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Sample records for american social medicine

  1. American Academy of Home Care Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newsletter Certification/Training Donate Featured Members Home Care Medicine in America The American Academy of Home Care ... Resources with the American Academy of Home Care Medicine. The American Academy of Home Care Medicine understands ...

  2. American College of Sports Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is Medicine® and World Congress on the Basic Science of Exercise and the Brain Dates: 30 May – 03 Jun, 2017 Denver, Colorado » More Events This short video dramatically conveys the purpose and vision of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), and features the essence, role and ...

  3. Reinterpreting ethnic patterns among white and African American men who inject heroin: a social science of medicine approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Bourgois

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Street-based heroin injectors represent an especially vulnerable population group subject to negative health outcomes and social stigma. Effective clinical treatment and public health intervention for this population requires an understanding of their cultural environment and experiences. Social science theory and methods offer tools to understand the reasons for economic and ethnic disparities that cause individual suffering and stress at the institutional level. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used a cross-methodological approach that incorporated quantitative, clinical, and ethnographic data collected by two contemporaneous long-term San Francisco studies, one epidemiological and one ethnographic, to explore the impact of ethnicity on street-based heroin-injecting men 45 years of age or older who were self-identified as either African American or white. We triangulated our ethnographic findings by statistically examining 14 relevant epidemiological variables stratified by median age and ethnicity. We observed significant differences in social practices between self-identified African Americans and whites in our ethnographic social network sample with respect to patterns of (1 drug consumption; (2 income generation; (3 social and institutional relationships; and (4 personal health and hygiene. African Americans and whites tended to experience different structural relationships to their shared condition of addiction and poverty. Specifically, this generation of San Francisco injectors grew up as the children of poor rural to urban immigrants in an era (the late 1960s through 1970s when industrial jobs disappeared and heroin became fashionable. This was also when violent segregated inner city youth gangs proliferated and the federal government initiated its "War on Drugs." African Americans had earlier and more negative contact with law enforcement but maintained long-term ties with their extended families. Most of the whites were expelled

  4. Alternative Medicine Taking Hold Among Americans: Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159511.html Alternative Medicine Taking Hold Among Americans: Report More than $30 ... chunk of their health care dollars on alternative medicine, such as acupuncture, yoga, chiropractic care and natural ...

  5. American Academy of Oral Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Meeting Orlando, FL AAOM: Representing the Discipline of Oral Medicine Oral Medicine is the discipline of dentistry concerned with the ... AAOM offers credentialing, resources and professional community for oral medicine practitioners. Our membership provides care to thousands We ...

  6. American Board of Obesity Medicine (ABOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Specialties (ABMS) member board or osteopathic medicine equivalent. Successful completion of an on-site clinical ... American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Canadian Obesity Network Cleveland Clinic ...

  7. A Practice of Social Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Kark

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available SOCIAL MEDICINE may be regarded as a practice of medicine concerned with health and disease as a function of group living. It is interested in the health of people in relation to their behaviour in social groups and as such is concerned with care of the individual patient as a member of a family and of other significant groups in his daily life. It is also concerned with the health of these groups as such and with that of the whole community as a community. Concern with the health needs of larger communities and territorial groups such as cities, regions and nations is also an important area of social medicine in which the public health physician is involved. Special interest groups have been the focus of attention of yet other practitioners of social medicine. Children at school, university students and occupational groups are among the more important of these groups for whom special health services, oriented to their specific needs, have been developed. Less formal groupings are now receiving increasing attention by those concerned with community health services, such as the family, in which the relationships between the members have intimate and enduring qualities. Other significant informal groups, in which face-to-face relationships are characteristic, are friendship groups, play groups of children and the neighbourhood community, in rural village or urban neighbourhood.

  8. The Spectre of Race in American Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Mariam O Fofana

    2013-01-01

    Controversies and debates surrounding race have long been a fixture in American medicine. In the past, the biological concept of race—the idea that race is biologically determined and meaningful—has served to justify the institution of slavery and the conduct of unethical research trials. Although these days may seem far behind, contemporary debates over the race-specific approval of drugs and the significance of genetic differences are evidence that race still yields tremendous influence on ...

  9. Editorial: American medicine and world health 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, J H

    1976-04-01

    Adding family planning and population programs to the list of tropical medicine components expands the definition of what might be called appropriate medicine for the developing countries. This comprehensive definition covers the topics of prime importance to the health and ultimate development of preindustrial societies. These topics are given low priority in all medical education. Nutrition has been left to the schools of public health. Schools of agriculture are interested in the quality and quantity of food production but not in the social and economic complexities of relating food production to the nutritional status of the population to be served. the variables are interdependent. In the world more than 3 billion people live on the margin of existence. High mortality contributes to high fertility rates because living children are the only available form of social security. Food production cannot keep pace. Malnutrition is a factor in at least 1/2 of the 45 million global deaths in those less than 5 years of age. In the Far East and Africa 25-30% of the population are undernourished. During the next 15 years the world may add 1 billion people to its present 4 billion and there may be 8 billion shortly after the year 2000. Of these 6.6 billion would be in developing countries. In Africa, South America, and the Middle East, surveys have shown that 96% of 1000 women in the third trimester of pregnancy and 75% of school children in South India were anemic. At least a 4% annual increase in food production is needed between now and the year 2000 to meet the needs of present malnutrition and projected population growth. The prospects of achieving this are not good. Also, of regional importance are vector borne and macroparasitic diseases and trachoma and yaws. Of universal importance are fecally related diseases and air-borne diseases. Malaria still persists in many areas with an estimated 1 million deaths annually. Recently the World Bank has paid increasing

  10. Social Media in the Emergency Medicine Residency Curriculum: Social Media Responses to the Residents' Perspective Article

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, BD; Kobner, S; Trueger, NS; S. Yiu; Lin, M.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. In July to August 2014, Annals of Emergency Medicine continued a collaboration with an academic Web site, Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM), to host an online discussion session featuring the 2014 Annals Residents' Perspective article "Integration of Social Media in Emergency Medicine Residency Curriculum" by Scott et al. The objective was to describe a 14-day worldwide clinician dialogue about evidence, opinions, and early relevant i...

  11. Green Medicine: Traditional Mexican-American Herbal Remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Eliseo

    Traditional Mexican American herbal potions and remedies and their history are explained in an introductory book for the general reader. The importance of curanderismo, or green medicine, in Mexican and Mexican American cultures is explored. A brief history traces the herbal aspects of curanderismo through Mayan and Aztec cultures, the Spanish…

  12. Congressional Social Darwinism and the American Indian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinderman, Abraham

    1978-01-01

    Summarizing a congressional report on civil and military treatment of American Indians, this article asserts that the social Darwinism of the day prevailed among all congressional committee members ("Even friends of the Indian... knew American expansionism, technology, and racial ideology would reduce the Indian to a pitiful remnant...) (JC)

  13. American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For our patients, For our specialty, For YOUR future Join PM&R Bold AAPM&R is the primary medical society for the specialty of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Learn about the Academy and what ...

  14. American Academy of Podiatric Sports Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Info Special Olympics Fit Feet Joint Commission on Sports Medicine & Science Medical Fitness Association Dr. Blakes Healing Sole Stop ... Injuries IRRA Sports Podiatry Runblogger Running Times The Science of Sport Running Product Reviews Running Research Junkie Share Us ...

  15. American Board of Obesity Medicine (ABOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicine equivalent. CME Pathway A minimum of 60 credit hours of continuing medical education (CME) recognized by the ... on the topic of obesity. At least 30 credit hours must be obtained in-person at a live ...

  16. Socialized medicine or state-ruled medicine: the Venezuelan dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, P J

    1989-07-01

    The economic crisis in which Venezuela is living, caused by the fall in oil prices, has forced the government to reorganize its medical services. A central administrative organ, the National Health Service, has been created. It seeks to develop a social medicine directed at the less favored classes of the population. Notwithstanding the continuously rising costs of private medicine, which, until now, the government has permitted without restrictions, the shadow of government intervention looms ominously over private practice, where subemployment of doctors already exists, along with the growing tendencies of insurance companies to impose economic conditions. The Venezuelan Medical Federation, which, by law, groups all Venezuelan doctors, has began a battle on two main fronts: against the State intervention and against the insurance companies who hope to benefit at the expense of the already underpaid doctors. PMID:2737063

  17. Medicinal history of North American Veratrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Plants belonging to the genus Veratrum have been used throughout history for their medicinal properties. During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, phytochemical investigations revealed a host of steroidal alkaloids in Veratrum species, some of which are potent bioactives. This review discusses Veratrum species that grow in North America with a focus on the medicinal history of these plants and the steroidal alkaloids they contain. While significant reviews have been devoted to singularly describing the plant species within the genus Veratrum (botany), the staggering breadth of alkaloids isolated from these and related plants (phytochemistry), and the intricacies of how the various alkaloids act on their biological targets (physiology and biochemistry), this review will straddle the margins of the aforementioned disciplines in an attempt to provide a unified, coherent picture of the Veratrum plants of North America and the medicinal uses of their bioactive steroidal alkaloids. PMID:25379034

  18. Social class variation in medicine use among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Due, Pernille

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about social determinants of adolescents' medicine use. The objective was to analyse the association between the family's social class and adolescents' use of medicine for headache, stomachache, difficulties in getting to sleep, and nervousness.......Little is known about social determinants of adolescents' medicine use. The objective was to analyse the association between the family's social class and adolescents' use of medicine for headache, stomachache, difficulties in getting to sleep, and nervousness....

  19. [Development of Social Medicine and Public Health in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildner, M; Niehoff, J-U; Hoffmann, W

    2016-02-01

    Social medicine in Germany has multiple lines of tradition, which are marked by the presence of 2 German states and their re-unification and by the (re-)establishment of multidisciplinary public health by the end of the twentieth century. At the same time, a differentiation within the applied fields of social medicine into several thematic topics can be observed. These can be grouped in a first step into the domains of clinical social medicine, of social medicine for social insurance purposes and of a population-oriented social medicine. For social medicine as a scientific discipline within the broad context of medicine, the requirement of a context-adequate development, which encompasses the special methods of multidisciplinary public health, poses big challenges. For successfully meeting these challenges and going beyond population-oriented public health and for bridging the gap between the individual and the social medical institutions of the health system, it is indispensable for social medicine to be independent of other disciplines within the array of medical specialties. The present study argues for strengthening social medicine within the medical faculties. Chairs for social medicine and public health are not only in the interest of the applied fields of social medicine, but represent also an indispensable scientific discipline which can relate and contribute to all specialties of medicine. PMID:26906537

  20. Social medicine in Latin America: productivity and dangers facing the major national groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitzkin, H; Iriart, C; Estrada, A; Lamadrid, S

    2001-07-28

    There is little knowledge about Latin American social medicine in the English-speaking world. Social medicine groups exist in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, and Mexico. Dictatorships have created political and economic conditions which are more adverse in some countries than others; in certain instances, practitioners of social medicine have faced unemployment, arrest, torture, exile, and death. Social medicine groups have focused on the social determinants of illness and early death, the effects of social policies such as privatisation and public sector cutbacks, occupational and environmental causes of illness, critical epidemiology, mental health effects of political trauma, the impact of gender, and collaborations with local communities, labour organisations, and indigenous people. The groups' achievements and financial survival have varied, depending partly on the national context. Active professional associations have developed, both nationally and internationally. Several groups have achieved publication in journals and books, despite financial and technical difficulties that might be lessened through a new initiative sponsored by the US National Library of Medicine. The conceptual orientation and research efforts of these groups have tended to challenge current relations of economic and political power. Despite its dangers, Latin American social medicine has emerged as a productive field of work, whose findings have become pertinent throughout the world. PMID:11498235

  1. American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Getting Involved Communities Advanced Lung Disease Forum Psychiatry, Psychology, Mental Health Forum Social Work Forum SIG Instructions Join a SIG Member Councils FAAHPM Member Directory Education & Practice Writing Instructional Objectives Meetings Annual Assembly Back to Meetings ...

  2. Arab-American and Muslim-American Contributions: Resources for Secondary Social Studies Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraqi, Monica M.

    2015-01-01

    Arab-Americans and Muslim-Americans live within the United States surrounded by misconceptions about their culture and religion, in part because of the limited inclusion of positive contributions by these groups within the social studies curriculum. This article attempts to highlight Arab-American and Muslim-American contributions within the U.S.…

  3. African Americans and Network Disadvantage: Enhancing Social Capital through Participation on Social Networking Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle Taana Smith

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the participation of African Americans on social networking sites (SNS), and evaluates the degree to which African Americans engage in activities in the online environment to mitigate social capital deficits. Prior literature suggests that compared with whites, African Americans have less social capital that can enhance their socio-economic mobility. As such, my research question is: do African Americans enhance their social capital through their participation on SNS? I us...

  4. A glimmer of hope in American pain medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schatman ME

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Michael E Schatman US Pain Foundation, Bellevue, WA, USAOver the past 8 years, I have acquired a degree of notoriety relating to my scathing criticism of the badly broken American pain care system. In the three-part series on the crisis in pain care in the United States that I coauthored with Dr Jim Giordano in 2008,1-3 we performed an ethical analysis of our system, examining the need for a paradigmatic revision if we were to adequately treat a disease as complex as is chronic pain, given the system's economic realities. Due to the insurance and hospital industries' adherence to the "business ethic" of cost-containment and profitability (as opposed to patient well-being, we were witnessing the profound undertreatment of pain in conjunction with a growing reliance upon technophilism, ie, an emphasis on technologically driven pain care sorely lacking a reasonable evidence-basis. Early in the following decade, Dr Alan Lebovits and I guest-edited a special series in Pain Medicine on the unfortunate devolution of the "profession" of pain medicine to the "business" of pain medicine.4 

  5. The Zoot Suit Riots: Exploring Social Issues in American History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, John J.

    2013-01-01

    The Zoot Suit Riots provide students with a case study of social unrest in American history. The influx of Latinos into the Los Angeles area prior to World War II created high levels of social unrest between Mexican Americans, military servicemen, and local residences. With large numbers of soldiers stationed in the area during the Second World…

  6. Correlation of the Emergency Medicine Resident In-Service Examination with the American Osteopathic Board of Emergency Medicine Part I

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, David; Dvorkin, Ronald; Schwartz, Adam; Zimmerman, Steven; Li, Feiming

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Eligible residents during their fourth postgraduate year (PGY-4) of emergency medicine (EM) residency training who seek specialty board certification in emergency medicine may take the American Osteopathic Board of Emergency Medicine (AOBEM) Part 1 Board Certifying Examination (AOBEM Part 1). All residents enrolled in an osteopathic EM residency training program are required to take the EM Resident In-service Examination (RISE) annually. Our aim was to correlate resident ...

  7. Antiviral activity of some South American medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, M J; Bermejo, P; Sanchez Palomino, S; Chiriboga, X; Carrasco, L

    1999-03-01

    Folk medicinal plants are potential sources of useful therapeutic compounds including some with antiviral activities. Extracts prepared from 10 South American medicinal plants (Baccharis trinervis, Baccharis teindalensis, Eupatorium articulatum, Eupatorium glutinosum, Tagetes pusilla, Neurolaena lobata, Conyza floribunda, Phytolacca bogotensis, Phytolacca rivinoides and Heisteria acuminata) were screened for in vitro antiviral activity against herpes simplex type I (HSV-1), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and poliovirus type 1. The most potent inhibition was observed with an aqueous extract of B. trinervis, which inhibited HSV-1 replication by 100% at 50-200 micrograms/mL, without showing cytotoxic effects. Good activities were also found with the ethanol extract of H. acuminata and the aqueous extract of E. articulatum, which exhibited antiviral effects against both DNA and RNA viruses (HSV-1 and VSV, respectively) at 125-250 micrograms/mL. The aqueous extracts of T. pusilla (100-250 micrograms/mL), B. teindalensis (50-125 micrograms/mL) and E. glutinosum (50-125 micrograms/mL) also inhibited the replication of VSV, but none of the extracts tested had any effect on poliovirus replication. PMID:10190189

  8. American Indians Today. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinger, J. Milton, Ed.; Simpson, George Eaton, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Aspects of social change among American Indians and in the relationships of Indians to government and the larger society are examined in the collection of articles by 12 political and social scientists. Focusing on recent developments, this look at American Indians today encompasses rapid population growth, urbanization of the Indian population,…

  9. [Observations on social medicine in public health transition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, F W; Busse, R

    1997-04-01

    In spite of the growing criticism of the social welfare principles, the social health insurance model is remarkably stable in Europe. Key features of this model are even implemented in more market oriented models (as in Switzerland) and in national health systems as in the United Kingdom. In Germany, however, the discussion is almost solely centred around the argument of globalisation of capital and labour and, subsequently, the high additional costs on labour. This endangers social security which is financed through wages. If the social welfare system in Germany would be abolished de facto and not intelligently adapted, this would be a dramatic signal against social principles all over Europe. Consequences for social medicine as a scientific discipline are: Social medicine as a public health discipline with the goal of equality in health care must get involved in health politics. Social medicine as an empirical science has to evaluate- and refute, if necessary-existing myths and prejudices. Social medicine needs a stable network for research, teaching and practice-this is the growing field of "public health". PMID:9296723

  10. [DGSMP - Interdisciplinarity to Advance Social Medicine and Prevention of Illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, T; Mittelstaedt, G v

    2016-02-01

    The German Society for Social Medicine and Prevention (DGSMP) refers back to a tradition of over more than 100 years, nevertheless having a critical look at it. As a scientific medical society the DGSMP promotes cross-sectoral configuration of contemporary social medicine to the benefit of both, general welfare and individual health in form of prevention, rehabilitation, re-integration, palliation and long-term care. Human medicine is the lead discipline in the interdisciplinary approach by the DGSMP in order to create - facing the dynamics in the health care system - professional prerequisites to maintain and update solidarity and equity in medical services on a scientific basis. PMID:26906538

  11. HIV Stigma and Social Support among African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Galvan, Frank H.; Davis, E. Maxwell; Banks, Denedria; Bing, Eric G.

    2008-01-01

    HIV-related stigma and discrimination negatively impact African Americans living with HIV. Social support theory hypothesizes that social support can serve to protect individuals against the negative effects of stressors, such as discrimination, by leading them to interpret stressful occasions less negatively. This study sought to examine the relationship between perceived social support and perceived HIV stigma among HIV-positive African Americans. A cross-sectional convenience sample of 283...

  12. Assessment of the National Library of Medicine's health disparities plan: a focus on Native American outreach*

    OpenAIRE

    Siegel, Elliot R; Wood, Frederick B; Dutcher, Gale A.; Ruffin, Angela; Logan, Robert A.; Scott, John C.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Overcoming health disparities between majority and minority populations is a significant national challenge. This paper assesses outreach to Native Americans (American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians) by the National Library of Medicine (NLM). A companion paper details NLM's portfolio of Native American outreach projects.

  13. Medicine, morality and health care social media

    OpenAIRE

    Timimi Farris K

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Social media includes many different forms of technology including online forums, blogs, microblogs (i.e. Twitter), wikipedias, video blogs, social networks and podcasting. The use of social media has grown exponentially and time spent on social media sites now represents one in five minutes spent online. Concomitant with this online growth, there has been an inverse trajectory in direct face-to-face patient-provider moments, which continue to become scarcer across the spectrum of he...

  14. Hmong American Adolescents' Perceptions of Ethnic Socialization Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moua, MyLou Y.; Lamborn, Susie D.

    2010-01-01

    Guided by an ecological framework, this study explored ethnic socialization practices from the perspective of Southeast Asian American adolescents. Defined as a multidimensional construct that is conceptually distinct from racial socialization, ethnic socialization involves parents' communication to children about their ethnic heritage. The…

  15. The American Academy of Social Work and Social Welfare: History and Grand Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Richard P.; Gilmore, Grover C.; Flynn, Marilyn S.; Fraser, Mark W.; Brekke, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Conceptualized by social work deans and actualized with the support of major social work organizations, the American Academy of Social Work and Social Welfare was established in 2009. This article describes the historical context and creation of the Academy, whose objectives include recognizing outstanding social work scholars and practitioners;…

  16. Emotion socialization and ethnicity: an examination of practices and outcomes in African American, Asian American, and Latin American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel

    2013-06-01

    The current review paper summarizes the literature on parental emotion socialization in ethnically diverse families in the United States. Models of emotion socialization have been primarily developed using samples of European American parents and children. As such, current categorizations of "adaptive" and "maladaptive" emotion socialization practices may not be applicable to individuals from different ethnic backgrounds. The review examines current models of emotion socialization, with particular attention paid to the demographic breakdown of the studies used to develop these models. Additionally, the review highlights studies examining emotion socialization practices in African American, Asian American, and Latin American families. The review is synthesized with summarizing themes of similarities and differences across ethnic groups, and implications for culturally sensitive research and practice are discussed.

  17. Medicine, morality and health care social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timimi, Farris K

    2012-01-01

    Social media includes many different forms of technology including online forums, blogs, microblogs (i.e. Twitter), wikipedias, video blogs, social networks and podcasting. The use of social media has grown exponentially and time spent on social media sites now represents one in five minutes spent online. Concomitant with this online growth, there has been an inverse trajectory in direct face-to-face patient-provider moments, which continue to become scarcer across the spectrum of health care. In contrast to standard forms of engagement and education, social media has advantages to include profound reach, immediate availability, an archived presence and broad accessibility. Our opportunity as health care providers to partner with our patients has never been greater, yet all too often we allow risk averse fears to limit our ability to truly leverage our good content effectively to the online community. This risk averse behavior truly limits our capacity to effectively engage our patients where they are--online. PMID:22856531

  18. African Americans and Network Disadvantage: Enhancing Social Capital through Participation on Social Networking Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Taana Smith

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the participation of African Americans on social networking sites (SNS, and evaluates the degree to which African Americans engage in activities in the online environment to mitigate social capital deficits. Prior literature suggests that compared with whites, African Americans have less social capital that can enhance their socio-economic mobility. As such, my research question is: do African Americans enhance their social capital through their participation on SNS? I use nationally representative data collected from the Pew Internet and American Life Project to explore the research question. The results suggest that the online environment is potentially a space in which African Americans can lessen social capital deficits.

  19. Assimilation and Cultural Pluralism in American Social Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, R. Fred

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the philosophies of assimilationist liberalism and cultural pluralism as they emerged between 1900 and 1925 in opposition to social Darwinism and the immigration restriction, eugenics, and Americanization movements. (GC)

  20. New Social Learning from Two Spirit Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, J. B., Jr.; Sheppard, Maia

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors highlight connections between research on Two Spirit Native Americans and standard social studies curriculum. Two Spirit is a Pan-Indian term describing Native Americans who believe they embody both masculine and feminine characteristics/traits in one physical body. Findings from this research expand the field's…

  1. Asian American Women's Retrospective Reports of Their Sexual Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Janna L.

    2009-01-01

    This study used qualitative research methods to investigate the sexual socialization experiences of young Asian American women, a group often overlooked in psychological research on sexuality. Focus group interviews were conducted with 30 ethnically diverse young Asian American women to explore their perceptions and interpretations of the direct…

  2. Latin American Social Movements Take on the Net

    OpenAIRE

    Sally Burch

    2002-01-01

    Sally Burch argues that there is enormous potential for marginalized social groups to take advantage of the Internet for networking. The experience of Latin American social movements is demonstrating that participation in social dynamics is a strong incentive. But connectivity is only the first step. A study has explored how social networks are using this technology, the obstacles they face and the challenge of appropriating it, to fulfil their own goals. Communications training is a key need...

  3. Climbing social media in medicine's hierarchy of needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chretien, Katherine C; Kind, Terry

    2014-10-01

    The social media and medicine landscape is evolving rapidly. Early research, social media policies, and educational efforts focused on risk avoidance, while more current efforts have encouraged reflection and explored opportunities. This trajectory has affirmed physicians' professional commitment to maintaining public trust in the face of new challenges in the digital age. In this Commentary, the authors propose viewing physicians' social media use as a hierarchy of needs, similar to Maslow's psychological theory which posits that more basic levels of needs must be met before higher, aspirational levels can be fully attained. The three levels in the social media in medicine's hierarchy of needs are Security, Reflection, and Discovery. Critical to this model is respecting the essential need for Security in order to move towards Reflection and into Discovery. The social media in medicine hierarchy of needs pyramid rests on a foundation of Public Trust. How physicians as a profession have responded to past--and continue to respond to present and future--social media challenges to professionalism reveals what matters most: maintaining public trust and honoring the physicians' contract with society. A victory for online professionalism would be providing trainees with the tools and guidance needed to ascend to Discovery, while ensuring that their basic social media needs are first met. To do this, physician educators need to continue increasing trainees' awareness through designing relevant curricula, encouraging reflection, and providing positive role modeling and effective mentorship.

  4. American Academy of Pediatrics. The use of complementary and alternative medicine in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Kathi J; Vohra, Sunita; Walls, Richard

    2008-12-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics is dedicated to optimizing the well-being of children and advancing family-centered health care. Related to these goals, the American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes the increasing use of complementary and alternative medicine in children and, as a result, the need to provide information and support for pediatricians. From 2000 to 2002, the American Academy of Pediatrics convened and charged the Task Force on Complementary and Alternative Medicine to address issues related to the use of complementary and alternative medicine in children and to develop resources to educate physicians, patients, and families. One of these resources is this report describing complementary and alternative medicine services, current levels of utilization and financial expenditures, and associated legal and ethical considerations. The subject of complementary and alternative medicine is large and diverse, and consequently, an in-depth discussion of each method of complementary and alternative medicine is beyond the scope of this report. Instead, this report will define terms; describe epidemiology; outline common types of complementary and alternative medicine therapies; review medicolegal, ethical, and research implications; review education and training for complementary and alternative medicine providers; provide resources for learning more about complementary and alternative medicine; and suggest communication strategies to use when discussing complementary and alternative medicine with patients and families.

  5. African American Adolescents' Perceptions of Ethnic Socialization and Racial Socialization as Distinct Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasch-Anderson, Julie; Lamborn, Susie D.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnic socialization and racial socialization were examined as discrete concepts using a semistructured interview to assess message content for each form of socialization. We were interested in whether adolescents distinguished between these forms of socialization. Fifty-five African American 11th- and 12th-grade students were asked separate…

  6. Educational activities of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) was incorporated in 1958. Among the main purposes of the Association as specified in its Articles of Incorporation is to 'promote the application of physics to medicine and biology, to encourage interest and training in medical physics and related fields, and to prepare and to disseminate technical information in medical physics and related fields'. AAPM's activities in education emanate primarily from its Educational and Science Councils, International Affairs Committee (IAC), Annual Meeting, Annual Summer School, Medical Physics journal, and Website (www.aapm.org). AAPM devotes nearly one third of its total budget to educational activities not only in the United States but also internationally, with many of the international activities being co-sponsored and/or in conjunction and cooperation with the International Organization of Medical Physics, International Atomic Energy Agency, and other international societies. The AAPM's IAC has subcommittees devoted to all regions of the earth including subcommittees for African Affairs, Asian Oceanic Affairs, European Affairs, Latin American Affairs, Middle East Affairs, and the Exchange Scientist Program. The AAPM includes under its umbrella of Education the creation of Task Group Reports on various training and standard of practice documents, teaching syllabi, slide sets, PowerPoint presentations, support of continuing educational meetings throughout the world including meetings in developing countries, and free access to most of the educational and professional modules on its website. The AAPM's Education Council oversees the activities of several committees and task groups dedicated to national and international educational activities for medical physicists as well as other health professional (such as physicians and medical technologists) via the activities of our committees on Continuing Professional Development, Education and Training of Medical

  7. Developing Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning: The American Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Maurice J.; Moceri, Dominic C.

    2012-01-01

    Developments in American policy, research and professional development to promote social and emotional learning in schools have drawn on work carried out by the Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL), encouraged by the popular and political catalyst of Daniel Goleman's work on emotional intelligence. Based on CASEL's…

  8. African American and Latino Enrollment Trends among Medicine, Law, Business, and Public Affairs Graduate Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Garza, Rodolfo; Moghadam, Sepehr Hejazi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this Tomas Rivera Policy Institute (TRPI) report is twofold: to provide an analysis of the enrollment trends for African American and Latino students among graduate professional programs in the fields of medicine, business, law, and public affairs, and to present other relevant data pertaining to African American and Latino students…

  9. Reading baby books: medicine, marketing, money and the lives of American infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Janet; Weiner, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This article examines American baby books from the late nineteenth through the twentieth century. Baby books are ephemeral publications—formatted with one or more printed pages for recording developmental, health, and social information about infants and often including personal observations, artifacts such as photographs or palm prints, medical and other prescriptive advice, and advertisements. For historians they serve as records of the changing social and cultural worlds of infancy, offering insights into the interplay of childrearing practices and larger social movements.Baby books are a significant historical source both challenging and supporting current historiography, and they illustrate how medical, market and cultural forces shaped the ways babies were cared for and in turn how their won behavior shaped family lives. A typology of baby books includes the lavishly illustrated keepsake books of the late nineteenth century, commercial and public health books of the twentieth century, and on-line records of the present day. Themes that emerge over time include those of scientific medicine and infant psychology, religion and consumerism. The article relies on secondary literature and on archival sources including the collections of the UCLA Louise M. Darling Biomedical Library as well as privately held baby books. PMID:21847846

  10. Origins of American Social Policies: the Progressive Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin FILIP

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the evolution of social policy concerns, debates and reforms in the United States, especially starting with the Gilded Age and through the Progressive Era. It capitalizes on policy analysis literature in order to strengthen the argument of exploring context in order to understand social policy. It also delves into the social climate that gave birth to the Progressives and shaped their perceptions with regard to social change. Finally, it attempts to offer a new perspective on the distinctive social welfare track undertaken by the Americans, when compared to the European traditional model.

  11. Friendship in Latin American Social Comparative Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Agnaldo Garcia; Julia Sursis Nobre Ferro Bucher-Maluschke; Daniela Marisol Pérez-Angarita; Fábio Nogueira Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Friendship has been traditionally investigated in the field of interpersonal relationships using different theoretical frameworks and approaches. This paper discusses the possibility of investigating friendship from a comparative Latin American perspective, based on a wide literature review on the subject. Based on the theoretical proposals of Hinde (1997) for the investigation of interpersonal relationships, the paper considers that friendship involves several levels of complexity and affect...

  12. Family medicine and practice in the Mexican Social Security Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Donovan Casas Patiño; Edgar Jarillo Soto; Alejandra Rodríguez Torres

    2014-01-01

    The central ideas of this research paper are related to the practice of family medicine as a specialty. It focuses in its origins, problems, unique characteristics, limitations, scope, management, and processes within the context of primary care of the Mexican Social Security System. This approach was based on a qualitative, hermeneutical study closely related to the Structural Functionalism Theory. Within this framework, medical practice is seen as an equation: Meaning = action + function/st...

  13. Access to essential medicines: a Hobbesian social contract approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcroft, Richard E

    2005-05-01

    Medicines that are vital for the saving and preserving of life in conditions of public health emergency or endemic serious disease are known as essential medicines. In many developing world settings such medicines may be unavailable, or unaffordably expensive for the majority of those in need of them. Furthermore, for many serious diseases (such as HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis) these essential medicines are protected by patents that permit the patent-holder to operate a monopoly on their manufacture and supply, and to price these medicines well above marginal cost. Recent international legal doctrine has placed great stress on the need to globalise intellectual property rights protections, and on the rights of intellectual property rights holders to have their property rights enforced. Although international intellectual property rights law does permit compulsory licensing of protected inventions in the interests of public health, the use of this right by sovereign states has proved highly controversial. In this paper I give an argument in support of states' sovereign right to expropriate private intellectual property in conditions of public health emergency. This argument turns on a social contract argument for the legitimacy of states. The argument shows, further, that under some circumstances states are not merely permitted compulsory to license inventions, but are actually obliged to do so, on pain of failure of their legitimacy as sovereign states. The argument draws freely on a loose interpretation of Thomas Hobbes's arguments in his Leviathan, and on an analogy between his state of War and the situation of public health disasters.

  14. Social Cognitive Predictors of Dietary Behavior among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Torrance T.; Resinicow, Ken; Latimer-Sport, Markita; Walker, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examined the extent to which social cognitive theory is involved in dietary behavior changes among a sample of African Americans in Georgia. Purpose: We examined whether outcome expectations, barriers, and self-efficacy mediate changes in fruit and vegetable intake behavior. Methods: To accomplish this, we used change scores…

  15. Walking in Beauty: An American Indian Perspective on Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Evan Allen; Robbins, Rockey

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce "walking in beauty," an American Indian spiritual perspective related to social justice that emphasizes beauty, harmony, connectedness/unity of experience, and imagination. Walking in beauty includes 3 processes: embodiment, creativity, and appreciation of the sublime. Recommendations are offered for…

  16. Social Capital: Strengthening Mexican-American Families through Parenting Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanez, Marcel; Devall, Esther; VanLeeuwen, Dawn M.

    2010-01-01

    Development of social capital was explored from a scientific evaluation of adult and teen parents (N = 102) who voluntarily participated in a parenting program. Most were unmarried, young, low-income, and Mexican-American. A strengths-based, culturally specific method was utilized to recruit and retain participants. After training, parents had…

  17. A nomogram to predict the probability of passing the American Board of Internal Medicine examination

    OpenAIRE

    Brateanu, Andrei; Yu, Changhong; Michael W Kattan; Olender, Jeff; Nielsen, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) certification is valued as a reflection of physicians’ experience, education, and expertise, limited methods exist to predict performance in the examination. Purpose: The objective of this study was to develop and validate a predictive tool based on variables common to all residency programs, regarding the probability of an internal medicine graduate passing the ABIM certification examination. Methods: The development cohort ...

  18. The French are different. French and American medicine in the context of AIDS.

    OpenAIRE

    Feldman, J.

    1992-01-01

    Medicine has often been approached as a thing apart from culture, as a uniform Western science. Within the past 10 years, we have begun to recognize that medicine is a system of beliefs and practices intrinsically linked to its larger sociocultural context. Still, it is generally perceived as uniform across North America and Western Europe. My recent research on French and American medical perspectives on the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) challenges this view by exploring differen...

  19. [Family medicine and practice in the Mexican Social Security Institute].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas Patiño, Donovan; Jarillo Soto, Edgar; Rodríguez Torres, Alejandra

    2014-06-26

    The central ideas of this research paper are related to the practice of family medicine as a specialty. It focuses in its origins, problems, unique characteristics, limitations, scope, management, and processes within the context of primary care of the Mexican Social Security System. This approach was based on a qualitative, hermeneutical study closely related to the Structural Functionalism Theory. Within this framework, medical practice is seen as an equation: Meaning = action + function/structure. This offers an approach to the understanding of reality through surveys and observations in five categories: identity, activity, purpose, values/norms, and power/relationship. The practice of family medicine is defined as a medical act in the Mexican Social Security Institute. This act is limited to a brief encounter and a prescription, which makes it a short, fleeting, medicalized interaction. The result is a negative social imaginary of the physician, the patient and the whole of society. Thus, individuals and society host a negative social imaginary bestowed on doctors and users of the health system.

  20. Family medicine and practice in the Mexican Social Security Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donovan Casas Patiño

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The central ideas of this research paper are related to the practice of family medicine as a specialty. It focuses in its origins, problems, unique characteristics, limitations, scope, management, and processes within the context of primary care of the Mexican Social Security System. This approach was based on a qualitative, hermeneutical study closely related to the Structural Functionalism Theory. Within this framework, medical practice is seen as an equation: Meaning = action + function/structure. This offers an approach to the understanding of reality through surveys and observations in five categories: identity, activity, purpose, values/norms, and power/relationship. The practice of family medicine is defined as a medical act in the Mexican Social Security Institute. This act is limited to a brief encounter and a prescription, which makes it a short, fleeting, medicalized interaction. The result is a negative social imaginary of the physician, the patient and the whole of society. Thus, individuals and society host a negative social imaginary bestowed on doctors and users of the health system.

  1. [Family medicine and practice in the Mexican Social Security Institute].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas Patiño, Donovan; Jarillo Soto, Edgar; Rodríguez Torres, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    The central ideas of this research paper are related to the practice of family medicine as a specialty. It focuses in its origins, problems, unique characteristics, limitations, scope, management, and processes within the context of primary care of the Mexican Social Security System. This approach was based on a qualitative, hermeneutical study closely related to the Structural Functionalism Theory. Within this framework, medical practice is seen as an equation: Meaning = action + function/structure. This offers an approach to the understanding of reality through surveys and observations in five categories: identity, activity, purpose, values/norms, and power/relationship. The practice of family medicine is defined as a medical act in the Mexican Social Security Institute. This act is limited to a brief encounter and a prescription, which makes it a short, fleeting, medicalized interaction. The result is a negative social imaginary of the physician, the patient and the whole of society. Thus, individuals and society host a negative social imaginary bestowed on doctors and users of the health system. PMID:25375148

  2. Social Media in Professional Medicine: New Resident Perceptions and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background For younger generations, unconstrained online social activity is the norm. Little data are available about perceptions among young medical practitioners who enter the professional clinical arena, while the impact of existing social media policy on these perceptions is unclear. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the existing perceptions about social media and professionalism among new physicians entering in professional clinical practice; and to determine the effects of formal social media instruction and policy on young professionals’ ability to navigate case-based scenarios about online behavior in the context of professional medicine. Methods This was a prospective observational study involving the new resident physicians at a large academic medical center. Medical residents from 9 specialties were invited to participate and answer an anonymous questionnaire about social media in clinical medicine. Data were analyzed using SAS 9.4 (Cary, NC), chi-square or Fisher’s exact test was used as appropriate, and the correct responses were compared between different groups using the Kruskal–Wallis analysis of variance. Results Familiarity with current institutional policy was associated with an average of 2.2 more correct responses (P=.01). Instruction on social media use during medical school was related to correct responses for 2 additional questions (P=.03). On dividing the groups into no policy exposure, single policy exposure, or both exposures, the mean differences were found to be statistically significant (3.5, 7.5, and 9.4, respectively) (P=.03). Conclusions In this study, a number of young physicians demonstrated a casual approach to social media activity in the context of professional medical practice. Several areas of potential educational opportunity and focus were identified: (1) online privacy, (2) maintaining digital professionalism, (3) safeguarding the protected health information of patients, and (4) the impact of

  3. Practice parameters for the nonpharmacologic treatment of chronic insomnia. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine report. Standards of Practice Committee of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, A L; Anderson, W M; Littner, M; Davila, D; Hartse, K; Johnson, S; Wise, M; Rafecas, J

    1999-12-15

    Insomnia is the most common sleep complaint reported to physicians. Treatment has traditionally involved medication. Behavioral approaches have been available for decades, but lack of physician awareness and training, difficulty in obtaining reimbursements, and questions about efficacy have limited their use. These practice parameters review the current evidence with regards to a variety of nonpharmacologic treatments for insomnia. Using a companion paper which provides a background review, the available literature was analyzed. The evidence was graded by previously reported criteria of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine with references to American Psychological Association criteria. Treatments considered include: stimulus control, progressive muscle relaxation, paradoxical intention, biofeedback, sleep restriction, multicomponent cognitive behavioral therapy, sleep hygiene education, imagery training, and cognitive therapy. Improved experimental design has significantly advanced the process of evaluation of nonpharmacologic treatments for insomnia using guidelines outlined by the American Psychological Association (APA). Recommendations for individual therapies using the American Academy of Sleep Medicine recommendation levels for each are: Stimulus Control (Standard); Progressive Muscle Relaxation, Paradoxical Intention, and Biofeedback (Guidelines); Sleep Restriction, and Multicomponent Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (Options); Sleep Hygiene Education, Imagery Training, and Cognitive Therapy had insufficient evidence to be recommended as a single therapy. Optimal duration of therapy, who should perform the treatments, long term outcomes and safety concerns, and the effect of treatment on quality of life are questions in need of future research. PMID:10617175

  4. American Medical Students’ Beliefs in the Effectiveness of Alternative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Frank

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: While the use of complementary and alternative medical therapy (CAM is common in the U.S., there have been no prior national studies of CAM-related attitudes of U.S. medical students.Methods: We surveyed the Class of 2003 at freshman orientation, entrance to wards, and senior year in a nationally representative sample of 16 U.S. medical schools. Our primary outcome of interest was students’ Likert-scaled responses to the statement “Alternative medicine can often be as effective as traditional medicine.”Results: With 4764 responses overall (a response rate of 80.3%, 9% strongly agreed, 45% agreed, 34% neither agreed nor disagreed, 11% disagreed, and 2% strongly disagreed that alternative medicine could be as effective as traditional medicine. Students became modestly more polarized in their beliefs, moving from 37% of students neither agreeing nor disagreeing with the statement at freshman year to 31% at senior year. Several variables including gender, paternal educational level, ethnicity, religion, political self-characterization, intended specialty, and prevention-orientation were associated with agreement.Conclusions: U.S. patients commonly use CAM, but newly-minted U.S. physicians’ are often skeptical about its efficacy. This disconnect may make it difficult to integrate patients’ CAM use into clinical decision-making.

  5. XIX Congress of the Latin-American Association of Societies of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (ALASBIMN), Cancun, Mexico, May, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From May 25 to 30, 2003 the beautiful city of Cancun, located in the heart of the ancient Maya Empire in Mexico, hosted the XIX ALASBIMN CONGRESS. More than 300 attendees and 80 lecturers from the American continent and Europe had the opportunity to share their knowledge and enjoy an outstanding scientific, cultural and social program. The Scientific program included reviews and original scientific papers on basic and clinical sciences as well as on new developments in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. Cardio-vascular, neuropsychiatric, oncology, skeletal and paediatric procedures were comprehensively analysed by several experts. Introduction of new cyclotrons and modern PET and PET/CT systems in Latin America has opened new horizons for the nuclear medicine community in this sub-continent. New radiopharmaceuticals based on different peptides, receptors and gene expression dominated the scene. Reporter gene imaging of gene expression has become the first and best example of what is achievable by modern molecular imaging. Of particular interest was the presentation of novel and potential agents for radio-metabolic therapy. Additionally, in connection with the congress the IAEA organised a very successful Regional Training Course on Paediatric Nuclear Medicine with 23 participants from 11 countries. The Agency also hosted the first national project coordinators meeting of the IAEA Regional Project aimed at establishing a regional tele-nuclear medicine network in the Latin American Region in conjunction with the ALASBIMN meeting. Once again the major companies representing the nuclear medicine industry participated in the Congress and contributed to the success of the ALASBIMN meeting. In summary, attending the XIX ALASBIMN meeting was a very rewarding experience in every aspect. We are most grateful to the organisers for hosting such a nice congress. Congratulations! Now we are looking forward to participate in the next ALASBIMN Congress to be held in the

  6. Quantifying Globalization in Social Work Research: A 10-Year Review of American Social Work Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbényiga, DeBrenna L.; Huang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Measured by the prevalence of journal article contributions, geographic coverage, and international collaboration, this literature review found an increasing level of globalization with respect to American social work research and contribution to the social work profession from 2000-2009. Findings suggest changes are needed in global awareness and…

  7. Adult social roles and alcohol use among American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Kaylin M; Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David

    2014-09-01

    American Indians are disproportionately burdened by alcohol-related problems. Yet, research exploring predictors of alcohol use among American Indians has been limited by cross-sectional designs and reservation-based samples. Guided by a life course developmental perspective, the current study used a subsample of American Indians (n=927) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to explore alcohol use (current drinking, usual number of drinks, and binge drinking) among this population. We examined whether adult social roles (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, parenthood, college enrollment, and full-time work) were linked to the rise and fall of alcohol use. Multi-level models demonstrated that adult social roles were linked to alcohol use at the within- and between-person levels. Becoming a parent was linked to a lower likelihood of being a current drinker, fewer alcoholic drinks, and less frequent binge drinking. Transitioning to full-time work was associated with a higher likelihood of being a current drinker and more frequent binge drinking. Results point to the importance of exploring within-group trajectories of alcohol use and highlight the protective and risky nature of adult social roles among American Indians. PMID:24857795

  8. Social class differences in self, attribution, and attention: socially expansive individualism of middle-class Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Nicholas A; Kitayama, Shinobu; Nisbett, Richard E

    2009-07-01

    Although U.S. culture strongly sanctions the ideal of independence, the specific ways in which independence is realized may be variable depending, among other factors, on social class. Characterized by relative scarcity of social and material resources, working-class (WC) Americans were expected to strongly value self-reliance. In contrast, with choices among abundant resources, middle-class (MC) Americans were expected to value personal control and social expansiveness. In support of this analysis, relative to their WC counterparts, MC Americans reported more support from friends and greater likelihood of giving and receiving advice but less self-reliance (Study 1). Furthermore, we found evidence that this social difference has cognitive consequences: College students with MC backgrounds were more likely than their WC counterparts were to endorse situational attributions for others' behavior (Studies 2a and 2b) as well as to show holistic visual attention (Study 3). PMID:19398590

  9. Difficult reputations and the social reality of occupational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    This response to Tee Guidotti's (2008) critique of Elaine Draper's 'The Company Doctor: Risk, Responsibility, and Corporate Professionalism' (2003) argues that a forthright examination of the conflicts of those working in the field of occupational medicine is essential to maintaining the health of the profession and to promoting constructive policies. Research for 'The Company Doctor' reveals how doctors walk a tightrope of professional demands on them. The author describes how corporate employment affects medicine and science and how professionals working in corporations are subject to the decisions of company managers and to economic and legal imperatives stemming from their status as corporate employees. Analyzing company doctors' role in confronting toxics and responding to liability fears in corporations, the author argues that problems of lost credibility, stigmatization, and tarnished reputation that company doctors describe largely stem from the organizational constraints, economic interests, and other aspects of the social context of their work. These social forces exert powerful pressure on the ethical framework and daily work lives of these professionals as well as on the reputation of their field. The author discusses ways in which the conflicting demands from being both a corporate employee and a physician are a social and structural problem beyond individual ethics. PMID:18826879

  10. The Use of Traditional and Western Medicine among Korean American Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miyong; Han, Hae-Ra; Kim, Kim B.; Duong, Diep N.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the use of traditional and western medicine by Korean American elderly people, noting factors associated with their health-seeking behaviors and health service utilization. Interview data indicate that respondents used a broad spectrum of health resources, both traditional and western. Health insurance status and source of health care…

  11. Processes Linking Social Class and Racial Socialization in African American Dual-Earner Families

    OpenAIRE

    Crouter, Ann C.; Baril, Megan E.; Davis, Kelly; McHale, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the links between social class, occupational self-direction, self-efficacy, and racial socialization in a sample of 128 two-parent African American couples raising adolescents. A series of multivariate, multilevel models revealed that mothers’ SES was connected to self-efficacy via its association with occupational self-direction; in turn, self-efficacy partially explained the association between occupational self-direction and racial socialization. The link between maternal self-...

  12. The Hippocratic oath: A comparative analysis of the ancient text′s relevance to American and Indian modern medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant I Jhala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hippocrates (460-375 B.C., an ancient Greek physician considered the "Father of Medicine," constructed the groundwork for the principles of ethics in medicine over 2,500 years ago in his establishment of the Hippocratic Oath. One of the oldest binding documents in history, the text has remained the ethical template for physicians to this day. The changing cultural and social environment of modern society, accompanied by the advancement in scientific knowledge and therapeutic tools, has surfaced the need to reframe ethical perspective in modern medicine. Progress in aspects such as organ transplantation, stem cell technology, and genetic engineering has welcomed a new set of ethical dilemmas. These dilemmas have become intimately intertwined with the impact of commercialization, as seen by the interplay between legislation, health care, and pharmaceutical businesses. This paper seeks to dissect the principles of the original Hippocratic Oath and analyze the template in relation to the ethical dilemmas presented by contemporary medicine. Examination will provide a deeper understanding of the paradigm shift in modern medical ethics. Both the value of the Oath and the level of awareness of modern ethical dilemmas through the lens of American and Indian medical graduates will be assessed.

  13. Choosing Wisely® in Preventive Medicine: The American College of Preventive Medicine's Top 5 List of Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Catherine J; Freeman, Randall J; Mohammad, Amir; Costales, Victoria C; Titus, Tisha M; Harvey, Bart J; Sherin, Kevin M

    2016-07-01

    The Choosing Wisely(®) initiative is a national campaign led by the American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation, focused on quality improvement and advancing a dialogue on avoiding wasteful or unnecessary medical tests, procedures, and treatments. The American College of Preventive Medicine (ACPM) Prevention Practice Committee is an active participant in the Choosing Wisely project. The committee created the ACPM Choosing Wisely Task Force to lead the development of ACPM's recommendations with the intention of facilitating wise decisions about the appropriate use of preventive care. After utilizing an iterative process that involved reviewing evidence-based literature, the ACPM Choosing Wisely Task Force developed five recommendations targeted toward overused services within the field of preventive medicine. These include: (1) don't take a multivitamin, vitamin E, or beta carotene to prevent cardiovascular disease or cancer; (2) don't routinely perform prostate-specific antigen-based screening for prostate cancer; (3) don't use whole-body scans for early tumor detection in asymptomatic patients; (4) don't use expensive medications when an equally effective and lower-cost medication is available; and (5) don't perform screening for cervical cancer in low-risk women aged 65 years or older and in women who have had a total hysterectomy for benign disease. The Task Force also reviewed some of the barriers to implementing these recommendations, taking into account the interplay between system and environmental characteristics, and identified specific strategies necessary for timely utilization of these recommendations. PMID:27155735

  14. A glimmer of hope in American pain medicine?

    OpenAIRE

    Schatman ME

    2016-01-01

    Michael E Schatman US Pain Foundation, Bellevue, WA, USAOver the past 8 years, I have acquired a degree of notoriety relating to my scathing criticism of the badly broken American pain care system. In the three-part series on the crisis in pain care in the United States that I coauthored with Dr Jim Giordano in 2008,1-3 we performed an ethical analysis of our system, examining the need for a paradigmatic revision if we were to adequately treat a disease as complex as is&nb...

  15. What does Latin Aamerican social medicine do when it governs? The case of the Mexico City government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurell, Asa Cristina

    2003-12-01

    Latin American social medicine (LASM) emerged as a movement in the 1970s and played an important role in the Brazilian health care reform of the 1980s, both of which focused on decentralization and on health care as a social right. The dominant health care reform model in Latin America has included a market-driven, private subsystem for the insured and a public subsystem for the uninsured and the poor. In contrast, the Mexico City government has launched a comprehensive policy based on social rights and redistribution of resources. A universal pension for senior citizens and free medical services are financed by grants, eliminating routine government corruption and waste. The Mexico City policy reflects the influence of Latin American social medicine. In this article, I outline the basic traits of LASM and those of the prevailing health care reform model in Latin America and describe the Mexico City social and health policy, emphasizing the influence of LASM in values, principles, and concrete programs.

  16. Race-Conscious Professionalism and African American Representation in Academic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Brian W; White, Augustus A; Oriol, Nancy E; Jain, Sachin H

    2016-07-01

    African Americans remain substantially less likely than other physicians to hold academic appointments. The roots of these disparities stem from different extrinsic and intrinsic forces that guide career development. Efforts to ameliorate African American underrepresentation in academic medicine have traditionally focused on modifying structural and extrinsic barriers through undergraduate and graduate outreach, diversity and inclusion initiatives at medical schools, and faculty development programs. Although essential, these initiatives fail to confront the unique intrinsic forces that shape career development. America's ignoble history of violence, racism, and exclusion exposes African American physicians to distinct personal pressures and motivations that shape professional development and career goals. This article explores these intrinsic pressures with a focus on their historical roots; reviews evidence of their effect on physician development; and considers the implications of these trends for improving African American representation in academic medicine. The paradigm of "race-conscious professionalism" is used to understand the dual obligation encountered by many minority physicians not only to pursue excellence in their field but also to leverage their professional stature to improve the well-being of their communities. Intrinsic motivations introduced by race-conscious professionalism complicate efforts to increase the representation of minorities in academic medicine. For many African American physicians, a desire to have their work focused on the community will be at odds with traditional paths to professional advancement. Specific policy options are discussed that would leverage race-conscious professionalism as a draw to a career in academic medicine, rather than a force that diverts commitment elsewhere. PMID:26760060

  17. European-American and African-American Mothers' Emotion Socialization Practices Relate Differently to Their Children's Academic and Social-Emotional Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Perry, Nicole B.; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines whether the relation between mothers' responses to their children's negative emotions and teachers' reports of children's academic performance and social-emotional competence are similar or different for European-American and African-American families. Two hundred mothers (137 European-American, 63…

  18. Assessing Social Anxiety in African American Youth using the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children

    OpenAIRE

    Pina, Armando A.; LITTLE, MICHELLE; Wynne, Henry; Beidel, Deborah C.

    2014-01-01

    Examined measurement invariance and cut-off scores of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C) using data corresponding to a convenience sample of 501 African American and Caucasian youth (Mage = 11.62 years, 249 girls; 49% with social anxiety disorder) using exploratory structural equation modeling and a weighted least squares mean variance estimator. For the cut-off scores, Receiver Operator Characteristic analyses were used along with Youden’s index to evaluate the bal...

  19. Africans and Black Americans in the United States: Social Distance and Differential Acculturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emoungu, Paul-Albert

    1992-01-01

    Presents an exploratory examination of the causes of social distance characterizing the association between Africans and African Americans. African American's perceptions about Africa and Africans are assessed through anecdotes and impressions, and thoughts and criticisms of Africans about African Americans are considered. A social science…

  20. [The development of German social medicine in the nineteenth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J C

    1994-01-01

    In his influential treatise System einer vollständigen medizinischen Polizey, Johann Peter Frank (1745-1821) made significant contributions to the establishment of the concept of medical police, which has been understood as the forerunner of social medicine. Cameralism, the German version of mercantilism, became the very basis on which Frank and other German writers developed the framework of medical police. 'Medical reform' was the catchword of German medical men in the 1840s. The medical reform movement of 1848 was partially caused by a deep political, economic, and social crisis. Although Industrial Revolution began in Germany later than in England and France during the first half of the nineteenth century, by 1848 the formation of German industrial working-class made medical reformers recognize the causal relationships between social and health problems. The outstanding figures in the German medical reform movement of this period were Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902), Solomon Neumann and Rudolf Leubuscher. In his famous Report on the Typhus Epidemic in Upper Silesia, Virchow proposed several radical measures that could be used against the epidemic: the absolute separation of the schools from the church, the establishment of self-government in the state and community, unlimited democracy, road building, and the improvement of agriculture and horticulture. ...

  1. Processes Linking Social Class and Racial Socialization in African American Dual-Earner Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouter, Ann C.; Baril, Megan E.; Davis, Kelly; McHale, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the links between social class, occupational self-direction, self-efficacy, and racial socialization in a sample of 128 two-parent African American couples raising adolescents. A series of multivariate, multilevel models revealed that mothers’ SES was connected to self-efficacy via its association with occupational self-direction; in turn, self-efficacy partially explained the association between occupational self-direction and racial socialization. The link between maternal self-efficacy and racial socialization depended on whether or not children had experienced discrimination. For fathers, a strong link between SES and occupational self-direction emerged, but significant associations were not found between occupational self-direction and self-efficacy, or self-efficacy and racial socialization. The discussion focuses on mother-father differences and the role of child effects in racial socialization. PMID:21709729

  2. American College of Nuclear Physics 1991 DOE day symposium: Aids and nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-31

    Since first described in 1981, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has become the medical dilemma of the century. AIDS retrovirus, and the economic consequences of this exposure are staggering. AIDS has been the topic of conferences and symposia worldwide. This symposium, to be held on January 25, 1991, at the 17th Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions of the American College of Nuclear Physicians, will expose the Nuclear Medicine Physicians/Radiologists to their role in the diagnosis of AIDS, and will educate them on the socio-economic and ethical issues related to this problem. In addition, the Nuclear Medicine Physicians/Radiologists must be aware of their role in the management of their departments in order to adequately protect the health care professionals working in their laboratories. Strategies are currently being developed to control the spread of bloodborne diseases within the health care setting, and it is incumbent upon the Nuclear Medicine community to be aware of such strategies.

  3. Social Networks, Support, and Psychosocial Functioning among American Indian Women in Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Jenny; Lopez, Darlene

    2005-01-01

    The relationship of social networks and social support to the psychosocial functioning (self-efficacy, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and hostility) of 159 American Indian women undergoing residential substance abuse treatment at Native American Connections was assessed. Social support and active participation by clients' families during…

  4. A Significant Number of Charter Diplomates Participate in American Board of Family Medicine (ABFM) Maintenance of Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, James C

    2015-01-01

    Considerable controversy about the value of participating in Maintenance of Certification has recently arisen within the medical community. Despite this controversy, large numbers of family physicians certified by the American Board of Family Medicine participate in Maintenance of Certification for Family Physicians. Surprisingly, a small but significant number of charter diplomats--those initially certified by the American Board of Family Medicine at its founding--are engaged in the process.

  5. Body Size and Social Self-Image among Adolescent African American Girls: The Moderating Influence of Family Racial Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granberg, Ellen M.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.

    2009-01-01

    Social psychologists have amassed a large body of work demonstrating that overweight African American adolescent girls have generally positive self-images, particularly when compared with overweight females from other racial and ethnic groups. Some scholars have proposed that elements of African American social experience may contribute to the…

  6. Community Violence, Interpartner Conflict, Parenting, and Social Support as Predictors of the Social Competence of African American Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravecz, Linda M.; Koblinsky, Sally A.; Randolph, Suzanne M.

    2008-01-01

    Adopting an ecological framework, this study examines the role of community violence exposure, interpartner conflict, positive parenting, and informal social support in predicting the social skills and behavior problems of low-income African American preschoolers. Participants were 184 African American mothers and female caregivers of Head Start…

  7. A Qualitative Examination of the Maternal Racial Socialization of African American Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Adrienne Laney

    2014-01-01

    The salience of racial socialization among African American families has received considerable attention in the literature; however, few scholars have examined how the process of racial socialization unfolds in families with very young children. This study investigated how African American mothers of preschool-age children approached the process of racial socialization. I interviewed African American mothers who were at least age 18 (N=12) with biological children between the ages of three an...

  8. American palms used for medicine, in the ethnobotanical and pharmacological publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sosnowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The center of diversity of palms (Arecaceae in tropical America is found in the Amazon basin and along the Panamanian isthmus.The greatest palm species richness has been reported for the Iquitos and Chocó areas. Many species of palms are used mainly for construction and due to their edible fruits. In addition, there are 104 palm species that are used for medicinal purposes in many regions of the Americas. Cocos nuciferaand Oenocarpus batauaare the most commonly used species for medicinal purposes. The fruit is the most commonly used part of palms for medicinal purposes (57 species. The traditional and medicinal use of plants has deep roots in indigenous communities of Latin America. The significance of ethnomedicine for health care of local populations can not be ignored anymore because it plays a significant role in basic health care in developing countries. Interdisciplinary research in antropology, ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology helps gather information on ethnomedicine and design new drugs for modern medicine. American palms are sources of useful bioactive compounds against diabetes, prostate hyperplasia and leishmaniasis.

  9. [Japanese medicines studied by Hepburn, an American missionary, in 1860s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, H; Kawabuchi, M; Tanaka, Y; Sugihara, M

    1994-01-01

    In the last days of the Tokugawa shogunate when Japan was opened its door to trade, J.C. Hepburn came to Japan, and he contributed to the modernization of Japan as a missionary, a doctor and an instructor. His great academic achievement was publishing a Japanese-English and English-Japanese dictionary. The dictionary contained words which were generally used in those days. It is said that it was way of living and culture in Japan as seen by an American. Words about medicine show the conditions of the business of medicine in those days. Until 1889 a pharmacist was not professionalized yet, nor was the separation of dispensary from medical practice effective. As most of doctors were Chinese herb doctors, there was not the word "MD." As Chinese doctors were the leading ones, lots of words about herb were mentioned. We can find only a few words about chemicals. The common people used patent medicine such as Daranisuke, Mankintan. Less than 100 years, sorts of medicine in Japan have changed to those of medicine in Western countries.

  10. Segmentation of overweight Americans and opportunities for social marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodinsky, Jane; Reynolds, Travis

    2009-01-01

    Background The food industry uses market segmentation to target products toward specific groups of consumers with similar attitudinal, demographic, or lifestyle characteristics. Our aims were to identify distinguishable segments within the US overweight population to be targeted with messages and media aimed at moving Americans toward more healthy weights. Methods Cluster analysis was used to identify segments of consumers based on both food and lifestyle behaviors related to unhealthy weights. Drawing from Social Learning Theory, the Health Belief Model, and existing market segmentation literature, the study identified five distinct, recognizable market segments based on knowledge and behavioral and environmental factors. Implications for social marketing campaigns designed to move Americans toward more healthy weights were explored. Results The five clusters identified were: Highest Risk (19%); At Risk (22%); Right Behavior/Wrong Results (33%); Getting Best Results (13%); and Doing OK (12%). Ninety-nine percent of those in the Highest Risk cluster were overweight; members watched the most television and exercised the least. Fifty-five percent of those in the At Risk cluster were overweight; members logged the most computer time and almost half rarely or never read food labels. Sixty-six percent of those in the Right Behavior/Wrong Results cluster were overweight; however, 95% of them were familiar with the food pyramid. Members reported eating a low percentage of fast food meals (8%) compared to other groups but a higher percentage of other restaurant meals (15%). Less than six percent of those in the Getting Best Results cluster were overweight; every member read food labels and 75% of members' meals were "made from scratch." Eighteen percent of those in the Doing OK cluster were overweight; members watched the least television and reported eating 78% of their meals "made from scratch." Conclusion This study demonstrated that five distinct market segments can be

  11. Segmentation of overweight Americans and opportunities for social marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynolds Travis

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The food industry uses market segmentation to target products toward specific groups of consumers with similar attitudinal, demographic, or lifestyle characteristics. Our aims were to identify distinguishable segments within the US overweight population to be targeted with messages and media aimed at moving Americans toward more healthy weights. Methods Cluster analysis was used to identify segments of consumers based on both food and lifestyle behaviors related to unhealthy weights. Drawing from Social Learning Theory, the Health Belief Model, and existing market segmentation literature, the study identified five distinct, recognizable market segments based on knowledge and behavioral and environmental factors. Implications for social marketing campaigns designed to move Americans toward more healthy weights were explored. Results The five clusters identified were: Highest Risk (19%; At Risk (22%; Right Behavior/Wrong Results (33%; Getting Best Results (13%; and Doing OK (12%. Ninety-nine percent of those in the Highest Risk cluster were overweight; members watched the most television and exercised the least. Fifty-five percent of those in the At Risk cluster were overweight; members logged the most computer time and almost half rarely or never read food labels. Sixty-six percent of those in the Right Behavior/Wrong Results cluster were overweight; however, 95% of them were familiar with the food pyramid. Members reported eating a low percentage of fast food meals (8% compared to other groups but a higher percentage of other restaurant meals (15%. Less than six percent of those in the Getting Best Results cluster were overweight; every member read food labels and 75% of members' meals were "made from scratch." Eighteen percent of those in the Doing OK cluster were overweight; members watched the least television and reported eating 78% of their meals "made from scratch." Conclusion This study demonstrated that five distinct

  12. Social-movement analysis of the American antinuclear movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilizing data from a survey of participants at the May 6, 1979 antinuclear rally in Washington, DC (N = 420), this dissertation explored some of the major structural and ideological characteristics of the American Antinuclear Movement. By organizing the data around three of the key analytical concepts in the study of social movements - mobilization, recruitment, and ideology - the author was able to derive from the demonstration sample a descriptive and illustrative analysis of those individuals, organizations, and processes involved in the national antinuclear crusade. Given that few researchers have actively studied the antinuclear movement beyond the scope of local or regional protests, this work constitutes the only empirical study to date examining a cross section of the movement's participants from a sociological perspective. It is also one of the few attempts to use a national demonstration as a social laboratory for the study of a social movement in general. In terms of the mobilization variables examined in the study, it was found that organizational networks, past movement activism, and individual resources were important factors in the May 6 mobilization effort. While less than one-half of the demonstrators were part of the antinuclear organizational network per se, most of them had been active in the major protest movements of the 1960's and 1970's. The demonstrators were relatively high in socio-economic resources and had occupational or educational schedules conducive to creating the necessary discretionary time for movement participation

  13. Racial and Ethnic Socialization in Later Generations of a Mexican American Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Reyes, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Later-generation Mexican American (third or more) experience diminishing educational gains compared with second-generation Mexican Americans. Positive racial and ethnic socialization (RES) and ethnic identity can facilitate strong academic performance. Using the oral histories of 18 third- and fourth-generation Mexican Americans in the same…

  14. American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (ACOEM): a professional association in service to industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDou, Joseph; Teitelbaum, Daniel T; Egilman, David S; Frank, Arthur L; Kramer, Sharon N; Huff, James

    2007-01-01

    The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (ACOEM) is a professional association that represents the interests of its company-employed physician members. Fifty years ago the ACOEM began to assert itself in the legislative arena as an advocate of limited regulation and enforcement of occupational health and safety standards and laws, and environmental protection. Today the ACOEM provides a legitimizing professional association for company doctors, and continues to provide a vehicle to advance the agendas of their corporate sponsors. Company doctors in ACOEM recently blocked attempts to have the organization take a stand on global warming. Company doctors employed by the petrochemical industry even blocked the ACOEM from taking a position on particulate air pollution. Industry money and influence pervade every aspect of occupational and environmental medicine. The controlling influence of industry over the ACOEM physicians should cease. The conflict of interests inherent in the practice of occupational and environmental medicine is not resolved by the ineffectual efforts of the ACOEM to establish a pretentious code of conduct. The conflicted interests within the ACOEM have become too deeply embedded to be resolved by merely a self-governing code of conduct. The specialty practice of occupational and environmental medicine has the opportunity and obligation to join the public health movement. If it does, the ACOEM will have no further purpose as it exists, and specialists in occupational and environmental medicine will meet with and be represented by public health associations. This paper chronicles the history of occupational medicine and industry physicians as influenced and even controlled by corporate leaders. PMID:18085054

  15. Performance of women candidates on the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination, 1973-1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcini, J J; Fletcher, S W; Quimby, B B; Shea, J A

    1985-01-01

    Trends in the performances of female and male candidates taking the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination from 1973 through 1982 were examined. The mean scores of female candidates who graduated from medical schools in the United States or Canada and who were taking the examination for the first time improved from 428 to 470, and the percentage of those passing improved from 59% to 76%. The number of women taking the examination also increased markedly, by over 500%. Performance of female candidates remained slightly lower than that of male candidates, regardless of the quality of the residency training program or the medical school from which a candidate had graduated or the rating given a candidate by the director of the candidate's residency program. Except for the oldest candidates, age followed this pattern as well. Our findings suggest that the gender gap in scores on the Certifying Examination in Internal Medicine is narrowing.

  16. Family medicine's search for manpower: the American Osteopathic Association accreditation option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Mark; Kunkle, Judith L; Doane, Cheryl

    2006-03-01

    In recent years, family medicine has encountered problems recruiting and filling its Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-accredited residencies. In addressing these reverses, one increasingly popular strategy has been to acquire American Osteopathic Association (AOA) accreditation as a way to tap into the growing number of osteopathic graduates. This stratagem is founded on assumptions that parallel-accredited postdoctoral programs are attractive to doctor of osteopathy (DO) graduates, that collaboration with sponsoring colleges of osteopathic medicine (COMs) provides direct access to osteopathic students, and that DOs can play an important role in replacing the increasing scarcity of United States medical graduates who are selecting specialty residencies. Within the past 5 years, nearly 10% of all ACGME family medicine residency programs have voluntarily obtained a second level of accreditation to also qualify as AOA-accredited family medicine residency programs. This strategy has produced mixed outcomes, as noted from the results of the osteopathic matching program. The flood of osteopathic graduates into these parallel-accredited programs has not occurred. In addition, recent AOA policy changes now require ACGME-accredited programs to make a deeper educational commitment to osteopathic postdoctoral education. The most successful ACGME/AOA-accredited programs have been those that are closely affiliated with and in near proximity of a COM and also train osteopathic students in required clerkship rotations. PMID:16518739

  17. African American and Latina(o) Community College Students' Social Capital and Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Lucero, Elena; Maes, Johanna B.; Klingsmith, Libby

    2014-01-01

    Using a framework of social and cultural capital, this study examined successful African American and Latina/o community college students. Based on focus group interviews with twenty two African American and Latina/o undergraduates at an urban community college, the authors reveal how social and cultural capital gained from students'…

  18. Work Socialization and Adolescents' Work-Related Values in Single-Mother African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokawa, Teru; McLoyd, Vonnie C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined African American mothers' work socialization messages in relation to adolescents' work-related values. Moderation effects of mother-adolescent relation quality on the linkage between maternal socialization messages and adolescents' outcomes were also examined. Participants were 245 single African American mothers and their…

  19. Social justice in climate services: Engaging African American farmers in the American South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Furman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to efforts to develop more inclusive climate services, understood as institutional arrangements and processes that generate and disseminate science-based climate information to promote improved preparedness to climate impacts. Discussion on equity in climate services tends to focus on the specific challenges of women and the poor in developing countries. We seek to broaden this scope by considering a farming population in the southern United States, whose particular circumstances are shaped by rural poverty as well as by racial discrimination, namely African American farmers. The research is based on a phone survey, in-depth interviews, and a workshop, and was conducted in collaboration with a civil right organization that helped the research team gain trust and entry to this community. The findings show that farmers in this study are vulnerable to drought given their relatively limited access to resources and risk management mechanisms. Climate forecasts can help these farmers move from coping strategies to deal with the effects of climate anomalies to proactive planning to anticipate and mitigate those effects. Research participants were able to identify a range of options for using such information in risk management decisions. Provision of climate services to African American farmers, however, must be consistent with existing patterns of knowledge management. These patterns are shaped by major trends stemming from the transformation of rural Southern life. Social networks of mutual assistance and knowledge transmission have been eroded by the outmigration of African American farmers from rural areas. Additionally, their relationship with public agencies is marred by a legacy of racial inequities, which makes it difficult for well-meaning projects involving the same agencies to establish legitimacy in this community. We discuss how insights from research findings and research process have guided programmatic efforts

  20. Perceived Racial Discrimination, Social Support, and Psychological Adjustment among African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelow, Hazel M.; Mosher, Catherine E.; Bowman, Marvella A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine three competing models of the relations among perceived discrimination, social support, and indicators of psychological adjustment in a sample of 135 African American college students. The three competing models, social support buffering, social support mobilization, and social support deterioration, were…

  1. Prospective links between ethnic socialization, ethnic and American identity, and well-being among Asian-American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Meaghan; Kiang, Lisa; Supple, Andrew

    2014-10-01

    Ethnic socialization and ethnic identity have been related to positive outcomes, but little research has examined these associations longitudinally. This three-wave study prospectively linked socialization messages at Time 1, ethnic identity and American identity at Time 2, and self-esteem and depressive symptoms at Time 3 in 147 (58% female; 25% first-generation) Asian-American adolescents. The results indicated positive links between cultural socialization messages and ethnic and American identity, though the latter association was significant only for females. Ethnic identity was positively related to self-esteem, and mediated the positive effect of cultural socialization on self-esteem. The promotion of mistrust was positively linked to self-esteem and negatively related to ethnic identity, though this latter association was significant for foreign-born youth only. Our findings highlight the importance of elucidating prospective links in identity development, and examining gender and generational differences within them. PMID:24162183

  2. Educational and Social-Ethical Issues in the Pursuit of Molecular Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinopoulos, Panagiotis A.; Karamouzis, Michalis V.; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G

    2008-01-01

    Molecular medicine is transforming everyday clinical practice from an empirical art to a rational ortho-molecular science. The prevailing concept in this emerging framework of molecular medicine is a personalized approach to disease prevention, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. In this mini-review, we discuss the educational and social-ethical issues raised by the advances of biomedical research as related to medical practice; outline the implications of molecular medicine for patients, ph...

  3. A nomogram to predict the probability of passing the American Board of Internal Medicine examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Brateanu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background : Although the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM certification is valued as a reflection of physicians’ experience, education, and expertise, limited methods exist to predict performance in the examination. Purpose : The objective of this study was to develop and validate a predictive tool based on variables common to all residency programs, regarding the probability of an internal medicine graduate passing the ABIM certification examination. Methods : The development cohort was obtained from the files of the Cleveland Clinic internal medicine residents who began training between 2004 and 2008. A multivariable logistic regression model was built to predict the ABIM passing rate. The model was represented as a nomogram, which was internally validated with bootstrap resamples. The external validation was done retrospectively on a cohort of residents who graduated from two other independent internal medicine residency programs between 2007 and 2011. Results : Of the 194 Cleveland Clinic graduates used for the nomogram development, 175 (90.2% successfully passed the ABIM certification examination. The final nomogram included four predictors: In-Training Examination (ITE scores in postgraduate year (PGY 1, 2, and 3, and the number of months of overnight calls in the last 6 months of residency. The nomogram achieved a concordance index (CI of 0.98 after correcting for over-fitting bias and allowed for the determination of an estimated probability of passing the ABIM exam. Of the 126 graduates from two other residency programs used for external validation, 116 (92.1% passed the ABIM examination. The nomogram CI in the external validation cohort was 0.94, suggesting outstanding discrimination. Conclusions : A simple user-friendly predictive tool, based on readily available data, was developed to predict the probability of passing the ABIM exam for internal medicine residents. This may guide program directors’ decision

  4. Correlation of the Emergency Medicine Resident In-service Examination with the American Osteopathic Board of Emergency Medicine Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Levy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Eligible residents during their fourth postgraduate year (PGY-4 of emergency medicine (EM residency training who seek specialty board certification in emergency medicine may take the American Osteopathic Board of Emergency Medicine (AOBEM Part 1 Board Certifying Examination (AOBEM Part 1. All residents enrolled in an osteopathic EM residency training program are required to take the EM Resident In-service Examination (RISE annually. Our aim was to correlate resident performance on the RISE with performance on the AOBEM Part 1. The study group consisted of osteopathic EM residents in their PGY-4 year of training who took both examinations during that same year. Methods: We examined data from 2009 to 2012 from the National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners (NBOME. The NBOME grades and performs statistical analyses on both the RISE and the AOBEM Part 1. We used the RISE exam scores, as reported by percentile rank, and compared them to both the score on the AOBEM Part 1 and the dichotomous outcome of passing or failing. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was generated to depict the relationship. Results: We studied a total of 409 residents over the 4-year period. The RISE percentile score correlated strongly with the AOBEM Part 1 score for residents who took both exams in the same year (r¼0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54 to 0.66. Pass percentage on the AOBEM Part 1 increased by resident percent decile on the RISE from 0% in the bottom decile to 100% in the top decile. ROC analysis also showed that the best cutoff for determining pass or fail on the AOBEM Part 1 was a 65th percentile score on the RISE. Conclusion: We have shown there is a strong correlation between a resident’s percentile score on the RISE during their PGY-4 year of residency training and first-time success on the AOBEM Part 1 taken during the same year. This information may be useful for osteopathic EM residents as an indicator as to how well

  5. American College of Sports Medicine Joint Position Statement. Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D Travis; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Burke, Louise M

    2016-03-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada (DC), and American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy's, DC's and ACSM's stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence athletic performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian/nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics (CSSD) is a registered dietitian/nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert.

  6. American College of Sports Medicine Joint Position Statement. Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D Travis; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Burke, Louise M

    2016-03-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada (DC), and American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy's, DC's and ACSM's stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence athletic performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian/nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics (CSSD) is a registered dietitian/nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert. PMID:26891166

  7. What's in a name? Generics and the persistence of the pharmaceutical brand in American medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jeremy A

    2011-10-01

    This paper explores the complex role that brand names have played in the maintenance of therapeutic standards within twentieth-century American medicine. What made a generic drug generic in the second half of the twentieth century--and by extension, what made a nonproprietary drug not proprietary in the first half--was dependent on changing drug branding practices and evolving standards of evidence attached to claims of therapeutic efficacy and safety. This article maps three eras of shifting oppositions between branded and unbranded pharmaceuticals. First, an era of "ethical marketing," extending from before the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 into roughly the 1930s, which pitted nonproprietary or "ethical" pharmaceuticals against proprietary or patent medicines; second, an era of ascendant brand-name prescribing from the 1930s until roughly the 1960s, as manufacturers of innovative and patent-protected "specialty" drugs depicted generic production as a form of counterfeiting; and finally, an era of generic backlash from the 1960s onwards, which assumed the interchangeability of branded and generic drugs. This article uses clinical, popular, policy, and trade literatures to explore the enduring roles of brand-logic in the face of generic competition in the American drug market. PMID:20858701

  8. Careers in Medical Physics and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amols, Howard

    2006-03-01

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), a member society of the AIP is the largest professional society of medical physicists in the world with nearly 5700 members. Members operate in medical centers, university and community hospitals, research laboratories, industry, and private practice. Medical physics specialties include radiation therapy physics, medical diagnostic and imaging physics, nuclear medicine physics, and medical radiation safety. The majority of AAPM members is based in hospital departments of radiation oncology or radiology and provide technical support for patient diagnosis and treatment in a clinical environment. Job functions include support of clinical care, calibration and quality assurance of medical devices such as linear accelerators for cancer therapy, CT, PET, MRI, and other diagnostic imaging devices, research, and teaching. Pathways into a career in medical physics require an advanced degree in medical physics, physics, engineering, or closely related field, plus clinical training in one or more medical physics specialties (radiation therapy physics, imaging physics, or radiation safety). Most clinically based medical physicists also obtain certification from the American Board of Radiology, and some states require licensure as well.

  9. Psychosocial Mechanisms Linking the Social Environment to Mental Health in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mama, Scherezade K; Li, Yisheng; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Lee, Rebecca E; Thompson, Deborah; Wetter, David W; Nguyen, Nga T; Reitzel, Lorraine R; McNeill, Lorna H

    2016-01-01

    Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001) and U.S. (p < .001) and low social support (p < .001) were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans. PMID:27119366

  10. Psychosocial Mechanisms Linking the Social Environment to Mental Health in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mama, Scherezade K; Li, Yisheng; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Lee, Rebecca E; Thompson, Deborah; Wetter, David W; Nguyen, Nga T; Reitzel, Lorraine R; McNeill, Lorna H

    2016-01-01

    Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p social support (p relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans.

  11. The Familial Socialization of Culturally Related Values in Mexican American Families

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, George P.; Berkel, Cady; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Ettekal, Idean; Jaconis, Maryanne; Boyd, Brenna M.

    2011-01-01

    Research has documented a relation between parents’ ethnic socialization and youth’s ethnic identity, yet there has been little research examining the transmission of cultural values from parents to their children through ethnic socialization and ethnic identity. This study examines a prospective model in which mothers’ and fathers’ Mexican American values and ethnic socialization efforts are linked to their children’s ethnic identity and Mexican American values, in a sample of 750 families (...

  12. Social Work Research on African Americans and Suicidal Behavior: A Systematic 25-year Review

    OpenAIRE

    Joe, Sean; Niedermeier, Danielle M.

    2008-01-01

    Suicide among African Americans is a neglected topic. Social workers practice in both clinical and nonclinical settings, and as the largest occupational group of mental health professionals, they have a unique opportunity to reach this underserved group. However, little is known about social work’s empirical knowledge base for recognition and treatment of suicidal behavior among African Americans. The authors performed a systematic critical review of published articles by social workers on Af...

  13. The American College of nuclear physicians 18th annual meeting and scientific sessions DOE day: Substance abuse and nuclear medicine abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the enormous personal and social cost Of substance abuse, there is very little knowledge with respect to the mechanisms by which these drugs produce addiction as well as to the mechanisms of toxicity. Similarly, there is a lack of effective therapeutic intervention to treat the drug abusers. In this respect, nuclear medicine could contribute significantly by helping to gather information using brain imaging techniques about mechanisms of drug addiction which, in turn, could help design better therapeutic interventions, and by helping in the evaluation and diagnosis of organ toxicity from the use of drugs of abuse. This volume contains six short descriptions of presentations made at the 18th Meeting of the American College of Nuclear Physicians -- DOE Day: Substance Abuse and Nuclear Medicine

  14. The American College of nuclear physicians 18th annual meeting and scientific sessions DOE day: Substance abuse and nuclear medicine abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    Despite the enormous personal and social cost Of substance abuse, there is very little knowledge with respect to the mechanisms by which these drugs produce addiction as well as to the mechanisms of toxicity. Similarly, there is a lack of effective therapeutic intervention to treat the drug abusers. In this respect, nuclear medicine could contribute significantly by helping to gather information using brain imaging techniques about mechanisms of drug addiction which, in turn, could help design better therapeutic interventions, and by helping in the evaluation and diagnosis of organ toxicity from the use of drugs of abuse. This volume contains six short descriptions of presentations made at the 18th Meeting of the American College of Nuclear Physicians -- DOE Day: Substance Abuse and Nuclear Medicine.

  15. Medicine as a Social Political Science : The Case of Spain c. 1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Ocaña, Esteban

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the Spanish contribution to the forming of Social Medicine, as a particular understanding of the relationship between health and society that eventually became a formal discipline, as a variant of Public Health. It focuses on two questions, first the literary tradition linking Social Sciences and Medicine, and the forming of the key concept of “social disease”; and, second, on the nature and aims of the inter-professional groups that championed this process. If during centuries, medical concepts had been used to explain social life, around the time of the First World War, doctors started to explain medical matters in social terms, in order to both reinforce their monopoly and offer a kind of solutions to social evils suited to the new professional middle classes. Massive programmes of prevention and care were applied as a receipt against severe social unrest, developing a trend of long lasting influence.

  16. Essential psychiatric medicines: wrong selection, high consumption and social problems

    OpenAIRE

    Fulone, Izabela; Barberato-Filho, Silvio; dos Santos, Michele Félix; de Lima Rossi, Carolina; Guyatt, Gordon; Lopes, Luciane Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization Essential Medicines List (WHO-LIST) and national essential medicines lists differ because many countries face significant challenges, such as product availability, cost, product quality and epidemiological disease profiles. In Brazil, governments pay for drugs that are included on the federal, state and municipal government (REMUME) lists. The extent to which municipal lists differ from state and national lists and from the WHO-LIST is unclear. We inve...

  17. Teacher and Observer Ratings of Young African American Children's Social and Emotional Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Marisha L.; Keenan, Kate; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2012-01-01

    Children's social and emotional competence abilities have been linked to successful social interactions and academic performance. This study examined the teacher and observer ratings of social and emotional competence for 89 young (3- to 5-year-old), African American children from economically stressed urban environments. There was a specific…

  18. Self-Concept in Arab American Adolescents: Implications of Social Support and Experiences in the Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbah, Rhonda; Miranda, Antoinette Halsell; Wheaton, Joe E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate three domains (Scholastic Competence, Social Acceptance, and Global Self-Worth) of self-concept in Arab American adolescents in relation to their school experiences, including discrimination, self-perceived teacher social support, and self-perceived classmate social support. Half of the sample either…

  19. African American Preschoolers' Social and Emotional Competence at School: The Influence of Teachers and Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Marisha L.; Strickland, Jennifer; Keenan, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Children learn social and emotional competence through socialization. Research has focused on the role of parents, however teachers also play an important part. This study examined the social and emotional competence of preschool African American children and the role teachers and mothers played in supporting these competencies. Teachers who…

  20. Profiles of Racial Socialization among African American Parents: Correlates, Context, and Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Nettles, Saundra Murray; Lima, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Self report and observational data on racial socialization practices in a sample of 218 African American parents of young children were used to determine whether or not parents could be characterized in terms of their pattern of racial socialization practices. Parents fell into four groups: silence about race, emphasis on cultural socialization,…

  1. "Our Family Business Was Education": Professional Socialization among Intergenerational African-American Teaching Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingus, Jeannine E.

    2008-01-01

    Teacher socialization is primarily examined as an institutional-based phenomenon, with particular focus on individuals' PK-12 schooling experiences, teacher education programs, or workplace-based socialization. This study situates professional socialization experiences of African-American teachers within teaching families, examining how culturally…

  2. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Domestic American and International Chinese Students' Social Media Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiong; Mocarski, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This survey of American and Chinese students at a state university in the southern United States measures Social Media (SM) use and attitudes toward SM. The purpose of this study was to investigate student perception and motivation of social media communication and the relationship between student cultural values and their social media…

  3. The Downside of Social Closure: Brokerage, Parental Influence, and Delinquency among African American Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangino, William

    2009-01-01

    Building on the literature that stresses the social capital advantages of open and diffuse social networks, this article shows that African American boys who are a social bridge across two or more large but cohesive peer groups are less delinquent than are their counterparts who are members of a single peer group. Statistical interaction terms…

  4. Evaluating Social Media Networks in Medicines Safety Surveillance: Two Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M. Coloma (Preciosa); B. Becker (Benedikt); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); E.M. Van Mulligen (Erik M.); J.A. Kors (Jan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: There is growing interest in whether social media can capture patient-generated information relevant for medicines safety surveillance that cannot be found in traditional sources. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential contribution of mining social m

  5. Social Work and Evaluation: Why You Might Be Interested in the American Evaluation Association Social Work Topical Interest Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Tracy C.; Kazi, Mansoor A.

    2012-01-01

    With increased pressure on programs to evaluate outcomes, the issue of evaluation in social work has never been so topical. In response to these pressures, there has been a growing interest in evidence-based practice and strategies for the evaluation of social work programs. The American Evaluation Association (AEA) is an international…

  6. Assessment of the social accountability of the faculty of medicine at University of Gezira, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsanousi, S; Elsanousi, M; Khalafallah, O; Habour, A

    2016-04-01

    A socially accountable medical school is one that directs its education, research and service activities towards addressing the priority health concerns of the community it serves and verifying its impact on the community. This study aimed to assess the social accountability of the University of Gezira faculty of medicine in Sudan. We reviewed the literature, faculty documents and reports and used both the World Health Organization social accountability grid and the conceptualization-production-usability model as frameworks for analysis. In most of the domains and phases of the social accountability grid, the faculty's educational programme was found to be well-planned and well-implemented, demonstrating an impact on the community and active participation in health-system development in the local area. The University of Gezira faculty of medicine is socially responsible and responsive and is on the way to becoming fully socially accountable in certain aspects. PMID:27432408

  7. Social support, psychological vulnerability, and HIV risk among African American men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Lena D; van den Berg, Jacob J; Chambers, Christopher S; Operario, Don

    2016-05-01

    Previous research has suggested a need to understand the social-psychological factors contributing to HIV risk among African American men who have sex with men (MSM). We conducted individual in-depth interviews with 34 adult African American MSM to examine their personal experiences about: (i) sources of social support, (ii) psychological responses to the presence or absence of social support and (iii) influences of social support on sexual behaviours. The majority of participants described limited positive encouragement and lack of emotional support from family, as well as few meaningful personal relationships. Feelings of isolation and mistrust about personal relationships led many participants to avoid emotional intimacy and seek physical intimacy through sexual encounters. Findings highlight a need for multilevel interventions that enhance social support networks and address the social-psychological, emotional and interpersonal factors that contribute to HIV risk among African American MSM. PMID:26588945

  8. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nancy R; DiMarco, Nancy M; Langley, Susie

    2009-03-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a rigorous, systematic, evidence-based analysis of nutrition and performance-specific literature with current scientific data related to energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training and competition, the use of supplements and ergogenic aids, nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes, and the roles and responsibilities of sports dietitians. Energy and macronutrient needs, especially carbohydrate and protein, must be met during times of high physical activity to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein to build and repair tissue. Fat intake should be sufficient to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as contribute energy for weight maintenance. Although exercise performance can be affected by body weight and composition, these physical measures should not be a criterion for sports performance and daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Adequate food and fluid should be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before exercise and drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Sports beverages containing carbohydrates and electrolytes may be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration, provide fuel for muscles, and decrease risk of dehydration and hyponatremia. Vitamin

  9. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nancy R; DiMarco, Nancy M; Langley, Susie

    2009-03-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a rigorous, systematic, evidence-based analysis of nutrition and performance-specific literature with current scientific data related to energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training and competition, the use of supplements and ergogenic aids, nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes, and the roles and responsibilities of sports dietitians. Energy and macronutrient needs, especially carbohydrate and protein, must be met during times of high physical activity to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein to build and repair tissue. Fat intake should be sufficient to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as contribute energy for weight maintenance. Although exercise performance can be affected by body weight and composition, these physical measures should not be a criterion for sports performance and daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Adequate food and fluid should be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before exercise and drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Sports beverages containing carbohydrates and electrolytes may be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration, provide fuel for muscles, and decrease risk of dehydration and hyponatremia. Vitamin

  10. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to the energy needs of athletes, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, the nutrient and fluid needs of athletes, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and the nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs--especially carbohydrate and protein intake--must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repair of tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20% to 25% of energy); however, there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well-hydrated before beginning to exercise; athletes should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help

  11. Position of Dietitians of Canada, the American Dietetic Association, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    It is the position of Dietitians of Canada, the American Dietetic Association, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to athletes' energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, athletes' nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs - especially carbohydrate and protein intake - must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repairing tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20-25% of energy); there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose levels during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before beginning exercise; they should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help maintain blood glucose levels and the

  12. Joint Position Statement: nutrition and athletic performance. American College of Sports Medicine, American Dietetic Association, and Dietitians of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to the energy needs of athletes, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, the nutrient and fluid needs of athletes, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and the nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs-especially carbohydrate and protein intake-must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repair of tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20% to 25% of energy); however, there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well-hydrated before beginning to exercise; athletes should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help maintain

  13. Social Media in Professional Medicine: New Resident Perceptions and Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Lefebvre, Cedric; Mesner, Jason; Stopyra, Jason; O'Neill, James; Husain, Iltifat; Geer, Carol; Gerancher, Karen; Atkinson, Hal; Harper, Erin; Huang, William; Cline, David M

    2016-01-01

    Background For younger generations, unconstrained online social activity is the norm. Little data are available about perceptions among young medical practitioners who enter the professional clinical arena, while the impact of existing social media policy on these perceptions is unclear. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the existing perceptions about social media and professionalism among new physicians entering in professional clinical practice; and to determine the e...

  14. Neighborhoods and Mental Health: Exploring Ethnic Density, Poverty, and Social Cohesion among Asian Americans and Latinos

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Seunghye; Zhang, Wei; Walton, Emily

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the associations of neighborhood ethnic density and poverty with social cohesion and self-rated mental health among Asian Americans and Latinos. Path analysis is employed to analyze data from the 2002–2003 National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) and the 2000 U.S. Census (N=2095 Asian Americans living in N=259 neighborhoods; N=2554 Latinos living in N=317 neighborhoods). Findings reveal that neighborhood ethnic density relates to poor mental health in both groups. ...

  15. A Rare Mullerian Duct Anomaly Not Included in the Classification System by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereene J. Brown

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of a 37-year-old female with a uterine septum (two cavities, a normal single fundal contour, two cervices, and a longitudinal vaginal septum. This is a rare finding that is not described in the current classification system by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine.

  16. Social environment and sexual risk-taking among gay and transgender African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robin; Bernadini, Stephen; Jemmott, John B

    2013-01-01

    More prevention effort is required as the HIV epidemic increases among gay and transgender African American youth. Using ecological systems theory and an integrative model of behaviour change, this study examines the sexual behaviour of gay and transgender African American young people as embedded within the unique social and structural environments affecting this population. Also examined is the important role played by mobile technology in the social and sexual lives of individuals. Seven focus groups were conducted with 54 African American young adults in a northeastern US city. The findings provide a rich examination of the social and sexual lives of gay and transgender African American youth, focusing on the social environment and the impact of the environment on sexual-risk behaviour.

  17. The Truth about Truth-Telling in American Medicine: A Brief History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, Bryan; Frankel, Richard; Kodish, Eric; Harry Isaacson, J

    2016-01-01

    Transparency has become an ethical cornerstone of American medicine. Today, patients have the right to know their health information, and physicians are obliged to provide it. It is expected that patients will be informed of their medical condition regardless of the severity or prognosis. This ethos of transparency is ingrained in modern trainees from the first day of medical school onward. However, for most of American history, the intentional withholding of information was the accepted norm in medical practice. It was not until 1979 that a majority of physicians reported disclosing cancer diagnoses to their patients. To appreciate the current state of the physician-patient relationship, it is important to understand how physician-patient communication has developed over time and the forces that led to these changes. In this article, we trace the ethics and associated practices of truth-telling during the past two centuries, and outline the many pressures that influenced physician behavior during that time period. We conclude that the history of disclosure is not yet finished, as physicians still struggle to find the best way to share difficult information without causing undue harm to their patients.

  18. The Truth about Truth-Telling in American Medicine: A Brief History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, Bryan; Frankel, Richard; Kodish, Eric; Harry Isaacson, J

    2016-01-01

    Transparency has become an ethical cornerstone of American medicine. Today, patients have the right to know their health information, and physicians are obliged to provide it. It is expected that patients will be informed of their medical condition regardless of the severity or prognosis. This ethos of transparency is ingrained in modern trainees from the first day of medical school onward. However, for most of American history, the intentional withholding of information was the accepted norm in medical practice. It was not until 1979 that a majority of physicians reported disclosing cancer diagnoses to their patients. To appreciate the current state of the physician-patient relationship, it is important to understand how physician-patient communication has developed over time and the forces that led to these changes. In this article, we trace the ethics and associated practices of truth-telling during the past two centuries, and outline the many pressures that influenced physician behavior during that time period. We conclude that the history of disclosure is not yet finished, as physicians still struggle to find the best way to share difficult information without causing undue harm to their patients. PMID:27352417

  19. The Truth about Truth-Telling in American Medicine: A Brief History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, Bryan; Frankel, Richard; Kodish, Eric; Harry Isaacson, J

    2016-01-01

    Transparency has become an ethical cornerstone of American medicine. Today, patients have the right to know their health information, and physicians are obliged to provide it. It is expected that patients will be informed of their medical condition regardless of the severity or prognosis. This ethos of transparency is ingrained in modern trainees from the first day of medical school onward. However, for most of American history, the intentional withholding of information was the accepted norm in medical practice. It was not until 1979 that a majority of physicians reported disclosing cancer diagnoses to their patients. To appreciate the current state of the physician-patient relationship, it is important to understand how physician-patient communication has developed over time and the forces that led to these changes. In this article, we trace the ethics and associated practices of truth-telling during the past two centuries, and outline the many pressures that influenced physician behavior during that time period. We conclude that the history of disclosure is not yet finished, as physicians still struggle to find the best way to share difficult information without causing undue harm to their patients. PMID:27352417

  20. The Influence of Social Capital Factors on African-American and Hispanic High School Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jacqueline L.

    2009-01-01

    The underachievement of African American and Hispanic students has been an ongoing problem for schools in the United States. The purpose of this investigation was to add to the existing body of knowledge concerning social capital of African American and Hispanic high school students' academic achievement. Using a nationally representative sample…

  1. Social Loafing on an Optimizing Task: Cross-Cultural Differences Among Chinese and Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrenya, William K., Jr.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    American and Chinese students (Grades 6 and 9) performed an auditory tracking task that required counting tone patterns alone and in pairs. The Americans tended to work harder individually, while the Chinese performed better in pairs. These findings contradict earlier suggestions that "social loafing" is a transcultural phenomenon. (KH)

  2. Features of Digital African American Language in a Social Network Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines a social network site (SNS) where specific interlocutors communicate by combining aspects of academic American English (AE), digital language (DL), and African American Language (AAL)--creating a digital form of AAL or digital AAL (DAAL). This article describes the features of DAAL in the discursive, online context of MySpace,…

  3. New Social Learning from Two Spirit Native American/span>s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, J. B., Jr.; Sheppard, Maia

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors highlight connections between research on Two Spirit Native Americans and standard social studies curriculum. Two Spirit is a Pan-Indian term describing Native Americans who believe they embody both masculine and feminine characteristics/traits in one physical body. Findings from this research expand the field's…

  4. Social Movement Tactics, Organizational Change and the Spread of African-American Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Fabio

    2006-01-01

    Social movement research suggests that protest is effective because it de-legitimizes existing policies and imposes costs on power holders. The author tests this hypothesis with data on African-American student protest and the creation of departments of African-American Studies. The author finds that nondisruptive protest, such as rallies and…

  5. The Social Construction of Ethnicity and Masculinity of African American College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jonathan Lee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how African American college men construct masculine and ethnic notions of their identities, despite disproportionate social obstacles and hegemonic stereotypes. The primary research question of this study was, "how might African American undergraduate males understand and develop healthy concepts…

  6. Balancing Two Cultures: American Indian/Alaska Native Medical Students' Perceptions of Academic Medicine Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, John Paul; Poll-Hunter, Norma; Stern, Nicole; Garcia, Andrea N; Brewster, Cheryl

    2016-08-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) remain underrepresented in the academic medicine workforce and little is known about cultivating AI/AN medical students' interest in academic medicine careers. Five structured focus groups were conducted including 20 medical students and 18 physicians. The discussion guide explored factors influencing AI/AN trainees' academic medicine career interest and recommended approaches to increase their pursuit of academia. Consensual qualitative research was employed to analyze transcripts. Our research revealed six facilitating factors, nine dissuading factors, and five recommendations towards cultivating AI/AN pursuit of academia. Facilitators included the opportunity to teach, serving as a role model/mentor, enhancing the AI/AN medical education pipeline, opportunities to influence institution, collegiality, and financial stability. Dissuading factors included limited information on academic career paths, politics, lack of credit for teaching and community service, isolation, self-doubt, lower salary, lack of positions in rural areas, lack of focus on clinical care for AI/AN communities, and research obligations. Recommendations included heighten career awareness, recognize the challenges in balancing AI/AN and academic cultures, collaborate with IHS on faculty recruitment strategies, identify concordant role models/mentors, and identify loan forgiveness programs. Similar to other diverse medical students', raising awareness of academic career opportunities especially regarding teaching and community scholarship, access to concordant role models/mentors, and supportive institutional climates can also foster AI/AN medical students' pursuit of academia. Unique strategies for AI/AN trainees include learning how to balance AI/AN and academic cultures, collaborating with IHS on faculty recruitment strategies, and increasing faculty opportunities in rural areas.

  7. Balancing Two Cultures: American Indian/Alaska Native Medical Students' Perceptions of Academic Medicine Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, John Paul; Poll-Hunter, Norma; Stern, Nicole; Garcia, Andrea N; Brewster, Cheryl

    2016-08-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) remain underrepresented in the academic medicine workforce and little is known about cultivating AI/AN medical students' interest in academic medicine careers. Five structured focus groups were conducted including 20 medical students and 18 physicians. The discussion guide explored factors influencing AI/AN trainees' academic medicine career interest and recommended approaches to increase their pursuit of academia. Consensual qualitative research was employed to analyze transcripts. Our research revealed six facilitating factors, nine dissuading factors, and five recommendations towards cultivating AI/AN pursuit of academia. Facilitators included the opportunity to teach, serving as a role model/mentor, enhancing the AI/AN medical education pipeline, opportunities to influence institution, collegiality, and financial stability. Dissuading factors included limited information on academic career paths, politics, lack of credit for teaching and community service, isolation, self-doubt, lower salary, lack of positions in rural areas, lack of focus on clinical care for AI/AN communities, and research obligations. Recommendations included heighten career awareness, recognize the challenges in balancing AI/AN and academic cultures, collaborate with IHS on faculty recruitment strategies, identify concordant role models/mentors, and identify loan forgiveness programs. Similar to other diverse medical students', raising awareness of academic career opportunities especially regarding teaching and community scholarship, access to concordant role models/mentors, and supportive institutional climates can also foster AI/AN medical students' pursuit of academia. Unique strategies for AI/AN trainees include learning how to balance AI/AN and academic cultures, collaborating with IHS on faculty recruitment strategies, and increasing faculty opportunities in rural areas. PMID:26896055

  8. Social Anxiety and Mental Health Service Use Among Asian American High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Chad; Masia Warner, Carrie; Okazaki, Sumie; Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Sanchez, Amanda; Esseling, Petra; Lynch, Chelsea

    2015-10-01

    Asian American adults endorse more symptoms of social anxiety (SA) on self-report measures than European Americans, but demonstrate lower prevalence rates of SA disorder in epidemiological studies. These divergent results create ambiguity concerning the mental health needs of Asian Americans. The present study is the first to investigate this issue in adolescents through assessment of self-reported SA in Asian American high school students. Parent and self-ratings of impairment related to SA and self-reported mental health service use for SA were also measured. Asian American students endorsed a greater number of SA symptoms and scored in the clinical range more frequently than other ethnic groups. Also, Asian American and Latino students endorsed more school impairment related to SA than other ethnic groups. No differences in parent-reported impairment or service utilization were identified. Implications for future research and treatment for SA among Asian American adolescents are discussed.

  9. Radiation doses for pediatric nuclear medicine studies: comparing the North American consensus guidelines and the pediatric dosage card of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, Frederick D.; Drubach, Laura A.; Treves, S. Ted; Fahey, Frederic H. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Joint Program in Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Gelfand, Michael J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Section of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Estimated radiation dose is important for assessing and communicating the risks and benefits of pediatric nuclear medicine studies. Radiation dose depends on the radiopharmaceutical, the administered activity, and patient factors such as age and size. Most radiation dose estimates for pediatric nuclear medicine have not been based on administered activities of radiopharmaceuticals recommended by established practice guidelines. The dosage card of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) and the North American consensus guidelines each provide recommendations of administered activities of radiopharmaceuticals in children, but there are substantial differences between these two guidelines. For 12 commonly performed pediatric nuclear medicine studies, two established pediatric radiopharmaceutical administration guidelines were used to calculate updated radiation dose estimates and to compare the radiation exposure resulting from the recommendations of each of the guidelines. Estimated radiation doses were calculated for 12 common procedures in pediatric nuclear medicine using administered activities recommended by the dosage card of the EANM (version 1.5.2008) and the 2010 North American consensus guidelines for radiopharmaceutical administered activities in pediatrics. Based on standard models and nominal age-based weights, radiation dose was estimated for typical patients at ages 1, 5, 10 and 15 years and adult. The resulting effective doses were compared, with differences greater than 20% considered significant. Following either the EANM dosage card or the 2010 North American guidelines, the highest effective doses occur with radiopharmaceuticals labeled with fluorine-18 and iodine-123. In 24% of cases, following the North American consensus guidelines would result in a substantially higher radiation dose. The guidelines of the EANM dosage card would lead to a substantially higher radiation dose in 39% of all cases, and in 62% of cases in which patients

  10. Peculiarities of medical sociology: application of social theories in analyzing health and medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminskas, Raimundas; Darulis, Žilvinas

    2007-01-01

    Objective. To reveal the peculiarities of medical sociology introducing the application of social theories in analyzing public health and medicine. Methods. Comparative and descriptive analysis of scientific references found and current situation. Results. During the last decade of the 20th century, the discussions about the sociology of health and medicine as separate discipline and its practical applications became more active. Main factors determined the growing importance of discipl...

  11. [Ethical, legal and social issues on regenerative medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukata, Yukiyoshi

    2004-08-01

    There should have been it for the purpose of the severe handling opening meatus for done study after "The law concerning regulation relating to human cloning techniques and other similar techniques" paid its attention to medical utility of "specified embryo", and having forbidden transplantation to prenatal. There is a problem and asks a law and consistency with "The guidelines for handling of specified embryo" it and, despite the duration, does not get skill. If an ES cell, tissue stem cell and human clone embryo can cry in subject of study as the Trinity, it is not possible for those availability and evaluation of safety. Study of regenerative medicine does not consist last if does not use a cell having gamete, germ, an embryo and the specific character which said. We attention to utility of regenerative medicine and takes a national strategic part, correspondence supporting development of steady study is demanded. The result is reduced to its elements in the future by society.

  12. Moderating effects of perceived social benefits on inhalant initiation among American Indian and White youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaim, Randall C

    2016-05-01

    This study examined whether perceived social benefits moderated the relationship between social influence variables (school attachment, peer inhalant use, perceived family caring, and parental monitoring) and stage of inhalant initiation (Study 1) and lifetime inhalant use (Study 2). Participants were 7th to 12th grade students attending schools on or near American Indian reservations, with comparisons made between American Indian and White students. A total of 3,498 American Indian and 1,596 White students were surveyed. Differences in mean levels of social influence variables were found across ethnicity and stage of inhalant initiation and lifetime inhalant use. Structural equation models were evaluated to examine variable relationships for the 2 studies. For Study 1, social influence variables did not clearly differentiate early versus later inhalant initiators, and perceived social benefits failed to serve as a moderator. More differences were observed between users and nonusers across measures of social influence (Study 2). Perceived social benefits generally did not moderate the relationships, with 2 exceptions. Low perceived social benefits provided greater protection against the influence of peers on lifetime inhalant use among White students, whereas high perceived social benefits increased risk of peer influence among American Indian students. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26962974

  13. Impact of subspecialty elective exposures on outcomes on the American board of internal medicine certification examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugam Victoria K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The American Board of Internal Medicine Certification Examination (ABIM-CE is one of several methods used to assess medical knowledge, an Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME core competency for graduating internal medicine residents. With recent changes in graduate medical education program directors and internal medicine residents are seeking evidence to guide decisions regarding residency elective choices. Prior studies have shown that formalized elective curricula improve subspecialty ABIM-CE scores. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate whether the number of subspecialty elective exposures or the specific subspecialties which residents complete electives in impact ABIM-CE scores. Methods ABIM-CE scores, elective exposures and demographic characteristics were collected for MedStar Georgetown University Hospital internal medicine residents who were first-time takers of the ABIM-CE in 2006–2010 (n=152. Elective exposures were defined as a two-week period assigned to the respective subspecialty. ABIM-CE score was analyzed using the difference between the ABIM-CE score and the standardized passing score (delta-SPS. Subspecialty scores were analyzed using percentage of correct responses. Data was analyzed using GraphPad Prism version 5.00 for Windows. Results Paired elective exposure and ABIM-CE scores were available in 131 residents. There was no linear correlation between ABIM-CE mean delta-SPS and the total number of electives or the number of unique elective exposures. Residents with ≤14 elective exposures had higher ABIM-CE mean delta-SPS than those with ≥15 elective exposures (143.4 compared to 129.7, p=0.051. Repeated electives in individual subspecialties were not associated with significant difference in mean ABIM-CE delta-SPS. Conclusions This study did not demonstrate significant positive associations between individual subspecialty elective exposures and ABIM-CE mean delta

  14. The historical social positioning of nursing and medicine: implications for career choice, early socialization and interprofessional collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sheri; Doucet, Shelley; Hall, Linda McGillis

    2014-03-01

    For almost half a century, research has identified that effective teamwork is essential in order to enhance care provision and health outcomes for patients. Although the value of teamwork is well-recognized in healthcare, the historically rooted dynamics of workplace relationships create a myriad of challenges to creating collaborative teams. Understanding the history of interpersonal dynamics between health professionals can provide direction for future interprofessional education and collaboration strategies. The aim of this paper is to provide a historical overview of the social positioning of nursing and medicine in the context of interprofessional collaboration. Few professions work as closely as nursing and medicine. Despite the well-recognized benefits of interprofessional collaboration, these two professions are often socially positioned in opposition to one another and depicted as adversarial. This analysis will seek to advance our understanding of the historical roots between these two professions and their relationships with and among each other in relation to career choice, early socialization and patient care delivery. An exploration of the historical social positioning of nursing and medicine can provide an enhanced understanding of the barriers to interprofessional collaboration and inform future successes in interprofessional education and practice among all health and social care professions. PMID:24397599

  15. Does American social work have a progressive tradition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdach, Allison D

    2010-01-01

    Social work authors in the 1950s claimed progressivism as a unique social work "tradition" and set ofvalues, and this historical interpretation has influenced many versions of social work history since that time. Today, other voices in the profession claim various divergent traditions for social work and note that the progressive tradition has waned in the profession. Given these uncertainties, the question of whether social work has or still possesses a progressive tradition is once again revisited, and the current relationship between social work and progressivism is evaluated.

  16. Men Do Matter: Ethnographic Insights on the Socially Supportive Role of the African American Uncle in the Lives of Inner-City African American Male Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the role of the African American uncle as a vital yet overlooked form of social support and social capital in the lives of adolescent African American male sons living in single-female-headed households. Research rarely examines the affective roles and functions of men in Black families; moreover, poor urban Black male youth…

  17. Integration of molecular pathology, epidemiology and social science for global precision medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Akihiro; Milner, Danny A; Giovannucci, Edward L; Nishihara, Reiko; Tan, Andy S; Kawachi, Ichiro; Ogino, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    The precision medicine concept and the unique disease principle imply that each patient has unique pathogenic processes resulting from heterogeneous cellular genetic and epigenetic alterations and interactions between cells (including immune cells) and exposures, including dietary, environmental, microbial and lifestyle factors. As a core method field in population health science and medicine, epidemiology is a growing scientific discipline that can analyze disease risk factors and develop statistical methodologies to maximize utilization of big data on populations and disease pathology. The evolving transdisciplinary field of molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) can advance biomedical and health research by linking exposures to molecular pathologic signatures, enhancing causal inference and identifying potential biomarkers for clinical impact. The MPE approach can be applied to any diseases, although it has been most commonly used in neoplastic diseases (including breast, lung and colorectal cancers) because of availability of various molecular diagnostic tests. However, use of state-of-the-art genomic, epigenomic and other omic technologies and expensive drugs in modern healthcare systems increases racial, ethnic and socioeconomic disparities. To address this, we propose to integrate molecular pathology, epidemiology and social science. Social epidemiology integrates the latter two fields. The integrative social MPE model can embrace sociology, economics and precision medicine, address global health disparities and inequalities, and elucidate biological effects of social environments, behaviors and networks. We foresee advancements of molecular medicine, including molecular diagnostics, biomedical imaging and targeted therapeutics, which should benefit individuals in a global population, by means of an interdisciplinary approach of integrative MPE and social health science.

  18. Residential Segregation and Social Differentiation in American Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roof, W. Clark; Van Valey, Thomas L.

    1972-01-01

    Reports research designed to resolve a methodological inconsistency in previous studies, by examining the interrelations among several indexes of residential segregation and measures of educational, occupational, and income differentiation in American urban areas as of 1960. (JM)

  19. Social Cognitive and Cultural Orientation Predictors of Well-Being in Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Kayi; Lent, Robert W.; Miller, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the predictive utility of Lent and Brown's social cognitive model of educational and work well-being with a sample of Asian American college students, indexing well-being in terms of academic and social domain satisfaction. In addition, we examined the role of acculturation and enculturation as culture-specific predictors…

  20. Levels of Death Anxiety: A Comparison of American and Lithuanian Health and Social Service Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roff, Lucinda Lee; Simon, Cassandra; Klemmack, David; Butkeviciene, Ruta

    2006-01-01

    Globalization, coupled with increased attention to issues surrounding death, highlights the need to explore cultural influences on the social, personal, and psychological consequences of death. This study compared the responses of 82 American and 119 Lithuanian health and social service personnel on seven subscales of the Multidimensional Fear of…

  1. Toward Understanding How Social Capital Mediates the Impact of Mobility on Mexican American Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ream, Robert K.

    2005-01-01

    This study links the social capital literature with research on student mobility to investigate low test score performance among Mexican origin youth. Specifically, it examines whether Mexican Americans learn less in school than non-Latino Whites, in part because they have limited social capital due to the fact that they are more mobile during…

  2. How Religious, Social, and Cultural Capital Factors Influence Educational Aspirations of African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fadhli, Hussain M.; Kersen, Thomas Michael

    2010-01-01

    Data from 2008 Monitoring the Future were used to test how well religious, family, and cultural social capital influenced 8th and 10th grade student aspirations, future plans, and prior academic experience. This study focused only on a sample of 4,273 African American students. Results indicated a strong association between family social capital…

  3. Interpersonal Identity and Social Capital: The Importance of Commitment for Low Income, Rural, African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerpelman, Jennifer; White, Lloyd

    2006-01-01

    Social capital may be particularly important for the well-being and future opportunities of African American adolescents living in low income families. In this study, linkages between interpersonal identity formation and adolescents' perceptions of social capital quality were examined in a cross-sectional study of 374 low income, rural, African…

  4. Social Network Type and Subjective Well-Being in a National Sample of Older Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Howard; Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The study considers the social networks of older Americans, a population for whom there have been few studies of social network type. It also examines associations between network types and well-being indicators: loneliness, anxiety, and happiness. Design and Methods: A subsample of persons aged 65 years and older from the first wave of…

  5. Political Participation and Social Capital among Mexicans and Mexican Americans in Central Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracin, Julia; Valeva, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the influence of bridging and bonding social capital in political participation while controlling for sociodemographic and psychological factors among Mexicans and Mexican Americans in Illinois. Bridging social capital significantly predicted two types of participation. Participants who felt their lives were linked to those of…

  6. The Revolt of the Engineers. Social Responsibility and the American Engineering Profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Edwin T., Jr.

    In examining the history of American engineering, this book emphasizes professionalism, social responsibility, and ethics. It explains how some engineers have attempted to express a concern for the social effects of technology and to forge codes of ethics which could articulate the profession's fundamental obligation to the public. The document's…

  7. Family Socialization and the Ethnic Identity of Mexican-American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, George P.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Aspects of a theoretical model of the socialization of ethnic identity were tested for 45 6- to 10-year-old Mexican-American children and their mothers. As predicted, socialization indices functioned as a mediator of the influence of ethnic family background on children's ethnic identity. (SLD)

  8. Social work research on African Americans and suicidal behavior: a systematic 25-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Sean; Niedermeier, Danielle M

    2008-11-01

    Suicide among African Americans is a neglected topic. Social workers practice in both clinical and nonclinical settings, and as the largest occupational group of mental health professionals, they have a unique opportunity to reach this underserved group. However, little is known about social work's empirical knowledge base for recognition and treatment of suicidal behavior among African Americans. The authors performed a systematic critical review of published articles by social workers on African American suicide and suicidal behavior, to ascertain the state of social worker's contribution to and knowledge of suicide risk factors and effective treatments. They conducted Web-based (for example, Social Work Abstracts, PsycINFO, PubMed, JSTOR) and manual searches of suicide research conducted by social work investigators and published in peer-reviewed journals from 1980 to 2005. References cited in the articles were used to identify candidate articles. According to the search results, social workers contributed only 11 empirical research articles focusing on African American suicide or nonfatal suicidal behavior. Risk factors for suicide are reviewed, and the implications for clinical social work practice and research are addressed.

  9. Exposure to Violence and Aggression: Protective Roles of Social Support among Urban African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhorin, Shira; McMahon, Susan D.

    2008-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the impact of social support on the relation between exposure to violence and aggressive behavior, as reported by self, peers, and teachers. The main-effects and stress-buffering models of social support were tested for parents, teachers, classmates, and close friends among 127 urban, African American youth. The…

  10. Predictors of African American and European American Adolescents' Endorsement of Race-Conscious Social Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Julie Milligan; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2011-01-01

    To examine the predictors of adolescents' evaluations of affirmative action and school desegregation policies, African American and European American students (ns = 94 and 116, respectively; aged 14 to 17 years) attending a racially diverse high school in the Midwestern United States completed measures of (a) implicit racial attitudes, (b)…

  11. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Social Problems Disguised as Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Many of the diseases seen in the clinic are actually symptoms of social problems. It is often easier for the physician to treat the symptoms than to be a coach and help the patient to assume responsibility in order to improve quality of life, social situation, and relations. If the physician ignores the signs of the disease as a symptom of social problems, and treats the patient with pharmaceuticals, he can give the patient the best justification in the world not to do anything about the situation. It is very important that the physician is not tricked by the games the socially troubled patient, more or less unconsciously, is playing. A firm and wise attitude that confronts the patient with his or her lack of responsibility for solving social problems seems to be a constructive way out. The physician can give holding and support, but the responsibility must remain with the patient. Often it is better for the patient that the physician abstains from giving drugs that can remedy the symptoms and takes the role of a coach instead. Suffering is not necessarily bad, suffering is actually highly motivating and often the most efficient source of learning. Coaching can help the patient canalize his motivation into highly constructive considerations and behavior. A holistic approach thus gives the patient learning and helps him rehabilitate his social reality. Concerning children with recurrent or chronic pain, we have observed an overuse of painkillers, where we believe part is of a psychosomatic nature due to poor thriving in the family. Here the physician has an important job helping the parents to develop as persons, teaching them the basic holding of awareness, respect, care, acknowledgment and acceptance of their child. Most of the chronic pain and discomfort with children can be improved if the physician understands how to use the holistic medical toolbox.

  12. BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF SOCIAL INTEGRATION AND SOLIDARITY AS PARAMETERS FOR POSTGRADUATE PROGRAM EVALUATION OF MEDICINE III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Fouto Matias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To provide information in the maturation process of the general conception of social inclusion and solidarity. Methods: The following official CAPES sources were consulted: resolutions of the Technical-Scientific Council; models of evaluation forms; current legislation and ordinances; relationship with the Great Area courses; Dinter and Minter evaluation projects; and the assessment application. Results: Social inclusion and solidarity are recent and innovative parameters to be developed by postgraduate programs and evaluated by area committees organized by Capes. There is need for better understanding by the postgraduate faculty of Medicine III the characteristics of relevant actions on social inclusion. The basic theme of life support help in understanding how Medicine III can expand its operations in basic education without compromising the innovative and transformer character of postgraduate. Conclusion: Postgraduate must innovate its insertion in teaching processes, managed care or any other field. What is sought is the power of social transformation, inherent to its spirit and exercise.

  13. Social-Cognitive Predictors of College Student Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versnik Nowak, Amy L.; Dorman, Steve M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little research has addressed the prevalence and predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among undergraduate students. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to: (1) measure the prevalence and type of CAM use among a sample of college undergraduates, and (2) test the significance of select social-cognitive…

  14. Code of Ethics for the American Association of Physicists in Medicine: report of Task Group 109.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serago, Christopher F; Adnani, Nabil; Bank, Morris I; BenComo, Jose A; Duan, Jun; Fairobent, Lynne; Freedman, D Jay; Halvorsen, Per H; Hendee, William R; Herman, Michael G; Morse, Richard K; Mower, Herbert W; Pfeiffer, Douglas E; Root, William J; Sherouse, George W; Vossler, Matthew K; Wallace, Robert E; Walters, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive Code of Ethics for the members of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) is presented as the report of Task Group 109 which consolidates previous AAPM ethics policies into a unified document. The membership of the AAPM is increasingly diverse. Prior existing AAPM ethics polices were applicable specifically to medical physicists, and did not encompass other types of members such as health physicists, regulators, corporate affiliates, physicians, scientists, engineers, those in training, or other health care professionals. Prior AAPM ethics policies did not specifically address research, education, or business ethics. The Ethics Guidelines of this new Code of Ethics have four major sections: professional conduct, research ethics, education ethics, and business ethics. Some elements of each major section may be duplicated in other sections, so that readers interested in a particular aspect of the code do not need to read the entire document for all relevant information. The prior Complaint Procedure has also been incorporated into this Code of Ethics. This Code of Ethics (PP 24-A) replaces the following AAPM policies: Ethical Guidelines for Vacating a Position (PP 4-B); Ethical Guidelines for Reviewing the Work of Another Physicist (PP 5-C); Guidelines for Ethical Practice for Medical Physicists (PP 8-D); and Ethics Complaint Procedure (PP 21-A). The AAPM Board of Directors approved this Code or Ethics on July 31, 2008. PMID:19235389

  15. Code of Ethics for the American Association of Physicists in Medicine: report of Task Group 109.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serago, Christopher F; Adnani, Nabil; Bank, Morris I; BenComo, Jose A; Duan, Jun; Fairobent, Lynne; Freedman, D Jay; Halvorsen, Per H; Hendee, William R; Herman, Michael G; Morse, Richard K; Mower, Herbert W; Pfeiffer, Douglas E; Root, William J; Sherouse, George W; Vossler, Matthew K; Wallace, Robert E; Walters, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive Code of Ethics for the members of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) is presented as the report of Task Group 109 which consolidates previous AAPM ethics policies into a unified document. The membership of the AAPM is increasingly diverse. Prior existing AAPM ethics polices were applicable specifically to medical physicists, and did not encompass other types of members such as health physicists, regulators, corporate affiliates, physicians, scientists, engineers, those in training, or other health care professionals. Prior AAPM ethics policies did not specifically address research, education, or business ethics. The Ethics Guidelines of this new Code of Ethics have four major sections: professional conduct, research ethics, education ethics, and business ethics. Some elements of each major section may be duplicated in other sections, so that readers interested in a particular aspect of the code do not need to read the entire document for all relevant information. The prior Complaint Procedure has also been incorporated into this Code of Ethics. This Code of Ethics (PP 24-A) replaces the following AAPM policies: Ethical Guidelines for Vacating a Position (PP 4-B); Ethical Guidelines for Reviewing the Work of Another Physicist (PP 5-C); Guidelines for Ethical Practice for Medical Physicists (PP 8-D); and Ethics Complaint Procedure (PP 21-A). The AAPM Board of Directors approved this Code or Ethics on July 31, 2008.

  16. Peter Swirski, American Utopia and Social Engineering in Literature, Social Thought, and Political History (Routledge Transnational Perspectives on American Literature).

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Alice

    2012-01-01

    With Greece undergoing one of the most dramatic periods of social engineering in postwar history, the European Union trying to engineer a supranational federation, and China social-engineering not only the sociopolitical but the family life of one and a half billion people, the subject of social engineering should be on everyone’s mind. Not that you would notice. Certainly not in the United States which has just completed one of its most dramatic decades of social engineering on the national ...

  17. The history of forensic medicine in times of the Weimar republic and national socialism--an approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignitz, E

    2004-09-10

    German Forensic Medicine established the tasks and aims of forensic medicine during the period of the "Weimar Republic" (1919-1933). Since 1925, forensic medicine is part of the medical examination regulation. In times of the 3rd Reich (1933-1945), most of forensic pathologists were influenced by and involved in National Socialism. The special subject of forensic medicine was endangered by the absence of political neutral forensic pathologists. PMID:15364380

  18. The history of forensic medicine in times of the Weimar republic and national socialism--an approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignitz, E

    2004-09-10

    German Forensic Medicine established the tasks and aims of forensic medicine during the period of the "Weimar Republic" (1919-1933). Since 1925, forensic medicine is part of the medical examination regulation. In times of the 3rd Reich (1933-1945), most of forensic pathologists were influenced by and involved in National Socialism. The special subject of forensic medicine was endangered by the absence of political neutral forensic pathologists.

  19. Workplace discrimination predicting racial/ethnic socialization across African American, Latino, and Chinese families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagelskamp, Carolin; Hughes, Diane L

    2014-10-01

    Informed by Kohn and Schooler's (1969) occupational socialization framework, this study examined linkages between racial/ethnic minority mothers' perceptions of racial/ethnic discrimination in the workplace and adolescents' accounts of racial/ethnic socialization in the home. Data were collected from 100 mother-early adolescent dyads who participated in a longitudinal study of urban adolescents' development in the Northeastern United States, including African American, Latino, and Chinese families. Mothers and adolescents completed surveys separately. We found that when mothers reported more frequent institutional discrimination at work, adolescents reported more frequent preparation for bias messages at home, across racial/ethnic groups. Mothers' experiences of interpersonal prejudice at work were associated with more frequent cultural socialization messages among African American and Latino families. Chinese youth reported fewer cultural socialization messages when mothers perceived more frequent interpersonal prejudice at work. Findings are discussed in the context of minority groups' distinct social histories and economic status in the United States. PMID:25133408

  20. Did the Decline in Social Connections Depress Americans' Happiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolini, Stefano; Bilancini, Ennio; Pugno, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    During the last 30 years US citizens experienced, on average, a decline in reported happiness, social connections, and confidence in institutions. We show that a remarkable portion of the decrease in happiness is predicted by the decline in social connections and confidence in institutions. We carry out our investigation in three steps. First, we…

  1. Training Americans: Ideology, Performance, and Social Studies Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Drew

    2010-01-01

    Through an analysis of activities called for in social studies texts at three grade levels, the author critically examines the links between children's improvisational performance and social studies curricula. He asks: What is unique about the process of embodying a historical or contemporary character as part of the learning process (such as a…

  2. African-American Children's Representation of Personal and Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowling, Claire M.; Brock, Sheri J.; Hastie, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines 12 grade five elementary school students' attitudes and beliefs concerning personal and social responsibility in physical education. Factors used to identify students' attitudes and beliefs were initially divided into the six levels of Hellison's Taking Personal and Social Responsibility Model (TPSR), namely: irresponsibility,…

  3. Importance of social support in preventing alcohol-exposed pregnancies with American Indian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jessica D; Jensen, Jamie

    2015-02-01

    Recent research concludes that prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) must occur with preconceptional women, either by reducing alcohol consumption in women at-risk or planning pregnancy or preventing pregnancy in women drinking at risky levels. One AEP prevention program currently underway with non-pregnant American Indian women is the Oglala Sioux Tribe (OST) Changing High-risk alcohOl use and Increasing Contraception Effectiveness Study (CHOICES) Program. The OST CHOICES Program shows promise in lowering the AEP risk in American Indian women, and it is a natural next step to evaluate the potential impact that social support can have on further encouraging behavioral changes. Focus groups with community members and key informant interviews with health and social service professionals were completed. To uncover and interpret interrelated themes, a conventional content analysis methodology was used. Eight focus groups were held with 58 American Indian participants, including adult women of child-bearing age, elder women, and adult men. Key informant interviews were completed with 25 health and social service professionals. Based on input from the focus groups and key informant interviews, several subthemes regarding social support in the prevention of AEP stood out, including the role of family (especially elders), the impact community can have, and the important function of culture. In this study, we highlighted the important influence that social support can have on AEP prevention, especially among the American Indian population, where social support has cultural and historical significance. PMID:24974087

  4. Writing a case report for the American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation and the European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozçakar, Levent; Franchignoni, Franco; Negrini, Stefano; Frontera, Walter

    2013-02-01

    Case reports (CRs) have led to the description and discovery of new diseases, syndromes, therapeutic complications or side effects, and previously unknown potential benefits of pharmacologic agents. CRs may also be used as an effective training strategy for novice authors to develop the skills needed for medical writing. However, too often, CRs do not follow standards for excellence in scientific writing. Therefore, in this article, the American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation and the European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine collaborate with the purpose of providing guidance to authors in selecting CRs that might be appropriate for publication. In addition, the authors discuss different aspects of the preparation of a well written CR in accordance with the mission and editorial views of both journals.

  5. Social and cultural construction of urinary incontinence among Korean American elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Youngmi; Crogan, Neva L

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the social and cultural constructions that influence help-seeking for urinary incontinence (UI) among Korean American elderly women. Many Korean American elder women do not perceive UI as a problem worthy of attention. The reason may lie in its social and cultural construction. The social construction is rooted in the collectivist nature of Korean culture, which makes UI a family, rather than an individual, problem. The cultural construction is related to Confucianism, which directs conceptions about ageism, shame, and fatalism. This article will help the gerontological nurse to better understand Korean American elderly women's sociocultural background related to UI care and could lead to appropriate family centered interventions to manage or treat UI in this population. PMID:18394511

  6. Mexican American women's adherence to hemodialysis treatment: a social constructivist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijerina, Mary S

    2009-07-01

    Mexican Americans have as much as a six-times greater risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) than non-Hispanic white Americans, and women show a faster rate of decline in diabetic renal functioning. The leading treatment for ESRD is hemodialysis, an intensive, complex treatment regimen associated with high levels of patient nonadherence. Previous studies of patient adherence have adopted a biomedical, practitioner-oriented approach focused on performance of fixed behaviors and ignoring contextual and motivational factors. The author describes a social constructivist approach to understanding how female Mexican American dialysis patients experience their disease, the treatment regimen, and the consequences of that experience. Mexican American women's perceptions and psychosocial factors were examined to understand what these women viewed as important to their realities as dialysis patients. Poverty, longer treatment history, and immigrant status emerged as factors that appeared to influence treatment nonadherence. Perceived identity losses, heightened awareness of mortality and family dysfunction emerged as themes that participants viewed as preeminent in their day-to-day lives. A social constructivist perspective is highly compatible with social work principles of person-in-environment and starting where the client is. This perspective provides a valuable framework for informing social work practice with this special population of Mexican American dialysis patients.

  7. Social Justice as the Moral Core of Family Medicine: A Perspective from the Keystone IV Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    A recurring conference theme was the essential place of social justice within family medicine, especially the need to focus on denominator populations, exalt the personal and caring qualities of doctoring, and address social determinants of health. Many expressed solidarity with "community," but it is not always easy to define community in our large and diverse nation. Exhortations for health advocacy were frequently voiced, but putting these into meaningful action agendas is a challenge. There was general agreement that medicine is in flux and that the many expressions of "commodity-centered consumerism" have altered organization and financing. The increasing demands by "consumers", who want low cost, instant availability, and shared decision-making, and yet change doctors when health plans alter coverage also differentially impact high-volume, low-margin specialties such as family medicine. Additional challenges were the electronic health record and calibrating an appropriate work/life balance. Five action steps are recommended: 1) speak out on the important social and moral issues; 2) be the experts on personal care; 3) make common cause with potential allies; 4) help institutions perceive the value of generalism; and 5) help find ways to enrich generalist disciplines to increase the joy of medicine and decrease the threat of burn out. PMID:27387169

  8. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nancy R; Di Marco, Nancy M; Langley, Susie

    2009-03-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a rigorous, systematic, evidence-based analysis of nutrition and performance-specific literature with current scientific data related to energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training and competition, the use of supplements and ergogenic aids, nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes, and the roles and responsibilities of the sports dietitian. Energy and macronutrient needs, especially carbohydrate and protein, must be met during times of high physical activity to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein to build and repair tissue. Fat intake should be sufficient to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins and to contribute energy for weight maintenance. Although exercise performance can be affected by body weight and composition, these physical measures should not be a criterion for sports performance and daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Adequate food and fluid should be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before exercise and drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Sports beverages containing carbohydrates and electrolytes may be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration, provide fuel for muscles, and decrease risk of dehydration and hyponatremia. Vitamin

  9. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nancy R; Di Marco, Nancy M; Langley, Susie

    2009-03-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a rigorous, systematic, evidence-based analysis of nutrition and performance-specific literature with current scientific data related to energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training and competition, the use of supplements and ergogenic aids, nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes, and the roles and responsibilities of the sports dietitian. Energy and macronutrient needs, especially carbohydrate and protein, must be met during times of high physical activity to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein to build and repair tissue. Fat intake should be sufficient to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins and to contribute energy for weight maintenance. Although exercise performance can be affected by body weight and composition, these physical measures should not be a criterion for sports performance and daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Adequate food and fluid should be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before exercise and drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Sports beverages containing carbohydrates and electrolytes may be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration, provide fuel for muscles, and decrease risk of dehydration and hyponatremia. Vitamin

  10. Social and Environmental Risk Factors for Hypertension in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Selina; Hu, Howard; McNeely, Eileen; Rahman, Saleh M. M.; Krieger, Nancy; Waterman, Pamela; Peters, Junenette; Harris, Cynthia; Harris, Cynthia H.; Prothrow-Stith, Deborah; Gibbs, Brian K.; Brown, Perry C.; Johnson, Genita; Burgess, Angela; Gragg, Richard D

    2008-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that disparities of hypertension risk in African Americans is related to lead exposure, perceptions of racism, and stress, among urban (Roxbury, MA) and rural (Gadsden, FL) communities. Analysis of preliminary data from Phase I reveal 60% in Gadsden and 39% in Roxbury respondents self-reported having hypertension. In Gadsden 80% people did not know if their residence contained lead paint, compared to 45% in Roxbury. In Gadsden County, 58% of respondents reporte...

  11. Segmentation of overweight Americans and opportunities for social marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds Travis; Kolodinsky Jane

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The food industry uses market segmentation to target products toward specific groups of consumers with similar attitudinal, demographic, or lifestyle characteristics. Our aims were to identify distinguishable segments within the US overweight population to be targeted with messages and media aimed at moving Americans toward more healthy weights. Methods Cluster analysis was used to identify segments of consumers based on both food and lifestyle behaviors related to unhealt...

  12. Church Membership and Social Insurance: Evidence from the American South

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Ager; Casper Worm Hansen; Lars Lønstrup

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effect of increased demand for social insurance on church membership.Our empirical strategy exploits the differential impact of the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 across counties to identify a shock to the demand for social insurance. We find that flooded counties experienced a significant increase in church membership. Consistent with economic theories about determinants of membership of religious organizations, our result suggests that local churches provided ex-post insuran...

  13. An African-American Bibliography: Science, Medicine, and Allied Fields. Selected Resources from the Collections of the New York State Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Theresa C., Comp.

    The second in a series of African-American bibliographies, this bibliography was issued in honor of both Black History Month and Inventors Day in February 1991. It focuses on the contributions of black Americans in the areas of science, technology, medicine, and allied fields such as dentistry and nursing. The materials cited emphasize the…

  14. Social Orientation and Diabetes-Related Distress in Japanese and American Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Kaori Ikeda; Shimpei Fujimoto; Beth Morling; Shiho Ayano-Takahara; Carroll, Andrew E.; Shin-ichi Harashima; Yukiko Uchida; Nobuya Inagaki

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence in cultural and social psychology suggests Eastern cultures' emphasis on harmony and connection with others and Western cultures' emphasis on self-direction and autonomy. In Eastern society, relational harmony is closely linked to people's well-being. The impact of this cultural and social orientation on diabetes-related distress was investigated. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Japanese and American patients with type 2 diabetes were surveyed by well-established quest...

  15. The fundamental right of access to medicines and the social function of intangible property in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BATISTA, Cláudia Karina Ladeia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a literature and documental research aiming at studying the relationship between the right of access to medicines and the right to exclusivity in the exploitation of pharmaceutical inventions, from the fundamental right to health in its various dimensions. This study is justified by the increasing importance that the access to medicines currently has in the fundamental right to health, and by the necessity of balancing this right with the patents, if seen that all property, including intangible, has a social function. We conclude that it is necessary to harmonize the right to preserve intangible property –and, as a consequence, to preserve the economic exclusive exploitation of a developed and patented product- with the right of access to medicines, at risk of losing both constitutional guarantees.

  16. Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

    2015-04-01

    Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. PMID:25458716

  17. Perceived Racial Discrimination and Self-Esteem in African American Youth: Racial Socialization as a Protective Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Britt, April; Valrie, Cecelia R.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.

    2007-01-01

    Racial socialization was examined as a protective factor that might buffer African American youth from the negative effects of perceived racial discrimination. Two types of racial socialization were examined: messages about race pride and preparation for bias. One hundred twenty-eight eighth-grade African American students participated in the…

  18. Teens, Kindness and Cruelty on Social Network Sites: How American Teens Navigate the New World of "Digital Citizenship"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Amanda; Madden, Mary; Smith, Aaron; Purcell, Kristen; Zickuhr, Kathryn; Rainie, Lee

    2011-01-01

    Social media use has become so pervasive in the lives of American teens that having a presence on a social network site is almost synonymous with being online. Fully 95% of all teens ages 12-17 are now online and 80% of those online teens are users of social media sites. The authors focused their attention in this research on social network sites…

  19. "Bien Educado": Measuring the Social Behaviors of Mexican American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Margaret; Cohen, Shana R.; McGuire, Leah Walker; Yamada, Hiro; Fuller, Bruce; Mireles, Laurie; Scott, Lyn

    2012-01-01

    Young children's expected social behaviors develop within particular cultural contexts and contribute to their academic experience in large part through their relationships with their teachers. Commonly used measures focus on children's problem behaviors, developed from psychopathology traditions, and rarely situate normative and positive…

  20. Suicide and North American Indians: A Social Constructivist Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, G. Brent; Kurz, Brenda J.; Gottfried, George M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines biopsychosocial effects of acculturation on the high suicide rate among young Ojibwa males in relation to "pimadaziwin" (health, well-being, and longevity for self and family attained through cultural compliance) and "nissitise" (face-saving suicide following loss of "pimadaziwin"). Case study illustrates how a social constuctivist…

  1. [Disciplinary organization of medical sociology--a contribution to the dialogue with social medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, J

    1996-10-01

    According to Karl Popper scientific disciplines are characterized by a body of observational knowledge, a specific methodology and terminology and a set of more or less successful theories. This article tries to delineate the disciplinary structure of medical sociology in terms of five important areas of knowledge: 1. sociology of health lifestyles (prevention); 2. sociology of patients careers (rehabilitation); 3. sociology of client-professional interaction (diagnosis, therapy); 4. sociological (social epidemiological) studies of causes of health and disease; 5. sociology of health care systems. It is argued that intensified exchange according to these areas between the academic disciplines of medical sociology and social medicine is needed to generate a significant impact on future training and research both in medicine and in public health.

  2. Predicting childhood obesity prevention behaviors using social cognitive theory among upper elementary African-American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Shakeyrah; Sharma, Manoj

    Childhood obesity is a major public health problem in the African-American community. Commonly suggested public health strategies to reduce childhood obesity are limiting television viewing, encouraging daily moderately intense physical activity of at least 60 minutes per day, increasing fruit and vegetable intake to five or more cups per day, and increasing water consumption. This study examined the extent to which selected social cognitive theory constructs can predict these four behaviors in African-American upper elementary children. A 56-item valid and reliable scale was administered to 222 students. Glasses of water consumed were predicted by self-control for drinking water and self-efficacy for drinking water (R2 = 0.123). Fruits and vegetables consumed were predicted by self-efficacy for eating fruits and vegetables (R2 = 0.083). For designing primary prevention interventions to reduce childhood obesity in the African-American community, social cognitive theory provides a useful framework.

  3. On art and science: an epistemic framework for integrating social science and clinical medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Jason Adam

    2014-06-01

    Calls for incorporating social science into patient care typically have accounted for neither the logistic constraints of medical training nor the methodological fallacies of utilizing aggregate "social facts" in clinical practice. By elucidating the different epistemic approaches of artistic and scientific practices, this paper illustrates an integrative artistic pedagogy that allows clinical practitioners to generate social scientific insights from actual patient encounters. Although there is no shortage of calls to bring social science into medicine, the more fundamental processes of thinking by which art and science proceed have not been addressed to this end. As such, the art of medical practice is conceptualized as an innate gift, and thus little is done to cultivate it. Yet doing so is more important than ever because uncertainty in diagnosing and treating chronic illnesses, the most significant contemporary mortality risks, suggests a re-expanding role for clinical judgment.

  4. Racial and ethnic socialization as moderators of racial discrimination and school adjustment of adopted and nonadopted Korean American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Kyoung Ok; Yoo, Hyung Chol; Lee, Richard M; Park, Ji Eun; Kyeong, Yena

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the roles of racial and ethnic socialization in the link between racial discrimination and school adjustment among a sample of 233 adopted Korean American adolescents from White adoptive families and 155 nonadopted Korean American adolescents from immigrant Korean families. Adopted Korean American adolescents reported lower levels of racial discrimination, racial socialization, and ethnic socialization than nonadopted Korean American adolescents. However, racial discrimination was negatively related to school belonging and school engagement, and ethnic socialization was positively related to school engagement for both groups. Racial socialization also had a curvilinear relationship with school engagement for both groups. A moderate level of racial socialization predicted positive school engagement, whereas low and high levels of racial socialization predicted negative school engagement. Finally, ethnic socialization moderated the link between racial discrimination and school belonging, which differed between groups. In particular, ethnic socialization exacerbated the relations between racial discrimination and school belonging for adopted Korean American adolescents, whereas ethnic socialization buffered this link for nonadopted Korean American adolescents. The findings illustrate the complex relationship between racial and ethnic socialization, racial discrimination, and school adjustment.

  5. Racial and ethnic socialization as moderators of racial discrimination and school adjustment of adopted and nonadopted Korean American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Kyoung Ok; Yoo, Hyung Chol; Lee, Richard M; Park, Ji Eun; Kyeong, Yena

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the roles of racial and ethnic socialization in the link between racial discrimination and school adjustment among a sample of 233 adopted Korean American adolescents from White adoptive families and 155 nonadopted Korean American adolescents from immigrant Korean families. Adopted Korean American adolescents reported lower levels of racial discrimination, racial socialization, and ethnic socialization than nonadopted Korean American adolescents. However, racial discrimination was negatively related to school belonging and school engagement, and ethnic socialization was positively related to school engagement for both groups. Racial socialization also had a curvilinear relationship with school engagement for both groups. A moderate level of racial socialization predicted positive school engagement, whereas low and high levels of racial socialization predicted negative school engagement. Finally, ethnic socialization moderated the link between racial discrimination and school belonging, which differed between groups. In particular, ethnic socialization exacerbated the relations between racial discrimination and school belonging for adopted Korean American adolescents, whereas ethnic socialization buffered this link for nonadopted Korean American adolescents. The findings illustrate the complex relationship between racial and ethnic socialization, racial discrimination, and school adjustment. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26479418

  6. First comes social networking, then comes marriage? Characteristics of Americans married 2005-2012 who met through social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey A

    2014-05-01

    Abstract Although social networking sites (SNS) have become increasingly prevalent and integrated into the lives of users, the role of SNS in courtship is relatively unknown. The present manuscript reports on the characteristics of Americans married between 2005 and 2012 who met through SNS drawn from a weighted national sample (N=18,527). Compared to other online meetings (i.e., dating sites, online communities, one-on-one communication), individuals who met through SNS were younger, married more recently, and were more likely to be African American. Compared with offline meetings, individuals who met through SNS were more likely to be younger, male, African American and Hispanic, married more recently, and frequent Internet users with higher incomes. Trends suggest an increasing proportion of individuals are meeting using SNS, necessitating further research on factors that influence romantic relational development through SNS. PMID:24611755

  7. Ladies Are Seen, Not Heard: Language Socialization in a Southern, African American Cosmetology School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs-Huey, Lanita

    2003-01-01

    Examined classroom discourse at a southern cosmetology school, noting African American students' language socialization. Highlighted freshmen's and seniors' engagement with formal/textbook scripts about proper communication, analyzing how teachers and students made sense of official metacommunicative scripts about proper salon communication.…

  8. Predicting the Influence of Social Resources on African American Wife and Daughter Caregivers' Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozario, Philip A.; Chadiha, Letha A.; Proctor, Enola K.; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This study--on 100 African American wife and 258 daughter primary caregivers--uses a contextual approach in its examination of the relationship between social resources and caregiver depressive symptoms. At the bivariate level, significant differences in certain key characteristics of primary caregivers and care receivers underscore the…

  9. Unpacking Racial Socialization: Considering Female African American Primary Caregivers' Racial Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scottham, Krista Maywalt; Smalls, Ciara P.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between female African American primary caregivers' racial identity and their racial socialization emphases was examined. Three components of racial identity were evaluated: (1) the importance of race to the self-concept (centrality), (2) affective feelings toward group membership (private regard), and (3) perceptions of how group…

  10. Social Cognitive Influences on Mexican Americans' Career Choices across Holland's Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Lisa Y.; Robitschek, Chris; Celebi, Elif; Andersen, Christie; Hoang, Uyen

    2010-01-01

    This study examined several propositions of social cognitive career theory ([Lent et al., 1994] and [Lent et al., 2000]) with a sample of 393 Mexican American college students. It was hypothesized that person input (i.e., age) and background contextual variables (i.e., Anglo orientation, Mexican orientation, familism, instrumentality, and…

  11. Building and Using a Social Network: Nurture for Low-Income Chinese American Adolescents' Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Holloway, Susan D.; Bempechat, Janine; Loh, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    Little research has examined how low-income Asian American children are supported to achieve well in school. The authors used the notion of social capital to study higher versus lower achieving Chinese adolescents from low-income backgrounds. They found that families of higher-achieving adolescents built and used more effectively three kinds of…

  12. Mothers' and Fathers' Racial Socialization in African American Families: Implications for Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Burton, Linda M.; Davis, Kelly D.; Dotterer, Aryn M.; Swanson, Dena P.

    2006-01-01

    Mothers' and fathers' cultural socialization and bias preparation with older (M=13.9 years) and younger (M=10.31 years) siblings were studied in 162 two-parent, African American families. Analyses examined whether parental warmth and offspring age and gender were linked to parental practices and whether parents' warmth, spouses' racial…

  13. Anti-Smoking Socialization Beliefs among Rural Native American and White Parents of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegler, Michelle C.; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka

    2005-01-01

    This study assesses similarities and differences in anti-smoking socialization beliefs of White and Native American parents in a low-income, rural population in northeastern Oklahoma. Data are from a population-based, cross-sectional children's environmental health study in which in-home interviews were conducted with 356 parents (56.2% White,…

  14. Social and Cultural Contexts of Chinese Learners: Teaching Strategies for American Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Darshan

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to evaluate the social and cultural context of education among Chinese learners in order to identify ways through which American educators can best serve such students. It is intended that such efforts will create multiple pathways to knowledge for Chinese learners by accommodating their varying learning needs. Several common…

  15. Depression and Anxiety among Asian Americans: The Effects of Social Support and Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangalang, Cindy C.; Gee, Gilbert C.

    2012-01-01

    It is almost taken for granted that social relationships benefit mental health, yet these relationships may not always be protective. This study examines how the support and strains individuals derive from family and friends may be related to depression and anxiety among Asian Americans. Data come from the 2002-2003 National Latino and Asian…

  16. You Better Recognize!: The Arts as Social Justice for African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Mary Stone

    2011-01-01

    Social justice is a complex theory and practice that includes the equitable redistribution of resources and the recognition of culture. This is a report about the Tubman Theater Project, a culturally relevant drama program in which African American middle and high school students confronted racism and classism, as well as their unexamined…

  17. A Comparison of Foreign Language Learning Social Environments, Motivation, and Beliefs between Chinese and American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinxiao; Chen, Dianbing

    2011-01-01

    For the purposes of revealing and comparing the social, cultural, and motivational differences between American and Chinese undergraduate students learning foreign language, a sample of 100 students at University of Wyoming was asked to fill out a Foreign Language Learning Motivation and Beliefs questionnaire and 61 respondents completed the…

  18. Social Cognitive Predictors of Mexican American College Students' Academic and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Lizette; Flores, Lisa Y.; Navarro, Rachel L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we used Lent's (2004) social cognitive model of well being to examine the academic and life satisfaction of 457 Mexican American college students attending a Hispanic-Serving Institution. Using structural equation modeling, results indicated that the model provided a good fit to the data. Specifically, we found positive relations…

  19. Reforming towards a scientific medicine and a changing social identity: British homoeopathy, 1866-1893

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, J-Y

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether homoeopathydeclinedn Britainduring the second half of the nineteenth centurywhen anemerging medicalprofession converged with the dawn of biomedicine. Previousstudies of the history of homoeopathy are often coloured by controversies over homoeopathy odayy To avoid the pitfalls of a presentist definition of homoeopathy and a dichotomous view of the relationship between homoeopathy and orthodox medicine, I analyse 'homoeopathy' as a social identityrather th...

  20. Practice parameters for the psychological and behavioral treatment of insomnia: an update. An american academy of sleep medicine report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, Timothy; Kramer, Milton; Alessi, Cathy; Friedman, Leah; Boehlecke, Brian; Brown, Terry; Coleman, Jack; Kapur, Vishesh; Lee-Chiong, Teofilo; Owens, Judith; Pancer, Jeffrey; Swick, Todd

    2006-11-01

    Insomnia is highly prevalent, has associated daytime consequences which impair job performance and quality of life, and is associated with increased risk of comorbidities including depression. These practice parameters provide recommendations regarding behavioral and psychological treatment approaches, which are often effective in primary and secondary insomnia. These recommendations replace or modify those published in the 1999 practice parameter paper produced by the American Sleep Disorders Association. A Task Force of content experts was appointed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine to perform a comprehensive review of the scientific literature since 1999 and to grade the evidence regarding non-pharmacological treatments of insomnia. Recommendations were developed based on this review using evidence-based methods. These recommendations were developed by the Standards of Practice Committee and reviewed and approved by the Board of Directors of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Psychological and behavioral interventions are effective in the treatment of both chronic primary insomnia (Standard) and secondary insomnia (Guideline). Stimulus control therapy, relaxation training, and cognitive behavior therapy are individually effective therapies in the treatment of chronic insomnia (Standard) and sleep restriction therapy, multicomponent therapy (without cognitive therapy), biofeedback and paradoxical intention are individually effective therapies in the treatment of chronic insomnia (Guideline). There was insufficient evidence to recommend sleep hygiene education, imagery training and cognitive therapy as single therapies or when added to other specific approaches. Psychological and behavioral interventions are effective in the treatment of insomnia in older adults and in the treatment of insomnia among chronic hypnotic users (Standard). PMID:17162987

  1. [Researches on health and welfare promotion based on an approach of social medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagamimori, Sadanobu

    2004-07-01

    This article was derived from my memorial talk given when receiving the prize of the Japanese Society for Hygiene at their academic congress. The reader could review my research on health and welfare promotion made by introducing new conceptual health policy based on the approach of social medicine. Through my experience in different research work, the importance of social factors in the etiology of health during childhood, adulthood and old age was discussed. In addition, it was revealed that social factors not only influence the population's health status but also constitute the context within which organized efforts can be made to promote health. For the elderly, the annual health check, stroke patient registration, and insurance for care and spousal bereavement; for adults, the Karoshi and occupational health; and for children, air pollution-atopy predisposition and lifestyles were highlighted as social medicine-related issues. The research on mostly longitudinal population studies showed that health status, including the life expectancy and the prevalence of disability and chronic disorders, are related to one's marital status, social support, psychosocial working conditions and environmental factors as well as to lifestyles such as physical activity and hours of work and sleep at entry. More attention should be directed to independent factors' effects on health, separate from those of adverse health habits and bio-medical situations, under the health and welfare promotion strategy. PMID:15359894

  2. Germany's social market economy: A blueprint for Latin American countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Sauerland, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    [Introduction ...] This paper tries to answer these questions taking five steps of argumentation. Firstly, the paper briefly sketches the theoretical and empirical background of the modern liberal market economy concept. Secondly, it outlines in more detail the basic ideas of the ordoliberal social market economy concept and some modern amendments to this concept based on institutional economics’ ideas. Thirdly, the paper compares the two concepts and it uses institutional data to describe tw...

  3. How welcome do Iranian-Americans feel in their homeland? Perceptions of social distance among Muslim, Jewish, and Non-Religious Iranian-American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Shari; Hatfield, Elaine; Liang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Recent political events in the United States have created a political climate that promotes prejudice against Middle Eastern, Iranian, and Muslim people. In this study, we were interested in investigating two questions: (1) How welcome do Iranian-American men and women from various religious backgrounds (Muslim, Jewish, or no religious affiliation) feel in their new homeland (specifically, how much social distance (affective distance) do they think their Euro-American neighbors feel toward them? and (2) to what extent does the possession of stereotypical Middle Eastern, Iranian, or Muslim traits (an accent, darker skin, wearing of religious symbols, traditional garb, etc.) spark prejudice and thus Iranian-Americans perception of social distance? Participants were recruited from two very different sources: (1) shoppers at grocery stores in Iranian-American neighborhoods in Los Angeles, and (2) a survey posted on http://Surveymonkey.com. A total of 374 Iranian-Americans, ages 18 and older, completed an in-person or online questionnaire that included the following: a request for demographic information, religious preferences, a survey of how typically Iranian-American the respondents' traits were, and the social distance scale. A surprise was that it was the Iranian-American Jews (not the Muslims), who felt most keenly that Euro-Americans kept them at a distance. Jewish women received higher scores on the social distance scale than did members of any other group. In addition, again, it was mainly Iranian-American Jews, particularly those who spoke with a Middle Eastern accent or wore stereotypically religious symbols, who felt the most social distance existing between them and "typical" Americans. PMID:26693106

  4. Social identity contingencies: how diversity cues signal threat or safety for African Americans in mainstream institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Steele, Claude M; Davies, Paul G; Ditlmann, Ruth; Crosby, Jennifer Randall

    2008-04-01

    This research demonstrates that people at risk of devaluation based on group membership are attuned to cues that signal social identity contingencies--judgments, stereotypes, opportunities, restrictions, and treatments that are tied to one's social identity in a given setting. In 3 experiments, African American professionals were attuned to minority representation and diversity philosophy cues when they were presented as a part of workplace settings. Low minority representation cues coupled with colorblindness (as opposed to valuing diversity) led African American professionals to perceive threatening identity contingencies and to distrust the setting (Experiment 1). The authors then verified that the mechanism mediating the effect of setting cues on trust was identity contingent evaluations (Experiments 2 & 3). The power of social identity contingencies as they relate to underrepresented groups in mainstream institutions is discussed.

  5. Americans Still Overestimate Social Class Mobility: A Pre-Registered Self-Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Kraus

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Kraus and Tan (2015 hypothesized that Americans tend to overestimate social class mobility in society, and do so because they seek to protect the self. This paper reports a pre-registered exact replication of Study 3 from this original paper and finds, consistent with the original study, that Americans substantially overestimate social class mobility, that people provide greater overestimates when made while thinking of similar others, and that high perceived social class is related to greater overestimates. The current results provide additional evidence consistent with the idea that people overestimate class mobility to protect their beliefs in the promise of equality of opportunity. Discussion considers the utility of pre-registered self-replications as one tool for encouraging replication efforts and assessing the robustness of effect sizes.

  6. Stimulant use among African American and Latino MSM social networking users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sean D; Shoptaw, Steve

    2013-01-01

    High stimulant-using and at-risk HIV populations, such as African American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM), are increasingly using social networking technologies. However, no known research has explored associations between stimulant use, sexual risk behaviors, and social networking among these populations. Participants were recruited using the Facebook Connect software application, which narrowed the sample to 118 (primarily African American and Latino MSM) active Facebook users. Participants completed demographic, Internet and social media use, and drug use survey items. Participants reported high rates of cocaine and methamphetamine use (both more than 15% within the past 12 months). More than 70% of participants reported using social networking technologies to meet people, and more than 30% used them to find sexual partners. A multivariate logistic regression showed that (1) participants using social networks to find sexual partners were more likely to have used methamphetamines within the past 12 months and (2) those who were more comfortable talking online compared to face-to-face had over 4 times the odds of methamphetamine use and over 6 times the odds of cocaine use within the past 12 months. Minority MSM who used social networks to meet men and find sexual partners had high risk for stimulant use. Understanding drug use among minority social networking users will provide insights to incorporate these technologies into drug prevention interventions.

  7. Stimulant use among African American and Latino MSM social networking users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sean D; Shoptaw, Steve

    2013-01-01

    High stimulant-using and at-risk HIV populations, such as African American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM), are increasingly using social networking technologies. However, no known research has explored associations between stimulant use, sexual risk behaviors, and social networking among these populations. Participants were recruited using the Facebook Connect software application, which narrowed the sample to 118 (primarily African American and Latino MSM) active Facebook users. Participants completed demographic, Internet and social media use, and drug use survey items. Participants reported high rates of cocaine and methamphetamine use (both more than 15% within the past 12 months). More than 70% of participants reported using social networking technologies to meet people, and more than 30% used them to find sexual partners. A multivariate logistic regression showed that (1) participants using social networks to find sexual partners were more likely to have used methamphetamines within the past 12 months and (2) those who were more comfortable talking online compared to face-to-face had over 4 times the odds of methamphetamine use and over 6 times the odds of cocaine use within the past 12 months. Minority MSM who used social networks to meet men and find sexual partners had high risk for stimulant use. Understanding drug use among minority social networking users will provide insights to incorporate these technologies into drug prevention interventions. PMID:23480246

  8. Targeting the American market for medicines, ca. 1950s-1970s: ICI and Rhône-Poulenc compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirke, Viviane

    2014-01-01

    The forces that have shaped American medicine include a wide set of interrelated changes, among them the changing research, development, and marketing practices of the pharmaceutical industry. This article compares the research and development (R&D) and marketing strategies of the British group Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI, whose Pharmaceutical Division was spun off and merged with the Swedish company Astra to form AstraZeneca) and its French counterpart Rhône-Poulenc (now part of Sanofi-Aventis) in dealing with the American medical market. It examines how, in the process, the relationship between R&D and marketing was altered, and the firms themselves were transformed. The article also questions the extent to which their approaches to this market, one of the most significant markets for drugs in general, and for anticancer drugs in particular, became standardized in the period of "scientific marketing." PMID:25557515

  9. Social integration of Latin-American immigrants in Spain: the influence of the community context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuente, Asur; Herrero, Juan

    2012-11-01

    The main goal of this study is to analyze the degree to which several community elements such as insecurity, discrimination and informal community support might have an influence on the social integration of Latin-American immigrants, a group at risk of social exclusion in Spain. Multivariate linear regression analyses results showed that informal community support is positively related to social integration whereas insecurity is negatively related. The statistical relationship between discrimination and social integration disappears once levels of informal community support are taken into account. A better understanding of the factors that either promote or inhibit the social integration progress of immigrant population is important to orientate public policies and intervention programs that contribute to the adaptation of this population to the host society. PMID:23156925

  10. Early growth of Mexican-American children: lagging in preliteracy skills but not social development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Alma D; Fuller, Bruce; Chu, Lynna; Kim, Anthony; Franke, Todd; Bridges, Margaret; Kuo, Alice

    2013-11-01

    Latino toddlers fall behind White peers at 24 months of age in oral language and interactive skills with their mothers in English or Spanish. But Latino children enter kindergarten with social skills that rival White peers, despite social-class disparities. We ask whether cognitive trajectories widen during the 24-48 month period, how these patterns differ for Latinos, especially Mexican-Americans, and whether similar gaps in social-emotional growth appear. We analyzed growth patterns for a nationally representative birth sample (n = 4,690) drawn in 2001, estimating levels of change in development from 24 to 48 months of age, focusing on Latino subgroups. The mean gap in cognitive processing for Mexican-American children, already wide at 24-months of age relative to Whites (three-fourths of a standard deviation), remained constant at 48 months. But differences in social-emotional status were statistically insignificant at both 24 and 48 months. Mexican-American mothers were observed to be equally warm and supportive relative to White peers during interaction tasks. Yet the former group engaged less frequently in cognitive facilitation, oral language, and preliteracy activities in the home. Growth in both cognitive and social domains was considerably lower in larger families, placing children raised in poor or Spanish-speaking homes within a large household at greater risk of delays. Pediatricians and practitioners must carefully gauge the social-emotional well-being of Latino children, in developmental surveillance activities. Growth in cognitive and social domains unfolds independently for children of Mexican heritage, even when raised in economically poor families. PMID:23149800

  11. History of homeopathy and social history of medicine: the story of a successful marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Waisse Priven

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The Institute for the History of Medicine (IGM was established in 1980 by the Robert Bosch Foundation, in Stuttgart, Germany, on the basis of a collection of documents and other small objects belonging to Samuel Hahnemann, the founder of homeopathy. However, since its very inception, its directors considered that the history of homeopathy also had a role to play in the larger picture of the history of medicine. On the other hand, the history of homeopathy was not restricted to the account of the development of ideas and careers of practitioners, but it would benefit significantly by approaching it from the perspective of social history, including the study of institutions, patients’ views, lay supporting societies and publications. This paper presents a review of this project as assessed by an analysis of recent publications that, taken as a whole, reflect the historiographical contribution of researchers at IGM.

  12. Anglo-American nursing theory, individualism and mental health care: a social conflict perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses social conflict theory to reconsider the relationship of American nursing theory and individualised mental health care in the UK. It is argued that nursing theory has developed within a context of 'American dream' individualism, and that this ideology may be problematic for some UK mental health nurses and service users whose values and beliefs are those of different socio-political traditions. The paper explores the historical background of Anglo-American nursing theory, and then uses conflict theory to generate challenging propositions about the culture bias and political instrumentality of individualised care in mental health settings. In so doing, it critiques the 'scientific' and 'liberal' preconceptions of individualised care which have dominated mental health care policy for over a decade.

  13. Depression, Social Support, and Mental Health: A Longitudinal Mediation Analysis in African American Custodial Grandmothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Deborah M; Kelley, Susan J; Lamis, Dorian A

    2016-03-01

    Custodial grandparents raising grandchildren experience intense levels of stress that can lead to depression and other forms of psychological distress. Drawing on a coping model of family stress, adjustment, and adaptation, we explored the relationship between depression and mental health quality of life mediated by social support and moderated by grandparent's age. The sample consisted of 667 African American custodial grandmothers, dichotomized into two age groupings, ≤55 (n = 306) and 55 + (n = 361). All grandmothers participated in a 12-month support intervention. The prospective analysis revealed social support was a mediator in the association between depressive symptoms and mental health quality of life for older African American grandmothers; however, this same relationship did not hold for their younger counterparts. Study limitations and future research directions are discussed. PMID:26798077

  14. African American Social Networking Online: Applying a Digital Practice Approach to Understanding Digital Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Taana Smith

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a framework for systematic examination of information and communication technologies (ICTs usage differences within a group. This framework situates the digital divide and digital inequalities model within a broader conceptual model of digital practice, exemplified by how groups of people use ICTs. I use nationally representative data to examine online activities on social networking sites (SNS for African Americans and other ethnoracial groups. The data for this research comes from the Pew Internet and American Life’s “Spring Tracking Survey 2008”. The results from regression analyses support the digital practice framework which moves discussions of ICT usage beyond social and economic advantages or disadvantages, and addresses individual and group needs in using these technologies.

  15. Cultural socialization and school readiness of African American and Latino preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Owen, Margaret Tresch

    2015-07-01

    Cultural socialization practices are common among ethnic minority parents and important for ethnic minority child development. However, little research has examined these practices among parents of very young children. In this study, we report on cultural socialization practices among a sample of parents of low income, African American (n = 179) and Latino (n = 220) preschool-age children in relation to children's school readiness. Cultural socialization was assessed when children were 2.5 years old, and child outcomes assessed 1 year later included pre-academic skills, receptive language, and child behavior. Children who experienced more frequent cultural socialization displayed greater pre-academic skills, better receptive language, and fewer behavior problems. This association did not differ by child gender or ethnicity. The implications of these findings for the development of parent interventions to support school readiness are discussed.

  16. Perceived neighborhood social disorder and attitudes toward domestic violence against women among Latin-American immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asur Fuente

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we explore the relationship between perceived neighbourhood social disorder (perceived crime and insecurity in residential areas and attitudes toward domestic violence against women in Latin-American population in Spain (N =350. Perceived severity of incidents of domestic violence, its acceptability, victim-blaming attitudes and knowing victims of domestic violence are analyzed among immigrant population. Results show that the perception of neighbourhood social disorder is associated with a lower perceived severity of incidents of domestic violence, with greater acceptability of violence, and higher degree of victim-blaming. Also, those residents of disorder neighbourhoods also know more victims of domestic violence. These results suggest the social characteristics in residential areas, such as disorder and deprivation, configure an impoverished social context that might favour attitudes that condone domestic violence against women.

  17. Sleep in Mexican American Adolescents: Social Ecological and Well-Being Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    McHale, Susan M.; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kan, Marni; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    A burgeoning body of research documents links between sleep and adjustment in adolescence, but little is known about the role of the social ecology in promoting healthful sleeping habits. This study was aimed at identifying the socio-cultural correlates of adolescents’ sleep, including average nighttime sleep duration, average daytime napping, and night-to-night variability in sleep duration and assessing the links between these dimensions of sleep and adjustment in Mexican American youth. Pa...

  18. Applying Social Psychological Models to Predicting HIV-Related Sexual Risk Behaviors Among African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Cochran, Susan D.; MAYS, VICKIE M.

    1993-01-01

    Existing models of attitude-behavior relationships, including the Health Belief Model, the Theory of Reasoned Action, and the Self-Efficacy Theory, are increasingly being used by psychologists to predict human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related risk behaviors. The authors briefly highlight some of the difficulties that might arise in applying these models to predicting the risk behaviors of African Americans. These social psychological models tend to emphasize the importance of individualis...

  19. [Comprehensive and competition-oriented quality management in social medicine expert services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seger, W

    1996-05-01

    In free competition expert services in Social Medicine must supply their expertise with high quality in a short time and at low cost. The demands by customers in respect of motivation of the staff and innovative organisation are as important competitive factors as high quality standards for expertise production. These guiding principles completed by "Kaizen" and "Lean production" are necessary requirements for the further existence of the enterprise in competition. Quality assurance must be promoted in a process looking to the future in active quality management. PMID:8704368

  20. [Comprehensive and competition-oriented quality management in social medicine expert services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seger, W

    1996-05-01

    In free competition expert services in Social Medicine must supply their expertise with high quality in a short time and at low cost. The demands by customers in respect of motivation of the staff and innovative organisation are as important competitive factors as high quality standards for expertise production. These guiding principles completed by "Kaizen" and "Lean production" are necessary requirements for the further existence of the enterprise in competition. Quality assurance must be promoted in a process looking to the future in active quality management.

  1. The Role of Social Support and Social Networks in Health Information Seeking Behavior among Korean Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wonsun

    2013-01-01

    Access to health information appears to be a crucial piece of the racial and ethnic health disparities puzzle among immigrants. There are a growing number of scholars who are investigating the role of social networks that have shown that the number and even types of social networks among minorities and lower income groups differ (Chatman, 1991;…

  2. [THE SOCIAL HYGIENE AS A PHENOMENON OF SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION IN MEDICINE OF LATE XIX--FIRST HALF XX CENTURIES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepin, V O; Zatravkin, S N

    2015-01-01

    The article presents results of analysis of works of late XIX--first quarter of XY centuries devoted to problems of social hygiene. It is established that origin of social hygiene was directly related to crucial revision of conceptions of causes and essence of diseases that created necessary conditions for transfer into medicine ideas and methods of political economy, sociology and eugenics. It is proved that origin of social hygiene was appropriate consequence of those crucial alterations in mass physician's consciousness that characterize scientific revolution in medicine of late XIX--first half XX centuries.

  3. [THE SOCIAL HYGIENE AS A PHENOMENON OF SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION IN MEDICINE OF LATE XIX--FIRST HALF XX CENTURIES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepin, V O; Zatravkin, S N

    2015-01-01

    The article presents results of analysis of works of late XIX--first quarter of XY centuries devoted to problems of social hygiene. It is established that origin of social hygiene was directly related to crucial revision of conceptions of causes and essence of diseases that created necessary conditions for transfer into medicine ideas and methods of political economy, sociology and eugenics. It is proved that origin of social hygiene was appropriate consequence of those crucial alterations in mass physician's consciousness that characterize scientific revolution in medicine of late XIX--first half XX centuries. PMID:27116831

  4. African American women's preventative care usage: the role of social support and racial experiences and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullen, Erin; Perry, Brea; Oser, Carrie

    2014-09-01

    Research suggests that African Americans are less likely to utilise preventative care services than Americans of European descent, and that these patterns may contribute to racial health disparities in the United States. Despite the persistence of inequalities in preventative care utilisation, culturally relevant factors influencing the use of these gateway health services have been understudied among marginalised groups. Using a stratified sample of 205 low-income African American women, this research examines the predictors of receiving a physical exam, with a particular emphasis on how differing levels of social support from friend and family networks and experiences of racial discrimination and cultural mistrust shape utilisation. The findings underscore the importance of traditional predictors of utilisation, including insurance status and having a usual physician. However, they also indicate that supportive ties to friendship networks are associated with higher predicted rates of having an annual physical exam, while social support from family and sentiments of cultural mistrust are associated with lower rates of utilisation. Broadly, the findings indicate that even as traditional predictors of help-seeking become less relevant, it will be critical to explore how variations in discrimination experiences and social relationships across marginalised groups drive patterns of preventative care utilisation. PMID:24749849

  5. Public health, academic medicine, and the alcohol industry's corporate social responsibility activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babor, Thomas F; Robaina, Katherine

    2013-02-01

    We explored the emerging relationships among the alcohol industry, academic medicine, and the public health community in the context of public health theory dealing with corporate social responsibility. We reviewed sponsorship of scientific research, efforts to influence public perceptions of research, dissemination of scientific information, and industry-funded policy initiatives. To the extent that the scientific evidence supports the reduction of alcohol consumption through regulatory and legal measures, the academic community has come into increasing conflict with the views of the alcohol industry. We concluded that the alcohol industry has intensified its scientific and policy-related activities under the general framework of corporate social responsibility initiatives, most of which can be described as instrumental to the industry's economic interests. PMID:23237151

  6. Public health, academic medicine, and the alcohol industry's corporate social responsibility activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babor, Thomas F; Robaina, Katherine

    2013-02-01

    We explored the emerging relationships among the alcohol industry, academic medicine, and the public health community in the context of public health theory dealing with corporate social responsibility. We reviewed sponsorship of scientific research, efforts to influence public perceptions of research, dissemination of scientific information, and industry-funded policy initiatives. To the extent that the scientific evidence supports the reduction of alcohol consumption through regulatory and legal measures, the academic community has come into increasing conflict with the views of the alcohol industry. We concluded that the alcohol industry has intensified its scientific and policy-related activities under the general framework of corporate social responsibility initiatives, most of which can be described as instrumental to the industry's economic interests.

  7. How welcome do Iranian-Americans feel in their homeland? Perceptions of social distance among Muslim, Jewish, and Non-Religious Iranian-American adults

    OpenAIRE

    Paige, Shari; Hatfield, Elaine; Liang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Recent political events in the United States have created a political climate that promotes prejudice against Middle Eastern, Iranian, and Muslim people. In this study, we were interested in investigating two questions: (1) How welcome do Iranian-American men and women from various religious backgrounds (Muslim, Jewish, or no religious affiliation) feel in their new homeland (specifically, how much social distance (affective distance) do they think their Euro-American neighbors feel toward th...

  8. Chinese Students' Adaptation of Social Intercourse Influenced by Different Cultural Contexts of China and America in American Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于乐群

    2012-01-01

    1 Statement of the Purpose (1) Statement of the purpose The purpose of the research isto study Chinese studends' adaptation of social intercourse influenced by different cultural contexts of China and America in American universities.And the study will also try to find out the exact problems and obstacles during Chinese students' adapting period in American universities.

  9. Genomic medicine: health care issues and the unresolved ethical and social dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idemyor, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Our perception of the mechanism by which single genes can cause disease is evolving. This has led to the understanding of the pathophysiological basis of common diseases. Genomic Medicine continues to contribute to the understanding of the molecular basis of disease. Medicine has strived to achieve the goal of tailoring interventions to individual variations in risk and treatment response and advances in medical genomics will facilitate this process. Relevant to present-day practice is the use of genomic information to classify individuals according to disease susceptibility or expected responsiveness to a pharmacologic treatment and to provide targeted interventions. By investigating the genetic profile of individuals, medical professionals are able to select patients and use the information obtained to plan out a course of treatment that is much more in step with the way their body works. However, society is concerned about the effect genetic knowledge will have on ethnic or racial groups. Currently, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act prohibits discrimination based on genetics. There is a need to increase the understanding of the social and ethical challenges that genomics information may pose to clinicians and scientists. This review is not meant to be exhaustive; rather, clinically relevant examples are used to illustrate how genomic medicine can facilitate the provision of molecular diagnostic methods that improve drug therapy. Finally, the rapid pace of change in genomics may likely make my conclusions today obsolete tomorrow. PMID:22713532

  10. Developing an Organizational Understanding of Faculty Mentoring Programs in Academic Medicine in Major American Research Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer Zellers, Darlene

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the organizational and contextual factors associated with faculty mentoring programs in academic medicine within major research institutions in the United States, and explores the usefulness of organizational behavior theory in understanding these relationships. To date, many formal faculty mentoring programs are in operation…

  11. Shared Illness and Social Support Within Two HIV-Affected African American Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosack, Katie E; Stevens, Patricia E; Brouwer, Amanda M; Wendorf, Angela R

    2016-09-01

    A key source of resiliency within HIV-affected African American communities is informal social support. Data from dyadic conversations and focus groups were used to address the following research question: What are HIV-positive African Americans' social support experiences within their informal social networks in response to HIV-related problems? Circumstances that exacerbated HIV-related problems included others' fear of contagion, reticence to be involved, judgment and rejection, and disregard for privacy Support from HIV-negative others buffered the impact of problems when others communicate interest, take the initiative to help, or make a long-term investment in their success. Support from other HIV-positive persons was helpful given the shared connection because of HIV, the opportunity to commiserate about what is mutually understood, and the fight for mutual survival Based on these findings, we offer suggestions for future research and social network interventions aimed at bolstering connections between HIV-positive peers, reducing stigma, and improving family support. PMID:26515921

  12. Racial group regard, barrier socialization, and African American adolescents' engagement: patterns and processes by gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalls, Ciara; Cooper, Shauna M

    2012-08-01

    The current study examined gendered processes via 1) profiles of racial barrier socialization, regard for one's racial group (private regard), and behavioral engagement and grades and, 2) gender and private regard as a moderator in the link between barrier messages and academic engagement outcomes. One-hundred and twenty-five African American adolescents (ages 10-14, M = 12.39, SD = 1.07) completed measures of socialization, private regard, grades and behavioral engagement. Latent Profile Analysis revealed a 2-cluster solution fit the data best - 1) High Engagement-Race Salient (HERS) cluster and 2) Low Engagement-Non-Salient cluster (LENS). Girls had higher representation in the HERS cluster. When private regard was examined as a moderator, girls' grades were unrelated to barrier socialization and private regard. In contrast, barrier socialization was associated with lower grades for low private regard boys. Findings are discussed in the context of gendered racial school contexts that African American youth must navigate to be academically successful.

  13. American social psychology: Examining the contours of the 1970s crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, Cathy

    2012-06-01

    Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, social psychologists diagnosed their field as suffering a state of disciplinary crisis. The crisis was a multifaceted one, but issues of methodology, social relevance, and disciplinary, philosophical, and theoretical orientation were the primary areas of concern. Given that these issues have been prominent ones throughout the history of the social and behavioral sciences, it becomes necessary to look to the immediate context of the 1970s crisis to understand how and why a disciplinary crisis came to be diagnosed. The present analysis suggests that the crisis reflected the larger crisis in American society and also drew on the language of crisis prevalent at the time. Employing this language may have offered the field a method of making sense of, reframing, and redirecting internal and external critiques of the discipline.

  14. Understanding and effectively addressing breast cancer in African American women: Unpacking the social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R; Mohammed, Selina A; Shields, Alexandra E

    2016-07-15

    Black women have a higher incidence of breast cancer before the age of 40 years, more severe disease at all ages, and an elevated mortality risk in comparison with white women. There is limited understanding of the contribution of social factors to these patterns. Elucidating the role of the social determinants of health in breast cancer disparities requires greater attention to how risk factors for breast cancer unfold over the lifecourse and to the complex ways in which socioeconomic status and racism shape exposure to psychosocial, physical, chemical, and other individual and community-level assaults that increase the risk of breast cancer. Research that takes seriously the social context in which black women live is also needed to maximize the opportunities to prevent breast cancer in this underserved group. Cancer 2016;122:2138-49. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26930024

  15. Performance evaluation of three computed radiography systems using methods recommended in American Association of Physicists in Medicine Report 93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performances of three clinical computed radiography (CR) systems (Agfa CR 75 (with CRMD 4. 0 image plates), Kodak CR 850 (with Kodak GP plates) and Kodak CR 850A (with Kodak GP plates) were evaluated using six tests recommended in American Association of Physicists in Medicine Report 93. The results indicated variable performances with majority being within acceptable limits. The variations were mainly attributed to differences in detector formulations, plate readers' characteristics, and aging effects. The differences of the mean low contrast scores between the imaging systems for three observers were statistically significant for Agfa and Kodak CR 850A (P=0.009) and for Kodak CR systems (P=0.006) probably because of the differences in ages. However, the differences were not statistically significant between Agfa and Kodak CR 850 (P=0.284) suggesting similar perceived image quality. The study demonstrates the need to implement quality control program regularly. (author)

  16. Social research in health and the American sociopolitical context: the changing fortunes of medical sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanic, D

    1993-01-01

    The fortunes of medical sociology, like other public policy-relevant disciplines, are shaped by political dynamics and prevailing values and attitudes. In the 1980s the field, which views disease and disability as consequences to a substantial degree of material conditions, social stratification, and inequalities among varying strata, lost ground to economics as societal attention focused on cost containment issues. Sociological concern with social structures clashed with dominant conservative and individualistic perspectives and the increased focus on personal responsibility and market strategies. There was decreasing tolerance in policy circles for the view that health, and the problems affecting disenfranchised groups such as the poor, the homeless, the uninsured and people with disabilities, were more due to our politics and social arrangements than the personal characteristics of those affected. Thus, little attention has been given in public health discourse to how life imperatives and social opportunities and constraints shape behavior. The paper documents the important role of the social sciences in health services research with special attention to examining the social context of the RAND Health Insurance Experiment. Although many of the questions medical sociology address sit on the periphery of policy-makers' concerns, a strong case is made for the revitalization of a critical scholarly role in medical sociology. I conclude, given the short and longterm problems we face in medicine and health, that we would have to invent a vigorous critical medical sociological enterprise if we did not already have one. PMID:8421794

  17. The Subjective Experience of Social Class and Upward Mobility Among African American Men in Graduate School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Francisco J; Liu, William Ming; Leathers, Leslie; Goins, Joyce; Vilain, Eric

    2011-10-01

    We used Consensual Qualitative Research Methodology to analyze responses from 14 African American men (Mdn(Age) = 25 years-old) in graduate school at a predominantly-White university in the Midwestern region of the United Sates regarding how they acquired awareness of their social-class status; how social class was related to their sense of masculinity; how social class was related to race and skin tone; and the role that education and a romantic partner could play in upward mobility. School peers were the main source for their early awareness of social class. Many believed that discrimination maintains social class stratification that disadvantages racial minorities and that one's race will always trump any personal characteristics-including having light-complected skin and an advanced degree. Finally many overcame several obstacles during their educational career, and most believed that a romantic relationship with a woman from a privileged background could facilitate upward mobility. Psychological scientists and practitioners are encouraged to consider the role that social class plays when examining men's well-being.

  18. The Subjective Experience of Social Class and Upward Mobility Among African American Men in Graduate School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Francisco J.; Liu, William Ming; Leathers, Leslie; Goins, Joyce; Vilain, Eric

    2011-01-01

    We used Consensual Qualitative Research Methodology to analyze responses from 14 African American men (MdnAge = 25 years-old) in graduate school at a predominantly-White university in the Midwestern region of the United Sates regarding how they acquired awareness of their social-class status; how social class was related to their sense of masculinity; how social class was related to race and skin tone; and the role that education and a romantic partner could play in upward mobility. School peers were the main source for their early awareness of social class. Many believed that discrimination maintains social class stratification that disadvantages racial minorities and that one's race will always trump any personal characteristics—including having light-complected skin and an advanced degree. Finally many overcame several obstacles during their educational career, and most believed that a romantic relationship with a woman from a privileged background could facilitate upward mobility. Psychological scientists and practitioners are encouraged to consider the role that social class plays when examining men's well-being. PMID:22058659

  19. Grade inflation at a north american college of veterinary medicine: 1985-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Bonnie R; Elmore, Ronnie G; Sanderson, Michael W

    2009-01-01

    Grade inflation, an upward shift in student grade-point averages without a similar rise in achievement, is considered pervasive by most experts in post-secondary education in the United States. Grade-point averages (GPAs) at US universities have increased by roughly 0.15 points per decade since the 1960s, with a 0.6-point increase since 1967. In medical education, grade inflation has been documented and is particularly evident in the clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate grade inflation over a 22-year period in a college of veterinary medicine. Academic records from 2,060 students who graduated from the College of Veterinary Medicine at Kansas State University between 1985 and 2006 were evaluated, including cumulative GPAs earned during pre-clinical professional coursework, during clinical rotations, and at graduation. Grade inflation was documented at a rate of approximately 0.2 points per decade at this college of veterinary medicine. The difference in mean final GPA between the minimum (1986) and maximum (2003) years of graduation was 0.47 points. Grade inflation was similar for didactic coursework (years 1-3) and clinical rotations (final year). Demographic shifts, student qualifications, and tuition do not appear to have contributed to grade inflation over time. A change in academic standards and student evaluation of teaching may have contributed to relaxed grading standards, and technology in the classroom may have led to higher (earned) grades as a result of improved student learning. PMID:19435997

  20. Medical history for the masses: how American comic books celebrated heroes of medicine in the 1940s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bert

    2004-01-01

    When comic books rose to mass popularity in the early 1940s, one segment of the industry specialized in "true adventures," with stories about real people from the past and the present--in contrast to competing books that offered fantasy, science fiction, superheroes, detectives and crime, funny people, or funny animals. This study examines the figures from both medical history and twentieth-century medicine who were portrayed as heroes and role models in these comic books: first, to call attention to this very popular, if unknown, genre of medical history, and second, to illustrate how medical history was used at that time to popularize scientific and medical ideas, to celebrate the achievements of medical research, to encourage medical science as a career choice, and to show medicine as a humane and noble enterprise. The study explains how these medical history stories were situated in American popular culture more generally, and how the graphic power of comic books successfully conveyed both values and information while also telling a good story. Attention to this colorful genre of popular medical history enriches our picture of the mid-twentieth-century public's enthusiasm for medical progress.

  1. Beating the news using Social Media: the case study of American Idol

    CERN Document Server

    Ciulla, Fabio; Baronchelli, Andrea; Gonçalves, Bruno; Perra, Nicola; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    We present a contribution to the debate on the predictability of social events using big data analytics. We focus on the elimination of contestants in the American Idol TV shows as an example of a well defined electoral phenomenon that each week draws millions of votes in the USA. We provide evidence that Twitter activity during the time span defined by the TV show airing and the voting period following it, correlates with the contestants ranking and allows the anticipation of the voting outcome. Furthermore, the fraction of Tweets that contain geolocation information allows us to map the fanbase of each contestant, both within the US and abroad, showing that strong regional polarizations occur. Although American Idol voting is just a minimal and simplified version of complex societal phenomena such as political elections, this work shows that the volume of information available in online systems permits the real time gathering of quantitative indicators anticipating the future unfolding of opinion formation ...

  2. Factors Leading African Americans and Black Caribbeans to Use Social Work Services for Treating Mental and Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tyrone C.; Robinson, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    This secondary analysis of 5,000 African Americans and black Caribbeans explored how their use of social work services to address mental and substance use disorders was associated with the disorder involved as well as their perceived need for services, belief system, family resources, proximity to services, social-structural factors, and…

  3. Cultural Resources and School Engagement among African American Youths: The Role of Racial Socialization and Ethnic Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, M. Daniel, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Racial socialization and ethnic identity are emerging, albeit atheoretical, constructs that have been argued to promote prosocial outcomes among ethnic minority youths. Using structural equation modeling, the author explored the influence of racial socialization and ethnic identity on school engagement in a sample of 131 African American youths.…

  4. Socialization Environments of Chinese and Euro-American Middle-Class Babies: Parenting Behaviors, Verbal Discourses and Ethnotheories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Heidi; Abels, Monika; Borke, Jorn; Lamm, Bettina; Su, Yanjie; Wang, Yifang; Lo, Wingshan

    2007-01-01

    Children's socialization environments reflect cultural models of parenting. In particular, Euro-American and Chinese families have been described as following different socialization scripts. The present study assesses parenting behaviors as well as parenting ethnotheories with respect to three-month-old babies in middle-class families in Los…

  5. Resistance and Assent: How Racial Socialization Shapes Black Students' Experience Learning African American History in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, Theodore E.

    2016-01-01

    African American history is often taught poorly in high school U.S. history courses. However, we know little about how Black students perceive and experience this situation. I use a refined racial socialization framework and interview data with 32 Black college students in the Northeast to investigate how familial racial socialization shapes their…

  6. How Homes Influence Schools: Early Parenting Predicts African American Children's Classroom Social-Emotional Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Claire E.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.

    2014-01-01

    Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort were used to examine the extent to which early parenting predicted African American children's kindergarten social-emotional functioning. Teachers rated children's classroom social-emotional functioning in four areas (i.e., approaches to learning, self-control,…

  7. Towards the Development of Governance Principles for the Administration of Social Protection Benefits: Comparative Lessons from Dutch and American Experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, F.J.L.; Secunda, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce a new approach to social protection benefit provision through an analysis and comparison of two of the advanced benefit systems in the world. Both the Dutch and American examples teach us that meaningful social benefit protection is possible, consistent, a

  8. Self-Esteem among Vietnamese American Adolescents: The Role of Self-Construal, Family Cohesion, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Brian Trung

    2005-01-01

    This prospective study examined whether interdependent self-construal (collectivism), independent self-construal (individualism), family cohesion, and social support would predict levels of self-esteem among Vietnamese American adolescents. Standardized self-report measures of family cohesion, social support, and self-esteem, as well as a measure…

  9. Correlates of African American and Latino parents' messages to children about ethnicity and race: a comparative study of racial socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Diane

    2003-03-01

    Recently, social scientists have become increasingly interested in the nature of communications from parents to children regarding ethnicity and race. Termed racial socialization, race-related messages to children may have important consequences for children's identity development and well-being. This study examined the frequency and correlates of two dimensions of racial socialization-messages about ethnic pride, history, and heritage (Cultural Socialization) and messages about discrimination and racial bias (Preparation for Bias)--among 273 urban African American, Puerto Rican, and Dominican parents. Parents reported more frequent Cultural Socialization than Preparation for Bias. There were no significant ethnic group differences in the frequency of Cultural Socialization. However, African American parents reported more frequent Preparation for Bias than did Dominican parents who, in turn, reported more frequent messages of this sort than did Puerto Rican parents Ethnic identity was a stronger predictor of Cultural Socialization among Puerto Rican and Dominican parents than among their African American counterparts. In contrast, perceived discrimination experiences was a stronger predictor of Preparation for Bias among African American and Dominican parents than among Puerto Rican parents. Finally, race-related phenomenon accounted for more variance in both Cultural Socialization and Preparation for Bias among parents reporting on their behaviors with children 10-17 years old as compared to parents reporting on their behaviors with children 6-9 years old. PMID:12741687

  10. G. Stanley Hall and an American Social Darwinist Pedagogy: His Progressive Educational Ideas on Gender and Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodchild, Lester F.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the influence of evolutionary ideas, especially Social Darwinism, on G. Stanley Hall's (1844-1924) educational ideas and major writings on gender and race. Hall formed these progressive ideas as he developed an American Social Darwinist pedagogy, embedded in his efforts to create the discipline of psychology, the science of…

  11. Did American social and economic events from 1865 to 1898 influence D.D. Palmer the chiropractor and entrepreneur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batinić, Josip; Skowron, Mirek; Hammerich, Karin

    2013-09-01

    This paper explores how the social landscape of the latter half of the nineteenth century influenced D. D. Palmer and the many occupations he pursued. It focuses on the geographical area where D. D. lived from 1865 to 1898. This paper will show how the American social and economic events of the time provided favourable circumstances for D.D.'s entrepreneurial successes.

  12. Political Ideology and Its Relationship to Perceptions of Social Justice Advocacy among Members of the American Counseling Association (ACA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Janee Marie

    2010-01-01

    Social justice has become an increasingly controversial topic among members of the American Counseling Association (ACA). Specifically, concerns have been raised over what is perceived to be: (a) the liberal political agenda of social justice advocates, (b) the marginalization of conservative counselors, and (c) the inappropriate use of ACA…

  13. Global Emergency Medicine Journal Club: A Social Media Discussion About the Age-Adjusted D-Dimer Cutoff Levels to Rule Out Pulmonary Embolism Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaie, SR; Swaminathan, AK; Chan, T.; Shaikh, S; Lin, M.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. Study objective: Annals of Emergency Medicine collaborated with an educational Web site, Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM), to host an online discussion session featuring the 2014 Journal of the American Medical Association publication on the Age-Adjusted D-Dimer Cutoff Levels to Rule Out Pulmonary Embolism (ADJUST-PE) trial by Righini et al. The objective is to describe a 14-day (August 25 to September 7, 2014) worldwide academic dia...

  14. Taking care of business: self-help and sleep medicine in american corporate culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Megan

    2004-01-01

    This article argues that corporate management in the United States has expanded its scope beyond office walls and encompasses many aspects of workers' daily lives. One new element of corporate training is the micromanagement of sleep; self-help books, newspaper reports, magazine articles, and consulting firms currently advise workers and supervisors on optimizing productivity by cultivating certain sleep habits. Although consultants and self-help books make specific recommendations about sleep, most medical research is inconclusive about sleep's benefits for human performance. Using the ideas of Michel Foucault and Gilles Deleuze as a philosophical backdrop, this article examines the complex and often contradictory links between self-help, medicine, and corporate governance.

  15. Home activities of Mexican American children: structuring early socialization and cognitive engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Margaret; Cohen, Shana R; Scott, Lyn; Fuller, Bruce; Anguiano, Rebecca; Figueroa, Ariana Mangual; Livas-Dlott, Alejandra

    2015-04-01

    The question of how home activities advance the early social and cognitive development of Latino children receives growing attention from psychologists and social scientists. Some scholars and practitioners, focused on promoting "school readiness," frame the problem as weak parenting, signaled by insufficient rich language or academic skills. Other theorists, rooted in ecocultural theory, argue that early socialization and cognitive engagement are culturally situated within routine home activities. These activity structures vary and change over time as families acculturate, adapting to local social ecologies. Little is known empirically about the activity structures within Latino homes, including how young children participate. We detail the social architecture and cognitive engagement pertaining to 6 prevalent home activities in which 24 Mexican American 4-year-olds were engaged over 14 months. We then report how children participate in these 6 activities, and their potential relevance to the cognitive skills gap seen at school entry. We found that children's activities reproduced heritage language, symbols, and knowledge less often than suggested in prior literature; children's typical level of cognitive engagement varied greatly among tasks; and the distribution of time spent in activities is associated with the mother's school attainment and home language. PMID:25364833

  16. Home activities of Mexican American children: structuring early socialization and cognitive engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Margaret; Cohen, Shana R; Scott, Lyn; Fuller, Bruce; Anguiano, Rebecca; Figueroa, Ariana Mangual; Livas-Dlott, Alejandra

    2015-04-01

    The question of how home activities advance the early social and cognitive development of Latino children receives growing attention from psychologists and social scientists. Some scholars and practitioners, focused on promoting "school readiness," frame the problem as weak parenting, signaled by insufficient rich language or academic skills. Other theorists, rooted in ecocultural theory, argue that early socialization and cognitive engagement are culturally situated within routine home activities. These activity structures vary and change over time as families acculturate, adapting to local social ecologies. Little is known empirically about the activity structures within Latino homes, including how young children participate. We detail the social architecture and cognitive engagement pertaining to 6 prevalent home activities in which 24 Mexican American 4-year-olds were engaged over 14 months. We then report how children participate in these 6 activities, and their potential relevance to the cognitive skills gap seen at school entry. We found that children's activities reproduced heritage language, symbols, and knowledge less often than suggested in prior literature; children's typical level of cognitive engagement varied greatly among tasks; and the distribution of time spent in activities is associated with the mother's school attainment and home language.

  17. Sexual risk and HIV prevention behaviours among African-American and Latino MSM social networking users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sean D; Szekeres, Greg; Coates, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    This study explores the feasibility of recruiting minority men who have sex with men Facebook users for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention studies and notes demographic and sexual risk behaviours. Facebook-registered men who have sex with men (MSM; N = 118) were recruited using online and offline methods. Participants validated Facebook-user status through using a Facebook Connect (computer science) application. Participants were primarily Latino (60.2%) and African-American (28.0%), with 33.1% using social media to find sex partners. Black MSM social networking users reported engaging in a lower frequency (coefficient = -0.48, p networking users. Findings highlight the importance of incorporating technologies into population-focused HIV interventions.

  18. Social epidemiology of mental disorders. A review of Latin-American studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida-Filho, N

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature about the relationships between cultural change and psychopathology produced by Latin American researchers. With the analysis of 22 epidemiological studies, the author shows how culture has been traditionally viewed by social psychiatric research in Latin America as an independent variable associated with the prevalence of mental disorders. Two basic approaches have been analyzed: one of anthropological origin and the other based on sociological explanations. The hypotheses of cultural shock, stress of acculturation and cultural marginalization belong to the first approach, while the second one is manifested by the notions of urban stress, life change, social support and goal-striving stress. Methodological issues were brought about to evaluate the results on the association of cultural processes and psychopathology available in contemporary socio-psychiatric research in Latin America.

  19. Religious Participation is Associated with Increases in Religious Social Support in a National Longitudinal Study of African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Daisy; Holt, Cheryl L; Hosack, Dominic P; Huang, Jin; Clark, Eddie M

    2016-08-01

    This study reports on the association between religious beliefs and behaviors and the change in both general and religious social support using two waves of data from a national sample of African Americans. The Religion and Health in African Americans (RHIAA) study is a longitudinal telephone survey designed to examine relationships between various aspects of religious involvement and psychosocial factors over time. RHIAA participants were 3173 African American men (1281) and women (1892). A total of 1251 men (456) and women (795) participated in wave 2 of data collection. Baseline religious behaviors were associated with increased overall religious social support from baseline to wave 2 (p < .001) and with increased religious social support from baseline to wave 2 in each of the following religious social support subscales: emotional support received (p < .001), emotional support provided (p < .001), negative interaction (p < .001), and anticipated support (p < .001). Religious beliefs did not predict change in any type of support, and neither beliefs nor behaviors predicted change in general social support. African Americans who are active in faith communities showed increases in all types of religious social support, even the negative aspects, over a relatively modest longitudinal study period. This illustrates the strength of the church as a social network and the role that it plays in people's lives. PMID:26493343

  20. ExCEL in Social Work: Excellence in Cancer Education & Leadership: An Oncology Social Work Response to the 2008 Institute of Medicine Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis-Green, Shirley; Jones, Barbara; Zebrack, Brad; Kilburn, Lisa; Altilio, Terry A; Ferrell, Betty

    2015-09-01

    ExCEL in Social Work: Excellence in Cancer Education & Leadership was a multi-year National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded grant for the development and implementation of an innovative educational program for oncology social workers. The program's curriculum focused upon six core competencies of psychosocial-spiritual support necessary to meet the standard of care recommended by the 2008 Institute of Medicine (IOM) Report: Cancer Care for the Whole Patient: Meeting Psychosocial Health Needs. The curriculum was delivered through a collaborative partnership between the City of Hope National Medical Center and the two leading professional organizations devoted exclusively to representing oncology social workers--the Association of Oncology Social Work and the Association of Pediatric Oncology Social Workers. Initial findings support the feasibility and acceptability of this tailored leadership skills-building program for participating oncology social workers.

  1. African American parents' racial and emotion socialization profiles and young adults' emotional adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Angel S; Perry, Nicole B; Cavanaugh, Alyson M; Leerkes, Esther M

    2015-07-01

    The current study aimed to identify parents' profiles of racial and emotion socialization practices, to determine if these profiles vary as a function of family income and young adult child gender, and to examine their links with young adults' emotional adaptation. Participants included 192 African American young adults (70% women) who ranged in age from 18 to 24 years (M = 19.44 years). Four maternal profiles emerged: cultural-supportive (high cultural socialization and supportive responses to children's negative emotions), moderate bias preparation (moderate preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses to negative emotions), high bias preparation (high preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses), and low engaged (low across racial and socialization constructs). Three paternal profiles emerged: multifaceted (moderate across racial and emotion socialization constructs), high bias preparation, and low engaged. Men were more likely to have mothers in the high bias preparation and to have fathers in the multifaceted or high bias preparation profiles. Individuals with higher income were more likely to have mothers in the cultural-supportive profile and to have fathers in the multifaceted profile. Young adults whose mothers fit the cultural-supportive profile or the moderate bias preparation profile had lower levels of depressive symptoms than young adults whose mothers fit the high bias preparation profile. PMID:25090149

  2. Planning and diversity: social medicine problems in the “cordiality's country”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Machado Guimarães

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of public-private relationship has long occupied by the staff of the Brazilian Social Sciences, having produced such classics as the book Raízes do Brasil by Sergio Buarque de Hollanda. In works like this, we emphasize the difficulty of Brazil to assume a behavior governed by impersonal rules. In front of them, are deployed expedients as the “you know with who he is talking to” and “jeitinho” by putting the relationship on the strength of individual projects that relate to healing customs. In its purpose studied, which extends to individual habits, the Social Medicine often had to face the warmth and rigid demarcation between public and private life in the United States. If, in terms of history, we find these forces acting in the “Revolt of the vaccine” in literature, we found the character Simon blunderbuss, the work O alienista that Machado de Assis published in the form of Serial, between 1881 and 1882, the example of the clash between two different ethical, that of cordiality, defined by Sergio Buarque de Hollanda and the pulse of modern science planner.

  3. Evaluation of Social Media Use by Emergency Medicine Residents and Faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pearson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Clinicians and residency programs are increasing their use of social media (SM websites for educational and promotional uses, yet little is known about the use of these sites by residents and faculty. The objective of the study is to assess patterns of SM use for personal and professional purposes among emergency medicine (EM residents and faculty. Methods: In this multi-site study, an 18-question survey was sent by e-mail to the residents and faculty in 14 EM programs and to the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors (CORD listserv via the online tool SurveyMonkey™. We compiled descriptive statistics, including assessment with the chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test. StatsDirect software (v 2.8.0, StatsDirect, Cheshire, UK was used for all analyses. Results: We received 1,314 responses: 63% of respondents were male, 40% were <30 years of age, 39% were between the ages 31 and 40, and 21% were older than 40. The study group consisted of 772 residents and 542 faculty members (15% were program directors, 21% were assistant or associate PDs, 45% were core faculty, and 19% held other faculty positions. Forty-four percent of respondents completed residency more than 10 years ago. Residents used SM markedly more than faculty for social interactions with family and friends (83% vs 65% [p<0.0001], entertainment (61% vs 47% [p<0.0001], and videos (42% vs 23% [p=0.0006]. Residents used Facebook™ and YouTube™ more often than faculty (86% vs 67% [p<0.001]; 53% vs 46% [p=0.01], whereas residents used Twitter™ (19% vs 26% [p=0.005] and LinkedIn™ (15% vs 32% [p<0.0001] less than faculty. Overall, residents used SM sites more than faculty, notably in daily use (30% vs 24% [p<0.001]. For professional use, residents were most interested in its use for open positions/hiring (30% vs 18% [p<0.0001] and videos (33% vs 26% [p=0.005] and less interested than faculty with award postings (22% vs 33% [p<0.0001] or publications (30

  4. The bad taste of social ostracism: the effects of exclusion on the eating behaviors of African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, Lenwood W; McIntyre, Rusty B; Abbey, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    African-American women experience disproportionately higher rates of obesity than do Caucasian women. The stress African-American women encounter from experiences of discrimination may influence their eating behaviours, which could contribute to weight gain. Emotional eating theory suggests some people increase their intake of high-calorie foods to cope with stressful experiences. We investigated the effects of social exclusion by other African-American women or by Caucasian women for African-American women's distress and food consumption using a laboratory paradigm. As hypothesised, there were main effects of ostracism and interactions between ostracism and race, although not all of the interactions took the expected form. As hypothesised, African-American women ate more potato crisps after being excluded by Caucasians than by African-Americans. Unexpectedly, African-American women who were excluded by other African-American women self-reported more emotional distress than did African-American women excluded by Caucasian women. These findings suggest that ostracism by both in-group and out-group members are disturbing, although people may respond to in-group and out-group exclusion in different ways. Directions for future research are suggested that could elucidate the circumstances under which different emotional and behavioural coping responses are employed. PMID:25403251

  5. The Social Media Index: Measuring the Impact of Emergency Medicine and Critical Care Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoma, Brent

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The number of educational resources created for emergency medicine and critical care (EMCC that incorporate social media has increased dramatically. With no way to assess their impact or quality, it is challenging for educators to receive scholarly credit and for learners to identify respected resources. The Social Media index (SMi was developed to help address this. Methods: We used data from social media platforms (Google PageRanks, Alexa Ranks, Facebook Likes, Twitter Followers, and Google+ Followers for EMCC blogs and podcasts to derive three normalized (ordinal, logarithmic, and raw formulas. The most statistically robust formula was assessed for 1 temporal stability using repeated measures and website age, and 2 correlation with impact by applying it to EMCC journals and measuring the correlation with known journal impact metrics. Results: The logarithmic version of the SMi containing four metrics was the most statistically robust. It correlated significantly with website age (Spearman r=0.372; p<0.001 and repeated measures through seven months (r=0.929; p<0.001. When applied to EMCC journals, it correlated significantly with all impact metrics except number of articles published. The strongest correlations were seen with the Immediacy Index (r=0.609; p<0.001 and Article Influence Score (r=0.608; p<0.001. Conclusion: The SMi’s temporal stability and correlation with journal impact factors suggests that it may be a stable indicator of impact for medical education websites. Further study is needed to determine whether impact correlates with quality and how learners and educators can best utilize this tool. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(2:242–249.

  6. Parental racial socialization as a moderator of the effects of racial discrimination on educational success among African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Huguley, James P

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether parental racial socialization practices moderated the relation between racial discrimination in school and adolescents' educational outcomes. Using data from a longitudinal study of an economically diverse sample of 630 African American adolescents (mean age=14.5) from a major East Coast metropolis, the results revealed that cultural socialization attenuated the effect of teacher discrimination on grade point average (GPA) and educational aspirations, as well as the effect of peer discrimination on GPA. Also, preparation for bias and cultural socialization interacted to make unique contributions to African American adolescents' educational outcomes. Finally, there was some evidence that teacher discrimination was more detrimental to the academic engagement of African American males than females. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  7. The American Society of Clinical Oncology's Efforts to Support Global Cancer Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; El-Saghir, Nagi S; Cufer, Tanja; Cazap, Eduardo; de Guzman, Roselle; Othieno-Abinya, Nicholas Anthony; Sanchez, Jose Angel; Pyle, Doug

    2016-01-01

    Despite much progress in the management of malignant diseases, the number of new cases and cancer-related deaths continues to rise around the world. More than half of new cases occur in economically developing countries, where more than two thirds of cancer deaths are expected. However, implementation of all necessary steps to accomplish the dissemination of state-of-the-art prevention, diagnosis, and management will require increased allocation of resources, and, more importantly, harmonization of the efforts of hundreds of national and international public health agencies, policy-setting bodies, governments, pharmaceutical companies, and philanthropic organizations. More than 30% of the members of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) reside and practice outside US borders, and more than half of attendees at all of the scientific congresses and symposia organized by ASCO are international. As cancer has become an increasingly global disease, ASCO has evolved as a global organization. The ASCO Board of Directors currently includes members from France, Brazil, and Canada. In 2013, the ASCO Board of Directors identified a number of strategic priorities for the future. Recognizing the importance of non-US members to the society, their first strategic priority was improving the society's service to non-US members and defining these members' identity in the international oncology community. This article reviews current ASCO activities in the international arena and its future plans in global oncology.

  8. Correlation of the National Board of Medical Examiners Emergency Medicine Advanced Clinical Examination Given in July to Intern American Board of Emergency Medicine in-training Examination Scores: A Predictor of Performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine Hiller; Doug Franzen; Corey Heitz; Matthew Emery; Stacy Poznanski

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: There is great variation in the knowledge base of Emergency Medicine (EM) interns in July. The first objective knowledge assessment during residency does not occur until eight months later, in February, when the American Board of EM (ABEM) administers the in-training examination (ITE). In 2013, the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) released the EM Advanced Clinical Examination (EM-ACE), an assessment intended for fourth-year medical students. Administration of the EM-AC...

  9. Brigadier General Theodore C Lyster [correction of Lister], MD: father of American aviation medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, J; O'Leary, J P

    2000-07-01

    Aviation medicine came into existence as a recognized entity when certain standards were established during and shortly after World War I. During this time, accident rates were high. In fact, a larger number of pilots were dying in accidents than in combat. Figures from Great Britain's casualty list at the close of the first year of World War I indicated that for every 100 aviators killed, 60 died as a result of some individual physical defect, 30 from some form of recklessness or careless behavior, 8 as a result of some mechanical defect in the airplane, and only 2 at the hands of the enemy. Aviators were found to be in poor physical condition. Because there were no established regulations with regard to workloads, aviators were frequently found to have been flying to a point beyond exhaustion. Because of workload, chronic fatigue, and emotional stress, aviators were constantly called upon to perform superhuman feats when not in peak physical condition. Errors in judgement were common. The majority of pilots lost weight as a somatic sign of stress. This was recognized by Theodore Lyster [corrected] who had recently been appointed as the Chief Surgeon, Aviation Section of the U.S. Army. Such problems were not diagnosed by medical officers because they were not trained to recognize them. Theodore Charles Lyster [corrected] was the son of Captain William J. and Martha Doughty Lyster [corrected]. He was an Army "brat" who entered the world on July 10, 1875. His childhood was spent in various posts around the country. At the age of 7, Lyster [corrected] contracted yellow fever while living in Fort Brown, TX. The boy was treated by William Gorgas, a young post surgeon. Gorgas was credited with the young boy's recovery. Later, Gorgas was to marry Lyster's [corrected] aunt making Lyster [corrected] his nephew by marriage. Having survived the yellow fever infection, young Lyster [corrected] had a lifelong immunity to the disease. PMID:10917489

  10. Traumatic brain injury and the Americans with Disabilities Act: implications for the social work profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Portia L; Cecka, Dale Margolin

    2014-07-01

    The practice of social work has been greatly affected by the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA). Title I of the statute prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities, including the increasing number of workers who are returning to work after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). This article examines the extent to which the ADA protects those with TBI from being harassed, being denied reasonable workplace accommodations, or suffering other adverse actions related to perceived discrimination. To do so, it relies on judicial decisions from U.S. federal courts involving alleged workplace discrimination of this population. Implications for social work practice are noted with the intent of increasing ADA awareness among professionals providing services to people who meet the criteria for disability under the ADA as well as to those persons who do not. The authors hope to encourage social workers to rely on case law analysis as a mechanism to provide further evidence of the systematic problems faced by people with TBI and thus increase their visibility.

  11. Demobilization and social reintegration of Brazilian and American troops of World War II: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cesar Alves Ferraz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to discuss the results of a comparative study of demobilization and social reintegration of Brazilian and American veterans of World War II. . In spite of the obvious difference in scale of the two military experiences, I argue that the study of the two experiences can offer new insights into lights on various common issues to both countries: the relationship between the societies and their armed forces, between the governments and their citizens, social and racial inequalities and, finally, the experiences of building welfare state structures during the war and postwar periods. Based on international studies of demobilization and social integration war veterans, the variables that were decisive for the success or failure of adaptation were: a past experiences in the reintegration of war veterans; b the nature and consequences of recruitment of future veterans; c planning by the State and the Armed Forces of procedures for post-bellum demobilization and reintegration; d the implementation of demobilization and the effects within the military institution and in civil society.

  12. Ethnicity and Acculturation: Influences on Asian American Consumers' Purchase Decision Making for Social Clothes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jikyeong; Kim, Youn-Kyung

    1998-01-01

    Responses from 172 Chinese Americans, 185 Japanese Americans, and 144 Korean Americans revealed distinct reference group, media, and store attribute influences on clothing purchases. Patterns differed depending on degree of acculturation. (SK)

  13. Health care in the distended society: the American hospital in its social contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, M J

    The hospital at every stage in its development has been a product of social, political, cultural, and economic forces as well as a reflection of the kind of medical and scientific knowledge available in a given era. That we have as many hospitals as we do, that they are organized and financed the way are, that they practice the kind of medicine and provide the services they do (and that they now face the crises they do) is a result of past decisions in which health concerns sometimes played only a marginal role. Institutional inertia--the fact that institutions once set in motion cling tenaciously to life--means that a set of historical facts which have little to do with health care has saddled the United States with a hospital system that now distorts our health care expenditures and even affects how we think about disease and health. PMID:10304259

  14. It Takes a Village (or an Ethnic Economy): The Varying Roles of Socioeconomic Status, Religion, and Social Capital in SAT Preparation for Chinese and Korean American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Julie J.

    2012-01-01

    Ethnic economies promote interclass contact among East Asian Americans, which facilitates the exchange of information and resources through social capital networks. However, low-income Korean Americans are more likely than low-income Chinese Americans to take SAT prep, although both communities have extensive ethnic economies. In the analysis of a…

  15. [Problem-based learning in a social medicine course--a concept for improving learning achievement and practice relevance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, R

    1996-07-01

    In many medical curricula around the world, problem-based learning (PBL), i.e. inductive, usually interdisciplinary learning based on real or constructed cases, has been shown to improve the acquisition of knowledge. Additionally, it is valued positively by students. On the other hand, lecturing is usually valued negatively. Teaching of epidemiology and social medicine is further handicapped by the fact that students consider it irrelevant. In 1994/95, one of 18 social medicine courses for fifth year medical students at Hannover Medical School was problem-based. The following "cases" were used: 1. rheumatic patient with various social medical problems (losing sick pay, receiving status as handicapped person, early retirement etc.), 2. cluster of patients with leukaemia in the surroundings of a nuclear power plant and 3. recent newspaper articles on the effects of the 1993 Health Care Reform Law (dentists refusing to treat patients because of a fixed budget, introduction of prepayment methods in hospital etc.). Evaluation by the students at the end of the course revealed that PBL is well accepted in social medicine. Students rated learning success, relevance of the subject compared to other disciplines and the ability to transfer the acquired knowledge into medical practice well above the traditional courses. Besides lectures, practical courses and seminars, PBL should therefore be used as a standard method of learning in undergraduate medical education.

  16. Social adaptation of Latin American youth gangs in Spain: Gangs and street youth organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Soriano Gatica

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article carries out a brief summary of the evolution of the phenomenon of what are known as “Latino gangs” in Spain since the late 1990s. The upsurge of these new street youth organisations is closely linked with the mass arrival of thousands of young Latin Americans in Spain during the past decade, and the consequent integration challenges that this has brought for both the welcoming society and for the young newcomers. In the sphere of public policy inSpain, there have been two main approaches to the phenomenon: one which is more oriented towards repression than prevention, and the other, known as the “Barcelona model”, which has promoted a process of normalisation and integration of these groups into Spanish society. The second option makes it possible for different social actors to carry out coordinated actions, and may serve as a guideline for developing similar initiatives in different countries in Europe and Latin America.

  17. Linking Parental Socialization to Interpersonal Protective Processes, Academic Self-Presentation, and Expectations among Rural African American Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Murry, Velma McBride; Berkel, Cady; Brody, Gene H.; Miller, Shannon J.; Chen, Yi-fu

    2009-01-01

    Data obtained from two waves of a longitudinal study of 671 rural African American families, with an 11-year-old preadolescent, were examined to test pathways through which racial and ethnic socialization influence youth's self-presentation and academic expectation and anticipation through the enhancement of youth self-pride. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that racial and ethnic socialization was linked with youth's expectation and anticipation for academic success, through y...

  18. Did American social and economic events from 1865 to 1898 influence D.D. Palmer the chiropractor and entrepreneur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batinić, Josip; Skowron, Mirek; Hammerich, Karin

    2013-09-01

    This paper explores how the social landscape of the latter half of the nineteenth century influenced D. D. Palmer and the many occupations he pursued. It focuses on the geographical area where D. D. lived from 1865 to 1898. This paper will show how the American social and economic events of the time provided favourable circumstances for D.D.'s entrepreneurial successes. PMID:23997248

  19. The social management of biomedical novelty: Facilitating translation in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, John; Webster, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Regenerative medicine (RM) is championed as a potential source of curative treatments for a variety of illnesses, and as a generator of economic wealth and prosperity. Alongside this optimism, however, is a sense of concern that the translation of basic science into useful RM therapies will be laboriously slow due to a range of challenges relating to live tissue handling and manufacturing, regulation, reimbursement and commissioning, and clinical adoption. This paper explores the attempts of stakeholders to overcome these innovation challenges and thus facilitate the emergence of useful RM therapies. The paper uses the notion of innovation niches as an analytical frame. Innovation niches are collectively constructed socio-technical spaces in which a novel technology can be tested and further developed, with the intention of enabling wider adoption. Drawing on primary and secondary data, we explore the motivation for, and the attempted construction of, niches in three domains which are central to the adoption of innovative technologies: the regulatory, the health economic, and the clinical. We illustrate that these niches are collectively constructed via both formal and informal initiatives, and we argue that they reflect wider socio-political trends in the social management of biomedical novelty. PMID:27019143

  20. Social orientation and diabetes-related distress in Japanese and American patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Ikeda

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence in cultural and social psychology suggests Eastern cultures' emphasis on harmony and connection with others and Western cultures' emphasis on self-direction and autonomy. In Eastern society, relational harmony is closely linked to people's well-being. The impact of this cultural and social orientation on diabetes-related distress was investigated. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Japanese and American patients with type 2 diabetes were surveyed by well-established questionnaire in Japan and in the United States, respectively. The association of personal values for interdependence, perceived emotional support, and the Problem Areas in Diabetes scale (PAID were analyzed. RESULTS: A positive correlation between interdependence and PAID (r = 0.18; P = 0.025 and a negative correlation between perceived emotional support and PAID (r = - 0.24; P = 0.004 were observed after adjustments for other factors in Japanese data (n = 149, but not in American data (r = 0.00; P = 0.990, r = 0.02; P = 0.917, respectively, n = 50. In Japanese data, the three-factor structure of PAID (negative feelings about total life with diabetes, about living conditions with diabetes, and about treatment of diabetes was identified, and interdependence showed significant positive correlations with the first and second factors and perceived emotional support showed significant negative correlations with all three factors of PAID. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that personal values for interdependence may be linked to the level of diabetes-related distress and that the distress may be relieved by perception of emotional support, especially in an interdependent cultural context.

  1. Navigating Racialized Contexts: The Influence of School and Family Socialization on African American Students' Racial and Educational Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Shuntay Z.

    2013-01-01

    Within the United States, African American students experience school socialization that exposes them to racial segregation, economic stratification, and route learning masked as education. Consequently African American families are compelled to engage in socialization practices that buffer against the adverse influences of racism, oppression, and…

  2. Religious Participation is Associated with Increases in Religious Social Support in a National Longitudinal Study of African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Daisy; Holt, Cheryl L; Hosack, Dominic P; Huang, Jin; Clark, Eddie M

    2016-08-01

    This study reports on the association between religious beliefs and behaviors and the change in both general and religious social support using two waves of data from a national sample of African Americans. The Religion and Health in African Americans (RHIAA) study is a longitudinal telephone survey designed to examine relationships between various aspects of religious involvement and psychosocial factors over time. RHIAA participants were 3173 African American men (1281) and women (1892). A total of 1251 men (456) and women (795) participated in wave 2 of data collection. Baseline religious behaviors were associated with increased overall religious social support from baseline to wave 2 (p network and the role that it plays in people's lives.

  3. Socialization into a Civilization: The Dewey-Kaplan Synthesis in American Jewish Schooling in the Early 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    This historical study focuses on how John Dewey's theory of education as socialization and Mordecai Kaplan's theory of Judaism as a civilization together served as an ideological base and pedagogical framework for the creation of "progressive," "reconstructed" American Jewish school programs in the early 20th century (1910s-1930s). In the main,…

  4. Sociocultural Factors and School Engagement among African American Youth: The Roles of Racial Discrimination, Racial Socialization, and Ethnic Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterer, Aryn M.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the links between racial discrimination and school engagement and the roles of racial socialization and ethnic identity as protective factors in those linkages in a sample of 148, sixth through twelfth grade African American adolescents from working and middle-class two-parent families. In home interviews, youth described…

  5. African-American Parents' Racial and Ethnic Socialization and Adolescent Academic Grades: Teasing out the Role of Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tiffany L.; Linver, Miriam R.; Evans, Melanie; DeGennaro, Donna

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of racial and ethnic socialization and academic achievement in a sample of 218 African American adolescents (grades 9-12; 52% girls) attending a public high school in the northeastern United States. Researchers were particularly interested in whether adolescent gender moderated the relationship between racial…

  6. Facial Expression Recognition and Social Competence among African American Elementary School Children: An Examination of Ethnic Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanville, Denise N.; Nowicki, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the potential for cross-ethnic miscommunication of facial expressions, examining elementary students' ability to identify emotion in African American and white facial expressions and noting the relationship to social competence. Student data indicated that ability to read faces differing in ethnicity did not differ by children's…

  7. Expanding the Social Frame of Knowledge: Interdisciplinary, Degree-Granting Fields in American Colleges and Universities, 1975-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brint, Steven G.; Turk-Bicakci, Lori; Proctor, Kristopher; Murphy, Scott Patrick

    2009-01-01

    The number of interdisciplinary, degree-granting fields in American colleges and universities has grown rapidly, with socially incorporative programs (women's studies, ethnic studies, and non-Western area studies) accounting for a large share. These fields have diffused widely over time, while other interdisciplinary fields have not. Variables…

  8. Relations between Colorblind Socialization and Children's Racial Bias: Evidence from European American Mothers and Their Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlke, Erin; Bigler, Rebecca S.; Suizzo, Marie-Anne

    2012-01-01

    To examine European American parents' racial socialization, mothers (n = 84) were videotaped while reading 2 race-themed books to their 4- to 5-year-old children and completed surveys concerning their racial attitudes and behaviors. Children completed measures of their racial attitudes and both groups (mothers and preschoolers) predicted the…

  9. The Impact of African American Parents' Racial Discrimination Experiences and Perceived Neighborhood Cohesion on their Racial Socialization Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Farzana T; English, Devin; Busby, Danielle R; Lambert, Sharon F; Harrison, Aubrey; Stock, Michelle L; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2016-07-01

    Parental racial socialization is a parenting tool used to prepare African American adolescents for managing racial stressors. While it is known that parents' racial discrimination experiences affect the racial socialization messages they provide, little is known about the influence of factors that promote supportive and communal parenting, such as perceived neighborhood cohesion. In cohesive neighborhoods, neighbors may help parents address racial discrimination by monitoring youth and conveying racial socialization messages; additionally, the effect of neighborhood cohesion on parents' racial socialization may differ for boys and girls because parents socialize adolescents about race differently based on expected encounters with racial discrimination. Therefore, the current study examines how parents' perception of neighborhood cohesion and adolescents' gender moderate associations between parents' racial discrimination experiences and the racial socialization messages they deliver to their adolescents. Participants were a community sample of 608 African American adolescents (54 % girls; mean age = 15.5) and their primary caregivers (86 % biological mothers; mean age = 42.0). Structural equation modeling indicated that parental racial discrimination was associated with more promotion of mistrust messages for boys and girls in communities with low neighborhood cohesion. In addition, parental racial discrimination was associated with more cultural socialization messages about racial pride and history for boys in neighborhoods with low neighborhood cohesion. The findings suggest that parents' racial socialization messages are influenced by their own racial discrimination experiences and the cohesiveness of the neighborhood; furthermore, the content of parental messages delivered varies based on adolescents' gender. PMID:27189721

  10. Role of Social Support in Examining Acculturative Stress and Psychological Distress Among Asian American Immigrants and Three Sub-groups: Results from NLAAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shipra; McBride, Kimberly; Kak, Vivek

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the impact of acculturative stress and social support (family and friend) on psychological distress among Asian American immigrants and three Asian sub-groups (Vietnamese, Filipino and Chinese) immigrants. The National Latino and Asian American Study 2002-2003 dataset was used. The study findings were: (1) among all Asian American immigrants high language barrier and discrimination stress were associated with increased level of psychological distress, but similar association was not present for legal stress; (2) among all Asian American immigrants high family social support decreased the levels of psychological distress, and in addition, friend social support buffered the relationship of discrimination and psychological distress; and (3) among Vietnamese, Filipino, and Chinese, differential association of social support and acculturative stress to psychological distress were observed. These findings highlight the importance of social support among Asian American immigrants, while also paying attention to the variation that may exist between different sub-groups. PMID:25910620

  11. A Case Study of the Neti Pot's Rise, Americanization, and Rupture as Integrative Medicine in U.S. Media Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Evelyn Y; Cady, Kathryn A; Robles, Jessica S

    2016-10-01

    In a period of only one decade in the United States, the neti pot shifted from obscure Ayurvedic health device to mainstream complementary and integrative medicine (CIM), touted by celebrities and sold widely in drug stores. We examine the neti pot as a case study for understanding how a foreign health practice became mainstreamed, and what that process reveals about more general discourses of health in the United States. Using discourse analysis of U.S. popular press and new media news (1999-2012) about the neti pot, we trace the development of discourses from neti's first introduction in mainstream news, through the hype following Dr. Oz's presentation on Oprah, to 2011 when two adults tragically died after using Naegleria fowleri amoeba-infested tap water in their neti pots. Neti pot discourses are an important site for communicative analysis because of the pot's complexity as an intercultural artifact: Neti pots and their use are enfolded into the biomedical practice of nasal irrigation and simultaneously Orientalized as exotic/magical and suspect/dangerous. This dual positioning as normal and exotic creates inequitable access for using the neti pot as a resource for increasing cultural health capital (CHC). This article contributes to work that critically theorizes the transnationalism of CIM, as the neti pot became successfully Americanized. These results have implications for understanding global health practices' incorporation or co-optation in new contexts, and the important role that popularly mediated health communication can play in framing what health care products and practices mean for consumers.

  12. A Case Study of the Neti Pot's Rise, Americanization, and Rupture as Integrative Medicine in U.S. Media Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Evelyn Y; Cady, Kathryn A; Robles, Jessica S

    2016-10-01

    In a period of only one decade in the United States, the neti pot shifted from obscure Ayurvedic health device to mainstream complementary and integrative medicine (CIM), touted by celebrities and sold widely in drug stores. We examine the neti pot as a case study for understanding how a foreign health practice became mainstreamed, and what that process reveals about more general discourses of health in the United States. Using discourse analysis of U.S. popular press and new media news (1999-2012) about the neti pot, we trace the development of discourses from neti's first introduction in mainstream news, through the hype following Dr. Oz's presentation on Oprah, to 2011 when two adults tragically died after using Naegleria fowleri amoeba-infested tap water in their neti pots. Neti pot discourses are an important site for communicative analysis because of the pot's complexity as an intercultural artifact: Neti pots and their use are enfolded into the biomedical practice of nasal irrigation and simultaneously Orientalized as exotic/magical and suspect/dangerous. This dual positioning as normal and exotic creates inequitable access for using the neti pot as a resource for increasing cultural health capital (CHC). This article contributes to work that critically theorizes the transnationalism of CIM, as the neti pot became successfully Americanized. These results have implications for understanding global health practices' incorporation or co-optation in new contexts, and the important role that popularly mediated health communication can play in framing what health care products and practices mean for consumers. PMID:26881301

  13. What could ‘integrative’ medicine mean? Social science perspectives on contemporary Ayurveda

    OpenAIRE

    V. Sujatha

    2011-01-01

    The paper attempts to critically engage with the idea of integrative medicine as a marker of pharmaceuticalization of Ayurveda in the recent decades. It examines what it means to say ′integrative′ medicine using the metaphor of language from philosophy of science. Drawing upon fieldwork with Ayurveda practitioners, the paper also discusses the ramifications of integrative medicine in the current scenario in which there is no organizational parity between Ayurveda and biomedicine. The paper ca...

  14. Examining the career development of Mexican American middle school students: A test of social cognitive career theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Rachel Leah

    This study tested portions of Lent, Brown, and Hackett's (1994) Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) in the domain of mathematics and science with a sample of Mexican American middle school students. Results supported a modified path model. This study's findings supported several SCCT propositions regarding the positive relationships among background contextual affordances, learning experiences, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, interests, and goals. However, findings suggested that the influence of person inputs (i.e., gender and generational status) and some background contextual affordances (i.e., acculturation level) on learning experiences may be not be direct; instead, an indirect effect via a relationship with other background contextual affordances (i.e., perceived social support and social class) was found. Furthermore, results supported direct effects of gender on self-efficacy and learning experiences on goal intentions---two relationships not posited in SCCT. Implications for future research and counseling with Mexican American adolescents are discussed.

  15. Maternal socialization goals, parenting styles, and social-emotional adjustment among Chinese and European American young adults: testing a mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Costanzo, Philip R; Putallaz, Martha

    2010-01-01

    The authors compared the associations among perceived maternal socialization goals (self-development, filial piety, and collectivism), perceived maternal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and training), and the social-emotional adjustment (self-esteem, academic self-efficacy, and depression) between Chinese and European American young adults. The mediation processes in which socialization goals relate to young adults' adjustment outcomes through parenting styles were examined. Results showed that European American participants perceived higher maternal self-development socialization goals, whereas Chinese participants perceived higher maternal collectivism socialization goals as well as more authoritarian parenting. Cross-cultural similarities were found in the associations between perceived maternal authoritative parenting and socioemotional adjustment (e.g., higher self-esteem and higher academic self-efficacy) across the two cultural groups. However, perceived maternal authoritarian and training parenting styles were found only to be related to Chinese participants' adjustment (e.g., higher academic self-efficacy and lower depression). The mediation analyses showed that authoritative parenting significantly mediated the positive associations between the self-development and collectivism goal and socioemotional adjustment for both cultural groups. Additionally, training parenting significantly mediated the positive association between the filial piety goal and young adults' academic self-efficacy for the Chinese group only. Findings of this study highlight the importance of examining parental socialization goals in cross-cultural parenting research.

  16. Maternal socialization goals, parenting styles, and social-emotional adjustment among Chinese and European American young adults: testing a mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Costanzo, Philip R; Putallaz, Martha

    2010-01-01

    The authors compared the associations among perceived maternal socialization goals (self-development, filial piety, and collectivism), perceived maternal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and training), and the social-emotional adjustment (self-esteem, academic self-efficacy, and depression) between Chinese and European American young adults. The mediation processes in which socialization goals relate to young adults' adjustment outcomes through parenting styles were examined. Results showed that European American participants perceived higher maternal self-development socialization goals, whereas Chinese participants perceived higher maternal collectivism socialization goals as well as more authoritarian parenting. Cross-cultural similarities were found in the associations between perceived maternal authoritative parenting and socioemotional adjustment (e.g., higher self-esteem and higher academic self-efficacy) across the two cultural groups. However, perceived maternal authoritarian and training parenting styles were found only to be related to Chinese participants' adjustment (e.g., higher academic self-efficacy and lower depression). The mediation analyses showed that authoritative parenting significantly mediated the positive associations between the self-development and collectivism goal and socioemotional adjustment for both cultural groups. Additionally, training parenting significantly mediated the positive association between the filial piety goal and young adults' academic self-efficacy for the Chinese group only. Findings of this study highlight the importance of examining parental socialization goals in cross-cultural parenting research. PMID:21171548

  17. Social security reform in Central and Eastern Europe: variations on a Latin American theme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritzer, B E

    After Chile reformed its social security system in 1981, several other Latin American countries and certain Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries implemented the Chilean model, with some variations: either a single- or multitier system, or with a period of transition to take care of those in the labor force at the time of the change. The single-tier version consists of individual accounts in pension fund management companies. Multi-tier systems retain some form of public program and add mandatory individual accounts. Most of the CEE countries did not want to incur the high transition costs associated with the Chilean model. The switch to a market economy had already strained their economies. Also, the countries' desire to adopt the European Union's Euro as their currency--a move that required a specific debt ceiling--limited the amount of additional debt they could incur. This article describes the CEE reforms and makes some comparisons with the Latin American experience. Most of the CEE countries have chosen a mixed system and have restructured the pay-as-you-go (PAYGO) tier, while the Latin American countries have both single- and multi-tier systems. Some CEE countries have set up notional defined contribution (NDC) schemes for the PAYGO tier in which each insured person has a hypothetical account made up of all contributions during his or her working life. Survivors and disability programs in CEE have remained in the public tier, but in most of the Latin American programs the insured must purchase a separate insurance policy. Issues common to both regions include: Administrative costs are high and competition is keen, which has led to consolidation and mergers among the companies and a large market share controlled by a few companies. Benefits are proportionately lower for women than for men. A large, informal sector is not covered by social security. This sector is apparently much larger in Latin America than in the CEE countries. Issues that are unique

  18. Wisdomkeepers: Meetings with Native American Spiritual Elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arden, Harvey; Wall, Steve

    This book documents meetings with Native American elders who shared their tribal stories of origin, sacred traditions, social life and customs, and traditional wisdom. The idea for the book began when a Cherokee medicine man requested that his tribal knowledge be documented for future generations. For the past 10 years, the spiritual elders of…

  19. Global Emergency Medicine Journal Club: A Social Media Discussion About the Outpatient Management of Patients With Spontaneous Pneumothorax by Using Pigtail Catheters

    OpenAIRE

    Trueger, NS; Murray, H.; Kobner, S; Lin, M.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. Annals of Emergency Medicine collaborated with an educational Web site, Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM) to host a public discussion featuring the 2014 Annals article on the outpatient management of patients with a spontaneous pneumothorax by using pigtail catheters. The objective was to curate a 14-day (November 10 to 23, 2014) worldwide academic dialogue among clinicians about the article. Four online facilitators hosted the multim...

  20. Global Emergency Medicine Journal Club: A Social Media Discussion About the Lack of Association Between Press Ganey Scores and Emergency Department Analgesia

    OpenAIRE

    Westafer, L; Hensley, J.; Shaikh, S; Lin, M.

    2016-01-01

    © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. Annals of Emergency Medicine collaborated with an educational Web site, Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM), to host a public discussion featuring the 2014 Annals article on the association between Press Ganey scores and emergency department (ED) analgesia by Schwartz etal. The objective was to curate a 14-day (December 1 through 14, 2014) worldwide academic dialogue among clinicians in regard to preselected questions about the article....

  1. Racial Socialization, Racial Identity, and Academic Attitudes Among African American Adolescents: Examining the Moderating Influence of Parent-Adolescent Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sandra; McLoyd, Vonnie C; Hallman, Samantha K

    2016-06-01

    A significant gap remains in our understanding of the conditions under which parents' racial socialization has consequences for adolescents' functioning. The present study used longitudinal data to examine whether the frequency of communication between African American parents and adolescents (N = 504; 49 % female) moderates the association between parent reports of racial socialization (i.e., cultural socialization and preparation for bias) at 8th grade and adolescent reports of racial identity (perceived structural discrimination, negative public regard, success-oriented centrality) at 11th grade, and in turn, academic attitudes and perceptions. Parents' racial socialization practices were significant predictors of multiple aspects of adolescents' racial identity in families with high levels of communication, but they did not predict any aspects of adolescents' racial identity in families with low levels of communication. Results highlight the importance of including family processes when examining the relations between parents' racial socialization and adolescents' racial identity and academic attitudes and perceptions. PMID:26369349

  2. Social support in the practices of informal providers: The case of patent and proprietary medicine vendors in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieverding, Maia; Liu, Jenny; Beyeler, Naomi

    2015-10-01

    The social and institutional environments in which informal healthcare providers operate shape their health and business practices, particularly in contexts where regulatory enforcement is weak. In this study, we adopt a social capital perspective to understanding the social networks on which proprietary and patent medicine vendors (PPMVs) in Nigeria rely for support in the operation of their shops. Data are drawn from 70 in-depth interviews with PPMVs in three states, including interviews with local leaders of the PPMV professional association. We find that PPMVs primarily relied on more senior colleagues and formal healthcare professionals for informational support, including information about new medicines and advice on how to treat specific cases of illness. For instrumental support, including finance, start-up assistance, and intervention with regulatory agencies, PPMVs relied on extended family, the PPMVs with whom they apprenticed, and the leaders of their professional association. PPMVs' networks also provided continual reinforcement of what constitutes good PPMV practice through admonishments to follow scope of practice limitations. These informal reminders, as well as monitoring activities conducted by the professional association, served to reinforce PPMVs' concern with avoiding negative customer health outcomes, which were perceived to be detrimental to their business reputations. That PPMVs' networks both encouraged practices to reduce the likelihood of poor health outcomes, and provided advice regarding customers' health conditions, highlights the potential impact of informal providers' access to different forms of social capital on their delivery of health services, as well as their success as microenterprises. PMID:26331864

  3. The case for social marketing in gonorrhoea prevention: insights from sexual lifestyles in Glasgow genitourinary medicine clinic attendees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoular, Anne; Abu-Rajab, Kirsty; Winter, Andy; Connell, Judith; Hart, Graham

    2008-08-01

    We conducted a matched case-control study to investigate social factors associated with gonorrhoea acquisition among genitourinary (GU) medicine clinic attendees, designed to inform appropriate prevention strategies. Detailed social and behavioural data were elicited using a self-completed questionnaire. The effect sizes of these characteristics were quantified using univariate and multivariable conditional logistic regression in 53 cases and 106 matched controls. Homo-bisexual orientation was the strongest independent predictor of gonorrhoea acquisition (Adjusted odds ratio 31.1 (95% confidence intervals, 3.09-312.92). Other independent predictors were not currently being in a relationship and concordant residential characteristics. Three principal implications for sexual health policy were identified; social marketing approaches to gonorrhoea prevention should focus on gay men and individuals not in established relationships; gonorrhoea prevention should be more closely integrated with wider social inclusion policies; finally, more proactive, systematic and theory-based approaches should capitalize on opportunities for sexual health promotion in GU medicine clinic settings. PMID:18663042

  4. Proceedings of the 5. Latin American Congress of Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology; Seminar of the Inter American College of Radiology - Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The works about general radiology, radiotherapy, obstetrics, gynecology, internal medicine and echo-ophthalmology are presented in these congresses. Imaging procedures, including computerized tomography, ultrasonography, scintiscanning, magnetic resonance and X radiation are also described. (C.G.C.)

  5. The role of critical ethnic awareness and social support in the discrimination-depression relationship among Asian Americans: path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Isok

    2014-01-01

    This study used a path analytic technique to examine associations among critical ethnic awareness, racial discrimination, social support, and depressive symptoms. Using a convenience sample from online survey of Asian American adults (N = 405), the study tested 2 main hypotheses: First, based on the empowerment theory, critical ethnic awareness would be positively associated with racial discrimination experience; and second, based on the social support deterioration model, social support would partially mediate the relationship between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. The result of the path analysis model showed that the proposed path model was a good fit based on global fit indices, χ²(2) = 4.70, p = .10; root mean square error of approximation = 0.06; comparative fit index = 0.97; Tucker-Lewis index = 0.92; and standardized root mean square residual = 0.03. The examinations of study hypotheses demonstrated that critical ethnic awareness was directly associated (b = .11, p effect (b = .48; bias-corrected 95% confidence interval [0.02, 1.26]) between the racial discrimination experience and depressive symptoms. The proposed path model illustrated that both critical ethnic awareness and social support are important mechanisms for explaining the relationship between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms among this sample of Asian Americans. This study highlights the usefulness of the critical ethnic awareness concept as a way to better understand how Asian Americans might perceive and recognize racial discrimination experiences in relation to its mental health consequences. PMID:24491128

  6. Advancing the Africentric paradigm shift discourse: building toward evidence-based Africentric interventions in social work practice with African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Dorie J; Harvey, Aminifu R; Belgrave, Faye Z

    2009-07-01

    For over a decade, a number of social work scholars have advocated for an Africentric paradigm shift in social work practice with African Americans; yet the paradigm shift has been slow in coming with respect to infusing Africentric theory and interventions into social work practice, education, and research. Interventions that infuse Africentric values (such as interdependence, collectivism, transformation, and spirituality) have been shown to create significant change across a number of areas important to social work practice with African Americans. However, a barrier to the full integration of Africentric models into social work practice is that Africentric programs lack cohesive documentation and replication and, thus, have limited potential to be established as evidence-based practices. The authors present an overview of various Africentric interventions, including their program components and methods of evaluation, with the aim of establishing guideposts or next steps in developing a discourse on Africentric interventions that are promising best practices or are emerging as evidence-based practices. The authors conclude with implications for social work practice, education, and research and a call for Africentric scholars to engage in increased discussion, dissemination of manualized treatments, and collaborative research to build the evidence-based Africentric knowledge base and foster replication of studies.

  7. Future of Personalized Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. The Future of Personalized Medicine, From NIH Director Dr. Francis S. Collins Past Issues / ... five priorities for NIH is to advance personalized medicine. What does this mean for the average American? ...

  8. To what extent do Latin Americans trust and cooperate? Field experiments on social exclusion in six Latin American countries

    OpenAIRE

    Cárdenas, Juan Camilo; Chong, Alberto; Ñopo, Hugo

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the extent to which individuals trust, reciprocate, cooperate and pool risk by using a battery of field experiments containing the trust game, the voluntary contributions mechanism and the risk pooling game; applied in six capital cities in Latin America. The results suggest that: (i) on average, the propensity to trust and cooperate among Latin Americans is remarkably similar to that found in other regions of the world; (ii) expectations about the behavior of other player...

  9. Social and Cultural Factors Influence African American Men's Medical Help Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Derek M.; Allen, Julie Ober; Gunter, Katie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the factors that influenced African American men's medical help seeking. Method: Thematic analysis of 14 focus groups with 105 older, urban African American men. Results: African American men described normative expectations that they did not go to the doctor and that they were afraid to go, with little explanation. When they…

  10. Social Cognitive Predictors of the Career Goals of Korean American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kevin R.; Gunsalus, Ae-Jung Chang; Gunsalus, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Limited empirical study of the career development of Asian Americans in general and Korean Americans in particular has been conducted. The authors present the results of a theory-based exploration of the career goals of Korean American university students in which ethnic identity, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and career interests were used…

  11. The Social Demand for a Medicine Focused on the Person: The Contribution of CAM to Healthcare and Healthgenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Roberti di Sarsina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Non Conventional Medicines have a greater social impact and the demand for such treatments of more than 10 million Italian citizens (male and female of all ages and social classes and of thousands of Italian families reveals an interest proving that there is a trend reversal, involving also other sectors of the medical and scientific world, which shifts the focus from the symptom to an idea of more general and comprehensive well-being of the person. Over the last few years the scientific debate on Non Conventional Medicines and their integration with the academic or dominant medicine in our western society has favored and legitimated an increase in the demand and has activated a cultural transformation process involving the life styles. The focus is therefore shifted to the self-healing capacities, to the reawakening of the individual potentialities, which support and amplify the benefits of the treatments and the citizens start pretending to be accurately informed in order to choose freely their own health program.

  12. The Social Framework Surrounding the Development of Regenerative Medicine in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Eisuke; Takimoto, Yoshiyuki; Akabayashi, Akira

    2016-07-01

    In 2014, the Japanese government amended the laws concerning regenerative medicine. This reform aimed to contribute to the appropriate promotion of regenerative medicine and new drug discovery for intractable diseases using stem cells. It also helped restrict stem cell tourism, that is, provision of stem cell therapy of unclear efficacy and safety to tourists from abroad, and its relaxed regulations may even lead to the resolution of the drug lag problem. Stem cell medicine is positioned as a part of a national growth strategy that requires cooperation among the industry, government, healthcare field, and academia. It can be characterized as a "mesoscopic strategy," in that it aims to achieve high-level technological developments that would allow results from human-induced pluripotent stem cell and traditional stem cell research to contribute to regenerative medicine and drug development for intractable diseases, while attempting to strike a balance with commercialization and improved access of citizens to cutting-edge medical care. PMID:27348830

  13. American Chemical Society--238th National Meeting & Exposition. Developments in medicinal chemistry: part 2. 16-20 August 2009, Washington DC, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gater, Deborah; Macauley, Donald

    2009-10-01

    The 238th National Meeting and Exposition of the American Chemical Society, held in Washington DC, included topics covering new compounds and developments in the field of medicinal chemistry. This conference report highlights selected presentations on inhibitors of PARP, a heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) inhibitor, NS3 protease inhibitors, a corticotrophin-releasing factor 1 (CRF-1) receptor antagonist, a cannabinoid receptor antagonist, diacylglycerol acyltransferase inhibitors, cathepsin and chymase receptor inhibitors, and MAPK inhibitors. Investigational drugs discussed include veliparib (Abbott Laboratories), MK-4827 (Merck & Co Inc), OB-24 (Osta Biotechnologies), BMS-339, BMS-764459, BMS-812204 and BMS-640994 (all Bristol-Myers Squibb Co), and JNJ-10311795 (Johnson & Johnson).

  14. The Lunch Bunch: an innovative strategy to combat depression and delirium through socialization in elderly sub-acute medicine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyerer, Margot; Kruk, Dawn; Bartlett, Nicole; Rodney, Kathy; McKenzie, Cyndi; Green, Patrice; Keller, Lisa; Adcroft, Pat

    2013-01-01

    Hospitalized sub-acute medicine patients face challenges to their functional and cognitive abilities as they await transfer to long-term care facilities or return home. The Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) Council, representing a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals working in the Sub-Acute Medicine Unit (SAMU), implemented a twice-weekly lunch program called the Lunch Bunch in order to combat depression and delirium in our elderly and cognitively impaired patients. The Lunch Bunch initiative includes chaplains, nurses and physiotherapists who have provided a framework through which essential socialization and exercise for this vulnerable population is facilitated. Providing a means for both mental and physical stimulation also allows patients to open up and discuss hidden feelings of loneliness and isolation, thereby beginning a journey of spiritual and emotional healing. PMID:24860951

  15. Determinants of Subjective Social Status and Health Among Latin American Women Immigrants in Spain: A Qualitative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchón-Macias, M Visitación; Bover-Bover, Andreu; Prieto-Salceda, Dolores; Paz-Zulueta, María; Torres, Blanca; Gastaldo, Denise

    2016-04-01

    This qualitative study was carried out to better understand factors that determine the subjective social status of Latin Americans in Spain. The study was conducted following a theoretical framework and forms part of broader study on subjective social status and health. Ten immigrant participants engaged in semi-structured interviews, from which data were collected. The study results show that socioeconomic aspects of the crisis and of policies adopted have shaped immigrant living conditions in Spain. Four major themes that emerged from the analysis were related to non-recognition of educational credentials, precarious working conditions, unemployment and loneliness. These results illustrate the outcomes of current policies on health and suggest a need for health professionals to orient practices toward social determinants, thus utilizing evaluations of subjective social status to reduce inequalities in health. PMID:25808761

  16. Social Hygiene and Social Medicine in Interwar Czechoslovakia with the 13th District of the City of Prague as Its Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Mášová, Hana

    2007-01-01

    Health services in the newborn Czechoslovak Republic had to cope not only with the consequences of the First World War, but also with the new approaches to health policy. Modern social medicine challenged the conventional model of the so-called “police medicine” – the deep-rooted concept of Public Health in the Middle European countries. The necessity to resolve the contradiction between preventative and curative care led to the conclusion that the form and tasks of health centres, whether ru...

  17. Systemic lupus erythematosus in African-American women: immune cognitive modules, autoimmune disease, and pathogenic social hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Rodrick

    2003-01-01

    Examining elevated rates of systemic lupus erythematosus in African-American women from the perspective of the emerging theory of immune cognition suggests the disease constitutes an internalized physiological image of external patterns of psychosocial stress, a 'pathogenic social hierarchy' involving the synergism of racism and gender discrimination. The disorder represents the punctuated resetting of 'normal' immune self-image to a self-attacking 'excited' state, a process formally analogou...

  18. Predictors of co-parenting in Mexican American families and direct effects on parenting and child social emotional development

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera, Natasha J.; Shannon, Jacqueline D.; La Taillade, Jaslean J.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined associations between parents' levels of acculturation depressive symptoms, family support, and couple relationship quality with coparenting conflict. We also explored the effects of coparenting conflict on parenting and infant social development in a sample of low-income Mexican American (n=735) infants (age 9 months) and their parents. Results indicated that couple conflict was the strongest predictor of coparenting conflict. Coparenting conflict had a significant ...

  19. Racial Discrimination and Racial Socialization as Predictors of African American Adolescents’ Racial Identity Development using Latent Transition Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio; Sellers, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined perceptions of racial discrimination and racial socialization on racial identity development among 566 African American adolescents over three years. Latent class analyses were used to estimate identity statuses (Diffuse, Foreclosed, Moratorium and Achieved). The probabilities of transitioning from one stage to another were examined with latent transition analyses to determine the likelihood of youth progressing, regressing or remaining constant. Racial socializatio...

  20. American Social Condition In The Late Of 19th Century Found In Spephen's Crane Maggie : A Girl Of The Streets

    OpenAIRE

    Utami Anggiarini

    2009-01-01

    Judul skripsi ini adalah American Social Condition in the Late of 19th Century Found In Stephen Crane’s Maggie: A Girl of the Streets. Skripsi ini menganalisis tentang kehidupan sosial orang Amerika pada akhir abad ke-19 yang dilihat dari novel Maggie: A Girl of the Streets. Kehidupan sosial yang dibahas dalam skripsi ini mencakup cara imigran, khususnya dari Irlandia, bertahan hidup di Amerika. Pada akhir abad ke-19 memang merupakan puncak dari meningkatnya populasi Amerika karena kedatangan...

  1. Understanding African American Men’s Perceptions of Racism, Male Gender Socialization, and Social Capital Through Photovoice

    OpenAIRE

    Ornelas, India J.; Amell, Jim; Tran, Anh N.; Royster, Michael; Armstrong-Brown, Janelle; Eng, Eugenia

    2009-01-01

    In this study we used a participatory qualitative research approach—photovoice—to collect information about African American men’s perceptions of the factors that influenced their own health and the health of their communities. Photovoice was conducted as part of the “Men as Navigators (MAN) for Health” project, an evaluation of a male lay health advisor (LHA) intervention in central North Carolina. Twelve African American men living in both urban and rural communities took photographs and di...

  2. Investigation of social, demographic and health variations in the usage of prescribed and over-the-counter medicines within a large cohort (South Yorkshire, UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Mark A; Little, Emma; Cooper, Richard; Relton, Clare; Strong, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Prescribed and over-the-counter (non-prescribed) medicine usage has increased in recent years; however, there has been less investigation of the socioeconomic predictors of use. This has been due to a lack of data, especially for over-the-counter medicines. Our study aims to understand how prescribed and over-the-counter medicine patterns vary by demographic, social and health characteristics within a large population cohort. Design Cross-sectional data analysis. Setting South Yorkshire, UK. Participants 27 806 individuals from wave 1 of the Yorkshire Health Study (2010–2012). Measures Individuals self-reported each medicine they were taking and whether each was prescribed or not. The medicines were grouped into 14 categories (eg, cardiovascular system, infection, contraception). Negative binomial regression models were used to analyse the count of medicine usage. We included demographic (age, gender, ethnicity), social (education), health-related (body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity) factors and chronic health conditions (eg, stroke, anxiety and heart disease) in our analyses. Results 49% of men and 62% of women were taking medicine with the majority of this prescribed (88% and 83%, respectively). Health conditions were found to be positively associated with prescribed medicine usage, but mixed in their associated with over-the-counter medicines. Educational attainment was negatively associated with prescribed and positively associated with over-the-counter usage. Conclusions Our study addresses a dearth of evidence to provide new insights into how behaviours in medicine usage vary by demographic, social and health-related factors. Differences in over-the-counter medicine usage by educational attainment may help our understanding of the determinants of health inequalities. PMID:27683515

  3. Clinical practice parameters for hemodynamic support of pediatric and neonatal septic shock: 2007 update from the American College of Critical Care Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley, Joe; Carcillo, Joseph A.; Choong, Karen; Cornell, Tim; DeCaen, Allan; Deymann, Andreas; Doctor, Allan; Davis, Alan; Duff, John; Dugas, Marc-Andre; Duncan, Alan; Evans, Barry; Feldman, Jonathan; Felmet, Kathryn; Fisher, Gene; Frankel, Lorry; Jeffries, Howard; Greenwald, Bruce; Gutierrez, Juan; Hall, Mark; Han, Yong Y.; Hanson, James; Hazelzet, Jan; Hernan, Lynn; Kiff, Jane; Kissoon, Niranjan; Kon, Alexander; Irazusta, Jose; Lin, John; Lorts, Angie; Mariscalco, Michelle; Mehta, Renuka; Nadel, Simon; Nguyen, Trung; Nicholson, Carol; Peters, Mark; Okhuysen-Cawley, Regina; Poulton, Tom; Relves, Monica; Rodriguez, Agustin; Rozenfeld, Ranna; Schnitzler, Eduardo; Shanley, Tom; Skache, Sara; Skippen, Peter; Torres, Adalberto; von Dessauer, Bettina; Weingarten, Jacki; Yeh, Timothy; Zaritsky, Arno; Stojadinovic, Bonnie; Zimmerman, Jerry; Zuckerberg, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine calls for the use of clinical guidelines and practice parameters to promote “best practices” and to improve patient outcomes. Objective 2007 update of the 2002 American College of Critical Care Medicine Clinical Guidelines for Hemodynamic Support of Neonates and Children with Septic Shock. Participants Society of Critical Care Medicine members with special interest in neonatal and pediatric septic shock were identified from general solicitation at the Society of Critical Care Medicine Educational and Scientific Symposia (2001–2006). Methods The Pubmed/MEDLINE literature database (1966–2006) was searched using the keywords and phrases: sepsis, septicemia, septic shock, endotoxemia, persistent pulmonary hypertension, nitric oxide, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and American College of Critical Care Medicine guidelines. Best practice centers that reported best outcomes were identified and their practices examined as models of care. Using a modified Delphi method, 30 experts graded new literature. Over 30 additional experts then reviewed the updated recommendations. The document was subsequently modified until there was greater than 90% expert consensus. Results The 2002 guidelines were widely disseminated, translated into Spanish and Portuguese, and incorporated into Society of Critical Care Medicine and AHA sanctioned recommendations. Centers that implemented the 2002 guidelines reported best practice outcomes (hospital mortality 1%–3% in previously healthy, and 7%– 10% in chronically ill children). Early use of 2002 guidelines was associated with improved outcome in the community hospital emergency department (number needed to treat = 3.3) and tertiary pediatric intensive care setting (number needed to treat = 3.6); every hour that went by without guideline adherence was associated with a 1.4-fold increased mortality risk. The updated 2007 guidelines continue to recognize an increased likelihood that

  4. Physical Activity and Public Health in Older Adults: Recommendation from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To issue a recommendation on the types and amounts of physical activity needed to improve and maintain health in older adults. Participants: A panel of scientists with expertise in public health, behavioral science, epidemiology, exercise science, medicine, and gerontology. Evidence: The ...

  5. Aspect on Health Sociology and Social Medicine Reflected in the Studies of Constantin Stanca (1889-1969).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bârsu, Cristian

    2014-01-01

    Constantin Stanca (1889-1969) was the first director of the Institute for the Study and Prevention of Cancer from Cluj between 1929 and 1940 and the founder of the Gynecologic Oncology Surgery Department of this Institute. During his important career in gynecology and surgical oncology, which took place in Cluj and in Bucharest, he was also interested in medical sociology and in social medicine. Our paper presents some of Stanca's objectives in these domains: to increase the health status of women, to prevent gynecological diseases and to improve women's working conditions, especially in factories.

  6. Translational medicine as a new clinical tool and application which improves metabolic diseases: perspectives from 2012 Sino-American symposium on clinical and translational medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Lin; López Villar, Elena; Chen, Chengshui

    2014-01-01

    Because of the economic growth and changes in lifestyle, metabolic diseases have become a major public health problem, which impose heavy economic burdens on individuals, families and health systems. However, its precise mediators and mechanisms remain to be fully understood. Clinical translational medicine (CTM) is an emerging area comprising multidisciplinary research from basic science to medical applications and as a new tool to improve human health by reducing disease incidence, morbidit...

  7. The prevention of chronic diseases and its social outcomes - Mission of Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fejzi Alushi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Social insurance is part of social security which consists as well as of social assistance and services, health services and health care insurance. Everyone has the right for social insurance when retired or in case of incapacity of work under a certain system established by a law. The right of social insurance is part of labor rights. In Albania the mandatory social insurance scheme is based on the pay-as-you-earn principle, on the awareness of the individual about the risks in social field in its future and in the principle of agreement between generations. This is a scheme financed out of contributions from the employers, the employed persons and self-employed. The benefits are provided in case of sickness, maternity, old-age, disability, loss of breadwinner, employment accidents/occupational diseases and unemployment.

  8. Socially Responsible Leadership Capacity Development: Predictors among African American/Black Students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Predominantly White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beazley, Michael Redmond

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the capacity and predictors of socially responsible leadership among African American/Black college students at HBCUs and PWIs using data from the Multi-institutional Study of Leadership. An independent sample t-test was used to test the hypothesis that African American/Black students at HBCUs would have higher leadership…

  9. A Case Study: How Do Social and Academic Experiences of African American Nontraditional Female Students on HBCU Campuses Influence Their Motivation to Graduate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Golden, Cheryl D.

    2013-01-01

    Through a qualitative collective case study research design, the study captured the social and academic experiences of 13 African American nontraditional undergraduate female students enrolled in a historically Black college campus (HBCU) located in the southern United States. Experiences of 13 African American nontraditional undergraduate female…

  10. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada (DC), and American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy's, DC's and ACSM's stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence athletic performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian/nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics (CSSD) is a registered dietitian/nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert. PMID:26917108

  11. Racial Barrier Socialization and the Well-being of African American Adolescents: The Moderating Role of Mother-Adolescent Relationship Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Shauna M.; McLoyd, Vonnie C.

    2011-01-01

    Racial socialization has been suggested as an important factor in helping African American adolescents cope effectively with racism and discrimination. Although multiple studies have reported a positive link between racial pride socialization and psychological adjustment among African American youth, assessments of the association between adolescent adjustment and another dimension of racial socialization—racial barrier socialization—have yielded inconsistent findings. Using a sample of 190 A...

  12. Urban African American Pre-Adolescent Social Problem Solving Skills: Family Influences and Association with Exposure to Situations of Sexual Possibility

    OpenAIRE

    Traube, Dorian E.; Chasse, Kelly Taber; McKay, Mary M.; Bhorade, Anjali M.; PAIKOFF, ROBERTA; Young, Stacie D.

    2007-01-01

    The results of two studies focusing on the social problem solving skills of African American preadolescent youth are detailed. In the first study data from a sample of 150 African American children, ages 9 to 11 years, was used to examine the association between type of youth social problem solving approaches applied to hypothetical risk situations and time spent in unsupervised peer situations of sexual possibility. Findings revealed that children with more exposure to sexual possibility sit...

  13. Ninth Argentine congress on biology and nuclear medicine; fourth Southernmost sessions of ALASBIMN (Latin-American Association of Biology and Nuclear Medicine); first Spanish-Argentine congress on nuclear medicine; first Argentine sessions on nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with all the papers presented at the 9. Argentine congress on biology and nuclear medicine; IV Southernmost sessions of ALASBIMN; I Spanish-Argentine congress on nuclear medicine and I Sessions Argentine sessions on nuclear cardiology held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from October 14 - 18, 1991

  14. Social media use by physicians: a qualitative study of the new frontier of medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Lauren; Evans, Yolanda; Pumper, Megan; Moreno, Megan A.

    2016-01-01

    Background A growing number of physicians are using social media as a professional platform for health communication. The purpose of this study was to understand perspectives and experiences of these “early adopter” physician bloggers and social media users. Methods This was an exploratory qualitative study involving in-depth semi-structured telephone interviews of physicians who were early adopters, defined as physicians who used social media to distribute health information. Participants we...

  15. Key Theories from Critical Medical Anthropology for Public Health Research. Part II: Medicine in the Social System, Medicine as a Social System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer J. Carroll

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes four significant theoretical concepts from the field of Critical Medical Anthropology in two parts: in the first part, biopower/discipline and explanatory models; in the second, structural violence, and identity politics and biological citizenship. The four subjects reviewed here have been chosen for their importance to our understanding of human behaviors related to health and illness, as well as for the impact that they can have on theory, research, and practice in the field of public health. These critical theories can provide new ways of thinking about professional roles, medical decisions, disease diagnosis and etiology, treatment adherence, prevention messaging, and all sorts of health-related behaviors and systems of understanding. They can also help public health researchers shed light on the human beliefs and activities that shape patterns of disease within and across populations. Whether a research question is being formulated or research findings are being analyzed, the critical social theories outlined here can foster a more holistic understanding of the human element in any public health project.

  16. Doom of American Dream——The Social Meaning of The Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高慧

    2008-01-01

    The holds that the presentation of Gatsby as unique to America signifies that Gatsby's personal dilemma and failure are the dilema and failure of American nation,thus satirizing the illusory nature of the American Dream and the impossibility to attain it

  17. Implications of American Indian Gambling for Social Work Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momper, Sandra L.

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1988 passage of the Indian Gaming and Regulatory Act (IGRA), American Indian tribal communities have rapidly opened up casinos. American Indian participation in recreational gambling has increased, resulting in an increase in problem and pathological gambling. However, increased revenues from gaming have significantly benefited tribes.…

  18. Panjabi Language Instruction at the American Sikh Temple School: A Site for Hybrid Cultural Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwana, Ravneet Kaur

    2007-01-01

    It has been claimed that there is only one language, the English language in the United States, because America is not a "polyglot boardinghouse ..." (Portes and Rumbaut 196). The fact is that America has always been a multilingual society, even though this mythical notion of a monolingual American identity reflecting American loyalty…

  19. Mexican American Women's Adherence to Hemodialysis Treatment: A Social Constructivist Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijerina, Mary S.

    2009-01-01

    Mexican Americans have as much as a six-times greater risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) than non-Hispanic white Americans, and women show a faster rate of decline in diabetic renal functioning. The leading treatment for ESRD is hemodialysis, an intensive, complex treatment regimen associated with high levels of patient nonadherence. Previous…

  20. "Putting Herself on the Line": African American Female Teacher Leaders as Exemplars of Social Justice Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sheila Teel; Baber, Ceola Ross

    2013-01-01

    Existing scholarship on teacher leadership fails to account for the perspectives of African American female teacher leaders. In this article, we profile 3 African American female teacher leaders located at different trajectories on historical and professional timelines. Our analysis is grounded in understandings from the intersection of social…

  1. Reframing Diabetes in American Indian Communities: A Social Determinants of Health Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Felicia M.

    2012-01-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) experience some of the greatest health inequities of any group within the United States. AI/ANs are diagnosed with diabetes more than twice as often as non-Hispanic white Americans. Diabetes is a chronic preventable disease often associated with individual risk factors and behaviors that indicate what…

  2. Linking parental socialization to interpersonal protective processes, academic self-presentation, and expectations among rural African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Velma McBride; Berkel, Cady; Brody, Gene H; Miller, Shannon J; Chen, Yi-Fu

    2009-01-01

    Data obtained from 2 waves of a longitudinal study of 671 rural African American families with an 11-year-old preadolescent were used to examine pathways through which racial and ethnic socialization influence youth self-presentation, academic expectations, and academic anticipation. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that racial and ethnic socialization were linked with youth expectations for and anticipation of academic success through youth self-pride, which included racial identity and self-esteem, and through academic self-presentation. The results highlight the need to disaggregate racial and ethnic socialization to attain a better understanding of the ways in which these parenting domains uniquely forecast youth self-pride and academic orientation.

  3. American Bar Association Supplementary Guidelines for the Mitigation Function of Defense Teams in Death Penalty Cases: implications for social work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Arlene Bowers

    2012-04-01

    When a client faces a penalty of death, defense attorneys may call on social workers in many capacities: mitigation specialist, expert witness, consulting specialist, direct witness, or defense-initiated victim outreach worker. The American Bar Association set forth standards for capital defense attorneys, which led an interdisciplinary team to produce the "Supplementary Guidelines for the Mitigation Function of Defense Teams in Death Penalty Cases" to promote the exceptional competence and diligence required when the consequence is life or death. This article summarizes the "Supplementary Guidelines," with implications for social work practice--that is, professional responsibility, competence, interviewing skill, knowledge of behavioral and mental impairment, records review, life history compilation, data interpretation, witness support, law-related knowledge, and testimony. The social work, which is scrutinized in a court of law, requires cultural competence, diverse oral and written communication skills, diligence, and the highest ethical standards.

  4. Implications of Social Media on African-American College Students' Communication Regarding Sex Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosrovani, Massomeh; Desai, Mayur S.

    2016-01-01

    The advent of mobile phone technologies and the emergence of new social media websites created a new platform for social interactions. This new phenomenon has positive features that allow individuals to interact socially and to conduct business. The use of social media also allows its users to share or exchange valuable knowledge and information,…

  5. Social Media and Impression Management: Veterinary Medicine Students' and Faculty Members' Attitudes toward the Acceptability of Social Media Posts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedrowicz, April A.; Royal, Kenneth; Flammer, Keven

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: While social media has the potential to be used to make professional and personal connections, it can also be used inappropriately, with detrimental ramifications for the individual in terms of their professional reputation and even hiring decisions. This research explored students' and faculty members' perceptions of the…

  6. Social-value maps for Arapaho, Roosevelt, Medicine Bow, Routt, and White River National Forests, Colorado and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancona, Zachary H.; Semmens, Darius J.; Sherrouse, Benson C.

    2016-03-25

    Executive SummaryThe continued pressures of population growth on the life-sustaining, economic, and cultural ecosystem services provided by our national forests, particularly those located near rapidly growing urban areas, present ongoing challenges to forest managers. Achieving an effective assessment of these ecosystem services includes a proper accounting of the ecological, economic, and social values attributable to them. However, assessments of ecosystem goods and services notably lack information describing the spatial distribution and relative intensity of social values—the perceived, nonmarket values derived particularly from cultural ecosystem services. A geographic information system (GIS) tool developed to fill this need, Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES; http://solves.cr.usgs.gov), now provides the capability to generate social-value maps at a range of spatial scales. This report presents some of the methods behind SolVES, procedures needed to apply the tool, the first formal map products resulting from its application at a regional scale, and a discussion of the management implications associated with this type of information.In this study, we use SolVES to identify the location and relative intensity of social values as derived from survey responses gathered from residents living in counties adjacent to Arapaho, Roosevelt, Medicine Bow, Routt, and White River National Forests. The results, presented as a series of social-value maps, represent the first publicly available spatial data on social-value intensity for the southern Rocky Mountain region. Our analysis identified high-value areas for social values including aesthetic, biodiversity, and life sustaining within wilderness areas. Other values, like recreation, show high-value areas both within wilderness and throughout the general forest areas, which can be attributed to people using the forests for a diverse set of recreational activities. The economic social-value type was lower

  7. The American College of Radiology white paper on radiation dose in medicine:deep impact on the practice of cardiovascular imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semelka Richard

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In April 2007, the American College of Radiology released the "White Paper on Radiation Dose in Medicine". The Blue Ribbon panel members included private practice and academic diagnostic radiologists, medical physicists, representatives of industry and regulatory groups, and a patient advocate. The panel concluded that the expanding use of imaging modalities using ionizing radiations such as CT and nuclear medicine may result in an increased incidence of radiation-related cancer in the exposed population in the not-too-distant future, and this problem can likely be minimized by preventing the inappropriate use of such imaging and by optimizing studies that are performed to obtain the best image quality with the lowest radiation dose. The White Paper set forth practical suggestions to minimize radiation risk, including education for all stakeholders in the principles of radiation safety and preferential use of alternative (non-ionizing imaging techniques, such as MRI and ultrasound. These recommendations are especially relevant for cardiologists, who prescribe and/or practice medical imaging examinations accounting for at least 50% of the total effective dose by radiation medicine, which amounts to an equivalent of about 160 chest x-rays per head per year in US. Were they be enacted, these simple recommendations would determine a revolution in the contemporary way of teaching, learning and practising cardiology.

  8. [Scientific information, medical education and health policies: the Pan-American Health Organization and the creation of the Regional Library of Medicine--Bireme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires-Alves, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the creation and the first years of functioning of the Regional Library of Medicine (Biblioteca Regional de Medicina--Bireme--PAHO), today Latin-American Center for Information in Health Sciences, during 1963-1982. In the course of this analysis, Bireme is being characterized as both an apparatus and an arena for negotiation present in the most general processes of development expressed in international cooperation, information in science and technology, health policies and in the movement for expansion and reform of medical teaching. The narrative has as initial landmark the conception of a regional library of medicine for Latin America according to a model proposed by the National Library of Medicine. The article qualifies the first years of Bireme's existence as the history of the reception of this model, a trajectory that reflected the criticism of that time against the way the health care services were organized and their human resources were educated. Finally, beginning in 1976, a new model resulted in a real modification of Bireme's programmatic agenda, implying in very distinct contributions for the functioning of the regime of information in health sciences in force in Brazil and Latin America.

  9. Music as Social Medicine: Two Perspectives on the West-Eastern Divan Orchestra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, David M.; Beecher, Devin G.

    2010-01-01

    The social power of music can effect stable and positive changes in individual health and communities that have significant health risks. Two observers, a medical student and a music student, discuss respectively the ideals and challenges of this principle put into practice. Their reflections about the role of music as social therapy and space for…

  10. A personal reflection on social media in medicine: I stand, no wiser than before.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, John

    2015-04-01

    Social media has enabled information, communication and reach for health professionals. There are clear benefits to patients and consumers when health information is broadcast. But there are unanswered questions on professionalism, education, and the complex mentoring relationship between doctor and student. This personal perspective raises a number of questions: What is online medical professionalism? Can online medical professionalism be taught? Can online medical professionalism be enforced? Is an online presence necessary to achieve the highest level of clinical excellence? Is there evidence that social media is superior to traditional methods of teaching in medical education? Does social media encourage multitasking and impairment of the learning process? Are there downsides to the perfunctory laconic nature of social media? Does social media waste time that is better spent attaining clinical skills?

  11. Social Participation, Sense of Community and Social Well Being: A Study on American, Italian and Iranian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicognani, Elvira; Pirini, Claudia; Keyes, Corey; Joshanloo, Mohsen; Rostami, Reza; Nosratabadi, Masoud

    2008-01-01

    Aim of the study was to assess the relationship between social participation and Sense of Community in a sample of University students and the impact of such variables on Social well being. A further aim was to assess the generality of the relationships between these constructs across different countries, and specifically, the USA, Italy and Iran.…

  12. Proposed Social Spending Innovation Research (SSIR) Program: Harnessing American Entrepreneurial Talent to Solve Major U.S. Social Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Social Spending Innovation Research (SSIR) proposal seeks to replicate, in social spending, the great success of the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in technology development. The SBIR program funds technology development by entrepreneurial small companies. The program has spawned breakthrough technologies in diverse areas…

  13. Social Hygiene and Social Medicine in Interwar Czechoslovakia with the 13th District of the City of Prague as Its Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mášová, Hana

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Health services in the newborn Czechoslovak Republic had to cope not only with the consequences of the First World War, but also with the new approaches to health policy. Modern social medicine challenged the conventional model of the so-called “police medicine” – the deep-rooted concept of Public Health in the Middle European countries. The necessity to resolve the contradiction between preventative and curative care led to the conclusion that the form and tasks of health centres, whether run by voluntary bodies or by the state/regional authorities, had to be reconsidered. The ambitious goal was to find new and more effective ways to cooperation between the various subjects of health assistance, consultancy, and – eventually - social aid. As an example of such an institution, providing both curative and preventive/consultant service, can be found in one of the most rapidly developing parts of the city of Prague – the new Czechoslovak capital. The “model district” in Prague XIII should have become the location utilizing the latest methods of social hygiene and healthcare organization, an enterprise of coordinated social work and health service. Only in the first years of its existence did it function in accordance with its aims; especially as a teaching arrangement - a tutorial service of the State Health Institute for the education of medical personnel, especially health and social nursing sisters, – and as a source of statistical research. The work of the voluntary organizations and health officers was successfully coordinated. But plans to reorganise the Health Office of the City of Prague, and to extend the system to other districts, faltered and eventually failed. Nevertheless, the principle was kept in mind by the later health care reformers, and survived.

  14. The social management of biomedical novelty:Facilitating translation in regenerative medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, John Grant; Webster, Andrew Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative medicine (RM) is championed as a potential source of curative treatments for a variety of illnesses, and as a generator of economic wealth and prosperity. Alongside this optimism, however, is a sense of concern that the translation of basic science into useful RM therapies will be laboriously slow due to a range of challenges relating to live tissue handling and manufacturing, regulation, reimbursement and commissioning, and clinical adoption. This paper explores the attempts of ...

  15. Not a slippery slope or sudden subversion: German medicine and national socialism in 1933.

    OpenAIRE

    Hanauske-Abel, H M

    1996-01-01

    The history of medicine this century is darkened by the downfall of the German medical profession, exposed during the doctors' trial at Nuremberg in 1946. Relying largely on documents published during 1933 in German medical journals, this paper examines two widely accepted notions of those events, metaphorically termed "slippery slope" and "sudden subversion." The first connotes a gradual slide over infinitesimal steps until, suddenly, all footing is lost; the second conveys forced take over ...

  16. A grim contradiction: the practice and consequences of corporate social responsibility by British American Tobacco in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Simon; Morrow, Martha

    2008-04-01

    In the wake of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, corporate social responsibility (CSR) is among the few remaining mechanisms for tobacco corporations publicly to promote their interests. Health advocates may be unaware of the scale, nature and implications of tobacco industry CSR. This investigation aimed to construct a typology of tobacco industry CSR through a case study of the evolution and impact of CSR activities of a particular tobacco corporation in one country - British American Tobacco, Malaysia (BATM), the Malaysian market leader. Methods included searching, compiling and critically appraising publicly available materials from British American Tobacco, BATM, published literature and other sources. The study examined BATM's CSR strategy, the issues which it raises, consequences for tobacco control and potential responses by health advocates. The investigation found that BATM's CSR activities included assistance to tobacco growers, charitable donations, scholarships, involvement in anti-smuggling measures, 'youth smoking prevention' programs and annual Social Reports. BATM has stated that its model is predominantly motivated by social and stakeholder obligations. Its CSR activities have, however, had the additional benefits of contributing to a favourable image, deflecting criticism and establishing a modus vivendi with regulators that assists BATM's continued operations and profitability. It is imperative that health advocates highlight the potential conflicts inherent in such arrangements and develop strategies to address the concerns raised. PMID:18304713

  17. A grim contradiction: the practice and consequences of corporate social responsibility by British American Tobacco in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Simon; Morrow, Martha

    2008-04-01

    In the wake of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, corporate social responsibility (CSR) is among the few remaining mechanisms for tobacco corporations publicly to promote their interests. Health advocates may be unaware of the scale, nature and implications of tobacco industry CSR. This investigation aimed to construct a typology of tobacco industry CSR through a case study of the evolution and impact of CSR activities of a particular tobacco corporation in one country - British American Tobacco, Malaysia (BATM), the Malaysian market leader. Methods included searching, compiling and critically appraising publicly available materials from British American Tobacco, BATM, published literature and other sources. The study examined BATM's CSR strategy, the issues which it raises, consequences for tobacco control and potential responses by health advocates. The investigation found that BATM's CSR activities included assistance to tobacco growers, charitable donations, scholarships, involvement in anti-smuggling measures, 'youth smoking prevention' programs and annual Social Reports. BATM has stated that its model is predominantly motivated by social and stakeholder obligations. Its CSR activities have, however, had the additional benefits of contributing to a favourable image, deflecting criticism and establishing a modus vivendi with regulators that assists BATM's continued operations and profitability. It is imperative that health advocates highlight the potential conflicts inherent in such arrangements and develop strategies to address the concerns raised.

  18. HHS Report on Social and Economic Conditions of Native Americans for 2007-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This report to Congress provides data specific to awards made from the Department of Health and Human Services to Native Americans and provides highlights of Native...

  19. The Spread of Evidence-Poor Medicine via Flawed Social-Network Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Lyons, Russell

    2010-01-01

    We present cautionary examples of what can go wrong when assumptions behind statistical procedures are insufficiently examined, even when the analysis is performed by highly reputed and otherwise careful practitioners. Our examples come from a series of recent papers by Christakis and Fowler that claim to have demonstrated the existence of transmission via social networks of various personal characteristics, including obesity, smoking cessation, happiness, and loneliness. Those papers also assert that such influence extends to three degrees of separation in social networks.

  20. The Relation of Racial Identity, Ethnic Identity, and Racial Socialization to Discrimination-Distress: A Meta-Analysis of Black Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Debbiesiu L.; Ahn, Soyeon

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized the results of 27 studies examining the relations of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress for Black Americans. The purpose was to uncover which constructs connected to racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization most strongly correlate with racial…

  1. Formative Assessment Using Social Marketing Principles to Identify Health and Nutrition Perspectives of Native American Women Living within the Chickasaw Nation Boundaries in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Stephany; Hunter, Toma; Briley, Chiquita; Miracle, Sarah; Hermann, Janice; Van Delinder, Jean; Standridge, Joy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify health product and promotion channels for development of a Chickasaw Nation Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Education Program (SNAP-Ed) social marketing program. Methods: The study was qualitative and used social marketing principles to assess Native American women's views of health and nutrition. Focus groups (n = 8) and…

  2. Social and Cultural Barriers to Diabetes Prevention in Oklahoma American Indian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Taylor; Kathryn S. Keim; Alicia Sparrer; Jean Van Delinder; Stephany Parker

    2004-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of diabetes is disproportionately higher among minority populations, especially American Indians. Prevention or delay of diabetes in this population would improve quality of life and reduce health care costs. Identifying cultural definitions of health and diabetes is critically important to developing effective diabetes prevention programs. Methods In-home qualitative interviews were conducted with 79 American Indian women from 3 tribal clinics in northeast Oklaho...

  3. Weaving the ethnic fabric : social networks among Swedish-American radicals in Chicago 1890-1940

    OpenAIRE

    Nordahl, Per

    1994-01-01

    The present dissertation deals with how a segment of the Swedish immigrant group mobilized to be included in American society. Three Swedish-American working class organizations have been studied as to how they interacted to promote their interests in Chicago and the Lake View district during the first decades of this century. Reflecting political, cultural and economic aspects of the immigrant workers' lives the case studies indicate that Swedish immigrant workers constructed an organization...

  4. Social Capital, Acculturation, Mental Health, and Perceived Access to Services among Mexican American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Garcia, Dellanira; Simoni, Jane M.; Alegria, Margarita; Takeuchi, David T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We examined whether individual-level social capital--the intangible resources in a community available through membership in social networks or other social structures and perceived trust in the community--was associated with acculturation, depression and anxiety symptoms, and perceived access to services among women of Mexican…

  5. School Ethnic-Racial Socialization: Learning about Race and Ethnicity among African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana, Adriana; Byrd, Christy M.

    2015-01-01

    Research has sought to understand how parents socialize their children around race and ethnicity, but few studies have considered how contexts outside the home are also important sources of socialization. In this paper we review and integrate literature on practices in school settings that have implications for ethnic-racial socialization using a…

  6. Performance Anxiety among African-American College Students: Racial Bias as a Factor in Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aleta Bok

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the etiology of social phobia, and proposes that the sensitivity to self-scrutiny common to social phobics can be exacerbated by the effects of longstanding racial bias. The impact of racism on identity and the importance of context are explored as salient factors in the onset of a case of social phobia for an…

  7. The social transformation of American medical education: class, status, and party influences on occupational closure, 1902–1919.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Richard M; Miller, Lynn E

    2010-01-01

    Applying Weber's theorizing on action and stratification, this study examines whether the early 20th-century extinction of half of the medical schools in the United States resulted from actions intended to serve class, status, and party interests by achieving social closure. Analyses reveal closure intentions in the school ratings assigned by the American Medical Association, although not in the recommendations in the 1910 Carnegie-sponsored Flexner report. In contrast to claims that schools failed largely because of economic exigencies, analyses indicate that failures were influenced by the AMA's and Flexner's assessments, as well as by state regulatory regimes and school characteristics.

  8. Segmenting and targeting American university students to promote responsible alcohol use: a case for applying social marketing principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sameer; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn

    2011-10-01

    The current study contributes to the social marketing literature in the American university binge-drinking context in three innovative ways. First, it profiles drinking segments by "values" and "expectancies" sought from behaviors. Second, the study compares segment values and expectancies of two competing behaviors, that is, binge drinking and participation in alternative activities. Third, the study compares the influence of a variety of factors on both behaviors in each segment. Finally, based on these findings and feedback from eight university alcohol prevention experts, appropriate strategies to promote responsible alcohol use for each segment are proposed. PMID:22054026

  9. The Power of Place: Social Network Characteristics, Perceived Neighborhood Features, and Psychological Distress Among African Americans in the Historic Hill District in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez, Karen R; Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita Bonnie; Beckman, Robin; de la Haye, Kayla; Duru, Obidiugwu Kenrik; Abraído-Lanza, Ana F; Dubowitz, Tamara

    2016-09-01

    African American neighborhoods have been historically targeted for urban renewal projects, which impact social composition and resident's health. The Hill District in Pittsburgh, PA is such a neighborhood. This research sought to investigate the extent to which social networks and perceived neighborhood social cohesion and safety were associated with psychological distress among residents in an African American neighborhood undergoing urban renewal, before the implementation of major neighborhood changes. Findings revealed a modest, significant inverse association between social network size and psychological distress (β = -0.006, p social cohesion, which is consistent with past research. Findings suggest that social networks protect against psychological distress, but neighborhood perceptions are also paramount. PMID:27612324

  10. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D Travis; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Burke, Louise M

    2016-03-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy), Dietitians of Canada (DC), and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy, DC, and ACSM, other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy's, DC's, and ACSM's stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence athletic performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics is a registered dietitian nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert.

  11. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D Travis; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Burke, Louise M

    2016-03-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy), Dietitians of Canada (DC), and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy, DC, and ACSM, other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy's, DC's, and ACSM's stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence athletic performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics is a registered dietitian nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert. PMID:26920240

  12. American Chemical Society--238th National Meeting & Exposition. Developments in medicinal chemistry: part 1. 16-20 August 2009, Washington DC, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gater, Deborah; Macauley, Donald

    2009-10-01

    The 238th National Meeting and Exposition of the American Chemical Society, held in Washington DC, included topics covering new compounds and developments in the field of medicinal chemistry. This conference report highlights selected presentations on a novel KV1.5 blocker, a state-dependent CaV2.2 antagonist, therapeutic uses of macrocycles, a novel P2X7 antagonist, developments using the StaR technology platform, the optimization of a neuropeptide S receptor antagonist, and type 1 glycine transport modulators. Investigational drugs discussed include WYE-160020 (Wyeth), Trox-1 (Neuromed Pharmaceuticals Inc), ulimorelin (Tranzyme Pharma Inc), E-32224 (Ensemble Discovery Corp) and PF-03463275 (Pfizer Inc); the discontinued compound AZD-9056 is also highlighted.

  13. Improving service quality by understanding emergency department flow: a White Paper and position statement prepared for the American Academy of Emergency Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitel, Dave R; Rudkin, Scott E; Malvehy, M Albert; Killeen, James P; Pines, Jesse M

    2010-01-01

    Emergency Department (ED) crowding is a common problem in the United States and around the world. Process reengineering methods can be used to understand factors that contribute to crowding and provide tools to help alleviate crowding by improving service quality and patient flow. In this article, we describe the ED as a service business and then discuss specific methods to improve the ED quality and flow. Methods discussed include demand management, critical pathways, process-mapping, Emergency Severity Index triage, bedside registration, Lean and Six Sigma management methods, statistical forecasting, queuing systems, discrete event simulation modeling and balanced scorecards. The purpose of this review is to serve as a background for emergency physicians and managers interested in applying process reengineering methods to improving ED flow, reducing waiting times, and maximizing patient satisfaction. Finally, we present a position statement on behalf of the American Academy of Emergency Medicine addressing these issues.

  14. Nanotechnology for social needs: contributions from Latin American research in the areas of health, energy and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Invernizzi, Noela, E-mail: noela@ufpr.br; Foladori, Guillermo; Robles-Belmont, Eduardo; Záyago Lau, Edgar; Figueroa, Edgar Arteaga; Bagattolli, Carolina; Carrozza, Tomás Javier; Chiancone, Adriana; Urquijo, William [Universidade Federal do Paraná, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Políticas Públicas (Brazil)

    2015-05-15

    This paper reviews, based on data from scientific publications and research groups, the state of the art of nanotechnology research applied to the areas of medicine, energy and water in Latin America. Such areas have been considered as particularly relevant in order to meet the social needs of the developing countries. It is shown that the countries in the region have incorporated these areas to their nanotechnology agendas and several countries have increasing research capacities. However, such capacities are concentrated in Brazil and Mexico, while the regional cooperation networks are still weak. Although the research topics tend to align with relevant social issues, there are still a number of challenges so as the results of such investigations may be effectively reflected in quality of life improvements; one of them is that many publications and research topics are on basic science, which makes it difficult to evaluate their potential application field.

  15. Nanotechnology for social needs: contributions from Latin American research in the areas of health, energy and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews, based on data from scientific publications and research groups, the state of the art of nanotechnology research applied to the areas of medicine, energy and water in Latin America. Such areas have been considered as particularly relevant in order to meet the social needs of the developing countries. It is shown that the countries in the region have incorporated these areas to their nanotechnology agendas and several countries have increasing research capacities. However, such capacities are concentrated in Brazil and Mexico, while the regional cooperation networks are still weak. Although the research topics tend to align with relevant social issues, there are still a number of challenges so as the results of such investigations may be effectively reflected in quality of life improvements; one of them is that many publications and research topics are on basic science, which makes it difficult to evaluate their potential application field

  16. [Benefits of the Curriculum "Social Medicine for the Rehabilitation Team" in Rehabilitation Practise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worringen, U; Hoppe, A; Derra, C; Kalwa, M; Brüggemann, S

    2016-08-01

    The Federal German Pension Insurance in cooperation with professional organisations developed a curriculum for further socio-medical education of psychologists/psychotherapists, occupational therapists, physiotherapists, sports therapists and social workers/social pedagogues involved in medical rehabilitation. This curriculum aims to improve the professional competence of the therapeutic groups named above with regards to their contributions to the socio-medical capacity evaluation and related communication within the rehabilitation team. The curriculum was implemented for the first time in 2013. Using the results of the usibility evaluation the continued education concept was revised and manualised. The manual allows for a wide dissemination of the education concept. PMID:27529301

  17. American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) National Practice Guideline for the Use of Medications in the Treatment of Addiction Involving Opioid Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampman, Kyle; Jarvis, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control have recently described opioid use and resultant deaths as an epidemic. At this point in time, treating this disease well with medication requires skill and time that are not generally available to primary care doctors in most practice models. Suboptimal treatment has likely contributed to expansion of the epidemic and concerns for unethical practices. At the same time, access to competent treatment is profoundly restricted because few physicians are willing and able to provide it. This "Practice Guideline" was developed to assist in the evaluation and treatment of opioid use disorder, and in the hope that, using this tool, more physicians will be able to provide effective treatment. Although there are existing guidelines for the treatment of opioid use disorder, none have included all of the medications used at present for its treatment. Moreover, few of the existing guidelines address the needs of special populations such as pregnant women, individuals with co-occurring psychiatric disorders, individuals with pain, adolescents, or individuals involved in the criminal justice system. This Practice Guideline was developed using the RAND Corporation (RAND)/University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Appropriateness Method (RAM) - a process that combines scientific evidence and clinical knowledge to determine the appropriateness of a set of clinical procedures. The RAM is a deliberate approach encompassing review of existing guidelines, literature reviews, appropriateness ratings, necessity reviews, and document development. For this project, American Society of Addiction Medicine selected an independent committee to oversee guideline development and to assist in writing. American Society of Addiction Medicine's Quality Improvement Council oversaw the selection process for the independent development committee. Recommendations included in the guideline encompass a broad range of topics, starting with the initial evaluation of the

  18. Predictors of co-parenting in Mexican American families and direct effects on parenting and child social emotional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Natasha J; Shannon, Jacqueline D; La Taillade, Jaslean J

    2009-09-01

    The present study examined associations between parents' levels of acculturation depressive symptoms, family support, and couple relationship quality with coparenting conflict. We also explored the effects of coparenting conflict on parenting and infant social development in a sample of low-income Mexican American (n=735) infants (age 9 months) and their parents. Results indicated that couple conflict was the strongest predictor of coparenting conflict. Coparenting conflict had a significant effect on mother-infant interaction and father engagement. The effects of coparenting on father caregiving varied by father's level of acculturation; when there is high coparenting conflict, more acculturated fathers engaged in more caregiving than less acculturated fathers. Coparenting conflict was not predictive of infant social development. PMID:20174599

  19. Social class, political power, and the state: their implications in medicine--part III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V

    1977-01-01

    This is the third part of an article on the distribution of power and the nature of the state in Western industrialized societies and their implications in medicine. Parts I and II were published in the preceding issue of this Journal. Part I presented a critique of contemporary theories of the Western system of power; discussed the countervailing pluralist and power of elite theories, as well as those of bureaucratic and professional control; and concluded with an examination of the Marxist theories of economic determinism, structural determinism, and corporate statism. Part II presented a Marxist theory of the role, nature, and characteristics of state intervention. Part III focuses on the mode of that intervention and the reasons for its growth, with an added analysis of the attributes of state intervention in the health sector, and of the dialectical relationship between its growth and the current fiscal crisis of the state. In all three parts, the focus is on Western European countries and on North America, with many examples and categories from the area of medicine. PMID:870557

  20. Social class, political powere, and the state and their implications in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V

    1977-01-01

    This three-part article presents an analysis of the distribution of power and of the nature of the state in Western industrialized societies, and details their implications in medicine. Part I presents a critique of contemporary theories of the Western system of power; discusses the countervailing pluralist and power elite theories, as well as those of bureaucratic and professional control; and concludes with an examination of the Marxist theories of economic determinism, structural determinism, and corporate statism. Part II presents a Marxist theory of the role, nature, and characteristics of state intervention. Part III focuses on the mode of that intervention and the reasons for its growth, with an added analysis of the attributes of state intervention in the health sector and of the dialectical relationship between its growth and the current fiscal crisis of the state. In all three parts, the focus is on Western European countries and on North America, with many examples and categories drawn from the area of medicine. PMID:856745

  1. Social class, political power, and the state: their implications in medicine--parts I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V

    1976-01-01

    This three part article presents an anlysis of the distribution of power and of the nature of the state in Western industrialized societies and details their implications in medicine. Part I presents a critique of contemporary theories of the Western system of power; discusses the countervailing pluralist and power elite theories, as well as those of bureaucratic and professional control; and concludes with an examination of the Marxist theories of economic determinism, structural determinism, and corporate statism. Part II presents a Marxist theory of the role, nature, and characteristics of state intervention. Part III (which will appear in the next issue of this journal) focuses on the mode of that intervention and the reasons for its growth, with an added analysis of the attributes of state intervention in the health sector, and of the dialectical relationship between its growth and the current fiscal crisis of the state. In all three parts, the focus is on Western European countries and on North America, with many examples and categories from the area of medicine. PMID:1022803

  2. Incorporating Integrative Health Services in Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gant, Larry; Benn, Rita; Gioia, Deborah; Seabury, Brett

    2009-01-01

    More than one third of Americans practice complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Social workers continue to provide most first-line health, mental health, and psychological referral and direct practice services in the United States, despite a lack of systematic education and training opportunities in CAM. Schools of social work are…

  3. Agreement between the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey and the Council of Chapters of the American Association of University Professors, July 1, 1983 to June 30, 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutgers, The State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ. School of Medicine.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey and the Council of Chapters (690 members) of the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) covering the period July 1, 1983-June 30, 1986 is presented. The agreement covers the New Jersey Medical School, New Jersey Dental School, Rutgers…

  4. Status and progress of family health in Latin America and the Caribbean: the Ibero-American Confederation of Family Medicine (ICPM perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inez Padula Anderson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the XXI century, much of humanity does not have access to comprehensive health care, or even basic equitable health care. If studies show that countries with organized health systems based on a qualified and inclusive model of Primary Health Care (PHC and family physicians as permanent staff are achieving unquestionable results, why a large part of the countries with lower socio-economic development have not committed strongly to implement an efficient reform of their health systems based on PHC and family medicine (FM? These issues are at the core of the Latin American Confederation of Family Medicine’s concerns, an international non-profit organization composed of national associations of countries of FM from Latin America, Spain and Portugal. Its primary mission is to drive the implementation of a proper PHC system in all countries of the region and to ensure that family medicine, as a specialty, is considered critical to health systems, thereby transforming it into a public policy.

  5. Revisiting the "American Social Science" – Mapping the Geography of International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Marcus

    2015-01-01

    has become less American since the 1960s—mainly because Anglo-Saxon and European countries account for a larger share of IR production. The final part uses novel visualization tools to map the geographical network structures of authorship and coauthorship in the discipline’s leading journals....... By looking at cities and institutions, rather than national centers and peripheries, it finds a Western, rather than American, dominance materializing along the US coasts and in Western Europe and further expressed by most international coauthorships being Transatlantic. At the institutional level...

  6. THE WELFARE STATE AND THE MARKET ECONOMY: THE AMERICAN AND GERMAN EXPERIENCES OF SOCIAL POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Fazeli, Reza; Fazeli, Rafat

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent development of the welfare state and social policy in the United States and Germany. The empirical study is primarily based on the comparative study of the trends of the “social wage” and the “net social wage” in the two countries over the last two decades. The paper addresses two major questions. The first question is whether the expansion of social expenditures has posed any drag on capital accumulation and economic growth in these two countries. The second que...

  7. Housing and Social Environments of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) Elephants in North American Zoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Cheryl L.; Hogan, Jennifer N.; Bonaparte-Saller, Mary K.; Mench, Joy A.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated 255 African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants living in 68 North American zoos over one year to quantify housing and social variables. All parameters were quantified for the both the day and the night and comparisons were made across these time periods as well as by species and sex. To assess housing, we evaluated not only total exhibit size, but also individual animals’ experiences based on the time they spent in the unique environments into which the exhibits were subdivided. Variables developed to assess housing included measurements of area as a function of time (Total Space Experience), environment type (Indoor, Outdoor, In/Out Choice) and time spent on hard and soft flooring. Over the year, Total Space Experience values ranged from 1,273 square feet to 169,692 square feet, with Day values significantly greater than Night values (panimals functionally housed together (Social Experience) and social group characteristics such as time spent with juveniles and in mixed-sex groups. Overall Social Experience scores ranged from 1 to 11.2 and were significantly greater during the Day than at Night (pwelfare outcomes. PMID:27414034

  8. Racial Respect and Racial Socialization as Protective Factors for African American Male Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGruy, Joy; Kjellstrand, Jean M.; Briggs, Harold E.; Brennan, Eileen M.

    2012-01-01

    African American adolescents must negotiate the transition to adulthood in a society that makes the achievement of positive cultural identity and self-respect difficult. Frequently, young men turn to violence in an attempt to achieve respect in their communities. This article explores factors that predict the use of violence among African American…

  9. Using Social Cognitive Theory to Predict Safer Sex Behaviors in African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekar, Amar; Sharma, Manoj

    2009-01-01

    Safer sex is important for protection against STDs and HIV/AIDS. Most of the HIV-related research is targeted towards high-risk groups such as prostitutes, gays and substance abusers there is evidence that HIV/AIDS is increasing in college students particularly among African-American college students. The purpose of this study was to study…

  10. African American College Students and Stress: School Racial Composition, Self-Esteem and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negga, Feven; Applewhite, Sheldon; Livingston, Ivor

    2007-01-01

    College students are a very vulnerable group to experience stress, the latter of which is related to a variety of outcomes, such as health and academic performance. However, there is a dearth of research examining African American college students and stress. Further, fewer studies have compared stress for students attending predominately white…

  11. Critical Multimodal Hip Hop Production: A Social Justice Approach to African American Language and Literacy Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, K. C. Nat; Hayes, Nini, Visaya; Way, Kate

    2013-01-01

    This article features key findings from a study that highlights the transformative impact of a pedagogical approach that employs Critical Multimodal Hip Hop Production (CMHHP). The study took place in an extended day program in a northern California public middle school among a group of 30, urban, African American, Chicano/a/Latino/a, and Asian…

  12. Adult Social Behavioral Effects of Heavy Adolescent Marijuana Use among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kerry M.; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of heavy adolescent marijuana use on employment, marriage, and family formation and tested both dropping out of high school and adult marijuana use as potential mediators of these associations among a community sample of African Americans followed longitudinally from age 6 to age 32-33. They used propensity …

  13. Conducting Spiritual Assessments with Native Americans: Enhancing Cultural Competency in Social Work Practice Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R.; Limb, Gordon E.

    2010-01-01

    Developing competency in diversity and assessment are key educational priorities. With Native American clients a spiritual assessment is typically required because spirituality is often instrumental to health and wellness in Native cultures. In keeping with the movement toward competency-based education, this qualitative study sought to answer the…

  14. Discrimination Concerns and Expectations as Explanations for Gendered Socialization in African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Fatima; Mandara, Jelani

    2013-01-01

    Discrimination concerns and parental expectations were examined as mediators of the relations between gender and parenting practices among 796 African American mothers of 11- to 14-year-olds from the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study. Mothers of sons had more concerns about racial discrimination impacting their adolescents' future,…

  15. Academic and Social Experiences of Exchange Students from Japan Attending an American University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takahiro; Hodge, Samuel R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze the views of exchange students from Japan about their sojourn experiences at an American university. The participants were eight exchange students from Japan (four males and four females). This descriptive-qualitative study was conceptualized within sojourner theory (Siu, 1952). The data…

  16. Earthquake Impact on Miami Haitian Americans: The Role of Family/Social Connectedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrea; Marcelin, Louis Herns; Schmitz, Susan; Hausmann, Vicky; Shultz, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals who are indirectly exposed to disasters may be affected psychologically. The impact of the 2010 Haiti earthquake reverberated throughout the Haitian American community in Miami, Florida. Many within the community held strong transnational family and friendship bonds to their homeland. We examined associations between indicators of…

  17. Longitudinal associations between social support and physical and mental health in African American adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    African Americans report a greater number of modifiable risk factors, such as overweight/obesity, physical inactivity and poor dietary habits, putting them at increased risk of developing and dying from chronic diseases. These risk factors are also associated with poorer health-related quality of li...

  18. The Familial Socialization of Culturally Related Values in Mexican American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, George P.; Berkel, Cady; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Ettekal, Idean; Jaconis, Maryanne; Boyd, Brenna M.

    2011-01-01

    Research has documented a relation between parents' ethnic socialization and youth's ethnic identity, yet there has been little research examining the transmission of cultural values from parents to their children through ethnic socialization and ethnic identity. This study examines a prospective model in which mothers' and fathers' Mexican…

  19. The Social Coping Questionnaire: An Examination of Its Structure with an American Sample of Gifted Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Foust, Regan Clark; Callahan, Carolyn M.

    2007-01-01

    Gifted students report that they are often perceived differently than nonidentified students (Cross, Coleman, & Stewart, 1993); thus, they employ social coping strategies to manipulate the visibility of their giftedness. The Social Coping Questionnaire (SCQ; Swiatek, 1995) was designed to assess these strategies. This study's purpose was to…

  20. The Hope for American School Reform: The Cold War Pursuit of Inquiry Learning in Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ronald W.

    2010-01-01

    As the issue of school reform grows ever more intense, it is imperative that we learn what we can from previous efforts. The new social studies was a 1960's attempt to transform the teaching of history and the social sciences in schools. With origins in the Cold War, the movement sought to develop critical thinkers through "inquiry" and…

  1. Individualism versus Socialism in American Education: Rereading Mortimer Adler and "The Paidea Proposal."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltman, Burton

    2002-01-01

    Discusses Adler's "The Paideia Proposal," which raised the issue of socialism versus individualism in order to rally educational reformers to move the educational debate out of a cycle of academic bickering. The paper examines the intellectual road that led Adler to socialism and reexamines the book in light of his socialist views, suggesting that…

  2. The religious and social principles of patients' rights in holy books (Avesta, Torah, Bible, and Quran) and in traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatami, Hossein; Hatami, Maryam; Hatami, Neda

    2013-03-01

    Health protection and promotion in healthy people and restoring patients' health have been the most important themes in medicine and health throughout our history. Therefore, discussion of different aspects of patients' rights includes implementation of these objectives by the medical community, including physicians, nurses, pharmacists, etc., and the people in charge of health affairs. The principal objective of our research is the study of medical ideology and the approaches of our ancestors in relation to different aspects of patients' rights. To study the different ideologies of traditional medicine in relation to patients' rights, appropriate data were extracted from the original resources of traditional medicine and from religious books. By means of library research we studied these resources in addition to electronic versions of the Alhavi book (by Rhazes), the Kamel-al-Sanaah (by Ahvazi), the Canon of Medicine (by Avicenna), the Zakhireye Khawrazmshahi (by Jorjani), the Avesta, the Torah, the Bible, the Quran, and many other resources, and, finally, after searching, gathering, and encoding the findings, analyzed them qualitatively for thematic content. The holy Avesta book clearly insists on the competence of physicians and setting the appointment fee in accordance with peoples' income. The Old Testament (holy Torah) warned government officials who did not observe patients' rights. In the four gospels (holy Bible) the importance of treatment and taking care of the patient is stressed. After the emergence of Islam, medical students, before beginning the principal courses, had to study Islamic jurisprudence, ethics, logic sciences, natural sciences, geometry, astrology, calculus, and similar courses so that after purifying their soul they could enter the saintly profession of physicians. The holy Quran refers to saving the life of a human irrespective of social class, race, and religion, and insists on exemption of patients from physical activity, including

  3. The Effect of Social Problem Solving Skills in the Relationship between Traumatic Stress and Moral Disengagement among Inner-City African American High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Kendell L; Ikpe, Uduakobong N; Brooks, Jeannie S; Page, Brian; Sobell, Mark B

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between traumatic stress, social problem solving, and moral disengagement among African American inner-city high school students. Participants consisted of 45 (25 males and 20 females) African American students enrolled in grades 10 through 12. Mediation was assessed by testing for the indirect effect using the confidence interval derived from 10,000 bootstrapped resamples. The results revealed that social problem-solving skills have an indirect effect on the relationship between traumatic stress and moral disengagement. The findings suggest that African American youth that are negatively impacted by trauma evidence deficits in their social problem solving skills and are likely to be at an increased risk to morally disengage. Implications for culturally sensitive and trauma-based intervention programs are also provided.

  4. The business of ethics: gender, medicine, and the professional codification of the American Physiotherapy Association, 1918-1935.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, Beth

    2005-07-01

    The history of codes of ethics in health care has almost exclusively been told as a story of how medical doctors developed their own professional principles of conduct. Yet telling the history of medical ethics solely from the physicians' perspective neglects not only the numerous allied health care workers who developed their own codes of ethics in tandem with the medical profession, but also the role that gender played in the writing of such professional creeds. By focusing on the predominantly female organization of the American Physiotherapy Association (APA) and its 1935 "Code of Ethics and Discipline," I demonstrate how these women used their creed to at once curry favor from and challenge the authority of the medical profession. Through their Code, APA therapists engaged in a dynamic dialogue with the male physicians of the American Medical Association (AMA) in the name of professional survival. I conclude that, contrary to historians and philosophers who contend that professional women have historically operated under a gender-specific ethic of care, the physiotherapists avoided rhetoric construed as feminine and instead created a "business-like" creed in which they spoke solely about their relationship with physicians and remained silent on the matter of patient care.

  5. The business of ethics: gender, medicine, and the professional codification of the American Physiotherapy Association, 1918-1935.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, Beth

    2005-07-01

    The history of codes of ethics in health care has almost exclusively been told as a story of how medical doctors developed their own professional principles of conduct. Yet telling the history of medical ethics solely from the physicians' perspective neglects not only the numerous allied health care workers who developed their own codes of ethics in tandem with the medical profession, but also the role that gender played in the writing of such professional creeds. By focusing on the predominantly female organization of the American Physiotherapy Association (APA) and its 1935 "Code of Ethics and Discipline," I demonstrate how these women used their creed to at once curry favor from and challenge the authority of the medical profession. Through their Code, APA therapists engaged in a dynamic dialogue with the male physicians of the American Medical Association (AMA) in the name of professional survival. I conclude that, contrary to historians and philosophers who contend that professional women have historically operated under a gender-specific ethic of care, the physiotherapists avoided rhetoric construed as feminine and instead created a "business-like" creed in which they spoke solely about their relationship with physicians and remained silent on the matter of patient care. PMID:15917259

  6. The prevention of chronic diseases and its social outcomes - Mission of Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Fejzi Alushi

    2010-01-01

    An ancient but quite topical even today Latin sentence says: “It is better prevent the disease than to cure it”. In a global society as today it is, the prevention of chronic diseases is of great social importance, as well as it is important in the economic point of view, since preventing chronic kidney disease, chronic renal Insufficiency, which have a great dispersion among the Albanian population and high cost of its ongoing cure, it does not only improves significantly the quality of life...

  7. The social, moral & ethical issues raised by nanotechnology in the field of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, Michael

    2011-06-01

    The areas in medicine that are and will be influenced by nanoscale science and technology are stem cell research, genetic modification of human beings and the construction of artificial organisms. A non-negotiable moral imperative is the fact that the law is under an obligation to uphold the sanctity and integrity of the human genome which encapsulates humankind's basic genetic inheritance and thereby the human heritage of our species. The research possibilities opened up by nanoscience will push the current boundaries of life forms, because they alter life forms at their most basic (viz genetic) level. They empower scientists to create novel life forms that would not otherwise exist and they combine aspects of different life forms that would not otherwise be integrated. These groundbreaking areas of research place the scientists and their work in an area of moral quicksands. Research involving human design and modification places those scientists in a domain where current morality indicates they do not belong. They are literally 'playing God'.

  8. Fostering Social Determinants of Health Transdisciplinary Research: The Collaborative Research Center for American Indian Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy J. Elliott

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Collaborative Research Center for American Indian Health (CRCAIH was established in September 2012 as a unifying structure to bring together tribal communities and health researchers across South Dakota, North Dakota and Minnesota to address American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN health disparities. CRCAIH is based on the core values of transdisciplinary research, sustainability and tribal sovereignty. All CRCAIH resources and activities revolve around the central aim of assisting tribes with establishing and advancing their own research infrastructures and agendas, as well as increasing AI/AN health research. CRCAIH is comprised of three divisions (administrative; community engagement and innovation; research projects, three technical cores (culture, science and bioethics; regulatory knowledge; and methodology, six tribal partners and supports numerous multi-year and one-year pilot research projects. Under the ultimate goal of improving health for AI/AN, this paper describes the overarching vision and structure of CRCAIH, highlighting lessons learned in the first three years.

  9. Fostering Social Determinants of Health Transdisciplinary Research: The Collaborative Research Center for American Indian Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Amy J; White Hat, Emily R; Angal, Jyoti; Grey Owl, Victoria; Puumala, Susan E; Baete Kenyon, DenYelle

    2016-01-01

    The Collaborative Research Center for American Indian Health (CRCAIH) was established in September 2012 as a unifying structure to bring together tribal communities and health researchers across South Dakota, North Dakota and Minnesota to address American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) health disparities. CRCAIH is based on the core values of transdisciplinary research, sustainability and tribal sovereignty. All CRCAIH resources and activities revolve around the central aim of assisting tribes with establishing and advancing their own research infrastructures and agendas, as well as increasing AI/AN health research. CRCAIH is comprised of three divisions (administrative; community engagement and innovation; research projects), three technical cores (culture, science and bioethics; regulatory knowledge; and methodology), six tribal partners and supports numerous multi-year and one-year pilot research projects. Under the ultimate goal of improving health for AI/AN, this paper describes the overarching vision and structure of CRCAIH, highlighting lessons learned in the first three years. PMID:26703683

  10. Discrimination concerns and expectations as explanations for gendered socialization in African American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Fatima; Mandara, Jelani

    2013-01-01

    Discrimination concerns and parental expectations were examined as mediators of the relations between gender and parenting practices among 796 African American mothers of 11- to 14-year-olds from the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study. Mothers of sons had more concerns about racial discrimination impacting their adolescents' future, whereas mothers of daughters had more gender discrimination concerns. Racial discrimination concerns, but not gender discrimination concerns, were related to lower maternal academic and behavioral expectations. Maternal expectations were related to mothers' responsiveness, rule enforcement, monitoring, and parent-adolescent conflict. The relations between gender and parenting practices were partially explained through mothers' racial discrimination concerns and expectations. These findings demonstrate the importance of contextual factors on African American family processes. PMID:23199216

  11. Employment of Low-Income African American and Latino Teens: Does Neighborhood Social Mix Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Galster, George; Santiago, Anna; Lucero, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    We quantify how teen employment outcomes for low-income African Americans and Latinos relate to their neighborhood conditions during ages 14–17. Data come from surveys of Denver Housing Authority (DHA) households who have lived in public housing scattered throughout Denver County. Because DHA household allocation mimics random assignment to neighborhood, this program represents a natural experiment for overcoming geographic selection bias. Our logistic and Tobit regression analyses found over...

  12. THE SOCIAL BACKGROUND OF NINEETEENTH-CENTURY INNOVATORS IN THE AMERICAN IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Robert P. Rogers

    2004-01-01

    A standard folk tale is of the immigrant who rose from poverty to a place of wealth in American business by ability and hard work. Some historians have questioned this story. They have found that most notable businessmen were native born of upper-middle class backgrounds. An examination of nineteenth century steel industry innovators, however, demonstrates that the rags-to-riches story is not totally irrelevant. A statistical analysis shows that the proportion of immigrants and men from worki...

  13. Disability pensions and social security reform : analysis of the Latin American experience

    OpenAIRE

    Grushka, Carlos O.; Demarco, Gustavo

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the disability pension arrangements prevailing in ten Latin American countries that reformed their pension systems. The analysis is limited to the topic of disability pensions, without attempting to evaluate other critical aspects such as the available infrastructure: handicapped access generally (ramps, blind cues), medical and nursing support, home care, and so on. The relative significance of disability pensions is highly dependant on these factors and, however, they a...

  14. Social Network and Content Analysis of the North American Carbon Program as a Scientific Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Ihli, Monica; Hendrick, Oscar; Delgado-Arias, Sabrina; Escobar, Vanessa M.; Griffith, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The North American Carbon Program (NACP) was formed to further the scientific understanding of sources, sinks, and stocks of carbon in Earth's environment. Carbon cycle science integrates multidisciplinary research, providing decision-support information for managing climate and carbon-related change across multiple sectors of society. This investigation uses the conceptual framework of com-munities of practice (CoP) to explore the role that the NACP has played in connecting researchers into a carbon cycle knowledge network, and in enabling them to conduct physical science that includes ideas from social science. A CoP describes the communities formed when people consistently engage in shared communication and activities toward a common passion or learning goal. We apply the CoP model by using keyword analysis of abstracts from scientific publications to analyze the research outputs of the NACP in terms of its knowledge domain. We also construct a co-authorship network from the publications of core NACP members, describe the structure and social pathways within the community. Results of the content analysis indicate that the NACP community of practice has substantially expanded its research on human and social impacts on the carbon cycle, contributing to a better understanding of how human and physical processes interact with one another. Results of the co-authorship social network analysis demonstrate that the NACP has formed a tightly connected community with many social pathways through which knowledge may flow, and that it has also expanded its network of institutions involved in carbon cycle research over the past seven years.

  15. Was Kiobel Detrimental to Corporate Social Responsibility? Applying Lessons Learnt From American Exceptionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Thompson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The recent decision in the US Supreme Court Kiobel case applied the presumption against extraterritoriality towards the Alien Tort Statute, decreasing the potential scope of tort actions that can be made against corporations for severe human rights violations. In light of the growing influence of multinational corporations and the lack of any international law regime to regulate corporate wrongdoing, this decision might be seen as a blow against one of the few potential avenues for justice for those victims of corporate human rights violations. The Alien Tort Statute is not a jurisdictional statute that allows for claims under international law but is rather a uniquely American cause of action unconnected to international law. The question remains whether an extension of American law to provide remedies for severe corporate human rights abuses can be justified in the absence of any such remedies existent in international law. This article will attempt to answer this question applying criteria developed by leading scholars in response to American exceptionalism. It will argue that the Kiobel decision, rather than being detrimental to holding corporations accountable, actually addresses many of the negative aspects of extraterritorial litigation whilst preserving some possibility of remedy for victims of severe human rights violations by corporations.

  16. Resilience among urban American Indian adolescents: exploration into the role of culture, self-esteem, subjective well-being, and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumblingbear-Riddle, Glenna; Romans, John S C

    2012-01-01

    The effects of enculturation, self-esteem, subjective well-being, and social support on resilience among urban American Indian (AI) adolescents from a South Central region of the U.S. were explored. Of the 196 participants, 114 (58.2%) were female and 82 (41.8%) were male (ages 14-18 years). Thirty-three percent of the variance in resilience was accounted for by enculturation, self-esteem, and social support, while 34% of the variance in resilience was contributed by enculturation, subjective well-being, and social support. However, social support from friends remained the strongest predictor.

  17. HIV/AIDS stigma among a sample of primarily African-American and Latino men who have sex with men social media users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garett, Renee; Smith, Justin; Chiu, Jason; Young, Sean D

    2016-01-01

    The recent increase in social media use allows these technologies to rapidly reach communities with higher HIV prevalence, such as African-American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). However, no studies have looked at HIV/AIDS stigma among social media users from African-American and Latino MSM communities, or the association between stigma and social media use among these groups. This study sought to assess the level of HIV/AIDS stigma among a sample of social media-using African-American and Latino MSM from Los Angeles. A total of 112 (primarily African-American and Latino, n = 98, 88%) MSM Facebook users completed a survey on demographics, online social network use, and HIV/AIDS stigma. A composite stigma score was created by taking the cumulative score from a 15-item stigma questionnaire. Cumulative logistic models were used to assess the association between HIV/AIDS stigma and online social network use. In general, participants reported a low level of HIV/AIDS stigma (mean = 22.2/75, SD = 5.74). HIV/AIDS stigma composite score was significantly associated with increased time spent on online social networks each day (Adjusted odds ratios (AOR): 1.07, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.15). Among this diverse sample of MSM online social network users, findings suggest that HIV/AIDS stigma is associated with usage of social media. We discuss the implications of this work for future HIV prevention.

  18. HIV/AIDS stigma among a sample of primarily African-American and Latino men who have sex with men social media users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garett, Renee; Smith, Justin; Chiu, Jason; Young, Sean D

    2016-06-01

    The recent increase in social media use allows these technologies to rapidly reach communities with higher HIV prevalence, such as African-American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). However, no studies have looked at HIV/AIDS stigma among social media users from African-American and Latino MSM communities, or the association between stigma and social media use among these groups. This study sought to assess the level of HIV/AIDS stigma among a sample of social media-using African-American and Latino MSM from Los Angeles. A total of 112 (primarily African-American and Latino, n = 98, 88%) MSM Facebook users completed a survey on demographics, online social network use, and HIV/AIDS stigma. A composite stigma score was created by taking the cumulative score from a 15-item stigma questionnaire. Cumulative logistic models were used to assess the association between HIV/AIDS stigma and online social network use. In general, participants reported a low level of HIV/AIDS stigma (mean = 22.2/75, SD = 5.74). HIV/AIDS stigma composite score was significantly associated with increased time spent on online social networks each day (Adjusted odds ratios (AOR): 1.07, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.15). Among this diverse sample of MSM online social network users, findings suggest that HIV/AIDS stigma is associated with usage of social media. We discuss the implications of this work for future HIV prevention. PMID:26873022

  19. Housing and Social Environments of African (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus Elephants in North American Zoos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl L Meehan

    Full Text Available We evaluated 255 African (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus elephants living in 68 North American zoos over one year to quantify housing and social variables. All parameters were quantified for the both the day and the night and comparisons were made across these time periods as well as by species and sex. To assess housing, we evaluated not only total exhibit size, but also individual animals' experiences based on the time they spent in the unique environments into which the exhibits were subdivided. Variables developed to assess housing included measurements of area as a function of time (Total Space Experience, environment type (Indoor, Outdoor, In/Out Choice and time spent on hard and soft flooring. Over the year, Total Space Experience values ranged from 1,273 square feet to 169,692 square feet, with Day values significantly greater than Night values (p<0.001. Elephants spent an average of 55.1% of their time outdoors, 28.9% indoors, and 16% in areas with a choice between being in or out. Time spent on hard flooring substrate ranged from 0% to 66.7%, with Night values significantly greater than Day (p<0.001. Social factors included number of animals functionally housed together (Social Experience and social group characteristics such as time spent with juveniles and in mixed-sex groups. Overall Social Experience scores ranged from 1 to 11.2 and were significantly greater during the Day than at Night (p<0.001. There were few significant social or housing differences between African (N = 138 and Asian (N = 117 species or between males (N = 54 and females (N = 201. The most notable exception was Total Space Experience, with African and male elephants having larger Total Space Experience than Asian and female elephants, respectively (P-value<0.05. The housing and social variables evaluated herein have been used in a series of subsequent epidemiological analyses relating to various elephant welfare outcomes.

  20. The impact of neighborhood quality, perceived stress, and social support on depressive symptoms during pregnancy in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Misra, Dawn P; Sealy-Jefferson, Shawnita; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Templin, Thomas N; Slaughter-Acey, Jaime C; Osypuk, Theresa L

    2015-04-01

    Living in a lower-quality neighborhood is associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms in the general population as well as among pregnant and postpartum women. However, little is known of the important pathways by which this association occurs. We proposed a model in which perceived stress and social support mediated the effects of neighborhood quality on depressive symptoms during pregnancy (measured by the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression, CES-D, scale) in a sample of 1383 African American women from the Detroit metropolitan area interviewed during their delivery hospitalization. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), we built a latent variable of neighborhood quality using 4 measures (neighborhood disorder, neighborhood safety/danger, walking environment, overall rating). We then tested two SEM mediation models. We found that lower neighborhood quality was associated with higher prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy (standardized total effect = .16, p = .011). We found that perceived stress partially mediated the neighborhood quality association with depressive symptoms. Although the association of social support with depressive symptoms was negligible, social support mediated associations of neighborhood quality with perceived stress [standardized path coefficient = .38 (.02), p = .009]. Our results point to the need for public health, health care, as well as non-health related interventions (e.g. crime prevention programs) to decrease overall exposure to stressors, as well as stress levels of women living in poor quality neighborhoods. Interventions that increase the levels of social support of women during pregnancy are also needed for their potential to decrease stress and ultimately improve mental health at this important time in the life course.

  1. Social and Cultural Barriers to Diabetes Prevention in Oklahoma American Indian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Taylor

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The prevalence of diabetes is disproportionately higher among minority populations, especially American Indians. Prevention or delay of diabetes in this population would improve quality of life and reduce health care costs. Identifying cultural definitions of health and diabetes is critically important to developing effective diabetes prevention programs. Methods In-home qualitative interviews were conducted with 79 American Indian women from 3 tribal clinics in northeast Oklahoma to identify a cultural definition of health and diabetes. Grounded theory was used to analyze verbatim transcripts. Results The women interviewed defined health in terms of physical functionality and absence of disease, with family members and friends serving as treatment promoters. Conversely, the women considered their overall health to be a personal issue addressed individually without burdening others. The women presented a fatalistic view of diabetes, regarding the disease as an inevitable event that destroys health and ultimately results in death. Conclusions Further understanding of the perceptions of health in at-risk populations will aid in developing diabetes prevention programs.

  2. Television Violence, African-Americans, and Social Control: 1950-76.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Henry; Dozier, Carol

    1983-01-01

    Examines how television violence (1) serves as a socializing agent which presents to the mass viewing audience the conservative concept of legitimate violence, and (2) attempts to control the potential militancy of Blacks by projecting the violent Black police officer as a role model for Black youth. (CMG)

  3. Adoption and the American Indian Child: A Manual for Social Service Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zokan delos Reyes, Louise

    Written for social service workers involved with Indian child welfare cases in which adoption through a state court is being considered, this manual presents basic information about the requirements of the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (ICWA) in cases of Indian adoption. Background material explains that the ICWA--intended to establish…

  4. Iqra: African American Muslim Girls Reading and Writing for Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the researcher explores the role of literacy--specifically writing in the lives of adolescent Muslim girls who used writing as a sociopolitical tool when participating in a literacy collaborative grounded in Islamic principles and writing for social change. Previously, researchers have largely focused on the literacies of immigrant…

  5. Sleep in Mexican-American Adolescents: Social Ecological and Well-Being Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Susan M.; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kan, Marni; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2011-01-01

    A burgeoning body of research documents links between sleep and adjustment in adolescence, but little is known about the role of the social ecology in promoting healthful sleeping habits. This study was aimed at identifying the socio-cultural correlates of adolescents' sleep, including average nighttime sleep duration, average daytime napping, and…

  6. Geography as destiny? Social and ecological resilience in rangelands of the American southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods: Social-ecological systems perspectives focus on the reciprocal relationships between human and natural ecosystem elements and how these interactions determine human well-being, ecological state change, and land use change. In the arid southwestern US, which is dominated...

  7. Self-Socialization of Gender in African American, Dominican Immigrant, and Mexican Immigrant Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosuls, Kristina M.; Ruble, Diane N.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.

    2014-01-01

    This article advances a self-socialization perspective demonstrating that children's understanding of "both" gender categories represents an intergroup cognition that is foundational to the development of gender-stereotyped play. Children's (N = 212) gender category knowledge was assessed at 24 months and play was observed at…

  8. Impact of Online Social Network on American College Students' Reading Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, SuHua; Capps, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate social networking sites (SNS) and ways college students spend their time on both conventional academic and recreational reading. A total of 1,265 (466 male and 799 female) college students voluntarily participated in the study by completing a self-report survey. Descriptive analysis indicated that the…

  9. The Forgotten Legacy of Carter G. Woodson: Contributions to Multicultural Social Studies and African American History

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, LaGarrett J.; Crowley, Ryan M.; Brown, Anthony L.

    2010-01-01

    The intent of this article is to examine the significance of Carter G. Woodson to the historical development of the fields of curriculum and social studies, particularly as they relate to the evolution of the modern multicultural movement. The authors focus on Woodson's contributions through his curriculum and his pedagogical efforts in…

  10. Racial Socialization Messages and the Quality of Mother/Child Interactions in African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frabutt, James M.; Walker, Angela M.; MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Examined linkage between mothers' provision of racial socialization messages and communication, warmth, negativity, child monitoring, and involvement. Found that mothers with moderate frequency of proactive responses to discrimination items exhibited the most positivity, were most involved, monitored their child's activities the most, and…

  11. Falling through the Social Safety Net: Food Stamp Use and Nonuse among Older Impoverished Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Redmond, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Older adults are less likely than any other age group to use the federal Food Stamp Program. The personal and social costs of elderly diet insufficiency include disease exacerbation, depression, and increased hospitalization. In order to improve targeting and outreach efforts, this study identifies the characteristics of eligible older…

  12. Understanding the Social Implications of ICT in Medicine and Health: The Role of Professional Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'connell, Brian M; Laxminarayan, Swamy

    2005-01-01

    In past times, engineers and other ICT professionals could normally function exclusively within an environment of purely technical dimensions. This sphere could be easily delineated from those involving policy, political or social questions. Consequently, these professions could well be characterized as generally isolated from mainstream society, engendering a condition that Zussman (1985) has described as a "technical rationality that is the engineer's stock-in-trade requir[ing] the calculation of means for the realization of given ends. But it requir[ing] no broad insight into those ends or their consequences". This condition has often led to a perceived technical mindset that according to Florman (1976), draws upon "the comfort that comes with the total absorption in a mechanical environment. The world becomes reduced and manageable, controlled and unchaotic".In a relatively short period of time, ICT has been radically transformed in both its capabilities and reach. Specifically, within the context of this event, the permeation of digital technologies into nearly every aspect of bioengineering and healthcare delivery have broken down the borders between technological pursuits and the larger dynamics of society. This has in turn has produced, according to Williams (2000) a discipline that has "evolved into an open-ended Profession of Everything in a world where technology shades into science, into art, and into management, with no strong institutions to define an overarching mission". Within ICT, H.C. von Baeyer (2003) affirms this status in noting "the frustration of engineers who have at their disposal a variety of methods for measuring the amount of information in a message, but to none deal with its meaning". PMID:15923754

  13. Prevention is still the best medicine. Condom social marketing campaign changes attitudes and actions in Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, L L

    1993-09-01

    In Guinea, jingles promoting Prudence condoms are heard on radio and television in 4 different national languages 5 times a day. This has produced an attitudinal change through an intense national media campaign orchestrated by the USAID-financed Social Marketing of Contraceptives Project carried out by Population Services International (PSI), which provides family planning information, products and services through public and private outlets for 500,000 sexually active couples. PSI's paid media campaign has sponsored call-in talk shows on women and AIDS and religion and AIDS at the rural radio station in Labe. Billboards placed in key locations remind people that using condoms helps prevent AIDS. PSI organized a team of 10 Prudence condom marketing agents in March 1992 to establish 400 nontraditional retail and 50 traditional retail and wholesale outlets for condoms. Outlets include pharmacies, restaurants, hotels, grocery stores, and nightclubs. The distributors sell the condoms at a profit. In the first 6 months, PSI distributed 2.3 million condoms. Young women want to space their children and limit the number of children, said the chief midwife for the Guinean Association for Family Well Being clinic in Conakry. Guinea's population growth rate is 2.8%, which will result in a doubling of the population in 25 years. In May 1992, Guinea's government ratified a national population policy supporting family planning. One of the primary goals is to increase contraceptive use to 25% of all couples. PSI works with the Ministry of Health and the Guinean Association for Family Well Being to integrate family planning and sexually transmitted disease prevention activities into 32 primary health care centers in Guinea's Forest Region. To combat the spread of HIV infection, PSI provides technical assistance to the National AIDS Committee to carry out AIDS information activities throughout the country, targeting the military, police, truck drivers, and students. PMID:12288836

  14. An Exploratory Study of Differences in Self-Esteem, Kinship Social Support, and Coping Responses among African American ACOAs and Non-ACOAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. Camille

    2007-01-01

    The author sought to identify differences in kinship social support, self-esteem, and coping responses between African American college students who identify themselves as adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and adult children of nonalcoholics (non-ACOAs) at 2 separate universities. The results indicate that there were no differences in levels of…

  15. The Social Implications of Health Care Reform: Reducing Access Barriers to Health Care Services for Uninsured Hispanic and Latino Americans in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Mitchell A.; Inguanzo, Marian M.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. health care system is currently facing one of its most significant social challenges in decades in terms of its ability to provide access to primary care services to the millions of Americans who have lost their health insurance coverage in the recent economic recession. National statistics compiled by the U.S. Census Bureau for 2009…

  16. The Africentric Home Environment Inventory: An Observational Measure of the Racial Socialization Features of the Home Environment for African American Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Randolph, Suzanne M.; O'Campo, Patricia J.

    2002-01-01

    Pilot tested the Africentric Home Environment Inventory (AHEI), an observational measure for racial socialization features of the home environment, collecting data during home visits with socioeconomically diverse, urban, African American families with preschoolers. There was a strong association between AHEI scores and family socioeconomic…

  17. Apheresis medicine state of the art in 2010: American Society for Apheresis fifth special edition of the Journal of Clinical Apheresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Jeffrey L

    2011-01-01

    The quality of evidence supporting the use of apheresis in the treatment of individual diseases and disorders is often limited. For most diseases and disorders, randomized controlled trials of the use of apheresis have not been performed and for many, due to rarity of the condition, it is unlikely that they will ever be performed. In keeping with its vision, the American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) has created and regularly updated guidelines on the use of apheresis in the treatment of disease. These guidelines seek to summarize the literature on the use of apheresis in treating diseases, provide a critical review of this literature, and give practical guidance to apheresis practitioners. The most recent ASFA guidelines were published in 2010. This article reviews the history of the ASFA guidelines, the changes that were made in the 2010 guidelines, and future directions and plans for these guidelines. The 2010 ASFA guidelines on the use of therapeutic apheresis in clinical practice represent the state of the art in apheresis medicine in 2010.

  18. Lipids and bariatric procedures part 1 of 2: Scientific statement from the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and Obesity Medicine Association: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Harold E; Jones, Peter H; Jacobson, Terry A; Cohen, David E; Orringer, Carl E; Kothari, Shanu; Azagury, Dan E; Morton, John; Nguyen, Ninh T; Westman, Eric C; Horn, Deborah B; Scinta, Wendy; Primack, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Bariatric procedures often improve lipid levels in patients with obesity. This 2-part scientific statement examines the potential lipid benefits of bariatric procedures and represents contributions from authors representing the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and the Obesity Medicine Association. The foundation for this scientific statement was based on data published through June 2015. Part 1 of this 2-part scientific statement provides an overview of: (1) adipose tissue, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (2) bariatric procedures, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (3) endocrine factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (4) immune factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (5) bariatric procedures, bile acid metabolism, and lipids; and (6) bariatric procedures, intestinal microbiota, and lipids, with specific emphasis on how the alterations in the microbiome by bariatric procedures influence obesity, bile acids, and inflammation, which in turn, may all affect lipid levels. Included in part 2 of this comprehensive scientific statement will be a review of: (1) the importance of nutrients (fats, carbohydrates, and proteins) and their absorption on lipid levels; (2) the effects of bariatric procedures on gut hormones and lipid levels; (3) the effects of bariatric procedures on nonlipid cardiovascular disease risk factors; (4) the effects of bariatric procedures on lipid levels; (5) effects of bariatric procedures on cardiovascular disease; and finally (6) the potential lipid effects of vitamin, mineral, and trace element deficiencies that may occur after bariatric procedures. This document represents the executive summary of part 1.

  19. Lipids and bariatric procedures part 1 of 2: Scientific statement from the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and Obesity Medicine Association: FULL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Harold E; Jones, Peter H; Jacobson, Terry A; Cohen, David E; Orringer, Carl E; Kothari, Shanu; Azagury, Dan E; Morton, John; Nguyen, Ninh T; Westman, Eric C; Horn, Deborah B; Scinta, Wendy; Primack, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Bariatric procedures often improve lipid levels in patients with obesity. This 2 part scientific statement examines the potential lipid benefits of bariatric procedures and represents the contributions from authors representing the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and the Obesity Medicine Association. The foundation for this scientific statement was based on published data through June 2015. Part 1 of this 2 part scientific statement provides an overview of: (1) adipose tissue, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (2) bariatric procedures, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (3) endocrine factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (4) immune factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (5) bariatric procedures, bile acid metabolism, and lipids; and (6) bariatric procedures, intestinal microbiota, and lipids, with specific emphasis on how the alterations in the microbiome by bariatric procedures influence obesity, bile acids, and inflammation, which in turn, may all affect lipid levels. Included in part 2 of this comprehensive scientific statement will be a review of (1) the importance of nutrients (fats, carbohydrates, and proteins) and their absorption on lipid levels; (2) the effects of bariatric procedures on gut hormones and lipid levels; (3) the effects of bariatric procedures on nonlipid cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors; (4) the effects of bariatric procedures on lipid levels; (5) effects of bariatric procedures on CVD; and finally, (6) the potential lipid effects of vitamin, mineral, and trace element deficiencies that may occur after bariatric procedures. This document represents the full report of part 1.

  20. Lipids and bariatric procedures part 1 of 2: Scientific statement from the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and Obesity Medicine Association: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Harold E; Jones, Peter H; Jacobson, Terry A; Cohen, David E; Orringer, Carl E; Kothari, Shanu; Azagury, Dan E; Morton, John; Nguyen, Ninh T; Westman, Eric C; Horn, Deborah B; Scinta, Wendy; Primack, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Bariatric procedures often improve lipid levels in patients with obesity. This 2-part scientific statement examines the potential lipid benefits of bariatric procedures and represents contributions from authors representing the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and the Obesity Medicine Association. The foundation for this scientific statement was based on data published through June 2015. Part 1 of this 2-part scientific statement provides an overview of: (1) adipose tissue, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (2) bariatric procedures, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (3) endocrine factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (4) immune factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (5) bariatric procedures, bile acid metabolism, and lipids; and (6) bariatric procedures, intestinal microbiota, and lipids, with specific emphasis on how the alterations in the microbiome by bariatric procedures influence obesity, bile acids, and inflammation, which in turn, may all affect lipid levels. Included in part 2 of this comprehensive scientific statement will be a review of: (1) the importance of nutrients (fats, carbohydrates, and proteins) and their absorption on lipid levels; (2) the effects of bariatric procedures on gut hormones and lipid levels; (3) the effects of bariatric procedures on nonlipid cardiovascular disease risk factors; (4) the effects of bariatric procedures on lipid levels; (5) effects of bariatric procedures on cardiovascular disease; and finally (6) the potential lipid effects of vitamin, mineral, and trace element deficiencies that may occur after bariatric procedures. This document represents the executive summary of part 1. PMID:26892119

  1. Lipids and bariatric procedures part 1 of 2: Scientific statement from the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and Obesity Medicine Association: FULL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Harold E; Jones, Peter H; Jacobson, Terry A; Cohen, David E; Orringer, Carl E; Kothari, Shanu; Azagury, Dan E; Morton, John; Nguyen, Ninh T; Westman, Eric C; Horn, Deborah B; Scinta, Wendy; Primack, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Bariatric procedures often improve lipid levels in patients with obesity. This 2 part scientific statement examines the potential lipid benefits of bariatric procedures and represents the contributions from authors representing the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and the Obesity Medicine Association. The foundation for this scientific statement was based on published data through June 2015. Part 1 of this 2 part scientific statement provides an overview of: (1) adipose tissue, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (2) bariatric procedures, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (3) endocrine factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (4) immune factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (5) bariatric procedures, bile acid metabolism, and lipids; and (6) bariatric procedures, intestinal microbiota, and lipids, with specific emphasis on how the alterations in the microbiome by bariatric procedures influence obesity, bile acids, and inflammation, which in turn, may all affect lipid levels. Included in part 2 of this comprehensive scientific statement will be a review of (1) the importance of nutrients (fats, carbohydrates, and proteins) and their absorption on lipid levels; (2) the effects of bariatric procedures on gut hormones and lipid levels; (3) the effects of bariatric procedures on nonlipid cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors; (4) the effects of bariatric procedures on lipid levels; (5) effects of bariatric procedures on CVD; and finally, (6) the potential lipid effects of vitamin, mineral, and trace element deficiencies that may occur after bariatric procedures. This document represents the full report of part 1. PMID:26892120

  2. Letter of Quito: Universal Coverage, Family and Community Medicine and social participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Vance

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Durante os dias 11 e 12 de abril de 2014, na cidade de Quito, Equador, foi realizada a V Cumbre Iberoamericana de Medicina Familiar com o tema: “Cobertura Universal, Medicina de Família e Comunidade e Participação Social”.Este evento, organizado pelo Ministério da Saúde do Equador, a Organização Mundial de Médicos de Família (WONCA, Confederação Ibero-americana de Medicina Familiar (CIMF, a Sociedade Equatoriana de Medicina Familiar (SEMF, o Município do Distrito Metropolitano de Quito (DMQ e a Organização Panamericana da Saúde/Organização Mundial da Saúde (OPS/OMS, teve como objetivo contribuir para o fortalecimento das políticas de saúde no campo da Atenção Primária e da Medicina de Família na Ibero-América.Representantes dos Ministérios da Saúde da Ibero-América, representantes da WONCA, representantes da WONCA Ibero-americana-CIMF, representantes da SEMF, representantes de saúde de governos municipais do Equador e de outros países Ibero-americanos, coordenadores/as de programas docentes de Medicina de Família, delegados/as da sociedade civil e representantes da OPS/OMS, analisaram os temas relacionados a seguir:1. A Cobertura Universal e a Medicina de Família e Comunidade.2. A participação e comunicação social para a Medicina de Família e Comunidade e a Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS.3. A formação de médicos e médicas de família na Ibero-América.4. A certificação e acreditação profissional.5. A produção e difusão de conhecimentos em medicina de família e comunidade na Ibero-América.Como resultado desta análise dos grupos de trabalho formados por especialistas nas áreas mencionadas das organizações convocadas e as instituições que certificam esta Cumbre, foram geradas as seguintes definições e recomendações:Definições Cobertura UniversalÉ a garantia do exercício do direito à saúde para todos e todas, fornecido por um sistema integral e integrado de base estatal com

  3. Collective self-esteem: role of social context among Asian-American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunha; Lee, Donghyuck

    2011-12-01

    The present study explored several layers of individual and contextual variables as related to collective self-esteem among 304 Asian-American college students. The findings suggested that variables, such as immigration generation status and cultural identification, were significantly associated with Private collective self-esteem (personal evaluation of one's ethnic group), while contextual variables, including number of same-ethnicity peers and community ethnic composition, were associated with Public collective self-esteem (judgment of how other people evaluate one's ethnic group). In addition to these variables, age and fluency of heritage language were positively related to Membership esteem (how worthy one feels as a member of one's ethnic group). For the Importance of identity (the importance of ethnic group membership to one's self-concept), cultural identification, number of same-ethnicity peers, and perceived campus climate were statistically significant. The implication of the present findings for future research is discussed.

  4. Corporate Social Responsibility and Latin American Multinationals: Is Poverty a Business Issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Casanova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo considera las políticas de Responsabilidad Social Empresarial (RSE de las multinacionales latinoamericanas. A pesar del crecimiento económico de los últimos años, los problemas sociales continúan. La pobreza es endémica y es la región con la mayor desigualdad del mundo. Las multinacionales latinoamericanas han sido muy exitosas durante la bonanza económica y están adoptando políticas de RSE. Este artículo se pregunta si estas políticas de RSE son efectivas o las empresas deberían adoptar un papel más activo en la reducción de la pobreza.

  5. Committed to Differentiation and Engagement: A Case Study of Two American Secondary Social Studies Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Anderson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This case study examines two 10th-grade US History teachers who collaborated to create and implement an integrated, thematic eight-week unit on war with an emphasis differentiated instruction. Drawing on the National Council for the Social Studies (2010 framework for powerful and purposeful social studies instruction, the case study uses multiple sources of data, including 38 lesson observations, analyses of the teachers’ lesson plans and student work, and interviews of teachers. Initially, the teachers were successful at engaging students in simulations, small-group discussions, and higher-order thinking. As the unit progressed, however, the teachers reverted to transmission-style teaching with an emphasis on breadth over depth. Changing teaching practice requires overcoming barriers associated with prior experiences and deeply-held beliefs about teaching and learning.

  6. A social institutional approach to identifying generation cohorts in China with a comparison with American consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Kineta H Hung; Flora Fang Gu; Chi Kin (Bennett) Yim

    2007-01-01

    Identifying distinctive target segments is a fundamental challenge faced by international marketers. This paper describes an approach to understanding consumer market structures in an important international market, China, and to segmenting Chinese consumers by integrating insights from generational cohort and social institutional theories. We conduct two empirical studies to verify how China's recent momentous ideological events could give rise to and affect the life experiences of different...

  7. Self-Socialization of Gender in African American, Dominican Immigrant, and Mexican Immigrant Toddlers

    OpenAIRE

    Zosuls, Kristina M.; Diane N. Ruble; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.

    2014-01-01

    This article advances a self-socialization perspective demonstrating that children’s understanding of both gender categories represents an intergroup cognition that is foundational to the development of gender-stereotyped play. Children’s (N = 212) gender category knowledge was assessed in at 24 months and play was observed at 24 and 36 months. Higher levels of gender category knowledge and more specifically, passing multiple measures of knowledge of both gender categories at 24 months was re...

  8. A Countercultural Heritage: Rediscovering the Relationship-Centered and Social Justice Roots of Family Medicine-A Perspective from the Keystone IV Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Richard C; Stoltenberg, Mark; Hughes, Lauren S

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 G. Gayle Stephens Keystone conference convened a cohort of primary care professionals to discuss what promises personal physicians will make to their patients going forward. New physicians were prompted to rediscover the foundational values of and historic context for family medicine. At the heart of this rediscovery was learning of the writings and teachings of Dr. G. Gayle Stephens, a founder of family medicine who emphasized the essentiality of relationship-centered care and social justice to the new specialty. Dr. Stephens viewed family medicine as being in a countercultural relationship to mainstream medicine, as family medicine fought for justice and equity in an inequitable and fragmented health care system. Here we argue that by reaffirming and renewing this countercultural heritage the new generation of family physicians will have better clarity in approaching the many challenges in health care today. Particularly for trainees and new physicians, the historic lens offered by Dr. Stephens's writing and other foundational documents allows us to better see ourselves in a trajectory of ongoing health care reform. PMID:27387164

  9. Alternative and Integrative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are the healthcare rituals practiced by a given culture (eg, Asian, Indian, African). Homeopathic Medicine: This alternative medicine system is based on the principle that “like cures like.” In other words, the same substance ... American Brain Tumor Association 8550 W. Bryn Mawr Ave. ...

  10. Book Review: American libraries and the Internet: The social construction of Web appropriation and use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R. Jamali

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available One can hardly find any aspect of human life that has not been affected one way or another by the Internet. Most of the Internet’s impact is because of the changes it has brought about in the areas of communication and availability of information. Facilitating information availability and information communication are among core activities of libraries. Since the advent of the Internet, libraries have tried to adopt this technology and make the best of it for their services. The Internet has been considered by librarians both as a source of concern and as a gate to fascinating opportunities. It is of much interest to see how librarians have reacted to this technology in its early days and how they have perceived it and made effort to apply it in their libraries. The book ‘American Libraries and the Internet’ by Bin Li, a research-based book, aims to answer questions such as: how do librarians define their roles in the changing environment? How do they understand and appropriate the Web in their profession and workplace? How have they perceived the World Wide Web from its early period of its implementation? And finally how the Web is appropriated and used in libraries?

  11. Social network analysis of mating patterns in American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jennifer A; Xu, Ran; Frank, Kenneth; Draheim, Hope; Scribner, Kim T

    2015-08-01

    Nonrandom mating can structure populations and has important implications for population-level processes. Investigating how and why mating deviates from random is important for understanding evolutionary processes as well as informing conservation and management. Prior to the implementation of parentage analyses, understanding mating patterns in solitary, elusive species like bears was virtually impossible. Here, we capitalize on a long-term genetic data set collected from black bears (Ursus americanus) (N = 2422) in the Northern Lower Peninsula (NLP) of Michigan, USA. We identified mated pairs using parentage analysis and applied logistic regression (selection) models that controlled for features of the social network, to quantify the effects of individual characteristics, and spatial and population demographic factors on mating dynamics. Logistic regression models revealed that black bear mating was associated with spatial proximity of mates, male age, the time a pair had coexisted, local population density and relatedness. Mated pairs were more likely to contain older males. On average, bears tended to mate with nearby individuals to whom they were related, which does not support the existence of kin recognition in black bears. Pairwise relatedness was especially high for mated pairs containing young males. Restricted dispersal and high male turnover from intensive harvest mortality of NLP black bears are probably the underlying factors associated with younger male bears mating more often with female relatives. Our findings illustrate how harvest has the potential to disrupt the social structure of game species, which warrants further attention for conservation and management. PMID:26113220

  12. The African American Image in American Cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, St. Clair

    1990-01-01

    Political conditions have influenced the screen images of U.S. cinema, and the images of African Americans have reflected prevailing social stereotypes. The history of African-American representation in films is traced, and it is noted that the tendency to portray African Americans stereotypically has not changed. (SLD)

  13. The 2014 FIFA World Cup: communicable disease risks and advice for visitors to Brazil--a review from the Latin American Society for Travel Medicine (SLAMVI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Viviana; Berberian, Griselda; Lloveras, Susana; Verbanaz, Sergio; Chaves, Tania S S; Orduna, Tomas; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2014-01-01

    The next FIFA World Cup will be held in Brazil in June-July 2014. Around 600,000 international visitors and participants (as well over 3 million domestic travelers) are expected. This event will take place in twelve cities. This event poses specific challenges, given its size and the diversity of attendees, including the potential for the transmission of imported or endemic communicable diseases, especially those that have an increased transmission rate as a result of close human proximity, eg, seasonal influenza, measles but also tropical endemic diseases. In anticipation of increased travel, a panel of experts from the Latin American Society for Travel Medicine (SLAMVI) developed the current recommendations regarding the epidemiology and risks of the main communicable diseases in the major potential destinations, recommended immunizations and other preventives measures to be used as a basis for advice for travelers and travel medicine practitioners. Mosquito-borne infections also pose a challenge. Dengue poses a significant risk in all states, including the host cities. Vaccination against yellow fever is recommended except for travelers who will only visit coastal areas. Travelers visiting high-risk areas for malaria (Amazon) should be assessed regarding the need for chemoprophylaxis. Chikunguya fever may be a threat for Brazil, given the presence of Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue, and the possibility of travelers bringing the virus with them when attending the event. Advice on the correct timing and use of repellents and other personal protection measures is key to preventing these vector-borne infections. Other important recommendations for travelers should focus on preventing water and food-borne diseases such as hepatitis A, typhoid fever, giardiasis and traveler's diarrhea. Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) should be also mentioned and the use of condoms advocated. This review addresses pre-travel, preventive strategies to reduce the risk of acquiring

  14. Laura Jensen. Patriots, Settlers and the Origins of American Social Policy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Thévenard

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Dans son ouvrage sur les origines de l’Etat-Providence aux Etats-Unis, Laura Jensen réfute la thèse de l’historiographie classique, qui privilégie le New Deal et la Great Society dans le processus d’élaboration de la protection sociale américaine. Mais surtout, elle s’applique à démontrer que, contrairement à la thèse de Theda Skocpol (Protecting Soldiers and Mothers, les droits sociaux et leur contribution à la construction de la nation et à la définition de la citoyenneté ne datent pas des...

  15. Nuclear Medicine Physics: A Handbook for Teachers and Students. Endorsed by: American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), Asia–Oceania Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (AFOMP), Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine (ACPSEM), European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics (EFOMP), Federation of African Medical Physics Organisations (FAMPO), World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication provides the basis for the education of medical physicists initiating their university studies in the field of nuclear medicine. The handbook includes 20 chapters and covers topics relevant to nuclear medicine physics, including basic physics for nuclear medicine, radionuclide production, imaging and non-imaging detectors, quantitative nuclear medicine, internal dosimetry in clinical practice and radionuclide therapy. It provides, in the form of a syllabus, a comprehensive overview of the basic medical physics knowledge required for the practice of medical physics in modern nuclear medicine

  16. Socialized medicine and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzman, Sam

    2014-09-01

    Over the last century life expectancy has increased substantially and so has the share of health care expenditures financed by governments. In cross-country comparisons, the US, which has the lowest government health expenditure share, often has the poorest health outcomes. Is there a plausible connection between health outcomes and government financing of health care? This paper addresses this question with panel data from 20 developed countries from 1950 to 2010. I review the history of government involvement in health care financing over this period. Then I use panel regression methods to examine whether a variety of mortality based outcome measures are correlated with the extent of government involvement. The answers are robustly negative. PMID:25024038

  17. Evaluation of Demographics and Social Life Events of Asian (Elephas maximus) and African Elephants (Loxodonta africana) in North American Zoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado-Oviedo, Natalia A.; Bonaparte-Saller, Mary K.; Malloy, Elizabeth J.; Meehan, Cheryl L.; Mench, Joy A.; Carlstead, Kathy; Brown, Janine L.

    2016-01-01

    This study quantified social life events hypothesized to affect the welfare of zoo African and Asian elephants, focusing on animals that were part of a large multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional elephant welfare study in North America. Age was calculated based on recorded birth dates and an age-based account of life event data for each elephant was compiled. These event histories included facility transfers, births and deaths of offspring, and births and deaths of non-offspring herd mates. Each event was evaluated as a total number of events per elephant, lifetime rate of event exposure, and age at first event exposure. These were then compared across three categories: species (African vs. Asian); sex (male vs. female); and origin (imported vs. captive-born). Mean age distributions differed (pcaptive-born elephants were 20 years younger than imported elephants. Overall, the number of transfers ranged from 0 to 10, with a 33% higher age-adjusted transfer rate for imported African than imported Asian elephants, and 37% lower rate for imported females than males (pcaptive-born females than those imported from range countries, a 159% higher rate of birthing event exposures for captive-born males than for their imported counterparts, and Asian elephant females being 4 years younger than African females when they produced their first calf. In summarizing demographic and social life events of elephants in North American zoos, we found both qualitative and quantitative differences in the early lives of imported versus captive-born elephants that could have long-term welfare implications. PMID:27415437

  18. Evaluation of Demographics and Social Life Events of Asian (Elephas maximus and African Elephants (Loxodonta africana in North American Zoos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A Prado-Oviedo

    Full Text Available This study quantified social life events hypothesized to affect the welfare of zoo African and Asian elephants, focusing on animals that were part of a large multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional elephant welfare study in North America. Age was calculated based on recorded birth dates and an age-based account of life event data for each elephant was compiled. These event histories included facility transfers, births and deaths of offspring, and births and deaths of non-offspring herd mates. Each event was evaluated as a total number of events per elephant, lifetime rate of event exposure, and age at first event exposure. These were then compared across three categories: species (African vs. Asian; sex (male vs. female; and origin (imported vs. captive-born. Mean age distributions differed (p<0.05 between the categories: African elephants were 6 years younger than Asian elephants, males were 12 years younger than females, and captive-born elephants were 20 years younger than imported elephants. Overall, the number of transfers ranged from 0 to 10, with a 33% higher age-adjusted transfer rate for imported African than imported Asian elephants, and 37% lower rate for imported females than males (p<0.05. Other differences (p<0.05 included a 96% higher rate of offspring births for captive-born females than those imported from range countries, a 159% higher rate of birthing event exposures for captive-born males than for their imported counterparts, and Asian elephant females being 4 years younger than African females when they produced their first calf. In summarizing demographic and social life events of elephants in North American zoos, we found both qualitative and quantitative differences in the early lives of imported versus captive-born elephants that could have long-term welfare implications.

  19. Legally White, Socially "Mexican": The Politics of De Jure and De Facto School Segregation in the American Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Ruben; Hanson, Jarrod S.

    2012-01-01

    The history of Mexican American school segregation is complex, often misunderstood, and currently unresolved. The literature suggests that Mexican Americans experienced de facto segregation because it was local custom and never sanctioned at the state level in the American Southwest. However, the same literature suggests that Mexican Americans…

  20. "Sisters of Nia": A Social Justice Advocacy Intervention for School Counselors in Their Work with Adolescent African American Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Lee Edmondson; Haizlip, Breyan; Rogers, Tiffany; Brown, Kimberly D.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent African American females face multiple obstacles that hinder their educational success. High school completion and college attendance rates remain lower for African American females than those for other racial and gender groups, while pregnancy rates for African American teens are higher. Group work holds promise for meeting the…

  1. American College Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dollars at Work Recognizing Donors Find us on social media! Home Contact Us Marketplace Cart Copyright © 2016 American College Health Association | Privacy and Usage Policies | Spokesperson and ...

  2. Debt, demographics, and dual degrees: American medicine at the crossroads: part 3: A paradigm shift or a return to the basics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerin, Bruce E

    2007-08-01

    An alternative solution to the predicted physician workforce shortage would be the incorporation of nonphysician caregivers (NPCs) into the primary care workforce under the supervision of a limited number of internists, pediatricians, and family practitioners, thus freeing medical students and residents who currently enter primary care medicine for work in medical and surgical specialties in which there are current shortages that require specific medical training beyond the scope of NPCs' competencies. At the same time, the profession should follow the lead of the multidisciplinary ethic of contemporary natural science, in which collaboration among disciplines has become increasingly crucial for high-level research, by creating a training pathway, on the model of the Medical Science Training Program, for dual-degree physicians who seek to combine their medical expertise with training in the social sciences and the humanities. In addition to recognizing and rewarding an existing and growing trend within medical education, the creation of a cadre of dual-degree experts with access to centers of power and influence in law, business, government, and the media could create the nucleus of a medically trained intellectual elite that would be in a better position in the future to advocate for physician interests in crucial centers of power. PMID:17660117

  3. Social distance and stigma toward individuals with schizophrenia: findings in an urban, African-American community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Beth; Goulding, Sandra M; Talley, Colin L; Compton, Michael T

    2012-11-01

    Because schizophrenia is arguably among the most stigmatized health conditions, research assessing correlates of stigma is essential. This study examined factors associated with stigma in predominantly Protestant, low-income, urban African Americans in the Southeastern United States. A survey was distributed to 282 patrons of an inner-city food court/farmers' market. Associations were assessed between two measures of stigma--an adapted version of the Social Distance Scale (SDS) and a Semantic Differential Measure (SDM) of attributes such as dangerousness, dirtiness, and worthlessness--and several key variables addressing sociodemographic characteristics and exposure to/familiarity with mental illnesses. Independent predictors of scores on the two measures were identified using linear regression modeling. Higher stigma (as measured by the SDM) was predicted by a family history of psychiatric treatment, whereas lower stigma (as indicated by the SDS) was predicted by personal psychiatric treatment history and higher annual income. The results suggest special considerations when working with disenfranchised populations, especially family members of individuals with mental illnesses, in treatment settings. PMID:23124176

  4. Proposal of a monitoring program of occupational exposure by incorporation of radioactive material for nuclear medicine services in the Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A monitoring program of the occupational exposure by incorporation of radioactive material is proposed. Nuclear medicine services of the Caja Costarricense del Seguro Social (CCSS) are evaluated. The monitoring program is based on the provisions of the International Atomic Energy Agency and of study of nuclear medicine services of the CCSS. Radionuclides are determined for monitoring of the occupational exposure, according to the radioactive material that is worked in nuclear medicine services of the CCSS. The appropriate and alternative techniques are established for the monitoring of the occupational exposure by incorporation of radioactive material, depending on the type of radionuclide that is worked in nuclear medicine services. The worker occupationally exposed (TOE) should be subject of monitoring and how often should be realized the monitoring of the occupational exposure. The monitoring of the radiation by radioactive material must be applied to personnel working in radiopharmacies and the worker has carried out therapeutic procedures for handling of significant amounts of 131I. The calculation of the committed effective dose is proposed by incorporation of radioactive material with the TOE

  5. Analysis of Social Media Use by American Army%美军网络社交媒体的运用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦新平; 黄艳春; 刘燕

    2014-01-01

    网络社交媒体的兴起对美军军事传播战略产生了重要影响。美军对待社交媒体的态度从2007年以来经历了全面拒绝、政策审查和谨慎使用的过程。本文研究的重点是美军对社交媒体态度的转变历程、社交媒体的利用措施以及面临的挑战。%The rise of social media has had an important impact on the military communication strategy of US army. Since 2007, the US army's attitudes to social media has gone through the course of direct rejection, policy review, and cautious use. This research focuses on the changing of American attitudes to social media, social media initiatives and challenges.

  6. The Relationship Between the Social Environment and Lifestyle-Related Physical Activity in a Low-Income African American Inner-City Southern Neighborhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lori; Gustat, Jeanette; Becker, Adam B

    2015-10-01

    The social ecological model was used to examine individual, interpersonal, and neighborhood characteristics related to lifestyle-related physical activity (PA) in a low-income African American (AA) population in New Orleans, Louisiana. Interviewers administered surveys to randomly-sampled household participants from three low-income, AA neighborhoods in New Orleans, Louisiana. Questions included the social and physical environment, physical activity, interpersonal factors, demographics, height and weight. Logistic regression multivariable models were built predicting whether the respondent met PA guidelines, controlling for neighborhood. Females were less as likely to engage in lifestyle-related PA compared to males (OR 0.46, CI 0.30-0.70). Support specific for PA was correlated with engaging in lifestyle-related PA (OR 1.45, CI 1.14-1.83). The individual and social environment should be considered for increasing PA in AA. Interventions targeting the AA population could consider ways of enhancing social support for PA.

  7. Co-Designing Sustainable Communities: The Identification and Incorporation of Social Performance Metrics in Native American Sustainable Housing and Renewable Energy System Design

    OpenAIRE

    Shelby, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Co-Designing Sustainable Communities: The Identification and Incorporation of Social Performance Metrics in Native American Sustainable Housing and Renewable Energy System DesignBy: Ryan L. Shelby Doctor of Philosophy in Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor Alice M. Agogino, ChairOver the last quarter-century, the twin concepts of sustainability and sustainable development have emerged as a defining imperative of humanity that is situated at the nexus of science, ...

  8. Social and Linguistic Input in Low-Income African American Mother-Child Dyads from 1 Month through 2 Years: Relations to Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpi, Priya M.; Fedewa, Alicia; Hans, Sydney

    2012-01-01

    The relation of social and linguistic input measures to early vocabulary development was examined in 30 low-income African American mother-infant pairs. Observations were conducted when the child was 0 years, 1 month (0;1), 0;4, 0;8, 1;0, 1;6, and 2;0. Maternal input was coded for word types and tokens, contingent responsiveness, and…

  9. Correlation of the National Board of Medical Examiners Emergency Medicine Advanced Clinical Examination given in July to intern American Board of Emergency Medicine in-training examination scores, a predictor of performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Hiller

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is great variation in the knowledge base of Emergency Medicine (EM interns in July. The first objective knowledge assessment during residency does not occur until eight months later, in February, when the American Board of EM (ABEM administers the in-training examination (ITE. In 2013, the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME released the EM Advanced Clinical Examination (EM-ACE, an assessment intended for fourth-year medical students. Administration of the EM-ACE to interns at the start of residency may provide an earlier opportunity to assess the new EM residents’ knowledge base. The primary objective of this study was to determine the correlation of the NBME EM-ACE, given early in residency, with the EM ITE. Secondary objectives included determination of the correlation of the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE Step 1 or 2 scores with early intern EM-ACE and ITE scores and the effect, if any, of clinical EM experience on examination correlation. Methods: This was a multi-institutional, observational study. Entering EM interns at six residencies took the EM-ACE in July 2013 and the ABEM ITE in February 2014. We collected scores for the EMACE and ITE, age, gender, weeks of clinical EM experience in residency prior to the ITE, and USMLE Step 1 and 2 scores. Pearson’s correlation and linear regression were performed. Results: Sixty-two interns took the EM-ACE and the ITE. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the ITE and the EM-ACE was 0.62. R-squared was 0.5 (adjusted 0.4. The coefficient of determination was 0.41 (95% CI [0.3-0.8]. For every increase of one in the scaled EM-ACE score, we observed a 0.4% increase in the EM in-training score. In a linear regression model using all available variables (EM-ACE, gender, age, clinical exposure to EM, and USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 scores, only the EM-ACE score was significantly associated with the ITE (p<0.05. We observed significant colinearity

  10. Correlation of the National Board of Medical Examiners Emergency Medicine Advanced Clinical Examination Given in July to Intern American Board of Emergency Medicine in-training Examination Scores: A Predictor of Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Katherine; Franzen, Doug; Heitz, Corey; Emery, Matthew; Poznanski, Stacy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is great variation in the knowledge base of Emergency Medicine (EM) interns in July. The first objective knowledge assessment during residency does not occur until eight months later, in February, when the American Board of EM (ABEM) administers the in-training examination (ITE). In 2013, the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) released the EM Advanced Clinical Examination (EM-ACE), an assessment intended for fourth-year medical students. Administration of the EM-ACE to interns at the start of residency may provide an earlier opportunity to assess the new EM residents’ knowledge base. The primary objective of this study was to determine the correlation of the NBME EM-ACE, given early in residency, with the EM ITE. Secondary objectives included determination of the correlation of the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 or 2 scores with early intern EM-ACE and ITE scores and the effect, if any, of clinical EM experience on examination correlation. Methods This was a multi-institutional, observational study. Entering EM interns at six residencies took the EM-ACE in July 2013 and the ABEM ITE in February 2014. We collected scores for the EM-ACE and ITE, age, gender, weeks of clinical EM experience in residency prior to the ITE, and USMLE Step 1 and 2 scores. Pearson’s correlation and linear regression were performed. Results Sixty-two interns took the EM-ACE and the ITE. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the ITE and the EM-ACE was 0.62. R-squared was 0.5 (adjusted 0.4). The coefficient of determination was 0.41 (95% CI [0.3–0.8]). For every increase of one in the scaled EM-ACE score, we observed a 0.4% increase in the EM in-training score. In a linear regression model using all available variables (EM-ACE, gender, age, clinical exposure to EM, and USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 scores), only the EM-ACE score was significantly associated with the ITE (pUSMLE scores. Gender, age and number of weeks of EM prior

  11. Health behavior changes following breast cancer treatment: a qualitative comparison among Chinese American, Korean American, and Mexican American survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung-won; Gonzalez, Patricia; Wang-Letzkus, Ming F; Baik, Okmi; Ashing-Giwa, Kimlin T

    2013-05-01

    This study explored how Chinese American, Korean American, and Mexican American women modify their health behaviors following breast cancer treatment and identified motivators and barriers that influence their changes. An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study was undertaken using six focus groups. Discussions were transcribed and translated for content analysis. Significant differences among the ethnic groups were noted in the following health behavior practices which were most commonly stated as changed behaviors after a breast cancer diagnosis: 1) eating habits, 2) physical activity, 3) alternative medicine, 4) sleeping, 5) social activity, 6) weight control, and 7) alcohol consumption. Family, financial concerns, environment, and religious faith were commonly mentioned as motivators of and/or barriers to changes in health behaviors. Findings provide insight into different perspectives related to changes in health behaviors by ethnicity, which is critical for developing culturally tailored behavioral interventions to improve underserved breast cancer survivors' quality of life and to reduce health disparities.

  12. Precision medicine in patients with allergic diseases: Airway diseases and atopic dermatitis-PRACTALL document of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, Antonella; Lemanske, Robert F; Hellings, Peter W; Akdis, Cezmi A; Bieber, Thomas; Casale, Thomas B; Jutel, Marek; Ong, Peck Y; Poulsen, Lars K; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Seys, Sven F; Agache, Ioana

    2016-05-01

    In this consensus document we summarize the current knowledge on major asthma, rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis endotypes under the auspices of the PRACTALL collaboration platform. PRACTALL is an initiative of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology aiming to harmonize the European and American approaches to best allergy practice and science. Precision medicine is of broad relevance for the management of asthma, rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis in the context of a better selection of treatment responders, risk prediction, and design of disease-modifying strategies. Progress has been made in profiling the type 2 immune response-driven asthma. The endotype driven approach for non-type 2 immune response asthma, rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis is lagging behind. Validation and qualification of biomarkers are needed to facilitate their translation into pathway-specific diagnostic tests. Wide consensus between academia, governmental regulators, and industry for further development and application of precision medicine in management of allergic diseases is of utmost importance. Improved knowledge of disease pathogenesis together with defining validated and qualified biomarkers are key approaches to precision medicine.

  13. American Academy of Pain Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Pain Processing Circuits June 1, 2016 [Source: Canadian Association for Neuroscience] Online Education Practice Management Webinar: ... endorsement by the U.S. Government. AAPM Methadone Education Curriculum A patient safety-focused web-based CME program ...

  14. American Academy of Sleep Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help you share AASM sleep duration recommendations Senate Finance Committee considers revisions to Stark Law These papers ... announcement: After 38 years of jointly publishing the journal SLEEP with the Sleep Research Society, the AASM ...

  15. Construction and Practice of Social Medicine Network Course%社会医学网络课程的建设与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎莉; 邢方敏

    2012-01-01

    The "Social Medicine" program was a distance education system, which was developed basing on the . Net framework software platform, operated on the MSSQL 2000 database, had the functions of course management, curriculum development and study of course. Curriculum system anchored to humanity, stressing the practicability, made serving students as teaching philosophy, stressing the interactivity. It created features of "social medicine" network course, implemented network teaching of adult social medicine education, improved the effect of distance continuing education and the training of medical staff of grassroots by optimizing the teaching content, being followed by disciplinary dynamic, well-designed and other sectors.%基于.net框架软件平台设计开发的网络课程,采用MSSQL 2000数据库运行的集课程管理、课程建设和课程学习功能于一身的远程教育系统.课程体系的构建以人性化为基点,突出实用性;以服务学生为教学理念,突出交互性.通过优化教学内容、紧跟学科动态、精心设计制作等环节手段,打造课程特色,实现了成人教育社会医学课程教学网络化、特色化,提高了对广大基层医务人员开展远程继续教育培训的效果.

  16. Book review: the impact of racism on African American families: literature as social science by Paul C. Rosenblatt

    OpenAIRE

    Bradbury, Janine

    2014-01-01

    In focusing on what literature can tell us about various aspects of African American life, including housing, earnings, assets, unemployment, household violence, teen pregnancy and encounters with the criminal justice system, Paul C. Rosenblatt hopes to fill a gap in the existing literature. Engaging with novels written by African American authors, this book seeks to explore their rich depictions of African American family life, showing how these can contribute to our sociological knowledg...

  17. Nuclear medicine technology study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Dee

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine Technology Study Guide presents a comprehensive review of nuclear medicine principles and concepts necessary for technologists to pass board examinations. The practice questions and content follow the guidelines of the Nuclear Medicine Technology Certification Board (NMTCB) and American Registry of Radiological Technologists (ARRT), allowing test takers to maximize their success in passing the examinations. The book is organized by sections of increasing difficulty, with over 600 multiple-choice questions covering all areas of nuclear medicine, including radiation safety; radi

  18. La política farmacéutica nacional en Colombia y la reforma de la seguridad social: acceso y uso racional de medicamentos National pharmaceutical policy and social security reform in Colombia: access and rational use of medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Mejía Restrepo

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A partir del nuevo sistema de seguridad social en Colombia (1993 que consagra la equidad y la obligatoriedad como fundamentos del servicio público, se analiza si la formulación y la implementación de la política farmacéutica favorecen la accesibilidad, la disponibilidad y el uso racional de los medicamentos, contribuyendo a la equidad en salud. Se utilizaron dos enfoques: uno macro, referido al análisis del marco jurídico y a los actores de la reforma, y otro micro, relacionado a los procesos y resultados en el sistema de provisionamiento de medicamentos. Se estudiaron los instrumentos legales que dan soporte a la política farmacéutica y fue evaluada su aplicación, utilizando indicadores y una enfermedad trazadora (diabetes mellitus. Aunque existe un marco jurídico que consagra el derecho al acceso de la población a servicios de salud y medicamentos esenciales, no hay una política de medicamentos integral. La mayoría de las instituciones presentan problemas para distribuir los medicamentos que pertenecen al Plan Obligatorio de Salud, un bajo porcentaje de medicamentos es obtenido sin costo y una gran parte de pacientes los adquiere en asociaciones de diabéticos o recurre a medicina alternativa. Se encontraron aspectos que desfavorecen la equidad en la cobertura en salud y la accesibilidad a medicamentos esencialesBased on the new social security system in Colombia (1993, which establishes equity and mandatory care as the basis for public health care provision, the authors analyze whether the formulation and implementation of pharmaceutical policy promote accessibility, availability, and rational use of medicines, thereby contributing to equity in health. Two approaches were used: a macro approach centered on the legal framework and various actors in the reform process and a micro approach related to the processes and results in the drug supply system. The authors studied the legal instruments backing the country's pharmaceutical

  19. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  20. Addiction medicine: a model osteopathic medical school curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, R Gregory; Wyatt, Stephen A; Przekop, Peter R

    2010-03-01

    The World Health Organization has identified nicotine, alcohol, and illicit drugs as among the top 10 contributors of morbidity and mortality in the world. Substance use disorders are preventable conditions that are major contributors to poor health, family dysfunction, and various social problems in the United States-problems that have a profound economic impact. The American Osteopathic Academy of Addiction Medicine seeks to promote teaching of addiction medicine at colleges of osteopathic medicine (COMs), which-honoring the osteopathic concepts of holistic medicine and disease prevention-are well poised to develop a model addiction medicine curriculum. Educators and students at COMs can use guidelines from Project MAINSTREAM, a core addiction medicine curriculum designed to improve education of health professionals in substance abuse, for developing addiction medicine curricula and for gauging their professional growth. These guidelines should be incorporated into the first 2 years of osteopathic medical students' basic science didactics. The authors encourage the development of addiction medicine courses and curricula at all COMs. PMID:20386021