WorldWideScience

Sample records for american ref-fuel waste-to-energy

  1. Waste to energy

    CERN Document Server

    Syngellakis, S

    2014-01-01

    Waste to Energy deals with the very topical subject of converting the calorific content of waste material into useful forms of energy. Topics included cover: Biochemical Processes; Conversions by Thermochemical Processes; Computational Fluid Dynamics Modelling; Combustion; Pyrolysis; Gasification; Biofuels; Management and Policies.

  2. From Solid Waste to Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisely, F. E.; And Others

    A project designed to convert solid waste to energy is explained in this paper. In April, 1972, an investor-owned utility began to burn municipal solid waste as fuel for the direct production of electric power. This unique venture was a cooperative effort between the City of St. Louis, Missouri, and the Union Electric Company, with financial…

  3. Financing waste to energy plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, A.

    1991-01-01

    Waste-to-energy projects are going ahead in the U.K., they are being project financed and they will make a valuable contribution to environmentally acceptable waste disposal and clean energy within the U.K. Starting from the premise that project sponsors must compete for funds therefore behoves the project sponsor to adapt his proposal to the needs of the investor rather than the other way around. Some of the major potential suppliers of funds are briefly surveyed. It is concluded that waste-to-energy projects do not fit easily into the business plans of venture capital companies, pension funds and banks. Projects must be reworked so that a more favourable opportunity can be offered to potential funders. Ways of achieving this through improved economics and reductions in risk and uncertainty are examined. (author)

  4. Potential future waste-to-energy systems

    OpenAIRE

    Thorin, Eva; Guziana, Bozena; Song, Han; Jääskeläinen, Ari; Szpadt, Ryszard; Vasilic, Dejan; Ahrens, Thorsten; Anne, Olga; Lõõnik, Jaan

    2012-01-01

    This report discusses potential future systems for waste-to-energy production in the Baltic Sea Region, and especially for the project REMOWE partner regions, the County of Västmanland in Sweden, Northern Savo in Finland, Lower Silesia in Poland, western part of Lithuania and Estonia. The waste-to-energy systems planned for in the partner regions are combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW) and solid recovered fuels from household and industry as well as anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge ...

  5. Waste to energy the carbon perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Waste to energy plants are key treatment facilities for municipal solid waste in Europe. The technology provides efficient volume reduction, mass reduction and hygienisation of the waste. However, the technology is highly disputed in some countries. It is crucial to understand the role of waste...

  6. UK market for waste-to-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, D.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper four key questions relating to the UK market for waste-to-energy have been addressed. (1) What has happened in the market place over the last 20 years? (2) What are the driving forces behind the recent upsurge of interest? (3) What are the problems currently facing us? (4) What is the outlook likely to be for the future? (author)

  7. Biogas Upgrading and Waste-to-Energy | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogas Upgrading and Waste-to-Energy Biogas Upgrading and Waste-to-Energy NREL's waste-to-energy research and development required for upgrading biogas to fuels and high-value co-products. Featured (2014) Biogas Potential in the United States, NREL Fact Sheet (2013) View all NREL biogas upgrading and

  8. Waste-to-energy permitting sourcebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longwell, D.; Wegrecki, A.; Williams, D.

    1992-10-01

    Environmental issues, regulatory processes and approvals important in obtaining a permit to construct and/or operate a waste-to-energy (WTE) facility are identified and discussed. Environmental issues include: (1) air emission levels, their control and potential impacts, (2) ash leachability, treatment, and disposal, (3) potential health risks from emissions, and (4) other issues such as need/benefit and public perception of WTE. Laws, regulations and approvals that can affect project development are identified and listed, and potential regulatory trends are discussed. A general permit acquisition plan is also presented. An analysis of environmental and regulatory data obtained from the literature, regulatory agencies, and specific projects is presented. California and Massachusetts, both with regulations generally more stringent than federal regulations and considered environmentally conservative, were selected for detailed state regulatory review. Two project case histories (Commerce Refuse-to-Energy (RTE) Project in California and SEMASS WTE Project in Massachusetts) were selected to illustrate: (1) how regulations are actually applied to a project, (2) project-specific permit and operating conditions, and (3) project-specific environmental issues. Modern WTE plots employ state-of-the-art air emission control technologies and strategies to reduce air emission is to levels below regulatory requirements and to reduce estimated health risks to within EPA's acceptable risk range. WTE ash leachate can exhibit hazardous waste characteristics, primarily lead and cadmium. However, modern landfills utilize liners and leachate collection systems to prevent infiltration of leachate into the groundwater supply. Modern WTE plants employ dry systems and have zero process wastewater discharge

  9. Economic analysis of waste-to-energy industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin-Gang; Jiang, Gui-Wu; Li, Ang; Wang, Ling

    2016-02-01

    The generation of municipal solid waste is further increasing in China with urbanization and improvement of living standards. The "12th five-year plan" period (2011-2015) promotes waste-to-energy technologies for the harmless disposal and recycling of municipal solid waste. Waste-to-energy plant plays an important role for reaching China's energy conservation and emission reduction targets. Industrial policies and market prospect of waste-to-energy industry are described. Technology, cost and benefit of waste-to-energy plant are also discussed. Based on an economic analysis of a waste-to-energy project in China (Return on Investment, Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, and Sensitivity Analysis) the paper makes the conclusions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Waste-to-energy technologies and project implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Rogoff, Marc J

    2011-01-01

    This book covers in detail programs and technologies for converting traditionally landfilled solid wastes into energy through waste-to-energy projects. Modern Waste-to-Energy plants are being built around the world to reduce the levels of solid waste going into landfill sites and contribute to renewable energy and carbon reduction targets. The latest technologies have also reduced the pollution levels seen from early waste incineration plants by over 99 per cent. With case studies from around the world, Rogoff and Screve provide an insight into the different approaches taken to the planning and implementation of WTE. The second edition includes coverage of the latest technologies and practical engineering challenges as well as an exploration of the economic and regulatory context for the development of WTE.

  11. Waste-to-Energy Cogeneration Project, Centennial Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Clay; Mandon, Jim; DeGiulio, Thomas; Baker, Ryan

    2014-04-29

    The Waste-to-Energy Cogeneration Project at Centennial Park has allowed methane from the closed Centennial landfill to export excess power into the the local utility’s electric grid for resale. This project is part of a greater brownfield reclamation project to the benefit of the residents of Munster and the general public. Installation of a gas-to-electric generator and waste-heat conversion unit take methane byproduct and convert it into electricity at the rate of about 103,500 Mwh/year for resale to the local utility. The sale of the electricity will be used to reduce operating budgets by covering the expenses for streetlights and utility bills. The benefits of such a project are not simply financial. Munster’s Waste-to Energy Cogeneration Project at Centennial Park will reduce the community’s carbon footprint in an amount equivalent to removing 1,100 cars from our roads, conserving enough electricity to power 720 homes, planting 1,200 acres of trees, or recycling 2,000 tons of waste instead of sending it to a landfill.

  12. Waste-to-Energy Evaluation: U.S. Virgin Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.; Hasse, S.; Warren, A.

    2011-08-01

    This NREL technical report evaluates the environmental impact and fundamental economics of waste-to-energy (WTE) technology based on available data from commercially operating WTE facilities in the United States. In particular, it considers life-cycle impacts of WTE as compared to landfill disposal and various forms of electrical generation, as well as WTE impacts on source reduction or recycling programs. In addition, it evaluates the economics and potential environmental impact of WTE in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) based on existing USVI waste stream characterization data, recycling challenges unique to the USVI, and the results of cost and environmental modeling of four municipal solid waste (MSW) management options, including landfill, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) production, recycling, and gassification plus RDF.

  13. A waste to energy plant for an industrial districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floreani, M.; Meneghetti, A.; Nardin, G.; Rocco, A.

    2001-01-01

    Industrial districts show characteristics that can be exploited by developing plant solutions studied for their special configuration and not simply extended from single unit models. In the paper a waste-to-energy plant for the chair industrial district in Friuli Venezia Giulia (North Eastern Italy) is described. It has been designed directly involving the University of Udine and can be considered an example of how technology innovation can be promoted by universities, especially in the case of small firms which have limited R and D resources. It is shown how industrial refuse becomes a chance of competitive advantage for the whole district due to its energy recovery in a plant unique for the type of waste processed. Input, combustion, energy recovery and cleaning sections are described in details, underlining innovative approaches and solutions [it

  14. Market forces in municipal and industrial waste-to-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makansi, J.

    1991-01-01

    The market for municipal and industrial waste-to-energy can be characterized simply as currently soft with continued excellent long-term prospects. But as in all markets large and small, niche opportunities exist now which can be profitable with proper definition and strategy. Economics of several projects have proven marginal, cost overruns are common, and revenue projections are sometimes overstates. Also contributing to poorer economics of late are lower prices for the electric power produced from these plants. New environmental restrictions are adding 10-15% to the capital costs of a given project. On the industrial front, the strength of waste-fuel firing continues to be evident for independent power production. Important fuel-niche markets have sprung up over the last decade including petroleum coke, coal-mining wastes, hospital or redbag wastes, biomass, used tires, and so on. Another fuel niche is hazardous waste incineration. In the municipal arena, realism has not yet hit the recycling and source reduction enthusiasts. Only 25-35% recycling is considered practical by experts. There are also limits to how often material can be recycled. Finally, in spite of the best efforts of the population to control the amount of refuse generated and to recycle that which is, population and economic growth may overtake any new sense of environmental responsibility. And, yes, the additional refuse still has to go somewhere exclamation point The best somewhere option continues to be a waste-to-energy plant. Current market opportunities and two other market forces (international activities and the role of US utilities) are discussed

  15. Waste to energy plant-air pollution monitoring and reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullowney, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    We can't eat it. We can't wear it. We are running out of places to bury it. We can't export it. We can't stop making it. Garbage seems to be, by volume at least, our biggest national product. These facts are driving more and more industries and municipalities to construct waste to energy plants. Following the adage that when you get lemons, make lemonade, municipalities have been burning their garbage to produce steam and electricity. Communities, fearful that what they have produced may be toxic to them when burned, have enacted stringent air pollution control and monitoring regulations. The federal government has enacted regulations under the Clean Air Act 43 CFR Part 60 which regulate the emission limits monitoring and reporting requirements of waste energy plants. The most important of these regulations was enacted on December 16, 1987 and June 26, 1987, regulating particulate, SO 2 and NO x emissions. This paper reports that these regulations also tie in to various other EPA regulations and requirements. The most important of these to air pollution monitoring is Appendix F, Quality Assurance. However, these regulations are only minimum requirements -- individual states further strengthen their bite by requiring lower emissions limits and the monitoring of additional parameters such as H 2 S, HCl, NH 2 , CO, CO 2 and moisture. These monitoring limits and reporting requirements are currently being negotiated on a case by case basis in most instances

  16. Waste to energy – key element for sustainable waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, Paul H.; Rechberger, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • First paper on the importance of incineration from a urban metabolism point of view. • Proves that incineration is necessary for sustainable waste management. • Historical and technical overview of 100 years development of MSW incineration. - Abstract: Human activities inevitably result in wastes. The higher the material turnover, and the more complex and divers the materials produced, the more challenging it is for waste management to reach the goals of “protection of men and environment” and “resource conservation”. Waste incineration, introduced originally for volume reduction and hygienic reasons, went through a long and intense development. Together with prevention and recycling measures, waste to energy (WTE) facilities contribute significantly to reaching the goals of waste management. Sophisticated air pollution control (APC) devices ensure that emissions are environmentally safe. Incinerators are crucial and unique for the complete destruction of hazardous organic materials, to reduce risks due to pathogenic microorganisms and viruses, and for concentrating valuable as well as toxic metals in certain fractions. Bottom ash and APC residues have become new sources of secondary metals, hence incineration has become a materials recycling facility, too. WTE plants are supporting decisions about waste and environmental management: They can routinely and cost effectively supply information about chemical waste composition as well as about the ratio of biogenic to fossil carbon in MSW and off-gas

  17. Waste to energy – key element for sustainable waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, Paul H., E-mail: paul.h.brunner@tuwien.ac.at; Rechberger, Helmut

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • First paper on the importance of incineration from a urban metabolism point of view. • Proves that incineration is necessary for sustainable waste management. • Historical and technical overview of 100 years development of MSW incineration. - Abstract: Human activities inevitably result in wastes. The higher the material turnover, and the more complex and divers the materials produced, the more challenging it is for waste management to reach the goals of “protection of men and environment” and “resource conservation”. Waste incineration, introduced originally for volume reduction and hygienic reasons, went through a long and intense development. Together with prevention and recycling measures, waste to energy (WTE) facilities contribute significantly to reaching the goals of waste management. Sophisticated air pollution control (APC) devices ensure that emissions are environmentally safe. Incinerators are crucial and unique for the complete destruction of hazardous organic materials, to reduce risks due to pathogenic microorganisms and viruses, and for concentrating valuable as well as toxic metals in certain fractions. Bottom ash and APC residues have become new sources of secondary metals, hence incineration has become a materials recycling facility, too. WTE plants are supporting decisions about waste and environmental management: They can routinely and cost effectively supply information about chemical waste composition as well as about the ratio of biogenic to fossil carbon in MSW and off-gas.

  18. Waste to energy plant operation under the influence of market and legislation conditioned changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomic, Tihomir; Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Pfeifer, Antun

    2017-01-01

    , waste-to-energy plants need to be adapted to market operation. This influence is tracked by the gate-fee volatility. The operation of the waste-to-energy plant on electricity markets is simulated by using EnergyPLAN and heat market is simulated in Matlab, based on hourly marginal costs. The results have......In this paper, gate-fee changes of the waste-to-energy plants are investigated in the conditions set by European Union legislation and by the introduction of the new heat market. Waste management and sustainable energy supply are core issues of sustainable development of regions, especially urban...... areas. These two energy flows logically come together in the combined heat and power facility by waste incineration. However, the implementation of new legislation influences quantity and quality of municipal waste and operation of waste-to-energy systems. Once the legislation requirements are met...

  19. Waste-to-energy: A review of life cycle assessment and its extension methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhaozhi; Tang, Yuanjun; Chi, Yong; Ni, Mingjiang; Buekens, Alfons

    2018-01-01

    This article proposes a comprehensive review of evaluation tools based on life cycle thinking, as applied to waste-to-energy. Habitually, life cycle assessment is adopted to assess environmental burdens associated with waste-to-energy initiatives. Based on this framework, several extension methods have been developed to focus on specific aspects: Exergetic life cycle assessment for reducing resource depletion, life cycle costing for evaluating its economic burden, and social life cycle assessment for recording its social impacts. Additionally, the environment-energy-economy model integrates both life cycle assessment and life cycle costing methods and judges simultaneously these three features for sustainable waste-to-energy conversion. Life cycle assessment is sufficiently developed on waste-to-energy with concrete data inventory and sensitivity analysis, although the data and model uncertainty are unavoidable. Compared with life cycle assessment, only a few evaluations are conducted to waste-to-energy techniques by using extension methods and its methodology and application need to be further developed. Finally, this article succinctly summarises some recommendations for further research.

  20. Waste-to-energy advanced cycles and new design concepts for efficient power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Branchini, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an overview of state-of-the-art technologies for energy conversion from waste, as well as a much-needed guide to new and advanced strategies to increase Waste-to-Energy (WTE) plant efficiency. Beginning with an overview of municipal solid waste production and disposal, basic concepts related to Waste-To-Energy conversion processes are described, highlighting the most relevant aspects impacting the thermodynamic efficiency of WTE power plants. The pervasive influences of main steam cycle parameters and plant configurations on WTE efficiency are detailed and quantified. Advanc

  1. Evaluation of Waste-to-Energy Potential of Domestic Solid Wastes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    waste in the metropolis ends up on illegal waste dumpsites. The aim of this paper was to investigate the waste-to-energy potentials of domestic solid wastes in Benin metropolis, Nigeria using a three-phase study plan - study of current waste management activities, characterization of domestic solid waste and determination ...

  2. Report of the DOD-DOE Workshop on Converting Waste to Energy Using Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    cell research, development, and demonstration. Along with the general program overview, Dr. Satyapal highlighted the vast amount of biogas resources...Page ii DOD-DOE Workshop Summary on Converting Waste to Energy Using Fuel Cells List of Tables Table 1. Comparison by Generator Type: Based on 40...Table 2. Typical Composition of Biogas from Various Waste Streams ....................................................... 8 Table D-1

  3. Waste-to-energy: Technical, economic and ecological point of views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassitto, L.

    1997-01-01

    Overwhelming waste-recycling should be considered more as a psychological than as a technological method to deal with wastes. The best waste disposal systems should actually grant mass or energy recovery from technical, economic and ecological point-of-views. Highest results seem to be granted by waste-to-energy technologies since energy content is the best preserved property after using materials

  4. Retrofit of waste-to-energy facilities equipped with electrostatic precipitators. Volume I: Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigo, H.G. [Rigo & Rigo Associates, Inc., Berea, OH (US); Chandler, A.J. [A.J. Chandler & Associates, Ltd., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-04-01

    To help lower the cost of compliance for waste-to-energy facilities, a retrofit technology using water spray temperature reduction combined with dry acid gas control reagent and powdered activated carbon [PAC] injection was tested in November, 1995 as part of an American Society of Mechanical Engineers' [ASME] Center for Research and Technology Development [CRTD] effort supported in part by the Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory [NREL] and directed by the ASME Research Committee on Industrial and Municipal Waste. 2,000 mg/dsm{sup 3} @ 7% O{sub 2} (150 lb/hr) of trona (a natural sodium sesquicarbonate ore) injected through a rapid dispersion lance successfully controlled more than 50 percent of the acid gases. This should let facilities under 250 TPD meet the small plant guidelines for acid gas control. Various levels of PAC were injected along with the trona. 300 mg/dsm{sup 3} 7% O{sub 2} of PAC provides a comfortable margin between the emissions limitations achieved and both large and small plant regulatory guidelines for tetra- through octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans [PCDD/F] and mercury when the ESP is operated below 350 F. Bi-fluid nozzles were used to spray finely atomized water between the economizer outlet and ESP inlet to maintain temperatures in the desired 300-350 F range. Particulate and metals emissions limitations were met by this 400 ft{sup 2}/1,000 acft{sup 2} specific collector area [SCA], 3-field ESP. Both the water sprays and PAC improved ESP performance. The demonstration was successful. With dry PAC, acid gas reagent injection, and temperature reduction, MWC emissions guidelines for facilities smaller than 250 TPD can be reliably met. Everything except the large facilities SO{sub 2} and HCl guideline emissions limitations was achieved. Better acid gas control should be achievable with more reagent addition if the ESP is efficient enough to avoid violating particulate limits.

  5. Developing a Decision Support Tool for Waste to Energy Calculations Using Energy Return on Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    began with. There are multiple methods to accomplish this process, from the standard V- models to complex waterfall methods, but ultimately each...required data and data sources. The team conducted stakeholder analysis and functional decomposition of the requisite model before constructing its...decomposition of the requisite model before constructing its additional module to the tool. This study shows the viability of waste-to-energy technologies to

  6. Federal role in resource recovery will focus on waste-to-energy R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, R.A.

    1981-05-01

    Virtually all of the federal programs created in recent years to sponsor resource recovery R and D have been slated for budget cuts or termination by the administration of President Ronald Reagan. The only programs that will survive revised fiscal budgets will be waste-to-energy R and D studies sponsored by DOE and EPA. Differing reactions to such cuts are apparent: the affected agencies are protesting, while private industry welcomes this hands-off policy.

  7. Element partitioning in combustion- and gasification-based waste-to-energy units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arena, Umberto; Di Gregorio, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Element partitioning of waste-to-energy units by means of a substance flow analysis. ► A comparison between moving grate combustors and high temperature gasifiers. ► Classification of key elements according to their behavior during WtE processes. ► Slags and metals from waste gasifiers are completely and immediately recyclable. ► Potential reduction of amounts of solid residue to be sent to landfill disposal. - Abstract: A critical comparison between combustion- and gasification-based waste-to-energy systems needs a deep knowledge of the mass flows of materials and elements inside and throughout the units. The study collected and processed data from several moving grate conventional incinerators and high-temperature shaft gasifiers with direct melting, which are in operation worldwide. A material and substance flow analysis was then developed to systematically assess the flows and stocks of materials and elements within each waste-to-energy unit, by connecting the sources, pathways, and intermediate and final sinks of each species. The patterns of key elements, such as carbon, chloride and heavy metals, in the different solid and gaseous output streams of the two compared processes have been then defined. The combination of partitioning coefficients with the mass balances on atomic species and results of mineralogical characterization from recent literatures was used to estimate a composition of bottom ashes and slags from the two types of waste-to-energy technologies. The results also allow to quantify some of the performance parameters of the units and, in particular, the potential reduction of the amount of solid residues to be sent to final disposal

  8. Determining the amount of waste plastics in the feed of Austrian waste-to-energy facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarzb?ck, Therese; Van Eygen, Emile; Rechberger, Helmut; Fellner, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Although thermal recovery of waste plastics is widely practiced in many European countries, reliable information on the amount of waste plastics in the feed of waste-to-energy plants is rare. In most cases the amount of plastics present in commingled waste, such as municipal solid waste, commercial, or industrial waste, is estimated based on a few waste sorting campaigns, which are of limited significance with regard to the characterisation of plastic flows. In the present study, an alternati...

  9. Modeling barriers of solid waste to energy practices: An Indian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bag, S.; Mondal, N.; Dubey, R.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years managing solid wastes has been one of the burning problems in front of state and local municipal authorities. This is mainly due to scarcity of lands for landfill sites. In this context experts suggest that conversion of solid waste to energy and useful component is the best approach to reduce space and public health related problems. The entire process has to be managed by technologies that prevent pollution and protect the environment and at the same time minimize the cost through recovery of energy. Energy recovery in the form of electricity, heat and fuel from the waste using different technologies is possible through a variety of processes, including incineration, gasification, pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion. These processes are often grouped under “Waste to Energy technologies”. The objective of the study is twofold. First authors assessed the current status of solid waste management practices in India. Secondly the leading barriers are identified and Interpretive structural modeling technique and MICMAC analysis is performed to identify the contextual interrelationships between leading barriers influencing the solid waste to energy programs in the country. Finally the conclusions are drawn which will assist policy makers in designing sustainable waste management programs.

  10. Waste-to-energy plants - a solution for a cleaner future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Waste-to-energy plants reduce the municipal solid waste volume by about 80% and convert it into residue. The residue quality naturally depends on the burned waste quality and also on the combustion parameters. Hence, tighter control of the plant can improve the residue quality. The generated combustion energy is regarded as renewable energy and is typically used to feed a turbine to generate electricity. Waste-to-energy furnaces react slowly on changing waste charge, so they are not used for peak load generation. The generated electrical power is a plant by product and is sold as base load generation. Usually the waste is burned on a grate which limits the plant size to about 160,000 tons of waste per year or 20 tons of waste per hour or about 28 MW. More recent technology utilizes fluidized bed combustion, which allows larger plant sizes up to 50 MW. Due to the unknown waste composition and stringent environmental standards involved, waste-to-energy plants employ sophisticated flue gas cleaning devices for emission control. ABB's Performance Monitoring continuously compares actual plant and equipment performance to expected performance. This includes the on-line calculation of the waste calorific heat allowing operator decision support and automated control system responses. Dedicated reports offer detailed data on operations, maintenance and emissions to plant management staff. ABB combustion optimization solutions use model based predictive control techniques to reliably find the most suitable set-points for improving the heat rate and reducing emissions like NO x . (author)

  11. Guideline on action plans and strategies to mobilize waste-to-energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loonik, J.; Saarepera, R.; Kaeger, M. [and others

    2012-12-15

    This report presents some results of the REMOWE project and sets guidelines for regional policy makers, SME's and the general public as well for more deep realization of waste-to-energy policy principles in action. The overall objective of the project is, on regional levels, to contribute to a decreased negative effect on the environment by reduction of carbon dioxide emission by creating a balance between energy consumption and sustainable use of renewable energy sources (waste-to-energy cycle). Reduction of carbon dioxide emissions and use of renewable energy sources are broad areas and this project will focus on energy resources from waste and actions to facilitate implementation of energy efficient technology in the Baltic Sea region within the waste-to-energy area. The focus is to utilise waste from cities, farming and industry for energy purposes in an efficient way. The project seeks to facilitate the implementation of sustainable systems for waste-to-energy in the Baltic Sea region and specifically, in a first step, in the project partner regions. The project's duration is 12/2009-12/2012. This report is structured into 8 chapters, which are further divided into subchapters if needed. Relevant data about current situation about waste generation and management in partner regions of REMOWE project are described in Chapter 1. There are guidelines on action plan and strategies for regional policy makers, SME's and the general public to mobilize waste to energy production in Chapter 2. Beside guidelines, this report contains references to basic political acts of waste and energy management of EU and best practices of implementation them in regional level (Chapter 3). The focus of Chapters 4 and 5 is on energetic potential of waste and technologies for utilisation of waste for energy purposes. During the project period in each of partner region innovation processes were realised and innovation ides evaluated, basic results are collected into

  12. Biomass waste-to-energy valorisation technologies: a review case for banana processing in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumisiriza, Robert; Hawumba, Joseph Funa; Okure, Mackay; Hensel, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Uganda's banana industry is heavily impeded by the lack of cheap, reliable and sustainable energy mainly needed for processing of banana fruit into pulp and subsequent drying into chips before milling into banana flour that has several uses in the bakery industry, among others. Uganda has one of the lowest electricity access levels, estimated at only 2-3% in rural areas where most of the banana growing is located. In addition, most banana farmers have limited financial capacity to access modern solar energy technologies that can generate sufficient energy for industrial processing. Besides energy scarcity and unreliability, banana production, marketing and industrial processing generate large quantities of organic wastes that are disposed of majorly by unregulated dumping in places such as swamps, thereby forming huge putrefying biomass that emit green house gases (methane and carbon dioxide). On the other hand, the energy content of banana waste, if harnessed through appropriate waste-to-energy technologies, would not only solve the energy requirement for processing of banana pulp, but would also offer an additional benefit of avoiding fossil fuels through the use of renewable energy. The potential waste-to-energy technologies that can be used in valorisation of banana waste can be grouped into three: Thermal (Direct combustion and Incineration), Thermo-chemical (Torrefaction, Plasma treatment, Gasification and Pyrolysis) and Biochemical (Composting, Ethanol fermentation and Anaerobic Digestion). However, due to high moisture content of banana waste, direct application of either thermal or thermo-chemical waste-to-energy technologies is challenging. Although, supercritical water gasification does not require drying of feedstock beforehand and can be a promising thermo-chemical technology for gasification of wet biomass such as banana waste, it is an expensive technology that may not be adopted by banana farmers in Uganda. Biochemical conversion technologies are

  13. Determining the amount of waste plastics in the feed of Austrian waste-to-energy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzböck, Therese; Van Eygen, Emile; Rechberger, Helmut; Fellner, Johann

    2017-02-01

    Although thermal recovery of waste plastics is widely practiced in many European countries, reliable information on the amount of waste plastics in the feed of waste-to-energy plants is rare. In most cases the amount of plastics present in commingled waste, such as municipal solid waste, commercial, or industrial waste, is estimated based on a few waste sorting campaigns, which are of limited significance with regard to the characterisation of plastic flows. In the present study, an alternative approach, the so-called Balance Method, is used to determine the total amount of plastics thermally recovered in Austria's waste incineration facilities in 2014. The results indicate that the plastics content in the waste feed may vary considerably among different plants but also over time. Monthly averages determined range between 8 and 26 wt% of waste plastics. The study reveals an average waste plastics content in the feed of Austria's waste-to-energy plants of 16.5 wt%, which is considerably above findings from sorting campaigns conducted in Austria. In total, about 385 kt of waste plastics were thermally recovered in all Austrian waste-to-energy plants in 2014, which equals to 45 kg plastics cap -1 . In addition, the amount of plastics co-combusted in industrial plants yields a total thermal utilisation rate of 70 kg cap -1  a -1 for Austria. This is significantly above published rates, for example, in Germany reported rates for 2013 are in the range of only 40 kg of waste plastics combusted per capita.

  14. Waste to Energy in Urban Infrastructure. Experiences from Indo-Swedish collaboration 2009-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-15

    This report provides an illustration of the progress that has been made in Indo-Swedish biogas collaboration since the delegation Biogas for Urban Infrastructure initiated action in 2009. A number of Swedish government organisations and private sector organisations have worked together with Indian counterparts to develop the Indo-Swedish Waste-to-Energy cooperation. A mere two years later, we can now state that this has been a very fruitful venture. The Swedish-Indian cooperation that was formed in conjunction with the biogas delegation has already resulted in new knowledge, new methods, opportunities for new strategies and new business models.

  15. Haiti: Feasibility of Waste-to-Energy Options at the Trutier Waste Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, M. D.; Hunsberger, R.; Ness, J. E.; Harris, T.; Raibley, T.; Ursillo, P.

    2014-08-01

    This report provides further analysis of the feasibility of a waste-to-energy (WTE) facility in the area near Port-au-Prince, Haiti. NREL's previous analysis and reports identified anaerobic digestion (AD) as the optimal WTE technology at the facility. Building on the prior analyses, this report evaluates the conceptual financial and technical viability of implementing a combined waste management and electrical power production strategy by constructing a WTE facility at the existing Trutier waste site north of Port-au-Prince.

  16. Waste-to-energy, municipal solid waste treatment, and best available technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhenfeng; Ren, Jingzheng; Goodsite, Michael Evan

    2018-01-01

    The treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become an urgently important task of many countries. This objective of this study is to present a novel group multi-attribute decision analysis method for prioritizing the MSW treatment alternatives based on the interval-valued fuzzy set theory...... (DEMATEL) method was developed to determine the weights of the evaluation criteria by considering the independent relationships among these criteria. The multi-actor interval-valued fuzzy grey relational analysis was developed to rank the waste-to-energy scenarios. Four alternative processes for MSW...

  17. Air pollution control systems and technologies for waste-to-energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getz, N.P.; Amos, C.K. Jr.; Siebert, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    One of the primary topics of concern to those planning, developing, and operating waste-to-energy (W-T-E) [also known as municipal waste combustors (MWCs)] facilities is air emissions. This paper presents a description of the state-of-the-art air pollution control (APC) systems and technology for particulate, heavy metals, organics, and acid gases control for W-T-E facilities. Items covered include regulations, guidelines, and control techniques as applied in the W-T-E industry. Available APC technologies are viewed in detail on the basis of their potential removal efficiencies, design considerations, operations, and maintenance costs

  18. CFD modeling and experience of waste-to-energy plant burning waste wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajh, B.; Yin, Chungen; Samec, N.

    2013-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is being increasingly used in industry for in-depth understanding of the fundamental mixing, combustion, heat transfer and pollutant formation in combustion processes and for design and optimization of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants. In this paper, CFD modeling...... the conversion of the waste wood in the fuel bed on the grate, which provides the appropriate inlet boundary condition for the freeboard 3D CFD simulation. The CFD analysis reveals the detailed mixing and combustion characteristics in the waste wood-fired furnace, pinpointing how to improve the design...

  19. Exergo-Ecological Assessment of Waste to Energy Plants Supported by Solar Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Mendecka

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybridization of Waste to Energy (WtE plants with solar facilities can take competing energy technologies and make them complementary. However, realizing the benefits of the solar integration requires careful consideration of its efficiency. To analyse such systems from the point of view of resource efficiency, the pure energy analysis is not sufficient since the quality of particular energy carriers is not evaluated. This work applies the exergo-ecological analysis using the concepts of thermoecological cost (TEC and exergy cost for the performance evaluation of an integrated Solar-Waste to Energy plant scheme, where solar energy is used for steam superheating. Different plant layouts, considering several design steam parameters as well as different solar system configurations, in terms of area of heliostats and size of the thermal storage tank, were studied. The results for the solar integrated plant scheme were compared with the scenarios where superheating is performed fully by a non-renewable energy source. The presented results of exergy cost analysis indicate that the most favorable system is the one supported by non-renewable energy. Such an analysis does not consider the advantage of the use of renewable energy sources. By extending the system boundary to the level of natural resource and applying the thermoecological cost analysis, an opposite result was obtained.

  20. Engineering/design of a co-generation waste-to-energy facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajaj, K.S.; Virgilio, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Five hundred fifteen thousand tons of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is being generated every day in America. At present 68% of this trash is dumped into landfill operations. As the amount of garbage is increasing daily, the amount of land reserved for landfills is diminishing rapidly. With the sentiment of the public that you produce it, you keep it, the import-export of waste between the counties and states for the landfills, no longer appears to be feasible, especially when combined with expensive disposal costs. One method of reducing the quantity of waste sent to landfills is through the use of waste-to-energy facilities - the technology of resource recovery - the technology of today INCINERATION. All cogeneration projects are not alike. This paper examines several aspects of the electrical system of a particular municipal solid waste-to-energy project at Charleston, S.C. which includes plant auxiliary loads as well as a utility interconnection through a step-up transformer

  1. Waste to energy opportunities and challenges for developing and transition economies

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Solid waste management is currently a major issue worldwide with numerous areas reaching critical levels. Many developing countries and countries in transition still miss basic waste management  infrastructure and awareness. It is here that many of the solid waste management problems and challenges are currently being faced. As such, waste-to-energy (WTE) consists of a proven and continuously developing spectrum and range of technologies in a number of (mostly) developed countries. However, it’s integration in developing countries and systems in transition is often faced with scepticism and a complex set of barriers which are quite unique and differ greatly from those where WTE has been validated and applied over the years. Waste-to-Energy: Opportunities and Challenges for Developing and Transition Economies will address this issue both theoretically and using concrete examples, including: ·         contributions from numerous scholars and practitioners in the field, ·         useful less...

  2. Waste-to-Energy: Hawaii and Guam Energy Improvement Technology Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gelman, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tomberlin, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bain, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Navy have worked together to demonstrate new or leading-edge commercial energy technologies whose deployment will support the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) in meeting its energy efficiency and renewable energy goals while enhancing installation energy security. This is consistent with the 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review report1 that encourages the use of 'military installations as a test bed to demonstrate and create a market for innovative energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies coming out of the private sector and DOD and Department of Energy laboratories,' as well as the July 2010 memorandum of understanding between DOD and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that documents the intent to 'maximize DOD access to DOE technical expertise and assistance through cooperation in the deployment and pilot testing of emerging energy technologies.' As part of this joint initiative, a promising waste-to-energy (WTE) technology was selected for demonstration at the Hickam Commissary aboard the Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam (JBPHH), Hawaii. The WTE technology chosen is called high-energy densification waste-to-energy conversion (HEDWEC). HEDWEC technology is the result of significant U.S. Army investment in the development of WTE technology for forward operating bases.

  3. Oxidation and waste-to-energy output of aluminium waste packaging during incineration: A laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Félix A; Román, Carlos Pérez; García-Díaz, Irene; Alguacil, Francisco J

    2015-09-01

    This work reports the oxidation behaviour and waste-to-energy output of different semi-rigid and flexible aluminium packagings when incinerated at 850°C in an air atmosphere enriched with 6% oxygen, in the laboratory setting. The physical properties of the different packagings were determined, including their metallic aluminium contents. The ash contents of their combustion products were determined according to standard BS ISO 1171:2010. The net calorific value, the required energy, and the calorific gain associated with each packaging type were determined following standard BS EN 13431:2004. Packagings with an aluminium lamina thickness of >50μm did not fully oxidise. During incineration, the weight-for-weight waste-to-energy output of the packagings with thick aluminium lamina was lower than that of packagings with thin lamina. The calorific gain depended on the degree of oxidation of the metallic aluminium, but was greater than zero for all the packagings studied. Waste aluminium may therefore be said to act as an energy source in municipal solid waste incineration systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. WTE (Waste-to-Energy) air quality and ash regulation: What's ahead in 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, A.E.

    1989-02-01

    New regulations affecting waste-to-energy plants are in the works. Actions by Congress, the EPA, and possibly the courts will introduce changes with industry-wide consequences. Planners of waste-to-energy plants need to pay special attention to the potential ramifications. The paper reviews potential changes in pollution regulations. It is recommended that anyone involved in the planning or operation of a resource recovery facility needs to keep informed.

  5. Solid waste management in Greece and potential for waste-to-energy; Die Abfallwirtschaft und das Waste-to-Energy Potenzial in Griechenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalogirou, Efstratios [WTERT Greece - SYNERGIA, A.I.T., Attica (Greece); Manolis, Klados [INTRAKAT, Attica (Greece); Bourtsalas, Athanasios; Themelis, Nickolas J. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Earth Engineering Center; Karagiannidis, Avraam [Aristotle Univ., Thessaloniki (Germany). Lab. of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering

    2011-05-15

    In Greece the daily production of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is estimated to be 15,000 tones, which means roughly 5.4 million tons per year, from which 77 % is deposited in Landfills, while 23 % is recycled and composted. The European Union Legislation for Sanitary Landfills (1999/31/EC), imposes the decrease of biodegradable waste that are deposit to sanitary landfills; thus WTE methods of MSW is one of the best, in terms of affordability in a competitive world and environmental friendly, proposed solutions. Waste-to-Energy methods produce steam and/or electricity. Also, the weight of MSW is reduced up to 70-80 % and the volume up to 90 %, and finally the land area requirements are very small. Our proposal for the WTE technology implementation in Greece is the construction of MSW WTE plants in all major cities operating with an annual capacity of 200.000-400.000 tones. The required land area will be only 4-7 hectares. The basic income of such plants is the gate fee, varying from 50 to 80 Euro/ton. The second income comes from selling of the produced electricity to the Public Power Corporation for 87.85 Euro/MWh (referring to the biodegradable fraction of MSW), according to the new Greek law for renewable energy sources (L. 3851/2010). Additional income comes from the recovered metals of the bottom ash. Furthermore, there is a considerable prospect for state subsidy of the whole investment, according to the Greek Development Law. (orig.)

  6. A preliminary study of waste to energy potential of municipal solid waste in Havana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llanes, Junior Lorenzo; Kalogirou, Efstratios

    2017-01-01

    One of the challenges that must be face by a growing society is its waste management. This is crucial in the particular case of developing countries like Cuba. Waste to energy is a well-established technology for municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment. The aim of this work was to estimate the energetic potential of MSW in the city of Havana. An average low heating value (LHV) of 7.35 MJ/kg was estimated by applying different models. From the mass and energy balances, the emissions and the energy recovered for electricity generation were determined. Two steam turbine configurations (back – pressure and condensing) were designed by a rigorous method and later simulated in Aspen Plus simulator. The results showed that for a feeding rate of 49.5 tonh-1 of MSW it was possible to generate 257 GWh per year with an overall plant efficiency of 25.4% in a four-stage turbine. (author)

  7. Exergy losses of resource recovery from a waste-to-energy plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vyzinkarova, Dana; Laner, D.; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    Metal resources recovered from waste incineration bottom ash (BA) are of lower quality as compared to primary resources, but to date no framework for expressing the quality losses exists. Exergy is a concept that may have the potential to evaluate the resource quality in waste management....... In this study, focusing on recovery from waste-to-energy plants with basic and advanced BA treatment, the goal is to give an indication about quality of selected recovered resources (Fe, Al, and Cu) by means of exergy analysis. Metal flows are modeled through both incineration scenarios, and then chemical....... The results indicate that exergy losses due to mixing are insignificant as compared to chemical exergies of metals in all flows. Total exergy losses for Fe, Al, and Cu recovery in the two WtE systems range from 38% to 90%....

  8. Energy Systems Analysis of Waste to Energy Technologies by use of EnergyPLAN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie

    Even when policies of waste prevention, re-use and recycling are prioritised, a fraction of waste will still be left which can be used for energy recovery. This report asks the question: How to utilise waste for energy in the best way seen from an energy system perspective? Eight different Waste......-to-Energy technologies are compared with a focus on fuel efficiency, CO2 reductions and costs. The comparison is made by conducting detailed energy system analyses of the present system as well as a potential future Danish energy system with a large share of combined heat and power and wind power. The study shows...... the potential of using waste for the production of transport fuels such as upgraded biogas and petrol made from syngas. Biogas and thermal gasification technologies are interesting alternatives to waste incineration and it is recommended to support the use of biogas based on manure and organic waste. It is also...

  9. Comparing Waste-to-Energy technologies by applying energy system analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Lund, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Even when policies of waste prevention, re-use and recycling are prioritised a fraction of waste will still be left which can be used for energy recovery. This article asks the question: How to utilise waste for energy in the best way seen from an energy system perspective? Eight different Waste......-to-Energy technologies are compared with a focus on fuel efficiency, CO2 reductions and costs. The comparison is carried out by conducting detailed energy system analyses of the present as well as a potential future Danish energy system with a large share of combined heat and power as well as wind power. The study shows...... potential of using waste for the production of transport fuels. Biogas and thermal gasification technologies are hence interesting alternatives to waste incineration and it is recommended to support the use of biogas based on manure and organic waste. It is also recommended to support research...

  10. Life cycle assessment modelling of waste-to-energy incineration in Spain and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margallo, M; Aldaco, R; Irabien, A; Carrillo, V; Fischer, M; Bala, A; Fullana, P

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, waste management systems have been evaluated using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. A main shortcoming of prior studies was the focus on a mixture of waste with different characteristics. The estimation of emissions and consumptions associated with each waste fraction in these studies presented allocation problems. Waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration is a clear example in which municipal solid waste (MSW), comprising many types of materials, is processed to produce several outputs. This paper investigates an approach to better understand incineration processes in Spain and Portugal by applying a multi-input/output allocation model. The application of this model enabled predictions of WTE inputs and outputs, including the consumption of ancillary materials and combustibles, air emissions, solid wastes, and the energy produced during the combustion of each waste fraction. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Application of high temperature phase change materials for improved efficiency in waste-to-energy plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Magro, Fabio; Xu, Haoxin; Nardin, Gioacchino; Romagnoli, Alessandro

    2018-03-01

    This study reports the thermal analysis of a novel thermal energy storage based on high temperature phase change material (PCM) used to improve efficiency in waste-to-energy plants. Current waste-to-energy plants efficiency is limited by the steam generation cycle which is carried out with boilers composed by water-walls (i.e. radiant evaporators), evaporators, economizers and superheaters. Although being well established, this technology is subjected to limitations related with high temperature corrosion and fluctuation in steam production due to the non-homogenous composition of solid waste; this leads to increased maintenance costs and limited plants availability and electrical efficiency. The proposed solution in this paper consists of replacing the typical refractory brick installed in the combustion chamber with a PCM-based refractory brick capable of storing a variable heat flux and to release it on demand as a steady heat flux. By means of this technology it is possible to mitigate steam production fluctuation, to increase temperature of superheated steam over current corrosion limits (450°C) without using coated superheaters and to increase the electrical efficiency beyond 34%. In the current paper a detailed thermo-mechanical analysis has been carried out in order to compare the performance of the PCM-based refractory brick against the traditional alumina refractory bricks. The PCM considered in this paper is aluminium (and its alloys) whereas its container consists of high density ceramics (such as Al 2 O 3 , AlN and Si 3 N 4 ); the different coefficient of linear thermal expansion for the different materials requires a detailed thermo-mechanical analysis to be carried out to ascertain the feasibility of the proposed technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of hybrid waste-to-energy for medium-sized cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar, Juan Galvarino Cerda; Dias, Rubens Alves; Balestieri, José Antonio Perrella

    2013-01-01

    Urban centers have a huge demand for electricity and the growing problem of the solid waste management generated by their population, a relevant social and administrative problem. The correct disposal of the municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in cities is one of the most complex engineering problems that involves logistics, safety, environmental and energetic aspects for its adequate management. Due to a national policy of solid wastes recently promulgated, Brazilian cities are evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of incinerating the non-recyclable waste. São José dos Campos, a São Paulo State industrialized city, is considering the composting of organic waste for biogas production and mass incineration of non-recyclable waste. This paper presents a waste-to-energy system based on the integration of gas turbines to a MSW incinerator for producing thermal and electric energy as an alternative solution for the solid waste disposal in São José dos Campos, SP. A technical and economic feasibility study for the hybrid combined cycle plant is presented and revealed to be attractive when carbon credit and waste tax are included in the project income. - Highlights: ► We model a hybrid waste-to-energy cogeneration system for the disposal of MSW. ► Reference model for MSW treatment consists of biogas burning and composting. ► Hybrid cogeneration solution is superior to the biogas burning reference model. ► Carbon credit and waste tax increase the attractiveness of the proposed solution

  13. Energy implications of mechanical and mechanical–biological treatment compared to direct waste-to-energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cimpan, Ciprian, E-mail: cic@kbm.sdu.dk; Wenzel, Henrik

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Compared systems achieve primary energy savings between 34 and 140 MJ{sub primary}/100 MJ{sub input} {sub waste.} • Savings magnitude is foremost determined by chosen primary energy and materials production. • Energy consumption and process losses can be upset by increased technology efficiency. • Material recovery accounts for significant shares of primary energy savings. • Direct waste-to-energy is highly efficient if cogeneration (CHP) is possible. - Abstract: Primary energy savings potential is used to compare five residual municipal solid waste treatment systems, including configurations with mechanical (MT) and mechanical–biological (MBT) pre-treatment, which produce waste-derived fuels (RDF and SRF), biogas and/or recover additional materials for recycling, alongside a system based on conventional mass burn waste-to-energy and ash treatment. To examine the magnitude of potential savings we consider two energy efficiency levels (state-of-the-art and best available technology), the inclusion/exclusion of heat recovery (CHP vs. PP) and three different background end-use energy production systems (coal condensing electricity and natural gas heat, Nordic electricity mix and natural gas heat, and coal CHP energy quality allocation). The systems achieved net primary energy savings in a range between 34 and 140 MJ{sub primary}/100 MJ{sub input} {sub waste}, in the different scenario settings. The energy footprint of transportation needs, pre-treatment and reprocessing of recyclable materials was 3–9.5%, 1–18% and 1–8% respectively, relative to total energy savings. Mass combustion WtE achieved the highest savings in scenarios with CHP production, nonetheless, MBT-based systems had similarly high performance if SRF streams were co-combusted with coal. When RDF and SRF was only used in dedicated WtE plants, MBT-based systems totalled lower savings due to inherent system losses and additional energy costs. In scenarios without heat

  14. Energy implications of mechanical and mechanical–biological treatment compared to direct waste-to-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Wenzel, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Compared systems achieve primary energy savings between 34 and 140 MJ primary /100 MJ input waste. • Savings magnitude is foremost determined by chosen primary energy and materials production. • Energy consumption and process losses can be upset by increased technology efficiency. • Material recovery accounts for significant shares of primary energy savings. • Direct waste-to-energy is highly efficient if cogeneration (CHP) is possible. - Abstract: Primary energy savings potential is used to compare five residual municipal solid waste treatment systems, including configurations with mechanical (MT) and mechanical–biological (MBT) pre-treatment, which produce waste-derived fuels (RDF and SRF), biogas and/or recover additional materials for recycling, alongside a system based on conventional mass burn waste-to-energy and ash treatment. To examine the magnitude of potential savings we consider two energy efficiency levels (state-of-the-art and best available technology), the inclusion/exclusion of heat recovery (CHP vs. PP) and three different background end-use energy production systems (coal condensing electricity and natural gas heat, Nordic electricity mix and natural gas heat, and coal CHP energy quality allocation). The systems achieved net primary energy savings in a range between 34 and 140 MJ primary /100 MJ input waste , in the different scenario settings. The energy footprint of transportation needs, pre-treatment and reprocessing of recyclable materials was 3–9.5%, 1–18% and 1–8% respectively, relative to total energy savings. Mass combustion WtE achieved the highest savings in scenarios with CHP production, nonetheless, MBT-based systems had similarly high performance if SRF streams were co-combusted with coal. When RDF and SRF was only used in dedicated WtE plants, MBT-based systems totalled lower savings due to inherent system losses and additional energy costs. In scenarios without heat recovery, the biodrying MBS

  15. A review on technological options of waste to energy for effective management of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Atul; Samadder, S R

    2017-11-01

    Approximately one-fourth population across the world rely on traditional fuels (kerosene, natural gas, biomass residue, firewood, coal, animal dung, etc.) for domestic use despite significant socioeconomic and technological development. Fossil fuel reserves are being exploited at a very fast rate to meet the increasing energy demands, so there is a need to find alternative sources of energy before all the fossil fuel reserves are depleted. Waste to energy (WTE) can be considered as a potential alternative source of energy, which is economically viable and environmentally sustainable. The present study reviewed the current global scenario of WTE technological options (incineration, pyrolysis, gasification, anaerobic digestion, and landfilling with gas recovery) for effective energy recovery and the challenges faced by developed and developing countries. This review will provide a framework for evaluating WTE technological options based on case studies of developed and developing countries. Unsanitary landfilling is the most commonly practiced waste disposal option in the developing countries. However, developed countries have realised the potential of WTE technologies for effective municipal solid waste management (MSWM). This review will help the policy makers and the implementing authorities involved in MSWM to understand the current status, challenges and barriers for effective management of municipal solid waste. This review concluded WTE as a potential renewable source of energy, which will partly meet the energy demand and ensure effective MSWM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimal waste-to-energy strategy assisted by GIS For sustainable solid waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, S T; Hashim, H; Lee, C T; Lim, J S; Kanniah, K D

    2014-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) management has become more complex and costly with the rapid socio-economic development and increased volume of waste. Planning a sustainable regional waste management strategy is a critical step for the decision maker. There is a great potential for MSW to be used for the generation of renewable energy through waste incineration or landfilling with gas capture system. However, due to high processing cost and cost of resource transportation and distribution throughout the waste collection station and power plant, MSW is mostly disposed in the landfill. This paper presents an optimization model incorporated with GIS data inputs for MSW management. The model can design the multi-period waste-to-energy (WTE) strategy to illustrate the economic potential and tradeoffs for MSW management under different scenarios. The model is capable of predicting the optimal generation, capacity, type of WTE conversion technology and location for the operation and construction of new WTE power plants to satisfy the increased energy demand by 2025 in the most profitable way. Iskandar Malaysia region was chosen as the model city for this study

  17. Optimal waste-to-energy strategy assisted by GIS For sustainable solid waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S. T.; Hashim, H.

    2014-02-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) management has become more complex and costly with the rapid socio-economic development and increased volume of waste. Planning a sustainable regional waste management strategy is a critical step for the decision maker. There is a great potential for MSW to be used for the generation of renewable energy through waste incineration or landfilling with gas capture system. However, due to high processing cost and cost of resource transportation and distribution throughout the waste collection station and power plant, MSW is mostly disposed in the landfill. This paper presents an optimization model incorporated with GIS data inputs for MSW management. The model can design the multi-period waste-to-energy (WTE) strategy to illustrate the economic potential and tradeoffs for MSW management under different scenarios. The model is capable of predicting the optimal generation, capacity, type of WTE conversion technology and location for the operation and construction of new WTE power plants to satisfy the increased energy demand by 2025 in the most profitable way. Iskandar Malaysia region was chosen as the model city for this study.

  18. Risk identification for PPP waste-to-energy incineration projects in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jinbo; Song, Danrong; Zhang, Xueqing; Sun, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is regarded as a renewable energy source. In China, the sharp increase of MSW has precipitated the rapid growth of waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration plants. Private capital has been getting into the WTE incineration industry through the public–private partnership (PPP) arrangement. Due to the large construction cost and the long concession period commonly associated with this arrangement, a number of failures have emerged in PPP WTE incineration projects. The aim of this paper is to investigate the key risks of PPP WTE incineration projects in China and study the strategies for managing these risks by drawing experience and learning lessons from these projects. First, we analyzed the MSW management practices, relevant legislations and policies, and the development of PPP WTE incineration projects in China. Second, we identified ten key risks through interviews, surveys and visits to some selected projects, and provided detailed analysis of these risks. Lastly, we developed response strategies for these risks from the perspectives of both public and private sectors. - Highlights: • We analyze MSW management practices, relevant legislations and policies in China. • Through case study on PPP WTE incineration projects, ten key risks are identified. • Response strategies for key risks are developed

  19. Energy systems analysis of waste to energy technologies by use of EnergyPLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenster, M.

    2009-04-15

    Even when policies of waste prevention, re-use and recycling are prioritised, a fraction of waste will still be left which can be used for energy recovery. This report asks the question: How to utilise waste for energy in the best way seen from an energy system perspective? Eight different Waste-to-Energy technologies are compared with a focus on fuel efficiency, CO{sub 2} reductions and costs. The comparison is made by conducting detailed energy system analyses of the present system as well as a potential future Danish energy system with a large share of combined heat and power and wind power. The study shows the potential of using waste for the production of transport fuels such as upgraded biogas and petrol made from syngas. Biogas and thermal gasification technologies are interesting alternatives to waste incineration and it is recommended to support the use of biogas based on manure and organic waste. It is also recommended to support research into gasification of waste without the addition of coal and biomass. Together, the two solutions may contribute to an alternate use of one third of the waste which is currently incinerated. The remaining fractions should still be incinerated with priority given to combined heat and power plants with high electrical efficiencies. (author)

  20. Development of a Novel Food Waste Collection Kiosk and Waste-to-Energy Business Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Franchetti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. generates more than 37 million metric tons of food waste each year, and over 95% of it is disposed of at U.S. landfills. This paper describes the development of a novel food waste collection kiosk and business model called “Greenbox” that will collect and store food waste from households and restaurants with incentives for user participation to spur food waste-to-energy production in a local community. Greenbox offers a low-cost collection point to divert food waste from landfills, reduce greenhouse gases from decomposition, and aid in generating cleaner energy. A functional prototype was successfully developed by a team of engineering students and a business model was created as part of a senior design capstone course. Each Greenbox unit has the potential to reduce 275 metric tons of food waste per year, remove 1320 kg of greenhouse gases, and create 470,000 liters of methane gas while providing a payback period of 4.2 years and a rate of return of 14.9%.

  1. Comparison of alternative flue gas dry treatment technologies in waste-to-energy processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Pozzo, Alessandro; Antonioni, Giacomo; Guglielmi, Daniele; Stramigioli, Carlo; Cozzani, Valerio

    2016-05-01

    Acid gases such as HCl and SO2 are harmful both for human health and ecosystem integrity, hence their removal is a key step of the flue gas treatment of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants. Methods based on the injection of dry sorbents are among the Best Available Techniques for acid gas removal. In particular, systems based on double reaction and filtration stages represent nowadays an effective technology for emission control. The aim of the present study is the simulation of a reference two-stage (2S) dry treatment system performance and its comparison to three benchmarking alternatives based on single stage sodium bicarbonate injection. A modelling procedure was applied in order to identify the optimal operating configuration of the 2S system for different reference waste compositions, and to determine the total annual cost of operation. Taking into account both operating and capital costs, the 2S system appears the most cost-effective solution for medium to high chlorine content wastes. A Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis was carried out to assess the robustness of the results. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. CAPE-OPEN simulation of waste-to-energy technologies for urban cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreadou, Christina; Martinopoulos, Georgios

    2018-01-01

    Uncontrolled waste disposal and unsustainable waste management not only damage the environment, but also affect human health. In most urban areas, municipal solid waste production is constantly increasing following the everlasting increase in energy consumption. Technologies aim to exploit wastes in order to recover energy, decrease the depletion rate of fossil fuels, and reduce waste disposal. In this paper, the annual amount of municipal solid waste disposed in the greater metropolitan area of Thessaloniki is taken into consideration, in order to size and model a combined heat and power facility for energy recovery. From the various waste-to-energy technologies available, a fluidised bed combustion boiler combined heat and power plant was selected and modelled through the use of COCO, a CAPE-OPEN simulation software, to estimate the amount of electrical and thermal energy that could be generated for different boiler pressures. Although average efficiency was similar in all cases, providing almost 15% of Thessaloniki's energy needs, a great variation in the electricity to thermal energy ratio was observed.

  3. Food waste-to-energy conversion technologies: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thi Phuong Thuy; Kaushik, Rajni; Parshetti, Ganesh K; Mahmood, Russell; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2015-04-01

    Food waste represents a significantly fraction of municipal solid waste. Proper management and recycling of huge volumes of food waste are required to reduce its environmental burdens and to minimize risks to human health. Food waste is indeed an untapped resource with great potential for energy production. Utilization of food waste for energy conversion currently represents a challenge due to various reasons. These include its inherent heterogeneously variable compositions, high moisture contents and low calorific value, which constitute an impediment for the development of robust, large scale, and efficient industrial processes. Although a considerable amount of research has been carried out on the conversion of food waste to renewable energy, there is a lack of comprehensive and systematic reviews of the published literature. The present review synthesizes the current knowledge available in the use of technologies for food-waste-to-energy conversion involving biological (e.g. anaerobic digestion and fermentation), thermal and thermochemical technologies (e.g. incineration, pyrolysis, gasification and hydrothermal oxidation). The competitive advantages of these technologies as well as the challenges associated with them are discussed. In addition, the future directions for more effective utilization of food waste for renewable energy generation are suggested from an interdisciplinary perspective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Co-Combustion of Animal Waste in a Commercial Waste-to-Energy BFB Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Moradian

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Co-combustion of animal waste, in waste-to-energy boilers, is considered a method to produce both heat and power and to dispose of possibly infected animal wastes. This research conducted full-scale combustion tests to identify the impact of changed fuel composition on a fluidized-bed boiler. The impact was characterized by analyzing the deposit formation rate, deposit composition, ash composition, and emissions. Two combustion tests, denoted the reference case and animal waste case, were performed based on different fuel mixes. In the reference case, a normal solid waste fuel mix was combusted in the boiler, containing sorted industry and household waste. In the animal waste case, 20 wt% animal waste was added to the reference fuel mix. The collected samples, comprising sampling probe deposits, fuel mixes, bed ash, return sand, boiler ash, cyclone ash and filter ash, were analyzed using chemical fractionation, SEM-EDX and XRD. The results indicate decreased deposit formation due to animal waste co-combustion. SEM-EDX and chemical fractionation identified higher concentrations of P, Ca, S, and Cl in the bed materials in the animal waste case. Moreover, the risk of bed agglomeration was lower in the animal waste case and also a decreased rate of NOx and SO2 emissions were observed.

  5. Sewage sludge drying process integration with a waste-to-energy power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, A; Bonfiglioli, L; Pellegrini, M; Saccani, C

    2015-08-01

    Dewatered sewage sludge from Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) is encountering increasing problems associated with its disposal. Several solutions have been proposed in the last years regarding energy and materials recovery from sewage sludge. Current technological solutions have relevant limits as dewatered sewage sludge is characterized by a high water content (70-75% by weight), even if mechanically treated. A Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) with good thermal characteristics in terms of Lower Heating Value (LHV) can be obtained if dewatered sludge is further processed, for example by a thermal drying stage. Sewage sludge thermal drying is not sustainable if the power is fed by primary energy sources, but can be appealing if waste heat, recovered from other processes, is used. A suitable integration can be realized between a WWTP and a waste-to-energy (WTE) power plant through the recovery of WTE waste heat as energy source for sewage sludge drying. In this paper, the properties of sewage sludge from three different WWTPs are studied. On the basis of the results obtained, a facility for the integration of sewage sludge drying within a WTE power plant is developed. Furthermore, energy and mass balances are set up in order to evaluate the benefits brought by the described integration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reuse of process water in a waste-to-energy plant: An Italian case of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardoni, Davide; Catenacci, Arianna; Antonelli, Manuela

    2015-09-01

    The minimisation of water consumption in waste-to-energy (WtE) plants is an outstanding issue, especially in those regions where water supply is critical and withdrawals come from municipal waterworks. Among the various possible solutions, the most general, simple and effective one is the reuse of process water. This paper discusses the effectiveness of two different reuse options in an Italian WtE plant, starting from the analytical characterisation and the flow-rate measurement of fresh water and process water flows derived from each utility internal to the WtE plant (e.g. cooling, bottom ash quenching, flue gas wet scrubbing). This census allowed identifying the possible direct connections that optimise the reuse scheme, avoiding additional water treatments. The effluent of the physical-chemical wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), located in the WtE plant, was considered not adequate to be directly reused because of the possible deposition of mineral salts and clogging potential associated to residual suspended solids. Nevertheless, to obtain high reduction in water consumption, reverse osmosis should be installed to remove non-metallic ions (Cl(-), SO4(2-)) and residual organic and inorganic pollutants. Two efficient solutions were identified. The first, a simple reuse scheme based on a cascade configuration, allowed 45% reduction in water consumption (from 1.81 to 0.99m(3)tMSW(-1), MSW: Municipal Solid Waste) without specific water treatments. The second solution, a cascade configuration with a recycle based on a reverse osmosis process, allowed 74% reduction in water consumption (from 1.81 to 0.46m(3)tMSW(-1)). The results of the present work show that it is possible to reduce the water consumption, and in turn the wastewater production, reducing at the same time the operating cost of the WtE plant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Waste-to-energy in the United States: Socioeconomic factors and the decision-making process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlee, T.R.; Schexnayder, S.M.; Vogt, D.P.; Wolfe, A.K.; Kelsay, M.P.; Feldman, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion with energy recovery, commonly called waste-to-energy (WTE), was adopted by many US communities during the 1980s to manage their growing quantities of MSW. Although less than one percent of all US MSW was burned to retrieve its heat energy in 1970, WTE grew to account for 16 percent of MSW in 1990, and many experts forecasted that WTE would be used to manage as much as half of all garbage by the turn of the century. However, the growth of WTE has been reduced in recent years by project cancellations. This study takes an in-depth look at the socioeconomic factors that have played a role in the decisions of communities that have considered WTE as a component of their solid waste management strategies. More specifically, a three-pronged approach is adopted to investigate (1) the relationships between a municipality`s decision to consider and accept/reject WTE and key socioeconomic parameters, (2) the potential impacts of recent changes in financial markets on the viability of WTE, and (3) the WTE decision-making process and the socioeconomic parameters that are most important in the municipality`s decision. The first two objectives are met by the collection and analysis of aggregate data on all US WTE initiatives during the 1982 to 1990 time frame. The latter objective is met by way of four in-depth case studies -- two directed at communities that have accepted WTE and two that have cancelled WTE projects.

  8. Sulfur recirculation for increased electricity production in Waste-to-Energy plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Sven; Blomqvist, Evalena W; Bäfver, Linda; Jones, Frida; Davidsson, Kent; Froitzheim, Jan; Karlsson, Martin; Larsson, Erik; Liske, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur recirculation is a new technology for reducing boiler corrosion and dioxin formation. It was demonstrated in full-scale tests at a Waste to Energy plant in Göteborg (Sweden) during nearly two months of operation. Sulfur was recirculated as sulfuric acid from the flue gas cleaning back to the boiler, thus creating a sulfur loop. The new technology was evaluated by extensive measurement campaigns during operation under normal conditions (reference case) and operation with sulfur recirculation. The chlorine content of both fly ash and boiler ash decreased and the sulfur content increased during the sulfur recirculation tests. The deposit growth and the particle concentration decreased with sulfur recirculation and the dioxin concentration (I-TEQ) of the flue gas was reduced by approximately 25%. Sulfuric acid dew point measurements showed that the sulfuric acid dosage did not lead to elevated SO3 concentrations, which may otherwise induce low temperature corrosion. In the sulfur recirculation corrosion probe exposures, the corrosion rate decreased for all tested materials (16Mo3, Sanicro 28 and Inconel 625) and material temperatures (450 °C and 525 °C) compared to the reference exposure. The corrosion rates were reduced by 60-90%. Sulfur recirculation prevented the formation of transition metal chlorides at the metal/oxide interface, formation of chromate and reduced the presence of zinc in the corrosion products. Furthermore, measured corrosion rates at 525 °C with sulfur recirculation in operation were similar or lower compared to those measured at 450 °C material temperature in reference conditions, which corresponds to normal operation at normal steam temperatures. This implies that sulfur recirculation allows for higher steam data and electricity production without increasing corrosion. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Waste-to-energy potential in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar K.M. Ouda

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Waste-to-energy (WTE is a viable option for municipal solid waste (MSW management and a renewable energy source. MSW is a chronic problem in Saudi Arabia and more specifically in Saudi Urban areas. The MSW practices in KSA are simply done by collecting the waste and dumping it in open landfill sites. KSA is considering WTE as a potential renewable energy source that can contribute to electricity demand in the Kingdom. This research aims to assess potential contribution of WTE facility to meet electricity demand in the three main cities in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia and to provide an alternative solution to landfills. Three scenarios for WTE utilization were developed: Mass Burn, Mass Burn with recycling, and refused derived fuel (RDF with biomethanation. The Mass Burn scenario implies full waste stream incineration; the Mass Burn with recycling scenario considers segregation of reusable materials and the waste leftover for incineration; while RDF with biomethanation considers segregation of general waste stream into inorganic and organic waste and utilizes organic waste for biomethanation and inorganic for RDF. The analyses were completed for Jeddah, Makkah, and Madina cities; with current total population of about 6.3 million. The results show that Jeddah has the potential to produce about 180 MW of electricity based on incineration scenario; about 11.25 MW based on incineration with recycling scenario; and about 87.3 MW based RDF with biomethanation scenario by the year 2032. These values and other two cities values are based on theoretical ideals and they help in identifying the optimal WTE techniques for each city.

  10. Trigeneration in waste to energy plants for expanding the efficiency; Kraft-Waerme-Kaelte-Kopplung bei Muellverbrennungsanlagen zur erweiterten Energieeffizienzsteigerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reil, Eberhard [Fernwaerme Wien GmbH, Wien (Austria)

    2010-05-15

    An impressive metamorphosis changed Waste to Energy plants from originally environmental risky plants to high sophisticated end of pipe technology sites to finally high efficient Energy production plants. Such described plants are situated in urban places to aware the connections into efficient power grids and district heating networks to provide the base load the whole year round. Nowadays the request for cooling is steady rising and again Waste to energy plants, connected to a district cooling network, takes over an important role for the supply. Such concepts are only marketable, if the required criteria's for efficiency are fulfilled. Such criteria's within Europe are the greenhouse gas emission factor and the primary energy factor. Both proof the efficiency of a system according to sustainability and environmental acceptance. Such criteria's are the result of the EU target to enhance the renewable within the energy supply while a more efficient use of site energy should take place. The Vienna Model was chosen as best practice sample. The district heating network is connected to all Waste to energy plants as well to the gas fired CHP plants in Vienna. The peak demand for the supply is realized by gas fired hot water boilers. In 2006 Fernwaerme Wien started to set up a district cooling network. The base load for the cooling derives from absorption chillers driven by heat from the waste to energy plants. According the EN standard 15316 part 4 and 5, method for calculation of system energy requirements and system efficiencies, the primary energy factor and CO2 factor has been defined for the Vienna model and as a consequence of that also for the waste to energy plant Pfaffenau. The average primary energy factor of the Vienna model calculated for the years 2006 to 2008 is 0,21 for the renewable part. According to the result the savings on primary energy have been 42 % and equates to 6,9 TWh/a. The reduc tion of the greenhouse gas emissions has been

  11. Evaluation of the environmental sustainability of different waste-to-energy plant configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Lidia; Carnevale, Ennio A

    2018-03-01

    Residual municipal solid waste (MSW) has an average lower heating value higher than 10GJ/Mg in the EU, and can be recovered in modern Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants, producing combined heat and power (CHP) and reaching high levels of energy recovery. CHP is pinpointed as the best technique for energy recovery from waste. However, in some cases, heat recovery is not technically feasible - due to the absence of a thermal user (industrial plant or district heating) in the vicinity of the WtE plant - and power production remains the sole possibility. In these cases, there are some challenges involved in increasing the energy performance as much as possible. High energy recovery efficiency values are very important for the environmental sustainability of WtE plants. The more electricity and heat is produced, the better the saving of natural resources that can be achieved. Within this frame, the aim of this work is to carry out an environmental assessment, through Life Cycle Assessment, of an MSW WtE plant, considering different sizes and operated in different ways, from power production only to full cogeneration. The main assumption is that the electric conversion efficiency increases as the plant size increases, introducing technical improvements thanks to the economies of scale. Impact assessment results were calculated using ReCiPe 2008 methods. The climate change indicator is positive when the WtE plant is operated in power production only mode, with values decreasing for the increasing size. Values for the climate change are negative when cogeneration is applied, requiring increasing cogeneration ratios for decreasing size. Similarly, the fossil fuel depletion indicator benefits from increase of both the plant size and the cogeneration rate, but it is always negative, meaning that the residual MSW burning with energy recovery always provides a saving of fossil primary energy. Other indicator values are in general negative and are also beneficially affected by

  12. A practical method to calculate the R1 index of waste-to-energy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, Federico

    2018-03-01

    According to Directive 98/2008/EC, the operation carried out by an incinerator of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is classified either as energy recovery (R1) or as disposal (D10) depending on the result achieved by the application of the R1 formula. In 2011 the DG Environment of the European Commission (EC) issued some non-binding guidelines on the interpretation of such a formula that clarified many aspects related to its application. A point not fully clarified by the EC guidelines is the determination of the energy contained in the treated waste (E W ). For this term of the formula, reference is made to the indirect method for the calculation of boiler thermal efficiency, as defined by the norm EN 12952-15. However, the application of such a norm to an entire year of operation of a Waste-to-Energy (WtE) boiler is not immediate. Therefore, a practical method for the calculation of the E W term has been developed in the framework of a collaboration between the MatER Study Centre and the Lombardy Region (Italy). The method is based on: (i) the identification of the most reliable data available from the Distributed Control System (DCS) of the plant; (ii) the definition of a control volume around the boiler(s) also based on the availability of data; (iii) the closure of the mass balance for such a control volume; (iv) the energy balance of the same control volume that gives, thus, the E W term of the R1 formula. The method has been applied in 2015-2016 to nine plants, generating a number of interesting data reported and discussed in this work, such as R1 index values, Lower Heating Values (LHV) of the treated wastes, main sources of energy losses in WtE boilers, etc. For one case study, discussed in detail in this work, the law of propagation of uncertainties has been applied according to the ISO/IEC Guide 98-3, leading to the assessment of the accuracy of the method, which resulted in ±2.4% with a confidence level of circa 95%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  13. Energy implications of mechanical and mechanical-biological treatment compared to direct waste-to-energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Wenzel, Henrik

    2013-07-01

    Primary energy savings potential is used to compare five residual municipal solid waste treatment systems, including configurations with mechanical (MT) and mechanical-biological (MBT) pre-treatment, which produce waste-derived fuels (RDF and SRF), biogas and/or recover additional materials for recycling, alongside a system based on conventional mass burn waste-to-energy and ash treatment. To examine the magnitude of potential savings we consider two energy efficiency levels (state-of-the-art and best available technology), the inclusion/exclusion of heat recovery (CHP vs. PP) and three different background end-use energy production systems (coal condensing electricity and natural gas heat, Nordic electricity mix and natural gas heat, and coal CHP energy quality allocation). The systems achieved net primary energy savings in a range between 34 and 140 MJprimary/100 MJinput waste, in the different scenario settings. The energy footprint of transportation needs, pre-treatment and reprocessing of recyclable materials was 3-9.5%, 1-18% and 1-8% respectively, relative to total energy savings. Mass combustion WtE achieved the highest savings in scenarios with CHP production, nonetheless, MBT-based systems had similarly high performance if SRF streams were co-combusted with coal. When RDF and SRF was only used in dedicated WtE plants, MBT-based systems totalled lower savings due to inherent system losses and additional energy costs. In scenarios without heat recovery, the biodrying MBS-based system achieved the highest savings, on the condition of SRF co-combustion. As a sensitivity scenario, alternative utilisation of SRF in cement kilns was modelled. It supported similar or higher net savings for all pre-treatment systems compared to mass combustion WtE, except when WtE CHP was possible in the first two background energy scenarios. Recovery of plastics for recycling before energy recovery increased net energy savings in most scenario variations, over those of full

  14. Sustainable waste management: Waste to energy plant as an alternative to landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucchiella, Federica; D’Adamo, Idiano; Gastaldi, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • WTE plant is a reasonable and sustainable alternative technology to landfill. • A 150 kt plant in the only electrical configuration for Abruzzo region. • The percentage of energy recovery ranges from 21% to 25% in examined scenarios. • Financial Net Present Value is equal to 25.4 € per kiloton of treated waste. • The annual reduction of emissions is equal to 370 kgCO_2eq per ton of treated waste. - Abstract: The management of municipal solid waste (MSW) has been identified as one of the global challenges that must be carefully faced in order to achieve sustainability goals. European Union (EU) has defined as Waste to Energy (WTE) technology is able to create synergies with EU energy and climate policy, without compromising the achievement of higher reuse and recycling rates. The methodology used in this paper is based on two levels. A strategy analysis defines the amount of waste to incinerate with energy recovery considering different approaches based on unsorted waste, landfilled waste and separated collection rate, respectively. Consequently, it is evaluated the sustainability of a WTE plant as an alternative to landfill for a specific area. Two indicators are used: the Reduction of the Emissions of equivalent Carbon Dioxide (ER_C_O_2_e_q) and Financial Net Present Value (FNPV). Furthermore, a social analysis is conducted through interviews to identify the most critical elements determining the aversion toward the WTE realization. The obtained results show the opportunity to realize a 150 kt plant in the only electrical configuration. In fact, the cogenerative configuration reaches better environmental performances, but it is not profitable for this size. Profits are equal to 25.4 € per kiloton of treated waste and 370 kgCO_2eq per ton of treated waste are avoided using a WTE plant as an alternative to landfill. In this way, the percentage of energy recovery ranges from 21% to 25% in examined scenarios and disposal waste is minimised

  15. Fuel Cells in the Waste-to-Energy Chain Distributed Generation Through Non-Conventional Fuels and Fuel Cells

    CERN Document Server

    McPhail, Stephen J; Moreno, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    As the availability of fossils fuels becomes more limited, the negative impact of their consumption becomes an increasingly relevant factor in our choices with regards to primary energy sources. The exponentially increasing demand for energy is reflected in the mass generation of by-products and waste flows which characterize current society’s development and use of fossil sources. The potential for recoverable material and energy in these ever-increasing refuse flows is huge, even after the separation of hazardous constituent elements, allowing safe and sustainable further exploitation of an otherwise 'wasted' resource.  Fuel Cells in the Waste-to-Energy Chain explores the concept of waste-to-energy through a 5 step process which reflects the stages during the transformation of  refuse flows to a valuable commodity such as clean energy. By providing selected, integrated alternatives to the current centralized, wasteful, fossil-fuel based infrastructure, Fuel Cells in the Waste-to-Energy Chain explores ho...

  16. Comparison of potential greenhouse gas emissions from disposal of MSW in sanitary landfills vs. waste-to-energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, H.F.

    1991-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates the US currently generates about 160 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) per year, and this figure will exceed 200 million tons annually by the year 2000. About 80 percent of the MSW will be disposed of in landfills and waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities, both of which generate greenhouse gases, namely methane and carbon dioxide. This paper provides an introductory level analysis of the potential long term greenhouse gas emissions from these two MSW disposal alternatives. Carbon dioxide credits are derived for fossil fuel offset by WTE and methane emissions are converted to equivalent CO 2 emissions in order to derive a single emission figure for comparison of the greenhouse contribution of the two disposal strategies. A secondary analysis is presented to compare the net equivalent CO 2 emissions from WTE facilities to those from landfills with methane gas recovery, combustion and energy generation. The conclusion is, that for a given amount of MSW, landfilling contributes to the greenhouse effect about 10 times more than a modern Waste-To-Energy facility. Even with 50% of all landfill methane emissions recovered and converted to electricity, the contribution to the greenhouse effect by the landfill alternative is about 6 times greater than the waste-to-energy alternative

  17. Technology and place: A geography of waste-to-energy in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Jordan Patterson

    The adoption of technologies differs across space, for reasons attributed to economics, politics, and culture, but also due to limitations imposed by both the physical environment and the technology itself. This dissertation considers the case of waste-to-energy (WTE) incinerators in the United States, and asks why this technology is used in some places but rejected in others. The answer to this simple question is remarkably complex, as understandings and arguments about technology and the environment are mobilized differently by various actors to champion, oppose, or in some cases remain ambivalent about the installation and operation of WTE facilities. In this dissertation I explore the geography of WTE incineration in the United States since the 19th century. Informed by the insights of actor-network theory and the social construction of technology school, I employ the tools of discourse analysis to examine published and unpublished statements, papers, project studies, policy briefs, and archival materials generated alongside the development of WTE facilities in the United States, considering the specific case studies discussed below but also WTE technology in general. I look at federal, state, and local environmental agency documents as well as the papers of consulting firms, environmental and industry advocacy groups, and private companies. I also devote significant attention to the analysis of news media outlets in communities where WTE facilities are located or have been considered. In addition to these literal texts, I examine non-written and visual materials associated with WTE facilities, including films, websites, signage and logos, advertising campaigns, facility architecture, and artwork, as well as more abstract `texts' such as industry conferences, trade-show handouts, promotional materials, and academic and industry research programs. I build on this textual analysis with observations of WTE facilities in action. After an introductory chapter, I

  18. Integrated assessment of a new Waste-to-Energy facility in Central Greece in the context of regional perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkoulidis, G.; Papageorgiou, A.; Karagiannidis, A.; Kalogirou, S.

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study is the integrated assessment of a proposed Waste-to-Energy facility that could contribute in the Municipal Solid Waste Management system of the Region of Central Greece. In the context of this paper alternative transfer schemes for supplying the candidate facility were assessed considering local conditions and economical criteria. A mixed-integer linear programming model was applied for the determination of optimum locations of Transfer Stations for an efficient supplying chain between the waste producers and the Waste-to-Energy facility. Moreover different Regional Waste Management Scenarios were assessed against multiple criteria, via the Multi Criteria Decision Making method ELECTRE III. The chosen criteria were total cost, Biodegradable Municipal Waste diversion from landfill, energy recovery and Greenhouse Gas emissions and the analysis demonstrated that a Waste Management Scenario based on a Waste-to-Energy plant with an adjacent landfill for disposal of the residues would be the best performing option for the Region, depending however on the priorities of the decision makers. In addition the study demonstrated that efficient planning is necessary and the case of three sanitary landfills operating in parallel with the WtE plant in the study area should be avoided. Moreover alternative cases of energy recovery of the candidate Waste-to-Energy facility were evaluated against the requirements of the new European Commission Directive on waste in order for the facility to be recognized as recovery operation. The latter issue is of high significance and the decision makers in European Union countries should take it into account from now on, in order to plan and implement facilities that recover energy efficiently. Finally a sensitivity check was performed in order to evaluate the effects of increased recycling rate, on the calorific value of treated Municipal Solid Waste and the gate fee of the candidate plant and found that increased

  19. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münster, M; Meibom, P

    2010-12-01

    Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO(2) quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste incineration continues to treat the largest amount of waste. Investments in new waste incineration capacity may, however, be superseded by investments in new Waste-to-Energy technologies, particularly those utilising sorted fractions such as organic waste and refuse derived fuel. The changed use of waste proves to always affect a combination of technologies. What is affected varies among the different Waste-to-Energy technologies and is furthermore dependent on the CO(2) quota costs and on the geographical scope. The necessity for investments in flexibility measures varies with the different technologies such as storage of heat and waste as well as expansion of district heating networks. Finally, inflexible technologies such as nuclear power plants are shown to be affected. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Quality and generation rate of solid residues in the boiler of a waste-to-energy plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegrini, E.; Boldrin, A.; Jansson, S.; Lundtorp, K.; Fruergaard Astrup, T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ash was sampled at 10 different points of the boiler of a waste-to-energy plant. • Samples were analysed for the chemical composition, PCDD/F and leaching behaviour. • Enrichment trends of elements were investigated in relation to boiler conditions. • No significant differences were found between boiler ash samples. - Abstract: The Danish waste management system relies significantly on waste-to-energy (WtE) plants. The ash produced at the energy recovery section (boiler ash) is classified as hazardous waste, and is commonly mixed with fly ash and air pollution control residues before disposal. In this study, a detailed characterization of boiler ash from a Danish grate-based mass burn type WtE was performed, to evaluate the potential for improving ash management. Samples were collected at 10 different points along the boiler's convective part, and analysed for grain size distribution, content of inorganic elements, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD and PCDF), and leaching of metals. For all samples, PCDD and PCDF levels were below regulatory limits, while high pH values and leaching of e.g. Cl were critical. No significant differences were found between boiler ash from individual sections of the boiler, in terms of total content and leaching, indicating that separate management of individual ash fractions may not provide significant benefits

  1. Prediction of combustible waste generation and estimate of potential energy by applying waste to energy technologies in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jang-Soo; Cho, Sung-Jin; Jung, Hae-Young; Lee, Ki-Bae; Seo, Yong-Chil

    2010-01-01

    In 2007 total waste generation rate in Korea was 318,670 ton,day. In general waste generation rate shows rising trend since 2000. Wastes are composed of municipal waste 14.9 % industrial waste 34.1 % and construction waste 51.0 %. Treatment of wastes by recycling was 81.1 % landfill 11.1 % incineration 5.3 % and ocean dumping 2.4 %. National waste energy policies have been influenced by various factors such as environmental problem economy technology level (could be made energy), and so on. Korea has the worlds third dense population density environmental pollution load per unit land area is the highest in OECD countries caused due to the fast development in economy, industrialization and urbanization in recent. Also, land area per person is just 2,072 m 2 . Landfill capacity reaches the upper limit, industrial waste generation is increasing. Searching new-renewable energy is vital to substitute fossil fuel considering its increasing price. Korea is the world's 10th biggest energy consuming country and 97% of energy depends on importing. Korea aims to increases supply of new-renewable energy by 5% until the 2011. In this study, we computed the amount of combustible waste from municipality generated by the multiple regression analysis. The existing technologies for converting waste to energy were surveyed and the technologies under development or utilizing in future were also investigated. Based on the technology utilization, the amount of energy using waste to energy technology could be estimated in future. (author)

  2. Quality and generation rate of solid residues in the boiler of a waste-to-energy plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allegrini, E., E-mail: elia@env.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, Lyngby 2800 (Denmark); Boldrin, A. [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, Lyngby 2800 (Denmark); Jansson, S. [Umeå University, Department of Chemistry, Umeå SE-901 87 (Sweden); Lundtorp, K. [Babcock and Wilcox Vølund A/S, Göteborg (Sweden); Fruergaard Astrup, T. [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering, Building 115, Lyngby 2800 (Denmark)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Ash was sampled at 10 different points of the boiler of a waste-to-energy plant. • Samples were analysed for the chemical composition, PCDD/F and leaching behaviour. • Enrichment trends of elements were investigated in relation to boiler conditions. • No significant differences were found between boiler ash samples. - Abstract: The Danish waste management system relies significantly on waste-to-energy (WtE) plants. The ash produced at the energy recovery section (boiler ash) is classified as hazardous waste, and is commonly mixed with fly ash and air pollution control residues before disposal. In this study, a detailed characterization of boiler ash from a Danish grate-based mass burn type WtE was performed, to evaluate the potential for improving ash management. Samples were collected at 10 different points along the boiler's convective part, and analysed for grain size distribution, content of inorganic elements, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD and PCDF), and leaching of metals. For all samples, PCDD and PCDF levels were below regulatory limits, while high pH values and leaching of e.g. Cl were critical. No significant differences were found between boiler ash from individual sections of the boiler, in terms of total content and leaching, indicating that separate management of individual ash fractions may not provide significant benefits.

  3. Impact of community engagement on public acceptance towards waste-to-energy incineration projects: Empirical evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Sun, Chenjunyan; Xia, Bo; Cui, Caiyun; Coffey, Vaughan

    2018-02-20

    As one of the most popular methods for the treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW), waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration offers effective solutions to deal with the MSW surge and globe energy issues. Nevertheless, the construction of WTE facilities faces considerable and strong opposition from local communities due to the perceived potential risks. The present study aims to understand whether, and how, community engagement improves local residents' public acceptance towards waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration facilities using a questionnaire survey conducted with nearby residents of two selected WTE incineration plants located in Zhejiang province, China. The results of data analysis using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) reveal that firstly, a lower level of public acceptance exists among local residents of over the age of 35, of lower education levels, living within 3 km from the WTE Plant and from WTE incineration Plants which are under construction. Secondly, the public trust of local government and other authorities was positively associated with the public acceptance of the WTE incineration project, both directly and indirectly based on perceived risk. Thirdly, community engagement can effectively enhance public trust in local government and other authorities related to the WTE incineration project. The findings contribute to the literature on MSW treatment policy-making and potentially hazardous facility siting, by exploring the determinants of public acceptance towards WTE incineration projects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimization of waste to energy routes through biochemical and thermochemical treatment options of municipal solid waste in Hyderabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korai, Muhammad Safar; Mahar, Rasool Bux; Uqaili, Muhammad Aslam

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Existing practice of municipal solid waste management of Hyderabad city, Pakistan have been analyzed. • Development of scenarios on basis of nature of waste components for optimizing waste to energy route. • Analyzing the biochemical and thermochemical potential of MSW through various scenarios. • Evaluation of various treatment technologies under scenarios to optimize waste to energy route. - Abstract: Improper disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) has created many environmental problems in Pakistan and the country is facing energy shortages as well. The present study evaluates the biochemical and thermochemical treatment options of MSW in order to address both the endemic environmental challenges and in part the energy shortage. According to the nature of waste components, a number of scenarios were developed to optimize the waste to energy (WTE) routes. The evaluation of treatment options has been performed by mathematical equations using the special characteristics of MSW. The power generation potential (PGP) of biochemical (anaerobic digestion) has been observed in the range of 5.9–11.3 kW/ton day under various scenarios. The PGP of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF), Mass Burn Incinerator (MBI), Gasification/Pyrolysis (Gasi./Pyro.) and Plasma Arc Gasification (PAG) have been found to be in the range of 2.7–118.6 kW/ton day, 3.8–164.7 kW/ton day, 4.2–184.5 kW/ton day and 5.2–224 kW/ton day, respectively. The highest values of biochemical and all thermochemical technologies have been obtained through the use of scenarios including the putrescible components (PCs) of MSW such as food and yard wastes, and the non-biodegradable components (NBCs) of MSW such as plastic, rubber, leather, textile and wood respectively. Therefore, routes which include these components are the optimized WTE routes for maximum PGP by biochemical and thermochemical treatments of MSW. The findings of study lead to recommend that socio-economic and environmental

  5. Retrofit of waste-to-energy facilities equipped with electrostatic precipitators. Volume III: Test protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigo, H.G. [Rigo & Rigo Associates, Inc., Berea, OH (US); Chandler, A.J. [A.J. Chandler & Associates, Inc., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-04-01

    The American Society of Mechanical Engineers' [ASME] Center for Research and Technology Development [CRTD] has been awarded a subcontract by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory [NREL] to demonstrate the technical performance and viability of flue gas temperature control in combination with dry acid gas reagent and activated carbon injection at an existing electrostatic precipitator [ESP] equipped municipal waste combustor [MWC]. The objective of this proof-of-concept demonstration test is to economically and reliably meet 40 CFR 60 Subpart Cb Emissions Guidelines for MWC's at existing ESP equipped facilities. The effort is being directed by a Subcommittee of tile ASME Research Committee on Industrial and Municipal Wastes [RCIMW] chaired by Dave Hoecke. Mr. Greg Barthold of ASME/CRTD is the Project Manager. ASME/CRTD contracted with Rigo & Rigo Associates, Inc. in cooperation with A.J. Chandler & Associates, Ltd. to be the Principal Investigator for the project and manage the day-t o-day aspects of the program, conduct the testing reduce and interpret the data and prepare the report. Testing will be conducted at the 2 by 210 TPD, ESP equipped MWC at the Davis County Resource Recovery Facility in Layton, Utah. The test plan calls for duplicate metals (Cd, Pb and Hg), dioxin and acid gas runs.

  6. Quality and generation rate of solid residues in the boiler of a waste-to-energy plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Jansson, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Danish waste management system relies significantly on waste-to-energy (WtE) plants. The ash produced at the energy recovery section (boiler ash) is classified as hazardous waste, and is commonly mixed with fly ash and air pollution control residues before disposal. In this study, a detailed...... characterization of boiler ash from a Danish grate-based mass burn type WtE was performed, to evaluate the potential for improving ash management. Samples were collected at 10 different points along the boiler's convective part, and analysed for grain size distribution, content of inorganic elements......, polychlorinated dibenzo-. p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD and PCDF), and leaching of metals. For all samples, PCDD and PCDF levels were below regulatory limits, while high pH values and leaching of e.g. Cl were critical. No significant differences were found between boiler ash from individual sections...

  7. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Meibom, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy...... production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments...... and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO2 quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste...

  8. Resistance of Coatings for Boiler Components of Waste-to-Energy Plants to Salt Melts Containing Copper Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galetz, Mathias Christian; Bauer, Johannes Thomas; Schütze, Michael; Noguchi, Manabu; Cho, Hiromitsu

    2013-06-01

    The accelerating effect of heavy metal compounds on the corrosive attack of boiler components like superheaters poses a severe problem in modern waste-to-energy plants (WTPs). Coatings are a possible solution to protect cheap, low alloyed steel substrates from heavy metal chloride and sulfate salts, which have a relatively low melting point. These salts dissolve many alloys, and therefore often are the limiting factor as far as the lifetime of superheater tubes is concerned. In this work the corrosion performance under artificial salt deposits of different coatings, manufactured by overlay welding, thermal spraying of self-fluxing as well as conventional systems was investigated. The results of our studies clearly demonstrate the importance of alloying elements such as molybdenum or silicon. Additionally, the coatings have to be dense and of a certain thickness in order to resist the corrosive attack under these severe conditions.

  9. Life cycle assessment of waste to energy micro-pyrolysis system: case study for an Italian town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Fantozzi, Francesco

    2004-01-01

    Waste disposal represents an important aspect of the policies of politics of developed countries. It is well known that waste management entails several social, economical and environmental aspects. Many different technical solutions have been proposed and evaluated, more or less complicated, from a social and economic point of view, but the environmental burden linked to these solutions still remains an open problem not definitively resolved yet. One of the most promising ways for investigating and comparing the environmental consequences connected to different human activities seems to be represented by the LCA analysis. In this work the LCA analysis of a micro-pyrolysis with micro-gas turbine waste to energy plant, has been performed with the aid of a commercial simulation code. The scenario is analysed with regard to a small, isolated, Italian town. A comparison between the current and proposed case has also been carried out. (Author)

  10. Size fractionation of waste-to-energy boiler ash enables separation of a coarse fraction with low dioxin concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidemann, E.; Allegrini, Elisa; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) formed in modern Waste-to-Energy plants are primarily found in the generated ashes and air pollution control residues, which are usually disposed of as hazardous waste. The objective of this study was to explore the occurrence of PCDD....../F in different grain size fractions in the boiler ash, i.e. ash originating from the convection pass of the boiler. If a correlation between particle size and dioxin concentrations could be found, size fractionation of the ashes could reduce the total amount of hazardous waste. Boiler ash samples from ten...... sections of a boiler's convective part were collected over three sampling days, sieved into three different size fractions - 0.355. mm - and analysed for PCDD/F. The coarse fraction (>0.355. mm) in the first sections of the horizontal convection pass appeared to be of low toxicity with respect to dioxin...

  11. Combined heat and power production planning in a waste-to-energy plant on a short-term basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touš, Michal; Pavlas, Martin; Putna, Ondřej; Stehlík, Petr; Crha, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    In many cases, WtE (waste-to-energy) plants are CHP (combined heat and power) producers. They are often integrated into a central heating system and they also export electricity to the grid. Therefore, they have to plan their operation on a long-term basis (months, years) as well as on a short-term basis (hours, days). Simulation models can effectively support decision making in CHP production planning. In general, CHP production planning on a short-term basis is a challenging task for WtE plants. This article presents a simulation based support. It is demonstrated on an example involving a real WtE plant. Most of the models of relevant WtE sub-systems (boilers, steam turbine) are developed using operational data and applying linear regression and artificial neural network technique. The process randomness given mainly by fluctuating heating value of waste leads to uncertainty in a calculation of CHP production and a stochastic approach is appropriate. The models of the sub-systems are, therefore, extended of a stochastic part and Monte-Carlo simulation is applied. Compared to the current planning strategy in the involved WtE plant, the stochastic simulation based planning provides increased CHP production resulting in better net thermal efficiency and increased revenue. This is demonstrated through a comparison using real operational data. - Highlights: • Introduction of a stochastic model of a CHP production in a waste-to-energy plant. • An application of the model for the next day CHP production planning. • Better net thermal efficiency and therefore increased revenue achieved.

  12. Socio-technical systems analysis of waste to energy from municipal solid waste in developing economies: a case for Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyamu Hope O.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste generation is an inevitable by-product of human activity, and it is on the rise due to rapid urbanisation, industrialisation, increased wealth and population. The composition of municipal solid waste (MSW in developed and developing economies differ, especially with the organic fraction. Research shows that the food waste stream of MSW in developing countries is over 50%. The case study for this investigation, Nigeria, has minimal formal recycling or resource recovery programs. The average composition of waste from previous research in the country is between 50–70% putrescible and 30–50% non-putrescible, presenting significant resource recovery potential in composting and biogas production. Waste-to-energy (WtE is an important waste management solution that has been successfully implemented and operated in most developed economies. This contribution reports the conditions that would be of interest before WtE potentials of MSW is harnessed, in an efficient waste management process in a developing economy like Nigeria. The investigation presents a set of socio-technical parameters and transition strategy model that would inform a productive MSW management and resource recovery, in which WtE can be part of the solution. This model will find application in the understanding of the interactions between the socio-economic, technical and environmental system, to promote sustainable resource recovery programs in developing economies, among which is WtE.

  13. Quality and generation rate of solid residues in the boiler of a waste-to-energy plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrini, E; Boldrin, A; Jansson, S; Lundtorp, K; Fruergaard Astrup, T

    2014-04-15

    The Danish waste management system relies significantly on waste-to-energy (WtE) plants. The ash produced at the energy recovery section (boiler ash) is classified as hazardous waste, and is commonly mixed with fly ash and air pollution control residues before disposal. In this study, a detailed characterization of boiler ash from a Danish grate-based mass burn type WtE was performed, to evaluate the potential for improving ash management. Samples were collected at 10 different points along the boiler's convective part, and analysed for grain size distribution, content of inorganic elements, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD and PCDF), and leaching of metals. For all samples, PCDD and PCDF levels were below regulatory limits, while high pH values and leaching of e.g. Cl were critical. No significant differences were found between boiler ash from individual sections of the boiler, in terms of total content and leaching, indicating that separate management of individual ash fractions may not provide significant benefits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Municipal Solid Waste to Energy Generation in Bangladesh: Possible Scenarios to Generate Renewable Electricity in Dhaka and Chittagong City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Nazmul Islam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased generation of methane (CH4 from municipal solid wastes (MSW alarms the world to take proper initiative for the sustainable management of MSW, because it is 34 times stronger than carbon dioxide (CO2. Mounting land scarcity issue around the world brands the waste to energy (WtE strategy for MSW management in urban areas as a promising option, because WtE not only reduces the land pressure problem, but also generates electricity, heat, and green jobs. The goal of this study is to evaluate the renewable electricity generation potential and associated carbon reduction of MSW management in Bangladesh using WtE strategies. The study is conducted in two major cities of Bangladesh: Dhaka and Chittagong. Six different WtE scenarios are evaluated consisting of mixed MSW incineration and landfill gas (LFG recovery system. Energy potential of different WtE strategy is assessed using standard energy conversion model and subsequent GHGs emissions models. Scenario A1 results in highest economic and energy potential and net negative GHGs emission. Sensitivity analysis by varying MSW moisture content reveals higher energy potential and less GHGs emissions from MSW possessing low moisture content. The study proposes mixed MSW incineration that could be a potential WtE strategy for renewable electricity generation in Bangladesh.

  15. Use of leaching tests to quantify trace element release from waste to energy bottom ash amended pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, Justin G; Townsend, Timothy G; Ferraro, Christopher C

    2015-12-30

    A series of roadway tests strips were paved on-site at a landfill in Florida, U.S. Waste to energy (WTE) bottom ash was used as a partial course aggregate replacement in a hot mix asphalt (HMA) and a Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavement, along with control HMA and PCC sections. This allowed for a comparison of the relative degree of leaching between both materials (HMA and PCC) as well as between the ash-amended and control pavements. Batch and monolithic tank leaching tests were conducted on the pavements. Testing of the PCC samples demonstrated that Mo and Al were elevated above regulatory thresholds for both the control and ash amended samples. Further leach testing demonstrated that the release of Mo was likely from the PCC and not a result of the inclusion of the BA into pavement. Batch leach testing of ash-amended HMA samples revealed Sb as a constituent of potential concern. The results of the monolith leaching test displayed leaching of Sb within the same order of magnitude as the regulatory threshold. Calculation of the leachability index (LI) for Sb found that it would have limited mobility when incorporated in the HMA matrix. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Inventory Analysis and Social Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Waste-to-Energy Incineration in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tsang Lu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Waste-to-energy (WtE incineration technology is widely used to solve the energy supply, greenhouse gas emissions, and waste generation problems in urban areas. In Taiwan, there are new laws and regulations that would affect greenhouse gas management of WtE incineration plants. This research aims to identify or raise key issues to be promoted for WtE incineration plants due to existing management systems and complex issues mixed with GHG, energy, and solid waste treatment. This study utilizes inventory analysis and social LCA (SLCA approach on GHG management of WtE incineration plants in Taiwan to systematically identify materiality issues to be promoted. According to the results of materiality analysis for SLCA, this study generalizes four stakeholders, nine subcategories, and their 15 inventory indicators; and concludes that, among assessment results of 15 inventory indicators, three indicators are at a high level, four at a medium level, and eight at a low level. In total, 12 materiality issues are recognized. This study suggests WtE incineration plants should consider the following materiality issues with respect to priority: a systematic database and calculation methods, the goal and criteria of the laws and regulations, technology development toward circular economy and promotion activity or opportunity for local community and organization level.

  17. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Greef, J.; Villani, K.; Goethals, J.; Van Belle, H.; Van Caneghem, J.; Vandecasteele, C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • WtE plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. • Emission and consumption data before and after 5 technical improvements are discussed. • Plant performance can be increased without introduction of new techniques or re-design. • Diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operation are essential. - Abstract: Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation – before and after optimisation – as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential

  18. A life cycle assessment of environmental performances of two combustion- and gasification-based waste-to-energy technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Umberto; Ardolino, Filomena; Di Gregorio, Fabrizio

    2015-07-01

    An attributional life cycle analysis (LCA) was developed to compare the environmental performances of two waste-to-energy (WtE) units, which utilize the predominant technologies among those available for combustion and gasification processes: a moving grate combustor and a vertical shaft gasifier coupled with direct melting. The two units were assumed to be fed with the same unsorted residual municipal waste, having a composition estimated as a European average. Data from several plants in operation were processed by means of mass and energy balances, and on the basis of the flows and stocks of materials and elements inside and throughout the two units, as provided by a specific substance flow analysis. The potential life cycle environmental impacts related to the operations of the two WtE units were estimated by means of the Impact 2002+ methodology. They indicate that both the technologies have sustainable environmental performances, but those of the moving grate combustion unit are better for most of the selected impact categories. The analysis of the contributions from all the stages of each specific technology suggests where improvements in technological solutions and management criteria should be focused to obtain further and remarkable environmental improvements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Towards a sustainable paradigm of waste-to-energy process: Enhanced anaerobic digestion of sludge with woody biochar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yanwen; Linville, Jessica L.; Ignacio-de Leon, Patricia Anne A.; Schoene, Robin P.; Urgun-Demirtas, Meltem

    2016-11-01

    This study presents an integrated waste-to-energy process, using two waste streams, sludge generated from the municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and biochar generated from the biomass gasification systems, to produce fungible biomethane and nutrient-rich digestate with fertilizer value. Two woody biochar, namely pinewood (PBC) and white oak biochar (WOBC) were used as additives during anaerobic digestion (AD) of WWTP sludge to enhance methane production at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures. The PBC and WOBC have porous structure, large surface area and desirable chemical properties to be used as AD amendment material to sequester CO2 from biogas in the digester. The biochar-amended digesters achieved average methane content in biogas of up to 92.3% and 79.0%, corresponding to CO2 sequestration by up to 66.2% and 32.4% during mesophilic and thermophilic AD, respectively. Biochar addition enhanced process stability by increasing the alkalinity, but inhibitory effects were observed at high dosage. It also alleviated free ammonia inhibition by up to 10.5%. The biochar-amended digesters generated digestate rich in macro- and micronutrients including K (up to 300 m/L), Ca (up to 750 mg/L), Mg (up to 1800 mg/L) and Fe (up to 390 mg/L), making biochar-amended digestate a potential alternative used as agricultural lime fertilizer.

  20. Waste-to-energy incineration plants as greenhouse gas reducers: a case study of seven Japanese metropolises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Tomohiro

    2013-11-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a greenhouse gas (GHG) emitter; however, if GHG reductions, achieved by accounting for waste-to-energy, exceed GHG emissions, incineration can be considered as a net GHG reducer. In Japan, only 24.5% of MSW incineration plants perform energy recovery despite 80% of MSW being incinerated; therefore, there is great potential to extract more energy from MSW. In this study, the factors that should be considered to achieve net GHG reductions from incineration were analysed from a life cycle perspective. These considerations were then applied to the energy supply requirements in seven Japanese metropolises. Firstly, the carbon footprints of approximately 1500 incineration plants in Japan were calculated. Then, the incineration plants with negative carbon footprint values were classified as net GHG reducers. Next, the processes that contribute to the carbon footprint were evaluated, and two processes-plastic burning and electricity savings-were found to have the greatest influence. Based on the results, the energy supply requirements were analysed and discussed for seven metropolises (Sapporo, Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka, Kobe, Takamatsu and Fukuoka) taking into account the energy demands of households. In Kobe, 16.2% of the electricity demand and 25.0% of the hot water demand could be satisfied by incineration to realise a net GHG reducer, although urban design for energy utilisation would be required.

  1. Size fractionation of waste-to-energy boiler ash enables separation of a coarse fraction with low dioxin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidemann, E; Allegrini, E; Fruergaard Astrup, T; Hulgaard, T; Riber, C; Jansson, S

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) formed in modern Waste-to-Energy plants are primarily found in the generated ashes and air pollution control residues, which are usually disposed of as hazardous waste. The objective of this study was to explore the occurrence of PCDD/F in different grain size fractions in the boiler ash, i.e. ash originating from the convection pass of the boiler. If a correlation between particle size and dioxin concentrations could be found, size fractionation of the ashes could reduce the total amount of hazardous waste. Boiler ash samples from ten sections of a boiler's convective part were collected over three sampling days, sieved into three different size fractions - 0.355 mm - and analysed for PCDD/F. The coarse fraction (>0.355 mm) in the first sections of the horizontal convection pass appeared to be of low toxicity with respect to dioxin content. While the total mass of the coarse fraction in this boiler was relatively small, sieving could reduce the amount of ash containing toxic PCDD/F by around 0.5 kg per tonne input waste or around 15% of the collected boiler ash from the convection pass. The mid-size fraction in this study covered a wide size range (0.09-0.355 mm) and possibly a low toxicity fraction could be identified by splitting this fraction into more narrow size ranges. The ashes exhibited uniform PCDD/F homologue patterns which suggests a stable and continuous generation of PCDD/F. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An assessment of the potential contribution from waste-to-energy facilities to electricity demand in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouda, Omar K.M.; Cekirge, Huseyin M.; Raza, Syed A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This research evaluates the potential contribution of WTE to Saudi power demand. • Two scenarios were developed: Mass Burn and Mass Burn with recycling to year 2032. • Mass Burn will generate 2073 Megawatts (MW) about 1.73% of 2032 peak power demand. • Mass Burn with recycling will generate 166 MW about 0.14% of 2032 peak power demand. - Abstract: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is the largest crude oil producer in the world and possesses the largest oil reserves. The crude oil revenue has resulted in a massive socio-economic development over the last four decades. This situation has resulted in rapid growth of the country’s electricity demand and municipal solid waste (MSW) generation. The KSA is proposing an impressive plan towards renewable energy utilization that includes waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities. This research assesses the potential contribution of WTE facilities to total Saudi peak power demand up to the year 2032 based on two scenarios: Mass Burn and Mass Burn with recycling for the entire country and for six major cities in the KSA. The analysis shows a potential to produce about 2073 Megawatts (MW) based on a Mass Burn scenario and about 166 MW based on Mass Burn with recycling scenario. These values amount to about 1.73% and 0.14% of the projected 2032 peak electricity demand of 120 Gigawatt. The forecasted results of each city from the two scenarios can be used to design future WTE facilities in the main cities of Saudi Arabia. Further investigations are recommended to evaluate the two scenarios based on financial, social, technical, and environmental criteria

  3. Energy, environmental and operation aspects of a SRF-fired fluidized bed waste-to-energy plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gisi, Sabino; Chiarelli, Agnese; Tagliente, Luca; Notarnicola, Michele

    2018-03-01

    A methodology based on the ISO 14031:2013 guideline has been developed and applied to a full-scale fluidized bed waste to energy plant (WtE) burning solid recovered fuel (SRF). With reference to 3years of operation, the data on energy and environmental performance, on raw materials consumptions such as sand and diesel fuel, accidental reasons of plant shutdown, have been acquired and analyzed. The obtained results have allowed to quantify the energy and environmental performance of the WtE plant under investigation by varying the amount and mixings of the inlet waste, available in form of thickened and fluff (similar to coriander) SRF. In terms of the energy performance, the fluidized bed technology applied to the SRF was able to guarantee an adequate production of electricity (satisfying the market demands), showing a relative flexibility with respect to the inlet waste. In terms of net energy production efficiency, the plant showed values in the range of 13.8-14.9% in line with similar installations. In terms of the environmental performance, the adoption of a cleaning system based on SNCR (Selective Non Catalitic Reduction)+semi-dry scrubbing+Fabric filter generated emissions usually well below the limits set by the EU Directive 2000/76/EC as well as the Italian Law 46/2014 (more restrictive) with reference to all the key parameters. In terms of the plant shutdown, the majority of problems focused on the combustion chamber and boiler due to the erosion of the refractory material of the furnace as well as to the breaking of the superheaters of the boiler. In contrast, the mechanical and electrical causes, along with those related to the control and instrumentation system, were of secondary importance. The sand bed de-fluidization was also among the leading causes of a frequent plant shutdown. In particular, results showed how although the SRF presents standard characteristics, the use of different mixtures may affect the number of plant shutdowns. The full

  4. Long-term sampling of CO2 from waste-to-energy plants: 14C determination methodology, data variation and uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Karsten; Pedersen, Niels Hald; Larsen, Anna Warberg

    2014-01-01

    A dedicated sampling and measurement method was developed for long-term measurements of biogenic and fossil-derived CO2 from thermal waste-to-energy processes. Based on long-term sampling of CO2 and 14C determination, plant-specific emission factors can be determined more accurately, and the annual...... emission of fossil CO2 from waste-to-energy plants can be monitored according to carbon trading schemes and renewable energy certificates. Weekly and monthly measurements were performed at five Danish waste incinerators. Significant variations between fractions of biogenic CO2 emitted were observed...... was ± 4.0 pmC (95 % confidence interval) at 62 pmC. The long-term sampling method was found to be useful for waste incinerators for determination of annual fossil and biogenic CO2 emissions with relatively low uncertainty....

  5. Combining plasma gasification and solid oxide cell technologies in advanced power plants for waste to energy and electric energy storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Alessandra; Minutillo, Mariagiovanna; Lubrano Lavadera, Antonio; Jannelli, Elio

    2018-03-01

    The waste to energy (WtE) facilities and the renewable energy storage systems have a strategic role in the promotion of the "eco-innovation", an emerging priority in the European Union. This paper aims to propose advanced plant configurations in which waste to energy plants and electric energy storage systems from intermittent renewable sources are combined for obtaining more efficient and clean energy solutions in accordance with the "eco-innovation" approach. The advanced plant configurations consist of an electric energy storage (EES) section based on a solid oxide electrolyzer (SOEC), a waste gasification section based on the plasma technology and a power generation section based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The plant configurations differ for the utilization of electrolytic hydrogen and oxygen in the plasma gasification section and in the power generation section. In the first plant configuration IAPGFC (Integrated Air Plasma Gasification Fuel Cell), the renewable oxygen enriches the air stream, that is used as plasma gas in the gasification section, and the renewable hydrogen is used to enrich the anodic stream of the SOFC in the power generation section. In the second plant configuration IHPGFC (Integrated Hydrogen Plasma Gasification Fuel Cell) the renewable hydrogen is used as plasma gas in the plasma gasification section, and the renewable oxygen is used to enrich the cathodic stream of the SOFC in the power generation section. The analysis has been carried out by using numerical models for predicting and comparing the systems performances in terms of electric efficiency and capability in realizing the waste to energy and the electric energy storage of renewable sources. Results have highlighted that the electric efficiency is very high for all configurations (35-45%) and, thanks to the combination with the waste to energy technology, the storage efficiencies are very attractive (in the range 72-92%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  6. Statistical lifetime modeling of FeNiCr alloys for high temperature corrosion in waste to energy plants and metal dusting in syngas production plants

    OpenAIRE

    Camperos Guevara, Sheyla Herminia

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decades, the corrosion control of alloys exposed to severe and complex conditions in industrial applications has been a great challenge. Currently, corrosion costs are increasing and preventive strategies have become an important industrial demand. The SCAPAC project funded by the French National Research Agency has proposed to study the corrosion for two separate processes: Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) and Waste to Energy (WtE). Although the operating conditions of both proces...

  7. Economic and environmental analysis of four different configurations of anaerobic digestion for food waste to energy conversion using LCA for: a food service provider case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchetti, Matthew

    2013-07-15

    The US disposes of more than 34 million tons of food waste in landfills per year. As this food waste decomposes it generates methane gas and negatively contributes to global warming. Diverting theses organic food wastes from landfills and to emerging technologies will prevent these wastes and greenhouse gas emissions while at the same time generating a source renewable energy by collecting the emitted gases. From a waste prevention standpoint, instead of the food waste decomposing at local landfills, it is being converted into an energy source and the by-product may be used as a fertilizer (Fine and Hadas, 2012). The purpose of this study was to compare four different configurations of anaerobic digestion of organic waste to energy technologies from an economic, energy, and emissions standpoint using LCA via a case study at a large food services provider in Northwest Ohio, USA. The technologies studied included two-stage anaerobic digestion system using ultrasound pre-treating, two stage continuous combined thermophilic acidogenic hydrogenesis and mesophilic with recirculation of the digested sludge, long-term anaerobic digestion of food waste stabilized by trace elements, and single stage anaerobic digestion. Using LCA, these scenarios were compared to landfill disposal of the food waste. The findings from the case study indicated that implementing on-site waste to energy systems will result in lower operation costs and lower environmental impacts. In addition, a standardized environmental and economic comparison of competing food waste to energy technologies is provided. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Immobilization of antimony in waste-to-energy bottom ash by addition of calcium and iron containing additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Caneghem, Jo; Verbinnen, Bram; Cornelis, Geert; de Wijs, Joost; Mulder, Rob; Billen, Pieter; Vandecasteele, Carlo

    2016-08-01

    The leaching of Sb from waste-to-energy (WtE) bottom ash (BA) often exceeds the Dutch limit value of 0.32mgkg(-1) for recycling of BA in open construction applications. From the immobilization mechanisms described in the literature, it could be concluded that both Ca and Fe play an important role in the immobilization of Sb in WtE BA. Therefore, Ca and Fe containing compounds were added to the samples of the sand fraction of WtE BA, which in contrast to the granulate fraction is not recyclable to date, and the effect on the Sb leaching was studied by means of batch leaching tests. Results showed that addition of 0.5 and 2.5% CaO, 5% CaCl2, 2.5% Fe2(SO4)3 and 1% FeCl3 decreased the Sb leaching from 0.62±0.02mgkgDM(-1) to 0.20±0.02, 0.083±0.044, 0.25±0.01, 0.27±0.002 and 0.29±0.02mgkgDM(-1), respectively. Due to the increase in pH from 11.41 to 12.53 when 2.5% CaO was added, Pb and Zn leaching increased and exceeded the respective leaching limits. Addition of 5% CaCO3 had almost no effect on the Sb leaching, as evidenced by the resulting 0.53mgkgDM(-1) leaching concentration. This paper shows a complementary enhancement of the effect of Ca and Fe, by comparing the aforementioned Sb leaching results with those of WtE BA with combined addition of 2.5% CaO or 5% CaCl2 with 2.5% Fe2(SO4)3 or 1% FeCl3. These lab scale results suggest that formation of romeites with a high Ca content and formation of iron antimonate (tripuhyite) with a very low solubility are the main immobilization mechanisms of Sb in WtE BA. Besides the pure compounds and their mixtures, also addition of 10% of two Ca and Fe containing residues of the steel industry, hereafter referred to as R1 and R2, was effective in decreasing the Sb leaching from WtE BA below the Dutch limit value for reuse in open construction applications. To evaluate the long term effect of the additives, pilot plots of WtE BA with 10% of R1 and 5% and 10% of R2 were built and samples were submitted to leaching tests at

  9. External costs of atmospheric lead emissions from a waste-to-energy plant: a follow-up assessment of indirect neurotoxic impacts via topsoil ingestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Møller, Flemming; Thomsen, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    The link between anthropogenic emissions and the monetary value of their impacts, so-called external cost, can be determined via the impact pathway approach. This method is used in the present study to calculate the indirect costs, via topsoil ingestion, of lead emitted into atmosphere from a waste......-to-energy facility in Denmark. The Operational Meteorological air-quality model, the Simplified Fate and Speciation Model, and the Age Dependent Biokinetic Model are used to determine the metals’ atmospheric transport, its deposition and accumulation in topsoil, and its bio-accumulation in the human body...

  10. The waste-to-energy framework for integrated multi-waste utilization: Waste cooking oil, waste lubricating oil, and waste plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhabhandhu, Ampaitepin; Tezuka, Tetsuo [Energy Economics Laboratory, Department of Socio-Environmental Energy Science, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    Energy generation by wastes is considered one method of waste management that has the benefit of energy recovery. From the waste-to-energy point of view, waste cooking oil, waste lubricating oil, and waste plastics have been considered good candidates for feedstocks for energy conversion due to their high heating values. Compared to the independent management of these three wastes, the idea of co-processing them in integration is expected to gain more benefit. The economies of scale and the synergy of co-processing these wastes results in higher quality and higher yield of the end products. In this study, we use cost-benefit analysis to evaluate the integrated management scenario of collecting the three wastes and converting them to energy. We report the total heat of combustion of pyrolytic oil at the maximum and minimum conversion rates, and conduct a sensitivity analysis in which the parameters of an increase of the electricity cost for operating the process and increase of the feedstock transportation cost are tested. We evaluate the effects of economy of scale in the case of integrated waste management. We compare four cases of waste-to-energy conversion with the business as usual (BAU) scenario, and our results show that the integrated co-processing of waste cooking oil, waste lubricating oil, and waste plastics is the most profitable from the viewpoints of energy yield and economics. (author)

  11. Critical analysis of a method for assessing health effects of the toxic and persistent atmospheric pollutants from waste to energy plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocarta, D.; Ragazzi, M.; Badea, A.; Apostol, T.

    2005-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is primarily a management tool, but it may also be used like a source of energy. Considering the risks to health posed by MSW incineration, it is also appropriate to make some comparisons with alternatives forms of waste management. The municipal solid incineration with energy recovery (so called waste-to-energy plants) and the indicators in the risk assesment are presented in the paper. A particular aspect is related to the organic micro-pollutant benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) role for the human health risk assesment in waste-to-energy plants. There are also pointed out details on the group of the organic compounds Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, PAH, from which BaP is part, and on the dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs). As persistent organic pollutants all the pollutants first mentioned above are to be taken into account in the health risk assesment. The present paper points out how BaP can be a useful indicator of PAH in case of the waste incinerators process so as 2, 3, 7, 8 Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin is for dioxins. (authors)

  12. Sustainable energy transitions in emerging economies: The formation of a palm oil biomass waste-to-energy niche in Malaysia 1990–2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Nygaard, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    The economic development in emerging economies in Southeast Asia has significantly increased the use of fossil fuel based energy. This has severe implications for global climate change, and against this background, scholars within the sustainable transition tradition have taken an interest...... in addressing how transitions towards more sustainable development pathways in this region may be achieved. This paper contributes to the abovementioned literature by examining the conducive and limiting factors for development and proliferation of a palm oil biomass waste-to-energy niche in Malaysia during...... the period 1990–2011. Rising oil prices, strong pressure on the palm oil industry from environmental groups, and a persisting palm oil biomass waste disposal problem in Malaysia appear to have been conducive to niche proliferation, and on top of this national renewable energy policies and large-scale donor...

  13. Waste Not, Want Not: Analyzing the Economic and Environmental Viability of Waste-to-Energy (WTE) Technology for Site-Specific Optimization of Renewable Energy Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, K.; Milford, J.; Simpkins, T.

    2013-02-01

    Waste-to-energy (WTE) technology burns municipal solid waste (MSW) in an environmentally safe combustion system to generate electricity, provide district heat, and reduce the need for landfill disposal. While this technology has gained acceptance in Europe, it has yet to be commonly recognized as an option in the United States. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of WTE as a renewable energy technology and describes a high-level model developed to assess the feasibility of WTE at a site. Section 2 reviews results from previous life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of WTE, and then uses an LCA inventory tool to perform a screening-level analysis of cost, net energy production, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and conventional air pollution impacts of WTE for residual MSW in Boulder, Colorado. Section 3 of this report describes the federal regulations that govern the permitting, monitoring, and operating practices of MSW combustors and provides emissions limits for WTE projects.

  14. Plywood production wastes to energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubov, V. K.; Popov, A. N.

    2017-11-01

    Wood and by-products of its processing are a renewable energy source with carbon neutral and may be used in solving energy problems. ZAO «Arkhangelsk plywood factory» installed and put into operation the boiler with capacity of 22 MW (saturated steam of 1.2 MPa) to reduce the cost of thermal energy, the impact of environmental factors on stability of the company’s development and for reduction of harmful emissions into the environment. Fuel for boiler is the mixture consists of chip plywood, birch bark, wood sanding dust (WSD) and sawdust of the plywood processing. The components of the fuel mixture significantly differ in thermotechnical characteristics and technological parameters but especially in size composition. Particle dimensions in the fuel mixture differ by more than a thousand times which makes it «unique» and very difficult to ensure the effective and non-explosive use. WSD and sawdust from line of cutting of plywood are small fraction material and relate to IV group of explosion. Criterion of explosive for them has great values (КfWSD=10.85 Кfsaw=9.66). Boiler’s furnace equipped with reciprocating grate where implemented a three-stage scheme of combustion. For a comprehensive survey of the effectiveness of installed equipment was analyzed the design features of the boiler, defined the components of thermal balance, studied nitrogen oxide emissions, carbon and particulate matter with the determination of soot emissions. Amount of solid particles depending on their shape and size was analyzed.

  15. Energy matching and optimization analysis of waste to energy CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) system with exergy and energy level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Penghui; Dai, Yanjun; Tong, YenWah; Dong, Pengwei

    2015-01-01

    CCHP (combined cooling, heating and power) system as a poly-generation technology has received an increasing attention in field of small scale power systems for applications ranging from residence to utilities. It will also play an important role in waste to energy application for megacities. However, how to evaluate and manage energy utilization of CCHP scientifically remains unclear. In this paper, energy level and exergy analysis are implemented on energy conversion processes to reveal the variation of energy amount and quality in the operation of CCHP system. Moreover, based on the energy level analysis, the methodology of energy matching and optimization for the CCHP system is proposed. By this method, the operational parameters of CCHP system can be deduced to obtain an efficient performance and proper energy utilization. It will be beneficial to understand and operate the CCHP system, and to provide a guiding principle of the energy conversion and management for the CCHP system. - Highlights: • Energy level is implemented to reveal the energy variation of CCHP system. • A mathematical energy level analysis model of CCHP system is proposed. • By energy level analysis between supply and demand, optimal zone is obtained. • This study will be useful for energy matching and optimization of CCHP system

  16. Energy, economic and environmental (3E) analysis of waste-to-energy (WTE) strategies for municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Sie Ting; Ho, Wai Shin; Hashim, Haslenda; Lee, Chew Tin; Taib, Mohd Rozainee; Ho, Chin Siong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 3E impact of WTE derived from MSW were performed. • MSW treatment technologies significantly effects the economic and environmental benefits of WTE. • Different scenarios are conducted based on the waste projections and production. • Comprehensive discussion on the trade-off of both incineration and anaerobic digestion for MSWM. - Abstract: The utilisation of municipal solid waste (MSW) for energy production has been implemented globally for many decades. Malaysia, however, is still highly dependent on landfills for MSW management. Because of the concern for greenhouse gases (GHG) emission and the scarcity of land, Malaysia has an urgent need for a better waste management strategy. This study aims to evaluate the energy, economic and environmental (3E) impact of waste-to-energy (WTE) for municipal solid waste management. An existing landfill in Malaysia is selected as the case study for consideration to adopt the advanced WTE technologies including the landfill gas recovery system (LFGRS), incineration, anaerobic digestion (AD), and gasification. The study presented an interactive comparison of different WTE scenarios and followed by further discussion on waste incineration and AD as the two potential WTE options in Malaysia. The 3E assessment reveals incineration as the superior technology choice when the production of electricity and heat were considered; however, AD is found to be more favourable under the consideration of electricity production only

  17. Long term analysis of the biomass content in the feed of a waste-to-energy plant with oxygen-enriched combustion air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, Johann; Cencic, Oliver; Zellinger, Günter; Rechberger, Helmut

    2011-10-01

    Thermal utilization of municipal solid waste and commercial wastes has become of increasing importance in European waste management. As waste materials are generally composed of fossil and biogenic materials, a part of the energy generated can be considered as renewable and is thus subsidized in some European countries. Analogously, CO(2) emissions of waste incinerators are only partly accounted for in greenhouse gas inventories. A novel approach for determining these fractions is the so-called balance method. In the present study, the implementation of the balance method on a waste-to-energy plant using oxygen-enriched combustion air was investigated. The findings of the 4-year application indicate on the one hand the general applicability and robustness of the method, and on the other hand the importance of reliable monitoring data. In particular, measured volume flows of the flue gas and the oxygen-enriched combustion air as well as corresponding O(2) and CO(2) contents should regularly be validated. The fraction of renewable (biogenic) energy generated throughout the investigated period amounted to between 27 and 66% for weekly averages, thereby denoting the variation in waste composition over time. The average emission factor of the plant was approximately 45 g CO(2) MJ(-1) energy input or 450 g CO(2) kg(-1) waste incinerated. The maximum error of the final result was about 16% (relative error), which was well above the error (<8%) of the balance method for plants with conventional oxygen supply.

  18. An integrated analytical framework for quantifying the LCOE of waste-to-energy facilities for a range of greenhouse gas emissions policy and technical factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, Aaron K.; Webber, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a novel integrated method for considering the economics of waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities with priced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions based upon technical and economic characteristics of the WTE facility, MSW stream, landfill alternative, and GHG emissions policy. The study demonstrates use of the formulation for six different policy scenarios and explores sensitivity of the results to ranges of certain technical parameters as found in existing literature. The study shows that details of the GHG emissions regulations have large impact on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of WTE and that GHG regulations can either increase or decrease the LCOE of WTE depending on policy choices regarding biogenic fractions from combusted waste and emissions from landfills. Important policy considerations are the fraction of the carbon emissions that are priced (i.e. all emissions versus only non-biogenic emissions), whether emissions credits are allowed due to reducing fugitive landfill gas emissions, whether biogenic carbon sequestration in landfills is credited against landfill emissions, and the effectiveness of the landfill gas recovery system where waste would otherwise have been buried. The default landfill gas recovery system effectiveness assumed by much of the industry yields GHG offsets that are very close to the direct non-biogenic GHG emissions from a WTE facility, meaning that small changes in the recovery effectiveness cause relatively larger changes in the emissions factor of the WTE facility. Finally, the economics of WTE are dependent on the MSW stream composition, with paper and wood being advantageous, metal and glass being disadvantageous, and plastics, food, and yard waste being either advantageous or disadvantageous depending upon the avoided tipping fee and the GHG emissions price.

  19. Sustainable energy transitions in emerging economies: The formation of a palm oil biomass waste-to-energy niche in Malaysia 1990–2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Nygaard, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    The economic development in emerging economies in Southeast Asia has significantly increased the use of fossil fuel based energy. This has severe implications for global climate change, and against this background, scholars within the sustainable transition tradition have taken an interest in addressing how transitions towards more sustainable development pathways in this region may be achieved. This paper contributes to the abovementioned literature by examining the conducive and limiting factors for development and proliferation of a palm oil biomass waste-to-energy niche in Malaysia during the period 1990–2011. Rising oil prices, strong pressure on the palm oil industry from environmental groups, and a persisting palm oil biomass waste disposal problem in Malaysia appear to have been conducive to niche proliferation, and on top of this national renewable energy policies and large-scale donor programmes have specifically supported the utilisation of palm oil biomass waste for energy. However, in spite of this, the niche development process has only made slow progress. The paper identifies reluctant implementation of energy policy, rise in biomass resource prices, limited network formation and negative results at the niche level, as the main factors hindering niche development. - Highlights: • We examine crucial factors for developing a biomass-to-energy niche in Malaysia. • In spite of interventions for policy support the niche has only made slow progress. • Oil prices, NGO pressure, waste problems and policy support were the enabling factors. • First, reluctant implementation of energy policy was hindering niche development. • Later, low performance level of implemented plants was hindering niche development

  20. CCA-treated wood disposed in landfills and life-cycle trade-offs with waste-to-energy and MSW landfill disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambeck, Jenna; Weitz, Keith; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Townsend, Timothy; Thorneloe, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood is a preservative treated wood construction product that grew in use in the 1970s for both residential and industrial applications. Although some countries have banned the use of the product for some applications, others have not, and the product continues to enter the waste stream from construction, demolition and remodeling projects. CCA-treated wood as a solid waste is managed in various ways throughout the world. In the US, CCA-treated wood is disposed primarily within landfills; however some of the wood is combusted in waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities. In other countries, the predominant disposal option for wood, sometimes including CCA-treated wood, is combustion for the production of energy. This paper presents an estimate of the quantity of CCA-treated wood entering the disposal stream in the US, as well as an examination of the trade-offs between landfilling and WTE combustion of CCA-treated wood through a life-cycle assessment and decision support tool (MSW DST). Based upon production statistics, the estimated life span and the phaseout of CCA-treated wood, recent disposal projections estimate the peak US disposal rate to occur in 2008, at 9.7 million m(3). CCA-treated wood, when disposed with construction and demolition (C&D) debris and municipal solid waste (MSW), has been found to increase arsenic and chromium concentrations in leachate. For this reason, and because MSW landfills are lined, MSW landfills have been recommended as a preferred disposal option over unlined C&D debris landfills. Between landfilling and WTE for the same mass of CCA-treated wood, WTE is more expensive (nearly twice the cost), but when operated in accordance with US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) regulations, it produces energy and does not emit fossil carbon emissions. If the wood is managed via WTE, less landfill area is required, which could be an influential trade-off in some countries. Although metals are concentrated

  1. An analysis of the Illinois Retail Rate Law and the Cook County waste-to-energy siting battles, 1987--2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendzik, Mark Edward

    2002-01-01

    The analysis explores the environmental justice impacts of the 1998 Illinois Retail Rate Law and Cook County waste-to-energy siting proposals on the Chicago metropolitan area. Particular attention is given to the dynamics of the grassroots environmental organizations which emerged to fight the siting proposals. The organizations are examined in the context of NIMBYism, the antitoxic movement, the environmental justice movement, and mainstream environmentalism. In addition, the underlying causes for the unintended consequences of the Retail Rate Law are analyzed against the backdrop of market and government failure. Face-to-face and telephone interviews were conducted with forty-one persons familiar with the battles over the Cook County siting proposals and the efforts to repeal the Retail Rate Law. The term "environmental justice" became controversial as siting opponents and supporters both appropriated the issue to support dueling positions on the proposed sitings. However, environmental justice did not play an instrumental role in repealing the Retail Rate Law or the siting proposals. Economic concerns led to the repeal of the legislation and demise of the original siting proposals. The circumstances of the siting battles and opposition groups raise questions about the future effectiveness of the environmental justice movement. A combination of market and government failure led to the unintended consequences from the retail Rate Law. Strategic maneuvering by state legislative leaders delayed the repeal of the legislation by several years. The resulting delay placed considerable cost on individuals, communities, corporations, and the State of Illinois. A bivariate analysis was conducted to examine whether the distribution patterns of ground level concentrations from the proposed facilities would have had a disproportionate distribution in lower-income and minority populations in the Chicago metropolitan area. The statistical analysis did discover evidence that

  2. Improvement of environmentally relevant qualities of slags from waste-to-energy plants; Verbesserung der umweltrelevanten Qualitaeten von Schlacken aus Abfallverbrennungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alwast, Holger [Prognos AG, Berlin (Germany); Riemann, Axel [RSP GmbH, Herne (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    This expert opinion describes options for improving slag quality (further measures for processing slag, as well as improvements of grate firing in terms of firing-technology), to ensure a slag recovery that is as sustainable as possible. In the context of this project, the term ''slag'' serves as a synonym for solid incineration residues that are generated during the incineration of wastes or of refuse derived fuels and that are separated there (e.g. from the deslagger). The term ''slags'' is also used as a synonym for grate ashes. The main focus of this expertise is on resource and climate protection issues with respect to slag processing. Resource protection refers to the saving of resources and natural raw materials, such as, for example, water and metal ores. Climate protection in this context means CO{sub 2} mitigation through a high specific net energy generation in waste incineration plants, as well as a reduced energy use due to avoided new production of metals, which can be recycled from slag processing. The main measure for improving climate and resource protection in slag processing consists therefore of separating as much metal as possible from slags. By recycling those separated slags, the energy that is needed for the extraction from ores and the raw material ore itself can be saved. This advantage in terms of energy, however, can be partially compensated by the energy use potentially needed for the improvement of slag processing. Further important aspects include the protection of water and soils, as well as the suitability of processed slag for an adequate recovery. These last criteria, however, are not central for this expertise. Currently, 69 municipal solid waste incinerators, hereinafter referred to as Waste-to-Energy (WTE) plants, and 23 refuse derived fuel (RDF) power plants with grate firing are in operation in Germany. Their total capacity amounts to more than 21 million Mg per year. Another 13 RDF

  3. Life-cycle assessment of a Waste-to-Energy plant in central Norway: Current situation and effects of changes in waste fraction composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausselet, Carine; Cherubini, Francesco; Del Alamo Serrano, Gonzalo; Becidan, Michael; Strømman, Anders Hammer

    2016-12-01

    Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants constitute one of the most common waste management options to deal with municipal solid waste. WtE plants have the dual objective to reduce the amount of waste sent to landfills and simultaneously to produce useful energy (heat and/or power). Energy from WtE is gaining steadily increasing importance in the energy mix of several countries. Norway is no exception, as energy recovered from waste currently represents the main energy source of the Norwegian district heating system. Life-cycle assessments (LCA) of WtE systems in a Norwegian context are quasi-nonexistent, and this study assesses the environmental performance of a WtE plant located in central Norway by combining detailed LCA methodology with primary data from plant operations. Mass transfer coefficients and leaching coefficients are used to trace emissions over the various life-cycle stages from waste logistics to final disposal of the ashes. We consider different fractions of input waste (current waste mix, insertion of 10% car fluff, 5% clinical waste and 10% and 50% wood waste), and find a total contribution to Climate Change Impact Potential ranging from 265 to 637gCO 2 eq/kg of waste and 25 to 61gCO 2 eq/MJ of heat. The key drivers of the environmental performances of the WtE system being assessed are the carbon biogenic fraction and the lower heating value of the incoming waste, the direct emissions at the WtE plant, the leaching of the heavy metals at the landfill sites and to a lesser extent the use of consumables. We benchmark the environmental performances of our WtE systems against those of fossil energy systems, and we find better performance for the majority of environmental impact categories, including Climate Change Impact Potential, although some trade-offs exist (e.g. higher impacts on Human Toxicity Potential than natural gas, but lower than coal). Also, the insertion of challenging new waste fractions is demonstrated to be an option both to cope with the

  4. An Application of a Costing Methodology to Waste-to-Energy Power Generating Units at Remote Sites and Wright-Patterson Air Force Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    which were based on off-season, summer prices and demand C4 143-8], and placed mandatory controls on all petroleum product prices s6:136]. These...Service, September 1982. Hausman , J. A., and P. L. Joskow. "Evaluating the Costs and Benefits of Appliance Efficiency Standards," American Economic...Department of Agriculture, Washington: United States Government Printing Office, March 4, 1989. Zoch, Lawrence L., Jr., Jack J. Rusch, and Edward L. Springer

  5. A step by step selection method for the location and the size of a waste-to-energy facility targeting the maximum output energy and minimization of gate fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakis, Efstathios; Psomopoulos, Constantinos; Kokkotis, Panagiotis; Bourtsalas, Athanasios; Themelis, Nikolaos

    2017-06-23

    This study attempts the development of an algorithm in order to present a step by step selection method for the location and the size of a waste-to-energy facility targeting the maximum output energy, also considering the basic obstacle which is in many cases, the gate fee. Various parameters identified and evaluated in order to formulate the proposed decision making method in the form of an algorithm. The principle simulation input is the amount of municipal solid wastes (MSW) available for incineration and along with its net calorific value are the most important factors for the feasibility of the plant. Moreover, the research is focused both on the parameters that could increase the energy production and those that affect the R1 energy efficiency factor. Estimation of the final gate fee is achieved through the economic analysis of the entire project by investigating both expenses and revenues which are expected according to the selected site and outputs of the facility. In this point, a number of commonly revenue methods were included in the algorithm. The developed algorithm has been validated using three case studies in Greece-Athens, Thessaloniki, and Central Greece, where the cities of Larisa and Volos have been selected for the application of the proposed decision making tool. These case studies were selected based on a previous publication made by two of the authors, in which these areas where examined. Results reveal that the development of a «solid» methodological approach in selecting the site and the size of waste-to-energy (WtE) facility can be feasible. However, the maximization of the energy efficiency factor R1 requires high utilization factors while the minimization of the final gate fee requires high R1 and high metals recovery from the bottom ash as well as economic exploitation of recovered raw materials if any.

  6. Military Wastes-to-Energy Applications,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    6 Residual) and Used Oil ( Automotive Crankcase Drainings) .......... ........................ 109 60 Properties of Coal: Bituminous, Subbituminous...facilities Physical/Chemical e Biomass removal from forest land may upset the Environment natural balance of terrestrial, aquatic, and atmospheric...ripout wastes (asbestos), sand- blasting wasts (organotin), and welding wastes (acetylene sludge); * Miscellaneous aircraft repair wastes -- brake

  7. South Florida embraces waste-to-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueck, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that some regions have prepared for these days of disposal shortage with comprehensive waste plans that include a strong WTE presence. Witness Broward County, Florida's program, 12 years in planning by public and private entities, Broward is the second most populated county in the state, with 1.3 million residents and a heavy tourist population, which, together, produce 1.6 million tons of waste annually. The disposal program includes Waste Management, Inc.'s expansion of a 400-acre Central Disposal Sanitary Landfill, the county's new 588-acre landfill, composting, and curbside pickup for recyclables. And, this south Florida plan would not be complete without the two brand new combustion plants. Clean Air and Water Acts notwithstanding, the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation can induce standards stricter than the federal government's due to the sensitive South Florida ecology. Wheelabrator was prepared for all eventualities with its design which uses state-of-the-art scrubbers, bag houses, and monitoring to track and capture the trace amounts of lead, cadmium, and mercury, which end up in the ash. In fact, tests at other Wheelabrator facilities using similar technology showed that heavy metals in leachate from the residue showed up in concentrations as much as 200 times lower than the EPA criteria for toxicity

  8. Different methods for waste to energy transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, J. de

    1998-01-01

    In the past 25 years, many technological developments have taken place in the thermal treatment of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). Apart from the initials goal of the technology (i.e., volume reduction and inertisation), flue gas emissions, solid residues, energy efficiency and economics became

  9. Circular economy and waste to energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, E. C.; Ragazzi, M.; Torretta, V.; Castagna, G.; Adami, L.; Cioca, L. I.

    2018-05-01

    Waste management in European Union has long being regulated by the 4Rs principle, i.e. reduction, reuse, recycling, recovery, with landfill disposal as the last option. This vision recently led the European Union (especially since 2015) to the introduction of virtuous goals based on the rejection of linear economy in favour of circular economy strongly founded on materials recovery. In this scenario, landfill disposal option will disappear, while energy recovery may appear controversial when not applied to biogas production from anaerobic digestion. The present work aims to analyse the effects that circular economy principles introduced in the European Union context will have on the thermochemical waste treatment plants design. Results demonstrate that indirect combustion (gasification + combustion) along with integrated vitrification of the non-combustible fraction of treated waste will have a more relevant role in the field of waste treatment than in the past, thanks to the compliance of this option with the principles of circular economy.

  10. Agriculture/municipal/industrial waste management and resource recovery feasibility study : renewable energy clusters and improved end-use efficiency : a formula for sustainable development[Prepared for the North Okanagan Waste to Energy Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-15

    The North Okanagan Waste to Energy Consortium initiated a study that evaluated the technical, environmental and economic feasibility of a proposed biomass to renewable energy eco-system, using the technologies of anaerobic digestion (AD), cogeneration and hydroponics in a centralized waste treatment and recovery facility. The Okanagan Valley is well suited for the demonstration plant because of its concentration of food producers and processors and abundance of rich organic waste stream. The agricultural, municipal and industrial waste management consortium consisted of a dairy farm, 5 municipalities and local waste handlers. The consortium proposed to combine several organic waste streams such as dairy manure, slaughterhouse offal and source separated municipal solid waste (MSW) to produce biogas in an anaerobic digester. The methane would be processed into renewable energy (heat and electricity) for a hydroponics barley sprout operation. It is expected that the synergies resulting from this project would increase productivity, end-use efficiency and profitability. This study reviewed the basics of AD technology, technological options and evaluated several technology providers. The type and quantity of waste available in the area was determined through a waste audit and analysis. The potential to market the system by-products locally was also reviewed as well as the general economic viability of a centralized system. The study also evaluated site selection, preliminary design and costing, with reference to proximity to feedstock and markets, access to roads, impacts on neighbours and insurance of minimal environmental impact. 84 refs., 82 figs., 10 appendices.

  11. Quantification of main and trace metal components in the fly ash of waste-to-energy plants located in Germany and Switzerland: An overview and comparison of concentration fluctuations within and between several plants with particular focus on valuable metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberl, Jasmin; Koralewska, Ralf; Schlumberger, Stefan; Schuster, Michael

    2018-05-01

    The elemental composition of fly ash from six waste-to-energy (WTE) plants in Germany and two WTE plants in Switzerland were analyzed. Samples were taken daily over a period of one month and mixed to a composite sample for each German plant. From two Swiss plants, two and three of these composite samples, respectively, were collected for different months in order to assess temporal differences between these months. In total, 61 elements, including rare earth elements, were analyzed using ICP-OES and ICP-MS. The analysis method was validated for 44 elements either by reference materials (BCR 176R and NIST 1633c) or analysis with both methods. Good recoveries, mostly ±10%, and high agreements between both methods were achieved. As long as no additives from flue gas cleaning were mixed with the fly ash, quite similar element contents were observed between all of the different incinerators. For most elements, the variations between the different months within the two Swiss plants were lower than differences between various plants. Especially main components show low variations between different months. To get a more detailed insight into temporal fluctuations within the mentioned Swiss plants, the concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd, Sb, and Sn are presented over a period of three years (Jan. 2015 - Oct. 2017). The concentration profiles are based on weekly composite samples (consisting of daily taken samples) analyzed by the routine control of these plants using ED-XRF. The standard deviations of the average concentrations were around 20% over the three years for the regarded elements. The fluctuations were comparable at both plants. Due to the relatively low temporal concentration fluctuations observed within the plants, fly ash would be a continuous and constant source of secondary raw materials. Beside Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd, which were already recovered on an industrial scale, Sb, Sn, and Bi also show a high potential as secondary raw material due to the high

  12. Renewable energy plan of action for American Samoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shupe, J.W. (USDOE San Francisco Operations Office, Honolulu, HI (USA). Pacific Site Office); Stevens, J.W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-11-01

    American Samoa has no indigenous fossil fuels and is almost totally dependent for energy on seaborne petroleum. However, the seven Pacific Islands located at 14 degrees south latitude that constitute American Samoa have a wide variety of renewable resources with the potential for substituting for imported oil. Included as possible renewable energy conversion technologies are solar thermal, photovoltaics, wind, geothermal, ocean thermal, and waste-to-energy recovery. This report evaluates the potential of each of these renewable energy alternatives and establishes recommended priorities for their development in American Samoa. Rough cost estimates are also included. Although renewable energy planning is highly site specific, information in this report should find some general application to other tropical insular areas.

  13. Test Standards for Contingency Base Waste-to-Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    test runs are preferred to allow a more comprehensive statistical evaluation of the results. In 8 • Minimize the complexity , difficulty, and...with water or, in the case of cyanide - or sulfide-bearing wastes, when exposed to mild acidic or basic conditions; 4) explode when subjected to a

  14. Waste to Energy Potential - A High Concentration Anaerobic Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    of the solids placed in the bioreactor and, generate a biogas • What do you get? • Biogas that can be...contains methane = fuel source • Biogas measured by flow meter • Biogas generated was correlated to mass of volatile solids destroyed • Biogas ...to enhance operation and biogas production Applicability to larger scale Verification of power generation using a microturbine Refinement of

  15. Waste-to-Energy and Fuel Cell Technologies Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    Type (based on 40-million SCF* of biogas per year**) Generator Type Megawatt‐hours/year PAFC 2,900 MCFC 3,300 Mi t bi 1 800cro‐ ur ne , Reciprocating...anaerobic digestion of organic matter, are most easily mated to these fuel cell systems . Innovation for Our Energy Future Comparison by Generator ...Engine 1,500 * ~830 Btu/SCF (HHV) ** WWTP serving a community of about 110,000 people This comparison ignores the fact that generators do not come in

  16. An innovative simulation tool for waste to energy generation opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Abderezzak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The new world energy policies encourage the use of renewable energy sources with clean technologies, and abandon progressively the fossil fuel dependence. Another energy generation trend called commonly the “Waste-to-Energy” solution, uses organic waste as a response for two major problems: energy generation and waste management. Thanks to the anaerobic digestion, the organic waste can provide a biogas composed essentially from Carbone dioxide (CO2 and Methane (CH4. This work aims essentially to help students, researchers and even decision makers to consider the importance of biogas generation. The proposed tool is the last version of our previous tool which is enhanced and completed. It presents the potential to produce biogas of any shortlisted kind of waste, including also some energy valorization ways. A technical economical data are introduced for eventual feasibility studies.

  17. The Louisiana State University waste-to-energy incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This proposed action is for cost-shared construction of an incinerator/steam-generation facility at Louisiana State University under the State Energy Conservation Program (SECP). The SECP, created by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, calls upon DOE to encourage energy conservation, renewable energy, and energy efficiency by providing Federal technical and financial assistance in developing and implementing comprehensive state energy conservation plans and projects. Currently, LSU runs a campus-wide recycling program in order to reduce the quantity of solid waste requiring disposal. This program has removed recyclable paper from the waste stream; however, a considerable quantity of other non-recyclable combustible wastes are produced on campus. Until recently, these wastes were disposed of in the Devil's Swamp landfill (also known as the East Baton Rouge Parish landfill). When this facility reached its capacity, a new landfill was opened a short distance away, and this new site is now used for disposal of the University's non-recyclable wastes. While this new landfill has enough capacity to last for at least 20 years (from 1994), the University has identified the need for a more efficient and effective manner of waste disposal than landfilling. The University also has non-renderable biological and potentially infectious waste materials from the School of Veterinary Medicine and the Student Health Center, primarily the former, whose wastes include animal carcasses and bedding materials. Renderable animal wastes from the School of Veterinary Medicine are sent to a rendering plant. Non-renderable, non-infectious animal wastes currently are disposed of in an existing on-campus incinerator near the School of Veterinary Medicine building

  18. adaptation of plastic waste to energy development in lagos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Keywords: Plastic wastes, Energy, Sustainable development, Environment, ... countries to be rationalising energy supply to their people. .... Managing waste in Lagos is may be a herculean task in ..... uncertainties in a life cycle perspective.

  19. Waste-to-energy: Dehalogenation of plastic-containing wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yafei; Zhao, Rong; Wang, Junfeng; Chen, Xingming; Ge, Xinlei; Chen, Mindong

    2016-03-01

    The dehalogenation measurements could be carried out with the decomposition of plastic wastes simultaneously or successively. This paper reviewed the progresses in dehalogenation followed by thermochemical conversion of plastic-containing wastes for clean energy production. The pre-treatment method of MCT or HTT can eliminate the halogen in plastic wastes. The additives such as alkali-based metal oxides (e.g., CaO, NaOH), iron powders and minerals (e.g., quartz) can work as reaction mediums and accelerators with the objective of enhancing the mechanochemical reaction. The dehalogenation of waste plastics could be achieved by co-grinding with sustainable additives such as bio-wastes (e.g., rice husk), recyclable minerals (e.g., red mud) via MCT for solid fuels production. Interestingly, the solid fuel properties (e.g., particle size) could be significantly improved by HTT in addition with lignocellulosic biomass. Furthermore, the halogenated compounds in downstream thermal process could be eliminated by using catalysts and adsorbents. Most dehalogenation of plastic wastes primarily focuses on the transformation of organic halogen into inorganic halogen in terms of halogen hydrides or salts. The integrated process of MCT or HTT with the catalytic thermal decomposition is a promising way for clean energy production. The low-cost additives (e.g., red mud) used in the pre-treatment by MCT or HTT lead to a considerable synergistic effects including catalytic effect contributing to the follow-up thermal decomposition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. PSO 5806 Material development for waste-to-energy plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Jørgen; Frederiksen, Jens; Larsen, Ole Hede

    2010-01-01

    The vision of this project (PSO 5806) is to throw light and focus on some of the refractory material characteristics of major importance to predictable service.......The vision of this project (PSO 5806) is to throw light and focus on some of the refractory material characteristics of major importance to predictable service....

  1. The Louisiana State University waste-to-energy incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-26

    This proposed action is for cost-shared construction of an incinerator/steam-generation facility at Louisiana State University under the State Energy Conservation Program (SECP). The SECP, created by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, calls upon DOE to encourage energy conservation, renewable energy, and energy efficiency by providing Federal technical and financial assistance in developing and implementing comprehensive state energy conservation plans and projects. Currently, LSU runs a campus-wide recycling program in order to reduce the quantity of solid waste requiring disposal. This program has removed recyclable paper from the waste stream; however, a considerable quantity of other non-recyclable combustible wastes are produced on campus. Until recently, these wastes were disposed of in the Devil`s Swamp landfill (also known as the East Baton Rouge Parish landfill). When this facility reached its capacity, a new landfill was opened a short distance away, and this new site is now used for disposal of the University`s non-recyclable wastes. While this new landfill has enough capacity to last for at least 20 years (from 1994), the University has identified the need for a more efficient and effective manner of waste disposal than landfilling. The University also has non-renderable biological and potentially infectious waste materials from the School of Veterinary Medicine and the Student Health Center, primarily the former, whose wastes include animal carcasses and bedding materials. Renderable animal wastes from the School of Veterinary Medicine are sent to a rendering plant. Non-renderable, non-infectious animal wastes currently are disposed of in an existing on-campus incinerator near the School of Veterinary Medicine building.

  2. American Women and American Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmaj, Betty E.

    The American Studies Association (ASA) is an interprofessional group, representing a cross-section of persons from American literature, American history, the social sciences, philosophy, archeology, Black Studies, Urban Studies, American Studies, and others. This document by the ASA Commission on the Status of Women includes: (1) a report of the…

  3. American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Conrad, M.; Funk, K.; Kandt, A.; McNutt, P.

    2011-09-01

    ) Energy Efficiency and Building Technologies; (2) Integrated Wind-Diesel Generation; (3) Transmission and Distribution; (4) Solar Technologies; and (5) Biomass and Waste-to-Energy. In addition to these core disciplines, team capabilities also included expertise in program analysis, project financing, energy policy and energy planning. The intent of the technical assessment was to provide American Samoa with a baseline energy assessment. From the baseline, various scenarios and approaches for deploying cost effective energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies could be created to meet American Samoa's objectives. The information provided in this energy assessment will be used as input in the development of a draft strategic plan and the development of scenarios and strategies for deploying cost-effective energy efficiency and renewable products.

  4. Haitian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanese, Anthony V.

    1998-01-01

    Uses 1990 U.S. Census data to show the changing demographic profile of Haitian Americans. Haitian Americans are likely to live along the Atlantic seaboard and to have relatively low, although not the lowest, incomes. However, the demographic mosaic of Haitian Americans is diverse, showing the effects of Haitian national and ethnic history. (SLD)

  5. Municipal solid waste energy conversion study on Guam and American Samoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-31

    In the Pacific Islands of Guam and Tutuila in American Samoa, conversion of municipal solid waste to useable energy forms - principally electricity but possibly steam - may hold promise for reducing economic dependence on imported petroleum. A secondary benefit may be derived from reduction of solid waste landfill requirements. At the preliminary planning stage, waste-to-energy facilities producing electricity appear technically and environmentally feasible. Economically, the projects appear marginal but could be viable under specific conditions related to capital costs, revenue from garbage collection and revenue from the sale of the energy generated. Grant funding for the projects would considerably enhance the economic viability of the proposed facilities. The projects appear sufficiently viable to proceed to the detailed planning stage. Such projects are not viable for the islands now emerging from the US Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

  6. American Illuminations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David

    Illuminated fêtes and civic celebrations began in Renaissance Italy and spread through the courts of Europe. Their fireworks, torches, lamps, and special effects glorified the monarch, marked the birth of a prince, or celebrated military victory. Nineteenth-century Americans rejected such monarch...

  7. Energetic use of the urban solid wastes (waste-to-energy); Aproveitamento energetico de residuos solidos urbanos (waste-to-energy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodde, Paula Arrais Moreira; Fonseca, Zilton Jose Sa da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: pauladodde@yahoo.com.br, ziltonfonseca@ig.com.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper approaches the advantages and disadvantages of energetic using of biomass present in the garbage (the urban solid residue is composed by average 65% of organic material)This paper effluents technologically.

  8. American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Pechatnov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The "Founding fathers" of American Studies at MGIMO are considered to be A.V. Efimov and L.I. Clove. Alexey Efimov - Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences since 1938, Head of the Department of Modern and Contemporary History and Dean of the Historical School at the Moscow State University - one of the first professors of the Faculty of International Relations MGIMO. Efimov distinguished himself by a broad vision and scope of scientific interests. Back in 1934 he published a monograph "On the history of capitalism in the United States," which initiated a series of research culminating in the fundamental work "The United States. The path of capitalist development (pre-imperialist era". Alexey was not only a great scientist but also a great teacher, whose lectures was popular throughout Moscow. His lecture courses, given at the end of the 1940s at MGIMO, became the basis for the first post-war history textbooks USA - "Essays on the history of the United States." At least as colorful a figure was Professor Leo Izrailevich Zubok - a man of unusual destiny. As a teenager he emigrated to the United States with his parents, where he soon joined the American revolutionary movement in the 1920s and was forced to leave the country. He came to MGIMO being already an experienced scientists. His research interests were very wide: from the study of American foreign policy expansion to the history of the labor movement in the United States. Zubok's fundamental works still have not lost its scientific significance. He has successfully combined scientific work with teaching. Tutorials that are based on his lectures were very popular not only among students of MGIMO.

  9. Profile: Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American Profile: Asian Americans Asian American Profile (Map of the US with the top 10 states displaying the largest Asian American population according to the Census Bureau) CA - ...

  10. Immunizations and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Immunizations Immunizations and African Americans African American adults are less ... 19 to 35 months had comparable rates of immunization. African American women are as likely to have ...

  11. AMERICAN EXCEPTIONALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Andreea Pirnuta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In an interconnected world where foreign relations matter not only for resources or military alliances but also for cultural relationships, it is highly important to have a better understanding of the power relations among nations. The information carries certain meanings that have important outcomes thus defining the power of a given nation. Foreign policy is the channel through which global politics is exercised. International politics is a hierarchy of power being determined by important cultural, economic as well as geographical aspects. The reasons and strategies that are used in order to reach the outcomes in global politics represent the focus of the present paper. The United States has been the leader in international politics since the early 20th century due to its vast resources and wealth as well as its cultural output. America’s interest in preserving a democratic and free world has its foundation in the beliefs and values it stands for the aim of this paper is to question whether or not there is a concrete premise for the idea of American exceptionalism.

  12. A promising niche: waste to energy project in the Indian dairy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patankar, Mahesh; Patwardhan, Anand; Verbong, Geert

    2010-01-01

    The dairy sector is known to have significant local and global environmental impacts; but it also has proven renewable-energy generation potential. This paper analyzes a specific niche experiment in the Indian dairy industry, wherein cattle waste management is carried out by a multitude of stakeholders. These include the waste collectors, local technology adopters, research institutions, multilateral donor agencies, the Indian government, technology suppliers and operation and maintenance teams who have managed an uninterrupted 1 MWe energy production over the past 4 years. This analysis uses the sociotechnical regime framework to study the interaction of social, technological, economic and policy-related aspects relevant to the niche experiment. The analysis shows a potential to contribute to the development of two complementing regimes-one related to cooperative waste management and the other related to grid-connected renewable-energy-based electricity generation. Key factors for a successful development are not only a long-term financing protection through government subsidies to cover higher capital cost and a preferential tariff related to energy throughput, but also the adaptation of technology, the embedding in the local cooperative structure and the removal of regulatory barriers.

  13. Waste-to-Energy Thermal Destruction Identification for Forward Operating Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    volume reduction, anaerobic and aerobic digestion, food waste comminution etc)  Upfront reduction in waste (i.e. biodegradable shipping materials...or more gallons of cooling water. Biological driven processes depend on microorganisms , which cannot survive in the extreme military operation or

  14. Material Analysis of Bottom Ash from Waste-to-Energy Plants.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šyc, Michal; Krausová, Aneta; Kameníková, Petra; Šomplák, R.; Pavlas, M.; Zach, Boleslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Svoboda, Karel; Punčochář, Miroslav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 73, MAR 2018 (2018), s. 360-366 ISSN 0956-053X R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE02000236 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : bottom ash * urban mining * metals recovery Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use OBOR OECD: Energy and fuels Impact factor: 4.030, year: 2016

  15. Thermal Catalytic Syngas Cleanup for High-Efficiency Waste-to-Energy Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    recuperator used was an off-the-shelf item that is used for high-temperature (1150°C) heat recovery in industrial furnaces. It was a shell -and-tube...design and was installed such that the raw syngas passed within the tubes and the reformed gas passed through the shell side. Figure 11...R.Q.; Monfort, S.M.; Arkenberg, G.B.; Matter, P.H.; Swartz, S.L. Sulfur Tolerant Magnesium Nickel Silicate Catalyst for Reforming of Biomass

  16. A Computer Program for Modeling the Conversion of Organic Waste to Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragasen Pillay

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a tool for the analysis of conversion of organic waste into energy. The tool is a program that uses waste characterization parameters and mass flow rates at each stage of the waste treatment process to predict the given products. The specific waste treatment process analysed in this paper is anaerobic digestion. The different waste treatment stages of the anaerobic digestion process are: conditioning of input waste, secondary treatment, drying of sludge, conditioning of digestate, treatment of digestate, storage of liquid and solid effluent, disposal of liquid and solid effluents, purification, utilization and storage of combustible gas. The program uses mass balance equations to compute the amount of CH4, NH3, CO2 and H2S produced from anaerobic digestion of organic waste, and hence the energy available. Case studies are also presented.

  17. New approach to recycling and waste-to-energy in paper production, Urban Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristola, P. [Metso Corporation (Finland)

    2002-10-01

    Greenfield paper mills are commonly perceived as massive investments with a high level of associated impact on the local environment. Parallel to this, increasingly strict targets are being set by modem legislation for reducing waste disposal at landfills. One long-term solution to this dilemma lies in extended materials recycling, combined with effective utilisation of waste as energy. Metso Paper's Urban Mill is a unique pilot concept that promises to become an important part of such a solution. The novelty of Metso Paper's new eco-efficient Urban Mill concept lies in its combination of a small paper mill with using solid waste to generate energy. The roots of the concept go back to the early 1990s, when several mini-mills were built to produce raw materials for corrugated containers in North America. The competitiveness of mini-mills like this is based on several benefits: lowcost, high-quality waste paper raw material, utilisation of adjacent facilities for utilities, and modern machines with lean manning and low inbound and outbound logistics costs.

  18. Life cycle assessment of thermal Waste-to-Energy technologies: Review and recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard; Tonini, Davide; Turconi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    composition, technology, gas cleaning, energy recovery, residue management, and inventory data), and (iii) modeling principles (e.g. energy/mass calculation principles, energy substitution, inclusion of capital goods and uncertainty evaluation). Very few of the published studies provided full and transparent...

  19. PLASMA GASIFICATION – THE WASTE-to-ENERGY SOLUTION FOR THE FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birsan N.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma WtE is currently subject of extensive research and a number of companies across the globe are trying to develop a suitable, eco-friendly and efficient WtE technology for the future. While all of these companies are still working on concept designs or small-scale prototypes, there is one company already building large industrial scale plasma gasifiers around the globe to treat MSW, Industrial and Toxic waste all together. In 1999 in Japan, Hitachi Metals and Westinghouse Plasma Corp (“WPC” built the World’s First commercial demonstration plasma WtE plant. Hitachi Metals operated the plant for one year on municipal solid waste and obtained a certification from the Japan Waste Research Foundation (JWRF. Subsequently, Hitachi Metals leveraged this success into the two commercial plants at Mihama-Mikata and Utashinai in Japan, both having at the very core the now proven Westinghouse Plasma gasification technology. For more than 20 years, Westinghouse Plasma Corp (WPC has been leading the technology platform for converting the world’s waste into clean energy for a healthier planet. The WPC technology makes landfills obsolete and replaces Incineration as the primary process for WtE. The WPC technology already operates in three reference plants around the world and other three new commercial plants are under construction (two plants of 1000 tons/day in UK and a 650 tons/day in China, all three designed to convert municipal solid waste to electricity and district heat, in the most efficient and environmental-friendly manner.

  20. Optimal utilization of waste-to-energy in an LCA perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruergaard, T; Astrup, T

    2011-03-01

    Energy production from two types of municipal solid waste was evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA): (1) mixed high calorific waste suitable for production of solid recovered fuels (SRF) and (2) source separated organic waste. For SRF, co-combustion was compared with mass burn incineration. For organic waste, anaerobic digestion (AD) was compared with mass burn incineration. In the case of mass burn incineration, incineration with and without energy recovery was modelled. Biogas produced from anaerobic digestion was evaluated for use both as transportation fuel and for heat and power production. All relevant consequences for energy and resource consumptions, emissions to air, water and soil, upstream processes and downstream processes were included in the LCA. Energy substitutions were considered with respect to two different energy systems: a present-day Danish system based on fossil fuels and a potential future system based on 100% renewable energy. It was found that mass burn incineration of SRF with energy recovery provided savings in all impact categories, but co-combustion was better with respect to Global Warming (GW). If all heat from incineration could be utilized, however, the two alternatives were comparable for SRF. For organic waste, mass burn incineration with energy recovery was preferable over anaerobic digestion in most impact categories. Waste composition and flue gas cleaning at co-combustion plants were critical for the environmental performance of SRF treatment, while the impacts related to utilization of the digestate were significant for the outcome of organic waste treatment. The conclusions were robust in a present-day as well as in a future energy system. This indicated that mass burn incineration with efficient energy recovery is a very environmentally competitive solution overall. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Energy implications of mechanical and mechanical–biological treatment compared to direct waste-to-energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cimpan, Ciprian; Wenzel, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    achieved the highest savings, on the condition of SRF co-combustion. As a sensitivity scenario, alternative utilisation of SRF in cement kilns was modelled. It supported similar or higher net savings for all pre-treatment systems compared to mass combustion WtE, except when WtE CHP was possible...

  2. Waste-to-Energy (WTE) network synthesis for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Wendy Pei Qin; Lam, Hon Loong; 2, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering – MŰKKI, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, H-8200 Veszprėm (Hungary))" data-affiliation=" (Centre for Process Integration and Intensification – CPI2, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering – MŰKKI, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, H-8200 Veszprėm (Hungary))" >Varbanov, Petar Sabev; 2, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering – MŰKKI, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, H-8200 Veszprėm (Hungary))" data-affiliation=" (Centre for Process Integration and Intensification – CPI2, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering – MŰKKI, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, H-8200 Veszprėm (Hungary))" >Klemeš, Jiří 2, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering – MŰKKI, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, H-8200 Veszprėm (Hungary))" data-affiliation=" (Centre for Process Integration and Intensification – CPI2, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering – MŰKKI, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, H-8200 Veszprėm (Hungary))" >Jaromír

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The possibility of utilising MSW as the source of WTE in Malaysia is evaluated. • Real case study is developed and its economic potential is demonstrated. • A MSW supply network with multiple objectives optimisation model is synthesised. • WTE scheme using MSW is one energy solution for country that generates a lot of MSW. - Abstract: MSW has been identified as one of the alternative energy sources that can be used for electricity and/or power generation. This appears to be one enhanced channel to tackle MSW disposal problem. WTE concept is incorporated into the MSW management system in this work. The integrated system is modelled to study its practicability and significance. The proposed model is illustrated with a case study involving the supply network design and the utilisation of MSW from urban sources. The modelling steps involve the generation of a superstructure, mathematical model construction, optimisation and solution interpretation. The MSW availability and its utilisation are investigated through its supply network design. Optimal locations of processing hubs and facilities are determined. Following this, boundaries and sizes of the processing hubs are calculated. The benefits of WTE strategy from MSW is analysed and its energy generation potential is demonstrated. This WTE strategy acts as one potential MSW management scheme for all interested parties

  3. Disposal of by-products in olive oil industry: waste-to-energy solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caputo, Antonio C.; Scacchia, Federica; Pelagagge, Pacifico M.

    2003-01-01

    Olive oil production industry is characterized by relevant amounts of liquid and solid by-products [olive mill wastewater (OMW) and olive husk (OH)], and by economical, technical and organizational constraints that make difficult the adoption of environmentally sustainable waste disposal approaches. In this context, waste treatment technologies aimed at energy recovery represent an interesting alternative. In the paper, a technical and economical analysis of thermal disposal plant solutions with energy recovery has been carried out. The considered plants enable the combined treatment of OMW and OH which, although penalizes the energy recovery, proves to be feasible and profitable in a future legislative scenario when stricter limitation on OMW disposal will force oil producers to bear high disposal costs. Results are compared by using economic performance measures, including revenues from produced energy and avoided disposal costs. A sensitivity and risk analysis is also performed in order to assess the economic profitability of the proposed solutions

  4. Waste-to-Energy Plant Environmental Assessment, Dyess Air Force Base, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Integrated Material Management Plan IWMP Integrated Waste Management Plan MACT Maximum Achievable Control Technology MRL Minimum Risk Level MRR...Education, Cerro Coso College, CA, 1994 Years of Experience: 15 Kevin J. Peter, Program Manager B.A., Anthropology, Pomona College, CA, 1975 M.A...hazardous wastes would occur with selection of any proposed action alternative. Under the no-action alternative, existing procedures for the management

  5. Integrated waste-to-energy conversion and waste transportation within island communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zsigraiova, Zdena; Tavares, Gilberto; Semiao, Viriato; Carvalho, Maria de Graca

    2009-01-01

    Usually in islands both primary energy sources and drinking water are missing. Additionally, municipal solid waste (MSW) must be managed avoiding exclusive use of landfills, which limits sustainable development. Power generation from MSW incineration contributes significantly to replacing energy produced from fossil fuels and to reduce overall emissions. A solution based on thermodynamics, environmental and economic analyses and 3D-GIS modelling for the afore-mentioned problems for Cape Verde is proposed. This model integrates waste transportation optimisation and incineration with energy recovery combining production of heat and power (CHP), the heat being used for drinking water production. The results show that extraction condensing steam turbines are more suitable when power production is a priority (5.0 MW with 4000 m 3 /d of drinking water), whereas back-pressure turbines yield 5540-6650 m 3 /d of drinking water with an additional power production of 3.3-4.7 MW. The environmental and economic assessment performed shows the feasibility of the proposed CHP solution, which brings a considerable reduction in net air emissions (1.6 kt), including a significant decrease in the greenhouse gas emissions (131 ktCO 2 ), and that the revenue from energy sales ( Euro 15 million) has potential to balance the incineration cost. Moreover, when terrain relief is accounted for in the route optimisation for minimum fuel consumption, savings up to 11% are obtained.

  6. Biomass and waste to energy. Financial incentives for renewables. Altener workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Halen, C.; Kwant, K.W.

    1996-12-01

    The title workshop was organised by Novem in cooperation with its partners in the Altener Waste for Energy (WfE) network, and AFB-Nett (Agricultural and Forestry Biomass Network). Almost 100 participants from 13 European countries attended the workshop. The aim of the workshop was to explore the industrial potential, to discuss mutual differences and financial barriers that appear still to be present. The morning session of the workshop included country presentations of existing national financial incentives to support renewable energy. In the afternoon session three 'Dutch cases' were presented, followed by a presentation of the results of a European comparison, commissioned by Novem. The second part of the afternoon was reserved for an 'in-depth' plenary panel discussion, e.g. on best practices, new instruments, potential and need for harmonization

  7. Chemistry and Thermodynamics of Solid Waste Streams used in Waste-to-Energy (WTE) Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In spite of our best efforts to minimize the amount of disposable supplies (and the associated packaging) used during space missions, the accumulation of solid...

  8. Shredded Waste Downdraft Gasifier for Overseas Contingency Operations Waste-to-Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Figure 13). The producer gas was sampled downstream of the filters in syringes and its composition determined by gas chromatography . A vacuum...for temporary storage. Utilize Gas Chromatography using a TCD and FID to detect CO, CO2, H2, CH4, N2 and O2. Syngas Tar/Moisture content Collect a...dimensional view from end one, other side. Final Report 64 June 2015 7 LITERATURE CITED 1. Reed, T.B. and Das, A., “ Handbook of Biomass Downdraft

  9. Evaluating the use of waste-to-energy bottom ash as road construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Current management practice, existing regulations, and environmental consequences of municipal solid : waste incineration (MSWI) ash utilization were comprehensively reviewed worldwide and nationwide : in the U.S. Efforts were made to physically and ...

  10. Evaluating the use of waste-to-energy bottom ash as road construction materials : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) generates millions of tons of ash each year. In European and Asian countries, this ash has been recycled into road beds, asphalt paving, and concrete products encouraged and enforced by standards, managem...

  11. Food Waste to Energy: An Overview of Sustainable Approaches for Food Waste Management and Nutrient Recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paritosh, Kunwar; Kushwaha, Sandeep K; Yadav, Monika; Pareek, Nidhi; Chawade, Aakash; Vivekanand, Vivekanand

    2017-01-01

    Food wastage and its accumulation are becoming a critical problem around the globe due to continuous increase of the world population. The exponential growth in food waste is imposing serious threats to our society like environmental pollution, health risk, and scarcity of dumping land. There is an urgent need to take appropriate measures to reduce food waste burden by adopting standard management practices. Currently, various kinds of approaches are investigated in waste food processing and management for societal benefits and applications. Anaerobic digestion approach has appeared as one of the most ecofriendly and promising solutions for food wastes management, energy, and nutrient production, which can contribute to world's ever-increasing energy requirements. Here, we have briefly described and explored the different aspects of anaerobic biodegrading approaches for food waste, effects of cosubstrates, effect of environmental factors, contribution of microbial population, and available computational resources for food waste management researches.

  12. Management of solid residues in waste-to-energy and biomass systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehlow, J.; Bergfeldt, B. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie; Wilen, C.; Ranta, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Schwaiger, H. [Forschungsgesellschaft Joanneum mbH, Graz (Austria); Visser, H.J.M. [ECN Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, Petten (Netherlands); Gu, S.; Gyftopoulou, E.; Brammer, J. [Aston Univ., Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-15

    A literature review has been performed for getting in-depth information about quality of residues from thermal processes for waste and biomass as well as their disposal or utilisation options and current practices. Residues from waste incineration have been subject to intense research programs for many years and it can be concluded that the quality of bottom ashes has meanwhile a high standard. The question whether an utilisation as secondary building material is accepted or not depends on the definition of acceptable economic impac. For filter ashes and gas cleaning residues the situation is more complex. Their quality is known: due to their high inventory of heavy metals and organic micro-pollutants they are classified as hazardous waste which means they require specific measures for their safe long-term disposal. A number of stabilisation and treatment processes for filter ashes and gas cleaning residues including the recovery of species out of these materials have been developed but none has been implemented in full scale due to economic constraints. There is reason to speculate that even recovery processes which are not profitable for private companies might point out economically useful if future and long-term costs which have to be covered of the society, e.g. for rehabilitation of contaminated sites, are taken into account. Their quality as well as that of residues from combustion of contaminated biomass is mainly depending on the quality of the fuel. The inventory of critical ingredients in fuel produced from waste or waste fractions, especially of halogens and heavy metals, is often rather high and shows typically a wide range of variation. A reliable quality control for such fuels is very difficult. Other residues can - like gas cleaning residues from waste incineration - be inertised in order to meet the criteria for the access to cheaper landfills than those for hazardous waste. A similar conclusion can be drawn for the quality and management of residues from pyrolysis or carbonisation of biomass. A high potential of application of such charcoal is theoretically possible but the ecological compatibility of some of the proposed scenarios has not yet been shown. An open question is also the potential of such residues for the recovery of ingredients with fertiliser capabilities like potassium of phosphorous. Limited sound information, too, was found for residues from anaerobic digestion of agricultural and other biomass and organic waste fractions. There are two main issues concerning their environmental compatibility: the potential pollution in case materials originated from waste is treated respectively co-treated and the inventory of nutrients in case 'clean' biomass from the agricultural sector only was used. A final conclusion can be drawn that there is need for further research on long-term reliable management strategies, especially for all types of residues from gas cleaning in all processes.

  13. Integrated municipal solid waste scenario model using advanced pretreatment and waste to energy processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, Gabriela; Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Mărculescu, Cosmin; Badea, Adrian; Apostol, Tiberiu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Appropriate solution for MSW management in new and future EU countries. • Decrease of landfill disposal applying an Integrated MSW approach. • Technological impediments and environmental assessment. - Abstract: In this paper an Integrated Municipal Solid Waste scenario model (IMSW-SM) with a potential practical application in the waste management sector is analyzed. The model takes into account quantification and characterization of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) streams from different sources, selective collection (SC), advanced mechanical sorting, material recovery and advanced thermal treatment. The paper provides a unique chain of advanced waste pretreatment stages of fully commingled waste streams, leading to an original set of suggestions and future contributions to a sustainable IMSWS, taking into account real data and EU principles. The selection of the input data was made on MSW management real case studies from two European regions. Four scenarios were developed varying mainly SC strategies and thermal treatment options. The results offer useful directions for decision makers in order to calibrate modern strategies in different realities

  14. Material development for waste-to-energy plants. Refractory linings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hede Larsen, O.

    2010-10-15

    Evaluation and SEM analysis of plant exposed, failed linings confirm over and again that failure in broad lines is linked to excess porosity, inferior quality on raw materials, detrimental reactions between raw materials and other mix constituents, volume growth reactions between base material and salt depositions, thermal stress induced crack formation, and uncontrolled craftsmanship. Extensive evaluations, calculations and considerations revealed numerous ways to execute the formulation of experimental castable mixes, of which some formed a broad base for phase I trials. Three mixes of the experimental castable phase II batches reached apparent porosities of {approx} 10% measured with alcohol, estimated to less than 8%-9% if measured in water. These results compare favourably to the open porosities measure with water of generally applied LCCs in the Danish marketplace of 15.5-16.0%. Converted to bonding phase porosities the low levels realised in experiments look rather good: 28% vs 55-57%. Salt cup tests confirm state of the art resistance. Experiments and assessment of surface oxidation of Silicon Carbide grains of three levels of purity confirm that it is impossible to stabilise SiC by pre-oxydation for the purpose of creating a thicker, protective surface layer of SiO{sub 2}. It is evident from the literature and qualified assessment that free Si, as a remnant surplus from SiC manufacture, does indeed hydrolyse in the castable basic environment under development of H{sub 2} gas bubbles adding on to unwanted porosity. Heat conductivity measurements of six different, representative products conducted by the Danish Technological Institute from 300 dec. C to 750 dec. C according to their credited calorimetric method confirm that the pre-firing to excess temperatures and subsequent measurement according to the DIN/EUN norm does indeed give misleading data of up to 45% for a castable containing {approx} 55% Silicon Carbide. Finite Element analysis confirms the stress levels between steel and refractory with the higher stress level at the top of the panel wall tube. As, however, no intimate and solid bond exists in the finite border layer between the two, the expected cracking may not occur. At least it has not been observed in reality. Experiments with forced, vigorous heating of dried and wet castable blocks, respectively, confirm that spalling and cracking at initial lining heat-up are caused by reversible thermal expansion below boiling point of free, unbonded water left in the micro and capillary porosity, and not by decomposition of hydrates. (Author)

  15. From organic waste to energy: A feasible option in South Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, HA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available , paraffin, wood, coal and other products are burned for heating and cooking purposes. The burning of these fuels generates gases and particulates, which can result in lung and other respiratory diseases, especially in the young, elderly or immuno... 16th Edition, Washington DC. De Baere, L. (2006). Will anaerobic digestion of solid waste survive in the future? Water. Science and. Technology. 53(8): 187-194. Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT). (1999a). National...

  16. Power Sources Focus Group - Evaluation of Plasma Gasification for Waste-to-Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    improved tapping. • Modifications to the venturi scrubber and better cooling of quench water have reduced gas cleaning maintenance (particulate...Chamber Quench Venturi Scrubber Cyclonic Separator Shredder Mill • Safe with no risk of fires • Meets or exceeds MARPOL regulations • Rapid...passes through a Venturi scrubber to remove particulate matter. A packed column is used to remove acid gases. A bed of iron oxide catalyst is used to

  17. Proceedings of the 1st Army Installation Waste to Energy Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    hydroelectric project. Biomass — Any lignin waste material that is segregated from other waste materials and is determined to be nonhazardous by the Ad...The temperatures are relatively low in dry ash gasifiers, so the fuel must be highly reactive ; low-grade coals are particularly suitable. The

  18. Plasma ARC/SCWO Sysems for Waste-to-Energy Applications Utilizing Milwaste Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    configuration and physics 4. Gasification and pollution abatement systems 5. Slag chemistry, refractory design, and glass and metal pouring 6. Energy...Manganese (g/L) 0.07 Nickel (g/L) 0.05 Zinc (g/L) 0.49 GA successfully processed the simulated waste for 6 hours at steady state flow

  19. Bioethanol Production from Waste Potatoes as a Sustainable Waste-to-energy Resource via Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, A. A.; Shah, F. A.; Kumar, N.

    2017-07-01

    Ever increasing demand of energy and corresponding looming depletion of fossil fuels have transpired into a burning need of time to vie for alternative energy resources before the traditional energy sources are completely exhausted. Scientists are continuously working on sustainable energy production as an alternate source of energy to meet the present and future requirements. This research deals with conversion of the starch to fermentable carbon source (sugars) by fermentation through liquefaction by using yeast and alpha- amylase. The results show that the significant bioethanol production was achieved while using the parameters like temperature (30 °C) pH (6) and incubation time of 84 hrs. About 90 ml of bioethanol was produced from potato intake of 800 g. Pakistan being an agricultural country is rich in potato crop and this research bodes well to open new vistas to arrest the energy shortage in this part of the world

  20. Waste-to-Energy Decision Support Method for Forward Deployed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    Throughout history , the availability of logistical support has played a key role in success of military operations. Logistics operations in the...Thermochemical Technologies for Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) Treatment." Venice , Italy, . CENTCOM. 2012. CENTCOM Contingency Environmental Standards

  1. Material development for waste to energy plants. Overlay welding and refractory linings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noergaard Hansson, A.

    2011-02-15

    Waste is an extremely corrosive fuel. In order to recover a higher percentage of the energy in waste, waste incineration plants have developed from purely heat producing units to heat and power producing units. The change in concept results in higher material temperatures and thereby faster material degradation. As a result material failures have been observed in many waste incineration plants. The purpose of this project was to develop materials with higher resistance to the corrosive elements, in order to reduce the cost of maintenance, increase the availability, and increase the efficiency. The focus is on overlay welding and refractory linings. Inconel 625, alloy 50, alloy 686, and Super 625 offer equivalent corrosion protection at panel walls. 100% overlay performs better than 50% overlay. The corrosion morphology changes with increasing temperature from pitting and general corrosion to pitting and selective corrosion (dendritic core or grain boundaries). The previously observed detrimental effect of Fe on the corrosion resistance was not confirmed. It probably depends on factors such as microstructure of the alloy and local metal temperature. Ni-overlay also reduces the corrosion rates on superheater tubes. However, the superheater environment is less aggressive than the water wall environment. Failure of refractory linings is linked to excess porosity, detrimental reactions between raw materials and other mix constituents, volume growth reactions between base material and salt depositions, and thermal stress induced crack formation. Free water and not decomposition of hydrates causes spalling and cracking during the initial heating of refractory linings. Finite Element analysis confirms the stress levels between steel and refractory with the higher stress level at the top of the panel wall tube. A number of LCC mixes were formulated, adjusted and tested. Mixes with low open porosities ({approx} 10%) and state of the art resistance to KCl were achieved. (LN)

  2. Small-Scale Waste-to-Energy Technology for Contingency Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    Maintenance, Operator Skill Level Requires Waste Sorting/Pre-processing Scaling and Capacity Issues Technology Readiness Issues Composting Useful By-Product...combustion temperature possible with this technology. These variables are important for improved tar conversion, increased tolerance for high moisture

  3. Life cycle model of waste to energy technologies in Spain and Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Margallo Blanco, María

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT : The high rate of waste generation in the society today has brought waste management to be a priority in European Policies. The European environmental Regulation established waste prevention, reuse, recycling, and finally waste incineration and landfilling as fundamental principles. Despite landfilling remaining the most common practice, waste incineration and recycling have increased in recent years. In particular, waste incineration allows the reduction in waste mass and volume, a...

  4. Optimal utilization of waste-to-energy in an LCA perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruergaard, Thilde; Astrup, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Energy production from two types of municipal solid waste was evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA): (1) mixed high calorific waste suitable for production of solid recovered fuels (SRF) and (2) source separated organic waste. For SRF, co-combustion was compared with mass burn incineration....... For organic waste, anaerobic digestion (AD) was compared with mass burn incineration. In the case of mass burn incineration, incineration with and without energy recovery was modelled. Biogas produced from anaerobic digestion was evaluated for use both as transportation fuel and for heat and power production....... All relevant consequences for energy and resource consumptions, emissions to air, water and soil, upstream processes and downstream processes were included in the LCA. Energy substitutions were considered with respect to two different energy systems: a present-day Danish system based on fossil fuels...

  5. Life Cycle Comparison of Waste-to-Energy to Sanitary Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) can be used to evaluate the environmental footprint of products, processes, and services. An LCA allows decision makers to compare products and processes through systematic evaluation of supply chains. Also known as a “cradle-to-grave” approach, LCA ev...

  6. Technology Evaluation of Army-Scale Waste-to-Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-01

    ot by installing generally comparable: in series with package in- acoustic partitions, with low-resistance blast panel% cinerator-boiler systems...labyrinth seals and heat- Automatic temperature controls are used. A pri- resistant gaskets to inhibit air leakage. mary pyrometer monitors the

  7. Research and Development for Robotic Transportable Waste to Energy System (TWES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Feedmiser package - 100-gal duplex Feedmiser package, including two hp Grundfos pumps rated to 15 gpm at 602 ft of head and a 100-gal tank The...observed. This was possibly from a bad weld between the back plate and a fire tube, or a leak from a tube itself. This problem warrants further...for damages (to be inserted where spool piece resides on 2” MPS header) Completed • Inspect welds on pipe supports and boiler Completed TWES

  8. Waste to Energy : The Waste Incineration Directive and its Implementation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duman, Murat; Boels, Luciaan

    2007-01-01

    Essent operates a coal-fired power plant, called AC-9, in Geertruidenberg. A gasifier connected to AC-9 thermally treats waste wood through gasification. The waste wood Essent used is demolition and construction wood, the so-called B-wood. The gas produced through gasification is fed into the

  9. Technical investigation in solid waste to energy facilities and selection of suitable incineration technology for Tehran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokarizdeh, V.; Lari, H.R.

    2001-01-01

    Incineration is another way for producing electrical energy. There are various methods for incineration as Stoker Fired, Suspension Fired, Rotary Kiln, Cyclone and Fluidized Bed; that each one has it's own advantages and disadvantages. Selecting suitable one for establishment in Tehran depends on many parameters like technical, economical and environmental factors. Comparing the various technologies due to the mentioned parameters by Multi Criteria Decision Making method shows that stoker-fired incinerator is the best one for the Capital City

  10. Investigating Efficient Tar Management from Biomass and Waste to Energy Gasification Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    internal combustion engine (ICE) can mean spark ignition or diesel ( compression ignition ). It is likely that the light tars could be made to burn in...filled with methyl chloroform to allow rapid acquisition and analysis via an auto handler on the gas chromatography machine. An additional test...flare and venturi are lost. If the venturi were lost air can draw back into the process pipe creating an air fuel mixture that may ignite . PLASMA

  11. Summary of the Swedish report Waste-to-energy, an inventory and review about dioxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagelin, A. [RVF - The Swedish Association of Waste Management (Sweden)

    2002-10-01

    Continuous efforts are being made to further improve waste incineration as a means of dealing with household waste and other combustible material, while also producing valuable energy. The main aims are to further reduce the already low emissions to air, and to ensure effective long-term deposition of ashes and other residues from the flue-gas treatment of the waste incineration process. In order to increase knowledge in this area, the Swedish Association of Waste Management (RVF) has taken the initiative for the biggest study to date into dioxins and waste incineration in Sweden. RVF is a trade association working within the areas of waste management and recycling. The owners of Sweden's 22 waste incineration plants are all members of RVF. The study has been carried out by engineer Nils Ahlgren, an independent consultant in energy and the environment, and Professor Stellan Marklund of the University of Umeae, who has a doctorate in dioxins and conducts research into incineration technology and environmental effects. A summary of the report of this study is presented here. The order of the text in this summary follows that of the respective sections in the main report, see below for further explanation.

  12. Municipal Waste-to-Energy plants in Poland – current projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyranka Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions show why in the current situation development of Polish WtE infrastructure is right, i.e. operation of aforementioned plants that will ensure benefits associated with energy production, reduction of landfilling and informing public opinion regarding modern waste management models. Additionally, the article draws attention on the high responsibility that will be put on WtE plants operators and that experience gained during WtE implementation can be used to improve even further for future Polish Waste Management Systems.

  13. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  14. Native Americans with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Native Americans with Diabetes Better diabetes care can decrease kidney failure Language: ... between 1996 and 2013. Problem Kidney failure from diabetes was highest among Native Americans. Native Americans are ...

  15. Obesity and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 77 percent are overweight ... inhqrdr/data/query At a Glace – Risk Factors: Obesity is a risk ... Americans Heart Disease – See Heart Disease and Hispanic Americans ...

  16. Obesity and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  17. American Society of Echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Society of Echocardiography Join Ase Renew Member Portal Log In Membership Member Portal Log In Join ASE Renew Benefits Rates FASE – Fellow of the American Society of Echocardiography Member Referral Program FAQs Initiatives Advocacy Awards, Grants, ...

  18. Asthma and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Asthma Asthma and Hispanic Americans In 2015, 2.2 million Hispanics reported that they currently have asthma. Puerto Rican Americans have almost twice the asthma ...

  19. Unlearning American Patriotism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard W.

    2007-01-01

    Immoral excesses of American foreign policy are so severe and so deep-rooted that American patriotism is now a moral burden. This love, which pulls toward amnesia, wishful thinking and inattention to urgent foreign interests, should be replaced by commitment to a global social movement that seeks to hem in the American empire. Teachers can advance…

  20. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  1. The American Dream

    OpenAIRE

    Önnerth, Lars; Neubert, Mikkel; Omerbasic, Dejan; Heyman, Minch; Kimberly, Marie; Nielsen, Lyngbo; Mynte, Anne; Hørlyck Kaastrup, Markus

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the phenomenon that is the American Dream and its effect on the working and upper class citizens in American society. To give context to the American dream and its origin, we have made use of professor Jim Cullen’s book “The American Dream: A Short Story of an Idea that Shaped a Nation” from 2003. We have identified what we decided to call the “the traditional dream” and “the modern dream”, both representing different outlooks on lives and ethical standards. We have done t...

  2. Help-Seeking Experiences and Attitudes among African American, Asian American, and European American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Akihiko; Anderson, Page L.; Twohig, Michael P.; Feinstein, Amanda B.; Chou, Ying-Yi; Wendell, Johanna W.; Stormo, Analia R.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined African American, Asian American, and European American college students' previous direct and indirect experiences of seeking professional psychological services and related attitudes. Survey data were collected from 254 European American, 182 African American and 82 Asian American college students. Results revealed that fewer…

  3. Close relationships between asian american and european american college students

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, C; Edwards, K; Young, B; Greenberger, E

    2001-01-01

    The authors examined attitudes and behaviors regarding close relationships between European and Asian Americans, with a particular emphasis on 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Filipino Americans). Participants were 218 Asian American college students and 171 European American college students attending a culturally diverse university. The European Americans did not differentiate among the various subgroups of Asian Americans. Their attitudes reg...

  4. American Thyroid Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More October 20, 2017 0 American Thyroid Association: Charles H. Emerson, MD, Will Lead New Board of Directors By ATA | 2017 ... Featured , News Releases | No Comments American Thyroid Association: Charles H. Emerson, MD, Will Lead New Board of Directors October 19,… Read ...

  5. The Quiet American Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legters, Lyman H.

    1984-01-01

    What is wrong in the American parochialism about foreign languages is the assumption that language acquisition is a cosmetic gain, without any immediate or forseeable practical use. Languages will only be learned effectively when Americans learn that they can be used in getting tasks accomplished. (MSE)

  6. American Studies in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David

    Papers first given at a conference the previous year in Fåborg, Denmark, with a dual focus on 20th century America and new methods in American Studies.......Papers first given at a conference the previous year in Fåborg, Denmark, with a dual focus on 20th century America and new methods in American Studies....

  7. Asian American Cultural Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libretti, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Explores the encounter of Marxism and Asian American literary theory and imagines an Asian American Marxism. To do so requires theorizing race, class, and gender not as substantive categories of antagonisms but as complementary and coordinated elements of a totality of social relations structuring racial patriarchal capitalism. (SLD)

  8. The Mexican American.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Helen

    The purpose of this paper, prepared for the U. S. Commission on Civil Rights, is to indicate the types and ranges of problems facing the Mexican American community and to suggest ways in which these problems are peculiar to Mexican Americans. Specific examples are cited to illustrate major problems and personal experiences. Topics covered in the…

  9. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, 1,908 (80. ... rate of 9.23 per 100,000). The suicide rate for females was 1.99 per 100, ...

  10. Teaching American Indian Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Dick

    1991-01-01

    Reviews "Native American Architecture," by Nabokov and Easton, an encyclopedic work that examines technology, climate, social structure, economics, religion, and history in relation to house design and the "meaning" of space among tribes of nine regions. Describes this book's use in a college course on Native American architecture. (SV)

  11. Close relationships between Asian American and European American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C; Edwards, K; Young, B; Greenberger, E

    2001-02-01

    The authors examined attitudes and behaviors regarding close relationships between European and Asian Americans, with a particular emphasis on 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Filipino Americans). Participants were 218 Asian American college students and 171 European American college students attending a culturally diverse university. The European Americans did not differentiate among the various subgroups of Asian Americans. Their attitudes regarding close relationships were less positive toward Asian Americans than toward Mexican and African Americans, a finding contrary to the prediction of social exchange theory (H. Tajfel, 1975). In contrast to the European Americans' view of homogeneity among Asian Americans, the 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans expressed a distinctive hierarchy of social preference among themselves. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research on interethnic relations involving Asian Americans.

  12. Adapting American Policymaking to Overcome American Exceptionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    discomfort at President Bush’s rallying good against evil speeches and the words of the NSS. The President’s us versus them foreign policies...of global leadership, and of concern for the well being of the global community. Classically, American exceptionalism refers to the uniquely free ...longer that force for good, but a force for its own good. Exceptionalism once meant a nation free from tyrannical rule and offering of bountiful

  13. Lolita - the American nightmare

    OpenAIRE

    GRISELDA (ABAZAJ) DANGLLI

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the analysis of Lolita seen through the lenses of the American society and norms of today. We will see that many observations of the American way of behaving and social norms still hold true even nowadays years after this novel was written. Nabokov, on the other hand, never accepted the fact that this novel probed into the very depths of American life and that his intentions were purely aesthetic. Nevertheless, the phenomenon of pedophilia, obvious in the book, is a po...

  14. American Studies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Luca

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available American Studies at the University of BucharestThe idea of teaching American Studies and founding a program in American Studies was first voiced in the long meetings of faculty and students held at the University of Bucharest soon after the collapse of the communist regime. The proposal was one of many that reflected the spirit of reform and hope for radical changes at the outset of Romania’s transition to democracy. The absence of institutional structures other than English departments and t...

  15. Osteoporosis and Asian American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Asian American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Asian American women are at high risk for ... medications. Are There Any Special Issues for Asian Women Regarding Bone Health? Recent studies indicate a number ...

  16. Mental Health and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  17. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  18. On American Individualism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李谷雨

    2016-01-01

    Among those American symbols like multiculturalism, hi-tech and its powerful status in the world, an important representative one is its individualism. This paper will briefly discuss it based on daily matters.

  19. American Pediatric Surgical Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Pediatric Surgical Association Search for: Login Resources + For Members For Professionals For Training Program Directors For Media For ... Surgical Outcomes Surveys & Results Publications Continuing Education + ExPERT Pediatric Surgery NaT Annual Meeting CME MOC Requirements Residents / ...

  20. American Epilepsy Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the AES Annual Meeting. More info here . Epilepsy Currents American Epilepsy Society Journal Impact Factor More ... P450 enzyme overexpression during spontaneous recurrent seizures More Epilepsy Professional News AES Status Epilepticus guideline for treatment ...

  1. American Academy of Optometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Award Recipients Nov 07, 2017 View all news Optometry and Vision Science Journal Optometry and Vision Science is the official journal of the American Academy of Optometry. AAO members receive a complimentary online subscription. Learn ...

  2. The American dream

    OpenAIRE

    Camanho, Gilberto Luis

    2015-01-01

    The American dream : literar. Spiegelungen. - In: Weltmacht USA / hrsg. von Josef Becker ... - München : Vögel, 1976. - S. 31-48. - (Schriften der Philosophischen Fachbereiche der Universität Augsburg ; 10)

  3. Latin American Newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Mary A.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the historical development of the press in Latin America from the sixteenth century to the present. Discusses the various pressures that Latin American newspapers are subject to, including political censorship, economic restrictions, and cultural conflicts. (AEA)

  4. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a friend by ... and eventually, in developing more effective treatments. Does glaucoma treatment differ? Although treatment varies for all individuals, ...

  5. American Geriatrics Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn More Social Media Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Instagram Social Media Bar Right Menu Annual Meeting Donate to our Foundation Contact Us American Geriatrics Society 40 Fulton St., 18th Floor New York, NY ...

  6. American Samoa Longline Logbook

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data system contains the logbook data of vessels unloading in American Samoa. In 1992, the logbooks of three longline trips conducting an experiment to test the...

  7. American Lyme Disease Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infectious Diseases, 35: 451-464, 2002) What is Lyme Disease? Lyme disease (LD) is an infection caused by ... mission with your own tax-deductible contribution. American Lyme Disease Foundation, Inc. PO Box 466 Lyme, CT 06371 ...

  8. American Nephrology Nurses' Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Join/Renew Jobs Contact Corporate Shop American Nephrology Nurses Association About ANNA Association About ANNA Strategic Plan ... CExpress Events National Events Chapter / Local Events Nephrology Nurses Week ANNA Education Modules CKD Modules Education Services ...

  9. American Vitiligo Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Place Vitiligo Voices Contact Welcome to The American Vitiligo Foundation Home Page Top Isabella T., California An ... 20.00 USD 20 for - 35.00 USD Vitiligo Doesn't Scare Me by Kim Kirkland Kim ...

  10. American Samoa Cannery Offloading

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1995 through 2010, the two canneries in American Samoa provided Cannery Offloading Reports to the Department of Marine and Wildlife Resources (DMWR) office. In...

  11. American Academy of Audiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certification Meetings & Events Employee Resources Research Academia Practice Management Reimbursement Coding Compliance Resources and Tools Publications & News News Audiology Today Journal of the American Academy of Audiology Books Brochures Multimedia Guidelines and Standards ...

  12. American Music Therapy Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login Quick Links Facts About Music Therapy Qualifications ... with AMTA Sponsor AMTA Events Social Networking Support Music Therapy When you shop at AmazonSmile, Amazon will ...

  13. The Roots of Disillusioned American Dream in Typical American

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古冬华

    2016-01-01

    Typical American is one of Gish Jen’s notable novels catching attention of the American literary circle. The motif of disillusioned American dream can be seen clearly through the experiences of three main characters. From perspectives of the consumer culture and cultural conflicts, this paper analyzes the roots of the disillusioned American dream in the novel.

  14. Native American medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K

    1998-11-01

    This article summarizes common principles, practices, and ethics of Native American healing, the traditional medicine of North America. Native American healing, spirituality, culture, and, in modern times, political, social, and economic concerns are closely intertwined. Intuition and spiritual awareness are a healer's most essential diagnostic tools. Therapeutic methods include prayer, music, ritual purification, herbalism, massage, ceremony, and personal innovations of individual healers. A community of friends, family, and helpers often participate in the healing intervention and help to alleviate the alienation caused by disease. A healthy patient has a healthy relationship with his or her community and, ultimately, with the greater community of nature known as "All Relations." The goal of Native American healing is to find wholeness, balance, harmony, beauty, and meaning. "Healing," making whole, is as important as curing disease; at times they are identical.

  15. Native American nurse leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Lee A

    2004-07-01

    To identify which characteristics, wisdom, and skills are essential in becoming an effective Native American nurse leader. This will lead to the development of a curriculum suitable for Native American nurses. A qualitative, descriptive design was used for this study. Focus groups were conducted in Polson, Montana. A total of 67 Native and non-Native nurses participated. Sixty-seven percent of them were members of Indian tribes. Data were content analyzed using Spradley's ethnographic methodology. Three domains of analysis emerged: point of reference for the leader (individual, family, community), what a leader is (self-actualized, wise, experienced, political, bicultural, recognized, quiet presence, humble, spiritual, and visionary), and what a leader does (mentors, role models, communicates, listens, demonstrates values, mobilizes, and inspires). Native nurse leaders lead differently. Thus, a leadership curriculum suitable for Native nurses may lead to increased work productivity and therefore improved patient care for Native Americans.

  16. North American refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osten, James; Haltmaier, Susan

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the current status of the North American refining industry, and considers the North American economy and the growth in demand in the petroleum industry, petroleum product demand and quality, crude oil upgrading to meet product standards, and changes in crude oil feedstocks such as the use of heavier crudes and bitumens. Refining expansion, the declining profits in refining, and changes due to environmental standards are discussed. The Gross Domestic Product and oil demand for the USA, Canada, Mexico, and Venezuela for the years 1995-2020 are tabulated

  17. Design and analysis of siloxanes removal by adsorption from landfill gas for waste-to-energy processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwell, Anthony C; Elsayed, Nada H; Kuhn, John N; Joseph, Babu

    2018-03-01

    Separation of volatile methyl siloxanes from landfill gas using fixed adsorption beds was modeled with the objective of identifying appropriate technology and the economics associated with this purification step. A general adsorption model assuming plug flow and radial symmetry was developed and used to conduct a parametric sweep of 162 unique cases. The varied parameters were adsorbent type (activated carbon and silica gel), bed height (3.05-9.15 m/10-30 ft), inlet siloxane concentration (5-15 mg/m 3 ), moisture content (0-100% relative humidity at STP or RH), and siloxane tolerance limit (0.094-9.4 mg/m 3 ) that correlated to three distinct energy conversion technologies (electricity production using engines or fuels cells or catalytic conversion to liquid hydrocarbon fuels). Due to the detrimental effect of RH on siloxane absorption, the maximum allowable moisture content of LFG before purification is 50% RH and moisture removal processes are also required. The design calculations using a selected case study show that the adsorption bed height required needed for 6 months minimum breakthrough time for catalytic fuel production is twice that for engine applications. Fuel cell applications require 3 times the bed height compared to engine applications. However, the purification costs amounted to 94%, 16% and 52% of recovered product value for engine, liquefaction, and fuel cell applications, respectively indicating the need for a high value product to justify purification costs. The approaches and conclusions can be extended to specific process conditions for landfill gas purification and to other processes that use biogas produced from waste as a feedstock. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Studies on sulfur poisoning and development of advanced anodic materials for waste-to-energy fuel cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaza, Fabio; Paoletti, Claudia; LoPresti, Roberto; Simonetti, Elisabetta; Pasquali, Mauro

    Biomass is the renewable energy source with the most potential penetration in energy market for its positive environmental and socio-economic consequences: biomass live cycles for energy production is carbon neutral; energy crops promote alternative and productive utilizations of rural sites creating new economic opportunities; bioenergy productions promote local energy independence and global energy security defined as availability of energy resource supply. Different technologies are currently available for energy production from biomass, but a key role is played by fuel cells which have both low environmental impacts and high efficiencies. High temperature fuel cells, such as molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC), are particularly suitable for bioenergy production because it can be directly fed with biogas: in fact, among its principal constituents, methane can be transformed to hydrogen by internal reforming; carbon dioxide is a safe diluent; carbon monoxide is not a poison, but both a fuel, because it can be discharged at the anode, and a hydrogen supplier, because it can produce hydrogen via the water-gas shift reaction. However, the utilization of biomass derived fuels in MCFC presents different problems not yet solved, such as the poisoning of the anode due to byproducts of biofuel chemical processing. The chemical compound with the major negative effects on cell performances is hydrogen sulfide. It reacts with nickel, the main anodic constituent, forming sulfides and blocking catalytic sites for electrode reactions. The aim of this work is to study the hydrogen sulfide effects on MCFC performances for defining the poisoning mechanisms of conventional nickel-based anode, recommending selection criteria of sulfur-tolerant materials, and selecting advanced anodes for MCFC fed with biogas.

  19. Food Waste to Energy: How Six Water Resource Recovery Facilities are Boosting Biogas Production and the Bottom Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water Resource Recovery Facilities (WRRFs) with anaerobic digestion have been harnessing biogas for heat and power since at least the 1920’s. A few are approaching “energy neutrality” and some are becoming “energy positive” through a combination of energy efficiency measures and...

  20. Dimensional and chemical characterization of particles at a downwind receptor site of a waste-to-energy plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonanno, G; Stabile, L; Avino, P; Vanoli, R

    2010-07-01

    In the last years numerous epidemiological studies were carried out to evaluate the effects of particulate matter on human health. In industrialized areas, anthropogenic activities highly contribute to the fine and ultrafine particle concentrations. Then, it is important to characterize the evolution of particle size distribution and chemical composition near these emission points. Waste incineration represents a favorable technique for reducing the waste volume. However, in the past, municipal waste incinerators (MWIs) had a bad reputation due to the emission of toxic combustion byproducts. Consequently, the risk perception of the people living near MWIs is very high even if in Western countries waste incineration has nowadays to be considered a relatively clean process from a technical point of view. The study here presented has an exemplary meaning for developing appropriate management and control strategies for air quality in the surrounding of MWIs and to perform exposure assessment for populations involved. Environment particles were continuously measured through a SMPS/APS system over 12 months. The monitoring site represents a downwind receptor of a typical MWI. Furthermore, elements and organic fractions were measured by means of the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and using dichotomous and high volume samplers. Annual mean values of 8.6 x 10(3)+/-3.7 x 10(2)part.cm(-3) and 31.1+/-9.0 microg m(-3) were found for number and mass concentration, typical of a rural site. Most of the elements can be attributed to long-range transport from other natural and/or anthropogenic sources. Finally, the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons present low concentrations with a mean value of 24.6 ng m(-3). Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative analysis of waste-to-energy alternatives for a low-capacity power plant in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Elzimar Tadeu de F; Balestieri, José Antonio P

    2018-03-01

    The Brazilian National Solid Waste Policy has been implemented with some difficulty, especially in convincing the different actors of society about the importance of conscious awareness among every citizen and businesses concerning adequate solid waste disposal and recycling. Technologies for recovering energy from municipal solid waste were considered in National Solid Waste Policy (NSWP), given that their technical and environmental viability is ensured, being the landfill biogas burning in internal combustion engines and solid waste incineration suggested options. In the present work, an analysis of current technologies and a collection of basic data on electricity generation using biogas from waste/liquid effluents is presented, as well as an assessment of the installation of a facility that harnesses biogas from waste or liquid effluents for producing electricity. Two combined cycle concepts were evaluated with capacity in the range 4-11 MW, gas turbine burning landfill biogas and an incinerator that burns solid waste hybrid cycle, and a solid waste gasification system to burn syngas in gas turbines. A comparative analysis of them demonstrated that the cycle with gasification from solid waste has proved to be technically more appealing than the hybrid cycle integrated with incineration because of its greater efficiency and considering the initially defined guidelines for electricity generation. The economic analysis does not reveal significant attractive values; however, this is not a significant penalty to the project given the fact that this is a pilot low-capacity facility, which is intended to be constructed to demonstrate appropriate technologies of energy recovery from solid waste.

  2. Economic and environmental review of Waste-to-Energy systems for municipal solid waste management in medium and small municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-González, J M; Grindlay, A L; Serrano-Bernardo, F; Rodríguez-Rojas, M I; Zamorano, M

    2017-09-01

    The application of Directive 2008/98/CE on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) implies the need to introduce technologies to generate energy from waste. Incineration, the most widely used method, is difficult to implement in low populated areas because it requires a large amount of waste to be viable (100,000 tons per year). This paper analyses the economic and environmental costs of different MSW-to-Energy technologies (WtE) in an area comprising of 13 municipalities in southern Spain. We analyse anaerobic digestion (Biomethanization), the production of solid recovered fuel (SRF) and gasification, and compare these approaches to the present Biological Mechanical Treatment (BMT) with elimination of the reject in landfill, and incineration with energy recovery. From an economic standpoint the implementation of WtE systems reduces the cost of running present BMT systems and incineration; gasification presents the lowest value. From the environmental standpoint, Life Cycle Assessment shows that any WtE alternatives, including incineration, present important advantages for the environment when compared to BMT. Finally, in order to select the best alternative, a multi-criteria method is applied, showing that anaerobic digestion is the optimal solution for the area studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and septage – A waste to energy project in Nashik city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghanath Prabhu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The samples for food waste (FW and septage were collected from six localities of Nashik city. Physical and chemical characterizations of the wastes were carried out. A Biomethanation potential (BMP assay was developed to determine the ultimate biodegradability and associated methane yield during the anaerobic methanogenic fermentation of organic substrates. BMP assays of individual substrate, FW and septage were carried out by taking into account the volatile solids/total solids (VS/TS ratio of each while keeping the inoculum’s VS constant. BMP of FW and septage mixture was carried out in different ratios (1:1, 1.5:1, 2:1, 1:1.5 and 1:2 to find the optimum mixing ratio for maximum biogas production. The average methane yield for different locality FW was found to be 503±17.6 ml/g VS and for septage it was 56 ±10.8 ml/g VS. Based on the above results, the total biogas yield and total methane yield for 10 tons of FW would be 2178 m3/d and 1306 m3/d respectively. The total biogas yield and total methane yield for 20 m3 of septage would be 65m3/d and 39m3/d respectively. From our co-digestion studies we also conclude that the mixture of FW to septage at 1:2 ratio gives 2896 m3/day of biogas. The role of septage is to provide essential trace elements that are required for methanogens.

  4. Characteristics and application potential of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ashes from two waste-to-energy plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, P.; Florea, M.V.A.; Spiesz, P.R.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash characteristics, its heterogeneity, environmental properties, and their stability in time. The physical and chemical characteristics of bottom ashes from two plants were determined over time; results show that their

  5. Simulation of the influence of flue gas cleaning system on the energetic efficiency of a waste-to-energy plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieco, E.; Poggio, A. [Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino 10121 (Italy)

    2009-09-15

    Municipal solid waste incinerators are designed to enhance the electrical efficiency obtained by the plant as much as possible. For this reason strong integration between the flue gas cleaning system and the heat recovery system is required. To provide higher electrical efficiencies acid gas neutralization process has the major importance in flue gas cleaning system. At least four technologies are usually applied for acid gas removal: dry neutralization with Ca(OH){sub 2} or with NaHCO{sub 3}, semi-dry neutralization with milk of lime and wet scrubbing. Nowadays, wet scrubbers are rarely used as a result of the large amount of liquid effluents produced; wet scrubbing technology is often applied as a final treatment after a dry neutralization. Operating conditions of the plant were simulated by using Aspen Plus in order to investigate the influences of four different technologies on the electrical efficiency of the plant. The results of the simulations did not show a great influence of the gas cleaning system on the net electrical efficiency, as the difference between the most advantageous technology (neutralization with NaHCO{sub 3}) and the worst one, is about 1%. (author)

  6. Demonstration and Validation of a Waste-to-Energy Conversion System for Fixed DoD Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    equipment replacement costs. Mixed Result. Single point failures were observed, but were determined to be feedstock specific. Mitigation strategies have...40 kWe net electric output. Power quality Variations in voltage, frequency, flicker , harmonics, power factor and direct current injection...replacement costs. Mixed Result. Single point failures were observed, but were determined to be feedstock specific. Mitigation strategies have

  7. Demonstration and Validation of a Waste-to-Energy Conversion System for Fixed DoD Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    unique challenges , and the project experienced significant delays. The primary contributors to project delays were a state permitting process lacking...LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE DEMONSTRATION Implementation of the demonstration effort was a more significant challenge than had been anticipated at the...Ms  N  dP  Pb  Ps  Pstd  Qs(std) Ts  Vm Vm(std) Vw(std) Vlc T(std)  Tm  SQ.RT.dP y  Pstatic  Pstack  I  vs  Qs  O  % O2  % CO2  % CO  % N2  Zcf  Scf

  8. American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... combined with facial expressions and postures of the body. It is the primary language of many North Americans who are deaf and ... their eyebrows, widening their eyes, and tilting their bodies forward. Just as with other languages, specific ways of expressing ideas in ASL vary ...

  9. American Housing Survey (AHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment and Payroll Survey of Business Owners Work from Home Our statistics highlight trends in household statistics from multiple surveys. Data Tools & Apps Main American FactFinder Census Business Builder My Classification Codes (i.e., NAICS) Economic Census Economic Indicators Economic Studies Industry Statistics

  10. Chagas Disease (American trypanosomiasis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sheets/detail/chagas-disease-(american-trypanosomiasis)","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... capacities, focusing on: strengthening world epidemiological surveillance and information systems; preventing transmission by blood transfusion and organ ...

  11. The American Oyster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Nancy E.

    The Maryland Marine Science Education Project has produced a series of mini-units in marine science education for the junior high/middle school classroom. This unit focuses on the American oyster. Although the unit specifically treats the Chesapeake Bay, it may be adapted for use with similar estuarine systems. In addition, the unit may be…

  12. American Indian Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Feather, Gerald

    With the emergence of reservation based community colleges (th Navajo Community College and the Dakota Community Colleges), the American Indian people, as decision makers in these institutions, are providing Indians with the technical skills and cultural knowledge necessary for self-determination. Confronted with limited numbers of accredited…

  13. Gifted European American Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Margie K.; Perkins, Carol O.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes factors affecting the achievement of 15 highly accomplished European American women in the fields of business, higher education, and law and government. Findings indicate participants tended to attribute their success to external factors while simultaneously employing proactive strategies to overcome potential barriers.…

  14. Depression and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have insurance or can’t afford treatment, your community may have publicly-funded mental health centers or programs that charge you according to ... how he found healing in an African American community. Other Resources ... Institute of Mental Health Phone Number: 301-443-4513 Toll Free Number: ...

  15. American Dream / Anu Raat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raat, Anu

    2010-01-01

    Uuritakse sõnapaari "American dream" tähendust, kuidas ja millal see unelmalugu tekkis, miks see on ameerikalik nähtus, samuti 1950-ndate moeloomingut, eriti Christian Diori oma Euroopas ja Ameerikas, selle põhjusi ja mõjusid seoses massilise tarbimisega

  16. American Holidays and Festivals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯凌

    2002-01-01

    One of the interesting things to learn about a country is to know different kinds of holidays and festivals its people celebrate(庆祝) and to tell why they celebrate them. Although there are some similarities(相似) between American and Chinese holidays and festivals, there are quite a few differences.

  17. Americans with Disabilities Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaesberg, Mary Ann; Murray, Kenneth T.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a 35-item checklist of practical activities for school district compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The checklist is based on ADA statutes, other civil rights legislation and litigation, as well as pertinent regulations and the legislative history of the act contained in the Congressional Record. (MLF)

  18. The Native American Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Russell

    1989-01-01

    Describes the American Indian "Holocaust," decimation of Indian populations following European discovery of the Americas. European and African diseases, warfare with Europeans, and genocide reduced native populations from 75 million to only a few million. Discusses population statistics and demographic effects of epidemics, continuing infection,…

  19. Grant Wood: "American Gothic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Diane M.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which exposes students in grades 10-12 to the visual symbols and historical references contained in Grant Wood's "American Gothic." Includes background information on the artist and the painting, instructional strategies, a studio activity, and evaluation criteria. (GEA)

  20. Hispanic American Volunteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Josue; Safrit, R. Dale

    2001-01-01

    Hispanic Americans in Cleveland, Ohio were interviewed about volunteerism. Six themes were identified: (1) influence of family and friends; (2) importance of volunteering to benefit youth; (3) importance of church and religious beliefs; (4) volunteering as a requirement; (5) connections between volunteerism and the community; and (6) personal…

  1. Civic Innovation & American Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirianni, Carmen; Friedland, Lewis

    1997-01-01

    Argues that American democracy is at a critical stage of development, with declining trust in government, citizens feeling displaced by a professional political class, derailed public interest, and policy that limits citizen deliberation and responsibility. Some instances of civic innovation, community organization, civic journalism, and efforts…

  2. American Porphyria Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nicole Castelano Gregary Edwards Megan Parrish ~ How the dog I didn't want became the dog I'd always dreamed of Darnisha Davenport Liz ... or through the site for commercial or public purposes. The American Porphyria Foundation (APF) Tax Forms 990 ...

  3. Asian Americans and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    The communities that constitute the racialized category of Asian Americans consist of approximately 20 million people in the United States, or about 5% of the total population. About 20% or 4 million are of primary or secondary school age, and over 1.1 million are in higher education. Both in popular and academic discourse, "Asian…

  4. American Lung Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... see if you should get screened. Learn more EDUCATION ADVOCACY RESEARCH Our vision is a world free of lung disease The American Lung Association is ... by lung disease. Help us continue to deliver education, advocacy and research to those who need it. $250 $100 $50 Your best gift Donate now Learn More ... nonprofit software

  5. Native American Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabokov, Peter; Easton, Robert

    This book presents building traditions of the major Indian tribes in nine regions of the North American continent, from the huge, plankhouse villages of the Northwest Coast, to the moundbuilder towns and temples of the Southeast, to the Navajo hogans and adobe pueblos of the Southwest. Indian buildings are a central element of Indian culture, the…

  6. The American University of Beirut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø

    2016-01-01

    with American society through its board of trustees. American civil society has been a major financial partner since the missionary days to modern day foundation philanthropy. American business has supported the university and recruited its graduates. American government has supported the university financially...... and politically. The chapter compares the transnational relations of the AUB, the other classical American overseas universities with missionary roots in the Middle East (AUC and LAU), the more than 20 American higher education institutions founded in China around 1900 (which did not survive the Korean War...

  7. Discipline behaviors of Chinese American and European American mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulei, Elaine; Zevenbergen, Andrea A; Jacobs, Sue C

    2006-09-01

    In any society, parenting beliefs are a reflection of that society's cultural values and traditions (J. U. Ogbu, 1981). Verbosity, a parenting behavior considered dysfunctional in European American culture, may not be problematic in Chinese culture. The authors recruited 31 Chinese American and 30 European American mothers and used questionnaires to measure parenting behaviors and child behavior problems. The Chinese American mothers also completed a questionnaire assessing their acculturation level. The Chinese American mothers had higher levels of verbosity than did the European American mothers; however, there were no differences between the groups in child behavior problems. The results also revealed higher levels of laxness in the Chinese American mothers compared to the European American mothers. Acculturation level did not predict verbosity or laxness levels. Results suggest that the effectiveness of a parenting style should be defined relative to cultural context.

  8. An American Paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the paradox that while Americans generally identify themselves as environmentalists, they show little willingness to voluntarily restrain their behavior or to support specific fiscal policies that would result in increased levels of environmental protection. I explore the role of values in the explanation of this paradox, and discuss some of the difficulties involved in studying values and their role in human behavior

  9. Asian American Adolescent Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Ohm, Julie Juhye

    1999-01-01

    The formation of ego identity in Asian American late adolescents attending Virginia Tech was examined within the frameworks of Erikson's psychosocial theory and Berry, Trimble, and Olmedo's model of acculturation. Ego identity was measured using the Achieved sub-scale of the Revised Version of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status, an instrument based on the theoretical constructs of Erikson. Ethnic identity was measured using the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and America...

  10. Improving American Innovation,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    Why has Jap~m succeeded: western technology and the Japanese ethos. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982. (NC 462 MO634 Norman , Colin...productivity growth. Review of Economics and Statistics 64:627-34, N~ovember 1982. Smith, G. W. and W. N. Smallwood . Preparing for breakthroughs: the rewards of...recommendations. Edited by Charles E. Larsen and WI. Novis Smith. Washington: American Chemical Society, 1980. Kobert, Norman . Agressivn management style

  11. American Studies in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Antsyferova, Olga

    2006-01-01

    Interest in the USA, both general and specifically academic, has always existed in Russia, with its own ups and downs. But American studies as an academic discipline started gaining its popularity probably after WWII when there sporadically started to emerge the ever-increasing number of academic books, articles and dissertations in literary and historical research on the USA, the main centers of which were founded at the Academic Research Institute of the USA and Canada, headed by academicia...

  12. Rediscovering Interwar American Theorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    background, influences , and influence . It illuminates Robinson’s efforts to account for factors associated with an American citizen -army and the... influences , and assessing their influence on doctrine and leaders of the Second World War. Additionally, this paper contains recommendations to improve the...addresses this gap by analyzing the theories of Brigadier General William K. Naylor and Colonel Oliver P. Robinson, examining their influences , and

  13. A Native American Theatre Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kent R.

    1973-01-01

    The ceremonial rituals American Indians have practiced for centuries are uncontestable testimony to how strongly they respond to theatre. These rituals, a pure and functional form of dramatic art, are practiced today by a Native American theater group. (FF)

  14. Mental Health and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  15. Asian American Health - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Asian American Health URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Asian American Health - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  16. American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACD AACD 2018: A Masterpiece of Comprehensive Cosmetic Dentistry Education 34th Annual Scientific Session | April 18-21 ... 222.9540 Contact Us © 2017American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry (AACD) © 2017American Academy ...

  17. American Food and World Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarra, Fred R.; Long, Cathryn J., Eds.

    1983-01-01

    Describes activities to help students in grades 7-9 learn about American food production and distribution. Students learn about the American diet over the centuries; the production of American Corn; the meaning of the term hunger; and the need for protein. (CS)

  18. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  19. Facts about American Indian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Indian College Fund, 2010

    2010-01-01

    As a result of living in remote rural areas, American Indians living on reservations have limited access to higher education. One-third of American Indians live on reservations, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. According to the most recent U.S. government statistics, the overall poverty rate for American Indians/Alaska Natives, including…

  20. Native American Ceremonial Athletic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Wilma J.

    This is a report on the relationship of North American Indian athletic games to ceremonies. Data for this investigation were researched from 48 "Annual Reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution" published from 1881 to 1933, and the 84 volumes of the "American Anthropologist" published from 1888 to 1974. Observational…

  1. History of Asian American psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T L; Okazaki, Sumie

    2009-10-01

    An overview of the history of Asian American psychology is provided by reviewing the context for the development of the field as well as the early founding of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). The presidents of AAPA as well as key events and conferences are noted. The involvement of AAPA leaders in national mental health policies and activities are reviewed. The substantive areas of Asian American psychology and the education and training of Asian American psychologists are also discussed. The article ends with some comments about the future of Asian American psychology. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. The american dental dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The American Dental Dream-the cultural desire for straight, white teeth-is difficult, if not impossible, for poor and working-class people to achieve. Using ethnographic fiction, autoethnography, poetry, and qualitative interviewing, I brush away the taken-for-granted assumptions about teeth. I explore the personal, relational, and structural consequences of this cultural desire, and show how social class writes itself on our bodies. I write these culture-centered teeth tales to show how one might cope with their teeth.

  3. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2015, 240, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 60% more ...

  4. Paul Graham, American Night

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Bernard

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Le photographe britannique Paul Graham (1956- ne jouit pas encore en France de la notoriété de son compatriote Martin Parr et on ne peut, par conséquent, que se féliciter de voir l’une de ses plus puissantes séries — American Night — représentée à la Galerie Les Filles du Calvaire.Connu, avec Parr, pour avoir profondément influencé la photo documentaire anglaise en la faisant passer à la couleur avec virulence, Graham a été révélé il y a une vingtaine d’années par une série d’images prises à...

  5. American Nations, Latin States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nelson Ahumada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The nation, as artifact of modernity, assumes particularities in America such as the colonization and genocide of original peoples which still weighs as a never ending comeback. Nevertheless, capital, with its overwhelming force, destroyed peoples, cultures, traditions and landscapes. Latin America faces the challenge of uniting beyond the necessities of capital, and beyond two languages, spanish and portuguese. All of which has full validity at present with the blocks UNASUR and ALBA. Ethnocentricity is postulated as the exclusive condition of all possible humanity and, as programme, racism without races; Latin American miscegenation, as the potential for unity and the strength of emancipation as a project. Our intellectuals, who constructed a unique and superlative literature, are the lighthouses in the development of a nationalism without races. Anthropology in debate with psychoanalysis can become a compass in rethinking our America.

  6. "American Gothic" Revised: Positive Perceptions from a Young American Farmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joehl, Regan R.

    2008-01-01

    Grant Wood's "American Gothic," intended to represent the Depression Era, Midwestern farmer, has been regarded by many as the stereotypical representation of a true American farmer for decades. While this painting does represent farmers in the early part of the 20th century, the author feels obliged to say that it is time to drop this…

  7. Teaching about American Federal Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Stephen L., Ed.

    Ten essays discuss federal democracy, the form of government of the United States. The first essay discusses the origins of American federalism. The second examines why we have a federal system, the functions federalism serves, and the consequences of federalism for the American political system. Federalism in the Constitution and constitutional…

  8. American uranium: Relic or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This article is a review of the American Uranium industry. Historical aspects are presented as the industry's history is outlined from the mid-1950's to the present day. Present capabilities are noted, as are a current comparison of American production costs vs. world costs. Future trends are analyzed

  9. Native American Foods and Cookery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tom; Potter, Eloise F.

    Native Americans had a well-developed agriculture long before the arrival of the Europeans. Three staples--corn, beans, and squash--were supplemented with other gathered plants or cultivated crops such as white potatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and peanuts. Native Americans had no cows, pigs, or domesticated chickens; they depended almost…

  10. A Slice of American Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirker, Sara Schmickle

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project for second-grade students based on American Regionalist Grant Wood's most famous painting, "American Gothic," which was modeled by his sister, Nan, and his dentist. This well-loved painting depicting a hard-working farmer and his daughter standing in front of their farmhouse is the project's…

  11. Family Values in American Drama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joanne

    When an educator was invited by a Chinese university to teach a seminar in American drama, she used "family drama" as the organizing theme of her course because she was (and is) convinced that from Eugene O'Neill on, American playwrights have been obsessed with family disintegration and the failure of family harmony. This paper is an…

  12. American Samoa: Energy Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, J. Erik [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Conrad, Misty [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This document outlines actions being taken to reduce American Samoa's petroleum consumption. It describes the four near-term strategies selected by the American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee during action-planning workshops conducted in May 2016, and describes the steps that will need to be taken to implement those strategies.

  13. The oxymoron of American pastoralism

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Sayre

    2013-01-01

    Pastoralism has been variously defined in American literary studies. In European literature the pastoral persisted as a distinct genre and self-conscious literary tradition from Theocritus and Virgil through the eighteenth century. Major eighteenth and nineteenth-century American authors alluded to this tradition, but they could not really lay claim to it, for as this...

  14. Additional Resources on Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Corinne Maekawa; Lee, Sunny; Liang, Christopher T. H.; Alvarez, Alvin N.; McEwen, Marylu K.

    2002-01-01

    The authors identify Asian American associations and organizations, academic journals, periodicals, and media resources. Selected annotated resources on Asian American activism and politics, counseling and psychology, educational issues, gender and sexual orientation, history, policy reports, and racial and ethnic identity are also included.…

  15. Elder Abuse among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…

  16. African American Health PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the May 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. The life expectancy of African Americans has improved, but it's still an average of four years less than whites. Learn what can be done so all Americans can have the opportunity to pursue a healthy lifestyle.

  17. On American Cultural Exportation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德俊

    2015-01-01

    American government has been attaching great importance to the role that cultural values plays in international relationships and Culture Exportation has gradually become one of the important parts of American diplomatic strategy. This strategy,which is propelled by a variety of impetuses and conducted by different approaches,is mainly aimed to serve the overall national interests of the United States.

  18. On American Cultural Exportation Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德俊

    2015-01-01

    American government has been attaching great importance to the role that cultural values plays in international relationships and Culture Exportation has gradually become one of the important parts of American diplomatic strategy.This strategy,which is propelled by a variety of impetuses and conducted by different approaches,is mainly aimed to serve the overall national interests of the United States.

  19. Reconsidering Asian American Student Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Corinne M.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter addresses the applicability of student development theories in light of empirical research on Asian American college students through a twofold approach: (a) revisiting the relevance of Kodama, McEwen, Liang, and Lee's (2001, 2002) theoretical work on Asian American student development; and (b) using Jones' and Stewart's (2016)…

  20. Native American youth and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Laurence A. French

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth and delinquency issues have long been problematic among Native Americans groups both on- and off-reservation. This phenomenon is further complicated by the cultural diversity among American Indians and Alaska Natives scattered across the United States. In address these issues, the paper begins with a historical overview of Native American youth. This history presents the long tradition of federal policies that, how well intended, have resulted in discriminatory practices with the most damages attacks being those directed toward the destruction of viable cultural attributes – the same attributes that make Native Americans unique within United States society. Following the historical material, the authors contrast the pervasive Native American aboriginal ethos of harmony with that of Protestant Ethic that dominates the ethos of the larger United States society. In addition to providing general information on Native American crime and delinquency, the paper also provides a case study of Native American justice within the Navajo Nation, the largest tribe, in both size and population, in the United States. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues specific to Native American youth and efforts to address these problems.

  1. Arab American Women Negotiating Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Oraib

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the literature available on other ethnic groups in the United States, there is very little information about school experiences of Arab Americans (Nieto, 2003). This study examines the ways that Arab American women reported positioning themselves when faced with difficult situations related to stereotypical images of Arabs and Arab…

  2. American Canine Hepatozoonosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, S. A.; Panciera, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    American canine hepatozoonosis (ACH) is a tick-borne disease that is spreading in the southeastern and south-central United States. Characterized by marked leukocytosis and periosteal bone proliferation, ACH is very debilitating and often fatal. Dogs acquire infection by ingesting nymphal or adult Gulf Coast ticks (Amblyomma maculatum) that, in a previous life stage, ingested the parasite in a blood meal taken from some vertebrate intermediate host. ACH is caused by the apicomplexan Hepatozoon americanum and has been differentiated from Old World canine hepatozoonosis caused by H. canis. Unlike H. canis, which is transmitted by the ubiquitous brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus), H. americanum is essentially an accidental parasite of dogs, for which Gulf Coast ticks are not favored hosts. The geographic portrait of the disease parallels the known distribution of the Gulf Coast tick, which has expanded in recent years. Thus, the endemic cycle of H. americanum involves A. maculatum as definitive host and some vertebrate intermediate host(s) yet to be identified. Although coyotes (Canis latrans) are known to be infected, it is not known how important this host is in maintaining the endemic cycle. This review covers the biology of the parasite and of the tick that transmits it and contrasts ACH with classical canine hepatozoonosis. Clinical aspects of the disease are discussed, including diagnosis and treatment, and puzzling epidemiologic issues are examined. Brief consideration is given to the potential for ACH to be used as a model for study of angiogenesis and of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. PMID:14557294

  3. North American Regional Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    North America is an energy community fortunate to be endowed with a rich and varied resource base. It consumes about a third of the world's energy and produces about one quarter of world energy supply. North America depends on a mix of complementary energy sources that should remain competitive but not in conflict. The current supply mix varies between Canada, the United States and Mexico, but fossil fuels are dominant across the region, leaving the three member countries vulnerable to a myriad of risks associated with traditional supply sources. Energy trade between all three countries is also a major contributor to the region's economy. Thus, the impetus for collaboration across the region has grown out of the common goals of energy security and economic prosperity. The goal of the WEC regional group was to discuss avenues for advancing North American cooperation and coordination on a range of energy issues. An additional objective was to develop policy recommendations that will facilitate effective development and use of the region's energy resources. Results and recommendtaions are summarized from three forums that focused on the pertinent issues of energy trade, energy efficiency and energy diversification. The inaugural forum (Energy Trade) was held in Washington, D.C. in the fall of 2005. The following summer, the second forum (Energy Efficiency) took place in Mexico City. The third forum (Energy Diversification) was hosted in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

  4. North American Regional Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    North America is an energy community fortunate to be endowed with a rich and varied resource base. It consumes about a third of the world's energy and produces about one quarter of world energy supply. North America depends on a mix of complementary energy sources that should remain competitive but not in conflict. The current supply mix varies between Canada, the United States and Mexico, but fossil fuels are dominant across the region, leaving the three member countries vulnerable to a myriad of risks associated with traditional supply sources. Energy trade between all three countries is also a major contributor to the region's economy. Thus, the impetus for collaboration across the region has grown out of the common goals of energy security and economic prosperity. The goal of the WEC regional group was to discuss avenues for advancing North American cooperation and coordination on a range of energy issues. An additional objective was to develop policy recommendations that will facilitate effective development and use of the region's energy resources. Results and recommendtaions are summarized from three forums that focused on the pertinent issues of energy trade, energy efficiency and energy diversification. The inaugural forum (Energy Trade) was held in Washington, D.C. in the fall of 2005. The following summer, the second forum (Energy Efficiency) took place in Mexico City. The third forum (Energy Diversification) was hosted in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

  5. North American Foreign Fighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Noonan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While the phenomenon of so-called “foreign fighters” is in no way new the past thirty-plus years has shown a marked increase in the numbers of individuals traveling abroad to fight in civil conflicts in the Muslim world. The crisis in Syria (2011-present has created a massive influx of such individuals going to fight. Of particular concern in western capitals has been the numbers of individuals from those countries that have gone to fight in that conflict which has since crossed the border into neighboring Iraq with the establishment of the socalled “Islamic State” and threatens to broaden the conflict into a larger regional sectarian conflagration. While the numbers of such participants from Western Europe have been greater than those who have gone from the United States and Canada there are legitimate concerns in both Washington, DC, and Ottawa about American and Canadian citizens who have gone—or attempted to go—to fight there and in other locales such as the Maghreb and Somalia. The analysis here will provide some background on the foreign fighter phenomenon, discuss the foreign fighter flow model, explore the issue from both Canadian and US perspectives to include providing details of some original research categorizing the characteristics of a small sample of US and Canadian fighters and those who attempted to go and fight, discuss how both governments have attempted to deal with the issue, and offer some policy prescription for dealing with this issue that is of importance to both international security writ large and domestic security in the US and Canada.

  6. Energy geopolitics, an American perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, Simon

    2008-01-01

    Even if geopolitics can be said not to exist for Americans who, like for example in the field of energy, believe that any problem can find a solution with the help of money and of the American ingenuity, and who are in fact only interested in a lower energy price, the author comments how energy issues are addressed by the candidates to the President election of 2008. The author notices that American people may have to realise, at least for a while, that their country is accused to bear a large share of responsibilities in environmental problems

  7. North American oil demand outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    An understanding of the relationship of economic growth and potential petroleum product demand is needed to forecast the potential for North American oil demand growth as well as knowledge of world supply and price. The bullish expectations for economic growth in the US and Canada auger well for North American refiners and marketeers. The growth in world economic output forecast, however, means a larger oil demand and an increase in OPEC's pricing power. Such price increases could depress North American oil demand growth. (author)

  8. American Samoa Energy Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Herdrich, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bodell, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Visser, Charles [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Describes the five near-term strategies selected by the American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee (ASREC) during action planning workshops conducted in May 2013, and outlines the actions being taken to implement those strategies. Each option is tied to a priority identified in the earlier draft American Samoa Strategic Energy Plan as being an essential component of reducing American Samoa'spetroleum energy consumption. The actions described for each strategy provide a roadmap to facilitate the implementation of each strategy. This document is intended to evolve along with the advancement of the projects, and will be updated to reflect progress.

  9. Americanization of Non-American Storiesin Disney Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beta Setiawati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is intended to know the Disney’s animation films characteristics which are adapted from non American stories that contain Americanization in order to be American popular culture products. This qualitative and library research is carried out within the field of American Studies. Disney’s animated films which are regarded as artifacts in order to identify American society and culture is used as her primary data. She then compares those Disney films with the original stories to discover the changes in making those stories become American popular products. She furthermore uses the sources such as books, magazines, journals, articles, and also internet data for her secondary data. The result of this study shows that most of folk narratives which were used in Disney films were adapted from other countries’ stories. However, Disney intentionally adapts foreign countries’ stories in its animated films by using Disney formula to blow up the sale of its products. Since Disney is one of the most powerful media conglomerates in the world, it works endlessly to set out world entertainment. Disney formula in its animated films which has dominated those adapted films are only intended to obtain as much profit as possible without paying attention to the values in children entertainment.

  10. Usage Notes in the Oxford American Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, R. Thomas

    1981-01-01

    Compares the "Oxford American Dictionary" with the "American Heritage Dictionary." Examines the dictionaries' differences in philosophies of language, introductory essays, and usage notes. Concludes that the "Oxford American Dictionary" is too conservative, paternalistic, and dogmatic for the 1980s. (DMM)

  11. American Association Of State Climatologists

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records documenting the business, membership, and meetings of the American Association of State Climatologists, from 1976-92. Material donated in 2008 by the estate...

  12. Performing Transnational Arab American Womanhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koegeler-Abdi, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The first Miss Lebanon-America, Rosemary Hakim, landed at Beirut Airport in July 1955 to start a public diplomacy tour. As an American beauty queen from Detroit visiting Lebanon, her parents' homeland, she was greeted enthusiastically by the local press and closely monitored by US government...... a transnational sense of Arab Americanness to negotiate her own gender and ethnic identity. This is significant because we currently lack a broader historical understanding of Arab American women’s public agency, particularly during the mid-twentieth century. Hakim’s memoir requires us to rethink the history...... of Arab American women’s strategies of self-representation in ways that acknowledge but are not confined within the terms of conventional orientalist discourses....

  13. Central American and Caribbean Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather and soil temperature observations from foreign countries, taken by foreign and American observers. Includes NOAA forms collected and archived at NCDC, and...

  14. American Institute for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Phytochemicals in your food Red and processed meat Sugar and cancer risk Alcohol and cancer risk Physical Activity Are ... Updates: Diabetes Rates are High and Rising, That Links with Cancer Apples and Oranges, What Americans are Eating and ...

  15. Charting Transnational Native American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsinya Huang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction to the Special Forum entitled "Charting Transnational Native American Studies: Aesthetics, Politics, Identity," edited by Hsinya Huang, Philip J. Deloria, Laura M. Furlan, and John Gamber

  16. American Head and Neck Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... research and insights. Comments This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. This iframe ... and Announcements Copyright ©2016 · American Head and Neck Society · Privacy and Return Policy Managed by BSC Management, ...

  17. American Association of Tissue Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Committees Accreditation American Board of Tissue Banking Bylaws / Ethics Communications Donor Family Services Ad Hoc Committee Education Finance ... Bureau Accredited Bank Search Bookstore Bulletins Global Topics Communications & Media Job Center News Releases Patients and Community Useful ...

  18. Taxation and the American Indian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, David

    1973-01-01

    The article explores American Indian tribal rights to tax exemptions and self-imposed taxation; general recommendations on possible tribal tax alternatives; and evaluation of the probable economic effect of taxation. (FF)

  19. Geothermal energy for American Samoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    The geothermal commercialization potential in American Samoa was investigated. With geothermal energy harnessed in American Samoa, a myriad of possibilities would arise. Existing residential and business consumers would benefit from reduced electricity costs. The tuna canneries, demanding about 76% of the island's process heat requirements, may be able to use process heat from a geothermal source. Potential new industries include health spas, aquaculture, wood products, large domestic and transhipment refrigerated warehouses, electric cars, ocean nodule processing, and a hydrogen economy. There are no territorial statutory laws of American Samoa claiming or reserving any special rights (including mineral rights) to the territorial government, or other interests adverse to a land owner, for subsurface content of real property. Technically, an investigation has revealed that American Samoa does possess a geological environment conducive to geothermal energy development. Further studies and test holes are warranted.

  20. Pricing American and Asian Options

    OpenAIRE

    Pat Muldowney

    2015-01-01

    An analytic method for pricing American call options is provided; followed by an empirical method for pricing Asian call options. The methodology is the pricing theory presented in "A Modern Theory of Random Variation", by Patrick Muldowney, 2012.

  1. American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Position Statements Publications Bookstore American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Legislative & Regulatory Agenda AAGP eNews (Members Only) Tools ... Funding Training Resources and Curricula For Clinicians >> Geriatric Psychiatry Identifier Webinar: Billing and Coding Consumer Material Clinical ...

  2. American Association for Clinical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find the answer to your question IN CLINICAL CHEMISTRY Hs-cTnI as a Gatekeeper for Further Cardiac ... Online Harmonization.net Commission on Accreditation in Clinical Chemistry American Board of Clinical Chemistry Clinical Chemistry Trainee ...

  3. American acceptance of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, W.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristic adventurous spirit that built American technology will eventually lead to American acceptance of nuclear power unless an overpowering loss of nerve causes us to reject both nuclear technology and world leadership. The acceptance of new technology by society has always been accompanied by activist opposition to industralization. To resolve the debate between environmental and exploitive extremists, we must accept with humility the basic premise that human accomplishment is a finite part of nature

  4. African American Health PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-05-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the May 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. The life expectancy of African Americans has improved, but it’s still an average of four years less than whites. Learn what can be done so all Americans can have the opportunity to pursue a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 5/2/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/2/2017.

  5. Examining Factors Influencing Asian American and Latino American Students' College Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang-Yeung, Leilani Weichun

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation examines the gap in college enrollment between Asian Americans and Latino Americans regarding the effects of family and school factors, classifying them into the six ethnic/generational status groups (Asian American first generation, Asian American second generation, Asian American third generation and plus, Latino American first…

  6. Transfusion medicine on American television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, J K

    2014-02-01

    Television is a beloved American pastime and a frequent American export. As such, American television shapes how the global public views the world. This study examines how the portrayal of blood transfusion and blood donation on American television may influence how domestic and international audiences perceive the field of transfusion medicine. American television programming of the last quarter-century was reviewed to identify programmes featuring topics related to blood banking/transfusion medicine. The included television episodes were identified through various sources. Twenty-seven television episodes airing between 1991 and 2013 were identified as featuring blood bank/transfusion medicine topics. Although some accurate representations of the field were identified, most television programmes portrayed blood banking/transfusion medicine inaccurately. The way in which blood banking/transfusion medicine is portrayed on American television may assist clinicians in understanding their patient's concerns about blood safety and guide blood collection organisations in improving donor recruitment. © 2013 The Author. Transfusion Medicine © 2013 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  7. Celebrating National American Indian Heritage Month

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mann, Diane

    2004-01-01

    November has been designated National American Indian Heritage Month to honor American Indians and Alaska Natives by increasing awareness of their culture, history, and, especially, their tremendous...

  8. Native American Women: Living with Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Rebecca

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the role of Native American women in the spiritual and cultural life of American Indians. Native American spirituality is deeply connected to the land through daily use, ritual, and respect for sacred space. Often Native American women act as conduits and keepers of this knowledge. (MJP)

  9. Successfully Educating Our African-American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncree-Moffett, Kareem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical study was to explore the lived experiences of African American retired female teachers who have prior experience with educating urban African American students in public schools. Also explored are the experiences of active African American female teachers of urban African American students and comparisons are…

  10. Sociolinguistics features of humor in american linguoculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article we study the characteristics of the language of representation and perception of American humour, its linguistic and cultural features in humorous texts of American comics from the American linguistic culture. The material for research is the humorous texts and fragments of the performances of American ...

  11. The Native American Experience. American Historical Images on File.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardwell, Lelia, Ed.

    This photo-documentation reference body presents more than 275 images chronicling the experiences of the American Indian from their prehistoric migrations to the present. The volume includes information and images illustrating the life ways of various tribes. The images are accompanied by historical information providing cultural context. The book…

  12. Disillusionment of the American Dream——On An American Tragedy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管秀丽

    2008-01-01

    Theodore Dreiser is now regarded as one of the pre-eminent American realistic novelists of the first half of the twentieth century.an anatomist of the American Dream.In his great work An American Tragedy,Dreis- er exposes and criticizes mercilessly the corruption and black side of American society.The disillusionment of the American Dream is an important theme of the fiction.This paper illustrates "An American Tragedy" is the re- flection of disillusionment of the American Dream in the perspectives of the tragedy of a mortal,the tragedy of American society,and the tragedy of the American Dream.

  13. 75 FR 70300 - USEC, Inc.; American Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility; American Centrifuge Plant; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility; American Centrifuge Plant; Notice of Receipt of a License Transfer... SNM-2011, for the American Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility and the American Centrifuge Plant... USEC Inc., (the Licensee), for its American Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility (LCF) and American...

  14. Marketing to Older American Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Barbara; Stephens, Nancy

    1986-01-01

    Examined older adults as a potential market for American businesses. Data indicate that in terms of size and income, senior citizens comprise a substantial buying group. Their buying styles, product and service needs, and shopping behavior vary from younger adults and within the older adult population. Strategies for successful marketing are…

  15. American Indians in Graduate Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Clara Sue

    1989-01-01

    The number of American Indians enrolled in institutions of higher education is very small. Enrollment figures for fall 1984 show Indians made up .68% of the total enrollment in institutions of higher education in the country, but only 15% of them were in universities. Their largest representation was in two-year institutions, where 54% of Indian…

  16. The Evil that Americans Did

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, John David

    2007-01-01

    Slavery's unequivocal evil lies at the heart of debates over apologizing for America's "peculiar institution" and awarding reparations. In The Problem of Evil: Slavery, Freedom, and the Ambiguities of American Reform, a provocative collection of original essays, the editors Steven Mintz and John Stauffer, along with 23 contributors,…

  17. Communication; A Scientific American Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientific American, Inc., New York, NY.

    With present advances in communication technology, profound and qualitative changes in our civilization are taking place--in business and politics, in education, in entertainment, interpersonal relations, and the organization of society itself. In honor of the significance of such developments, an entire issue of "Scientific American" magazine…

  18. The American Inventors Protection Act

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, Arvid O.I.; Kleimeier, Stefanie; Mimiroglu, Nagihan; Pennings, Joost M.E.

    2018-01-01

    We examine the impact of innovation disclosure through patenting on firms' cost of debt, focusing on the American Inventors Protection Act (AIPA) as an exogenous shock in innovation disclosure regulation. Post-AIPA, firms have an incentive to apply for patents only if commercial success is likely.

  19. Foundation Networks and American Hegemony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inderjeet Parmar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The major American foundations constructed and sustained the rich texture of cooperative social, intellectual and political relations between key actors and institutions supportive of specific modes of thought that promoted US hegemony. Foundations also fostered and developed the attractive power-knowledge networks that not only radiated intellectual influence but also attracted some of the most creative minds. Finally, liberal internationalist foundations fostered globalism even when the American state was ‘isolationist’, and when US influence abroad unwelcome. Their significance in American hegemony building lay in their sustained, long-term cooperative relationship with the American state through which they helped build national, international and global institutions and networks. The latter process evidences the most significant impact of US foundations – the building of the domestic and international infrastructure for liberal internationalism which has transformed into a kind of “social neoliberalism”. Theoretical conclusions follow from these claims: the sustained and deep cooperation between the state and foundations suggests that we must revise our views of “how power works” in the United States and therefore influences its foreign relations. Therefore, the article shows that elite networks, consisting of state officials and private citizens are powerful means by which foreign policy shifts may be prepared, elite and mass opinion primed and mobilised, new consensus built, ‘old’ forces marginalised, and US hegemony constructed.

  20. Polish Americans. Second, Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Helen Znaniecka

    This book examines Polonia, the Polish ethnic community in America created by three giant waves of immigration between 1880 and 1990. The complicated history of this ethnic group is reflected in the lives of increasing numbers of Polish Americans, including recent immigrants brought by political and economic changes, as they achieve middle class…

  1. Textbooks and the American Indian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costo, Rupert, Ed.

    An independent Indian publishing house has been formed to provide classroom instructional materials which deal accurately with the history, culture, and role of the American Indian. This book is a preliminary statement in that publishing program. General criteria, valid for instructional materials from elementary through high school, are applied…

  2. Filipino Americans: Transformation and Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Maria P. P., Ed.

    Throughout the United States, many Filipino Americans, especially students, are beginning to want to know more about their cultural heritage and future. Overall, there has been very little written to transmit knowledge about Filipino history, ideas, and values, even though Filipinos make up the largest Asian ethnic group in the United States.…

  3. Latin American Folk Art Prints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navah, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Latin American customs and colors play an important role as second graders are introduced to multicultural experiences through food, music, dance, art, and craft. In this article, the author describes a printing project inspired by Guatemalan weavings and amate bark paintings. (Contains 2 online resources.)

  4. AMERICAN INDIANS AND EDUCATIONAL LABORATORIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BASS, WILLARD P.; BURGER, HENRY G.

    MANY OF THE DIVERSE EDUCATIONAL PROBLEMS OF THE AMERICAN INDIAN HAVE BEEN IDENTIFIED FOR YEARS, BUT HAVE BEEN PERMITTED TO LAY DORMANT. SOCIO-ECONOMIC DISADVANTAGEMENT IS EXHIBITED IN AREAS OF INCOME, UNEMPLOYMENT, SCHOOL DROPOUT RATE, EXPECTED LIFE SPAN, INFANT MORTALITY RATE, BIRTH RATE, AND HEALTH HISTORY. COMMUNICATION PROBLEMS BLOCK THE…

  5. Dimensions of Native American Stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jeffery R.; Rouse, Linda P.

    1987-01-01

    Reports responses of 226 University of Texas undergraduates concerning their stereotypical perceptions of American Indians. Examines cultural stereotypes, personal stereotypes, perceived degree of Indian homogeneity, attitudes toward assimilation, and victim blaming. Suggests an emergent Indian stereotype based on cultural relativism prevailing…

  6. The American Way of Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    Military Experience: History and Learning,” The Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 1, No. 2 (Winter, 1971), 208. 19 Jerome S. Bruner , Jacqueline... Bruner , Jerome S., Goodnow, Jacqueline J, and Austin, George A. A Study of Thinking. New York: Wiley, 1956. Bruscino, Thomas A, “Our American

  7. American Elements in Czech Parody

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hemelíková, Blanka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2015), s. 102-113 ISSN 0022-3840 Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : Czech interwar literature * parody * Brdečka, Jiří * Kuděj, Zdeněk Matěj * americanism Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision Impact factor: 0.070, year: 2015

  8. American options under stochastic volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chockalingam, A.; Muthuraman, K.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of pricing an American option written on an underlying asset with constant price volatility has been studied extensively in literature. Real-world data, however, demonstrate that volatility is not constant, and stochastic volatility models are used to account for dynamic volatility

  9. Ideas That Shaped American Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Franklin

    1981-01-01

    Briefly discusses 10 books, or series of books, that represent major turning points in American education in the last 75 years. The authors include William H. McGuffey, Abraham Flexner, Lewis M. Terman, John Dewey, George S. Counts, Jerome S. Bruner, James S. Coleman, Michael B. Katz, and B. F. Skinner. (IRT)

  10. Sexism in modern American society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibraeva B. M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available the authors of the article consider that modern life is still full of various stereotypes. One of the most controversial questions in this article is the issue of discrimination against women in contemporary American society, and it is hard to believe, because this country claims to be a main guarantor of the human rights and freedoms.

  11. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2015-12-22

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block's Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  12. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persephone Vargas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ. Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA. Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA and dietary intake was determined using the Block’s Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ. Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208 = 0.193, p < 0.01, percentage fat intake (r(208 = 0.154, p < 0.05, percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208 = −0.172, p < 0.05, Body Mass Index (BMI (r(208 = 0.216, p < 0.01 and waist circumference (r(208 = 0.161, p < 0.01. There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  13. Proverbs in Mexican American Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shirley L.

    1982-01-01

    Examines proverb use among 304 Mexican Americans (aged 16-85) of Los Angeles (California), assembling information on how or where particular proverbs were learned, with whom or what kind of individual their use is associated, the occasions on which they are used, and general attitudes toward the use of proverbs. (LC)

  14. American Akicita: Indigenous American warriors and military service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, J Douglas

    2017-08-01

    Indigenous Americans (i.e., Native/American Indians, AK natives, Pacific Islanders) have consistently volunteered for military service at greater rates than any other ethnic group, including the majority culture, since the early days of the country. This article is an introduction to the special section which includes a number of outstanding papers that provide an innovative and compelling effort to overcome the challenges of casualties from war and render effective and culturally informed care. These manuscripts describe culturally appropriate considerations of suicide (O'Keefe), family involvement and access to care (Whealin), and telehealth for treatment of rural Native veterans (Goss). Challenging and complex treatment needs call for equally mindful and competent approaches. These authors and providers present compelling examples of addressing these needs in working with our Wounded Warriors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Asian American Education: Identities, Racial Issues, and Languages. Research on the Education of Asian Pacific Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Xue Lan, Ed.; Endo, Russell, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Asian American Education--Asian American Identities, Racial Issues, and Languages presents groundbreaking research that critically challenges the invisibility, stereotyping, and common misunderstandings of Asian Americans by disrupting "customary" discourse and disputing "familiar" knowledge. The chapters in this anthology…

  16. 75 FR 49484 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Postsecondary Education; Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving Institutions (AANAPISI), Native American-Serving Nontribal Institutions (NASNTI), Hispanic Serving Institutions-STEM and Articulation (HSI-STEM), and Predominantly Black Institutions (PBI...

  17. American Indian Education Opportunities Program. Supplement 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molin, Paulette F.

    1997-01-01

    Activities of the American Indian Educational Opportunities Program (AIEOP) at Hampton University for this reporting period included the establishment of a student chapter of the American Indian Science & Engineering Society (AISES), a move to new office space, hosting events on campus for visiting students from the American Indian Education Program of Oxon Hill, Maryland and Onondaga Community College in Syracuse, New York, collaboration with the Multicultural Leadership Team at NASA Langley Research Center for a Native American elder to serve as a speaker, participation in Native American conferences and other events, and continuing efforts to recruit and retain American Indian students.

  18. Polydactyly in the American Indian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingle, G J; Niswander, J D

    1975-01-01

    Polydactyly has an incidence in the American Indian twice that of Caucasians. A minimum estimate of this incidence is 2.40 per 1,000 live births. Preaxial type 1 has an incidence three to four times that reported for Caucasians or Negroes. The overall sex ratio in Indians is distorted with more males affected than females. The preaxial type 1 anomaly has a strong predilection for the hands and always is unilateral in contrast to postaxial type B where more than one-half are bilateral. The evidence to date, consisting of varying incidences of specific types of polydactyly among American whites, Negroes, and Indians in varying enviroments, suggests different gene-frequencies for polydactyly in each population. The incidence in Indians with 50% Caucasian admixture suggests that the factors controlling polydactyly are in large part genetically determined. Family studies and twin studies reported elsewhere offer no clear-cut genetic model which explains the highly variable gene frequencies.

  19. Cognitive Skill, Skill Demands of Jobs, and Earnings among Young European American, African American, and Mexican American Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, George; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Analyses of National Longitudinal Survey data indicate that cognitive skill level affects access to high-skill occupations and earnings. Lower cognitive skill levels for African Americans and U.S.-born Mexican Americans explain a substantial proportion of income differences between these groups and European Americans but not the gender gap in pay…

  20. Parental Attachment, Self-Esteem, and Antisocial Behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbona, Consuelo; Power, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relation of mother and father attachment to self-esteem and self-reported involvement in antisocial behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American high school students. Findings indicated that adolescents from the 3 ethnic/racial groups did not differ greatly in their reported attachment. (Contains 70…

  1. Perpetual American options within CTRWs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Miquel

    2008-06-01

    Continuous-time random walks are a well suited tool for the description of market behaviour at the smallest scale: the tick-to-tick evolution. We will apply this kind of market model to the valuation of perpetual American options: derivatives with no maturity that can be exercised at any time. Our approach leads to option prices that fulfill financial formulas when canonical assumptions on the dynamics governing the process are made, but it is still suitable for more exotic market conditions.

  2. Perpetual American options within CTRW's

    OpenAIRE

    Montero, Miquel

    2007-01-01

    Continuous-time random walks are a well suited tool for the description of market behaviour at the smallest scale: the tick-to-tick evolution. We will apply this kind of market model to the valuation of perpetual American options: derivatives with no maturity that can be exercised at any time. Our approach leads to option prices that fulfil financial formulas when canonical assumptions on the dynamics governing the process are made, but it is still suitable for more exotic market conditions.

  3. Destabilizing the American Racial Order

    OpenAIRE

    Hochschild, Jennifer L.; Weaver, Vesla; Burch, Traci

    2011-01-01

    Are racial disparities in the United States just as deep-rooted as they were before the 2008 presidential election, largely eliminated, or persistent but on the decline? One can easily find all of these pronouncements; rather than trying to adjudicate among them, this essay seeks to identify what is changing in the American racial order, what persists or is becoming even more entrenched, and what is likely to affect the balance between change and continuity. The authors focus on young America...

  4. The incunabula of American optometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Michael J

    2012-04-01

    Only a very few American opticians (optometrists) wrote textbooks or manuals before the end of the 19th century. The important hand-book by William Bohne has already been excellently covered by David Goss but three others appear to have been largely unnoticed. These are manuals by Walter Alden, August Morck and J W Queen & Co.: pioneer works that can be regarded as the incunabula or cradle of printing of optometric publishing in the United States.

  5. American Psychological Association annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Presents the 2009 American Psychological Association annual report. It highlights a very important year for APA and psychology by summarizing activities within each directorate. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology-and the unique skills of psychologists-to the attention of the public. This report aims to give insight into the contributions psychologists make to our communities and our country. 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Understanding American Identity: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    this leads to is, how can we begin this transformation ? D. HOW TO GET THERE: PATRIOTIC BUILDING BLOCKS 1. Civic Education Many have argued that civic... transformation of the U.S. public education system and writes, “High schools brought young people together into an adolescent world that helped to obscure...Revamped civic education and national service programs can serve to form those cross-cutting ties. 14. SUBJECT TERMS American identity, national identity

  7. Marks in Latin-American radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Almeida, S. de.

    1987-01-01

    An historical retrospective of Latin-American radiology is shortly presented. Several radiologic societies as well as personalities, scientists and doctors are reported emphasizing their contribuition to radiologic Latin-American culture. (M.A.C.) [pt

  8. American Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... New Research AADSM Highlights Members More news... Dental Sleep Medicine: An area of dental practice that focuses on ... SomnoMed Silver Sponsors Copyright © American Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine, All Rights Reserved. American Academy of Dental Sleep ...

  9. Early Education for Asian American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Margie K.

    1980-01-01

    A review of early education for Asian American children (Japanese, Chinese, Filipinos, Vietnamese, Koreans, Hawaiians, and Samoans) focuses on the 1975 Asian American Education Project, a study of the learning characteristics of preschool age children and its educational implications. (CM)

  10. African Americans and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? African Americans in the U.S. have a higher prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) than ...

  11. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders among Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A MERICANS Native American cultures, which encompass American Indian, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian tribes, are rich with history, tradition, spirituality, and art. There are 562 Federally recognized tribes across the ...

  12. American Board of Obesity Medicine (ABOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not trained in how to manage it. The American Board of Obesity Medicine certifies physicians looking to bridge this gap. ... an ABOM diplomate. APPLY NOW OUR MISSION The American Board of Obesity Medicine (ABOM) serves the public and the field ...

  13. American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My Account Find Members Benefits American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy 112 South Alfred Street Alexandria, ... Fax: (703) 838-9805 © 2002 - American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy Terms of Use | Privacy Policy | ...

  14. THE DEPICTION OF HOMOSEXUALITY IN AMERICAN MOVIES

    OpenAIRE

    Rudy Rudy

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the depiction of homosexuality in American films. It is intended to identify the images of gays depicted in American films as well as the characteristics of American gay movies. It incorporates library research by applying an analytical descriptive approach in analyzing the data. The symbol and reflective theory is used to analyze 18 American movies and 14 gay films from other countries in the early 2000s. It shows that gay films can attract audiences by describing gays ...

  15. The Depiction Of Homosexuality In American Movies

    OpenAIRE

    Rudy, Rudy

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the depiction of homosexuality in American films. It is intended to identify the images of gays depicted in American films as well as the characteristics of American gay movies. It incorporates library research by applying an analytical descriptive approach in analyzing the data. The symbol and reflective theory is used to analyze 18 American movies and 14 gay films from other countries in the early 2000s. It shows that gay films can attract audiences by describing gays ...

  16. Understanding the Strengths of African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn-Blake, Sheila M.; Darling, Carol Anderson

    1993-01-01

    Focuses on strengths of African-American families and how they function, relevant conceptual approaches, and trends and issues in studying African-American families that can facilitate understanding. A shift from studying dysfunctional families to more positive aspects can help African-American families meet societal challenges. (SLD)

  17. The Black Man in American Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Framingham Public Schools, MA.

    GRADE OR AGES: Junior high school. SUBJECT MATTER: The black man in American society. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: There are four major parts each with an overview. The four parts concern a) the African heritage of the black man, b) the American exploitation of the black man, c) the black man's contribution to American society, d) the…

  18. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  19. Nostalgia and Educational History: An American Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousmaniere, Kate

    2017-01-01

    This essay examines the way in which nostalgia informs the 1953 painting of a school setting by the popular American artist Norman Rockwell. "The Girl with Black Eye", the cover image of the American popular magazine "The Saturday Evening Post" on 23 May 1953, draws on traditional American iconography of the disciplining of…

  20. American Psychology "Is" Becoming More International

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Gregory D.; Nichols, Austin Lee; Schember, Tatiana Orozco

    2009-01-01

    Comments on an article by J. J. Arnett regarding the assertion that American psychology focuses too narrowly on Americans while neglecting the other 95% of the world's population. The authors argue that while Arnett's assessment was poignant, and his call for a more inclusive, international, and cross-cultural representation in American psychology…

  1. Student Communities and Individualism in American Cinema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Dawson, Heather S.; Smith, D. Spencer; Vosburg-Bluem, Bethany

    2010-01-01

    Hollywood films partially construct how Americans think about education. Recent work on the representation of schools in American cinema has highlighted the role of class difference in shaping school film genres. It has also advanced the idea that a nuanced understanding of American individualism helps to explain why the different class genres are…

  2. Asian American Giving to US Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Kozue

    2010-01-01

    Asian Americans have had significant impacts on and within mainstream US society, and their great efforts and gifts in the name of charitable causes are no exception. This study aims to examine perceptions within American university development offices about Asian American giving to US higher education. The article begins with a literature review…

  3. American Jazz Cathedra Enters into Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    <正> On the evening of 25 June, 2003, an American Music Cathedra was held in the In ternational Friendship Hall of Beijing Jintai Art Museum. And its theme is "a form of American Art-Jazz". The Economic Department, Press Department of American Embassy and Beijing Jueshi Culture Development Co.Ltd. sponsored the activity.

  4. Ethnic differences in inter- and intra-situational blood pressure variation: Comparisons among African-American, Hispanic-American, Asian-American, and European-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Gary D; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Hill, Leah A

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the daily inter- and intra-situational ambulatory blood pressure (BP) variation by ethnicity in women. The African-American (N = 82; Age = 39.7 + 8.9), Hispanic-American (N = 25; age = 37.5 + 9.4), Asian-American (N = 22; Age = 35.2 + 8.6), and European-American (N = 122; Age = 37.2+ 9.4) women in this study all worked in similar positions at two major medical centers in NYC. Each wore an ambulatory monitor during the course of one mid-week workday. Proportional BP changes from work or home to sleep, intra-situational BP variation (standard deviation [SD]) and mean situational BP levels were compared among the groups using ANOVA models. African-American and Asian-American women had significantly smaller proportional work-sleep systolic changes than either European- (P women, but the Asian-American women's changes tended to be smallest. The variability (SD) of diastolic BP at work was significantly greater among African- and Hispanic-American women compared to Asian- and European-American women (all P women had greater sleep variability than European-American women (P Asian-American women had the highest level of sleep diastolic pressure (all comparisons P Asian-American women have an attenuated proportional BP decline from waking environments to sleep compared to European-American and Hispanic-American women. Asian-American nocturnal BP may be elevated relative to all other groups. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:932-935, 2016. © 2016Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. 77 FR 9273 - USEC Inc. (American Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility and American Centrifuge Plant); Direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0355] USEC Inc. (American Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility and American Centrifuge Plant); Direct Transfer of Licenses In the Matter of USEC INC. (American Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility and American Centrifuge Plant); Order EA-12- [[Page 9274

  6. A psychometric revision of the European American Values Scale for Asian Americans using the Rasch model

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, S; Kim, Bryan S.K.; Wolfe, M M

    2005-01-01

    The 18-item European American Values Scale for Asian Americans (M. M. Wolfe, P H. Yang, E C. Wong, & D. R. Atkinson, 2001) was revised on the basis of results from a psychometric analysis using the Rasch Model (G. Rasch,1960). The results led to the establishment of the 25-item European AmericanValues Scale for Asian Americans-Revised.

  7. Mothers' Self-Reported Emotional Expression in Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camras, Linda; Kolmodin, Karen; Chen, Yinghe

    2008-01-01

    This study compared Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American mothers' self-reported emotional expression within the family. Mothers of 3-year-old European American (n = 40), Chinese American (n = 39) and Mainland Chinese (n = 36) children (n = 20 girls per group) completed the Self-Expressiveness in the Family Questionnaire (SEFQ),…

  8. Chinese American and Caucasian American Family Interaction Patterns in Spatial Rotation Puzzle Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutsinger, Carol S.; Jose, Paul E.

    1995-01-01

    Examined sociocultural influences on mathematics achievement. First generation Chinese American and Caucasian American mother-father-daughter triads were audiotaped as the fifth- and sixth-grade girls solved a spatial puzzle. Chinese American triads were quieter, more respectful, more serious, and more orderly, whereas Caucasian American triads…

  9. 75 FR 10246 - Nationwide Categorical Waivers Under Section 1605 (Buy American) of the American Recovery and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Waivers Under Section 1605 (Buy American) of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery... nationwide categorical waivers of the Buy American requirements of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act... domestic manufacturers for these products. This strategy will ensure that all future determinations of...

  10. 77 FR 17456 - Buy American Exception Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ...-2138-01] Buy American Exception Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 AGENCY... exception to the Buy American Provisions of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA or... future years on electricity. The contract specifications required that all exterior photovoltaic...

  11. Perpetual Cancellable American Call Option

    OpenAIRE

    Emmerling, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the valuation of a generalized American-style option known as a Game-style call option in an infinite time horizon setting. The specifications of this contract allow the writer to terminate the call option at any point in time for a fixed penalty amount paid directly to the holder. Valuation of a perpetual Game-style put option was addressed by Kyprianou (2004) in a Black-Scholes setting on a non-dividend paying asset. Here, we undertake a similar analysis for the perpetua...

  12. North American Natural Gas Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  13. Taxation and the American Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Passant

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the interrelationship between revolution and tax in the context of the American Revolution. It examines the role of ordinary people in demanding, among other things, as part of wider demands for democracy and equality, no taxation without representation. The article aims to reintroduce the neglected notions of class and class struggle into current discussions and debates about tax and history, putting the people back into academic narratives about the history of taxation and to their place as political actors on history’s stage.

  14. Space and the American imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccurdy, Howard E.

    1994-01-01

    The introduction will set out the principal theme of the book: that the rise of the U.S. space program was due to a concerted effort by science writers, engineers, industrialists, and civic and political leaders to create a popular culture of space exploration based on important elements of American social life (such as frontier mythology, fears about the cold war, and the rise of the consumer culture). Much of the disillusionment with the NASA space program which set in during the third decade of space flight can be traced to a widening gap between popular expectations and the reality of space exploration.

  15. North American Natural Gas Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models

  16. Redeeming American democracy in Sayonara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Seguro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Affection is perceived as something natural, pre-existing Culture and, therefore, free form discursive constructions. However, insofar as reality is mediated, if not given existence by language, human relationships are inevitably fashioned by narratives. Romance fictions and in particular heterosexual, interracial love stories have been used in U.S. popular culture as a means of promoting American democratic values of racial harmony at home and abroad. This will be exemplified by analyzing James A. Michener’s 1953 novel Sayonara together with Joshua Logan’s 1957 film adaptation.

  17. American cutaneous leishmaniasis triggered byelectrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Sales Martins

    Full Text Available Abstract Cutaneous leishmaniasis is usually transmitted by infected phlebotomine sand fly bites that initiate local cutaneous lesions. Few reports in the literature describe other modes of transmission. We report a case of a previously healthy 59-year-old woman who underwent electrocoagulation to remove seborrheic keratosis confirmed by dermatoscopy. Three months later, a skin fragment tested positive for Leishmania culture; the parasite was identified as L. (V. braziliensis. Trauma may generate inflammatory cascades that favor Leishmania growth and lesion formation in previously infected patients. American cutaneous leishmaniasis is a dynamic disease with unclear pathophysiology because of continually changing environments, demographics, and human behaviors.

  18. North American Natural Gas Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models

  19. North American Natural Gas Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  20. Corrosion protection on superheaters of waste to energy plants. Experience with material and application; Korrosionsschutz im Ueberhitzerbereich. Erfahrungen mit Werkstoff und Applikation aus Qualitaetsbegleitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidl, Werner; Herzog, Thomas; Magel, Gabi; Mueller, Wolfgang; Spiegel, Wolfgang [CheMin GmbH, Augsburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Corrosion induced by chlorine at high temperatures and corrosion by salt melts sometimes cause severe risk and loss of operational availability in waste- and biomass-fired power plants. This corrosion very often affects the superheater. Due to high maintenance needs, several approaches to anti-corrosion coating have been developed. Nickel-based alloys such as alloy 625 are chosen to be applied as cladding or by thermal spraying. Operation periods have been considerably increased by these methods. But still there are some shortcomings in corrosion protection due to application and/or material. (orig.)

  1. Role of LNG in an optimized hybrid energy network : part 1: Flexibility analysis of a waste to energy plant coupled with LNG regasification unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya Cardona, Juliana; Dam, Jacques; de Rooij, Marietta

    2017-01-01

    Global awareness on energy consumption and the environmental impacts of fossil fuels boost actions and create more supportive policies towards sustainable energy systems, in the last energy outlook, by the International Energy Agency, it was forecasted totals of 3600 GW from 2016 to 2040 of global

  2. Sustainable High Quality Recycling of Aggregates from Waste-to-Energy, Treated in a Wet Bottom Ash Processing Installation, for Use in Concrete Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Heede, Philip; Ringoot, Niels; Beirnaert, Arno; Van Brecht, Andres; Van den Brande, Erwin; De Schutter, Geert; De Belie, Nele

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, more efforts towards sustainability are required from the concrete industry. Replacing traditional aggregates by recycled bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste incineration can contribute to this goal. Until now, only partial replacement has been considered to keep the concrete workability, strength and durability under control. In this research, the feasibility of a full aggregate replacement was investigated for producing prefabricated Lego bricks. It was found that the required compressive strength class for this purpose (C20/25) could be achieved. Nevertheless, a thorough understanding of the BA properties is needed to overcome other issues. As BA is highly absorptive, the concrete’s water demand is high. This workability issue can be dealt with by subjecting the fine BA fraction to a crushing operation to eliminate the porous elements and by pre-wetting the fine and coarse BA fractions in a controlled manner. In addition, a reactive NaOH washing is needed to avoid formation of longitudinal voids and the resulting expansion due to the metallic aluminum present in the BA. Regarding the long-term behavior, heavy metal leaching and freeze-thaw exposure are not problematic, though there is susceptibility to acetic and lactic acid attack and maybe increased sensitivity to alkali-silica reaction. PMID:28787809

  3. Remedial Measures for Erroneous Environmental Policies: Assessing Infrastructure Projects of Waste-to-Energy Incineration in Taiwan with a Case Study of the Taitung Incinerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lih-Ren Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan, like many other countries, often incentivizes private investors to participate in the construction of infrastructures for environmental protection. The build-operate-transfer (BOT or build-operate-own (BOO model of financing public infrastructure was introduced to Taiwan in the 1990s. Among them, the construction of incinerators to treat the municipal solid waste using the BOT/BOO model was quite a success in the beginning. With the socio-technical change of lifestyle and waste generation, the amount of amount of trash dropped dramatically. The policy failed eventually, however, because the government over-estimated the trash quantity and refrained from inter-municipality cooperation to treat trash efficiently. This failure triggered a rash of intense debates and legal disputes. In the case of the Taitung incinerator, the 26th incinerator located in southeastern Taiwan, the arbitration resulted in the government making significant compensation payments to the private sector. The finished construction was consequently converted into a “mothballed and pensioned off” facility. This study applies in-depth interviews and literature review to discuss aspects contributing to the policy failure and proposes some possible remedial measures. Five aspects are summarized, namely, the administrative organization’s rigid attitude, the irrationality of the BOT/BOO contracts, the loss of the spirit of BOO partnerships, the heavy financial burden on local government, and the abandonment of inter-municipality cooperation. The remedial measures for the policy failure are presented in the form of thorough policy evaluation, room for contract adjustments under the BOT/BOO model, encouragement of cross-boundary cooperation, and revision of the legal framework for implementing decentralization.

  4. Sustainable High Quality Recycling of Aggregates from Waste-to-Energy, Treated in a Wet Bottom Ash Processing Installation, for Use in Concrete Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Van den Heede

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, more efforts towards sustainability are required from the concrete industry. Replacing traditional aggregates by recycled bottom ash (BA from municipal solid waste incineration can contribute to this goal. Until now, only partial replacement has been considered to keep the concrete workability, strength and durability under control. In this research, the feasibility of a full aggregate replacement was investigated for producing prefabricated Lego bricks. It was found that the required compressive strength class for this purpose (C20/25 could be achieved. Nevertheless, a thorough understanding of the BA properties is needed to overcome other issues. As BA is highly absorptive, the concrete’s water demand is high. This workability issue can be dealt with by subjecting the fine BA fraction to a crushing operation to eliminate the porous elements and by pre-wetting the fine and coarse BA fractions in a controlled manner. In addition, a reactive NaOH washing is needed to avoid formation of longitudinal voids and the resulting expansion due to the metallic aluminum present in the BA. Regarding the long-term behavior, heavy metal leaching and freeze-thaw exposure are not problematic, though there is susceptibility to acetic and lactic acid attack and maybe increased sensitivity to alkali-silica reaction.

  5. Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste-to- Energy Conversion, and Waste-to-Chemical Conversion with Industrial Gas and Chemical Manufacturing Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Dougall, James [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    2016-02-05

    Many U.S. manufacturing facilities generate unrecovered, low-grade waste heat, and also generate or are located near organic-content waste effluents. Bioelectrochemical systems, such as microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells, provide a means to convert organic-content effluents into electric power and useful chemical products. A novel biochemical electrical system for industrial manufacturing processes uniquely integrates both waste heat recovery and waste effluent conversion, thereby significantly reducing manufacturing energy requirements. This project will enable the further development of this technology so that it can be applied across a wide variety of US manufacturing segments, including the chemical, food, pharmaceutical, refinery, and pulp and paper industries. It is conservatively estimated that adoption of this technology could provide nearly 40 TBtu/yr of energy, or more than 1% of the U.S. total industrial electricity use, while reducing CO2 emissions by more than 6 million tons per year. Commercialization of this technology will make a significant contribution to DOE’s Industrial Technology Program goals for doubling energy efficiency and providing a more robust and competitive domestic manufacturing base.

  6. Mitigation of gaseous Mercury Emissions from Waste-to-Energy Facilities: Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Hg-Oxidation Pathways in Presence of Fly Ash.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rumayor, Marta; Svoboda, Karel; Švehla, Jaroslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Šyc, Michal

    Roč. 206, JAN 15 ( 2018 ), s. 276-283 ISSN 0301-4797 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE02000236 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : mercury * emission * waste incineration Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.010, year: 2016

  7. Mitigation of gaseous Mercury Emissions from Waste-to-Energy Facilities: Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Hg-Oxidation Pathways in Presence of Fly Ash.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rumayor, Marta; Svoboda, Karel; Švehla, Jaroslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Šyc, Michal

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 206, JAN 15 (2018), s. 276-283 ISSN 0301-4797 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE02000236 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : mercury * emission * waste incineration Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.010, year: 2016

  8. Conveting urban organic waste to energy - a study of the biogas potential in San Luis Potosí, México

    OpenAIRE

    Töpfer, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Uno de los problemas actuales más apremiantes en México es el continuo crecimiento en la generación de residuos y la falta de un sistema adecuado de manejo de residuos. La mayoría de los desechos urbanos terminan en rellenos y vertederos incontrolados, donde emiten peligrosos gases de efecto invernadero a la atmosfera y causan problemas para la salud y el medio ambiente. México, al ser un principal productor de petróleo, depende en gran medida del petróleo y los hidrocarburos para su a...

  9. Sustainable High Quality Recycling of Aggregates from Waste-to-Energy, Treated in a Wet Bottom Ash Processing Installation, for Use in Concrete Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Heede, Philip; Ringoot, Niels; Beirnaert, Arno; Van Brecht, Andres; Van den Brande, Erwin; De Schutter, Geert; De Belie, Nele

    2015-12-25

    Nowadays, more efforts towards sustainability are required from the concrete industry. Replacing traditional aggregates by recycled bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste incineration can contribute to this goal. Until now, only partial replacement has been considered to keep the concrete workability, strength and durability under control. In this research, the feasibility of a full aggregate replacement was investigated for producing prefabricated Lego bricks. It was found that the required compressive strength class for this purpose (C20/25) could be achieved. Nevertheless, a thorough understanding of the BA properties is needed to overcome other issues. As BA is highly absorptive, the concrete's water demand is high. This workability issue can be dealt with by subjecting the fine BA fraction to a crushing operation to eliminate the porous elements and by pre-wetting the fine and coarse BA fractions in a controlled manner. In addition, a reactive NaOH washing is needed to avoid formation of longitudinal voids and the resulting expansion due to the metallic aluminum present in the BA. Regarding the long-term behavior, heavy metal leaching and freeze-thaw exposure are not problematic, though there is susceptibility to acetic and lactic acid attack and maybe increased sensitivity to alkali-silica reaction.

  10. Study of combustion and emission characteristics of fuel derived from waste plastics by various waste to energy (W-t-E) conversion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazrat, M. A.; Rasul, M. G.; Khan, M. M. K.

    2016-07-01

    Reduction of plastic wastes by means of producing energy can be treated as a good investment in the waste management and recycling sectors. In this article, conversion of plastics into liquid fuel by two thermo-chemical processes, pyrolysis and gasification, are reviewed. The study showed that the catalytic pyrolysis of homogenous waste plastics produces better quality and higher quantity of liquefied fuel than that of non-catalytic pyrolysis process at a lower operating temperature. The syngas produced from gasification process, which occurs at higher temperature than the pyrolysis process, can be converted into diesel by the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reaction process. Conducive bed material like Olivine in the gasification conversion process can remarkably reduce the production of tar. The waste plastics pyrolysis oil showed brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of about 27.75%, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of 0.292 kg/kWh, unburned hydrocarbon emission (uHC) of 91 ppm and NOx emission of 904 ppm in comparison with the diesel for BTE of 28%, BSFC of 0.276 kg/kWh, uHC of 57 ppm and NOx of 855 ppm. Dissolution of Polystyrene (PS) into biodiesel also showed the potential of producing alternative transport fuel. It has been found from the literature that at higher engine speed, increased EPS (Expanded Polystyrene) quantity based biodiesel blends reduces CO, CO2, NOx and smoke emission. EPS-biodiesel fuel blend increases the brake thermal efficiency by 7.8%, specific fuel consumption (SFC) by 7.2% and reduces brake power (Pb) by 3.2%. More study using PS and EPS with other thermoplastics is needed to produce liquid fuel by dissolving them into biodiesel and to assess their suitability as a transport fuel. Furthermore, investigation to find out most suitable W-t-E process for effective recycling of the waste plastics as fuel for internal combustion engines is necessary to reduce environmental pollution and generate revenue which will be addressed in this article.

  11. Chemical mass balance modeling for air quality analysis near a waste-to-energy facility in a complex urban area: Program design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, R.; Watson, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of an ambient monitoring and receptor modeling study to evaluate air quality impacts from a state-of-the-art municipal waste management facility in a major urban area. The Robbins Resource Recovery Facility (RRRF), located in the Chicago metropolitan area, processes municipal solid waste (MSW) to recover recyclables, process the residual waste to create refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and burns the RDF to reduce the residual waste volume and recover energy. The RRRF is cooperating with the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) and the Illinois Office of the Attorney General (OAG) to analyze air quality and facility impacts in the plant vicinity. An ambient monitoring program began one year before plant operation and will continue for five years after startup. Because the impacts of the RRRF are projected to be very low, and because the Chicago area includes a complex mix of existing industrial, commercial, and residential activity, the ambient data will be analyzed using Version 7.0 of the USEPA s Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model to estimate the extent of the RRRF's impact on air quality in the area. The first year of pre-operational ambient data is currently under analysis. This paper describes the study design considerations, ambient monitoring program, emission data acquisition, background source data needs, and data analysis procedures developed to conduct CMB modeling in a complex industrialized area

  12. Waste to Energy Conversion by Stepwise Liquefaction, Gasification and "Clean" Combustion of Pelletized Waste Polyethylene for Electric Power Generation---in a Miniature Steam Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi Anaraki, Saber

    The amounts of waste plastics discarded in developed countries are increasing drastically, and most are not recycled. The small fractions of the post-consumer plastics which are recycled find few new uses as their quality is degraded; they cannot be reused in their original applications. However, the high energy density of plastics, similar to that of premium fuels, combined with the dwindling reserves of fossil fuels make a compelling argument for releasing their internal energy through combustion, converting it to thermal energy and, eventually, to electricity through a heat engine. To minimize the emission of pollutants this energy conversion is done in two steps, first the solid waste plastics undergo pyrolytic gasification and, subsequently, the pyrolyzates (a mixture of hydrocarbons and hydrogen) are blended with air and are burned "cleanly" in a miniature power plant. This plant consists of a steam boiler, a steam engine and an electricity generator.

  13. Energy Contribution of OFMSW (Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste to Energy-Environmental Sustainability in Urban Areas at Small Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Di Matteo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban waste management is one of the most challenging issues in energy planning of medium and large cities. In addition to the traditional landfill method, many studies are investigating energy harvesting from waste, not as a panacea but as a foreseeable solution. Thermo-chemical conversion to biogas, or even bio-methane under certain conditions, could be an option to address this challenge. This study focuses on municipal solid waste conversion to biogas as a local energy supply for the cities. Three urban models and their subdivision into urban areas were identified along with a typical Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW matrix for each urban area. Then, an energy analysis was carried out to provide an optimization map for an informed choice by urban policy-makers and stakeholders. The results highlighted how the urban context and its use could affect the opportunity to produce energy from waste or to convert it in fuel. So, in this case, sustainability means waste turning from a problem to a renewable resource.

  14. Health care expenditures among Asian American subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo; Ortega, Alexander N

    2013-06-01

    Using two nationally representative data sets, this study examined health care expenditure disparities between Caucasians and different Asian American subgroups. Multivariate analyses demonstrate that Asian Americans, as a group, have significantly lower total expenditures compared with Caucasians. Results also point to considerable heterogeneities in health care spending within Asian American subgroups. Findings suggest that language assistance programs would be effective in reducing disparities among Caucasians and Asian American subgroups with the exception of Indians and Filipinos, who tend to be more proficient in English. Results also indicate that citizenship and nativity were major factors associated with expenditure disparities. Socioeconomic status, however, could not explain expenditure disparities. Results also show that Asian Americans have lower physician and pharmaceutical costs but not emergency department or hospital expenditures. These findings suggest the need for culturally competent policies specific to Asian American subgroups and the necessity to encourage cost-effective treatments among Asian Americans.

  15. History of Latin American Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Browman

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available Two recent contributions (Oyuela-Caycedo 1994 and Politis 1995 to analyses of the intellectual development of archaeology in Latin America provide us with new perspectives. A theme shared by both is the perception by the authors of a need to distance the development of archaeology in Latin American countries from the overweening influence of Europe and especially U. S. archaeologists. Politis argues that U.S. influence has been tantamount to 'cultural imperialism' (1995:226. He sees U.S. archaeologists as having a history of appropriating and manipulating the knowledge of the past which ignores the local peoples own traditional perceptions of their patrimony, and argues that the U.S. perspective is designed to satisfy the needs of western scholarship but fails to enter a dialog with the legitimate concerns of the subject countries. Oyuela·Caycedo's introductory essay in his book "Nationalism and Archaeology" carries a very similar message. He faults U.S. archaeologists for failing to locate their studies in the areas social and local context, which he sees as leading the U.S. scholars to employ a model derived from "dependency theory" (1994:5, resulting in an overly simplistic perception of the context for the development of archaeological disciplines in respective Latin American countries.

  16. Smoking behavior in pregnant Arab Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulwicki, Anahid; Smiley, Karen; Devine, Susan

    2007-01-01

    To determine the smoking behavior in pregnant Arab American women who attended a Women, Infant and Children (WIC) program at a local county public health clinic and compare the incidence of smoking behaviors of pregnant Arab American women with pregnant women who were not Arab Americans. Data were extracted from a computer database that contained information from health history charts of pregnant Arab and non-Arab American women. The study sample was 830 women, 823 of whom were Arab American participants enrolled in the WIC program in Michigan. Approximately 6% of pregnant Arab Americans smoked during pregnancy. The prevalence of smoking behavior among pregnant Arab American women was similar to that of smoking behaviors of Hispanics and Asian Americans in the United States. Although smoking behavior is a serious problem among Arab American immigrants in general and in the Arab world in particular, cultural factors that support healthy behavior during pregnancy in the Arab culture seem to limit the use of tobacco in pregnant women. Nurses who care for Arab American pregnant women can use this information to better inform their care of these patients.

  17. Perceived value in food selection when dining out: comparison of African Americans and Euro-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Debra M; Philipp, Steven F

    2007-06-01

    This descriptive study compares African Americans' and Euro-Americans' perceived value of food selection pertaining to cost, portion size, and meal satisfaction when eating away from home. A stratified sample was drawn from a southern U.S. metropolitan area (N= 1,011; 486 African American, 525 Euro-American). Analysis showed no difference between African-American and Euro-American adults by sex or how often they dined out. These two groups significantly differed across years of education, age, and answering 14 of 18 rated statements on value perceptions. African-Americans' value perceptions were influenced more by lower cost foods and larger portion sizes than those of Euro-Americans. For meal satisfaction, African Americans were more likely to agree with statements that indicate preferring foods high in energy and low in essential micronutrient density. This study supports the need for more investigation.

  18. Horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism-collectivism: a comparison of African Americans and European Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarraju, Meera; Cokley, Kevin O

    2008-10-01

    The current study examined ethnic differences in horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism among 96 African American and 149 European American college students. Participants completed the 32-item Singelis et al. (1995) Individualism/Collectivism Scale. Multivariate analyses of variance results yielded a main effect for ethnicity, with African Americans being significantly higher on horizontal individualism and European Americans being higher on horizontal collectivism and vertical individualism. A moderated multiple regression analysis indicated that ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between individualism and collectivism. Individualism and collectivism were significantly and positively associated among African Americans, but not associated among European Americans. In addition, collectivism was related to grade point average for African Americans but not for European Americans. Contrary to the prevailing view of individualism-collectivism being unipolar, orthogonal dimensions, results provide support for individualism-collectivism to be considered as unipolar, related dimensions for African Americans.

  19. Asian and European American cultural values and communication styles among Asian American and European American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong S; Kim, Bryan S K

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between adherence to Asian and European cultural values and communication styles among 210 Asian American and 136 European American college students. A principal components analysis revealed that, for both Asian Americans and European Americans, the contentious, dramatic, precise, and open styles loaded onto the first component suggesting low context communication, and interpersonal sensitivity and inferring meaning styles loaded onto the second component suggesting high context communication. Higher adherence to emotional self-control and lower adherence to European American values explained Asian Americans' higher use of the indirect communication, while higher emotional self-control explained why Asian Americans use a less open communication style than their European American counterparts. When differences between sex and race were controlled, adherence to humility was inversely related to contentious and dramatic communication styles but directly related to inferring meaning style, adherence to European American values was positively associated with precise communication and inferring meaning styles, and collectivism was positively related to interpersonal sensitivity style. 2008 APA

  20. Experiences and perspectives of African American, Latina/o, Asian American, and European American psychology graduate students: A national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maton, Kenneth I; Wimms, Harriette E; Grant, Sheila K; Wittig, Michele A; Rogers, Margaret R; Vasquez, Melba J T

    2011-01-01

    A national, Web-based survey of 1,219 African American, Latina/o, Asian American, and European American psychology graduate students revealed both similarities and differences in experiences and perspectives. Mentoring was found to be the strongest predictor of satisfaction across groups. Academic supports and barriers, along with perceptions of diversity within the academic environment, were also important predictors of satisfaction. Students of color perceived less fairness of representation of their ethnic group within psychology than European American students, and a greater linkage between aspects of the graduate school experience and their ethnicity. Limitations of the study and implications for future research and action are discussed.

  1. The Absence of Structural Americanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    2013-01-01

    . Theoretically, economic and technological forces were expected to drive convergence. The article suggests that the reason these forces have not driven convergence in recent years may be that the interplay between them have changed as part of a broader shift from the mass media, mass production, and mass markets......Several comparative media researchers have hypothesized that the media systems of affluent Western democracies are becoming more and more structurally homogeneous—that they are becoming “Americanized.” This article uses data on newspaper industry revenues, commercial television revenues, Internet...... characteristic of twentieth-century Western societies and toward the fragmented media landscapes, tailored production, and niche marketing increasingly characteristic of early-twenty-first century affluent democracies....

  2. An American hibakusha in Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nollet, Kenneth E

    2011-01-01

    A magnitude 9.0 earthquake and tsunami originating off the east coast of Japan triggered the explosive release of radioactive isotopes from one of four nuclear power plants in the affected area. This event has been compared with the 1986 nuclear accident at Chernobyl, the 1945 atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the intervening era of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. The credibility of any comparison depends on the source, for which reason various specialists were invited to address an audience of media, healthcare, and disaster response professionals on July 18, 2011 in Fukushima City, Fukushima Prefecture. This article is based on a presentation given July 18, and interprets the Fukushima nuclear crisis from the perspective of an American doctor who grew up downwind of an atomic bomb test site, and who now works at Fukushima Medical University.

  3. Occupationally Acquired American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two occupationally acquired cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL: one accidental laboratory autoinoculation by contaminated needlestick while handling an ACL lesion sample, and one acquired during field studies on bird biology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays of patient lesions were positive for Leishmania, subgenus Viannia. One isolate was obtained by culture (from patient 2 biopsy samples and characterized as Leishmania (Viannia naiffi through an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA with species-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE. Patients were successfully treated with N-methyl-glucamine. These two cases highlight the potential risks of laboratory and field work and the need to comply with strict biosafety procedures in daily routines. The swab collection method, coupled with PCR detection, has greatly improved ACL laboratory diagnosis.

  4. Grid for Meso american Archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucet, G.

    2007-01-01

    Meso american archaeology works with large amounts of disperse and diverse information, thus the importance of including new methods that optimise the acquisition, conservation, retrieval, and analysis of data to generate knowledge more efficiently and create a better understanding of history. Further, this information --which includes texts, coordinates, raster graphs, and vector graphs-- comes from a considerable geographical area --parts of Mexico, Nicaragua, Honduras and Costa Rica as well as Guatemala, El Salvador and Belize-- is constantly expanding. This information includes elements like shards, buildings, mural paintings, high and low reliefs, topography, maps, and information about the fauna and soil. Grid computing offers a solution to handle all this information: it respects researchers' need for independence while supplying a platform to share, process and compare the data obtained. Additionally, the Grid can enhance space-time analyses with remote visualisation techniques that can, in turn, incorporate geographical information systems and virtual reality. (Author)

  5. THE DEPICTION OF HOMOSEXUALITY IN AMERICAN MOVIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Rudy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the depiction of homosexuality in American films. It is intended to identify the images of gays depicted in American films as well as the characteristics of American gay movies. It incorporates library research by applying an analytical descriptive approach in analyzing the data. The symbol and reflective theory is used to analyze 18 American movies and 14 gay films from other countries in the early 2000s. It shows that gay films can attract audiences by describing gays as the objects for laughs; gays revealing their sexual identities; sexual scenes of gays; masculine gay men; and violence in gay life. They appear in genres like drama, comedy, romance, detective, western, and horror/mystery with two images of gay people shown in American gay movies; they are the portrait of gays as a minority and the pessimism. However, it also shows that some American gay films picture good gay life, happy gay couples, gay marriage, etc.

  6. Suicide among Arab-Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman M El-Sayed

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Arab-American (AA populations in the US are exposed to discrimination and acculturative stress-two factors that have been associated with higher suicide risk. However, prior work suggests that socially oriented norms and behaviors, which characterize recent immigrant ethnic groups, may be protective against suicide risk. Here we explored suicide rates and their determinants among AAs in Michigan, the state with the largest proportion of AAs in the US.ICD-9/10 underlying cause of death codes were used to identify suicide deaths from among all deaths in Michigan between 1990 and 2007. Data from the 2000 U.S. Census were collected for population denominators. Age-adjusted suicide rates among AAs and non-ethnic whites were calculated by gender using the direct method of standardization. We also stratified by residence inside or outside of Wayne County (WC, the county with the largest AA population in the state. Suicide rates were 25.10 per 100,000 per year among men and 6.40 per 100,000 per year among women in Michigan from 1990 to 2007. AA men had a 51% lower suicide rate and AA women had a 33% lower rate than non-ethnic white men and women, respectively. The suicide rate among AA men in WC was 29% lower than in all other counties, while the rate among AA women in WC was 20% lower than in all other counties. Among non-ethnic whites, the suicide rate in WC was higher compared to all other counties among both men (12% and women (16%.Suicide rates were higher among non-ethnic white men and women compared to AA men and women in both contexts. Arab ethnicity may protect against suicide in both sexes, but more so among men. Additionally, ethnic density may protect against suicide among Arab-Americans.

  7. Diabetes in Hispanic American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Jean M.; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Reynolds, Kristi; Beyer, Jennifer; Pettitt, David J.; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Marcovina, Santica M.; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Hamman, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To report the 2001 prevalence and 2002–2005 incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in Hispanic American youth and to describe the demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of these youth. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Data from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study, a population-based multicenter observational study of youth aged 0–19 years with physician-diagnosed diabetes, were used to estimate the prevalence and incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Information obtained by questionnaire, physical examination, and blood and urine collection was analyzed to describe the characteristics of youth who completed a study visit. RESULTS—Among Hispanic American youth, type 1 diabetes was more prevalent than type 2 diabetes, including in youth aged 10–19 years. There were no significant sex differences in type 1 or type 2 diabetes prevalence. The incidence of type 2 diabetes for female subjects aged 10–14 years was twice that of male subjects (P < 0.005), while among youth aged 15–19 years the incidence of type 2 diabetes exceeded that of type 1 diabetes for female subjects (P < 0.05) but not for male subjects. Poor glycemic control, defined as A1C ≥9.5%, as well as high LDL cholesterol and triglycerides were common among youth aged ≥15 years with either type of diabetes. Forty-four percent of youth with type 1 diabetes were overweight or obese. CONCLUSIONS—Factors such as poor glycemic control, elevated lipids, and a high prevalence of overweight and obesity may put Hispanic youth with type 1 and type 2 diabetes at risk for future diabetes-related complications. PMID:19246577

  8. Suicide among Arab-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M; Tracy, Melissa; Scarborough, Peter; Galea, Sandro

    2011-02-17

    Arab-American (AA) populations in the US are exposed to discrimination and acculturative stress-two factors that have been associated with higher suicide risk. However, prior work suggests that socially oriented norms and behaviors, which characterize recent immigrant ethnic groups, may be protective against suicide risk. Here we explored suicide rates and their determinants among AAs in Michigan, the state with the largest proportion of AAs in the US. ICD-9/10 underlying cause of death codes were used to identify suicide deaths from among all deaths in Michigan between 1990 and 2007. Data from the 2000 U.S. Census were collected for population denominators. Age-adjusted suicide rates among AAs and non-ethnic whites were calculated by gender using the direct method of standardization. We also stratified by residence inside or outside of Wayne County (WC), the county with the largest AA population in the state. Suicide rates were 25.10 per 100,000 per year among men and 6.40 per 100,000 per year among women in Michigan from 1990 to 2007. AA men had a 51% lower suicide rate and AA women had a 33% lower rate than non-ethnic white men and women, respectively. The suicide rate among AA men in WC was 29% lower than in all other counties, while the rate among AA women in WC was 20% lower than in all other counties. Among non-ethnic whites, the suicide rate in WC was higher compared to all other counties among both men (12%) and women (16%). Suicide rates were higher among non-ethnic white men and women compared to AA men and women in both contexts. Arab ethnicity may protect against suicide in both sexes, but more so among men. Additionally, ethnic density may protect against suicide among Arab-Americans.

  9. The Contributions of Immigrants to American Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschman, Charles

    2013-01-01

    The standard account of American immigration focuses on the acculturation and assimilation of immigrants and their children to American society. This analysis typically ignores the significant contributions of immigrants to the creation of American culture through the performing arts, sciences, and other cultural pursuits. Immigrants and their children are not born with more creative talents than native-born citizens, but their selectivity and marginality may have pushed and pulled those with...

  10. HELEN brings Latin Americans to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximiliem Brice

    2006-01-01

    Latin American students who have arrived at CERN to take up fellowships during the first months of 2006 relax in front of the LHC collaboration buildings, together with the deputy coordinator of HELEN, Veronica Riquer (centre), from Rome University and INFN. The training programme supported by the High Energy Physics Latin American- European Network (HELEN) is in full swing. For 2006, the programme has assigned about 70 fellowships to be spent at CERN by Latin American students and young physicists.

  11. CONTEMPORARY CHALLENGES IN LATIN AMERICAN ADMINISTRATIVE JUSTICE

    OpenAIRE

    R. Perlingeiro

    2016-01-01

    This study consists of a critical comparative analysis of the administrative justice systems in eighteen Latin-American signatory countries of the American Convention on Human Rights (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, the Dominican Republic, Uruguay, and Venezuela). According to this article, the excessive litigation in Latin-American courts that has seriously hampered the effectivenes...

  12. Effects of Alcohol Use and Anti-American Indian Attitudes on Domestic-Violence Culpability Decisions for American Indian and Euro-American Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda, Cynthia Willis; Hack, Lori; Tehee, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have focused on the unique issues surrounding American Indian violence. Yet American Indian women are at high risk for domestic abuse, and domestic violence has been identified as the most important issue for American Indians now and in the future by the National Congress of American Indians. American Indian women suffer from domestic…

  13. The Zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hocutt, Charles H; Wiley, E. O

    1986-01-01

    ..., and Pleistoscene glaciation. The Zoogeography of North American Freshwater Fishes is a comprehensive treatment of the freshwater biogeography of North America, with implications for other disciplines...

  14. The North American Transborder Freight Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The North American Transborder Freight Database, available since April 1993, contains freight flow data by commodity type and by mode of transportation (rail, truck,...

  15. Asian Americans and European Americans' stigma levels in response to biological and social explanations of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhen Hadassah

    2015-05-01

    Mental illness stigma is prevalent among Asian Americans, and it is a key barrier that prevents them from seeking psychological services. Limited studies have experimentally examined how Asian Americans respond to biological and social explanations of mental illness. Understanding how to educate and communicate about mental illness effectively is crucial in increasing service utilization among Asian Americans. To assess how genetic, neurobiological, and social explanations for the onset of depression affects Asian American and European American's mental illness stigma. 231 Asian Americans and 206 European Americans read about an individual with major depression and were randomly assigned to be informed that the cause was either genetic, neurobiological, social, or unknown. Various stigma outcomes, including social distance, fear, and depression duration were assessed. Consistent with prior research, Asian Americans had higher baseline levels of stigma compared to European Americans. Greater social essentialist beliefs predicted positive stigma outcomes for Asian Americans, such as a greater willingness to be near, help, and hire someone with depression, but genetic essentialist beliefs predicted negative stigma outcomes, such as fear. In addition, a social explanation for the etiology of depression led to lower stigma outcomes for Asian Americans; it decreased their fear of someone with depression and increased the perception that depression is treatable. For European Americans, both genetic and social essentialist beliefs predicted a greater perception of depression treatability. Although genetics do play a role in the development of depression, emphasizing a social explanation for the origin of depression may help reduce stigma for Asian Americans.

  16. An Official American Thoracic Society/American College of Chest Physicians Clinical Practice Guideline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Girard, Timothy D; Alhazzani, Waleed; Kress, John P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interventions that lead to earlier liberation from mechanical ventilation can improve patient outcomes. This guideline, a collaborative effort between the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST), provides evidence-based recommendations to o...

  17. Heather Switzer named American Association of University Women American Dissertation Fellow

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, Heather Riley

    2008-01-01

    Heather Switzer, planning, governance, and globalization doctoral student in the School of Public and International Affairs at Virginia Tech, has been named an American Association of University Women American Dissertation Fellow.

  18. The relationship between momentary emotions and well-being across European Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia E

    2017-09-01

    Cultural differences in the emphasis on positive and negative emotions suggest that the impact of these emotions on well-being may differ across cultural contexts. The present study utilised a momentary sampling method to capture average momentary emotional experiences. We found that for participants from cultural contexts that foster positive emotions (European Americans and Hispanic Americans), average momentary positive emotions predicted well-being better than average momentary negative emotions. In contrast, average momentary negative emotions were more strongly associated with well-being measures for Asian Americans, the group from a cultural context that emphasises monitoring of negative emotions. Furthermore, we found that acculturation to American culture moderated the association between average momentary positive emotions and well-being for Asian Americans. These findings suggest the importance of culture in studying the impact of daily emotional experiences on well-being.

  19. Smoking in contemporary American cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvari, Karan; Lessnau, Klaus; Kim, Jeannie; Mercante, Donald; Weinacker, Ann; Mason, Carol

    2005-08-01

    The true prevalence of smoking among characters portrayed in the movies is unknown. This study examines this prevalence objectively. The top 10 movies on the weekly box office charts were reviewed. Whether or not the top five characters in these movies smoked, was documented. It was determined prior to the start of the study that 300 male characters and 300 female characters were needed to detect any significant difference. A total of 447 movies, composed of 193 movies rated restricted (R) [children < 17 years of age must be accompanied by an adult], 131 movies rated PG13 for parental guidance suggested for children < 13 years of age (PG) and 123 movies rated PG for parental guidance suggested, were examined until the sample size was reached. Smoking prevalence is the same in contemporary American movies and in the general US population (23.3% vs 24.8%, respectively). However, there was more smoking in these movies among men than among women (25.5% vs 20.5%, respectively; p < 0.006), among antagonists than among protagonists (35.7% vs 20.6%, respectively; p < 0.001), lower vs middle vs upper socioeconomic class (SEC) [48.2%, 22.9%, and 10.5%, respectively; p < 0.001], among independent vs studio movies (46.2% vs 18.2%, respectively; p < 0.001); and among R-rated vs PG13-rated vs PG-rated movies (37.3%, 16.2%, and 8.1%, respectively; p < 0.001). In R-rated movies, and in both subcategories of R-rated studio movies and R-rated independent movies, smoking prevalence is higher than in the US population (37.3%, 30.5%, and 50.6% vs 24.8%, respectively; p < 0.001 for all). Additionally, compared to the US population, men, women and lower SEC members smoke more in R-rated movies, R-rated studio movies, and R-rated independent movies. In R-rated movies, antagonists smoke more than protagonists (43.9% vs 35.8%, respectively; p < 0.001), and whites smoke more than nonwhites (38.3% vs 26.4%, respectively; p < 0.001). In R-rated studio movies, antagonists smoke more than

  20. Successful anglo-american entrepreneurs and the american dream. A narrative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Keijzer, Marian; Liñán, Francisco (Coordinador); Guzmán Cuevas, Joaquín J. (Coordinador)

    2011-01-01

    Some of the most successful entrepreneurs in the Anglo-American world have written their autobiographies. A narrative analysis of these autobiographies reveal the influence of the American Dream on their life and on the way they tell their lifestories. An emphasis on moral correctness as well as on working hard, perseverance and discipline justifies the success of the narrators. The American Myth seems to be a reality – at least for white, Anglo-American, male entrepreneur...

  1. 76 FR 9613 - USEC Inc. (American Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility and American Centrifuge Plant); Order...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [EA-11-013] USEC Inc. (American Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility and American Centrifuge Plant); Order Approving Direct Transfer of Licenses and Conforming Amendment I USEC... Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility (Lead Cascade) and American Centrifuge Plant (ACP), respectively, which...

  2. 76 FR 30966 - Buy American Exception Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... the Buy American waiver requested by the Deschutes River Conservancy (DRC) to purchase foreign... project contract by more than 25 percent. The waiver process is initiated by a requesting organization... its Buy American decision is required pursuant to the Buy American Act, 2 CFR 176.80(b)(2). Upon...

  3. Extending Research on the Consequences of Parenting Style for Chinese Americans and European Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ruth K.

    2001-01-01

    Examined effects of parent-adolescent relationships on school performance for Chinese American and European American high school students. Found positive effects of both authoritative parenting and relationship closeness on school performance for European Americans and to some extent second-generation Chinese, but not first-generation Chinese. The…

  4. Native Americans in Cold War Public Diplomacy: Indian Politics, American History, and the US Information Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This essay examines the depiction of Native Americans by the US Information Agency (USIA), the bureau charged with explaining American politics to the international public during the Cold War. In the 1950s and 1960s, the USIA broadcast the message that Americans had begun to acknowledge their nation's history of conquest and were working to…

  5. Cultural Models of Education and Academic Performance for Native American and European American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryberg, Stephanie A.; Covarrubias, Rebecca; Burack, Jacob A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the role of cultural representations of self (i.e., interdependence and independence) and positive relationships (i.e., trust for teachers) in academic performance (i.e., self-reported grades) for Native American ("N"?=?41) and European American ("N"?=?49) high school students. The Native American students endorsed…

  6. 76 FR 27182 - Pricing for American Eagle and American Buffalo Bullion Presentation Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for American Eagle and American Buffalo Bullion Presentation Cases AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price increase of the American Eagle/Buffalo Bullion...

  7. Asian American Middleman Minority Theory: The Framework of an American Myth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Eugene F.

    1985-01-01

    Challenges the view of Chinese and Japanese Americans as middlemen with its assumptions that Asian Americans are sojourners and unassimilable. Questions the equation of a middle class minority with a middleman minority, examining the roots of this myth in the relationship of Asian Americans to the White-Black racial dyad. (RDN)

  8. Analytic American Option Pricing and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sbuelz, A.

    2003-01-01

    I use a convenient value breakdown in order to obtain analytic solutions for finitematurity American option prices.Such a barrier-option-based breakdown yields an analytic lower bound for the American option price, which is as price-tight as the Barone-Adesi and Whaley (1987) analytic value proxy

  9. A Brief Introduction of American Political Cultrue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓杰

    2009-01-01

    @@ The American Constitution in 1787 After the repeated compromise, the work of drawing up a constitution was completed on September 17,1787, a day which has been designated as Constitution Day of America. The appearance of constitution was a great event in American history. It established the Federal System which was the first in the world at that time.

  10. American Indian Studies. Library Research Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Phillip M.

    This guide to sources for students at San Diego State University doing library research in topics related to American Indian Studies begins by noting that information on North American Indians can be found in a variety of subject disciplines including history, anthropology, education, sociology, health care, law, business, and politics. The…

  11. Introductory American Government in Comparison: An Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrom, Richard N.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction to American Government classes can benefit from the addition of examples from comparative politics. Presenting students with examples of other democratic systems encourages them to confront the costs and benefits of choices made in the American context. Dealing with these "cognitive conflict" tasks facilitates higher level learning on…

  12. 75 FR 23559 - Older Americans Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... have contributed so much to our Nation. This year's theme for Older Americans Month, ``Age Strong, Live... Senior Corps. My Administration is committed to ensuring older Americans can age strong and live long. By.... Many of our Nation's older men and women have worked tirelessly and sacrificed so their children could...

  13. Exploring Aesthetics: Focus on Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, Natalie

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that effectively presenting another culture in the classroom is one of the most fundamental problems facing teachers using a multicultural curriculum. Discusses the role of music and the arts in Native American culture. Provides suggestions for presenting traditional Native American music in Western classrooms. (CFR)

  14. American Indian Studies as an Academic Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Clara Sue

    2011-01-01

    When American Indian/Native American studies (AI/NAS) programs began to emerge in the halls of academia during the late 1960s and early 1970s, some who served as faculty and staff questioned whether they would be one-generation phenomena. Would the programs survive, would they continue to draw students, and could they make an impact on…

  15. Consumerism and the Sister Carrie's American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢亚丽

    2017-01-01

    From the aspect of consumerism to this text analyze Sister Carrie's"American dream"destruction. The author wholly and deeply analyzes the embodiment of consumerism in Dreiser's Sister Carrie and Dreiser's outlook and values under the effect of consumerism. To prove that the reason for destruction of Carrie's American dream is consumerism.

  16. Rapid City Native American Population Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, Abdollah

    1993-01-01

    Interviews with 301 Native American households in Rapid City, South Dakota, examined demographic variables and attitudes and needs in the areas of education, housing, transportation, health care, recreation, and employment. The ultimate goals for Native American people are achieving empowerment and group determination through greater cultural…

  17. Handbook for Teaching Korean-American Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bilingual Education Office.

    This handbook is designed for teachers, administrators, and other school personnel. It provides an explanation of the sociocultural and linguistic characteristics of Korean-Americans so educators can address their needs more effectively and orchestrate a better teaching environment by understanding and supporting the Korean-American cultural…

  18. The carbon balance of North American wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott D. Bridgham; J. Patrick Megonigal; Jason K. Keller; Norman b. Bliss; Carl Trettin

    2006-01-01

    We examine the carbon balance of North American wetlands by reviewing and synthesizing the published literature and soil databases. North American wetlands contain about 220 Pg C, most of which is in peat. They are a small to moderate carbon sink of about 49 Tg C yr-l, although the uncertainty around this estimate is greater than 100%, with the...

  19. Americans Split on Government Control of Tuition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selingo, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Nearly seven months before the November election, a plurality of Americans favor Barack Obama to tackle what they consider the most pressing issue in higher education: the runaway cost of a bachelor's degree. According to a new nationwide survey conducted through The Chronicle/Gallup Panel, 42 percent of Americans think that controlling college…

  20. Argumentative Strategies in American and Japanese English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Taeko; Oi, Kyoko

    1998-01-01

    A study examined differences in argumentative strategies in Japanese and American English by analyzing English essays on capital punishment written by 22 American high school seniors and 30 Japanese college sophomores. Differences were found in the organizational patterns, content and use of rational appeals, preference for type of diction, and…

  1. Stennis Space Center celebrates Native American culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Famie Willis (left), 2009-2010 Choctaw Indian Princess, displays artifacts during Native American Heritage Month activities at Stennis Space Center on Nov. 24. The celebration featured various Native American cultural displays for Stennis employees to view. Shown above are (l to r): Willis, Elaine Couchman of NASA Shared Services Center, John Cecconi of NSSC and Lakeisha Robertson of the Environmental Protection Agency.

  2. African American Males: Leaving the Nightmare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Wali

    The plight of African American males has become a problem of alarming proportions in the United States. This paper reports serious disadvantage and risk for this group in terms of education, employment, poverty levels, family disintegration, criminal status, health, and death rates. The paper contends that the crisis for African American males…

  3. Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network (IABIN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    site. IABIN Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network (IABIN) OAS » SEDI » DSD » IABIN IABIN GEF Logo inbio natserve usgs polpar wcm The Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network (IABIN , and use of biodiversity information relevant to policy and decision-making on natural resources

  4. Discrimination of Arabic Contrasts by American Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mahmoud, Mahmoud S.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on second language perception of non-native contrasts. The study specifically tests the perceptual assimilation model (PAM) by examining American learners' ability to discriminate Arabic contrasts. Twenty two native American speakers enrolled in a university level Arabic language program took part in a forced choice AXB…

  5. Passage of American shad: paradigms and realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Alex; Castro-Santos, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Despite more than 250 years of development, the passage of American shad Alosa sapidissima at dams and other barriers frequently remains problematic. Few improvements in design based on knowledge of the swimming, schooling, and migratory behaviors of American shad have been incorporated into passage structures. Large-scale technical fishways designed for the passage of adult salmonids on the Columbia River have been presumed to have good performance for American shad but have never been rigorously evaluated for this species. Similar but smaller fishway designs on the East Coast frequently have poor performance. Provision of effective downstream passage for both juvenile and postspawning adult American shad has been given little consideration in most passage projects. Ways to attract and guide American shad to both fishway entrances and downstream bypasses remain marginally understood. The historical development of passage structures for American shad has resulted in assumptions and paradigms about American shad behavior and passage that are frequently unsubstantiated by supporting data or appropriate experimentation. We propose that many of these assumptions and paradigms are either unfounded or invalid and that significant improvements to American shad upstream and downstream passage can be made via a sequential program of behavioral experimentation, application of experimental results to the physical and hydraulic design of new structures, and controlled tests of large-scale prototype structures in the laboratory and field.

  6. CDC Vital Signs-African American Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the May 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. The life expectancy of African Americans has improved, but it's still an average of four years less than whites. Learn what can be done so all Americans can have the opportunity to pursue a healthy lifestyle.

  7. First Person Past: American Autobiographies, Volume 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    American literature, biography, Tunis Campbell, Black Elk, Andrew Carnegie, Booker T. Washington, Mary Antin, Mary Jones, Frederic Howe, Anna Howard Shaw, Woody Guthrie, Monica Sone, Anne Moody, Ron Kovic......American literature, biography, Tunis Campbell, Black Elk, Andrew Carnegie, Booker T. Washington, Mary Antin, Mary Jones, Frederic Howe, Anna Howard Shaw, Woody Guthrie, Monica Sone, Anne Moody, Ron Kovic...

  8. American Red Cross: A History And Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    American war efforts through fundraising activities and by energizing the patriotism of the American citizenship (Rozario, 2003). Today, according...ANRC to communicate vital information to the public, but also a way for the ANRC Digital Disaster Operations Center to use information being passed by...ANRC Digital Operations Center monitors social media to gather and disseminate information regarding affected locations and requirements

  9. Teaching about Human Rights and American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Karen D.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a flexible lesson plan integrating teaching about human rights into the existing curriculum about American Indians. Asserts that American Indians have the right to maintain their cultural ways and connects that subject to the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Includes three lists of resources and references. (MJP)

  10. Congressional Social Darwinism and the American Indian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinderman, Abraham

    1978-01-01

    Summarizing a congressional report on civil and military treatment of American Indians, this article asserts that the social Darwinism of the day prevailed among all congressional committee members ("Even friends of the Indian... knew American expansionism, technology, and racial ideology would reduce the Indian to a pitiful remnant...) (JC)

  11. 78 FR 26225 - Older Americans Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... in medicine and health care, Americans are living longer and achieving more. Many seniors are using a... programs like Senior Corps, which connects more than half a million people to service opportunities from coast to coast. As older Americans strive to lift up their neighborhoods, my Administration is working...

  12. Native American Biographies. Multicultural Biographies Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Virginia, Ed.; And Others

    This book, appropriate for secondary students, includes brief biographies of 21 Native Americans of the 20th century. The biographies focus on childhood experiences, cultural heritage, and career goals. The book is divided into four units that feature Native Americans with successful careers in the fields of literature and drama; fine arts and…

  13. Using Text Documents from American Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Laurel R., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This publication contains classroom-tested teaching ideas. For grades K-4, "'Blessed Ted-fred': Famous Fathers Write to Their Children" uses American Memory for primary source letters written by Theodore Roosevelt and Alexander Graham Bell to their children. For grades 5-8, "Found Poetry and the American Life Histories…

  14. Racism and Asian American Student Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jennifer Y.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a theoretical analysis and ethnographic account of Asian American student leadership in higher education. Existing literature highlights Asian and Asian American leadership styles as cultural differences. I shift the analysis from culture to racism in order to work toward a more socially just conception of Asian American…

  15. Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Report.pdf [1.2MB] Obesity and Overweight Among Asian American Children and Adolescents 2016.04.28-OBESITY AND ... Month Stay Connected! Receive the latest APIAHF updates Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum. All rights reserved. One Kaiser Plaza, ...

  16. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the

  17. American Adults' Knowledge of Exercise Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Krzewinski-Malone, Jeanette A.; Jackson, Allen W.; Bungum, Timothy J.; FitzGerald, Shannon J.

    2004-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, and some cancers. Approximately 950,000 Americans die annually from cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine whether American adults know which traditional and lifestyle physical activities affect…

  18. Remembering Tocqueville: Reflections on the American Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Nannerl O.

    2000-01-01

    Presents the 2000 Robert H. Atwell Distinguished Lecture given at the 82nd Annual Meeting of the American Council on Education in Chicago (Illinois), which focuses on the ideas of Alexis de Tocqueville to find lessons for the current condition of higher education. These include American egalitarianism, homogeneity, individualism, and pragmatism.…

  19. Anxiety in Kuwaiti and American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; Lester, David

    2006-10-01

    Samples of Kuwaiti (n=646) and American (n=320) undergraduates responded to the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale in Arabic and English, respectively. Differences by sex were significant, with women having a higher mean anxiety score than men and by country with Kuwaiti women having a higher anxiety score than American women.

  20. North American sturgeon otolith morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate expedient species identification of deceased sturgeon (Acipenseridae) when external physical characteristic analysis is inconclusive has become a high priority due to the endangered or threatened status of sturgeon species around the world. Examination of otoliths has provided useful information to aid in population management, age and size-class analysis, understanding predator–prey interactions, and archeological research in other fish species. The relationship between otolith characteristics and sturgeon species has remained unknown. Therefore, we analyzed the shape of otoliths from the eight species of sturgeon found in North America to test the utility of otolith characteristic morphology in species identification. There were distinct differences in the size and shape of the otoliths between species of sturgeon with little shape variation among individuals of the same species. The relationship between otolith length axes was linear, and most of the variability was explained by a Log (axis + 1) transformation of the x and y axes (r2 = 0.8983) using the equation y = 0.73x + 0.0612. Images of otoliths from all eight North American species are presented to assist in the identification process.

  1. Americans misperceive racial economic equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Rucker, Julian M; Richeson, Jennifer A

    2017-09-26

    The present research documents the widespread misperception of race-based economic equality in the United States. Across four studies ( n = 1,377) sampling White and Black Americans from the top and bottom of the national income distribution, participants overestimated progress toward Black-White economic equality, largely driven by estimates of greater current equality than actually exists according to national statistics. Overestimates of current levels of racial economic equality, on average, outstripped reality by roughly 25% and were predicted by greater belief in a just world and social network racial diversity (among Black participants). Whereas high-income White respondents tended to overestimate racial economic equality in the past, Black respondents, on average, underestimated the degree of past racial economic equality. Two follow-up experiments further revealed that making societal racial discrimination salient increased the accuracy of Whites' estimates of Black-White economic equality, whereas encouraging Whites to anchor their estimates on their own circumstances increased their tendency to overestimate current racial economic equality. Overall, these findings suggest a profound misperception of and unfounded optimism regarding societal race-based economic equality-a misperception that is likely to have any number of important policy implications.

  2. The crisis in american archeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, H A

    1972-01-21

    The current crisis in American archeology has been brought about by a combination of the greatly increased rate of destruction of unique, irreplaceable archeological information and material, and the lack of adequate funding for salvage of what is being destroyed. Since World War II, land alteration has increased almost geometrically. Land leveling, urban development, inexperienced or ignorant diggers, commercial dealers in Indian relics-these and many other agents of destruction are obliterating traces of the past. Anything that disturbs the ground where people once lived destroys forever whatever information is left about them and their way of life. Interpretations of man's cultural development through time, of his ability to cope with and use the environment wisely, and of a long, fascinating, and irreplaceable heritage are only possible if the evidence left in the ground is undisturbed and is properly recorded when it is excavated. The problem of the destruction of archeological sites and information is a complex one, with no single solution. A combination of increased support for archeological research through increased funding, and development of a knowledgeable, interested public will go a long way toward assuring this country that a significant portion of the past will be available for the benefit of future generations. If solutions are not sought and found now, it will be too late-we will have committed ourselves, irretrievably and irreversibly, to the future, without benefit or knowledge of the mistakes and the lessons of the past.

  3. Ocular allergy latin american consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Serapião dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish current definition, classification and staging, and to develop diagnosis and treatment recommendations for ocular allergy, by using Delphi approach. METHODS: Ten Latin American experts on ocular allergy participated in a 4-round Delphi panel approach. Four surveys were constructed and answered by panelists. A two-thirds majority was defined as consensus. Definition, classification, staging and diagnosis and treatment recommendations were the main outcomes. RESULTS: "Ocular allergy" was proposed as the general term to describe ocular allergic diseases. Consensus regarding classification was not reached. Signs and symptoms were considered extremely important for the diagnosis. It was consensus that a staging system should be proposed based on the disease severity. Environmental control, avoidance of allergens and the use of artificial tears were recommended as first line treatment. The secondary treatment should include topical anti-histamines, mast cell stabilizers and multi actions drugs. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and vasoconstrictors were not recommended. Topical corticosteroids were recommended as third line of treatment for the most severe keratoconjunctivitis. Consensus was not reached regarding the use of systemic corticosteroids or immunosuppressant. Surgical approach and unconventional treatments were not recommended as routine. CONCLUSION: The task of creating guidelines for ocular allergies showed to be very complex. Many controversial topics remain unsolved. A larger consensus including experts from different groups around the world may be needed to further improve the current recommendations for several aspects of ocular allergy.

  4. Defining Tiger Parenting in Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Yeong

    2013-09-01

    "Tiger" parenting, as described by Amy Chua [2011], has instigated scholarly discourse on this phenomenon and its possible effects on families. Our eight-year longitudinal study, published in the Asian American Journal of Psychology [Kim, Wang, Orozco-Lapray, Shen, & Murtuza, 2013b], demonstrates that tiger parenting is not a common parenting profile in a sample of 444 Chinese American families. Tiger parenting also does not relate to superior academic performance in children. In fact, the best developmental outcomes were found among children of supportive parents. We examine the complexities around defining tiger parenting by reviewing classical literature on parenting styles and scholarship on Asian American parenting, along with Amy Chua's own description of her parenting method, to develop, define, and categorize variability in parenting in a sample of Chinese American families. We also provide evidence that supportive parenting is important for the optimal development of Chinese American adolescents.

  5. Asian American Evangelicals in Multiracial Church Ministry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Garces-Foley

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, evangelical efforts to create multiracial churches (MRCs have grown exponentially. This article analyzes the experiences of Asian American evangelical ministers leading MRCs. Through interviews we explore how Asian American evangelicals came to be involved in MRC-ministry and how they approach issues of racial diversity in this context. We compare the racial attitudes of Asian American evangelical ministers leading MRCs with those of White and Black evangelicals delineated in Emerson and Smith’s Divide by Faith. Rather than conform to the colorblind approach of many White evangelicals, the majority of our respondents utilize structural explanations for social inequality and promote a colorconscious approach to diversity. We conclude that Asian American evangelicals utilize a unique framework for MRC-ministry, what we call a ‘racialized multiculturalism,’ that has much to offer American evangelicalism.

  6. THE GODFATHER AND THE AMERICAN DREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goksu Gigi Akkan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to demonstrate how The Godfather by Francis Ford Coppola challenges the myth of the American Dream. The thesis of the paper is that The Godfather is not a film seeking to re-establish American norms and ideals, but that it tries to break down and shed light on the corrupt side of the modern American society through the myth of “the American Dream”. The structure of the paper is so that first, what other academics and critiques have to say about Coppola’s attempt to criticize the American society and ideals will be visited, as this will give the reader a clearer understanding of the film’s meaning and message. Then, analyses of how certain characters are built and how their presence and attributes contribute to the film’s meaning will be conducted, topped off with the usage of props.

  7. American marsupials chromosomes: why study them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Svartman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Marsupials, one of the three main groups of mammals, are only found in Australia and in the American continent. Studies performed in Australian marsupials have demonstrated the great potential provided by the group for the understanding of basic genetic mechanisms and chromosome evolution in mammals. Genetic studies in American marsupials are relatively scarce and cytogenetic data of most species are restricted to karyotype descriptions, usually without banding patterns. Nevertheless, the first marsupial genome sequenced was that of Monodelphis domestica, a South American species. The knowledge about mammalian genome evolution and function that resulted from studies on M. domestica is in sharp contrast with the lack of genetic data on most American marsupial species. Here, we present an overview of the chromosome studies performed in marsupials with emphasis on the South American species.

  8. Cardiovascular Health in African Americans: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnethon, Mercedes R; Pu, Jia; Howard, George; Albert, Michelle A; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Bertoni, Alain G; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Palaniappan, Latha; Taylor, Herman A; Willis, Monte; Yancy, Clyde W

    2017-11-21

    Population-wide reductions in cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality have not been shared equally by African Americans. The burden of cardiovascular disease in the African American community remains high and is a primary cause of disparities in life expectancy between African Americans and whites. The objectives of the present scientific statement are to describe cardiovascular health in African Americans and to highlight unique considerations for disease prevention and management. The primary sources of information were identified with PubMed/Medline and online sources from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The higher prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors (eg, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk) underlies the relatively earlier age of onset of cardiovascular diseases among African Americans. Hypertension in particular is highly prevalent among African Americans and contributes directly to the notable disparities in stroke, heart failure, and peripheral artery disease among African Americans. Despite the availability of effective pharmacotherapies and indications for some tailored pharmacotherapies for African Americans (eg, heart failure medications), disease management is less effective among African Americans, yielding higher mortality. Explanations for these persistent disparities in cardiovascular disease are multifactorial and span from the individual level to the social environment. The strategies needed to promote equity in the cardiovascular health of African Americans require input from a broad set of stakeholders, including clinicians and researchers from across multiple disciplines. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. The state of American management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wriston, W B

    1990-01-01

    Every year, the president of the United States offers his State of the Union address. Here, from one of the most respected managers in America, is a report on the State of American Management. The state of management, says Walter B. Wriston, is good. Despite the predictions of America's decline, our economy continues to prosper. That is because of this fundamental truth: the United States is the only country in the world that renews itself daily. This is the Age of Pluralism, and U.S. business is based on pluralism. The spirit of the entrepreneur has entered the mainstream of U.S. management, transforming bureaucracy and emphasizing leadership. Today's top executives need to be more like politicians than the number-crunchers of yesterday. At the same time, information is flowing more freely, so corporations are eliminating layers of managers who were really just transmission lines. And top managers are learning to listen to the people who are closest to the work. Everyone today is a knowledge worker. The accelerating pace of knowledge has put a greater premium than ever on talent. Globalization is a big part of this new world. From the manager's viewpoint, globalization means that "you're in a marketplace where you're suddenly waking up with a guy...from a country you're not too sure where it is, who's eating your lunch in your hometown." To understand global competition, managers in large and small companies need broad vision. Finally, to deal with change, U.S. managers must confront some issues at home. For instance, our accounting systems are obsolete, both in companies and in our national accounts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. The North American electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvie, I.

    1999-01-01

    The wide ranging changes that will drive the evolution of the North American electricity industry in the future are discussed. Deregulation and the advent of competition in both the United States and Canada are the principal forces that will change the shape of the electricity market, bringing new players and new forms of doing business into the marketplace. A review of the current state of the business shows that especially in the United States where deregulation began earlier than in Canada, independent generators already constitute a multi-billion dollar industry. Non-utility generation capacity is about seven per cent of total U.S. capacity and accounts for about 10 per cent of total U. S. electricity supply, including imports. Examples from other industries clearly show that restructuring and the breakup of vertically integrated industries could be accomplished much faster than anticipated, that a decrease in prices followed rapidly as products became more like commodities, and that decreasing prices fostered product differentiation and competition. Major legislation affecting the electric power industry in the U.S. and Canada (U.S. National Energy Policy Act 1992, Alberta Electric Utilities Act 1995, Ontario Energy Competition Act 1998) decreeing open access transmission, unbundling of generation, transmission and ancillary services, and promoting competition, and the impacts of these legislative actions are also reviewed. The most visible impact is the explosion that can be seen in power marketing and energy trading on a scale unimaginable only a few short years ago, where the total volume of trade may be worth multiples of the value of the underlying commodity. At the same time, there is concern about the reliability of the system, and thus making it imperative to find new ways to manage reliability. Various suggestions are made as to how increased reliability of supply could be achieved by better management, new standards and better enforcement of

  11. Cultural in-group advantage: emotion recognition in African American and European American faces and voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickline, Virginia B; Bailey, Wendy; Nowicki, Stephen

    2009-03-01

    The authors explored whether there were in-group advantages in emotion recognition of faces and voices by culture or geographic region. Participants were 72 African American students (33 men, 39 women), 102 European American students (30 men, 72 women), 30 African international students (16 men, 14 women), and 30 European international students (15 men, 15 women). The participants determined emotions in African American and European American faces and voices. Results showed an in-group advantage-sometimes by culture, less often by race-in recognizing facial and vocal emotional expressions. African international students were generally less accurate at interpreting American nonverbal stimuli than were European American, African American, and European international peers. Results suggest that, although partly universal, emotional expressions have subtle differences across cultures that persons must learn.

  12. AMERICAN DREAM: THE AMERICAN HEGEMONIC CULTURE AND ITS IMPLICATIONS TO THE WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasiyarno .

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A nation could be a great one as long as it has a great dream. The best example for this is America. Through its long history, it manages to realize a dream to be a superpower. It can be said that “American Dream” is one of the most significant features for the growth of a “constantly eyeing for winner” culture. American Studies experts call it as a “hegemonic culture” in which American norms, values and cultural practices are considered superior against the world culture. Globalizing the culture has been the most effective engine to spread American cultural values and to shape the global civilizations. Using American Studies perspective, this paper attempts to review the extent to which the “American Dream” has successfully established Americanization, as well as how the hegemonic culture has influenced the lives of peoples across the world in the form of popular culture.

  13. Excerpt from Dead Stars: American and Philippine Literary Perspectives on the American Colonization of the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. McMahon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dead Stars: American and Philippine Literary Perspectives on the American Colonization of the Philippines examines the American colonization of the Philippines from three distinct but related literary perspectives. The first is the reaction of anti-imperialist American writers Mark Twain, W. E. B. Du Bois, and William James to America’s first foray into the role of colonizer and how their varied essays, letters, and speeches provide an incisive delineation of fundamental conflicts in American identity at the turn of the twentieth century. The book then analyzes how these same conflicts surface in the colonial regime’s use of American literature as a tool to inculcate American values in the colonial educational system. Finally, Dead Stars considers the way three early and important Filipino writers—Paz Marquez Benitez, Maximo Kalaw, and Juan C. Laya—interpret and represent these same tensions in their fiction.

  14. Native American Music and Curriculum: Controversies and Cultural Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyea, Andrea

    1999-01-01

    Discusses Native American music and curricula, the differences in Western and Native American perspectives of music, the role of music in Native American life, and music as art. Considers how Native Americans live in two worlds (the preserved and lived cultures) and how Native American music should be taught. (CMK)

  15. The Relationship between Native American Ancestry, Body Mass Index and Diabetes Risk among Mexican-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Huff, Chad D; Yamamura, Yuko; Wu, Xifeng; Strom, Sara S

    2015-01-01

    Higher body mass index (BMI) is a well-established risk factor for type 2 diabetes, and rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes are substantially higher among Mexican-Americans relative to non-Hispanic European Americans. Mexican-Americans are genetically diverse, with a highly variable distribution of Native American, European, and African ancestries. Here, we evaluate the role of Native American ancestry on BMI and diabetes risk in a well-defined Mexican-American population. Participants were randomly selected among individuals residing in the Houston area who are enrolled in the Mexican-American Cohort study. Using a custom Illumina GoldenGate Panel, we genotyped DNA from 4,662 cohort participants for 87 Ancestry-Informative Markers. On average, the participants were of 50.2% Native American ancestry, 42.7% European ancestry and 7.1% African ancestry. Using multivariate linear regression, we found BMI and Native American ancestry were inversely correlated; individuals with ancestry were 2.5 times more likely to be severely obese compared to those with >80% Native American ancestry. Furthermore, we demonstrated an interaction between BMI and Native American ancestry in diabetes risk among women; Native American ancestry was a strong risk factor for diabetes only among overweight and obese women (OR = 1.190 for each 10% increase in Native American ancestry). This study offers new insight into the complex relationship between obesity, genetic ancestry, and their respective effects on diabetes risk. Findings from this study may improve the diabetes risk prediction among Mexican-American individuals thereby facilitating targeted prevention strategies.

  16. Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol; Naishadham, Deepa; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2013-05-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths for African Americans and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and screening prevalence based upon incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. It is estimated that 176,620 new cases of cancer and 64,880 deaths will occur among African Americans in 2013. From 2000 to 2009, the overall cancer death rate among males declined faster among African Americans than whites (2.4% vs 1.7% per year), but among females, the rate of decline was similar (1.5% vs 1.4% per year, respectively). The decrease in cancer death rates among African American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of nearly 200,000 deaths from cancer among African Americans. Five-year relative survival is lower for African Americans than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Overall, progress in reducing cancer death rates has been made, although more can and should be done to accelerate this progress through ensuring equitable access to cancer prevention, early detection, and state-of-the-art treatments. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society, Inc.

  17. American families: trends and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davanzo, J; Rahman, M O

    1993-01-01

    Discussion focused on the nature of the roles of the family, a review of the major demographic changes (marriage, cohabitation, nonfamily households, remarriage, fertility, teenage pregnancy, and female employment) affecting the American family in the past decades, and the nature of the impact on women, men, and children. There were four major trends identified: 1) increased proportions of children living in single-parent families due to high rates of divorce and increased childbearing outside of marriage; 2) increased proportions of adults in nontraditional living arrangements; 3) increased female labor force participation during all stages of the life cycle; and 4) decreased proportions of children and increased proportions of older people out of total population due to declining mortality and fertility rates. Family formation arises out of childbearing and childrearing roles, the need for companionship and emotional support, and the opportunities for specialization and trade, and the economies of scale. The costs of family living may include the potential for disagreement, conflict, loss of privacy, and time and money. There were a number of reasons identified for not maintaining traditional families consisting of a married couple with children. The trends were for later age at marriage: 24.4 years in 1992 for women, increased cohabitation (almost 50% cohabiting prior to first marriage in 1985-86), decreased number of married couple households, and increased number of adults in non-family households. The divorce rate has risen over the past 100 years with peaks in the 1970s; the reasons were identified as increased baby boomers and new marriages, increased labor participation of women, and changes in gender roles. The stabilization and slight decline in rates may be due to a natural leveling, the likelihood of greater stability within new marriages, and the aging of the baby boomers. An anticipated increase in divorce rates in the future was also justified

  18. Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Indian/Alaska Native > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives American Indian/Alaska ... as compared to non-Hispanic white mothers. Infant Mortality Rate: Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  19. Proceedings of the American elm restoration workshop 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelia C. Pinchot; Kathleen S. Knight; Linda M. Haugen; Charles E. Flower; James M. Slavicek

    2017-01-01

    Proceedings from the 2016 American Elm Restoration Workshop in Lewis Center, OH. The published proceedings include 16 papers pertaining to elm pathogens, American elm ecology, and American elm reintroduction.

  20. A Deafening Silence: Hizballah After the American Invasion of Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wrona, Jr, Richard M

    2007-01-01

    ... American servicemen and twenty-three French soldiers. Further bombings, murders, and kidnappings greatly contributed to the American decision months later that the carnage and anarchy in Lebanon were not worth additional American lives...