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Sample records for american mink genome

  1. A comparative, BAC end sequence enabled map of the genome of the American mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benkel, Bernhard F.; Smith, Amanda; Christensen, Knud

    2012-01-01

    In this report we present the results of the analysis of approximately 2.7 Mb of genomic information for the American mink (Neovison vison) derived through BAC end sequencing. Our study, which encompasses approximately 1/1000th of the mink genome, suggests that simple sequence repeats (SSRs......) are less common in the mink than in the human genome, whereas the average GC content of the mink genome is slightly higher than that of its human counterpart. The 2.7 Mb mink genomic dataset also contained 2,416 repeat elements (retroids and DNA transposons) occupying almost 31% of the sequence space...

  2. The draft genome sequence of the American mink (Neovison vison) opens new opportunities of genomic research in mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Zexi; Panitz, Frank; Petersen, Bent

    2016-01-01

    of Carnivora. Here we present the draft genome sequence of American mink. In our study, a male inbred pearl mink was sequenced by Illumina paired-end and mate pair sequencing. The reads were assembled, which lead to 22,419 scaffolds with an N50 (shortest sequence length at 50% of the genome) of 646,304 bp...

  3. The first draft reference genome of the American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zexi; Petersen, Bent; Sahana, Goutam; Madsen, Lone B; Larsen, Knud; Thomsen, Bo; Bendixen, Christian; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Panitz, Frank

    2017-11-06

    The American mink (Neovison vison) is a semiaquatic species of mustelid native to North America. It's an important animal for the fur industry. Many efforts have been made to locate genes influencing fur quality and color, but this search has been impeded by the lack of a reference genome. Here we present the first draft genome of mink. In our study, two mink individuals were sequenced by Illumina sequencing with 797 Gb sequence generated. Assembly yielded 7,175 scaffolds with an N50 of 6.3 Mb and length of 2.4 Gb including gaps. Repeat sequences constitute around 31% of the genome, which is lower than for dog and cat genomes. The alignments of mink, ferret and dog genomes help to illustrate the chromosomes rearrangement. Gene annotation identified 21,053 protein-coding sequences present in mink genome. The reference genome's structure is consistent with the microsatellite-based genetic map. Mapping of well-studied genes known to be involved in coat quality and coat color, and previously located fur quality QTL provide new knowledge about putative candidate genes for fur traits. The draft genome shows great potential to facilitate genomic research towards improved breeding for high fur quality animals and strengthen our understanding on evolution of Carnivora.

  4. An extended anchored linkage map and virtual mapping for the american mink genome based on homology to human and dog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Ansari, S.; Farid, A.

    2009-01-01

    hybridization (FISH) and/or by means of human/dog/mink comparative homology. The average interval between markers is 8.5 cM and the linkage groups collectively span 1340 cM. In addition, 217 and 275 mink microsatellites have been placed on human and dog genomes, respectively. In conjunction with the existing...... comparative human/dog/mink data, these assignments represent useful virtual maps for the American mink genome. Comparison of the current human/dog assembled sequential map with the existing Zoo-FISH-based human/dog/mink maps helped to refine the human/dog/mink comparative map. Furthermore, comparison...... of the human and dog genome assemblies revealed a number of large synteny blocks, some of which are corroborated by data from the mink linkage map....

  5. The first draft reference genome of the American mink ( Neovison vison )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Zexi; Petersen, Bent; Sahana, Goutam

    2017-01-01

    The American mink (Neovison vison) is a semiaquatic species of mustelid native to North America. It’s an important animal for the fur industry. Many efforts have been made to locate genes influencing fur quality and color, but this search has been impeded by the lack of a reference genome. Here we...

  6. A re-assigned American mink (Neovison vison) map optimal for genome-wide studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan; Nielsen, Vivi; Markakis, Marios Nektarios; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Jørgensen, Claus B; Christensen, Knud; Fredholm, Merete

    2012-12-10

    Our previously published second generation genetic map for the American mink (Neovison vison) has been used and redesigned in its best for genome-wide studies with maximum of efficiency. A number of 114 selected markers, including 33 newly developed microsatellite markers from the CHORI-231 mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library, have been genotyped in a two generation population composed of 1200 individuals. The outcome reassigns the position of some markers on the chromosomes and it produces a more reliable map with a convenient distance between markers. A total of 104 markers mapped to 14 linkage groups corresponding to the mink autosomes. Six markers are unlinked and four markers are allocated to the X chromosome by homology but no linkage was detected. The sex-average linkage map spans 1192 centiMorgans (cM) with an average intermarker distance of 11.4cM and 1648cM when the ends of the linkage groups and the autosomal unlinked markers are added. Sex-specific genetic linkage maps were also generated. The male sex-specific map had a total length of 1014.6cM between the linked markers and an average inter-marker interval of 9.7cM. The female map has a corresponding length of 1378.6cM and an average inter-marker interval of 13.3cM. The study is complemented with additional anchorage for most of the chromosomes of the map by BAC in situ hybridization with clones containing microsatellites strategically selected from the various parts of the genome. This map provides an improved tool for genetic mapping and comparative genomics in mink, also useful for the future assembly of the mink genome sequence when this will be taken forward. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The first draft reference genome of the American mink ( Neovison vison )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Zexi; Petersen, Bent; Sahana, Goutam

    2017-01-01

    than for dog and cat genomes. The alignments of mink, ferret and dog genomes help to illustrate the chromosomes rearrangement. Gene annotation identified 21,053 protein-coding sequences present in mink genome. The reference genome’s structure is consistent with the microsatellite-based genetic map...

  8. Mink farms predict Aleutian disease exposure in wild American mink.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa A Nituch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases can often be of conservation importance for wildlife. Spillover, when infectious disease is transmitted from a reservoir population to sympatric wildlife, is a particular threat. American mink (Neovison vison populations across Canada appear to be declining, but factors thus far explored have not fully explained this population trend. Recent research has shown, however, that domestic mink are escaping from mink farms and hybridizing with wild mink. Domestic mink may also be spreading Aleutian disease (AD, a highly pathogenic parvovirus prevalent in mink farms, to wild mink populations. AD could reduce fitness in wild mink by reducing both the productivity of adult females and survivorship of juveniles and adults. METHODS: To assess the seroprevalence and geographic distribution of AD infection in free-ranging mink in relation to the presence of mink farms, we conducted both a large-scale serological survey, across the province of Ontario, and a smaller-scale survey, at the interface between a mink farm and wild mink. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Antibodies to AD were detected in 29% of mink (60 of 208 mink sampled; however, seroprevalence was significantly higher in areas closer to mink farms than in areas farther from farms, at both large and small spatial scales. Our results indicate that mink farms act as sources of AD transmission to the wild. As such, it is likely that wild mink across North America may be experiencing increased exposure to AD, via disease transmission from mink farms, which may be affecting wild mink demographics across their range. In light of declining mink populations, high AD seroprevalence within some mink farms, and the large number of mink farms situated across North America, improved biosecurity measures on farms are warranted to prevent continued disease transmission at the interface between mink farms and wild mink populations.

  9. Chromosomal mapping of canine-derived BAC clones to the red fox and American mink genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukekova, Anna V; Vorobieva, Nadegda V; Beklemisheva, Violetta R; Johnson, Jennifer L; Temnykh, Svetlana V; Yudkin, Dmitry V; Trut, Lyudmila N; Andre, Catherine; Galibert, Francis; Aguirre, Gustavo D; Acland, Gregory M; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

    2009-01-01

    High-quality sequencing of the dog (Canis lupus familiaris) genome has enabled enormous progress in genetic mapping of canine phenotypic variation. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes), another canid species, also exhibits a wide range of variation in coat color, morphology, and behavior. Although the fox genome has not yet been sequenced, canine genomic resources have been used to construct a meiotic linkage map of the red fox genome and begin genetic mapping in foxes. However, a more detailed gene-specific comparative map between the dog and fox genomes is required to establish gene order within homologous regions of dog and fox chromosomes and to refine breakpoints between homologous chromosomes of the 2 species. In the current study, we tested whether canine-derived gene-containing bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones can be routinely used to build a gene-specific map of the red fox genome. Forty canine BAC clones were mapped to the red fox genome by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Each clone was uniquely assigned to a single fox chromosome, and the locations of 38 clones agreed with cytogenetic predictions. These results clearly demonstrate the utility of FISH mapping for construction of a whole-genome gene-specific map of the red fox. The further possibility of using canine BAC clones to map genes in the American mink (Mustela vison) genome was also explored. Much lower success was obtained for this more distantly related farm-bred species, although a few BAC clones were mapped to the predicted chromosomal locations.

  10. Characterization of microsatellite markers isolated from the American Mink (Mustela vison) genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansari, S.; Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Farid, A.

    2007-01-01

    Two size-selected mink genomic libraries were constructed and recombinant colonies (n=6,144) were screened with a pool of probes, containing (AAAG)8, (AAGG)8, (AGGG)8, (ATAG)8 and (AG)15 oligonucleotides in equal amounts. A total of 44 colonies were hybridized and confirmed upon replating. Sequen....... Sequencing of the clones revealed 35 microsatellites with unique sequences. There were 19 di- and 6 tetra nucleotides, and the remaining 10 had complex repeats. Twenty eight (80%) were polymorphic in a panel of 20 mink from two Danish Farms....

  11. An American mink (Neovison vison) transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Knud; Anistoroaei, Razvan

    2014-04-01

    HiSeq2000 Illumina pair-end sequenced transcript data originating from a pool of four different tissues of a wild-type American mink yielded approximately 90 Gb of raw data. Subsequently, unique contigs were assembled by a combined approach using velvet and phrap. Of these assembled contigs, about 136 000 match the dog genome and nearly 30 000 contigs match the human transcriptome at more than 17 000 unique gene locations. Gene annotation for these contigs was performed employing custom-made scripts run in combination with comparative sequence similarity search and alignment in the dog and human genome using blast algorithms. Transcripts representing five genes known to be associated with pigmentation were reliably aligned against large mink genomic contigs derived from BAC clones. Sequence comparison between transcript and genomic data revealed seven SNPs. In this study, we generated and annotated mink transcript sequences representing more than 16 000 known genes. This is the first comprehensive transcriptome for the American mink genome, which will facilitate further development in mink expression profiling studies and provide a good annotation basis in the perspectives of a whole genome sequencing project. The project was deposited at EMBL database with the accession number PRJEB1260. © 2014 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  12. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODY TO ALEUTIAN MINK DISEASE VIRUS IN EUROPEAN MINK (MUSTELA LUTREOLA) AND AMERICAN MINK (NEOVISON VISON) IN SPAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mañas, Sisco; Gómez, Asunción; Asensio, Victoria; Palazón, Santiago; Podra, Madis; Alarcia, Olga Esther; Ruiz-Olmo, Jordi; Casal, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    The European mink (Mustela lutreola) has undergone a dramatic decline and is one of the most endangered mammals in the world. The invasive American mink (Neovison vison) is considered the main factor for this decline. However, the American mink's introduction and the subsequent ecological concurrence of the two species cannot solely explain the decline or disappearance of the European mink. Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is the main health problem in fur farming worldwide, causing varied clinical syndromes that depend on the viral strain and host factors. Infection with AMDV has been speculated to contribute to the decline of the European mink, but a detailed study has not been performed. To assess the potential effects of AMDV infection on the conservation of the European mink, we surveyed AMDV antibody in samples from 492 native European mink and 1,735 feral American mink collected over 16 yr. The antibody prevalence in European mink was 32%. There were no statistically significant differences in antibody prevalence between sexes, among years, or among weight classes. For recaptured European mink, incidence of seroconversion (negative to positive) was 0.46 cases per animal-year at risk. For positive animals, the incidence of conversion from positive to negative was 0.18 cases per animal-year at risk. In 1,735 feral American minks, the overall prevalence was 32.4% and varied among the six wild populations studied. Infection with AMDV appears to be endemic, distributed across the entire ranges of both species, and no effects on the population dynamics of either species were observed.

  13. A re-assigned American mink (Neovison vison) map optimal for genome-wide studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke; Markakis, Marios Nektarios

    2012-01-01

    to 14 linkage groups corresponding to the mink autosomes. Six markers are unlinked and four markers are allocated to the X chromosome by homology but no linkage was detected. The sex-average linkage map spans 1192 centiMorgans (cM) with an average intermarker distance of 11.4cM and 1648cM when the ends...... of the linkage groups and the autosomal unlinked markers are added. Sex-specific genetic linkage maps were also generated. The male sex-specific map had a total length of 1014.6cM between the linked markers and an average inter-marker interval of 9.7cM. The female map has a corresponding length of 1378.6c......M and an average inter-marker interval of 13.3cM. The study is complemented with additional anchorage for most of the chromosomes of the map by BAC in situ hybridization with clones containing microsatellites strategically selected from the various parts of the genome. This map provides an improved tool...

  14. Population viability analysis of American mink (Neovison vison) escaped from Danish mink farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertoldi, C; Rødjajn, S; Zalewski, A; Demontis, D; Loeschcke, V; Kjærsgaard, A

    2013-06-01

    The American mink (Neovison vison) was introduced to Danish fur farms in the 1930s. An unknown number of mink have managed to escape these farms over the years. Today feral mink are found in the wild in most parts of Denmark. A population viability analysis (PVA) was performed using VORTEX, a stochastic population simulation software, to 1) predict the viability and potential population expansion from different sizes of founding populations of farm escapees, 2) investigate which parameters mostly affect the viability, 3) assess the effects of continuous escapes on the feral populations and how the feral populations are affected by management programs, and 4) discuss eradication strategies and their efficiency in management of the feral American mink population in Denmark. The simulations showed that juvenile mortality had the greatest effect on population viability followed by fecundity, adult mortality, and initial population size. Populations supplemented yearly by escapees all reached the carrying capacity and gained genetic variability over the years. Harvesting was modeled as the yearly number of mink caught in Denmark. Most of the simulated harvested populations crashed within few years after the first harvesting event. This indicates that the feral number of mink in Denmark is sustained due to supplements from mink farms and no true feral population exists. To manage the number of feral mink in Denmark it is essential to prevent escapees. The eradication effort would be most effective if focused on late summer and autumn when juvenile mink leave the maternal territory.

  15. Testing for Aleutian mink disease virus in the river otter (Lontra canadensis) in sympatry with infected American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Jeff; Kidd, Anne G; Nituch, Larissa A; Sadowski, Carrie; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2014-07-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) occurs in the American mink (Neovison vison) in wild populations and on mink farms and can cause illness and death. The North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) may be exposed to AMDV because of shared space and habitat with mink. Using serology and real-time PCR, we tested river otters across Ontario for AMDV infection. We found no evidence of infection in otters, a surprising finding given the sympatric distribution, niche overlap, and close phylogenetic relationship of the river otter and the American mink. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the major point of spillover of AMDV between mink farms and wildlife is manure and composting carcasses on mink farms. Mink farms in Ontario are generally in agricultural landscapes; it is unlikely that river otter use these habitats and thus are likely not exposed to AMDV. We found no evidence that AMD is an important disease for the river otters in Ontario.

  16. Diagnostic SNPs for inferring population structure in American mink (Neovison vison) identified through RAD sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Data from: "Diagnostic SNPs for inferring population structure in American mink (Neovison vison) identified through RAD sequencing" in Genomic Resources Notes accepted 1 October 2014 to 30 November 2014....

  17. Animal Personality and Mate Preference in American Mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Christina Lehmkuhl

    a free choice study on female preference for two different males and their signals and cues and the resulting paternity in farmed American mink. The study focuses on three types of signals or cues: olfactory (urine and faeces), stationary-visual (size), and variable-visual (behaviour). We were able...... or cues: olfactory (urine and faeces), size, and behaviour. The latter may represent aspects of animal personality. The background for this is explained in the introduction (Chapter I). In Chapter II, a published article, I present a novel study on aspects of animal personality in the American mink...... aspects of shyness exist in the farmed American mink. These findings highlight the importance of carefully considering the context as well as the limitations of using the shyness-boldness continuum for describing animal personality traits. Chapter III, a manuscript, adds to the knowledge of animal...

  18. Albinism in the American mink (Neovison vison) is associated with a tyrosinase nonsense mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anistoroaei, R; Fredholm, M; Christensen, K; Leeb, T

    2008-12-01

    Albino phenotypes are documented in various species including the American mink. In other species the albino phenotypes are associated with tyrosinase (TYR) gene mutations; therefore TYR was considered the candidate gene for albinism in mink. Four microsatellite markers were chosen in the predicted region of the TYR gene. Genotypes at the markers Mvi6025 and Mvi6034 were found to be associated with the albino phenotype within an extended half-sib family. A BAC clone containing Mvi6034 was mapped to chromosome 7q1.1-q1.3 by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Subsequent analysis of genomic TYR sequences from wild-type and albino mink samples identified a nonsense mutation in exon 1, which converts a TGT codon encoding cysteine to a TGA stop codon (c.138T>A, p.C46X; EU627590). The mutation truncates more than 90% of the normal gene product including the putative catalytic domains. The results indicate that the nonsense mutation is responsible for the albino phenotype in the American mink.

  19. Development of vocalization and hearing in American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Christian; Malmkvist, Jens; Nielsen, Rasmus L; Brande-Lavridsen, Nanna; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-09-15

    American mink (Neovison vison) kits are born altricial and fully dependent on maternal care, for which the kits' vocalizations appear essential. We used auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to determine: (1) hearing sensitivity of adult females from two breeding lines known to differ in maternal behaviour and (2) development of hearing in kits 8-52 days of age. We also studied sound production in 20 kits throughout postnatal days 1 to 44. Adult female mink had a broad hearing range from 1 kHz to above 70 kHz, with peak sensitivity (threshold of 20 dB SPL) at 8-10 kHz, and no difference in sensitivity between the two breeding lines (P>0.22) to explain the difference in maternal care. Mink kits showed no signs of hearing up to postnatal day 24. From day 30, all kits had ABRs indicative of hearing. Hearing sensitivity increased with age, but was still below the adult level at postnatal day 52. When separated from their mothers, kits vocalized loudly. Until the age of 22 days, 90% of all kits vocalized with no significant decline with age (P=0.27). From day 25, concurrent with the start of hearing, the number of vocalizing kits decreased with age (P<0.001), in particular in kits that were re-tested (P=0.004). Large numbers of mink are kept in fur industry farms, and our results are important to the understanding of sound communication, which is part of their natural behaviour. Our results also suggest mink as an interesting model for studying the development of mammalian hearing and its correlation to sound production.

  20. Detection of Aleutian mink disease virus DNA and antiviral antibodies in American mink (Neovison vison) 10 days postinoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, A Hossain; Hussain, Irshad; Arju, Irin

    2015-05-01

    Early detection of infection by the Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV; Carnivore amdoparvovirus 1) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) has important ramifications in virus eradication programs. A spleen homogenate containing a local isolate of AMDV was injected intraperitoneally into black (n = 44) and sapphire (n = 12) American mink (Neovison vison). Animals were euthanized 10 days postinoculation and anti-AMDV antibodies and AMDV DNA were tested in plasma and 7 organs by CIEP and PCR, respectively. Viral DNA was detected in the plasma, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and lung samples of all inoculated mink, but was not detected in some small intestine, kidney, and liver samples. In contrast, antibodies were detected in the plasma of 3 sapphire (25.0%) and 19 black (43.2%) mink but not in any of the organs. The sensitivity of the CIEP test on plasma samples was 39.3%, implying that low levels of antibodies during the early stages of virus exposure resulted in failure to detect infection by the CIEP test. We concluded that CIEP is not a reliable test for early detection of AMDV infection in mink and that there were considerable differences among mink of each color type for production of detectable levels of antibodies. PCR tests on samples of saliva, rectal swabs, and feces did not produce consistent and reliable results. © 2015 The Author(s).

  1. Development of vocalization and hearing in American mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Christian; Malmkvist, Jens; Nielsen, Rasmus L

    2013-01-01

    American mink (Neovison vison) kits are born altricial and fully dependent 40 on maternal care, for which the kits' vocalisations appear essential. We used Auditory Brainstem Recording (ABR) to determine (1) hearing sensitivity of adult females from two breeding lines known to differ in maternal ....... When separated from their mothers kits vocalized loudly. Until age 22 days, 90% of all kits vocalized with no significant decline with age (P=0.27). From day 25, concurrent with the start of hearing, the number of vocalizing kits decreased with age (P...

  2. Albinism in the american mink (Neovison vison) is associated with a tyrosinase nonsense mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Fredholm, Merete; Christensen, Knud

    2008-01-01

    Albino phenotypes are documented in various species including the American mink. In other species the albino phenotypes are associated with tyrosinase (TYR) gene mutations; therefore TYR was considered the candidate gene for albinism in mink. Four microsatellite markers were chosen in the prodicted...

  3. 70 years of research on the American mink (Neovison vison schreb., 1777 genetics - where are we now?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skorupski Jakub Jan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to present the current state of knowledge about the genetics of the American mink (Neovison vison Schreb., 1777 - a species that achieved in the twentieth century an unprecedented ecological success associated with the dynamic development of its economic use. However, despite the large popularity and economic importance of the American mink as a fur animal, and the scale of the problems associated with its introduction beyond the range of natural occurrence, genetic research, particularly molecular genetics and genomics of this species, show relatively little progress. The article contains a comprehensive description of the studies undertaken on the genetics of the species, both in terms of cytogenetics, molecular genetics, genomics, population genetics and phylogenetics. The progress of the genome sequencing project of the American mink is also described as well as its transcriptome annotation. The article also deals with still unexplained and not completed, despite 70 years of genetic research, issues such as the standard karyotype, the precise molecular basis of coat color inheritance and systematic position of the species.

  4. The American mink (Neovison vison) is a competent host for native European parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rondán, F J; Ruiz de Ybáñez, M R; Tizzani, P; López-Beceiro, A M; Fidalgo, L E; Martínez-Carrasco, C

    2017-11-30

    The American mink (Neovison vison) is a mustelid native to North America that was introduced in Europe and the former USSR for fur farming. Throughout the last century, accidental or deliberate escapes of mink from farms caused the establishment of stable feral populations. In fact, the American mink is considered an invasive alien species in 28 European countries. The present study evaluates the gastrointestinal and cardiopulmonary helminth fauna of the American mink in Galicia (NW Spain) to understand its role as a potential reservoir for parasites affecting other autochthonous mustelids. In the period 2008-2014, fifty American mink (35 males and 15 females) of different ages (22 immature and 28 adults) from the provinces of Lugo, Ourense and Pontevedra were captured and sacrificed. Eight parasite species were found (6 nematodes and 2 trematodes) with the following prevalences: Molineus patens (68%), Aonchotheca putorii (54%), Crenosoma melesi (10%), Aonchotheca annulosa (8%), Angiostrongylus daskalovi (6%), Aelurostrongylus spp. (2%), Troglotrema acutum (2%) and an unidentified trematode (2%). Eighty-two per cent of the mink harboured helminths, including 15 animals (30%) infected by only one parasite species, 19 (38%) by two species, 5 (10%) by three species and 2 mink (4%) by four species. All helminth species identified are native to European mustelids. Statistical models were used to evaluate if animal characteristics (age, sex and weight), date and capture area influenced the prevalence, intensity or parasite richness. Statistical differences were detected only in models for intensity of M. patens, A. putorii and C. melesi. This is the first report of Angiostrongylus daskalovi, a cardiopulmonary nematode, and A. annulosa, a gastrointestinal nematode specific of rodents, in American mink. Moreover, although the fluke T. acutum has already been cited in American mink, to our knowledge, the present study represents the first report of this trematode in the

  5. The ventricles of the brain in the N. American mink (Mustela vison (Brisson, 1756))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goscicka, D.; Stankiewicz, W.; Szpinda, M. [Akademia Medyczna, Bydgoszcz (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    Using anatomical as well as radiographic and tomographic methods, sixty brains of the N. American mink were examined. It was found that the brain consists of four ventricles. Also, it was noted that the posterior horn was missing and that there was the olfactory recess present in the lateral ventricle, a large-size interthalamic connection present in the third ventricle, and a flat, necklace-like bottom in the fourth ventricle. Only recently, this ins and outs of the mink`s anatomical structure have begun to absorb anatomists. Apparently, it is related to the fact that furry animals, among them the mink, are being domesticated as if ``before our eyes``. For this reason and because of the easy access to material, examining of the brain ventricles in the mink was taken up. (author). 14 refs, 13 figs.

  6. The first linkage map of the American mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Menzorov, A.; Serov, O.

    2007-01-01

    Described herein, the first microsatellite linkage map for the American mink consists of 85 microsatellite markers resolved into 17 linkage groups. The map was constructed using 92 F1 progeny from five sire families created by crossing mink with different colour types. The linkage groups ranged...... from 0 to 137 cM. Thee linkage groups were assigned to 12 of the 14 mink autosomes using a somatic cell hybrid panel. The total map covered 690 sex-averaged Kosambi units with an average marker spacing of 8 cM. This map will facilitate further genetic mapping of monogenic characters and QTL....

  7. Exclusion of candidate genes for coat colour phenotypes of the American mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Markakis, M. N.; Vissenberg, K.

    2012-01-01

    In a previous project, we screened the American mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome library, CHORI-231, for genes potentially involved in various coat colour phenotypes in the American mink. Subsequently, we 454 sequenced the inserts containing these genes and developed microsatellite markers fo...... of similar phenotypes in other mammals, including horses, pigs, cows, dogs, cats, mice and humans, they do not appear to be responsible for comparable phenotypes found in American mink....

  8. An invasive species as an additional parasite reservoir: Trichinella in introduced American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurníková, Zuzana; Kołodziej-Sobocińska, Marta; Dvorožňáková, Emília; Niemczynowicz, Agnieszka; Zalewski, Andrzej

    2016-11-15

    The American mink (Neovison vison Schreber, 1777) is one of the most invasive alien mammal species which has been introduced to many countries in Europe, Asia and South America. As a predator which feeds on various prey, American mink carry many endoparasites; however, data about infection rate and prevalence of different parasites in mink are limited, especially concerning Trichinella spp. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of American mink in the circulation of Trichinella species in its introduced range. In total, 812 muscle samples of mink from six feral populations and three farms in Poland were examined for presence of Trichinella muscle larvae using the artificial HCl-pepsin digestion method. Muscle larvae were found in 27 out of 812 individuals (3.3%) from six localities in western and north-eastern Poland. The intensity of infection varied from 0.1 to 274.8 LPG. The majority of Trichinella-positive individuals - 15 (55.6%) were infected with T. britovi, one with T. spiralis, and one with T. pseudospiralis. Two animals harboured T. britovi and T. spiralis in co-infection and this data confirmed the first report of a mixed Trichinella infection in American mink. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The accuracy of scat identification in distribution surveys: American mink, , in the northern highlands of Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Harrington, Lauren A.; Harrington, Andrew L.; Hughes, Joelene; Stirling, David; Macdonald, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Distribution data for elusive species are often based on detection of field signs rather than of the animal itself. However, identifying field signs can be problematic. We present here the results of a survey for American mink, Neovison vison, in the northern highlands of Scotland to demonstrate the importance of verifying field sign identification. Three experienced surveyors located scats, which they identified as mink scats, at seven of 147 sites surveyed and ?possible?...

  10. Construction of an American mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC library and sequencing candidate genes important for the fur industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Knud

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC libraries continue to be invaluable tools for the genomic analysis of complex organisms. Complemented by the newly and fast growing deep sequencing technologies, they provide an excellent source of information in genomics projects. Results Here, we report the construction and characterization of the CHORI-231 BAC library constructed from a Danish-farmed, male American mink (Neovison vison. The library contains approximately 165,888 clones with an average insert size of 170 kb, representing approximately 10-fold coverage. High-density filters, each consisting of 18,432 clones spotted in duplicate, have been produced for hybridization screening and are publicly available. Overgo probes derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs, representing 21 candidate genes for traits important for the mink industry, were used to screen the BAC library. These included candidate genes for coat coloring, hair growth and length, coarseness, and some receptors potentially involved in viral diseases in mink. The extensive screening yielded positive results for 19 of these genes. Thirty-five clones corresponding to 19 genes were sequenced using 454 Roche, and large contigs (184 kb in average were assembled. Knowing the complete sequences of these candidate genes will enable confirmation of the association with a phenotype and the finding of causative mutations for the targeted phenotypes. Additionally, 1577 BAC clones were end sequenced; 2505 BAC end sequences (80% of BACs were obtained. An excess of 2 Mb has been analyzed, thus giving a snapshot of the mink genome. Conclusions The availability of the CHORI-321 American mink BAC library will aid in identification of genes and genomic regions of interest. We have demonstrated how the library can be used to identify specific genes of interest, develop genetic markers, and for BAC end sequencing and deep sequencing of selected clones. To our knowledge, this is the

  11. Assessing effects of PCB exposure on American mink (Mustela vison) abundance in Portland Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxon, Matt; Toll, John; Hanson, Craig

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an integrated analysis using a Monte Carlo exposure model, dose–response effects model and habitat,and population dynamics models, all of which allow us to quantitatively estimate the effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)exposure on American mink (Mustela vison) abundance at the Portland Harbor Superfund Site (Site), and the associated uncertainties. The Site extends from river mile 1.9 of the Lower Willamette River, near its confluence with the Columbia River, to river mile 11.8, just downstream of downtown Portland, Oregon. The potential effects of PCBs on the American mink population were evaluated in the Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment (BERA) due to the historical presence of mink in the are a and because mink are known to be highly sensitive to the effects of PCBs. Hazard quotients (HQs) calculated in the BERA indicated that PCB concentrations measured in Portland Harbor fish were above levels known to cause reproductive effects in mink. Further analysis was needed to evaluate the potential magnitude of effects on the Site mink population. The integrated analysis presented herein demonstrates that if an effect of PCB exposure is a less than 30% reduction in kit production, then PCB remediation is not expected to have any effect on mink abundance. This is a Site‐specific conclusion that depends on the quality, abundance, and distribution of mink habitat in Portland Harbor. The PCB dose associated with a 30% reduction in kit production was calculated as 101 mg/kg bw/d (90% CI ¼ 69–146 mg/kg bw/d). The mink PCB dose estimates from the Portland Harbor BERA indicate that if mink are present, their baseline exposure levels probably exceed 101 mg/kg bw/d. Therefore, some level of reduction in PCB exposure could be beneficial to the species if the study area provides sufficient habitat to support a mink population. This analysis demonstrates that risk analysis for population‐level assessment endpoints benefits from analyses

  12. The status of the American mink (Neovison vison) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.J.A.; Hofmeester, T.R.

    2014-01-01

    The American mink (Neovison vison) is a north American mustelid that has been farmed for its fur in Europe since the 1920s. It has been feral in the Netherlands since 1958. This paper discusses its distribution, diet, the indications for reproduction, and whether feral animals are born in the wild

  13. Blood biochemical parameters in male American mink (Neovison vison before and during the breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Lasota

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at selected blood biochemical parameters in the male American mink before (September-November and during the breeding (January-March season. Blood from 143 Black and Sapphire male mink at one year age was collected. The plasma was assayed for the concentration of glucose, total protein, cholesterol, HDL and LDL fractions, triacylglycerides (TG, and the activity of ALT and AST. Concentrations of glucose, protein, total and HDL/LDL cholesterol, and AST activity were generally slightly higher during the breeding season than during the non-breeding season, but remained within the reference range. In the case of ALT activity and TG concentration, the relations were reversed. The parameters studied in the Sapphire mink showed greater variation, both in- and out of the season. In Black and Sapphire males of the American mink, the studied parameters revealed slightly higher values during the breeding season than the non-breeding season. This will vary depending on the color variety. The decrease in TG concentration during the breeding season may indicate an increased energy demand due to ambient temperature falls, and/or may be a sign of increased energy consumption associated with physical exertion during mating. Consideration should be given to the nutrition of male mink during the breeding season.

  14. Exclusion of candidate genes for coat colour phenotypes of the American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anistoroaei, R; Markakis, M N; Vissenberg, K; Christensen, K

    2012-12-01

    In a previous project, we screened the American mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome library, CHORI-231, for genes potentially involved in various coat colour phenotypes in the American mink. Subsequently, we 454 sequenced the inserts containing these genes and developed microsatellite markers for each of these genes. Here, we describe a lack of association between three different 'roan-type' phenotypes represented by Cross, Stardust and Cinnamon in American mink and six different genes that we considered to be potentially linked to these phenotypes. Thus, c-KIT (HUGO-approved symbol KIT), ATOH-1 (HUGO-approved symbol ATOH1) and POMC were excluded as potential candidates for these three phenotypes. In addition, MITF and SLC24A5 were excluded for Cross and Cinnamon, and KITL (HUGO-approved symbol KITLG) for Cross and Stardust. Although most of these genes have been implicated as the cause of similar phenotypes in other mammals, including horses, pigs, cows, dogs, cats, mice and humans, they do not appear to be responsible for comparable phenotypes found in American mink. © 2012 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2012 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  15. Influenza A Virus Surveillance in the Invasive American Mink (Neovison vison) from Freshwater Ecosystems, Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipour, H; Busquets, N; Fernández-Aguilar, X; Sánchez, A; Ribas, M P; De Pedro, G; Lizarraga, P; Alarcia-Alejos, O; Temiño, C; Cabezón, O

    2017-08-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are negative-sense, single-stranded and segmented RNA viruses of the Orthomyxoviridae family that may cause acute respiratory disease in a wide range of birds and mammals. Susceptibility of several species within the family Mustelidae to IAVs has been reported as a result of natural or experimental infections. The objectives of this study were to assess whether free-ranging American mink populations from Northern Spain were infected with IAV and try to define the role of this species in the epidemiology of IAV. Sera from 689 American mink from Northern Spain captured between 2011 and 2014 were tested for the presence of antibodies against IAVs using a commercial competition cELISA. Positive sera were further analysed with haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. Fifteen of the 689 (2.2%, 1.3-3.6 CI 95% ) of the American minks analysed were ELISA positive. No significant differences were observed between years of capture, provinces, river basins, sexes or ages of the animals. All seropositive sera resulted negative to the panel strains used in the HI assay, showing that the most relevant strains circulating in swine, the most relevant avian subtypes (H5 and H7) and the H10N4 subtype isolated in minks have not been circulating in this free-ranging exotic carnivore from Spain. In the light of these results, the free-range American mink from Northern Spain do not seem to have an important role in the epidemiology of IAVs. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Population genetic structure in farm and feral American mink (Neovison vison) inferred from RAD sequencing-generated single nucleotide polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Ruiz-Gonzalez, Aritz; Pujolar, José Martin

    2015-01-01

    Feral American mink populations (Neovison vison), derived from mink farms, are widespread in Europe. In this study we investigated genetic diversity and genetic differentiation between feral and farm mink using a panel of genetic markers (194 SNP) generated from RAD sequencing data. Sampling incl...

  17. Comparison of American mink embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cell transcriptomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menzorov, Aleksei G; Matveeva, Natalia M.; Markakis, Marios Nektarios

    2015-01-01

    pattern. We observed expression of pluripotency marker genes such as Oct4, Sox2 and Rex1 in ES and iPS cell lines with notable exception of Nanog. CONCLUSIONS: We had produced and characterized American mink ES and iPS cells. These cells were pluripotent by a number of criteria and iPS cells exhibited....... The completeness of reprogramming process is well studied in such species as mouse and human but there is not enough data on other species. We produced American mink (Neovison vison) ES and iPS cells and compared these cells using transcriptome analysis. RESULTS: We report the generation of 10 mink ES and 22 i...... with cell types representing all three germ layers. Transcriptome analysis of mink embryonic fibroblasts (EF), two ES and two iPS cell lines allowed us to identify 11831 assembled contigs which were annotated. These led to a number of 6891 unique genes. Of these 3201 were differentially expressed between...

  18. Litter size, fur quality and genetic analyses of American mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia

    Mink is a production animal breed for the fur. Both quality and quantity of the produced skin are important for the producer. In these analyses both fur quality traits, such as structure of guard hair and wool, which determines the quality of the skin, and litter size which determines the quantity...... of the skin, have been analyzed. Both fur quality traits and litter size are complex traits underlying quantitative genetic variation. Methods for estimating genetic variance, spanning from pedigree information to the use of different genetic markers, have been utilized in order to gain knowledge about...

  19. Estimating population density and connectivity of American mink using spatial capture-recapture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Angela K.; Sutherland, Christopher S.; Royle, Andy; Hare, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the abundance or density of populations is fundamental to the conservation and management of species, and as landscapes become more fragmented, maintaining landscape connectivity has become one of the most important challenges for biodiversity conservation. Yet these two issues have never been formally integrated together in a model that simultaneously models abundance while accounting for connectivity of a landscape. We demonstrate an application of using capture–recapture to develop a model of animal density using a least-cost path model for individual encounter probability that accounts for non-Euclidean connectivity in a highly structured network. We utilized scat detection dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) as a means of collecting non-invasive genetic samples of American mink (Neovison vison) individuals and used spatial capture–recapture models (SCR) to gain inferences about mink population density and connectivity. Density of mink was not constant across the landscape, but rather increased with increasing distance from city, town, or village centers, and mink activity was associated with water. The SCR model allowed us to estimate the density and spatial distribution of individuals across a 388 km2 area. The model was used to investigate patterns of space usage and to evaluate covariate effects on encounter probabilities, including differences between sexes. This study provides an application of capture–recapture models based on ecological distance, allowing us to directly estimate landscape connectivity. This approach should be widely applicable to provide simultaneous direct estimates of density, space usage, and landscape connectivity for many species.

  20. [Odontologic anomaly in the American mink Neovison vison (Carnivora, Mustelidae) and possible reasons for its appearance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korablev, P N; Korablev, M P; Korablev, N P; Tumanov, I L

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes the phenomenon of substitution of the reduced M2 with a tooth of a complex structure in the American mink Neovison vison Schreber. The anomaly is observed on three skulls out of the 574 examined (0.52%) and is characterized by a clear localization, identical structure, and symmetrical manifestation. Atypical molars have two roots, equally well-developed paraconid, eokonid, hypoconid, and a less pronounced metaconid. Some possible hypotheses for the anomaly that are considered include disruption in the development of the dental germ, mutation, and phenotypic expression of genes that are characteristic of plesiomorphic species of mustelids. The substantiated viewpoint is that the cause of this phenomenon may be the "awakening of dormant genes" as a result of destabilizing selection and hybrid dysgenesis in the area of contact of farm and feral American minks.

  1. Molecular characterization of a new genotype of Cryptosporidium from American minks (Mustela vison) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongjun; Zhang, Longxian; Feng, Yaoyu; Ning, Changshen; Jian, Fuchun; Xiao, Lihua; Zhao, Jinfeng; Wang, Yongli

    2008-06-14

    A total of 469 fecal samples were collected from American minks (Mustela vison) on a farm in Hebei Province in China and examined for Cryptosporidium by Sheather's sugar flotation technique and 8 Cryptosporidim isolates were obtained. The partial 18S rRNA, 70kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) and actin genes of six isolates were sequenced. Sequence data were analyzed together with known Cryptosporidium spp. and genotypes. Results of this multi-locus genetic characterization indicated that the six Cryptosporidium isolates in this study shared the same sequences of the genes studied and were different from known Cryptosporidium species and genotypes. The closest relative was Cryptosporidium ferret genotype with 7, 22, 2 and 2 nucleotide differences in the 18S rRNA, HSP70, COWP and actin genes, respectively. The homology to ferret genotype at the 18S rRNA locus was 99.1%, which is comparable to that between C. parvum and C. hominis (99.2%), or between C. muris and C. andersoni (99.4%). Therefore, the Cryptosporidium in minks in this study is considered a new genotype, the Cryptosporidium mink genotype.

  2. Context Matters: Multiple Novelty Tests Reveal Different Aspects of Shyness-Boldness in Farmed American Mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noer, Christina Lehmkuhl; Needham, Esther Kjær; Wiese, Ann-Sophie; Balsby, Thorsten Johannes Skovbjerg; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Animal personality research is receiving increasing interest from related fields, such as evolutionary personality psychology. By merging the conceptual understanding of personality, the contributions to both fields of research may be enhanced. In this study, we investigate animal personality based on the definition of personality traits as underlying dispositional factors, which are not directly measurable, but which predispose individuals to react through different behavioural patterns. We investigated the shyness-boldness continuum reflected in the consistency of inter-individual variation in behavioural responses towards novelty in 47 farmed American mink (Neovison vison), which were raised in identical housing conditions. Different stages of approach behaviour towards novelty, and how these related within and across contexts, were explored. Our experimental design contained four tests: two novel object tests (non-social contexts) and two novel animated stimuli tests (social contexts). Our results showed consistency in shyness measures across multiple tests, indicating the existence of personality in farmed American mink. It was found that consistency in shyness measures differs across non-social and social contexts, as well as across the various stages in the approach towards novel objects, revealing that different aspects of shyness exist in the farmed American mink. To our knowledge this is the first study to reveal aspects of the shyness-boldness continuum in the American mink. Since the mink were raised in identical housing conditions, inherited factors may have been important in shaping the consistent inter-individual variation. Body weight and sex had no effect on the personality of the mink. Altogether, our results suggest that the shyness-boldness continuum cannot be explained by a simple underlying dispositional factor, but instead encompasses a broader term of hesitating behaviour that might comprise several different personality traits.

  3. Context Matters: Multiple Novelty Tests Reveal Different Aspects of Shyness-Boldness in Farmed American Mink (Neovison vison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Lehmkuhl Noer

    Full Text Available Animal personality research is receiving increasing interest from related fields, such as evolutionary personality psychology. By merging the conceptual understanding of personality, the contributions to both fields of research may be enhanced. In this study, we investigate animal personality based on the definition of personality traits as underlying dispositional factors, which are not directly measurable, but which predispose individuals to react through different behavioural patterns. We investigated the shyness-boldness continuum reflected in the consistency of inter-individual variation in behavioural responses towards novelty in 47 farmed American mink (Neovison vison, which were raised in identical housing conditions. Different stages of approach behaviour towards novelty, and how these related within and across contexts, were explored. Our experimental design contained four tests: two novel object tests (non-social contexts and two novel animated stimuli tests (social contexts. Our results showed consistency in shyness measures across multiple tests, indicating the existence of personality in farmed American mink. It was found that consistency in shyness measures differs across non-social and social contexts, as well as across the various stages in the approach towards novel objects, revealing that different aspects of shyness exist in the farmed American mink. To our knowledge this is the first study to reveal aspects of the shyness-boldness continuum in the American mink. Since the mink were raised in identical housing conditions, inherited factors may have been important in shaping the consistent inter-individual variation. Body weight and sex had no effect on the personality of the mink. Altogether, our results suggest that the shyness-boldness continuum cannot be explained by a simple underlying dispositional factor, but instead encompasses a broader term of hesitating behaviour that might comprise several different personality

  4. Evolutionary analysis of whole-genome sequences confirms inter-farm transmission of Aleutian mink disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagberg, Emma Elisabeth; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Larsen, Lars E

    2017-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is a frequently encountered pathogen associated with mink farming. Previous phylogenetic analyses of AMDV have been based on shorter and more conserved parts of the genome, e.g. the partial NS1 gene. Such fragments are suitable for detection but are less useful...... for elucidating transmission pathways while sequencing entire viral genomes provides additional informative sites and often results in better-resolved phylogenies. We explore how whole-genome sequencing can benefit investigations of AMDV transmission by reconstructing the relationships between AMDV field samples...... direction of spread. It was however impossible to infer transmission pathways from the partial NS1 gene tree, since all samples from the case farms branched out from a single internal node. A sliding window analysis showed that there were no shorter genomic regions providing the same phylogenetic resolution...

  5. Comparison of the craniometric parameters of wild and farm American mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraska, M; Sulik, M; Lasota, B

    2016-01-01

    Skulls of 65 American minks from the West Pomeranian Province were examined (farm: n = 33, male: n = 16, female: n = 17; wild: n = 32, male: n = 20, female: n = 12). Craniometric parameters in the number of 24 were determined and measured on each skull. Results were averaged and compared, maintaining the division into sex groups. Males were found to have statistically significant differences between wild and farm animals in 20 parameters; measurements showing no statistically significant differences were: nasal length, postorbital constriction, brain case height and greatest height of the mandibular body. Females were found to have statistically significant differences between wild and farm animals in 6 parameters: condylobasal length, tooth row length, greatest length of the mandible, brain case basis length, postorbital length and palatal length. The percentage conversion of measurements into the greatest length of the skull showed differences in its proportions. Among male skulls, the parameters for which the ratio of differences was more than 2% were palatal length, zygomatic breadth and brain case height. For female skulls, no craniometric parameters showed differences in the skull proportions being greater than 2%. The occurrence of measurable changes in the craniometric parameters between domestic and farm mink populations may indicate that the domestication process is still ongoing and allows distinguishing the population affiliation of an individual specimen.

  6. A large insertion in intron 2 of the TYRP1 gene associated with American Palomino phenotype in American mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Markakis, Marios Nektarios; Kristiansen, Thea

    2016-01-01

    A number of American mink phenotypes display a range of brownish colours. One of these phenotypes, namely American Palomino (b (P) b (P) ) (AP) has been found to be associated with the tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1) gene by genotyping microsatellite markers in one sire family. Trials...

  7. [Introduction of species and microevolution: the European beaver, raccoon dog, and American mink].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korablev, N P; Korablev, M P; Korablev, P N

    2011-01-01

    Nine skull samples of the beaver Castor fiber, six samples of the raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides, and six samples of the American mink Neovison vison were studied using phenetic and craniometric methods. Analysis of the phenofund structure suggests that in all of the studied species the emergence of novel character variations does not lead to their fixation with a significant frequency. Considerable morphological variability emerges in the contact zone of different autochtonous populations, of wild and breeding forms, as well as in geographically and reproductively isolated small groups of individuals. Morphological differences of introduced animals fit into the conception of species polymorphism and are smoothed over when separate colonies merge into metapopulations, which does not lead to the emergence of novel stable taxa.

  8. Diurnal activity of the American Mink (Neovison vison in Central Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo García

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The American mink (Neovison vison is an invasive species in Spain and its population ecology is poorly understood. Diurnal activity was studied in a population of central Spain by means of direct observations. This activity peaked in summer and winter, mink being more active just after daybreak (06:00-08:00 and before dawn (16:00-18:00. Foraging (50% of observations; N = 146 and travelling (38.2%, were the main activities recorded during daylight. Mink were recorded as either in water or on land. In the latter, their distance from the water edge never exceeded 5.5 m. This pattern of daylight activity could be a mechanism for reducing potential interactions with nocturnal mammals sharing the same habitats. The success of culling campaigns could be increased by extending trapping sessions to daylight hours. Riassunto Attività diurna del visone americano (Neovison visonM nella Spagna centrale. L’ecologia dell’alloctono visone americano in Spagna è tuttora poco nota. Tramite osservazione diretta, è stata indagata l’incidenza della attività diurna in una popolazione della Spagna centrale. Tale attività è risultata più frequente in estate ed inverno, quando i visoni sono attivi nelle prime ore del giorno (06:00-08:00 e prima del tramonto (16:00-18:00. Le attività registrate più frequentemente sono state il foraggiamento (50% delle osservazioni, N = 146 e gli spostamenti (travelling, 38,2%. I visoni sono stati osservati indistintamente sia in acqua che a terra; in quest’ultimo caso la distanza dalla riva non è mai stata superiore a 5,5 m. Si ipotizza che l’attività diurna potrebbe essere un meccanismo per ridurre le interazioni con mammiferi prevalentemente notturni legati ai medesimi ambienti. In base ai risultati ottenuti, si suggerisce che il successo delle operazioni di controllo della specie potrebbe essere incrementato estendendo il

  9. Population genetic structure in farm and feral American mink (Neovison vison) inferred from RAD sequencing-generated single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirstrup, J P; Ruiz-Gonzalez, A; Pujolar, J M; Larsen, P F; Jensen, J; Randi, E; Zalewski, A; Pertoldi, C

    2015-08-01

    Feral American mink populations (), derived from mink farms, are widespread in Europe. In this study we investigated genetic diversity and genetic differentiation between feral and farm mink using a panel of genetic markers (194 SNP) generated from RAD sequencing data. Sampling included a total of 211 individuals from 14 populations, 4 feral and 10 from farms, the latter including a total of 7 color types (Brown, Black, Mahogany, Sapphire, White, Pearl, and Silver). Our study revealed similar low levels of genetic diversity in both farm and feral mink. Results are consistent with small effective population size as a consequence of line selection in the farms and founder effects of a few escapees from the farms in feral populations. Moderately high genetic differentiation was found between farm and feral animals, suggesting a scenario in which wild populations were founded from farm escapes a few decades ago. Currently, escapes and gene flow are probably limited. Genetic differentiation was higher among farm color types than among farms, consistent with line selection using few individuals to create the lines. Finally, no indications of inbreeding were found in either farm or feral samples, with significant negative values found in most farm samples, showing farms are successful in avoiding inbreeding.

  10. Determinants and effects of sinus worm Skrjabingylus nasicola (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidae) infestation in invasive American mink Neovison vison in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddergott, M; Pohl, D; Steinbach, P; Salazar, L Cantú; Müller, F; Frantz, A C

    2016-09-01

    Skrjabingylus nasicola (Leuckart, 1842) are geographically widespread nematodes that parasitize the nasal and frontal sinus cavities of smaller mustelids. As most prior work was solely based on the analysis of bone injuries of museum skull, little is known about the determinants and effects of infestation in the host species. Working on fresh skulls, we aimed to analyze infestation patterns in American mink (Neovison vison Schreber, 1777) from nine study areas in northern Germany and to identify factors that explained infestation prevalence and intensity in the host species. The prevalence (46.7-62.9 %) and infestation intensity values (4.5-10.89 nematodes) reported here were relatively large, especially compared to other American mink populations in Europe. Considering mink diet, our study sites probably harbored a larger number of infested paratenic hosts and climate did not have a substantial negative influence on survival of S. nasicola larvae. We did not observe any significant sex-age differences in either prevalence or intensity of S. nasicola infestation. We did not find a negative impact of an infestation on the host animals' body weight, confirming prior results that the parasite is not a significant mortality factor in mustelids. Our study suggests that this holds even outside the native distributional range where the host's defenses might not be optimally adapted to an autochthonous parasite.

  11. Evidence of endoplasmic reticulum stress and liver inflammation in the American mink Neovison vison with benign hepatic steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Pal, Catherine; Martin, Timothy; Harris, Lora; Astatkie, Tessema; Kryzskaya, Darya; Kärjä, Vesa; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Tammi, Raija; Tammi, Markku; Nieminen, Petteri

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the presence of inflammatory signs in the progression of fatty liver disease induced by fasting. Sixty standard black American mink (Neovison vison) were fasted for 0, 1, 3, 5, or 7 days and one group for 7 days followed by re-feeding for 28 days. Liver sections were evaluated histologically and liver mRNA levels indicating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, adipogenic transformation, and inflammation were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. After 3 days of fasting, the mink had developed moderate liver steatosis. Increased hyaluronan reactivity in lymphocytic foci but no Mallory-Denk bodies were seen in livers of the mink fasted for 5-7 days. Up-regulation of glucose-regulated protein, 78 kDa was observed on day 7 indicating ER stress, especially in the females. Liver lipoprotein lipase and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 mRNA levels increased in response to 5-7 days of food deprivation, while tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) was the highest in the mink fasted for 5 days. The expression of the genes of interest, except for TNF-α, correlated with each other and with the liver fat content. The mRNA levels were found to change more rapidly below n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio threshold of 0.15. Following re-feeding, hepatocyte morphology and mRNA abundance returned to pre-fasting levels. Within the studied timeframe, evidence for ER stress, adipogenic transformation, and liver inflammation suggested incipient transition from steatosis to steatohepatitis with potential for development of more severe liver disease. This may present a possibility to influence disease progression before histologically observable steatohepatitis.

  12. Application of probiotic supplementation in the nutrition of farm American mink (Neovison vison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia FELSKA-BŁASZCZYK

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on an analysis of body weight, fur quality and selected blood biochemical indices in farm mink fed a diet with an addition of probiotics containing effective microorganisms. The feeding trial was conducted in 2013 on a population of Silverblue mink. The experimental group was offered the probiotics supplement with their daily ration. The control group did not receive a probiotic supplement. Body weight gains, blood AST and ALT content and the quality of fur were analyzed. The probiotic supplement positively and statistically significantly influenced the body weight gains of the mink, particularly in males. The supplement had a beneficial effect also in terms of pelt quality, since the animals fed the probiotic yielded pelts in the highest class of quality.

  13. Skeletotopy of the gall bladder in American mink (`Mustela vison` (Brisson, 1756))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goscicka, D.; Flisinski, P. [Dept. of Anatomy. Medical Academy, Bydgoszcz (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Using anatomical and radiological methods, the projection of the gall bladder was studied in relation to the vertebral column in fifty adult minks of both sexes. The gall bladder was found to be in three positions when in relation to: (1) the longitudinal axis of the vertebral column, (2) the numerical order of the vertebrae. (author).

  14. Comparative morphology of the lingual papillae and their connective tissue cores in the tongue of the American mink, Neovison vison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Ken; Fukue, Yuko; Kishimoto, Ryosuke; Shindo, Junji; Kageyama, Ikuo

    2014-05-01

    We observed the morphology of the lingual papillae (filiform, conical, fungiform, and vallate papillae, and lateral organ) and their connective tissue cores (CTCs) in the American mink (Neovison vison) using light and scanning electron microscopy. Filiform papillae were distributed on the apex linguae and rostral regions of the corpus linguae. Conical papillae were distributed over the caudal region and absent in the radix linguae. Numerous ridges were present in the radix linguae. Four to six vallate papillae were situated at the border between the corpus and radix linguae. Instead of foliate papillae, a pair of lateral organs was situated on the caudal edge of the corpus. The epithelial surface of each filiform papilla consisted of a single main process and 10-12 accessory processes. Notably, filiform papillae in the apex linguae exhibited morphological variation, and some were dome-like and lacked processes. In contrast, filiform papillae on the rostral part were not variable, were extended to a sharp tip, were associated with an eosinophilic stratum corneum, and lacked nuclei. The CTCs of the filiform papillae consisted of a main core and slender accessory cores surrounding a concavity. Those in the apex linguae were similar in appearance and consisted of main and adjacent accessory cores. The fungiform papillae had a dome-like epithelial surface and their CTCs were columnar, with upper concavities and flanges. The simplified lingual morphology of the American mink, particularly in the filiform papillae in the apex linguae, may be influenced by its diet and semiaquatic lifestyle.

  15. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Babesia sp. NV-1 detected from wild American Mink ( Neovison vison ) in Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Haruyuki; Ishinabe, Satoki; Jinnai, Michio; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko; Ishihara, Chiaki

    2013-04-01

    Babesiosis is a tick-borne protozoan disease affecting many mammalian species worldwide, caused by the intraerythrocytic multiplication of Babesia spp. The present study aimed to detect the presence of Babesia sp. in 13 American mink from Hokkaido, Japan. One of 13 animals was positive, as indicated by nested PCR targeting the 18S ribosomal RNA (SSU rDNA) and subunit 7 (eta) of the chaperonin-containing t-complex polypeptide 1 (CCT7) genes from species of Babesia and Theileria. Sequencing of the PCR product of SSU rDNA revealed 99% homology to the isolates of Babesia sp. SAP#131 found in raccoons in Hokkaido, whereas that of the CCT7 gene showed 80% homology to the isolates of Babesia gibsoni in dogs as determined by BLAST analysis. We refer to the cognate sequence as Babesia sp. NV-1. Phylogenetic analyses of SSU rDNA and CCT7 genes from Babesia sp. NV-1 revealed them to be most closely related to the Babesia sp. SAP#131 from a raccoon in Hokkaido and to canine B. gibsoni, respectively. Here, we provide the first molecular evidence of the Babesia sp. NV-1 parasite in feral American mink ( Neovison vison ) in Hokkaido, Japan.

  16. Role of hepatic de novo lipogenesis in the development of fasting-induced fatty liver in the American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Harris, Lora; Dick, Morag; Pal, Catherine; Lei, Sha; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Nieminen, Petteri

    2012-10-28

    American mink (Neovison vison) develop fatty liver quickly in response to food deprivation, which results in preferential mobilisation of n-3 PUFA. The altered n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio in the liver may activate the endocannabinoid system resulting in increased lipid synthesis. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of feeding intensity (80 or 120% RDA), dietary fat source (n-3, n-6 or n-9 fatty acids (FA)) and short-term fasting (1-7 d) on hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and the development of fatty liver in mink. Significantly elevated expression of mRNA encoding for acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC-1) and FA synthase (FAS) was observed in the liver of mink fasted for 5-7 d, while upon re-feeding for 28 d after a 7 d food deprivation, DNL returned to pre-fasting levels. The females had a higher expression of ACC-1 and FAS mRNA than the males. In the non-fasted animals, dietary fat source and feeding intensity had significant effects on ACC-1 mRNA. The highest levels were observed in the mink fed the rapeseed oil (n-9) diet at 80% RDA, while the lowest levels were seen when the same diet was fed at 120% RDA. For FAS, the highest gene expression was seen in the fasted mink fed at 80% RDA and the lowest in the non-fasted mink fed at 80%. It is concluded that short-term food deprivation induces hepatic lipidosis in mink and that during this process, hepatic DNL further exacerbates liver fat accumulation.

  17. Genetic variation and population structure of American mink Neovison vison from PCB-contaminated and non-contaminated locales in eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirgin, Isaac; Maceda, Lorraine; Waldman, John; Mayack, David T

    2015-11-01

    American mink Neovison vison may be particularly vulnerable to toxicities of persistent contaminants such as PCBs because of their aquatic-based diet, position near the top of the food web, and small deme sizes. Furthermore, ranched mink are sensitive to reproductive toxicities of fish diets from PCB-polluted sites. The upper Hudson River is highly contaminated with PCBs and previous studies have shown elevated hepatic burdens of total and coplanar PCBs in mink collected near the river compared with those from more distant locales in New York and elsewhere. We hypothesized that bioaccumulation of PCBs in Hudson River mink has reduced their levels of genetic diversity or altered their genetic population structure. To address this, we conducted microsatellite DNA analysis on collections made in proximity to and from more distant locales in the Hudson River watershed, elsewhere in New York State, and at other sites in eastern North America including New Brunswick, four locales in Ontario, multiple drainages in Maine, and two ecoregions in Rhode Island. We did not find reduced genetic diversity at the individual or population levels in mink collected near (<6 km) to PCB hotspots in the Hudson River nor evidence of altered population structure. Consistent with their distribution in small localized and isolated demes, we did find significant genetic population structure among many mink collections in New York State and elsewhere. Depending on the analytical approach used, genetically distinct populations numbered between 16 when using STRUCTURE to 19-20 when using Exact G tests, F ST, or AMOVA analyses. Genetically distinct population units were found among major ecoregions and minor ecoregions in New York State, among different hydrologic subunits within the Hudson River watershed, among spatially separate locales in Ontario, and among most watersheds in Maine. However, despite this localization and potential heightened impact of stressors, genetic diversity and genetic

  18. Genetic parameters for fur quality graded on live animals and dried pelts of American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirstrup, J P; Jensen, J; Lund, M S

    2017-08-01

    Fur quality and skin size are integral qualities in the mink industry and are main determinants of sales price and subsequent income for mink fur producers. Parental animals of future generations are selected based on quality grading from live animals, but selection response is obtained from dried skins sold after pelting. In this study, we evaluated traits assessed during live grading and pelt traits examined on dried skins to determine correlation between live and pelt traits. Grading traits and body weight were measured during live animal grading for 9,539 Brown American mink, and pelt quality traits and skin size were evaluated on 8,385 dried mink skins after pelting. Data were sampled from 2 yearly production cycles. Genetic parameters were estimated using the REML method implemented in the DMU package. Heritabilities and proportions of litter variance were calculated from estimated variance components for all traits, and genetic and phenotypic correlations between all traits were estimated in a series of bivariate analyses. Heritability estimates for live grading traits ranged from 0.06 to 0.28, heritability estimates for pelt quality traits ranged from 0.20 to 0.30, and finally heritability estimates for body size traits ranged from 0.43 to 0.48. Skin size and body weight were regarded as different traits for the two sexes and were therefore analysed for each sex separately. Genetic correlations between grading traits exhibited a range of 0.30-0.99 and genetic correlations between pelt quality traits ranged from 0.38 to 0.86. Genetic correlations between quality, wool density and silky appearance evaluated during live animal grading and on dried skin after pelting were 0.74, 0.41 and 0.33, respectively. Skin size and body weight were negatively correlated with pelt quality traits and ranged from -0.55 to -0.25. Using standard selection index theory and combined information from both live grading and skin evaluation increase of reliability of selection

  19. Serology and protein electrophoresis for evidence of exposure to 12 mink pathogens in free-ranging American mink (Neovison vison) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Pablo Eduardo; Samartino, Luis Ernesto; Stanchi, Néstor Oscar; Radman, Nilda Esther; Parrado, Eduardo Joaquín

    2017-12-01

    Basic pathologic characteristics for farmed minks were previously reported worldwide. However, its status in the wild has not been studied in detail. Serology and electrophoresis were carried out for evidence of exposure to 12 mink pathogens on two different locations. Serology was done in 87 wild minks by reference techniques against Toxoplasma gondii, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Neospora caninum, Brucella abortus, Mycobacterium bovis, Leptospira interrogans, canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus (CAV), canine parvovirus (CPV), rabies virus (RV), Influenza A virus (FLUAV) and Aleutian disease virus (ADV). Hypergammaglobulinemia, the ADV main clinical feature, was determined by conventional electrophoresis. Seventy-one percent of the 87 sera had antibodies against one or more pathogens. ADV accounted for the highest seroprevalence (29%), followed by T. gondii (26%), L. interrogans (14%), M. bovis (12%), B. abortus (9%), N. caninum (3%), CPV (3%) and CDV (2%). Seroprevalence was influenced by location but not sex or age. Additionally, 16% of the seropositive samples for ADV had gammaglobulin levels >40.0 g/L. Antibody titers for CDV and CPV were low and difficult to interpret as almost all these cases had borderline concentrations. A cautious interpretation of the results is urged as the epidemiological role of the wild mink is largely unexplored for most of these agents. Nevertheless, the information may be clinically relevant..

  20. Removal of American mink increases the success of simulated nests in linear habitat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Padyšáková, E.; Šálek, Martin; Poledník, L.; Sedláček, František; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2009), s. 225-230 ISSN 1035-3712 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Grant - others:GA MŽP(CZ) SE/620/1/03; GA MŽP(CZ) SP/2D3/60/08 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : mink * nest predation * introduction * allien species Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.222, year: 2009

  1. High feeding intensity increases the severity of fatty liver in the American mink (Neovison vison) with potential ameliorating role for long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Morag F; Hurford, Jennifer; Lei, Sha; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Nieminen, Petteri; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti

    2014-01-16

    Rapid body fat mobilization, obesity, and an inadequate supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been suggested to play roles in the etiology of fatty liver in the American mink (Neovison vison). This study examined the effects of feeding intensity and dietary fat source on fatty liver induced by fasting. In a multi-factorial design, 3 different fat sources (herring oil, rich in n-3 PUFA, soya oil, rich in n-6 PUFA, and canola oil, rich in n-9 monounsaturated fatty acids) were fed to mink at a low and high feeding intensity for 10 weeks, followed by an overnight or a 5-day fasting treatment to induce fatty liver. Fasting led to the development of fatty liver with increased severity in the mink fed at the high feeding intensity. The herring oil diet, high in long-chain n-3 PUFA, was found to decrease the severity of fatty liver in the mink at the high feeding intensity. Preventing excessive weight gain and increasing dietary intake of n-3 long-chain PUFA may help prevent excessive lipid accumulation during prolonged periods of fasting or inappetence by promoting hepatic fatty acid oxidation.

  2. Age-dependent baseline values of faecal cortisol metabolites in the American mink (Neovison vison) under semi-natural housing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, E; Bergmann, S; Hagn, A; Meixensperger, J; Reese, S; Palme, R; Erhard, M H

    2014-06-01

    The welfare of an animal is ensured if it is able to fully satisfy its essential species-typical needs in all functional aspects of behaviour. In mink, stereotypies and apathy, internal and/or external injuries as well as increased susceptibility to disease have been known to occur as a result of chronic stress. The non-invasive method of analysing faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) allows conclusions to be drawn about the stress level in the respective housing system. The objective of this study is to find out how the cortisol metabolites content in the faecal changes with increasing age of the mink under semi-natural housing conditions. Thus, 40 American mink (Neovison vison) were housed in two outdoor enclosures imitating natural conditions. Throughout the entire study (13th to 32nd week of life), faecal samples were collected to measure cortisol metabolites. No differences in FCM concentrations between the two outdoor enclosures were found. In the young mink lower, less fluctuating FCM levels were found than in older animals. After the first faecal collection in the 13th/14th week of life, the level of metabolites decreased slightly (p = 0.032; 17th/18th week). From the 22nd/23rd week onwards until the 30th/31st week, shortly before the animals were pelted, continuously increasing concentrations were then measured. Increasing FCM levels with advancing age of the animals are probably attributable to the onset of sexual maturity and/or the respective season. This has to be taken into account in future studies using this method for assessing welfare and when comparing different mink housing systems. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. A test of mink microsatellite markers in the ferret

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Christensen, Knud

    2006-01-01

    markers from American mink were tested in the ferret, under the same conditions as for the mink. Of the 59, 43 off them (73.5 %) amplified a ferret sequence; 5 amplification products differed in size from the respective mink sequences. Ten amplified fragments from ferret were sequenced. The sequences...

  4. Identifying QTL for fur quality traits in mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    2012-01-01

    Mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting fur quality traits (guard hair length, guard hair thikness, and density of woll) was performed in a 3-generation population (F2-design). In the parental generation, Nordic wild mink were crossed reciprocally with American short nap mink. Twenty one...... wade on all genotyped mink by Kopenhagen Fur. The QTL analyses were performed by least square regression implemented in the software Grid QTL. Evidence was found for QTL for the fur quality on eight autosomal chromosomes (LOD score >3.0). QTL were detected for guard hair thickness on chromosomes 1, 2...... wild mink were mated to 25 short nap mink. In the F1-generation 103 mink were mated. 934 mink were obtained in the F2-generation. The mink were genotyped using 104 microsatellites covering all 14 autosomal chromosones. The marker spacing was approximately 11 cM. Recording of fur quality traits were...

  5. Enzyme induction and histopathology elucidate aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated versus non-aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated effects of Aroclor 1268 in American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folland, William R; Newsted, John L; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Fuchsman, Phyllis C; Bradley, Patrick W; Kern, John; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations reported in preferred prey and blubber of bottlenose dolphins from the Turtle-Brunswick River estuary (Georgia, USA) suggest the potential for adverse effects. However, PCBs in Turtle-Brunswick River estuary dolphins are primarily derived from Aroclor 1268, and predicting toxic effects of Aroclor 1268 is uncertain because of the mixture's unique composition and associated physiochemical characteristics. These differences suggest that toxicity benchmarks for other PCB mixtures may not be relevant to dolphins exposed to Aroclor 1268. American mink (Neovison vison) were used as a surrogate model for cetaceans to characterize mechanisms of action associated with Aroclor 1268 exposure. Mink share similarities in phylogeny and life history with cetaceans and are characteristically sensitive to PCBs, making them an attractive surrogate species for marine mammals in ecotoxicity studies. Adult female mink and a subsequent F1 generation were exposed to Aroclor 1268 through diet, and effects on enzyme induction, histopathology, thyroid hormone regulation, hematology, organ weights, and body condition index were compared to a negative control and a 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126)-positive control. Aroclor 1268 dietary exposure concentrations ranged from 1.8 µg/g wet weight to 29 µg/g wet weight. Anemia, hypothyroidism, and hepatomegaly were observed in mink exposed to Aroclor 1268 beyond various dietary thresholds. Cytochrome P450 induction and squamous epithelial proliferation jaw lesions were low in Aroclor 1268 treatments relative to the positive control. Differences in enzyme induction and the development of squamous epithelial proliferation jaw lesions between Aroclor 1268 treatments and the positive control, coupled with effects observed in Aroclor 1268 treatments not observed in the positive control, indicate that mechanisms additional to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated pathway are associated with

  6. Molecular and morphological characterization of Isthmiophora melis (Schrank, 1788 Luhe, 1909 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae from American mink (Neovison vison and European polecat (Mustela putorius in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugaraitė D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The specimens collected from American mink (Neovison vison and European polecat (Mustela putorius in Lithuania were morphologically identified as Isthmiophora melis (Schrank, 1788 Lühe, 1909 and were molecularly characterized through sequencing of partial 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, ITS1- 5.8S-ITS2 region, and ND1. Relations of I. melis to other species of the genus Isthmiophora Lühe 1909 were discussed. According to ITS1 and ND1 sequences the closest species to I. melis is Isthmiophora hortensis (Asada, 1926.

  7. Anticipatory activity and stereotypical behaviour in American mink (Mustela vison) in three housing systems differing in the amount of enrichments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinke, C.M.; Bos, van den R.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study aimed to measure anticipatory activity in farmed mink (Mustela vison) to study the effects of the presence of environmental enrichments in three housing systems differing in cage structure and in the amount of enrichments. In studies on laboratory rats, anticipatory activity is

  8. Food transit time, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen retention in farmed and feral American mink (Neovison vison)--a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugołek, A; Zalewski, D; Strychalski, J; Konstantynowicz, M

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether farming leads to changes in gastrointestinal function and nitrogen metabolism in farmed mink (FA), as compared with their wild-living counterparts. Three digestibility and balance trials were carried out. Experiment I was performed in May, and experiments II and III were conducted in September 2011. Farmed mink with the standard coat colour were purchased from a production farm in south-eastern Poland. Feral mink were harvested using cages in the hunting grounds of the Polish Hunting Association, Branch in Olsztyn. The experimental materials comprised of the following: trial I - adult males (eight animals per group), trial II - young females (six animals per group), trial III-young animals (five males and five females per group). Food transit time was measured during digestibility trials, on 10 consecutive days. The coefficients of nutrient and energy digestibility and daily nitrogen balance values were compared between groups in each experiment. It was found that farming contributed to changes in gastrointestinal function and nitrogen metabolism in mink. Farmed animals were characterized by a longer bowel transit time, a tendency towards higher nutrient digestibility and higher nitrogen retention, which resulted from selection for higher productivity. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Asthma among mink workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Berit; Carstensen, Ole; Petersen, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    urine. The second case is about a mink farm worker, who had an asthma attack when handling mink furs. Peak flow monitoring showed a clear relation to this work, but there were no signs of allergy. We conclude that these two cases suggest an increased risk of asthma among mink workers.......We report two cases of asthma among mink workers. The first case is about a mink farmer who had asthma that was difficult to treat. In the medical history there was no clear relation to work, and no conclusive work relation with peak flow monitoring. He had a positive histamine release test to mink...

  10. Asthma among mink workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Berit; Carstensen, Ole; Petersen, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of asthma among mink workers. The first case is about a mink farmer who had asthma that was difficult to treat. In the medical history there was no clear relation to work, and no conclusive work relation with peak flow monitoring. He had a positive histamine release test to mink...... urine. The second case is about a mink farm worker, who had an asthma attack when handling mink furs. Peak flow monitoring showed a clear relation to this work, but there were no signs of allergy. We conclude that these two cases suggest an increased risk of asthma among mink workers....

  11. Benefits of a ball and chain: simple environmental enrichments improve welfare and reproductive success in farmed American mink (Neovison vison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca K Meagher

    Full Text Available Can simple enrichments enhance caged mink welfare? Pilot data from 756 sub-adults spanning three colour-types (strains identified potentially practical enrichments, and suggested beneficial effects on temperament and fur-chewing. Our main experiment started with 2032 Black mink on three farms: from each of 508 families, one juvenile male-female pair was enriched (E with two balls and a hanging plastic chain or length of hose, while a second pair was left as a non-enriched (NE control. At 8 months, more than half the subjects were killed for pelts, and 302 new females were recruited (half enriched: 'late E'. Several signs of improved welfare or productivity emerged. Access to enrichment increased play in juveniles. E mink were calmer (less aggressive in temperament tests; quieter when handled; less fearful, if male, and less likely to fur-chew, although other stereotypic behaviours were not reduced. On one farm, E females had lower cortisol (inferred from faecal metabolites. E males tended to copulate for longer. E females also weaned more offspring: about 10% more juveniles per E female, primarily caused by reduced rates of barrenness ('late E' females also giving birth to bigger litters on one farm, effects that our data cautiously suggest were partly mediated by reduced inactivity and changes in temperament. Pelt quality seemed unaffected, but E animals had cleaner cages. In a subsidiary side-study using 368 mink of a second colour-type ('Demis', similar temperament effects emerged, and while E did not reduce fur-chewing or improve reproductive success in this colour-type, E animals were judged to have better pelts. Overall, simple enrichments were thus beneficial. These findings should encourage welfare improvements on fur farms (which house 60-70 million mink p.a. and in breeding centres where endangered mustelids (e.g. black-footed ferrets often reproduce poorly. They should also stimulate future research into more effective practical

  12. Benefits of a ball and chain: simple environmental enrichments improve welfare and reproductive success in farmed American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Rebecca K; Ahloy Dallaire, Jamie; Campbell, Dana L M; Ross, Misha; Møller, Steen H; Hansen, Steffen W; Díez-León, María; Palme, Rupert; Mason, Georgia J

    2014-01-01

    Can simple enrichments enhance caged mink welfare? Pilot data from 756 sub-adults spanning three colour-types (strains) identified potentially practical enrichments, and suggested beneficial effects on temperament and fur-chewing. Our main experiment started with 2032 Black mink on three farms: from each of 508 families, one juvenile male-female pair was enriched (E) with two balls and a hanging plastic chain or length of hose, while a second pair was left as a non-enriched (NE) control. At 8 months, more than half the subjects were killed for pelts, and 302 new females were recruited (half enriched: 'late E'). Several signs of improved welfare or productivity emerged. Access to enrichment increased play in juveniles. E mink were calmer (less aggressive in temperament tests; quieter when handled; less fearful, if male), and less likely to fur-chew, although other stereotypic behaviours were not reduced. On one farm, E females had lower cortisol (inferred from faecal metabolites). E males tended to copulate for longer. E females also weaned more offspring: about 10% more juveniles per E female, primarily caused by reduced rates of barrenness ('late E' females also giving birth to bigger litters on one farm), effects that our data cautiously suggest were partly mediated by reduced inactivity and changes in temperament. Pelt quality seemed unaffected, but E animals had cleaner cages. In a subsidiary side-study using 368 mink of a second colour-type ('Demis'), similar temperament effects emerged, and while E did not reduce fur-chewing or improve reproductive success in this colour-type, E animals were judged to have better pelts. Overall, simple enrichments were thus beneficial. These findings should encourage welfare improvements on fur farms (which house 60-70 million mink p.a.) and in breeding centres where endangered mustelids (e.g. black-footed ferrets) often reproduce poorly. They should also stimulate future research into more effective practical enrichments.

  13. Effects of environmental enrichment and stereotypic behavior on maternal behavior and infant viability in a model carnivore, the American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-León, María; Mason, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    In several species, stress compromises maternal behaviors that are important for infant viability (e.g. licking and grooming). Understanding how stress in captivity affects maternal behavior could therefore be beneficial, especially for carnivores in zoos and breeding centers where infant mortality is often high. We used a model carnivore--American mink--to test two hypotheses, namely that maternal investment and/or behavior is i. improved by environmental enrichment; and ii. compromised by stereotypic behavior. We observed 22 females raised in an indoor facility, 9 enriched, 13 non-enriched. At birth, and at post-natal day 20 when altricial infants were still fully dependent on their mothers, the following offspring variables were recorded: litter size, infant mortality, litter sex ratio (post-natal day 1), and weight. Maternal behavior was assessed by recording nest shape (post-natal day 1), and the frequency of licking and grooming (post-natal days 1-7). Non-enriched females stereotyped more, had female-skewed litters at birth, and tended to make poorer, flatter nests. Maternal licking and grooming showed large, stable individual differences, but appeared unaffected by enrichment. High levels of maternal stereotypic behavior predicted slower offspring growth, replicating previous findings for farmed mink. Nevertheless, enrichment did not significantly increase infant growth rates nor decrease infant mortality. Due to small sample sizes, our study now needs replicating, particularly to explore the potential benefits of enrichment on nest building, sex ratio effects, and the implications of maternal licking and grooming for offspring stress reactivity. Findings could then apply to endangered mustelids like the European mink. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Benefits of a Ball and Chain: Simple Environmental Enrichments Improve Welfare and Reproductive Success in Farmed American Mink (Neovison vison)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Rebecca K.; Ahloy Dallaire, Jamie; Campbell, Dana L. M.; Ross, Misha; Møller, Steen H.; Hansen, Steffen W.; Díez-León, María; Palme, Rupert; Mason, Georgia J.

    2014-01-01

    Can simple enrichments enhance caged mink welfare? Pilot data from 756 sub-adults spanning three colour-types (strains) identified potentially practical enrichments, and suggested beneficial effects on temperament and fur-chewing. Our main experiment started with 2032 Black mink on three farms: from each of 508 families, one juvenile male-female pair was enriched (E) with two balls and a hanging plastic chain or length of hose, while a second pair was left as a non-enriched (NE) control. At 8 months, more than half the subjects were killed for pelts, and 302 new females were recruited (half enriched: ‘late E’). Several signs of improved welfare or productivity emerged. Access to enrichment increased play in juveniles. E mink were calmer (less aggressive in temperament tests; quieter when handled; less fearful, if male), and less likely to fur-chew, although other stereotypic behaviours were not reduced. On one farm, E females had lower cortisol (inferred from faecal metabolites). E males tended to copulate for longer. E females also weaned more offspring: about 10% more juveniles per E female, primarily caused by reduced rates of barrenness (‘late E’ females also giving birth to bigger litters on one farm), effects that our data cautiously suggest were partly mediated by reduced inactivity and changes in temperament. Pelt quality seemed unaffected, but E animals had cleaner cages. In a subsidiary side-study using 368 mink of a second colour-type (‘Demis’), similar temperament effects emerged, and while E did not reduce fur-chewing or improve reproductive success in this colour-type, E animals were judged to have better pelts. Overall, simple enrichments were thus beneficial. These findings should encourage welfare improvements on fur farms (which house 60-70 million mink p.a.) and in breeding centres where endangered mustelids (e.g. black-footed ferrets) often reproduce poorly. They should also stimulate future research into more effective practical

  15. Estradiol stimulates glycogen synthesis whereas progesterone promotes glycogen catabolism in the uterus of the American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Kole; Rose, Jack

    2017-01-01

    Glycogen synthesis by mink uterine glandular and luminal epithelia (GE and LE) is stimulated by estradiol (E 2 ) during estrus. Subsequently, the glycogen deposits are mobilized to near completion to meet the energy requirements of pre-embryonic development and implantation by as yet undetermined mechanisms. We hypothesized that progesterone (P 4 ) was responsible for catabolism of uterine glycogen reserves as one of its actions to ensure reproductive success. Mink were treated with E 2 , P 4 or vehicle (controls) for 3 days and uteri collected 24 h (E 2 , P 4 and vehicle) and 96 h (E 2 ) later. To evaluate E 2 priming, mink were treated with E 2 for 3 days, then P 4 for an additional 3 days (E 2 →P 4 ) and uteri collected 24 h later. Percent glycogen content of uterine epithelia was greater at E 2 + 96 h (GE = 5.71 ± 0.55; LE = 11.54 ± 2.32) than E 2 +24 h (GE = 3.63 ± 0.71; LE = 2.82 ± 1.03), and both were higher than controls (GE = 0.27 ± 0.15; LE = 0.54 ± 0.30; P glycogen content (GE = 0.61 ± 0.16; LE = 0.51 ± 0.13), to levels not different from controls, while concomitantly increasing catabolic enzyme (glycogen phosphorylase m and glucose-6-phosphatase) gene expression and amount of phospho-glycogen synthase protein (inactive) in uterine homogenates. Interestingly, E 2 →P 4 increased glycogen synthase 1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and hexokinase 1mRNA and protein. Our findings suggest to us that while E 2 promotes glycogen accumulation by the mink uterus during estrus and pregnancy, it is P 4 that induces uterine glycogen catabolism, releasing the glucose that is essential to support pre-embryonic survival and implantation. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Full genome comparison and characterization of avian H10 viruses with different pathogenicity in Mink (Mustela vison reveals genetic and functional differences in the non-structural gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belák Sándor

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The unique property of some avian H10 viruses, particularly the ability to cause severe disease in mink without prior adaptation, enabled our study. Coupled with previous experimental data and genetic characterization here we tried to investigate the possible influence of different genes on the virulence of these H10 avian influenza viruses in mink. Results Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship between the viruses studied. Our study also showed that there are no genetic differences in receptor specificity or the cleavability of the haemagglutinin proteins of these viruses regardless of whether they are of low or high pathogenicity in mink. In poly I:C stimulated mink lung cells the NS1 protein of influenza A virus showing high pathogenicity in mink down regulated the type I interferon promoter activity to a greater extent than the NS1 protein of the virus showing low pathogenicity in mink. Conclusions Differences in pathogenicity and virulence in mink between these strains could be related to clear amino acid differences in the non structural 1 (NS1 protein. The NS gene of mink/84 appears to have contributed to the virulence of the virus in mink by helping the virus evade the innate immune responses.

  17. Rapid development of fasting-induced hepatic lipidosis in the American mink (Neovison vison): effects of food deprivation and re-alimentation on body fat depots, tissue fatty acid profiles, hematology and endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Conway, Rebecca; Pal, Catherine; Harris, Lora; Saarela, Seppo; Strandberg, Ursula; Nieminen, Petteri

    2010-02-01

    Hepatic lipidosis is a common pathological finding in the American mink (Neovison vison) and can be caused by nutritional imbalance due to obesity or rapid body weight loss. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the timeline and characterize the development of hepatic lipidosis in mink in response to 0-7 days of food deprivation and liver recovery after 28 days of re-feeding. We report here the effects on hematological and endocrine variables, body fat mobilization, the development of hepatic lipidosis and the alterations in the liver lipid classes and tissue fatty acid (FA) sums. Food deprivation resulted in the rapid mobilization of body fat, most notably visceral, causing elevated hepatosomatic index and increased liver triacylglycerol content. The increased absolute amounts of liver total phospholipids and phosphatidylcholine suggested endoplasmic reticulum stress. The hepatic lipid infiltration and the altered liver lipid profiles were associated with a significantly reduced proportion of n-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) in the livers and the decrease was more evident in the females. Likewise, re-feeding of the female mink resulted in a more pronounced recovery of the liver n-3 PUFA. The rapid decrease in the n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in response to food deprivation could trigger an inflammatory response in the liver. This could be a key contributor to the pathophysiology of fatty liver disease in mink influencing disease progression.

  18. Chronic fuel oil toxicity in American mink (Mustela vison): systemic and hematological effects of ingestion of a low-concentration of bunker C fuel oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, Julie A.; Aldridge, Brian M.; Lasley, Bill L.; Snyder, Paul W.; Stott, Jeff L.; Mohr, F. Charles

    2004-01-01

    Petroleum oil enters the coastal marine environment through various sources; marine mammals such as sea otters that inhabit this environment may be exposed to low concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons through ingestion of contaminated prey. The inability to perform controlled studies in free-ranging animals hinders investigations of the effects of chronic petroleum oil exposure on sea otter morbidity and mortality, necessitating the development of a reliable laboratory model. We examined the effects of oral exposure to 500 ppm bunker C fuel oil over 113-118 days on American mink, a species phylogenetically related to the sea otter. Hematological parameters and organs were examined for fuel oil-associated changes. Hepatic cytochrome P4501A1 mRNA expression and fecal cortisol concentrations were also measured. Ingestion of fuel oil was associated with a decrease in erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration (Hgb), hematocrit (HCT), and an increase in mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Total leukocytes were elevated in the fuel oil group from increases in neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes. Significant interactions between fuel oil and antigen challenge were found for erythrocyte parameters, monocyte and lymphocyte counts. Liver and adrenal weights were increased although mesenteric lymph node weights were decreased in the fuel oil group. Hepatic cytochrome P4501A1 mRNA was elevated in the fuel oil group. Fecal cortisol concentration did not vary between the two groups. Our findings show that fuel oil exposure alters circulating leukocyte numbers, erythrocyte homeostasis, hepatic metabolism and adrenal physiology and establish a framework to use mink as a model for sea otters in studying the systemic effects of marine contaminants

  19. Identifying QTL and genetic correlations between fur quality traits in mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    2014-01-01

    with American Black short nap mink. In all, 1082 mink encompassing three generations were used for the analyses. The mink were genotyped for 104 microsatellites covering all 14 autosomes. The QTL analyses were performed by least-square regression implemented in gridqtl software. Genetic and phenotypic...

  20. Molecular characterization of the Himalayan mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benkel, Bernhard F.; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Farid, Hossain

    2009-01-01

    the hypothesis that the color pattern in question-light-colored body with dark-colored points (ears, face, tail, and feet)-is due to a mutation in the melanin-producing enzyme tyrosinase (TYR) that results in temperature-sensitive pigment production. Our study shows that marbled mink carry a mutation in exon 4......A rare color variant of the American mink (Neovison vison), discovered on a ranch in Nova Scotia and referred to as the "marbled" variety, carries a distinctive pigment distribution pattern resembling that found in some other species, e.g., the Siamese cat and the Himalayan mouse. We tested...

  1. Historical genomics of North American maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerwaarden, van J.; Hufford, M.B.; Ross-Ibarra, J.

    2012-01-01

    Since the advent of modern plant breeding in the 1930s, North American maize has undergone a dramatic adaptation to high-input agriculture. Despite the importance of genetic contributions to historical yield increases, little is known about the underlying genomic changes. Here we use high-density

  2. Historical genomics of North American maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heerwaarden, Joost; Hufford, Matthew B; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

    2012-07-31

    Since the advent of modern plant breeding in the 1930s, North American maize has undergone a dramatic adaptation to high-input agriculture. Despite the importance of genetic contributions to historical yield increases, little is known about the underlying genomic changes. Here we use high-density SNP genotyping to characterize a set of North American maize lines spanning the history of modern breeding. We provide a unique analysis of genome-wide developments in genetic diversity, ancestry, and selection. The genomic history of maize is marked by a steady increase in genetic differentiation and linkage disequilibrium, whereas allele frequencies in the total population have remained relatively constant. These changes are associated with increasing genetic separation of breeding pools and decreased diversity in the ancestry of individual lines. We confirm that modern heterotic groups are the product of ongoing divergence from a relatively homogeneous landrace population, but show that differential landrace ancestry remains evident. Using a recent association approach, we characterize signals of directional selection throughout the genome, identifying a number of candidate genes of potential agronomic relevance. However, overall we find that selection has had limited impact on genome-wide patterns of diversity and ancestry, with little evidence for individual lines contributing disproportionately to the accumulation of favorable alleles in today's elite germplasm. Our data suggest breeding progress has mainly involved selection and recombination of relatively common alleles, contributed by a representative but limited set of ancestral lines.

  3. Aleutian mink disease virus in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis): evidence for cross-species spillover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nituch, Larissa A; Bowman, Jeff; Wilson, Paul J; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2015-04-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) causes a parvovirus infection, initially characterized in American mink (Neovison vison), that may have harmful effects on wild populations of susceptible animals. In North America, where American mink are native, the origin, host range, and prevalence of AMDV in wild species is not clear. We studied striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) to determine whether species sympatric with mink are potential reservoirs in the transmission of AMDV to wild mink and mink farms. Antibodies to AMDV were detected in 41% of skunk serum samples (143/347) and AMDV nucleic acids were detected in 32% (14/40) of skunk spleen samples by PCR, indicating that AMDV exposure and infection were frequent in skunks. We detected no AMDV antibodies in 144 raccoon blood samples. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a newly identified AMDV haplogroup consisting of isolates from Ontario skunks and a free-ranging domestic mink from Ontario. Our findings of frequent AMDV infection in skunks, close genetic similarity between skunk and mink AMDV isolates, and evidence of AMDV transmission from skunks to mink support the hypothesis that skunks may be acting as alternative hosts and reservoirs of AMDV to wild mink through cross-species virus spillover.

  4. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in livers of American mink (Mustela vison) and river otter (Lutra canadensis) from the Columbia and Fraser River Basins, 1990-1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J.E.; Henny, Charles J.; Harris, M.L.; Wilson, L.K.; Norstrom, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in aquatic mustelid species on the Fraser and Columbia Rivers of northwestern North America. Carcasses of river otter (Lutra canadensis) (N=24) and mink (Mustela vison) (N=34) were obtained from commercial trappers during the winters of 1990-91 and 1991a??92. Pooled liver samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including non-ortho congeners, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Most samples contained detectable concentrations of DDE, PCBs, although there was substantial variability in patterns and trends among neighboring samples. Concentrations of DDE were in some mink and several otter samples from the lower Columbia River elevated (to 4700 g/kg wet weight); excluding one mink sample from the Wenatchee area, mean DDE levels generally decreased between 1978a??79 and 1990a??92. PCBs were present in all samples. PCB concentrations in otter livers collected from the lower Columbia were ten-fold lower than measured a decade previously; nevertheless, a sample taken near Portland had a mean concentration of 1500 g/kg, within a range of concentrations associated with reproductive effects in captive mink. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and TCDF were generally below detection limits, except for one otter collected near a pulp mill at Castlegar, on the upper Columbia, with 11 ng TCDD/kg in liver. Elevated concentrations of higher chlorinated PCDD/Fs, probably resulting from use of chlorophenolic wood preservatives, were found in both species; one otter sample from the lower Columbia had 2200 ng OCDD/kg. International TCDD toxic equivalent levels in mink (31 ng/kg) and otter (93 ng/kg) from the lower Columbia River approached toxicity thresholds for effects on reproduction in ranch mink.

  5. Chromosomal and regional localization of the loci for IGKC, IGGC, ALDB, HOXB, GPT, and PRNP in the American mink (Mustela vison): comparisons with human and mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khlebodarova, TM; Malchenko, Sergey; Matveeva, NM

    1995-01-01

    Chromosomal localization of the genes for gamma- and kappa-immunoglobulins (IGGC and IGKC, respectively), aldolase B (ALDB), prion protein (PRNP), homeo box B (HOXB), and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) were determined with the use of mink-rodent hybrid cells. Analysis of segregation...

  6. Identification of mustelid species: otter ( Lutra lutra ), American mink ( Mustela vison ) and polecat ( Mustela putorius ), by analysis of DNA from faecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Jacobsen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    The abundance of mink, otter, and polecat may be inferred from records of their seats, and the feeding biology of the species is often studied by analysis of skeletal remains and other hard parts in faeces. However, in some situations it is difficult to distinguish between faeces from these three...

  7. Predation of the alien American mink Mustela vison on native crayfish populations in middle-sized streams in central and western Bohemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fischer, D.; Pavluvčík, P.; Sedláček, František; Šálek, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 1 (2009), s. 45-56 ISSN 0139-7893 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : mink diet * stone crayfish * prey selectivity * density-dependent predation * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.357, year: 2009

  8. QTL-mapping in mink (Neovison vison) shows evidence for QTL for guard hair thickness, guard hair length and skin length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    2011-01-01

    Fur quality in mink (Neovison vison) is a composite trait, consisting of e.g. guard hair length, guard hair thickness and density of wool. A genome wide QTL search was performed to detect QTL for fur quality traits in mink. Here we present the results of QTL analyses for guard hair length, guard...... hair thickness and density of wool. Data from an F2-cross was analysed across fourteen chromosomes using 100 microsatellites as markers with a spacing of approximately 20 cM. The two lines used for the F2-cross were Nordic wild mink and American short nap mink. In total 1,083 animals (21 wild type, 25...... short nap, 103 F1 and 934 F2) were marker typed and recorded for the three presented fur quality traits. For the QTL-analyses a regression analysis implemented in QTL Express software was used. Evidence was found for the existence of QTL for guard hair length, guard hair thickness and density of wool...

  9. Outbreaks of influenza A virus in farmed mink (Neovison vison) in Denmark: molecular characterization of the viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Trebbien, Ramona

    2012-01-01

    Influenza in mink (Neovison vison) is assumed to be rare, but several outbreaks have been described during recent years in Europe and the North America. In 2009, influenza A of the subtype H3N2 was detected in several Danish mink farms with respiratory symptoms. Full-genome sequencing showed...... diagnosed in diseased mink in a few farms. The genetic typing showed that the virus was similar to the pandemic H1N1 virus circulating in humans and swine. The H3N2 virus was not detected in 2010 and 2011. Taken together, these findings indicate that mink is highly susceptible for influenza A virus of human...

  10. Mink's adaptation to group housing in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Møller, Steen Henrik

    2012-01-01

    and in mink kept in social groups. In total, the project included 1,191 brown mink housed on four farms in up to five different types of social groups. The result showed that mink in groups had significantly more bite marks than mink kept in pairs, and that mink with bite wounds had significantly more bite...... marks than mink that did not haev bite wounds. Thus, based upon bite mark results, we cannot confirm the hypothesis that mink populations adapted to group housing have been developed. The number of mink that had died or had been removede during the test period, or that had bite wounds at the time...... of observation was low on farm A, B, and C, and significantly lower than on farm D. This partly supports the hypothesis about having developed mink populations and or management adapted to group housing. The investigation has confirmed that the level of bite marks is a useful, objective measuring parameter...

  11. Aleutian Mink Disease Virus in Free-Ranging Mink from Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Sara; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Blomstrom, Anne-Lie

    2015-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease (AMD) is a chronic viral disease in farmed mink and the virus (AMDV) has been found in many free-ranging mink (Neovison vison) populations in Europe and North America. In this study, AMDV DNA and AMDV antibodies were analysed in 144 free-ranging mink hunted in Sweden. Associ...

  12. Mapping of the silver gene in mink and its association with the dilution gene in dog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Christensen, Knud

    2007-01-01

    recessive mutations within mink fur farming being part of some of the popular color types which combine more recessive mutations. We report there the mapping of the 'silver' gene on MVI3 by means of the first linkage genetic map in the American mink (Mustela vison). A Canis familiaris BAC clone containing......In mink, recessive and dominant genes carry standard colors from generation to generation but breeding and cross breeding of naturally occurring mutations (color changes) has resulted in farmed animals bearing colors that do not exist in nature. The silver blue color type is one of the msot used...

  13. Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavan, Maanasa; Skoglund, Pontus; Graf, Kelly E.

    2014-01-01

    ,000-year-old individual (MA-1), from Mal'ta in south-central Siberia, to an average depth of 1×. To our knowledge this is the oldest anatomically modern human genome reported to date. The MA-1 mitochondrial genome belongs to haplogroup U, which has also been found at high frequency among Upper Palaeolithic......The origins of the First Americans remain contentious. Although Native Americans seem to be genetically most closely related to east Asians, there is no consensus with regard to which specific Old World populations they are closest to. Here we sequence the draft genome of an approximately 24...... that the region was continuously occupied by humans throughout the Last Glacial Maximum. Our findings reveal that western Eurasian genetic signatures in modern-day Native Americans derive not only from post-Columbian admixture, as commonly thought, but also from a mixed ancestry of the First Americans....

  14. Mate choice screening in captive solitary carnivores: The role of male behavior and cues on mate preference and paternity in females of a model species, American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noer, Christina Lehmkuhl; Balsby, Thorsten Johannes Skovbjerg; Anistoroaei, Razvan; Stelvig, Mikkel; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2017-12-01

    Mate choice studies suggest that choosy females benefit from increased fecundity, litter size, and offspring survival. Thus, providing females with the opportunity to choose among potential mates, deemed genetically suitable based on studbook data, might improve breeding management in production and zoo animals and thereby the sustainability of captive populations. Investigating mate preference via odor from potential mates before animal transfer is a proposed strategy for incorporating mate choice into breeding management. In this study, we test whether olfactory cues and signals from males can be used to assess and measure female mate preference in American mink. Eighteen females were subjected to a 4-day stimulus test in which females showed a preference for one of two males' urine and feces. Subsequently, each female was subjected to a 10-day mate preference test involving the same two males of the first test. Paternity tests revealed that 13 females had offspring, which could be assigned to only one male, suggesting that these females performed a mate choice. In nine of these females preference during the stimulus test was directed toward the male that fathered their offspring. Our results suggest that even though there was a preference difference in scent stimulus trials from potential mates this preference was not predictive of eventual mate preference or paternity. Other factors such as aspects of male behavior seem to play a role, when the mates are introduced. Our study supports that mate preference and mate choice are complex matters influenced by multiple cues and signals. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passey, C.A.; Roy, D.; Savoie, L.; Wilson, J.

    1990-01-01

    No significant differences were observed in the net birth rate of mink kits/female between the 7 breeding groups. However, there was reduced incidence (P=0.05) of kit deaths among the females receiving irradiated feed, and larger kit size (P<0.0001) at birth particularly for the litter size of 5-8 kits. The second generation minks born to parents receiving feed irradiated to a planned dose of 1 kGy weighed on average about 2.5% more, and their fur was on average about 1±0.26 cm longer (12% more males making the top length grade). Moreover, there was no effect of irradiated feed on fur quality. Irradiation of mink feed with subsequent frozen storage of the meat component improved the microbiological quality by decreasing the incidence of Pseudomonas sp. and Salmonella sp. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed (frozen meat to 1 kGy, and dry feed to 2 kGy or more) should therefore help improve feed utilization, keep animals healthier, and reproducing better without affecting fur quality. (author)

  16. The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Baharian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15-16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance.

  17. Investigation of the pathogenesis of transplacental transmission of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus in experimentally infected mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broll, S.; Alexandersen, Søren

    1996-01-01

    The transplacental transmission of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) was studied in experimental infection of 1-year-old female non-Aleutian mink. The ADV-seronegative female mink were inoculated,vith ADV prior to mating or after the expected implantation of the embryos during pregnancy...

  18. Persistent spatial clusters of plasmacytosis among Danish mink farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz; Østergaard, Jørgen; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2011-01-01

    Aleutian disease (Plasmacytosis) is caused by the Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV), an autonomous parvovirus and affects many mustelid species, including the American mink (Neovisonvison). In Denmark, an eradication program reduced the prevalence of test-positive farms from 100% in 1976 to 15......% in 1996. Nevertheless, the disease persists in the Vendsyssel district of Northern Jutland, despite the eradication efforts. In this study, we used spatial epidemiological analysis to test for spatial autocorrelation of the distribution of farms positive for the disease. We investigated 2375 farms...... in Denmark (342 of which were located in the Vendsyssel district), during the period 2000-2008. For the purpose of our study, a farm was considered positive when, on any test conducted in a year, at least three animals were tested positive. To detect spatial clusters, we performed a retrospective analysis...

  19. Molecular and morphometric study of metacercariae and adults of Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Opisthorchiidae) from roach (Rutilus rutilus) and wild American mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Jakob; Kania, Per Walter; Jørgensen, Thomas Rohde

    2008-01-01

    Den digene ikte Pseudamphistomum forekommer som metacercarie i skaller fra Furesøen og som adult i mink fra området. Dette er belyst ved morfometriske og molekylære metoder. Fundet er væsentligt, idet parasitten er zoonotisk og kan inficere mennesker, der indtager utilstrækkeligt varmebehandlet f...

  20. Alien Mink Predation and Colonisation Processes of Rodent Prey on Small Islands of the Baltic Sea: Does Prey Naivete Matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fey, K.; Korpimaki, E.; Banks, P.B.

    2010-01-01

    Colonisation, an important part of meta-population dynamics of fragmented populations, depends on both the dispersal ability and the ability to establish in the new habitat. Predation can hinder successful establishment of prey, and where the predation pressure comes from an alien predator, the effects on colonisation might be devastating. We studied the establishment of field voles (Microtus agrestis) inhabiting small islands of the archipelago of the Baltic Sea, SW Finland, under presence and absence of the alien American mink (Mustela vison). We translocated experienced voles from islands with mink, and inexperienced voles from islands from which mink had been removed, to other islands where mink was present or absent. By radio-tracking we studied survival, space and micro habitat use of voles within four weeks after translocation. Survival of voles on mink islands was significantly lower than on mink-free islands, but experienced voles did not survive better than inexperienced voles. Experienced voles were more often located in juniper habitats than inexperienced voles, but they appeared not to gain any survival benefit from altered micro habitat use. This study provides novel evidence, that alien mink predation inhibits establishment of colonising field voles and may thus ultimately induce extinction of voles from the outer archipelago.

  1. Characterization of the North American beaver (Castor canadensis) papillomavirus genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogovskyy, Artem S; Chen, Zigui; Burk, Robert D; Bankhead, Troy

    2014-01-10

    The papillomaviruses comprise a large group of viruses that cause proliferations of the stratified squamous epithelium of skin and mucosa in a variety of animals. An earlier report identified a novel papillomavirus of the North American beaver, Castor canadensis (CcanPV1) that was associated with cutaneous exophytic lesions. In the current study, we determined the sequence of the complete 7435 basepair genome of CcanPV1. The genome contains an Upstream Regulatory Region located between the end of L1 and the start of E6, and seven canonical papillomavirus open reading frames encoding five early (E6, E7, E1, E2, and E4) and two late (L2 and L1) proteins. No E5 open reading frame was detected. Phylogenetic analysis of the CcanPV1 genome places the virus between the genera Kappapapillomavirus and Mupapillomavirus. Analyses of the papillomavirus genomes detected in different species of the order Rodentia indicate these viruses do not form a monophyletic clade. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Current status of the minke whales and conflicts of interest

    OpenAIRE

    Singarajah, K. V.

    1988-01-01

    Minke whales - the rorqual group of the family Balaenopteridae - are widely distributed and constitute an important major harvestable living resource of the sea. Recently, the Antarctic minke whale population has been estimated to be between 150,000 and 300,000. Populations being dynamic entities, the size of the minke whale population has been changing. Currently , the minke whale population in the Antarctic has been claimed to have increased considerably. However, the minke whale stock arri...

  3. Geographic patterns of genome admixture in Latin American Mestizos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijia Wang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The large and diverse population of Latin America is potentially a powerful resource for elucidating the genetic basis of complex traits through admixture mapping. However, no genome-wide characterization of admixture across Latin America has yet been attempted. Here, we report an analysis of admixture in thirteen Mestizo populations (i.e. in regions of mainly European and Native settlement from seven countries in Latin America based on data for 678 autosomal and 29 X-chromosome microsatellites. We found extensive variation in Native American and European ancestry (and generally low levels of African ancestry among populations and individuals, and evidence that admixture across Latin America has often involved predominantly European men and both Native and African women. An admixture analysis allowing for Native American population subdivision revealed a differentiation of the Native American ancestry amongst Mestizos. This observation is consistent with the genetic structure of pre-Columbian populations and with admixture having involved Natives from the area where the Mestizo examined are located. Our findings agree with available information on the demographic history of Latin America and have a number of implications for the design of association studies in population from the region.

  4. Molecular Detection and Genetic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in Farmed Minks (Neovison vison in Northern China by PCR-RFLP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Bin Zheng

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide prevalent parasite, affecting a wide range of mammals and human beings. Little information is available about the distribution of genetic diversity of T. gondii infection in minks (Neovison vison. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and genetic characterization of T. gondii isolates from minks in China. A total of 418 minks brain tissue samples were collected from Jilin and Hebei provinces, northern China. Genomic DNA were extracted and assayed for T. gondii infection by semi-nested PCR of B1 gene. The positive DNA samples were typed at 10 genetic markers (SAG1, SAG2 (5'+3' SAG2, alter.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP technology. 36 (8.6% of 418 DNA samples were overall positive for T. gondii. Among them, 5 samples were genotyped at all loci, and 1 sample was genotyped for 9 loci. In total, five samples belong to ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype#9, one belong to ToxoDB genotye#3. To our knowledge, this is the first report of genetic characterization of T. gondii in minks in China. Meanwhile, these results revealed a distribution of T. gondii infection in minks in China. These data provided base-line information for controlling T. gondii infection in minks.

  5. Molecular Detection and Genetic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in Farmed Minks (Neovison vison) in Northern China by PCR-RFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wen-Bin; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Ma, Jian-Gang; Li, Fa-Cai; Zhao, Quan; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide prevalent parasite, affecting a wide range of mammals and human beings. Little information is available about the distribution of genetic diversity of T. gondii infection in minks (Neovison vison). This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and genetic characterization of T. gondii isolates from minks in China. A total of 418 minks brain tissue samples were collected from Jilin and Hebei provinces, northern China. Genomic DNA were extracted and assayed for T. gondii infection by semi-nested PCR of B1 gene. The positive DNA samples were typed at 10 genetic markers (SAG1, SAG2 (5'+3' SAG2, alter.SAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico) using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technology. 36 (8.6%) of 418 DNA samples were overall positive for T. gondii. Among them, 5 samples were genotyped at all loci, and 1 sample was genotyped for 9 loci. In total, five samples belong to ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype#9, one belong to ToxoDB genotye#3. To our knowledge, this is the first report of genetic characterization of T. gondii in minks in China. Meanwhile, these results revealed a distribution of T. gondii infection in minks in China. These data provided base-line information for controlling T. gondii infection in minks.

  6. Two parvoviruses that cause different diseases in mink have different transcription patterns: Transcription analysis of mink enteritis virus and Aleutian mink disease parvovirus the same cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, T.; Oleksiewicz, M.; Bloom, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    The two parvoviruses of mink cause very different diseases, Mink enteritis virus (MEV) is associated with rapid, high-level viral replication and acute disease, In contrast, infection with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) is associated with persistent, low-level viral replication and chronic...

  7. Hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark

    Hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink is an acute and fatal disease caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The mink are typically found dead without prior clinical symptoms. The disease can be highly contagious and varying mortalities on the farm level has been reported. Hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink is seaso......Hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink is an acute and fatal disease caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The mink are typically found dead without prior clinical symptoms. The disease can be highly contagious and varying mortalities on the farm level has been reported. Hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink...

  8. Genome-wide survey in African Americans demonstrates potential epistasis of fitness in the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heming; Choi, Yoonha; Tayo, Bamidele; Wang, Xuefeng; Morris, Nathan; Zhang, Xiang; Broeckel, Uli; Hanis, Craig; Kardia, Sharon; Redline, Susan; Cooper, Richard S; Tang, Hua; Zhu, Xiaofeng

    2017-02-01

    The role played by epistasis between alleles at unlinked loci in shaping population fitness has been debated for many years and the existing evidence has been mainly accumulated from model organisms. In model organisms, fitness epistasis can be systematically inferred by detecting nonindependence of genotypic values between loci in a population and confirmed through examining the number of offspring produced in two-locus genotype groups. No systematic study has been conducted to detect epistasis of fitness in humans owing to experimental constraints. In this study, we developed a novel method to detect fitness epistasis by testing the correlation between local ancestries on different chromosomes in an admixed population. We inferred local ancestry across the genome in 16,252 unrelated African Americans and systematically examined the pairwise correlations between the genomic regions on different chromosomes. Our analysis revealed a pair of genomic regions on chromosomes 4 and 6 that show significant local ancestry correlation (P-value = 4.01 × 10 -8 ) that can be potentially attributed to fitness epistasis. However, we also observed substantial local ancestry correlation that cannot be explained by systemic ancestry inference bias. To our knowledge, this study is the first to systematically examine evidence of fitness epistasis across the human genome. © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  9. Perfluoroalkyl acids in subarctic wild male mink (Neovison vison) in relation to age, season and geographical area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Sara; Rotander, Anna; Kärrman, Anna; van Bavel, Bert; Magnusson, Ulf

    2013-09-01

    This study investigates the influence of biological and environmental factors on the concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in a top predator; the American mink. Perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) with C8-C13 perfluorinated carbon chains were analyzed in livers from wild male mink liver (n=101) from four areas in Sweden representing two inland environments (rural and highly anthropogenic, respectively) and two different coastal environments. Mean PFOS concentrations were 1250ng/g wet weight and some mink from the urban inland area had among the highest PFOS concentrations ever recorded in mink (up to 21 800ng/g wet weight). PFBS was detected in 89% of the samples, but in low concentrations (mean 0.6ng/g ww). There were significant differences in PFAA concentrations between the geographical areas (p<0.001-0.01). Age, body condition and body weight did not influence the concentrations significantly, but there was a seasonal influence on the concentrations of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively), with lower concentrations in autumn samples than in samples taken in the winter and spring. It is thus recommended to take possible seasonal differences into account when using mink exposure data. The overall results suggest that the mink is a suitable sentinel species for assessing and monitoring environmental levels of PFAAs. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Måling af stress hos mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens

    2010-01-01

    temadagen præsenteres nye resultater og metoder til at vurdere stress hos mink. I en metode måles koncentrationen af nedbrydningsprodukter af hormonet cortisol i gødning fra mink. Der er en række fordele ved denne metode, frem for blodprøvetagning. Forsøg viste, at hovedparten af cortisol udskilles i fæces...... (83 %) frem for i urin (17 %), samt at omsætningen af radioaktivt mærket cortisol ikke er forskellig mellem mink med hhv. lav og høj forekomst af stereotypi. Denne viden kan bruges til bedre at forstå koblingen f.eks. unormal adfærd og stress hos mink.......Sammendrag Stress indgår som et element ved vurdering af dyrevelfærd. Endvidere kan stress mål anvendes i undersøgelser, hvor forskellige typer af avl, burmiljø og pasning af mink sammenlignes. Men hvad er stress egentlig og hvordan måles det? Er unormal adfærd koblet til stress hos mink? På...

  11. A Genome-Wide Association Search for Type 2 Diabetes Genes in African Americans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmer, N.D.; McDonough, C.W.; Hicks, P.J.; Roh, B.H.; Wing, M.R.; Sandy An, S.; Hester, J.M.; Cooke, J.N.; Bostrom, M.A.; Rudock, M.E.; Talbert, M.E.; Lewis, J.P.; Hottenga, J.J.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.; Ferrara, A.; Lu, L.; Ziegler, J.T.; Sale, M.M.; Divers, J.; Shriner, D.; Adeyemo, A.; Rotimi, C.N.; Ng, M.C.Y.; Langefeld, C.D.; Freedman, B.I.; Bowden, D.W.; Posthuma, D.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Sladek, R.

    2012-01-01

    African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM) yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wide

  12. Diet of the American mink Mustela vison and its potential impact on the native fauna of Navarino Island, Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, Chile Dieta del visón norteamericano Mustela vison y su impacto potencial sobre la fauna nativa de Isla Navarino, Reserva de Biosfera Cabo de Hornos, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELKE SCHÜTTLER

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Invasive exotic species of mammalian predators represent a major cause of vertebrate animal extinctions on islands, particularly those that lack native mammalian carnivores. In 2001, the American mink (Mustela vison was recorded for the first time on Navarino Island, in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve (55° S in Chile, representing the southernmost population of mink worldwide. In order to assess its potential impact on native fauna, we studied its diet on Navarino Island, as part of an integrative management program on invasive species. Over a three-year period (2005-2007 we collected 512 scats in semi-aquatic habitats: marine coasts, riparian and lake shores. Overall, the main prey was mammals (37 % biomass, and birds (36 %, followed by fish (24 %. Over the spring and summer, mink consumed significantly more birds, whereas mammals constituted the main prey over the autumn and winter when migratory birds had left the area. Among birds, the mink preyed mainly on adult Passeriformes, followed by Anseriformes and Pelecaniformes, caught as chicks. Among mammals, the exotic muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus was the most important prey, and together with the native rodent Abrothrix xanthorhinus it accounted for 78 % of the biomass intake. For an integrated management of invasive exotic mammal species on Navarino Island and in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve it is important to further research interactions established here among the various introduced mammals, and to initiate immediate control of the mink population in its initial stage of invasion.Las especies exóticas de mamíferos carnívoros invasores constituyen una de las principales causas de extinciones de vertebrados en islas, particularmente en aquellas que carecen de predadores mamíferos nativos. En 2001, el visón norteamericano (Mustela vison fue registrado por primera vez en Isla Navarino en la Reserva de Biosfera Cabo de Hornos (55° S en Chile, representando la población de visones m

  13. Decline in Endangered Species as an Indication of Anthropic Pressures: The Case of European Mink Mustela lutreola Western Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodé, Thierry; Cormier, Jean-Paul; Le Jacques, Dominique

    2001-12-01

    Populations of threatened species, especially predators at the top of the food chain, may be affected by anthropic pressures. The endangered western population of European mink Mustela lutreola has shown a large decline over 50% of its natural range. M. lutreola disappeared from northwestern France between 1984 and 1997, and the decline was associated with an increase in mustelid trapping, changes in watercourse quality, and habitat modifications due to agricultural practices. The pattern of decline showed a fragmentation restricting the minks into very small areas. Trapping was the first known cause of mortality. Although feral American mink Mustela vison may compete with autochthonous carnivores, M. lutreola had disappeared from streams before the introduction of the American species, suggesting that competitive interactions were not responsible. Furthermore, American mink has never been found or has remained rare in 62.4% of the area from which M. lutreola has disappeared. During the past 25 years, permanent grassland surfaces were reduced by 40%, whereas fodder culture increased by 470%, causing considerable habitat changes. Furthermore, 55.7% of water courses were classified as being of bad quality or polluted. Therefore, our data suggests that a conjunction of intensive trapping, alterations in water quality and habitat modification was critical for the European mink's decline. Although there are difficulties in ascribing specific cause to distribution changes in a top predator, this decline can be regarded as an indication for anthropic pressures on natural habitats.

  14. Purification, characterization and ELISA detection of mink immunoglobulins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martel, Cyril Jean-Marie; Aasted, Bent

    2008-01-01

    This study describes easy purification methods for mink IgG, IgA and IgM immunoglobulins. IgG and IgM were purified from normal mink serum, while IgA was purified from mink bile from healthy animals. By SDS-polyacrylamid-gel-electrophoresis  (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting under reducing conditions...

  15. Progression of experimental chronic Aleutian mink disease virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Chriél, Mariann; Hansen, Mette Sif

    2016-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is found world-wide and has a major impact on mink health and welfare by decreasing reproduction and fur quality. In the majority of mink, the infection is subclinical and the diagnosis must be confirmed by serology or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Increased ...

  16. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine...

  17. Global phylogenetic analysis of contemporary aleutian mink disease viruses (AMDVs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryt-Hansen, Pia; Hagberg, E. E.; Chriél, Mariann

    2017-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease has major economic consequences on the mink farming industry worldwide, as it causes a disease that affects both the fur quality and the health and welfare of the mink. The virus causing this disease is a single-stranded DNA virus of the genus Amdoparvovirus belonging to the...

  18. 9 CFR 113.302 - Distemper Vaccine-Mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distemper Vaccine-Mink. 113.302... Virus Vaccines § 113.302 Distemper Vaccine—Mink. Distemper Vaccine—Mink shall be prepared from virus... immunogenic shall be used for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All serials of...

  19. Alien Mink Predation and Colonisation Processes of Rodent Prey on Small Islands of the Baltic Sea: Does Prey Naïveté Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Fey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Colonisation, an important part of meta-population dynamics of fragmented populations, depends on both the dispersal ability and the ability to establish in the new habitat. Predation can hinder successful establishment of prey, and where the predation pressure comes from an alien predator, the effects on colonisation might be devastating. We studied the establishment of field voles (Microtus agrestis inhabiting small islands of the archipelago of the Baltic Sea, SW Finland, under presence and absence of the alien American mink (Mustela vison. We translocated “experienced” voles from islands with mink, and “inexperienced” voles from islands from which mink had been removed, to other islands where mink was present or absent. By radio-tracking we studied survival, space and microhabitat use of voles within four weeks after translocation. Survival of voles on mink islands was significantly lower than on mink-free islands, but “experienced” voles did not survive better than “inexperienced” voles. “Experienced” voles were more often located in juniper habitats than “inexperienced” voles, but they appeared not to gain any survival benefit from altered microhabitat use. This study provides novel evidence, that alien mink predation inhibits establishment of colonising field voles and may thus ultimately induce extinction of voles from the outer archipelago.

  20. Prevalence of giant kidney worm (Dioctophyma renale) in wild mink (Mustela vison) in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Tracy, Shawn P.

    2001-01-01

    Of 138 wild mink (Mustela vison) from eastern Minnesota, 27% contained Dioctophyma renale, primarily in the right kidney. No significant difference between prevalence in adult male and immature male mink was found, nor between the prevalence in males versus female mink. Thirteen worms were found in one male mink, representing the highest documented infection intensity of a single wild mink.

  1. Outbreaks of influenza A virus in farmed mink (Neovison vison) in Denmark: molecular characterization of the viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Trebbien, Ramona

    2012-01-01

    Influenza in mink (Neovison vison) is assumed to be rare, but several outbreaks have been described during recent years in Europe and the North America. In 2009, influenza A of the subtype H3N2 was detected in several Danish mink farms with respiratory symptoms. Full-genome sequencing showed...... that the virus was a human/swine reassortant, with the H and N gene most related to human H3N2 viruses circulating in 2005. The remaining 6 genes were most closely related to H1N2 influenza viruses circulating in Danish swine. This virus had not previously been described in swine, mink or humans. PCRs assays...... specifically targeting the new reassortant were developed and used to screen influenza positive samples from humans and swine in Denmark with negative results. Thus, there was no evidence that this virus had spread to humans or was circulating in Danish pigs. In 2010 and 2011, influenza virus was again...

  2. Genomic Profiling of Prostate Cancers from African American Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Castro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available African American (AA men have a higher incidence and significantly higher mortality rates from prostate cancer than white men, but the biological basis for these differences are poorly understood. Few studies have been carried out to determine whether there are areas of allelic loss or gain in prostate cancers from AA men that are over-represented in or specific to this group. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer in AA men, we have analyzed 20 prostate cancers from AA men with high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays to detect genomic copy number alterations. We identified 17 regions showing significant loss and 4 regions with significant gains. Most of these regions had been linked to prostate cancer by previous studies of copy number alterations of predominantly white patients. We identified a novel region of loss at 4p16.3, which has been shown to be lost in breast, colon, and bladder cancers. Comparison of our primary tumors with tumors from white patients from a previously published cohort with similar pathological characteristics showed higher frequency of loss of at numerous loci including 6q13-22, 8p21, 13q13-14, and 16q11-24 and gains of 7p21 and 8q24, all of which had higher frequencies in metastatic lesions in this previously published cohort. Thus, the clinically localized cancers from AA men more closely resembled metastatic cancers from white men. This difference may in part explain the more aggressive clinical behavior of prostate cancer in AA men.

  3. Isolation and characterization of a "phiKMV-like" bacteriophage and its therapeutic effect on mink hemorrhagic pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhui Cao

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of using phages as a therapy against hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink both in vitro and in vivo. Five Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa strains were isolated from lungs of mink with suspected hemorrhagic pneumonia and their identity was confirmed by morphological observation and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Compared to P. aeruginosa strains isolated from mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia in 2002, these isolates were more resistant to antibiotics selected. A lytic phage vB_PaeP_PPA-ABTNL (PPA-ABTNL of the Podoviridae family was isolated from hospital sewage using a P. aeruginosa isolate as host, showing broad host range against P. aeruginosa. A one-step growth curve analysis of PPA-ABTNL revealed eclipse and latent periods of 20 and 35 min, respectively, with a burst size of about 110 PFU per infected cell. Phage PPA-ABTNL significantly reduced the growth of P. aeruginosa isolates in vitro. The genome of PPA-ABTNL was 43,227 bp (62.4% G+C containing 54 open reading frames and lacked regions encoding known virulence factors, integration-related proteins and antibiotic resistance determinants. Genome architecture analysis showed that PPA-ABTNL belonged to the "phiKMV-like Viruses" group. A repeated dose inhalational toxicity study using PPA-ABTNL crude preparation was conducted in mice and no significantly abnormal histological changes, morbidity or mortality were observed. There was no indication of any potential risk associated with using PPA-ABTNL as a therapeutic agent. The results of a curative treatment experiment demonstrated that atomization by ultrasonic treatment could efficiently deliver phage to the lungs of mink and a dose of 10 multiplicity of infection was optimal for treating mink hemorrhagic pneumonia. Our work demonstrated the potential for phage to fight P. aeruginosa involved in mink lung infections when administered by means of ultrasonic nebulization.

  4. Nutrient-specific compensatory feeding in a mammalian carnivore, the mink, Neovison vison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kim; Simpson, Stephen J; Nielsen, Vivi H; Hunt, John; Raubenheimer, David; Mayntz, David

    2014-10-14

    Balancing of macronutrient intake has only recently been demonstrated in predators. In particular, the ability to regulate carbohydrate intake is little studied in obligate carnivores, as carbohydrate is present at very low concentrations in prey animal tissue. In the present study, we determined whether American mink (Neovison vison) would compensate for dietary nutritional imbalances by foraging for complementary macronutrients (protein, lipid and carbohydrate) when subsequently given a dietary choice. We used three food pairings, within which two macronutrients differed relative to each other (high v. low concentration), while the third was kept at a constant level. The mink were first restricted to a single nutritionally imbalanced food for 7 d and then given a free choice to feed from the same food or a nutritionally complementary food for three consecutive days. When restricted to nutritionally imbalanced foods, the mink were willing to overingest protein only to a certain level ('ceiling'). When subsequently given a choice, the mink compensated for the period of nutritional imbalance by selecting the nutritionally complementary food in the food choice pairing. Notably, this rebalancing occurred for all the three macronutrients, including carbohydrate, which is particularly interesting as carbohydrate is not a major macronutrient for obligate carnivores in nature. However, there was also a ceiling to carbohydrate intake, as has been demonstrated previously in domestic cats. The results of the present study show that mink regulate their intake of all the three macronutrients within limits imposed by ceilings on protein and carbohydrate intake and that they will compensate for a period of nutritional imbalance by subsequently selecting nutritionally complementary foods.

  5. Identifying QTL and genetic correlations between fur quality traits in mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirstrup, J P; Anistoroaei, R; Guldbrandtsen, B; Christensen, K; Fredholm, M; Nielsen, V H

    2014-02-01

    Mapping of QTL affecting fur quality traits (guard hair length, guard hair thickness, density of wool, surface of the fur and quality) and skin length was performed in a three-generation mink population (F2 design). In the parental generation, Nordic Brown mink were crossed reciprocally with American Black short nap mink. In all, 1082 mink encompassing three generations were used for the analyses. The mink were genotyped for 104 microsatellites covering all 14 autosomes. The QTL analyses were performed by least-square regression implemented in gridqtl software. Genetic and phenotypic correlations and heritabilities were estimated using the average information-restricted maximum-likelihood method. Evidence was found for QTL affecting fur quality traits on nine autosomes. QTL were detected for guard hair thickness on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 6 and 13; for guard hair length on chromosomes 2, 3 and 6; for wool density on chromosomes 6 and 13; for surface on chromosomes 7, 12 and 13; for quality on chromosomes 6, 7, 11 and 13; and for skin length on chromosomes 7 and 9. Proximity of locations of QTL for guard hair length, guard hair thickness and for wool density and quality suggests that some of the traits are in part under the influence of the same genes. Traits under the influence of QTL at close or identical positions also were traits that were strongly genotypically correlated. Based on the results of correlation analyses, the most important single traits influencing the quality were found to be density of wool, guard hair thickness and appearance of the surface. © 2013 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  6. Evaluation of the choline status in mink fed different levels and sources of choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Clausen, T.N.

    2012-01-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient but the daily need for choline in mink has never been determined. Two experiments were performed to evalutate the choline status in mink kits and full-grown mink fed different levels of choline. In the first experiment mink kits were fed a synthetic diet with chol......Choline is an essential nutrient but the daily need for choline in mink has never been determined. Two experiments were performed to evalutate the choline status in mink kits and full-grown mink fed different levels of choline. In the first experiment mink kits were fed a synthetic diet...

  7. Stress influencing production and welfare in farmed mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Results linking stress, production and welfare in farmed mink, with special focus on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, are presented. Interpretation of stress responses are discussed, combining context, neuroendocrine and behavioural indicators. Results from the development and valid...... animals and whether fur-chewing/stereotypic behaviour is associated with hippocampal neurogenesis in mink. Perspectives and suggested future research aiming to improve production and welfare in farmed mink are given....

  8. Postvaccination wounds associated predominantly with Arcanobacterium phocae in mink (Neovison vison) at three mink farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Robert J; Buter, Rianne; Sroka, Agnieszka

    2017-04-01

    The emerging skin disease fur animal epidemic necrotic pyoderma (FENP) has been attributed to infection with Arcanobacterium phocae (ABP). The exact pathogenesis and risk factors of FENP have yet to be elucidated. Three mink from each of three different mink farms (A-C) with postvaccination skin wounds at the vaccination site and six mink from an unaffected mink farm (D) that had used the same vaccine batch and vaccination site (hind leg). All mink from farms A-C had severe necrotizing to necropurulent dermatitis where they were vaccinated intramuscularly in the hind leg. ABP was the sole bacterium cultured from six of nine wounds. Using 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region and BOX-PCR, the ABP isolates from these wounds were indistinguishable from isolates originating from several cases of FENP. This is the first report of FENP-like lesions at the site of vaccination, in the days following the procedure, associated with ABP. At farms with FENP vaccination, procedures should be considered carefully. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  9. Acute interstitial pneumonia in mink kits inoculated with defined isolates of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Søren; Larsen, S; Aasted, B

    1994-01-01

    The present study addressed the causal role of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) in acute interstitial pneumonia in mink kits. All the examined isolates of ADV caused interstitial pneumonia in newborn kits, although the severity of disease and the mortality varied. These findings indicate...... that ADV is the direct causal agent of this disease in mink kits and that cofactors, which could have been present in the original ADV-K isolate, do not play a role. Acute interstitial pneumonia characterized by hypertrophy and hyperplasia of alveolar type II cells, intranuclear viral inclusions...... plasma cells in lung, liver, spleen, kidney, mesenteric lymph node, and intestine. Surviving kits also had hypertrophy of the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue and focal subpleural, intraalveolar accumulations of large cells with foamy cytoplasm, so-called lipid pneumonia....

  10. Genome sequence of the South American clover-nodulating Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii strain WSM597

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Wayne; Terpolilli, Jason; Melino, Vanessa; Ardley, Julie; Tian, Rui; De Meyer, Sofie; Tiwari, Ravi; Yates, Ronald; O’Hara, Graham; Howieson, John; Ninawi, Mohamed; Held, Brittany; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Wei, Chia-Lin; Huntemann, Marcel; Han, James; Chen, I-Min; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Goodwin, Lynne; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii strain WSM597 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod isolated from a root nodule of the annual clover Trifolium pallidum L. growing at Glencoe Research Station near Tacuarembó, Uruguay. This strain is generally ineffective for nitrogen (N2) fixation with clovers of Mediterranean, North American and African origin, but is effective on the South American perennial clover T. polymorphum Poir. Here we describe the features of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii strain WSM597, together with genome sequence information and annotation. The 7,634,384 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged in 2 scaffolds of 53 contigs, contains 7,394 protein-coding genes and 87 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 20 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Program. PMID:24976883

  11. Modelling growth of five different colour types of mink

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    first introduced in China at the beginning of the 20th century for fur farming. Interest in mink is excited by its economic .... of inflection and is mainly used to describe the postnatal growth of an individual. Table 1 Functions considered in this study for modelling the growth curve of the mink. Model. Equation. No of parameters.

  12. Size allometry in mink (Mustela Vision) selected for feed efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sørensen, K.; Koops, W.J.; Grossman, M.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives were to analyse absolute and relative size of mink at maturity, and to test effects of selection line, sex and interaction on size. For male and female mink selected for high or low feed efficiency, size at 30 weeks was analyzed for body weight, carcass weight, pelt weight, subcutaneous

  13. Mitochondrial Genome Diversity of Native Americans Supports a Single Early Entry of Founder Populations into America

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Jr., Wilson A.; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Holanda, Adriano J.; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Andrea K.; Paixão, Beatriz M.; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Abe-Sandes, Kiyoko; Rodriguez-Delfin, Luis; Barbosa, Marcela; Paçó-Larson, Maria Luiza; Petzl-Erler, Maria Luiza; Valente, Valeria; Santos, Sidney E. B.; Zago, Marco A.

    2002-01-01

    There is general agreement that the Native American founder populations migrated from Asia into America through Beringia sometime during the Pleistocene, but the hypotheses concerning the ages and the number of these migrations and the size of the ancestral populations are surrounded by controversy. DNA sequence variations of several regions of the genome of Native Americans, especially in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region, have been studied as a tool to help answer these questions...

  14. Production of mink enteritis parvovirus empty capsids by expression in a baculovirus vector system: a recombinant vaccine for mink enteritis parvovirus in mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J; Alexandersen, Søren; Bloch, B.

    1994-01-01

    The VP-2 gene of mink enteritis parvovirus (MEV) was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction using MEV DNA isolated from the faeces of a naturally infected mink. Subsequently the VP-2 gene was cloned into a baculovirus expression vector. Recombinant baculo-viruses were isolated and the MEV VP-2......, the VP-2 gene encoded a valine and a tyrosine at amino acid positions 232 and 234, identical to the situation found in MEV type 1, but at position 300 there was a valine which is a determinant of MEV type 2. Immunization of mink with approximately 40000 haemagglutinating units of recombinant MEV VP-2...

  15. Ancestry variation and footprints of natural selection along the genome in Latin American populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lian; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Xu, Shuhua; Wang, Sijia

    2016-02-18

    Latin American populations stem from the admixture of Europeans, Africans and Native Americans, which started over 400 years ago and had lasted for several centuries. Extreme deviation over the genome-wide average in ancestry estimations at certain genomic locations could reflect recent natural selection. We evaluated the distribution of ancestry estimations using 678 genome-wide microsatellite markers in 249 individuals from 13 admixed populations across Latin America. We found significant deviations in ancestry estimations including three locations with more than 3.5 times standard deviations from the genome-wide average: an excess of European ancestry at 1p36 and 14q32, and an excess of African ancestry at 6p22. Using simulations, we could show that at least the deviation at 6p22 was unlikely to result from genetic drift alone. By applying different linguistic groups as well as the most likely ancestral Native American populations as the ancestry, we showed that the choice of Native American ancestry could affect the local ancestry estimation. However, the signal at 6p22 consistently appeared in most of the analyses using various ancestral groups. This study provided important insights for recent natural selection in the context of the unique history of the New World and implications for disease mapping.

  16. Genome-wide Ancestry Patterns in Rapanui Suggest Pre-European Admixture with Native Americans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreno-Mayar, J. Víctor; Rasmussen, Simon; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Rapa Nui (Easter Island), located in the easternmost corner of the Polynesian Triangle, is one of the most isolated locations on the planet inhabited by humans. Archaeological and genetic evidence suggests that the island was first colonized by Polynesians around AD 1200, during...... their eastward expansion. Although it remains contentious whether Polynesians reached South America, suggestive evidence has been brought forward supporting the possibility of Native American contact prior to the European “discovery” of the island in AD 1722. Results: We generated genome-wide data for 27 Rapanui....... We found a mostly Polynesian ancestry among Rapanui and detected genome-wide patterns consistent with Native American and European admixture. By considering the distribution of local ancestry tracts of eight unrelated Rapanui, we found statistical support for Native American admixture dating to AD...

  17. Genome-Wide Analysis in Brazilians Reveals Highly Differentiated Native American Genome Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havt, Alexandre; Nayak, Uma; Pinkerton, Relana; Farber, Emily; Concannon, Patrick; Lima, Aldo A.; Guerrant, Richard L.

    2017-01-01

    Despite its population, geographic size, and emerging economic importance, disproportionately little genome-scale research exists into genetic factors that predispose Brazilians to disease, or the population genetics of risk. After identification of suitable proxy populations and careful analysis of tri-continental admixture in 1,538 North-Eastern Brazilians to estimate individual ancestry and ancestral allele frequencies, we computed 400,000 genome-wide locus-specific branch length (LSBL) Fst statistics of Brazilian Amerindian ancestry compared to European and African; and a similar set of differentiation statistics for their Amerindian component compared with the closest Asian 1000 Genomes population (surprisingly, Bengalis in Bangladesh). After ranking SNPs by these statistics, we identified the top 10 highly differentiated SNPs in five genome regions in the LSBL tests of Brazilian Amerindian ancestry compared to European and African; and the top 10 SNPs in eight regions comparing their Amerindian component to the closest Asian 1000 Genomes population. We found SNPs within or proximal to the genes CIITA (rs6498115), SMC6 (rs1834619), and KLHL29 (rs2288697) were most differentiated in the Amerindian-specific branch, while SNPs in the genes ADAMTS9 (rs7631391), DOCK2 (rs77594147), SLC28A1 (rs28649017), ARHGAP5 (rs7151991), and CIITA (rs45601437) were most highly differentiated in the Asian comparison. These genes are known to influence immune function, metabolic and anthropometry traits, and embryonic development. These analyses have identified candidate genes for selection within Amerindian ancestry, and by comparison of the two analyses, those for which the differentiation may have arisen during the migration from Asia to the Americas. PMID:28100790

  18. Current status of the minke whales and conflicts of interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Singarajah

    1988-07-01

    Full Text Available Minke whales - the rorqual group of the family Balaenopteridae - are widely distributed and constitute an important major harvestable living resource of the sea. Recently, the Antarctic minke whale population has been estimated to be between 150,000 and 300,000. Populations being dynamic entities, the size of the minke whale population has been changing. Currently , the minke whale population in the Antarctic has been claimed to have increased considerably. However, the minke whale stock arriving off Brazil could be regarded as only a small discrete unit of breeding stock and an integral part of the Brazilian natural resource. Data analysis based on the past 21 years shows that this stock is relatively in a steady state, but with only a few annual fluctuations which are around a constant mean value; and these departures are attributable both to environmental conditions and the local operational parameters. Further, the analysis of overall data does not suggest any decline in the Brazilian stock and a MSY at about 58.5% can be taken without depleting the stock, provided no dramatic changes occur in the native Antarctic habitat where the minke whales return to feed. This would allow Brazil a carefully controlled rational utilization of this potentially valuable sea resource since enough exploitable numbers of minke whales have been estimated to be available for Area II. The current arguments of the conflicts between the Pro -and Anti-whaling groups are also briefly discussed.

  19. Reconstructing Native American migrations from whole-genome and whole-exome data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Simon; Zakharia, Fouad; Moreno-Estrada, Andres; Byrnes, Jake K; Muzzio, Marina; Rodriguez-Flores, Juan L; Kenny, Eimear E; Gignoux, Christopher R; Maples, Brian K; Guiblet, Wilfried; Dutil, Julie; Via, Marc; Sandoval, Karla; Bedoya, Gabriel; Oleksyk, Taras K; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Burchard, Esteban G; Martinez-Cruzado, Juan Carlos; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2013-01-01

    There is great scientific and popular interest in understanding the genetic history of populations in the Americas. We wish to understand when different regions of the continent were inhabited, where settlers came from, and how current inhabitants relate genetically to earlier populations. Recent studies unraveled parts of the genetic history of the continent using genotyping arrays and uniparental markers. The 1000 Genomes Project provides a unique opportunity for improving our understanding of population genetic history by providing over a hundred sequenced low coverage genomes and exomes from Colombian (CLM), Mexican-American (MXL), and Puerto Rican (PUR) populations. Here, we explore the genomic contributions of African, European, and especially Native American ancestry to these populations. Estimated Native American ancestry is 48% in MXL, 25% in CLM, and 13% in PUR. Native American ancestry in PUR is most closely related to populations surrounding the Orinoco River basin, confirming the Southern American ancestry of the Taíno people of the Caribbean. We present new methods to estimate the allele frequencies in the Native American fraction of the populations, and model their distribution using a demographic model for three ancestral Native American populations. These ancestral populations likely split in close succession: the most likely scenario, based on a peopling of the Americas 16 thousand years ago (kya), supports that the MXL Ancestors split 12.2kya, with a subsequent split of the ancestors to CLM and PUR 11.7kya. The model also features effective populations of 62,000 in Mexico, 8,700 in Colombia, and 1,900 in Puerto Rico. Modeling Identity-by-descent (IBD) and ancestry tract length, we show that post-contact populations also differ markedly in their effective sizes and migration patterns, with Puerto Rico showing the smallest effective size and the earlier migration from Europe. Finally, we compare IBD and ancestry assignments to find evidence for

  20. Reconstructing Native American migrations from whole-genome and whole-exome data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Gravel

    Full Text Available There is great scientific and popular interest in understanding the genetic history of populations in the Americas. We wish to understand when different regions of the continent were inhabited, where settlers came from, and how current inhabitants relate genetically to earlier populations. Recent studies unraveled parts of the genetic history of the continent using genotyping arrays and uniparental markers. The 1000 Genomes Project provides a unique opportunity for improving our understanding of population genetic history by providing over a hundred sequenced low coverage genomes and exomes from Colombian (CLM, Mexican-American (MXL, and Puerto Rican (PUR populations. Here, we explore the genomic contributions of African, European, and especially Native American ancestry to these populations. Estimated Native American ancestry is 48% in MXL, 25% in CLM, and 13% in PUR. Native American ancestry in PUR is most closely related to populations surrounding the Orinoco River basin, confirming the Southern American ancestry of the Taíno people of the Caribbean. We present new methods to estimate the allele frequencies in the Native American fraction of the populations, and model their distribution using a demographic model for three ancestral Native American populations. These ancestral populations likely split in close succession: the most likely scenario, based on a peopling of the Americas 16 thousand years ago (kya, supports that the MXL Ancestors split 12.2kya, with a subsequent split of the ancestors to CLM and PUR 11.7kya. The model also features effective populations of 62,000 in Mexico, 8,700 in Colombia, and 1,900 in Puerto Rico. Modeling Identity-by-descent (IBD and ancestry tract length, we show that post-contact populations also differ markedly in their effective sizes and migration patterns, with Puerto Rico showing the smallest effective size and the earlier migration from Europe. Finally, we compare IBD and ancestry assignments to find

  1. Bacterial protein meal in diets for pigs and minks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2007-01-01

    containing no BPM served as controls, i.e. for minks diet M1, for pigs P1; the experimental diets contained increasing levels of BPM to replace fish meal (minks) or soybean meal (pigs), so that up to 17% (P2), 20% (M2), 35% (P3), 40% (M3), 52% (P4), and 60% (M4) of digestible N was BPM derived. Protein......The effect of increasing the dietary content of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on protein turnover rate, and on nucleic acid and creatinine metabolism in growing minks and pigs was investigated in two experiments. In each experiment, 16 animals were allocated to four experimental diets. The diets...

  2. Experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated rhino sinusitis in mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S.; Hammer, A. S.; Høiby, N.

    2017-01-01

    The nasal and sinus cavities in children may serve as reservoirs for microorganisms that cause recurrent and chronic lung infections. This study evaluates whether the mink can be used as an animal model for studying Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated rhino-sinusitis since there is no suitable...... in the infected mink shows features of carbohydrate expression comparable to what has been described in the respiratory system after Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in humans. It is suggested that the mink is suitable for studying Pseudomonas aeruginosa mediated rhino-sinusitis....

  3. Parvovirus-derived endogenous viral elements in two South American rodent genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriagada, Gloria; Gifford, Robert J

    2014-10-01

    We describe endogenous viral elements (EVEs) derived from parvoviruses (family Parvoviridae) in the genomes of the long-tailed chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) and the degu (Octodon degus). The novel EVEs include dependovirus-related elements and representatives of a clearly distinct parvovirus lineage that also has endogenous representatives in marsupial genomes. In the degu, one dependovirus-derived EVE was found to carry an intact reading frame and was differentially expressed in vivo, with increased expression in the liver. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Hierarchical modeling of genome-wide Short Tandem Repeat (STR) markers infers native American prehistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cecil M

    2010-02-01

    This study examines a genome-wide dataset of 678 Short Tandem Repeat loci characterized in 444 individuals representing 29 Native American populations as well as the Tundra Netsi and Yakut populations from Siberia. Using these data, the study tests four current hypotheses regarding the hierarchical distribution of neutral genetic variation in native South American populations: (1) the western region of South America harbors more variation than the eastern region of South America, (2) Central American and western South American populations cluster exclusively, (3) populations speaking the Chibchan-Paezan and Equatorial-Tucanoan language stock emerge as a group within an otherwise South American clade, (4) Chibchan-Paezan populations in Central America emerge together at the tips of the Chibchan-Paezan cluster. This study finds that hierarchical models with the best fit place Central American populations, and populations speaking the Chibchan-Paezan language stock, at a basal position or separated from the South American group, which is more consistent with a serial founder effect into South America than that previously described. Western (Andean) South America is found to harbor similar levels of variation as eastern (Equatorial-Tucanoan and Ge-Pano-Carib) South America, which is inconsistent with an initial west coast migration into South America. Moreover, in all relevant models, the estimates of genetic diversity within geographic regions suggest a major bottleneck or founder effect occurring within the North American subcontinent, before the peopling of Central and South America. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Pancreatitis in hyperlipemic mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstoga, K; Sørby, R; Olivecrona, G; Smith, A J; Christophersen, B

    2012-05-01

    In both man and animals, inflammatory changes in the pancreas often occur with disturbances in lipid metabolism, including hypertriglyceridemia and an excess of free fatty acids. Hyperlipoproteinemia type I is a human condition caused by a deficiency of lipoprotein lipase. A similar metabolic disturbance that occurs in mink is of considerable comparative interest, as it is also followed by pancreatitis. Pancreatic lesions in hyperlipoproteinemic mink included overt variably sized nodules with hemorrhage and necrosis. These lesions began as intralobular necrosis of exocrine cells and progressed to total lobular destruction, with eventual involvement of interlobular tissue. Remnants of epithelial cells and lipid-filled macrophages were seen in necrotic areas, along with other types of inflammatory cells scattered in a lipid-rich exudate. Granulation tissue developed rapidly in necrotic areas. Additional observations included ductal proliferation, replacement of epithelial cells with fat, and mural arterial thickening, most conspicuously with vacuolated cells and endothelial proliferation. Extravasation of lipid-rich plasma is thought to be a major intensifier of the inflammatory response.

  6. Heavy metal concentrations in female wild mink (Neovison vison) in Sweden: Sources of variation and associations with internal organ weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungvall, Karl; Magnusson, Ulf; Korvela, Marcus; Norrby, Mattias; Bergquist, Jonas; Persson, Sara

    2017-08-01

    The American mink is an invasive species in Sweden, and it is legally hunted all year. Therefore, the mink is well suited as a sentinel species for environmental monitoring. In the present study female mink (n = 91) from 6 different areas in Sweden were analyzed for the concentrations of silver, cadmium, mercury and lead in liver tissue using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The wet concentrations in liver tissue were 42.6 ± 52.7 ng/g for silver, 99.5 ± 100 ng/g for cadmium, 652 ± 537 ng/g for mercury, and 196 ± 401 ng/g for lead (expressed as mean ± standard deviation). There were associations between the sample area and the concentrations of silver, lead, and mercury. The concentrations of lead and cadmium varied with season of capture and lead, cadmium, and mercury were positively associated with increasing age. Relative liver weight was positively associated with concentrations of mercury and negatively associated with lead and cadmium. Relative kidney weight was negatively associated with lead concentrations. In summary, it is of importance to take age and season of capture into account when assessing levels of heavy metals in wild mink. Also, liver and kidneys seem to be potential targets for heavy metal toxicity in wild female mink in Sweden. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2030-2035. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  7. Molecular characterization of H9N2 influenza virus isolated from mink and its pathogenesis in mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Li; Chen, Chen; Kai-yi, Han; Feng-xia, Zhang; Yan-li, Zhu; Zong-shuai, Ling; Xing-xiao, Zhang; Shi-jin, Jiang; Zhi-jing, Xie

    2015-03-23

    In mid-August 2013, two H9N2 influenza viruses, named A/mink/Shandong/F6/2013 (Mk/SD/F6/13) and A/mink/Shandong/F10/2013 (Mk/SD/F10/13), were isolated from lung samples of 2 of 45 farmed mink exhibiting respiratory signs in mideastern Shandong province, China. The seroprevalence of antibodies to H9N2 in mink was 20% (53/265). Based on sequence analysis, the eight nucleotide sequences showed 99.7-100% identity between Mk/SD/F6/13 and Mk/SD/F10/13. The HA, NP and NS genes of Mk/SD/F6/13 and Mk/SD/F10/13 were close to A/chicken/Zhejiang/329/2011 (H9N2), the NA and PB1 genes to A/duck/Hunan/S4111/2011 (H9N2), the PA and M genes to A/chicken/Shanghai/C1/2012 (H9N2). However, the PB2 genes had a close relationship with A/Turkey/California/189/66 (H9N2). Based on Sialic acid (SA) receptor detection, a range tissues of the mink demonstrated staining for MAA and/or SNA, and mink could serve as an intermediate host for influenza viruses with pandemic potential for the other animals. Experimental infection of mink demonstrated that mink could be infected by H9N2 influenza viruses and presented mild clinical signs, virus shedding and seroconversion, but no animals died of the disease. It implied that mammalian host-adapted avian H9N2 strains infected mink. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Genomic evidence for the Pleistocene and recent population history of Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Anders; Moltke, Ida; Metspalu, Mait; Homburger, Julian R.; Wall, Jeff; Cornejo, Omar E.; Moreno-Mayar, J. Víctor; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S.; Pierre, Tracey; Rasmussen, Morten; Campos, Paula F.; de Barros Damgaard, Peter; Allentoft, Morten E.; Lindo, John; Metspalu, Ene; Rodríguez-Varela, Ricardo; Mansilla, Josefina; Henrickson, Celeste; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Malmström, Helena; Stafford, Thomas; Shringarpure, Suyash S.; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Karmin, Monika; Tambets, Kristiina; Bergström, Anders; Xue, Yali; Warmuth, Vera; Friend, Andrew D.; Singarayer, Joy; Valdes, Paul; Balloux, Francois; Leboreiro, Ilán; Vera, Jose Luis; Rangel-Villalobos, Hector; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata; Davis, Loren G.; Heyer, Evelyne; Zollikofer, Christoph P. E.; Ponce de León, Marcia S.; Smith, Colin I.; Grimes, Vaughan; Pike, Kelly-Anne; Deal, Michael; Fuller, Benjamin T.; Arriaza, Bernardo; Standen, Vivien; Luz, Maria F.; Ricaut, Francois; Guidon, Niede; Osipova, Ludmila; Voevoda, Mikhail I.; Posukh, Olga L.; Balanovsky, Oleg; Lavryashina, Maria; Bogunov, Yuri; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Gubina, Marina; Balanovska, Elena; Fedorova, Sardana; Litvinov, Sergey; Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Mosher, M. J.; Archer, David; Cybulski, Jerome; Petzelt, Barbara; Mitchell, Joycelynn; Worl, Rosita; Norman, Paul J.; Parham, Peter; Kemp, Brian M.; Kivisild, Toomas; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Crawford, Michael; Villems, Richard; Smith, David Glenn; Waters, Michael R.; Goebel, Ted; Johnson, John R.; Malhi, Ripan S.; Jakobsson, Mattias; Meltzer, David J.; Manica, Andrea; Durbin, Richard; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Song, Yun S.; Nielsen, Rasmus; Willerslev, Eske

    2016-01-01

    How and when the Americas were populated remains contentious. Using ancient and modern genome-wide data, we find that the ancestors of all present-day Native Americans, including Athabascans and Amerindians, entered the Americas as a single migration wave from Siberia no earlier than 23 thousand years ago (KYA), and after no more than 8,000-year isolation period in Beringia. Following their arrival to the Americas, ancestral Native Americans diversified into two basal genetic branches around 13 KYA, one that is now dispersed across North and South America and the other is restricted to North America. Subsequent gene flow resulted in some Native Americans sharing ancestry with present-day East Asians (including Siberians) and, more distantly, Australo-Melanesians. Putative ‘Paleoamerican’ relict populations, including the historical Mexican Pericúes and South American Fuego-Patagonians, are not directly related to modern Australo-Melanesians as suggested by the Paleoamerican Model. PMID:26198033

  9. Factors associated with usage of antimicrobials in commercial mink (Neovison vison) production in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, V F; Sommer, H M; Struve, T; Clausen, J; Chriél, M

    2016-04-01

    The American mink (Neovison vison) is used for commercial fur production in Denmark. In recent years, antimicrobial prescription for Danish mink has been increasing. In this study, the patterns and trends in antimicrobial use in mink were described and a multi-variable variance analysis was carried out with the objective of identifying risk factors for antimicrobial use on herd level. The study was based on register data for 2007-2012. Information on antimicrobial use was obtained from the national database VetStat, monitoring all medicinal products used for animals on prescription level. Data on microbiological feed quality was obtained from the Voluntary Feed Control under the Mink producers Organization, and data on herd size and the relation between farm and feed producer was obtained from the registers at Kopenhagen Fur, based on yearly reporting from the mink producers. Descriptive analysis showed a clear significant effect of season on antimicrobial use, with a peak in "treatment proportions", TP (defined daily doses per kg biomass-days) in May, around the time of whelping, and a high level in the following months. In autumn, a minor peak in antimicrobial use occurred throughout the study period. From 2007 to 2011, a 102% increase in annual antimicrobial TP was noted; on herd level, the increase was associated with an increasing frequency of prescription, and a decrease in the amounts prescribed in months with prescription. A binomial model showed that on herd level, the annual number of months with antimicrobial prescription was significantly (p<0.01) affected by feed producer, veterinarian, disease (specific laboratory diagnosis) infection, herd size and year, with an interaction between feed producer and year. A log-normal model showed that in months with antimicrobial use, the TP on herd level was significantly (p<0.001) affected by year, month (season), feed producer, feed quality score, veterinarian, herd size and laboratory confirmed diagnosis of

  10. WelFur - mink: development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W; Rousing, Tine

    2012-01-01

    European Fur Breeder's Association initiated the "WelFur" project in 2009 in order to develop a welfare assessment protocol for mink and fox farms after the Welfare Quality® standards. The assessment is based on four welfare principles (Good feeding, good housing, good health and appropriate...... behaviour) and 12 underlying criteria, to be measured on-farm. The major steps in the development of the WelFur mink protocols are described: (1) Writing leterature reviews and listing potential measures. (2) Identifying valid, reliable and feasable welfare measures. (3) Developing registration protocols......, descriptions, and schemes. (4) Testing preliminary protocols in relevant seasons of the annual production. This paper focus on the evaluation of validity, reliability anf feasibility of the 22 measures that have been selected for the WelFur assessment protocols. These protocols haev been tested in the three...

  11. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Danish farmed mink (Mustela vison S.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P; Dietz, H. H.; Uttenthal, Åse

    1994-01-01

    One hundred and ninety-five mink sera randomly selected from 17 Danish mink farms were evaluated for the presence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in the latex agglutination test. Six (3%) sera contained T. gondii antibodies in titres of 1:64 or more. The estimated 3% prevalence means that 300 000...... mink out of a total mink population of ten million might be infected with Toxoplasma gondii. This large number of possible sero-positive mink in Denmark indicates that there exists a potential risk of acquiring toxoplasmosis by pelting mink....

  12. Integrated Genomic Biomarkers to Identify Aggressive Disease in African Americans with Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0395 TITLE: “ Integrated Genomic Biomarkers to Identify Aggressive Disease in African Americans with Prostate...Cancer” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Albert Levin CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Henry Ford Health System Detroit, MI 48202 REPORT DATE: September 2017 TYPE...OF REPORT : Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT

  13. Infection studies in mink with seal-derived morbillivirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blixenkrone-Møller, M; Svansson, V; Have, P.

    1989-01-01

    Morbillivirus derived from diseased harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) has characteristics of acute virulent canine distemper virus infection in mink. The infection induced a disease resembling the acute systemic and nervous form of canine distemper.......Morbillivirus derived from diseased harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) has characteristics of acute virulent canine distemper virus infection in mink. The infection induced a disease resembling the acute systemic and nervous form of canine distemper....

  14. Organochlorines in wild mink (Mustela vison) from Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaare, J.U.; Polder, A.; Brevik, E.M.; Kveseth, N.J.

    Levels of PCBs, DDE, and HCB have been determined in wild mink caught in the Norwegian counties of Sogn and Fjordane, Rogaland, and Hedmark. No significant differences were founds in organochlorine levels in wild mink from these counties, and the average level, based on fat weight, in abdominal adipose tissue was about 1 ppm DDE, 0.1 ppm HCB and for PCB ranging from 1 to 15 ppm.

  15. The American cranberry: first insights into the whole genome of a species adapted to bog habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polashock, James; Zelzion, Ehud; Fajardo, Diego; Zalapa, Juan; Georgi, Laura; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Vorsa, Nicholi

    2014-06-13

    The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) is one of only three widely-cultivated fruit crops native to North America- the other two are blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) and native grape (Vitis spp.). In terms of taxonomy, cranberries are in the core Ericales, an order for which genome sequence data are currently lacking. In addition, cranberries produce a host of important polyphenolic secondary compounds, some of which are beneficial to human health. Whereas next-generation sequencing technology is allowing the advancement of whole-genome sequencing, one major obstacle to the successful assembly from short-read sequence data of complex diploid (and higher ploidy) organisms is heterozygosity. Cranberry has the advantage of being diploid (2n = 2x = 24) and self-fertile. To minimize the issue of heterozygosity, we sequenced the genome of a fifth-generation inbred genotype (F ≥ 0.97) derived from five generations of selfing originating from the cultivar Ben Lear. The genome size of V. macrocarpon has been estimated to be about 470 Mb. Genomic sequences were assembled into 229,745 scaffolds representing 420 Mbp (N50 = 4,237 bp) with 20X average coverage. The number of predicted genes was 36,364 and represents 17.7% of the assembled genome. Of the predicted genes, 30,090 were assigned to candidate genes based on homology. Genes supported by transcriptome data totaled 13,170 (36%). Shotgun sequencing of the cranberry genome, with an average sequencing coverage of 20X, allowed efficient assembly and gene calling. The candidate genes identified represent a useful collection to further study important biochemical pathways and cellular processes and to use for marker development for breeding and the study of horticultural characteristics, such as disease resistance.

  16. A genome-wide association study of hypertension and blood pressure in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebowale Adeyemo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The evidence for the existence of genetic susceptibility variants for the common form of hypertension ("essential hypertension" remains weak and inconsistent. We sought genetic variants underlying blood pressure (BP by conducting a genome-wide association study (GWAS among African Americans, a population group in the United States that is disproportionately affected by hypertension and associated complications, including stroke and kidney diseases. Using a dense panel of over 800,000 SNPs in a discovery sample of 1,017 African Americans from the Washington, D.C., metropolitan region, we identified multiple SNPs reaching genome-wide significance for systolic BP in or near the genes: PMS1, SLC24A4, YWHA7, IPO7, and CACANA1H. Two of these genes, SLC24A4 (a sodium/potassium/calcium exchanger and CACNA1H (a voltage-dependent calcium channel, are potential candidate genes for BP regulation and the latter is a drug target for a class of calcium channel blockers. No variant reached genome wide significance for association with diastolic BP (top scoring SNP rs1867226, p = 5.8 x 10(-7 or with hypertension as a binary trait (top scoring SNP rs9791170, p = 5.1 x 10(-7. We replicated some of the significant SNPs in a sample of West Africans. Pathway analysis revealed that genes harboring top-scoring variants cluster in pathways and networks of biologic relevance to hypertension and BP regulation. This is the first GWAS for hypertension and BP in an African American population. The findings suggests that, in addition to or in lieu of relying solely on replicated variants of moderate-to-large effect reaching genome-wide significance, pathway and network approaches may be useful in identifying and prioritizing candidate genes/loci for further experiments.

  17. Acoustic Ecology and Remote Acoustic Monitoring of a Minke Whale Population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gedamke, Jason

    2000-01-01

    Sound is the most effective means of communication in the ocean. A uniquely inquisitive minke whale population on the northern Great Barrier Reef presents an unprecedented research opportunity to study minke acoustics...

  18. Production of mink enteritis parvovirus empty capsids by expression in a baculovirus vector system: a recombinant vaccine for mink enteritis parvovirus in mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J; Alexandersen, Søren; Bloch, B.

    1994-01-01

    The VP-2 gene of mink enteritis parvovirus (MEV) was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction using MEV DNA isolated from the faeces of a naturally infected mink. Subsequently the VP-2 gene was cloned into a baculovirus expression vector. Recombinant baculo-viruses were isolated and the MEV VP-2...... protein was able to form parvovirus-like particles, which had haemagglutinating properties comparable with the wild-type MEV. The cloned VP-2 gene was sequenced and only five nucleotide differences were found after alignment with the known sequences of the MEV type 1 and type 2 isolates. Surprisingly...

  19. Disease-associated prion protein in neural and lymphoid tissues of mink (Mustela vison) inoculated with transmissible mink encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, D A; Harrington, R D; Zhuang, D; Yan, H; Truscott, T C; Dassanayake, R P; O'Rourke, K I

    2012-11-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are diagnosed by immunodetection of disease-associated prion protein (PrP(d)). The distribution of PrP(d) within the body varies with the time-course of infection and between species, during interspecies transmission, as well as with prion strain. Mink are susceptible to a form of TSE known as transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME), presumed to arise due to consumption of feed contaminated with a single prion strain of ruminant origin. After extended passage of TME isolates in hamsters, two strains emerge, HY and DY, each of which is associated with unique structural isoforms of PrP(TME) and of which only the HY strain is associated with accumulation of PrP(TME) in lymphoid tissues. Information on the structural nature and lymphoid accumulation of PrP(TME) in mink is limited. In this study, 13 mink were challenged by intracerebral inoculation using late passage TME inoculum, after which brain and lymphoid tissues were collected at preclinical and clinical time points. The distribution and molecular nature of PrP(TME) was investigated by techniques including blotting of paraffin wax-embedded tissue and epitope mapping by western blotting. PrP(TME) was detected readily in the brain and retropharyngeal lymph node during preclinical infection, with delayed progression of accumulation within other lymphoid tissues. For comparison, three mink were inoculated by the oral route and examined during clinical disease. Accumulation of PrP(TME) in these mink was greater and more widespread, including follicles of rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Western blot analyses revealed that PrP(TME) accumulating in the brain of mink is structurally most similar to that accumulating in the brain of hamsters infected with the DY strain. Collectively, the results of extended passage in mink are consistent with the presence of only a single strain of TME, the DY strain, capable of inducing accumulation of PrP(TME) in the lymphoid

  20. POPULATION GENETICS. Genomic evidence for the Pleistocene and recent population history of Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Maanasa; Steinrücken, Matthias; Harris, Kelley; Schiffels, Stephan; Rasmussen, Simon; DeGiorgio, Michael; Albrechtsen, Anders; Valdiosera, Cristina; Ávila-Arcos, María C; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Eriksson, Anders; Moltke, Ida; Metspalu, Mait; Homburger, Julian R; Wall, Jeff; Cornejo, Omar E; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Pierre, Tracey; Rasmussen, Morten; Campos, Paula F; de Barros Damgaard, Peter; Allentoft, Morten E; Lindo, John; Metspalu, Ene; Rodríguez-Varela, Ricardo; Mansilla, Josefina; Henrickson, Celeste; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Malmström, Helena; Stafford, Thomas; Shringarpure, Suyash S; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Karmin, Monika; Tambets, Kristiina; Bergström, Anders; Xue, Yali; Warmuth, Vera; Friend, Andrew D; Singarayer, Joy; Valdes, Paul; Balloux, Francois; Leboreiro, Ilán; Vera, Jose Luis; Rangel-Villalobos, Hector; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata; Davis, Loren G; Heyer, Evelyne; Zollikofer, Christoph P E; Ponce de León, Marcia S; Smith, Colin I; Grimes, Vaughan; Pike, Kelly-Anne; Deal, Michael; Fuller, Benjamin T; Arriaza, Bernardo; Standen, Vivien; Luz, Maria F; Ricaut, Francois; Guidon, Niede; Osipova, Ludmila; Voevoda, Mikhail I; Posukh, Olga L; Balanovsky, Oleg; Lavryashina, Maria; Bogunov, Yuri; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Gubina, Marina; Balanovska, Elena; Fedorova, Sardana; Litvinov, Sergey; Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Mosher, M J; Archer, David; Cybulski, Jerome; Petzelt, Barbara; Mitchell, Joycelynn; Worl, Rosita; Norman, Paul J; Parham, Peter; Kemp, Brian M; Kivisild, Toomas; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Crawford, Michael; Villems, Richard; Smith, David Glenn; Waters, Michael R; Goebel, Ted; Johnson, John R; Malhi, Ripan S; Jakobsson, Mattias; Meltzer, David J; Manica, Andrea; Durbin, Richard; Bustamante, Carlos D; Song, Yun S; Nielsen, Rasmus; Willerslev, Eske

    2015-08-21

    How and when the Americas were populated remains contentious. Using ancient and modern genome-wide data, we found that the ancestors of all present-day Native Americans, including Athabascans and Amerindians, entered the Americas as a single migration wave from Siberia no earlier than 23 thousand years ago (ka) and after no more than an 8000-year isolation period in Beringia. After their arrival to the Americas, ancestral Native Americans diversified into two basal genetic branches around 13 ka, one that is now dispersed across North and South America and the other restricted to North America. Subsequent gene flow resulted in some Native Americans sharing ancestry with present-day East Asians (including Siberians) and, more distantly, Australo-Melanesians. Putative "Paleoamerican" relict populations, including the historical Mexican Pericúes and South American Fuego-Patagonians, are not directly related to modern Australo-Melanesians as suggested by the Paleoamerican Model. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Genomic evidence for the Pleistocene and recent population history of Native Americans

    KAUST Repository

    Raghavan, Maanasa

    2015-07-21

    How and when the Americas were populated remains contentious. Using ancient and modern genome-wide data, we found that the ancestors of all present-day Native Americans, including Athabascans and Amerindians, entered the Americas as a single migration wave from Siberia no earlier than 23 thousand years ago (ka) and after no more than an 8000-year isolation period in Beringia. After their arrival to the Americas, ancestral Native Americans diversified into two basal genetic branches around 13 ka, one that is now dispersed across North and South America and the other restricted to North America. Subsequent gene flow resulted in some Native Americans sharing ancestry with present-day East Asians (including Siberians) and, more distantly, Australo-Melanesians. Putative "Paleoamerican" relict populations, including the historical Mexican Pericúes and South American Fuego-Patagonians, are not directly related to modern Australo-Melanesians as suggested by the Paleoamerican Model. © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights reserved.

  2. Recombinant proteins as vaccines for protection against disease induced by infection with mink astrovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    and polypeptides of the capsid protein of a novel mink astrovirus strain denoted DK7627. Such polynucleotides and polypeptides may be used for the production of vaccines against mink astrovirus which may induce pre-weaning diarrhoea in minks. The invention furthermore relates to vectors, host cells, compositions...

  3. Behaviour of mink kits and dams (Mustela vison) in the lactation period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Anne-Line; Jeppesen, Leif Lau

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the development of the behaviour of mink kits and dams from the fourth to the eighth respectively seventh week after delivery. The study is based on scan observations of 72 mink dams and their kits at a conventional Danish mink farm. The kits started eating when they were about...

  4. Monitoring chronic infection with a field strain of Aleutian mink disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Hammer, Anne Sofie; Chriél, Mariann

    2014-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) readily spread within farmed mink and causes chronic infections with significant impacts for welfare and economy. In the present study a currently circulating Danish AMDV strain was used to induce chronic experimental infection of farmed mink.PCR was used to det...

  5. Future translational applications from the contemporary genomics era: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Caroline S; Hall, Jennifer L; Arnett, Donna K; Ashley, Euan A; Delles, Christian; Engler, Mary B; Freeman, Mason W; Johnson, Julie A; Lanfear, David E; Liggett, Stephen B; Lusis, Aldons J; Loscalzo, Joseph; MacRae, Calum A; Musunuru, Kiran; Newby, L Kristin; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Rich, Stephen S; Terzic, Andre

    2015-05-12

    The field of genetics and genomics has advanced considerably with the achievement of recent milestones encompassing the identification of many loci for cardiovascular disease and variable drug responses. Despite this achievement, a gap exists in the understanding and advancement to meaningful translation that directly affects disease prevention and clinical care. The purpose of this scientific statement is to address the gap between genetic discoveries and their practical application to cardiovascular clinical care. In brief, this scientific statement assesses the current timeline for effective translation of basic discoveries to clinical advances, highlighting past successes. Current discoveries in the area of genetics and genomics are covered next, followed by future expectations, tools, and competencies for achieving the goal of improving clinical care. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Terminal Pleistocene Alaskan genome reveals first founding population of Native Americans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Potter, Ben A; Vinner, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    Despite broad agreement that the Americas were initially populated via Beringia, the land bridge that connected far northeast Asia with northwestern North America during the Pleistocene epoch, when and how the peopling of the Americas occurred remains unresolved. Analyses of human remains from Late...... Pleistocene Alaska are important to resolving the timing and dispersal of these populations. The remains of two infants were recovered at Upward Sun River (USR), and have been dated to around 11.5 thousand years ago (ka). Here, by sequencing the USR1 genome to an average coverage of approximately 17 times, we...... show that USR1 is most closely related to Native Americans, but falls basal to all previously sequenced contemporary and ancient Native Americans. As such, USR1 represents a distinct Ancient Beringian population. Using demographic modelling, we infer that the Ancient Beringian population and ancestors...

  7. A genome-wide association search for type 2 diabetes genes in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholette D Palmer

    Full Text Available African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS using the Affymetrix 6.0 array in 965 African-American cases with T2DM and end-stage renal disease (T2DM-ESRD and 1029 population-based controls. The most significant SNPs (n = 550 independent loci were genotyped in a replication cohort and 122 SNPs (n = 98 independent loci were further tested through genotyping three additional validation cohorts followed by meta-analysis in all five cohorts totaling 3,132 cases and 3,317 controls. Twelve SNPs had evidence of association in the GWAS (P<0.0071, were directionally consistent in the Replication cohort and were associated with T2DM in subjects without nephropathy (P<0.05. Meta-analysis in all cases and controls revealed a single SNP reaching genome-wide significance (P<2.5×10(-8. SNP rs7560163 (P = 7.0×10(-9, OR (95% CI = 0.75 (0.67-0.84 is located intergenically between RND3 and RBM43. Four additional loci (rs7542900, rs4659485, rs2722769 and rs7107217 were associated with T2DM (P<0.05 and reached more nominal levels of significance (P<2.5×10(-5 in the overall analysis and may represent novel loci that contribute to T2DM. We have identified novel T2DM-susceptibility variants in the African-American population. Notably, T2DM risk was associated with the major allele and implies an interesting genetic architecture in this population. These results suggest that multiple loci underlie T2DM susceptibility in the African-American population and that these loci are distinct from those identified in other ethnic populations.

  8. Assessment of genotype imputation performance using 1000 Genomes in African American studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana B Hancock

    Full Text Available Genotype imputation, used in genome-wide association studies to expand coverage of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, has performed poorly in African Americans compared to less admixed populations. Overall, imputation has typically relied on HapMap reference haplotype panels from Africans (YRI, European Americans (CEU, and Asians (CHB/JPT. The 1000 Genomes project offers a wider range of reference populations, such as African Americans (ASW, but their imputation performance has had limited evaluation. Using 595 African Americans genotyped on Illumina's HumanHap550v3 BeadChip, we compared imputation results from four software programs (IMPUTE2, BEAGLE, MaCH, and MaCH-Admix and three reference panels consisting of different combinations of 1000 Genomes populations (February 2012 release: (1 3 specifically selected populations (YRI, CEU, and ASW; (2 8 populations of diverse African (AFR or European (AFR descent; and (3 all 14 available populations (ALL. Based on chromosome 22, we calculated three performance metrics: (1 concordance (percentage of masked genotyped SNPs with imputed and true genotype agreement; (2 imputation quality score (IQS; concordance adjusted for chance agreement, which is particularly informative for low minor allele frequency [MAF] SNPs; and (3 average r2hat (estimated correlation between the imputed and true genotypes, for all imputed SNPs. Across the reference panels, IMPUTE2 and MaCH had the highest concordance (91%-93%, but IMPUTE2 had the highest IQS (81%-83% and average r2hat (0.68 using YRI+ASW+CEU, 0.62 using AFR+EUR, and 0.55 using ALL. Imputation quality for most programs was reduced by the addition of more distantly related reference populations, due entirely to the introduction of low frequency SNPs (MAF≤2% that are monomorphic in the more closely related panels. While imputation was optimized by using IMPUTE2 with reference to the ALL panel (average r2hat = 0.86 for SNPs with MAF>2%, use of the ALL

  9. Rapid coastal spread of First Americans: Novel insights from South America's Southern Cone mitochondrial genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Martin; Perego, Ugo A.; Huber, Gabriela; Fendt, Liane; Röck, Alexander W.; Zimmermann, Bettina; Olivieri, Anna; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Lancioni, Hovirag; Angerhofer, Norman; Bobillo, Maria Cecilia; Corach, Daniel; Woodward, Scott R.; Salas, Antonio; Achilli, Alessandro; Torroni, Antonio; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Parson, Walther

    2012-01-01

    It is now widely agreed that the Native American founders originated from a Beringian source population ∼15–18 thousand years ago (kya) and rapidly populated all of the New World, probably mainly following the Pacific coastal route. However, details about the migration into the Americas and the routes pursued on the continent still remain unresolved, despite numerous genetic, archaeological, and linguistic investigations. To examine the pioneering peopling phase of the South American continent, we screened literature and mtDNA databases and identified two novel mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) clades, here named D1g and D1j, within the pan-American haplogroup D1. They both show overall rare occurrences but local high frequencies, and are essentially restricted to populations from the Southern Cone of South America (Chile and Argentina). We selected and completely sequenced 43 D1g and D1j mtDNA genomes applying highest quality standards. Molecular and phylogeographic analyses revealed extensive variation within each of the two clades and possibly distinct dispersal patterns. Their age estimates agree with the dating of the earliest archaeological sites in South America and indicate that the Paleo-Indian spread along the entire longitude of the American double continent might have taken even South America. PMID:22333566

  10. Genetic characterization of canine distemper virus involved in outbreaks in farmed mink in Denmark 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Struve, T.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    that the farmed mink and wild fox population were infected by identical viruses which strongly indicate an epidemiological link between these populations. Accordingly, diseased and dead foxes were observed in some of the mink herds in connection to the outbreak. The Danish virus strain clustered phylogenetically......Danish farmed mink herds experienced a large outbreak of canine distemper virus in 2012. Full-length sequence analysis (1824 nucleotides) of the variable hemagglutinin (H) gene were performed on 27 viruses collected from mink and on 7 viruses collected from wild foxes. Results of the study showed...... between mink farms during outbreaks....

  11. Complete mitochondrial genomes of Korean lamprey (Lethenteron morii) and American brook lamprey (L. appendix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Jiafei; Ren, Jianfeng; Zhang, Zhe; Jia, Liang; Buchinger, Tyler; Li, Weiming

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitogenomes of two lampreys with complex taxonomic histories, the Korean lamprey (Lethenteron morii) and the American brook lamprey (L. appendix) were determined. Three-nt length difference between two genomes occurred on tRNA-Ser2 and control region 2. Except for 3 indel sites, there are 58 variable sites between two genomes which occurred on 11 of the 13 protein-coding genes (aside from COX3 and ND3) and 2 of rRNAs, tRNAs, control regions and intergenic regions. Among these sites, 15 sites are non-synonymous substitution sites occurred on 8 protein-coding genes including COX1-COX2, ND1-ND2, ND4-ND6 and ATPase6. Control region 1 contains 4 consecutive 39-nt repetitive strings and a 26-nt repetitive string in control region 2 is repeated 3.8 times in both lampreys. The observed level of similarity between nucleotide sequences (99.62%) implies the Korean lamprey and American brook lamprey are very close relatives and should be assigned into the same taxonomic genus.

  12. Stress and stereotypic behaviour in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Jeppesen, Leif Lau; Palme, R.

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether female mink with low (LS) and high (HS) occurrence of stereotypic behaviour differ in their adrenocortical activity in baseline conditions or in response to immobilisation (Experiment 1), handling, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge (Experiment 2) and excretion...... 4-20 h after the handling (P = 0.001). In Experiment 3 (n = 16), the excretion of infused (3)H-cortisol did not differ between LS and HS mink. Stereotypic behaviour is concurrent with higher baseline concentrations of FCM, which cannot be explained by a greater adrenocortical reactivity...... or a different excretion of the circulating cortisol. Instead, we conclude that mink with a high level of stereotypic behaviour have a greater perception of stress, or increased sensitivity to stressors at the pituitary level....

  13. Dermatophytosis in farmed mink (Mustela vison) caused by Trichophyton equinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overy, David P; Marron-Lopez, Fany; Muckle, Anne; Bourque, Andrea; Lund, Lorraine; MacHattie, David; Lopez, Alfonso

    2015-09-01

    This report details 2 outbreaks of dermatophytosis in 2 different mink ranches. On the first farm, only kits were affected, while on the second farm, small numbers of adults were infected. Affected mink were otherwise clinically healthy and in good body condition. Three animals were euthanized and submitted for autopsy. Grossly, mink exhibited locally extensive to coalescing areas of crusting alopecia but no other significant gross lesions in internal organs. Microscopically, skin lesions were characterized by chronic hyperplastic dermatitis with folliculitis, furunculosis, occasional intracorneal pustules, and large numbers of intrafollicular fungal arthrospores and hyphae. The dermatophyte was cultured and identified as Trichophyton equinum based on molecular barcoding of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA gene. © 2015 The Author(s).

  14. Migration of Antarctic minke whales to the Arctic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A Glover

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis, and the common minke whale found in the North Atlantic (Balaenoptera acutorostrata acutorostrata, undertake synchronized seasonal migrations to feeding areas at their respective poles during spring, and to the tropics in the autumn where they overwinter. Differences in the timing of seasons between hemispheres prevent these species from mixing. Here, based upon analysis of mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA profiles, we report the observation of a single B. bonaerensis in 1996, and a hybrid with maternal contribution from B. bonaerensis in 2007, in the Arctic Northeast Atlantic. Paternal contribution was not conclusively resolved. This is the first documentation of B. bonaerensis north of the tropics, and, the first documentation of hybridization between minke whale species.

  15. Growth and reproductive effects from dietary exposure to Aroclor 1268 in mink (Neovison vison), a surrogate model for marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folland, William R; Newsted, John L; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Fuchsman, Phyllis C; Bradley, Patrick W; Kern, John; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Remington, Richard E; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the commercial mixture Aroclor 1268 were historically released into the Turtle-Brunswick River estuary (southeastern Georgia, USA) from industrial operations. Sum PCBs (ΣPCBs) in blubber samples from Turtle-Brunswick River estuary bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) have been reported at concentrations more than 10-fold higher than those observed in dolphins from adjacent regional estuaries. Given that toxicity data specific to Aroclor 1268 and applicable to marine mammals are limited, predicting the toxic effects of Aroclor 1268 in dolphins is uncertain, particularly because of its unique congener profile and associated physiochemical characteristics compared with other PCB mixtures. American mink (Neovison vison) were chosen as a surrogate model for cetaceans to develop marine mammalian PCB toxicity benchmarks. Mink are a suitable surrogate species for cetaceans in toxicity studies because of similarities in diet and taxonomic class, and a characteristic sensitivity to PCBs provides a potential safety factor when using mink toxicology data for cross-species extrapolations. Effects of dietary exposure to Aroclor 1268 on reproduction, growth, and mortality in mink were compared with both a negative control and a positive control (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl, PCB 126). Aroclor 1268 dietary ΣPCB concentrations ranged from 1.8 µg/g feed wet weight to 29 µg/g feed wet weight. Whelp success was unaffected by Aroclor 1268 exposure at any level. Treatment mean litter size, kit growth, and kit survival were adversely affected relative to the negative control at dietary ΣPCB concentrations of 10.6 µg/g feed wet weight and greater. © 2015 SETAC.

  16. Reproductive and morphological condition of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lutra canadensis) in relation to chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, L E; Harris, M L; Stephen, C R; Elliott, J E

    1999-01-01

    We assessed chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination of mink and river otters on the Columbia and Fraser River systems of northwestern North America, in relation to morphological measures of condition. We obtained carcasses of mink and river otters from commercial trappers during the winters 1994-1995 and 1995-1996. Necropsies included evaluation of the following biological parameters: sex, body mass and length, age, thymus, heart, liver, lung, spleen, pancreas, kidney, gonad, omentum, adrenal gland and baculum masses, baculum length, and stomach contents. Livers were analyzed, individually or in pools, for residues of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans. Contaminant levels were relatively low compared to those documented in other North American populations, although they ranged higher than those detected during an earlier survey (1990-1992) of these regional populations. Body condition varied slightly among collection regions, but showed no relationship with contaminant burden. Mink from the upper Fraser River had less fat stores and also had some of the lowest OC contamination levels observed. Similarly, a few individuals with enlarged livers and kidneys had low contaminant levels. Although a few individual animals with gross abnormalities of reproductive systems did not show high levels of contamination, there was a significant negative correlation between total PCB concentrations (as Aroclor 1260) and baculum length in juvenile mink (r = 0.707; p = 0.033; n = 8). The association of juvenile baculum length with eventual reproductive success is unknown, but further characterization of reproductive organ morphology and relationship to contaminants should be undertaken in a larger subset of these populations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9924010

  17. Genome-wide association studies of the PR interval in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gustav Smith

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The PR interval on the electrocardiogram reflects atrial and atrioventricular nodal conduction time. The PR interval is heritable, provides important information about arrhythmia risk, and has been suggested to differ among human races. Genome-wide association (GWA studies have identified common genetic determinants of the PR interval in individuals of European and Asian ancestry, but there is a general paucity of GWA studies in individuals of African ancestry. We performed GWA studies in African American individuals from four cohorts (n = 6,247 to identify genetic variants associated with PR interval duration. Genotyping was performed using the Affymetrix 6.0 microarray. Imputation was performed for 2.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs using combined YRI and CEU HapMap phase II panels. We observed a strong signal (rs3922844 within the gene encoding the cardiac sodium channel (SCN5A with genome-wide significant association (p<2.5 x 10⁻⁸ in two of the four cohorts and in the meta-analysis. The signal explained 2% of PR interval variability in African Americans (beta  = 5.1 msec per minor allele, 95% CI  = 4.1-6.1, p = 3 x 10⁻²³. This SNP was also associated with PR interval (beta = 2.4 msec per minor allele, 95% CI = 1.8-3.0, p = 3 x 10⁻¹⁶ in individuals of European ancestry (n = 14,042, but with a smaller effect size (p for heterogeneity <0.001 and variability explained (0.5%. Further meta-analysis of the four cohorts identified genome-wide significant associations with SNPs in SCN10A (rs6798015, MEIS1 (rs10865355, and TBX5 (rs7312625 that were highly correlated with SNPs identified in European and Asian GWA studies. African ancestry was associated with increased PR duration (13.3 msec, p = 0.009 in one but not the other three cohorts. Our findings demonstrate the relevance of common variants to African Americans at four loci previously associated with PR interval in European and

  18. Verrucous endocarditis associated with Streptococcus bovis in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Jørgensen, J.C.; Dietz, Hans-Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2001, mortalities due to verrucous endocarditis were experienced at several mink farms. Gram-positive cocci were isolated from the endocardium of all the animals examined but not always from other internal organs. Almost all the isolates were identified as Streptococcus bovis...... and only a few isolates belonged to other Streptococcus species. Typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of a selection of isolates revealed several patterns and several different clones. Attempts to reproduce disease by the injection of cultures of a field isolate into healthy mink failed....

  19. Diversity and stability of Aleutian mink disease virus during bottleneck transitions resulting from eradication in domestic mink in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Hansen, Lene Gram; Chriél, Mariann

    2011-01-01

    was a predisposing risk parameter for disease outbreak at a farm, and strain identity substantiates the suggestion that inadequate disinfection is involved in the recurrence of outbreaks. In cases of new introductions to farms it is indicated that contact including transport between farms played a most significant......Aleutian mink disease (plasmacytosis) virus (AMDV) in domestic mink (Neovison vison) has been subject to eradication in Denmark since 1976. In 2001, approximately 5% of Danish mink farms were still infected and all were located in the northern part of the peninsula of Jutland. In the present study...... for more than 6 years exceeds the rate of mutation driven diversity. Among the isolates from farms in northern Jutland two distinct types could be identified and within each of them a number of sub-types which were all useful in tracking spread of infections. Infection at a farm the preceding season...

  20. Construction of an Americn mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library and sequencing candidate genes important for the fur industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Hallers, Boudewijn ten; Nefedov, Michael

    2011-01-01

    consisting of 18,432 clones spotted in duplicate, have been produced for hybridization screening and are publicly available. Overgo probes derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs), representing 21 candidate genes for traits important for the mink industry, were used to screen the BAC library...... of genes of interest in small genomics projects. The BAC end sequences described in this paper have been deposited in the GenBank data library [HN339419-HN341884, HN604664-HN604702]. The 454 produced contigs derived from selected clones are deposited with reference numbers [GenBank: JF288166-JF288183 &JF...

  1. Genetic variants associated with warfarin dose in African-American individuals: a genome-wide association study

    OpenAIRE

    Perera, Minoli A; Cavallari, Larisa H; Limdi, Nita A; Gamazon, Eric R; Konkashbaev, Anuar; Daneshjou, Roxana; Pluzhnikov, Anna; Crawford, Dana C; Wang, Jelai; Liu, Nianjun; Tatonetti, Nicholas; Bourgeois, Stephane; Takahashi, Harumi; Bradford, Yukiko; Burkley, Benjamin M

    2013-01-01

    Summary BackgroundVKORC1 and CYP2C9 are important contributors to warfarin dose variability, but explain less variability for individuals of African descent than for those of European or Asian descent. We aimed to identify additional variants contributing to warfarin dose requirements in African Americans. MethodsWe did a genome-wide association study of discovery and replication cohorts. Samples from African-American adults (aged ≥18 years) who were taking a stable maintenance dose of warfar...

  2. Effects of blocking farm mink's feed access with open water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P.B HANSEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-eight farm mink were used to investigate whether open water in some instances could be a barrier to farm mink. Half of the animals grew up with free access to swimming water in a basin, the other half to an empty middle cage. Access between the cage containing the nest box and the cage containing the feed was either through the basin/middle cage or through a tunnel above it. Twenty-four hours before observations, the animals were confined without feed to the cage containing the nest box. Observations were carried out over two and a half hours after re-opening one of the access routes to the feed. When access was through the water filled basin, the animals were slower in reaching the feed and crossed between the feed and the nest box fewer times compared to both the same animals using the tunnel and the animals having a dry middle cage. In addition, animals scratched more at the blocked tunnel access when the available route was through the water than when it was through the dry middle cage. The results led to the conclusion that, under some circumstances, water can act as a barrier when farm minks are approaching feed. This indicates that water for swimming is not necessarily an environmental enrichment for, and that the lack of it would not impair the welfare of ranch mink.;

  3. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against mink leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, W.S.; Pedersen, Mikael; Gram-Nielsen, S.

    1997-01-01

    Three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were generated against mink leukocytes. One antibody reacted with all T lymphocytes, one with all monocytes and one had platelet reactivity. Under reducing conditions, the T lymphocyte reactive antibody immunoprecipitated 18 kDa, 23 kDa, 25 kDa and 32-40 kDa pol...

  4. Verrucous endocarditis associated with Streptococcus bovis in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Jørgensen, J.C.; Dietz, Hans-Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2001, mortalities due to verrucous endocarditis were experienced at several mink farms. Gram-positive cocci were isolated from the endocardium of all the animals examined but not always from other internal organs. Almost all the isolates were identified as Streptococcus bovis and...

  5. Distribution of Aleutian mink disease virus contamination in the environment of infected mink farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, A; Fernández-Antonio, R; Díaz-Cao, J M; López, G; Díaz, P; Alonso, J M; Morrondo, P; Fernández, G

    2017-05-01

    Control and eradication of Aleutian Mink Disease Virus (AMDV) are a major concern for fur-bearing animal production. Despite notably reducing disease prevalence, current control programs are unable to prevent the reinfection of farms, and environmental AMDV persistence seems to play a major role regarding this issue. In this study 114 samples from different areas and elements of seven infected mink farms were analyzed by qPCR in order to evaluate the environmental distribution of AMDV load. Samples were classified into nine categories, depending on the type of sample and degree of proximity to the animals, the main source of infection. Two different commercial DNA extraction kits were employed in parallel for all samples. qPCR analysis showed 69.3% positive samples with one kit and 81.6% with the other, and significant differences between the two DNA extraction methods were found regarding AMDV DNA recovery. Regarding sample categorization, all categories showed a high percentage of AMDV positive samples (31%-100%). Quantification of positive samples showed a decrease in AMDV load from animal barns to the periphery of the farm. In addition, those elements in direct contact with animals, the street clothes and vehicles of farm workers and personal protective equipment used for sampling showed a high viral load, and statistical analysis revealed significant differences in AMDV load between the first and last categories. These results indicate high environmental contamination of positive farms, which is helpful for future considerations about cleaning and disinfection procedures and biosecurity protocols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Genomic analysis of expressed sequence tags in American black bear Ursus americanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Species of the bear family (Ursidae) are important organisms for research in molecular evolution, comparative physiology and conservation biology, but relatively little genetic sequence information is available for this group. Here we report the development and analyses of the first large scale Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) resource for the American black bear (Ursus americanus). Results Comprehensive analyses of molecular functions, alternative splicing, and tissue-specific expression of 38,757 black bear EST sequences were conducted using the dog genome as a reference. We identified 18 genes, involved in functions such as lipid catabolism, cell cycle, and vesicle-mediated transport, that are showing rapid evolution in the bear lineage Three genes, Phospholamban (PLN), cysteine glycine-rich protein 3 (CSRP3) and Troponin I type 3 (TNNI3), are related to heart contraction, and defects in these genes in humans lead to heart disease. Two genes, biphenyl hydrolase-like (BPHL) and CSRP3, contain positively selected sites in bear. Global analysis of evolution rates of hibernation-related genes in bear showed that they are largely conserved and slowly evolving genes, rather than novel and fast-evolving genes. Conclusion We provide a genomic resource for an important mammalian organism and our study sheds new light on the possible functions and evolution of bear genes. PMID:20338065

  7. Using whole genome sequencing to study American foulbrood epidemiology in honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ågren, Joakim; Schäfer, Marc Oliver

    2017-01-01

    American foulbrood (AFB), caused by Paenibacillus larvae, is a devastating disease in honeybees. In most countries, the disease is controlled through compulsory burning of symptomatic colonies causing major economic losses in apiculture. The pathogen is endemic to honeybees world-wide and is readily transmitted via the movement of hive equipment or bees. Molecular epidemiology of AFB currently largely relies on placing isolates in one of four ERIC-genotypes. However, a more powerful alternative is multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) using whole-genome sequencing (WGS), which allows for high-resolution studies of disease outbreaks. To evaluate WGS as a tool for AFB-epidemiology, we applied core genome MLST (cgMLST) on isolates from a recent outbreak of AFB in Sweden. The high resolution of the cgMLST allowed different bacterial clones involved in the disease outbreak to be identified and to trace the source of infection. The source was found to be a beekeeper who had sold bees to two other beekeepers, proving the epidemiological link between them. No such conclusion could have been made using conventional MLST or ERIC-typing. This is the first time that WGS has been used to study the epidemiology of AFB. The results show that the technique is very powerful for high-resolution tracing of AFB-outbreaks. PMID:29140998

  8. Using whole genome sequencing to study American foulbrood epidemiology in honeybees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim Ågren

    Full Text Available American foulbrood (AFB, caused by Paenibacillus larvae, is a devastating disease in honeybees. In most countries, the disease is controlled through compulsory burning of symptomatic colonies causing major economic losses in apiculture. The pathogen is endemic to honeybees world-wide and is readily transmitted via the movement of hive equipment or bees. Molecular epidemiology of AFB currently largely relies on placing isolates in one of four ERIC-genotypes. However, a more powerful alternative is multi-locus sequence typing (MLST using whole-genome sequencing (WGS, which allows for high-resolution studies of disease outbreaks. To evaluate WGS as a tool for AFB-epidemiology, we applied core genome MLST (cgMLST on isolates from a recent outbreak of AFB in Sweden. The high resolution of the cgMLST allowed different bacterial clones involved in the disease outbreak to be identified and to trace the source of infection. The source was found to be a beekeeper who had sold bees to two other beekeepers, proving the epidemiological link between them. No such conclusion could have been made using conventional MLST or ERIC-typing. This is the first time that WGS has been used to study the epidemiology of AFB. The results show that the technique is very powerful for high-resolution tracing of AFB-outbreaks.

  9. Genomic analysis of expressed sequence tags in American black bear Ursus americanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sen; Shao, Chunxuan; Goropashnaya, Anna V; Stewart, Nathan C; Xu, Yichi; Tøien, Øivind; Barnes, Brian M; Fedorov, Vadim B; Yan, Jun

    2010-03-26

    Species of the bear family (Ursidae) are important organisms for research in molecular evolution, comparative physiology and conservation biology, but relatively little genetic sequence information is available for this group. Here we report the development and analyses of the first large scale Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) resource for the American black bear (Ursus americanus). Comprehensive analyses of molecular functions, alternative splicing, and tissue-specific expression of 38,757 black bear EST sequences were conducted using the dog genome as a reference. We identified 18 genes, involved in functions such as lipid catabolism, cell cycle, and vesicle-mediated transport, that are showing rapid evolution in the bear lineage Three genes, Phospholamban (PLN), cysteine glycine-rich protein 3 (CSRP3) and Troponin I type 3 (TNNI3), are related to heart contraction, and defects in these genes in humans lead to heart disease. Two genes, biphenyl hydrolase-like (BPHL) and CSRP3, contain positively selected sites in bear. Global analysis of evolution rates of hibernation-related genes in bear showed that they are largely conserved and slowly evolving genes, rather than novel and fast-evolving genes. We provide a genomic resource for an important mammalian organism and our study sheds new light on the possible functions and evolution of bear genes.

  10. Genomic copy number analysis of Chernobyl papillary thyroid carcinoma in the Ukrainian–American Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmansberger, Martin; Braselmann, Herbert; Hess, Julia; Bogdanova, Tetiana; Abend, Michael; Tronko, Mykola; Brenner, Alina; Zitzelsberger, Horst; Unger, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    One of the major consequences of the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident was a dramatic increase in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) incidence, predominantly in patients exposed to the radioiodine fallout at young age. The present study is the first on genomic copy number alterations (CNAs) of PTCs of the Ukrainian–American cohort (UkrAm) generated by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of CNA profiles revealed a significant enrichment of a subgroup of patients with female gender, long latency (>17 years) and negative lymph node status. Further, we identified single CNAs that were significantly associated with latency, gender, radiation dose and BRAF V600E mutation status. Multivariate analysis revealed no interactions but additive effects of parameters gender, latency and dose on CNAs. The previously identified radiation-associated gain of the chromosomal bands 7q11.22-11.23 was present in 29% of cases. Moreover, comparison of our radiation-associated PTC data set with the TCGA data set on sporadic PTCs revealed altered copy numbers of the tumor driver genes NF2 and CHEK2. Further, we integrated the CNA data with transcriptomic data that were available on a subset of the herein analyzed cohort and did not find statistically significant associations between the two molecular layers. However, applying hierarchical clustering on a ‘BRAF-like/RAS-like’ transcriptome signature split the cases into four groups, one of which containing all BRAF-positive cases validating the signature in an independent data set. PMID:26320103

  11. Genomic analysis of expressed sequence tags in American black bear Ursus americanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tøien Øivind

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Species of the bear family (Ursidae are important organisms for research in molecular evolution, comparative physiology and conservation biology, but relatively little genetic sequence information is available for this group. Here we report the development and analyses of the first large scale Expressed Sequence Tag (EST resource for the American black bear (Ursus americanus. Results Comprehensive analyses of molecular functions, alternative splicing, and tissue-specific expression of 38,757 black bear EST sequences were conducted using the dog genome as a reference. We identified 18 genes, involved in functions such as lipid catabolism, cell cycle, and vesicle-mediated transport, that are showing rapid evolution in the bear lineage Three genes, Phospholamban (PLN, cysteine glycine-rich protein 3 (CSRP3 and Troponin I type 3 (TNNI3, are related to heart contraction, and defects in these genes in humans lead to heart disease. Two genes, biphenyl hydrolase-like (BPHL and CSRP3, contain positively selected sites in bear. Global analysis of evolution rates of hibernation-related genes in bear showed that they are largely conserved and slowly evolving genes, rather than novel and fast-evolving genes. Conclusion We provide a genomic resource for an important mammalian organism and our study sheds new light on the possible functions and evolution of bear genes.

  12. European American stratification in ovarian cancer case control data: the utility of genome-wide data for inferring ancestry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Raska

    Full Text Available We investigated the ability of several principal components analysis (PCA-based strategies to detect and control for population stratification using data from a multi-center study of epithelial ovarian cancer among women of European-American ethnicity. These include a correction based on an ancestry informative markers (AIMs panel designed to capture European ancestral variation and corrections utilizing un-thinned genome-wide SNP data; case-control samples were drawn from four geographically distinct North-American sites. The AIMs-only and genome-wide first principal components (PC1 both corresponded to the previously described North or Northwest-Southeast axis of European variation. We found that the genome-wide PCA captured this primary dimension of variation more precisely and identified additional axes of genome-wide variation of relevance to epithelial ovarian cancer. Associations evident between the genome-wide PCs and study site corroborate North American immigration history and suggest that undiscovered dimensions of variation lie within Northern Europe. The structure captured by the genome-wide PCA was also found within control individuals and did not reflect the case-control variation present in the data. The genome-wide PCA highlighted three regions of local LD, corresponding to the lactase (LCT gene on chromosome 2, the human leukocyte antigen system (HLA on chromosome 6 and to a common inversion polymorphism on chromosome 8. These features did not compromise the efficacy of PCs from this analysis for ancestry control. This study concludes that although AIMs panels are a cost-effective way of capturing population structure, genome-wide data should preferably be used when available.

  13. Novel genomic resources for a climate change sensitive mammal: characterization of the American pika transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Matthew A; Henry, Philippe; Lamb, Clayton T; Robson, Kelsey M; Russello, Michael A

    2013-05-10

    When faced with climate change, species must either shift their home range or adapt in situ in order to maintain optimal physiological balance with their environment. The American pika (Ochotona princeps) is a small alpine mammal with limited dispersal capacity and low tolerance for thermal stress. As a result, pikas have become an important system for examining biotic responses to changing climatic conditions. Previous research using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) has revealed evidence for environmental-mediated selection in O. princeps populations distributed along elevation gradients, yet the anonymity of AFLP loci and lack of available genomic resources precluded the identification of associated gene regions. Here, we harnessed next-generation sequencing technology in order to characterize the American pika transcriptome and identify a large suite of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which can be used to elucidate elevation- and site-specific patterns of sequence variation. We constructed pooled cDNA libraries of O. princeps from high (1400 m) and low (300 m) elevation sites along a previously established transect in British Columbia. Transcriptome sequencing using the Roche 454 GS FLX titanium platform generated 780 million base pairs of data, which were assembled into 7,325 high coverage contigs. These contigs were used to identify 24,261 novel SNP loci. Using high resolution melt analysis, we developed 17 of these SNPs into genotyping assays, which were validated with independent DNA samples from British Columbia Canada and Oregon State USA. In addition, we detected haplotypes in the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 of the mitochondrial genome that were fixed and different among elevations, suggesting that this may be an informative target gene for studying the role of cellular respiration in local adaptation. We also identified contigs that were unique to each elevation, including a high elevation-specific contig that was a positive match

  14. Evolutionary and ecological implications of genome size in the North American endemic sagebrushes and allies (Artemisia, Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonia Garcia; Miguel A. Canela; Teresa Garnatje; E. Durant McArthur; Jaume Pellicer; Stewart C. Sanderson; Joan Valles

    2008-01-01

    The genome size of 51 populations of 20 species of the North American endemic sagebrushes (subgenus Tridentatae), related species, and some hybrid taxa were assessed by flow cytometry, and were analysed in a phylogenetic framework. Results were similar for most Tridentatae species, with the exception of three taxonomically conflictive species: Artemisia bigelovii Gray...

  15. Genome-wide study of the defective sucrose fermenter strain of Vibrio cholerae from the Latin American cholera epidemic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garza, D.R.; Thompson, C.C.; Loureiro, E.C.; Dutilh, B.E.; Inada, D.T.; Junior, E.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Nunes, M.R.; Lima, C.P. de; Silvestre, R.V.; Nunes, K.N.; Santos, E.C.; Edwards, R.A.; Vicente, A.C.; Sa Morais, L.L. de

    2012-01-01

    The 7th cholera pandemic reached Latin America in 1991, spreading from Peru to virtually all Latin American countries. During the late epidemic period, a strain that failed to ferment sucrose dominated cholera outbreaks in the Northern Brazilian Amazon region. In order to understand the genomic

  16. Mitochondrial Genome Diversity of Native Americans Supports a Single Early Entry of Founder Populations into America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Jr., Wilson A.; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Holanda, Adriano J.; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Andrea K.; Paixão, Beatriz M.; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Abe-Sandes, Kiyoko; Rodriguez-Delfin, Luis; Barbosa, Marcela; Paçó-Larson, Maria Luiza; Petzl-Erler, Maria Luiza; Valente, Valeria; Santos, Sidney E. B.; Zago, Marco A.

    2002-01-01

    There is general agreement that the Native American founder populations migrated from Asia into America through Beringia sometime during the Pleistocene, but the hypotheses concerning the ages and the number of these migrations and the size of the ancestral populations are surrounded by controversy. DNA sequence variations of several regions of the genome of Native Americans, especially in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region, have been studied as a tool to help answer these questions. However, the small number of nucleotides studied and the nonclocklike rate of mtDNA control-region evolution impose several limitations to these results. Here we provide the sequence analysis of a continuous region of 8.8 kb of the mtDNA outside the D-loop for 40 individuals, 30 of whom are Native Americans whose mtDNA belongs to the four founder haplogroups. Haplogroups A, B, and C form monophyletic clades, but the five haplogroup D sequences have unstable positions and usually do not group together. The high degree of similarity in the nucleotide diversity and time of differentiation (i.e., ∼21,000 years before present) of these four haplogroups support a common origin for these sequences and suggest that the populations who harbor them may also have a common history. Additional evidence supports the idea that this age of differentiation coincides with the process of colonization of the New World and supports the hypothesis of a single and early entry of the ancestral Asian population into the Americas. PMID:12022039

  17. The American cranberry mitochondrial genome reveals the presence of selenocysteine (tRNA-Sec and SECIS) insertion machinery in land plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) mitochondrial genome was assembled and reconstructed from whole genome 454 Roche GS-FLX and Illumina shotgun sequences. Compared with other Asterids, the reconstruction of the genome revealed an average size mitochondrion (459,678 nt) with comparat...

  18. Bite marks in mink—Induced experimentally and as reflection of aggressive encounters between mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Møller, Steen Henrik; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2014-01-01

    by an artificial tooth. Before pressure wasapplied, each mink was anaesthetized and pain treated.In order to investigate when bite marks from cage mates are inflicted and to what extendthey accumulate over time, 120 brown and 40 white juvenile mink were placed in groupsof four in climbing cages after weaning....... Every second week (at the age of 20, 22, 24, 26 and28 weeks) group housed mink were moved to single housing in standard cages in order toprevent further bites from cage mates.At the age of 29 weeks, all mink were killed individually by CO2and the pelts wereexamined for bite marks.The results showed that...

  19. Spatial and temporal differences in giant kidney worm, dictophyma renale, prevalence in Minnesota Mink, Mustela vison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Examination of 110 Mink (Mustela vison) carcasses from 1998 through 2007 indicated that the giant kidney worm, Dioctophyma renale, occurred in Pine and Kanabec Counties of eastern Minnesota with annual prevalences of 0-92%. Worm prevalence increased from 20% in 1999 to 92% in 2001 and decreased to 6% in 2005. During 2000 to 2007, no worms were found in Mink from Anoka and Chisago Counties (n = 54), and in 2000, none in 107 Mink from LeSeur, Freeborn, Redwood, Brown and Watonwan Counties. Changes in kidney worm prevalence were positively related to trapping success, considered an index of Mink density.

  20. Genome-wide association studies in Africans and African Americans: expanding the framework of the genomics of human traits and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peprah, Emmanuel; Xu, Huichun; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Royal, Charmaine D

    2015-01-01

    Genomic research is one of the tools for elucidating the pathogenesis of diseases of global health relevance and paving the research dimension to clinical and public health translation. Recent advances in genomic research and technologies have increased our understanding of human diseases, genes associated with these disorders, and the relevant mechanisms. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have proliferated since the first studies were published several years ago and have become an important tool in helping researchers comprehend human variation and the role genetic variants play in disease. However, the need to expand the diversity of populations in GWAS has become increasingly apparent as new knowledge is gained about genetic variation. Inclusion of diverse populations in genomic studies is critical to a more complete understanding of human variation and elucidation of the underpinnings of complex diseases. In this review, we summarize the available data on GWAS in recent African ancestry populations within the western hemisphere (i.e. African Americans and peoples of the Caribbean) and continental African populations. Furthermore, we highlight ways in which genomic studies in populations of recent African ancestry have led to advances in the areas of malaria, HIV, prostate cancer, and other diseases. Finally, we discuss the advantages of conducting GWAS in recent African ancestry populations in the context of addressing existing and emerging global health conditions.

  1. Effect of infectious dose and season on development of hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark; Chriél, Mariann; Jensen, Trine H

    2013-01-01

    , illustrating that predisposing factors in the mink itself and not infectious dose might be crucial for disease development. We were able to culture P. aeruginosa from the nasal cavity of the clinically healthy experimental mink 8 d after inoculation. This indicated that the mink can carry P. aeruginosa...... of this study was to investigate the correlation between dose-response and season of infection and to clarify whether Danish mink are carriers of P. aeruginosa on their nasal mucosa during the season for hemorrhagic pneumonia. To elucidate the pathogenesis of the disease, an infectious dose-response trial...... was carried out on adult mink and mink kits, both in the season for hemorrhagic pneumonia (November) as well as out of season (July). It proved difficult to infect mink via the intra-nasal route. Only 4 out of 60 infected mink developed clinical disease and were euthanized, all of them in November...

  2. Animal prevalence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infive Danish mink (Neovison vison) farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Mette Ely; Pedersen, Karl; Hansen, Julie Elvekjær

    may be explained by an overall low animal-prevalence in the farm. Another explanation could be the high proportion of young mink kits (15/20) tested. All mink kits were ...Background. Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) was for the first time isolated from Danish mink in 2013. Subsequent testing of all mink submitted for clinical diagnosis in Denmark, found 34 % (20/58) mink positive for LA-MRSA. In addition, 40 % (20....../50) of screened healthy Danish mink farms were found positive. LA-MRSA in mink is believed to originate from contaminated slaughter-offal in the mink feed. Objective. The objective of the present study was to identify the animal-prevalence of LA-MRSA in five Danish minkfarms. Materials and Methods. We collected 1...

  3. Genome-wide study of the defective sucrose fermenter strain of Vibrio cholerae from the Latin American cholera epidemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rios Garza

    Full Text Available The 7th cholera pandemic reached Latin America in 1991, spreading from Peru to virtually all Latin American countries. During the late epidemic period, a strain that failed to ferment sucrose dominated cholera outbreaks in the Northern Brazilian Amazon region. In order to understand the genomic characteristics and the determinants of this altered sucrose fermenting phenotype, the genome of the strain IEC224 was sequenced. This paper reports a broad genomic study of this strain, showing its correlation with the major epidemic lineage. The potentially mobile genomic regions are shown to possess GC content deviation, and harbor the main V. cholera virulence genes. A novel bioinformatic approach was applied in order to identify the putative functions of hypothetical proteins, and was compared with the automatic annotation by RAST. The genome of a large bacteriophage was found to be integrated to the IEC224's alanine aminopeptidase gene. The presence of this phage is shown to be a common characteristic of the El Tor strains from the Latin American epidemic, as well as its putative ancestor from Angola. The defective sucrose fermenting phenotype is shown to be due to a single nucleotide insertion in the V. cholerae sucrose-specific transportation gene. This frame-shift mutation truncated a membrane protein, altering its structural pore-like conformation. Further, the identification of a common bacteriophage reinforces both the monophyletic and African-Origin hypotheses for the main causative agent of the 1991 Latin America cholera epidemics.

  4. Genome variability in European and American bison detected using the BovineSNP50 BeadChip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertoldi, C.; Wójcik, Jan M; Tokarska, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

     The remaining wild populations of bison have all been through severe bottlenecks. The genomic consequences of these bottlenecks present an interesting area to study. Using a very large panel of SNPs developed in Bos taurus we have carried out a genome-wide screening on the European bison (Bison...... bonasus; EB) and on two subspecies of American bison: the plains bison (B. bison bison; PB) and the wood bison (B. bison athabascae; WB). One hundred bison samples were genotyped for 52,978 SNPs along with seven breeds of domestic bovine Bos taurus. Only 2,209 of the SNPs were polymorphic in the bison...

  5. Hydrodynamic Performance of the Minke Whale (Balaenoptera Acutorostrata) Flipper

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    2005). Gulping behavior in rorqual whales : underwater observations and functional interpretation. Mem. Queensl. Mus. 51, 309-332. Ashenberg, J. and Weihs...Exploitation of the Minke Whale . Boca Raton: CRC Press. Howell, A. (1930). Aquatic Mammals. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas. Kot, B. W. (2005). Rorqual ...1859 INTRODUCTION Cetaceans ( whales , dolphins and porpoises) are exceptional mammals that have adapted to life in a marine environment. They are the

  6. Er genomisk selektion en revolution af avlsarbejdet med mink?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Peer

    2011-01-01

    Genomisk selektion udnytter, at den enkelte mink kan genotypes for tusindvis af genetiske markører. Et dyrs avlsværdi kan skønnes med ret stor sikkerhed på basis af en blod- eller hårprøve, hvor dyrets sæt af genetiske markører bestemmes. Det er altså ikke nødvendigt at registrere minkens egne eg...

  7. Selective predation by mink, Mustela vison, on waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, A.B.; Swanson, G.A.; Doty, H.A.

    1973-01-01

    Predation by mink (Mustela vison) on three types of ducks (captive, pen-reared-released and wild) was documented in two studies at the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown, North Dakota. In the first study, 36 of 60 flightless adult and juvenile ducks held on eight 0.1-acre experimental ponds disappeared between 10 July and 4 August 1969. Available evidence indicated that all were killed by a large adult mink. The mink selected recently released incubator-hatched ducklings, females in the process of incubating, and adults and juveniles on a marginal food supply.In the second study, 152 wood duck ducklings (Aix sponsa) were released on a 76-acre marsh during 1971. Half of the ducklings, when 24 to 27 days old, were placed at weekly intervals in four floating pens and allowed to escape after 4 days. Each time birds were placed in the floating pens, a comparable group was placed in a predator-proof shoreline pen. Birds in the shoreline pen escaped as they learned to fly when approximately 60 days old. The shoreline of the marsh was periodically searched, and the remains of 21 (28%) of the floating-pen birds were identified in food remains found at 16 mink dens. No remains of birds from the shoreline pen were found at the dens. Coots (Fulica americana) were also taken commonly. Wild ducklings appeared to have been almost totally consumed, but the legs and feet of the wood ducks were often left uneaten because of bands and tags.

  8. WelFur-mink: on-farm welfare assessment of mink (Neovision vision) - effect of sample size on animal based measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousing, Tine; Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W

    2012-01-01

    European Fur Breeder's Association initiated the "WelFur project" in 2009 which is aiming at developing an applicable on farm welfare assessment protocol for mink based on the Welfare Quality® principles. Such a welfare assessment system should possess the following qualities: It should be "high...... measures such as "stereotypy", "tremperament" and "body condition". These measures were in each fo 9 Danish mink farms on approximately 250 adult mink on each farm collected during the nursing season 2011 by a total of 8 observers working in pairs. Descriptive result showed a large between herd variations...

  9. Environmentally enriched male mink gain more copulations than stereotypic, barren-reared competitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Díez-León

    Full Text Available Wild carnivores in zoos, conservation breeding centres, and farms commonly live in relatively small, unstimulating enclosures. Under these captive conditions, in a range of species including giant pandas, black-footed ferrets, and European mink, male reproductive abilities are often poor. Such problems have long been hypothesized to be caused by these animals' housing conditions. We show for the first time that rearing under welfare-improving (i.e., highly valued and stress-reducing environmental enrichments enhances male carnivores' copulatory performance: in mate choice competitions, enriched male American mink (Neovison vison mated more often than non-enriched males. We screened for several potential mediators of this effect. First was physiological stress and its impact on reproductive physiology; second, stress-mediated changes in morphology and variables related to immunocompetence that could influence male attractiveness; and third, behavioural changes likely to affect social competence, particularly autistic-like excessive routine and repetition ('perseveration' as is reflected in the stereotypies common in captive animals. Consistent with physiological stress, excreted steroid metabolites revealed that non-enriched males had higher cortisol levels and lower androgen levels than enriched conspecifics. Their os penises (bacula also tended to be less developed. Consistent with reduced attractiveness, non-enriched males were lighter, with comparatively small spleens and a trend to greater fluctuating asymmetry. Consistent with impaired social competence, non-enriched males performed more stereotypic behaviour (e.g., pacing in their home cages. Of all these effects, the only significant predictor of copulation number was stereotypy (a trend suggesting that low bodyweights may also be influential: highly stereotypic males gained the fewest copulations. The neurophysiological changes underlying stereotypy thus handicap males sexually. We

  10. A Genome-Wide Methylation Study of Severe Vitamin D Deficiency in African American Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Haidong; Wang, Xiaoling; Shi, Huidong; Su, Shaoyong; Harshfield, Gregory A.; Gutin, Bernard; Snieder, Harold; Dong, Yanbin

    Objectives To test the hypothesis that changes in DNA methylation are involved in vitamin D deficiency-related immune cell regulation using an unbiased genome-wide approach combined with a genomic and epigenomic integrative approach. Study design We performed a genome-wide methylation scan using the

  11. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed: Effect of irradiated feed on reproductive performance, growth and fur quality of mink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, C. A.; Roy, D.; Savoie, L.; Malo, R.; Wilson, J.

    No significant differences were observed in the net birth rate of kits/female between the 7 breeding groups. However, there was reduced incidence (P = 0.05) of kit deaths among the females receiving irradiated feed, and larger kit size (P pasteurization of mink feed (frozen meat to 1 kGy, and dry feed to 2 kGy or more) should therefore help improve feed utilization, keep the animals healthier, and reproducing better without affecting fur quality.

  12. The effect of handling and training on measures of affective state of farmed mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille Maj

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine if handling and training female mink on a learning task, as preparation for a cognitive bias test, had an effect on measures of their affective state. Adult female farm mink were used based on measures of approach/avoidance behaviour, and categorised as explorat...

  13. Mortality in farmed mink: Systematic collection versus arbitrary submissions for diagnostic investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattenborg, Erik; Dietz, Hans-Henrik; Andersen, T.H.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of diagnoses of mortality in mink submitted to the Danish Veterinary Laboratory (DVL) for diagnostic investigation in the calendar year 1997 was compared with the diagnoses of mortality in all dead mink collected at 4 selected farms (project farms) during the same period. A total...

  14. Protein turnover in lactating mink (Mustela vison) is not affected by dietary protein supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, Anne-Helene; Fink, Rikke; Chwalibog, André

    2006-01-01

    The mink is a strict carnivore and may therefore serve as a model for the cat. Current recommendations for protein supply for lactating mink are based on production experiments with preweaning kit growth as a measure of dietary adequacy (1,2). Recently, nitrogen balance and substrate oxidation ha...

  15. Apparent lack of effect of vaccination against mink enteritis virus (MEV). A challenge study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse

    1988-01-01

    The mink enteritis virus part of a triple vaccine was tested in mink. No raise in antibody response was measured after vaccination. Subsequent challenge of groups of vaccinated or not-vaccinated animals revealed no differences in virus excretion or antibody response in the different animals....

  16. Diurnal activity patterns of farm mink (Mustela vison) subjected to different feeding routines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Møller, Steen H

    2008-01-01

    synchronize their daily activity rhythm to the expected time of feeding. In addition, a high feeding motivation appears to be a precondition for circadian anticipatory activity in mink whereas anticipatory activity of mink fed ad libitum or close to ad libitum may be provoked by stimuli from the actual...

  17. Pre-slaughter bodyweight and daily gains in mink are independent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research hypothesis assumed that the size of the cage affects bodyweight after weaning and prior to slaughter and, as a consequence, mean daily bodyweight gains in individuals of both sexes. The study was conducted from 2014 to 2015 at one of the private mink farms in Poland. In total, 800 brown mink were used as ...

  18. Modelling growth of five different colour types of mink | Liu | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modelling growth of five different colour types of mink. Z Liu, F Ning, Z Du, C Yang, J Fu, X Wang, X Bai. Abstract. The objective of this study was to estimate and compare the growth curve parameters for live weight of standard black, brown, mahogany, Hedlund white and sapphire minks. The data were collected from five ...

  19. The effect of color type on early wound healing in farmed mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, A.; Jensen, H. E.; Agger, J. F.

    2017-01-01

    parameters were within normal ranges in most cases, however, the mink showed mildly to markedly decreased hematocrit and six mink of the color types Silverblue and Blue Iris showed moderately elevated numbers of circulating segmented neutrophils on day 2. There was a marked increase in concentration of serum...

  20. Can spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics replace minks in digestibility tests?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, P.L.; Christensen, B.M.; Munck, L.

    2000-01-01

    One of the most relevant but expensive methods of assessing the quality of fish meal is the physiological digestibility test with minks. The purpose of this study was to determine whether spectroscopic and chemical analyses evaluated with chemometrics can replace minks in digestibility tests....... The spectroscopic methods used were the two complementary techniques of fluorescence emission and near-infrared reflectance. The investigation included 54 samples of high-quality fish meal ranging from 89.6 to 93.9 on the mink digestibility index. The investigation also included determination of seven quality...... parameters in the fish meal to substantiate the spectroscopic models on the mink digestibility. These quality parameters include the content of protein, oil, water, water-soluble protein, ash and the biogenic substance cadaverine as well as the titration value. The study demonstrates that the mink...

  1. Expression of mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia virus-related transcripts in AKR mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.S.; Laigret, F.; Rodi, C.P.

    1987-01-01

    The authors used a synthetic 16-base-pair mink cell focus-forming (MCF) env-specific oligomer as radiolabeled probe to study MCF murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-related transcripts in brain, kidney, liver, spleen, and thymus tissues of AKR mice ranging from 5 weeks to 6 months (mo) of age. Tissue-specific expression of poly(A) + RNAs was seen. In addition, all the tissues tested contained 3.0-kb messages. The transcription of these MCF-related mRNAs was independent of the presence of ecotropic and xenotropic MuLVs. In general, expression of the MCF env-related transcripts appeared to peak at 2 mo of age; these messages were barely detectable in brain, kidney, liver, and spleen tissues after 2 mo and in thymus tissue after 4 mo of age. All of the subgenomic MCF env-related mRNAs appeared to contain the 190-base-pair cellular DNA insert, characteristic of the long terminal repeats associated with endogenous MCF env-related proviruses. No genomic-size (8.4-kb) transcripts corresponding to endogenous MCF-related proviruses were detected. An 8.4-kb MCF env-related mRNA was first seen at 3 mo of age, exclusively in thymus tissue. This species most likely represents the first appearance of a recombinant MCF-related MuLV genome. The transcripts which were detected in thymus tissue might be involved in the generation of leukemogenic MCF viruses

  2. Dietary exposure of mink to carp from Saginaw Bay, Michigan: 2. Hematology and liver pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, S. N.; Bursian, S.J.; Giesy, J.P.; Tillitt, D. E.; Render, J. A.; Jones, P.D.; Verbrugge, D.A.; Kubiak, T.J.; Aulerich, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of consumption of environmental contaminants contained in carp (Cyprinus carpio)from Saginaw Bay, Michigan on various hematological parameters and liver integrity of adult female mink (Mustela vison) were determined. Mink were fed diets that contained 0 (control), 10, 20, or 40% carp prior to and throughout the reproductive period (182 days). The diets contained 0.015, 0.72, 1.53, and 2.56 mg polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)/kg diet and 1.0, 19, 40, and 81 pg 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs)/g diet, respectively. Mink fed the diets containing carp showed a general dose-dependent occurrence of clinical signs commonly associated with chlorinated hydrocarbon toxicity, including listlessness, nervousness when approached, anorexia, and melena. Erythrocyte counts were less in mink exposed to Saginaw Bay carp than in controls, while the number of white blood cells was greater than in controls. Significant differences (pdiets were significantly less than those of mink in the control and 10% carp groups. There were no significant differences in hemoglobin concentrations among the groups. Necropsies revealed enlarged yellowish livers in many of the carp-fed mink, especially those fed the 40% carp diet. Liver, spleen, and lung weights of carp-fed mink were significantly greater than those of control mink. Histopathologic examination of the livers revealed various degrees of congestion, hepatocellular fatty changes, and scattered portal lymphocytic infiltration which were most prevalent in mink fed the carp diets. These clinical signs, hematological effects, and histologic alterations are similar to those previously described for chlorinated hydrocarbon toxicoses in mink.

  3. Cadmium, mercury and selenium concentrations in mink (Mustela vison) from Yukon, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamberg, Mary [Gamberg Consulting, Box 10460, Whitehorse, Yukon, Y1A 7A1 (Canada)]. E-mail: mary.gamberg@northwestel.net; Boila, Gail [Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N6 (Canada); Stern, Gary [Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N6 (Canada); Roach, Patrick [Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, Suite 300, 300 Main Street, Whitehorse, Yukon, Y1A 2B5 (Canada)

    2005-12-01

    Mercury (total and methyl), cadmium and selenium concentrations were measured in liver, kidney and brain tissue from mink trapped from the Yukon Territory from 2001-2002. None of these metals was found at levels of toxicological concern. Total mercury averaged 0.66, 0.92 and 0.22 {mu}g g{sup -1} in mink kidney, liver and brain tissue respectively, while methyl mercury averaged 0.77, 0.85 and 0.21 {mu}g g{sup -1} in the same tissues. Selenium averaged 2.07, 1.40 and 0.39 {mu}g g{sup -1} in mink kidney, liver and brain tissue, while cadmium was only measured in kidneys and averaged 0.22 {mu}g g{sup -1}. All element concentrations are presented on a wet weight basis. Concentrations of total mercury in all tissues were significantly higher in female than male mink, possibly reflecting proportionally greater food consumption by the smaller females. Total mercury concentrations were inversely related to the proportion of mercury present as methylmercury, and positively related to concentrations of selenium, consistent with increasing demethylation of methylmercury, and the formation of mercuric selenide as total concentrations of mercury increased. This relationship was seen most strongly in mink liver, less so in kidneys and not at all in brains where most of the mercury was maintained in the methyl form. There did not appear to be any geographical areas in which mink had obviously higher concentrations of mercury, and there was frequently a relatively large range of mercury levels found in mink from a given trapline. Mink diet may be a factor in this variation. Local environmental levels of cadmium were not reflected in cadmium concentrations in mink tissues. Mercury, cadmium and selenium do not appear to constitute environmental hazards to mink in the Yukon.

  4. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Extensively Drug-Resistant Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Belonging to the Euro-American S Lineage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malinga, L.A.; Abeel, T.; Desjardins, C.A.; Dlamini, T.C.; Cassell, G.; Chapman, S.B.; Birren, B.W.; Earl, A.M.; Van der Walt, M.

    2016-01-01

    We report the whole-genome sequencing of two extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis strains belonging to the Euro-American S lineage. The RSA 114 strain showed single-nucleotide polymorphisms predicted to have drug efflux activity.

  5. Genome-wide Association Study Identifies African-Specific Susceptibility Loci in African Americans with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, Steven R.; Okou, David T.; Simpson, Claire L.; Cutler, David J.; Haritunians, Talin; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Chopra, Pankaj; Prince, Jarod; Begum, Ferdouse; Kumar, Archana; Huang, Chengrui; Venkateswaran, Suresh; Datta, Lisa W.; Wei, Zhi; Thomas, Kelly; Herrinton, Lisa J.; Klapproth, Jan-Micheal A.; Quiros, Antonio J.; Seminerio, Jenifer; Liu, Zhenqiu; Alexander, Jonathan S.; Baldassano, Robert N.; Dudley-Brown, Sharon; Cross, Raymond K.; Dassopoulos, Themistocles; Denson, Lee A.; Dhere, Tanvi A.; Dryden, Gerald W.; Hanson, John S.; Hou, Jason K.; Hussain, Sunny Z.; Hyams, Jeffrey S.; Isaacs, Kim L.; Kader, Howard; Kappelman, Michael D.; Katz, Jeffry; Kellermayer, Richard; Kirschner, Barbara S.; Kuemmerle, John F.; Kwon, John H.; Lazarev, Mark; Li, Ellen; Mack, David; Mannon, Peter; Moulton, Dedrick E.; Newberry, Rodney D.; Osuntokun, Bankole O.; Patel, Ashish S.; Saeed, Shehzad A.; Targan, Stephan R.; Valentine, John F.; Wang, Ming-Hsi; Zonca, Martin; Rioux, John D.; Duerr, Richard H.; Silverberg, Mark S.; Cho, Judy H.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Zwick, Michael E.; McGovern, Dermot P.B.; Kugathasan, Subra

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) cause significant morbidity and are increasing in prevalence among all populations, including African Americans. More than 200 susceptibility loci have been identified in populations of predominantly European ancestry, but few loci have been associated with IBD in other ethnicities. Methods We performed 2 high-density, genome-wide scans comprising 2345 cases of African Americans with IBD (1646 with CD, 583 with UC, and 116 inflammatory bowel disease unclassified [IBD-U]) and 5002 individuals without IBD (controls, identified from the Health Retirement Study and Kaiser Permanente database). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated at P<5.0×10−8 in meta-analysis with a nominal evidence (P<.05) in each scan were considered to have genome-wide significance. Results We detected SNPs at HLA-DRB1, and African-specific SNPs at ZNF649 and LSAMP, with associations of genome-wide significance for UC. We detected SNPs at USP25 with associations of genome-wide significance associations for IBD. No associations of genome-wide significance were detected for CD. In addition, 9 genes previously associated with IBD contained SNPs with significant evidence for replication (P<1.6×10−6): ADCY3, CXCR6, HLA-DRB1 to HLA-DQA1 (genome-wide significance on conditioning), IL12B, PTGER4, and TNC for IBD; IL23R, PTGER4, and SNX20 (in strong linkage disequilibrium with NOD2) for CD; and KCNQ2 (near TNFRSF6B) for UC. Several of these genes, such as TNC (near TNFSF15), CXCR6, and genes associated with IBD at the HLA locus, contained SNPs with unique association patterns with African-specific alleles. Conclusions We performed a genome-wide association study of African Americans with IBD and identified loci associated with CD and UC in only this population; we also replicated loci identified in European populations. The detection of variants associated with IBD risk in only

  6. Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies Identifies Genetic Risk Factors for Stroke in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Cara L; Keene, Keith L; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Meschia, James F; Chen, Wei-Min; Nalls, Mike; Bis, Joshua C; Kittner, Steven J; Rich, Stephen S; Tajuddin, Salman; Zonderman, Alan B; Evans, Michele K; Langefeld, Carl D; Gottesman, Rebecca; Mosley, Thomas H; Shahar, Eyal; Woo, Daniel; Yaffe, Kristine; Liu, Yongmei; Sale, Michèle M; Dichgans, Martin; Malik, Rainer; Longstreth, W T; Mitchell, Braxton D; Psaty, Bruce M; Kooperberg, Charles; Reiner, Alexander; Worrall, Bradford B; Fornage, Myriam

    2015-08-01

    The majority of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of stroke have focused on European-ancestry populations; however, none has been conducted in African Americans, despite the disproportionately high burden of stroke in this population. The Consortium of Minority Population Genome-Wide Association Studies of Stroke (COMPASS) was established to identify stroke susceptibility loci in minority populations. Using METAL, we conducted meta-analyses of GWAS in 14 746 African Americans (1365 ischemic and 1592 total stroke cases) from COMPASS, and tested genetic variants with Pstroke genetic studies in European-ancestry populations. We also evaluated stroke loci previously identified in European-ancestry populations. The 15q21.3 locus linked with lipid levels and hypertension was associated with total stroke (rs4471613; P=3.9×10(-8)) in African Americans. Nominal associations (Pstroke were observed for 18 variants in or near genes implicated in cell cycle/mRNA presplicing (PTPRG, CDC5L), platelet function (HPS4), blood-brain barrier permeability (CLDN17), immune response (ELTD1, WDFY4, and IL1F10-IL1RN), and histone modification (HDAC9). Two of these loci achieved nominal significance in METASTROKE: 5q35.2 (P=0.03), and 1p31.1 (P=0.018). Four of 7 previously reported ischemic stroke loci (PITX2, HDAC9, CDKN2A/CDKN2B, and ZFHX3) were nominally associated (Pstroke in COMPASS. We identified a novel genetic variant associated with total stroke in African Americans and found that ischemic stroke loci identified in European-ancestry populations may also be relevant for African Americans. Our findings support investigation of diverse populations to identify and characterize genetic risk factors, and the importance of shared genetic risk across populations. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Accuracies of genomic breeding values in American Angus beef cattle using K-means clustering for cross-validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatchi, Mahdi; McClure, Mathew C; McKay, Stephanie D; Rolf, Megan M; Kim, JaeWoo; Decker, Jared E; Taxis, Tasia M; Chapple, Richard H; Ramey, Holly R; Northcutt, Sally L; Bauck, Stewart; Woodward, Brent; Dekkers, Jack C M; Fernando, Rohan L; Schnabel, Robert D; Garrick, Dorian J; Taylor, Jeremy F

    2011-11-28

    Genomic selection is a recently developed technology that is beginning to revolutionize animal breeding. The objective of this study was to estimate marker effects to derive prediction equations for direct genomic values for 16 routinely recorded traits of American Angus beef cattle and quantify corresponding accuracies of prediction. Deregressed estimated breeding values were used as observations in a weighted analysis to derive direct genomic values for 3570 sires genotyped using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip. These bulls were clustered into five groups using K-means clustering on pedigree estimates of additive genetic relationships between animals, with the aim of increasing within-group and decreasing between-group relationships. All five combinations of four groups were used for model training, with cross-validation performed in the group not used in training. Bivariate animal models were used for each trait to estimate the genetic correlation between deregressed estimated breeding values and direct genomic values. Accuracies of direct genomic values ranged from 0.22 to 0.69 for the studied traits, with an average of 0.44. Predictions were more accurate when animals within the validation group were more closely related to animals in the training set. When training and validation sets were formed by random allocation, the accuracies of direct genomic values ranged from 0.38 to 0.85, with an average of 0.65, reflecting the greater relationship between animals in training and validation. The accuracies of direct genomic values obtained from training on older animals and validating in younger animals were intermediate to the accuracies obtained from K-means clustering and random clustering for most traits. The genetic correlation between deregressed estimated breeding values and direct genomic values ranged from 0.15 to 0.80 for the traits studied. These results suggest that genomic estimates of genetic merit can be produced in beef cattle at a young age but

  8. Accuracies of genomic breeding values in American Angus beef cattle using K-means clustering for cross-validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saatchi Mahdi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic selection is a recently developed technology that is beginning to revolutionize animal breeding. The objective of this study was to estimate marker effects to derive prediction equations for direct genomic values for 16 routinely recorded traits of American Angus beef cattle and quantify corresponding accuracies of prediction. Methods Deregressed estimated breeding values were used as observations in a weighted analysis to derive direct genomic values for 3570 sires genotyped using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip. These bulls were clustered into five groups using K-means clustering on pedigree estimates of additive genetic relationships between animals, with the aim of increasing within-group and decreasing between-group relationships. All five combinations of four groups were used for model training, with cross-validation performed in the group not used in training. Bivariate animal models were used for each trait to estimate the genetic correlation between deregressed estimated breeding values and direct genomic values. Results Accuracies of direct genomic values ranged from 0.22 to 0.69 for the studied traits, with an average of 0.44. Predictions were more accurate when animals within the validation group were more closely related to animals in the training set. When training and validation sets were formed by random allocation, the accuracies of direct genomic values ranged from 0.38 to 0.85, with an average of 0.65, reflecting the greater relationship between animals in training and validation. The accuracies of direct genomic values obtained from training on older animals and validating in younger animals were intermediate to the accuracies obtained from K-means clustering and random clustering for most traits. The genetic correlation between deregressed estimated breeding values and direct genomic values ranged from 0.15 to 0.80 for the traits studied. Conclusions These results suggest that genomic estimates

  9. Consequences of outbreaks of influenza A virus in farmed mink (Neovison vison) in Denmark in 2009 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chriél, Mariann; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2012-01-01

    Influenza in mink (Neovison vison) is assumed to be rare, but outbreaks have previously been reported in farmed mink. The first report was from Swedish mink farms in 1984 which was caused by influenza A virus H10N4 of avian origin. In 2009 and 2010 outbreaks of respiratory disease were seen...... in several Danish mink farms. In all of the farms, the clinical symptoms were upper respiratory tract symptoms with sneezing and coughing as the most dominant symptoms. Peracute deaths were seen in mink without any clinical symptoms. Influenza H3N2 was found detected by PCR in the lungs from diseased mink...... and four of these farms used feed medication in three weeks. The farmers, however, noted that the medication had little or no effect. The most plausible way of transmission of the influenza is from the raw untreated pig waste containing lungs used in the production of mink feed. Because the first clinical...

  10. Consequences of outbreaks of influenza A virus in farmed mink (Neovison vison) in Denmark in 2009 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chriél, Mariann; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2012-01-01

    and four of these farms used feed medication in three weeks. The farmers, however, noted that the medication had little or no effect. The most plausible way of transmission of the influenza is from the raw untreated pig waste containing lungs used in the production of mink feed. Because the first clinical......Influenza in mink (Neovison vison) is assumed to be rare, but outbreaks have previously been reported in farmed mink. The first report was from Swedish mink farms in 1984 which was caused by influenza A virus H10N4 of avian origin. In 2009 and 2010 outbreaks of respiratory disease were seen...... in several Danish mink farms. In all of the farms, the clinical symptoms were upper respiratory tract symptoms with sneezing and coughing as the most dominant symptoms. Peracute deaths were seen in mink without any clinical symptoms. Influenza H3N2 was found detected by PCR in the lungs from diseased mink...

  11. Non-replication study of a genome-wide association study for hypertension and blood pressure in African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidambi Srividya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent genome wide association study in 1017 African Americans identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms that reached genome-wide significance for systolic blood pressure. We attempted to replicate these findings in an independent sample of 2474 unrelated African Americans in the Milwaukee metropolitan area; 53% were women and 47% were hypertensives. Methods We evaluated sixteen top associated SNPs from the above genome wide association study for hypertension as a binary trait or blood pressure as a continuous trait. In addition, we evaluated eight single nucleotide polymorphisms located in two genes (STK-39 and CDH-13 found to be associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressures by other genome wide association studies in European and Amish populations. TaqMan MGB-based chemistry with fluorescent probes was used for genotyping. We had an adequate sample size (80% power to detect an effect size of 1.2-2.0 for all the single nucleotide polymorphisms for hypertension as a binary trait, and 1% variance in blood pressure as a continuous trait. Quantitative trait analyses were performed both by excluding and also by including subjects on anti-hypertensive therapy (after adjustments were made for anti-hypertensive medications. Results For all 24 SNPs, no statistically significant differences were noted in the minor allele frequencies between cases and controls. One SNP (rs2146204 showed borderline association (p = 0.006 with hypertension status using recessive model and systolic blood pressure (p = 0.02, but was not significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons. In quantitative trait analyses, among normotensives only, rs12748299 was associated with SBP (p = 0.002. In addition, several nominally significant associations were noted with SBP and DBP among normotensives but none were statistically significant. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of replication to confirm the validity of genome wide

  12. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies genetic risk factors for stroke in African-Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Cara L.; Keene, Keith L.; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Meschia, James F.; Chen, Wei-Min; Nalls, Mike; Bis, Joshua C.; Kittner, Steven J.; Rich, Stephen S.; Tajuddin, Salman; Zonderman, Alan B.; Evans, Michele K.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Gottesman, Rebecca; Mosley, Thomas H.; Shahar, Eyal; Woo, Daniel; Yaffe, Kristine; Liu, YongMei; Sale, Michèle M.; Dichgans, Martin; Malik, Rainer; Longstreth, WT; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Kooperberg, Charles; Reiner, Alexander; Worrall, Bradford B.; Fornage, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The majority of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of stroke have focused on European-ancestry populations; however, none has been conducted in African-Americans despite the disproportionately high burden of stroke in this population. The Consortium of Minority Population genome-wide Association Studies of Stroke (COMPASS) was established to identify stroke susceptibility loci in minority populations. Methods Using METAL, we conducted meta-analyses of GWAS in 14,746 African-Americans (1,365 ischemic and 1,592 total stroke cases) from COMPASS, and tested SNPs with Pstroke genetic studies in European-ancestry populations. We also evaluated stroke loci previously identified in European-ancestry populations. Results The 15q21.3 locus linked with lipid levels and hypertension was associated with total stroke (rs4471613, P=3.9×10−8) in African-Americans. Nominal associations (Pstroke were observed for 18 variants in or near genes implicated in cell cycle/ mRNA pre-splicing (PTPRG, CDC5L), platelet function (HPS4), blood-brain barrier permeability (CLDN17), immune response (ELTD1, WDFY4, IL1F10-IL1RN), and histone modification (HDAC9). Two of these loci achieved nominal significance in METASTROKE: 5q35.2 (P=0.03), and 1p31.1 (P=0.018). Four of 7 previously reported ischemic stroke loci (PITX2, HDAC9, CDKN2A/CDKN2B and ZFHX3) were nominally associated (Pstroke in COMPASS. Conclusions We identified a novel SNP associated with total stroke in African-Americans and found that ischemic stroke loci identified in European-ancestry populations may also be relevant for African-Americans. Our findings support investigation of diverse populations to identify and characterize genetic risk factors, and the importance of shared genetic risk across populations. PMID:26089329

  13. Radiographic evaluation of destructive periodontal disease in blue mink in relation to age and blood morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne Sofie; Andersen, Thomas Holmen; Eriksen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    bone loss and tooth loss. There was a high prevalence of destructive periodontal disease among blue mink included in this study. Mild to moderate periodontal disease (defined by less than 50% alveolar bone loss related to 1 or more teeth) affected 73.7% of young mink (age = 7 mo) and 67.9% of older...... animals (age &GE; 19 mo). Severe periodontal disease (defined by more than 50% bone loss related to one or more teeth) was not detected in mink aged 7 mo, but affected 15.3% of mink aged 19 mo and 39.6% of mink aged 31 mo. The positive relationship between age and periodontal disease was statistically...... in the mink was related to and possibly caused by destructive periodontal disease. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of periodontal disease between the 2 genotypes and age was found to be the only statistical predictor of poor production results (P < 0.01) in blue mink....

  14. Genomes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, T. A. (Terence A.)

    2002-01-01

    ... of genome expression and replication processes, and transcriptomics and proteomics. This text is richly illustrated with clear, easy-to-follow, full color diagrams, which are downloadable from the book's website...

  15. Merging Electronic Health Record Data and Genomics for Cardiovascular Research: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jennifer L; Ryan, John J; Bray, Bruce E; Brown, Candice; Lanfear, David; Newby, L Kristin; Relling, Mary V; Risch, Neil J; Roden, Dan M; Shaw, Stanley Y; Tcheng, James E; Tenenbaum, Jessica; Wang, Thomas N; Weintraub, William S

    2016-04-01

    The process of scientific discovery is rapidly evolving. The funding climate has influenced a favorable shift in scientific discovery toward the use of existing resources such as the electronic health record. The electronic health record enables long-term outlooks on human health and disease, in conjunction with multidimensional phenotypes that include laboratory data, images, vital signs, and other clinical information. Initial work has confirmed the utility of the electronic health record for understanding mechanisms and patterns of variability in disease susceptibility, disease evolution, and drug responses. The addition of biobanks and genomic data to the information contained in the electronic health record has been demonstrated. The purpose of this statement is to discuss the current challenges in and the potential for merging electronic health record data and genomics for cardiovascular research. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. The effect of color type on early wound healing in farmed mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, A; Jensen, H E; Agger, J F; Heegaard, P M H; Damborg, P; Aalbæk, B; Hammer, A S

    2017-05-22

    Individual differences of mink, including color type, are speculated to affect the course of wound healing, thereby impacting wound assessment and management on the farms, as well as the assessment of wounds in forensic cases. In this study, we examined the effect of color type on early wound healing in farmed mink. Full thickness excisional wounds (2 × 2 cm) were made on the back in 18 mink of the color types Brown, Silverblue and Blue Iris. Gross and microscopic pathology of the wounds was evaluated 2 days post-wounding together with degree of wound size reduction, presence of bacteria and blood analyses. Pathological examination on day 2 showed the greatest mean wound size reduction in Brown mink (11.0%) followed by Blue Iris (7.9%) and Silverblue (1.6%). Bacteria were cultured from all wounds, and predominantly Staphylococcus species were recovered in mixed or pure culture. Histopathology from day 2 wounds showed a scab overlying necrotic wound edges, which were separated from underlying vital tissue by a demarcation zone rich in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Fibroblasts and plump endothelial cells were more numerous in the deeper tissues. Complete blood count parameters were within normal ranges in most cases, however, the mink showed mildly to markedly decreased hematocrit and six mink of the color types Silverblue and Blue Iris showed moderately elevated numbers of circulating segmented neutrophils on day 2. There was a marked increase in concentration of serum amyloid A from day 0 to day 2 in all color types. We have described differences in early wound healing between mink of the color types Brown, Silverblue and Blue Iris by use of an experimental wound model in farmed mink. The most pronounced difference pertained to the degree of wound size reduction which was greatest in Brown mink, followed by Blue Iris and Silverblue, respectively.

  17. On-farm biosecurity practices and causes of preweaning mortality in Canadian commercial mink kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compo, Nicole; Pearl, David L; Tapscott, Brian; Storer, Amanda; Hammermueller, Jutta; Brash, Marina; Turner, Patricia V

    2017-09-08

    Mink are an important animal commodity group in Canada and excessive kit mortality represents a significant loss to production. National biosecurity standards have been developed for Canadian mink farms, but it is unclear how well these standards have been implemented as there are no studies correlating management practices of mink producers with causes of death in mink kits. To that end, we surveyed Ontario mink producers on their biosecurity and management practices and conducted almost 5660 post mortem examinations on found-dead, preweaned kits to characterize mink farm biosecurity practices and causes of death in preweaned kits. We found that very few biosecurity and management practices were uniformly used by producers, despite good awareness of appropriate practices. Use of personal protective equipment was implemented by fewer than 50% of respondents, while control of mink shed access, disinfection of feed containers after use, and use of a rodent control program were the only practices implemented by greater than 70% of respondents. Only 18% of producers reported regular use of antimicrobials in feed or water, although 91% stated they used antimicrobials for treatment of bacterial diseases on a regular basis. On post mortem examination, no gross abnormalities were noted in 71% of the kits, 45% were thought to be stillborn or aborted, 27% had some form of abnormal fluid distribution in the body, and 2% had a congenital malformation. A subset of 69 gastrointestinal tract samples was submitted for bacterial culture, of which 45 samples yielded sufficient growth. Most interesting was the identification of Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg in 11% of samples. The results of this study will provide a benchmark for Canadian mink producers and their veterinarians, defining the areas to which greater attention should be given to ensure more rigorous biosecurity practices are in place. Ultimately, these improvements in practices may contribute to increased mink

  18. Microflora of the gastrointestinal tract of Chernobyl she-minks of different age and immunological state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudenko, V.I.; Podgorskij, V.S.; Ryasenko, V.I.

    1996-01-01

    The quantitative and species characteristics of bacteria and yeast isolated from the food and gastrointestinal tract of she-minks of different age groups and different immunological state have been established. The species composition of bacteria forming the basic and accompanying microflora of small and large intestine of minks is determined. An increase in the quantity of anaerobic (bifidobacteria), microaerophilic (lactic acid bacilli, enterococci) and aerobic (intestinal bacilli) bacteria in the content of the large intestine of minks has been established in comparison with the stomach and small intestine in all examined groups of animals of various age and immunological state

  19. Passive transfer of antiviral antibodies restricts replication of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Søren; Larsen, S; Cohn, A.

    1989-01-01

    When mink kits were infected neonatally with a highly virulent strain of Aleutian disease virus (ADV), 100% of both Aleutian and non-Aleutian genotype mink died of interstitial pneumonia characterized by permissive ADV infection of alveolar type II cells. Treatment of infected kits with either mink...... found that the number of ADV-infected type II cells was the same in both untreated and antibody-treated kits. However, in the treated kits, viral replication and transcription were restricted at the cellular level. These data suggested that antibodies prevented acute viral pneumonia by restricting...

  20. Application of qPCR assays for diagnosing causes of viral mink diarrhea. Preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartby, Christina Marie; Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Larsen, Lars Erik

    ). Diarrhea in mink can be caused by infectious agents (virus, bacteria and parasites) and food-related/multifactorial conditions. Known enteric viral infections are mink enteritis virus (MEV) and mink astrovirus. Coronaviruses and caliciviruses have also been implicated as potential causes or contributors...... for a quantitative diagnostic approach. We have developed new or adapted previously published real-time PCR/RT-PCR assays for MEV, astrovirus, rota- and coronavirus diagnostics. The technical test validation was initially carried out on archived diarrhea samples from diagnosed positive animals and on normal...

  1. Clinical and serological features of systemic sclerosis in a multicenter African American cohort: Analysis of the genome research in African American scleroderma patients clinical database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Nadia D; Shah, Ami A; Mayes, Maureen D; Domsic, Robyn T; Medsger, Thomas A; Steen, Virginia D; Varga, John; Carns, Mary; Ramos, Paula S; Silver, Richard M; Schiopu, Elena; Khanna, Dinesh; Hsu, Vivien; Gordon, Jessica K; Gladue, Heather; Saketkoo, Lesley A; Criswell, Lindsey A; Derk, Chris T; Trojanowski, Marcin A; Shanmugam, Victoria K; Chung, Lorinda; Valenzuela, Antonia; Jan, Reem; Goldberg, Avram; Remmers, Elaine F; Kastner, Daniel L; Wigley, Fredrick M; Gourh, Pravitt; Boin, Francesco

    2017-12-01

    Racial differences exist in the severity of systemic sclerosis (SSc). To enhance our knowledge about SSc in African Americans, we established a comprehensive clinical database from the largest multicenter cohort of African American SSc patients assembled to date (the Genome Research in African American Scleroderma Patients (GRASP) cohort).African American SSc patients were enrolled retrospectively and prospectively over a 30-year period (1987-2016), from 18 academic centers throughout the United States. The cross-sectional prevalence of sociodemographic, clinical, and serological features was evaluated. Factors associated with clinically significant manifestations of SSc were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analyses.The study population included a total of 1009 African American SSc patients, comprised of 84% women. In total, 945 (94%) patients met the 2013 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism (ACR/EULAR) classification criteria for SSc, with the remaining 64 (6%) meeting the 1980 ACR or CREST (calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly, telangiectasia) criteria. While 43% were actively employed, 33% required disability support. The majority (57%) had the more severe diffuse subtype and a young age at symptom onset (39.1 ± 13.7 years), in marked contrast to that reported in cohorts of predominantly European ancestry. Also, 1 in 10 patients had a severe Medsger cardiac score of 4. Pulmonary fibrosis evident on computed tomography (CT) chest was present in 43% of patients and was significantly associated with anti-topoisomerase I positivity. 38% of patients with CT evidence of pulmonary fibrosis had a severe restrictive ventilator defect, forced vital capacity (FVC) ≤50% predicted. A significant association was noted between longer disease duration and higher odds of pulmonary hypertension, telangiectasia, and calcinosis. The prevalence of potentially fatal scleroderma renal crisis was

  2. Effect of Fish Meal Level on Growth, Food Digestibility and Fur Properties of Farmed Mink (Mustela vison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HT Korhonen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Our study sought to determine the effects of normal vs high fish meal levels in the diet on the growing-furring process and apparent food digestibility of farmed male mink (Mustela vison. The subjects were two groups of juvenile dark mink born in May and weaned in August. The experiment started after weaning with two diet groups: (1 normal level of fish meal (NOR, i.e. 4.5% of diet, and (2 high level of fish meal (HIGH, i.e. 10.0% of diet. We found that the mink on the high fishmeal (HIGH diet consumed slightly more fresh food than the mink on the normal fishmeal diet (NOR (total consumption 30.6 kg vs 28.1 kg. The mink in the NOR group ingested almost the same amount of food as dry matter and energy as the mink in the HIGH group. On October 22, the body weights of the HIGH group animals were significantly higher than those of the NOR animals. At the final weighing on December 3 (at pelting, a tendency for the body weights of NOR mink was noted to be lower than those of HIGH mink. Skin length was significantly shorter in NOR than in HIGH mink. The number of white wool skins (i.e. fur defect was higher in NOR than in HIGH mink (4 vs 2 skins. Statistically significant differences in other fur variables were not found between the groups. The apparent digestibility of protein, fat and organic matter was significantly better in HIGH than in NOR mink. Our findings tempt us to conclude that the proportion of fish products, at least those of fishmeal, can be increased in the diet of farm-raised juvenile mink. Keywords: farm-raised mink, feeding, fish products, diet, growing-furring period Animal Production 14(1:63-69, January 2012

  3. Distance estimation experiment for aerial minke whale surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Witting

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study between aerial cue–counting and digital photography surveys for minke whales conducted in Faxaflói Bay in September 2003 is used to check the perpendicular distances estimated by the cue-counting observers. The study involved 2 aircraft with the photo plane at 1,700 feet flying above the cue–counting plane at 750 feet. The observer–based distance estimates were calculated from head angles estimated by angle-boards and declination angles estimated by declinometers. These distances were checked against image–based estimates of the perpendicular distance to the same whale. The 2 independent distance estimates were obtained for 21 sightings of minke whale, and there was a good agreement between the 2 types of estimates. The relative absolute deviations between the 2 estimates were on average 23% (se: 6%, with the errors in the observer–based distance estimates resembling that of a log-normal distribution. The linear regression of the observer–based estimates (obs on the image–based estimates (img was Obs=1.1Img (R2=0.85 with an intercept fixed at zero. There was no evidence of a distance estimation bias that could generate a positive bias in the absolute abundance estimated by cue–counting.

  4. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in African Americans provides insights into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ng, Maggie C Y; Shriner, Daniel; Chen, Brian H

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is more prevalent in African Americans than in Europeans. However, little is known about the genetic risk in African Americans despite the recent identification of more than 70 T2D loci primarily by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in individuals of European ancestry...... of 1.19, explaining 17.5% of the phenotypic variance of T2D on the liability scale in African Americans. Overall, this study identified two novel susceptibility loci for T2D in African Americans. A substantial number of previously reported loci are transferable to African Americans after accounting....... In order to investigate the genetic architecture of T2D in African Americans, the MEta-analysis of type 2 DIabetes in African Americans (MEDIA) Consortium examined 17 GWAS on T2D comprising 8,284 cases and 15,543 controls in African Americans in stage 1 analysis. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs...

  5. Genomic African and Native American Ancestry and Chagas Disease: The Bambui (Brazil) Epigen Cohort Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Costa, M Fernanda; Macinko, James; Mambrini, Juliana Vaz de Mello; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana; Pereira, Alexandre Costa; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz Pinho

    2016-05-01

    The influence of genetic ancestry on Trypanosoma cruzi infection and Chagas disease outcomes is unknown. We used 370,539 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) to examine the association between individual proportions of African, European and Native American genomic ancestry with T. cruzi infection and related outcomes in 1,341 participants (aged ≥ 60 years) of the Bambui (Brazil) population-based cohort study of aging. Potential confounding variables included sociodemographic characteristics and an array of health measures. The prevalence of T. cruzi infection was 37.5% and 56.3% of those infected had a major ECG abnormality. Baseline T. cruzi infection was correlated with higher levels of African and Native American ancestry, which in turn were strongly associated with poor socioeconomic circumstances. Cardiomyopathy in infected persons was not significantly associated with African or Native American ancestry levels. Infected persons with a major ECG abnormality were at increased risk of 15-year mortality relative to their counterparts with no such abnormalities (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.80; 95% 1.41, 2.32). African and Native American ancestry levels had no significant effect modifying this association. Our findings indicate that African and Native American ancestry have no influence on the presence of major ECG abnormalities and had no influence on the ability of an ECG abnormality to predict mortality in older people infected with T. cruzi. In contrast, our results revealed a strong and independent association between prevalent T. cruzi infection and higher levels of African and Native American ancestry. Whether this association is a consequence of genetic background or differential exposure to infection remains to be determined.

  6. The Evolution of Science in a Latin-American Country: Genetics and Genomics in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzano, Francisco M

    2018-03-01

    This article begins with a brief overview of the history of Brazil and that of Brazilian science, from the European discovery of the country in 1500 up to the early 21st century. The history of the fields of genetics and genomics, from the 1930s, is then first examined from the focal point of the lives and publications of the three persons who are generally considered to be the founders of genetics in Brazil (C. A. Krug, F. G. Brieger, and A. Dreyfus), and then by 12 other researchers up to 1999. The area of molecular genetics and genomics from 2000 to present is then described. Despite the problems of underdevelopment and the periodical political and economic crises that have affected life in Brazil, the fields of genetics and genomics in Brazil can be regarded as having developed at an appropriate pace, and have contributed in several major ways to world science. Copyright © 2018 by the Genetics Society of America.

  7. Usage of antimicrobials and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria from mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Hammer, Anne Sofie; Sørensen, Charlotte Mark

    2009-01-01

    The usage of antimicrobials for treatment of mink and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance among the most important bacterial pathogens in mink was investigated. The aim of the study was to provide data, which may serve as a basis for the formulation of recommendations for prudent Use...... of antimicrobial's for mink. A total of 164 haemolytic staphylococci. 49 haemolytic streptococci. 39 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 13 Pasteurella multocida. and 1093 Escherichia coli isolates front Danish mink were included in the Study. A high frequency of resistance among S. intermedius was found for tetracyclines (54.......7%). followed by penicillin (21.7%), lincosamides (20.4%), macrolides (19.1%), and spectinomycin (18.5%). Very low frequencies of resistance were recorded for other antimicrobials. The highest frequency among the E. coli isolates was recorded for ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides, and tetracyclines...

  8. Heterosis and genetic variation in the litter size of purebred and crossbred mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Larsen, Peter Foged; Pertoldi, Cino

    2014-01-01

    Crosses between different mink lines from 3 Danish mink farms that use different breeding strategies were studied to estimate heterosis and variance components for litter size. The study was designed to analyze crosses between lines of the same color type, between different color types, and between...... animals originating from different farms. Effect of heterosis, color type, and variance components were estimated using Average information REML (AI-REML) algorithm implemented in the DMU package for analyzing multivariate mixed models. Females from 7 generations that gave birth to at least 1 offspring...... of the born litter; d2) were estimated. The results showed that mink of the Black color type potentially produced smaller litters compared to mink of the other studied color types. We found significant general maternal effect of heterosis for litter size. Analyses of specific heterosis showed a significant...

  9. Modelling growth of five different colour types of mink | Liu | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    linear models, namely Logistic, Gompertz, Brody, Richards, Bridges, and Janoschek were used to define the growth curves of the mink. Models were compared using coefficients of determination (R2 values), the Akaike's information criterion ...

  10. Pre-slaughter bodyweight and daily gains in mink are independent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natasza

    2017-03-13

    Received 8 ... that have more space to move around and for example jump from one storey to another may lose .... body temperature compared with those mink that were kept in single-storey cages, where animals remained.

  11. Genome-wide association study of a nicotine metabolism biomarker in African American smokers: impact of chromosome 19 genetic influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenoweth, Meghan J; Ware, Jennifer J; Zhu, Andy Z X; Cole, Christopher B; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Nollen, Nikki; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Benowitz, Neal L; Schnoll, Robert A; Hawk, Larry W; Cinciripini, Paul M; George, Tony P; Lerman, Caryn; Knight, Joanne; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2018-03-01

    The activity of CYP2A6, the major nicotine-inactivating enzyme, is measurable in smokers using the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR; 3'hydroxycotinine/cotinine). Due to its role in nicotine clearance, the NMR is associated with smoking behaviours and response to pharmacotherapies. The NMR is highly heritable (~80%), and on average lower in African Americans (AA) versus whites. We previously identified several reduce and loss-of-function CYP2A6 variants common in individuals of African descent. Our current aim was to identify novel genetic influences on the NMR in AA smokers using genome-wide approaches. Genome-wide association study (GWAS). Multiple sites within Canada and the United States. AA smokers from two clinical trials: Pharmacogenetics of Nicotine Addiction Treatment (PNAT)-2 (NCT01314001; n = 504) and Kick-it-at-Swope (KIS)-3 (NCT00666978; n = 450). Genome-wide SNP genotyping, the NMR (phenotype) and population substructure and NMR covariates. Meta-analysis revealed three independent chromosome 19 signals (rs12459249, rs111645190 and rs185430475) associated with the NMR. The top overall hit, rs12459249 (P = 1.47e-39; beta = 0.59 per C (versus T) allele, SE = 0.045), located ~9.5 kb 3' of CYP2A6, remained genome-wide significant after controlling for the common (~10% in AA) non-functional CYP2A6*17 allele. In contrast, rs111645190 and rs185430475 were not genome-wide significant when controlling for CYP2A6*17. In total, 96 signals associated with the NMR were identified; many were not found in prior NMR GWASs in individuals of European descent. The top hits were also associated with the NMR in a third cohort of AA (KIS2; n = 480). None of the hits were in UGT or OCT2 genes. Three independent chromosome 19 signals account for ~20% of the variability in the nicotine metabolite ratio in African American smokers. The hits identified may contribute to inter-ethnic variability in nicotine metabolism, smoking behaviours and tobacco-related disease risk

  12. Running in a running wheel substitutes for stereotypies in mink (Mustela vison) but does it improve their welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2009-01-01

    This experiment investigated whether access to a running wheel affects the development of stereotypies during restricted feeding and whether selection for high or low levels of stereotypy affects the use of the running wheel. Sixty-two female mink kept in standard cages and selected for high or low...... levels of stereotypy were used. Thirty of these females had access to a running wheel whereas thirty-two female mink had no access to running wheels. The number of turns of the running wheel, behaviour, feed consumption, body weight and the concentration of plasma cortisol were measured during the winter...... period. Mink with access to a running wheel did not perform stereotypic behaviour and mink selected for a high level of stereotypies had more turns in the running wheel than mink selected for low levels of stereotypies. Mink with access to a running wheel used the running wheel for the same amount...

  13. Genome-wide and gene-based association studies of anxiety disorders in European and African American samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Otowa

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders (ADs are common mental disorders caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Since ADs are highly comorbid with each other, partially due to shared genetic basis, studying AD phenotypes in a coordinated manner may be a powerful strategy for identifying potential genetic loci for ADs. To detect these loci, we performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS of ADs. In addition, as a complementary approach to single-locus analysis, we also conducted gene- and pathway-based analyses. GWAS data were derived from the control sample of the Molecular Genetics of Schizophrenia (MGS project (2,540 European American and 849 African American subjects genotyped on the Affymetrix GeneChip 6.0 array. We applied two phenotypic approaches: (1 categorical case-control comparisons (CC based upon psychiatric diagnoses, and (2 quantitative phenotypic factor scores (FS derived from a multivariate analysis combining information across the clinical phenotypes. Linear and logistic models were used to analyse the association with ADs using FS and CC traits, respectively. At the single locus level, no genome-wide significant association was found. A trans-population gene-based meta-analysis across both ethnic subsamples using FS identified three genes (MFAP3L on 4q32.3, NDUFAB1 and PALB2 on 16p12 with genome-wide significance (false discovery rate (FDR] <5%. At the pathway level, several terms such as transcription regulation, cytokine binding, and developmental process were significantly enriched in ADs (FDR <5%. Our approaches studying ADs as quantitative traits and utilizing the full GWAS data may be useful in identifying susceptibility genes and pathways for ADs.

  14. Genetic variants associated with warfarin dose in African-American individuals: a genome-wide association study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Minoli A; Cavallari, Larisa H; Limdi, Nita A; Gamazon, Eric R; Konkashbaev, Anuar; Daneshjou, Roxana; Pluzhnikov, Anna; Crawford, Dana C; Wang, Jelai; Liu, Nianjun; Tatonetti, Nicholas; Bourgeois, Stephane; Takahashi, Harumi; Bradford, Yukiko; Burkley, Benjamin M; Desnick, Robert J; Halperin, Jonathan L; Khalifa, Sherief I; Langaee, Taimour Y; Lubitz, Steven A; Nutescu, Edith A; Oetjens, Matthew; Shahin, Mohamed H; Patel, Shitalben R; Sagreiya, Hersh; Tector, Matthew; Weck, Karen E; Rieder, Mark J; Scott, Stuart A; Wu, Alan HB; Burmester, James K; Wadelius, Mia; Deloukas, Panos; Wagner, Michael J; Mushiroda, Taisei; Kubo, Michiaki; Roden, Dan M; Cox, Nancy J; Altman, Russ B; Klein, Teri E; Nakamura, Yusuke; Johnson, Julie A

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background VKORC1 and CYP2C9 are important contributors to warfarin dose variability, but explain less variability for individuals of African descent than for those of European or Asian descent. We aimed to identify additional variants contributing to warfarin dose requirements in African Americans. Methods We did a genome-wide association study of discovery and replication cohorts. Samples from African-American adults (aged ≥18 years) who were taking a stable maintenance dose of warfarin were obtained at International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium (IWPC) sites and the University of Alabama at Birmingham (Birmingham, AL, USA). Patients enrolled at IWPC sites but who were not used for discovery made up the independent replication cohort. All participants were genotyped. We did a stepwise conditional analysis, conditioning first for VKORC1 −1639G→A, followed by the composite genotype of CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3. We prespecified a genome-wide significance threshold of p<5×10−8 in the discovery cohort and p<0·0038 in the replication cohort. Findings The discovery cohort contained 533 participants and the replication cohort 432 participants. After the prespecified conditioning in the discovery cohort, we identified an association between a novel single nucleotide polymorphism in the CYP2C cluster on chromosome 10 (rs12777823) and warfarin dose requirement that reached genome-wide significance (p=1·51×10−8). This association was confirmed in the replication cohort (p=5·04×10−5); analysis of the two cohorts together produced a p value of 4·5×10−12. Individuals heterozygous for the rs12777823 A allele need a dose reduction of 6·92 mg/week and those homozygous 9·34 mg/week. Regression analysis showed that the inclusion of rs12777823 significantly improves warfarin dose variability explained by the IWPC dosing algorithm (21% relative improvement). Interpretation A novel CYP2C single nucleotide polymorphism exerts a clinically relevant

  15. Lack of evidence for integration of Trypanosoma cruzi minicircle DNA in South American human genomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flegontova, Olga; Lukeš, Julius; Flegontov, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 5 (2012), s. 437-441 ISSN 0020-7519 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010005 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Trypanosoma cruzi * Kinetoplast minicircle * Chagas disease * Horizontal gene transfer * Human genome Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.637, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020751912000781

  16. Genomic evaluation, breed identification, and population structure of North American, English and Island Guernsey dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic evaluations of dairy cattle in the United States have been available for Brown Swiss, Holsteins, and Jerseys since 2009 and for Ayrshires since 2013. As of February 2015, 2,281 Guernsey bulls and cows had genotypes from collaboration between the United States, Canada, England, and the island...

  17. Genomic Basis of Prostate Cancer Health Disparity Among African-American Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    prostatectomy or radiation therapy, the risk of metastasis is reduced, but erectile dysfunction, urinary incontinence , and rectal bleeding may occur...or radiation therapy, the risk of metastasis is reduced, but erectile dysfunction, urinary incontinence and rectal bleeding may occur, affecting the...genomic copy number alteration signature for predicting the metastatic progression of prostate cancer. J Prob Stat 2012; Article ID 873570

  18. Genomic in situ hybridization reveals both auto- and allopolyploid origins of different North and Central American hexaploid potato (Solanum sect. Petota) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendinen, Galina; Spooner, David M; Jiang, Jiming; Gavrilenko, Tatjana

    2012-06-01

    Wild potato ( Solanum L. sect. Petota Dumort.) species contain diploids (2n = 2x = 24) to hexaploids (2n = 6x = 72). J.G. Hawkes classified all hexaploid Mexican species in series Demissa Bukasov and, according to a classic five-genome hypothesis of M. Matsubayashi in 1991, all members of series Demissa are allopolyploids. We investigated the genome composition of members of Hawkes's series Demissa with genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), using labeled DNA of their putative progenitors having diploid AA, BB, or PP genome species or with DNA of tetraploid species having AABB or AAA(a)A(a) genomes. GISH analyses support S. hougasii Correll as an allopolyploid with one AA component genome and another BB component genome. Our results also indicate that the third genome of S. hougasii is more closely related to P or a P genome-related species. Solanum demissum Lindl., in contrast, has all three chromosome sets related to the basic A genome, similar to the GISH results of polyploid species of series Acaulia Juz. Our results support a more recent taxonomic division of the Mexican hexaploid species into two groups: the allopolyploid Iopetala group containing S. hougasii, and an autopolyploid Acaulia group containing S. demissum with South American species S. acaule Bitter and S. albicans (Ochoa) Ochoa.

  19. Full protection in mink against mink enteritis virus with new generation canine parvovirus vaccines based on synthetic peptide or recombinant protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langeveld, J. P.; Kamstrup, Søren; Uttenthal, Åse

    1995-01-01

    Two recently developed vaccines—one based on synthetic peptide and one based on recombinant capsid protein—fully protected dogs against heavy experimental canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. The high sequence homology (>98%) and antigenic similarity between CPV and mink enteritis virus (MEV), feline...... on inactivated virus. Surprisingly, this protection was obtained after only a single injection. Furthermore, the vaccinal dose of 150 μg of conjugated peptide or 3 μg of recombinant VP2 particles per animal, are sufficiently low to be cost-effective and applicable on a large scale....... panleukopenia virus, and raccoon parvovirus, suggest that both vaccines could protect mink, cats and raccoons against these respective host range variants. This was tested in mink and turned out to be the case. The two vaccines were fully protective and as effective as a conventional commercial vaccine based...

  20. Full protection in mink against mink enteritis virus with new generation canine parvovirus vaccines based on synthetic peptide or recombinant protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langeveld, J. P.; Kamstrup, Søren; Uttenthal, Åse

    1995-01-01

    Two recently developed vaccines—one based on synthetic peptide and one based on recombinant capsid protein—fully protected dogs against heavy experimental canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. The high sequence homology (>98%) and antigenic similarity between CPV and mink enteritis virus (MEV), feline...... panleukopenia virus, and raccoon parvovirus, suggest that both vaccines could protect mink, cats and raccoons against these respective host range variants. This was tested in mink and turned out to be the case. The two vaccines were fully protective and as effective as a conventional commercial vaccine based...... on inactivated virus. Surprisingly, this protection was obtained after only a single injection. Furthermore, the vaccinal dose of 150 μg of conjugated peptide or 3 μg of recombinant VP2 particles per animal, are sufficiently low to be cost-effective and applicable on a large scale....

  1. First complete mitochondrial genome data from ancient South American camelids - The mystery of the chilihueques from Isla Mocha (Chile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbury, Michael; Prost, Stefan; Seelenfreund, Andrea; Ramírez, José-Miguel; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.; Knapp, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In South American societies, domesticated camelids were of great cultural importance and subject to trade and translocation. South American camelids were even found on remote and hard to reach islands, emphasizing their importance to historic and pre-historic South American populations. Isla Mocha, a volcanic island 35 km offshore of Central-South Chile, is an example of such an island. When Dutch and Spanish explorers reached the island in the early 17th century, they found that domesticated camelids called “chilihueque” played a major role in the island’s society. The origin and taxonomy of these enigmatic camelids is unclear and controversial. This study aims to resolve this controversy through genetic analyses of Isla Mocha camelid remains dating from pre-Columbian to early historic times. A recent archaeological excavation of site P21-3 on Isla Mocha yielded a number of camelid remains. Three complete mitochondrial genomes were successfully recovered and analysed. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that “chilihueque” was a local term for a domesticated guanaco. Results from phylogeographic analyses are consistent with Isla Mocha camelids being sourced from Southern Chilean guanaco populations. Our data highlights the capability of ancient DNA to answer questions about extinct populations which includes species identity, potential translocation events and origins of founding individuals. PMID:27929050

  2. First complete mitochondrial genome data from ancient South American camelids - The mystery of the chilihueques from Isla Mocha (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbury, Michael; Prost, Stefan; Seelenfreund, Andrea; Ramírez, José-Miguel; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A; Knapp, Michael

    2016-12-08

    In South American societies, domesticated camelids were of great cultural importance and subject to trade and translocation. South American camelids were even found on remote and hard to reach islands, emphasizing their importance to historic and pre-historic South American populations. Isla Mocha, a volcanic island 35 km offshore of Central-South Chile, is an example of such an island. When Dutch and Spanish explorers reached the island in the early 17th century, they found that domesticated camelids called "chilihueque" played a major role in the island's society. The origin and taxonomy of these enigmatic camelids is unclear and controversial. This study aims to resolve this controversy through genetic analyses of Isla Mocha camelid remains dating from pre-Columbian to early historic times. A recent archaeological excavation of site P21-3 on Isla Mocha yielded a number of camelid remains. Three complete mitochondrial genomes were successfully recovered and analysed. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that "chilihueque" was a local term for a domesticated guanaco. Results from phylogeographic analyses are consistent with Isla Mocha camelids being sourced from Southern Chilean guanaco populations. Our data highlights the capability of ancient DNA to answer questions about extinct populations which includes species identity, potential translocation events and origins of founding individuals.

  3. Biological and Genomic Differences of ERG Oncoprotein-Stratified Prostate Cancers from African and Caucasian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    LOC100505474. Currently further fine-mapping of the genetic associations by genotype imputation analysis of genome-wide Oncoarray (500,000 SNP) data...likelihood estimation of individual ancestries relying on multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms. It was evaluated by comparing the proportion of...es tr y pr op or ti on red = CEU, green = YRI) Fusion Positive Fusion Negatives Index T ERG Any Tumor Foci ERG queried to identify patients with

  4. Serum chemistry of the minke whale from the northeastern Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryland, M; Brun, E

    2001-04-01

    Serum samples were collected from 42 harpooned minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) during commercial whaling off the coast of northern Norway (1997 and 1998) and analyzed for serum chemistry parameters in order to find clinical reference values for the northeastern Atlantic stock of this species. Mean and median values, as well as standard deviation and 90% central range, are presented for 28 different serum chemistry parameters. Lipemia is a common finding in marine mammals such as the minke whale, and chemical analysis of lipemic serum samples may produce artifacts. We found statistically significant elevated values of total protein, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), sodium and chloride in strongly-lipemic compared to non-lipemic samples, all which may be artifacts due to interference of lipids with the methods used for analysis. In addition, we found significantly elevated levels of creatin kinase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), urea, uric acid and triglycerides, as well as a decrease in creatinine in the strongly lipemic samples. Reanalyzing serum samples after twelve mo storage at -20 C (n = 13) revealed reduction in the serum concentration of the enzymes ALT (42%), alkaline phosphatase (ALP; 10%), LDH (19%), gamma glutamyl transferase (17%) and amylase (11%), as well as for triglycerides (9%) and non-esterified fatty acids (16%). It is crucial that serum chemistry analysis is performed without delay after sampling. Possible changes in the values of some parameters due to the presence of high amounts of lipids or long term storage of samples must be considered when interpreting results from serum chemistry analysis in these animals.

  5. Genomic evidence for the Pleistocene and recent population history of Native Americans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavan, Maanasa; Steinruecken, Matthias; Harris, Kelley

    2015-01-01

    years ago (ka) and after no more than an 8000-year isolation period in Beringia. After their arrival to the Americas, ancestral Native Americans diversified into two basal genetic branches around 13 ka, one that is now dispersed across North and South America and the other restricted to North America...

  6. Comparative genetic mapping reveals synteny and collinearity between the American cranberry and diploid blueberry genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranberry (section Oxcycoccus) and blueberry (section Cyanococcus), are closely related and recently domesticated fruit crops in the genus Vaccinium (family Ericaceae). Both the Oxycoccus and Cyanococcus sections are presumed to have an American origin and likely evolved from a common ancestor; howe...

  7. Genomic and phenotypic evidence for an incomplete domestication of South American grain amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetter, Markus G; Müller, Thomas; Schmid, Karl J

    2017-02-01

    The domestication syndrome comprises phenotypic changes that differentiate crops from their wild ancestors. We compared the genomic variation and phenotypic differentiation of the two putative domestication traits seed size and seed colour of the grain amaranth Amaranthus caudatus, which is an ancient crop of South America, and its two close wild relatives and putative ancestors A. hybridus and A. quitensis. Genotyping 119 accessions of the three species from the Andean region using genotyping by sequencing (GBS) resulted in 9485 SNPs that revealed a strong genetic differentiation of cultivated A. caudatus from its two relatives. A. quitensis and A. hybridus accessions did not cluster by their species assignment but formed mixed groups according to their geographic origin in Ecuador and Peru, respectively. A. caudatus had a higher genetic diversity than its close relatives and shared a high proportion of polymorphisms with their wild relatives consistent with the absence of a strong bottleneck or a high level of recent gene flow. Genome sizes and seed sizes were not significantly different between A. caudatus and its relatives, although a genetically distinct group of A. caudatus from Bolivia had significantly larger seeds. We conclude that despite a long history of human cultivation and selection for white grain colour, A. caudatus shows a weak genomic and phenotypic domestication syndrome and proposes that it is an incompletely domesticated crop species either because of weak selection or high levels of gene flow from its sympatric close undomesticated relatives that counteracted the fixation of key domestication traits. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Whole genome sequencing of an African American family highlights toll like receptor 6 variants in Kawasaki disease susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihoon Kim

    Full Text Available Kawasaki disease (KD is the most common acquired pediatric heart disease. We analyzed Whole Genome Sequences (WGS from a 6-member African American family in which KD affected two of four children. We sought rare, potentially causative genotypes by sequentially applying the following WGS filters: sequence quality scores, inheritance model (recessive homozygous and compound heterozygous, predicted deleteriousness, allele frequency, genes in KD-associated pathways or with significant associations in published KD genome-wide association studies (GWAS, and with differential expression in KD blood transcriptomes. Biologically plausible genotypes were identified in twelve variants in six genes in the two affected children. The affected siblings were compound heterozygous for the rare variants p.Leu194Pro and p.Arg247Lys in Toll-like receptor 6 (TLR6, which affect TLR6 signaling. The affected children were also homozygous for three common, linked (r2 = 1 intronic single nucleotide variants (SNVs in TLR6 (rs56245262, rs56083757 and rs7669329, that have previously shown association with KD in cohorts of European descent. Using transcriptome data from pre-treatment whole blood of KD subjects (n = 146, expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL analyses were performed. Subjects homozygous for the intronic risk allele (A allele of TLR6 rs56245262 had differential expression of Interleukin-6 (IL-6 as a function of genotype (p = 0.0007 and a higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate at diagnosis. TLR6 plays an important role in pathogen-associated molecular pattern recognition, and sequence variations may affect binding affinities that in turn influence KD susceptibility. This integrative genomic approach illustrates how the analysis of WGS in multiplex families with a complex genetic disease allows examination of both the common disease-common variant and common disease-rare variant hypotheses.

  9. A genome-wide association search for type 2 diabetes genes in African Americans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Nicholette D; McDonough, Caitrin W; Hicks, Pamela J

    2012-01-01

    Association Study (GWAS) using the Affymetrix 6.0 array in 965 African-American cases with T2DM and end-stage renal disease (T2DM-ESRD) and 1029 population-based controls. The most significant SNPs (n¿=¿550 independent loci) were genotyped in a replication cohort and 122 SNPs (n¿=¿98 independent loci) were...

  10. Novel genomic resources for a climate change sensitive mammal: characterization of the American pika transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Lemay Matthew A; Henry Philippe; Lamb Clayton T; Robson Kelsey M; Russello Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Background When faced with climate change, species must either shift their home range or adapt in situ in order to maintain optimal physiological balance with their environment. The American pika (Ochotona princeps) is a small alpine mammal with limited dispersal capacity and low tolerance for thermal stress. As a result, pikas have become an important system for examining biotic responses to changing climatic conditions. Previous research using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs)...

  11. Accuracy and Training Population Design for Genomic Selection on Quantitative Traits in Elite North American Oats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco G. Asoro

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Genomic selection (GS is a method to estimate the breeding values of individuals by using markers throughout the genome. We evaluated the accuracies of GS using data from five traits on 446 oat ( L. lines genotyped with 1005 Diversity Array Technology (DArT markers and two GS methods (ridge regression–best linear unbiased prediction [RR-BLUP] and BayesCπ under various training designs. Our objectives were to (i determine accuracy under increasing marker density and training population size, (ii assess accuracies when data is divided over time, and (iii examine accuracy in the presence of population structure. Accuracy increased as the number of markers and training size become larger. Including older lines in the training population increased or maintained accuracy, indicating that older generations retained information useful for predicting validation populations. The presence of population structure affected accuracy: when training and validation subpopulations were closely related accuracy was greater than when they were distantly related, implying that linkage disequilibrium (LD relationships changed across subpopulations. Across many scenarios involving large training populations, the accuracy of BayesCπ and RR-BLUP did not differ. This empirical study provided evidence regarding the application of GS to hasten the delivery of cultivars through the use of inexpensive and abundant molecular markers available to the public sector.

  12. Comparison of the Genomic Landscape Between Primary Breast Cancer in African American Versus White Women and the Association of Racial Differences With Tumor Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Tanya; Moy, Beverly; Mroz, Edmund A; Ross, Kenneth; Niemierko, Andrzej; Rocco, James W; Isakoff, Steven; Ellisen, Leif W; Bardia, Aditya

    2015-11-01

    African American women are more likely to die as a result of breast cancer than white women. The influence of somatic genomic profiles on this racial disparity is unclear. We aimed to compare the racial distribution of tumor genomic characteristics and breast cancer recurrence. We assessed white and African American women with stage I to III breast cancer diagnosed from 1988 to 2013 and primary tumors submitted to The Cancer Genome Atlas from 2010 to 2014. We used Cox proportional hazards models to evaluate the association of race and genetic traits with tumor recurrence. We investigated exome sequencing and gene expression data in 663 and 711 white and 105 and 159 African American women, respectively. African Americans had more TP53 mutations (42.9% v 27.6%; P = .003) and fewer PIK3CA mutations (20.0% v 33.9%; P = .008). Intratumor genetic heterogeneity was greater in African American than white tumors overall by 5.1 units (95% CI, 2.4 to 7.7) and within triple-negative tumors by 4.1 units (95% CI, 1.4 to 6.8). African Americans had more basal tumors by the 50-gene set predictor using the predication analysis of microarray method (PAM50; 39.0% v 18.6%; P Racial differences in TP53 mutation, PAM50 basal subtype, and triple-negative tumor prevalence but not intratumor genetic heterogeneity influenced the magnitude and significance of the racial disparity in tumor recurrence. African Americans had greater intratumor genetic heterogeneity and more basal gene expression tumors, even within triple-negative breast cancer. This pattern suggests more aggressive tumor biology in African Americans than whites, which could contribute to racial disparity in breast cancer outcome. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  13. Development and validation of 697 novel polymorphic genomic and EST-SSR markers in the American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlautman, Brandon; Fajardo, Diego; Bougie, Tierney; Wiesman, Eric; Polashock, James; Vorsa, Nicholi; Steffan, Shawn; Zalapa, Juan

    2015-01-27

    The American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait., is an economically important North American fruit crop that is consumed because of its unique flavor and potential health benefits. However, a lack of abundant, genome-wide molecular markers has limited the adoption of modern molecular assisted selection approaches in cranberry breeding programs. To increase the number of available markers in the species, this study identified, tested, and validated microsatellite markers from existing nuclear and transcriptome sequencing data. In total, new primers were designed, synthesized, and tested for 979 SSR loci; 697 of the markers amplified allele patterns consistent with single locus segregation in a diploid organism and were considered polymorphic. Of the 697 polymorphic loci, 507 were selected for additional genetic diversity and segregation analyses in 29 cranberry genotypes. More than 95% of the 507 loci did not display segregation distortion at the p 0.25. This comprehensive collection of developed and validated microsatellite loci represents a substantial addition to the molecular tools available for geneticists, genomicists, and breeders in cranberry and Vaccinium.

  14. Development and Validation of 697 Novel Polymorphic Genomic and EST-SSR Markers in the American Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Schlautman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The American cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait., is an economically important North American fruit crop that is consumed because of its unique flavor and potential health benefits. However, a lack of abundant, genome-wide molecular markers has limited the adoption of modern molecular assisted selection approaches in cranberry breeding programs. To increase the number of available markers in the species, this study identified, tested, and validated microsatellite markers from existing nuclear and transcriptome sequencing data. In total, new primers were designed, synthesized, and tested for 979 SSR loci; 697 of the markers amplified allele patterns consistent with single locus segregation in a diploid organism and were considered polymorphic. Of the 697 polymorphic loci, 507 were selected for additional genetic diversity and segregation analyses in 29 cranberry genotypes. More than 95% of the 507 loci did not display segregation distortion at the p < 0.05 level, and contained moderate to high levels of polymorphism with a polymorphic information content >0.25. This comprehensive collection of developed and validated microsatellite loci represents a substantial addition to the molecular tools available for geneticists, genomicists, and breeders in cranberry and Vaccinium.

  15. The American cranberry mitochondrial genome reveals the presence of selenocysteine (tRNA-Sec and SECIS) insertion machinery in land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Diego; Schlautman, Brandon; Steffan, Shawn; Polashock, James; Vorsa, Nicholi; Zalapa, Juan

    2014-02-25

    This is the first de novo assembly and annotation of a complete mitochondrial genome in the Ericales order from the American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.). Moreover, only four complete Asterid mitochondrial genomes have been made publicly available. The cranberry mitochondrial genome was assembled and reconstructed from whole genome 454 Roche GS-FLX and Illumina shotgun sequences. Compared with other Asterids, the reconstruction of the genome revealed an average size mitochondrion (459,678 nt) with relatively little repetitive sequences and DNA of plastid origin. The complete mitochondrial genome of cranberry was annotated obtaining a total of 34 genes classified based on their putative function, plus three ribosomal RNAs, and 17 transfer RNAs. Maternal organellar cranberry inheritance was inferred by analyzing gene variation in the cranberry mitochondria and plastid genomes. The annotation of cranberry mitochondrial genome revealed the presence of two copies of tRNA-Sec and a selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element which were lost in plants during evolution. This is the first report of a land plant possessing selenocysteine insertion machinery at the sequence level. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Genetic variation and reproductive timing: African American women from the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylee L Spencer

    Full Text Available Age at menarche (AM and age at natural menopause (ANM define the boundaries of the reproductive lifespan in women. Their timing is associated with various diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular disease. Genome-wide association studies have identified several genetic variants associated with either AM or ANM in populations of largely European or Asian descent women. The extent to which these associations generalize to diverse populations remains unknown. Therefore, we sought to replicate previously reported AM and ANM findings and to identify novel AM and ANM variants using the Metabochip (n = 161,098 SNPs in 4,159 and 1,860 African American women, respectively, in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI and Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC studies, as part of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE Study. We replicated or generalized one previously identified variant for AM, rs1361108/CENPW, and two variants for ANM, rs897798/BRSK1 and rs769450/APOE, to our African American cohort. Overall, generalization of the majority of previously-identified variants for AM and ANM, including LIN28B and MCM8, was not observed in this African American sample. We identified three novel loci associated with ANM that reached significance after multiple testing correction (LDLR rs189596789, p = 5×10⁻⁰⁸; KCNQ1 rs79972789, p = 1.9×10⁻⁰⁷; COL4A3BP rs181686584, p = 2.9×10⁻⁰⁷. Our most significant AM association was upstream of RSF1, a gene implicated in ovarian and breast cancers (rs11604207, p = 1.6×10⁻⁰⁶. While most associations were identified in either AM or ANM, we did identify genes suggestively associated with both: PHACTR1 and ARHGAP42. The lack of generalization coupled with the potentially novel associations identified here emphasize the need for additional genetic discovery efforts for AM and ANM in diverse populations.

  17. Genome scan of human systemic lupus erythematosus: Evidence for linkage on chromosome 1q in African-American pedigrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Kathy L.; Neas, Barbara R.; Salmon, Jane E.; Yu, Hua; Gray-McGuire, Courtney; Asundi, Neeraj; Bruner, Gail R.; Fox, Jerome; Kelly, Jennifer; Henshall, Stephanie; Bacino, Debra; Dietz, Myron; Hogue, Robert; Koelsch, Gerald; Nightingale, Lydia; Shaver, Tim; Abdou, Nabih I.; Albert, Daniel A.; Carson, Craig; Petri, Michelle; Treadwell, Edward L.; James, Judith A.; Harley, John B.

    1998-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by production of autoantibodies against intracellular antigens including DNA, ribosomal P, Ro (SS-A), La (SS-B), and the spliceosome. Etiology is suspected to involve genetic and environmental factors. Evidence of genetic involvement includes: associations with HLA-DR3, HLA-DR2, Fcγ receptors (FcγR) IIA and IIIA, and hereditary complement component deficiencies, as well as familial aggregation, monozygotic twin concordance >20%, λs > 10, purported linkage at 1q41–42, and inbred mouse strains that consistently develop lupus. We have completed a genome scan in 94 extended multiplex pedigrees by using model-based linkage analysis. Potential [log10 of the odds for linkage (lod) > 2.0] SLE loci have been identified at chromosomes 1q41, 1q23, and 11q14–23 in African-Americans; 14q11, 4p15, 11q25, 2q32, 19q13, 6q26–27, and 12p12–11 in European-Americans; and 1q23, 13q32, 20q13, and 1q31 in all pedigrees combined. An effect for the FcγRIIA candidate polymorphism) at 1q23 (lod = 3.37 in African-Americans) is syntenic with linkage in a murine model of lupus. Sib-pair and multipoint nonparametric analyses also support linkage (P 2.0). Our results are consistent with the presumed complexity of genetic susceptibility to SLE and illustrate racial origin is likely to influence the specific nature of these genetic effects. PMID:9843982

  18. Influence of farm, feed-producer and season on incidence of gastrointestinal disorders in Danish farm mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattenborg, Erik; Chriél, Mariann; Dietz, Hans H.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of gastrointestinal disorders in mink in Danish farms is presented based on data collected in a longitudinal design. The time at risk was from weaning in June until pelting in November. The occurrence of gastrointestinal disorders after weaning of the mink kits together with the ...

  19. Indirect genetic effects contribute substantially to heritable variation in aggression-related traits in group-housed mink (Neovison vison)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alemu, S.W.; Bijma, P.; Moller, S.; Janss, L.; Berg, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the recommendations on group housing of mink (Neovison vison) were adopted by the Council of Europe in 1999, it has become common in mink production in Europe. Group housing is advantageous from a production perspective, but can lead to aggression between animals and thus raises a

  20. The black mink (Mustela vison). A natural model of immunologic male infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Breeding for fine black fur has generated a colony of mink wherein 20- 30% of the males are infertile. Two clinical groups are distinguishable: one being infertile from the start (primary infertility), and the other infertile after one or more years of fertility (secondary fertility). Although the etiology of primary infertility is unknown, the available data indicate that secondary infertility is associated with an autoimmune disease of the testis. Thus, male mink with secondary infertility have (a) higher prevalence and levels of anti-sperm antibody when compared with animals with primary infertility, and the antibody prevalence varies with fur color; (b) severe monocytic orchitis (47%) and/or aspermatogenesis (75%) with negative cultures for bacterial, fungal, mumps, or Coxsackie B viral organisms; (c) massive and extensive granular deposits of mink IgG and/or C3 (71%), typical of immune complexes, along the basal lamina of seminiferous tubules; (d) testes that when eluted with buffer or low pH yielded IgG that was 10-fold enriched in anti-sperm antibody activity as compared with serum IgG; and (e) no immunopathologic evidence of Aleutian mink disease. Although the sperm antigen-antibody complexes in the testis may be important as a pathogenetic mechanism of the testicular disease, there is no correlation between fluorescent anti- sperm antibody detection in the serum and the infertile state. The infertile black mink is a new model of infertility associated with naturally occurring autoimmune disease of the testis. PMID:6116740

  1. Foot Lesions in Farmed Mink (Neovison vison): Pathologic and Epidemiologic Characteristics on 4 Danish Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, A; Hammer, A S; Jensen, H E; Bonde-Jensen, N; Lassus, M M; Agger, J F; Larsen, P F

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate gross and histologic lesions and epidemiologic factors of foot lesions in farmed mink. The feet of 1159 mink from 4 Danish farms were examined and lesions described. Swabs from the lesions were taken from 27 mink for microbiology, and tissue samples from a representative spectrum of feet with and without lesions (n= 22) were examined histologically. Feet were grouped according to gross inspection: no lesions (55.1%), hair loss (7.1%), hyperkeratosis (35.8%), and crusting (5.3%). Lesions were predominantly located in plantar metatarsal skin (98.1%). Staphylococci were the most prevalent microorganisms cultured from the lesions. There was a significant association between presence of lesions and sex (P< .0001), age (P< .0001), and color type (P= .023). Lesion size was significantly different between hair loss and crusts and between hyperkeratosis and crusts (P< .0001). Histologically, lesions included varying degrees of orthokeratotic to parakeratotic hyperkeratosis and granulomatous to pyogranulomatous dermatitis with trichogranulomas as a dominant feature in all mink. The gross and microscopic lesions were comparable to physically induced changes in other species that develop as a response to repetitive friction or pressure. The condition may have an impact on animal welfare in mink production. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Arcanobacterium phocae infection in mink (Neovison vison), seals (Phoca vitulina, Halichoerus grypus) and otters (Lutra lutra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnemann, Bettina; Chriél, Mariann; Larsen, Gitte; Hansen, Mette Sif; Holm, Elisabeth; Pedersen, Karl

    2017-10-26

    Infectious skin disorders are not uncommon in mink. Such disorders are important as they have a negative impact on animal health and welfare as well as on the quality and value of the fur. This study presents the isolation of Arcanobacterium phocae from mink with severe skin lesions and other pathological conditions, and from wild seals and otters. In 2015, A. phocae was isolated for the first time in Denmark from outbreaks of dermatitis in mink farms. The outbreaks affected at least 12 farms. Originating from these 12 farms, 23 animals cultured positive for A. phocae. The main clinical findings were necrotizing pododermatitis or dermatitis located to other body sites, such as the lumbar and cervical regions. A. phocae could be isolated from skin lesions and in nine animals also from liver, spleen and lung, indicating a systemic spread. The bacterium was also, for the first time in Denmark, detected in dead seals (n = 9) (lungs, throat or wounds) and otters (n = 2) (throat and foot). An infectious skin disorder in mink associated with A. phocae has started to occur in Danish farmed mink. The origin of the infection has not been identified and it is still not clear what the pathogenesis or the port of entry for A. phocae infections are.

  3. Are Antarctic minke whales unusually abundant because of 20th century whaling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegg, Kristen C; Anderson, Eric C; Scott Baker, C; Vant, Murdoch; Jackson, Jennifer A; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2010-01-01

    Severe declines in megafauna worldwide illuminate the role of top predators in ecosystem structure. In the Antarctic, the Krill Surplus Hypothesis posits that the killing of more than 2 million large whales led to competitive release for smaller krill-eating species like the Antarctic minke whale. If true, the current size of the Antarctic minke whale population may be unusually high as an indirect result of whaling. Here, we estimate the long-term population size of the Antarctic minke whale prior to whaling by sequencing 11 nuclear genetic markers from 52 modern samples purchased in Japanese meat markets. We use coalescent simulations to explore the potential influence of population substructure and find that even though our samples are drawn from a limited geographic area, our estimate reflects ocean-wide genetic diversity. Using Bayesian estimates of the mutation rate and coalescent-based analyses of genetic diversity across loci, we calculate the long-term population size of the Antarctic minke whale to be 670,000 individuals (95% confidence interval: 374,000-1,150,000). Our estimate of long-term abundance is similar to, or greater than, contemporary abundance estimates, suggesting that managing Antarctic ecosystems under the assumption that Antarctic minke whales are unusually abundant is not warranted.

  4. American Society of Clinical Oncology Policy Statement Update: Genetic and Genomic Testing for Cancer Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Mark E; Bradbury, Angela R; Arun, Banu; Domchek, Susan M; Ford, James M; Hampel, Heather L; Lipkin, Stephen M; Syngal, Sapna; Wollins, Dana S; Lindor, Noralane M

    2015-11-01

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has long affirmed that the recognition and management of individuals with an inherited susceptibility to cancer are core elements of oncology care. ASCO released its first statement on genetic testing in 1996 and updated that statement in 2003 and 2010 in response to developments in the field. In 2014, the Cancer Prevention and Ethics Committees of ASCO commissioned another update to reflect the impact of advances in this area on oncology practice. In particular, there was an interest in addressing the opportunities and challenges arising from the application of massively parallel sequencing-also known as next-generation sequencing-to cancer susceptibility testing. This technology introduces a new level of complexity into the practice of cancer risk assessment and management, requiring renewed effort on the part of ASCO to ensure that those providing care to patients with cancer receive the necessary education to use this new technology in the most effective, beneficial manner. The purpose of this statement is to explore the challenges of new and emerging technologies in cancer genetics and provide recommendations to ensure their optimal deployment in oncology practice. Specifically, the statement makes recommendations in the following areas: germline implications of somatic mutation profiling, multigene panel testing for cancer susceptibility, quality assurance in genetic testing, education of oncology professionals, and access to cancer genetic services. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  5. Outbreaks of Influenza A Virus in Farmed Mink (Neovison vison) in Denmark: Molecular characterization of the involved viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Trebbien, Ramona

    Influenza in mink (Neovison vison) is assumed to be rare, but outbreaks have previously been reported in farmed mink. The first report was from Swedish mink farms in 1984 and the second was reported from Canadian mink farms. In 2009, influenza A of the subtype H3N2 was detected in several Danish...... or was circulating in Danish pigs. In 2010 and 2011, influenza virus was again diagnosed in diseased mink in a few farms. The genetic typing showed that the virus was similar to the pandemic H1N1 virus circulating in humans and swine. The H3N2 virus was not detected in 2010 and 2011. Taken together, these findings...

  6. Wildlife Reservoirs of Canine Distemper Virus Resulted in a Major Outbreak in Danish Farmed Mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Chriél, Mariann; Struve, Tina

    2014-01-01

    A major outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) in Danish farmed mink (Neovison vison) started in the late summer period of 2012. At the same time, a high number of diseased and dead wildlife species such as foxes, raccoon dogs, and ferrets were observed. To track the origin of the outbreak virus...... full-length sequencing of the receptor binding surface protein hemagglutinin (H) was performed on 26 CDV's collected from mink and 10 CDV's collected from wildlife species. Subsequent phylogenetic analyses showed that the virus circulating in the mink farms and wildlife were highly identical...... with an identity at the nucleotide level of 99.45% to 100%. The sequences could be grouped by single nucleotide polymorphisms according to geographical distribution of mink farms and wildlife. The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) receptor binding region in most viruses from both mink and wildlife...

  7. Ileal, colonic and total tract nutrient digestibility in dogs (Canis familiaris) compared with total tract digestibility in mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjernsbekk, Maria Therese; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ahlstrøm, Øystein

    2014-01-01

    Mink (Neovison vison) was studied as a model for the determination of ileal crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) digestibility in dogs (Canis familiaris). Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent colonic digestibility (ACD) in dogs and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) in dogs...... and mink were measured for dry matter (DM), main nutrients and AA. Standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in dogs was calculated. Twelve dogs and 12 mink divided into three groups were fed one out of three diets differing in CP digestibility. In dogs, AID of CP was lower (74.4%) than ATTD (83.......5%) (p dogs. Digestibility of AA followed the same pattern, and, except for Thr and Ser, ATTD in mink was very close to SID in dogs. Also, AID was close to ATTD in mink for several AA. High correlations were...

  8. A meta-analysis and genome-wide association study of platelet count and mean platelet volume in african americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehan Qayyum

    Full Text Available Several genetic variants associated with platelet count and mean platelet volume (MPV were recently reported in people of European ancestry. In this meta-analysis of 7 genome-wide association studies (GWAS enrolling African Americans, our aim was to identify novel genetic variants associated with platelet count and MPV. For all cohorts, GWAS analysis was performed using additive models after adjusting for age, sex, and population stratification. For both platelet phenotypes, meta-analyses were conducted using inverse-variance weighted fixed-effect models. Platelet aggregation assays in whole blood were performed in the participants of the GeneSTAR cohort. Genetic variants in ten independent regions were associated with platelet count (N = 16,388 with p<5×10(-8 of which 5 have not been associated with platelet count in previous GWAS. The novel genetic variants associated with platelet count were in the following regions (the most significant SNP, closest gene, and p-value: 6p22 (rs12526480, LRRC16A, p = 9.1×10(-9, 7q11 (rs13236689, CD36, p = 2.8×10(-9, 10q21 (rs7896518, JMJD1C, p = 2.3×10(-12, 11q13 (rs477895, BAD, p = 4.9×10(-8, and 20q13 (rs151361, SLMO2, p = 9.4×10(-9. Three of these loci (10q21, 11q13, and 20q13 were replicated in European Americans (N = 14,909 and one (11q13 in Hispanic Americans (N = 3,462. For MPV (N = 4,531, genetic variants in 3 regions were significant at p<5×10(-8, two of which were also associated with platelet count. Previously reported regions that were also significant in this study were 6p21, 6q23, 7q22, 12q24, and 19p13 for platelet count and 7q22, 17q11, and 19p13 for MPV. The most significant SNP in 1 region was also associated with ADP-induced maximal platelet aggregation in whole blood (12q24. Thus through a meta-analysis of GWAS enrolling African Americans, we have identified 5 novel regions associated with platelet count of which 3 were replicated in other ethnic

  9. Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus scavenge offal from minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata whaling operations in Svalbard (Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa-Marie Leclerc

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata tissue (mainly blubber was found in the gastrointestinal tracks of Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus collected in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, Norway. In order to determine whether the sharks were actively hunting the whales, finding naturally dead whales or consuming offal from whaling, we checked the genetic identity of the whale tissue found in the sharks against the DNA register for minke whales taken in Norwegian whaling operations. All of the minke whale samples from the sharks that had DNA of sufficient quality to perform individual identifications were traceable to the whaling DNA register. During whaling operations, the blubber is stripped from the carcass and thrown overboard. The blubber strips float on the surface and are available for surface-feeding predators. This study revealed that Greenland sharks are scavenging this material; additionally, it demonstrates the capacity of this ‘benthic-feeding’ shark to utilize the whole water column for foraging.

  10. Brucella ceti Infection in a Common Minke Whale ( Balaenoptera acutorostrata ) with Associated Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Nicholas J; Perrett, Lorraine L; Dawson, Claire; Dagleish, Mark P; Haskins, Gary; Muchowski, Jakub; Whatmore, Adrian M

    2017-07-01

    There are three major lineages of marine mammal strains of Brucella spp.: Brucella ceti ST23, found predominantly in porpoises; B. ceti ST26, in pelagic delphinids and ziphiids; and Brucella pinnipedialis ST24/25, predominantly in seals. The isolation of Brucella spp. in mysticetes has been described only in common minke whales ( Balaenoptera acutorostrata ) in Norway and Scotland. We report a third case of Brucella infection and isolation in a minke whale associated with a large abscess. In contrast to the two previous reports that involved isolates of B. pinnipedialis ST24 or the porpoise-associated B. ceti complex ST23, this case was associated with the dolphin-associated B. ceti ST26. Thus, minke whales can be infected naturally with members of all the distinct major lineages of Brucella associated with marine mammals. This report is unique in that the B. ceti ST26 did not originate from a pelagic delphinid or a beaked whale.

  11. Balancing of protein and lipid intake by a mammalian carnivore, the mink, Mustela vison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayntz, David; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke; Sørensen, Allan

    2009-01-01

    target) of the two macronutrients. When given only one food of fixed nutrient composition, mink balanced macronutrient intake relative to the intake target, without showing the excessive energy intake on diets with a low percentage of protein and energy deficit on diets with a high percentage of protein......Many herbivores and omnivores can balance their intake of macronutrients when faced with nutritionally variable environments. Carnivores, however, are widely believed to optimize their rates of prey capture and energy intake rather than balancing nutrients. We tested nutrient balancing in captive...... mink and found a pronounced ability to balance and regulate intake of protein and lipid. When faced with one of several different pairings of complementary foods varying in protein to lipid composition, mink apportioned intake between the two foods to defend a near constant ratio and amount (intake...

  12. Evaluation of the Zoonotic Potential of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Successful transmission of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy (TME to cattle supports the bovine hypothesis for the still controversial origin of TME outbreaks. Human and primate susceptibility to classical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (c-BSE and the transmissibility of L-type BSE to macaques indicate a low cattle-to-primate species barrier. We therefore evaluated the zoonotic potential of cattle-adapted TME. In less than two years, this strain induced in cynomolgus macaques a neurological disease similar to L-BSE but distinct from c-BSE. TME derived from another donor species (raccoon induced a similar disease with even shorter incubation periods. L-BSE and cattle-adapted TME were also transmissible to transgenic mice expressing human prion protein (PrP. Secondary transmissions to transgenic mice expressing bovine PrP maintained the features of the three tested bovine strains (cattle TME, c-BSE and L-BSE regardless of intermediate host. Thus, TME is the third animal prion strain transmissible to both macaques and humanized transgenic mice, suggesting zoonotic potentials that should be considered in the risk analysis of animal prion diseases for human health. Moreover, the similarities between TME and L-BSE are highly suggestive of a link between these strains, and therefore the possible presence of L-BSE for many decades prior to its identification in USA and Europe.

  13. Optimisation of protocol for Clostridium botulinum detection in mink feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grenda Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As the test material mink feed with natural microflora was used. The analyses were conducted using Wrzosek and TPGY broth media, and Willis–Hobbs and Zeissler differential agar media. Wrzosek, Willis–Hobbs, and Zeissler media are described in Polish Standards approved by the National Standards Body in Poland and routinely used in detection of anaerobic bacteria in Poland. Detection and identification of C. botulinum was performed with a previously validated real-time PCR method based on ntnh gene detection, which is common in all C. botulinum toxotypes. The use of Wrzosek broth and Zeissler agar in routine analyses for detection and identification of C. botulinum was ineffective and limited. The obtained results showed the highest culturing process effectiveness in TPGY broth with 72 h incubation at 30°C and isolation on Willis–Hobbs agar. The real-time PCR method based on ntnh gene detection used in this study could be utilised as a supplementary tool to the mouse lethality assay.

  14. Evaluation of the Zoonotic Potential of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comoy, Emmanuel E.; Mikol, Jacqueline; Ruchoux, Marie-Madeleine; Durand, Valérie; Luccantoni-Freire, Sophie; Dehen, Capucine; Correia, Evelyne; Casalone, Cristina; Richt, Juergen A.; Greenlee, Justin J.; Torres, Juan Maria; Brown, Paul; Deslys, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Successful transmission of Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy (TME) to cattle supports the bovine hypothesis for the still controversial origin of TME outbreaks. Human and primate susceptibility to classical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (c-BSE) and the transmissibility of L-type BSE to macaques indicate a low cattle-to-primate species barrier. We therefore evaluated the zoonotic potential of cattle-adapted TME. In less than two years, this strain induced in cynomolgus macaques a neurological disease similar to L-BSE but distinct from c-BSE. TME derived from another donor species (raccoon) induced a similar disease with even shorter incubation periods. L-BSE and cattle-adapted TME were also transmissible to transgenic mice expressing human prion protein (PrP). Secondary transmissions to transgenic mice expressing bovine PrP maintained the features of the three tested bovine strains (cattle TME, c-BSE and L-BSE) regardless of intermediate host. Thus, TME is the third animal prion strain transmissible to both macaques and humanized transgenic mice, suggesting zoonotic potentials that should be considered in the risk analysis of animal prion diseases for human health. Moreover, the similarities between TME and L-BSE are highly suggestive of a link between these strains, and therefore the possible presence of L-BSE for many decades prior to its identification in USA and Europe. PMID:25437205

  15. Evaluating genome-wide association study-identified breast cancer risk variants in African-American women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirong Long

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS, conducted mostly in European or Asian descendants, have identified approximately 67 genetic susceptibility loci for breast cancer. Given the large differences in genetic architecture between the African-ancestry genome and genomes of Asians and Europeans, it is important to investigate these loci in African-ancestry populations. We evaluated index SNPs in all 67 breast cancer susceptibility loci identified to date in our study including up to 3,300 African-American women (1,231 cases and 2,069 controls, recruited in the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS and the Nashville Breast Health Study (NBHS. Seven SNPs were statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05 with the risk of overall breast cancer in the same direction as previously reported: rs10069690 (5p15/TERT, rs999737 (14q24/RAD51L1, rs13387042 (2q35/TNP1, rs1219648 (10q26/FGFR2, rs8170 (19p13/BABAM1, rs17817449 (16q12/FTO, and rs13329835 (16q23/DYL2. A marginally significant association (P<0.10 was found for three additional SNPs: rs1045485 (2q33/CASP8, rs4849887 (2q14/INHBB, and rs4808801 (19p13/ELL. Three additional SNPs, including rs1011970 (9p21/CDKN2A/2B, rs941764 (14q32/CCDC88C, and rs17529111 (6q14/FAM46A, showed a significant association in analyses conducted by breast cancer subtype. The risk of breast cancer was elevated with an increasing number of risk variants, as measured by quintile of the genetic risk score, from 1.00 (reference, to 1.75 (1.30-2.37, 1.56 (1.15-2.11, 2.02 (1.50-2.74 and 2.63 (1.96-3.52, respectively, (P = 7.8 × 10(-10. Results from this study highlight the need for large genetic studies in AAs to identify risk variants impacting this population.

  16. Antimicrobial resistance among pathogenic bacteria from mink (Neovison vison) in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaisen, Nanett Kvist; Lassen, Desireé Corvera Kløve; Chriél, Mariann; Larsen, Gitte; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Pedersen, Karl

    2017-09-13

    For proper treatment of bacterial infections in mink, knowledge of the causative agents and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns is crucial. The used antimicrobials are in general not registered for mink, i.e. most usage is "off-label". In this study, we report the patterns of antimicrobial resistance among pathogenic bacteria isolated from Danish mink during the period 2014-2016. The aim of this investigation was to provide data on antimicrobial resistance and consumption, to serve as background knowledge for new veterinary guidelines for prudent and optimal antimicrobial usage in mink. A total number of 308 Escherichia coli isolates, 41 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 36 Streptococcus canis, 30 Streptococcus dysgalactiae, 55 Staphylococcus delphini, 9 Staphylococcus aureus, and 20 Staphylococcus schleiferi were included in this study. Among E. coli, resistance was observed more frequently among the hemolytic isolates than among the non-hemolytic ones. The highest frequency of resistance was found to ampicillin, 82.3% and 48.0% of the hemolytic of the non-hemolytic isolates, respectively. The majority of the P. aeruginosa isolates were only sensitive to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. Among the Staphylococcus spp., the highest occurrence of resistance was found for tetracycline. Regarding the nine S. aureus, one isolate was resistant to cefoxitin indicating it was a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Both β-hemolytic Streptococcus species showed high levels of resistance to tetracycline and erythromycin. The antimicrobial consumption increased significantly during 2007-2012, and fluctuated at a high level during 2012-2016, except for a temporary drop in 2013-2014. The majority of the prescribed antimicrobials were aminopenicillins followed by tetracyclines and macrolides. The study showed that antimicrobial resistance was common in most pathogenic bacteria from mink, in particular hemolytic E. coli. There is a need of guidelines for prudent use of

  17. Mastitis in the lactating mink female (Mustela vison S.) and the development of "greasy kits"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, T.N.; Dietz, Hans H.

    2000-01-01

    "Greasy kits" is the result ufa multifactorial disease complex with few known definitive aetiological factors. Mastitis has been hypothesized as a triggering factor although classical clinical signs of mastitis (rubor, tumor, dolor, calor) are rarely seen in lactating Danish mink Females. In this......"Greasy kits" is the result ufa multifactorial disease complex with few known definitive aetiological factors. Mastitis has been hypothesized as a triggering factor although classical clinical signs of mastitis (rubor, tumor, dolor, calor) are rarely seen in lactating Danish mink Females...

  18. Radiographic evaluation of destructive periodontal disease in blue mink in relation to age and blood morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne Sofie; Andersen, Thomas Holmen; Eriksen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In this study, blood samples and jaws were collected from 2 genotypes of blue mink (n = 289) in order to examine phenotypic expression of specific characteristics of Chediak-Higashi Syndrome (C-HS). Blood samples were subjected to differential counts to assess the proportion of abnormal polymorph......In this study, blood samples and jaws were collected from 2 genotypes of blue mink (n = 289) in order to examine phenotypic expression of specific characteristics of Chediak-Higashi Syndrome (C-HS). Blood samples were subjected to differential counts to assess the proportion of abnormal...

  19. Responses of mink to auditory stimuli: Prerequisites for applying the ‘cognitive bias’ approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille Maj; Malmkvist, Jens; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    /neutral situation), whereas another auditory stimulus was followed by an aversive stimulus (air blow) before the inter-trial-interval (danger situation). We observed behaviour including latencies to show a response during both experiments. The High mink showed significant habituation in experiment 1 but the Low...... mink only showed habituation in experiment 2. Regardless of the frequency used (2 and 18 kHz), cues predicting the danger situation initially elicited slower responses compared to those predicting the safe situation but quickly became faster. Using auditory cues as discrimination stimuli for female...

  20. Comparison of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from mink by serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne Sofie; Pedersen, Karl; Andersen, Thomas Holmen

    2003-01-01

    Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from clinical infections in mink were subjected to serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using SpeI. A total of 212 isolates of P aeruginosa from the year 1998 to 2001 were included in this study: 168 isolates from mink obtained from 74 farm...... aeruginosa of specific PFGE types were found to cause clusters of outbreaks on several farms within a few weeks of each other. However, PFGE types of strains causing clusters of farm outbreaks changed from year to year. These results suggest that some outbreaks of haemorrhagic pneumonia are caused...

  1. Wildlife reservoirs of canine distemper virus resulted in a major outbreak in Danish farmed mink (Neovison vison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Trebbien

    Full Text Available A major outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV in Danish farmed mink (Neovison vison started in the late summer period of 2012. At the same time, a high number of diseased and dead wildlife species such as foxes, raccoon dogs, and ferrets were observed. To track the origin of the outbreak virus full-length sequencing of the receptor binding surface protein hemagglutinin (H was performed on 26 CDV's collected from mink and 10 CDV's collected from wildlife species. Subsequent phylogenetic analyses showed that the virus circulating in the mink farms and wildlife were highly identical with an identity at the nucleotide level of 99.45% to 100%. The sequences could be grouped by single nucleotide polymorphisms according to geographical distribution of mink farms and wildlife. The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM receptor binding region in most viruses from both mink and wildlife contained G at position 530 and Y at position 549; however, three mink viruses had an Y549H substitution. The outbreak viruses clustered phylogenetically in the European lineage and were highly identical to wildlife viruses from Germany and Hungary (99.29% - 99.62%. The study furthermore revealed that fleas (Ceratophyllus sciurorum contained CDV and that vertical transmission of CDV occurred in a wild ferret. The study provides evidence that wildlife species, such as foxes, play an important role in the transmission of CDV to farmed mink and that the virus may be maintained in the wild animal reservoir between outbreaks.

  2. Ileal, colonic and total tract nutrient digestibility in dogs (Canis familiaris) compared with total tract digestibility in mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjernsbekk, Maria Therese; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ahlstrøm, Oystein

    2014-01-01

    Mink (Neovison vison) was studied as a model for the determination of ileal crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) digestibility in dogs (Canis familiaris). Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent colonic digestibility (ACD) in dogs and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) in dogs and mink were measured for dry matter (DM), main nutrients and AA. Standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in dogs was calculated. Twelve dogs and 12 mink divided into three groups were fed one out of three diets differing in CP digestibility. In dogs, AID of CP was lower (74.4%) than ATTD (83.5%) (p Digestibility of AA followed the same pattern, and, except for Thr and Ser, ATTD in mink was very close to SID in dogs. Also, AID was close to ATTD in mink for several AA. High correlations were found between methods for digestibility of CP and most AA (p digestibility level (p digestibility was approximately 96% at all sites, while DM, starch and total carbohydrate digestibility increased from ileal to faecal level (p < 0.01). Mink ATTD of DM and main nutrients was closest to ACD in dogs. It was concluded that mink is a suitable model for the determination of AID and SID of CP and AA in dogs.

  3. Wildlife Reservoirs of Canine Distemper Virus Resulted in a Major Outbreak in Danish Farmed Mink (Neovison vison)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Chriel, Mariann; Struve, Tina; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Gitte; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2014-01-01

    A major outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) in Danish farmed mink (Neovison vison) started in the late summer period of 2012. At the same time, a high number of diseased and dead wildlife species such as foxes, raccoon dogs, and ferrets were observed. To track the origin of the outbreak virus full-length sequencing of the receptor binding surface protein hemagglutinin (H) was performed on 26 CDV's collected from mink and 10 CDV's collected from wildlife species. Subsequent phylogenetic analyses showed that the virus circulating in the mink farms and wildlife were highly identical with an identity at the nucleotide level of 99.45% to 100%. The sequences could be grouped by single nucleotide polymorphisms according to geographical distribution of mink farms and wildlife. The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) receptor binding region in most viruses from both mink and wildlife contained G at position 530 and Y at position 549; however, three mink viruses had an Y549H substitution. The outbreak viruses clustered phylogenetically in the European lineage and were highly identical to wildlife viruses from Germany and Hungary (99.29% – 99.62%). The study furthermore revealed that fleas (Ceratophyllus sciurorum) contained CDV and that vertical transmission of CDV occurred in a wild ferret. The study provides evidence that wildlife species, such as foxes, play an important role in the transmission of CDV to farmed mink and that the virus may be maintained in the wild animal reservoir between outbreaks. PMID:24454897

  4. Effects of dietary copper on nutrient digestibility, tissular copper deposition and fur quality of growing-furring mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuezhuang; Liu, Zhi; Zhang, Tietao; Yang, Ying; Yang, Fuhe; Gao, Xiuhua

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary copper (Cu) on growth performance and fur quality in growing-furring minks. One hundred and five standard dark female minks were randomly assigned to seven groups with the following dietary treatments: basal diet with no supplemental Cu (control) and basal diet supplemented with either 6, 12, 24, 48, 96 or 192 mg/kg Cu from copper sulphate, respectively. Our data showed that final body weight (P = 0.033), daily gain (P = 0.029) and fat digestibility (P = 0.0006) responded to increasing levels of Cu. The activity of glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) in serum increased (linear and quadratic, P high levels of supplemental Cu have a beneficial effect on intensifying hair colour of dark mink but did not affect leather thickness. Liver Cu and plasma Cu concentrations of the mink linearly (P < 0.0001) responded to increasing levels of Cu. Our results indicate that growing-furring mink can efficiently utilize added dietary fat and that Cu plays an important role in the digestion of dietary fat in growing-furring mink, and supplemental dietary Cu in growing-furring mink promotes fat digestion and improve hair colour.

  5. Studies on the mechanism of the acute and carcinogenic effects of N-nitrosodimethylamine on mink liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, P.E.; Diaz Gomez, M.I.; Tamayo, D.; Lopez, A.J.; Castro, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Outbreaks of liver necrosis and liver hemangiosarcoma were detected in a mink breeding colony in Argentina. Analysis of the Minks' food revealed the presence of 2.6 ppm dimethylnitrosamine (NDMA) in it, apparently as a result of the addition of nitrite as preservative. Previous studies gave evidence of the particular susceptibility of minks to NDMA and other hepatic insults. The authors have determined several biochemical parameters known to correlate with NDMA hepatotoxic effects and compared with them those in rat liver. NDMA administration to both species resulted in the formation of reactive metabolites able to interact with liver DNA to give N/sup 7/-methylguanine and O/sup 6/-methylguanine adducts. Biotransformation of NDMA by liver slices to CO/sub 2/ was significantly lower in the mink than in the rat, whereas the covalent binding (CB) to nucleic acids was slightly lower than in the rat. Aminopyrine N-demethylase activity was also significantly less in mink than in rat liver. The CB of NDMA reactive metabolites to microsomal proteins was not significantly lower in mink as compared to the rat, and the same holds true for the biotransformation of NDMA to formaldehyde by microsomal preparations. Results suggest that the high susceptibility of minks to NDMA might be partially due to a decreased ability to detoxicate NDMA but also a higher intrinsic susceptibility of their liver cells to a given chemical insult.

  6. Wildlife reservoirs of canine distemper virus resulted in a major outbreak in Danish farmed mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Chriel, Mariann; Struve, Tina; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Gitte; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2014-01-01

    A major outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) in Danish farmed mink (Neovison vison) started in the late summer period of 2012. At the same time, a high number of diseased and dead wildlife species such as foxes, raccoon dogs, and ferrets were observed. To track the origin of the outbreak virus full-length sequencing of the receptor binding surface protein hemagglutinin (H) was performed on 26 CDV's collected from mink and 10 CDV's collected from wildlife species. Subsequent phylogenetic analyses showed that the virus circulating in the mink farms and wildlife were highly identical with an identity at the nucleotide level of 99.45% to 100%. The sequences could be grouped by single nucleotide polymorphisms according to geographical distribution of mink farms and wildlife. The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) receptor binding region in most viruses from both mink and wildlife contained G at position 530 and Y at position 549; however, three mink viruses had an Y549H substitution. The outbreak viruses clustered phylogenetically in the European lineage and were highly identical to wildlife viruses from Germany and Hungary (99.29% - 99.62%). The study furthermore revealed that fleas (Ceratophyllus sciurorum) contained CDV and that vertical transmission of CDV occurred in a wild ferret. The study provides evidence that wildlife species, such as foxes, play an important role in the transmission of CDV to farmed mink and that the virus may be maintained in the wild animal reservoir between outbreaks.

  7. African American race but not genome-wide ancestry is negatively associated with atrial fibrillation among postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Marco V; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Tang, Hua; Thornton, Timothy; Stefanick, Marcia L; Larson, Joseph C; Kooperberg, Charles; Reiner, Alex P; Caan, Bette; Iribarren, Carlos; Risch, Neil

    2013-09-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in women and is associated with higher rates of stroke and death. Rates of AF are lower in African American subjects compared with European Americans, suggesting European ancestry could contribute to AF risk. The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study (OS) followed up 93,676 women since the mid 1990s for various cardiovascular outcomes including AF. Multivariate Cox hazard regression analysis was used to measure the association between African American race and incident AF. A total of 8,119 African American women from the WHI randomized clinical trials and OS were genotyped on the Affymetrix Human SNP Array 6.0. Genome-wide ancestry and previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with AF in European cohorts were tested for association with AF using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Self-reported African American race was associated with lower rates of AF (hazard ratio 0.43, 95% CI 0.32-0.60) in the OS, independent of demographic and clinical risk factors. In the genotyped cohort, there were 558 women with AF. By contrast, genome-wide European ancestry was not associated with AF. None of the single nucleotide polymorphisms previously associated with AF in European populations, including rs2200733, were associated with AF in the WHI African American cohort. African American race is significantly and inversely correlated with AF in postmenopausal women. The etiology of this association remains unclear and may be related to unidentified environmental differences. Larger studies are necessary to identify genetic determinants of AF in African Americans. © 2013.

  8. Analyses of methylomes derived from Meso-American common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. using MeDIP-seq and whole genome sodium bisulfite-sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollee eCrampton

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is economically important for its high protein, fiber, and micronutrient contents, with a relatively small genome size of ~587 Mb. Common bean is genetically diverse with two major gene pools, Meso-American and Andean. The phenotypic variability within the genotypes is partly attributed to the genetic diversity and epigenetic changes that are largely influenced by environmental factors. It is well established that an important epigenetic regulator of gene expression is DNA methylation. Here, we present results generated from two high-throughput sequencing technologies, methylated DNA immunoprecipitation-sequencing (MeDIP-seq and whole genome bisulfite-sequencing (BS-Seq. Our analyses revealed that common bean displays similar methylation patterns as other previously published plant methylomes, with CG ~50%, CHG ~30%, and CHH ~2.7% methylation, however, these differ from the common bean reference methylome of Andean origin. We identified higher CG methylation levels in both promoter and genic regions than CHG and CHH contexts. Moreover, we found relatively higher CG methylation levels in genes than in promoters. Conversely, the CHG and CHH methylation levels were highest in promoters than in genes. This is the first genome-wide DNA methylation profiling study in a Meso-American common bean cultivar (Sierra using NGS approaches. Our long-term goal is to generate genome-wide epigenomic maps in common bean focusing on chromatin accessibility, histone modifications, and DNA methylation.

  9. Effects of dietary protein level on growth, health and physiological parameters in growing-furring mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Larsen, Peter F.; Clausen, Tove

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of the dietary protein level and the feeding strategy on growth, health and physiological blood and liver parameters in growing-furring male mink. Effects of dietary protein levels ranging from 22% of metabolizable energy (MEp) to experimental p...

  10. Measurements of thermal conductivities of alumina powders and Min-K in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, L.; El-Genk, M.S.; Schuller, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Thermal conductivities of two types of alumina powders, having average particle sizes of 1.0 microm and 0.1 microm and effective porosities of 91.4% and 96.2%, respectively, and of Min-K insulation materials were measured in vacuum. The thermal conductivities of all three materials increased with temperature, but at varying slopes. The developed thermal conductivity correlations were within ± 10% and ± 5% of the data of the alumina powders and the Min-K, respectively. The Min-K thermal conductivity was the lowest and least dependent on temperature, increasing from 0.03 to 0.042 W/mK as the temperature increased from 400 K to 800 K, respectively. Analysis showed that the thermal conductance of the Min-K could be an order of magnitude lower in the axial direction, but as much as 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than those of 60 and 240 Molybdenum foils insulation's in the perpendicular direction, respectively

  11. Immunohistochemical confirmation of Sarcocystis neurona infections in raccoons, mink, cat, skunk, and pony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Hamir, A N

    2000-10-01

    In the central nervous system of 2 raccoons, 1 cat, 1 pony, 2 mink, and 1 skunk, protozoa previously thought to be Sarcocystis-like reacted positively to Sarcocystis neurona-specific antibodies in an immunohistochemical test. In addition, S. neurona was identified in the brain of another skunk. These observations indicate that S. neurona is not confined to opossums and horses.

  12. Undersøgelse af vildtype hvalpesygevirus og DNA vaccination i mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line; Søgaard, Mette; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2010-01-01

    Hill virus. Herefter undersøgte vi hvorvidt vaccination af mink med DNA vacciner baseret på gener fra vaccinestammer inducerer krydsbeskyttelse mod cirkulerende europæiske hvalpesygevirusstammer. Resultaterne fra vores undersøgelse viste, at DNA vaccinerne havde en beskyttende effekt mod udvikling af...

  13. Incidence of mink, Mustela vison, and river otter, Lutra canadensis, in a highly urbanized area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David

    2003-01-01

    Mink (Musela vison ) frequently inhabited or traversed a residential, business, and industrial part of the Twin Cities, Minnesota, with little water or natural vegetation. At least one River Otter (Lutra canadensis ) also resided on a small pond on a golf course in the area for several winter months.

  14. Mastitis in the lactating mink female (Mustela vison S.) and the development of "greasy kits"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, T.N.; Dietz, Hans H.

    2000-01-01

    "Greasy kits" is the result ufa multifactorial disease complex with few known definitive aetiological factors. Mastitis has been hypothesized as a triggering factor although classical clinical signs of mastitis (rubor, tumor, dolor, calor) are rarely seen in lactating Danish mink Females. In this...

  15. Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is widespread in farmed mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Julie Elvekjær; Rhod Larsen, Anders; Skov, Robert Leo

    2017-01-01

    Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) clonal complex (CC) 398 is widespread in the Danish pig production with around 90% of herds being positive. Since 2009, cases of CC398 LA-MRSA infections in Danish mink farmers have been observed. The objective of the study...

  16. Host response during acute canine distemper virus infections in naive and DNA immunized mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line

    SAMMENDRAG (DANISH SUMMARY) Mink blev inokuleret med to forskellige vildtype hundesygevirus (CDV) stammer fra forskellige genotyper. DK91 stammen repræsenter de europæiske genotyper isoleret efter 1990, mens Snyder Hill stammen repræsenter de gamle amerikanske genotyper isoleret før 1960. De to C...

  17. Bentonite diminishes DON-induced changes in bone development in mink dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaszewska Ewa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of deoxynivalenol (DON, given alone or with bentonite (which eliminates mycotoxicity in the diet of mink dams throughout mating, pregnancy, and lactation period to pelt harvesting, on the mechanical properties and geometry of their long bones.

  18. Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is widespread in farmed mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Julie Elvekjær; Larsen, Anders Rhod; Skov, Robert Leo; Chriél, Mariann; Larsen, Gitte; Angen, Øystein; Larsen, Jesper; Lassen, Desireé Corvera Kløve; Pedersen, Karl

    2017-08-01

    Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) clonal complex (CC) 398 is widespread in the Danish pig production with around 90% of herds being positive. Since 2009, cases of CC398 LA-MRSA infections in Danish mink farmers have been observed. The objective of the study was to examine the presence of LA-MRSA in farmed mink. The investigation comprised three different sample types 1) clinical samples from carcasses submitted to the laboratory for diagnostic examination, 2) paws and pharyngeal swabs from healthy animals collected at pelting, and 3) feed samples from mink feed producers. In clinical samples, LA-MRSA was found in 34% of submissions and was most prevalent in samples from paws (33%) and pharynx (17%), followed by nasal and intestinal samples (each 13%), whereas it was never detected in perineal samples. LA-MRSA was found in healthy animals on 40% of the investigated farms, including paw samples (29%) and pharyngeal samples (16%). Twenty out of the 108 feed samples from feed producers were positive for LA-MRSA. The dominant spa-types were t034 and t011 associated to CC398, corresponding to the dominant spa-types detected in the Danish pig production, from which slaughter offal is used for mink feed. The spa-types, the high prevalence of LA-MRSA on paws and in pharynx, and its detection in feed samples, suggest feed as a possible source of LA-MRSA in mink. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Additional foraging elements reduce abnormal behaviour – fur-chewing and stereotypic behaviour – in farmed mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Palme, Rupert; Svendsen, Pernille Maj

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether provision of additional appetitive and consummatory elements of foraging reduces baseline stress and abnormal behaviour – in terms of fur-chewing and stereotypic behaviour – in farmed mink. We studied 200 juveniles (n = 100 females and 100 males) during the 5-month growth......; (iii) CONS, chunky feed (parts up to 42 mm), replacing conventional feed; (iv) BOTH, access to both biting ropes and chunky feed. In growing mink, biting ropes reduced fur-chewing (P = 0.044) and chunky feed reduced stereotypic behaviour (P = 0.038) and fur-chewing in female mink (P = 0.019). During......, stereotypic behaviour was reduced by provision of chunky feed, increasing the consummatory element in daily foraging. Fur-chewing was reduced upon access to either biting ropes or chunky feed in female mink throughout the study. Our findings support frustrated foraging, mainly consummatory, behind abnormal...

  20. Recombinant Newcastle disease viral vector expressing hemagglutinin or fusion of canine distemper virus is safe and immunogenic in minks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jinying; Wang, Xijun; Tian, Meijie; Gao, Yuwei; Wen, Zhiyuan; Yu, Guimei; Zhou, Weiwei; Zu, Shulong; Bu, Zhigao

    2015-05-15

    Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) infects many carnivores and cause several high-mortality disease outbreaks. The current CDV live vaccine cannot be safely used in some exotic species, such as mink and ferret. Here, we generated recombinant lentogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota expressing either envelope glycoproyein, heamagglutinine (H) or fusion protein (F), named as rLa-CDVH and rLa-CDVF, respectively. The feasibility of these recombinant NDVs to serve as live virus-vectored CD vaccine was evaluated in minks. rLa-CDVH induced significant neutralization antibodies (NA) to CDV and provided solid protection against virulent CDV challenge. On the contrast, rLa-CDVF induced much lower NA to CDV and fail to protected mink from virulent CDV challenge. Results suggest that recombinant NDV expressing CDV H is safe and efficient candidate vaccine against CDV in mink, and maybe other host species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Indirect genetic effects contribute substantially to heritable variation in aggression-related traits in group-housed mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku; Bijma, Peter; Møller, Steen Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the recommendations on group housing of mink (Neovison vison) were adopted by the Council of Europe in 1999, it has become common in mink production in Europe. Group housing is advantageous from a production perspective, but can lead to aggression between animals and thus raises...... a welfare issue. Bite marks on the animals are an indicator of this aggressive behaviour and thus selection against frequency of bite marks should reduce aggression and improve animal welfare. Bite marks on one individual reflect the aggression of its group members, which means that the number of bite marks...... genetic effects contribute to variation in number of bite marks in group-housed mink. Thus, a genetic selection design that includes both direct genetic and indirect genetic effects could reduce the frequency of bite marks and probably aggression behaviour in group-housed mink....

  2. Farmers’ perception of stable schools as a tool to improve management for the benefit of mink welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Britt I. F.; Anneberg, Inger; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore farmers' perception of stable schools as a tool to improve management for the benefit of mink welfare. Stable schools are knowledge exchange between farmers working towards a common goal, being able to give practical advice to each other. The concept is based...... on farmer field schools, developed and used in developing countries. Several Danish mink farmers are familiar with erfa-groups which also are farmers meeting, often with an advisor taking part, but the stable schools with only farmers and a facilitator have never been tested on mink farms. In 2013, we...... therefore established two stable schools with farmers from five Danish mink farms in each group. The meetings were on the respective farms, and every farm was visited once within a year. The host-farmer presented one success story and two challenges he/she wanted to work with and get contributions to from...

  3. Autumn-winter diet of three carnivores, European mink (Mustela lutreola, Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra and small-spotted genet (Genetta genetta, in northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palazón, S.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the autumn-winter diet of three carnivores (Mustela lutreola, Lutra lutra and Genetta genetta in northern Spain. Diet composition was analysed from 85 European mink, 156 otter and 564 spotted genet fecal samples The European mink diet was based on small mammals (relative frequency of occurrences 38.1%, fish (30.9% and birds (16.7%. Spotted genet consumed mainly small mammals, birds and fruits, whilst otter predated practically only fish (95%. Using Levins’ index, trophic-niche widths in European mink, small-spotted genet and Eurasian otter were 3.76, 3.77 and 1.10, respectively. The trophic niche overlap by Pianka index for autumn-winter was 0.77 for European mink vs. Small-spotted genet, and 0.60 for European mink vs. otter. The average size of brown trout taken by otter was larger than those consumed by European mink.

  4. Naturally occurring Influenza A virus subtype H1N2 infection in a Midwest United States mink (Mustela vison) ranch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Schwartz, Kent; Sun, Dong; Zhang, Jianqiang; Hildebrandt, Hugh

    2012-03-01

    Influenza A virus (FLUAV) causes acute respiratory disease in humans and a variety of animal species. The virus tends to remain within the species of origin; nonetheless, naturally occurring cross-species transmission of FLUAV has been periodically documented. Multiple cross-species transmissions of FLUAV have been reported from companion animals and captive wild animals, neither of which is historically considered as natural hosts of FLUAV. In the fall of 2010, mink (Mustela vison) inhabiting a 15,000-head mink farm in the Midwest United States experienced persistent severe respiratory distress and nose and/or mouth bleeding. Mink losses averaged approximately 10 animals per day. Six dead mink at 6 months of age were submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for diagnostic investigation. Gross and microscopic examinations revealed that all 6 mink had hemorrhagic bronchointerstitial pneumonia. Hemolytic Escherichia coli was isolated from lungs, probably accounting for hemorrhagic pneumonia. All animals tested negative for Canine distemper virus and Aleutian mink disease virus. Interestingly, FLUAV of H1N2 subtype, which contained the matrix gene of swine lineage, was detected in the lungs. Serological follow-up on mink that remained in the ranch until pelting also confirmed that the ranch had been exposed to FLUAV of H1 subtype (δ clade). The case study suggests that FLUAV should be included in the differential diagnosis when mink experience epidemics of respiratory disease. Since the source of FLUAV appeared to be uncooked turkey meat, feeding animals fully cooked ration should be considered as a preventive measure.

  5. Anatomical distribution and gross pathology of wounds in necropsied farmed mink (Neovison vison) from June and October.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, Anna; Agger, Jens Frederik; Clausen, Tove; Bertelsen, Stine; Jensen, Henrik Elvang; Hammer, Anne Sofie

    2016-01-25

    Wounds are regarded as an indicator of reduced welfare in mink production; however, information on the occurrence and significance of wounds is sparse. To provide a basis for assessment and classification of wounds in farmed mink, the distribution pattern and characteristics of wounds in farmed mink in June and October, respectively, is described. A total of 791 and 660 mink from 6 to 12 Danish mink farms, respectively, were examined. The mink were either found dead or were euthanized due to injury or other disease. Mink included from June were kits in the pre-weaning and weaning period (1-2 months old). Mink included from October were juveniles in the late growth period (approximately 5-6 months old) or older. Macroscopic pathology and wound location was systematically recorded. There was considerable variation in morphology as well as location of wounds between June and October. Wounds were primarily located on the front parts of the body and in the head in June (1-2 month old kits) and mainly on the rear parts of the body and on the tail in October (5-6 month old kits and older). Moreover, there were significantly more females than males with wounds for most wound types, and significant differences in occurrence of ear and tail base wounds between certain colour types. Wounds varied significantly from June to October with respect to morphology and anatomical location. Wounds in June were primarily located on the front parts of the body and in the head, while wounds in October were mainly present on the hind parts of the body and on the tail. The majority of the wounds were found in specific well defined skin areas and could therefore be grouped into categories according to anatomical location.

  6. Effects of dietary protein levels on digestibility of nutrients and growth rate in young female mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T-T; Zhang, Z-Q; Gao, X-H; Yang, F-H; Xing, X-M

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated digestibilities of nutrients and feed efficiency in female mink at the different dietary protein levels during the mink growth period. Effects of dietary protein on growth performance of minks were also measured. Sixty 45-day-old healthy female minks were randomly assigned to 6 treatment groups with 10 animals in each group. Animals were fed diets varying in protein levels: 28% (Group I), 30% (Group II), 32% (Group III), 34% (Group IV), 36% (Group V) and 38% (Group VI), respectively. The digestibilities of key nutrients were determined on Day 14 after initiating the experiment and the last 3 days. From the beginning of the study, body weight and feed intake were weighed and recorded every other week in order to calculate the average daily bodyweight gain and the feed efficiency. The trial had demonstrated that nitrogen intake was greatly significantly different, which was affected by dietary protein levels (p < 0.001). Growth performance of minks was impaired when dietary protein level was at 28%. When dietary protein level was at 34%, minks had the best daily gains, feed efficiency, and digestibilities of some key nutrients. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Mink (Mustela vison) Gut Microbial Communities from Northeast China and Its Internal Relationship with Gender and Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haiping; Sun, Weili; Wang, Zhuo; Zhang, Ting; Fan, Yanyan; Gu, Haijun; Li, Guangyu

    2017-10-01

    It is well documented that the microbial interactions and biodiversity play an important role in health and disease in mammalian species. There is a rare study about gut microbiota of Mustelidae family. In this study, 40 male and female minks from Northeast China were divided into three groups and fed until they reached maturity. The V3 region of 16S rRNA genes was amplified and sequenced using NGS. There were 526 OTUs principally concentrated among five bacterial phyla. Two points about mink's body weight gaining were observed: (1) the weight of male individuals increased more rapidly than female individuals; (2) the weight of individuals whose feed was supplemented with Chinese herb additives increased more rapidly than individuals without giving food additives. The differences of microorganism abundance were shown in two points: (1) two genera which had ≥2-fold change difference were found between male and female minks. (2) Ten genera which had a ≥2-fold change difference were found among minks with and without Chinese herb additive. Findings from this study provide new and fundamental knowledge on the gut microbiota composition of minks farmed in Northeast China, which can contribute to the general well-being of minks worldwide.

  8. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Farmed Minks (Neovison vison) in Northeastern and Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wen-Bin; Cong, Wei; Meng, Qing-Feng; Ma, Jian-Gang; Wang, Chun-Feng; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2016-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important intracellular parasite, which can infect endothermic vertebrate animals, including minks (Neovison vison). However, information on T. gondii infection in minks in China is limited. Therefore, we investigated the seroprevalence and risk factors of T. gondii infection in minks in northeastern and eastern China. A total of 1499 mink blood samples were randomly collected from eight cities between March 2014 and January 2015 in northeastern and eastern China, and antibodies to T. gondii were examined using the modified agglutination test. Overall, the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was 8.14% in the examined minks. The T. gondii seroprevalence was different among cities (ranging from 1.85% in Changchun to 15.75% in Dalian), genders (4.31% in male and 6.22% in female), seasons (spring: 11.64%; summer: 7.34%; autumn: 7.37%; and winter: 7.32%), and ages (young: 5.79%; subadult: 5.03%; and adult: 11.08%). Region and age were considered as risk factors for T. gondii infection. These results provided baseline data for the prevention and control of T. gondii infection in minks in China.

  9. Effectiveness of femur bone indexes to segregate wild from captive minks, Mustela vison, and forensic implications for small mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao Li; Xu, Yan Chun; Yang, Shu Hui; Hua, Yan; Stott, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Utilization of free-living populations of endangered wildlife species is usually strictly prohibited or restricted. Farming of endangered species can provide products that are in demand as a countermeasure. A novel forensic issue arises because it becomes necessary to discriminate the origin of given wildlife products. We tested the effectiveness of five measurements and four indexes of femur bone using farmed minks (n = 40) and escapees (n = 32). Results showed all measurements, namely body mass (L(f)), body length (M(f)), femur mass (V(f)), femur length (M(b)), and femur volume (L(b)), were highly discriminatory. However, they are susceptible to the influence of nutrition level and sex. Femur length index (I(fl)), femur linear density (D(l)), and femur volume density (D(v)) eliminated the influence of level of nutrition and were highly effective. However, I(fl) and D(l) were influenced by sex (p = 0.000). Because D(v) was not influenced by sex (p = 0.683) and was highly effective, it was the preferred index. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in African Americans provides insights into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie C Y Ng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D is more prevalent in African Americans than in Europeans. However, little is known about the genetic risk in African Americans despite the recent identification of more than 70 T2D loci primarily by genome-wide association studies (GWAS in individuals of European ancestry. In order to investigate the genetic architecture of T2D in African Americans, the MEta-analysis of type 2 DIabetes in African Americans (MEDIA Consortium examined 17 GWAS on T2D comprising 8,284 cases and 15,543 controls in African Americans in stage 1 analysis. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs association analysis was conducted in each study under the additive model after adjustment for age, sex, study site, and principal components. Meta-analysis of approximately 2.6 million genotyped and imputed SNPs in all studies was conducted using an inverse variance-weighted fixed effect model. Replications were performed to follow up 21 loci in up to 6,061 cases and 5,483 controls in African Americans, and 8,130 cases and 38,987 controls of European ancestry. We identified three known loci (TCF7L2, HMGA2 and KCNQ1 and two novel loci (HLA-B and INS-IGF2 at genome-wide significance (4.15 × 10(-94Americans. Overall, this study identified two novel susceptibility loci for T2D in African Americans. A substantial number of previously reported loci are transferable to African Americans after accounting for linkage disequilibrium, enabling fine mapping of causal variants in trans-ethnic meta-analysis studies.

  11. Noninvasive prenatal screening for fetal aneuploidy, 2016 update: a position statement of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Anthony R; Skotko, Brian G; Benkendorf, Judith L; Monaghan, Kristin G; Bajaj, Komal; Best, Robert G; Klugman, Susan; Watson, Michael S

    2016-10-01

    This statement is designed primarily as an educational resource for clinicians to help them provide quality medical services. Adherence to this statement is completely voluntary and does not necessarily assure a successful medical outcome. This statement should not be considered inclusive of all proper procedures and tests or exclusive of other procedures and tests that are reasonably directed toward obtaining the same results. In determining the propriety of any specific procedure or test, the clinician should apply his or her own professional judgment to the specific clinical circumstances presented by the individual patient or specimen. Clinicians are encouraged to document the reasons for the use of a particular procedure or test, whether or not it is in conformance with this statement. Clinicians also are advised to take notice of the date this statement was adopted and to consider other medical and scientific information that becomes available after that date. It also would be prudent to consider whether intellectual property interests may restrict the performance of certain tests and other procedures.Noninvasive prenatal screening using cell-free DNA (NIPS) has been rapidly integrated into prenatal care since the initial American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) statement in 2013. New evidence strongly suggests that NIPS can replace conventional screening for Patau, Edwards, and Down syndromes across the maternal age spectrum, for a continuum of gestational age beginning at 9-10 weeks, and for patients who are not significantly obese. This statement sets forth a new framework for NIPS that is supported by information from validation and clinical utility studies. Pretest counseling for NIPS remains crucial; however, it needs to go beyond discussions of Patau, Edwards, and Down syndromes. The use of NIPS to include sex chromosome aneuploidy screening and screening for selected copy-number variants (CNVs) is becoming commonplace because there are

  12. Polyamine-Mediated Effects of Prolactin Dictate Emergence from Mink Obligate Embryonic Diapause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenelon, Jane C; Banerjee, Arnab; Lefèvre, Pavine; Gratian, Fanélie; Murphy, Bruce D

    2016-07-01

    Embryonic diapause is an evolutionary strategy to ensure that offspring are born when maternal and environmental conditions are optimal for survival. In many species of carnivores, obligate embryonic diapause occurs in every gestation. Reciprocal embryo transplant studies indicate that embryo arrest during diapause is conferred by uterine conditions and is due to a lack of specific factors necessary for continued development. In previous studies, global gene expression analysis revealed reduced uterine expression during diapause of a cluster of genes in the mink that regulate the abundance of polyamines, including ornithine decarboxylase 1 (ODC1). In addition, in vivo inhibition of the conversion of ornithine to the polyamine, putrescine, induced a reversible arrest in mink embryonic development and an arrest in trophoblast cell proliferation in vitro. Previous studies have implicated prolactin as the principal endocrine signal to terminate diapause. In this study, uterine expression of both the progesterone and estrogen receptors remained low at reactivation whilst the prolactin receptor was expressed at all times. Treatment of mink uterine epithelial cells with varying doses of prolactin indicated that this hormone induces ODC1 expression in the uterus via pSTAT1 and mTOR, thereby regulating uterine polyamine levels. In addition, we performed global gene expression analysis on mink embryos to further explore dynamic changes during diapause and found 94 genes upregulated at reactivation from diapause. Three polyamine-related genes, including ODC1, were also upregulated at reactivation from diapause. To establish whether polyamines mitigate escape from embryonic diapause, we collected mink embryos in diapause and incubated them in vitro with putrescine. Increase in embryo volume, the first indication of emergence from diapause, was observed within the first 5 days of culture in all viable embryos treated with putrescine, and the duration of embryo survival was

  13. Genome-wide association study of coronary heart disease and its risk factors in 8,090 African Americans: the NHLBI CARe Project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Lettre

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease (CHD is the leading cause of mortality in African Americans. To identify common genetic polymorphisms associated with CHD and its risk factors (LDL- and HDL-cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C, hypertension, smoking, and type-2 diabetes in individuals of African ancestry, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS in 8,090 African Americans from five population-based cohorts. We replicated 17 loci previously associated with CHD or its risk factors in Caucasians. For five of these regions (CHD: CDKN2A/CDKN2B; HDL-C: FADS1-3, PLTP, LPL, and ABCA1, we could leverage the distinct linkage disequilibrium (LD patterns in African Americans to identify DNA polymorphisms more strongly associated with the phenotypes than the previously reported index SNPs found in Caucasian populations. We also developed a new approach for association testing in admixed populations that uses allelic and local ancestry variation. Using this method, we discovered several loci that would have been missed using the basic allelic and global ancestry information only. Our conclusions suggest that no major loci uniquely explain the high prevalence of CHD in African Americans. Our project has developed resources and methods that address both admixture- and SNP-association to maximize power for genetic discovery in even larger African-American consortia.

  14. Complete genome sequence of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv trifolii strain WSM2304, an effective microsymbiont of the South American clover Trifolium polymorphum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Wayne; O’Hara, Graham; Chain, Patrick; Ardley, Julie; Bräu, Lambert; Nandesena, Kemanthi; Tiwari, Ravi; Malfatti, Stephanie; Kiss, Hajnalka; Lapidus, Alla; Copeland, Alex; Nolan, Matt; Land, Miriam; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Kyrpides, Nikos; Melino, Vanessa; Denton, Matthew; Yates, Ron; Howieson, John

    2010-01-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum bv trifolii is the effective nitrogen fixing microsymbiont of a diverse range of annual and perennial Trifolium (clover) species. Strain WSM2304 is an aerobic, motile, non-spore forming, Gram-negative rod, isolated from Trifolium polymorphum in Uruguay in 1998. This microsymbiont predominated in the perennial grasslands of Glencoe Research Station, in Uruguay, to competitively nodulate its host, and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Here we describe the basic features of WSM2304, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first completed genome sequence for a nitrogen fixing microsymbiont of a clover species from the American center of origin. We reveal that its genome size is 6,872,702 bp encoding 6,643 protein-coding genes and 62 RNA only encoding genes. This multipartite genome was found to contain 5 distinct replicons; a chromosome of size 4,537,948 bp and four circular plasmids of size 1,266,105 bp, 501,946 bp, 308,747 bp and 257,956 bp. PMID:21304679

  15. Complete genome sequence of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv trifolii strain WSM2304, an effective microsymbiont of the South American clover Trifolium polymorphum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeve, Wayne [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; O' Hara, Graham [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Ardley, Julie [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Brau, Lambert [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Nandesena, Kemanthi [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Tiwari, Ravi [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Malfatti, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Kiss, Hajnalka [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Melino, Vanessa [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Denton, Matthew [Department of Primary Industries, Victoria, Australia; Yates, Ron [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Howieson, John [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia

    2010-01-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum bv trifolii is the effective nitrogen fixing microsymbiont of a diverse range of annual and perennial Trifolium (clover) species. Strain WSM2304 is an aerobic, motile, non-spore forming, Gram-negative rod, isolated from Trifolium polymorphum in Uruguay in 1998. This microsymbiont predominated in the perennial grasslands of Glencoe Research Station, in Uruguay, to competitively nodulate its host, and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Here we describe the basic features of WSM2304, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first completed genome sequence for a nitrogen fixing microsymbiont of a clover species from the American center of origin. We reveal that its genome size is 6,872,702 bp encoding 6,643 protein-coding genes and 62 RNA only encoding genes. This multipartite genome was found to contain 5 distinct replicons; a chromosome of size 4,537,948 bp and four circular plasmids of size 1,266,105 bp, 501,946 bp, 308,747 bp and 257,956 bp.

  16. Estimates of the abundance of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata from Faroese and Icelandic NASS shipboard surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G Pike

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available North Atlantic Sightings Surveys for cetaceans were carried out Northeast and Central Atlantic in 1987, 1989, 1995 and 2001. Here we provide estimates of density and abundance for minke whales from the Faroese and Icelandic ship surveys. The estimates are not corrected for availability or perception biases. Double platform data collected in 2001 indicates that perception bias is likely considerable for this species. However comparison of corrected estimates of densityfrom aerial surveys with a ship survey estimate from the same area suggests that ship surveys can be nearly unbiased under optimal survey conditions with high searching effort. There were some regional changes in density over the period but no overall changes in density and abundance. Given the recent catch history for minke whales in this area, we would not expect to see changes in abundance due to exploitation that would be detectable with these surveys.

  17. Selection against stereotyped behaviour may have contradictory consequences for the welfare of farm mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille Maj; Jeppesen, Leif Lau; Malmkvist, Jens

    2007-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine if divergent selection for stereotypic behaviour in mink influences the welfare of the animals. Two breeding lines were used, a high stereotyping line (HSL, N = 139) and a low stereotyping line (LSL, N = 132). Their welfare was assessed on the basis...... of adrenocortical activity (faecal cortisol metabolites, FCM), confident versus fearful temperament, growth and reproduction. The results showed that the LSL performed less stereotypic behaviour and were less active than the HSL. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that: (1) the LSL had lower concentrations......) there was no failure to grow in any line, but on average the body weight in the LSL was higher than that in the HSL. The correlation between stereotypy and confidence in the present study supports earlier findings showing a higher proportion of fearful animals in groups of low stereotyping mink. So, although...

  18. Factors associated with usage of antimicrobials in commercial mink (Neovison vison) production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Struve, T.

    2016-01-01

    out with the objective of identifying risk factors for antimicrobial use on herd level. The study was based on register data for 2007-2012. Information on antimicrobial use was obtained from the national database VetStat, monitoring all medicinal products used for animals on prescription level. Data...... on microbiological feed quality was obtained from the Voluntary Feed Control under the Mink producers Organization, and data on herd size and the relation between farm and feed producer was obtained from the registers at Kopenhagen Fur, based on yearly reporting from the mink producers. Descriptive analysis showed...... on herd level was significantly associated with the microbiological food quality, the feed producer, and the veterinarian. The prescription patterns varied significantly between veterinarians, and some veterinarians were associated with both larger and more frequent prescriptions of antimicrobials at herd...

  19. Serogroups and antimicrobial susceptibility among Escherichia coli isolated from farmed mink (Mustela vison Schreiber) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vulfson, L.; Pedersen, Karl; Chriel, M.

    2001-01-01

    Escherichia coli is commonly found in outbreaks of diarrhoea in mink during the production season although its role as a primary causal organism remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to determine the serogroups and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli isolates from healthy...... and diarrhoeic mink. Rectal swabs were taken from healthy and diseased animals, on six different farms. once at the onset of disease and again approximately 2 weeks later. The swabs were subjected to bacteriological investigation: a total of 210 E. coli were isolated, 98 from healthy animals and 112 from...... diseased. All isolates were serotyped and MICs were determined for nine antimicrobial compounds. Non-haemolytic isolates numbered 147, whereas 63 were haemolytic. Both haemolytic and non-haemolytic isolates were isolated from both healthy and diseased animals. A wide range of serogroups was detected...

  20. Serogroups and antimicrobiological susceptability among Escherichia coli isolated from farmed mink (Mustela vison Schreiber) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vulfson, L.; Pedersen, K.; Chriél, Mariann

    2001-01-01

    Escherichia coli is commonly found in outbreaks of diarrhoea in mink during the production season although its role as a primary causal organism remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to determine the serogroups and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli isolates from healthy...... and diarrhoeic mink. Rectal swabs were taken from healthy and diseased animals, on six different farms, once at the onset of disease and again approximately 2 weeks later. The swabs were subjected to bacteriological investigation; a total of 210 E. coli were isolated, 98 from healthy animals and 112 from...... diseased. All isolates were serotyped and MICs were determined for nine antimicrobial compounds. Non-haemolytic isolates numbered 147, whereas 63 were haemolytic. Both haemolytic and non-haemolytic isolates were isolated from both healthy and diseased animals. A wide range of serogroups was detected...

  1. Utilization of milk amino acids for body gain in suckling mink (Mustela vison) kits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, Anne-Helene; Fink, Rikke; Hansen, Niels E

    2005-01-01

    The efficiency of utilization of milk amino acids for body gain in suckling mink kits from small (n = 3), medium (n = 6) and large litters (n = 9) was investigated by using 36 mink dams and their litters for measurements during lactation weeks 1 through 4. Measurements on each dam and litter were...... performed once, hence three dams per litter size each week (n = 9). Individual milk intake of kits was determined, milk samples were collected and kits were killed for determination of amino acid composition. The most abundant amino acids in milk were glutamate, leucine and aspartate making up about 40......% of total amino acids. Branched chained amino acids made up slightly more than 20% and sulphur containing amino acids less than 5% of total milk amino acids. In kit bodies the sum of glutamate, aspartate and leucine made up about 32% of amino acids, branched chain amino acids about 16% and sulphur...

  2. Characterization of H5N1 highly pathogenic mink influenza viruses in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenming; Wang, Suchun; Zhang, Chuanmei; Li, Jinping; Hou, Guangyu; Peng, Cheng; Chen, Jiming; Shan, Hu

    2017-03-01

    Members of the H5 subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses pose a great threat to both poultry and humans with severe consequences for both industry and public health sectors. Here, we isolated and characterized two H5N1 highly pathogenic influenza viruses in deceased mink from eastern China. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the G15 and XB15 viruses belonged to clade 2.3.2.1b and 2.3.2.1e, respectively. Both of these viruses were highly pathogenic in chickens. They were also shown to exhibit moderate to high pathogenicity in mice without pre-adaptation. Further, the mink influenza viruses had severe antigenic drift with corresponding Re-6 vaccine and current vaccines may fail to confer protection against these H5N1 viruses in poultry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Selektion mod stereotypi kan have modsat rettede konsekvenser for velfærd hos mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Leif Lau

    2007-01-01

    Mink blev selekteret for eller imod udførelse af stereotyp adfærd. Voksne tæver fra den tredje afkomstgeneration blev undersøgt for stereotypi og anden adfærdsmæssig aktivitet, samt for vækst, reproduktion, temperament og stressniveau. Dette skete i efteråret 2004. Tæverne fra den lavt stereotype......Mink blev selekteret for eller imod udførelse af stereotyp adfærd. Voksne tæver fra den tredje afkomstgeneration blev undersøgt for stereotypi og anden adfærdsmæssig aktivitet, samt for vækst, reproduktion, temperament og stressniveau. Dette skete i efteråret 2004. Tæverne fra den lavt...

  4. Glomerular lesions in Aleutian disease of mink (Mustela vison): a morphological and differential morphometrical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, J M; Alvarez, C; Flores, J M; Romano, J

    1991-04-01

    A morphological and morphometrical study has been carried out on glomerular lesions in mink with spontaneous Aleutian disease, using the WHO classification for Systemic Lupus Erytematous Nefritis. 154 renal samples from sick animals and 10 samples from uninfected mink were processed by routine histopathological techniques and metacrylate inclusions. The samples were studied quantitatively with an automatic image analyzer. 5 forms of glomerulonephritis (GN) were identified: mesangial glomerulonephritis (n = 13), focal and segmental GN (n = 10), diffuse GN (n = 99), membranous GN (n = 12) and advanced sclerosing GN (n = 10) and were associated with the degree of interstitial plasmocytosis. Glomerule morphometry was shown to be an excellent method for identifying the type of lesion, while it quantified the participation of various glomerular elements in the lesion.

  5. Pathogenesis of canine distemper virus in experimentally infected raccoon dogs, foxes, and minks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianjun; Shi, Ning; Sun, Yangang; Martella, Vito; Nikolin, Veljko; Zhu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Hailing; Hu, Bo; Bai, Xue; Yan, Xijun

    2015-10-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a broad range of carnivores and causes a highly contagious disease with severe immunosuppression. The disease severity markedly varies in different species. To investigate the pathogenesis of CDV in raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), fox (Vulpes vulpes) and mink (Neovison vison) species, three groups of CDV sero-negative animals were infected with CDV strain LN(10)1. This CDV strain belongs to the Asia-1 genotype, which is epidemiologically predominant in carnivores in China. CDV infection provoked marked differences in virulence in the three species that were studied. Raccoon dogs developed fever, severe conjunctivitis, and pathological lesions, with 100% (5/5) mortality and with high viral RNA loads in organs within 15 days post infection (dpi). In infected foxes, the onset of the disease was delayed, with 40% (2/5) mortality by 21 dpi. Infected minks developed only mild clinical signs and pathological lesions, and mortality was not observed. Raccoon dogs and foxes showed more severe immune suppression (lymphopenia, decreased lymphocyte proliferation, viremia and low-level virus neutralizing antibodies) than minks. We also observed a distinct pattern of cytokine mRNA transcripts at different times after infection. Decreased IFN-γ and IL-4 mRNA responses were evident in the animals with fatal disease, while up-regulation of these cytokines was observed in the animals surviving the infection. Increased TNF-α response was detected in animals with mild or severe clinical signs. Based on the results, we could distinguish three different patterns of disease after experimental CDV infection, e.g. a mild form in minks, a moderate form in foxes and a severe disease in raccoon dogs. The observed differences in susceptibility to CDV could be related to distinct host cytokine profiles. Comparative evaluation of CDV pathogenesis in various animal species is pivotal to generate models suitable for the evaluation of CDV

  6. Development of a sandwich ELISA for quantification of immunoglobulin G in mink blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Ronja; Chriél, Mariann; Struve, T.

    2016-01-01

    early immunity and thus their resistance against pathogenic agents found in the environment. This study describes a sandwich ELISA for quantification of the concentration of total immunoglobulin G in mink blood. The ELISA was validated with serum samples from females (n=8) and their kits (litters of 4......-12). Preliminary results show that the IgG concentration among kits from the same litter was similar, while litter to litter variation was high....

  7. Abortion and mortality in farm mink (Neovison vison) associated with feed-born Clostridium limosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Anne Sofie; Andresen, Lars; Aalbæk, Bent; Damborg, Peter; Weiss, Vilhelm; Christiansen, Mette Line; Selsing, Søren; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2017-05-01

    Disease in mink clinically characterized by abortion and increased mortality among pregnant female mink on 28 Danish farms was observed during April and May 2015. Most of these farms suffered extensive disease problems, including a significant increase in the number of mated females without litters. Pathological, microbiological and molecular biological methods were applied to investigate the cause of disease. Necropsies of animals found dead revealed fragile and partially dissolved (liquefying) uterine tissue, with the presence of Gram positive rod-shaped bacteria. These slow growing bacteria were isolated by anaerobic culturing and identified as Clostridium limosum by both MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. All the performed tests for relevant differential diagnoses were negative. Foodborne disease was indicated because all the affected farms were served by the same feed factory. A specific PCR-based analysis was developed for positive identification of C. limosum and used to screen archived feed samples from the implicated feed factory. Both C. limosum 16S rRNA genes and C. limosum collagenase genes were identified in both mixed feed and more specifically in raw chicken carcass used as one of the components in the mixed feed, which was therefore identified as the most likely source of contamination. Based on the results of this investigation it is concluded that C. limosum can be associated with abortion and increased mortality in pregnant mink females and it is consequently recommended that raw materials contaminated with C. limosum should be avoided in mink feed, in particular during the whelping season. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Spatial distribution of common Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) as an indication of a biological hotspot in the East Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dasom; An, Yong Rock; Park, Kyum Joon; Kim, Hyun Woo; Lee, Dabin; Joo, Hui Tae; Oh, Young Geun; Kim, Su Min; Kang, Chang Keun; Lee, Sang Heon

    2017-09-01

    The minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) is the most common baleen whale among several marine mammal species observed in Korea. Since a high concentrated condition of prey to whales can be obtained by physical structures, the foraging whale distribution can be an indicator of biological hotspot. Our main objective is verifying the coastal upwelling-southwestern East Sea as a productive biological hotspot based on the geographical distribution of minke whales. Among the cetacean research surveys of the National Institute of Fisheries Science since 1999, 9 years data for the minke whales available in the East Sea were used for this study. The regional primary productivity derived from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used for a proxy of biological productivity. Minke whales observed during the sighting surveys were mostly concentrated in May and found mostly (approximately 70%) in the southwestern coastal areas (< 300 m) where high chlorophyll concentrations and primary productivity were generally detected. Based on MODIS-derived primary productivity algorithm, the annual primary production (320 g C m-2 y-1) estimated in the southwestern coastal region of the East Sea belongs to the highly productive coastal upwelling regions in the world. A change in the main spatial distribution of minke whales was found in recent years, which indicate that the major habitats of mink whales have been shifted into the north of the common coastal upwelling regions. This is consistent with the recently reported unprecedented coastal upwelling in the mid-eastern coast of Korea. Based on high phytoplankton productivity and high distribution of minke whales, the southwestern coastal regions can be considered as one of biological hotspots in the East Sea. These regions are important for ecosystem dynamics and the population biology of top marine predators, especially migratory whales and needed to be carefully managed from a resource management perspective.

  9. Canine distemper virus DNA vaccination of mink can overcome interference by maternal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Nielsen, Line; Aasted, Bent; Pertoldi, Cino; Blixenkrone-Møller, Merete

    2015-03-10

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is highly contagious and can cause severe disease against which conventional live vaccines are ineffective in the presence of maternal antibodies. Vaccination in the presences of maternal antibodies was challenged by vaccination of 5 days old and 3 weeks old mink kits with CDV DNA vaccines. Virus neutralising (VN) antibody responses were induced in mink kits vaccinated with a plasmid encoding the haemaglutinin protein (H) of CDV (n=5, pCDV-H) or a combination of the H, fusion (F) and nucleoprotein (N) of CDV (n=5, pCDV-HFN). These DNA vaccinated kits were protected against virulent experimental infection with field strains of CDV. The pCDV-H was more efficient in inducing protective immunity in the presence of maternal antibodies compared to the pCDV-HFN. The results show that DNA vaccination with the pCDV-H or pCDV-HFN (n=4) only given once at 5 days of age induces virus specific immune response in neonatal mink and protection against virulent CDV exposure later in life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Cellular Proteome Alterations in CDV-Infected Mink Lung Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingwei Tong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus (CDV, a paramyxovirus, causes a severe highly contagious lethal disease in carnivores, such as mink. Mink lung epithelial cells (Mv.1.Lu cells are sensitive to CDV infection and are homologous to the natural host system of mink. The current study analyzed the response of Mv.1.Lu cells to CDV infection by iTRAQ combined with LC–MS/MS. In total, 151 and 369 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs were markedly up-regulated or down-regulated, respectively. Thirteen DEPs were validated via real-time RT-PCR or western blot analysis. Network and KEGG pathway analyses revealed several regulated proteins associated with the NF-κB signaling pathway. Further validation was performed by western blot analysis and immunofluorescence assay, which demonstrated that different CDV strains induced NF-κB P65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Moreover, the results provided interesting information that some identified DEPs possibly associated with the pathogenesis and the immune response upon CDV infection. This study is the first overview of the responses to CDV infection in Mv.1.Lu cells, and the findings will help to analyze further aspects of the molecular mechanisms involved in viral pathogenesis and the immune responses upon CDV infection.

  11. Typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonsen, C M; Themudo, G E; Jelsbak, L; Molin, S; Høiby, N; Hammer, A S

    2013-04-12

    Hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink (Neovison vison) is caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and is an acute and fatal disease in farmed mink. Earlier work has demonstrated that some outbreaks of hemorrhagic pneumonia are caused by pathogenic strains while most outbreaks are caused by local strains. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic and geographical relationship among outbreaks of hemorrhagic pneumonia by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing of P. aeruginosa isolates. Furthermore, chosen isolates were typed by a commercial genotyping method based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and compared to a larger dataset of human and environmental origin. The bacterial isolates were obtained from diagnostic samples from 2002 to 2009 and contained 164 isolates from 95 outbreaks on 90 farms. Our results show that most outbreaks of hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink are caused by distinct strains of P. aeruginosa. We also identified related P. aeruginosa strains which, together with two prevalent but unrelated clones, caused one third of the outbreaks of hemorrhagic pneumonia supporting the sparse literature on this subject. None of the SNP typed strains were identified in a large dataset of human and environmental origin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Genome-Wide Association Analysis of the Sense of Smell in U.S. Older Adults: Identification of Novel Risk Loci in African-Americans and European-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jing; Wyss, Annah; Yang, Jingyun; Price, T Ryan; Nicolas, Aude; Nalls, Michael; Tranah, Greg; Franceschini, Nora; Xu, Zongli; Schulte, Claudia; Alonso, Alvaro; Cummings, Steven R; Fornage, Myriam; Zaykin, Dmitri; Li, Leping; Huang, Xuemei; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Liu, Yongmei; Gasser, Thomas; Wilson, Robert S; De Jager, Philip L; Singleton, Andrew B; Pinto, Jayant M; Harris, Tamara; Mosley, Thomas H; Bennett, David A; London, Stephanie; Yu, Lei; Chen, Honglei

    2017-12-01

    The human sense of smell decreases with age, and a poor sense of smell are among the most important prodromal symptoms of several neurodegenerative diseases. Recent evidence further suggests a racial difference in the sense of smell among U.S. older adults. However, no genome-wide association study (GWAS) on the sense of smell has been conducted in African-Americans (AAs). We performed the first genome-wide meta-analysis of the sense of smell among 1979 AAs and 6582 European-Americans (EAs) from three U.S. aging cohorts. In the AA population, we identified nine novel regions (KLF4-ACTL7B, RAPGEF2-FSTL5, TCF4-LOC100505474, PCDH10, KIAA1751, MYO5B, MIR320B1-CD2, NR5A2-LINC00862, SALL1-C16orf97) that were associated with the sense of smell (P smell. In the EA population, we identified two novel loci in or near RASGRP1 and ANXA2P3 associated with sense of smell. In conclusion, this study identified several ancestry-specific loci that are associated with the sense of smell in older adults. While these findings need independent confirmation, they may lead to novel insights into the biology of the sense of smell in older adults and its relationships to neuropsychological and neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. Genome-wide methylation patterns provide insight into differences in breast tumor biology between American women of African and European ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosone, Christine B; Young, Allyson C; Sucheston, Lara E; Wang, Dan; Yan, Li; Liu, Song; Tang, Li; Hu, Qiang; Freudenheim, Jo L; Shields, Peter G; Morrison, Carl D; Demissie, Kitaw; Higgins, Michael J

    2014-01-15

    American women of African ancestry (AA) are more likely than European-Americans (EA) to be diagnosed with aggressive, estrogen receptor (ER) negative breast tumors; mechanisms underlying these disparities are poorly understood. We conducted a genome wide (450K loci) methylation analysis to determine if there were differences in DNA methylation patterns between tumors from AA and EA women and if these differences were similar for both ER positive and ER negative breast cancer. Methylation levels at CpG loci within CpG islands (CGI)s and CGI-shores were significantly higher in tumors (n=138) than in reduction mammoplasty samples (n=124). In hierarchical cluster analysis, there was separation between tumor and normal samples, and in tumors, there was delineation by ER status, but not by ancestry. However, differential methylation analysis identified 157 CpG loci with a mean β value difference of at least 0.17 between races, with almost twice as many differences in ER-negative tumors compared to ER-positive cancers. This first genome-wide methylation study to address disparities indicates that there are likely differing etiologic pathways for the development of ER negative breast cancer between AA and EA women. Further investigation of the genes most differentially methylated by race in ER negative tumors can guide new approaches for cancer prevention and targeted therapies, and elucidate the biologic basis of breast cancer disparities.

  14. Associations between biosecurity and outbreaks of canine distemper on Danish mink farms in 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregers-Jensen, Louise; Agger, Jens Frederik; Hammer, Anne Sofie Vedsted; Andresen, Lars; Chrièl, Mariann; Hagberg, Emma; Jensen, Mette Kragh; Hansen, Mette Sif; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Struve, Tina

    2015-09-30

    During 8 months from July 2012 to February 2013, a major outbreak of canine distemper involving 64 mink farms occurred on the Danish peninsula of Jutland. The canine distemper outbreak was associated with exposure of farmed mink to infected wild carnivores and could represent a deficit in biosecurity on the mink farms. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent and association of specific biosecurity measures with the outbreak. The study was carried out in an epidemiological case-control design. The case group consisted of the 61 farms, which had a confirmed outbreak of canine distemper from July 2012 to February 2013. The control group included 54 farms without an outbreak of canine distemper in 2012 or 2013, selected as the closest geographical neighbour to a case farm. The results showed that significantly more control than case farms had vaccinated their mink against canine distemper virus. Mortality was only assessed on the case farms, and there was a non-significantly lower mortality on vaccinated farms than on the non-vaccinated farms. Furthermore, the proportion of farms with observations of wild red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) inside the farm enclosures were larger for case farms, indicating that the control farms had a better biosecurity or were not equally exposed to canine distemper virus. Generally, all farms had very few specific precautions at the gate entrance in respect to human visitors as well as animals. The use of biosecurity measures was very variable in both case and control farms. Not using plastic boot covers, presence of dogs and cats, presence of demarcated area for changing clothes when entering and leaving the farm area and presence of hand washing facilities significantly lowered the odds of the farm having a canine distemper virus outbreak. The results of the study indicate that consistent use of correct vaccination strategies, implementation of biosecurity measures and limiting human and animal access to the mink farm can be

  15. Establishment of Stably Transfected Cells Constitutively Expressing the Full-Length and Truncated Antigenic Proteins of Two Genetically Distinct Mink Astroviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidokhti, Mehdi R. M.; Ullman, Karin; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2013-01-01

    to circumvent this drawback, we have developed stably transfected mink fetal cells and BHK21 cells constitutively expressing the full-length and truncated capsid proteins of two distinct genotypes of mink astrovirus. Protein expression in these stably transfected cells was demonstrated by strong signals...

  16. Investigation of the presence of human or bovine respiratory syncytial virus in the lungs of mink (Neovison vison) with hemorrhagic pneumonia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2012-01-01

    Background Hemorrhagic pneumonia is a disease of farmed mink (Neovison vison) caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The disease is highly seasonal in Danish mink with outbreaks occurring almost exclusively in the autumn. Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been shown to augment infection with...

  17. Immunohistochemical detection of 3 viral infections in paraffin-embedded tissue from mink (Mustela vison): a tissue-microarray-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Anne Sofie; Dietz, Hans Henrik; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Immunohistochemical (IHC) assays were developed and tested for the detection of 3 viral infections in archived paraffin-embedded mink tissue. Specimens had been obtained from mink with diagnoses of acute Aleutian disease (AD), mink parvoviral enteritis (MVE), or canine distemper (CD) made by means of routine diagnostic procedures. To improve the efficiency and reduce the costs of IHC analyses, tissue microarray (TMA) technology was used. Representative cores 2 mm in diameter from each tissue specimen and from positive- and negative-control specimens were collected in a TMA block. Immunohistochemical reactions to viral antigens were assessed and graded. Positive reactions were found in 91% of the 32 specimens from mink with AD, 53% to 80% of the 60 specimens from mink with MVE, and all 66 of the specimens from mink with CD. To validate the use of TMAs, the IHC methods were applied to whole-mount paraffin-embedded sections of 10 of the positive specimens for each disease, together with whole-mount sections of small intestine and lung tissue from 2 healthy mink. The IHC grading of the TMA cores and the whole-mount sections from the same animal corresponded completely. These results suggest that IHC demonstration of viral antigen allows rapid and reliable diagnosis of the 3 viral infections in mink and is a potential supplement to histologic diagnostic procedures. The TMA technique proved useful for screening large numbers of samples for expression of specific viral antigens, while reducing overall costs. PMID:17193876

  18. Metabolic and growth response of mink (Neovison vison) kits until 10 weeks of age when exposed to different dietary protein provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Caroline; Fink, Rikke; Matthiesen, Connie Marianne Frank

    2012-01-01

    to solid feed. The capacity to regulate the rate of gluconeogenesis was even more limited in young mink kits than in adult dams. However, young mink kits can regulate protein oxidation in response to dietary protein supply, probably by adapting the size of the liver and kidneys to the level of protein...

  19. Water baths for farmed mink: intra-individual consistency and inter-individual variation in swimming behaviour, and effects on stereotyped behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. MONONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Swimming behaviour and effects of water baths on stereotyped behaviour in farmed mink (Mustela vison were studied in three experiments. The singly-housed mink had access from their home cages to extra cages with 20.5 litre water baths. Two short-term experiments aimed to investigate how quickly adult and juvenile mink start using and how consistently they use water baths over 10 days, and whether the extent of the use correlates between dams and their females kits. A four-month experiment was designed to compare the development of stereotyped behaviour in juvenile mink housed with and without swimming opportunity. The behavioural analyses were based on several 24-hour video recordings carried out in all three experiments. There were obvious inter-individual differences and intra-individual consistency in swimming frequency and time. Farmed mink’s motivation to swim can be assessed in short-term experiments, and measurement of water losses from the swimming baths and use of instantaneous sampling with 10 min sampling intervals provide quite reliable measures of the amount of swimming. The bath use of the juveniles correlated with that of their dams, indicating that an individual mink’s eagerness to swim may have a genetic component. The lower amount of stereotyped behaviour in mink housed with water baths indicates that long-term access to baths may alleviate frustration in singly-housed juvenile farmed mink.;

  20. Interactions between retinol, α-tocopherol and cholecalciferol need consideration in diets for farmed mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymøller, Lone; Clausen, Tove N; Jensen, Søren K

    2016-03-14

    A sufficient but balanced vitamin supplementation is a prerequisite for a satisfactory growth pattern and an effective immune system in mink and all other species. The fat-soluble vitamins are very sensitive to over- or under-supply because they interact with each other with respect to dose-response and chemical form. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of increasing the amount of retinol in combination with RRR-α-tocopherol or all-rac-α-tocopherol in the feed given to growing mink on their retinol, cholecalciferol and α-tocopherol concentrations in plasma and selected organs. The results showed that the mink met their retinol requirements from the basal diet, but there were no negative effects of supplying various amounts of retinol on their plasma α-tocopherol concentrations. On the other hand, the study showed that the cholecalciferol status in plasma, assessed as the 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration, was low when retinol was supplemented in the feed at high levels. In addition, supplementation with RRR-α-tocopherol in the feed negatively affected the plasma concentration of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol compared with supplementation with all-rac-α-tocopherol. In general, female mink had higher concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins in plasma than male mink.

  1. A novel genomic alteration of LSAMP associates with aggressive prostate cancer in African American men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovics, Gyorgy; Li, Hua; Stümpel, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of cancer genomes in global context is of great interest in light of changing ethnic distribution of the world population. We focused our study on men of African ancestry because of their disproportionately higher rate of prostate cancer (CaP) incidence and mortality. We present a syst...

  2. Coronavirus infection in mink (Mustela vison). Serological evidence of infection with a coronavirus related to transmissible gastroenteritis virus and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, P; Moving, V; Svansson, V

    1992-01-01

    Antibodies to a transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV)-related coronavirus have been demonstrated in mink sera by indirect immunofluorescence, peroxidase-linked antibody assays and immunoblotting. This is the first serological evidence of a specific coronavirus infection in mink. The putative...... mink coronavirus (MCV) seems to be widespread in the Danish mink population with a prevalence approaching 100%. Analysis by immunoblotting has shown that MCV is closely related to TGEV by the spike (S), matrix (M) and nucleoprotein (N) polypeptides. Furthermore, antibodies to MCV also cross......-reacted with N and M polypeptides of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). Thus MCV may occupy an intermediate position between the TGEV group of coronaviruses and PEDV. The possibility that MCV may be associated with syndromes of acute enteritis in preweaning mink is discussed....

  3. Identification of a Latin American-specific BabA adhesin variant through whole genome sequencing of Helicobacter pylori patient isolates from Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorell, Kaisa; Hosseini, Shaghayegh; Palacios Gonzáles, Reyna Victoria Palacios; Chaotham, Chatchai; Graham, David Y; Paszat, Lawrence; Rabeneck, Linda; Lundin, Samuel B; Nookaew, Intawat; Sjöling, Åsa

    2016-02-29

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans and this infection can lead to gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. H. pylori is one of the most genetically variable human pathogens and the ability of the bacterium to bind to the host epithelium as well as the presence of different virulence factors and genetic variants within these genes have been associated with disease severity. Nicaragua has particularly high gastric cancer incidence and we therefore studied Nicaraguan clinical H. pylori isolates for factors that could contribute to cancer risk. The complete genomes of fifty-two Nicaraguan H. pylori isolates were sequenced and assembled de novo, and phylogenetic and virulence factor analyses were performed. The Nicaraguan isolates showed phylogenetic relationship with West African isolates in whole-genome sequence comparisons and with Western and urban South- and Central American isolates using MLSA (Multi-locus sequence analysis). A majority, 77 % of the isolates carried the cancer-associated virulence gene cagA and also the s1/i1/m1 vacuolating cytotoxin, vacA allele combination, which is linked to increased severity of disease. Specifically, we also found that Nicaraguan isolates have a blood group-binding adhesin (BabA) variant highly similar to previously reported BabA sequences from Latin America, including from isolates belonging to other phylogenetic groups. These BabA sequences were found to be under positive selection at several amino acid positions that differed from the global collection of isolates. The discovery of a Latin American BabA variant, independent of overall phylogenetic background, suggests hitherto unknown host or environmental factors within the Latin American population giving H. pylori isolates carrying this adhesin variant a selective advantage, which could affect pathogenesis and risk for sequelae through specific adherence properties.

  4. First report of Cryptosporidium canis in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and identification of several novel subtype families for Cryptosporidium mink genotype in minks (Mustela vison) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Siwen; Tao, Wei; Liu, Chengwu; Jiang, Yanxue; Wan, Qiang; Li, Qiao; Yang, Hang; Lin, Yongchao; Li, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Despite the rapid and extensive advances in molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in humans and a variety of animals, the prevalence and genetic traits of the parasite in wildlife bred in captivity and the role of the neglected hosts in zoonotic transmission of human cryptosporidiosis are rarely understood. This study investigated the prevalence, species/genotype, and subtype of Cryptosporidium in farmed fur animals in China and assessed the possibility of zoonotic transmission. Three of 191 (1.6%) foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 17 of 162 (10.5%) raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides), and 48 of 162 (29.6%) minks (Mustela vison) were positive for Cryptosporidium by nested PCRs targeting the small subunit rRNA gene. Sequence analysis indicated the presence of only Cryptosporidium canis in foxes and raccoon dogs. There is no significant difference in prevalence between young and adult foxes (or raccoon dogs). Three Cryptosporidium species or genotype including C. canis, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, and mink genotype were determined in minks aged five to six months. Subtyping based on nucleotide and amino acid sequence polymorphisms of the 60kDa glycoprotein facilitated identification of three novel subtype families named as Xb to Xd for Cryptosporidium mink genotype. The presence of zoonotic C. canis, C. meleagridis, and Cryptosporidium mink genotype in captive-bred fur animals is of public health concerns. The findings expanded the host ranges of C. canis and C. meleagridis and confirmed genetic diversity at the subtype level in Cryptosporidium mink genotype. This is the first study reporting Cryptosporidium infections in foxes and raccoon dogs in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of histological lesions in acute hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark; Boye, Mette; Høiby, N.

    2013-01-01

    also occurred in farmed mink. The purpose of this study was to compare histological lesions of acute hemorrhagic pneumonia associated with both P. aeruginosa and E. coli in mink, including a description of tissue distribution of pathogens, in an attempt to differentiate between the 2 disease entities......, as P. aeruginosa was most often found surrounding blood vessels and lining the alveoli, while E. coli showed a more diffuse distribution in the lung tissue. Furthermore, P. aeruginosa often elicited a very hemorrhagic response in the lung, while infection with E. coli was associated with a higher......Hemorrhagic pneumonia can be a major cause of mortality in farmed mink in the fall. In its classic form, hemorrhagic pneumonia is caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In recent years, however, outbreaks of this type of pneumonia that are associated with hemolytic Escherichia coli have...

  6. Comparison of histological lesions in mink with acute hemorrhagic pneumonia associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark; Boye, Anne Mette; Høiby, Niels

    2013-01-01

    also occurred in farmed mink. The purpose of this study was to compare histological lesions of acute hemorrhagic pneumonia associated with both P. aeruginosa and E. coli in mink, including a description of tissue distribution of pathogens, in an attempt to differentiate between the 2 disease entities......, as P. aeruginosa was most often found surrounding blood vessels and lining the alveoli, while E. coli showed a more diffuse distribution in the lung tissue. Furthermore, P. aeruginosa often elicited a very hemorrhagic response in the lung, while infection with E. coli was associated with a higher......Hemorrhagic pneumonia can be a major cause of mortality in farmed mink in the fall. In its classic form, hemorrhagic pneumonia is caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In recent years, however, outbreaks of this type of pneumonia that are associated with hemolytic Escherichia coli have...

  7. Testing the WelFur assessment protocol for mink on-farm in three seasons of production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W

    2011-01-01

    Welfare Quality® seems to develop into a standard for farm animal welfare assessment and European Fur Breeders’ Association initiated the “WelFur” project in 2009 in order to develop a welfare assessment protocol for mink and fox farms after the WQ standards. The assessment is based on four...... to cover the life cycle of the mink. The final welfare assessment is categorised as: ’Excellent’, ’Above average’, ’Acceptable’ or ’Not classified’ according to the welfare score for each of the four principles. The protocols for the three seasons are being tested in several countries and the Danish...... results shows that the WelFur protocol is feasible for a one-day visit and sensible enough to discriminate between farms in the same category. A stratified sample of 120 cages seems to be sufficient. It is concluded that it is possible to assess the welfare in mink using the principles developed...

  8. Genome-wide association study of white blood cell count in 16,388 African Americans: the continental origins and genetic epidemiology network (COGENT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P Reiner

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Total white blood cell (WBC and neutrophil counts are lower among individuals of African descent due to the common African-derived "null" variant of the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC gene. Additional common genetic polymorphisms were recently associated with total WBC and WBC sub-type levels in European and Japanese populations. No additional loci that account for WBC variability have been identified in African Americans. In order to address this, we performed a large genome-wide association study (GWAS of total WBC and cell subtype counts in 16,388 African-American participants from 7 population-based cohorts available in the Continental Origins and Genetic Epidemiology Network. In addition to the DARC locus on chromosome 1q23, we identified two other regions (chromosomes 4q13 and 16q22 associated with WBC in African Americans (P<2.5×10(-8. The lead SNP (rs9131 on chromosome 4q13 is located in the CXCL2 gene, which encodes a chemotactic cytokine for polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Independent evidence of the novel CXCL2 association with WBC was present in 3,551 Hispanic Americans, 14,767 Japanese, and 19,509 European Americans. The index SNP (rs12149261 on chromosome 16q22 associated with WBC count is located in a large inter-chromosomal segmental duplication encompassing part of the hydrocephalus inducing homolog (HYDIN gene. We demonstrate that the chromosome 16q22 association finding is most likely due to a genotyping artifact as a consequence of sequence similarity between duplicated regions on chromosomes 16q22 and 1q21. Among the WBC loci recently identified in European or Japanese populations, replication was observed in our African-American meta-analysis for rs445 of CDK6 on chromosome 7q21 and rs4065321 of PSMD3-CSF3 region on chromosome 17q21. In summary, the CXCL2, CDK6, and PSMD3-CSF3 regions are associated with WBC count in African American and other populations. We also demonstrate that large inter

  9. Risk factors associated with diarrhea in Danish commercial mink (Neovison vison) during the pre-weaning period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Julie Melsted; Agger, Jens Frederik; Dahlin, Christina; Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Hammer, Anne Sofie; Struve, Tina; Jensen, Henrik Elvang

    2017-06-29

    Pre-weaning diarrhea in mink, also known as "sticky kits", is a syndrome and outbreaks occur every year on commercial mink farms in all mink producing countries. Morbidity and mortality can be considerable on a farm with huge economic consequences for the farmer as well as compromised welfare for the mink kits. Although efforts have been taken to identify etiologic agents involved in outbreaks, the syndrome is still regarded as multifactorial and recurring problems on the same farms draw attention to management and environmental risk factors. In the pre-weaning period from May to June 2015, a case control study was carried out on 30 Danish mink farms. Data concerning management, biosecurity, hygiene, feed consumption, antibacterial prescription and production efficiency were analyzed. The proportion of 1-year old females, farm size (total number of females), energy supply per female in the late gestation period, and dogs accessing the farm area were significantly associated with being a case farm. Case farms were prescribed almost twice the amount of antibacterials per gestational unit (female and litter) as in control farms. Farmers on case farms spent significantly more time nursing and treating the animals and experienced more females with mastitis compared to farmers on control farms. No significant differences in cleaning practices or hygienic measures between case and control farms were found and there were no differences in drinking water quality, bedding material, composition neither of color types nor in management regarding litter equalization. Results from this study showed an association between the occurrence of pre-weaning diarrhea on mink farms and parity profile, farm size and feeding intensity in the gestational period. The access of dogs to the farm area was a significant risk factor, but needs further clarification.

  10. A reevaluation of the Native American mtDNA genome diversity and its bearing on the models of early colonization of Beringia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson J R Fagundes

    Full Text Available The Americas were the last continents to be populated by humans, and their colonization represents a very interesting chapter in our species' evolution in which important issues are still contentious or largely unknown. One difficult topic concerns the details of the early peopling of Beringia, such as for how long it was colonized before people moved into the Americas and the demography of this occupation. A recent work using mitochondrial genome (mtDNA data presented evidence for a so called "three-stage model" consisting of a very early expansion into Beringia followed by approximately 20,000 years of population stability before the final entry into the Americas. However, these results are in disagreement with other recent studies using similar data and methods. Here, we reanalyze their data to check the robustness of this model and test the ability of Native American mtDNA to discriminate details of the early colonization of Beringia. We apply the Bayesian Skyline Plot approach to recover the past demographic dynamic underpinning these events using different mtDNA data sets. Our results refute the specific details of the "three-stage model", since the early stage of expansion into Beringia followed by a long period of stasis could not be reproduced in any mtDNA data set cleaned from non-Native American haplotypes. Nevertheless, they are consistent with a moderate population bottleneck in Beringia associated with the Last Glacial Maximum followed by a strong population growth around 18,000 years ago as suggested by other recent studies. We suggest that this bottleneck erased the signals of ancient demographic history from recent Native American mtDNA pool, and conclude that the proposed early expansion and occupation of Beringia is an artifact caused by the misincorporation of non-Native American haplotypes.

  11. Implementation and validation of a sensitive PCR detection method in the eradication campaign against Aleutian mink disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Christensen, Laurids Siig; Chriél, Mariann

    2011-01-01

    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is a severe progressive disease causing multiple different clinical syndromes in mink. In Denmark, the disease is notifiable and under official control. The control programme, based on serological screening, has confined successfully AMDV to the northern part...... of Denmark. However, re-infections and new introductions of virus into farms require a confirmatory virological test to verify the positive test results of single animals and ultimately to investigate disease transmission. A one step PCR amplifying a 374-base fragment of the NS1 gene of AMDV was compared...

  12. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in DNA immunized mink challenged with wild-type canine distemper virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line; Søgaard, Mette; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the different phases of the immune response after DNA immunization with the hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein genes from canine distemper virus (CDV). Although attenuated live CDV vaccines have effectively reduced the incidence of disease, canine distemper...... is still a problem worldwide. The broad host range of CDV creates a constant viral reservoir among wildlife animals. Our results demonstrated early humoral and cell-mediated immune responses (IFN-gamma) in DNA vaccinated mink compared to mock-vaccinated mink after challenge with a Danish wild-type CDV....... The DNA vaccine-induced immunity protected the natural host against disease development....

  13. Characterization of Min-K TE-1400 Thermal Insulation (Two-Year Gradient Stress Relaxation Testing Update)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL; King, James [ORNL

    2009-09-01

    Min-K 1400TE insulation material was characterized at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in structural applications under gradient temperature conditions. A previous report (ORNL/TM-2008/089) discusses the testing and results from the original three year duration of the project. This testing included compression testing to determine the effect of sample size and test specimen geometry on the compressive strength of Min-K, subsequent compression testing on cylindrical specimens to determine loading rates for stress relaxation testing, isothermal stress relaxation testing, and gradient stress relaxation testing. This report presents the results from the continuation of the gradient temperature stress relaxation testing and the resulting updated modeling.

  14. Interactions between retinol, α-tocopherol and cholecalciferol need consideration in diets for farmed mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Clausen, Tove N.; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2016-01-01

    A sufficient but balanced vitamin supplementation is a prerequisite for a satisfactory growth pattern and an effective immune system in mink and all other species. The fat-soluble vitamins are very sensitive to over- or under-supply because they interact with each other with respect to dose....... The results showed that the mink met their retinol requirements from the basal diet, but there were no negative effects of supplying various amounts of retinol on their plasma α-tocopherol concentrations. On the other hand, the study showed that the cholecalciferol status in plasma, assessed as the 25...

  15. Short-term effect of oral amoxicillin treatment on the gut microbial community composition in farm mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marker, Laura Meier; Hammer, Anne Sofie; Andresen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    transit time, questioning its relevance. In this study, we hypothesise that oral amoxicillin treatment affects the gut microbiota in mink. This was investigated in a controlled trial including 24 animals of which 12 were treated with amoxicillin for 7 days. By applying 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we found...... biochemistry, lipid metabolism, serum amyloid A, vitamins A and E and histomorphology of the gut and liver was found; however, a slight decrease in fat digestibility was observed. We suggest that early-life use of amoxicillin in mink production may be counteractive as dysbiosis of the microbiota during infancy...

  16. The welfare of farmed mink should be easy to assess in a correct way and lead to animal welfare improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Britt

    2015-01-01

    A three year PhD-study in assessment of mink welfare has contributed with methods and knowledge on how to get the welfare assessments as efficient and correct as possible and how to use the assessments in order to increase the welfare of the animals. The study found, that it might be possible...... periods have the same effect of date of assessment. The study also found that mink farmers are generally positive towards the structural way of working in stable schools and that including a discussion of the WelFur results related to the different farms in a stable school will make the feedback...

  17. Levels and patterns of persistent organochlorines in minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) stocks from the North Atlantic and European Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, K.E.; Muir, D.C.G.; Born, E.W.; Dietz, R.; Haug, T.; Metcalfe, T.; Metcalfe, C.; Oien, N

    2003-02-01

    Minke whales appear to be quite mobile and have multiple feeding areas in the NE Atlantic Ocean. - Regional variation in PCBs and organochlorine (OC) pesticide concentrations was examined using the blubber of 155 minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) sampled in seven regions in the North Atlantic and European Arctic, including western and southeastern Greenland, the Norwegian Sea, the North Sea and the Barents Sea. The levels and relative proportions of OCs were also used to examine the boundaries for North Atlantic minke whale stocks previously defined by the International Whaling Commission (IWC). Concentrations of major OC groups ({sigma}PCB, 89.1-22 800 ng/g lipid; {sigma}DDT, 65.3-6280 ng/g lipid; {sigma}CHL, 33.3-2110 ng/g lipid) generally increased from west to east, while HCH concentrations ({sigma}HCH, <1-497 ng/g lipid) showed the opposite trend. Statistical comparison between six regions using sex-adjusted least squared mean concentrations showed that minke whales from the Barents Sea had significantly higher concentrations of {sigma}PCBs than those from the Vestfjorden/Lofoten, the North Sea, and west Svalbard, as well as significantly higher {sigma}DDT concentrations compared to west Greenland animals. The differences in concentrations suggest that west and southeast Greenland minkes may represent one group of whales, which are distinct from both the Jan Mayen minkes and those from other IWC defined stocks in northern European waters. Principal components analysis using proportions of 71 PCB congeners and 20 OC pesticides (of total OCs) did not reveal any major differences among groups although minkes from the North Sea were distinguished from those from Greenland waters by higher loadings of more highly chlorinated PCBs and recalcitrant OC pesticides. The general similarity in mean levels of {sigma}PCBs, {sigma}DDT and {sigma}CHL, as well as mean principal components analysis scores, among minkes sampled at Jan Mayen, Svalbard, Vestfjorden

  18. Effect of pre-fixation delay and freezing on mink testicular endpoints for environmental research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellinor Spörndly-Nees

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in using wild animals to monitor the real-life cocktail effect of environmental chemicals on male reproduction. However, practical difficulties, such as long distances to the laboratory, generally prolong the time between euthanisation and specimen handling. For instance, tissue fixation is often performed on frozen material or on material where deterioration has started, which may affect tissue morphology. This study examined the effect of pre-fixation delay and freezing on mink testicular endpoints in order to determine robust endpoints in suboptimally handled specimens. Sexually mature farmed mink (n=30 selected at culling were divided into six groups and subjected to different time intervals between euthanisation and fixation or freezing: 0 hours (fixed immediately post mortem, 6 hours, 18 hours, 30 hours, 42 hours, or frozen 6 hours post mortem and thawed overnight. Unaffected endpoints when pre-fixation storage was extended to 30 hours included: area and diameter of the seminiferous tubules, length and weight of the testes, and acrosomes marked with Gata-4. Epithelial height, Sertoli cells marked with Gata-4 and cell morphology were affected endpoints after 6 hours of storage. Freezing the tissue prior to fixation severely altered cell morphology and reduced testicular weight, tubular diameter and area. Morphological changes seen after 6 hours included shredded germ cells and excess cytoplasm in seminiferous tubular lumen, chromatin rearrangements and increased germ cell death. Extended delay before fixation and freezing affected many endpoints in the mink testicular tissue. Some of these endpoints may mimic chemically induced effects, which is important to consider when evaluating specimens from wild animals for environmental toxicity.

  19. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of Aleutian mink disease virus isolates in north-east China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Xue; Liu, Dongxu; Li, Jianming; Shi, Kun; Zeng, Fanli; Zong, Ying; Liu, Yi; Sun, Zhibo; Zhang, Shanshan; Liu, Yadong; Du, Rui

    2018-05-01

    Aleutian mink disease is the most important disease in the mink-farming industry worldwide. So far, few large-scale molecular epidemiological studies of AMDV, based on the NS1 and VP2 genes, have been conducted in China. Here, eight new Chinese isolates of AMDV from three provinces in north-east China were analyzed to clarify the molecular epidemiology of AMDV. The seroprevalence of AMDV in north-east China was 41.8% according to counterimmuno-electrophoresis. Genetic variation analysis of the eight isolates showed significant non-synonymous substitutions in the NS1 and VP2 genes, especially in the NS1 gene. All eight isolates included the caspase-recognition sequence NS1:285 (DQTD↓S), but not the caspase recognition sequence NS1:227 (INTD↓S). The LN1 and LN2 strains had a new 10-amino-acid deletion in-between amino acids 28-37, while the JL3 strain had a one-amino-acid deletion at position 28 in the VP2 protein, compared with the AMDV-G strain. Phylogenetic analysis based on most of NS1 (1755 bp) and complete VP2 showed that the AMDV genotypes did not cluster according to their pathogenicity or geographic origin. Local and imported ADMV species are all prevalent in mink-farming populations in the north-east of China. This is the first study to report the molecular epidemiology of AMDV in north-east China based on most of NS1 and the complete VP2, and further provides information about polyG deletions and new variations in the amino acid sequences of NS1 and VP2 proteins. This report is a good foundation for further study of AMDV in China.

  20. Electrolyte Composition of Mink (Mustela vison Erythrocytes and Active Cation Transporters of the Cell Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clausen TN

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cells from mink (Mustela vison were characterized with respect to their electrolyte content and their cell membranes with respect to enzymatic activity for cation transport. The intra- and extracellular concentrations of Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+ and Mg2+ were determined in erythrocytes and plasma, respectively. Plasma and red cell water content was determined, and molal electrolyte concentrations were calculated. Red cells from male adult mink appeared to be of the low-K+, high-Na+ type as seen in other carnivorous species. The intracellular K+ concentration is slightly higher than the extracellular one and the plasma-to-cell chemical gradient for Na+ is weak, though even the molal concentrations may differ significantly. Consistent with the high intracellular Na+ and low K+ concentrations, a very low or no ouabain-sensitive Na+,K+-ATPase activity and no K+-activated pNPPase activity were found in the plasma membrane fraction from red cells. The Cl- and Mg2+ concentrations expressed per liter cell water were significantly higher in red cells than in plasma whereas the opposite was the case with Ca2+. The distribution of Cl- thus does not seem compatible with an inside-negative membrane potential in mink erythrocytes. In spite of a steep calcium gradient across the red cell membrane, neither a calmodulin-activated Ca2+-ATPase activity nor an ATP-activated Ca2+-pNPPase activity were detectable in the plasma membrane fraction. The origin of a supposed primary Ca2+ gradient for sustaining of osmotic balance thus seems uncertain.

  1. Genome-Wide Association Meta-Analyses to Identify Common Genetic Variants Associated with Hallux Valgus in Caucasian and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Liu, Youfang; Hannan, Marian T.; Maixner, William; Smith, Shad B.; Diatchenko, Luda; Golightly, Yvonne M.; Menz, Hylton B.; Kraus, Virginia B.; Doherty, Michael; Wilson, A.G.; Jordan, Joanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hallux valgus (HV) affects ~36% of Caucasian adults. Although considered highly heritable, the underlying genetic determinants are unclear. We conducted the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) aimed to identify genetic variants associated with HV. Methods HV was assessed in 3 Caucasian cohorts (n=2,263, n=915, and n=1,231 participants, respectively). In each cohort, a GWAS was conducted using 2.5M imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Mixed-effect regression with the additive genetic model adjusted for age, sex, weight and within-family correlations was used for both sex-specific and combined analyses. To combine GWAS results across cohorts, fixed-effect inverse-variance meta-analyses were used. Following meta-analyses, top-associated findings were also examined in an African American cohort (n=327). Results The proportion of HV variance explained by genome-wide genotyped SNPs was 50% in men and 48% in women. A higher proportion of genetic determinants of HV was sex-specific. The most significantly associated SNP in men was rs9675316 located on chr17q23-a24 near the AXIN2 gene (p=5.46×10−7); the most significantly associated SNP in women was rs7996797 located on chr13q14.1-q14.2 near the ESD gene (p=7.21×10−7). Genome-wide significant SNP-by-sex interaction was found for SNP rs1563374 located on chr11p15.1 near the MRGPRX3 gene (interaction p-value =4.1×10−9). The association signals diminished when combining men and women. Conclusion Findings suggest that the potential pathophysiological mechanisms of HV are complex and strongly underlined by sex-specific interactions. The identified genetic variants imply contribution of biological pathways observed in osteoarthritis as well as new pathways, influencing skeletal development and inflammation. PMID:26337638

  2. Giant Neutrophil Granules in the Chediak-Higashi Syndrome of Man, Mink, Cattle and Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, R. S.; Padgett, G. A.; Wolff, S. M.; Bennett, J. M.

    1969-01-01

    The percent of conventionally stained circulating neutrophils containing abnormal giant granules in Chediak-Higashi mink, cattle and mice is highly variable and strikingly less than the 100% found in neutrophils from similarly affected humans. In contrast, using either peroxidase or Sudan Black, it can be demonstrated that 100% of circulating neutrophils in all affected individuals of the four species studied contain the abnormal granules. Minor species differences in the shape of the granules were noted. The significance of these findings as well as the variations in granular staining by the several techniques employed are discussed. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4. PMID:4187790

  3. Typing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark; Themudo, G. E.; Jelsbak, Lars

    2013-01-01

    . The objective of this study was to determine the genetic and geographical relationship among outbreaks of hemorrhagic pneumonia by pulsed field gel electrophoresis typing of P. aeruginosa isolates. Furthermore, chosen isolates were typed by a commercial genotyping method based on single nucleotide polymorphisms...... (SNPs) and compared to a larger dataset of human and environmental origin. The bacterial isolates were obtained from diagnostic samples from 2002-2009 and contained 164 isolates from 95 outbreaks on 90 farms. Our results show that most outbreaks of hemorrhagic pneumonia in mink are caused by distinct...

  4. Molecular diagnostics of aleutian mink disease virus: applied use of next generation sequencing and phylogenetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagberg, Emma Elisabeth

    the to-date most comprehensive phylogenetic and genetic analysis of full-length AMDV isolates, composed of more than 200 field strains. The study shed light on the diversity and evolutionary behaviour of two distinct AMDV strains, in addition to providing the first robust evolutionary rate......-estimates. Altogether, the work presented in this thesis provides a contribution to the molecular diagnostics of AMDV, enables us better to understand the virus’ evolutionary behaviour in the context of mink farming, and is anticipated to be of value for more accurately tracing back in time the emergence of future...

  5. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Mink (Neovison vison) Skin Reveals the Key Genes Involved in the Melanogenesis of Black and White Coat Colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xingchao; Xu, Chao; Liu, Zongyue; Yue, Zhigang; Liu, Linling; Yang, Tongao; Cong, Bo; Yang, Fuhe

    2017-09-29

    Farmed mink (Neovison vison) is one of the most important fur-bearing species worldwide, and coat colour is a crucial qualitative characteristic that contributes to the economic value of the fur. To identify additional genes that may play important roles in coat colour regulation, Illumina/Solexa high-throughput sequencing technology was used to catalogue the global gene expression profiles in mink skin with two different coat colours (black and white). RNA-seq analysis indicated that a total of 12,557 genes were differentially expressed in black versus white minks, with 3,530 genes up-regulated and 9,027 genes down-regulated in black minks. Significant differences were not observed in the expression of MC1R and TYR between the two different coat colours, and the expression of ASIP was not detected in the mink skin of either coat colour. The expression levels of KITLG, LEF1, DCT, TYRP1, PMEL, Myo5a, Rab27a and SLC7A11 were validated by qRT-PCR, and the results were consistent with RNA-seq analysis. This study provides several candidate genes that may be associated with the development of two coat colours in mink skin. These results will expand our understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms underlying skin physiology and melanogenesis in mink and will provide a foundation for future studies.

  6. Genome-wide mutagenesis and multi-drug resistance in American trypanosomes induced by the front-line drug benznidazole

    KAUST Repository

    Campos, Mônica C.

    2017-10-25

    Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and affects 5–8 million people in Latin America. Although the nitroheterocyclic compound benznidazole has been the front-line drug for several decades, treatment failures are common. Benznidazole is a pro-drug and is bio-activated within the parasite by the mitochondrial nitroreductase TcNTR-1, leading to the generation of reactive metabolites that have trypanocidal activity. To better assess drug action and resistance, we sequenced the genomes of T. cruzi Y strain (35.5 Mb) and three benznidazole-resistant clones derived from a single drug-selected population. This revealed the genome-wide accumulation of mutations in the resistant parasites, in addition to variations in DNA copy-number. We observed mutations in DNA repair genes, linked with increased susceptibility to DNA alkylating and inter-strand cross-linking agents. Stop-codon-generating mutations in TcNTR-1 were associated with cross-resistance to other nitroheterocyclic drugs. Unexpectedly, the clones were also highly resistant to the ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitor posaconazole, a drug proposed for use against T. cruzi infections, in combination with benznidazole. Our findings therefore identify the highly mutagenic activity of benznidazole metabolites in T. cruzi, demonstrate that this can result in multi-drug resistance, and indicate that vigilance will be required if benznidazole is used in combination therapy.

  7. The UCSC Genome Browser database: 2015 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Kate R.; Armstrong, Joel; Barber, Galt P.; Casper, Jonathan; Clawson, Hiram; Diekhans, Mark; Dreszer, Timothy R.; Fujita, Pauline A.; Guruvadoo, Luvina; Haeussler, Maximilian; Harte, Rachel A.; Heitner, Steve; Hickey, Glenn; Hinrichs, Angie S.; Hubley, Robert; Karolchik, Donna; Learned, Katrina; Lee, Brian T.; Li, Chin H.; Miga, Karen H.; Nguyen, Ngan; Paten, Benedict; Raney, Brian J.; Smit, Arian F. A.; Speir, Matthew L.; Zweig, Ann S.; Haussler, David; Kuhn, Robert M.; Kent, W. James

    2015-01-01

    Launched in 2001 to showcase the draft human genome assembly, the UCSC Genome Browser database (http://genome.ucsc.edu) and associated tools continue to grow, providing a comprehensive resource of genome assemblies and annotations to scientists and students worldwide. Highlights of the past year include the release of a browser for the first new human genome reference assembly in 4 years in December 2013 (GRCh38, UCSC hg38), a watershed comparative genomics annotation (100-species multiple alignment and conservation) and a novel distribution mechanism for the browser (GBiB: Genome Browser in a Box). We created browsers for new species (Chinese hamster, elephant shark, minke whale), ‘mined the web’ for DNA sequences and expanded the browser display with stacked color graphs and region highlighting. As our user community increasingly adopts the UCSC track hub and assembly hub representations for sharing large-scale genomic annotation data sets and genome sequencing projects, our menu of public data hubs has tripled. PMID:25428374

  8. Recommendations for reporting of secondary findings in clinical exome and genome sequencing, 2016 update (ACMG SF v2.0): a policy statement of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Sarah S; Adelman, Kathy; Bale, Sherri J; Chung, Wendy K; Eng, Christine; Evans, James P; Herman, Gail E; Hufnagel, Sophia B; Klein, Teri E; Korf, Bruce R; McKelvey, Kent D; Ormond, Kelly E; Richards, C Sue; Vlangos, Christopher N; Watson, Michael; Martin, Christa L; Miller, David T

    2017-02-01

    Disclaimer: These recommendations are designed primarily as an educational resource for medical geneticists and other healthcare providers to help them provide quality medical services. Adherence to these recommendations is completely voluntary and does not necessarily assure a successful medical outcome. These recommendations should not be considered inclusive of all proper procedures and tests or exclusive of other procedures and tests that are reasonably directed toward obtaining the same results. In determining the propriety of any specific procedure or test, the clinician should apply his or her own professional judgment to the specific clinical circumstances presented by the individual patient or specimen. Clinicians are encouraged to document the reasons for the use of a particular procedure or test, whether or not it is in conformance with this statement. Clinicians also are advised to take notice of the date this statement was adopted and to consider other medical and scientific information that becomes available after that date. It also would be prudent to consider whether intellectual property interests may restrict the performance of certain tests and other procedures.To promote standardized reporting of actionable information from clinical genomic sequencing, in 2013, the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) published a minimum list of genes to be reported as incidental or secondary findings. The goal was to identify and manage risks for selected highly penetrant genetic disorders through established interventions aimed at preventing or significantly reducing morbidity and mortality. The ACMG subsequently established the Secondary Findings Maintenance Working Group to develop a process for curating and updating the list over time. We describe here the new process for accepting and evaluating nominations for updates to the secondary findings list. We also report outcomes from six nominations received in the initial 15 months after

  9. Genome-Wide Association Study to Identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) Associated With the Development of Erectile Dysfunction in African-American Men After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerns, Sarah L.; Ostrer, Harry; Stock, Richard; Li, William; Moore, Julian; Pearlman, Alexander; Campbell, Christopher; Shao Yongzhao; Stone, Nelson; Kusnetz, Lynda; Rosenstein, Barry S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with erectile dysfunction (ED) among African-American prostate cancer patients treated with external beam radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A cohort of African-American prostate cancer patients treated with external beam radiation therapy was observed for the development of ED by use of the five-item Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) questionnaire. Final analysis included 27 cases (post-treatment SHIM score ≤7) and 52 control subjects (post-treatment SHIM score ≥16). A genome-wide association study was performed using approximately 909,000 SNPs genotyped on Affymetrix 6.0 arrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA). Results: We identified SNP rs2268363, located in the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) gene, as significantly associated with ED after correcting for multiple comparisons (unadjusted p = 5.46 x 10 -8 , Bonferroni p = 0.028). We identified four additional SNPs that tended toward a significant association with an unadjusted p value -6 . Inference of population substructure showed that cases had a higher proportion of African ancestry than control subjects (77% vs. 60%, p = 0.005). A multivariate logistic regression model that incorporated estimated ancestry and four of the top-ranked SNPs was a more accurate classifier of ED than a model that included only clinical variables. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first genome-wide association study to identify SNPs associated with adverse effects resulting from radiotherapy. It is important to note that the SNP that proved to be significantly associated with ED is located within a gene whose encoded product plays a role in male gonad development and function. Another key finding of this project is that the four SNPs most strongly associated with ED were specific to persons of African ancestry and would therefore not have been identified had a cohort of European ancestry been screened. This study demonstrates

  10. A genome-wide association study of field and seedling response to stem rust pathogen races reveals combinations of race-specific resistance genes in North American spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem rust of wheat caused by the fungal pathogen Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici historically caused major yield losses of wheat worldwide. To understand the genetic basis of stem rust resistance in conventional North American spring wheat, genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) was conducted on a...

  11. Genomic diversity of human papillomavirus-16, 18, 31, and 35 isolates in a Mexican population and relationship to European, African, and Native American variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calleja-Macias, Itzel E.; Kalantari, Mina; Huh, John; Ortiz-Lopez, Rocio; Rojas-Martinez, Augusto; Gonzalez-Guerrero, Juan F.; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Hagmar, Bjoern; Wiley, Dorothy J.; Villarreal, Luis; Bernard, Hans-Ulrich; Barrera-Saldana, Hugo A.

    2004-01-01

    Cervical cancer, mainly caused by infection with human papillomaviruses (HPVs), is a major public health problem in Mexico. During a study of the prevalence of HPV types in northeastern Mexico, we identified, as expected from worldwide comparisons, HPV-16, 18, 31, and 35 as highly prevalent. It is well known that the genomes of HPV types differ geographically because of evolution linked to ethnic groups separated in prehistoric times. As HPV intra-type variation results in pathogenic differences, we analyzed genomic sequences of Mexican variants of these four HPV types. Among 112 HPV-16 samples, 14 contained European and 98 American Indian (AA) variants. This ratio is unexpected as people of European ethnicity predominate in this part of Mexico. Among 15 HPV-18 samples, 13 contained European and 2 African variants, the latter possibly due to migration of Africans to the Caribbean coast of Mexico. We constructed phylogenetic trees of HPV-31 and 35 variants, which have never been studied. Forty-six HPV-31 isolates from Mexico, Europe, Africa, and the United States (US) contained a total of 35 nucleotide exchanges in a 428-bp segment, with maximal distances between any two variants of 16 bp (3.7%), similar to those between HPV-16 variants. The HPV-31 variants formed two branches, one apparently the European, the other one an African branch. The European branch contained 13 of 29 Mexican isolates, the African branch 16 Mexican isolates. These may represent the HPV-31 variants of American Indians, as a 55% prevalence of African variants in Mexico seems incomprehensible. Twenty-seven HPV-35 samples from Mexico, Europe, Africa, and the US contained 11 mutations in a 893-bp segment with maximal distances between any two variants of only 5 mutations (0.6%), including a characteristic 16-bp insertion/deletion. These HPV-35 variants formed several phylogenetic clusters rather than two- or three-branched trees as HPV-16, 18, and 31. An HPV-35 variant typical for American

  12. Detection of IgM antibodies against canine distemper virus in dog and mink sera employing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blixenkrone-Møller, M; Pedersen, I R; Appel, M J; Griot, C

    1991-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of IgM antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV) in canine and mink serum is described. The diagnostic potential of this technique was evaluated by analyzing sera from natural or experimental infections in dog and mink and negative control sera. These results were compared with results obtained in the developed CDV IgG ELISA and in the virus neutralization test. The IgM test, which requires only a single serum specimen, is a useful method for diagnosing current or recent CDV infections in dog and mink.

  13. Clinical outcomes and genome-wide association for a brain methylation site in an antidepressant pharmacogenetics study in Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ma-Li; Dong, Chuanhui; Flores, Deborah L; Ehrhart-Bornstein, Monika; Bornstein, Stefan; Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio; Licinio, Julio

    2014-12-01

    The authors compared the effectiveness of fluoxetine and desipramine treatment in a prospective double-blind pharmacogenetics study in first-generation Mexican Americans and examined the role of whole-exome functional gene variations in the patients' antidepressant response. A total of 232 Mexican Americans who met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder were randomly assigned to receive 8 weeks of double-blind treatment with desipramine (50-200 mg/day) or fluoxetine (10-40 mg/day) after a 1-week placebo lead-in period. Outcome measures included the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory. At week 8, whole-exome genotyping data were obtained for 36 participants who remitted and 29 who did not respond to treatment. Compared with desipramine treatment, fluoxetine treatment was associated with a greater reduction in HAM-D score, higher response and remission rates, shorter time to response and remission, and lower incidences of anticholinergic and cardiovascular side effects. Pharmacogenetics analysis showed that exm-rs1321744 achieved exome-wide significance for treatment remission. This variant is located in a brain methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing site, which suggests that it may be involved in epigenetic regulation of neuronal gene expression. This and two other common gene variants provided a highly accurate cross-validated predictive model for treatment remission of major depression (receiver operating characteristic integral=0.95). Compared with desipramine, fluoxetine treatment showed a more rapid reduction of HAM-D score and a lower incidence of side effects in a population comprising primarily first-generation Mexican Americans with major depression. This study's pharmacogenetics approach strongly implicates the role of functional variants in antidepressant treatment response.

  14. Genomic Characterization of Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer in African Americans by Targeted Massively Parallel Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Luiz H.; Timmers, Cynthia; Bell, Erica Hlavin; Shilo, Konstantin; Lammers, Philip E.; Zhao, Weiqiang; Natarajan, Thanemozhi G.; Miller, Clinton J.; Zhang, Jianying; Yilmaz, Ayse S.; Liu, Tom; Coombes, Kevin; Amann, Joseph; Carbone, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Technologic advances have enabled the comprehensive analysis of genetic perturbations in non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, African Americans have often been underrepresented in these studies. This ethnic group has higher lung cancer incidence and mortality rates, and some studies have suggested a lower incidence of epidermal growth factor receptor mutations. Herein, we report the most in-depth molecular profile of NSCLC in African Americans to date. Methods A custom panel was designed to cover the coding regions of 81 NSCLC-related genes and 40 ancestry-informative markers. Clinical samples were sequenced on a massively parallel sequencing instrument, and anaplastic lymphoma kinase translocation was evaluated by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Results The study cohort included 99 patients (61% males, 94% smokers) comprising 31 squamous and 68 nonsquamous cell carcinomas. We detected 227 nonsilent variants in the coding sequence, including 24 samples with nonoverlapping, classic driver alterations. The frequency of driver mutations was not significantly different from that of whites, and no association was found between genetic ancestry and the presence of somatic mutations. Copy number alteration analysis disclosed distinguishable amplifications in the 3q chromosome arm in squamous cell carcinomas and pointed toward a handful of targetable alterations. We also found frequent SMARCA4 mutations and protein loss, mostly in driver-negative tumors. Conclusion Our data suggest that African American ancestry may not be significantly different from European/white background for the presence of somatic driver mutations in NSCLC. Furthermore, we demonstrated that using a comprehensive genotyping approach could identify numerous targetable alterations, with potential impact on therapeutic decisions. PMID:25918285

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome from South American catfish Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum (Eigenmann & Eigenmann) and its impact in Siluriformes phylogenetic tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villela, Luciana Cristine Vasques; Alves, Anderson Luis; Varela, Eduardo Sousa; Yamagishi, Michel Eduardo Beleza; Giachetto, Poliana Fernanda; da Silva, Naiara Milagres Augusto; Ponzetto, Josi Margarete; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; Caetano, Alexandre Rodrigues

    2017-02-01

    The cachara (Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum) is a Neotropical freshwater catfish from family Pimelodidae (Siluriformes) native to Brazil. The species is of relative economic importance for local aquaculture production and basic biological information is under development to help boost efforts to domesticate and raise the species in commercial systems. The complete cachara mitochondrial genome was obtained by assembling Illumina RNA-seq data from pooled samples. The full mitogenome was found to be 16,576 bp in length, showing the same basic structure, order, and genetic organization observed in other Pimelodidae, with 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rNA genes, 22 trNAs, and a control region. Observed base composition was 24.63% T, 28.47% C, 31.45% A, and 15.44% G. With the exception of NAD6 and eight tRNAs, all of the observed mitochondrial genes were found to be coded on the H strand. A total of 107 SNPs were identified in P. reticulatum mtDNA, 67 of which were located in coding regions. Of these SNPs, 10 result in amino acid changes. Analysis of the obtained sequence with 94 publicly available full Siluriformes mitogenomes resulted in a phylogenetic tree that generally agreed with available phylogenetic proposals for the order. The first report of the complete Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum mitochondrial genome sequence revealed general gene organization, structure, content, and order similar to most vertebrates. Specific sequence and content features were observed and may have functional attributes which are now available for further investigation.

  16. The effects of feed restriction on physical activity, body weight, physiology, haematology and immunology in female mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Dalgaard, Tina Sørensen; Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if adult mink females characterised as having a high or low residual feed intake (RFI) differed in their response to feed restriction with regard to activity, body weight loss and physiological parameters. For RFI-High, the activity was higher prior...

  17. Feeding rates and under-ice foraging strategies of the smallest lunge filter feeder, the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlaender, A S; Goldbogen, J A; Nowacek, D P; Read, A J; Johnston, D; Gales, N

    2014-08-15

    Body size and feeding mode are two fundamental characteristics that determine foraging performance and ecological niche. As the smallest obligate lunge filter feeders, minke whales represent an ideal system for studying the physical and energetic limits of filter feeding in endotherms. We used multi-sensor suction cup tags to quantify the feeding performance of Antarctic minke whales. Foraging dives around and beneath sea ice contained up to 24 lunges per dive, the highest feeding rates for any lunge-feeding whale. Their small size allows minke whales access to krill in sea-ice environments not easily accessible to larger baleen whales. Furthermore, their ability to filter feed provides an advantage over other smaller sympatric krill predators such as penguins and seals that feed on individual prey. The unique combination of body size, feeding mechanism and sea-ice habitat of Antarctic minke whales defines a previously undocumented energetic niche that is unique among aquatic vertebrates. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. The development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for foxes and mink: the WelFur project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mononen, J; Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W

    2012-01-01

    The WelFur project aims at the development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for farmed foxes (the blue fox [Vulpes lagopus], the silver fox [Vulpes vulpes]) and mink (Neovison vison). The WelFur protocols are based on Welfare Quality® (WQ) principles and criteria. Here, we describe the Wel...

  19. Subcellular localization of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus proteins and DNA during permissive infection of Crandell feline kidney cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Costello, F.; Huhtanen, M.

    1996-01-01

    Confocal microscopy allowed us to localize viral nonstructural (NS) and capsid (VP) proteins and DNA simultaneously in cells permissively infected with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV). Early after infection, NS proteins colocalized with viral DNA to form intranuclear inclusions, whereas VP...

  20. Effect of dietary protein levels on growth performance, mortality rate and clinical blood parameters in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, B.M.; Clausen, T.N.; Dietz, Hans Henrik

    1998-01-01

    Effects of dietary protein levels ranging from 35% to 15% of metabolizable energy (ME) and dietary fat levels ranging in a reciprocal fashion from 47% to 67% of ME, and a constant dietary carbohydrate level of 18% of ME were investigated in male mink kits in the growing-furring period. Growth...

  1. Short-term effect of oral amoxicillin treatment on the gut microbial community composition in farm mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Laura Meier; Hammer, Anne Sofie; Andresen, Lars; Isaack, Pernille; Clausen, Tove; Byskov, Kevin; Honoré, Oliver Lykke; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2017-07-01

    It is well documented that antibiotics have pronounced modulatory effects on the intestinal bacterial community of both humans and animals, with potential health consequences. The gut microbiota of mink has however attracted little attention due to low bacterial load and fast gastrointestinal transit time, questioning its relevance. In this study, we hypothesise that oral amoxicillin treatment affects the gut microbiota in mink. This was investigated in a controlled trial including 24 animals of which 12 were treated with amoxicillin for 7 days. By applying 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we found that the faecal microbiota was markedly altered already after 2 days of treatment, with a surprising increase in diversity to resemble the feed. The diversity within the mucosa at termination was however reduced, which indicates this compartment as an important colonisation site in mink. No impact on blood biochemistry, lipid metabolism, serum amyloid A, vitamins A and E and histomorphology of the gut and liver was found; however, a slight decrease in fat digestibility was observed. We suggest that early-life use of amoxicillin in mink production may be counteractive as dysbiosis of the microbiota during infancy is increasingly being recognised as a risk factor for future health. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Effects of dietary protein level on nutrients digestibility and reproductive performance of female mink (Neovison vison during gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingkui Jiang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether nutrient digestibility and reproductive performance of pregnant mink (Neovison vison were affected by different dietary protein levels. One hundred and twenty female mink were randomly assigned to four groups, receiving diets of fresh material with different protein levels. The dietary protein levels, expressed as percentage of dry matter (DM, were 32, 36, 40 and 44% respectively. These values corresponded to average 320, 360, 400 and 440 g protein/kg DM, respectively. Results were as follows. All of crude protein digestibility, nitrogen (N intake, N retention increased along with dietary protein level increasing. Low protein level (32% significantly reduced the above indicators (P < 0.05. DM digestibility and ether extract digestibility were not affected by dietary protein level. Results of mated females, barren females, kids per litter, live born kids per mated female, birth survival rate, and birth weight showed that mink achieved optimal reproductive performance when dietary protein level was 36%. In conclusion, dietary protein was anticipated to significantly influence some nutrients' utilization. Adopting the appropriate dietary protein level allow better reproduction performance. The most preferable reproductive performance was achieved when diet contained 275.5 g digestible protein per kg DM for female mink in gestation.

  3. Mink S38G Gene Polymorphism and Atrial Fibrillation in the Chinese Population: A Meta-Analysis of 1871 Participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-yan Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mink gene S38G polymorphism in the β-subunit of slow activating component of the delayed rectifier potassium channel current potassium channel has been associated with increased atrial fibrillation (AF risk. However, the individual studies results were still controversial. To investigate the association of Mink S38G gene polymorphisms with AF, a meta-analysis including 1871 subjects from six individual studies was conducted. Mink S38G gene polymorphism was significantly related to AF under allelic (OR: 1.380, 95% CI: 1.200–1.600, P<0.00001, recessive (OR: 1.193, 95% CI: 1.033–1.377, P=0.017, dominant (OR: 1.057, 95% CI: 1.025–1.089, P<0.00001, additive (OR: 1.105, 95% CI: 1.036–1.178, P=0.002, homozygous (OR: 1.128, 95% CI: 1.068–1.191, P<0.00001, and heterozygous genetic models (OR: 1.078, 95% CI: 1.014–1.146, P=0.016. A significant association between Mink S38G gene polymorphism and AF risk was found. G allele carriers may predispose to AF.

  4. Ferro-manganese encrustation on the tympanic bulla of a minke whale from Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.

    Ear bone of a minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) was collected from 5200 m water depth with thin coating of Fe-Mn oxide on its surface. The Fe-Mn coating material was similar in nature and ratios Mn/Fe and Cu + Ni/Co were closely comparable...

  5. Severity of Expert-Identified Behavioural Responses of Humpback Whale, Minke Whale, and Northern Bottlenose Whale to Naval Sonar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sivle, L.D.; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Cure, C.; Isojunno, S.; Wensveen, P.J.; Lam, F.P.A.; Visser, F.; Kleivane, L.; Tyack, P.L.; Harris, C.M.; Miller, P.J.O.

    2015-01-01

    Controlled exposure experiments using 1 to2 kHz sonar signals were conducted with 11 humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), one minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), and one northern bottlenose whale (Hyperoodon ampullatus) during three field trials from 2011 to 2013. Ship approaches without

  6. Comparative molecular analysis of strains of the Aleutian Disease Virus isolated from farmed and wild mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubczak, Andrzej; Kowalczyk, Marek; Kostro, Krzysztof; Jezewska-Witkowska, Grazyna

    2017-09-21

    Aleutian Disease is a significant biological factor causing substantial losses in mink farming. The virus inducing the disease also infects wild populations which may constitute an asymptomatic reservoir. To compare genetic variants of the AMD virus occurring in wild and farmed mink populations, an analysis was performed on a fragment of the VP2 protein sequence of the virus infecting both populations, taken from different living environments. Genetic material was isolated from 11 farmed animals in which anti-AMDV antibodies had been detected and from 20 wild animals. The DNA obtained was amplified using primers specific for the fragment encoding the VP2 protein. The product obtained was sequenced and bioinformatic analysis was performed. Viral material was detected in 11 farmed and 7 free-living animals. Similarity of sequences averaged 99% within groups and 94% between groups. The sequencing results made it possible to identify characteristic changes for each group. In the isolates from the wild animals, the following changes were observed in the epitope region with respect to the reference sequence: C3704T, G3710A, T3722C, T3746C and A3749G. In the isolates from the farmed animals a G3779A transition was noted. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the variants infecting the two groups occupy separate branches of the phylogenetic tree. The variants of the virus infecting the two groups may have a common origin, but at present they constitute two separate groups, with characteristic differences making it possible to recognize their genotype.

  7. Mysterious bio-duck sound attributed to the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Denise; Gales, Nicholas J; Gedamke, Jason; Kindermann, Lars; Nowacek, Douglas P; Read, Andrew J; Siebert, Ursula; Van Opzeeland, Ilse C; Van Parijs, Sofie M; Friedlaender, Ari S

    2014-01-01

    For decades, the bio-duck sound has been recorded in the Southern Ocean, but the animal producing it has remained a mystery. Heard mainly during austral winter in the Southern Ocean, this ubiquitous sound has been recorded in Antarctic waters and contemporaneously off the Australian west coast. Here, we present conclusive evidence that the bio-duck sound is produced by Antarctic minke whales (Balaenoptera bonaerensis). We analysed data from multi-sensor acoustic recording tags that included intense bio-duck sounds as well as singular downsweeps that have previously been attributed to this species. This finding allows the interpretation of a wealth of long-term acoustic recordings for this previously acoustically concealed species, which will improve our understanding of the distribution, abundance and behaviour of Antarctic minke whales. This is critical information for a species that inhabits a difficult to access sea-ice environment that is changing rapidly in some regions and has been the subject of contentious lethal sampling efforts and ongoing international legal action.

  8. Canine distemper virus DNA vaccination of mink can overcome interference by maternal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Hammer; Nielsen, Line; Aasted, Bent

    2015-01-01

    with CDV DNA vaccines. Virus neutralising (VN) antibody responses were induced in mink kits vaccinated with a plasmid encoding the haemaglutinin protein (H) of CDV (n=5, pCDV-H) or a combination of the H, fusion (F) and nucleoprotein (N) of CDV (n=5, pCDV-HFN). These DNA vaccinated kits were protected...... against virulent experimental infection with field strains of CDV. The pCDV-H was more efficient in inducing protective immunity in the presence of maternal antibodies compared to the pCDV-HFN. The results show that DNA vaccination with the pCDV-H or pCDV-HFN (n=4) only given once at 5 days of age induces......Canine distemper virus (CDV) is highly contagious and can cause severe disease against which conventional live vaccines are ineffective in the presence of maternal antibodies. Vaccination in the presences of maternal antibodies was challenged by vaccination of 5 days old and 3 weeks old mink kits...

  9. Transcript Profiling of Toll-Like Receptor mRNAs in Selected Tissues of Mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Mingwei; Yi, Li; Cheng, Yuening; Zhang, Miao; Cao, Zhigang; Wang, Jianke; Zhao, Hang; Lin, Peng; Yang, Yong; Cheng, Shipeng

    2016-12-28

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) can recognize conserved molecular patterns and initiate a wide range of innate and adaptive immune responses against invading infectious agents. The aim of this study was to assess the transcript profile of mink TLRs (mTLRs) in mink peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and a range of tissues, and to explore the potential role of mTLRs in the antiviral immune response process. The results indicated that the mTLR partial nucleotide sequences had a high degree of nucleotide identity with ferret sequences (95-98%). Phylogenetic analysis showed that mammalian TLRs grouped into five TLR families, with a closer relationship of the mTLRs with those of ferret than the other mammalian sequences. Moreover, all the mTLRs were ubiquitously expressed in lymphoid organs (spleen and lymph nodes) and PBMCs. Interestingly, the mTLR expression patterns in lung, uterus, and heart showed quite a lot of similarity. Another remarkable observation was the wide expression of mTLR1-3 mRNAs in all tissues. Among the analyzed tissues, skeletal muscle was revealed to being the lowest repertoire of mTLR expression. Additionally, mink PBMCs exposed to the canine distemper virus revealed significant upregulation of mTLR2, mTLR4, mTLR7, and mTLR8 mRNAs, indicating that mTLRs have a role in innate immunity in the mink. Collectively, our results are the first to establish the basic expression patterns of mTLRs and the relationship between mTLRs and a virus, which will contribute to better understanding of the evolution and the functions of mTLRs in the innate immune system in minks.

  10. Investigation of the presence of human or bovine respiratory syncytial virus in the lungs of mink (Neovison vison with hemorrhagic pneumonia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomonsen Charlotte M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemorrhagic pneumonia is a disease of farmed mink (Neovison vison caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The disease is highly seasonal in Danish mink with outbreaks occurring almost exclusively in the autumn. Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV has been shown to augment infection with P. aeruginosa in mice and to promote adhesion of P. aeruginosa to human respiratory cells. Findings We tested 50 lung specimens from mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia for bovine RSV by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR and for human RSV by a commercial real-time PCR. RSV was not found. Conclusions This study indicates that human and bovine RSV is not a major co-factor for development of hemorrhagic pneumonia in Danish mink.

  11. Effects of dietary copper on organ indexes, tissular Cu, Zn and Fe deposition and fur quality of growing-furring male mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuezhuang; Gao, Xiuhua; Yang, Fuhe

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to study the effects of different levels of dietary copper on organ indexes, tissular Cu, Zn and Fe deposition and fur quality of mink in the growing-furring periods. One hundred and five standard dark male mink were randomly assigned to seven groups with the following dietary treatments: basal diet with no supplemental Cu (Control); basal diet supplemented with either 6, 12, 24, 48, 96 and 192 mg/kg Cu from copper sulphate, respectively. The colour intensity scores displayed a linear trend (P = 0.057). The spleen Cu concentrations responded in a linear (P  0.10) liver Zn. Our results indicate that Cu plays an important role in the pigmentation in growing-furring mink, and supplemental dietary Cu in growing-furring mink improve hair colour, and copper has limited effects on liver mineral deposition.

  12. Investigation of the presence of human or bovine respiratory syncytial virus in the lungs of mink (Neovison vison) with hemorrhagic pneumonia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte M; Breum, Solvej Ø; Larsen, Lars E; Jakobsen, Jeanette; Høiby, Niels; Hammer, Anne S

    2012-11-26

    Hemorrhagic pneumonia is a disease of farmed mink (Neovison vison) caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The disease is highly seasonal in Danish mink with outbreaks occurring almost exclusively in the autumn. Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been shown to augment infection with P. aeruginosa in mice and to promote adhesion of P. aeruginosa to human respiratory cells. We tested 50 lung specimens from mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia for bovine RSV by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for human RSV by a commercial real-time PCR. RSV was not found. This study indicates that human and bovine RSV is not a major co-factor for development of hemorrhagic pneumonia in Danish mink.

  13. The urinary metabolome in female mink (Mustela neovison) shows distinct changes in protein and lipid metabolism during the transition from diapause to implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The mink exhibit an obligatory diapause. The metabolic changes during the transition from diapause to implantation and established pregnancy are currently unknown. Objectives The study aimed to characterize changes in the urinary metabolome in mink during the period from mating to ea...... studied. The major changes were observed at the time of implantation where increases in the lipid and protein metabolism were evident.......Introduction The mink exhibit an obligatory diapause. The metabolic changes during the transition from diapause to implantation and established pregnancy are currently unknown. Objectives The study aimed to characterize changes in the urinary metabolome in mink during the period from mating...... acids and acylcarnitines of dicarboxylic acids exhibited a decline on April 8, and the same trend was observed for four unidentified metabolites, two of which were putatively identified as acids of the furan fatty acid type. The decreased excretion of lipid components was suggested to be a result...

  14. Genome-wide association analysis confirms and extends the association of SLC2A9 with serum uric acid levels to Mexican Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Saroja eVoruganti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased serum uric acid (SUA is a risk factor for gout and renal and cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic factors that affect the variation in SUA in 632 Mexican Americans participants of the San Antonio Family Heart Study (SAFHS. A genome-wide association analysis was performed using the Illumina Human Hap 550K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP microarray. We used a linear regression-based association test under an additive model of allelic effect, while accounting for non-independence among family members via a kinship variance component. All analyses were performed in the software package SOLAR. SNPs rs6832439, rs13131257 and rs737267 in solute carrier protein 2 family, member 9 (SLC2A9 were associated with SUA at genome-wide significance (p <1.3×10-7. The minor alleles of these SNPs had frequencies of 36.2%, 36.2%, and 38.2 %, respectively, and were associated with decreasing SUA levels. All of these SNPs were located in introns 3-7 of SLC2A9, the location of the previously reported associations in European populations. When analyzed for association with cardiovascular-renal disease risk factors, conditional on SLC2A9 SNPs strongly associated with SUA, significant associations were found for SLC2A9 SNPs with BMI, body weight and waist circumference (p < 1.4 x 10-3 and suggestive associations with albumin-creatinine ratio and total antioxidant status. The SLC2A9 gene encodes an urate transporter that has considerable influence on variation in SUA. In addition to the primary association locus, suggestive evidence (p<1.9×10-6 for joint linkage/association was found at a previously-reported urate quantitative trait locus (Logarithm of odds score = 3.6 on 3p26.3. In summary, our GWAS extends and confirms the association of SLC2A9 with SUA for the first time in a Mexican American cohort and also shows for the first time its association with cardiovascular-renal disease risk factors.

  15. Low protein provision during the first year of life, but not during foetal life, affects metabolic traits, organ mass development and growth in male mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterdorf, K; Blache, D; Harrison, A; Matthiesen, C F; Tauson, A-H

    2014-04-01

    Low protein provision in utero and post-partum may induce metabolic disorders in adulthood. Studies in mink have mainly focused on short-term consequences of low protein provision in utero whereas the long-term responses to low protein (LP) provision in metabolically programmed mink are unknown. We investigated whether low protein provision in utero affects the long-term response to adequate (AP) or LP provision after weaning in male mink. Eighty-six male mink were exposed to low (19% of ME from CP; crude protein) or adequate (31% of ME from CP) protein provision in utero, and to LP (~20% of ME from CP) or AP (30-42% of ME from CP) provision post-weaning. Being metabolically programmed by low protein provision in utero did not affect the response to post-weaning diets. Dietary protein content in the LP feed after weaning was below requirements; evidenced by lower nitrogen retention (p < 0.001) preventing LP mink from attaining their growth potential (p < 0.02). LP mink had a lower liver, pancreas and kidney weight (p < 0.05) as well as lower plasma IGF-1 concentrations at 8 and 25 (p < 0.05) weeks, and a higher incidence of hepatic lipidosis at 25 weeks (p < 0.05). Furthermore, LP mink had a higher body fat (p < 0.05) and lower body CP content (p < 0.05) at 50 weeks of age. It is concluded that some effects of low protein provision in utero can be alleviated by an adequate nutrient supply post-partum. However, long-term exposure to low protein provision in mink reduces their growth potential and induces transient hepatic lipidosis and modified body composition. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Cause-effect linkages between chemicals and populations of mink (Mustela vison) and otter (Lutra canadensis) in the Great Lakes basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wren, C.D. (Ecological Services for Planning Ltd., Guelph, Ontario (Canada))

    1991-08-01

    Following outbreaks of reproductive failure in commercial ranching operations, laboratory experiments showed that mink are extremely sensitive to organochlorine chemicals, particularly PCBs and dioxins. The purpose of this paper is to test the hypothesis that, since wild mink are exposed to these compounds through consumption of Great Lakes fish, they might exhibit reproductive dysfunction and population declines. The otter, another piscivorous animal, should show the same effects. The available information is reviewed according to five epidemiological criteria. Harvest data are presented as a surrogate for the population status of mink and otters in certain locations around the Great Lakes. Data from Ohio show that the mink harvest between 1982 and 1987 from contaminated counties bordering Lake Erie was consistently lower than those from counties removed from Lake Erie, suggesting an effect of chemicals on the status of mink populations. Preliminary studies from Ontario also suggest that mink harvest is lower in potentially high PCB exposure areas compared with lower exposure areas. Evidence is also presented on the harvest data for otters taken from four New York State counties adjacent to Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River. The harvest data from these four counties show that between 1960 and early 1970 otter harvest remained stable but has since increased. Increased harvest is consistent with improved water quality in Lake Ontario during the past 15 yr. Data relating to strength of association between chemicals and populations of mink and otter are weak and need to be further analyzed. The specificity of the effects of the chemicals on mink reproduction and mortality is well established from toxicological experiments, but there is poor resolution of the information on effects using field data. 104 references.

  17. D-Dimer in African Americans: Whole Genome Sequence Analysis and Relationship to Cardiovascular Disease Risk in the Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffield, Laura M; Zakai, Neil A; Duan, Qing; Laurie, Cecelia; Smith, Joshua D; Irvin, Marguerite R; Doyle, Margaret F; Naik, Rakhi P; Song, Ci; Manichaikul, Ani W; Liu, Yongmei; Durda, Peter; Rotter, Jerome I; Jenny, Nancy S; Rich, Stephen S; Wilson, James G; Johnson, Andrew D; Correa, Adolfo; Li, Yun; Nickerson, Deborah A; Rice, Kenneth; Lange, Ethan M; Cushman, Mary; Lange, Leslie A; Reiner, Alex P

    2017-11-01

    Plasma levels of the fibrinogen degradation product D-dimer are higher among African Americans (AAs) compared with those of European ancestry and higher among women compared with men. Among AAs, little is known of the genetic architecture of D-dimer or the relationship of D-dimer to incident cardiovascular disease. We measured baseline D-dimer in 4163 AAs aged 21 to 93 years from the prospective JHS (Jackson Heart Study) cohort and assessed association with incident cardiovascular disease events. In participants with whole genome sequencing data (n=2980), we evaluated common and rare genetic variants for association with D-dimer. Each standard deviation higher baseline D-dimer was associated with a 20% to 30% increased hazard for incident coronary heart disease, stroke, and all-cause mortality. Genetic variation near F3 was associated with higher D-dimer (rs2022030, β=0.284, P =3.24×10 -11 ). The rs2022030 effect size was nearly 3× larger among women (β=0.373, P =9.06×10 -13 ) than among men (β=0.135, P =0.06; P interaction =0.009). The sex by rs2022030 interaction was replicated in an independent sample of 10 808 multiethnic men and women ( P interaction =0.001). Finally, the African ancestral sickle cell variant ( HBB rs334) was significantly associated with higher D-dimer in JHS (β=0.507, P =1.41×10 -14 ), and this association was successfully replicated in 1933 AAs ( P =2.3×10 -5 ). These results highlight D-dimer as an important predictor of cardiovascular disease risk in AAs and suggest that sex-specific and African ancestral genetic effects of the F3 and HBB loci contribute to the higher levels of D-dimer among women and AAs. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Genomic Variability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains of the Euro-American Lineage Based on Large Sequence Deletions and 15-Locus MIRU-VNTR Polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindi, Laura; Medici, Chiara; Bimbi, Nicola; Buzzigoli, Andrea; Lari, Nicoletta; Garzelli, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    A sample of 260 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains assigned to the Euro-American family was studied to identify phylogenetically informative genomic regions of difference (RD). Mutually exclusive deletions of regions RD115, RD122, RD174, RD182, RD183, RD193, RD219, RD726 and RD761 were found in 202 strains; the RDRio deletion was detected exclusively among the RD174-deleted strains. Although certain deletions were found more frequently in certain spoligotype families (i.e., deletion RD115 in T and LAM, RD174 in LAM, RD182 in Haarlem, RD219 in T and RD726 in the “Cameroon” family), the RD-defined sublineages did not specifically match with spoligotype-defined families, thus arguing against the use of spoligotyping for establishing exact phylogenetic relationships between strains. Notably, when tested for katG463/gyrA95 polymorphism, all the RD-defined sublineages belonged to Principal Genotypic Group (PGG) 2, except sublineage RD219 exclusively belonging to PGG3; the 58 Euro-American strains with no deletion were of either PGG2 or 3. A representative sample of 197 isolates was then analyzed by standard 15-locus MIRU-VNTR typing, a suitable approach to independently assess genetic relationships among the strains. Analysis of the MIRU-VNTR typing results by using a minimum spanning tree (MST) and a classical dendrogram showed groupings that were largely concordant with those obtained by RD-based analysis. Isolates of a given RD profile show, in addition to closely related MIRU-VNTR profiles, related spoligotype profiles that can serve as a basis for better spoligotype-based classification. PMID:25197794

  19. Impact of CYP3A5 genomic variances on clinical outcomes among African American kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asempa, Tomefa E; Rebellato, Lorita M; Hudson, Suzanne; Briley, Kimberly; Maldonado, Angela Q

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of CYP3A5 polymorphisms on transplantation outcomes among African American (AA) kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). To assess this issue, clinical outcomes were compared between AA CYP3A5*1 expressers and nonexpressers. This retrospective cohort study analyzed AA KTRs. Biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR), delayed graft function (DGF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), infections, and tacrolimus dosing requirements were examined in 106 immunologically high-risk AA kidney transplant patients over a 2-year follow-up period. In CYP3A5*1 expressers compared to nonexpressers, the incidence of BPAR was significantly higher in the first 6 months (13% vs 0%; P = .016) compared to 24 months (13% vs 7%; P = .521). Tacrolimus total daily dose at first therapeutic level was significantly higher in CYP3A5*1 expressers (12 mg/day) compared to nonexpressers (8 mg/day; P < .001). Compared to CYP3A5*1 nonexpressers, DGF incidence was significantly higher among CYP3A5*1 expressers (27.6% vs 6.7%; P = .006). By contrast, median GFR was significantly higher in CYP3A5*1 expressers compared to nonexpressers (54.5 mL/min vs 50.0 mL/min; P = .003) at 24 months. The findings from this retrospective study suggest that AAs with CYP3A5*1 expression require 50% more tacrolimus and have an increased incidence of DGF and acute rejection. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Effects of different dietary protein levels and DL-methionine supplementation on hair growth and pelt quality in mink (Neovision vision).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H H; Jiang, Q K; Sun, W L; Xu, C; Cong, B; Yang, F H; Li, G Y

    2013-12-01

    The effect of different dietary protein levels and DL-methionine (Met) supplementation on hair growth and the resulting pelt quality in mink was studied. Four groups of male mink were fed with four isocaloric diets containing 32% (P32), 24% (P24), 16% (P16) or P24+Met (0.8%) crude protein of dry matter (DM) from September to December. Skin biopsies were taken at the pelting. Histological techniques and computer-assisted light microscopy were used to determine the ratio of activity (ROA) of under hairs and guard hairs respectively. The results showed that when the dietary protein level reduced from 32% to 16%, body length, number and diameter of under hairs and guard hairs of minks declined, and pelt length and pelt weight of minks decreased significantly (p  0.05). The hair follicle density of the winter coat was not influenced by the dietary protein levels and Met supplementation (p > 0.05). Low-protein diets content led to a reduction of hair follicle developing to next phase. It was documented that 24% crude protein of DM with Met supplementation during growing-furring period was sufficient for minks to express their genetic capacity to develop hair follicles and achieve the prime fur characteristics. Overall this study demonstrated that hair growth and hair properties in pelts are very dependent on the dietary protein and Met supply in the growing-furring period of minks. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Mercury concentrations in wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada: Relationship to age and parasitism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klenavic, Katherine [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Champoux, Louise [Service Canadien de la Faune Environnement Canada, 1141 Route de l' Eglise, c.p. 10100, Sainte-Foy, QC G1V 4H5 (Canada)], E-mail: louise.champoux@ec.gc.ca; Mike, O' Brien [Furbearers and Upland Game, Department of Natural Resources, Kentville, NS B4N 4E5 (Canada)], E-mail: obrienms@gov.ns.ca; Daoust, Pierre-Y. [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of P.E.I., 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PEI C1A 4P3 (Canada)], E-mail: daoust@upei.ca; Evans, R. Douglas [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Evans, Hayla E. [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada)], E-mail: hevans@trentu.ca

    2008-11-15

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in the fur, brain and liver of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada. Total Hg concentrations in fur were strongly correlated with levels in the brain and liver. There was no difference in tissue concentrations between male and female mink; however, female otters had significantly higher fur, brain and liver Hg levels than males. Similarly, there was not a significant relationship between Hg concentration and age of mink, whereas in otters, Hg concentrations in all three tissues decreased significantly with age. In both species, only a very small percentage of the variability in Hg concentration was explained by age. After adjusting the data for site-to-site differences in Hg levels, Hg concentrations in the fur of mink infected by the parasite, Dioctophyma renale, were found to be significantly higher than Hg levels in uninfected mink. - Mercury (Hg) concentrations in liver, brain and fur are correlated in mink (Mustela vison) and otters (Lontra canadensis), allowing the use of fur as an indicator of internal tissue concentrations.

  2. Dietary exposure of mink (Mustela vison) to fish from the Housatonic River, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, USA: Effects on reproduction, kit growth, and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursian, S.J.; Sharma, C.; Aulerich, R.J.; Yamini, B.; Mitchell, R.R.; Orazio, C.E.; Moore, D.R.J.; Svirsky, S.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of feeding farm-raised mink (Mustela vison) diets containing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated fish from the Housatonic River (HR; Berkshire County, MA, USA) on adult reproductive performance and kit growth and survival. Diets contained 0.22-3.54% HR fish, providing 0.34-3.7 ??g total PCBs (TPCB)/g feed wet wt (3.5-68.5 pg toxic equivalence [TEQ]/g). Female mink were fed diets before breeding through weaning of kits. Twelve kits from each treatment were maintained on their respective diets for an additional 180 d. Dietary PCBs had no effect on the number of offspring produced, gestation period, or other measures of adult reproductive performance. Mink kits exposed to 3.7 ??g TPCB/g feed (68.5 pg TEQ/g) in utero and during lactation had reduced survivability between three and six weeks of age. The lethal concentrations to 10 and 20% of the population (LC10 and LC20, respectively) were estimated to be 0.231 and 0.984 ??g TPCB/g feed, respectively. Because inclusion of PCB-contaminated fish that composed approximately 1% of the diet would reduce mink kit survival by 20% or more, it is likely that consumption of up to 30-fold that quantity of HR fish, as could be expected for wild mink, would have an adverse effect on wild mink populations. ?? 2006 SETAC.

  3. Mercury concentrations in wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada: Relationship to age and parasitism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klenavic, Katherine; Champoux, Louise; Mike, O'Brien; Daoust, Pierre-Y.; Evans, R. Douglas; Evans, Hayla E.

    2008-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in the fur, brain and liver of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada. Total Hg concentrations in fur were strongly correlated with levels in the brain and liver. There was no difference in tissue concentrations between male and female mink; however, female otters had significantly higher fur, brain and liver Hg levels than males. Similarly, there was not a significant relationship between Hg concentration and age of mink, whereas in otters, Hg concentrations in all three tissues decreased significantly with age. In both species, only a very small percentage of the variability in Hg concentration was explained by age. After adjusting the data for site-to-site differences in Hg levels, Hg concentrations in the fur of mink infected by the parasite, Dioctophyma renale, were found to be significantly higher than Hg levels in uninfected mink. - Mercury (Hg) concentrations in liver, brain and fur are correlated in mink (Mustela vison) and otters (Lontra canadensis), allowing the use of fur as an indicator of internal tissue concentrations

  4. Monitoring blood glucose levels in female mink during the reproductive cycle: 2. Effects of short-term fish oil, chromium picolinate, and acetylsalicylic acid supplementation during late lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Amber M.J.; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti

    2007-01-01

    Mink nursing sickness is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia that is similar to the metabolic syndrome associated with type 2, or non-insulin-dependent, diabetes mellitus. This research studied the effects of short-term administration of antidiabetic supplements on the blood glucose concentration in female mink during late lactation. Female mink that had blood glucose levels acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 100 mg) for 1 wk starting at day 21 post partum. In the NG mink, most of the treatments did not significantly change the blood glucose concentration from day 28 to 42 post partum. However, treatment with ASA alone and treatment with the combination HerO-CrPic-ASA elevated the blood glucose levels when compared with those of the control group, which had received just the basal diet. In the HG mink, all treatment combinations except CrPic alone and ASA alone, reduced the blood glucose concentration. Thus, in lactating mink with hyperglycemia, the blood glucose concentration may be effectively lowered by dietary antidiabetic supplementation; however, because hyperglycemia also occurs before nursing, preventive measures are recommended throughout the year. PMID:17955898

  5. Indirect genetic effects contribute substantially to heritable variation in aggression-related traits in group-housed mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku; Bijma, Piter; Møller, Steen Henrik; Janss, Luc; Berg, Peer

    2014-05-07

    Since the recommendations on group housing of mink (Neovison vison) were adopted by the Council of Europe in 1999, it has become common in mink production in Europe. Group housing is advantageous from a production perspective, but can lead to aggression between animals and thus raises a welfare issue. Bite marks on the animals are an indicator of this aggressive behaviour and thus selection against frequency of bite marks should reduce aggression and improve animal welfare. Bite marks on one individual reflect the aggression of its group members, which means that the number of bite marks carried by one individual depends on the behaviour of other individuals and that it may have a genetic basis. Thus, for a successful breeding strategy it could be crucial to consider both direct (DGE) and indirect (IGE) genetic effects on this trait. However, to date no study has investigated the genetic basis of bite marks in mink. A model that included DGE and IGE fitted the data significantly better than a model with DGE only, and IGE contributed a substantial proportion of the heritable variation available for response to selection. In the model with IGE, the total heritable variation expressed as the proportion of phenotypic variance (T2) was six times greater than classical heritability (h2). For instance, for total bite marks, T2 was equal to 0.61, while h2 was equal to 0.10. The genetic correlation between direct and indirect effects ranged from 0.55 for neck bite marks to 0.99 for tail bite marks. This positive correlation suggests that mink have a tendency to fight in a reciprocal way (giving and receiving bites) and thus, a genotype that confers a tendency to bite other individuals can also cause its bearer to receive more bites. Both direct and indirect genetic effects contribute to variation in number of bite marks in group-housed mink. Thus, a genetic selection design that includes both direct genetic and indirect genetic effects could reduce the frequency of bite

  6. Longitudinal Analysis of Residual Feed Intake in Mink using Random Regression with Heterogeneous Residual Variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirali, Mahmoud; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke; Møller, Steen Henrik

    Heritability of residual feed intake (RFI) increased from low to high over the growing period in male and female mink. The lowest heritability for RFI (male: 0.04 ± 0.01 standard deviation (SD); female: 0.05 ± 0.01 SD) was in early and the highest heritability (male: 0.33 ± 0.02; female: 0.34 ± 0.......02 SD) was achieved at the late growth stages. The genetic correlation between different growth stages for RFI showed a high association (0.91 to 0.98) between early and late growing periods. However, phenotypic correlations were lower from 0.29 to 0.50. The residual variances were substantially higher...

  7. Avoidance responses of minke whales to 1-4kHz naval sonar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvadsheim, Petter H; DeRuiter, Stacy; Sivle, Lise D; Goldbogen, Jeremy; Roland-Hansen, Rune; Miller, Patrick J O; Lam, Frans-Peter A; Calambokidis, John; Friedlaender, Ari; Visser, Fleur; Tyack, Peter L; Kleivane, Lars; Southall, Brandon

    2017-08-15

    Minke whales are difficult to study and little information exists regarding their responses to anthropogenic sound. This study pools data from behavioural response studies off California and Norway. Data are derived from four tagged animals, of which one from each location was exposed to naval sonar signals. Statistical analyses were conducted using Mahalanobis distance to compare overall changes in parameters summarising dive behaviour, avoidance behaviour, and potential energetic costs of disturbance. Our quantitative analysis showed that both animals initiated avoidance behaviour, but responses were not associated with unusual dive behaviour. In one exposed animal the avoidance of the sonar source included a 5-fold increase in horizontal speed away from the source, implying a significant increase in metabolic rate. Despite the different environmental settings and exposure contexts, clear changes in behaviour were observed providing the first insights into the nature of responses to human noise for this wide-ranging species. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Associations between biosecurity and outbreaks of canine distemper on Danish mink farms in 2012-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregers-Jensen, Louise; Agger, Jens Frederik; Hammer, Anne Sofie Vedsted

    2015-01-01

    distemper from July 2012 to February 2013. The control group included 54 farms without an outbreak of canine distemper in 2012 or 2013, selected as the closest geographical neighbour to a case farm. The results showed that significantly more control than case farms had vaccinated their mink against canine...... distemper virus. Mortality was only assessed on the case farms, and there was a non-significantly lower mortality on vaccinated farms than on the non-vaccinated farms. Furthermore, the proportion of farms with observations of wild red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) inside the farm enclosures were larger for case...... case and control farms. Not using plastic boot covers, presence of dogs and cats, presence of demarcated area for changing clothes when entering and leaving the farm area and presence of hand washing facilities significantly lowered the odds of the farm having a canine distemper virus outbreak...

  9. Temperament, stereotypies and anticipatory behaviour as measures of welfare in mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W.; Jeppesen, Leif Lau

    2006-01-01

    , 73 individuals, included significantly more fearful animals (38.4%) as opposed to the stereotyping part of the population (22.6% fearful animals). Since fear observed under farming conditions directs to reduced welfare, the results suggest that stereotypy should not unconditionally be used...... and 24 of the non-stereotyping animals were selected and exposed to Pavlovian conditioning with both positive and negative rewards. Their behaviour during anticipation of the reward changed, however, they also showed a great variation and dependence on feeding time as well as stereotypy status. So......, the results showed changes in anticipatory behaviour in mink in a Pavlovian set-up, however, possible relationships between fear and stereotypies, and stereotypies and anticipatory behaviour should be elucidated in future studies....

  10. S-phase-dependent cell cycle disturbances caused by Aleutian mink disease parvovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Alexandersen, Søren

    1997-01-01

    arrest occurred exclusively in cells containing de novo-synthesized viral nonstructural (NS) proteins. Production of ADV NS proteins, indicative of ADV replication, was triggered during S-phase traverse. The NS+ cells that were generated during later parts of S phase did not undergo cytokinesis...... with subthreshold levels of ADV products through the late S/G(2) block and, consequently, that the binary pattern of ADV-induced cell cycle arrest may be governed merely by viral replication levels within a single S phase. Flow cytometric analysis of propidium iodide fluorescence and bromodeoxyuridine uptake showed......We examined replication of the autonomous parovirus Aleutian mink disease parovirus (ADV) in relation to cell cycle progression of permissive Crandell feline kidney (CRFK) cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that ADV caused a composite, binary pattern of cell cycle arrest. ADV-induced cell cycle...

  11. Outbreak tracking of Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) using partial NS1 gene sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryt-Hansen, Pia; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Hagberg, E. E.

    2017-01-01

    . However, in 2015, several outbreaks of AMDV occurred at mink farms throughout Denmark, and the sources of these outbreaks were not known. Partial NS1 gene sequencing, phylogenetic analyses data were utilized along with epidemiological to determine the origin of the outbreaks. The phylogenetic analyses...... of partial NS1 gene sequences revealed that the outbreaks were caused by two different clusters of viruses that were clearly different from the strains found in Northern Jutland. These clusters had restricted geographical distribution, and the variation within the clusters was remarkably low. The outbreaks...... on Zealand were epidemiologically linked and a close sequence match was found to two virus sequences from Sweden. The other cluster of outbreaks restricted to Jutland and Funen were linked to three feed producers (FP) but secondary transmissions between farms in the same geographical area could...

  12. Antimicrobial resistance among pathogenic bacteria from mink (Neovison vison) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolaisen, Nanett Kvist; Lassen, Desireé Corvera Kløve; Chriél, Mariann

    2017-01-01

    in mink. Results: A total number of 308 Escherichia coli isolates, 41 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 36 Streptococcus canis, 30 Streptococcus dysgalactiae, 55 Staphylococcus delphini, 9 Staphylococcus aureus, and 20 Staphylococcus schleiferi were included in this study. Among E. coli, resistance was observed...... and gentamicin. Among the Staphylococcus spp., the highest occurrence of resistance was found for tetracycline. Regarding the nine S. aureus, one isolate was resistant to cefoxitin indicating it was a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Both β-hemolytic Streptococcus species showed high levels...... more frequently among the hemolytic isolates than among the non-hemolytic ones. The highest frequency of resistance was found to ampicillin, 82.3% and 48.0% of the hemolytic of the non-hemolytic isolates, respectively. The majority of the P. aeruginosa isolates were only sensitive to ciprofloxacin...

  13. Separating the mink dam from the litter at 7 or 8 weeks after delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Palme, Rupert; Larsen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    The optimal timing of separating the mink dam from the litter is suggested to be a balance between the partly conflicting needs of the mother and the kits. Early removal of the dam or partial removal of the litter may protect the dam against exhaustion. Little is known about the maternal motivation...... (8w, N=189) after birth. The aim was to investigate whether the dams had a different motivation to take care of the litter after 7 and 8 weeks, estimated by non-invasive determination of cortisol (FCM: Faecal Corticsol Metabolites) and dam calls the first week after separation. The two treatment.......014). Likewise, the dam calls increased on the separation day, peaking on the first day after separation (D1). The proportion of dams with calls decreased with litter age at separation (P=0.024). We interpret these results as a higher maternal motivation in dams at 7 weeks than at 8 weeks after delivery...

  14. Feed efficiency and body weight growth throughout growing-furring period in mink using random regression method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirali, Mahmoud; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke; Møller, Steen Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine genetic background of longitudinal residual feed intake (RFI) and body weight (BW) growth in farmed mink using random regression methods considering heterogeneous residual variances. Eight BW measures for each mink was recorded every three weeks from 63 to 210...... (SD)) at 105 days of age to 0.49 (0.03, SD) and 0.46 (0.03, SD) at 210 days of age in male and female, respectively. The heritability estimates for BW growth increased with age and had moderate to high range for male (0.33 ± 0.02 to 0.84 ± 0.02) and female (0.35 ± 0.03 to 0.85 ± 0.02). RFI estimates...

  15. Assessment of the aerobic faecal microflora in mink (Mustela vison Schreiber) with emphasis on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus intermedius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vulfson, L.; Pedersen, Karl; Chriél, Mariann

    2003-01-01

    and their offspring on seven mink farms throughout the production season and a semi-quantitative enumeration of total E. coli and haemolytic E. coli, beta-haemolytic streptococci, beta-haemolytic coagulase positive staphylococci, total lactic acid bacteria, and enterococci was carried out in all samples using...... selective and non-selective media. Aerobic bacteria were cultured from close to 100% of the samples throughout the survey. Prevalence of E. coli isolates varied between 70 and 90% of the samples throughout the survey with a small decline at the end of the study period. The highest bacterial counts were......The present study was undertaken to investigate the culturable aerobic faecal microflora of mink from newborn until adulthood with emphasis on the potential pathogens Escherichia coli and beta-haemolytic coagulase positive staphylococci. Rectal swabs were taken from 10 healthy dams...

  16. A first estimate of the amino acid requirement for milk production of the high-producing female mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, R; Tauson, A-H; Chwalibog, André

    2006-01-01

    to estimate the amino acid requirement of the lactating mink. Twelve dams were held in an intensive care unit and subjected to balance experiments and the kits were injected with deuterium oxide to determine water kinetics and milk yield. Eighteen dams were kept under normal farm conditions but with feed...... (kg(0.75)) was, thereby, estimated by use of a factorial approach including the amino acid excretion in milk of LP dams....

  17. Fatty acid alterations caused by PCBs (Aroclor 1242) and copper in adipose tissue around lymph nodes of mink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaekelae, R.; Hyvaerinen, H.

    1999-01-01

    Fatty acid composition was determined in adipose tissue surrounding the mesenteric lymph nodes of mink (Mustela vison) exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs: 1 mg Aroclor 1242 in food day -1 for 28 days) and/or copper (62 mg kg -1 food). These specific adipose tissues are known to have functional relationships with lymphocytes, and proliferation of cultured lymphocytes is influenced by the quality of fatty acids available in media. In six experimental groups the diet was based on freshwater fish, and in two groups it was based on marine fish. These basal diets differed in terms of fatty acid composition and content of fat-soluble vitamins A 1 and E. The fatty acid composition of membrane phospholipids (PL) responded to PCBs more than that of triacylglycerols (TG). The effects of copper were small. In female minks fed a diet of freshwater fish, the proportion of highly unsaturated fatty acids in PL decreased by 5 wt.% due to PCBs, and the acids seemed to be replaced by monounsaturated fatty acids (9 wt.% increase of total). This decrease of highly unsaturated fatty acids in PL was milder in minks on the marine fish diet rich in fat-soluble vitamins. In TG of minks on the marine diet, however, PCBs decreased the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3). The possibility that these alterations in the fatty acid metabolism of adipose tissue supporting the lymph nodes affect immune function during PCB exposure should be studied further. Interestingly, the quality of the fish diet affected the magnitude of the alterations. The fatty acid responses may also differ between males and females. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. Effect of HMB and 2-Ox administered during pregnancy on bone properties in primiparous and multiparous minks (Neivison vison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaszewska Ewa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the mechanical and geometric properties as well as bone tissue density of long bones in primiparous and multiparous dams of minks supplemented with β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB and/or 2-oxoketoglutarate (2-Ox during gestation. Powdered 2-Ox was given at the daily dosage of 0.4 g/kg b.w. separately or simultaneously with HMB, which was administered at the daily dosage of 0.02 g/kg b.w. The study demonstrates for the first time that administration of 2-Ox and/or HMB to dams markedly influences bone tissue density and the mechanical and geometrical properties of mother`s bones in minks. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the supplementation was more effective in the thoracic limb, which was comprehensively used in contrast to the pelvic limb. The mechanical parameters and bone tissue density significantly increased in the humerus in multiparous minks. Only such diet may provide satisfactory production results in the animals. Nutritional deficiencies occurring during pregnancies may trigger body`s own reserves to cover the bone mass increase in developing foetuses and support milk production. This can prevent regeneration of dams’ organisms, which negatively affects their reproductive performance. 2-Ox or HMB may be regarded as a protective metabolite when administered orally to minks, counteracting the negative influences of pregnancy and lactation periods on bones condition. Both simultaneous treatment with 2-Ox and HMB and their separate administration were equally effective.

  19. Circadian photosensitive phase and photoperiodic control of testis activity in the mink, a short-day mammal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boissin-Agasse, L.; Boissin, J.; Ortavant, R.

    1982-02-01

    Evidence of a circadian photosensitive phase in male mink, whose annual reproductive cycle is characterized by the recrudescence of testicular development in autumn, was based on the study of testicular response after interrupting the dark period by light breaks offered at various times. In this mammal, the experimental short days 4L:20D and 8L:16D stimulated testicular growth. Short photoperiods, including a main light period of 3.5 h and an additional 0.5 h light break 7.5 h after the beginning of the main photoperiod, were as effective as 8L:16D in stimulating testicular development. On the other hand, when a 0.5 h light break occurred 11.5 or 15.5 h after the beginning of the main photoperiod, the same inhibiting effect on testicular activity was obtained as for long photoperiods. However, when 0.5 h light breaks were given 19.5 after the beginning of the main light period, some minks recognized, as, the onset of the shorter of the two light periods offered. Thus our results proved the existence of a special phase in the day cycle in which light inhibited testicular development in the mink which appears to be a short-day animal. One explanation of the difference between long-day and short-day animals would be the following: if for long-day animals exposure to light during the photosensitive phase led to gonadostimulation, in short-day mammals, like mink, it exerted an inhibiting influence on testicular growth.

  20. Effects of Different Sources and Levels of Zinc on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Fur Quality of Growing-Furring Male Mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hu; Zhang, Tietao; Nie, Hao; Wang, Zhongcheng; Zhang, Xuelei; Shi, Bo; Xing, Xiumei; Yang, Fuhe; Gao, Xiuhua

    2017-07-08

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different sources and levels of zinc (Zn) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, serum biochemical parameters, and fur quality in growing-furring male mink. Animals in the control group were fed a basal diet with no Zn supplementation. Mink in the other nine treatments were fed the basal diet supplemented with Zn from either grade Zn sulfate (ZnSO 4 ·7H 2 O), Zn glycinate (ZnGly), or Zn pectin oligosaccharides (ZnPOS) at concentrations of either 100, 300, or 900 mg Zn/kg dry matter. One hundred and fifty healthy 15-week-old male mink were randomly allocated to ten dietary treatments (n = 15/group) for a 60-day trial from mid-September to pelting in December. Mink in the Zn-POS groups had higher average daily gain than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Zn source slightly improved the feed/gain (P = 0.097). N retention was increased by Zn addition (P < 0.05). Mink supplemented with dietary Zn had higher (P < 0.05) pancreas Zn level than the control group. Fur length was greater (P < 0.05) in ZnGly and ZnPOS groups compared with the control. In addition, fur length and fur density increased (linear, P < 0.05) with Zn supplementation in the diet. In conclusion, our data show that dietary Zn addition improves growth performance by increasing nitrogen retention and fat digestibility in growing-furring mink and Z-POS is equally bioavailable to mink compared to ZnGly.

  1. Species Identification of Fox-, Mink-, Dog-, and Rabbit-Derived Ingredients by Multiplex PCR and Real-Time PCR Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingqing; Xiang, Shengnan; Wang, Wenjun; Zhao, Jinyan; Xia, Jinhua; Zhen, Yueran; Liu, Bang

    2017-10-25

    Various detection methods have been developed to date for identification of animal species. New techniques based on PCR approach have raised the hope of developing better identification methods, which can overcome the limitations of the existing methods. PCR-based methods used the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as well as nuclear DNA sequences. In this study, by targeting nuclear DNA, multiplex PCR and real-time PCR methods were developed to assist with qualitative and quantitative analysis. The multiplex PCR was found to simultaneously and effectively distinguish four species (fox, dog, mink, and rabbit) ingredients by the different sizes of electrophoretic bands: 480, 317, 220, and 209 bp. Real-time fluorescent PCR's amplification profiles and standard curves showed good quantitative measurement responses and linearity, as indicated by good repeatability and coefficient of determination R 2  > 0.99. The quantitative results of quaternary DNA mixtures including mink, fox, dog, and rabbit DNA are in line with our expectations: R.D. (relative deviation) varied between 1.98 and 12.23% and R.S.D. (relative standard deviation) varied between 3.06 and 11.51%, both of which are well within the acceptance criterion of ≤ 25%. Combining the two methods is suitable for the rapid identification and accurate quantification of fox-, dog-, mink-, and rabbit-derived ingredients in the animal products.

  2. Metabolomic study of plasma from female mink (Neovison vison) with low and high residual feed intake during restrictive and ad libitum feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2012-01-01

    Metabolite profiling may elucidate changes in metabolic pathways under various physiological or nutritional conditions. In the present study two groups of female mink characterized as having a high (16 mink) or low (14 mink) residual feed intake were investigated during restrictive and ad libitum...... component analysis showed that there was no grouping of the data according to the residual feed intake. In contrast, data clearly grouped according to feeding level. Identification of the metabolites responsible for this grouping showed that the plasma level of metabolites related to mobilization of energy...... feeding. Blood samples were collected three times during the experimental period; during restrictive feeding, four days and three weeks after the change to ad libitum feeding. Plasma samples were subjected to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry non-targeted metabolomics. Subjecting data to principal...

  3. Late development of homoeothermy in mink (Mustela vison) kits - a strategy for maximum survival rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, A-H; Chwalibog, André; Tygesen, M P

    2006-01-01

    thermoregulatory response to the L temperature by increased HE, whereas groups of kits showed increased HE from 29th day onwards. When kept at H temperature, HE was low initially, but all kits showed elevated HE at 8 days of age, and the metabolic rate was similar for single kits and kits huddling in groups...... and after the experiments and evaporative water losses (EWL) were calculated. When exposed to L temperature, single kits responded with a very low HE until 29 days of age, and groups of kits until 14 days of age. It was not until they reached an age of approximately 6 weeks that single kits showed a clear....... Evaporative water losses was higher among single than among groups of kits and slightly lower but more variable for animals at L than at H temperature. It was concluded that mink kits develop functional homoeothermy at an age of close to 6 weeks and that the failure of very young kits to thermoregulate...

  4. Complex cytokine modulation of a continuous line of mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, J; Baldor, L; Absher, M

    1992-01-01

    The continuous mink lung epithelial cell line Mv1Lu has proven to be a sensitive reporter line in the bioassay for purified TGF-beta, exhibiting a sigmoid-shaped concentration-response relationship with an EC50 of 12 pM (0.3 ng/mL). Maximal inhibition of Mv1Lu cells generates a 75-95% decrement in the number of adherent cells. However, this bioassay is not specific for TGF-beta as originally claimed. Mv1Lu cells are sensitive to other cytokines and substances found in complex biological fluids. In this study the effects of other biological response modifiers in this assay were tested and several were found to have important growth modulatory capacities that confound the quantitation of TGF-beta. EGF, TGF-alpha, fibronectin, and IGF-I all induce Mv1Lu cell proliferation. In contrast, neither PDGF (-AA, -AB, -BB) nor endotoxin ( or = 10 ng/mL) are the only cytokines examined that inhibit Mv1Lu proliferation. TGF-beta decreases final cell number both by preventing mitosis and by inhibition of adherence of cells to the uncoated dish. Several strategies are suggested to assure the specificity of this otherwise convenient bioassay for TGF-beta.

  5. Roles of three amino acids of capsid proteins in mink enteritis parvovirus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yaping; Su, Jun; Wang, Jigui; Zhang, Xiaomei; Hou, Qiang; Bian, Dawei; Liu, Weiquan

    2016-08-15

    Virulent mink enteritis parvovirus (MEV) strain MEV-LHV replicated to higher titers in feline F81 cells than attenuated strain MEV-L. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses of the VP2 gene of MEV-LHV, MEV-L and other strains in GenBank revealed two evolutionary branches separating virulent and attenuated strains. Three residues, 101, 232 and 411, differed between virulent and attenuated strains but were conserved within the two branches. Site-directed mutagenesis of the VP2 gene of infectious plasmids of attenuated strain MEV-L respectively replacing residues 101 Ile and 411 Ala with Thr and Glu of virulent strains (MEV-L I101T and MEV-L A411E) increased replication efficiency but still to lower levels than MEV-LHV. However, viruses with mutation of residue 232 (MEV-L I232V and MEV-L I101T/I232V/A411E) decreased viral transcription and replication levels. The three VP2 residues 101, 232 and 411, located on or near the capsid surface, played different roles in the infection processes of MEV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Weaning and separation stress: maternal motivation decreases with litter age and litter size in farmed mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Sørensen, Dennis Dam; Larsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    and maternal motivation around the time of weaning and separation. Therefore, we investigated effects of separating the dam from the litter using brown first-parity farm mink dams (n = 374) taken away from the litter either day 49 ± 1 (7w, n = 185) or day 56 ± 1 (8w, n = 189) after birth. The aim...... was to investigate whether the dams experienced stress/had a different motivation to be reunited with the litter after7 and 8 weeks, estimated by non-invasive determination of cortisol (FCM: Faecal Cortisol Metabolites)and dam behaviour including calls the first week after separation (D0: Day of removal, D1: next.......024). We interpret these results as a higher maternal motivation in dams at 7 weeks than at 8 weeks after birth. Additionally, the separation-induced calling in dams decreased with increasing litter size (P = 0.022). Thus in addition to litter age, the size of the litter is important for the maternal...

  7. Isolation and characterization of mink lung epithelial cell mutants resistant to transforming growth factor β

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinkers, M.

    1987-01-01

    Mink lung epithelial cells resistant to growth inhibition by transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) have been isolated by chemical mutagenesis and growth in the presence of platelet extracts enriched in TGF-β. Several resistant clones were isolated, at least one of which stably retained its resistance to TGF-β when grown in the absence of the factor. The cells of this clone were similar to the parent cells in morphology and growth properties. However, unlike the parent cells, the resistant cells did not show any of the following responses to 125 I TGF-β: (1) inhibition of DNA synthesis and proliferation; (2) morphological changes involving increased cell spreading; or (3) stimulation of synthesis of a 48-kilodalton secreted 35 S-protein. The resistant cells do, however, retain a functional TGF-β receptor. The TGF-β resistant cell lines may be useful in genetic studies designed to identify the biochemical events required for inhibition of epithelial cell growth by this factor

  8. Methylmercury accumulation and elimination in mink (Neovison vison) hair and blood: results of a controlled feeding experiment using stable isotope tracers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Evans, R Douglas; Hickie, Brendan E; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Evans, Hayla E

    2014-12-01

    Concentrations of metals in hair are used often to develop pharmacokinetic models for both animals and humans. Although data on uptake are available, elimination kinetics are less well understood; stable isotope tracers provide an excellent tool for measuring uptake and elimination kinetics. In the present study, methylmercury concentrations through time were measured in the hair and blood of mink (Neovison vison) during a controlled 60-d feeding experiment. Thirty-four mink were fed a standard fish-based diet for 14 d, at the end of which (day 0), 4 mink were sacrificed to determine baseline methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations. From day 0 to day 10, the remaining mink were fed a diet consisting of the base diet supplemented with 0.513 ± 0.013 µg Me(199) Hg/g and 0.163 ± 0.003 µg Me(201) Hg/g. From day 10 to day 60, mink were fed the base diet supplemented with 0.175 ± 0.024 µg Me(201) Hg/g. Animals were sacrificed periodically to determine accumulation of Me(201) Hg in blood and hair over the entire 60-d period and the elimination of Me(199) Hg over the last 50 d. Hair samples, collected from each mink and cut into 2.0-mm lengths, indicate that both isotopes of MeHg appeared in the hair closest to the skin at approximately day 10, with concentrations in the hair reaching steady state from day 39 onward. The elimination rate of Me(199) Hg from the blood was 0.05/d, and the ratio of MeHg in the hair to blood was 119. A large fraction of MeHg (22% to >100%) was stored in the hair, suggesting that in fur-bearing mammals the hair is a major route of elimination of MeHg from the body. © 2014 SETAC.

  9. The feasibility of assessing the diets of minke whale ( Balaenoptera acutorostrata) in the East Sea through fatty acid composition in blubber and stable isotopic ratio of skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ah-Ra; Ju, Se-Jong; Choi, Seok-Gwan; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2016-09-01

    To track the diet of minke whale ( Balaenoptera acutorostrata) in the East Sea (Japan Sea), a conjoint analysis of fatty acids and C and N stable isotopes was performed on blubber and skin from the whale and its potential prey. The total lipid content in the blubber of minke whales ranged from 37.9% to 82.7% of wet mass (mean ± SD, 63.1 ± 17.2%), with triacylglycerols being the dominant lipids (96.9%-99.2% of total lipids). The lipid and fatty acid (FA) contents were systematically stratified throughout the depth of the blubber layers; contents of the dominant monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs), including 18:1ω9 and 16:1ω7, increased from the innermost layer to the outermost layer, whereas contents of saturated FAs (SFAs) and polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) were higher in the innermost layer than in the outermost layer. This stratification is related to the different physiological roles of the blubber layers; e.g., thermoregulation, streaming, and buoyancy. A comparison of the FA compositions of the innermost layer of minke whales with those of potential prey indicates that FA compositions in the whales are similar to those of Pacific herring. In addition, stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N) suggest that minke whale and Pacific herring have the same or similar diets. Therefore, the diets of minke whale from the East Sea (Japan Sea) could be inferred from information on the diet of the Pacific herring, although FA compositions and stable isotope ratios for Pacific herring would not exactly reflect the whale's diet. Although the very limited number of samples was used in this study, our preliminary findings are very promising to help understand the feeding ecology of minke whales in the East Sea (Japan Sea).

  10. Genome-wide association study of type 2 diabetes in a sample from Mexico City and a meta-analysis of a Mexican-American sample from Starr County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, E. J.; Below, J. E.; Krithika, S.; Valladares, A.; Barta, J. L.; Cox, N. J.; Hanis, C. L.; Wacher, N.; Garcia-Mena, J.; Hu, P.; Shriver, M. D.; Kumate, J.; McKeigue, P. M.; Escobedo, J.; Cruz, M.

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis We report a genome-wide association study of type 2 diabetes in an admixed sample from Mexico City and describe the results of a meta-analysis of this study and another genome-wide scan in a Mexican-American sample from Starr County, TX, USA. The top signals observed in this meta-analysis were followed up in the Diabetes Genetics Replication and Meta-analysis Consortium (DIAGRAM) and DIAGRAM+ datasets. Methods We analysed 967 cases and 343 normoglycaemic controls. The samples were genotyped with the Affymetrix Genome-wide Human SNP array 5.0. Associations of genotyped and imputed markers with type 2 diabetes were tested using a missing data likelihood score test. A fixed-effects meta-analysis including 1,804 cases and 780 normoglycaemic controls was carried out by weighting the effect estimates by their inverse variances. Results In the meta-analysis of the two Hispanic studies, markers showing suggestive associations (p<10−5) were identified in two known diabetes genes, HNF1A and KCNQ1, as well as in several additional regions. Meta-analysis of the two Hispanic studies and the recent DIAGRAM+ dataset identified genome-wide significant signals (p<5×10−8) within or near the genes HNF1A and CDKN2A/CDKN2B, as well as suggestive associations in three additional regions, IGF2BP2, KCNQ1 and the previously unreported C14orf70. Conclusions/interpretation We observed numerous regions with suggestive associations with type 2 diabetes. Some of these signals correspond to regions described in previous studies. However, many of these regions could not be replicated in the DIAGRAM datasets. It is critical to carry out additional studies in Hispanic and American Indian populations, which have a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes. PMID:21573907

  11. Protein and amino acid bioavailability of extruded dog food with protein meals of different quality using growing mink (Neovison vison) as a model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjernsbekk, M. T.; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Matthiesen, Connie Frank

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated growing mink (Neovison vison) as a model for dietary protein quality assessment of protein meals used in extruded dog foods. Three foods with similar CP content but of different protein quality were produced using different protein meals. The protein meals varied...... by the European Pet Food Industry Federation. It was concluded that growth studies with mink kits can provide valuable information in protein quality assessment of extruded dog foods. Furthermore, the study showed that to ensure nutritional adequacy of dog food and to be able to compare protein quality of dog...

  12. Molecular cytogenetic differentiation of paralogs of Hox paralogs in duplicated and re-diploidized genome of the North American paddlefish (Polyodon spathula)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Symonová, Radka; Havelka, M.; Amemiya, C. T.; Howell, M. W.; Kořínková, Tereza; Flajšhans, M.; Gela, D.; Ráb, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 19. ISSN 1471-2156 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02940S; GA MŠk EF15_003/0000460 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : hoxA/D paralogs mapping * sturgeon whole genome duplication * ancient fish genome * rediploidization Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 2.266, year: 2016

  13. Inactivation of the cluster of rRNA genes in the second chromosomal pair of the Aleutian mink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafodatskii, A.S.; Lushnikova, T.P.; Vorob' eva, N.V.

    1985-11-01

    The authors present the results of their in situ mapping of the RNA genes in the chromosomes of Aleutian mink. The ribosomal RNA was extracted from the mink liver and analyzed electrophoretically. The 28S and 18S rRNA fractions were separated in 5-25% sucrose gradient containing 10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4, 1.0 mM EDTA, and 100 mM NaCl. Centrifugation was done at 2/sup 0/C for 20 h in rotor SW-27 at 21,000 rpm. The 18S rRNA was used to synthesize cDNA in the system of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase of Escherichia coli with the exception that the template concentration was raised to 40 micrograms/ml and that of enzyme to 1080 units of activity/ml. The electrophoretic analysis in polyacrylamide gel with formamide showed that the size of /sup 3/H-cDNA was 4-10S. Specific radioactivity was 10/sup 8/ disintegrations min x microgram. Hybridization on the chromosomal preparations was done by the method described earlier. /sup 3/H-cDNA of the 18S mink RNA was applied to the preparation at the concentration of 0.05 micrograms/ml and hybridized in 3 x SSC for 24 h at 65/sup 0/C. The preparations were covered with photoemulsion type M and exposed for 4 months. The chromosomal preparations were made from the bone marrow cells by the standard method. The silver-staining of the nucleolus organizing regions (NOR) was done by the method of Bloom and Goodpasture.

  14. Heterosis in the second and third generation affects litter size in a crossbreed mink (Neovison vison) population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Pertoldi, Cino; Larsen, Peter Foged

    2014-01-01

    Litter sizes in a cross between Brown and Black mink color types were observed through six generations. Litter size was significantly affected by yearly environmental variations. After adjusting for year effects, we found significant increases in litter size in the second and third generations (F2...... and F3) after crossing. Thereafter, in the following generations, litter size dropped to a level comparable to the mean litter size of the midparent. Increased litter size in F2 compared to F1 indicated that maternal effects influenced litter size more than non-maternal effects. The heterosis was mainly...

  15. Reproductive parameters of critically endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola) in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiik, Kairi; Maran, Tiit; Nemvalts, Kristel; Sandre, Siiri-Lii; Tammaru, Toomas

    2017-06-01

    Founding captive populations is often the last chance for saving endangered species from extinction. Ensuring successful reproduction is typically most critical for the maintenance of captive populations, with purposeful selection of individuals for breeding being one of the crucial aspects. Comparable cross-species data on the determinants of reproduction success are most useful for solving problems in captive species programs. In the present study, we provide an overview of a 20-year captive breeding program of the critically endangered European mink. The mating season starts in March, reaching its peak in the middle of April. The average gestation length was 43.8days (mode 43), the mean litter size being 4.4 (mode 4). Litter size and cub survival were negatively correlated with maternal age but this effect was entirely due to the lower performance of the females over 4 years of age. Female body weight also showed a positive correlation with litter size, with the weight itself having increased by 10% during the 20- year period. We did not find any signs of a cost of reproduction: the number of litters the female had delivered earlier in her life did not have an effect on her litter size in the focal year. Beyond the effect of age and size, individual females did not differ in litter sizes. Consistently, we found the heritability of litter size to be low. We conclude that, when selecting females for breeding, there is little need to consider aspects other than genetic relatedness crucial for avoiding progressive inbreeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The mitochondrial genome and ribosomal operon of Brachycladium goliath (Digenea: Brachycladiidae) recovered from a stranded minke whale

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Briscoe, A.G.; Bray, R. A.; Brabec, Jan; Littlewood, D. T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 3 (2016), s. 271-275 ISSN 1383-5769 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Digenea * Balaenoptera acutorostrata * Cetacea * Hologenophore * NGS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.744, year: 2016

  17. Genomic characterization of Ensifer aridi, a proposed new species of nitrogen-fixing rhizobium recovered from Asian, African and American deserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, Antoine; Tak, Nisha; Gehlot, Hukam Singh; Lavire, Celine; Meyer, Thibault; Chapulliot, David; Rathi, Sonam; Sakrouhi, Ilham; Rocha, Guadalupe; Rohmer, Marine; Severac, Dany; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim; Munive, Jose-Antonio

    2017-01-14

    Nitrogen fixing bacteria isolated from hot arid areas in Asia, Africa and America but from diverse leguminous plants have been recently identified as belonging to a possible new species of Ensifer (Sinorhizobium). In this study, 6 strains belonging to this new clade were compared with Ensifer species at the genome-wide level. Their capacities to utilize various carbon sources and to establish a symbiotic interaction with several leguminous plants were examined. Draft genomes of selected strains isolated from Morocco (Merzouga desert), Mexico (Baja California) as well as from India (Thar desert) were produced. Genome based species delineation tools demonstrated that they belong to a new species of Ensifer. Comparison of its core genome with those of E. meliloti, E. medicae and E. fredii enabled the identification of a species conserved gene set. Predicted functions of associated proteins and pathway reconstruction revealed notably the presence of transport systems for octopine/nopaline and inositol phosphates. Phenotypic characterization of this new desert rhizobium species showed that it was capable to utilize malonate, to grow at 48 °C or under high pH while NaCl tolerance levels were comparable to other Ensifer species. Analysis of accessory genomes and plasmid profiling demonstrated the presence of large plasmids that varied in size from strain to strain. As symbiotic functions were found in the accessory genomes, the differences in symbiotic interactions between strains may be well related to the difference in plasmid content that could explain the different legumes with which they can develop the symbiosis. The genomic analysis performed here confirms that the selected rhizobial strains isolated from desert regions in three continents belong to a new species. As until now only recovered from such harsh environment, we propose to name it Ensifer aridi. The presented genomic data offers a good basis to explore adaptations and functionalities that enable them

  18. Genomic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events and Multimedia Implementation Genetics 101 Family Health History Genomics and Diseases Genetic Counseling Genomic Testing Epidemiology Pathogen Genomics Resources Genomic Testing Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Fact Sheet: Identifying Opportunities to ...

  19. Estimation of indirect genetic effects in group-housed mink (Neovison vison) should account for systematic interactions either due to kin or sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku; Berg, Peer; Janss, Luc

    2016-01-01

    interactions in group-housed mink. Furthermore, we investigated whether systematic non-genetic interactions between kin or individuals of the same sex influence the estimates of genetic parameters. As a second objective, we clarify the relationship between estimates of the traditional IGE model and a family...

  20. Estimation of indirect genetic effects in group-housed mink (Neovison vison) should account for systematic interactions either due to kin or sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, S W; Berg, P; Janss, L; Bijma, P

    2016-02-01

    Social interactions among individuals are abundant, both in wild and in domestic populations. With social interactions, the genes of an individual may affect the trait values of other individuals, a phenomenon known as indirect genetic effects (IGEs). IGEs can be estimated using linear mixed models. Most IGE models assume that individuals interact equally to all group mates irrespective of relatedness. Kin selection theory, however, predicts that an individual will interact differently with family members versus non-family members. Here, we investigate kin- and sex-specific non-genetic social interactions in group-housed mink. Furthermore, we investigated whether systematic non-genetic interactions between kin or individuals of the same sex influence the estimates of genetic parameters. As a second objective, we clarify the relationship between estimates of the traditional IGE model and a family-based IGE model proposed in a previous study. Our results indicate that male siblings in mink show different non-genetic interactions than female siblings in mink and that this may impact the estimation of genetic parameters. Moreover, we have shown how estimates from a family-based IGE model can be translated to the ordinary direct-indirect model and vice versa. We find no evidence for genetic differences in interactions among related versus unrelated mink. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Endogenous zinc excretion in relation to various levels of dietary zinc intake in the mink (Mustela vison)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejborn, H.

    1990-01-01

    Endogenous zinc excretion was studied in adult male mink fed experimental diets for 73 d, including a collection period from d 69 to 73. Dietary zinc levels were 2.8, 26 or 121 mg/kg wet weight. In accordance with the results of a methodological study, also reported here, the animals had an intramuscular injection of 65ZnCl2 12 d before the start of the collection period. Total fecal (endogenous + unabsorbed) zinc excretion for d 69-73 in the three groups was 2.3, 20.4 and 91.0 mg. The endogenous zinc excretion was 1.3, 2.0 and 6.4 mg, corresponding to 80.8, 10.6 and 6.4% of the zinc intake. Thus, the endogenous excretion was mainly important for the zinc homeostasis at low zinc intake, whereas at high intake the homeostasis was regulated via absorption from the digestive tract. The overall conclusion of the experiment was that mink are comparable to other species (including man) in regard to mechanisms controlling zinc homeostasis

  2. Nitrogen and energy balance in growing mink (Mustela vison) fed different levels of bacterial protein meal produced with natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ahlstrøm, Øystein

    2005-01-01

    % (Diet IV) of the digested nitrogen (DN) was replaced with BPM. Nitrogen balance and respiration experiments (indirect calorimetry) were carried out when the animals were approximately 9.5, 14.5, 17.5, 23.5 and 28.5 weeks of age. The apparent digestibility of crude protein and energy decreased......The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of increasing the dietary content of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on energy and protein metabolism in growing mink kits. Sixteen male mink kits of the standard brown genotype were randomly fed one of four diets: A control (Diet III) and 60...... significantly with increasing dietary BPM. The retained nitrogen was 0.45, 0.54, 0.52 and 0.40 g/kg0,75 on Diets I, II, III and IV, respectively, the observed differences between diets being non-significant (p=0.06). Heat production (HE) was between 645 and 665 kJ/kg0.75 on all diets (p=0.78). retained energy...

  3. Conception rates in farm mink (Neovison vison) in relation to first mating date, age and color variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felska-Błaszczyk, Lidia; Lasota, Bogdan; Seremak, Beata

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the effects of the first mating date, age and color variety on the conception rates in farm mink. We analyzed female mink reproductive performance in 492 Sapphire and 463 Standard Black females over 3 or 4 years. The analysis included the number of inefficient matings, the interval between the first inefficient mating and the efficient mating (copulation) and the conception rates. The results show a significant effect of female's age and color variety on the conception rates. The youngest, yearling females of either color needed a higher number of matings per conception, as compared to older, 2- and 3-year-old females. Black females demonstrated a higher number of inefficient matings (1.066), as compared with Sapphires (0.730). Yearling females were most often mated from 1 to 10 March, and older females from 11 to 20 March. Older females achieved better conception rates than the yearlings. Dates between 11 and 25 March proved to be the optimum for the first mating, since the highest conception rates were observed if the females had mated during this period. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Cloning and expression of mink (Neovison vison) interferon-γ gene and development of an antiviral assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hailing; Zhao, Jianjun; Bai, Xue; Zhang, Lei; Fan, Sining; Hu, Bo; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Dongliang; Xu, Shujuan; Yan, Xijun

    2015-08-01

    Minks (Neovison vison) farming is under a threat of a variety of viral infections with increasingly growing number of breeding in Northeastern and Western China. While interferon is effective in controlling viral infection, IFN among different species rarely share high homology enough to provide cross protective effect on inhibition of virus replication. We cloned, sequenced, phlogenetically analyzed and expressed the miIFN-γ gene in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The anti-vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) activity of miIFN-γ protein was tested in MDCK cells using in vitro cytopathic inhibition assay. The recombinant miIFN-γ could inhibit VSV replication in MDCK cells, which was confirmed by that pre-incubation of rabbit anti-miIFN-γ antibodies with miIFN-γ abrogated the miIFN-γ protective effect. Our findings implicated that the miIFN-γ gene may be a potential counter measure against viral infection in the mink farming. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Endogenous zinc excretion in relation to various levels of dietary zinc intake in the mink (Mustela vison)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejborn, H. (National Institute of Animal Science, Tjele (Denmark))

    1990-08-01

    Endogenous zinc excretion was studied in adult male mink fed experimental diets for 73 d, including a collection period from d 69 to 73. Dietary zinc levels were 2.8, 26 or 121 mg/kg wet weight. In accordance with the results of a methodological study, also reported here, the animals had an intramuscular injection of 65ZnCl2 12 d before the start of the collection period. Total fecal (endogenous + unabsorbed) zinc excretion for d 69-73 in the three groups was 2.3, 20.4 and 91.0 mg. The endogenous zinc excretion was 1.3, 2.0 and 6.4 mg, corresponding to 80.8, 10.6 and 6.4% of the zinc intake. Thus, the endogenous excretion was mainly important for the zinc homeostasis at low zinc intake, whereas at high intake the homeostasis was regulated via absorption from the digestive tract. The overall conclusion of the experiment was that mink are comparable to other species (including man) in regard to mechanisms controlling zinc homeostasis.

  6. The auditory anatomy of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata): a potential fatty sound reception pathway in a baleen whale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamato, Maya; Ketten, Darlene R; Arruda, Julie; Cramer, Scott; Moore, Kathleen

    2012-06-01

    Cetaceans possess highly derived auditory systems adapted for underwater hearing. Odontoceti (toothed whales) are thought to receive sound through specialized fat bodies that contact the tympanoperiotic complex, the bones housing the middle and inner ears. However, sound reception pathways remain unknown in Mysticeti (baleen whales), which have very different cranial anatomies compared to odontocetes. Here, we report a potential fatty sound reception pathway in the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), a mysticete of the balaenopterid family. The cephalic anatomy of seven minke whales was investigated using computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, verified through dissections. Findings include a large, well-formed fat body lateral, dorsal, and posterior to the mandibular ramus and lateral to the tympanoperiotic complex. This fat body inserts into the tympanoperiotic complex at the lateral aperture between the tympanic and periotic bones and is in contact with the ossicles. There is also a second, smaller body of fat found within the tympanic bone, which contacts the ossicles as well. This is the first analysis of these fatty tissues' association with the auditory structures in a mysticete, providing anatomical evidence that fatty sound reception pathways may not be a unique feature of odontocete cetaceans. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Serum amyloid P component in mink, a non-glycosylated protein with affinity for phosphorylethanolamine and phosphorylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omtvedt, Lone A; Wien, Tale N; Myran, Theresa; Sletten, Knut; Husby, Gunnar

    2004-06-01

    Experimental AA amyloidosis in the mink is used as a model for the amyloid disease process. In that context it is important to characterize the different proteins involved in the amyloid formation. In the present work, we have characterized the serum amyloid P component (SAP) in mink. SAP was purified from serum by affinity chromatography using phosphorylethanolamine-coupled ECH-sepharose 4B. SDS-PAGE showed one major protein band (approximately 26 kDa) together with one minor band (10% of the major band) with a higher molecular mass (approximately 30 kDa) corresponding to a non-glycosylated and a glycosylated variant. All SAP molecules elucidated so far have at least one major subunit that is heavily glycosylated. It is therefore the first time that a non-glycosylated SAP protein is found in a mammalian species. The amino acid sequence was established using Edman degradation and mass spectrometry. As expected, the protein showed high homology with the other mammalian SAP molecules, ranging from 73% (human) to 63% (mouse). The SAP protein showed affinity for phosphorylcholine and thus expressed CRP-like properties.

  8. Genome-wide association study identifies candidate loci underlying seven agronomic traits in Middle American diversity panel in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) breeding programs aim to improve both agronomic and seed characteristics traits. However, the genetic architecture of the many traits that affect common bean production are not completely understood. Genome-wide associate studies (GWAS) provide an experimental ap...

  9. Expression of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus capsid proteins in defined segments: localization of immunoreactive sites and neutralizing epitopes to specific regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, M E; Martin, D A; Oie, K L; Huhtanen, M E; Costello, F; Wolfinbarger, J B; Hayes, S F; Agbandje-McKenna, M

    1997-01-01

    The capsid proteins of the ADV-G isolate of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) were expressed in 10 nonoverlapping segments as fusions with maltose-binding protein in pMAL-C2 (pVP1, pVP2a through pVP2i). The constructs were designed to capture the VP1 unique sequence and the portions analogous to the four variable surface loops of canine parvovirus (CPV) in individual fragments (pVP2b, pVP2d, pVP2e, and pVP2g, respectively). The panel of fusion proteins was immunoblotted with sera from mink infected with ADV. Seropositive mink infected with either ADV-TR, ADV-Utah, or ADV-Pullman reacted preferentially against certain segments, regardless of mink genotype or virus inoculum. The most consistently immunoreactive regions were pVP2g, pVP2e, and pVP2f, the segments that encompassed the analogs of CPV surface loops 3 and 4. The VP1 unique region was also consistently immunoreactive. These findings indicated that infected mink recognize linear epitopes that localized to certain regions of the capsid protein sequence. The segment containing the hypervariable region (pVP2d), corresponding to CPV loop 2, was also expressed from ADV-Utah. An anti-ADV-G monoclonal antibody and a rabbit anti-ADV-G capsid antibody reacted exclusively with the ADV-G pVP2d segment but not with the corresponding segment from ADV-Utah. Mink infected with ADV-TR or ADV-Utah also preferentially reacted with the pVP2d sequence characteristic of that virus. These results suggested that the loop 2 region may contain a type-specific linear epitope and that the epitope may also be specifically recognized by infected mink. Heterologous antisera were prepared against the VP1 unique region and the four segments capturing the variable surface loops of CPV. The antisera against the proteins containing loop 3 or loop 4, as well as the anticapsid antibody, neutralized ADV-G infectivity in vitro and bound to capsids in immune electron microscopy. These results suggested that regions of the ADV capsid proteins

  10. Effects of different sources and levels of copper on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and elemental balance in young female mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuezhuang; Zhang, Tietao; Liu, Zhi; Zheng, Junjun; Guo, Jungang; Yang, Fuhe; Gao, Xiuhua

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was conducted in a 3 × 3 + 1 factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design to evaluate the effects of different sources of copper on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and elemental balance in young female mink on a corn-fishmeal-based diet. Animals in the control group were fed a basal diet (containing 8.05 mg Cu/kg DM; control), which mainly consisted of corn, fish meal, meat bone meal, and soybean oil, with no copper supplementation. Minks in other nine treatments were fed basal diets supplemented with Cu from reagent-grade copper sulfate, tribasic copper chloride (TBCC) and copper methionate. Cu concentrations of experiment diets were 10, 25, and 40 mg/kg copper. A metabolism trial of 4 days was conducted during the last week of experimental feeding. Final body weight and average daily gain increased (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) as Cu increased in the diet; maximal growth was seen in the Cu25 group. Cu supplementation slightly improved the feed conversion rate (P = 0.095). Apparent fat digestibility was increased by copper level (P = 0.020). Retention nitrogen was increased by copper level (linear, P = 0.003). Copper source had a significant effect on copper retention with Cu-Met and copper sulfate treatments retention more than TBCC treatments (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that mink can efficiently utilize added dietary fat and that Cu plays an important role in the digestion of dietary fat in mink, and mink can efficiently utilize Cu-Met and CuSO4.

  11. Human Germline Genome Editing

    OpenAIRE

    Ormond, Kelly E.; Mortlock, Douglas P.; Scholes, Derek T.; Bombard, Yvonne; Brody, Lawrence C.; Faucett, W. Andrew; Garrison, Nanibaa’ A.; Hercher, Laura; Isasi, Rosario; Middleton, Anna; Musunuru, Kiran; Shriner, Daniel; Virani, Alice; Young, Caroline E.

    2017-01-01

    With CRISPR/Cas9 and other genome-editing technologies, successful somatic and germline genome editing are becoming feasible. To respond, an American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) workgroup developed this position statement, which was approved by the ASHG Board in March 2017. The workgroup included representatives from the UK Association of Genetic Nurses and Counsellors, Canadian Association of Genetic Counsellors, International Genetic Epidemiology Society, and US National Society of Gen...

  12. Potential contribution of genomics and biotechnology in animal production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The overall objective of the book chapter is to define the potential contribution of genomics in livestock production in Latin American countries. A brief description on what is genomics, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and genomic selection (GS) is provided. Genomics has been rapidly adopte...

  13. Genetic diversity within the genus Francisella as revealed by comparative analyses of the genomes of two North American isolates from environmental sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddaramappa Shivakumara

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Francisella tularensis is an intracellular pathogen that causes tularemia in humans and the public health importance of this bacterium has been well documented in recent history. Francisella philomiragia, a distant relative of F. tularensis, is thought to constitute an environmental lineage along with Francisella novicida. Nevertheless, both F. philomiragia and F. novicida have been associated with human disease, primarily in immune-compromised individuals. To understand the genetic relationships and evolutionary contexts among different lineages within the genus Francisella, the genome of Francisella spp. strain TX07-7308 was sequenced and compared to the genomes of F. philomiragia strains ATCC 25017 and 25015, F. novicida strain U112, and F. tularensis strain Schu S4. Results The size of strain ATCC 25017 chromosome was 2,045,775 bp and contained 1,983 protein-coding genes. The size of strain TX07-7308 chromosome was 2,035,931 bp and contained 1,980 protein-coding genes. Pairwise BLAST comparisons indicated that strains TX07-7308 and ATCC 25017 contained 1,700 protein coding genes in common. NUCmer analyses revealed that the chromosomes of strains TX07-7308 and ATCC 25017 were mostly collinear except for a few gaps, translocations, and/or inversions. Using the genome sequence data and comparative analyses with other members of the genus Francisella (e.g., F. novicida strain U112 and F. tularensis strain Schu S4, several strain-specific genes were identified. Strains TX07-7308 and ATCC 25017 contained an operon with six open reading frames encoding proteins related to enzymes involved in thiamine biosynthesis that was absent in F. novicida strain U112 and F. tularensis strain Schu S4. Strain ATCC 25017 contained an operon putatively involved in lactose metabolism that was absent in strain TX07-7308, F. novicida strain U112, and F. tularensis strain Schu S4. In contrast, strain TX07-7308 contained an operon putatively

  14. Effects of protein restriction in utero on the metabolism of mink dams (Neovison vison) and on mink kit survival as well as on postnatal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdorf, Kristine Høvelt; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Matthiesen, Connie Marianne Frank

    2012-01-01

    Protein restriction in utero may give rise to re-stricted growth as well as induce metabolically related diseases. In order to determine the suit-ability of mink as an animal model for metabolism studies, the effects of protein restriction during gestation on dam and kit performance must first be...... mortality indicating that the dietary protein supply during late gestation was suboptimal to re-quirements. The long-term consequences of protein restriction in utero in terms of permanent metabolic changes in adulthood now need to be investigated....... experiments were performed during late gestation and twice during lactation. The dietary treatment only affected energy metabolism traits significantly during the treatment period in late gestation, such that LP dams oxidized less protein (12% vs 23% of heat production, HE, P = 0.001) but more carbohydrate...

  15. Identifying Health Information Technology Needs of Oncologists to Facilitate the Adoption of Genomic Medicine: Recommendations From the 2016 American Society of Clinical Oncology Omics and Precision Oncology Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kevin S; Ambinder, Edward P; Hess, Gregory P; Yu, Peter Paul; Bernstam, Elmer V; Routbort, Mark J; Clemenceau, Jean Rene; Hamm, John T; Febbo, Phillip G; Domchek, Susan M; Chen, James L; Warner, Jeremy L

    2017-09-20

    At the ASCO Data Standards and Interoperability Summit held in May 2016, it was unanimously decided that four areas of current oncology clinical practice have serious, unmet health information technology needs. The following areas of need were identified: 1) omics and precision oncology, 2) advancing interoperability, 3) patient engagement, and 4) value-based oncology. To begin to address these issues, ASCO convened two complementary workshops: the Omics and Precision Oncology Workshop in October 2016 and the Advancing Interoperability Workshop in December 2016. A common goal was to address the complexity, enormity, and rapidly changing nature of genomic information, which existing electronic health records are ill equipped to manage. The subject matter experts invited to the Omics and Precision Oncology Workgroup were tasked with the responsibility of determining a specific, limited need that could be addressed by a software application (app) in the short-term future, using currently available genomic knowledge bases. Hence, the scope of this workshop was to determine the basic functionality of one app that could serve as a test case for app development. The goal of the second workshop, described separately, was to identify the specifications for such an app. This approach was chosen both to facilitate the development of a useful app and to help ASCO and oncologists better understand the mechanics, difficulties, and gaps in genomic clinical decision support tool development. In this article, we discuss the key challenges and recommendations identified by the workshop participants. Our hope is to narrow the gap between the practicing oncologist and ongoing national efforts to provide precision oncology and value-based care to cancer patients.

  16. Effects of sources and concentrations of zinc on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and fur quality of growing-furring female mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, H; Zhang, T T; Nie, H; Wang, Z C; Zhang, X L; Shi, B; Yang, F H; Gao, X H

    2017-12-01

    A completely randomized 3 × 3 + 1 factorial experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of sources and concentrations of Zn on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, serum biochemical endpoints, and fur quality in growing-furring female black mink. One hundred fifty healthy 15-wk-old female mink were randomly allocated to 10 dietary treatments ( = 15/group) for a 60-d trial. Animals in the control group were fed a basal diet, which consisted of mainly corn, soybean oil, meat and bone meal, and fish meal, with no Zn supplementation. Mink in the other 9 treatments were fed the basal diet supplemented with Zn from either zinc sulfate (ZnSO), zinc glycinate (ZnGly), or Zn pectin oligosaccharides (ZnPOS) at concentrations of either 100, 300, or 900 mg Zn/kg DM. The results showed that mink in the ZnPOS groups had higher ADG than those in the ZnSO groups (main effect, < 0.05). The addition of Zn reduced the G:F ( < 0.05). In addition, CP and crude fat digestibility were linearly increased with Zn supplementation ( < 0.05) and N retention tended to increase with Zn addition ( = 0.08). Dietary Zn supplementation increased the concentration of serum albumin and activity of alkaline phosphatase ( < 0.05). There was a linear effect of dietary Zn on the concentration of tibia Zn and pancreatic Zn ( < 0.05). For fur quality characteristics, the fur density and hair color of mink were improved by dietary Zn concentration ( < 0.05). Compared with ZnSO (100%), relative bioavailability values of ZnGly were 115 and 118%, based on tibia and pancreatic Zn, respectively, and relative bioavailability values of ZnPOS were 152 and 142%, respectively. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that Zn supplementation can promote growth and increase nutrient digestibility and fur quality and that ZnPOS is more bioavailable than ZnSO and ZnGly in growing-furring female mink.

  17. Risk factors associated with diarrhea in Danish commercial mink (Neovison vison) during the pre-weaning period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Julie Melsted; Agger, Jens Frederik; Dahlin, Christina

    2017-01-01

    gestation period, and dogs accessing the farm area were significantly associated with being a case farm. Case farms were prescribed almost twice the amount of antibacterials per gestational unit (female and litter) as in control farms. Farmers on case farms spent significantly more time nursing and treating...... the animals and experienced more females with mastitis compared to farmers on control farms. No significant differences in cleaning practices or hygienic measures between case and control farms were found and there were no differences in drinking water quality, bedding material, composition neither of color...... types nor in management regarding litter equalization. Results from this study showed an association between the occurrence of pre-weaning diarrhea on mink farms and parity profile, farm size and feeding intensity in the gestational period. The access of dogs to the farm area was a significant risk...

  18. Assessment of the aerobic faecal microflora in mink (Mustela vison Schreiber) with emphasis on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus intermedius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vulfson, L.; Pedersen, Karl; Chriél, Mariann

    2003-01-01

    selective and non-selective media. Aerobic bacteria were cultured from close to 100% of the samples throughout the survey. Prevalence of E. coli isolates varied between 70 and 90% of the samples throughout the survey with a small decline at the end of the study period. The highest bacterial counts were...... and their offspring on seven mink farms throughout the production season and a semi-quantitative enumeration of total E. coli and haemolytic E. coli, beta-haemolytic streptococci, beta-haemolytic coagulase positive staphylococci, total lactic acid bacteria, and enterococci was carried out in all samples using...... found among recently weaned kits or kits in the early growth period (P bacteria and enterococci were isolated from more than 90% of all samples, while β-haemolytic staphylococci were isolated from 20 to 70% of the samples. While β-haemolytic staphylococci were dominant from birth...

  19. Early transfer of mated females into the maternity unit reduces stress and increases maternal care in farm mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Palme, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Mated mammals on farms are typically transferred to another housing environment prior to delivery. We investigated whether the timing of this transfer – EARLY (Day −36), INTERMEDIATE (Day −18), or LATE (Day −3) relative to the expected day of birth (Day 0) – affects maternal stress, maternal care...... sized groups (n = 60): (i) ‘EARLY’, transfer to maternity unit immediately after the end of the mating period, March 23; (ii) ‘INTERMEDIATE’, transfer in the middle of the period, April 10; (iii) ‘LATE’, transfer late in the pregnancy period, April 25. Data collection included weekly determination...... of faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) and evaluation of maternal care: nest building, in-nest temperature, plus kit-retrieval behaviour, kit mortality and growth day 0–7 postpartum. We document that mated mink females build and maintain a nest at least 1 month prior to delivery when transferred...

  20. LC/sub 50/ test results in polychlorinated biphenyl-fed mink: age, season, and diet comparisons. [Mustela vison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornshaw, T.C.; Safronoff, J.; Ringer, R.K.; Aulerich, R.J.

    1986-11-01

    The toxicity of a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture to mink (Mustela vison) was evaluated through three dietary LC/sub 50/ tests. These test were designed to assess the effects of age of the test animals, composition of the diet, and season and year on the results of 28-day dietary LC/sub 50/ tests. A dose-dependent weight loss was noted for animals in all tests and similar dietary LC/sub 50/s were calculated for all three trials, both at the end of the 28-day exposure period (83, 84, and 79 ppm) and after a 7-day withdrawal period (58, 47, and 49 ppm). Based on all test criteria, age, dietary composition, season, and year had little effect on the outcome of the LC/sub 50/ tests. The withdrawal period was important in determining the toxicity of Aroclor 1254 and should be considered in assessing the toxicity of other slow-acting, lipophilic compounds.

  1. Heterosis in the second and third generation affects litter size in a crossbreed mink (Neovison vison population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirstrup Janne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Litter sizes in a cross between Brown and Black mink color types were observed through six generations. Litter size was significantly affected by yearly environmental variations. After adjusting for year effects, we found significant increases in litter size in the second and third generations (F2 and F3 after crossing. Thereafter, in the following generations, litter size dropped to a level comparable to the mean litter size of the midparent. Increased litter size in F2 compared to F1 indicated that maternal effects influenced litter size more than non-maternal effects. The heterosis was mainly caused by an increase in litter size compared to the Black parental line. This indicates that the Black line was affected by inbreeding depression prior to crossing. We also found that two-year old F1 females had significantly more offspring compared to one-year old F1 females.

  2. Screening for antibodies against Aleutian disease virus (ADV) in mink. Elucidation of dubious results by additive counterimmunoelectrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uttenthal, Åse

    1992-01-01

    In order to distinguish true positive results in counterimmunoelectrophoresis from false positive ones an additive counterimmunoelectrophoresis was developed. The method was tested on selected mink serum samples as part of a routine testing for antibodies towards Aleutian disease virus on 3 million...... blood samples. The procedure of the method is, that a known positive serum sample is mixed with the patient serum to be tested. The result from a false positive sample will be one precipitin line towards virus and one nonspecific line. If the serum sample is a true positive one, the antibodies...... originating from the patient serum will be added to the antibodies in the standard positive serum giving only one precipitin line. The system is further extended by testing the serum samples towards an antigen preparation containing all the cellular components but free from virus....

  3. Yearling mink dams fed restricted in early lactation have less mammary gland tissue six weeks after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik; Pinkalski, Mariann Nakano

    2015-01-01

    The optimal timing of separating the mink dam from the litter is suggested to be a balance between the partly conflicting needs of the mother and the kits. Early removal of the dam or partial removal of the litter may protect the dam against exhaustion. Little is known about the maternal motivation...... (8w, N=189) after birth. The aim was to investigate whether the dams had a different motivation to take care of the litter after 7 and 8 weeks, estimated by non-invasive determination of cortisol (FCM: Faecal Corticsol Metabolites) and dam calls the first week after separation. The two treatment.......014). Likewise, the dam calls increased on the separation day, peaking on the first day after separation (D1). The proportion of dams with calls decreased with litter age at separation (P=0.024). We interpret these results as a higher maternal motivation in dams at 7 weeks than at 8 weeks after delivery...

  4. Representation of genomics research among Latin American laymen and bioethics: a inquiry into the migration of knowledge and its impact on underdeveloped communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando Lolas; Carolina Valdebenito; Eduardo Rodríguez; Irene Schiattino; Adelio Misseroni

    2007-07-09

    The effects of genetic knowledge beyond the scientific community depend on processes of social construction of risks and benefits, or perils and possibilities, which are different in different communities. In a globalized world, new developments affect societies not capable of technically replicating them and unaware of the very nature of the scientific process. Moral and legal consequences, however, diffuse rapidly and involve groups and persons with scant or no knowledge about the way scientific concepts are developed or perfected. Leading genomics researchers view their field as developing after a sharp break with that worldwide social movement of the 20´s and 30´s known as eugenics and its most radical expression in the Nazi efforts to destroy life “not worth living”. Manipulation, prejudice and mistrust, however, pervade non-expert accounts of current research. Researchers claim that the new knowledge will have a positive impact on medicine and serve as a foundation for informed social policy. Both types of applications depend on informed communities of non-scientists (physicians, policymakers), whose members may well differ on what constitutes burden and what is benefit, depending upon professional socialization and cultural bias. ELSI projects associated with genomic research are notable for the lack of minorities involved and for the absence of comparative analysis of data reception in different world communities. It may be contended also that the critical potential of philosophical or ethical analyses is reduced by their being situated within the scientific process itself and carried out by members of the expert community, thus reducing independence of judgment. The majority of those involved in such studies, by tradition, experience, and formative influences, share the same worldview about the nature of moral dilemmas or the feasibility of intended applications. The global effects of new knowledge when combined with other cultural or religious

  5. The effect of H-ras oncogene transfection on response of mink lung epithelial cells to growth factors and cytotoxic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, D I; Plumb, J A; Freshney, R I; Khan, M Z; Spandidos, D A

    1991-01-01

    Mink lung epithelial cells were transfected with c-myc and activated H-ras genes. The transfected sublines formed colonies in soft agar and were tumorigenic when injected subcutaneously into athymic nude mice. DNA synthesis was measured in each of the cell lines by 3H-thymidine incorporation and in the parent line there was dose related stimulation of DNA synthesis by epidermal growth factor (EGF) and inhibition by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). The c-myc transfected line had a reduced inhibitory response to TGF-beta and an exaggerated stimulatory response to EGF whereas the activated H-ras1 transfected line did not respond to TGF-beta or EGF. The activated H-ras1 transfected line was significantly more resistant to doxorubicin (ID50, 4.4 nM) and vincristine (ID50, 4.9 nM) than the parent mink lung epithelial cell line (ID50, 2.7 nM and 2.4 nM respectively). It would appear that oncogene transfection can alter the sensitivity of mink lung epithelial cells to both exogenous growth factors and cytotoxic drugs.

  6. Regional variation of caesium-137 in minke whales ¤Balaenoptera acutorostrata¤ from West Greenland, the Northeast Atlantic and the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Born, E.W.; Dahlgaard, H.; Riget, F.F.

    2002-01-01

    Levels of radioactive caesium (Cs-137) were determined in minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from West Greenland, the Northeast Atlantic region and the North Sea. The sample consisted of muscle tissue from 135 minke whales caught in 1998 in 7 different areas: West Greenland, n = 44; East...... Greenland, n = 4; Jan Mayen, n = 22; Svalbard, n = 14; Barents Sea, n=20; Vestfjorden/Lofoten, n=14; the North Sea, n = 17. Mean Cs-137 levels in whales ranged from 0.298 (SD=0.083) Bq kg(-1) wet weight around Svalbard to 1.319 (SD=0.587) Bq kg(-1) wet weight in the North Sea. The finding of the highest...... caesium concentration in minke whales from the North Sea is in accordance with previous findings that Cs-137 levels in the marine environment of the North Atlantic region decrease with increasing distance from major point sources (i.e. nuclear-fuel reprocessing plants in the UK and France, and outflow...

  7. Metabolomic study of plasma from female mink (Neovison vison) with low and high residual feed intake during restrictive and ad libitum feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2012-12-01

    Metabolite profiling may elucidate changes in metabolic pathways under various physiological or nutritional conditions. In the present study two groups of female mink characterised as having a high (16 mink) or low (14 mink) residual feed intake were investigated during restrictive and ad libitum feeding. Blood samples were collected three times during the experimental period; during restrictive feeding, and four days and three weeks after the change to ad libitum feeding. Plasma samples were subjected to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry non-targeted metabolomics. Subjecting data to principal component analysis showed that there was no grouping of the data according to the residual feed intake. In contrast, data were clearly grouped according to feeding level. Identification of the metabolites responsible for this grouping showed that the plasma level of metabolites related to mobilisation of energy was high during restrictive feeding, e.g. betaine, carnitine, and creatine. During ad libitum feeding the plasma level of metabolites that can be characterised as biomarkers of meat intake (creatinine, carnosine, 1- and 3 methylhistidine) was high. The plasma level of lysophosphatidylcholine species was highest after four days of ad libitum feeding suggesting a short term imbalance in the transport or metabolism of these metabolites when changing the feeding level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mitochondrial genome diversity in the Tubalar, Even, and Ulchi: contribution to prehistory of native Siberians and their affinities to Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukernik, Rem I; Volodko, Natalia V; Mazunin, Ilya O; Eltsov, Nikolai P; Dryomov, Stanislav V; Starikovskaya, Elena B

    2012-05-01

    To fill remaining gaps in mitochondrial DNA diversity in the least surveyed eastern and western flanks of Siberia, 391 mtDNA samples (144 Tubalar from Altai, 87 Even from northeastern Siberia, and 160 Ulchi from the Russian Far East) were characterized via high-resolution restriction fragment length polymorphism/single nucleotide polymorphisms analysis. The subhaplogroup structure was extended through complete sequencing of 67 mtDNA samples selected from these and other related native Siberians. Specifically, we have focused on the evolutionary histories of the derivatives of M and N haplogroups, putatively reflecting different phases of settling Siberia by early modern humans. Population history and phylogeography of the resulting mtDNA genomes, combined with those from previously published data sets, revealed a wide range of tribal- and region-specific mtDNA haplotypes that emerged or diversified in Siberia before or after the last glacial maximum, ∼18 kya. Spatial distribution and ages of the "east" and "west" Eurasian mtDNA haploclusters suggest that anatomically modern humans that originally colonized Altai derived from macrohaplogroup N and came from Southwest Asia around 38,000 years ago. The derivatives of macrohaplogroup M, which largely emerged or diversified within the Russian Far East, came along with subsequent migrations to West Siberia millennia later. The last glacial maximum played a critical role in the timing and character of the settlement of the Siberian subcontinent. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Genetic analysis of the Yavapai Native Americans from West-Central Arizona using the Illumina MiSeq FGx™ forensic genomics system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Frank R; Churchill, Jennifer D; Novroski, Nicole M M; King, Jonathan L; Ng, Jillian; Oldt, Robert F; McCulloh, Kelly L; Weise, Jessica A; Smith, David Glenn; Kanthaswamy, Sreetharan; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-09-01

    Forensically-relevant genetic markers were typed for sixty-two Yavapai Native Americans using the ForenSeq™ DNA Signature Prep Kit.These data are invaluable to the human identity community due to the greater genetic differentiation among Native American tribes than among other subdivisions within major populations of the United States. Autosomal, X-chromosomal, and Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) and identity-informative (iSNPs), ancestry-informative (aSNPs), and phenotype-informative (pSNPs) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) allele frequencies are reported. Sequence-based allelic variants were observed in 13 autosomal, 3 X, and 3 Y STRs. These observations increased observed and expected heterozygosities for autosomal STRs by 0.081±0.068 and 0.073±0.063, respectively, and decreased single-locus random match probabilities by 0.051±0.043 for 13 autosomal STRs. The autosomal random match probabilities (RMPs) were 2.37×10-26 and 2.81×10-29 for length-based and sequence-based alleles, respectively. There were 22 and 25 unique Y-STR haplotypes among 26 males, generating haplotype diversities of 0.95 and 0.96, for length-based and sequencebased alleles, respectively. Of the 26 haplotypes generated, 17 were assigned to haplogroup Q, three to haplogroup R1b, two each to haplogroups E1b1b and L, and one each to haplogroups R1a and I1. Male and female sequence-based X-STR random match probabilities were 3.28×10-7 and 1.22×10-6, respectively. The average observed and expected heterozygosities for 94 iSNPs were 0.39±0.12 and 0.39±0.13, respectively, and the combined iSNP RMP was 1.08×10-32. The combined STR and iSNP RMPs were 2.55×10-58 and 3.02×10-61 for length-based and sequence-based STR alleles, respectively. Ancestry and phenotypic SNP information, performed using the ForenSeq™ Universal Analysis Software, predicted black hair, brown eyes, and some probability of East Asian ancestry for all but one sample that clustered between European and

  10. A cross-sectional field study on potential associations between feed quality measures and usage of antimicrobials in commercial mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, V F; Sommer, H M; Struve, T; Clausen, J; Chriél, M

    2017-08-01

    Feed quality is generally assumed to affect health status in animal production. In previous studies, the feed producer has been found to affect the occurrence of gastrointestinal disease and antimicrobial use in Mink (Neovison vison). Mink are fed with moist, freshly produced feed, based on perishable ingredients. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential effect of specific feed parameters on antimicrobial use on herd level. The study was cross-sectional, including 1472 mink herds, responsible for 97% of oral antimicrobials prescribed for Danish mink during the study period, 2012-2014. Data were obtained from the national veterinary prescription database (VetStat), Kopenhagen Fur database, and the Voluntary Feed Control (Mink producers Organization). All feed batches subject to feed control were included. A multi-variable variance analysis was carried out analysing the effect of the feed parameters total volatile nitrogen, dry matter, crude protein and fat; total bacterial count (21°C), and counts of sulphite producing bacteria (21°C), Clostridium spp., faecal cocci (FC) (44°C), yeast, and mould; presence of Salmonella spp. and Clostridium perfringens (dichotome). Three outcome variables were applied: prescription of oral antimicrobial on herd level within time slots of 3, 5 or 7days after feeding of an included batch. Two binomial models were developed, adjusting for significant effects (p<0.0001) of Ps. aeruginosa infection, herd size, month (season) and year. Antimicrobial prescription was significantly (p<0.0001) associated with FC (all time slots, both models). A negative association (p<0.0001) with crude protein on antimicrobial prescription within a 7day slot suggested an association between low content of crude protein and antimicrobial use. The associations need to be confirmed in controlled studies, and ideally, potential causalities should be investigated. The perspective of such findings could be the development of tests for

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Neovison vison (Carnivora: Mustelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Li; Wang, Shao-Jing; Wang, Zhuo; Liu, Han-Lu; Zhong, Wei; Yang, Ya-Han; Li, Guang-Yu

    2016-05-01

    The phylogenetic and taxonomic position of the American mink Neovison vison have long been unclear. In this paper, the complete mitogenome of N. vison was sequenced and characterized. The total length was 16,594 bp and typically consists of 37 genes, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNA, a large control region (CR) and a light-strand replication origin (OL). Gene contents, locations, and arrangements were identical to those of typical vertebrate. The overall base composition is 33.6%, 25.4%, 27.8% and 13.3% for A, C, T and G, respectively, with a moderate bias on AT content (61.4%). This result is expected to provide useful molecular data and contribute to further taxonomic and phylogenetic studies of Mustelidae and Carnivora.

  12. Early kit mortality and growth in farmed mink are affected by litter size rather than nest climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, T M; Malmkvist, J

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the effects of nest box climate on early mink kit mortality and growth. We hypothesised that litters in warm nest boxes experience less hypothermia-induced mortality and higher growth rates during the 1st week of life. This study included data from 749, 1-year-old breeding dams with access to nesting materials. Kits were weighed on days 1 and 7, dead kits were collected daily from birth until day 7 after birth, and nest climate was measured continuously from days 1 to 6. We tested the influences of the following daily temperature (T) and humidity (H) parameters on the number of live-born kit deaths and kit growth: T mean, T min, T max, T var (fluctuation) and H mean. The nest microclimate experienced by the kits was buffered against the ambient climate, with higher temperatures and reduced climate fluctuation. Most (77.0%) live-born kit deaths in the 1st week occurred on days 0 and 1. Seven of 15 climate parameters on days 1 to 3 had significant effects on live-born kit mortality. However, conflicting effects among days, marginal effects and late effects indicated that climate was not the primary cause of kit mortality. Five of 30 climate parameters had significant effects on kit growth. Few and conflicting effects indicated that the climate effect on growth was negligible. One exception was that large nest temperature fluctuations on day 1 were associated with reduced deaths of live-born kit (P<0.001) and increased kit growth (P=0.003). Litter size affected kit vitality; larger total litter size at birth was associated with greater risks of kit death (P<0.001) and reduced growth (P<0.001). The number of living kits in litters had the opposite effect, as kits in large liveborn litters had a reduced risk of death (P<0.001) and those with large mean litter size on days 1 to 7 had increased growth (P=0.026). Nest box temperature had little effect on early kit survival and growth, which could be due to dams' additional maternal behaviour. Therefore, we

  13. Population genomics reveals that an anthropophilic population of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in West Africa recently gave rise to American and Asian populations of this major disease vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jacob E; Alves, Joel M; Palmer, William J; Day, Jonathan P; Sylla, Massamba; Ramasamy, Ranjan; Surendran, Sinnathamby N; Black, William C; Pain, Arnab; Jiggins, Francis M

    2017-02-28

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue, Zika, chikungunya and yellow fever viruses. This major disease vector is thought to have arisen when the African subspecies Ae. aegypti formosus evolved from being zoophilic and living in forest habitats into a form that specialises on humans and resides near human population centres. The resulting domestic subspecies, Ae. aegypti aegypti, is found throughout the tropics and largely blood-feeds on humans. To understand this transition, we have sequenced the exomes of mosquitoes collected from five populations from around the world. We found that Ae. aegypti specimens from an urban population in Senegal in West Africa were more closely related to populations in Mexico and Sri Lanka than they were to a nearby forest population. We estimate that the populations in Senegal and Mexico split just a few hundred years ago, and we found no evidence of Ae. aegypti aegypti mosquitoes migrating back to Africa from elsewhere in the tropics. The out-of-Africa migration was accompanied by a dramatic reduction in effective population size, resulting in a loss of genetic diversity and rare genetic variants. We conclude that a domestic population of Ae. aegypti in Senegal and domestic populations on other continents are more closely related to each other than to other African populations. This suggests that an ancestral population of Ae. aegypti evolved to become a human specialist in Africa, giving rise to the subspecies Ae. aegypti aegypti. The descendants of this population are still found in West Africa today, and the rest of the world was colonised when mosquitoes from this population migrated out of Africa. This is the first report of an African population of Ae. aegypti aegypti mosquitoes that is closely related to Asian and American populations. As the two subspecies differ in their ability to vector disease, their existence side by side in West Africa may have important implications for disease transmission.

  14. Population genomics reveals that an anthropophilic population of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in West Africa recently gave rise to American and Asian populations of this major disease vector

    KAUST Repository

    Crawford, Jacob E.

    2017-02-20

    BackgroundThe mosquito Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue, Zika, chikungunya and yellow fever viruses. This major disease vector is thought to have arisen when the African subspecies Ae. aegypti formosus evolved from being zoophilic and living in forest habitats into a form that specialises on humans and resides near human population centres. The resulting domestic subspecies, Ae. aegypti aegypti, is found throughout the tropics and largely blood-feeds on humans.ResultsTo understand this transition, we have sequenced the exomes of mosquitoes collected from five populations from around the world. We found that Ae. aegypti specimens from an urban population in Senegal in West Africa were more closely related to populations in Mexico and Sri Lanka than they were to a nearby forest population. We estimate that the populations in Senegal and Mexico split just a few hundred years ago, and we found no evidence of Ae. aegypti aegypti mosquitoes migrating back to Africa from elsewhere in the tropics. The out-of-Africa migration was accompanied by a dramatic reduction in effective population size, resulting in a loss of genetic diversity and rare genetic variants.ConclusionsWe conclude that a domestic population of Ae. aegypti in Senegal and domestic populations on other continents are more closely related to each other than to other African populations. This suggests that an ancestral population of Ae. aegypti evolved to become a human specialist in Africa, giving rise to the subspecies Ae. aegypti aegypti. The descendants of this population are still found in West Africa today, and the rest of the world was colonised when mosquitoes from this population migrated out of Africa. This is the first report of an African population of Ae. aegypti aegypti mosquitoes that is closely related to Asian and American populations. As the two subspecies differ in their ability to vector disease, their existence side by side in West Africa may have important implications for

  15. Cancer genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrild, Bodil; Guldberg, Per; Ralfkiær, Elisabeth Methner

    2007-01-01

    Almost all cells in the human body contain a complete copy of the genome with an estimated number of 25,000 genes. The sequences of these genes make up about three percent of the genome and comprise the inherited set of genetic information. The genome also contains information that determines when...

  16. Cancer genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrild, Bodil; Guldberg, Per; Ralfkiær, Elisabeth Methner

    2007-01-01

    Almost all cells in the human body contain a complete copy of the genome with an estimated number of 25,000 genes. The sequences of these genes make up about three percent of the genome and comprise the inherited set of genetic information. The genome also contains information that determines whe...

  17. Fetal life malnutrition was not reflected in the relative abundances of adiponectin and leptin mRNAs in adipose tissue in male mink kits at 9.5 weeks of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Connie Frank; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition in fetal life and during suckling have in some animal studies resulted in adaptive changes related to the fat and glucose metabolism, which in the long term might predispose the offspring for metabolic disorders such as obesity later in life. The objective was to study...... the effect of fetal life malnutrition in male mink on the gene expression of leptin and adiponectin in different adipose tissue sites. Results: Thirty-two male mink, strict carnivore species, exposed to low (FL) or adequate (FA) protein provision the last 16.3 ± 1.8 days of fetal life and randomly assigned.......5 weeks of age. Relative abundances of leptin and adiponectin mRNAs were different between adipose tissue sites and were significantly higher in subcutaneous than in perirenal and mesenteric tissues. Conclusion:Fetal life protein malnutrition in male mink, did not result in adaptive changes in the gene...

  18. Partitioning and kinetics of methylmercury among organs in captive mink (Neovison vison): A stable isotope tracer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R Douglas; Hickie, Brendan; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Wang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Despite the importance of methylmercury (MeHg) as a neurotoxin, we have relatively few good data on partitioning and kinetics of MeHg among organs, particularly across the blood-brain barrier, for mammals that consume large quantities of fish. The objective of this study was to determine the partition coefficients between blood and brain, liver and kidney and fur for MeHg under steady-state conditions and to measure the half-lives for MeHg in these organs. Captive mink (Neovison vison) were fed a diet enriched with two stable isotopes of Hg, Me(199)Hg and Me(201)Hg for a period of 60 days. After a period of 10 days the diet was changed to contain only Me(201)Hg so that, between days 10 and 60, we were able to measure both uptake and elimination rates from blood, brain, liver kidney and fur. Liver and kidney response was very rapid, closely following changes in blood concentrations but there was a small lag time between peak blood concentrations and peak brain concentrations. Half-lives for MeHg were 15.4, 10.2 and 13.4 days for brain, liver and kidney, respectively. There was no measurable conversion of the MeHg to inorganic Hg (IHg) in the brain over the 60 day period, unlike in liver and kidney. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Aroclor 1242 and different fish-based diets on vitamins A(retinol) and A2 (3,4-didehydroretinol), and their fatty acyl esters in mink plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaekelae, Anne; Kaekelae, Reijo; Hyvaerinen Heikki; Nieminen, Petteri

    2003-01-01

    The effects of a 21-week exposure to Aroclor 1242 (1 mg per day in feed on plasma concentrations of vitamins A 1 (retinol) and A(3,4-didehydroretinol) and their principal fatty acyl esters (A 1 -16:0 A 2 -16:0 (palmitates), A 1 -18:1n-9; A 2 -18:1n-9 (oleates), and A 1 -18:0 A 2 -18:0 (stearates)) were studied in young female mink (Mustela vison) fed a diet based on freshwater smelt. These vitamin levels were also examined in mink fed diets containing Baltic herring or fatty marine fish. In the Aroclor-exposed smelt-fed mink, the plasma concentrations of A 1 and Aesters were significantly lower than the levels in controls fed the uncontaminated smelt diet. In addition, the A 2 esters reacted mor sensitively to the polychlorinated biphenyls than did A 1 esters. I contrast, in the plasma of the exposed mink the level of alcoholic A 1 was normal, and transport of thyroxine (T 4 ) and nonspecific lipoprotei transport of major lipids were not impaired. Despite the large dietary supply of vitamin A 2 and high levels of plasma A 2 esters, the mink fed freshwate smelt had only trace amounts of alcoholic vitamin A 2 in their plasma. The concentrations of A 1 and A 2 esters in the plasma of all the mink studied correlated with the hepatic total concentrations of the vitamins. Thus, in carnivores that have nonspecific lipoprotein transport of vitamin A esters determination of plasma levels of the esterified vitamins may be a useful nondestructive way to estimate stores of the vitamin A analogs in the body and to assess the organochlorine-induced decrease in the vitamin stores

  20. Observations on hippocampal mossy cells in mink (Neovison vison) with special reference to dendrites ascending to the granular and molecular layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstad, Jan Sigurd; Osen, Kirsten K; Scharfman, Helen E; Storm-Mathisen, Jon; Blackstad, Theodor W; Leergaard, Trygve B

    2016-02-01

    Detailed knowledge about the neural circuitry connecting the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex is necessary to understand how this system contributes to spatial navigation and episodic memory. The two principal cell types of the dentate gyrus, mossy cells and granule cells, are interconnected in a positive feedback loop, by which mossy cells can influence information passing from the entorhinal cortex via granule cells to hippocampal pyramidal cells. Mossy cells, like CA3 pyramidal cells, are characterized by thorny excrescences on their proximal dendrites, postsynaptic to giant terminals of granule cell axons. In addition to disynaptic input from the entorhinal cortex and perforant path via granule cells, mossy cells may also receive monosynaptic input from the perforant path via special dendrites ascending to the molecular layer. We here report qualitative and quantitative descriptions of Golgi-stained hippocampal mossy cells in mink, based on light microscopic observations and three-dimensional reconstructions. The main focus is on the location, branching pattern, and length of dendrites, particularly those ascending to the granular and molecular layers. In mink, the latter dendrites are more numerous than in rat, but fewer than in primates. They form on average 12% (and up to 29%) of the total dendritic length, and appear to cover the terminal fields of both the lateral and medial perforant paths. In further contrast to rat, the main mossy cell dendrites in mink branch more extensively with distal dendrites encroaching upon the CA3 field. The dendritic arbors extend both along and across the septotemporal axis of the dentate gyrus, not conforming to the lamellar pattern of the hippocampus. The findings suggest that the afferent input to the mossy cells becomes more complex in species closer to primates. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.