related species, which transmit American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), due in part to difficulties in raising these insects in the laboratory. Understanding how ACL vectors locate their hosts will be essential to developing new vector control strategies to combat this debilitating disease. Methods This study examined host-odour seeking behaviour of the ACL vector Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto) (=Lutzomyia neivai) using a wind tunnel olfactometer. The primary aim was to determine whether field-collected female N. neivai would respond to host odours in the laboratory, thereby eliminating the need to maintain colonies of these insects for behavioural experiments. Responses to two key host odour components, 1-octen-3-ol and lactic acid, and a commercially-available mosquito lure (BG-Lure™) were assessed and compared relative to an air control. We also tested whether trials could be conducted outside of the normal evening activity period of N. neivai without impacting on fly behaviour, and whether the same flies could be used to assess baseline responses to air without affecting responses to octenol, thereby reducing the number of flies required for experiments. Results Octenol was found to both activate host-seeking behaviour and attract female N. neivai in the wind tunnel, while lactic acid elicited weaker responses of activation and attractiveness under identical conditions. The BG-Lure did not activate or attract N. neivai under test conditions. Further experiments showed that sandfly behaviour in the wind tunnel was not affected by time of day, such that experiments need not be restricted to nocturnal hours. Moreover, using the same flies to measure both baseline responses to air and attraction to test compounds did not affect

  17. Aspectos ecológicos da leishmaniose tegumentar americana: 2. ecótopo artificial como abrigo de Psychodopygus intermedius e observações sobre alimentação e reprodução sob influência de fatores físicos naturais Ecological aspects of American cutaneous leishmaniasis: 2. the artificial biotope as shelter for Psychodopygus intermedius and observations about feeding and reproduction under direct influence of natural physical factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almério de Castro Gomes

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available As observações levadas a cabo em um galinheiro experimental mostraram que Psychodopygus intermedius tem a capacidade de nele abrigar-se. Para se chegar a este resultado, a metodologia utilizada consistiu na coleta total diurna e exame do estado de alimentação e digestão sangüínea dos Ps. intermedius como parâmetro da sua maior ou menor permanência no ecótopo estudado. Além disso, observou-se paralelamente, os tempos para o repasto sangüíneo, digestão completa, oviposição, sobrevivência e cópula sob a influência direta dos fatores físicos naturais. A importância epidemiológica dos resultados reside em novas elucidações experimentais sobre a viabilidade da transmissão da leshmaniose tegumentar ocorrer em ambiente domiciliar.Observations carried out in experimental hen-houses showed that Psycihodopygus intermedius are able to take shelter in them. The methodology consisted in making daytime catches and examining the feeding and blood digestion states, in terms of the time spent in the ecotope. The times of blood meals, complete digestion, oviposition, survival and mating under the direct influence of natural physical factors were also calculated. The epidemiological importance of the results consists in the new experimental evidence of the viability of leishmaniasis cutaneous transmission taking place within household environments.

  18. SAND FLY SPECIES COMPOSITION (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE: PHLEBOTOMINAE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF CANTAGALO , AN AREA WITH SPORADIC CASES OF HUMAN CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

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    Quezia Nunes PERES-DIAS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY The municipality of Cantagalo is an area with sustained transmission of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL. Monthly sand fly collections were performed for three years (June 2012 - May 2015 using a CDC light trap. A total of 3,310 specimens belonging to 12 species were trapped: Nyssomyia intermedia, Nyssomyia whitmani, Migonemyia migonei, Evandromyia lenti, Evandromyia cortelezzii, Micropygomyia quinquefer, Brumptomyia brumpti, Psathyromyia aragaoi, Micropygomyia schreiberi, Pintomyia fischeri, Sciopemyia sordellii, and Evandromyia edwardsi. The last seven species have not been previously recorded in this area. The highest abundance of species occurred between October and March. October was the month with the highest number of captured sand flies, one month before the peak in the summer rainfall. In October the highest number of Ny. intermedia, Ny. whitmani and Mg. migonei, were also collected, the three epidemiologically most important species. The high abundance of species with epidemiological importance for ACL transmission might explain the sporadic occurrence of the disease in the area.

  19. Lutzomyia longipalpis naturally infected by Leishmania (L.) chagasi in Várzea Grande, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, an area of intense transmission of visceral leishmaniasis.

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    Missawa, Nanci A; Michalsky, Erika Monteiro; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; Santos Dias, Edelberto

    2010-12-01

    The American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) is caused by parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania (Trypanosomatidae) and is transmitted to humans through the bite of certain species of infected phlebotomine sand flies. In this study, we investigated the natural infection ratio of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector species of AVL in Brazil, in Várzea Grande, Mato Grosso State. Between July 2004 and June 2006, phlebotomine sand flies were captured in peridomestic areas using CDC light-traps. Four hundred and twenty (420) specimens of Lu. longipalpis were captured. 42 pools, containing 10 specimens of Lu. longipalpis each, were used for genomic DNA extraction and PCR (polymerase chain reaction) amplification. Leishmania spp. DNA was detected in three out of the 42 pools tested, resulting in a minimal infection ratio of 0.71%. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis indicated that Leishmania (L.) chagasi was the infective agent in the positive pools.

  20. Species composition and relative abundance of sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae) at an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

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    Ferro, C; Morrison, A C; Torres, M; Pardo, R; Wilson, M L; Tesh, R B

    1995-07-01

    Ecological studies on the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) were conducted during 1990-1993 at a small rural community in Colombia where American visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. Weekly sand fly collections were made from pigpens, houses, and natural resting sites, using hand-held aspirators, sticky (oiled) paper traps, and opossum-baited Disney traps. In total, 263,094 sand flies were collected; L. longipalpis predominated (86.1%), followed by L. trinidadensis (11.0%), L. cayennensis (2.7%), and 8 other Lutzomyia species. The species composition and sex ratio of these sand flies varied among sites and by collection method. L. longipalpis were captured most efficiently by direct aspiration from animal bait. Conversely, sticky paper traps, especially inside houses and at rock resting sites, collected a greater diversity of species, but a lower relative abundance of L. longipalpis.

  1. Epidemiological aspects of vector, parasite, and domestic reservoir in areas of recent transmission and no reported human cases of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

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    Lara-Silva, Fabiana de Oliveira; Michalsky, Érika Monteiro; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; Fiuza, Vanessa de Oliveira Pires; Pessanha, José Eduardo Marques; Regina-Silva, Shara; de Avelar, Daniel Moreira; Silva, Maiara Alves; Lima, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha; da Costa, Ailton Junior Antunes; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2015-08-01

    About 97% of the human cases of the American visceral leishmaniasis (VL) occur in Brazil. In the last few years, the disease expanded to medium- and large-sized cities, in which surveillance and control actions have been intensified, in an effort to control VL spreading. Our two-year study was conducted in Belo Horizonte, the sixth most populous city in Brazil, which is endemic for VL. We focused in two particular districts of recent transmission of the disease, with no reported human cases and submitted to minor surveillance and control actions. Our aim was to draw an epidemiological profile of the local situation concerning Lutzomyia vector, Leishmania parasites, and the main domestic reservoirs (dogs). Lutzomyia longipalpis comprised 96.5% of the total phlebotomine sand flies captured and displayed an expressive minimal infection rate by Leishmania infantum (16.7%). Positive correlations were found between the population densities of L. longipalpis, rainfall and temperature. L. infantum was also detected in the cortelezzii complex and, for the first time, in Lutzomyia lloydi. Leishmania braziliensis, an etiological agent of the American cutaneous leishmaniasis, was also identified in L. longipalpis. Among the 1408 dogs serologically tested by standard enzyme-linked and fluorescence immune assays (ELISA/IFA) 3.6% were positive for VL. L. infantum DNA and Leishmania parasites were identified in 100% and 72.5% of the seropositive dogs, respectively. The co-positivity of other diagnostic tests for VL-Leishmania-nested PCR, imprint and myeloculture-was compared to the standard serology. Both symptomatic or asymptomatic dogs displayed an equal average number of positive diagnostic tests for VL. The districts studied display favorable conditions for the rapid spreading of human infection, in terms of L. longipalpis population density, and presence of L. infantum in both vector and main reservoir.

  2. Successful Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania aethiopica with Liposomal Amphothericin B in an Immunocompromised Traveler Returning from Eritrea

    OpenAIRE

    Zanger, Philipp; Kötter, Ina; Raible, Armin; Gelanew, Tesfaye; Schönian, Gabriele; Kremsner, Peter G

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania aethiopica is rarely encountered outside disease-endemic areas and there have been no clinical trials evaluating its pharmacotherapy. We describe the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. aethiopica using liposomal amphothericin B in an immunocompromised traveler returning from Eritrea.

  3. Sporothrix schenckii Sensu Lato identification in fragments of skin lesion cultured in NNN medium for differential diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

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    Antonio, Liliane de Fátima; Pimentel, Maria Inês Fernandes; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Miranda, Luciana de Freitas Campos; Paes, Rodrigo Almeida; Brito-Santos, Fábio; Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino Figueredo; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira

    2017-02-01

    Eighty-nine patients with clinical suspicion of leishmaniasis were referred for differential diagnosis. Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato was isolated in Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle + Schneider media in 98% of 64 patients with final diagnosis of sporotrichosis. This medium may be suitable for diagnosis of sporotrichosis in areas where cutaneous leishmaniasis is also endemic.

  4. Leishmaniasis in rheumatology, haematology and oncology: epidemiological, immunological and clinical aspects and caveats.

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    Bogdan, Christian

    2012-04-01

    Leishmaniasis is an intracellular protozoan infection that can lead to cutaneous, mucocutaneous, visceral or systemic manifestations depending on the parasite species and virulence and on the host immune response. It is endemic in countries of Europe (Mediterranean basin), Asia, Africa, Central and South America, but autochthonous cases begin to emerge outside classical disease areas. CD4+ T helper cells, interferon γ, dendritic cells and macrophages are the key components of antileishmanial defence. Leishmaniasis is an important differential diagnosis in patients with chronic lesions of the skin or mucous membranes or with fever, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, pancytopenia, histocytosis, haemophagocytic syndrome or glomerulonephritis. Organ transplant recipients and patients with autoimmune syndromes are at particular risk of developing visceral leishmaniasis following immunosuppressive therapy (eg, with steroids, methotrexate, ciclosporin or tumour necrosis factor-neutralising biological agents). Diagnosis and adequate treatment of leishmaniasis requires the combined use of culture, microscopic and nucleic acid amplication methods and species identification by sequencing and other molecular techniques. Standard regimens for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis are intravenous liposomal amphotericin B (3 mg/kg body weight for 10 days) or oral miltefosine (150 mg/day for 28 days).

  5. Zinc Sulphate in the Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: an in Vitro and Animal Study

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    Najim Rafid A

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of zinc sulphate both in vitro and in an animal model against both strains of old world cutaneous leishmaniasis. The in vitro sensitivities of promastigotes and axenic amastigotes of both Leishmania major and L. tropica to zinc sulphate was determined, the LD50 calculated and compared to the standard treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis pentavalent antimony compounds. The results show that the two forms of both strains were sensitive to zinc sulphate and their respective LD50 were lower compared to the pentavalent antimony compound. Furthermore the sensitivities of the forms of both strains were tested using a simple slide method and compared to results of the standard method. To confirm this result, zinc sulphate was administered orally to mice infected with cutaneous leishmaniasis both therapeutically and prophylactically. Results showed that oral zinc sulphate was effective in both treatment and prophylaxis for cutaneous leishmaniasis. These results encourage the use of oral zinc sulphate in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis clinically.

  6. Epidemiology, pathology and treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in taif region of saudi arabia.

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    Wajihullah Khan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an annoying and disfiguring disease affecting around 1,500,000 individuals globally. There are endemic pockets of this disease in Taif region. In some patients, lesion often weeps and leads to scar formation. The study was conducted to see the efficacy of fluconazole and itraconazole in the patients of cutaneous leishmaniasis and the effect of these drugs on liver enzymes and kidney markers.Positivity of Leishmania was recorded by microscopic examinations of smears. Specific diagnosis for Leishmania major and L. tropica was made with the help of nested polymerase chain reaction. Fluconazole was given at the rate of 200mg/day while itraconazole was given at 150mg/day for six weeks. AST, ALT, creatinine and urea were estimated during medication.Leishmania major and L. tropica were the species responsible for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Taif region. 81% patients had single lesions, mostly on face followed by hands and legs. 15% of the lesions had bacterial contamination. In terms of efficacy, fluconazole gave slightly better results compared to itraconazole. After 6 weeks of medications, slightly elevated values were recorded for liver enzymes and creatinine.Transmission of leishmaniasis in Taif region is probably because of poor coverage of residual insecticides spraying at hiding places in pile-ups of rocks and abandoned houses from where sand flies visit nearby houses and cattle sheds during night. Fluconazole and itraconazole may be used for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis with good recovery rate and fewer side effects.

  7. Efficacy of fractional CO2 laser in treatment of atrophic scar of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

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    Banihashemi, Mahnaz; Nahidi, Yalda; Maleki, Masoud; Esmaily, Habibollah; Moghimi, Hamid Reza

    2016-05-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in Iran. Unfortunately, it can lead to unsightly atrophic scars with limited treatment options. Fractional CO2 laser is accepted for treatment of atrophic acne scars and recently has been used to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis, so we planned to use fractional CO2 laser on leishmaniasis scar. We conducted this study on 60 leishmaniasis scars on the face of 40 patients. The lesions were treated by a fractional CO2 laser with beam size of 120 μm, with energy of 50-90 mJ, and 50-100 spots/cm(2) density with two passes in three monthly sessions. Evaluation was done in the first and second months after the first treatment and 3 and 6 months after the last treatment. Digital photography was performed at each visit. Assessment of improvement rate by patient and physician was rated separately as follows: no improvement (0%), mild (CO2 laser for leishmaniasis scar. No significant adverse effects were noted.

  8. The organization of health services and visceral leishmaniasis: an integrated intervention to improve diagnosis and treatment.

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    Luz, Zélia M P; Carneiro, Mariângela; Schall, Virgínia; Rabello, Ana

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study, carried out in municipalities located in a metropolitan region of Brazil, was to promote the early diagnosis and prompt treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. In the intervention model a health professional underwent training that covered all procedures involved in assisting patients with suspected visceral leishmaniasis. The professionals then returned to their municipalities where they implemented a workplan with the following aims: (a) at least one physician able to diagnose and treat patients; (b) training of professionals for the laboratorial diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis; (c) delivery of information on visceral leishmaniasis to the health workers. The implementation process was evaluated by follow-up meetings. Attendance of health professionals at the meetings, implementation of the workplan, and the visceral leishmaniasis case fatality rate before (1998-1999) and after (2001-2002) implementation of the model were used in the analysis. Among the 36 municipalities in the region, 22 were enrolled. Eight (36.3%) guaranteed at least 50% attendance in the meetings, and 14 (63.6%) had less than 50% attendance with no activities implemented. The fatality rate decreased in the municipalities that implemented the activities.

  9. Alteration of Fas and Fas ligand expression during human visceral leishmaniasis

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    Eidsmo, L; Wolday, D; Berhe, N; Sabri, F; Satti, I; El Hassan, A M; Sundar, S; Chiodi, F; Akuffo, H

    2002-01-01

    Several studies in murine systems have suggested a role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of leishmaniasis. However, the role of apoptosis in visceral leishmaniasis in man has not been explored. In this study, we show that patients with visceral leishmaniasis demonstrate significant dysregulation of Fas and Fas ligand. Levels of soluble Fas (sFas) and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) were elevated in plasma of patients with active visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and individuals co-infected with VL-HIV-1 compared to healthy controls. The levels of sFas and sFasL were normalized 6 months after successful treatment. In VL patients, the expression of membrane bound Fas, and to a lower extent FasL, were up-regulated on Leishmania donovani-infected spleen cells, the site of parasite multiplication. Expression of Fas and FasL on peripheral blood mononuclear cells was within normal range, probably reflecting that the blood is not a normal site of L. donovani infection. Furthermore, this is suggested by the finding that in vitro infection of macrophages with L. donovani up-regulated Fas expression on the surface of infected cells and enhanced the levels of sFasL in supernatants from infected cultures. How this dysregulation may affect the pathogenesis of human visceral leishmaniasis is discussed. PMID:12390320

  10. Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Boyer Ahmad District, Kohgiluyeh & Boyer Ahmad Province, Southwest of Iran

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    V Barati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mediterranean type of visceral leishmaniasis (VL is present in different parts of Iran. Several studies have identified dogs as the main reservoirs of the VL caused by Leishmania infantum in Iran and other Mediterranean regions. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis as animal reservoir host for human visceral leishmaniasis in Boyer Ahmad dis­trict in southwest of Iran.Methods: A seroepidemiological study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL among ownership dogs by using direct agglutination test (DAT in 23 of 182 villages of Boyer Ahmad district, during August 2009 to August 2010. One hundred and seventy serum samples from ownership dogs were selected by multi-stage cluster sampling in villages of Boyer Ahmad district. All samples were tested by DAT and anti-Leishmania antibodies titers at ≥ 1:320 was considered as positive.Results: Of the 170 serum samples, 10% were positive by DAT at titers of 1:320 and higher. No statistical significant difference was found between male (10.7% and female (8.3% seroprevalence. The highest seroprevalence rate (15.1% was observed among the ownership dogs of four to seven years age. Altogether, seventeen (25.4% of the seropositive dogs had clinical signs and symptoms.Conclusion: It seems that Boyer Ahmad district is an endemic area for canine visceral leishmaniasis in Iran.

  11. Leishmaniasis transmission: distribution and coarse-resolution ecology of two vectors and two parasites in Egypt

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    Abdallah M. Samy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In past decades, leishmaniasis burden has been low across Egypt; however, changing environment and land use has placed several parts of the country at risk. As a consequence, leishmaniasis has become a particularly difficult health problem, both for local inhabitants and for multinational military personnel. Methods: To evaluate coarse-resolution aspects of the ecology of leishmaniasis transmission, collection records for sandflies and Leishmania species were obtained from diverse sources. To characterize environmental variation across the country, we used multitemporal Land Surface Temperature (LST and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS for 2005-2011. Ecological niche models were generated using MaxEnt, and results were analyzed using background similarity tests to assess whether associations among vectors and parasites (i.e., niche similarity can be detected across broad geographic regions. Results: We found niche similarity only between one vector species and its corresponding parasite species (i.e., Phlebotomus papatasi with Leishmania major, suggesting that geographic ranges of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis and its potential vector may overlap, but under distinct environmental associations. Other associations (e.g., P. sergenti with L. major were not supported. Mapping suitable areas for each species suggested that northeastern Egypt is particularly at risk because both parasites have potential to circulate. Conclusions: Ecological niche modeling approaches can be used as a first-pass assessment of vector-parasite interactions, offering useful insights into constraints on the geography of transmission patterns of leishmaniasis.

  12. Epidemiology of leishmaniasis in Ecuador: current status of knowledge - A review

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    Manuel Calvopina

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Although leishmaniasis is regarded as a significant health problem in Ecuador by the Ministry of Health, and the incidence has increased over the last years, an official map on the geographic distribution of disease and sand fly vectors or a control strategy do not exist yet. This article reviews the current situation based on published information to improve our knowledge and understand the epidemiological situation of leishmaniasis in Ecuador in order to help future research and to develop a national control strategy. The disease is endemic in most provinces throughout Pacific coastal region, Amazonian lowlands, and some inter-Andean valleys with a total 21,805 cases reported during 1990-2003. Whereas cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is found throughout Ecuador, mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL appears to be restricted to the Amazon region; one, parasitologically unconfirmed case of visceral form was reported in 1949. Most human infections are caused by Leishmania (Viannia spp., which is distributed in the subtropical and tropical lowlands; infections due to L. (Leishmania spp. are found in the Andean highlands and in the Pacific lowlands as well. The proven vectors are Lutzomyia trapidoi and Lu. ayacuchensis. Canis familiaris, Sciurus vulgaris, Potos flavus, and Tamandua tetradactyla have been found infected with Leishmania spp. It is estimated that around 3000-4500 people may be infected every year, and that 3.1 to 4.5 millions people are estimated to be at risk of contracting leishmaniasis.

  13. Epidemiology of leishmaniasis in Ecuador: current status of knowledge -- a review.

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    Calvopina, Manuel; Armijos, Rodrigo X; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2004-11-01

    Although leishmaniasis is regarded as a significant health problem in Ecuador by the Ministry of Health, and the incidence has increased over the last years, an official map on the geographic distribution of disease and sand fly vectors or a control strategy do not exist yet. This article reviews the current situation based on published information to improve our knowledge and understand the epidemiological situation of leishmaniasis in Ecuador in order to help future research and to develop a national control strategy. The disease is endemic in most provinces throughout Pacific coastal region, Amazonian lowlands, and some inter-Andean valleys with a total 21,805 cases reported during 1990-2003. Whereas cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is found throughout Ecuador, mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) appears to be restricted to the Amazon region; one, parasitologically unconfirmed case of visceral form was reported in 1949. Most human infections are caused by Leishmania (Viannia) spp., which is distributed in the subtropical and tropical lowlands; infections due to L. (Leishmania) spp. are found in the Andean highlands and in the Pacific lowlands as well. The proven vectors are Lutzomyia trapidoi and Lu. ayacuchensis. Canis familiaris, Sciurus vulgaris, Potos flavus, and Tamandua tetradactyla have been found infected with Leishmania spp. It is estimated that around 3000-4500 people may be infected every year, and that 3.1 to 4.5 millions people are estimated to be at risk of contracting leishmaniasis.

  14. Nanoliposomal artemisinin for the treatment of murine visceral leishmaniasis

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    Want MY

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Muzamil Y Want,1 Mohammad Islammudin,1 Garima Chouhan,1 Hani A Ozbak,2 Hassan A Hemeg,2 Asoke P Chattopadhyay,3 Farhat Afrin2 1Parasite Immunology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard University, New Delhi, India; 2Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Taibah University, Medina, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Chemistry, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, India Abstract: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a fatal, vector-borne disease caused by the intracellular protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Most of the therapeutics for VL are toxic, expensive, or ineffective. Sesquiterpenes are a new class of drugs with proven antimicrobial and antiviral activities. Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene lactone with potent antileishmanial activity, but with limited access to infected cells, being a highly lipophilic molecule. Association of artemisinin with liposome is a desirable strategy to circumvent the problem of poor accessibility, thereby improving its efficacy, as demonstrated in a murine model of experimental VL. Nanoliposomal artemisinin (NLA was prepared by thin-film hydration method and optimized using Box–Behnken design with a mean particle diameter of 83±16 nm, polydispersity index of 0.2±0.03, zeta potential of -27.4±5.7 mV, and drug loading of 33.2%±2.1%. Morphological study of these nanoliposomes by microscopy showed a smooth and spherical surface. The mechanism of release of artemisinin from the liposomes followed the Higuchi model in vitro. NLA was free from concomitant signs of toxicity, both ex vivo in murine macrophages and in vivo in healthy BALB/c mice. NLA significantly denigrated the intracellular infection of Leishmania donovani amastigotes and the number of infected macrophages ex vivo with an IC50 of 6.0±1.4 µg/mL and 5.1±0.9 µg/mL, respectively. Following treatment in a murine model of VL, NLA demonstrated superior efficacy compared to artemisinin with a

  15. Canine visceral leishmaniasis in the metropolitan area of São Paulo: Pintomyia fischeri as potential vector of Leishmania infantum.

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    Galvis-Ovallos, Fredy; da Silva, Mariana Dantas; Bispo, Giulia Baldaconi da Silva; de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez; Neto, José Rodriguez Gonçalves; Malafronte, Rosely Dos Santos; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2017-01-01

    American visceral leishmaniasis is a zoonosis caused by Leishmania infantum and transmitted mainly by Lutzomyia longipalpis. However, canine cases have been reported in the absence of this species in the Greater São Paulo region, where Pintomyia fischeri and Migonemyia migonei are the predominant species. This raises the suspicion that they could be acting as vectors. Therefore, this study sought to investigate specific vector capacity parameters of these species and to compare them with those of Lu. longipalpis s.l. Among these parameters the blood feeding rate, the survival, and the susceptibility to the development of Le. infantum were evaluated for the three species, and the attractiveness of dogs to Pi. fischeri and Mg. migonei was evaluated. The estimated interval between blood meals was shorter for Lu. longipalpis s.l, followed by Pi. fischeri and Mg. migonei. The infection rate with Le. infantum flagellates in Lu. longipalpis was 9.8%, in Pi. fischeri 4.8%, and in Mg. migonei nil. The respective infective life expectancies (days) of Lu. longipalpis, Mg. migonei, and Pi. fischeri were 2.4, 1.94, and 1.68. Both Pi. fischeri and Mg. migonei were captured in the kennel with a predominance (95%) of Pi. fischeri. Considering the great attractiveness of dogs to Pi. fischeri, its susceptibility to infection by Le. infantum, infective life expectancies, and predominance in Greater São Paulo, this study presents evidence of Pi. fischeri as a potential vector of this parasite in the region.

  16. Nocturnal activity patterns of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) at an endemic focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Colombia.

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    Morrison, A C; Ferro, C; Pardo, R; Torres, M; Wilson, M L; Tesh, R B

    1995-09-01

    Nocturnal activity of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) was studied from August 1991 to July 1992 in a small rural community in Colombia where American visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. During 2 or 3 nights each month, sand flies were collected with hand-held aspirators each hour between 1730 and 0630 hours, from a pigpen and a cattle corral located 30 m apart. Host-seeking activity of L. longipalpis adults was characterized by 2 general patterns: (1) adult sand fly activity increased shortly after sunset and continued until just after sunrise, and (2) peak sand fly activity was greatest early in the evening (1830-2330 hours) and then declined steadily toward morning. Female L. longipalpis activity generally increased after 2030 hours, whereas that of males remained constant or declined as the evening progressed. There were seasonal differences in sand fly abundance between the 2 sites: peak abundance in the cattle corral occurred during hot, dry periods, whereas maximum abundance in the pigpen occurred when relative humidity was higher. Influence of relative humidity on activity varied with season. Sand fly activity tended to decrease at temperatures below 24 degrees C and increase in the presence of moonlight.

  17. Disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis after visceral disease in a patient with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calza, Leonardo; D'Antuono, Antonietta; Marinacci, Ginevra; Manfredi, Roberto; Colangeli, Vincenzo; Passarini, Beatrice; Orioli, Roberto; Varoli, Ornella; Chiodo, Francesco

    2004-03-01

    Leishmaniasis is emerging as a common and serious opportunistic disease for patients with HIV infection. Almost all cases of HIV-Leishmania coinfection have been described in Mediterranean countries and they occur with various clinical presentations, ranging from typical visceral forms to asymptomatic or atypical cases, including cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Pentavalent antimony compounds have been the mainstays of antileishmanial therapy for half a century and new lipid formulations of amphotericin B seem reliable, but the most effective treatment remains unknown. We describe a patient who was HIV infected and an intravenous drug user, with an unusual disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis, after an initial visceral disease and after a 13-month maintenance treatment with liposomal amphotericin. The severe concurrent immunosuppression probably played an essential role in leading to this atypical cutaneous form, characterized by diffuse, nonulcerated, nonscabby maculopapular lesions.

  18. Co-existence of cutaneous leishmaniasis with pleural effusion: a case report from Iran.

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    Hossein Mortazavi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein, a 12-year-old Afghan boy with chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis on the face and verrucous lesions on the body and pleural effusion suspected of having co-existent tuberculosis has been presented. The cutaneous lesions were appeared for five years before his admission. Leishman-Donovan bodies were seen in H&E (Hematoxylin and eosin slide of skin lesion specimens. The pathogenic species was proved to be Leishmania tropica using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR method. Purified Protein Derivative (PPD and Leishmanin Skin Test (LST were strongly positive. The patient was treated with systemic and intralesional meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime for cutaneous leishmaniasis and then with anti-tuberculosis drugs for pleural effusion. Afterwards, pleural effusion was disappeared and cutaneous leishmaniasis cured.

  19. Detection of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis by PCR in Fasa district in 2012

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    Mehdi Sharafi

    2013-09-01

    Material & Methods: Slit biopsies were collected from 138 suspected cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis who were presented, consecutively, in Fasa district from April 2011 to February 2012. After the microscopy, the entire smear was then scraped off the slide surface for DNA extraction and PCR assay. Results: All 138 investigated smears were reported positive by microscopy and nested PCR assay. In PCR, One of the smears had the 750-bp band, indicative of L. tropica and the rest had the 560-bp band indicative of L. major. Conclusion: In conclusion, the cutaneous leishmaniasis found in Fasa district is predominantly Rural Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. The PCR-based assay used in the present study appears to be a suitable and powerful tool for the characterization of Leishmanial species.

  20. Recurrent visceral leishmaniasis in a HIV positive patient—a case report

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    Anjo Sunny

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current treatment options for visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar are pentavalent antimony, amphotericin B, liposomal amphotericin B and miltefosine, which achieve long term clinical relief in the majority of HIV patient. Disease relapse is usually provoked by T-cell number or function impairment (corticosteroid or cytotoxic therapy, transplant recipient, advanced human immunodeficiency virus disease. We report a case of visceral leishmaniasis with multiply relapses in a 45 year old Indian HIV positive man. The disease was diagnosed with rK-39 test and confirmed by spleen aspiration test (presence of Leishmania donovani bodies. These findings demonstrate that human immune deficiency virus-positive with visceral leishmaniasis was caused by dissemination of viscerotropic Leishmania donovani parasites as a consequence of immunosuppression.

  1. The development and clinical evaluation of second-generation leishmaniasis vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, Malcolm S; Raman, Vanitha S; Piazza, Franco M; Reed, Steven G

    2012-01-05

    Infection with Leishmania parasites results in a range of clinical manifestations and outcomes. Control of Leishmania parasite transmission is extremely difficult due to the large number of vectors and potential reservoirs, and none of the current treatments are ideal. Vaccination could be an effective strategy to provide sustained control. In this review, the current global situation with regard to leishmaniasis, the immunology of Leishmania infection and various efforts to identify second generation vaccine candidates are briefly discussed. The variety of clinical trials conducted using the only current second generation vaccine approved for clinical use, LEISH-F1+MPL-SE, are described. Given that epidemiological evidence suggests that reducing the canine reservoir also positively impacts human incidence, efforts at providing a vaccine for leishmaniasis in dogs are highlighted. Finally, potential refinements and surrogate markers that could expedite the introduction of a vaccine that can limit the severity and incidence of leishmaniasis are discussed.

  2. Molecular diagnosis of Leishmania mexicana in a cutaneous leishmaniasis case in Sinaloa, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Diaz, Yssete O; Lopez-Moreno, Carmina Y; Rendon-Maldonado, Jose G; Lopez-Moreno, Hector S

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis has been considered endemic in Sinaloa, Mexico, since 1994. Despite that Leishmania mexicana is the main etiological agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in other regions of Mexico, the species causing CL in patients from Sinaloa state has not been previously established, although Leishmania braziliensis has been found in the neighboring southern state, Nayarit. L. braziliensis is also associated with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, which is a more complicated clinical variant. Due to the implications on individual and public health, the objective of this report was to identify the Leishmania species present in Sinaloa, Mexico. Using the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, we identified L. mexicana in a CL patient from Sinaloa and confirmed the extended distribution of this parasite in Mexico.

  3. Oral ulcer as an unusual feature of visceral leishmaniasis in an AIDS patient

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    Kumar Pramod

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis, a globally prevalent parasitic disease, occurs in three forms, viz., visceral, cutaneous and mucocutaneous. It is transmitted by female Phlebotomus sandflies. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection is increasing worldwide, and several reports indicate a rising trend of VL / HIV co-infection, modifying the traditional anthroponotic pattern of VL transmission. India is one of the countries having the largest burden of leishmaniasis; nevertheless, there are very few HIV / leishmania co-infection cases reported so far. We report a 35-year-old homemaker infected with the human immunodeficiency virus; she presented with an oral ulcer. The investigations carried out on her revealed that she was afflicted by visceral leishmaniasis, and the oral ulceration was a part of the same. This is only the second such case from the Indian subcontinent, and more significantly from a non-endemic area.

  4. Enhancement of a TH1 Immune Response in Amphotericin B-Treated Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis

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    Washington R. Cuna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to investigate the effects of treatment of human leishmaniasis, the cytokines produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL under treatment with amphotericin B were determined during the active disease from cocultures of cells and Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis antigens. PBMC of these patients exhibited a nonsignificant marginal increased production of TNF-α upon antigen stimulation. However, under the same antigenic stimulus, patients with active MCL presented higher IFN-γ production compared to patients with CL. This increased IFN-γ production was accompanied by a drastically augmented IL-12 synthesis from cells of MCL patients. The highlighted T cell responses could be relevant for sound control measures of protozoan infections with emphasis on the combined usage of immunoenhancing agents and antiprotozoal drugs.

  5. Concurrent cutaneous, visceral and ocular leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in a kidney transplant patient

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    Gontijo Célia MF

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cases of leishmaniasis co-infection have been described in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients as well as those who have undergone organ transplants, to our knowledge, the present report is the first documented case of simultaneous cutaneous, visceral and ocular leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in a transplant patient. The patient had been using immunosuppressive drugs since receiving a transplanted kidney. The first clinical signs of leishmaniasis included fever, thoracic pain, hepatosplenomegaly, leucopenia and anemia. The cutaneous disease was revealed by the presence of amastigotes in the skin biopsy. After three months, the patient presented fever with conjunctive hyperemia, intense ocular pain and low visual acuity. Parasites isolated from iliac crest, aqueous humor and vitreous body were examined using a range of molecular techniques. The same strain of L. (V. braziliensis was responsible for the different clinical manifestations. The immunosuppressive drugs probably contributed to the dissemination of Leishmania.

  6. Canine leishmaniasis surveillance program in a San Marino Republic kennel

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    Daniela Salvatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of San Marino is an autonomous State that, in view of its geographical and environmental features, can be considered a part of the Northern Italian territory, where the canine leishmaniasis (CanL is endemic. In the past, a CanL focus in the Republic's kennel was described. As a consequence of this epidemiological situation, a surveillance program was carried-out covering a 6-year period (2006-2012. A total of 1,094 sera were collected from 420 kennel dogs and examined for antibodies to Leishmania infantum by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT. Eighty-eight (21% dogs resulted IFAT positive (antibody titre ≥1/40. The overall seroprevalence increased in the first 4 years (2006-2010, going from 5.5% to 26.8% and then decreased in the 2 following years going to 17.9% (2011 and 3.9% (2012. The cumulative incidence constantly increased from 0.6% to 2.6%. This trend could be attributed to a changed infection pressure due to the dog turnover in the kennels. According to the observed incidence values, the CanL focus seems to be stable, supported by autochthonous transmission, new case introduction and Leishmania spp. circulation in owned dogs in the same area.

  7. Leishmaniasis and climate change-case study: Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Quintana, María Gabriela; Mastrángelo, Andrea Verónica; Fernández, María Soledad

    2012-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases closely associated with the environment, such as leishmaniases, have been a usual argument about the deleterious impact of climate change on public health. From the biological point of view interaction of different variables has different and even conflicting effects on the survival of vectors and the probability transmission of pathogens. The results on ecoepidemiology of leishmaniasis in Argentina related to climate variables at different scales of space and time are presented. These studies showed that the changes in transmission due to change or increase in frequency and intensity of climatic instability were expressed through changes in the probability of vector-human reservoir effective contacts. These changes of contact in turn are modulated by both direct effects on the biology and ecology of the organisms involved, as by perceptions and changes in the behavior of the human communities at risk. Therefore, from the perspective of public health and state policy, and taking into account the current nonlinear increased velocity of climate change, we concluded that discussing the uncertainties of large-scale models will have lower impact than to develop-validate mitigation strategies to be operative at local level, and compatibles with sustainable development, conservation biodiversity, and respect for cultural diversity.

  8. Leishmaniasis and Climate Change—Case Study: Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomón, Oscar Daniel; Quintana, María Gabriela; Mastrángelo, Andrea Verónica; Fernández, María Soledad

    2012-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases closely associated with the environment, such as leishmaniases, have been a usual argument about the deleterious impact of climate change on public health. From the biological point of view interaction of different variables has different and even conflicting effects on the survival of vectors and the probability transmission of pathogens. The results on ecoepidemiology of leishmaniasis in Argentina related to climate variables at different scales of space and time are presented. These studies showed that the changes in transmission due to change or increase in frequency and intensity of climatic instability were expressed through changes in the probability of vector-human reservoir effective contacts. These changes of contact in turn are modulated by both direct effects on the biology and ecology of the organisms involved, as by perceptions and changes in the behavior of the human communities at risk. Therefore, from the perspective of public health and state policy, and taking into account the current nonlinear increased velocity of climate change, we concluded that discussing the uncertainties of large-scale models will have lower impact than to develop-validate mitigation strategies to be operative at local level, and compatibles with sustainable development, conservation biodiversity, and respect for cultural diversity. PMID:22685477

  9. Clinical Manifestations and Distribution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Pakistan

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    Abaseen Khan Afghan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a rising epidemic in Pakistan. It is a major public health problem in the country especially alongside regions bordering the neighboring Afghanistan and cities that have had the maximum influx of refugees. The purpose of our paper is to highlight the diverse clinical manifestations of the disease seen along with the geographic areas affected, where the hosts are particularly susceptible. This would also be helpful in presenting the broad spectrum of the disease for training of health care workers and help in surveillance of CL in the region. The increased clinical diversity and the spectrum of phenotypic manifestations noted underscore the fact that the diagnosis of CL should be not only considered when dealing with common skin lesions, but also highly suspected by dermatologists and even primary care physicians even when encountering uncommon pathologies. Hence, we would strongly advocate that since most of these patients present to local health care centers and hospitals, primary care practitioners and even lady health workers (LHWs should be trained in identification of at least the common presentations of CL.

  10. Evolution of coauthorship networks: worldwide scientific production on leishmaniasis

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    Gregorio Gonzalez-Alcaide

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Collaboration is one of the defining features of contemporary scientific research, and it is particularly important with regard to neglected diseases that primarily affect developing countries. Methods The present study has identified publications on leishmaniasis in the Medline database from 1945 to 2010, analyzing them according to bibliometric indicators and statistics from social network analysis. Examining aspects such as scientific production, diachronic evolution, and collaboration and configuration of the research groups in the field, we have considered the different types of Leishmania studied and the institutional affiliation and nationality of the authors. Results Seven-hundred and thirty-five authors participate in 154 prominent research clusters or groups. Although the most predominant and consolidated collaborations are characterized by members from the same country studying the same type of Leishmania, there are also notable links between authors from different countries or who study different clinical strains of the disease. Brazil took the lead in this research, with numerous Brazilian researchers heading different clusters in the center of the collaboration network. Investigators from the USA, India, and European countries, such as France, Spain, the United Kingdom, and Italy, also stand out within the network. Conclusions Research should be fostered in countries such as Bangladesh, Nepal, Sudan, and Ethiopia, where there is a high prevalence of different forms of the disease but limited research development with reference authors integrated into the collaboration networks.

  11. Leishmaniasis: focus on the design of nanoparticulate vaccine delivery systems.

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    Doroud, Delaram; Rafati, Sima

    2012-01-01

    Although mass vaccination of the entire population of an endemic area would be the most cost-effective tool to diminish Leishmania burden, an effective vaccine is not yet commercially available. Practically, vaccines have failed to achieve the required level of protection, possibly owing to the lack of an appropriate adjuvant and/or delivery system. Therefore, there is still an imperative demand for an improved, safe and efficient delivery system to enhance the immunogenicity of available vaccine candidates. Nanoparticles are proficient in boosting the quality and magnitude of immune responses in a predictable fashion. Herein, we discuss how nanoparticulate vaccine delivery systems can be used to induce appropriate immune responses against leishmaniasis by controlling physicochemical properties of the vaccine. Stability, production reproducibility, low cost per dose and low risk-benefit ratios are desirable characteristics of an ideal vaccine formulation and solid lipid nanoparticles may serve as one of the most promising practical strategies to help to achieve such a leishmanial vaccine, at least in canine species in the developing world.

  12. Characteristics of bacterial sepsis among patients with visceral leishmaniasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mengistu; Endris; Yegnasew; Takele; Desalegn; Woldeyohannes; Chandrashekhar; Unakal; Feleke; Moges; Moges; Tiruneh; Ermias; Diro

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is one of the major causes and predictors of death in patients with visceral leishmaniasis(VL).Globally,incidence rate of sepsis ranged from 56-91 cases per 100000 people,with a mortality rate of 30%.Incidence of sepsis has been raised due to aging of the population and the higher incidence of immunosuppressive conditions such as HIV.VL and others.The prevalence of sepsis was reported from 4.2%to 32.3%and 14.1%in VL and VL-HIV coinfectcd patients,respectively.The mortality rate of VL patients with sepsis is greater than50%.Factors associated with sepsis in VL patients are immune suppression,pancytopenia.HIV co-infection,age 40 years old,indwelling of central venous lines and hospitalization.Although antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were not well reported,both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from patients with VL.So far.limited information is available on sepsis in VL.especially in VL-HIV coinfected patients.Therefore,further studies about sepsis prevalence,causative agents and their antibiotic patterns,and associated factors among VL and VL-HIV coinfectcd patients arc necessary.This review provides information about bacterial sepsis in patients with VL.

  13. Characteristics of bacterial sepsis among patients with visceral leishmaniasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mengistu Endris; Yegnasew Takele; Desalegn Woldeyohannes; Chandrashekhar Unakal; Feleke Moges; Moges Tiruneh; Ermias Diro

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is one of the major causes and predictors of death in patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Globally, incidence rate of sepsis ranged from 56-91 cases per 100000 people, with a mortality rate of 30%. Incidence of sepsis has been raised due to aging of the population and the higher incidence of immunosuppressive conditions such as HIV, VL and others. The prevalence of sepsis was reported from 4.2% to 32.3% and 14.1% in VL and VL-HIV coinfected patients, respectively. The mortality rate of VL patients with sepsis is greater than 50%. Factors associated with sepsis in VL patients are immune suppression, pancytopenia, HIV co-infection, age 40 years old, indwelling of central venous lines and hospitalization. Although antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were not well reported, both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from patients with VL. So far, limited information is available on sepsis in VL, especially in VL-HIV coinfected patients. Therefore, further studies about sepsis prevalence, causative agents and their antibiotic patterns, and associated factors among VL and VL-HIV coinfected patients are necessary. This review provides information about bacterial sepsis in patients with VL.

  14. Leishmaniasis and Climate Change—Case Study: Argentina

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    Oscar Daniel Salomón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vector-borne diseases closely associated with the environment, such as leishmaniases, have been a usual argument about the deleterious impact of climate change on public health. From the biological point of view interaction of different variables has different and even conflicting effects on the survival of vectors and the probability transmission of pathogens. The results on ecoepidemiology of leishmaniasis in Argentina related to climate variables at different scales of space and time are presented. These studies showed that the changes in transmission due to change or increase in frequency and intensity of climatic instability were expressed through changes in the probability of vector-human reservoir effective contacts. These changes of contact in turn are modulated by both direct effects on the biology and ecology of the organisms involved, as by perceptions and changes in the behavior of the human communities at risk. Therefore, from the perspective of public health and state policy, and taking into account the current nonlinear increased velocity of climate change, we concluded that discussing the uncertainties of large-scale models will have lower impact than to develop-validate mitigation strategies to be operative at local level, and compatibles with sustainable development, conservation biodiversity, and respect for cultural diversity.

  15. Advances in Development of New Treatment for Leishmaniasis

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    Guedes, Carlos Eduardo Sampaio; Petersen, Antônio Luis de Oliveira Almeida; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected infectious disease caused by several different species of protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Current strategies to control this disease are mainly based on chemotherapy. Despite being available for the last 70 years, leishmanial chemotherapy has lack of efficiency, since its route of administration is difficult and it can cause serious side effects, which results in the emergence of resistant cases. The medical-scientific community is facing difficulties to overcome these problems with new suitable and efficient drugs, as well as the identification of new drug targets. The availability of the complete genome sequence of Leishmania has given the scientific community the possibility of large-scale analysis, which may lead to better understanding of parasite biology and consequent identification of novel drug targets. In this review we focus on how high-throughput analysis is helping us and other groups to identify novel targets for chemotherapeutic interventions. We further discuss recent data produced by our group regarding the use of the high-throughput techniques and how this helped us to identify and assess the potential of new identified targets. PMID:26078965

  16. Recent Advances in Nanosystems and Strategies for Managing Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghela, Rudra; Kulkarni, Parthasarathi K; Osmani, Riyaz Ali M; Bhosale, Rohit R; Naga Sravan Kumar Varma, V

    2016-04-01

    Parasitic infection such as Leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease, presents a significant global burden which is responsible for high mortality rate especially in less developed countries. Its intracellular nature and disseminated locations of parasite, limited number of chemotherapeutic agents, increasing incidences of resistance to first line drugs and toxicities, poses a great challenge to formulation scientists that have necessitated effective management of leishmanial infection by modulating the delivery of existing drugs. Over the past decade, research on development of alternative treatments such as nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems (nanoparticles, nanosuspensions, liposomes etc.), use of natural products as well as development of antileishmanial vaccine have been extensively investigated. The present review focuses on different facets of therapeutic strategies, existing miscellaneous drug delivery systems and approaches intended for management, as well as treatment of the infection, with an aim to summarize the current trends and strategies adopted for antileishmanial therapy in a systematic manner. Moreover, the article encloses an eclectic collection of patents allied to new-fangled chemotherapeutics for antileishmanial therapy.

  17. Forecasting temporal dynamics of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Northeast Brazil.

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    Joseph A Lewnard

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a vector-borne disease of increasing importance in northeastern Brazil. It is known that sandflies, which spread the causative parasites, have weather-dependent population dynamics. Routinely-gathered weather data may be useful for anticipating disease risk and planning interventions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We fit time series models using meteorological covariates to predict CL cases in a rural region of Bahía, Brazil from 1994 to 2004. We used the models to forecast CL cases for the period 2005 to 2008. Models accounting for meteorological predictors reduced mean squared error in one, two, and three month-ahead forecasts by up to 16% relative to forecasts from a null model accounting only for temporal autocorrelation. SIGNIFICANCE: These outcomes suggest CL risk in northeastern Brazil might be partially dependent on weather. Responses to forecasted CL epidemics may include bolstering clinical capacity and disease surveillance in at-risk areas. Ecological mechanisms by which weather influences CL risk merit future research attention as public health intervention targets.

  18. INFLUENCE OF MICROBIOTA IN EXPERIMENTAL CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN SWISS MICE

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    OLIVEIRA Marcia Rosa de

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of Swiss/NIH mice with Leishmania major was compared with infection in isogenic resistant C57BL/6 and susceptible BALB/c mice. Swiss/NIH mice showed self-controlled lesions in the injected foot pad. The production of high levels of interferon-g (IFN-g and low levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4 by cells from these animals suggests that they mount a Th1-type immune response. The importance of the indigenous microbiota on the development of murine leishmaniasis was investigated by infecting germfree Swiss/NIH in the hind footpad with L. major and conventionalizing after 3 weeks of infection. Lesions from conventionalized Swiss/NIH mice were significantly larger than conventional mice. Histopathological analysis of lesions from conventionalized animals showed abscesses of variable shapes and sizes and high numbers of parasitized macrophages. In the lesions from conventional mice, besides the absence of abscess formation, parasites were rarely observed. On the other hand, cells from conventional and conventionalized mice produced similar Th1-type response characterized by high levels of IFN-g and low levels of IL-4. In this study, we demonstrated that Swiss/NIH mice are resistant to L. major infection and that the absence of the normal microbiota at the beginning of infection significantly influenced the lesion size and the inflammatory response at the site of infection.

  19. Immunotherapy and immunochemotherapy in visceral leishmaniasis: promising treatments for this neglected disease

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    Bruno Mendes Roatt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis has several clinical forms: self-healing or chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis or post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis; mucosal leishmaniasis; and visceral leishmaniasis, which is fatal if left untreated. The epidemiology and clinical features of VL vary greatly due to the interaction of multiple factors including parasite strains, vectors, host genetics, and the environment. HIV infection, augments the severity of VL increasing the risk of developing active disease by 100 to 2320 times. An effective vaccine for humans is not yet available. Resistance to chemotherapy is a growing problem in many regions, and the costs associated with drug identification and development, make commercial production for leishmaniasis, unattractive. The toxicity of currently drugs, their long treatment course, and limited efficacy are significant concerns. For cutaneous disease, many studies have shown promising results with immunotherapy/immunochemotherapy, aimed to modulate and activate the immune response to obtain a therapeutic cure. Nowadays, the focus of many groups centers on treating canine VL by using vaccines and immunomodulators with or without chemotherapy. In human disease, the use of cytokines like Interferon-γ associated with pentavalent antimonials demonstrated promising results in patients that did not respond to conventional treatment. In mice, immunomodulation based on monoclonal antibodies to remove endogenous immunosuppressive cytokines (interleukin-10 or block their receptors, antigen-pulsed syngeneic dendritic cells, or biological products like Pam3Cys (TLR ligand has already been shown as a prospective treatment of the disease. This review addresses VL treatment, particularly immunotherapy and/or immunochemotherapy as an alternative to conventional drug treatment in experimental models, canine VL, and human disease.

  20. Immunotherapy and Immunochemotherapy in Visceral Leishmaniasis: Promising Treatments for this Neglected Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Coura-Vital, Wendel; Ker, Henrique Gama; Moreira, Nádia das Dores; Vitoriano-Souza, Juliana; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis has several clinical forms: self-healing or chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis or post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis; mucosal leishmaniasis; visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which is fatal if left untreated. The epidemiology and clinical features of VL vary greatly due to the interaction of multiple factors including parasite strains, vectors, host genetics, and the environment. Human immunodeficiency virus infection augments the severity of VL increasing the risk of developing active disease by 100–2320 times. An effective vaccine for humans is not yet available. Resistance to chemotherapy is a growing problem in many regions, and the costs associated with drug identification and development, make commercial production for leishmaniasis, unattractive. The toxicity of currently drugs, their long treatment course, and limited efficacy are significant concerns. For cutaneous disease, many studies have shown promising results with immunotherapy/immunochemotherapy, aimed to modulate and activate the immune response to obtain a therapeutic cure. Nowadays, the focus of many groups centers on treating canine VL by using vaccines and immunomodulators with or without chemotherapy. In human disease, the use of cytokines like interferon-γ associated with pentavalent antimonials demonstrated promising results in patients that did not respond to conventional treatment. In mice, immunomodulation based on monoclonal antibodies to remove endogenous immunosuppressive cytokines (interleukin-10) or block their receptors, antigen-pulsed syngeneic dendritic cells, or biological products like Pam3Cys (TLR ligand) has already been shown as a prospective treatment of the disease. This review addresses VL treatment, particularly immunotherapy and/or immunochemotherapy as an alternative to conventional drug treatment in experimental models, canine VL, and human disease. PMID:24982655

  1. Vectores recombinantes basados en el virus Vaccinia modificado de Ankara (MVA) como vacunas contra la leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Jiménez, Eva; Larraga, Vicente; Esteban, Mariano

    2005-01-01

    Vectores recombinantes basados en el virus vaccinia modificado de Ankara (MVA) como vacunas contra la leishmaniasis. Los vectores de la invención contienen secuencias codificantes de la proteína LACK, preferentemente insertadas en el locus de hemaglutinina del virus y bajo el control de un promotor que permite su expresión a lo largo del ciclo de infección del virus. Son vectores seguros, estables, que dan lugar a una potente respuesta inmune que confiere protección frente a la leishmaniasis,...

  2. Splenectomy in a patient with treatment-resistant visceral leishmaniasis: a case report

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    Robson Azevedo Dutra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, also known as Kala-azar, is a systemic infection caused by a protozoan (Leishmania and, in its classic form, is a serious illness associated with malnutrition, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, infectious processes and coagulopathies. The effect of splenectomy in patients with visceral leishmaniasis is not well defined; however, it is known that the spleen is the largest reservoir of infected cells belonging to the reticulo endothelial system. Therefore, the surgical procedure is an option for the debulking of parasites, providing a cure for refractory VL and minimizing the complications of hypersplenism.

  3. Identification of Leishmania tropica from micro-foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Kenyan Rift Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odiwuor, Samwel; Muia, Alfred; Magiri, Charles; Maes, Ilse; Kirigi, George; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Wasunna, Monique; Mbuchi, Margaret; Auwera, Gert Van der

    2012-07-01

    We performed diagnosis and species identification of parasites in lesion samples from suspected cutaneous leishmaniasis patients in four villages, three of which are in a known Leishmania tropica endemic region in Kenya. Samples were analyzed both by microscopy and PCR for Leishmania, and typed by an assay using four ribosomal DNA-based species-identification PCRs. The lesions were demonstrated to be caused by L. tropica, which confirms the re-emergence of cutaneous leishmaniasis from this species after a period of reduced incidence in the endemic zone. Our report highlights the importance of an intervention and sustained Leishmania control program.

  4. The Contribution of Immune Evasive Mechanisms to Parasite Persistence in Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Elisangela Oliveira; Leoratti, Fabiana Maria de Souza; Freire-de-Lima, Célio Geraldo; Morrot, Alexandre; Feijó, Daniel Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania is a genus of protozoan parasites that give rise to a range of diseases called Leishmaniasis that affects annually an estimated 1.3 million people from 88 countries. Leishmania donovani and Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi are responsible to cause the visceral leishmaniasis. The parasite can use assorted strategies to interfere with the host homeostasis to establish persistent infections that without treatment can be lethal. In this review, we highlight the mechanisms involved in the parasite subversion of the host protective immune response and how alterations of host tissue physiology and vascular remodeling during VL could affect the organ-specific immunity against Leishmania parasites. PMID:27148272

  5. Linfocitos T citotóxicos CD8+ en la leishmaniasis cutánea CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes in cutaneous leishmaniasis

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    Joselín Hernández-Ruiz

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Examinar la bibliografía relacionada con la participación de los linfocitos T CD8+ en la reacción inmunitaria a especies de Leishmania causantes de leishmaniasis cutánea. En esta enfermedad se ha resaltado la intervención de macrófagos, células dendríticas, NK y células T CD4+; sin embargo, es poco lo que se conoce de las células T CD8+. Los trabajos en modelos murinos señalan que la participación de las células CD8+ sucede a través de la producción de IFN-gamma, aunque su capacidad citotóxica puede desempeñar una función importante, como lo demuestran los hallazgos en seres humanos. La forma como se activan las células citotóxicas CD8+ es un enigma. Es posible que las células dendríticas realicen esa labor a través de mecanismos que incluyen transpresentación de antígenos. Comprender la contribución de este subtipo celular en la respuesta inmunitaria a Leishmania aportará novedosos conocimientos sobre la fisiopatogenia de la leishmaniasis, lo cual hará posible desarrollar nuevos enfoques terapéuticos para esta parasitosis.OBJECTIVE: Review of the literature on the role of CD8+ T cell in the immune response against Leishmania species that cause cutaneous leishmaniasis. The role of macrophages, dendritic cells, CD4 T cells and NK cells has been extensively analyzed in leishmaniasis, yet very little knowledge has been gained on CD8+ T cells in this disease. Murine models of leishmaniasis suggest that CD8+ T cells participate through IFNg production, yet their cytotoxic capacity may also play a crucial role, as has been found in human disease. It is an enigma what mechanisms underlie the CD8+ T cell activation. It is possible that dendritic cells activate CD8+ T cells through mechanisms that include antigen traspresentation. A better understanding of CD8+ T cells in the immune response against Leishmania will undoubtedly provide new insights into the physiopathogenesis of the disease that could lead to new

  6. Thermoterapy effective and safer than miltefosine in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia Termoterapia efectiva y más segura que la miltefosina en el tratamiento de la leishmaniasis cutánea en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana López

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, pentavalent antimonials and miltefosine are the drugs of choice for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis; however, their toxicity, treatment duration, (treatment adherence problems, cost, and decreased parasite sensitivity make the search for alternative treatments of American cutaneous leishmaniasis necessary. Based on the results found in a controlled, open, randomized, phase III clinical trial, the efficacy and safety of miltefosine was compared to that of thermotherapy for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia. Adult patients from the Colombian army participated in the study; they received either 50 mg of miltefosine three times per day for 28 days by the oral route (n = 145 or a thermotherapy (Thermomed® application of 50 °C for 30 seconds over the lesion and surrounding area (n = 149. Both groups were comparable with respect to their sociodemographic, clinical, and parasitological characteristics. The efficacy of miltefosine by protocol and by intention to treat was 70% (85/122 patients and 69% (85/145 patients, respectively. The adverse effects were primarily gastrointestinal for miltefosine and pain at the lesion site after treatment for thermotherapy. No statistically significant difference was found in the efficacy analysis (intention to treat and protocol between the two treatments. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00471705.En Colombia antimoniales pentavalentes y miltefosina son los medicamentos de primera elección para el tratamiento de la leishmaniosis cutánea; sin embargo, su toxicidad, duración (que lleva a problemas de adherencia, costo y la disminución de la sensibilidad de los parásitos a los mismos, hacen necesaria la búsqueda de nuevas alternativas de tratamiento para la leishmaniosis cutánea americana. A partir de resultados derivados de un ensayo clínico controlado abierto, aleatorizado, fase III, se comparó la eficacia y seguridad de la miltefosina con la de la termoterapia, para el

  7. American ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and inflammation of the lining of the stomach (gastritis). American ginseng is also used for low iron ... Dizziness. Pregnancy and childbirth complications. Stress. Anemia. Insomnia. Gastritis. Impotence. Fever. Hangover symptoms. Headaches. Swine flu. Aging. ...

  8. Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis em cães naturalmente infectados Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis in naturally infected dogs

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    Maria de Fátima Madeira

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados oito cães provenientes do Município de Maricá (RJ, com lesões sugestivas de leishmaniose tegumentar americana por métodos parasitológicos e sorológicos. Leishmania spp foi encontrada em seis cães através do cultivo in vitro. Anticorpos específicos foram detectados em seis animais pelo ELISA e em dois pela imunofluorescência indireta. Cinco isolados caninos analisados apresentaram zimodema similar a Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis. Sugere-se que cães clinicamente suspeitos sejam acompanhados periodicamente, na tentativa de confirmar o diagnóstico da leishmaniose tegumentar canina.Eight dogs from Maricá Municipality (RJ, with suggestive lesion of american tegumentary leishmaniasis were studied by parasitological and serological methods. Leishmania spp was found in six dogs by in vitro cultivation. Specific antibodies were detected in six dogs by ELISA and in two by indirect immunofluorescence. Five canine isolates were found to belong to the same zymodeme as Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis. The authors suggest that clinically suspect dogs should be followed-up in an attempt to confirm the diagnostic of canine tegumentary leishmaniasis.

  9. American palm ethnomedicine: A meta-analysis

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    Balslev Henrik

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many recent papers have documented the phytochemical and pharmacological bases for the use of palms (Arecaceae in ethnomedicine. Early publications were based almost entirely on interviews that solicited local knowledge. More recently, ethnobotanically guided searches for new medicinal plants have proven more successful than random sampling for identifying plants that contain biodynamic ingredients. However, limited laboratory time and the high cost of clinical trials make it difficult to test all potential medicinal plants in the search for new drug candidates. The purpose of this study was to summarize and analyze previous studies on the medicinal uses of American palms in order to narrow down the search for new palm-derived medicines. Methods Relevant literature was surveyed and data was extracted and organized into medicinal use categories. We focused on more recent literature than that considered in a review published 25 years ago. We included phytochemical and pharmacological research that explored the importance of American palms in ethnomedicine. Results Of 730 species of American palms, we found evidence that 106 species had known medicinal uses, ranging from treatments for diabetes and leishmaniasis to prostatic hyperplasia. Thus, the number of American palm species with known uses had increased from 48 to 106 over the last quarter of a century. Furthermore, the pharmacological bases for many of the effects are now understood. Conclusions Palms are important in American ethnomedicine. Some, like Serenoa repens and Roystonea regia, are the sources of drugs that have been approved for medicinal uses. In contrast, recent ethnopharmacological studies suggested that many of the reported uses of several other palms do not appear to have a strong physiological basis. This study has provided a useful assessment of the ethnobotanical and pharmacological data available on palms.

  10. Synthetic sex pheromone attracts the leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis to experimental chicken sheds treated with insecticide

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    Brazil Reginaldo P

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current strategies for controlling American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL have been unable to prevent the spread of the disease across Brazil. With no effective vaccine and culling of infected dogs an unpopular and unsuccessful alternative, new tools are urgently needed to manage populations of the sand fly vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz and Neiva (Diptera: Psychodidae. Here, we test two potential strategies for improving L. longipalpis control using the synthetic sand fly pheromone (±-9-methylgermacrene-B: the first in conjunction with spraying of animal houses with insecticide, the second using coloured sticky traps. Results Addition of synthetic pheromone resulted in greater numbers of male and female sand flies being caught and killed at experimental chicken sheds sprayed with insecticide, compared to pheromone-less controls. Furthermore, a ten-fold increase in the amount of sex pheromone released from test sheds increased the number of females attracted and subsequently killed. Treating sheds with insecticide alone resulted in a significant decrease in numbers of males attracted to sheds (compared to pre-spraying levels, and a near significant decrease in numbers of females. However, this effect was reversed through addition of synthetic pheromone at the time of insecticide spraying, leading to an increase in number of flies attracted post-treatment. In field trials of commercially available different coloured sticky traps, yellow traps caught more males than blue traps when placed in chicken sheds. In addition, yellow traps fitted with 10 pheromone lures caught significantly more males than pheromone-less controls. However, while female sand flies showed a preference for both blue and yellow pheromone traps sticky traps over white traps in the laboratory, neither colour caught significant numbers of females in chicken sheds, either with or without pheromone. Conclusions We conclude that synthetic pheromone could

  11. Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: clinical, parasitological, therapeutical and epidemiological findings (1977-1983

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    Mauro C. A. Marzochi

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available Forty dogs from the periphery of the city of Rio de Janeiro were studied. All dogs where diagnosed as positive for leishmaniasis either parasitologically and/or serologically. Among them, 19 came from areas where only Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL occurs (Realengo, Bangu, Senador Camará. Clinical signs of the disease were seen in 36.8% of the cases, including emaciation - 100%, lymphadenopathy and depilation - 85.7%. The other 21 dogs came from an area (Campo Grande where both diseases (VL, and American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis - ACL occur. Clinical signs of the disease, mainly cutaneous or mucocutaneous ulcers were seen in 76.2% of the cases. Leishmania parasites were found in 39 cases: 22% in viscera, 42.5% in viscera and normal skin and 35% in cutaneous or mucocutaneous ulcers. All the Leishmania stocks isolated from dogs which came from Realengo, Bangu, Senador Camará (VL area, and from Campo Grande (VL + ACL area were characterized as L. donovani (except in one case according to their schizodeme, zymodeme and serodeme. The only stock characterized as L. b. braziliensis, was isolated from the lymph node of a dog from Campo Grande with visceral disease and without skin lesions. Antimony therapy attempted in eight Leishmania donovani positive dogs was unsuccessful.Durante inquéritos caninos realizados na periferia da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, foram estudados clínica e laboratorialmente 40 cães. Todos apresentavam diagnóstico parasitológico e/ou sorológico de leishmaniose. Dentre esses, 19 procediam de áreas de ocorrência de leishmaniose visceral (LV - Realengo, Bangu e Senador Camará. Sinais clínicos sugestivos da infecção foram observados em 36,8% deles (incluindo emagrecimento - 100%, linfadenopatia e depilação - 85,7%. Outros 21 cães procediam da área de Campo Grande onde tanto a LV como a leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA ocorrem. Sinais clínicos da infecção por Leishmania, principalmente ulcerações cutâneas e

  12. [Visceral leishmaniasis as a threat for non-endemic countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górski, Stanisław; Wiercińska-Drapało, Alicja

    2009-01-01

    Global warming, globalisation, and constantly increasing number of people involved in long-distance tourism and travel to exotic destinations are likely to increase the number of cases of exotic diseases "imported" to nonendemic countries. One of the often forgotten and neglected diseases has been visceral leishmaniasis (VL or kala-azar). The disease is endemic to 62 countries, with India and Sudan accounting for the majority of the cases. It is typically fatal if left untreated. Each year about 500 000 new cases are reported worldwide, and 50 000 die as a result of the disease. Kala-azar is present in the Mediterranean Europe and 70% of cases are imported to non-endemic countries of European Union from that area. Immunocompromised status of patients, like HIV carriers are the principal prospective target for kala-azar. HIV/VL-coinfected patients have significantly higher relapse rates and decreased life expectancy. There is no formal system of reporting imported cases in Europe, except from Germany. In non-endemic countries, including Poland, there is usually the substantial delay between the onset of symptoms and the final diagnosis, with an average exceeding 3 months. This fact suggests that physicians are not familiar with leishmania infections. Despite progress in vaccine development, the only way to prevent the infection is avoiding sandfly bites. Mosquito nets, wearing appropriate clothes and repellents containing DEET (diethyl toluamide) can reduce number of bites and protect also from the other vector-borne diseases like malaria or dengue. Education concerning kala-azar risk and ways of the disease prevention is a needed for tourists and the other travelers.

  13. Combined Immune Therapy for the Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis.

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    Rebecca J Faleiro

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic disease caused by infections, cancer or autoimmunity can result in profound immune suppression. Immunoregulatory networks are established to prevent tissue damage caused by inflammation. Although these immune checkpoints preserve tissue function, they allow pathogens and tumors to persist, and even expand. Immune checkpoint blockade has recently been successfully employed to treat cancer. This strategy modulates immunoregulatory mechanisms to allow host immune cells to kill or control tumors. However, the utility of this approach for controlling established infections has not been extensively investigated. Here, we examined the potential of modulating glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor-related protein (GITR on T cells to improve anti-parasitic immunity in blood and spleen tissue from visceral leishmaniasis (VL patients infected with Leishmania donovani. We found little effect on parasite growth or parasite-specific IFNγ production. However, this treatment reversed the improved anti-parasitic immunity achieved by IL-10 signaling blockade. Further investigations using an experimental VL model caused by infection of C57BL/6 mice with L. donovani revealed that this negative effect was prominent in the liver, dependent on parasite burden and associated with an accumulation of Th1 cells expressing high levels of KLRG-1. Nevertheless, combined anti-IL-10 and anti-GITR mAb treatment could improve anti-parasitic immunity when used with sub-optimal doses of anti-parasitic drug. However, additional studies with VL patient samples indicated that targeting GITR had no overall benefit over IL-10 signaling blockade alone at improving anti-parasitic immune responses, even with drug treatment cover. These findings identify several important factors that influence the effectiveness of immune modulation, including parasite burden, target tissue and the use of anti-parasitic drug. Critically, these results also highlight potential negative effects of

  14. Treatment of leishmaniasis in HIV-positive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna, F

    2003-10-01

    Although, in southern Europe, there has been considerable experience in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in HIV-positive patients, the optimal therapy has yet to be established. Pentavalent antimony salts, free amphotericin B deoxycholate (ABD) and lipidic formulations of amphotericin B are the drugs most commonly used. Treatment with pentavalent antimonials requires daily injections for 28 days, is not well tolerated and leads to initial clinical cure in only 66% of the co-infected cases. Free ABD has to be given, intravenously, for just as long, has significant toxicity and leads to initial clinical cure in even fewer cases (62%). In a prospective, comparative trial, treatment of co-infected cases with a pentavalent antimonial was found to have similar efficacy and toxicity to treatment with free ABD. The duration of treatment and the associated toxicity may both be reduced by the use of lipidic formulations of amphotericin B. Anecdotal evidence and the results of non-randomized trials indicate that treatment with liposomal amphotericin B is highly effective. In a comparative trial, amphotericin B lipid complex was found to be not only as effective as a pentavalent antimonial but also better tolerated. At the moment, however, such lipidic formulations have only been tested against VL/HIV cases in Europe, not elsewhere in the world, and they remain very expensive. However successful the treatment in terms of initial clinical cure, almost all VL/HIV cases develop VL relapses. Although the data available on secondary prophylaxis are limited and often inconclusive, it appears that regular treatment with a pentavalent antimonial drug, liposomal amphothericin B or amphotericin B lipid complex can reduce the incidence of leishmanial relapses in HIV-positive patients with VL. The development of new regimens, use of new oral drugs (such as miltefosine) and the development of new antileishmanial drugs could all improve the treatment of HIV-related VL in the

  15. Compartmentalized Immune Response in Leishmaniasis: Changing Patterns throughout the Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Eugenia; Martorell, Susanna; Todolí, Felicitat; Martínez-Flórez, Alba; Urniza, Alicia; Moreno, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is characterized by loss of T-cell responsiveness and absence of Leishmania-specific IFN-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. However, the expressions of IFN-γ and TNF-α are up-regulated in the tissues and plasma of VL patients. There is a paucity of information regarding the cytokine profile expressed by different target tissues in the same individual and the changes it undergoes throughout the course of infection. In this work we evaluated IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, and TGF-β mRNA expression using real-time RT-PCR in 5 target tissues at 6 months and 16 months post-infection (PI) in a canine experimental model which mimics many aspects of human VL. The spleen and liver of Leishmania infantum experimentally-infected dogs elicited a pro- and anti- inflammatory response and high parasite density at 6 and 16 months PI. The popliteal lymph node, however, showed an up-regulation of IFN-γ cytokin at commencement of the study and was at the chronic phase when the IL-10 and TGF-β expression appeared. In spite of skin parasite invasion, local cytokine response was absent at 6 months PI. Parasite growth and onset of clinical disease both correlated with dermal up-regulation of all the studied cytokines. Our VL model suggests that central target organs, such as the spleen and liver, present a mixed cytokine immune response early on infection. In contrast, an anti-inflammatory/regulatory immune response in peripheral tissues is activated in the later chronic-patent stages of the disease. PMID:27171409

  16. Visceral leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent: modelling epidemiology and control.

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    Anette Stauch

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the Indian subcontinent, about 200 million people are at risk of developing visceral leishmaniasis (VL. In 2005, the governments of India, Nepal and Bangladesh started the first regional VL elimination program with the aim to reduce the annual incidence to less than 1 per 10,000 by 2015. A mathematical model was developed to support this elimination program with basic quantifications of transmission, disease and intervention parameters. This model was used to predict the effects of different intervention strategies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Parameters on the natural history of Leishmania infection were estimated based on a literature review and expert opinion or drawn from a community intervention trial (the KALANET project. The transmission dynamic of Leishmania donovani is rather slow, mainly due to its long incubation period and the potentially long persistence of parasites in infected humans. Cellular immunity as measured by the Leishmanin skin test (LST lasts on average for roughly one year, and re-infection occurs in intervals of about two years, with variation not specified. The model suggests that transmission of L. donovani is predominantly maintained by asymptomatically infected hosts. Only patients with symptomatic disease were eligible for treatment; thus, in contrast to vector control, the treatment of cases had almost no effect on the overall intensity of transmission. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of Kala-azar is necessary on the level of the individual patient but may have little effect on transmission of parasites. In contrast, vector control or exposure prophylaxis has the potential to efficiently reduce transmission of parasites. Based on these findings, control of VL should pay more attention to vector-related interventions. Cases of PKDL may appear after years and may initiate a new outbreak of disease; interventions should therefore be long enough, combined with an active case detection and include effective treatment.

  17. Compartmentalized Immune Response in Leishmaniasis: Changing Patterns throughout the Disease.

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    Alhelí Rodríguez-Cortés

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is characterized by loss of T-cell responsiveness and absence of Leishmania-specific IFN-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. However, the expressions of IFN-γ and TNF-α are up-regulated in the tissues and plasma of VL patients. There is a paucity of information regarding the cytokine profile expressed by different target tissues in the same individual and the changes it undergoes throughout the course of infection. In this work we evaluated IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, and TGF-β mRNA expression using real-time RT-PCR in 5 target tissues at 6 months and 16 months post-infection (PI in a canine experimental model which mimics many aspects of human VL. The spleen and liver of Leishmania infantum experimentally-infected dogs elicited a pro- and anti- inflammatory response and high parasite density at 6 and 16 months PI. The popliteal lymph node, however, showed an up-regulation of IFN-γ cytokin at commencement of the study and was at the chronic phase when the IL-10 and TGF-β expression appeared. In spite of skin parasite invasion, local cytokine response was absent at 6 months PI. Parasite growth and onset of clinical disease both correlated with dermal up-regulation of all the studied cytokines. Our VL model suggests that central target organs, such as the spleen and liver, present a mixed cytokine immune response early on infection. In contrast, an anti-inflammatory/regulatory immune response in peripheral tissues is activated in the later chronic-patent stages of the disease.

  18. Combined Immune Therapy for the Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Patrick T.; Singh, Neetu; Chauhan, Shashi Bhushan; Sheel, Meru; Amante, Fiona H.; Montes de Oca, Marcela; Edwards, Chelsea L.; Ng, Susanna S.; Best, Shannon E.; Haque, Ashraful; Beattie, Lynette; Hafner, Louise M.; Sacks, David; Nylen, Susanne; Sundar, Shyam; Engwerda, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic disease caused by infections, cancer or autoimmunity can result in profound immune suppression. Immunoregulatory networks are established to prevent tissue damage caused by inflammation. Although these immune checkpoints preserve tissue function, they allow pathogens and tumors to persist, and even expand. Immune checkpoint blockade has recently been successfully employed to treat cancer. This strategy modulates immunoregulatory mechanisms to allow host immune cells to kill or control tumors. However, the utility of this approach for controlling established infections has not been extensively investigated. Here, we examined the potential of modulating glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor-related protein (GITR) on T cells to improve anti-parasitic immunity in blood and spleen tissue from visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients infected with Leishmania donovani. We found little effect on parasite growth or parasite-specific IFNγ production. However, this treatment reversed the improved anti-parasitic immunity achieved by IL-10 signaling blockade. Further investigations using an experimental VL model caused by infection of C57BL/6 mice with L. donovani revealed that this negative effect was prominent in the liver, dependent on parasite burden and associated with an accumulation of Th1 cells expressing high levels of KLRG-1. Nevertheless, combined anti-IL-10 and anti-GITR mAb treatment could improve anti-parasitic immunity when used with sub-optimal doses of anti-parasitic drug. However, additional studies with VL patient samples indicated that targeting GITR had no overall benefit over IL-10 signaling blockade alone at improving anti-parasitic immune responses, even with drug treatment cover. These findings identify several important factors that influence the effectiveness of immune modulation, including parasite burden, target tissue and the use of anti-parasitic drug. Critically, these results also highlight potential negative effects of combining different

  19. Distribución de vectores de leishmaniasis visceral en la Provincia de Corrientes, 2008 Distribution of vectors of visceral leishmaniasis in the Province of Corrientes, 2008

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    Oscar Daniel Salomón

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La leishmaniasis visceral es una parasitosis de importancia en salud pública, producida por Leishmania infantum chagasi. A partir de la urbanización y emergencia en el sur de Brasil y Paraguay, se notificó la presencia del insecto vector Lutzomyia longipalpis en la Argentina; en Formosa, 2004, y en Misiones el primer caso humano en 2006. La notificación de casos de reservorios caninos infectados en la provincia de Corrientes, contigua a Misiones, determinó la búsqueda del vector. Mediante trampeos estandarizados en diciembre del 2008 se capturaron 376 Lu. longipalpis en Ituzaingó, Virasoro, Santo Tomé, Garruchos, Riachuelo, Corrientes y Monte Caseros. Se confirma el riesgo de transmisión vectorial autóctona de leishmaniasis visceral en la provincia de Corrientes. La distribución de vectores en áreas urbanas densamente pobladas, con intenso tránsito de reservorios caninos desde zonas de alta transmisión, y la presencia de reservorios infectados, implica a su vez riesgo epidémico.Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a relevant parasitic disease in public health, produced by Leishmania infantum chagasi. Since the urbanization and emergence in Southern Brazil and Paraguay, the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis in Formosa, 2004, and the first human visceral leishmaniasis case in Misiones, 2006, have been reported in Argentina. Due to the reports of canine VL, a search of the vector in the Province of Corrientes, contiguous to Misiones, was performed during December 2008. Standarized trapping detected 376 Lu. longipalpis in Ituzaingó, Virasoro, Santo Tomé, Garruchos, Riachuelo, Corrientes and Monte Caseros localities. The risk of autochtonous vectorial transmission was then confirmed in the Province of Corrientes. The distribution of vectors in populated urban areas, with intense transit of canine reservoirs from localities with high transmission, and the existence of infected reservoirs, also implies epidemic risk.

  20. American Dream in Early American Literatuer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈彩娥; 李小玺

    2008-01-01

    American dream has often been closely rehted to American literature.Many say that the American literary history can be seen as the history of American dreams.In most periods in history,writers,whose dreams have been infused in a variety of characters create the American literature.While in Early American literature,American dream had been presented in a dif-ferent way.

  1. Leishmaniasis. un caso de difícil diagnóstico

    OpenAIRE

    Londoño González, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    La leishmaniasis americana es una entidad que se presenta con suma frecuencia en nuestro medio hospitalario. El diagnóstico clínico, en las formas típicas, es relativamente sencillo y el tratamiento antimonial sirve como corroboración de aquel.

  2. Visceral leishmaniasis in border areas: clustered distribution of phlebotomine sand flies in Clorinda, Argentina

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    Oscar D Salomón

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Three years after the first report of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Clorinda, Argentina, a border city near Asunción, Paraguay, the city was surveyed again. Lu. longipalpis was found clustered in the same neighbourhoods in 2007 as in 2004, even though the scattered distribution of canine visceral leishmaniasis was more related to the traffic of dogs through the border.

  3. Visceral leishmaniasis in border areas: clustered distribution of phlebotomine sand flies in Clorinda, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomón, Oscar D; Quintana, María G; Bruno, Mario R; Quiriconi, Ricardo V; Cabral, Viviana

    2009-08-01

    Three years after the first report of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Clorinda, Argentina, a border city near Asunción, Paraguay, the city was surveyed again. Lu. longipalpis was found clustered in the same neighbourhoods in 2007 as in 2004, even though the scattered distribution of canine visceral leishmaniasis was more related to the traffic of dogs through the border.

  4. Leishmania infection in a population of dogs: an epidemiological investigation relating to visceral leishmaniasis control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klauber Menezes Penaforte

    Full Text Available Identification of factors associated with Leishmaniainfection in dogs is essential for targeting visceral leishmaniasis control actions. Thus, the present study analyzed some of these factors in a population of dogs in a Brazilian municipality, along with the limitations of control strategies implemented there. The association between the exposure variables and occurrences of infection was analyzed through logistic regression models. The disease control interventions were treated qualitatively. Out of the 755 animals examined, 13.6% (103/755 were seropositive. Of these, 23.3% (24/103 were asymptomatic and 76.7% (79/103 presented at least one clinical sign possibly associated with visceral leishmaniasis. With weak associations, purebred, shorthaired, over 5 years of age, male and large dogs were more prone to infection. The latter two variables formed the final regression model and the association with dog size was statistically significant. The control strategies developed presented limitations and a great number of seronegative dogs was culled. The data presented contribute towards better understanding of the dynamics of infection in canine visceral leishmaniasis and indicate that actions aimed towards adequate implementation of Visceral Leishmaniasis control program in Brazilian endemic areas should be prioritized.

  5. The value of the otorhinolaryngologic exam in correct mucocutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaventura, Viviane S; de Oliveira, Jene G S; Costa, Jackson M L; Novais, Fernanda O; de Oliveira, Camila I; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Barral, Aldina

    2009-09-01

    An increase in mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (ML) cases in northern (Brazil) motivated this study. In 44 ML patients with clinical diagnosis, only 13 parasitologically confirmed cases exhibited mucosal lesion suggestive of ML. Other conditions involving nasal manifestations are frequently confounded with ML. Therefore, otorhinolaryngologic examination is important in the clinical management of ML.

  6. Intralesional autotherapy of cutaneous leishmaniasis with buffy coat cells: cytological findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabiri, S; Meymandi, S S; Hayes, M M

    2000-01-01

    The skin lesions of five patient volunteers with dry-type cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated by intralesional injection of auto-leukocytes prepared from buffy coat of the patient's own blood. Giemsa stained, air-dried cytological smear preparations were prepared from scrapings taken from...

  7. Oral miltefosine treatment in children with visceral leishmaniasis: a brief review

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    Emilio Palumbo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL or kala-azar is an infection disease caused by hemiflagellate protozoan parasites (Leishmania donovani and transmitted to humans by the phlebotomine sandfly. Leishmaniasis is distributed worldwide and 13 million people are estimated to be infected, with about 1.8 million new cases each year. All antileishmanial drugs are toxic and most have to be used parenterally for prolonged period. The therapy has been further complicated by large number of infected children and declining effectiveness of pentavalent antimonial compounds. Although the lipid formulations of amphotericin B are an important advance in therapy, their high cost precludes their use. Miltefosine, a phosphocholine analogue originally developed as antimalignant drug, has been found to be highly active against Leishmania in vitro and in animal model. Based on these experiences this drug was tried against human visceral leishmaniasis and found to be highly effective in children. The aim of this review is to evidence the pharmacodymamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics and the safety, tolerance and efficacy of this drug for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in children.

  8. CAPA-gene products in the haematophagous sandfly Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) - Vector for leishmaniasis disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandflies (Phlebotominae, Nematocera, Diptera) are responsible for transmission of leishmaniasis and other protozoan-borne diseases in humans, and these insects depend on the regulation of water balance to cope with the sudden and enormous intake of blood over a very short time period. The sandfly ...

  9. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania tropica) in a German tourist after travel to Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berens-Riha, Nicole; Fleischmann, Erna; Pratlong, Francine; Bretzel, Gisela; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Löscher, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We report on a German tourist returning from vacations in Southern Greece with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) presenting as multiple erythematosquamous lesions caused by Leishmania tropica (zymodeme MON-57). In spite of its endemicity, only few data are available on the incidence and current distribution of CL in Greece, which may allow for an assessment of the risk for travelers.

  10. Visceral leishmaniasis hos to børn efter ferie i Sydeuropa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castberg, Filip Christian; Poulsen, Anja; Petersen, Bodil Laub

    2013-01-01

    Pancytopenia, fever and splenomegaly are frequent causes for referrals to paediatric haematology departments, on the suspicion of acute leukaemia. We report two cases of Danish children with the tropical disease visceral leishmaniasis (VL) contracted on short vacations in Southern Europe. One...

  11. The pathology of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaafar, A; el Kadaro, A Y; Theander, T G

    1995-01-01

    The pathology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sudan, where the disease is caused by Leishmania major, was studied by light and electron microscopy. Lesions were classified into four distinct groups based on the ratio of different cell types, especially lymphocytes, macrophages, and plasma cells...

  12. Tre tilfaelde af visceral leishmaniasis: det ene hos en HIV-positiv mand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, U; Jonsbo, F; Junge, Jette

    1991-01-01

    Three cases of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) are presented. One of these was in a 43-year-old patient with AIDS who was infected in Southern Spain. Another was in a man aged 25 years infected in West Africa. These cases are the first two adults to be reported in Denmark. The third case...

  13. Risk assessment for canine leishmaniasis spreading in the north of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Morosetti

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis has not only been recognized but is, in fact, increasing in territories of northern continental Italy previously regarded as non-endemic. Recent findings of sporadic autochthonous canine infections and the presence of phlebotomine vectors in some provinces of north-eastern Italy have stimulated risk assessment for the spreading of leishmaniasis in the autonomous province of Bolzano-South Tyrol, the northernmost territory of the Italian eastern Alps. In July 2008, 61 phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae were caught and identified as Phlebotomus perniciosus and Sergentomyia minuta. This is the first record in South Tyrol of P. perniciosus, the most competent vector of Leishmania infantum in Mediterranean countries. Leishmania serology on local dogs kept in kennels gave negative results, while only imported canine leishmaniasis cases were reported by local veterinarians through a questionnaire survey. Bio-geographic aspects and epidemiological consequences are analyzed in relation with the risk of leishmaniasis introduction into the area.

  14. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in three Dutch military cohorts following jungle training in Belize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.A.M. van Thiel; J.E. Zeegelaar; T. van Gool; W.R. Faber; P.A. Kager

    2011-01-01

    Skin lesions occur frequently in travelers to tropical countries. Military personnel acquire skin lesions regularly during jungle training as did Dutch troops who trained in the jungle of Belize in 1998, 2004 and 2009, in an area endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Demographic and clinical data wer

  15. Seroepidemiological studies of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Campeche state of México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Ostria, A; Sosa-Cabrera, T; Rivas-Sanchez, B; Ruiz-Tuyu, R; Mendoza-Gonzalez, A R; Favila-Castillo, L

    1997-01-01

    Seroepidemiological studies of cutaneous leishmaniasis were carried out in 169 individuals in a rural area of the Campeche state of México. Fifty showed cutaneous lesions suggestive of leishmaniasis, 70% were parasite positive and 96% skin test positive. An overall 40% positivity to skin test with Montenegro's antigen was found. Most of the affected individuals were males from 11 to 30 years-old. Antibodies were determined by immunofluorescent antibody test (IFA) and by Western blot. Two antigen preparations were used, one from a Leishmania mexicana strain which produced localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) and the other from a diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL). In the general population from the area of study 19% gave positive IFA tests with DCL antigen and 20% with LCL antigen while for the patients 67% gave positive IFA tests with DCL and 71% with LCL. By Western blot analysis most of the patients recognized more antigens in the DCL than in the LCL strain. In the DCL strain 78% of patients recognized a 105 kDa, 34% a 139 kDa, 28% a 117 kDa and 26% a 205 kDa MW antigen. In the LCL strain 40% of patients recognized a 205 kDa and 22% a 175 kDa antigens.

  16. Application of an Improved Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Method for Serological Diagnosis of Canine Leishmaniasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Santarem; R. Silvestre; L. Cardoso; H. Schallig; S.G. Reed; A. Cordeiro-da-Silva

    2010-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is essential toward a more efficient control of this zoonosis, but it remains problematic due to the high incidence of asymptomatic infections. In this study, we present data on the development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based techn

  17. Seroepidemiological Studies of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the Campeche State of México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monroy-Ostria Amalia

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Seroepidemiological studies of cutaneous leishmaniasis were carried out on 169 individuals in a rural area of the Campeche state of México. Fifty showed cutaneous lesions suggestive of leishmaniasis, 70% were parasite positive and 96% skin test positive. An overall 40% positivity to skin test with Montenegro's antigen was found. Most of the affected individuals were males from 11 to 30 years-old. Antibodies were determined by immunofluorescent antibody test (IFA and by Western blot. Two antigen preparations were used, one from a Leishmania mexicana strain which produced localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL and the other from a diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL. In the general population from the area of study 19% gave positive IFA tests with DCL antigen and 20% with LCL antigen while for the patients 67% gave positive IFA tests with DCL and 71% with LCL. By Western blot analysis most of the patients recognized more antigens in the DCL than in the LCL strain. In the DCL strain 78% of patients recognized a 105 kDa, 34% a 139 kDa, 28% a 117 kDa and 26% a 205 kDa MW antigen. In the LCL strain 40% of patients recognized a 205 kDa and 22% a 175 kDa antigens

  18. Molecular detection of Leishmania in phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus atXakriabá Indigenous Reserve, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rêgo, Felipe Dutra; Rugani, Jeronimo Marteleto Nunes; Shimabukuro, Paloma Helena Fernandes; Tonelli, Gabriel Barbosa; Quaresma, Patrícia Flávia; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Autochthonous cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) have been reported since 2001 in the Xakriabá Indigenous Reserve located in the municipality of São João das Missões in northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. In order to study the presence of Leishmania DNA in phlebotomine sand flies, six entomological collections were carried out from July 2008 through July 2009, using 40 light traps placed in peridomicile areas of 20 randomly selected houses. From October 2011 through August 2012, another six collections were carried out with 20 light traps distributed among four trails (five traps per trail) selected for a previous study of wild and synanthropic hosts of Leishmania. A total of 4,760 phlebotomine specimens were collected belonging to ten genera and twenty-three species. Single female specimens or pools with up to ten specimens of the same locality, species and date, for Leishmania detection by molecular methods. Species identification of parasites was performed with ITS1 PCR-RFLP using HaeIII enzyme and genetic sequencing for SSU rRNA target. The presence of Leishmania DNA was detected in eleven samples from peridomicile areas: Lu. longipalpis (two), Nyssomyia intermedia (four), Lu. renei (two), Lu. ischnacantha, Micropygomyia goiana and Evandromyia lenti (one pool of each specie). The presence of Leishmania DNA was detected in twelve samples from among the trails: Martinsmyia minasensis (six), Ny. intermedia (three), Mi. peresi (two) and Ev. lenti (one). The presence of Leishmania infantum DNA in Lu. longipalpis and Leishmania braziliensis DNA in Ny. intermediasupport the epidemiological importance of these species of sand flies in the cycle of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively. The results also found other species associated with Leishmania DNA, such as Mt. minasensis and Ev. lenti, which may participate in a wild and/or synanthropic cycle of Leishmania transmission in the studied area.

  19. Knowledge, attitude, and practices related to cutaneous leishmaniasis in an endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis, Southern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bahador Sarkari; Asgari Qasem; Mohammad Reza Shafaf

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of inhabitants of an endemic area in Fars province toward cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Methods: The study was carried out in Lapui district in Fars province, south of Iran, one of the most important foci of CL in this province. Sample size (237 residents) was calculated based on population. House-to-house survey was done to collect the data regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the inhabitants. The head of each household was interviewed by a trained staff to assess his/her KAP related to CL. A semi-structured KAP questionnaire was used for data collection.Results:Mean age of participants was 39 and more than half of the respondents were in the age group of 31-40. Males constituted 172 (72.5%) of subjects. Most of the respondents (84.3%) were literate. The majority of the study population (83%) had heard about Salak (local name for CL) and most of these respondents (91%) were aware that CL is presented with a cutaneous lesion. Nearly two-third of the participants (63.5%) stated the bite of mosquito (not specifically sandflies) for CL transmission. The respondents’ attitude regarding the treatment of CL was not satisfactory since only 48% believed that CL can be treated by medicine. A noticeable proportion of respondents (21%) believed in indigenous medicine for the treatment of CL. A small proportion of respondents (14%) stated that traditional healers are good at treating this disease. More than two-third (69%) of respondents believed that the disease is preventable although most of interviewees did not know about preventive measures. Conclusions: In this study, insufficient knowledge of community about infection nature, vector, transmission mode and preventive measures of CL, highlights the needs for a health education initiative to enhance the awareness of people about CL. This would improve inhabitants’ contribution in control program of CL in this area.

  20. American Culture Reflected in American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华芳

    2013-01-01

    Language is a vehicle for culture. It is also a key component of culture. It not only reflects culture but also influences culture. As a variety of British English, American English, especially American words and expressions can reflect American culture from many aspects. This paper studies some typical traits of American culture reflected in words and expressions of American Eng-lish.