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  1. The Pan American Advanced Studies Institute

    CERN Document Server

    Arous, Gérard; Ferrari, Pablo; Newman, Charles; Sidoravicius, Vladas; Vares, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This volume features selected and peer-reviewed articles from the Pan-American Advanced Studies Institute (PASI). The chapters are written by international specialists who participated in the conference. Topics include developments based on breakthroughs in the mathematical understanding of phenomena describing systems in highly inhomogeneous and disordered media, including the KPZ universality class (describing the evolution of interfaces in two dimensions), spin glasses, random walks in random environment, and percolative systems. PASI fosters a collaboration between North American and Latin American researchers and students. The conference that inspired this volume took place in January 2012 in both Santiago de Chile and Buenos Aires. Researchers and graduate students will find timely research in probability theory, statistical physics and related disciplines.

  2. The importance of meat, particularly salmon, to body size, population productivity, and conservation of North American brown bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.V. Hilderbrand; C.C. Schwartz; C.T. Robbins; M.E. Hanley Jacoby; S.M. Arthur; C. Servheen

    1999-01-01

    We hypothesized that the relative availability of meat, indicated by contribution to the diet, would be positively related to body size and population productivity of North American brown, or grizzly, bears (Ursus arctos). Dietary contributions of plant matter and meat derived from both terrestrial and marine sources were quantified by stable-...

  3. The American Geological Institute Minority Participation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. J.; Byerly, G. R.; Callahan, C. N.

    2001-12-01

    Since 1971, the American Geological Institute (AGI) Minority Participation Program (MPP) has supported scholarships for underrepresented minorities in the geosciences at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Some of our MPP scholars have gone on to hugely successful careers in the geosciences. MPP scholars include corporate leaders, university professors, a NASA scientist-astronaut and a National Science Foundation (NSF) CAREER awardee. Yet as ethnic minorities continue to be underrepresented in the geosciences, AGI plans to expand its efforts beyond its traditional undergraduate and graduate scholarships to include diversity programs for secondary school geoscience teacher internships, undergraduate research travel support, and doctoral research fellowships. Funding for the MPP has come from multiple sources, including industry, scientific societies, individuals, and during the last 10 years, the NSF. College-level students apply for the MPP awards or award renewals, and the MPP Advisory Committee selects scholarship recipients based upon student academic performance, financial need, and potential for success as a geoscience professional. Mentoring is a long-standing hallmark of the AGI MPP. Every AGI MPP scholar is assigned a professional geoscientist as a mentor. The mentor is responsible for regular personal contacts with MPP scholars. The MPP Advisory Committee aims to match the profession of the mentor with the scholar's academic interest. Throughout the year, mentors and scholars communicate about possible opportunities in the geosciences such as internships, participation in symposia, professional society meetings, and job openings. Mentors have also been active in helping younger students cope with the major changes involved in relocating to a new region of the country or a new college culture. We believe that AGI is well-positioned to advance diversity in the geosciences through its unique standing as the major professional organization in the

  4. Inter-American Institute Data and Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Marcelo Achite

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research (IAI is an international institution supported by 19 countries in the Americas dedicated to foster scientific research, international collaboration and creation of networks and full and open exchange of scientific information. In general terms, the institute was conceived because of the need for an international non-governmental and non-profit institution whose main objective would be to support scientific development in the Americas, f...

  5. 76 FR 62149 - American Chemistry Council, The Chlorine Institute, Inc., the Fertilizer Institute, and PPG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. NOR 42129; Docket No. FD 35517] American Chemistry Council, The Chlorine Institute, Inc., the Fertilizer Institute, and PPG... both cases. \\1\\ In Docket No. NOR 42129, the complainants are American Chemistry Council, The Chlorine...

  6. American Institute of Physics demonstrates us more cost-efficient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    American Institute of Physics demonstrates us more cost-efficient Selenium solar cells. R Sanders. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  7. The American Theological Seminary: An Unfamiliar Institutional Autopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumadue, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Christian educators can learn much from institutional autopsies of Christian schools of higher education that have failed. The untold story of the now-defunct American Theological Seminary (ATS) in St. Augustine, Florida, provides an excellent example of critical errors that Christian educators can learn from to avoid the same fate. An…

  8. Analysis of PFAAs in American alligators part 2: Potential dietary exposure of South Carolina hunters from recreationally harvested alligator meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Jessica J; Guillette, Louis J; Lovelace, Susan; Parrott, Benjamin B; Rainwater, Thomas R; Reiner, Jessica L

    2017-11-01

    Exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) has been linked to many harmful health effects including reproductive disorders, developmental delays, and altered liver and kidney function. Most human exposure to environmental contaminants, including PFAAs, occurs through consumption of contaminated food or drinking water. This study uses PFAA data from meat samples collected from recreationally harvested American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in South Carolina to assess potential dietary exposure of hunters and their families to PFAAs. Consumption patterns were investigated using intercept surveys of 23 hunters at a wild game meat processor. An exposure scenario using the average consumption frequency, portion size, and median perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) concentration in alligator meat from all hunt units found the daily dietary exposure to be 2.11ng/kg body weight per day for an adult human. Dietary PFOS exposure scenarios based on location of harvest suggested the highest daily exposure occurs with alligator meat from the Middle Coastal hunt unit in South Carolina. Although no samples were found to exceed the recommended threshold for no consumption of PFOS found in Minnesota state guidelines, exposure to a mixture of PFAAs found in alligator meat and site-specific exposures based on harvest location should be considered in determining an appropriate guideline for vulnerable populations potentially exposed to PFAAs through consumption of wild alligator meat. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Institutional Confidence in the United States: Attitudes of Secular Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Kasselstrand

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The First Amendment to the United States’ Constitution addresses freedom of religion and the separation of church and state. However, the historical influence of religion in laws, policies, and political representation have left secular individuals feeling excluded. At the same time, levels of confidence in social and political institutions in the United States are at an all-time low. This begs the question: Is there a relationship between secularity and confidence in various social and political institutions (e.g. the armed forces, churches, major companies, government, police, and political parties? This question is examined using data on the United States from the World Values Survey from 1995–2011. While controlling for a range of key demographics, the findings show a negative relationship between secularity and institutional confidence. More specifically, atheists and nonreligious individuals are less likely than those who are religious to have confidence in all six institutions. Based on previous literature and the empirical evidence presented in this study, we argue that overall lower levels of institutional confidence among secular Americans is an outcome of the exclusion of such individuals from American social life. Thus, it highlights the importance of addressing the stereotypes and prejudice that this minority group faces.

  10. 76 FR 20962 - Applications for New Awards; Native American-Serving Nontribal Institutions Part F Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ...). Native American. The term `Native American' means an individual who is of a tribe, people, or culture... Part F Program, the Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving Institutions (AANAPISI...

  11. The effect of institutions on Latin American economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfino Vargas Chanes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to identify relevant characteristics of institutions that have an effect on economic growth in selected Latin American countries. A multilevel model was used for this propose, the dependent variable is the real per capita gdp, and the explanatory variables are indicators of governance provided by the World Bank. The results show that the significant variables are regulatory quality and control of corruption. This implies the need to strengthen the institutions of the rule of law, voice and accountability, political stability and absence of violence, and government effectiveness.

  12. Concentration of key elements in North American meat and bone meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Rafael A.; Rosentrater, Kurt A.

    2008-01-01

    Meat and bone meal (MBM) and related rendered protein commodities have potential for use in applications other than animal feed, including use as a fuel or a phosphorus fertilizer. In order to develop these applications, data on the elemental composition are required; the currently available elemental composition data have important limitations. To generate more appropriate and reliable data, MBM samples were collected from 17 North American rendering plants, carefully prepared and analyzed for 20 elements. Preliminary studies showed that the sample preparation process artificially increased levels of sulfur and nickel in a manner that was correctable. Concentrations of many elements were found to agree with previously published values, but concentrations of potassium, magnesium and copper were significantly different from the most authoritative reference. Concentrations of heavy metals tested for were low, and arsenic and cadmium were not detected in any sample. Among the elements tested, there were a number of pairs of elements whose concentration was correlated with high significance, which in some cases was due to the varying proportions of soft tissue and bone in the MBM. The data presented should allow the development of non-feed applications for MBM to proceed with increased confidence

  13. Multi-Province Listeriosis Outbreak Linked to Contaminated Deli Meat Consumed Primarily in Institutional Settings, Canada, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Andrea; Farber, Jeffrey M; Nadon, Céline; Sharma, Davendra; Whitfield, Yvonne; Gaulin, Colette; Galanis, Eleni; Bekal, Sadjia; Flint, James; Tschetter, Lorelee; Pagotto, Franco; Lee, Brenda; Jamieson, Fred; Badiani, Tina; MacDonald, Diane; Ellis, Andrea; May-Hadford, Jennifer; McCormick, Rachel; Savelli, Carmen; Middleton, Dean; Allen, Vanessa; Tremblay, Francois-William; MacDougall, Laura; Hoang, Linda; Shyng, Sion; Everett, Doug; Chui, Linda; Louie, Marie; Bangura, Helen; Levett, Paul N; Wilkinson, Krista; Wylie, John; Reid, Janet; Major, Brian; Engel, Dave; Douey, Donna; Huszczynski, George; Di Lecci, Joe; Strazds, Judy; Rousseau, Josée; Ma, Kenneth; Isaac, Leah; Sierpinska, Urszula

    2015-08-01

    A multi-province outbreak of listeriosis occurred in Canada from June to November 2008. Fifty-seven persons were infected with 1 of 3 similar outbreak strains defined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and 24 (42%) individuals died. Forty-one (72%) of 57 individuals were residents of long-term care facilities or hospital inpatients during their exposure period. Descriptive epidemiology, product traceback, and detection of the outbreak strains of Listeria monocytogenes in food samples and the plant environment confirmed delicatessen meat manufactured by one establishment and purchased primarily by institutions was the source of the outbreak. The food safety investigation identified a plant environment conducive to the introduction and proliferation of L. monocytogenes and persistently contaminated with Listeria spp. This outbreak demonstrated the need for improved listeriosis surveillance, strict control of L. monocytogenes in establishments producing ready-to-eat foods, and advice to vulnerable populations and institutions serving these populations regarding which high-risk foods to avoid.

  14. The Institute of American Indian Arts Background Information (Task One of the Transition Evaluation). Background Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippeconnic, John W., Jr.

    The paper, prepared as Task One of the Institute of American Indian Arts Transition Evaluation, provides pertinent background information about the Institute of American Indian Arts in Santa Fe, New Mexico. A brief history of the Institute is given, with information about its philosophy and purpose; objectives; organization and administration; the…

  15. Interaction between Red Meat Intake and NAT2 Genotype in Increasing the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Japanese and African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansong Wang

    Full Text Available Heterocyclic aromatic amines formed in cooked meat may be an underlying mechanism for the red meat-colorectal cancer (CRC association. These compounds require bioactivaction by N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2. An interaction effect between red meat consumption and NAT2 in increasing CRC risk has been inconsistently reported in whites. We investigated this interaction in two populations in which the high-activity rapid NAT2 phenotype is 10- and 2-fold more common than in whites. We meta-analyzed four studies of Japanese (2,217 cases, 3,788 controls and three studies of African Americans (527 cases, 4,527 controls. NAT2 phenotype was inferred from an optimized seven-SNP genotyping panel. Processed and total red meat intakes were associated with an increased CRC risk in Japanese and in both ethnic groups combined (P's ≤ 0.002. We observed an interaction between processed meat intake and NAT2 in Japanese (P = 0.04, African Americans (P = 0.02, and in both groups combined (P = 0.006. The association of processed meat with CRC was strongest among individuals with the rapid NAT2 phenotype (combined analysis, OR for highest vs. lowest quartile: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.28-2.05; Ptrend = 8.0×10-5, intermediate among those with the intermediate NAT2 phenotype (1.29, 95% CI: 1.05-1.59; Ptrend = 0.05 and null among those with the slow phenotype (Ptrend = 0.45. A similar interaction was found for NAT2 and total red meat (Pinteraction = 0.03. Our findings support a role for NAT2 in modifying the association between red meat consumption and CRC in Japanese and African Americans.

  16. 78 FR 80447 - Proposed Agreement for Cooperation Between the American Institute in Taiwan and the Taipei...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... for Cooperation Between the American Institute in Taiwan and the Taipei Economic and Cultural... Taiwan and the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in the United States Concerning... American Institute in Taiwan and the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in the United...

  17. The Invisible Wall: Exploring the Experiences of African-American Students at CCCU Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Timothy Perry

    2013-01-01

    African-American students who attend a CCCU institution do not complete their degrees as frequently as other student groups. The average gap at CCCU institutions between "overall and Black graduation rates is more than 19%. This is greater than the gap at other private institutions" (Smith, 2009, p.80). While the six-year graduation rate…

  18. International institutions for energy management: an American perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, W.L.

    1983-01-01

    International institutions need to continue preparing for sudden changes in oil prices and supply and to encourage long-term goals of energy conservation and the substitution of non-oil fuels. Because all governments interact with energy markets, international institutions can provide a framework for intergovernmental cooperation. The authors examine opportunities for such cooperation in oil crisis management, energy policy coordination, research and development cooperation and sharing, nuclear power and non-proliferation safeguards, and North-South stability. The effectiveness of international institutions is dependent upon politcial support from the separate nations. Following an introductory chapter on the nature of the energy problem and the role of institutions, later chapters examine their structures and meetings and evaluate their prospects for strengthening Western energy cooperation. 107 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  19. Institutions Deny Setting Quotas for Asian American Admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Charles S.

    1989-01-01

    Many Asian Americans are accusing elite colleges, including the University of California system and Harvard University, of setting admission quotas. Colleges blame high school counselors for failing to encourage Asian students to develop verbal skills and to participate in extracurricular activities. (FMW)

  20. Meat, dairy, and cancer1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Zaynah; Cross, Amanda J; Sinha, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    In 2007 the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) report judged that the evidence for an association between red and processed meat consumption and colorectal cancer was convincing. In addition, the effect of other animal products on cancer risk has been studied, and the WCRF/AICR report concluded that milk probably decreases the risk of colorectal cancer but diets high in calcium probably increase the risk of prostate cancer, whereas there was limited evidence for an association between milk and bladder cancer and insufficient evidence for other cancers. There are several potential mechanisms relating meat to cancer, including heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, N-nitroso compounds, and heme iron. Although the evidence in favor of a link between red and processed meat and colorectal cancer is convincing, the relations with other cancers are unclear. In this review, we summarize cohort studies conducted by the National Cancer Institute on meat and dairy intake in relation to cancer since the 2007 WCRF/AICR report. We also report the findings of meta-analyses published since 2007. PMID:24847855

  1. Institutional Support to Latin American Policy Research Organizations

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will strengthen the ability of the 12 selected research institutions to provide, disseminate and communicate high-quality research. This will be achieved through measures aimed at enhancing the ability of staff to conduct sound research, improving organizational governance, and communicating with policymakers.

  2. American Cancer Society: the world's wealthiest "nonprofit" institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, S S

    1999-01-01

    The American Cancer Society is fixated on damage control--diagnosis and treatment--and basic molecular biology, with indifference or even hostility to cancer prevention. This myopic mindset is compounded by interlocking conflicts of interest with the cancer drug, mammography, and other industries. The "nonprofit" status of the Society is in sharp conflict with its high overhead and expenses, excessive reserves of assets and contributions to political parties. All attempts to reform the Society over the past two decades have failed; a national economic boycott of the Society is long overdue.

  3. Different Hunting Grounds: American Indian Tribal College Student Perceptions of Predominantly White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polacek, Cheryl Birdhat

    2017-01-01

    American Indian students who have attended tribal colleges have expressed gratitude, appreciation and pride in their educational and cultural experiences at these institutions. Most of the 37 tribal colleges and universities (TCUs) in the US and Canada currently offer two-year degree and certificate programs. Many American Indian students who wish…

  4. Institutional Affiliation of Contributors to the American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 1973–83

    OpenAIRE

    James R. Simpson; John T. Steele

    1985-01-01

    History of reviews of contributions to the American Journal of Agricultural Economics are examined. Total pages, pages per capita all faculty, and per teaching research faculty of contributors to the American Journal of Agricultural Economics for 1979–83 are reported for land grant institutions. Rankings are provided. There are also averages for 1973–79 and 1980–83.

  5. Teacher Certification of American Sign Language Faculty at K-12 and Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ashley Leann Chance

    2010-01-01

    American Sign Language (ASL) is ranked fourth among heritage languages taken by students in the United States. The number of ASL classes offered at the K-12 and Institutions of Higher Education are on the rise, yet the number of certified ASL teachers remains stagnant. This study examines the reasons why American Sign Language teachers choose to…

  6. Perceptions of Stereotype Vulnerability, Belonging and Campus Climate by African Americans Attending a Predominately White Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Loren Wright

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine of stereotype vulnerability, sense of belonging and campus climate for African American college students at a Predominately White Institution (PWI) in the Southeast. This research used a sociocultural model to explore African American student perceptions at a PWI in the southeast of the United States. This…

  7. Strategies for Success: Open Access Policies at North American Educational Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruin, Christine; Sutton, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing the paucity of quantitative and qualitative data from North American educational institutions that have pursued open access policies, the authors devised a survey to collect information on the characteristics of these institutions, as well as the elements of the open access policies, the methods of promoting these policies, faculty…

  8. African American Football Athletes' Perspectives on Institutional Integrity in College Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, John N.

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative case study used tenets of critical race theory and a single focus group and individual interviews with 4 African American football athletes at a predominantly White institution of higher education (PWIHE) in an effort to bring the voices of this marginalized group into the dialogue on issues concerning institutional integrity in…

  9. From Marginalized to Validated: An In-Depth Case Study of an Asian American, Native American and Pacific Islander Serving Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thai-Huy; Nguyen, Mike Hoa; Nguyen, Bach Mai Dolly; Gasman, Marybeth; Conrad, Clifton

    2018-01-01

    This article highlights the capacity of an Asian American, Native American and Pacific Islander Institution (AANAPISI) to serve as an institutional convertor--by addressing challenges commonly associated with marginalized students--for low-income, Asian American and Pacific Islander students entering college. Through an in-depth case study, we…

  10. Institutional Alternatives of Food Embargo in the Conditions of a New Wave of Anti-Russian Sanctions (Case of Russian’s Meat Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny A. Kapoguzov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the impact of anti-Russian sanctions and response measures on the agro-production in terms of identifying the benefits and costs of imposing a food embargo. It is emphasized that, in the context of the policy of "smart sanctions", the goal of retaliatory measures should be to create conditions for maximizing public welfare. The reality and analysis and calculations carried out, however, show the disaster of the embargo in relation to the consumption of meat and meat processing products for the "ordinary consumer". Based on the dynamics of the caloric index, the socioeconomic consequences of the one-sidedness of autarkic measures are shown. The conditions for ensuring food security under the conditions of the food embargo are schematically presented and the consequences of the existing embargo policy on the basis of statistical data for the consumption of meat products are calculated. It is shown that the growth in prices played a key role in the dynamics of the cost volume, and structural changes were associated with the further growth of large agricultural organizations in the structure of the industry. In conclusion, recommendations are offered in the field of institutional design for the improvement of economic policy.

  11. Secrecy and Democracy: The Conflict between American Ideals and American Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    53, no. 1 (September 2009): 133-150. 132Paul Mihailidis and Benjamin Thevenin, “ Media Literacy as a Core Competency for Engaged Citizenship in...0002764210376313. Mihailidis, Paul, and Benjamin Thevenin. “ Media Literacy as a Core Competency for Engaged Citizenship in Participatory Democracy.” American

  12. Cultural Difference as the Basis for Creative Education at the Institute of American Indian Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of American Indian Arts, Santa Fe, NM.

    The task of setting up and administering educational programs for the American Indian has been fraught with seemingly insurmountable problems and inbuilt frustrations for both the Indian population and the Federal Government. Many programs are now under way to increase Indian control of Indian affairs, including their own educational institutions.…

  13. "Aggiornamento" and the American Catholic Bishops: A Rhetoric of Institutional Continuity and Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Carol J.

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes 140 pastoral letters issued by the American Catholic bishops before, during, and after Vatican II (1947 through 1981). Suggests that doctrinal rhetoric has a tremendous capacity to endure accelerated social and institutional change, and that the rhetorical impact of Vatican II was quickly institutionalized in the public communications of…

  14. Understanding Entry-Level Courses in American Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaughy, Charis; Hopper-Moore, Greg; Fukuda, Erin; Phillips, Rachel; Rooseboom, Jennifer; Chadwick, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    "Understanding Entry-Level Courses in American Institutions of Higher Education" outlines a study conducted by Educational Policy Improvement Center (EPIC) that empirically identifies the characteristics of work at the college- and career-readiness level in English/language arts, science, and social sciences courses. Using a previously…

  15. The Dilemma: Career Transition of African American Male Football Players at Division I Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcutt, Kellen Jamil

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore and understand perceptions of African American male football athletes at Division I institutions that also played professional football, regarding their collegiate experiences and transition from athletics to post-playing careers. The study examined issues of race and social…

  16. Ethnic, Women's, and African American Studies Majors in U.S. Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olzak, Susan; Kangas, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    African American Studies, Ethnic Studies, and Women's Studies programs in higher education have received wide support from faculty members and students, yet few programs offer a major or have tenure-line faculty positions. Our analysis used sociological theories to generate testable implications about the chances that an institution will offer…

  17. The Workplace Environment for African-American Faculty Employed in Predominately White Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield-Harris, Lisa; Lockhart, Joan Such

    2016-01-01

    Diversity in academia requires attention, especially with the expected increase in minority populations in the United States (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, (AACN) 2014). Despite theoretical papers that suggest that several challenges are encountered by minority faculty employed in predominately White institutions, a dearth of research on this topic has been published. The purpose of this literature review was to analyze the published research that addressed the workplace environment of African-American faculty employed in predominately White institutions. In utilizing the keywords in various combinations, 236 articles were retrieved through multiple databases. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 15 studies were reviewed with only three related to nursing. Two themes were extracted from the review: 1) the cultural climate of the workplace environment and, 2) underrepresentation of African-American faculty. It is apparent from this review that additional research is needed to understand the experiences of this group of faculty to target effective recruitment and retention strategies.

  18. Collusion, torture, and inequality: Understanding the actions of the American Psychological Association as institutional betrayal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Jennifer M; Smith, Carly P; Gobin, Robyn L; Tang, Shin Shin; Freyd, Jennifer J

    2016-01-01

    The Hoffman Report (Hoffman et al., 2015) documented devastating information about the American Psychological Association (APA) and the profession of psychology in the United States, prompting a public apology and a formal commitment by APA to correct its mistakes (APA, 2015). In the current article, we utilize betrayal trauma theory (Freyd, 1997), including betrayal blindness (e.g., Freyd, 1996; Tang, 2015) and institutional betrayal (Smith & Freyd, 2014b), to understand and learn from APA's behaviors. We further situate this discussion in the context of inequality, both within APA and in American society generally. We detail how the impact of APA's institutional betrayals extended beyond the organization, its members, and the psychology profession, highlighting the potential for disproportionate harm to minorities, including those who were tortured; Muslims, Middle Easterners, Afghans, and non-Americans who were not tortured; and other minority individuals (Gómez, 2015d). Acknowledging, understanding, and addressing its institutional betrayals offers APA the opportunity to take meaningful corrective and preventive measures. We propose several institutional reparations, including making concrete changes with transparency and conducting self-assessments to inform further needed changes (Freyd & Birrell, 2013). By engaging in institutional courage, APA has the potential to grow into an ethical governing body that fulfills its mission to "advance the creation, communication and application of psychological knowledge to benefit society and improve people's lives" (APA, 2016).

  19. “... And Gladly Teach”: The American Hospital Association's Experience in Conducting Institutes on Hospital Librarianship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yast, Helen

    1964-01-01

    As part of its overall educational program, the American Hospital Association has since 1959 conducted three institutes on hospital librarianship to meet the demand for more competent librarians in medical, nursing school, and patients' libraries. The purpose of such institutes is to teach the basic elements of library science to untrained personnel in hospital libraries. Discussed are steps in initiating an institute; factors determining length, date, and place; financing; publicity; choice and responsibility of local advisory committee; program content; qualifications of instructors; characteristics of registrants; materials for distribution; evaluations. Details of the most recent institute are outlined. A summary of problems still facing this type of educational program and suggestions for future improvements conclude the paper. PMID:14119309

  20. 75 FR 58426 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Gilcrease Institute of American History and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Gilcrease Institute of American History and Art, Tulsa, OK AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior... Thomas Gilcrease Institute of American History and Art (Gilcrease Museum), Tulsa, OK, that meet the...

  1. A caution to Native American institutional review boards about scientism and censorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askland, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Native American Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) promote the health and welfare of tribes by reviewing protocols for research studies that focus on their tribes. The benefits of approved protocols should not be overstated lest good studies disappoint because they do not satisfy unachievable expectations. IRBs also should avoid the temptation to censor the outcomes of those studies. Science relies on candor and clarity about results and methods to move forward.

  2. Institutional support for diverse populations: perceptions of Hispanic and african american students and program faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Mary Lou; Cason, Carolyn L; Baxley, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Using the Adapted Model of Institutional Support as a framework, data were collected from 90 minority students, 80 faculty members, and 31 administrators from schools of nursing in Texas to determine perceived barriers and needed supports for program completion. Findings illustrate similar and differing perceptions of Hispanic and African American students, faculty, and program administrators. The data provide a baseline for making improvements and establishing "best practices" for minority recruitment and retention.

  3. AICPA (American Institute of Certified Public Accountants) seeks comments on proposed accounting changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titera, W R

    1995-08-01

    The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants has exposed for public comment a revised version of its accounting and auditing guide--Audits of Providers of Health Care Services. The guide covers accounting, auditing, and financial reporting in healthcare organizations and is being revised primarily to address the changing healthcare environment and changes mandated by the Financial Accounting Standards Board. This article provides an overview of some of the more significant proposed changes. The comment period ends August 14, 1995.

  4. North american natural gas supply forecast: the Hubbert method including the effects of institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, D. B.; Kolodziej, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the U.S. and southern Canadian natural gas supply market is considered. An important model for oil and natural gas supply is the Hubbert curve. Not all regions of the world are producing oil or natural gas following a Hubbert curve, even when price and market conditions are accounted for. One reason is that institutions are affecting supply. We investigate the possible effects of oil and gas market institutions in North America on natural gas supply. A multi-cycle Hubbert curve with inflection points similar to the Soviet Union's oil production multi-cycle Hubbert curve is used to determine North American natural gas discovery rates and to analyze how market specific institutions caused the inflection points. In addition, we analyze the latest shale natural gas projections critically. While currently, unconventional resources of natural gas suggest that North American natural gas production will increase without bound, the model here suggests a peak in North American natural gas supplies could happen in 2013. (author)

  5. North American Natural Gas Supply Forecast: The Hubbert Method Including the Effects of Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kolodziej

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the U.S. and southern Canadian natural gas supply market is considered. An important model for oil and natural gas supply is the Hubbert curve. Not all regions of the world are producing oil or natural gas following a Hubbert curve, even when price and market conditions are accounted for. One reason is that institutions are affecting supply. We investigate the possible effects of oil and gas market institutions in North America on natural gas supply. A multi-cycle Hubbert curve with inflection points similar to the Soviet Union’s oil production multi-cycle Hubbert curve is used to determine North American natural gas discovery rates and to analyze how market specific institutions caused the inflection points. In addition, we analyze the latest shale natural gas projections critically. While currently, unconventional resources of natural gas suggest that North American natural gas production will increase without bound, the model here suggests a peak in North American natural gas supplies could happen in 2013.

  6. History of Indian Arts Education in Santa Fe: The Institute of American Indian Arts with Historical Background 1890 to 1962.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmhausen, Winona

    This book traces the history of the Institute of American Indian Arts in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Sections cover four time periods in the evolution of the Institute: the United States Indian Industrial School at Sante Fe, 1890-1932; the Santa Fe Indian School, 1930-62; and the Institute of American Indian Arts, 1962-70 and 1970-78. The United States…

  7. Negotiating multiple identities: how African-American gay and bisexual men persist at a predominantly White institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode-Cross, David T; Tager, David

    2011-01-01

    This consensual qualitative research (CQR) study explores factors contributing to the persistence of African-American gay and bisexual men at a predominately White institution (PWI). Eight participants consistently noted that involvement with an African-American community was crucial to navigating the challenges of attending a PWI. Participants reported that their racial identity was more salient than their sexual orientation in creating social support, and they described feeling uncomfortable using lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) resources. Implications, including education about sexual orientation within African-American campus communities, LGBT outreach to communities of color, and continued institutional support for African-American campus organizations, are discussed.

  8. [The Oficina Botanica (1788-1835): an institution dedicated to the study of American plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Nozal, R

    1995-01-01

    By this work we pretend to analyze the reasons for the failure of the scientific enlightened politics, utilizing as example the study, from the beginning until the final of its existence, of a scientific institution, the Botanical Office. Created in full process of decadence of the political and economical enlightened model, it was capable of carrying out a great economical and organizational effort and on the botanical expeditions to the Spanish America, but it didn't undertake, in an effective way, a following step, to show to the world the natural wealth of the American possessions.

  9. Overview of soil and groundwater research activities of the American Petroleum Institute (API)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauman, B.

    1992-01-01

    The American Petroleum Institute (API) is a trade association for the domestic petroleum industry in the USA, with over 2000 corporate and 5000 individual members. Subsurface research activities are managed by the API soil/groundwater technical task force, a committee made up of over 25 member company engineers, hydrologists, soil scientists, and chemists representing both the research and operations sectors of the petroleum industry. The research areas of the group have been divided into five principle areas: biodegradation processes, fate and transport, remediation, decision making tools for remediation, and detection/analytical methods. A summary of each of the current projects in these subject areas is presented

  10. Role of the American Institute for Pollution Prevention in reducing environmental risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, T.R.

    1991-01-01

    The EPA Science Advisory Board recommended that in the decade of the 1990's, EPA strategy should focus on the long-term goal of preventing and reducing environmental risk and should shift from end-of-pipe controls to preventing the generation of pollution. To assist EPA in developing and implementing this philosophy, the American Institute for Pollution Prevention (AIPP) was founded jointly by EPA and the University of Cincinnati in June, 1989. The mission of the Institute is to generate broad support from private and public sectors and to assist EPA in achieving widespread and expeditious adoption of pollution prevention concepts. AIPP will provide a novel communication bridge between EPA and industry. AIPP will provide and promote liasion between professionals in the field of pollution and those who need to employ new and improved pollution prevention techniques

  11. Contradictions in the American dream: High educational aspirations and perceptions of deteriorating institutional support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Pamela

    2017-02-01

    This study examines contradictions in the "American Dream" during the Great Recession: young adults maintained high educational aspirations, yet perceived little opportunity for their educational achievements to help them fulfil their dreams of financial prosperity and work stability. Based on in-depth interviews with 85 young college students and recent graduates, this study found that college enrolment was propelled by the recession, as a college degree, and often a graduate or professional degree, was perceived as an increasingly necessary credential. Despite these high educational aspirations, students and recent graduates were fearful about their capacity to find future work and they expressed concerns about the collapse of employment opportunity. Many were also wary of educational institutions, which they viewed as unable to prepare them for a shrinking job market. These perceptions reveal a contradiction in the "American Dream:" although young adults have high aspirations and achievements, they have lost confidence in the educational and work institutions upon which they must depend. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  12. Massive open online courses in health sciences from Latin American institutions: A need for improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culquichicón, Carlos; Helguero-Santin, Luis M; Labán-Seminario, L Max; Cardona-Ospina, Jaime A; Aboshady, Omar A; Correa, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Massive open online courses (MOOCs) have undergone exponential growth over the past few years, offering free and worldwide access to high-quality education. We identified the characteristics of MOOCs in the health sciences offered by Latin American institutions (LAIs). Methods: We screened the eight leading MOOCs platforms to gather their list of offerings. The MOOCs were classified by region and subject. Then, we obtained the following information: Scopus H-index for each institution and course instructor, QS World University Ranking® 2015/16 of LAI, and official language of the course. Results: Our search identified 4170 MOOCs worldwide. From them, 205 MOOCs were offered by LAIs, and six MOOCs were health sciences related. Most of these courses (n = 115) were offered through Coursera. One health science MOOC was taught by three instructors, of which only one was registered in Scopus (H-index = 0). The remaining five health science MOOCs had solely one instructor (H-index = 4 [0-17]). The Latin American country with the highest participation was Brazil (n = 11). Conclusion: The contribution of LAI to MOOCs in the health sciences is low.

  13. Red and Processed Meat and Colorectal Cancer Incidence: Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, D.S.M.; Lau, R.; Aune, D.; Vieira, R.; Greenwood, D.C.; Kampman, E.; Norat, T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The evidence that red and processed meat influences colorectal carcinogenesis was judged convincing in the 2007 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research report. Since then, ten prospective studies have published new results. Here we update the evidence from

  14. Red and processed meat and colorectal cancer incidence: meta-analysis of prospective studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, D.S.; Lau, R.; Aune, D.; Vieira, R.; Greenwood, D.C.; Kampman, E.; Norat, T.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The evidence that red and processed meat influences colorectal carcinogenesis was judged convincing in the 2007 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research report. Since then, ten prospective studies have published new results. Here we update the evidence from

  15. Understanding the Role of Spirituality in African American Undergraduate Men's Responses to Stereotype Threat at Predominately White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, George H.

    2014-01-01

    Some African American undergraduate men attending Predominately White Institutions (PWIs) are adversely affected by perception of institutional barriers, such as negative stereotypes, that may exist on campus. The awareness of the possibility of being stereotyped can have a negative impact on a student's academic performance. This phenomenon is…

  16. Meet meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, Gerben A.; Tobi, Hilde; Fischer, Arnout R.H.

    2017-01-01

    In this cross-cultural study we investigated how study participants from China, Ethiopia and the Netherlands operationalize the concept of meat and to what extent cultured meat fits or does not fit into this operationalization. We argue that combining the conceptual approaches symbolic boundaries

  17. Assessing the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses' Progress on the Institute of Medicine Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Lori Kennedy; Hundley, Lynn; Summers, Debbie; Villanueva, Nancy; Walter, Suzy Mascaro

    2017-06-01

    The American Association of Neuroscience Nurses (AANN) has worked toward meeting the challenges and addressing the key messages from the 2010 Institute of Medicine report on the future of nursing. In 2012, AANN developed an article summarizing how the association has addressed key issues. Since that time, new recommendations have been made to advance nursing, and AANN has updated its strategic plan. The AANN has assessed organizational progress in these initiatives in a 2017 white paper. This process included review of plans since the initial report and proposal of further efforts the organization can make in shaping the future of neuroscience nursing. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide an overview of the AANN white paper.

  18. Surgical skills curricula in American College of Surgeons Accredited Education Institutes: An international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Iman; Fitzgibbons, Shimae; Watanabe, Yusuke; Lachapelle, Alexander; Paige, John

    2017-04-01

    A clear understanding of simulation-based curricula in use at American College of Surgeons Accredited Education Institutes (ACS-AEIs) is lacking. A 25-question online survey was sent to ACS-AEIs. The response rate approached 60%. The most frequent specialties to use the ACS-AEIs are general surgery and obstetrics/gynecology (94%). Residents are the main target population for programming/training (96%). Elements of the ACS/Association of Program Directors in Surgery Surgical Skills Curriculum are used by 77% of responding ACS-AEIs. Only 49% of ACS-AEIs implement the entire curriculum and 96% have independently developed their own surgical skills curricula. "Home-grown" simulators have been designed at 71% of ACS-AEIs. Feasibility (80%), evidence of effectiveness (67%), and cost (60%) were reasons for curriculum adoption. All programs use operative assessment tools for resident performance, and 53% use Messick's unitary framework of validity. Most programs (88%) have financial support from their academic institute. Majority of ACS-AEIs had trainees evaluate their faculty instructors (90%), and the main form of such faculty evaluation was postcourse surveys (97%). This study provides specific information regarding simulation-based curricula at ACS-AEIs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Meat flavour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosset, R.; Liger, P.; Roussel-Ciquard, N.

    1978-01-01

    For the consumer, meat is characterized by a certain number of organoleptic qualities; among them, flavour -that is to say the association of both odour and taste- plays a leading part. This property is based upon a great number of chemical components: some volatile components are responsible for the aroma and some non-volatile ones for the taste. These substances are either made or released during the heating of the meat on account of components called precursors which are produced during the aging of the meat. The two main reactions which preside over the elaboration of flavour are: the Maillard's reaction and the autooxidation reactions. Meat flavour is associated with the animal characteristics; it is influenced by the ante- and post mortem treatments as well as by the technological treatments for storing it. The use of synthetical flavours is to be considered as possible in the future [fr

  20. Differences in income and consumer expenditure patterns between foreign and American graduate students at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Ting

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the differences in the total annual income, total annual and monthly expenditures, and consumer expenditure patterns between American and foreign graduate students at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (VPI & SU). The study was based on a survey entitled "Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Graduate Students Demographic and Economic Impact Study" conducted in April, 1989. The sample size use...

  1. National Cancer Institute and American Association for Clinical Chemistry Partner to Bridge the Gap | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute, through its Clinical Proteomic Technologies for Cancer (CPTC) initiative has entered into a memorandum of understanding with the American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC) to join forces to promote and educate the clinical chemistry community in the area of proteomic standards and technology advances.

  2. Understanding How Key Institutional Agents Provide Southeast Asian American Students with Access to Social Capital in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Museus, Samuel D.; Mueller, M. Kalehua.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we focus on understanding how institutional agents can and do foster success among Southeast Asian American (SEAA) students in higher education. Specifically, qualitative methods were utilized to examine the experiences of 34 SEAA undergraduate students at 5 public 4-year colleges and universities across the United States and…

  3. The Effects of a Mentoring Program on African American Collegiate Football Students at a Predominately White Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemond, LaNise D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this interpretivist qualitative study is to discover and explore what factors influence African American collegiate football student athletes with regard to their experiences that participated in a mentoring program at a predominately white institution. The grounded theory methodology was used for this study. Ten African American…

  4. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research lifestyle recommendations in colorectal cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, Renate M.; Lee, van Linde; Beijer, Sandra; Bours, Martijn J.; Duijnhoven, van Fränzel J.B.; Geelen, Anouk; Hoedjes, Meeke; Mols, Floortje; Vries, de Jeanne; Weijenberg, Matty P.; Kampman, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    We examined adherence to the eight The World Cancer Research Foundation/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) recommendations on diet, physical activity, and body weight among colorectal cancer survivors, and whether adherence was associated with intention to eat healthy and with the

  5. Racial and Athletic Identity of African American Football Players at Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Predominantly White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Reed, Courtney; Steinfeldt, M. Clint

    2010-01-01

    This study examined racial and athletic identity among African American football players at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly White institutions (PWIs). Negotiating the dualism of racial and athletic identities can be problematic because both roles are subject to prejudice and discrimination, particularly for…

  6. Meat production perspective in Yucatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Toledo-Lopez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of meat production in Mexico during the last decade is the result of the complex interaction between different areas of livestock production and consumers’ preferences, being the former widely influenced by new tendencies and purchasing capacity. In Yucatan, there are two meat product processing plants. Yucatan’s research projects are basically focused to production, handling and genetics. This research is developed in Research Centers like Universidad Autonoma Yucatan’s Ciencias Biologicas Agropecuarias Campus, INIFAP Mococha, Instituto Tecnologico Conkal and Instituto Tecnologoco Merida. Many projects are inter-institutional and others by Cuerpos Academicos inside the institutions. Grants are provided by state, national or international dependencies. In the Instituto Tecnologico Merida research projects are on different animals’ meat quality and novel meat products.

  7. Effect of the daily consumption of ostrich and bovine meat on the lipid metabolism in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Vasconcelos de Carvalho-Filho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of the daily consumption of ostrich meat (lliofemuralis internus and bovine meat (Psoas major on the lipid metabolism in adult mice. The analyses of the centesimal composition of the meats and preparation of the diets were accomplished following the recommendations of the American Institute of Nutrition-AIN-93. Three groups of 150 day-old animals: group I (diet I, with casein, group II (diet II, with ostrich meat, and group III (diet III with bovine meat were fed for 13 weeks with the respective diets and weight gain, food efficiency coefficient, total cholesterol, lipoprotein fractions, hepatic, transaminases and body fat percentage and hepatic fat content were evaluated. No difference (p < 0.05 it was found for weight gain and coefficients for feed efficiency among the groups. Total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, relationship of total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol, VLDL, triglycerides and hepatic transaminases were also not different among the groups (p < 0.05. This research suggests that the consumption of ostrich meat or thin bovine meat on a daily basis does not raise concerns about weight gain, and an increase in the plasma concentrations of lipoprotein and levels of hepatic transaminase.

  8. 76 FR 23331 - Native American Business Development Institute (NABDI) Funding Solicitations and Reporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... sustainable economies on American Indian reservations. The DED created the Native American Business... federally recognized American Indian tribes seeking to retain universities and colleges, private consulting... economic development project or business or the practicality of a technology a tribe may choose to pursue...

  9. In the elderly, meat protein assimilation from rare meat is lower than that from meat that is well done.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffière, Caroline; Gaudichon, Claire; Hafnaoui, Noureddine; Migné, Carole; Scislowsky, Valérie; Khodorova, Nadezda; Mosoni, Laurent; Blot, Adeline; Boirie, Yves; Dardevet, Dominique; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique; Rémond, Didier

    2017-11-01

    Background: Meat cooking conditions in in vitro and in vivo models have been shown to influence the rate of protein digestion, which is known to affect postprandial protein metabolism in the elderly. Objective: The present study was conducted to demonstrate the effect of cooking conditions on meat protein assimilation in the elderly. We used a single-meal protocol to assess the meat protein absorption rate and estimate postprandial meat protein utilization in elderly subjects. Design: The study recruited 10 elderly volunteers aged 70-82 y. Each received, on 2 separate occasions, a test meal exclusively composed of intrinsically 15 N-labeled bovine meat (30 g protein), cooked at 55°C for 5 min [rare meat (RM)] or at 90°C for 30 min [fully cooked meat (FCM)], and minced. Whole-body fluxes of leucine, before and after the meal, were determined with the use of a [1- 13 C]leucine intravenous infusion. Meat protein absorption was recorded with the use of 15 N enrichment of amino acids. Results: Postprandial time course observations showed a lower concentration in the plasma of indispensable amino acids ( P meat leucine in the plasma ( P meat nitrogen to plasma amino acid nitrogen ( P meat amino acids with RM than with FCM. This was associated with decreased postprandial whole-body protein synthesis with RM than with FCM (40% compared with 56% of leucine intake, respectively; P meat cooking conditions have little effect on postprandial protein utilization in young adults, the present work showed that the bioavailability and assimilation of meat amino acids in the elderly is lower when meat is poorly cooked. In view to preventing sarcopenia, elderly subjects should be advised to favor the consumption of well-cooked meat. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02157805. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. The Architects’ Small House Service Bureau and the American Institute of Architects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Tucker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A group of Minnesota architects created the ASHSB in 1914 to provide a solution for theshortage of middle class housing in the U.S. By 1919, the bureau had offices throughout the U.S. and received the endorsement of both the American Institute of Architects and the Department of Commerce. During this time, the members of the Bureau produced hundreds of plan sets and monthly bulletins to assist homeowners with their housing choices. The monthly magazine The Small Home, in conjunction with the published plan books--Your Future Home and How to Plan, Finance, and BuildYour Home--dispensed valuable information to potential homebuyers across the nation. To date, one master’s thesis (Lisa Schrenk, University of Virginia 1990 and an article (Thomas Harvey, 1991 have been written about the ASHSB. Neither one discussed the relationship of this group with the AIA, a keyendorsement agency.This research involved extensive archival research at the AIA. Records from the early 20th century were analyzed to determine the relationship between the AIA and the ASHSB in the early 20th century. This relationship provides insight into the current lack of architectural involvement in single-family house design today. The single most prevalent building type in the U.S. is the single-family house, yet architects are little involved in the design of most of them. Architects have the ability and training to create sustainable, affordable, and well-design single-family houses and yet they do not. This paper seeks to provide one explanation through the interpretation of the historic relationship of the AIA to the ASHSB.

  11. A history of radiologic pathology correlation at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology and its evolution into the American Institute for Radiologic Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphey, Mark D; Madewell, John E; Olmsted, William W; Ros, Pablo R; Neiman, Harvey L

    2012-02-01

    The evolution of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) has played an important role in the history of pathology education and in radiologic pathology correlation in the United States. From its humble beginnings as a museum, showcasing dried and varnished morbid specimens--human relics of the Civil War, the institute became a leader in pathology. Later, it became a center of instruction for radiology residents seeking to understand the pathologic findings that underlay the radiologic appearance of disease. Images were gathered by the AFIP and the American Registry of Pathology (ARP) and have been used in research and education in radiology and other fields (ophthalmology, otalaryngology, dermatology, obstetrics and gynecology, and surgery). Despite the contributions of the AFIP, the ARP, and the Radiologic Pathology Correlation Course, high-ranking members of the military and the federal government frowned on a military-owned educational system that also served civilians. Although support from the radiology community dissuaded military officers and federal officials from taking action against the participation of civilians, the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) provisions mandated the disestablishment of the AFIP, forcing the redistribution of some of its resources to other military-only organizations and disbanding other AFIP functions. To ensure that the correlation course, known to radiology residents as the "rad-path" course, was not a casualty of the BRAC, the American College of Radiology (ACR) and leaders of the AFIP and ARP agreed that the ACR should continue this vital educational endeavor. In January 2011, the American Institute for Radiologic Pathology of the ACR debuted and successfully instructed 268 radiology residents, including 40 international residents. The faculty and staff, who had been part of the course at the AFIP, continue to help enrich and improve the course established by their predecessors. © RSNA, 2011

  12. Majority to Minority: The Adjustment of Asian American Hawai'i Residents at Predominantly White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Cheri Y. H.

    2015-01-01

    Within the United States, the model minority myth has contributed to empirically unsubstantiated misconceptions about Asian American college students. Although there is considerable research on college student adjustment and its role in persistence, literature focusing on the Asian American experience is lacking. Furthermore, the experience of…

  13. Recruitment and Retention Strategies Utilized by 1890 Land Grant Institutions in Relation to African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Johnnie R.; Alston, Antoine J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the strategies employed by 1890 land grant universities in recruiting and retaining African Americans in agricultural science. Recruitment strategies such as African American agricultural role models, secondary agricultural education, summer enrichment programs, and prior agricultural life experiences were…

  14. Web Evaluation at the US National Institutes of Health: Use of the American Customer Satisfaction Index Online Customer Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Fred B; Siegel, Elliot R; Feldman, Sue; Love, Cynthia B; Rodrigues, Dennis; Malamud, Mark; Lagana, Marie; Crafts, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Background The National Institutes of Health (NIH), US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), realized the need to better understand its Web users in order to help assure that websites are user friendly and well designed for effective information dissemination. A trans-NIH group proposed a trans-NIH project to implement an online customer survey, known as the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) survey, on a large number of NIH websites—the first “enterprise-wide” ACSI applicat...

  15. Institutional Branding: A Content Analysis of Public Service Announcements from American Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Michael J.; Cavanagh, Kevin V.; Hettche, Matt

    2012-01-01

    American universities receive millions of dollars worth of media exposure every year via Public Service Announcements (PSAs) broadcast during their respective school's athletic competitions. This research explores the message strategies and executional devices used by NCAA FBS (National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Bowl Subdivision)…

  16. Predominantly Black Institutions and Public Montessori Schools: Reclaiming the "Genius" in African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jor'dan, Jamilah R.

    2018-01-01

    There are more than 22,000 Montessori schools in over 100 countries worldwide. Beginning in the 1950s the American Montessori movement was primarily a private pre-school movement. There are more than 5,000 schools in the United States; over 500 of these are public. Montessori schools are an increasingly popular choice in the U.S. for public school…

  17. Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Academic Adjustment among African American Women Attending Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Deneia M.; Love, Keisha M.; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Tyler, Keneth M.; Brown, Carrie Lynn; Garriott, Patton O.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among self-efficacy beliefs, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and academic adjustment among 111 African American women in college. Results revealed that self-efficacy beliefs predicted Motivation to Know, Externally Regulated motivation, Identified motivation, and academic adjustment. Furthermore,…

  18. Do Black Families Value Education? White Teachers, Institutional Cultural Narratives, & Beliefs about African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchner, Laurel; Markowitz, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In this article Puchner and Markowitz illustrate a major problem in education and in teacher education, the underlying dynamics of which are a national problem. The problem of negative beliefs about African American families in schools is not a new idea but actually stems from unfounded and untested assumptions about the way the world works and…

  19. 75 FR 74077 - Information Collection for Native American Business Development Institute Funding for Economic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ...), Office of Indian Energy and Economic Development (IEED) seeks to spur job growth and sustainable... assistance funding to federally recognized American Indian tribes seeking to retain universities and colleges... an economic development project or business or the practicality of a technology a tribe may choose to...

  20. E-Learning Instructional Design Practice in American and Australian Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Sayed Hadi

    2017-01-01

    This research study provides a comparative understanding of instructional design e-practice in an Australian and an American university. This comparative study identifies information relating to the current status of instructional design e-practice that will be of assistance to Australian universities to improve their existing online programs. The…

  1. Modelling Meat Quality Attributes.

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Terence C.

    2001-01-01

    Recent meat demand models incorporate demand functions for cuts of meat rather than whole carcasses. However, parameters for “meat quality” are seldom included in such models. Modelling difficulty arises as meat cuts are heterogeneous in their quality attributes. Meat quality may be assessed by measurement of attributes including tenderness, juiciness and flavour. Cooking method and cooking time are the two primary factors that affect meat-eating quality. The purpose of this paper is to show ...

  2. Science self-efficacy of African Americans enrolled in freshman level physical science courses in two historically black institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihoda, Belinda Ann

    2011-12-01

    Science education must be a priority for citizens to function and be productive in a global, technological society. African Americans receive fewer science degrees in proportion to the Caucasian population. The primary purposes of this study were to determine the difference between the pretest and posttest science self-efficacy scores of African-American nonscience majors, the difference between the pretest and posttest science self-efficacy scores of African-American science majors, the relationship between science self-efficacy and course grade, the relationship between gender and science self-efficacy score, and the relationship between science self-efficacy score and course withdrawal. This study utilized a Likert survey instrument. All participants were enrolled in freshman level courses in the physical sciences at a historically black institution: a college or university. Participants completed the pretest survey within two weeks after the 12th class day of the semester. Initially, 458 participants completed the pretest survey. The posttest was administered within two weeks before the final exam. Only 245 participants completed the posttest survey. Results indicate that there is a difference in science self-efficacy of science majors and nonscience majors. There was no significant difference between the pretest and posttest science self-efficacy scores of African-American science majors and nonscience majors. There was no significant relationship between science self-efficacy and course grade, gender and science self-efficacy score, and course withdrawal and science self-efficacy score.

  3. North American Natural Gas Supply Forecast: The Hubbert Method Including the Effects of Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Douglas B.; Kolodziej, Marek

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the U.S. and southern Canadian natural gas supply market is considered. An important model for oil and natural gas supply is the Hubbert curve. Not all regions of the world are producing oil or natural gas following a Hubbert curve, even when price and market conditions are accounted for. One reason is that institutions are affecting supply. We investigate the possible effects of oil and gas market institutions in North America on natural gas supply. A multi-cycle Hubbert cur...

  4. Institutional Autonomy and Academic Freedom: A Perspective from the American Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosa, Alvaro Romo

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a brief historical overview on the origin and development of institutional autonomy and academic freedom in the United States of America and in Latin America. Such overview allows the reader to contrast two different geographical contexts, as well as different and even opposing opinions concerning the meaning of the concepts…

  5. Launching New Institutions: Solving the Chicken-or-Egg Problem in American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Currently, a US college or university must be accredited to be eligible to receive federal financial aid. To get accredited, an institution must have already been serving students, but most students are dependent on federal financial aid. As a result, in order to launch a new college or university, there is an insurmountable problem: having…

  6. Speaking from Different Positions: Framing African American College Male Literacies as Institutional Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Collin

    2014-01-01

    This essay explores Black male literacy practices as institutional critique at a large Midwestern land grant university. Through documenting a student's process of reinstatement at his university, I demonstrate how vernacular perspectives, language, and networking strategies are used for developing self-efficacy and critical literacies. Black…

  7. Institutional Identity and Self-Esteem among African American Males in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Dominique L.; Smith, Chauncey D.; Marks, Bryant T.; Crosby, Brandon

    2012-01-01

    Social identity theory maintains that one's self-concept is partially determined by the social groups to which the individual belongs. Using this as a theoretical framework, this study examined the relationship between multiple dimensions of institutional identity and self-esteem in 411 Black male college freshmen. It was hypothesized that…

  8. Nutritional evaluation of lowering consumption of meat and meat products in the Nordic context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge; Hoppe, Camilla; Frost Andersen, Lene

    to individuals was to ingest less than 500 grams of red meat per weeks, and very little - if anything - processed meats. In a new study, National Food Institute has assessed the nutritional consequences from living the recommendations of the WCRF, in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark. The current consumption...

  9. Massive open online courses in health sciences from Latin American institutions: A need for improvement? [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Culquichicón

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Massive open online courses (MOOCs have undergone exponential growth over the past few years, offering free and worldwide access to high-quality education. We identified the characteristics of MOOCs in the health sciences offered by Latin American institutions (LAIs. Methods: We screened the eight leading MOOCs platforms to gather their list of offerings. The MOOCs were classified by region and subject. Then, we obtained the following information: Scopus H-index for each institution and course instructor, QS World University Ranking® 2015/16 of LAI, and official language of the course. Results: Our search identified 4170 MOOCs worldwide. From them, 205 MOOCs were offered by LAIs, and six MOOCs were health sciences related. Most of these courses (n = 115 were offered through Coursera. One health science MOOC was taught by three instructors, of which only one was registered in Scopus (H-index = 0. The remaining five health science MOOCs had solely one instructor (H-index = 4 [0–17]. The Latin American country with the highest participation was Brazil (n = 11. Conclusion: The contribution of LAI to MOOCs in the health sciences is low.

  10. The Exchange Programme of the Belgian American Educational Foundation: An Institutional Perspective on Scientific Persona Formation (1920-1940.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Huistra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we propose an institutional perspective on persona formation. Not unlike individual scientists, institutions such as funding bodies took an active interest in shaping the scientific persona. As a case in point, we discuss the Belgian American Educational Foundation (BAEF that sent hundreds of aspiring Belgian scientists to the United States during the Interwar period. The BAEF went to great lengths to optimise its selection procedure and formulated conditions pertaining to both the mental and physical fitness of its grantees. In this way, the BAEF cut off some repertoires of being a scientist and encouraged its fellows to demonstrate certain qualities when in front of the funding body. This, we argue, points to the performative and occasional character of scientific personae. Geschikt om te reizen. Het uitwisselingsprogramma van de Belgian American Education Foundation. Een institutioneel perspectief op de vorming van wetenschappelijke personae (1920-1940. In dit artikel benaderen wij de vorming van personae vanuit een institutioneel perspectief. Net als individuele wetenschappers zijn instituties zoals funding bodies actief betrokken bij het scheppen en in standhouden van wetenschappelijke personae. Als voorbeeld hiervan bespreken wij de Belgian American Educational Foundation (BAEF. In het Interbellum zond de BAEF honderden wetenschappers-in-wording naar de Verenigde Staten. Daarbij getroostte de organisatie zich veel moeite om de selectieprocedure te optimaliseren en stelde zij voorwaarden aan zowel de mentale als fysieke conditie van haar fellows. De BAEF maakte hiermee sommige repertoires van het wetenschapper-zijn onmogelijk, terwijl zij haar fellows aanmoedigde om bepaalde andere kwaliteiten voor het voetlicht te brengen voor de ogen van de funding body. Dit toont aan, zo betogen wij, dat de wetenschappelijke persona gesitueerd en performatief is.

  11. The Exchange Programme of the Belgian American Educational Foundation: An Institutional Perspective on Scientific Persona Formation (1920-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Huistra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we propose an institutional perspective on persona formation. Not unlike individual scientists, institutions such as funding bodies took an active interest in shaping the scientific persona. As a case in point, we discuss the Belgian American Educational Foundation (BAEF that sent hundreds of aspiring Belgian scientists to the United States during the Interwar period. The BAEF went to great lengths to optimise its selection procedure and formulated conditions pertaining to both the mental and physical fitness of its grantees. In this way, the BAEF cut off some repertoires of being a scientist and encouraged its fellows to demonstrate certain qualities when in front of the funding body. This, we argue, points to the performative and occasional character of scientific personae. Geschikt om te reizen. Het uitwisselingsprogramma van de Belgian American Education Foundation. Een institutioneel perspectief op de vorming van wetenschappelijke personae (1920-1940In dit artikel benaderen wij de vorming van personae vanuit een institutioneel perspectief. Net als individuele wetenschappers zijn instituties zoals funding bodies actief betrokken bij het scheppen en in standhouden van wetenschappelijke personae. Als voorbeeld hiervan bespreken wij de Belgian American Educational Foundation (BAEF. In het Interbellum zond de BAEF honderden wetenschappers-in-wording naar de Verenigde Staten. Daarbij getroostte de organisatie zich veel moeite om de selectieprocedure te optimaliseren en stelde zij voorwaarden aan zowel de mentale als fysieke conditie van haar fellows. De BAEF maakte hiermee sommige repertoires van het wetenschapper-zijn onmogelijk, terwijl zij haar fellows aanmoedigde om bepaalde andere kwaliteiten voor het voetlicht te brengen voor de ogen van de funding body. Dit toont aan, zo betogen wij, dat de wetenschappelijke persona gesitueerd en performatief is.

  12. Declines in trust in others and confidence in institutions among American adults and late adolescents, 1972-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Campbell, W Keith; Carter, Nathan T

    2014-10-01

    Between 1972 and 2012, Americans became significantly less trusting of each other and less confident in large institutions, such as the news media, business, religious organizations, the medical establishment, Congress, and the presidency. Levels of trust and confidence, key indicators of social capital, reached all-time or near-all-time lows in 2012 in the nationally representative General Social Survey of adults (1972-2012; N = 37,493) and the nationally representative Monitoring the Future survey of 12th graders (1976-2012; N = 101,633). Hierarchical modeling analyses separating the effects of time period, generation, and age show that this decline in social capital is primarily a time-period effect. Confidence in institutions is also influenced by generation, with Baby Boomers lowest. Trust was lowest when income inequality was high, and confidence in institutions was lowest when poverty rates were high. The prediction of a sustained revival in social capital after 2001 seems to have been premature. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. American Thoracic Society and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Implementation Research Workshop Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Bruce G; Krishnan, Jerry A; Chambers, David A; Cloutier, Michelle M; Riekert, Kristin A; Rand, Cynthia S; Schatz, Michael; Thomson, Carey C; Wilson, Sandra R; Apter, Andrea; Carson, Shannon S; George, Maureen; Gerald, Joe K; Gerald, Lynn; Goss, Christopher H; Okelo, Sande O; Mularski, Richard A; Nguyen, Huong Q; Patel, Minal R; Szefler, Stanley J; Weiss, Curtis H; Wilson, Kevin C; Freemer, Michelle

    2015-12-01

    To advance implementation research (IR) in respiratory, sleep, and critical care medicine, the American Thoracic Society and the Division of Lung Diseases from the NHLBI cosponsored an Implementation Research Workshop on May 17, 2014. The goals of IR are to understand the barriers and facilitators of integrating new evidence into healthcare practices and to develop and test strategies that systematically target these factors to accelerate the adoption of evidence-based care. Throughout the workshop, presenters provided examples of IR that focused on the rate of adoption of evidence-based practices, the feasibility and acceptability of interventions to patients and other stakeholders who make healthcare decisions, the fidelity with which practitioners use specific interventions, the effects of specific barriers on the sustainability of an intervention, and the implications of their research to inform policies to improve patients' access to high-quality care. During the discussions that ensued, investigators' experience led to recommendations underscoring the importance of identifying and involving key stakeholders throughout the research process, ensuring that those who serve as reviewers understand the tenets of IR, managing staff motivation and turnover, and tackling the challenges of scaling up interventions across multiple settings.

  14. Professional projects and institutional change in healthcare: the case of American dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchener, Martin; Mertz, Elizabeth

    2012-02-01

    This paper combines resources from the organization studies and sociology literatures to advance understanding of institutional change processes in healthcare that emerge from the professionalization projects of occupations. Conceptually, we introduce a model that combines the 'archetype' approach to analyzing structural change with a framework for analyzing the agency of emergent professions. We then employ the model to frame a historical case analysis (1972-2009) of the highly contested process by which the occupation of dental hygiene in the US fought to introduce a new organizational form, the alternative practice hygiene (APH) archetype. This archetype challenges the traditional model (the dentist's office archetype) that is supported by the dominant dentistry profession. Our analysis contributes two main sets of empirical findings. First, we present a systematic comparison of the APH and Dentist's Office archetypes in terms of their belief systems, formal structures, agents, and policy implications (e.g., access to services). Second, we provide an account of the agency of dental hygienists' attempts to secure the APH model as part of their professionalization project. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Professional Projects and Institutional Change in Healthcare: The Case of American Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchener, Martin; Mertz, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This paper combines resources from the organization studies and sociology literatures to advance understanding of institutional change processes in healthcare that emerge from the professionalization projects of occupations. Conceptually, we introduce a model that combines the ‘archetype’ approach to analyzing structural change with a framework for analyzing the agency of emergent professions. We then employ the model to frame a historical case analysis (1972-2009) of the highly contested process by which the occupation of dental hygiene in the US fought to introduce a new organizational form, the alternative practice hygiene (APH) archetype. This archetype challenges the traditional model (the Dentist's Office archetype) that is supported by the dominant dentistry profession. Our analysis contributes two main sets of empirical findings. First, we present a systematic comparison of the APH and Dentist's Office archetypes in terms of their belief systems, formal structures, agents, and policy implications (e.g., access to services). Second, we provide an account of the agency of dental hygienists' attempts to secure the APH model as part of their professionalization project. PMID:21075497

  16. In vitro meat: Zombies on the menu?

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, NS

    2010-01-01

    In April 2008 the In Vitro Meat Consortium held its first meeting at the Norwegian Food Research Institute. They are a group of scientists and advocates who seek to turn the techniques of tissue engineering to the production of food, producing meat in laboratories that has at no point been part of a living animal. This is a fascinating technology, and one that fits well with the topic of this SCRIPTed analysis section: the ‘zombification’ of meat products. I have been conducting interviews wi...

  17. Assessment monitoring of laboratory critical values: a College of American Pathologists Q-Tracks study of 180 institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagar, Elizabeth A; Stankovic, Ana K; Wilkinson, David S; Walsh, Molly; Souers, Rhona J

    2007-01-01

    Critical laboratory value reporting is a highly visible and essential key activity for clinical laboratories. To measure critical laboratory value reporting in multiple institutions over time and to examine the practice patterns and demographic factors associated with sustained improvement in critical value reporting. A longitudinal cohort study of 180 clinical laboratories that provided quarterly critical values reporting data for 2 to 16 quarters was conducted using a uniform definition of successful caregiver notification. Mixed linear model analysis of the 2001 through 2004 dataset was performed. A decrease in total and inpatient rates of undocumented critical values per 1000 results was associated with (1) the American Association of Blood Banks inspection within the past 2 years (P = .01, for both total and inpatient rates); (2) unit secretary/clerical staff not authorized to accept inpatient critical value notification (P = .004 [total] and .001 [inpatient]); and (3) the mandatory practice of requiring notification of health care providers when handling inpatients known to have results repeatedly in the critical range (P = .01, for both total and inpatient rates). Continued participation in the Q-Tracks monitoring program was associated with significant and progressive improvement in total, inpatient, and outpatient critical value reporting (P = .02, .01, and .003, respectively). Critical value reporting improved as the duration of participation in the Q-Tracks monitoring program increased. Improved total and inpatient critical value reporting was associated with factors that may be markers for institutions with priorities of quality management and enhanced communication with responsible caregivers.

  18. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION DURING THE CUTTING OF FROZEN MEAT BLOCKS USING MULTIPLE EDGE TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Lisitsyn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Currently, frozen meat blocks are widely used in meat processing for production of sausages and other meat products. Efficient grinding of frozen raw meat is an urgent task for meat industry professionals. The V.M.  Gorbatov All-Russian Meat Research Institute has developed energy- and resource-saving process for grinding of frozen meat blocks by milling. Determination of energy consumption for grinding of raw materials by multiple edge tools (milling tools is the most important step in the creating of new type mincing machine.

  19. The Experience Of The Meteorological Support By The National Institute Of Meteorology During The XV Pan-american Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Braga, A.; Raposo, R.; Ito, E.; Gadelha, A.; Dallantonia, A.

    2008-05-01

    emitted in Portuguese, English and Spanish, and sent to the INMET homepage, organizing committee, and specific area (intranet) accessed only by the athletes and technical commissions. Direct interaction with the game organizers allowed for a more efficient and precise decision-making process regarding meteorological effects in some sport modalities. As an example we can mention the fact that during the women marathon competition a low humidity alert was forecasted and the organizers took care to increase hydratation to prevent problems. INMET's participation during the XVth Pan-American Games, which took place in Rio de Janeiro in July 2007, represented a good opportunity for the institute to provide a tailor-made short range forecast with specific application. INMET's performance was recognized by the organizing committee and the occasion helped to divulge products and services provided by the institution.

  20. Exposure estimates of nitrite and nitrate from consumption of cured meat products by the U.S. population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoung S

    2018-01-01

    The dietary exposures of nitrite and nitrate from consumption of cured meat products were estimated for the U.S. population aged 2 years and older, and children aged 2 to 5 years, using both 2-day food consumption data from the publicly available combined 2009-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and 10-14-day food consumption data from the 2009 and 2012 NPD Group, Inc. National Eating Trends-Nutrient Intake database (NPD NET-NID), and residual nitrite and nitrate levels in cured meat products available from the recent American Meat Institute Foundation/National Pork Board (AMIF/NPB) national market survey of the nitrite and nitrate levels in cured meat products in the U.S.A. The dietary exposure for consumers of cured meat products (eaters-only) was estimated at the mean and 90th percentile for three exposure scenarios: low exposure, average exposure, and high exposure, to account for the range in the amount of nitrite and nitrate in a given cured meat product category. In addition, a cumulative exposure that takes into account all cured meat product categories containing nitrite and nitrate was determined, and the relative percent contribution of each cured meat product category to the cumulative exposure was estimated. Cured, cooked sausages and whole-muscle brine-cured products were the two major contributing categories to dietary exposure of nitrite and nitrate for both U.S. population aged 2 years and older and children aged 2-5 years.

  1. Commentary: More implications of the 2008 amendments to the Americans with Disabilities Act: influencing institutional policies, practices, and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLisa, Joel; Silverstein, Robert; Thomas, Peter

    2011-06-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a civil rights law designed to ensure that qualified individuals with disabilities are not discriminated against by covered entities. Under the ADA, colleges of medicine were expected to focus their attention on implementing policies that facilitated equal educational opportunity, not on the threshold question of whether an individual was considered "disabled enough" to be protected by the law. In this issue, Allen and Smith examine the implications of the 2008 ADA Amendments Act (ADAAA) for medical education, focusing on the potential for the ADAAA to eliminate the threshold question and allow individuals seeking protection to bring their cases to trial.The authors of this commentary argue that the ADAAA also has important implications for institutions like colleges of medicine and the National Board of Medical Examiners that must not be overlooked. The impact of the ADAAA on colleges of medicine will depend in large part on how they historically viewed their obligations under the ADA. Those institutions that focused on eliminating all vestiges of disability discrimination by implementing comprehensive, system-wide, evidence-based policies, practices, and procedures related to reasonable accommodations and academic modifications/adjustments will experience little or no impact under the ADAAA. Those colleges that attempted to avoid or minimize compliance with the ADA by focusing on whether an individual achieved sufficient disability status to be protected by the law will need to pay closer attention to the development and implementation of nondiscrimination policies, particularly policies relating to reasonable accommodations and academic modifications/adjustments.

  2. Energy and the new class. [Assault of ''new breed'' of American on established institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L.

    1979-03-14

    The bounty of the US is taken for granted by its population. Nowhere is this misvaluation of a society and its benefits more evident than in the energy industries. But energy represents a tool by which society can be shaped; a device by which the standared of living and the very nature of the national lifestyle can be controlled, modified, amplified, or reduced. Two examples examined to show how energy shapes social order and human life are the women's movement and the desire to live in the Sunbelt. Five phenomena are then examined to point out the desire to restrain the nation's rampant pursuit of a higher standard of living, as opposed to the more subjective and seemingly more desirable goal of a better quality of life: the civil rights movement; the environmental movement; the Vietnam War; the Watergate scandal; and the assumption that prosperity at today's level is irreducible, concrete, and not subject to diminution. The ''new class'' is essentially made up of those educated in the liberal arts, divorced from an understanding of the mechanics of free-enterprise institutions and of the sicences. The antagonistic view of the new class of corporations and its assault on established institutions are noted. Energy companies are frustrated in telling their story, but the story that must be told is not the story of how excellently the energy sector has performed, but the story of how a new breed of Americans is seeking to remake America in its own image without the rest being aware of what is going on. (MCW)

  3. Naturopathic Practice at North American Academic Institutions: Description of 300,483 Visits and Comparison to Conventional Primary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Chamberlin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study collected patient visit data to explore similarities and differences between conventional and naturopathic primary care (PC. Administrative data from practice management software systems from the main teaching clinics of four of the eight accredited North American naturopathic academic institutions were abstracted into an integrated database containing five years (2006–2010 of visit, patient, laboratory, and prescribing data. Descriptive analyses of healthcare services were compared to the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS. Over the five-year period, 300,483 patient visits to naturopathic doctors occurred at clinics, excluding visits at clinics operated by the schools in community settings. Patients were 69% female; mean age was 39 (SE 0.09. Older adults (>65 comprised 9% of the population and children (<16 comprised 8%. Comparing academic naturopathic clinics to national conventional PC (NAMCS, we found more patients paid out of pocket at naturopathic clinics (50 vs. 4% and naturopathic clinics more frequently offered discounted care (26 vs. 0.3%. There was a 44% overlap in the most frequent 25 diagnoses for PC at conventional community clinics. Overall, these data suggest substantial similarities in care offered by academic naturopathic clinics, at which most Naturopathic Doctor (ND students are trained, and by conventional PC practices.

  4. Adolescents' perceptions about smoking prevention strategies: a comparison of the programmes of the American Lung Association and the Tobacco Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBon, M; Klesges, R C

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate components of the teenage smoking prevention programmes of the American Lung Association (ALA) and the Tobacco Institute (TI). Group administration of written questionnaires in school. The components of the ALA's and TI's programmes were presented to students in seven strategy vignettes, covering the following topics: peer pressure/enhanced communication; parents as role models; health consequences of smoking; cost of smoking; smoking as an illegal act; tips for quitting smoking; and responsible decision making. 172 seventh-grade students (mean age = 12.3 years) from six parochial schools in Memphis, Tennessee, United States. Student ratings of the perceived effectiveness of the ALA and TI approaches (in helping to stop teens from smoking) within each strategy vignette, and students' choice between these two approaches as to which was the better smoking prevention technique. Although there were some moderating effects of gender and race, participants overall strongly favoured the ALA programme over that of the TI. Of the seven programme components, the ALA's approach was rated more effective on six (peer pressure, parents as role models, the health consequences of smoking, the cost of smoking, tips for quitting smoking, responsible decision making) and the TI's was rated more effective on one (not smoking because it is illegal). The ALA's programme was perceived to be much more effective than the TI's programme by those whom these programmes are ultimately intended to influence-young people. Future research in this area should pursue longitudinal designs to determine if programme endorsement is predictive of smoking status.

  5. In Her Own Voice: A Narrative Study of the Persistence Strategies of Eight African American Women Vice Presidents for Student Affairs at Predominately White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylton, Dahlia Gabrielle

    2012-01-01

    This narrative study explored the personal and professional experiences of eight African American women vice presidents for student affairs (VPSA) employed at predominately White institutions (PWIs) and the persistence strategies they used while working at a PWI. Through the use of narrative inquiry methods, I utilized a purposeful sample of eight…

  6. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research lifestyle recommendations in colorectal cancer survivors : Results of the PROFILES registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, Renate M; van Lee, Linde; Beijer, Sandra; Bours, Martijn J; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Geelen, Anouk; Hoedjes, M.; Mols, F.; de Vries, Jeanne; Weijenberg, Matty P; Kampman, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    We examined adherence to the eight The World Cancer Research Foundation/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) recommendations on diet, physical activity, and body weight among colorectal cancer survivors, and whether adherence was associated with intention to eat healthy and with the

  7. A Netnographic Analysis of Prospective International Students' Decision-Making Process: Implications for Institutional Branding of American Universities in the Emerging Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Lili; Xu, Chunhao; Pelton, Lou E.

    2016-01-01

    The enrollment of international students (e.g. students admitted using a F-1 visa into the U.S.) has been increasing continually for the past six academic years in American higher educational institutions. This article explores how Chinese applicants make decisions during their application journey for Master's degree programs in business schools.…

  8. The American Meteorological Society and Second Nature: Working Together to Increase Climate Literacy at Minority Serving Institutions Nationwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, J. A.; Geer, I. W.; Mills, E. W.; Kauffman, C.; Nugnes, K. A.; Naik, A.

    2013-12-01

    To raise climate literacy, the American Meteorological Society (AMS) developed AMS Climate Studies, an innovative, undergraduate-level climate science course. With a focus on real-world climate data, the course is a primer for responsible, scientifically-literate participation in the discussion of climate change. Designed to be adaptable to traditional, hybrid, or online instructional settings, AMS Climate Studies has already been adopted by more than 80 institutions since fall 2010. Course materials include a hardcover textbook, an investigations manual, and an online lab component, Current Climate Studies, which is created weekly throughout the semester utilizing resources from the IPCC, the US Global Change Research Program, NASA, and NOAA. AMS Climate Studies is mutually beneficial because AMS enhances coursework with real-world data while NASA, NOAA, and other government agencies reach a much larger audience with the results of their work. With support from NSF and NASA and in partnership with Second Nature, AMS offers the AMS Climate Studies Diversity Project with the goal of training 100 minority-serving institution (MSI) faculty members to implement the climate course on their campus. The Diversity Project consists of an expenses-paid weeklong workshop for MSI faculty members and a follow-up workshop at the next year's AMS Annual Meeting. The initial workshop covers fundamental understandings within AMS Climate Studies and implementation procedures. Highlights of this workshop are presentations from NOAA, NASA, and other government and university climate scientists as well as field trips to science laboratories. In the year following workshop attendance, faculty work within their MSI to implement AMS Climate Studies. Participants are then invited to a second workshop at the AMS Annual Meeting to report back the results of their work. Currently in its second year, the Project has trained 50 MSI faculty members with subsequent workshops to be held throughout

  9. Technological characteristics of meat - viscosity

    OpenAIRE

    DIBĎÁK, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is focused on the technological characteristics of meat, mainly viscosity of meat. At the beginning I dealt with construction of meat and various types of meat: beef, veal, pork, mutton, rabbit, poultry and venison. Then I described basic chemical composition of meat and it?s characteristic. In detail I dealt with viscosity of meat. Viscosity is the ability of meat to bind water both own and added. I mentioned influences, which effects viscosity and I presented the possib...

  10. Meat analogues: Health promising sustainable meat substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pavan; Chatli, M K; Mehta, Nitin; Singh, Parminder; Malav, O P; Verma, Akhilesh K

    2017-03-24

    There is a scarcity of protein of high biological value due to rapid increase in the world population and limited natural resources. Meat is a good source of protein of high biological value but converting the vegetable protein into animal protein is not economical. There is a trend of production of healthy and delicious meat free food for satisfaction of vegetarian and personal well beings. This resulted in increasing use of low cost vegetable protein such as textured soy protein, mushroom, wheat gluten, pulses etc as a substitute for animal-protein. These simulated meat-like products, with similar texture, flavor, color, and nutritive value can be substituted directly for meat to all sections of the society.

  11. Success of the International Year of the Planet Earth through Targeted High-impact Programs at the American Geological Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, P.

    2007-12-01

    The American Geological Institute (AGI) is one of the 12 founding partners of the International Year of the Planet Earth (IYPE) and as such AGI serves on its governing board. AGI is a nonprofit federation of 44 geoscientific and professional associations that represents more than 120,000 geologists, geophysicists, and other earth scientists. AGI provides information services to geoscientists, serves as a voice of shared interests in our profession, plays a major role in strengthening geoscience education, and strives to increase public awareness of the vital role the geosciences play in society's use of resources, resilience to natural hazards, and the health of the environment. The outreach and educational opportunities afforded by IYPE provide AGI with an international venue to promote the role of the geosciences in the daily life of society. AGI's successful release of the 4-part television series entitled Faces of Earth done in partnership with the Discovery Communications is a hallmark example of an outreach product that is technically accurate but designed to engage the non-scientific audience in the wonderment of our science. The series focuses on building the planet, shaping the planet, assembling America, and the human world. Custom short cuts have been produced for special purposes and one of these may be used as part of an IYPE-launch event in Europe. AGI's news magazine, Geotimes will highlight appropriate IYPE events to increase the awareness of the American geoscience community. In addition, Geotimes will promote IYPE by using its logo routinely and through publishing advertisements reminding its professional and public readership of the importance of the IYPE triennium. Similarly, as part of AGI's K-12 educational efforts and teacher training and through its development of Earth Science Week materials, the goals, accomplishments, and importance of IYPE will be incorporated into the targeted educational audiences. IYPE activities will be highlighted

  12. Biogenic amines in meat and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Capillas, Claudia; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    It has been recognized for some time that biogenic amines occur in a wide range of foods, among them meat and meat products. Meat is an important component of the diet in developed countries. The presence of these amines in food is of interest for two reasons: firstly, for toxicological reasons, in the sense that high levels of dietary biogenic amines can be toxic for certain consumers, and secondly, for their role as possible quality indicators. Based on these two premises, the present article offers a new analysis on aspects of toxicology and on the use of biogenic amines as a quality control method, as well as on their presence in meat and meat products. The article focuses particularly on factors affecting the production of biogenic amines, with reference to various parameters relating to microorganisms, meat raw materials, and processing conditions. A better understanding of the factors determining their formation (i.e., microorganisms, raw materials used, and technological processes applied) and their effects could lead to ways of controlling their production, limiting their presence in the end product, and hence, rendering them less toxic.

  13. OPREVENT2: Design of a multi-institutional intervention for obesity control and prevention for American Indian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Jock, Brittany; Redmond, Leslie; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Eckmann, Thomas; Bleich, Sara N; Loh, Hong; Ogburn, Elizabeth; Gadhoke, Preety; Swartz, Jacqueline; Pardilla, Marla; Caballero, Benjamin

    2017-01-23

    Obesity and other nutrition-related chronic disease rates are high in American Indian (AI) populations, and an urgent need exists to identify evidence-based strategies for prevention and treatment. Multi-level, multi-component (MLMC) interventions are needed, but there are significant knowledge gaps on how to deliver these types of interventions in low-income rural AI communities. OPREVENT2 is a MLMC intervention targeting AI adults living in six rural reservations in New Mexico and Wisconsin. Aiming to prevent and reduce obesity in adults by working at multiple levels of the food and physical activity (PA) environments, OPREVENT2 focuses on evidence-based strategies known to increase access to, demand for, and consumption of healthier foods and beverages, and increase worksite and home-based opportunities for PA. OPREVENT2 works to create systems-level change by partnering with tribal stakeholders, multiple levels of the food and PA environment (food stores, worksites, schools), and the social environment (children as change agents, families, social media). Extensive evaluation will be conducted at each level of the intervention to assess effectiveness via process and impact measures. Novel aspects of OPREVENT2 include: active engagement with stakeholders at many levels (policy, institutional, and at multiple levels of the food and PA system); use of community-based strategies to engage policymakers and other key stakeholders (community workshops, action committees); emphasis on both the built environment (intervening with retail food sources) and the social environment. This paper describes the design of the intervention and the evaluation plan of the OPREVENT2. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT02803853 (June 10, 2016).

  14. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research recommendations and colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turati, Federica; Bravi, Francesca; Di Maso, Matteo; Bosetti, Cristina; Polesel, Jerry; Serraino, Diego; Dalmartello, Michela; Giacosa, Attilio; Montella, Maurizio; Tavani, Alessandra; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2017-11-01

    The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) released in 2007 eight recommendations for cancer prevention on body fatness, diet and physical activity. Our aim is to evaluate the relation between adherence to these recommendations and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. We pooled data from two Italian case-control studies including overall 2419 patients with CRC and 4723 controls. Adherence to the WCRF/AICR guidelines was summarised through a score incorporating seven of the WCRF/AICR recommendations, with higher scores indicating higher adherence to the guidelines. Odds ratios (ORs) of colorectal cancer were estimated using multiple logistic regression models. Higher adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations was associated with a significantly reduced CRC risk (OR 0.67, 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.56-0.80 for a score ≥5 versus cancer (OR 0.67). Inverse associations were observed with the diet-specific WCRF/AICR score (OR 0.71, 95% CI, 0.61-0.84 for ≥3.5 versus <2.5 points) and with specific recommendations on body fatness (OR 0.82, 95% CI, 0.70-0.97), physical activity (OR 0.86, 95% CI, 0.75-1.00), foods and drinks that promote weight gain (OR 0.70, 95% CI, 0.56-0.89), foods of plant origin (OR 0.56, 95% CI, 0.42-0.76), limiting alcohol (OR 0.87, 95% CI, 0.77-0.99) and salt intake (OR 0.63, 95% CI, 0.48-0.84). Our study indicated that adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations is inversely related to CRC risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. OPREVENT2: Design of a multi-institutional intervention for obesity control and prevention for American Indian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Gittelsohn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and other nutrition-related chronic disease rates are high in American Indian (AI populations, and an urgent need exists to identify evidence-based strategies for prevention and treatment. Multi-level, multi-component (MLMC interventions are needed, but there are significant knowledge gaps on how to deliver these types of interventions in low-income rural AI communities. Methods OPREVENT2 is a MLMC intervention targeting AI adults living in six rural reservations in New Mexico and Wisconsin. Aiming to prevent and reduce obesity in adults by working at multiple levels of the food and physical activity (PA environments, OPREVENT2 focuses on evidence-based strategies known to increase access to, demand for, and consumption of healthier foods and beverages, and increase worksite and home-based opportunities for PA. OPREVENT2 works to create systems-level change by partnering with tribal stakeholders, multiple levels of the food and PA environment (food stores, worksites, schools, and the social environment (children as change agents, families, social media. Extensive evaluation will be conducted at each level of the intervention to assess effectiveness via process and impact measures. Discussion Novel aspects of OPREVENT2 include: active engagement with stakeholders at many levels (policy, institutional, and at multiple levels of the food and PA system; use of community-based strategies to engage policymakers and other key stakeholders (community workshops, action committees; emphasis on both the built environment (intervening with retail food sources and the social environment. This paper describes the design of the intervention and the evaluation plan of the OPREVENT2. Trial registration Clinical Trial Registration: NCT02803853 (June 10, 2016

  16. Meat Managers' Expectations Regarding Marketing of Irradiated Red Meats

    OpenAIRE

    Gaynor, Joe; Jensen, Kimberly L.; Jaenicke, Edward C.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess meat managers' expectations about impact of the recent regulatory approval of irradiated raw meat and meat products on marketing decisions and plans by supermarkets and grocery meat retailers. Forty managers of meat departments were interviewed in person to obtain the information for the study. While many of the meat managers believed that irradiation would help increase shelf life and reduce spoilage, they were less optimistic about consumers being wi...

  17. Meat science research tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Arturo García Macías

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Meat is a high quality food due its higher protein content, besides to provide energy, vitamins particularly B complex, water and minerals, resulting in an appreciated food for humans. Even in same country, consumers search for different stuffs, since north consumers looks for meat cuts with fat and bone, whereas center-south consumers prefers fatless debones meat cuts. Modern consumers demand excellent appearance, color, taste and flavor in foods, microbiologically safe, minimal processed and curing salts, very nutritive and cheap. All these together in one single product are a hard challenge in the meat products area.

  18. Update on meat irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, D.G.

    1997-01-01

    The irradiation of meat and poultry in the United States is intended to eliminate pathogenic bacteria from raw product, preferably after packaging to prevent recontamination. Irradiation will also increase the shelf life of raw meat and poultry products approximately two to three times the normal shelf life. Current clearances in the United States are for poultry (fresh or frozen) at doses from 1.5 to 3.0 kGy and for fresh pork at doses from 0.3 to 1.0 kGy. A petition for the clearance of all red meat was submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in July 1994. The petition is for clearances of fresh meat at doses from 1.5 to 4.5 kGy and for frozen meat at ∼2.5 to 7.5 kGy. Clearance for red meat is expected before the end of 1997. There are 28 countries that have food irradiation clearances, of which 18 countries have clearances for meat or poultry. However, there are no uniform categories or approved doses for meat and poultry among the countries that could hamper international trade of irradiated meat and poultry

  19. Creating healthier workplaces: The American Psychological Association/National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health cooperative agreement. Introduction and historical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, J C; Camara, W J; Johnson, J V; Sauter, S L; Hurrell, J J; Piotrkowski, C S; Spielberger, C D

    1997-01-01

    This article introduces the special section on the American Psychological Association/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (APA/NIOSH) collaboration. The section includes an overview statement of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health research by Linda Rosenstock and 5 competitively peer-reviewed articles submitted to the Journal of Occupational Health Psychology following their presentation in an earlier form at the 3rd APA/NIOSH conference in September 1995. This article provides a brief history of the APA/NIOSH collaboration forged at the turn of this decade.

  20. QUANTITATIVE STUDY OF THE WORLD MARKET OF MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena COFAS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the evolution of global market of meat in 2007-2011 and has been possible because the authors used an important set of indicators, namely: livestock, achieved production, imports, exports, trade balance, price etc. The data used in this work was provided by the following institutions accredited for collecting and processing statistical data: National Institute of Statistics, EUROSTAT, FAOSTAT, FAPRI and USDA. The analysis global market of meat is primarily a quantitative analysis. In the period which is analysed, the demand, the production, the imports, the exports and the prices have evolved differently, especially meat categories, so all these indicators have influenced global market of meat. In mainly, the meat consumption is influenced by the pattern of food consumption and price level. In the future, expect a increase prices, which is based on increasing production costs. Therefore, first it is necessary to adopt measures to support the farmers.

  1. The History and Future of the Southern Bible Institute: A Post-Secondary School of Biblical Studies for African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The United States of America has a long history in higher education, but one area of its history not exhausted through research involves higher education for African Americans. Specifically, higher education for African Americans in the area of theology or biblical studies presents numerous opportunities for further research. Soon after the…

  2. 78 FR 13906 - Agreements in Force as of December 31, 2012 Between the American Institute in Taiwan and the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... Council for North American Affairs) in order to maintain cultural, commercial and other unofficial.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Cultural, commercial and other unofficial relations between the American people and... cooperative program in Labor Mediation and Alternative Dispute Resolution. Signed June 23, 2010 and July 7...

  3. 77 FR 20054 - Agreements in Force as of December 31, 2011, Between the American Institute in Taiwan and the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... Council for North American Affairs) in order to maintain cultural, commercial and other unofficial.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Cultural, commercial and other unofficial relations between the American people and... Labor Mediation and Alternative Dispute Resolution. Signed June 23, 2010 and July 7, 2010. Entered into...

  4. Volatile compounds in meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika KOSOWSKA

    Full Text Available Abstract Meaty flavor is composed of a few hundreds of volatile compounds, only minor part of which are responsible for the characteristic odor. It is developed as a result of multi-directional reactions proceeding between non-volatile precursors contained in raw meat under the influence of temperature. The volatile compounds are generated upon: Maillard reactions, lipid oxidation, interactions between Maillard reaction products and lipid oxidation products as well as upon thiamine degradation. The developed flavor is determined by many factors associated with: raw material (breed, sex, diet and age of animal, conditions and process of slaughter, duration and conditions of meat storage, type of muscle, additives applied and the course of the technological process. The objective of this review article is to draw attention to the issue of volatile compounds characteristic for meat products and factors that affect their synthesis.

  5. an intermediate moisture meat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bunmi

    Matured leaves of Ocimum gratissimum were harvested and the extracts used to cure. Suya (an intermediate moisture meat). O. gratissimum leaves were collected from. Oyo state south west region of Nigeria, rinsed in distilled water and squeezed to extract the fluid. The meat used was Semi membranosus muscle from beef ...

  6. Red and Processed Meat and Colorectal Cancer Incidence: Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Doris S. M.; Lau, Rosa; Aune, Dagfinn; Vieira, Rui; Greenwood, Darren C.; Kampman, Ellen; Norat, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Background The evidence that red and processed meat influences colorectal carcinogenesis was judged convincing in the 2007 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research report. Since then, ten prospective studies have published new results. Here we update the evidence from prospective studies and explore whether there is a non-linear association of red and processed meats with colorectal cancer risk. Methods and Findings Relevant prospective studies were identified in PubMed until March 2011. For each study, relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were extracted and pooled with a random-effects model, weighting for the inverse of the variance, in highest versus lowest intake comparison, and dose-response meta-analyses. Red and processed meats intake was associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. The summary relative risk (RR) of colorectal cancer for the highest versus the lowest intake was 1.22 (95% CI  = 1.11−1.34) and the RR for every 100 g/day increase was 1.14 (95% CI  = 1.04−1.24). Non-linear dose-response meta-analyses revealed that colorectal cancer risk increases approximately linearly with increasing intake of red and processed meats up to approximately 140 g/day, where the curve approaches its plateau. The associations were similar for colon and rectal cancer risk. When analyzed separately, colorectal cancer risk was related to intake of fresh red meat (RR for 100 g/day increase  = 1.17, 95% CI  = 1.05−1.31) and processed meat (RR for 50 g/day increase  = 1.18, 95% CI  = 1.10−1.28). Similar results were observed for colon cancer, but for rectal cancer, no significant associations were observed. Conclusions High intake of red and processed meat is associated with significant increased risk of colorectal, colon and rectal cancers. The overall evidence of prospective studies supports limiting red and processed meat consumption as one of the dietary recommendations for the prevention of

  7. Red and processed meat and colorectal cancer incidence: meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris S M Chan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The evidence that red and processed meat influences colorectal carcinogenesis was judged convincing in the 2007 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research report. Since then, ten prospective studies have published new results. Here we update the evidence from prospective studies and explore whether there is a non-linear association of red and processed meats with colorectal cancer risk. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Relevant prospective studies were identified in PubMed until March 2011. For each study, relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (CI were extracted and pooled with a random-effects model, weighting for the inverse of the variance, in highest versus lowest intake comparison, and dose-response meta-analyses. Red and processed meats intake was associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. The summary relative risk (RR of colorectal cancer for the highest versus the lowest intake was 1.22 (95% CI  =  1.11-1.34 and the RR for every 100 g/day increase was 1.14 (95% CI  =  1.04-1.24. Non-linear dose-response meta-analyses revealed that colorectal cancer risk increases approximately linearly with increasing intake of red and processed meats up to approximately 140 g/day, where the curve approaches its plateau. The associations were similar for colon and rectal cancer risk. When analyzed separately, colorectal cancer risk was related to intake of fresh red meat (RR(for 100 g/day increase  =  1.17, 95% CI  =  1.05-1.31 and processed meat (RR (for 50 g/day increase  =  1.18, 95% CI  =  1.10-1.28. Similar results were observed for colon cancer, but for rectal cancer, no significant associations were observed. CONCLUSIONS: High intake of red and processed meat is associated with significant increased risk of colorectal, colon and rectal cancers. The overall evidence of prospective studies supports limiting red and processed meat consumption as one of the dietary recommendations for the

  8. [A quantitative analysis of information-seeking behaviors regarding medical institutions with Spanish language support among South American Spanish-speaking migrants in Aichi Prefecture, Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaku, Michiko; Ichikawa, Seiichi; Kaneko, Noriyo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the factors associated with information-seeking behaviors regarding medical institutions with Spanish language support among South American Spanish-speaking migrants living in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. The survey targeted South American Spanish-speaking migrants aged 18 years and older currently residing in Aichi Prefecture who had lived in Japan for at least three months and who had previously seen a doctor in Japan. The questionnaire was written in Spanish and the survey was conducted from April to July, 2010. Wilson's information behavior model was used to study information-seeking behavior regarding medical institutions with Spanish language support among 245 respondents who completed the questionnaires (response rate: 58.9%). Experience seeking medical institutions with Spanish language support in the Tokai area was set as the dependent variable and a chi-square test was conducted to examine relationships with language support needs, recognition of and access to medical institutions with Spanish language support, living situation in Japan, and Japanese language skills. Among the 245 respondents, 106 were male (43.3%) and 139 were female (56.7%). The average age was 39.6±11.2 years old and 84.5% were Peruvian. The average length of residency in Japan was 11.0±5.7 years, and 34.3% of respondents had lived in Aichi for 5-9 years. A total of 165 respondents (67.3%) had searched for medical institutions with Spanish language support, while 80 (32.7%) had not. Information-seeking behavior regarding medical institutions with Spanish language support was associated with having previously experienced a need for Spanish language support when seeing doctors in Japan, finding and attending medical institutions with Spanish language support in the Tokai area, length of residency in Japan, Japanese language skills, and the language used in daily life. Experience in requiring Spanish support when sick or injured in Japan motivated respondents to

  9. Review: Dairy foods, red meat and processed meat in the diet: implications for health at key life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, D I

    2018-04-02

    Social and health care provision have led to substantial increases in life expectancy. In the UK this has become higher than 80 years with an even greater proportional increase in those aged 85 years and over. The different life stages give rise to important nutritional challenges and recent reductions in milk consumption have led to sub-optimal intakes of calcium by teenage females in particular when bone growth is at its maximum and of iodine during pregnancy needed to ensure that supply/production of thyroid hormones to the foetus is adequate. Many young and pre-menopausal women have considerably sub-optimal intakes of iron which are likely to be associated with reduced consumption of red meat. A clear concern is the low intakes of calcium especially as a high proportion of the population is of sub-optimal vitamin D status. This may already have had serious consequences in terms of bone development which may not be apparent until later life, particularly in post-menopausal women. This review aims to examine the role of dairy foods and red meat at key life stages in terms of their ability to reduce or increase chronic disease risk. It is clear that milk and dairy foods are key sources of important nutrients such as calcium and iodine and the concentration of some key nutrients, notably iodine can be influenced by the method of primary milk production, in particular, the iodine intake of the dairy cow. Recent meta-analyses show no evidence of increased risk of cardiovascular diseases from high consumption of milk and dairy foods but increasing evidence of a reduction in the risk of type 2 diabetes associated with fermented dairy foods, yoghurt in particular. The recently updated reports from the World Cancer Research Fund International/American Institute for Cancer Research on the associations between dairy foods, red meat and processed meat and various cancers provide further confidence that total dairy products and milk, are associated with a reduced risk of

  10. Qualitative analysis of meat and meat products by multiplex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... fish, pork and ruminant, respectively. The optimized M-PCR assay was applied to 93 commercial meat products and it showed the presence of poultry meat in red meat analyzed, although, it was not indicated on the label. Key words: Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR), meat products, food, salami, sausage.

  11. Outsourced to China: Confucius Institutes and Soft Power in American Higher Education. A Report by the National Association of Scholars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Rachelle

    2017-01-01

    Since 2004, the Chinese government has planted Confucius Institutes that offer Chinese language and culture courses at colleges and universities around the world--including more than 100 in the United States. These Institutes avoid Chinese political history and human rights abuses, portray Taiwan and Tibet as undisputed territories of China, and…

  12. Learning how to "teach one": A needs assessment of the state of faculty development within the Consortium of the American College of Surgeons Accredited Education Institutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, John T; Khamis, Nehal N; Cooper, Jeffrey B

    2017-11-01

    Developing faculty competencies in curriculum development, teaching, and assessment using simulation is critical for the success of the Consortium of the American College of Surgeons Accredited Education Institutes program. The state of and needs for faculty development in the Accredited Education Institute community are unknown currently. The Faculty Development Committee of the Consortium of the Accredited Education Institutes conducted a survey of Accredited Education Institutes to ascertain what types of practices are used currently, with what frequency, and what needs are perceived for further programs and courses to guide the plan of action for the Faculty Development Committee. The Faculty Development Committee created a 20-question survey with quantitative and qualitative items aimed at gathering data about practices of faculty development and needs within the Consortium of Accredited Education Institutes. The survey was sent to all 83 Accredited Education Institutes program leaders via Survey Monkey in January 2015 with 2 follow-up reminders. Quantitative data were compiled and analyzed using descriptive statistics, and qualitative data were interpreted for common themes. Fifty-four out of the 83 programs (65%) responded to the survey. Two-thirds of the programs had from 1 to 30 faculty teaching at their Accredited Education Institutes. More than three-quarters of the programs taught general surgery, emergency medicine, or obstetrics/gynecology. More than 60% of programs had some form of faculty development, but 91% reported a need to expand their offerings for faculty development with "extreme value" for debriefing skills (70%), assessment (47%), feedback (40%), and curriculum development (40%). Accredited Education Institutes felt that the Consortium could assist with faculty development through such activities as the provision of online resources, sharing of best practices, provision of a blueprint for development of a faculty curriculum and information

  13. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella spp. in meat products, meat preparations and minced meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rašeta, M.; Mrdović, B.; Janković, V.; Bečkei, Z.; Lakićević, B.; Vidanović, D.; Polaček, V.

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to determine Salmonella spp. prevalence in meat products, meat preparations and minced meat. Over a period of three years, a total of 300 samples were taken (100 RTE meat products, 100 meat preparations and 100 minced meat) and examined for the presence of Salmonella spp. Sampling was carried out at the warehouses of the food manufacturers. Salmonella spp. were not detected in RTE meat products, while 7% of semi-finished meat products (fresh sausages, grill meat formed and unformed) contained Salmonella, as did 18% of minced meats (minced pork II category, minced beef II category, mixed minced meat). The 25 Salmonella isolates obtained were examined for antibiotic resistance by the disk diffusion test, according to the NCCLS and CLSI guidelines. Isolates showed resistance to ampicillin and nalidixic acid (80%), tetracycline (72%), cefotaxime/clavulanic acid (48%), but not to gentamicin (8%) or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (0%).

  14. Earth Science World ImageBank (ESWIB): A Comprehensive Collection of Geoscience Images Being Developed by the American Geological Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, A. W.; Keane, C. M.

    2003-12-01

    Although there are geoscience images available in numerous locations around the World Wide Web, there is no universal comprehensive digital archive where teachers, students, scientists, and the general public can gather images related to the Earth Sciences. To fill this need, the American Geological Institute (AGI) is developing the largest image database available: the Earth Science World ImageBank (ESWIB). The goal of ESWIB is to provide a variety of users with free access to high-quality geoscience images and technical art gathered from photographers, government organizations, and scientists. Each image is cataloged by location, author, image rights, and a detailed description of what the image shows. Additionally, images are cataloged using keywords from AGI's precise Georef indexing methodology. Students, teachers, and the general public can search or browse and download these images for use in slide show presentations, lectures, papers, or for other educational and outreach uses. This resource can be used for any age level, in any kind of educational venue. Users can also contribute images of their own to the database through the ESWIB website. AGI is scanning these images at a very high resolution (16 x 20 inches) and depending on the author's rights, is making high-resolution copies (digital or print) available for non-commercial and commercial purposes. This ImageBank is different from other photo sites available in that the scope has more breadth and depth than other image resources, and the images are cataloged with a very high grade of detail and precision, which makes finding needed images fast and easy. The image services offered by ESWIB are also unique, such as the low-cost commercial options and high quality image printouts. AGI plans on adding more features to ESWIB in the future, including connecting this resource to the up-coming online Glossary of Geology, a geospatial search option, using the images to make generic PowerPoint presentations

  15. Web Evaluation at the US National Institutes of Health: Use of the American Customer Satisfaction Index Online Customer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Elliot R; Feldman, Sue; Love, Cynthia B; Rodrigues, Dennis; Malamud, Mark; Lagana, Marie; Crafts, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Background The National Institutes of Health (NIH), US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), realized the need to better understand its Web users in order to help assure that websites are user friendly and well designed for effective information dissemination. A trans-NIH group proposed a trans-NIH project to implement an online customer survey, known as the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) survey, on a large number of NIH websites—the first “enterprise-wide” ACSI application, and probably the largest enterprise Web evaluation of any kind, in the US government. The proposal was funded by the NIH Evaluation Set-Aside Program for two years at a cost of US $1.5 million (US $1.275 million for survey licenses for 60 websites at US $18,000 per website; US $225,000 for a project evaluation contractor). Objective The overall project objectives were to assess the value added to the participating NIH websites of using the ACSI online survey, identify any NIH-wide benefits (and limitations) of the ACSI, ascertain any new understanding about the NIH Web presence based on ACSI survey results, and evaluate the effectiveness of a trans-NIH approach to Web evaluation. This was not an experimental study and was not intended to evaluate the ACSI survey methodology, per se, or the impacts of its use on customer satisfaction with NIH websites. Methods The evaluation methodology included baseline pre-project websites profiles; before and after email surveys of participating website teams; interviews with a representative cross-section of website staff; observations of debriefing meetings with website teams; observations at quarterly trans-NIH Web staff meetings and biweekly trans-NIH leadership team meetings; and review and analysis of secondary data. Results Of the original 60 NIH websites signed up, 55 implemented the ACSI survey, 42 generated sufficient data for formal reporting of survey results for their sites, and 51 completed the final project survey. A

  16. Web evaluation at the US National Institutes of Health: use of the American Customer Satisfaction Index online customer survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Fred B; Siegel, Elliot R; Feldman, Sue; Love, Cynthia B; Rodrigues, Dennis; Malamud, Mark; Lagana, Marie; Crafts, Jennifer

    2008-02-15

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH), US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), realized the need to better understand its Web users in order to help assure that websites are user friendly and well designed for effective information dissemination. A trans-NIH group proposed a trans-NIH project to implement an online customer survey, known as the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) survey, on a large number of NIH websites-the first "enterprise-wide" ACSI application, and probably the largest enterprise Web evaluation of any kind, in the US government. The proposal was funded by the NIH Evaluation Set-Aside Program for two years at a cost of US $1.5 million (US $1.275 million for survey licenses for 60 websites at US $18000 per website; US $225,000 for a project evaluation contractor). The overall project objectives were to assess the value added to the participating NIH websites of using the ACSI online survey, identify any NIH-wide benefits (and limitations) of the ACSI, ascertain any new understanding about the NIH Web presence based on ACSI survey results, and evaluate the effectiveness of a trans-NIH approach to Web evaluation. This was not an experimental study and was not intended to evaluate the ACSI survey methodology, per se, or the impacts of its use on customer satisfaction with NIH websites. The evaluation methodology included baseline pre-project websites profiles; before and after email surveys of participating website teams; interviews with a representative cross-section of website staff; observations of debriefing meetings with website teams; observations at quarterly trans-NIH Web staff meetings and biweekly trans-NIH leadership team meetings; and review and analysis of secondary data. Of the original 60 NIH websites signed up, 55 implemented the ACSI survey, 42 generated sufficient data for formal reporting of survey results for their sites, and 51 completed the final project survey. A broad cross-section of websites

  17. Institute of American Indian Arts. To Amend the Act of August 27, 1935, to Provide for the Administration, Maintenance, and Operation of the Institute of American Indian Arts by the Indian Arts and Crafts Board. Hearing Before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. House of Representatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress, Second Session on H.R. 6850.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs.

    The Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs met July 1, 1980, to take testimony on Bill H.R. 6850 which proposed specific statutory authorization for the Institute of American Indian Arts (IAIA), transferred administrative control from the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) to the Indian Arts and Crafts Board (IACB), and reserved the BIA educational…

  18. The Meat City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the emergence of the Copenhagen slaughterhouse, called the Meat City, during the late nineteenth century. This slaughterhouse was a product of a number of heterogeneous components: industrialization and new infrastructures were important, but hygiene and the significance...... of Danish bacon exports also played a key role. In the Meat City, this created a distinction between rising production and consumption on the one hand, and the isolation and closure of the slaughtering facility on the other. This friction mirrored an ambivalent attitude towards meat in the urban space: one...... where consumers demanded more meat than ever before, while animals were being removed from the public eye. These contradictions, it is argued, illustrate and underline the change of the city towards a ‘post-domestic’ culture. The article employs a variety of sources, but primarily the Copenhagen...

  19. Meat and Appetite Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Ursula Nana

    D thesis was to investigate the effects of fiber addition to meatballs and the effects of cooking methods of pork on appetite regulation. The PhD thesis is based on three human meal test studies and one analytical study related to the characteristics of fiber meat products. In paper I, the objective...... pork products are also characterized as high fat products containing more than 10 g fat per 100 g. In this context, the Danish meat industry puts a lot of effort into developing meat products with a healthier nutritional profile. Thus, it is relevant to provide scientific evidence of the satiating...... effects of new formulations of pork products. Different strategies can be applied to potentially enhance the satiating properties of pork. Processed meat products such as meatballs can serve as a matrix for the addition of fiber ingredients. Based on their high protein and fiber contents, high...

  20. The Meat City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    where consumers demanded more meat than ever before, while animals were being removed from the public eye. These contradictions, it is argued, illustrate and underline the change of the city towards a ‘post-domestic’ culture. The article employs a variety of sources, but primarily the Copenhagen......This article investigates the emergence of the Copenhagen slaughterhouse, called the Meat City, during the late nineteenth century. This slaughterhouse was a product of a number of heterogeneous components: industrialization and new infrastructures were important, but hygiene and the significance...... of Danish bacon exports also played a key role. In the Meat City, this created a distinction between rising production and consumption on the one hand, and the isolation and closure of the slaughtering facility on the other. This friction mirrored an ambivalent attitude towards meat in the urban space: one...

  1. A Peculiar Sensation: Double Consciousness and the Lived Experiences of African American Art Historians at Predominately White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaidan, Christina Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Double consciousness is the identity conflict of being Black and being an American (Du Bois, 1903). Double consciousness leads to "identity confusion and inherent contradictions in the collective psyche of people of African descent" (Benjamin, 2005, p. 21.). This study employed grounded theory to collect and analyze the data that emerged from the…

  2. Detection of chicken and turkey meat in meat mixtures by using real-time PCR assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesmen, Zulal; Yetiman, Ahmet E; Sahin, Fikrettin; Yetim, Hasan

    2012-02-01

    In this study, TaqMan-based real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) techniques were developed for the detection of chicken and turkey meat in raw and heat-treated meat mixtures. Primers and TaqMan probe sets were designed to amplify 86 bp and 136 bp fragments for the chicken and turkey species, respectively, on the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene. In the results, it was possible to detect each species at the level of 0.1 pg template DNA with the TaqMan probe technique without any cross-reactivity with nontarget species (bovine, ovine, donkey, pork, and horse) while the detection level was 1 pg template DNA using conventional PCR. The TaqMan probe assays used in this study allowed the detection of as little as 0.001% level of both species in the experimental meat mixtures, prepared by mixing chicken and turkey meat with beef at different levels (0.001% to 10%). In conclusion, TaqMan probe assays developed in this research are promising tools in the specific identification and sensitive quantification of meat species even in the case of heat-treated meat products, and suitable for a rapid, automated, and routine analysis. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Advancements in meat packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, Kenneth W

    2017-10-01

    Packaging of meat provides the same or similar benefits for raw chilled and processed meats as other types of food packaging. Although air-permeable packaging is most prevalent for raw chilled red meat, vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging offer longer shelf life. The major advancements in meat packaging have been in the widely used plastic polymers while biobased materials and their integration into composite packaging are receiving much attention for functionality and sustainability. At this time, active and intelligent packaging are not widely used for antioxidant, antimicrobial, and other functions to stabilize and enhance meat properties although many options are being developed and investigated. The advances being made in nanotechnology will be incorporated into food packaging and presumably into meat packaging when appropriate and useful. Intelligent packaging using sensors for transmission of desired information and prompting of subsequent changes in packaging materials, environments or the products to maintain safety and quality are still in developmental stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Competitiveness of the EU poultry meat sector : International comparison base year 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, van P.L.M.; Bondt, N.

    2014-01-01

    In this report the Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI), an independent research institute of Wageningen UR (University and Research) in the Netherlands, presents the results of a study on the competitiveness of the EU poultry meat sector. The production costs for poultry meat are

  5. Chemistry in the kitchen. Making ground meat more healthful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, D M; Oliva, C; Tercyak, A

    1991-01-10

    The National Cholesterol Education Program recommends a diet containing less than 30 percent of calories in the form of fat, less than 10 percent in the form of saturated fat, and less than 300 mg of cholesterol per day. Since Americans' diets generally exceed these recommendations, we wished to find an easy kitchen method to reduce substantially saturated fat and cholesterol in ground meat. Raw ground meat was heated in vegetable oil and rinsed with boiling water to extract fat and cholesterol. The fat-free broth was recombined with the meat to restore flavor. The amounts of total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol in the meat after extraction were compared with the amounts in meat cooked as patties and in stir-fried, rinsed meat. When raw ground beef containing 9.6 to 20.8 percent fat was cooked as patties and the fat poured off, 6 to 17 percent of the fat and 1.3 to 4.3 percent of the cholesterol were lost. In stir-fried, rinsed ground beef, 23 to 59 percent of the fat and 9.0 to 18.8 percent of the cholesterol were lost. When vegetable oil was used to extract fat and cholesterol from beef containing 20.7 percent fat, a mean (+/- SD) of 67.7 +/- 1.6 percent of the fat and 39.2 +/- 5.1 percent of the cholesterol were lost. The differences between conventionally cooked meat and meat prepared by the extraction of fat were significant (P less than 0.001). An average of 43 percent (range, 38 to 49) of cholesterol was extracted from a wide variety of ground meats. Although conventional cooking produced no change in fatty-acid composition as compared with raw meat, our extraction process greatly increased the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fat, from 1.32 in conventionally cooked meat to 2.92 to 4.56 in meat after extraction. Extraction resulted in the loss of 72 to 87 percent of saturated fat. This method produces a tasty meat product that is much lower in saturated fat and cholesterol than conventionally cooked meat, and that can be used in sauces, soups, and

  6. Research into poultry meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grashorn, M A

    2010-08-01

    1. Research in the field of poultry meat quality has become more varied during the last 50 years. Besides meat content and microbial condition, animal welfare issues during the slaughter process, muscle morphology, physiology of meat ripening, impact of slaughter process on meat quality, sensory attributes of meat and meat processing have come into focus. 2. The present review summarizes findings and developments in the fields of muscle physiology, meat ripening and meat quality aberrations (like PSE), nutrient composition and sensory qualities, effect of the slaughter process on carcass and meat quality, hygienic conditions and product safety during slaughtering, all based on selected papers published in British Poultry Science during the last 50 years. 3. Some special findings and conclusions are lifted out of the whole results presented in the papers to indicate their importance and to show their contribution to the development of knowledge in the respective field.

  7. Replacement of Pork Meat with Pork Head Meat for Frankfurters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (ppork head meat was increased from 0% to 20%, cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, and pH of frankfurters were increased, while the lightness, redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity of frankfurters were decreased. Ash contents, cohesiveness, color, and tenderness of sensory characteristics of frankfurters added with different amounts of pork meat or pork head meat were not significantly (p>0.05) different from those of the control or there treatments. Frankfurters in T4 (frankfurter with 30% pork meat + 20% pork head) had the lowest (p0.05) from that in the control. Frankfurters with higher pork head meat concentrations had lower flavor, juiciness, and overall acceptability scores. Therefore, replacing pork meat with pork head meat in the formulation could successfully produce results similar to those of control frankfurters. The best results were obtained when 10% pork head meat was used to replace pork meat. PMID:27621683

  8. [Pathology of South American Camelids: a retrospective study of necropsies at the Institute of Veterinary Pathology, University of Leipzig, Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuß, T; Goerigk, D; Rasenberger, S; Starke, A; Schoon, H-A

    2014-01-01

    The number of South American Camelids (New World Camelids) housed in Germany has increased in the recent years. While these species were formerly kept solely in zoological gardens, ever more private and commercial livestock is being established. Compared to indigenous livestock animals, they bear some distinctive differences, particularly in terms of digestive tract anatomy and physiology. Therefore, it is of considerable interest for veterinarians working with South American Camelids to obtain knowledge about the distinguishing features of these animals and the typical diseases affecting them in Germany. For this purpose, the necropsy reports, including the anamnestic data, and their diagnostic usefulness, from 1995 to 2012 were studied retrospectively. Du- ring this period, a total of 233 New World Camelids were examined (195 alpacas and 38 llamas). Anamnestic data of diagnostic usefulness regarding the cause of disease were only submitted in a limited number of cases, because most of the animals died without specific symptoms. The following were the most frequent pathological findings: enteritis (n = 91), gastritis (n = 76), cachexia (n = 73), pneumonia (n = 30), stomatitis (n = 27), azotaemia (n = 22) and anaemia (n = 9). An endoparasitosis occurred in 107 cases and was considered the predominant cause of enteritis. As with indigenous ruminants, llamas and alpacas primarily suffered from diseases of the digestive and respiratory tracts. Other organ systems were affected to a lesser extent. Even in cases with severe alterations in the affected organs, South American Camelids do not show or show too late diagnostically indicative clinical symptoms. Therefore, a detailed clinical examination of these animals is important.

  9. Physician satisfaction with clinical laboratory services: a College of American Pathologists Q-probes study of 138 institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bruce A; Bekeris, Leonas G; Nakhleh, Raouf E; Walsh, Molly K; Valenstein, Paul N

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring customer satisfaction is a valuable component of a laboratory quality improvement program. To survey the level of physician satisfaction with hospital clinical laboratory services. Participating institutions provided demographic and practice information and survey results of physician satisfaction with defined aspects of clinical laboratory services, rated on a scale of 1 (poor) to 5 (excellent). One hundred thirty-eight institutions participated in this study and submitted a total of 4329 physician surveys. The overall satisfaction score for all institutions ranged from 2.9 to 5.0. The median overall score for all participants was 4.1 (10th percentile, 3.6; 90th percentile, 4.5). Physicians were most satisfied with the quality/reliability of results and staff courtesy, with median values of excellent or good ratings of 89.9%. Of the 5 service categories that received the lowest percentage values of excellent/good ratings (combined scores of 4 and 5), 4 were related to turnaround time for inpatient stat, outpatient stat, routine, and esoteric tests. Surveys from half of the participating laboratories reported that 96% to 100% of physicians would recommend the laboratory to other physicians. The category most frequently selected as the most important category of laboratory services was quality/reliability of results (31.7%). There continues to be a high level of physician satisfaction and loyalty with clinical laboratory services. Test turnaround times are persistent categories of dissatisfaction and present opportunities for improvement.

  10. Meat and meat products as a source of bioactive peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Totosaus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Meat is a high protein content food, with great nutritional and biological value. Meat protein hydrolysis begins with the muscle to meat conversion, during meat ageing. After slaughter, endogen enzymes are responsible of meat softening since myofibrillar anchorage proteins are degraded. Protein hydrolysis continues during food preparation. When meat reaches the stomach, pepsin is the first enzyme to interact. As the food travel trough out gastrointestinal tract, pancreatic enzymes degraded the remained protein and the peptidases made the final proteolysis process. The small proteins or peptides are the absorbed to the circulatory system and distributed to the rest of the body. Bioactive peptides activity of meat and meat products is anti-hypertensive mainly, where histidine, carnosine and anserine are the main peptides identified. Another peptide with anti-oxidant activity is glutathione. The content depends on animal species.

  11. Preliminary Results for Ways to Increase Meat Production in Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Doina Popa; Dorina Cotarlea; Doina Sprinjean

    2010-01-01

    In order to improve the quality and quantity of meat production in cattle in the ICDM Cristian institute and two private farms, Beef Technology and Artificial Insemination was applied. Artificial Insemination was performed with semen from bulls of meat breeds (Charolaise, Bleu Belge, Aberdeen Angus). The average daily gains obtained were between 0.40-1.30 kg / head / day, varying based on race, sex, technology applied, etc.

  12. Preliminary Results for Ways to Increase Meat Production in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Popa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the quality and quantity of meat production in cattle in the ICDM Cristian institute and two private farms, Beef Technology and Artificial Insemination was applied. Artificial Insemination was performed with semen from bulls of meat breeds (Charolaise, Bleu Belge, Aberdeen Angus. The average daily gains obtained were between 0.40-1.30 kg / head / day, varying based on race, sex, technology applied, etc.

  13. Replacement of Pork Meat with Pork Head Meat for Frankfurters

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (p0...

  14. The American Indian Summer Institute in Earth System Science (AISESS) at UC Irvine: A Two-Week Residential Summer Program for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K. R.; Polequaptewa, N.; Leon, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Native Americans remain severely underrepresented in the geosciences, despite a clear need for qualified geoscience professionals within Tribal communities to address critical issues such as natural resource and land management, water and air pollution, and climate change. In addition to the need for geoscience professionals within Tribal communities, increased participation of Native Americans in the geosciences would enhance the overall diversity of perspectives represented within the Earth science community and lead to improved Earth science literacy within Native communities. To address this need, the Department of Earth System Science and the American Indian Resource Program at the University California have organized a two-week residential American Indian Summer Institute in Earth System Science (AISESS) for high-school students (grades 9-12) from throughout the nation. The format of the AISESS program is based on the highly-successful framework of a previous NSF Funded American Indian Summer Institute in Computer Science (AISICS) at UC Irvine and involves key senior personnel from the AISICS program. The AISESS program, however, incorporates a week of camping on the La Jolla Band of Luiseño Indians reservation in Northern San Diego County, California. Following the week of camping and field projects, the students spend a week on the campus of UC Irvine participating in Earth System Science lectures, laboratory activities, and tours. The science curriculum is closely woven together with cultural activities, native studies, and communication skills programs The program culminates with a closing ceremony during which students present poster projects on environmental issues relevant to their tribal communities. The inaugural AISESS program took place from July 15th-28th, 2012. We received over 100 applications from Native American high school students from across the nation. We accepted 40 students for the first year, of which 34 attended the program. The

  15. Readability of neurosurgery-related patient education materials provided by the American Association of Neurological Surgeons and the National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Paul J; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2013-11-01

    Most professional organizations now provide patient information material, and not all of this material is appropriate for the average American adult to comprehend. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the United States Department of Health and Human Services recommend that patient education materials be written at the sixth-grade level. Our aim was to assess the readability of neurosurgery-related patient education material and compare it with The American Medical Association, NIH, and United States Department of Health and Human Services recommendations. Materials provided by the American Association of Neurologic Surgeons (AANS) and the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) and National Institutes of Health were assessed with the Flesch-Kincaid grade level and Flesch Reading Ease score with Microsoft Office Word software. None of the articles had Flesch-Kincaid grade levels at or below the sixth-grade level. All articles on the AANS Conditions and Treatments section were written at or above the ninth-grade level; three of the AANS Camera-Ready Fact Sheets and four of the NIH/NLM articles were written between the seventh- and eighth-grade levels. Current patient education material provided by the AANS is written well above the recommended level. Material from the NLM and NIH performed better, but was still above the recommended sixth-grade level. Education materials should contain information relevant to patients' conditions, be accurate in the information they present, and be written with the average patient in mind. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Decarbonising meat : Exploring greenhouse gas emissions in the meat sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aan Den Toorn, S. I.; Van Den Broek, M. A.; Worrell, E.

    Consumption of meat is an important source of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and deep decarbonisation of the whole meat production chain is required to be able to meet global climate change (CC) mitigation goals. Emissions happen in different stages of meat production ranging from agricultural

  17. A hermeneutic phenomenological study of the experiences of female African American undergraduate engineering students at a predominantly White and an historically Black institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frillman, Sharron Ann

    2011-12-01

    This phenomenological study examined the experiences of twelve female African Americans enrolled as fulltime undergraduate engineering students at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, an historically Black university, and seven female African Americans enrolled as undergraduate engineering students at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana, a traditionally White institution. Interviews provided insights into the "lived" experiences of these young women and the factors they believe have contributed to their success in their respective engineering programs. Data analysis involved coding each participant's responses to interview questions using Atlas.ti, a powerful qualitative data analysis tool. This generated 181 codes that were further categorized into nine emergent themes, indicating the potential for extensive associations among the variables. The emergent themes are as follows: (1) Demographic information/special circumstances, (2) Personal attributes and characteristics, (3) Personal insights, (4) Sense of mission, (5) Sources of negative stress, (6) Success strategies, (7) Various forms of support, (8) Would/would not have made it to where she is now, and (9) Being African American and female in engineering. Analysis of these themes and their relationships led to the development of the Frillman Model of Emergent Themes in Female African American Engineering Students. Success. In addressing similarities and differences, three overriding theme categories emerged. These were: (1) Four personhood themes and dual social identity theme; (2) Environmental input and response theme; and (3) Outcome emergent theme of Would/Would not have made it to where she is now. Recommendations were made for future research to expand upon this exploratory study.

  18. The effects of dissociation on willingness to eat meat are moderated by exposure to unprocessed meat: A cross-cultural demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, Jonas R; Palacios Haugestad, Christian Andrés

    2018-01-01

    Dissociating meat from its animal origins helps consumers deal with the cognitive dissonance resulting from liking meat but disliking causing pain to animals. Extending previous research, we tested whether dissociation would play less of a role for meat consumption in a country where average consumers are more frequently exposed to unprocessed meat (i.e., Ecuador) than where such exposure is rare (i.e., the US). Specifically, we randomly showed Ecuadorians and US Americans a pork roast with the head present or removed. Showing the head led to less dissociation, and subsequently more disgust and empathy for the killed animal in both countries, but to significantly larger degrees in the US. Follow-up analyses with participants' self-reported exposure to unprocessed meat supported the notion that these cross-cultural variations indeed reflected differences in unprocessed meat exposure. In contrast, disgust and empathy, in turn, predicted a lower willingness to eat meat and a higher willingness to choose a vegetarian alternative dish equally in both countries. Because the dissociation part of our model was substantially stronger in the US, it explained about double as much variance in willingness to eat meat and vegetarian choice in the US (63-72%) as compared to Ecuador (30-32%). In sum, the potency of the dissociation mechanism seems to depend on how used consumers in a country are to seeing unprocessed meat, whereas the subsequent affective mechanisms universally influence meat consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Color of Meat and Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... The Color of Meat and Poultry I've just opened a package of fresh ... Poultry Hotline concerning the color of meat and poultry. Color is important when meat and poultry are purchased, stored, and cooked. Often ...

  20. THE EFFECTS OF HORSE MEAT SCANDAL ON ROMANIAN MEAT MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius STANCIU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable business in the domestic production of meat must meet both the usual Requirements regarding quality, safety for customer and New Challenges in the European meat market. The Romanian food industry must meet the challenge of recent suspicions regarding the substitution of beef meat with horse meat. The modern applicable to meat traceability systems and authentication procedures can be considered as new ways to support fair trade and transparency, THUS, removing suspicions that appeared lately. Lack of safety measures in the field can affect business continuity critically, creating significant losses.

  1. Physician Satisfaction With Clinical Laboratory Services: A College of American Pathologists Q-Probes Study of 81 Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Shannon J; Souers, Rhona J; Blond, Barbara; Massie, Larry

    2016-10-01

    -Assessment of customer satisfaction is a vital component of the laboratory quality improvement program. -To survey the level of physician satisfaction with hospital clinical laboratory services. -Participating institutions provided demographic information and survey results of physician satisfaction, with specific features of clinical laboratory services individually rated on a scale of 5 (excellent) to 1 (poor). -Eighty-one institutions submitted 2425 surveys. The median overall satisfaction score was 4.2 (10th percentile, 3.6; 90th percentile, 4.6). Of the 16 surveyed areas receiving the highest percentage of excellent/good ratings (combined scores of 4 and 5), quality of results was highest along with test menu adequacy, staff courtesy, and overall satisfaction. Of the 4 categories receiving the lowest percentage values of excellent/good ratings, 3 were related to turnaround time for inpatient "STAT" (tests performed immediately), outpatient STAT, and esoteric tests. The fourth was a new category presented in this survey: ease of electronic order entry. Here, 11.4% (241 of 2121) of physicians assigned below-average (2) or poor (1) scores. The 5 categories deemed most important to physicians included quality of results, turnaround times for inpatient STAT, routine, and outpatient STAT tests, and clinical report format. Overall satisfaction as measured by physician willingness to recommend their laboratory to another physician remains high at 94.5% (2160 of 2286 respondents). -There is a continued trend of high physician satisfaction and loyalty with clinical laboratory services. Physician dissatisfaction with ease of electronic order entry represents a new challenge. Test turnaround times are persistent areas of dissatisfaction, representing areas for improvement.

  2. Analysis of nutrient concentrations in the diet, serum, and urine of giraffe from surveyed North American zoological institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kathleen; van Heugten, Eric; Ange-van Heugten, Kimberly; Poore, Matthew H; Dierenfeld, Ellen S; Wolfe, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of the present research were to conduct a survey to investigate the health history and feeding practices of giraffe in captivity in North America and to obtain samples of hay, concentrate, browse, urine, and serum to compare across zoos, possible factors relating to the development of urolithiasis. Forty-one out of 98 institutions contacted responded, representing 218 giraffe. All responding zoos fed concentrate and alfalfa hay was the primary forage. Sixty-five percent of zoos fed browse and 43 different species of browse were listed. Six zoos reported a history of urolithiasis, seven reported wasting syndrome, and 10 reported sudden death. The median daily amount (as fed) of concentrate and hay offered were 5.45 kg (range of 2.73-9.55 kg) and 6.82 kg (range of 2.53-12.50 kg), respectively. The concentrate:hay ratio of the offered diet ranged from 0.22 to 3.47 with a median value of 0.79. Forty-three percent of the institutions offered a ratio greater than 1:1. Samples of concentrate and hay (six zoos), serum (five zoos), and urine (seven zoos) were obtained for chemical analyses. Analyzed nutrient content of the consumed diet, measured by weighing feed and orts for three consecutive days, met recommendations for giraffe, but was excessive for crude protein and P. Concentrate:hay and serum P were positively correlated (r=0.72; P<0.05). High dietary P content and a high level of concentrate relative to hay may be contributing factors to urolith formation and warrant further investigation. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. American Thoracic Society/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Asthma-Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Overlap Workshop Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Prescott G; van den Berge, Maarten; Boucher, Richard C; Brightling, Christopher; Burchard, Esteban G; Christenson, Stephanie A; Han, MeiLan K; Holtzman, Michael J; Kraft, Monica; Lynch, David A; Martinez, Fernando D; Reddel, Helen K; Sin, Don D; Washko, George R; Wenzel, Sally E; Punturieri, Antonello; Freemer, Michelle M; Wise, Robert A

    2017-08-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are highly prevalent chronic obstructive lung diseases with an associated high burden of disease. Asthma, which is often allergic in origin, frequently begins in infancy or childhood with variable airflow obstruction and intermittent wheezing, cough, and dyspnea. Patients with COPD, in contrast, are usually current or former smokers who present after the age of 40 years with symptoms (often persistent) including dyspnea and a productive cough. On the basis of age and smoking history, it is often easy to distinguish between asthma and COPD. However, some patients have features compatible with both diseases. Because clinical studies typically exclude these patients, their underlying disease mechanisms and appropriate treatment remain largely uncertain. To explore the status of and opportunities for research in this area, the NHLBI, in partnership with the American Thoracic Society, convened a workshop of investigators in San Francisco, California on May 14, 2016. At the workshop, current understanding of asthma-COPD overlap was discussed among clinicians, pathologists, radiologists, epidemiologists, and investigators with expertise in asthma and COPD. They considered knowledge gaps in our understanding of asthma-COPD overlap and identified strategies and research priorities that will advance its understanding. This report summarizes those discussions.

  4. an intermediate moisture meat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... thereby increasing their animal protein intake, this experiment therefore become imperative. Meat from the semimembranosus (SM), biceps .... most critical eating quality that determines whether consumers are repeat buyer. It is however worthy of note that as a result of the heat treatment and the use of.

  5. Thermodynamics of meat proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the water activity of meat, being a mixture of proteins, salts and water, by the Free-Volume-Flory–Huggins (FVFH) theory augmented with the equation. Earlier, the FVFH theory is successfully applied to describe the thermodynamics to glucose homopolymers like starch, dextrans and

  6. Chemical and biological sensing applications of integrated photonics with an introduction to the American Institute for Manufacturing Integrated Photonics (AIM Photonics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, Justin; Guicheteau, Jason

    2016-05-01

    Integrated photonics affords an opportunity to explore novel sensing and lab-on-a-chip concepts. It offers a route to high sensitivity, high selectivity, and low SWaP-C test systems that can be operated autonomously or by minimallytrained field personnel. We'll introduce the topic, discuss possible sensing modalities, and highlight the advantages and limitations of this technology. We'll also introduce the recent American Institute for Manufacturing Integrated Photonics (AIM Photonics), give an overview of its vision and capabilities, how to utilize its Electronic-Photonic Design Automation (EPDA) tools and its Multi-Project Wafer and Assembly (MPWA) services, how to engage in its road mapping efforts, and how to become a contributing member.

  7. The American Geriatrics Society/National Institute on Aging Bedside-to-Bench Conference: Research Agenda on Delirium in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailovich, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The American Geriatrics Society, with support from the National Institute on Aging and the John A. Hartford Foundation, held its seventh Bedside-to-Bench research conference, entitled “Delirium in Older Adults: Finding Order in the Disorder” on February 9–11, 2014, to provide participants with opportunities to learn about cutting-edge research developments, draft recommendations for future research involving translational efforts, and opportunities to network with colleagues and leaders in the field. This meeting was the first of three conferences that will address delirium, sleep disorders, and voiding difficulties and urinary incontinence, emphasizing, whenever possible, the relationships and potentially shared clinical and pathophysiological features between these common geriatric syndromes. PMID:25834932

  8. Thiamin, riboflavin, and alpha-tocopherol content of exotic meats and loss due to gamma radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakritz, L; Fox, J B; Thayer, D W

    1998-12-01

    Changes in thiamin, riboflavin, and alpha-tocopherol concentrations due to gamma irradiation were followed in alligator, caiman, bison, and ostrich (exotic) meats. The proximate composition showed that the exotic meats generally had lower fat content than domestic animal meats and that the thiamin content of the reptiles was lower. The changes in the vitamins due to irradiation were similar to those previously observed for domestic species. The results indicate that the loss of vitamins in these species is negligible insofar as the American diet is concerned, and that the concept of "chemiclearance" is applicable to exotic meats.

  9. Radurization of fowl meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gel'fand, S.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of pre-slaughter adrenalization and of treatment with additives of semifinished poultry products were studied with a view to improving the storage quality of irradiated poultry. It was found that pre-slaughter adrenalization, pre-irradiation treatment with phosphates and, particularly, a combination of these two methods considerably delayed the formation of carbonyl compounds, the delay being somewhat greater in white meat. (E.T.)

  10. Short communication Nutrient content of uncooked and cooked meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jeanine

    American Meat Science. Association, 1995). After cooking the cuts were analysed. The analytical procedures were done on a double blind basis in the laboratories (ISO/IEC:17025:2005) that form part of the South African National. Accreditation ...

  11. THE IMPORTANCE OF BACTERIOCINS IN MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem SERDAROĞLU

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing consumer demand for food products which are free of chemical additives, reduced in salt and processed as little as possible. These minimally processed foods require special application to assure their microbiological safety. The use of microorganisms and enzymes for food preservatives is called biopreservation. The most important group of microorganisms with antimicrobial effect used in the production of foods is the lactic acid bacteria. In meats although lactic acid bacteria constitue apart of the initial microflora, they become dominant during the processing of meats. In this research bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria and their usage in meat and meat products for biopreservation are discussed.

  12. Cooking Methods for Red Meats and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study of U.S. Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zong, Geng; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C; Eisenberg, David M; Sun, Qi

    2017-08-01

    This study examined different cooking methods for red meats in relation to type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk among U.S. women who consumed red meats regularly (≥2 servings/week). We monitored 59,033 women (1986-2012) aged 30-55 years and free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline when information on frequency of different cooking methods for red meats, including broiling, barbequing, roasting, pan-frying, and stewing/boiling, was collected. During 1.24 million person-years of follow-up, we documented 6,206 incident cases of T2D. After multivariate adjustment including red meat cooking methods, total red meat and processed red meat intake were both associated with a monotonically increased T2D risk (both P trend meat intake, a higher frequency of broiling, barbequing, and roasting red meats was each independently associated with a higher T2D risk. When comparing ≥2 times/week with meats was not associated with T2D risk, and an inverse association was observed for pan-frying frequency and T2D risk. The results remained similar after cooking methods were further mutually adjusted. Independent of total red meat consumption, high-temperature and/or open-flame cooking methods for red meats, especially broiling and barbequing, may further increase diabetes risk among regular meat eaters. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  13. NAFTA AT 21: STRUCTURAL CHANGE IN MEXICAN’S DEMAND FOR U.S. MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Kyekyeku Nti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA on the change in consumer preference for U.S. meat and meat products in Mexico and to provide empirical estimates of the extent of sensitivity of meat price change to change in quantity demand. The analyses used an Inverse Almost Ideal Demand System (IAIDS model to address the study objectives due to its appropriateness in modeling the level of utility for commodities with fixed or exogenously determined short run supply. The study findings show that Mexico’s participation in NAFTA could have indirectly effected a structural change in demand for imported meat from the U.S. but the direction of change is heterogeneous among the different meat groups. Also, while Mexican demand for U.S. meat is inflexible, price response to changes in the quantity of imported U.S. poultry is much sensitive compared to pork and beef.

  14. Red meat and colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Faruk Aykan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented.

  15. Lower Breast Cancer Risk among Women following the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research Lifestyle Recommendations: EpiGEICAM Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Castelló

    Full Text Available According to the "World Cancer Research Fund" and the "American Institute of Cancer Research" (WCRF/AICR one in four cancer cases could be prevented through a healthy diet, weight control and physical activity.To explore the association between the WCRF/AICR recommendations and risk of breast cancer.During the period 2006 to 2011 we recruited 973 incident cases of breast cancer and 973 controls from 17 Spanish Regions. We constructed a score based on 9 of the WCRF/AICR recommendations for cancer prevention:: 1Maintain adequate body weight; 2Be physically active; 3Limit the intake of high density foods; 4Eat mostly plant foods; 5Limit the intake of animal foods; 6Limit alcohol intake; 7Limit salt and salt preserved food intake; 8Meet nutritional needs through diet; S1Breastfeed infants exclusively up to 6 months. We explored its association with BC by menopausal status and by intrinsic tumor subtypes (ER+/PR+ & HER2-; HER2+; ER&PR-&HER2- using conditional and multinomial logistic models respectively.Our results point to a linear association between the degree of noncompliance and breast cancer risk. Taking women who met 6 or more recommendations as reference, those meeting less than 3 showed a three-fold excess risk (OR=2.98(CI95%:1.59-5.59, especially for postmenopausal women (OR=3.60(CI95%:1.24;10.47 and ER+/PR+&HER2- (OR=3.60(CI95%:1.84;7.05 and HER2+ (OR=4.23(CI95%:1.66;10.78 tumors. Noncompliance of recommendations regarding the consumption of foods and drinks that promote weight gain in premenopausal women (OR=2.24(CI95%:1.18;4.28; p for interaction=0.014 and triple negative tumors (OR=2.93(CI95%:1.12-7.63; the intake of plant foods in postmenopausal women (OR=2.35(CI95%:1.24;4.44 and triple negative tumors (OR=3.48(CI95%:1.46-8.31; and the alcohol consumption in ER+/PR+&HER2- tumors (OR=1.52 (CI95%:1.06-2.19 showed the strongest associations.Breast cancer prevention might be possible by following the "World Cancer Research Fund" and the

  16. American Institute of Biological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Biology Classifieds Get Involved AIBS on Diversity Diversity Diversity Leadership Award Diversity Scholars Outreach Directory News Newsroom Peer ... Biology Classifieds Get Involved AIBS on Diversity Diversity Diversity Leadership Award Diversity Scholars Outreach Directory News Newsroom Contact ...

  17. American Institute for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    INFOGRAPHICS RECIPES FOODS THAT FIGHT CANCER SHOP Donate Now Planned Giving Memorial Gifts Car Donations Home Reduce Your Cancer Risk Diet How healthy is your diet? A cancer-protective diet Healthy recipes Nutrition facts Phytochemicals in ...

  18. Bacterial spoilage of meat and cured meat products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borch, E.; Kant-Muermans, M.L.T.; Blixt, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of environmental factors (product composition and storage conditions) on the selection, growth rate and metabolic activity of the bacterial flora is presented for meat (pork and beef) and cooked, cured meat products. The predominant bacteria associated with spoilage of refrigerated

  19. Qualitative analysis of meat and meat products by multiplex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... acid; BLAST, Basic Local Alignment Search Tool; NCBI,. National Center for Biotechnology Information. ... Several workers have developed PCR methods to control the suitability, with labels of meat products. ..... The test could be useful in controlling and verifying the origin of the meat species, especially in ...

  20. Breast meat yield, muscle linear measurements and meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast meat yield, chemical composition, mineral profile and linear measurement of the resultant breast meat Supracoracoides and Pectoralis thoracicus of one hundred and eighty (28 days old BUT) male turkeys fed diet containing wheat or sorghum as sole cereal source were studied. One hundred and eighty 28-days old ...

  1. Selenium content in tissues and meat quality in rabbits fed selenium yeast

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dokoupilová, A.; Marounek, Milan; Skřivanová, V.; Březina, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 6 (2007), s. 165-169 ISSN 1212-1819 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : rabbits * selenium * meat Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 0.633, year: 2007

  2. Opioid prescribing patterns after Mohs micrographic surgery and standard excision: a survey of American Society for Dermatologic Surgery members and a chart review at a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kalynne; Calder, Scott; Larsen, Brooke; Duffy, Keith; Bowen, Glen; Tristani-Firouzi, Payam; Hadley, Michael; Endo, Justin

    2014-08-01

    Little is known about postoperative opioid prescribing patterns among dermatologic surgeons. To better understand postoperative opioid prescribing patterns among dermatologic surgeons in the United States. Two-part analysis consisting of a retrospective chart review of 233 dermatologic surgery patients at a single institution and an e-mail survey of American Society for Dermatologic Surgery (ASDS) members. (1) Retrospective review: 35% (82/233) of the patients received an opioid prescription. Larger defect size, repair of the defect, perioral and nasal site, and surgeon A or B performing surgery predicted opioid prescription. (2) E-mail survey: 556 ASDS members practicing within the United States responded. Sixty-four percent (357/556) reported prescribing opioids after ≤10% of cases. Surgeons younger than 55 years old, male surgeons, and surgeons in the southern and western United States were more likely to prescribe opioids after >10% of cases. Seventy-six percent (397/520) believed patients used ≤50% of the opioid pills prescribed. The retrospective review suggests that opioid prescribing is predicted by characteristics of the surgery (i.e., size, defect repair type, and anatomic location) and characteristics of the surgeon (i.e., age, sex, and practice location) with significant heterogeneity in prescribing habits. The national survey results raise the possibility that patients might not take all prescribed opioid pills after dermatologic surgery. Further investigation is warranted to determine how patients are actually using prescription pain pills to balance pain control with patient safety.

  3. Following the 2009 American Institute of Medicine recommendations for normal body mass index and overweight women led to an increased risk of fetal macrosomia among Taiwanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yieh-Loong; Chong, Kian-Mei; Seow, Kok-Min

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the risk of birth weights over 4000 g (macrosomia) in association with following the 2009 American Institute of Medicine (AIOM) recommendations. Seventy-six nondiabetic women who delivered a singleton, term macrosomic fetus and 82 women who delivered a singleton, term fetus weighing macrosomia and gestational weight gain in different periods of pregnancy was investigated using logistic regression. The incidence of macrosomia from January 2008 to December 2009 was 1.8% among the Taiwanese women. The incidences of cesarean delivery (54.5% vs. 18.2%, p 1000 mL at delivery (35.5% vs. 6.1%, p macrosomia. The risk of macrosomia among normal weight women with gestational weight gain greater than 13 kg increased four-fold [odds ratio (OR) = 4.88; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.84-12.90]. For overweight women with total gestational weight gain >11.5 kg, the risk of macrosomia increased nine-fold (OR = 9.63; 95% CI 1.76-52.74). Macrosomia resulted in more cesarean deliveries and greater maternal blood loss at birth. In Taiwan, to prevent macrosomia, we suggest that the total gestational weight gain should be <11.5 kg among normal weight women and within 10 kg for overweight women. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Detection of Salmonella in Meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Flemming; Mansdal, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Cost-effective and rapid monitoring of Salmonella in the meat production chain can contribute to food safety. The objective of this study was to validate an easy-to-use pre-PCR sample preparation method based on a simple boiling protocol for screening of Salmonella in meat and carcass swab samples...

  5. Cultured Meat in Islamic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Mohammad Naqib; Post, Mark J; Ramli, Mohd Anuar; Mustafa, Amin Rukaini

    2017-04-29

    Cultured meat is a promising product that is derived through biotechnology that partially circumvents animal physiology, thereby being potentially more sustainable, environmentally friendly and animal friendly than traditional livestock meat. Such a novel technology that can impact many consumers evokes ethical, philosophical and religious discussions. For the Islamic community, the crucial question is whether cultured meat is halal, meaning compliant with Islamic laws. Since the culturing of meat is a new discovery, invention and innovation by scientists that has never been discussed by classical jurists (fuqaha'), an ijtihad by contemporary jurists must look for and provide answers for every technology introduced, whether it comply the requirements of Islamic law or not. So, this article will discuss an Islamic perspective on cultured meat based on the original scripture in the Qur'an and interpretations by authoritative Islamic jurists. The halal status of cultured meat can be resolve through identifying the source cell and culture medium used in culturing the meat. The halal cultured meat can be obtained if the stem cell is extracted from a (Halal) slaughtered animal, and no blood or serum is used in the process. The impact of this innovation will give positive results in the environmental and sustain the livestock industry.

  6. Iodine in meat in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, Bogdan; Gonev, Mihajlo; Tadzher, Isak

    2000-01-01

    Iodine deficiency in Macedonia still persists in a mild form. In 1999 the iodination of salt rose to 20 m gr iodine in Kg salt. The consumption of salt diminished after the last war from 20-30 gr salt per day to 10-20 gr salt daily. This shows that the problem of the elimination of iodine deficiency is being vigorously tackled. Since 1956 the iodine in salt in Macedonia rose to 10 m gr KI/Kg salt. The content of iodine in the Macedonian diet seems to be important. The amount of iodine in milk, eggs and bread is low as found by the investigation of MANU. The content of iodine in meat is low, compared to British meat is 10 times lower. The average iodine content in Macedonian meat is 95.15 micro gr per Kg, whereas in British meat it is 850-1510 micro gr iodine per k gr meat. (Original)

  7. Food safety and organic meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loo, Ellen J; Alali, Walid; Ricke, Steven C

    2012-01-01

    The organic meat industry in the United States has grown substantially in the past decade in response to consumer demand for nonconventionally produced products. Consumers are often not aware that the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) organic standards are based only on the methods used for production and processing of the product and not on the product's safety. Food safety hazards associated with organic meats remain unclear because of the limited research conducted to determine the safety of organic meat from farm-to-fork. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the published results on the microbiological safety of organic meats. In addition, antimicrobial resistance of microbes in organic food animal production is addressed. Determining the food safety risks associated with organic meat production requires systematic longitudinal studies that quantify the risks of microbial and nonmicrobial hazards from farm-to-fork.

  8. Environmental costs of meat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to address two questions: First, what is the real cost of meat to society if taking into account the environmental costs arising throughout the product life cycle; and second, whether and how the environmental costs related to meat production can be reduced. In addressing the issues......, we use pig meat production in the EU as a case study. The environmental costs of meat are displayed first as characterized results at different midpoint categories e.g. global warming, nature occupation, acidification, eutrophication, ecotoxicity, etc., and then aggregated into a single score using...... conversion factors available from the Stepwise2006 method. Overall, the environmental costs of producing conventional pig meat are estimated to be 1.9 EUR per kg, which are of even larger size than the private costs of 1.4 EUR. In decreasing order of importance, nature occupation has been found...

  9. To Create the American Film Institute as an Independent Agency; Hearings before the Select Subcommittee on Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, 93rd Congress, Second Session, on H.R. 17021, A Bill to Amend the National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities Act of 1965 to Create the American Film Institute as an Independent Agency, Held in Washington, D.C. Oct. 7 and 8, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    This report is on the hearings before the House Select Subcommittee on Education, conducted on October 7 and 8, 1974, to consider the creation of the American Film Institute as an independent agency. Witnesses testifying before the subcommittee included: Maya Angelou, Ellen Burstyn, John Culkin, Ed Emshwiller, John Hancock, Nancy Hanks, Charlton…

  10. Adherence to the cancer prevention recommendations of the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research and mortality: a census-linked cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Tina; Faeh, David; Bopp, Matthias; Rohrmann, Sabine

    2016-09-01

    Modifiable lifestyle factors linked to cancer offer great potential for prevention. Previous studies suggest an association between adherence to recommendations on healthy lifestyle and cancer mortality. The aim of this study was to examine whether adherence to the cancer prevention recommendations of the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) is associated with reduced all-cause, total cancer, and specific cancer type mortality. We built a lifestyle score that included 3 categories, based on the recommendations of the WCRF/AICR. Applying Cox regression models, we investigated the association with all-cause, total cancer, and specific cancer type mortality; in addition, we included cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. We used census- and death registry-linked survey data allowing a mortality follow-up for ≤32 y. Our analysis included 16,722 participants. Information on lifestyle score components and confounders was collected at baseline. Over a mean follow-up of 21.7 y, 3730 deaths were observed (1332 cancer deaths). Comparing best with poorest category of the lifestyle score showed an inverse association with all-cause (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.75, 0.89) and total cancer (men only, HR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.84) mortality. We estimated that ∼13% of premature cancer deaths in men would have been preventable if lifestyle score levels had been high. Inverse associations were observed for lung, upper aerodigestive tract, stomach, and prostate cancer mortality [men and women combined, HR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.99; HR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.92; HR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.83; HR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.82 (men only), respectively]. CVD mortality was not associated with the lifestyle score (men and women combined, HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.82, 1.13). Our results support the importance of adhering to recommendations for a healthy lifestyle with regard to all-cause and cancer mortality. To reduce the burden of cancer in the

  11. Is concordance with World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research guidelines for cancer prevention related to subsequent risk of cancer? Results from the EPIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Peeters, Petra H; van Gils, Carla H; Chan, Doris S M; Ferrari, Pietro; Romieu, Isabelle; Jenab, Mazda; Slimani, Nadia; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Perquier, Florence; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Boeing, Heiner; von Rüsten, Anne; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Quirós, José Ramón; Gonzalez, Carlos A; Sánchez, María José; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Dorronsoro, Miren; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Crowe, Francesca L; Key, Timothy J; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Masala, Giovanna; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; May, Anne M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Büchner, Frederike L; Wirfält, Elisabet; Manjer, Jonas; Johansson, Ingegerd; Hallmans, Göran; Skeie, Guri; Benjaminsen Borch, Kristin; Parr, Christine L; Riboli, Elio; Norat, Teresa

    2012-07-01

    In 2007 the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute of Cancer Research (AICR) issued 8 recommendations (plus 2 special recommendations) on diet, physical activity, and weight management for cancer prevention on the basis of the most comprehensive collection of available evidence. We aimed to investigate whether concordance with the WCRF/AICR recommendations was related to cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The present study included 386,355 EPIC participants from 9 European countries. At recruitment, dietary, anthropometric, and lifestyle information was collected. A score was constructed based on the WCRF/AICR recommendations on weight management, physical activity, foods and drinks that promote weight gain, plant foods, animal foods, alcoholic drinks, and breastfeeding for women; the score range was 0-6 for men and 0-7 for women. Higher scores indicated greater concordance with WCRF/AICR recommendations. The association between the score and cancer risk was estimated by using multivariable Cox regression models. Concordance with the score was significantly associated with decreased risk of cancer. A 1-point increment in the score was associated with a risk reduction of 5% (95% CI: 3%, 7%) for total cancer, 12% (95% CI: 9%, 16%) for colorectal cancer, and 16% (95% CI: 9%, 22%) for stomach cancer. Significant associations were also observed for cancers of the breast, endometrium, lung, kidney, upper aerodigestive tract, liver, and esophagus but not for prostate, ovarian, pancreatic, and bladder cancers. Adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations for cancer prevention may lower the risk of developing most types of cancer.

  12. Contemporary management of rectal injuries at Level I trauma centers: The results of an American Association for the Surgery of Trauma multi-institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carlos V R; Teixeira, Pedro G; Furay, Elisa; Sharpe, John P; Musonza, Tashinga; Holcomb, John; Bui, Eric; Bruns, Brandon; Hopper, H Andrew; Truitt, Michael S; Burlew, Clay C; Schellenberg, Morgan; Sava, Jack; VanHorn, John; Eastridge, Pa-C Brian; Cross, Alicia M; Vasak, Richard; Vercruysse, Gary; Curtis, Eleanor E; Haan, James; Coimbra, Raul; Bohan, Phillip; Gale, Stephen; Bendix, Peter G

    2018-02-01

    Rectal injuries have been historically treated with a combination of modalities including direct repair, resection, proximal diversion, presacral drainage, and distal rectal washout. We hypothesized that intraperitoneal rectal injuries may be selectively managed without diversion and the addition of distal rectal washout and presacral drainage in the management of extraperitoneal injuries are not beneficial. This is an American Association for the Surgery of Trauma multi-institutional retrospective study from 2004 to 2015 of all patients who sustained a traumatic rectal injury and were admitted to one of the 22 participating centers. Demographics, mechanism, location and grade of injury, and management of rectal injury were collected. The primary outcome was abdominal complications (abdominal abscess, pelvic abscess, and fascial dehiscence). After exclusions, there were 785 patients in the cohort. Rectal injuries were intraperitoneal in 32%, extraperitoneal in 58%, both in 9%, and not documented in 1%. Rectal injury severity included the following grades I, 28%; II, 41%; III, 13%; IV, 12%; and V, 5%. Patients with intraperitoneal injury managed with a proximal diversion developed more abdominal complications (22% vs 10%, p = 0.003). Among patients with extraperitoneal injuries, there were more abdominal complications in patients who received proximal diversion (p = 0.0002), presacral drain (p = 0.004), or distal rectal washout (p = 0.002). After multivariate analysis, distal rectal washout [3.4 (1.4-8.5), p = 0.008] and presacral drain [2.6 (1.1-6.1), p = 0.02] were independent risk factors to develop abdominal complications. Most patients with intraperitoneal injuries undergo direct repair or resection as well as diversion, although diversion is not associated with improved outcomes. While 20% of patients with extraperitoneal injuries still receive a presacral drain and/or distal rectal washout, these additional maneuvers are independently associated with a three

  13. Sustainability of meat-based and plant-based diets and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, David; Pimentel, Marcia

    2003-09-01

    Worldwide, an estimated 2 billion people live primarily on a meat-based diet, while an estimated 4 billion live primarily on a plant-based diet. The US food production system uses about 50% of the total US land area, 80% of the fresh water, and 17% of the fossil energy used in the country. The heavy dependence on fossil energy suggests that the US food system, whether meat-based or plant-based, is not sustainable. The use of land and energy resources devoted to an average meat-based diet compared with a lactoovovegetarian (plant-based) diet is analyzed in this report. In both diets, the daily quantity of calories consumed are kept constant at about 3533 kcal per person. The meat-based food system requires more energy, land, and water resources than the lactoovovegetarian diet. In this limited sense, the lactoovovegetarian diet is more sustainable than the average American meat-based diet.

  14. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued meats. Barbecued meats, such as product labeled “Beef Barbecue” or “Barbecued Pork,” shall be cooked by the direct... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80...

  15. GAME MEAT MARKET IN EASTERN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Tolušić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Republic of Croatia, game meat is consumed far less than meat of domestic animals. Yearly game meat consumption amounts to only 0.55 kg per household member. Consumers prefer meat of domestic animals, because it is cheaper, not paying attention to specific nutritive advantages of game meat. A research on the game meat market and consumers’ preferences was carried out on 101 examinees, chosen among inhabitants of Slavonia and Baranja. The majority of questioned inhabitants did consume game meat (92%, of whom 66% consider game meat to be of better quality than meat of domestic animals. Significant number of examinees considers game meat as healthy food, being also convinced that game was healthier to consume if hunted in their natural environment, than if reared on specialized farms (90%. Irrespective of quality, only 22% of examinees buy game meat, and 51% think such meat is too expensive. This is the main reason why consumers have game meat only once a month (51%. Taking into consideration monthly income of their respective household, 58% of examinees can afford game meat only once a month, and, if having an opportunity, they would opt for meat of roe deer (55% and rabbit (25%. When asked what would stimulate the game meat market in Croatia, 56% of examinees believe this could be achieved by lowering of prices, 27% think the issue could be addressed by opening of specialty stores, and only 17% opted for more aggressive marketing activities.

  16. Irradiation of meats and poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbain, W.M.

    1978-01-01

    A number of beneficial effects can be achieved by irradiating meats and poultry under different conditions. It is possible, for example, to extend the market life of both fresh and processed meats by applying radiation doses sufficient to reduce the microbial population, thereby delaying onset of spoilage; higher doses aimed at destroying both spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms can also be applied to meats, packaged to prevent recontamination, resulting in a shelf-stable product; the objective may also be to inactivate pathogenic bacteria, parasites and viruses in order to obtain a product which is acceptable from the point of view of public health. (orig.) [de

  17. Improving functional value of meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wangang; Xiao, Shan; Samaraweera, Himali; Lee, Eun Joo; Ahn, Dong U

    2010-09-01

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to develop meat and meat products with physiological functions to promote health conditions and prevent the risk of diseases. This review focuses on strategies to improve the functional value of meat and meat products. Value improvement can be realized by adding functional compounds including conjugated linoneleic acid, vitamin E, n3 fatty acids and selenium in animal diets to improve animal production, carcass composition and fresh meat quality. In addition, functional ingredients such as vegetable proteins, dietary fibers, herbs and spices, and lactic acid bacteria can be directly incorporated into meat products during processing to improve their functional value for consumers. Functional compounds, especially peptides, can also be generated from meat and meat products during processing such as fermentation, curing and aging, and enzymatic hydrolysis. This review further discusses the current status, consumer acceptance, and market for functional foods from the global viewpoints. Future prospects for functional meat and meat products are also discussed.

  18. Meat cooking shrinkage: Measurement of a new meat quality parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, S; Tassone, S

    2006-07-01

    A parameter, meat cooking shrinkage (MCS), has been introduced based on investigations carried out on meat shrinkage caused by heat during cooking. MCS is the difference between the raw and cooked areas of the meat sample, expressed as a percentage of the raw area. The method uses a disk of meat (10mm thick and 55mm wide) measured before and after cooking in a hot air oven at 165°C for 10min, the meat having reached an internal temperature of 70°C. Video image analysis was used to measure the meat sample area. The proposed MCS protocol permits us to measure cooking loss and to reduce cost and variability, moreover it could be improved to obtain color and marbling measurements by developing the image analysis software. Analysing two or more parameters on the same sample, the correlations among them should improve analysis efficacy. A detailed description of the measurement protocol of MCS is reported as well as its application to beef and pork.

  19. American = Independent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Hazel Rose

    2017-09-01

    U.S. American cultures and psyches reflect and promote independence. Devos and Banaji (2005) asked, does American equal White? This article asks, does American equal independent? The answer is that when compared to people in East Asian or South Asian contexts, people in American contexts tend to show an independent psychological signature-a sense of self as individual, separate, influencing others and the world, free from influence, and equal to, if not better than, others (Markus & Conner, 2013). Independence is a reasonable description of the selves of people in the White, middle-class American mainstream. Yet it is a less good characterization of the selves of the majority of Americans who are working-class and/or people of color. A cultural psychological approach reveals that much of North American psychology is still grounded in an independent model of the self and, as such, neglects social contexts and the psychologies of a majority of Americans. Given the prominence of independence in American ideas and institutions, the interdependent tendencies that arise from intersections of national culture with social class, race, and ethnicity go unrecognized and are often misunderstood and stigmatized. This unseen clash of independence and interdependence is a significant factor in many challenges, including those of education, employment, health, immigration, criminal justice, and political polarization.

  20. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies, and Turnovers § 319.500 Meat pies. Meat pies such as “Beef Pie,” “Veal Pie,” and “Pork Pie” shall contain meat... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500...

  1. The Ethics of Producing In Vitro Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer, G Owen; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-01-01

    The prospect of consumable meat produced in a laboratory setting without the need to raise and slaughter animals is both realistic and exciting. Not only could such in vitro meat become popular due to potential cost savings, but it also avoids many of the ethical and environmental problems with traditional meat productions. However, as with any new technology, in vitro meat is likely to face some detractors. We examine in detail three potential objections: 1) in vitro meat is disrespectful, e...

  2. Changes of meat colour during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Bocian; Hanna Jankowiak; Wojciech Kapelański

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated a relation between objective colour measurement and standard meat quality traits together with changes of meat colour parameters (∆) during the 48 h storage time. Analysed meat derived from 30 market pigs F1 (plw × pl) originated from Kuyavian--Pomeranian voivodeship. In the samples taken from longissimus lumborum muscle at 48 h post mortem the pH48, visual colour intensity and meat heme pigment concentration, as well as meat holding capacity, drip loss and ...

  3. Meat and Poultry Labeling Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Meat and Poultry Labeling Terms What does 'mechanically separated ... Top of Page ] NATURAL: A product containing no artificial ingredient or added color and is only minimally ...

  4. Meat production perspective in Yucatan

    OpenAIRE

    Victor M. Toledo-Lopez

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of meat production in Mexico during the last decade is the result of the complex interaction between different areas of livestock production and consumers’ preferences, being the former widely influenced by new tendencies and purchasing capacity. In Yucatan, there are two meat product processing plants. Yucatan’s research projects are basically focused to production, handling and genetics. This research is developed in Research Centers like Universidad Autonoma Yucatan’s Ciencia...

  5. Total Antibiotics — A New Possible Alternative for the Screening of Coccidiostat Residues in Poultry Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevanandan V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Total Antibiotics test is a microbial inhibition test which has been recently introduced for the detection of antibiotics in meat. The aim of this study was to determine whether it would be suitable for the detection of coccidiostats in poultry meat. A comparison with the Premi®Test was assessed also for the suitability of the detection of coccidiostats in poultry meat. A selection of poultry meat samples of different organ parts were assessed with 14 samples from Slovakian farms that had previously been tested for coccidiostats by the Veterinary and Food Institute in Košice. In addition, another 8 samples from varied Slovakian supermarkets such as Lidl, Billa and Tesco with samples of chicken or duck meat, were tested. Each prepared sample was added to the Total Antibiotics kit tubes and incubated. The samples from all sources showed a mixture of positive and negative results for the detection of coccidiostats.

  6. African American Male College Students Navigate to Achieve: The Relationship among College Adjustment Experiences, Coping, and GPA for Black Males at Two Predominantly White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Sabrina Denise

    2017-01-01

    African American males face daunting obstacles as they pursue higher education as research has shown. This study sought to better understand the impact of specific factors--social support, racial identity, perceived racial discrimination, coping, and religious coping--on the academic achievement of African American male college student…

  7. A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study of the Experiences of Female African American Undergraduate Engineering Students at a Predominantly White and an Historically Black Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frillman, Sharron Ann

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined the experiences of twelve female African Americans enrolled as fulltime undergraduate engineering students at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, an historically Black university, and seven female African Americans enrolled as undergraduate engineering students at Purdue University in…

  8. A Phenomenological Study of the Barriers and Challenges Presented to African American Women in Leadership Roles at Four-Year Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Marquia V.

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have noted that African American women are a triple jeopardy. They are discriminated against because of three aspects: class, race, and gender (Sanchez-Hucles & Davis, 2010). In terms of education, African American women have a long history of educating other individuals, even those outside of their race (Perkins, 2015), as well as…

  9. [Chemical composition of Creole cattle meat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfán, N; Juarez, D; Rossi, A; Sammán, N

    2000-12-01

    Proximal composition was determined in meat's Creole cattle (CGBC). For this purpose, four raw cuts of CGBC were analyzed: buttock, flank, loin blade steak, and shoulder blade steak. The mentioned names of the meat cuts come from the National Meat Bureau from the Republic of Argentina. These cuts were taken from an experimental lot of Creole cattle (n = 11) in Jujuy province. Comparisons were made with data extracted from Argentine Table of Food Composition, edited by National Nutrition Institute, Buenos Aires, Argentina (1942). The results show that the level of protein is slightly inferior (in the case of CGBC varies between 18.44 +/- 0.30 and 21.06 +/- 0.11 g/100 g, while in the CTE varies between 20 and 23.8 g/100 g). The content of lipids in the cuts without visible fat is variable (1.06 +/- 0.01 to 2.74 +/- 0.61 g/100 g in the cuts of CGBC and 1.4 to 8.4 for the cuts of CTE). The content of minerals is similar (Fe 2.26 +/- 0.18 to 2.35 +/- 0.23 mg/100 g in CGBC, while in the CTE varies between 3.15 and 3.46 mg/100 g; Phosphorous varies between 142 +/- 10 and 170 +/- 11 mg/100 g in CGBC and 186 to 213 mg/100 g in CTE). These outcomes allow to affirm that the quality of CGBC beef is very similar to CTE beef with regard to principal nutrients.

  10. Significance of authenticity in meat and meat products in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Rezazadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Authenticity of meat products is very important for religious and health reasons in Iran. According to legislation in Iran, the consumption and importation of pork, horse, donkey and cat products should be banned. Therefore, the identification of meat products cannot be judged solely by its appearance. This issue led to the authenticity of bovine, sheep, pig, horse, donkey, chicken and soya (Glycine max in raw and processed meat products.In this study, specific primers were designed for the identification of pig ( base pair, donkey (325 base pair, chicken (391 base pair, sheep (499 base pair, horse (607 base pair, soya (707 base pair and bovine (853 base pair by Polymerase chain reaction. Following PCR, expected,, , 499,,  and  base pair fragments were detectable in pig, donkey, chicken, sheep, horse, soya and bovine, respectively. This protocol can be used for identification of raw and processed meat products in various animal species for replication to regulatory obligations for meat species safety in Iran.

  11. Snail meat: Significance and consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragićević Olgica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of snail meat goes back to prehistoric times. Different ancient nations had snails on their menu, but Helices culture as a productive activity was born as a Roman culture. Some of the most economically important edible species are: Helix aspersa (Mtiller Helixpomatia (Linne, Helix iucorum (Linne, Helix aperta (Born, Eobania vermiculata (Miiller. Together with its tasie, snail meat has several advantages over others: quite low lipid rate and calorie values versus rich mineral, essential amino acid and fatty acid content. The composition of snail meat is presented. In addition, the composition of different snail species and the part analyzed (pedal mass and visceral mass is presented. Also, the differences in composition according to the species (snail meat horse/chicken meat, beef, swine meat, fish meat are presented. The French are the world's leading consumers of snails. !n France snails come to market in a variety of ways. Estimated consumption of snails in France is around 40 000 tones/year. Total French imports account for 25% of world imports. France is also the leading exporter of prepared snails, mainly sold as preserved snails and prepared dishes. Snail imports have been much higher than exports (65 tones exported in 2002. vs. 2.700 tones imported. Despite the large consumption, only 3% of snails in France come from production (farming. Italy is in second place in the world consumption of snails, and Spain and Germany are in the third and fourth place. The development of snails consumption in Italy is followed with the same amount of production of snails in the whole biological circle. In 2001, from 24,700 tons, 9,350 tons (37.8% came from production, 6 00 tons (2.4% came from nature, and 14,750 tons (59.70% came from imports (frozen, fresh and prepared snails. In Serbia, at the beginning of 2005, we had over 400 registered farms for snail production.

  12. Safety criteria for the acquisition of meat in Brazilian University restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Marizete Oliveira de Mesquita; Leadir Lucy Martins Fries; Thiele Valente

    2014-01-01

    The present study's objective was to analyze the procedures aimed at guaranteeing sanitary conditions when acquiring meat. The study was conducted with university restaurants of the Federal Institutions of Higher Education (IFES) located in the five regions of Brazil. Data were collected using a questionnaire and an evaluation list, which was available online to restaurant professionals. The results showed that restaurants chose one or two types of meat, the most frequent of which were beef a...

  13. Global antioxidant response of meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Celia; Barrio, Ángela; Del Mar Cavia, María; Alonso-Torre, Sara

    2017-06-01

    The global antioxidant response (GAR) method uses an enzymatic digestion to release antioxidants from foods. Owing to the importance of digestion for protein breakdown and subsequent release of bioactive compounds, the aim of the present study was to compare the GAR method for meat with the existing methodologies: the extraction-based method and QUENCHER. Seven fresh meats were analyzed using ABTS and FRAP assays. Our results indicated that the GAR of meat was higher than the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assessed with the traditional extraction-based method. When evaluated with GAR, the thermal treatment led to an increase in the TAC of the soluble fraction, contrasting with a decreased TAC after cooking measured using the extraction-based method. The effect of thermal treatment on the TAC assessed by the QUENCHER method seemed to be dependent on the assay applied, since results from ABTS differed from FRAP. Our results allow us to hypothesize that the activation of latent bioactive peptides along the gastrointestinal tract should be taken into consideration when evaluating the TAC of meat. Therefore, we conclude that the GAR method may be more appropriate for assessing the TAC of meat than the existing, most commonly used methods. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. The American Geological Institute Minority Participation Program (MPP): Thirty Years of Improving Access to Opportunities in the Geosciences Through Undergraduate and Graduate Scholarships for Underrepresented Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, C. N.; Byerly, G. R.; Smith, M. J.

    2001-05-01

    Since 1971, the American Geological Institute (AGI) Minority Participation Program (MPP) has supported scholarships for underrepresented minorities in the geosciences at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Some of our MPP scholars have gone on to hugely successful careers in the geosciences. MPP scholars include corporate leaders, university professors, a NASA scientist-astronaut and a National Science Foundation (NSF) CAREER awardee. Yet as ethnic minorities continue to be underrepresented in the geosciences, AGI plans to expand its efforts beyond its traditional undergraduate and graduate scholarships to include diversity programs for secondary school geoscience teacher internships, undergraduate research travel support, and doctoral research fellowships. AGI promotes its MPP efforts primarily through its web pages, which are very successful in attracting visitors; through its publications, especially Geotimes; and through its Corporate Associates and Member Societies. Funding for the MPP has come from multiple sources over the past 30 years. Industry, non-profit organizations, and individuals have been the primary source of funding for graduate scholarships. The NSF has regularly funded the undergraduate scholarships. AGI Corporate Associates have contributed to both scholarship programs. The MPP Advisory Committee selects scholarship recipients based upon student academic performance, financial need, and potential for success as a geoscience professional. AGI currently has 29 MPP scholars, including 11 undergraduate and 18 graduate students. Undergraduate scholarships range from \\1000 to \\5000, with an average award of approximately \\2500. Graduate scholarships range from \\500 to \\4000, with an average award of approximately \\1300. In addition to financial assistance, every MPP scholar is assigned a professional geoscientist as a mentor. The mentor is responsible for regular personal contacts with MPP scholars, and with writing evaluation reports that

  15. Red meat consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases-is increased iron load a possible link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana Pacheco, Daniel A; Sookthai, Disorn; Wittenbecher, Clemens; Graf, Mirja E; Schübel, Ruth; Johnson, Theron; Katzke, Verena; Jakszyn, Paula; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman

    2018-01-01

    High iron load and red meat consumption could increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). As red meat is the main source of heme iron, which is in turn a major determinant of increased iron load, adverse cardiometabolic effects of meat consumption could be mediated by increased iron load. The object of the study was to assess whether associations between red meat consumption and CVD risk are mediated by iron load in a population-based human study. We evaluated relations between red meat consumption, iron load (plasma ferritin), and risk of CVD in the prospective EPIC-Heidelberg Study using a case-cohort sample including a random subcohort (n = 2738) and incident cases of myocardial infarction (MI, n = 555), stroke (n = 513), and CVD mortality (n = 381). Following a 4-step mediation analysis, associations between red meat consumption and iron load, red meat consumption and CVD risk, and iron load and CVD risk were assessed by multivariable regression models before finally testing to which degree associations between red meat consumption and CVD risk were attenuated by adjustment for iron status. Red meat consumption was significantly positively associated with ferritin concentrations and MI risk [HR per 50 g daily intake: 1.18 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.33)], but no significant associations with stroke risk and CVD mortality were observed. While direct associations between ferritin concentrations and MI risk as well as CVD mortality were significant in age- and sex-adjusted Cox regression models, these associations were substantially attenuated and no longer significant after multivariable adjustment for classical CVD risk factors. Strikingly, ferritin concentrations were positively associated with a majority of classical CVD risk factors (age, male sex, alcohol intake, obesity, inflammation, and lower education). Increased ferritin concentrations may be a marker of an overall unfavorable risk factor profile rather than a mediator of greater CVD risk due to meat

  16. Survey of Policies and Guidelines on Antioxidant Use for Cancer Prevention, Treatment, and Survivorship in North American Cancer Centers: What Do Institutions Perceive as Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Gyeongyeon; White, Jennifer; Zhong, Lihong; Carlson, Linda E

    2015-07-01

    Health care policies and guidelines that are clear and consistent with research evidence are important for maximizing clinical outcomes. To determine whether cancer centers in Canada and the United States had policies and/or guidelines about antioxidant use, and whether policies were aligned with the evidence base, we reviewed current research evidence in the field, and we undertook a survey of the policies and guidelines on antioxidant use at cancer institutions across North America. A survey of policies and guidelines on antioxidant use and the development and communication of the policies and guidelines was conducted by contacting cancer institutions in North America. We also conducted a Website search for each institution to explore any online resources. Policies and guidelines on antioxidant use were collected from 78 cancer institutions. Few cancer institutions had policies (5%) but most provided guidelines (69%). Antioxidants from diet were generally encouraged at cancer institutions, consistent with the current research evidence. In contrast, specific antioxidant supplements were generally not recommended at cancer institutions. Policies and guidelines were developed using evidence-based methods (53%), by consulting another source (35%), or through discussions/conference (26%), and communicated mainly through online resources (65%) or written handouts (42%). For cancer institutions that had no policy or guideline on antioxidants, lack of information and lack of time were the most frequently cited reasons. Policies and guidelines on antioxidants from diet were largely consistent with the research evidence. Policies and guidelines on antioxidant supplements during treatment were generally more restrictive than the research evidence might suggest, perhaps due to the specificity of results and the inability to generalize findings across antioxidants, adding to the complexity of their optimal and safe use. Improved communication of comprehensive research

  17. High pressure processing of meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto; Christensen, Mette; Ertbjerg, Per

    Abstract Background: The research of high pressure (HP) processing of meat based foods needs to address how pressure affects protein interactions, aggregation and/or gelation. The understanding of the gel forming properties of myofibrillar components is fundamental for the development of muscle...... based products (Chapleau et al., 2004;Colmenero, 2002). Object: The aim was to study the rheological properties of pork meat emulsion exposed to HP and the effect of HP on the aggregation state of myofibrillar proteins. To address the role of cathepsin in myofibrillar protein degradation the changes...... in the myofibrillar protein pattern and HP-induced change in activity of cathepsin B and L were investigated. Results: In this study we showed that HP treatment of pork meat emulsion, ranging from 0.1 to 800 MPa, induced protein gel formation as shown by the increased Young’s modulus (Fig.1). Analysis of SDS...

  18. Will novel protein foods beat meat? : consumer acceptance of meat substitutes - a multidisciplinary research approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Meat production places a heavy burden on the environment and therefore options are sought to reduce meat consumption. One option is to let new meat substitutes take the place of meat on the plate. This can only succeed when these products are acceptable to consumers. The thesis investigated which

  19. The Efficacy of the clay meat ball as a method of traditional meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: meat ball, protein, mineral content. This work was carried out to determine the effectiveness of the use of clay meat balls (an African traditional method of preserving meat) in extending the shelf life of meat over a period of months against microbial (bacterial and fungal) spoilage and contamination without ...

  20. Meat production in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, M

    1999-05-01

    Developing countries have very diverse food consumption patterns and agricultural production systems. The proportion of meat in national diets varies from negligible in some countries in central Africa to 30-40% in some countries in Latin America and Mongolia. However, the demand for meat in developing countries is increasing rapidly (53%/year from 1982 to 1993), as the result of population growth and the trend for people to move to the cities. Growth rates in consumption are greatest in Asia, with China dominating the statistics, in view of the size of its population. Theoretically, livestock production can be increased to meet this demand, but the multiple roles of livestock in developing countries must be recognized if this is to be achieved in a sustainable manner. Resource-poor farmers who keep livestock may value more highly their contribution to livelihoods and to crop production, through provision of draught power and improvements in soil fertility through the recycling of manure, than the production of more meat. Recognition of the goals of the farmer and the wishes of the consumer regarding meat quality need to be reflected in the way in which opportunities for increasing meat production are identified and communicated to farmers. The impact of the global economy on cereal prices, for example, will also influence which interventions will be economically viable. Interpretation of information in an integral manner, using geographical information systems, mathematical models and/or simple spreadsheet models will be an important ingredient in turning scientific knowledge into increased meat production in developing countries.

  1. Meat consumption, diabetes and its complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feskens, E.J.M.; Sluik, D.; Woudenbergh, van G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Several prospective studies have reported that risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is elevated in meat consumers, especially when processed meats are consumed. Elevated risks of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke in meat consumers have also been reported. In this overview, the evidence regarding

  2. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied Products...

  3. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied Products...

  4. Variations in land requirements for meat production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink, E. V.; Nonhebel, S.

    2007-01-01

    Production of meat requires substantial amounts of feed grains which in turn require vast amounts of land. Future population growth and increase in consumption will raise the demand for meat and with it the land required for meat production. This paper analyses the various factors that affect land

  5. Breeding for meat quality in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovenier, R.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of improving pig meat quality by selection. Therefore, literature is reviewed to determine the meat quality traits to be used and genetic parameters of those meat quality traits are calculated. A method is described to obtain

  6. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Products § 319.304 Meat stews. Meat stews such as “Beef Stew” or “Lamb Stew” shall contain not less than 25... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY...

  7. Moving Toward an Anti-Deficit Perspective: African American Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (STEM) Students at Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Melissa M.

    The increased demand for qualified STEM workers, necessitates addressing the bachelor's science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) degree achievement among African Americans and other underrepresented populations. Using inquiry derived from Harper's (2010) Anti-Deficit Achievement Framework, this study sought to explore the factors that contribute to the successful degree completion of African American STEM students within a large comprehensive university system. Coding of the twelve semi-structured interviews revealed six major themes: a) K-12/precollege educational experiences, b) motivation to complete a STEM degree, c) systems of social support, d) extracurricular activities and out-of-class experiences, e) addressing stereotyping and discrimination, and f) faculty behaviors and dispositions. All themes were intertwined at each phase of participants' academic careers, thereby, highlighting the complexity of this population's experience and what is needed to address their low STEM degree attainment. Findings indicated that this student population benefits from positive, sustained faculty-student interactions, holistic STEM success programming, and genuine networks of social support. Furthermore, Harper's framework can be modified to explore the motivation of African American STEM students as well as the African American student's relationship with disability support services.

  8. Latin American Literatures and Cultures: Self and Society. Papers from the National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute (La Jolla, California, August 1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabrook, John H., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This special issue contains the following articles: (1) "Critiquing the Center: Rigoberta Menchu and Enrique Dussel" (Joseph R. Hoff); (2) "Caroline Maria De Jesus: A Testimonial Voice in the Wilderness" (Eva Bueno); (3) "Latin American Women's Voices: La Malinche to Rigoberta Menchu" (Ana Maria Romo de Mease); (4) "China in Borges''The Garden of…

  9. ASAS Centennial paper: a century of pioneers and progress in meat science in the United States leads to new frontiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beermann, D H

    2009-03-01

    Discoveries, understanding, and innovations in meat science during the last century have led to revolutionary changes in meat and poultry production, processing, marketing, and consumption. American Society of Animal Science members have made key contributions in most, if not all, categories of advancement. The first US university meat science program was begun in Minnesota in 1905. Use of mechanical refrigeration in the meatpacking industry, improved transportation and packaging, and home refrigeration provided more flexibility, variety, and consistency in meat and meat products in the early 1900s. Cooperative meat research was begun by 27 universities in 1925, with a focus on the observational characterization of carcass traits and composition, meat quality attributes, and causes of the wide variation in these variables. Scientific study of genetic, nutritional, and environmental influences on the growth, physiology, and postmortem biochemistry of muscle often used muscle-comparative investigations. Rigor mortis, cold shortening and thaw rigor, postmortem muscle metabolism, postmortem tenderization and tenderness variation, and postmortem myoglobin and lipid oxidation were studied vigorously in the 1960s and beyond, defining the biochemical bases for associated outcomes in fresh and processed products. Value-added benefits resulted from implementation of electrical stimulation, boxed beef and modified-atmosphere packaging, restructuring technologies, collagen recovery, and muscle profiling work. Isolation, purification, and definition of the primary structure and biophysical properties of the myofribillar and cytoskeletal proteins in muscle aided the understanding of contraction and postmortem changes. The role of Ca-dependent proteases in meat tenderness and muscle growth is being clarified. The chemistry of meat curing, meat emulsion formation, fermentation, and other processing methods led to new technologies, new meat products, and new benchmarks in product

  10. Development of Sausages Containing Mechanically Deboned Chicken Meat Hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S K; Choi, J S; Choi, Y J; Lee, S J; Lee, S Y; Hur, S J

    2015-07-01

    Pork meat sausages were prepared using protein hydrolysates from mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM). In terms of the color, compared to the controls before and after storage, the redness (a*) was significantly higher in sausages containing MDCM hydrolysates, ascorbate, and sodium erythorbate. After storage, compared to the other sausage samples, the yellowness (b*) was lower in the sausages containing ascorbate and sodium erythorbate. TBARS was not significantly different among the sausage samples before storage, whereas TBARS and DPPH radical scavenging activities were significantly higher in the sausagescontainingascorbate and sodium erythorbate, compared to the other sausage samples after 4 wk of storage. In terms of sensory evaluation, the color was significantly higher in the sausages containing MDCM hydrolysates, ascorbate, and sodium erythorbate, compared to the other sausage samples after 4 wk of storage. The "off-flavor" and overall acceptability were significantly lower in the sausages containing MDCM hydrolysates than in the other sausage samples. In most of the developed countries, meat from spent laying hens is not consumed, leading toan urgent need for effectively utilization or disposal methods. In this study, sausages were prepared using spent laying hens and protein hydrolysates from mechanically deboned chicken meat. Sausage can be made by spent laying hens hydrolysates, although overall acceptability was lower than those of other sausage samples. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Differences between spent hens of different genotype in performance, meat yield and suitability of the meat for sausage production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loetscher, Y; Albiker, D; Stephan, R; Kreuzer, M; Messikommer, R E

    2015-02-01

    The valorization of spent hens via the food chain has some major limitations, which include low meat yield and tough meat. The latter issue can be overcome by producing convenience foods; the first may be alleviated by employing a genotype with higher meatiness. To quantitatively compare two common layer genotypes in production performance, meat yield and sausage quality, 2200 57 weeks old Institut de Sélection Animale (ISA) Warren and Dekalb White hens each were investigated during the last 60 days of egg laying. The hens were housed in an aviary system in 2×10 compartments (10 compartments/each genotype). Measurements included feed intake, laying performance, egg weight and feed conversion ratio as measured per compartment. BW was determined twice on 10 animals per compartment. Finally, two sub-groups of five hens per compartment were slaughtered, meat yield was recorded and bratwurst-type sausages were produced (n=20 per genotype). Fat proportion, cooking loss, connective tissue properties and Kramer shear energy were measured. After 1, 4, 7 and 10 months of frozen storage, oxidative stability (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) and microbiological status were determined as shelf-life related criteria. ANOVA was performed considering genotype as the main effect. The ISA Warren hens were inferior in laying performance (-11%) and feed conversion ratio (+10%) compared with Dekalb White, but had the same feed intake. The ISA Warren had higher BW and carcass weight than the Dekalb White. Carcass yield was higher by 5.9%. There were 80 g (23%) more meat available for sausage production from ISA Warren compared with Dekalb White. Sausages prepared from meat of ISA Warren hens contained less fat than those from Dekalb White, but showed the same cooking loss. Although the collagen proportion of the sausages produced from ISA Warren was lower than from Dekalb White, collagen solubility was lower and shear energy was higher. During the 10 months of frozen

  12. Fetal programming in meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Min; Wang, Bo; Fu, Xing; Yang, Qiyuan; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2015-11-01

    Nutrient fluctuations during the fetal stage affects fetal development, which has long-term impacts on the production efficiency and quality of meat. During the early development, a pool of mesenchymal progenitor cells proliferate and then diverge into either myogenic or adipogenic/fibrogenic lineages. Myogenic progenitor cells further develop into muscle fibers and satellite cells, while adipogenic/fibrogenic lineage cells develop into adipocytes, fibroblasts and resident fibro-adipogenic progenitor cells. Enhancing the proliferation and myogenic commitment of progenitor cells during fetal development enhances muscle growth and lean production in offspring. On the other hand, promoting the adipogenic differentiation of adipogenic/fibrogenic progenitor cells inside the muscle increases intramuscular adipocytes and reduces connective tissue, which improves meat marbling and tenderness. Available studies in mammalian livestock, including cattle, sheep and pigs, clearly show the link between maternal nutrition and the quantity and quality of meat production. Similarly, chicken muscle fibers develop before hatching and, thus, egg and yolk sizes and hatching temperature affect long-term growth performance and meat production of chicken. On the contrary, because fishes are able to generate new muscle fibers lifelong, the impact of early nutrition on fish growth performance is expected to be minor, which requires further studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental footprints in the meat chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đekić, I.; Tomašević, I.

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this paper was to present environmental performance of the meat chain and highlight main environmental footprints. The meat sector is recognized as one of the leading polluting sectors in the food industry. The meat chain was analyzed from a five-link perspective introducing the following actors: farm(er)s, slaughterhouses, meat processors, customers and consumers. Meat production needs natural resources (water and energy) resulting in waste and waste water discharge. As an outcome it has a high influence on climate change in respect to global warming, acidification and eutrophication potentials and ozone depletion substances.

  14. A Fast and Reliable Real-Time PCR Method for Detection of Ten Animal Species in Meat Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsecco, Lissandra Sousa; Palhares, Rafael Melo; Oliveira, Pollyana Carvalho; Teixeira, Lilian Viana; Drummond, Marcela Gonçalves; de Oliveira, Denise Aparecida Andrade

    2018-02-01

    Species substitution in meat products is a common problem reported worldwide. This type of food fraud is, typically, an intentional act for economic gain, using sources of low-priced meats in high-value meat products. Consequences include economic, health, and religious concerns. Highly sensitive and efficient techniques are thus required to detect meat species. This paper describes a method based on real-time PCR to detect 10 animal species (Bos taurus, Sus scrofa, Ovis aries, Capra hircus, Gallus gallus, Meleagris gallopavo, Bubalus bubalis, Equus caballus, Felis catus, and Canis familiaris) in meat product. The method combines species-specific and universal (used here as internal positive control) primers, and applies melt curve analysis for amplicon checking. Method accuracy was evaluated on 46 experimental meat mixtures and all species were correctly identified in all cases, at 1% test sensitivity. Analysis of 14 commercial meat products revealed that 6 of 14 samples had nondeclared bovine and/or chicken material. We performed an interlaboratory comparison using the reference meat mixtures and commercial samples, achieving 100% of reproducibility. The developed test proved to be effective and reliable for routine analysis of meat products. This paper describes a fast and reliable method for species detection in meat products based on real-time PCR. It can be applied for analysis of in natura or processed meat. The method proposed here can play an important role in controlling the origin of meat products, ensuring their quality and safety for the entire food industry-producers to consumers. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. Conducting Molecular Epidemiological Research in the Age of HIPAA: A Multi-Institutional Case-Control Study of Breast Cancer in African-American and European-American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine B. Ambrosone

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer in African-American (AA women occurs at an earlier age than in European-American (EA women and is more likely to have aggressive features associated with poorer prognosis, such as high-grade and negative estrogen receptor (ER status. The mechanisms underlying these differences are unknown. To address this, we conducted a case-control study to evaluate risk factors for high-grade ER- disease in both AA and EA women. With the onset of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, creative measures were needed to adapt case ascertainment and contact procedures to this new environment of patient privacy. In this paper, we report on our approach to establishing a multicenter study of breast cancer in New York and New Jersey, provide preliminary distributions of demographic and pathologic characteristics among case and control participants by race, and contrast participation rates by approaches to case ascertainment, with discussion of strengths and weaknesses.

  16. Contribution of meat to vitamin B₁₂, iron and zinc intakes in five ethnic groups in the USA: implications for developing food-based dietary guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S; Sheehy, T; Kolonel, L N

    2013-04-01

    To describe the sources of meat and their contributions to vitamin B₁₂, iron and zinc in five ethnic groups in the USA. Dietary data for the Multiethnic Cohort, established in Hawaii and Los Angeles, were collected using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire from more than 215,000 subjects, aged 45-75 years at baseline (1993-1996). Participants included African American, Latino, Japanese American, Native Hawaiian and Caucasian men and women. Servings of meat items were calculated based on the US Department of Agriculture recommendations and their contributions to intakes of total meat, red meat, vitamin B₁₂, iron and zinc were determined. Of all types of meat, poultry contributed the most to meat consumption, followed by red meat and fish among all ethnicities, except for Latino (born in Mexico and Central/South America) men who consumed more beef. Lean beef was the most commonly consumed red meat for all ethnic-sex groups (9.3-14.3%), except for Native Hawaiian and Japanese American men, and Japanese American women whose top contributor was stew/curry with beef/lamb and stir-fried beef/pork with vegetables, respectively. The contribution of meat was most substantial for zinc (11.1-29.3%) and vitamin B₁₂ (19.7-40%) and, to a lesser extent, for iron (4.3-14.2%). This is the first large multiethnic cohort study to describe meat sources and their contributions to selected nutrients among ethnic minorities in the USA. These findings may be used to develop ethnic-specific recommendations for meat consumption aiming to improve dietary quality among these groups. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  17. Food protection activities of the Pan American Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    One of the most widespread health problems in the Caribbean and Latin America is contaminated food and foodborne illness. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has been a major force in activities to strengthen food protection. The program within the regional Program of Technical Cooperation is administered by the Veterinary Public Health program and under the guidance of the Pan American Institute for Food protection and Zoonoses in Buenos Aires, Argentina. A food action plan for 1986-90 was established at the 1986 Pan American Sanitary Conference, and extended to cover 1991-95. Program activities during the 1990s covered cholera, epidemiologic surveillance, street food vendors, shellfish poisoning, meat, national programs, information systems, air catering, food irradiation, and tourism. The action plan for 1991-95 promoted greater political support and cooperation within and between related sectors and institutions, management, and education. The aims were to organize national integrated programs, to strengthen laboratory services, to strengthen inspection services, to establish epidemiologic surveillance systems, and to promote food protection through community participation. Program activities included the initiatives of the Veterinary Public Health Program in 1991 to distribute literature on the transmission of cholera by foods. Studies were conducted in Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru on food contamination. Microbiologists received training on standard methods for detecting Vibrio cholerae in foods. A working group of experts from 10 countries examined the issues and produced a guide for investigating the incidence of foodborne disease. PAHO has contributed to the formation of an Inter-American Network for Epidemiologic Surveillance of Foodborne Diseases. PAHO has worked to improve hygienic practices among street food vendors. Seminars on paralytic shellfish poisoning were conducted in 1990; the outcome was a network working to strengthen national

  18. Regulations on Meat Hygiene in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, Robert (Skip) A.

    Regulations on meat hygiene in the United States of America (US) stem from the Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA, 21 USC §§ 601 et. seq.), promulgated in 1906, that gives the US Secretary of Agriculture (the Secretary) the power to oversee the conversion of livestock into meat products. The FMIA is reviewed herein to provide a background for discussion on how the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and its departments, particularly the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), control and regulate the meat industry. This chapter discusses regulations that pertain to meat, herein meant to mean beef, veal, and pork, and does not specifically address poultry, although the regulations for poultry slaughter and processing are in many ways similar to those for meat and meat food products.

  19. Main Concerns of Pathogenic Microorganisms in Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørrung, Birgit; Andersen, Jens Kirk; Buncic, Sava

    Although various foods can serve as sources of foodborne illness, meat and meat products are important sources of human infections with a variety of foodborne pathogens, i.e. Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni/coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Verotoxigenic E. coli and, to some extent, Listeria monocytogenes. All these may be harboured in the gastrointestinal tract of food-producing animals. The most frequent chain of events leading to meat-borne illness involves food animals, which are healthy carriers of the pathogens that are subsequently transferred to humans through production, handling and consumption of meat and meat products. Occurrences of Salmonella spp., C. jejuni/coli, Y. enterocolitica and Verotoxigenic E. coli in fresh red meat vary relatively widely, although most often are between 1 and 10%, depending on a range of factors including the organism, geographical factors, farming and/or meat production practices.

  20. Identification of species origin of meat and meat products on the DNA basis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Kumar, Rajiv Ranjan; Sharma, Brahm Deo; Gokulakrishnan, Palanisamy; Mendiratta, Sanjod Kumar; Sharma, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    The adulteration/substitution of meat has always been a concern for various reasons such as public health, religious factors, wholesomeness, and unhealthy competition in meat market. Consumer should be protected from these malicious practices of meat adulterations by quick, precise, and specific identification of meat animal species. Several analytical methodologies have been employed for meat speciation based on anatomical, histological, microscopic, organoleptic, chemical, electrophoretic, chromatographic, or immunological principles. However, by virtue of their inherent limitations, most of these techniques have been replaced by the recent DNA-based molecular techniques. In the last decades, several methods based on polymerase chain reaction have been proposed as useful means for identifying the species origin in meat and meat products, due to their high specificity and sensitivity, as well as rapid processing time and low cost. This review intends to provide an updated and extensive overview on the DNA-based methods for species identification in meat and meat products.

  1. Plasma Inflammation Markers of the Tumor Necrosis Factor Pathway but Not C-Reactive Protein Are Associated with Processed Meat and Unprocessed Red Meat Consumption in Bavarian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwedhelm, Carolina; Pischon, Tobias; Rohrmann, Sabine; Himmerich, Hubertus; Linseisen, Jakob; Nimptsch, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    High consumption of red and processed meats has been linked to higher chronic disease risk. It has been hypothesized that inflammation markers may mediate part of this association. Most previous studies on the association of red meat intake with circulating inflammation markers used C-reactive protein (CRP) but rarely other markers, and not all differentiated between processed meat and unprocessed red meat. We investigated the cross-sectional association of processed meat and unprocessed red meat consumption with plasma concentrations of CRP, interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, soluble TNF receptor (sTNF-R) 1, and sTNF-R2 in German adults. Inflammation markers were quantified in the plasma of 553 adults (233 men and 320 women) aged 18-80 y within the cross-sectional Bavarian Food Consumption Survey II. Dietary intake was estimated from three 24-h dietary recalls. The association between red meat consumption and inflammation markers was analyzed with the use of multivariable-adjusted linear regression. Processed meat consumption was borderline significantly associated with higher IL-6 [relative difference per 50-g increment: 5% (95% CI: -1%, 10%)] but not with CRP (2%; 95% CI: -6%, 10%), and it was inversely associated with total TNF-α (-3%; 95% CI: -6%, -1%), sTNF-R1 (-3%; 95% CI: -4%, -1%), and sTNF-R2 (-2%; 95% CI: -4%, 0%) concentrations. Unprocessed red meat consumption was not associated with CRP (-5%; 95% CI: -15%, 5%) or IL-6 (-1%; 95% CI: -9%, 7%) but was inversely associated with sTNF-R1 (-3%; 95% CI: -5%, -1%) and sTNF-R2 (-4%; 95% CI: -7%, -2%). Our results suggest an inverse association between both processed meat and unprocessed red meat with inflammation markers of the TNF pathway in Bavarian adults but no association with CRP. Further research on the role of TNF pathway markers in chronic inflammation is warranted. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Study on the meat isotopic composition for origin identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Chernukha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Russian consumer and governmental authorities are equally concerned to know where food products come from. This requires more accurate and specialized methods for the evaluation of geographical location. The following methods are used: chemometrics, histological and histochemical, genomic and proteomic, microbiological, immunochemical and mass spectrometric. Method of stable isotope analysis is becoming increasingly promising nowadays for the identification of meat and meat products' place of origin. The isotope ratios of the four elements - carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen, are mainly determined. The method is successfully used to identify a country of origin of wines, juices and water. The aim of the research was to study the stable isotope ratios for pork and beef samples purchased in Moscow supermarkets (Russian Federation. The country of production of meat samples was determined according to specifications and/or labels. The geography of countries of meat samples origin includes Europe, both America continents and Australia. Databases collected by the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of the Brewing, Non-Alcoholic and Wine Industrywere used for the analysis and interpretation of the results. Values of 13С/12С, δ13С, 18О/16О, δ18О, 2Н/1Н, δ2Н for 30 pork and beef samples from 13 countries were obtained. Differences in stable isotope ratios were found depending on place of origin. The data correlated with the oxygen isotope characteristics for wine, which were in the range from 2.5 to 4.5 ppm. According to the 13С/12С, δ13С results, the assumption was made about a false indication of the region for the beef sample. Despite the fact that beef was labeled as a product of Lithuania, the region of origin was most probably defined as Germany. The studies carried out showed the possibility to identify the region of raw meat origin by the stable isotope ratio.

  3. Alternative futures for world cereal and meat consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosegrant, M W; Leach, N; Gerpacio, R V

    1999-05-01

    Fundamental changes in the global structure of food demand will lead to an extraordinary increase in the importance of developing countries in global food markets. Economic growth in developing countries is changing consumption patterns, with slower growth (and in many countries actual declines) in per capita food consumption of grains and rapidly growing per capita and total meat consumption, combined with induced growth in cereal feed consumption. The present paper examines the hypothesis, suggested by some researchers, that high-meat diets in developed countries limit improvement in food security in developing countries. These analysts argue that reduced meat consumption in developed countries would release cereals from livestock feed to food for poorer populations, thus improving food security in developing countries. Using the International Food Policy Research Institute (Washington, DC, USA) global food projections model, the international model for policy analysis of agricultural commodities and trade (see Rosegrant et al. 1995), we first analyse the implications for future global cereal and meat supply and demand resulting from changes in global income, population growth and other structural changes, then simulate alternative scenarios to examine the effect of large reductions in meat consumption in developed countries on food consumption and food security in developing countries. The paper shows that while the long-term prospects for food supply, demand and trade indicate a strengthening of world cereal and livestock markets, the improvement in food security in the developing world will be slow, and changes in the dietary patterns in developed countries are not an effective route to improvement in food security in developing countries.

  4. Control of salmonella in meat and meat products by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempster, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    This paper highlights the importance of food irradiation in the protection of the public against food poisoning from eating meat or meat products contaminated with salmonella. Salmonella infections are increasing at an alarming rate (2000 in 1952 to 12000 reported cases in 1982 in England and Wales alone). Dr. Dempster reports that 50% of the chicken carcasses examined by workers in America were found to be salmonella contaminated. Use of irradiation in conjunction with mild refrigeration can extend the shelf-life of vacuum packed chicken by a factor of three. Important legislation now under discussion in the U.S.A. is likely to extend the applicability of food irradiation rapidly in the near future

  5. Meat quality traits and proteome profile of woody broiler breast (pectoralis major) meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, K; Shao, W; Chen, X; Campbell, Y L; Nair, M N; Suman, S P; Beach, C M; Guyton, M C; Schilling, M W

    2018-01-01

    Woody breast meat has recently become prevalent in the broiler industry in both the United States and European Union. Recent publications have described the meat quality characteristics of woody breast meat as having hardened areas and pale ridge-like bulges at both the caudal and cranial regions of the breast. The present study investigated the meat quality (pH, color, cooking loss, and shear force) and protein quality characteristics (protein and salt-soluble protein content) in woody breast meat as compared to normal breast meat. In addition, the differences in the muscle proteome profiles of woody and normal breast meat were characterized. Results indicated that woody breast meat had a greater average pH (P 0.05) in comparison to normal breast meat samples. The L*, a*, and b* values of woody breast fillets were greater than normal breast fillets (P < 0.0001 to L*; P = 0.002 to a*; P = 0.016 to b*). The woody breast meat had more fat (P < 0.0001) and moisture (P < 0.021) and less protein (P < 0.0001) and salt-soluble protein (P < 0.0001) when compared with normal breast fillets. Whole muscle proteome analysis indicated 8 proteins that were differentially expressed (P < 0.05) between normal and woody breast meat samples. The differences in muscle proteome between normal and woody breast meat indicated an increased oxidative stress in woody breast meat when compared to normal meat. In addition, the abundance of some glycolytic enzymes, which are critical to the regeneration of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in postmortem muscles, was lower in woody breast meat than in normal breast meat. Proteomic differences provide additional information on the biochemical pathways and genetic variations that lead to woody breast meat. Further research should be conducted to elucidate the genetic and nutritional contributions to the proliferation of woody breast meat in the United States. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. CONCENTRATION OF CADMIUM IN MEAT AND SELECTED MEATS PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anetta Lukáčová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The cadmium concentrations depend on the environmental conditions and food production methods. The monitoring of cadmium concentration in meat is important for human health. The concentrations of cadmium in meat and meat products collected from central Slovakia, in the central Europe region and from different countries of West Europe were assessed using by AA spectrometer with graphite furnace (PerkinElmer AAnalyst 80, MA, USA. Within starting materials we detected the highest values of cadmium in beef from foreign production (0.1101 ppm, followed by pork from foreign production (0.0901 ppm in Lovecka salama and pork thigh (0.0523 ppm in selected ham. In Lovecka salami we were found the highest concentration of cadmium in final samples from foreign starting materials, followed by homogenized samples from foreign starting materials, final samples from domestic starting materials and homogenized samples from domestic starting materials (0.3728, 0.3549, 0.2387, 0.2112 ppm, respectively. The highest concentration of cadmium in selected ham were found in final products from foreign starting materials, homogenized samples from foreign starting materials, final products from domestic starting materials and homogenized samples from domestic starting materials (0.1453, 0.1382,0.0810, 0.0734 ppm, respectively. The obtained results suggested that the concentrations of cadmium are higher in homogenized samples and final products in Lovecka salami and selected ham in comparison with to starting materials. Technological process of meat processing can create a potential source of heavy metals in final products.

  7. National Institute of Mental Health Multisite Eban HIV/STD Prevention Intervention for African American HIV Serodiscordant Couples: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bassel, Nabila; Jemmott, John B; Landis, J Richard; Pequegnat, Willo; Wingood, Gina M; Wyatt, Gail E; Bellamy, Scarlett L

    2010-09-27

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has disproportionately affected African Americans. Couple-level interventions may be a promising intervention strategy. To determine if a behavioral intervention can reduce HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk behaviors among African American HIV serodiscordant couples, a cluster randomized controlled trial (Eban) was conducted in Atlanta, Georgia; Los Angeles, California; New York, New York; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; with African American HIV serodiscordant heterosexual couples who were eligible if both partners were at least 18 years old and reported unprotected intercourse in the previous 90 days and awareness of each other's serostatus. One thousand seventy participants were enrolled (mean age, 43 years; 40% of male participants were HIV positive). Couples were randomized to 1 of 2 interventions: couple-focused Eban HIV/STD risk-reduction intervention or attention-matched individual-focused health promotion comparison. The primary outcomes were the proportion of condom-protected intercourse acts and cumulative incidence of STDs (chlamydia, gonorrhea, or trichomonas). Data were collected preintervention and postintervention, and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Data were analyzed for 535 randomized couples: 260 in the intervention group and 275 in the comparison group; 81.9% were retained at the 12-month follow-up. Generalized estimating equation analyses revealed that the proportion of condom-protected intercourse acts was larger among couples in the intervention group (0.77) than in the comparison group (0.47; risk ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 1.41; P = .006) when adjusted for the baseline criterion measure. The adjusted percentage of couples using condoms consistently was higher in the intervention group (63%) than in the comparison group (48%; risk ratio, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.24 to 1.70; P STD incidence over the 12-month follow-up did not differ between couples in the intervention and comparison

  8. Real Time Detection of Aroma Compounds in Meat and Meat Products by SIFT-MS and Comparison to Conventional Techniques (SPME-GC-MS)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flores, M.; Olivares, A.; Dryahina, Kseniya; Španěl, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2013), s. 622-630 ISSN 1573-4110 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP203/09/P172; GA ČR GA203/09/0256 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : volatile compounds * flovar * meat Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.194, year: 2013

  9. Amino acids, lipid metabolites, and ferritin as potential mediators linking red meat consumption to type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenbecher, Clemens; Mühlenbruch, Kristin; Kröger, Janine; Jacobs, Simone; Kuxhaus, Olga; Floegel, Anna; Fritsche, Andreas; Pischon, Tobias; Prehn, Cornelia; Adamski, Jerzy; Joost, Hans-Georg; Boeing, Heiner; Schulze, Matthias B

    2015-06-01

    Habitual red meat consumption was consistently related to a higher risk of type 2 diabetes in observational studies. Potentially underlying mechanisms are unclear. This study aimed to identify blood metabolites that possibly relate red meat consumption to the occurrence of type 2 diabetes. Analyses were conducted in the prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam cohort (n = 27,548), applying a nested case-cohort design (n = 2681, including 688 incident diabetes cases). Habitual diet was assessed with validated semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaires. Total red meat consumption was defined as energy-standardized summed intake of unprocessed and processed red meats. Concentrations of 14 amino acids, 17 acylcarnitines, 81 glycerophospholipids, 14 sphingomyelins, and ferritin were determined in serum samples from baseline. These biomarkers were considered potential mediators of the relation between total red meat consumption and diabetes risk in Cox models. The proportion of diabetes risk explainable by biomarker adjustment was estimated in a bootstrapping procedure with 1000 replicates. After adjustment for age, sex, lifestyle, diet, and body mass index, total red meat consumption was directly related to diabetes risk [HR for 2 SD (11 g/MJ): 1.26; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.57]. Six biomarkers (ferritin, glycine, diacyl phosphatidylcholines 36:4 and 38:4, lysophosphatidylcholine 17:0, and hydroxy-sphingomyelin 14:1) were associated with red meat consumption and diabetes risk. The red meat-associated diabetes risk was significantly (P diabetes risk explainable by respective biomarkers was 69% (IQR: 49%, 106%). In our study, high ferritin, low glycine, and altered hepatic-derived lipid concentrations in the circulation were associated with total red meat consumption and, independent of red meat, with diabetes risk. The red meat-associated diabetes risk was largely attenuated after adjustment for selected biomarkers, which is consistent

  10. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat and meat products imported in Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostova Sandra

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. is leading bacterial cause of diarrhea in human population in all parts of the world. In most of the cases infection with Campylobacter spp. in humans originate from contaminated poultry meat and poultry meat products. This study was designed to estimate prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in meat and meat products imported in Republic of Macedonia. During the period of 8 months (January-August 2008 we tested 56 samples of meat and meat products (poultry meat, MDM, pork meat, beef meat and smoked beef. Samples were submitted to analysis for detection of thermo-tolerant Campylobacter spp. according to ISO 10272:1995. We determined among the analyzed samples highest prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in MDM with 84% positive samples, poultry meat with 81,8%, pork meat with 10%. We didn.t detect any positive samples in beef meat and smoked beef. Overall prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in all tested samples was 55,36%. This study shows that the high prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in tested samples and in correlation with severe symptoms in humans are reasons good enough for the producing and processing poultry meat industry and food business operators so they should take in consideration Campylobacter spp. in their risk assessment and preparation of HACCP plan.

  11. Meat-based enteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derevitskay, O. K.; Dydykin, A. S.

    2017-09-01

    Enteral nutrition is widely used in hospitals as a means of nutritional support and therapy for different diseases. Enteral nutrition must fulfil the energy needs of the body, be balanced by the nutrient composition and meet patient’s nutritional needs. Meat is a source of full-value animal protein, vitamins and minerals. On the basis of this research, recipes and technology for a meat-based enteral nutrition product were developed. The product is a ready-to-eat sterilised mixture in the form of a liquid homogeneous mass, which is of full value in terms of composition and enriched with vitamins and minerals, consists of particles with a size of not more than 0.3 mm and has the modified fat composition and rheological characteristics that are necessary for passage through enteral feeding tubes. The study presents experimental data on the content of the main macro- and micro-nutrients in the developed product. The new product is characterised by a balanced fatty acid composition, which plays an important role in correction of lipid metabolism disorders and protein-energy deficiency, and it is capable of satisfying patients’ daily requirements for vitamins and the main macro- and microelements when consuming 1500-2000 ml. Meat-based enteral nutrition can be used in diets as a standard mixture for effective correction of the energy and anabolic requirements of the body and support of the nutritional status of patients, including those with operated stomach syndrome.

  12. The Ethics of Producing In Vitro Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, G Owen; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-05-01

    The prospect of consumable meat produced in a laboratory setting without the need to raise and slaughter animals is both realistic and exciting. Not only could such in vitro meat become popular due to potential cost savings, but it also avoids many of the ethical and environmental problems with traditional meat productions. However, as with any new technology, in vitro meat is likely to face some detractors. We examine in detail three potential objections: 1) in vitro meat is disrespectful, either to nature or to animals; 2) it will reduce the number of happy animals in the world; and 3) it will open the door to cannibalism. While each objection has some attraction, we ultimately find that all can be overcome. The upshot is that in vitro meat production is generally permissible and, especially for ethical vegetarians, worth promoting.

  13. Chinese ethnic meat products: Continuity and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Weicai; Wen, Wenting; Deng, Yue; Tian, Yuanyuan; Sun, Honghu; Sun, Qun

    2016-10-01

    With their distinctive sensory characterizations and unique processing technologies, Chinese ethnic meat products possess great potential for development and continuity in modern China's meat industry. Due to the greater demand for meat products and higher quality and safety concerns in economically fast growing China, the development and continuity of ethnic meat products face its own unique challenges. In this review, the classification of typical ethnic products and their characteristics, and the research progress on their quality and processing technologies are discussed. The application of innovative and green technologies to improve the safety and quality of ethnic meat products for greater industrialization and sustainable development is highlighted. Furthermore, the strategy for promoting the production of Chinese ethnic meat products during the next five years is presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Introducing the new meat. Problems and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stellan Welin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cultured meat, or in vitro meat, is one of the ideas that are being proposed to help solve the problems associated with the ever-growing global meat consumption. The prospect may bring benefit for the environment, climate, and animal ethics, but has also generated doubts and criticism. A discussion of the possible environmental benefit and of animal ethics issues in relation to cultured meat production will be given. A perceived 'unnaturalness' of cultured meat may be one of the strongest barriers for public acceptance. This will be discussed and rejected. As to our relations with nature and animals, it is plausible that cultured meat will lead to improvement rather than to deterioration. The issue of public acceptance and some of the problems of introducing this new product on the market will also be discussed.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v7i1.1788

  15. Delayed anaphylaxis to red meat masquerading as idiopathic anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Anubha; Commins, Scott P; Heymann, Peter W; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E

    2014-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is traditionally recognized as a rapidly developing combination of symptoms that often includes hives and hypotension or respiratory symptoms. Furthermore, when a specific cause is identified, exposure to this cause is usually noted to have occurred within minutes to 2 hours before the onset of symptoms. This case is of a 79-year-old woman who developed a severe episode of anaphylaxis 3 hours after eating pork. Before 2012, she had not experienced any symptoms after ingestion of meat products. Delayed anaphylaxis to mammalian meat has many contrasting features to immediate food-induced anaphylaxis. The relevant IgE antibody is specific for the oligosaccharide galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose, a blood group substance of nonprimate mammals. There is evidence from Australia, Sweden, and the United States that the primary cause of this IgE antibody response is tick bites. These bites characteristically itch for 10 days or more. Diagnosis can be made by the presence of specific IgE to beef, pork, lamb, and milk, and the lack of IgE to chicken, turkey, and fish. Skin prick tests (but not intradermal tests) generally are negative. Management of these cases, now common across the southeastern United States, consists of education combined with avoidance of both ingestion of red meat and further tick bites. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Benevolent technotopias and hitherto unimaginable meats: Tracing the promises of in vitro meat

    OpenAIRE

    Jönsson, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Today, in vitro (Latin: in glass) meat researchers strive to overhaul meat production technologies by producing meat outside animal bodies, primarily by culturing cells. In the process, meat should become healthier, more environmentally friendly and kinder to animals. In this article, I scrutinize (and problematize) this promissory discourse by examining the world that proponents envision alongside the world from which promises emerge. First, I trace the increasing number of publications stri...

  17. 9 CFR 311.38 - Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat and meat byproducts from... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.38 Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been...

  18. Utilization of stat test priority in the clinical laboratory: a College of American Pathologists q-probes study of 52 institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmar, Keith E; Wilkinson, David S; Wagar, Elizabeth A; Lehman, Christopher M

    2013-02-01

    Utilization of stat testing priority is a balance between safe, efficient patient management and resource expenditure. To determine the rate of stat testing, compare rates among institutions, and determine the distribution of turnaround time expectations for different turnaround time priorities. During a 7-day period, participants prospectively determined the total number of chemistry, hematology, and coagulation billable tests from inpatients and emergency department patients. Among these, the total numbers of billable tests performed stat were identified. Laboratories also reported the levels of test priority they offered and turnaround expectations for each level of test priority. Fifty institutions submitted data for the study, with 2 additional participants submitting partial results. Participants identified 639 589 chemistry, hematology, and coagulation billable tests, with 229 896 (35.9%) performed stat. The stat rate varied from 21.3% at the 10th percentile to 55.4% at the 90th percentile, with a median of 37.0% of participants' tests performed stat. Laboratories include a mean of 206 tests in chemistry, hematology, and coagulation test menus, with 67% of these tests offered stat. The fraction of the test menu offered stat varied from 29.0% at the 10th percentile to 97.8% at the 90th percentile, with a median of 73.3% of tests on the menu offered stat. The most common number of testing priorities offered by participating laboratories was 3 (44.2%). Among the 52 participating laboratories, the median stat testing rate was 37.0% and a median 73.3% of the test menu was offered stat.

  19. Feasibility of a Centralized Clinical Trials Coverage Analysis: A Joint Initiative of the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the National Cancer Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanek, Connie M; Hurley, Patricia; Good, Marjorie J; Denicoff, Andrea; Willenberg, Kelly; Dawson, Casey; Kurbegov, Dax

    2017-06-01

    Clinical trial billing compliance is a challenge that is faced by overburdened clinical trials sites. The requirements place institutions and research sites at increased potential for financial risk. To reduce their risk, sites develop a coverage analysis (CA) before opening each trial. For multisite trials, this translates into system-wide redundancies, inconsistencies, trial delays, and potential costs to sites and patients. These factors exacerbate low accrual rates to cancer clinical trials. ASCO and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) collaborated to address this problem. An ASCO Research Community Forum working group proposed the concept of providing centrally developed CAs to research sites at protocol startup. The group collaborated with NCI and billing compliance experts to hold a symposium for key stakeholders to share knowledge, build skills, provide tools to conduct centralized CAs, and strategize about the next steps. Forty-eight attendees, who represented a range of stakeholders, participated in the symposium. As a result of this initiative, NCI directed the Cancer Trials Support Unit to convene a working group with NCI's National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN) and Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) to develop tools and processes for generating CAs for their trials. A CA template with core elements was developed and is being adapted in a pilot project across NCTN Group and NCORP Research Bases. Centralized CAs for multisite trials-using standardized tools and templates-are feasible. They have the potential to reduce risk for patients and sites, forecast budget needs, and help decrease trial startup times that impede patient access and accrual to clinical trials.

  20. Meat, Fish, Poultry, and Egg Intake at Diagnosis and Risk of Prostate Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kathryn M; Mucci, Lorelei A; Drake, Bettina F; Preston, Mark A; Stampfer, Meir J; Giovannucci, Edward; Kibel, Adam S

    2016-12-01

    Little information exists on diet and prostate cancer progression. We examined the association between intakes of total red meat, processed and unprocessed red meat, poultry, fish, and eggs and prostate cancer recurrence. We conducted a prospective study of 971 men treated with radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer between 2003 and 2010. Men completed a food frequency questionnaire at diagnosis. We used logistic regression to study the association between diet and high-grade or advanced-stage disease. We used Cox models to study the risk of progression [N = 94 events, mainly prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence]. Total red meat intake was marginally associated with risk of high-grade disease [Gleason ≥ 4+3; adjusted OR top vs. bottom quartile: 1.66; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.93-2.97; P trend = 0.05], as was very high intake of eggs (OR top decile vs. bottom quartile: 1.98; 95% CI, 1.08-3.63, P trend = 0.08). Well-done red meat was associated with advanced disease (≥pT3; OR top vs. bottom quartile: 1.74, 95% CI, 1.05-2.90; P trend = 0.01). Intakes of red meat, fish, and eggs were not associated with progression. Very high poultry intake was inversely associated with progression (HR top decile vs. bottom quartile: 0.19; 95% CI, 0.06-0.63; P trend = 0.02). Substituting 30 g/d of poultry or fish for total or unprocessed red meat was associated with significantly lower risk of recurrence. Lower intakes of red meat and well-done red meat and higher intakes of poultry and fish are associated with lower risk of high grade and advanced prostate cancer and reduced recurrence risk, independent of stage and grade. Cancer Prev Res; 9(12); 933-41. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Environmental impacts of cultured meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomisto, Hanna L; de Mattos, M Joost Teixeira

    2011-07-15

    Cultured meat (i.e., meat produced in vitro using tissue engineering techniques) is being developed as a potentially healthier and more efficient alternative to conventional meat. Life cycle assessment (LCA) research method was used for assessing environmental impacts of large-scale cultured meat production. Cyanobacteria hydrolysate was assumed to be used as the nutrient and energy source for muscle cell growth. The results showed that production of 1000 kg cultured meat requires 26-33 GJ energy, 367-521 m(3) water, 190-230 m(2) land, and emits 1900-2240 kg CO(2)-eq GHG emissions. In comparison to conventionally produced European meat, cultured meat involves approximately 7-45% lower energy use (only poultry has lower energy use), 78-96% lower GHG emissions, 99% lower land use, and 82-96% lower water use depending on the product compared. Despite high uncertainty, it is concluded that the overall environmental impacts of cultured meat production are substantially lower than those of conventionally produced meat.

  2. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  3. Consumers' motivational associations favoring free-range meat or less meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Boersema, J.J.; Aiking, H.

    2009-01-01

    The present paper analyzed the motivational orientations of consumers who choose to eat (1) small portions of meat or (2) ethically distinctive meat, such as free-range meat, in relation to the motivational orientations of their opposites. Going beyond the conventional approach to consumer behavior,

  4. Longissimus muscle transcriptome profiles related to carcass and meat quality traits in fresh meat Pietrain carcasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, te M.F.W.; Keuning, E.; Hulsegge, B.; Hoving-Bolink, A.H.; Evans, G.; Mulder, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    High quality pork is consumed as fresh meat while other carcasses are used in the processing industry. Meat quality is determined measuring technical muscle parameters. The objective of this research was to investigate the molecular regulatory mechanisms underlying meat quality differences of pork

  5. An Insight of Meat Industry in Pakistan with Special Reference to Halal Meat: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohaib, Muhammad; Jamil, Faraz

    2017-01-01

    Livestock is considered central component in agricultural sector of Pakistan, provides employment to more than 8 million families. Meat and meat products holds pivotal significance in meeting dietary requirements serving as major protein source and provide essential vitamins and minerals. Globally, consumer demand is increasing for healthy, hygienic and safe meat and meat products due to growing population, income level and food choices. As, food choices are mainly influenced by region, religion and economic level. However, religion is one of the major factor to influence the food choices. In this context, halal foods a growing trend, trade estimated to cross USD $ 3 trillion and among this, meat sector contribute about US$ 600 billion. Halal meat and allied products is requirement from Muslims but it is also accepted by non-Muslims due to safe and hygienic nature, nutritious value and superior quality. Pakistan meat industry is vibrant and has seen rigorous developments during last decade as government also showed interest to boost livestock production and processing facilities to meet increasing local and global demand. The industry has potential to grow owing to its natural animal rearing capability, muslim majority country (96% of total population), improvisation of market and consumer preference towards halal meat. Current review debates Pakistan meat industry scenario, production trend, global trade as well as future potential with respect to modernization, processing, distribution and trade. The data presented here is useful for meat producers, processors and people involved in export of Pakistani meat and meat based products.

  6. Trends in meat and meat products packaging – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Kurek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of any packaging system for fresh muscle foods is to prevent or delay undesirable changes to the appearance, flavour, odour, and texture. Deterioration in these qualities can result in economic losses due to consumer rejection of the product. Therefore, a preservative packaging should ideally inhibit undesirable enzyme activities, but not interfere with, or inhibit, activities that are beneficial. The non-enzimatic reactions that affect the organoleptic qualities of raw meats are invariably undesirable, so these should preferably be slowed or prevented by a preservative packaging.

  7. Radappertization of chicken and pork meat by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna C, P.C.

    1992-05-01

    In this report the benefits that presents the irradiation process in the conservation of meat products, as the chicken, head meat and pig meat are analysed, also the implications that it brings in health and economical aspects. (Author)

  8. 78 FR 25710 - Applications for New Awards; Strengthening Institutions Program (SIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... institutional practices and cultures, and their overall approach to improving results for students. Applicants..., Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian-Serving Institutions, Asian American and Native American Pacific...

  9. Resenha de KURTZ, Marcus J. Latin American State Building in Comparative: social foundations of institutional order. New York: Cambrigde University Press/Ohio University Press, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Makino

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo  Em seu livro, Kurtz tenta entender a atual diferença nas capacidades estatais de Argentina, Uruguai, Chile e Peru a partir de uma perspectiva institucionalista, sendo fortemente influenciada pela noção de dependência de trajetória. Dois momentos teriam sido cruciais nessa trajetória: as relações de trabalho (livre ou servil à época da independência administrativa e o timing da incorporação das massas ao processo eleitoral. Palavras-chave capacidade estatal, dependência da trajetória, América Latina  --- Abstract In his book, Kurtz analyzes the current diferences in the state capacity of Argentina, Uruguay, Chili and Peru from na institutionalist perspective under strong influence of the notion of path dependence. Two moments would have been crucial in their state-building: the labor relations (free or servile by the time of their administrative independence and the timing of universalization of vote. Key words state-building, path dependence, Latin American --- Resumen En su libro, Kurtz intenta entender la actual diferencia en las capacidades estatales de Argentina, Uruguay, Chile y Perú a partir de una perspectiva institucionalista, destacadamente influenciada por la noción de dependencia de la trayectoria. Dos momentos habrían sido cruciales en esa trayectoria: las relaciones de trabajo (libre o serviles a la época de la independencia administrativa y el timing de la incorporación de las masas al proceso electoral. Palabras-clave capacidad estatal, dependencia da trayectoria, América Latina ---

  10. Meet meat: An explorative study on meat and cultured meat as seen by Chinese, Ethiopians and Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, G.A.; Tobi, H.; Fischer, A.R.

    2017-01-01

    In this cross-cultural study we investigated how study participants from China, Ethiopia and the Netherlands operationalize the concept of meat and to what extent cultured meat fits or does not fit into this operationalization. We argue that combining the conceptual approaches symbolic boundaries

  11. White Paper AGA: An Episode-of-Care Framework for the Management of Obesity-Moving Toward High Value, High Quality Care: A Report From the American Gastroenterological Association Institute Obesity Episode of Care and Bundle Initiative Work Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Joel V; Ashmore, Jamile A; Brengman, Matthew L; Buffington, Daniel E; Feldshon, S David; Friedman, Kelli E; Margolis, Peter S; Markus, Danielle; Narramore, Leslie; Rastogi, Amita; Starpoli, Anthony A; Strople, Kenneth; White, Jane V; Streett, Sarah E

    2017-05-01

    The American Gastroenterological Association acknowledges the need for gastroenterologists to participate in and provide value-based care for both cognitive and procedural conditions. Episodes of care are designed to engage specialists in the movement toward fee for value, while facilitating improved outcomes and patient experience and a reduction in unnecessary services and overall costs. The episode of care model puts the patient at the center of all activity related to their particular diagnosis, procedure, or health care event, rather than on a physician's specific services. It encourages and incents communication, collaboration, and coordination across the full continuum of care and creates accountability for the patient's entire experience and outcome. This paper outlines a collaborative approach involving multiple stakeholders for gastrointestinal practices to assess their ability to participate in and implement an episode of care for obesity and understand the essentials of coding and billing for these services. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Potential Use of 3-D Scanning to Evaluate the Chemical Composition of Pork Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczak, Lech; Chmiel, Marta; Florowski, Tomasz; Pietrzak, Dorota; Witkowski, Marcin; Barczak, Tomasz

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of 3-D scanning method in chemical composition evaluation of pork meat. The sampling material comprised neck muscles (1000 g each) obtained from 20 pork carcasses. The volumetric estimation process of the elements was conducted on the basis of point cloud collected using 3-D scanner. Knowing the weight of neck muscles, their density was calculated which was subsequently correlated with the content of basic chemical components of the pork meat (water, protein and fat content, determined by standard methods). The significant correlations (P ≤ 0.05) between meat density and water (r = 0.5213), protein (r = 0.5887), and fat (r = -0.6601) content were obtained. Based on the obtained results it seems likely to employ the 3-D scanning method to compute the meat chemical composition. The use of the 3-D scanning method in industrial practice will allow to evaluate the chemical composition of meat in online mode on a dressing and fabrication line and in a rapid, noninvasive manner. The control of the raw material using the 3-D scanning will allow to make visual assessment more objective and will enable optimal standardization of meat batches prior to processing stage. It will ensure not only the repeatability of product quality characteristics, but also optimal use of raw material-lean and fat meat. The knowledge of chemical composition of meat is essential due to legal requirements associated with mandatory nutrition facts labels on food products. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Radioactivity of game meat in Finland after the Chernobyl accident in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.; Hyvoenen, T.

    1987-06-01

    Radioactive substances in game meat were studied in summer and early autumn 1986 by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety in cooperation with the Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute. The concentrations of radioactive cesium and other gamma-emitting nuclides were determined on meat of moose and other cervids and also on small game in various parts of the country before or in the beginning of the hunting season. The most important radionuclides found in the samples were 134 Cs and 137 Cs. In addition to these, 131 I was detected in the first moose meat samples in the spring. None of them was significant as far as the dietary intake of radionuclides is concerned. The transfer of fallout radiocesium to game meat was most efficient in the case of the arctic hare and inland waterfowl; terrestrial game birds and the brown hare belonged to the same category as moose. In 1986 the mean dietary intake via game meat was for 131 Cs 47 Bq per person and for 137 Cs 106 Bq per person. In 1987 the corresponding values were 69 Bq per person for 134 Cs and 180 Bq per person for 137 Cs. The contribution of cervids to the total dietary intake of radiocesium via game meat was 3/4, which was slightly less than their contribution to the annual game bag. On the basis of the preliminary results of this study it was concluded in autumn 1986 that there was no need to restrict hunting in the year 1986/1987. The radiocesium found in the meat of terrestrial game animals did not necessitate any recommendations on their use. As regards the meat of waterfowl caught in the main inland fallout area, it was recommended not to eat more than 20 kg per person

  14. Vitamin B12 in meat and dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, Doreen; Schmid, Alexandra

    2015-02-01

    Vitamin B12 is synthesized exclusively by microorganisms; therefore, humans must absorb it from food. Excellent sources of B12 are foods of ruminant origin, so dairy and meat products play an important role in efforts to meet the official daily B12 intake recommendation of 3.0 μg. Concentrations of the vitamin vary within foods of ruminant origin, with the highest concentrations found in offal such as liver and kidney. In comparison, dairy products have much lower quantities of the vitamin. In bovine milk, the B12 concentration is stable with regard to breed, feed, season, and stage of lactation, but in ruminant meat, the amount of B12 can vary based on the feeding and husbandry of the animal as well as the cut of meat chosen and its preparation. Processing of ruminant food, including thermal treatment, usually diminishes the vitamin B12 concentration. This review summarizes the vitamin B12 content of foods and discusses the impact of food processing on vitamin content. The contribution of ruminant food sources to B12 intake is specifically evaluated, with its bioavailability taken into account. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. ACTIVE PACKAGING SYSTEM FOR MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pavelková

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, food packaging was used to enable marketing of products and to provide passive protection against environmental contaminations or influences that affect the shelf life of the products. However, unlike traditional packaging, which must be totally inert, active packaging is designed to interact with the contents and/or the surrounding environment. Interest in the use of active packaging systems for meat and meat products has increased in recent years. Active packaging systems are developed with the goal of extending shelf life for foods and increasing the period of time that the food is high quality. Developments in active packaging have led to advances in many areas, including delayed oxidation and controlled respiration rate, microbial growth, and moisture migration. Active packaging technologies include some physical, chemical, or biological action which changes interactions between a package, product, and/or headspace of the package in order to get a desired outcome. Active packaging systems discussed include oxygen scavengers, carbon dioxide scavengers and emitters, moisture control agents, flavour/odour absorbers and releasers  and antimicrobial packaging technologies. Active packaging is typically found in two types of systems; sachets and pads which are placed inside of packages, and active ingredients that are incorporated directly into packaging materials.  Recognition of the benefits of active packaging technologies by the food industry, development of economically viable packaging systems and increased consumer acceptance is necessary for commercial realisation of these packaging technologies.doi:10.5219/205

  16. Clostridium difficile in Retail Meats

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-16

    Clostridium difficile is a common cause of diarrhea in healthcare settings but little is known about what causes cases in the community. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. L. Clifford McDonald discusses two papers in the May 2009 edition of Emerging Infectious Diseases that explore whether the organism could be found in meat samples purchased in grocery stores in Arizona and Canada.  Created: 4/16/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 4/16/2009.

  17. Impact of EU Enlargement on the Romanian Meat Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Nistor

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available With over twenty years ago, Romania was a big producer of meat, with breeding pigs steers and lambs farms, throughout the country. At present, the meat industry has declined considerably. For many years, however, Romania from the exporter of meat has become a fresh meat and meat products importer. Meat consumption per capita in Romania is about half the EU average (92 kg. Romanians show a strong preference for pork, although chicken meat consumption is increasing. The current financial crisis will trigger a decline in terms of meat consumption in EU countries including in Romania.

  18. Production of crispy bread snacks containing chicken meat and chicken meat powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HULYA CAKMAK

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chicken meat in two different forms (chicken meat and chicken meat powder were added into white flour and whole wheat blend baguette bread formulations for protein enrichment and finally developing new and healthy snacks. The chicken meat and powder levels were 10% for white flour baguette, and 15% for whole wheat blend. The dried baguette samples were packaged under 100% N2, and physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial properties were evaluated during 3 months of storage. Protein content of chicken meat powder added samples were found statistically higher than chicken meat added samples. Hardness of the snacks was significantly affected from type of chicken meat, such as values were higher for chicken meat added samples than chicken meat powder added samples. Lipid oxidation of the snacks was determined by TBA analysis, and TBA value for whole wheat mixture snack with 15% of chicken meat was the highest among all during storage. The highest overall acceptance score was obtained from white flour snack with 10% chicken meat. There was no coliform bacteria detected during storage and the results of yeast-mold count and aerobic plate count of snacks remained between the quantitative ranges.

  19. Changes in meat quality characteristics of bovine meat during the first 6 days post mortem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Huidobro, F; Miguel, E; Onega, E; Blázquez, B

    2003-12-01

    The development of some quality parameters in bovine meat during the first 6 days of post mortem ageing was studied in two commercial groups (heifer and bull). In the first day bull meat is harder and springier. Meat pH falls during the first 24 h post mortem in both groups, reaching values around 5.5, and it did not change during the next 5 days. Water-holding capacity (expressed as percentage of expelled water) increased in heifer meat. Instrumental texture measures (texture profile analysis, TPA) showed a decrease in hardness, springiness and chewiness in bull raw meat. Sensory analysis showed that assessors perceived a decrease in hardness and in springiness in bull meat and a decrease in juiciness and in chewiness (number of chewings before swallowing) in heifer meat. Ageing showed no effect on assessors' pleasantness either in heifers' or in bulls' meat. During the first 3 days, heifer meat was juicier. Heifers' meat produced a greater pleasantness on the sixth day. Both meats were not very different for most quality parameters studied in this work.

  20. Prospects and challenges of radiation processing of meats and meat products in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chander, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    In India goat, lamb and chicken meat are widely preferred, while, bovine meat and pork are consumed only by a small segment of the population. Meats in the country are mainly marketed fresh or in frozen state. Recently chilled poultry has been introduced in Indian market. In addition to fresh meats, several other ready to eat or ready to cook meat products like chicken chilly, chicken tikka, mutton shammi kababs, mutton seekh kababs etc are available in urban Indian market. These products are marketed only in the frozen state and have limited market due to expensive and inadequate freezing facilities. Major share of domestic fresh meat and poultry market is by unorganized sector and only a few corporate houses like Godrej and Venkey's are marketing poultry products. The time has come to benefit from radiation processing for safe, chilled meat and poultry in India. Shelf-stable, nutritious meat and meat products can also be produced by the process. Radiation processing of these foods will be of great economic and health significance and give boost to exports. This radiation processing can meet the needs of services of convenient and ready-to-eat meat and meat products

  1. Production of crispy bread snacks containing chicken meat and chicken meat powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Hulya; Altinel, Burak; Kumcuoglu, Seher; Kisla, Duygu; Tavman, Sebnem

    2016-01-01

    Chicken meat in two different forms (chicken meat and chicken meat powder) were added into white flour and whole wheat blend baguette bread formulations for protein enrichment and finally developing new and healthy snacks. The chicken meat and powder levels were 10% for white flour baguette, and 15% for whole wheat blend. The dried baguette samples were packaged under 100% N2, and physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial properties were evaluated during 3 months of storage. Protein content of chicken meat powder added samples were found statistically higher than chicken meat added samples. Hardness of the snacks was significantly affected from type of chicken meat, such as values were higher for chicken meat added samples than chicken meat powder added samples. Lipid oxidation of the snacks was determined by TBA analysis, and TBA value for whole wheat mixture snack with 15% of chicken meat was the highest among all during storage. The highest overall acceptance score was obtained from white flour snack with 10% chicken meat. There was no coliform bacteria detected during storage and the results of yeast-mold count and aerobic plate count of snacks remained between the quantitative ranges.

  2. Contribution of meat to vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc intakes in five ethnic groups in the U.S.: Implications for developing food-based dietary guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sangita; Sheehy, Tony; Kolonel, Laurence N

    2016-01-01

    Background To describe the sources of meat and their contributions to vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc in five ethnic groups in the USA. Methods Dietary data for the Multiethnic Cohort, established in Hawaii and Los Angeles, were collected using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire from more than 215,000 subjects aged 45–75 years at baseline (1993–1996). Participants included African American, Latino, Japanese American (JpAm), Native Hawaiian (NH) and Caucasian men and women. Servings of meat items were calculated based on the USDA recommendations and their contributions to intakes of total meat, red meat, vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc were determined. Results Of all types of meat, poultry contributed the most to meat consumption, followed by red meat and fish among all ethnicities, except for Latino (born in Mexico and Central/South America) men who consumed more beef. Lean beef was the most commonly consumed red meat for all ethnic-sex groups (9.3–14.3%), except for NH and JpAm men, and JpAm women whose top contributor was stew/curry with beef/lamb and stir-fried beef/pork with vegetables respectively. The contribution of meat was most substantial for zinc (11.1–29.3%) and vitamin B-12 (19.7–40%), and to a lesser extent for iron (4.3–14.2%). Conclusions This is the first large multiethnic cohort study to describe meat sources and their contributions to selected nutrients among ethnic minorities in the U.S. These findings may be used to develop ethnic-specific recommendations for meat consumption to improve dietary quality among these groups. PMID:23398393

  3. Cultured meat: every village its own factory?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weele, van der C.; Tramper, J.

    2014-01-01

    Rising global demand for meat will result in increased environmental pollution, energy consumption, and animal suffering. Cultured meat, produced in an animal-cell cultivation process, is a technically feasible alternative lacking these disadvantages, provided that an animal-component-free growth

  4. Transport of live animals versus meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltussen, Willy; Nuhoff-Isakhanyan, Gohar; Wagenberg, van Coen

    2017-01-01

    These study responses to two main research questions: What model can we use to measure or estimate the sustainability of long-distance transport of meat/carcass vs. transport of meat? What is the outcome of the model if applied in two cases: transport of spent hens for slaughter from the Netherlands

  5. Meat and Poultry Processing. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide contains instructional materials for a program that provides students with job skills in meat and poultry processing. The curriculum consists of 10 units that cover the following material: orientation to meat and poultry processing; maintaining plant facilities; equipment and equipment maintenance; purchasing livestock for…

  6. Competitiveness of the EU poultry meat sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, van P.L.M.; Bondt, N.

    2013-01-01

    EU poultry meat producers have to comply with legislation on environmental protection, animal welfare and food safety. This legislation has increased the production costs of poultry meat. At the same time the EU is negotiating with other countries or groups of countries to liberalise trade in

  7. Wholesomeness of gamma-radicidated poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tencheva, S.; Katsareva, Ts.

    1987-01-01

    Wholesomeness of radicidated with 6 kGy poultry meat was studied on mice. Evaluation of two consecutive generations was performed on the base of the following medicobiological parameters: generative function, anatomical studies and hemathological analysis. The results obtained do not show any deviation from the normal values for both investigated groups fed with irradiated and non-irradiated poultry meat

  8. Poultry breast meat attributes and marination performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between intrinsic meat attributes (pH, color, weight, and postmortem age) and marination performance (marinade uptake and retention, and final product yield) were investigated in poultry meat using broiler breast fillets (pectoralis major) as a model. Results showed that marinade up...

  9. Tenderness charactherization of ostrich meat commercial cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Conte Hadlich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ostrich meat has become an interesting source of protein as well as being an alternative to red meat, because of its healthy fatty acid profile, with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and low content of intramuscular fat, which arouses the interest of people who want a low animal fat diet. Ostrich meat is also appreciated by the tenderness, since it is one of the larger impact characteristics on the acceptance of a meat product for consumers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the tenderness of different ostrich meat commercial cuts and certificate that all studied cuts present tenderness acceptable by consumers. The laboratory tests were performed at the Laboratory of Biochemistry of Proteins (FMVZ, being measured shear force of seven commercial cuts of ostrich meat. The cuts were: internal thigh, external thigh, filet plan, filet out, filet small, rump and filet fan. The samples were boiled in water bath controlled by time and temperature. After chilling, fragments of 1.0 x 1.0 x 3.0 cm were removed from samples. Shear force measurements were performed using a mechanical Warner-Bratzler Shear Force equipment. The shear force means were: internal thigh (3.5 kg, external thigh (2.8 kg, filet plan (2.4 kg, filet out (1.6 kg, filet small (3.5 kg, rump (3.3 kg and filet fan (2.0 kg. All the commercial cuts evaluated had very low values of shear force, denoting meat extremely tender. The classification of meat tenderness is based on shear force values, being values below 4.6 kg considered meat with desirable tenderness. All ostrich meat commercial cuts analyzed had shear force values lower than 4.6 kg, being classified as meat of extreme tenderness. The results found in this work allow concluding that ostrich meat can be considered tender. These findings lead us to consider the ostrich meat as an interesting alternative to red meat, in relation to tenderness and healthy fatty acid profile, being favorable for people suffering from

  10. Metabolomics of meat exudate: Its potential to evaluate beef meat conservation and aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castejón, David [Centro de Asistencia a la Investigación de Resonancia Magnética Nuclear y de Espín Electrónico, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); García-Segura, Juan Manuel [Centro de Asistencia a la Investigación de Resonancia Magnética Nuclear y de Espín Electrónico, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular I, Facultad de Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Escudero, Rosa [Departamento de Nutrición, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria. Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Herrera, Antonio [Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Cambero, María Isabel, E-mail: icambero@vet.ucm.es [Departamento de Nutrición, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria. Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-11

    In this study we analyzed the exudate of beef to evaluate its potential as non invasive sampling for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomic analysis of meat samples. Exudate, as the natural juice from raw meat, is an easy to obtain matrix that it is usually collected in small amounts in commercial meat packages. Although meat exudate could provide complete and homogeneous metabolic information about the whole meat piece, this sample has been poorly studied. Exudates from 48 beef samples of different breeds, cattle and storage times have been studied by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. The liquid exudate spectra were compared with those obtained by High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HRMAS) of the original meat pieces. The close correlation found between both spectra (>95% of coincident peaks in both registers; Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.945) lead us to propose the exudate as an excellent alternative analytical matrix with a view to apply meat metabolomics. 60 metabolites could be identified through the analysis of mono and bidimensional exudate spectra, 23 of them for the first time in NMR meat studies. The application of chemometric tools to analyze exudate dataset has revealed significant metabolite variations associated with meat aging. Hence, NMR based metabolomics have made it possible both to classify meat samples according to their storage time through Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and to predict that storage time through Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression. - Highlights: • NMR spectra from beef samples and their exudates are very strongly correlated. • 23 metabolites not reported in previous NMR meat studies have been identified. • Meat exudate NMR spectra allow monitoring of biochemical changes related to aging. • PCA of exudate NMR spectra classified meat samples by their storage time. • The aging of a meat sample can be predicted by PLS analysis of its exudate.

  11. Bioactive Compounds in Functional Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Pogorzelska-Nowicka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Meat and meat products are a good source of bioactive compounds with positive effect on human health such as vitamins, minerals, peptides or fatty acids. Growing food consumer awareness and intensified global meat producers competition puts pressure on creating new healthier meat products. In order to meet these expectations, producers use supplements with functional properties for animal diet and as direct additives for meat products. In the presented work seven groups of key functional constituents were chosen: (i fatty acids; (ii minerals; (iii vitamins; (iv plant antioxidants; (v dietary fibers; (vi probiotics and (vii bioactive peptides. Each of them is discussed in term of their impact on human health as well as some quality attributes of the final products.

  12. Sociological aspects of meat in meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Katherine O'Doherty

    2009-01-01

    Health professionals and environmental experts advocate reduced consumption of meat in industrialized regions. On this background, and in light of a number of sociological studies of food practices and meal formats among consumers, this paper examines some aspects of the cultural entrenchment...... and vulnerability of meat consumption. Tacit meanings of meat products are seen as arising from the human tendency to rank and grade objects relative to each other, a process that is intrinsic to consumption practices. Examples of the ways in which gradient meanings of meat products are entrenched in food practices...... and of ways in which this consumption is vulnerable to change, are presented. On this basis, the likelihood that current levels of meat consumption in industrialized societies will remain relatively stable or tend to decrease are briefly discussed....

  13. Assuring eating quality of meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalen, G A

    1996-01-01

    The way of assuring quality has changed over the years, from inspection of end product to quality management systems and on-line process control. The latter concepts have had a great impact in many industries during the last decades. But the concept of Total Quality is continuos improvement so it is time to take advantage of the next generation of quality assurance tools: Quality by Design. This is the most powerful instrument in quality assurance today. Quality by design has been used with outstanding results in many industries as the automobile and the electronics industry. Maybe the meat industry will be the next? To succeed, the "eating quality attributes" that are most important to the customer must be brought into focus. The challenge to the meat research scientist is to design products and processes that take care of customer needs despite variation in the raw material and the consumer's rough handling. The Quality Management Standards are helpful in conducting the design and production process, but to focus on the right aspects, there also are need for suitable methods as Quality Function Deployment. Customer needs change and new research changes old 'truths'. This require an organisation, a quality system and a culture which can handle rapid changes and a diversity of customer needs.

  14. Well-done meat consumption, NAT1 and NAT2 acetylator genotypes and prostate cancer risk: the multiethnic cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sangita; Cao, Xia; Wilkens, Lynne R; Yamamoto, Jennifer; Lum-Jones, Annette; Henderson, Brian E; Kolonel, Laurence N; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2010-07-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common male malignancy in the United States and disparities in risk exist among ethnic/racial groups. A high intake of well-done meat and the presence of the rapid NAT1 and slow NAT2 acetylator genotypes, as modifiers of the carcinogenic effect of heterocyclic amines, were hypothesized to increase PC risk and possibly explain these ethnic differences in risk. This study examined the associations between well-done (red) meat consumption, NAT1 and NAT2 acetylator genotypes, and PC risk among five ethnicities (African American, Native Hawaiian, Japanese American, Latino, and Caucasian) in a case-control study of PC nested within the Multiethnic Cohort study. Cases (n = 2,106) and controls (n = 2,063) were genotyped for eight single nucleotide polymorphisms in NAT1 and seven single nucleotide polymorphisms in NAT2 that characterized all common alleles for these genes. Well-done meat intake was computed based on responses to a detailed food frequency questionnaire including a question on meat preference. Conditional logistic regression was used in the analysis. There was no evidence of an increased risk associated with preference for well-done meat, intake of well-done meat, and NAT1 or NAT2 genotypes (jointly or separately). These results do not support the hypothesis that exposure to heterocyclic amines is associated with risk of PC. However, additional studies with more precise exposure measures are needed.

  15. Meet meat: An explorative study on meat and cultured meat as seen by Chinese, Ethiopians and Dutch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Gerben A; Tobi, Hilde; Fischer, Arnout R H

    2017-07-01

    In this cross-cultural study we investigated how study participants from China, Ethiopia and the Netherlands operationalize the concept of meat and to what extent cultured meat fits or does not fit into this operationalization. We argue that combining the conceptual approaches symbolic boundaries and theory of social practices helps to better understand the possibly culturally dependent operationalization of the concept meat. Ten visiting graduate students from China, 10 from Ethiopia and 10 native Dutch graduate students completed freelist tasks, a pile sort task, interview and essay task, during a single session. We found that butchered animals are at the center of the concept of meat, although depending on culture not all animals are a source of meat. Symbolic boundaries were restricted or stretched depending on social practices within countries. Ethiopian participants applied strictly defined symbolic boundaries, where Chinese and Dutch participants used more broadly defined symbolic boundaries. Cultured meat was seen as a technology for the future and was positioned across the symbolic boundaries of meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Types of fraud in meat and meat products: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinoza T.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Affects the food control. The globalization, increased imports and exports and free trade agreements have led to greater sharing and access to food worldwide; along with it, the problems associated with fraud such as adulteration, substitution, intentionality, and counterfeiting have been increased. Therefore, there are various tasks associated with food fraud, which in most reviews published only new identification techniques have been discussed. However, a discussion about the types of fraud and its impact on society, bioterrorism and religion, has been little commented. This review focuses primarily on describing the types of fraud that has as objective to obtain economic benefit or cause terrorism. Also, latest techniques available for detecting meat adulteration are mentioned.

  17. Potential health hazards of eating red meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, A

    2017-02-01

    Red meat (beef, veal, pork, lamb and mutton) consumption contributes several important nutrients to the diet, for example essential amino acids, vitamins (including B12) and minerals (including iron and zinc). Processed red meat (ham, sausages, bacon, frankfurters, salami, etc.) undergoes treatment (curing, smoking, salting or the use of chemical preservatives and additives) to improve its shelf life and/or taste. During recent decades, consumption of red meat has been increasing globally, especially in developing countries. At the same time, there has been growing evidence that high consumption of red meat, especially of processed meat, may be associated with an increased risk of several major chronic diseases. Here, a comprehensive summary is provided of the accumulated evidence based on prospective cohort studies regarding the potential adverse health effects of red meat consumption on major chronic diseases, such as diabetes, coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke and cancer at several sites, and mortality. Risk estimates from pooled analyses and meta-analyses are presented together with recently published findings. Based on at least six cohorts, summary results for the consumption of unprocessed red meat of 100 g day -1 varied from nonsignificant to statistically significantly increased risk (11% for stroke and for breast cancer, 15% for cardiovascular mortality, 17% for colorectal and 19% for advanced prostate cancer); for the consumption of 50 g day -1 processed meat, the risks were statistically significantly increased for most of the studied diseases (4% for total prostate cancer, 8% for cancer mortality, 9% for breast, 18% for colorectal and 19% for pancreatic cancer, 13% for stroke, 22% for total and 24% for cardiovascular mortality and 32% for diabetes). Potential biological mechanisms underlying the observed risks and the environmental impact of red meat production are also discussed. The evidence-based integrated message is that it is plausible

  18. Racial disparities in red meat and poultry intake and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Urmila; Zirpoli, Gary; Ciupak, Gregory; McCann, Susan E; Gong, Zhihong; Pawlish, Karen; Lin, Yong; Demissie, Kitaw; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V

    2013-12-01

    Research on the role of red meat and poultry consumption in breast carcinogenesis is inconclusive, but the evidence in African-American (AA) women is lacking. The association between consuming meat and breast cancer risk was examined in the Women's Circle of Health Study involving 803 AA cases, 889 AA controls, 755 Caucasian cases, and 701 Caucasian controls. Dietary information was collected using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were obtained from logistic regression models adjusting for potential covariates. Comparing the fourth versus the first quartiles, among Caucasian women, processed meat (OR = 1.48; 95 % CI 1.07-2.04), unprocessed red meat (OR = 1.40; 95 % CI 1.01-1.94), and poultry intakes (OR = 1.42; 95 % CI 1.01-1.99) increased breast cancer risk. Risk associated with poultry intake was more dominant in premenopausal women (OR = 2.33; 95 % CI 1.44-3.77) and for women with ER- tumors (OR = 2.55; 95 % CI 1.29-5.03) in the Caucasian group. Associations in AA women were mostly null except for a significant increased risk trend with processed meat consumption for ER+ tumors (OR = 1.36; 95 % CI 0.94-1.97, p trend = 0.04). Overall, associations between breast cancer risk and consumption of red meat and poultry were of different magnitude in AA and Caucasian women, with further differences noted by menopausal and hormone receptor status in Caucasian women. This is the first study to examine racial differences in meat and breast cancer risk and represents some of the first evidence in AA women.

  19. Institutional Racism: Toward a Critical Reassessment of American Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowser, Benjamin P.

    It is necesary to examine both historic and current events in order to understand the role of race in the United States today. The South's formerly rigid caste system has come to resemble the more flexible Northern social order, which has always been open to blacks in times of labor shortage. A number of important social and economic phenomena…

  20. Effect of Nanoemulsified and Microencapsulated Mexican Oregano (Lippia graveolens Kunth) Essential Oil Coatings on Quality of Fresh Pork Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, Elvia; Lira-Moreno, César Y; Guerrero-Legarreta, Isabel; Wild-Padua, Graciela; Di Pierro, Prospero; García-Almendárez, Blanca E; Regalado-González, Carlos

    2017-06-01

    Fresh meat is a highly perishable food. This work aimed to evaluate the influence of Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens Kunth) incorporated into active coatings (ACs) spread on fresh pork meat as free (FEO), nanoemulsified (NEO), and microencapsulated (MEO) essential oil (EO), on its microbiological, physicochemical and sensory properties during 15 d at 4 ± 1 °C. Thymol and γ-terpinene were identified in the EO. In vitro effect of 2.85 mg EO/cm 2 was tested against Brochothrix thermosphacta, Micrococcus luteus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pseudomonas fragi, and Salmonella Infantis. FEO antioxidant capacity (DPPH assay) was significantly higher than that of thymol, NEO and MEO (93.53%, 89.92%, 77.79%, and 78.50% inhibition, respectively), and similar to BHA (96.03%) and gallic acid (95.57%). FEO, NEO, and MEO ACs on meat caused growth inhibition of lactic acid bacteria (5 log population reduction) and Pseudomonas spp. (4 log reduction), whereas ≤1.5 log population reduction was observed for B. thermosphacta and Salmonella Infantis. Meat microbiota was more efficiently controlled by MEO than by FEO or NEO. ACs delayed lipid and oxymyoglobin oxidation of fresh pork meat. After 15 d of cold storage meat added with EO coatings was desirable for panelists, whereas untreated (UT) samples were undesirable. Active coatings are a significant alternative method for fresh meat preservation. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. Meat intake and risk of colorectal polyps: results from a large population-based screening study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Prudence R; Holleczek, Bernd; Stegmaier, Christa; Brenner, Hermann; Hoffmeister, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Background: Red and processed meats have been shown to be associated with colorectal adenomas in many, but not all, studies, and the association according to the type of colorectal adenoma or the location in the colorectum is unclear. Objectives: We investigated the association of meat intake in relation to colorectal polyps and further investigated the association according to histologic subtypes and subsites in a large population-based screening study in Germany. Design: In this cross-sectional study, 15,950 participants aged ≥55 y underwent a screening colonoscopy. We calculated prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% CIs for associations between meat intake and the most-advanced findings from a colonoscopy with the use of log binomial regression. Results: Overall, 3340 participants (20.4%) had nonadvanced adenomas, 1643 participants (10.0%) had advanced adenomas, and 189 participants (1.2%) had colorectal cancer. We observed no statistically significant association between red or processed meat consumption and the prevalence of any adenomas or advanced adenomas [highest compared with lowest: red meat, PR: 1.07 (95% CI: 0.83, 1.37); processed meat, PR: 1.11 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.36)]. In site-specific analyses, although no dose-response relation was observed, processed meat was positively associated with the prevalence of advanced adenomas in the rectum only (multiple times per day compared with meat intake and the prevalence of any adenomas or advanced adenomas. However, processed meat may be positively associated with the prevalence of advanced adenomas in the rectum, but prospective cohort studies are needed to further clarify this association. There is no association between poultry consumption and the prevalence of colorectal polyps in this study. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307 Spaghetti sauce with meat. “Spaghetti Sauce with Meat” shall contain...

  3. RESEARCH ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR ON BUCHAREST MEAT MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze consumer behavior for meat on Bucharest market, using a sample of 100 individuals, representatives as age, sex and profession, who were interviewed within a structured questionaire based survey on their preference to buy and consume meat. The answers were processed using the semantic differential and Likert Scale. The obtained results pointed out that white meat is the top preference, because it is healthier and its price is more acceptable compared to red meat. However, men prefer red meat, no matter its price. The most prefered meat sorts in order of their importance are chicken meat, pork and beef. Consumers prefer to buy 1-2 kg fresh meat from supermarket every 2-3 days. Income/family and meat pice are the major factors limiting the amount of consumed meat and buying frequence. The term of availability and meat origin have become more and more important criteria on which buying decision is based, besides meat quality. All consumers prefer to consume Romanian meat which is tasty and has a pleasant flavor. As a conclusion, consumers expectations from meat producers are related to a large variety of meat of a higher quality. Also, presentation form in packed portionated meat parts on the shelf as wellas hygiene come on the next positions from consumers side in order to satisfy their needs better.

  4. Native American Ceremonial Athletic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Wilma J.

    This is a report on the relationship of North American Indian athletic games to ceremonies. Data for this investigation were researched from 48 "Annual Reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution" published from 1881 to 1933, and the 84 volumes of the "American Anthropologist" published from 1888 to 1974. Observational…

  5. A METHOD OF FRYING MINCED MEAT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    A method of frying minced meat comprising the steps of providing a heated frying surface, providing a flow of discrete and separate particles of minced meat in a condition wherein the mean temperature of the flow of particles is less than 5 degrees centigrade, preferably less than 2 degrees...... centigrade and most preferably less than 0.5 degrees centigrade, and heating the discrete particles to the onset of frying conditions defined as a discernible change of the colour of the particle from the original red meat colour to a grey and brownish colour by bringing the discrete particles into contact...

  6. Microbiological Spoilage of Meat and Poultry Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveny, John; Meyer, Joseph D.; Hall, Paul A.

    Humankind has consumed animal protein since the dawn of its existence. The archaeological record shows evidence of animal protein consumption as early as 12,500 BC (Mann, 2005). Raw meat and poultry are highly perishable commodities subject to various types of spoilage depending on handling and storage conditions. Because of this high potential for spoilage, the historical record reveals that early civilizations used techniques such as salting, smoking, and drying to preserve meat (Mack, 2001; Bailey, 1986). Today, more than ever, because of the globalization of the food supply, and increasing demands from exacting consumers, the control of meat and poultry spoilage is essential.

  7. THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT MEAT SHOP ON MEAT PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND BACTERIA POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H.C. Dewi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of different meat shops on meat physicalcharacteristics and bacteria population. Sixteen PO carcasses were used in the experiment which wasarranged in a completely randomized design with 4 treatments of different meat shops (traditionalmarket, meat shop, supermarket and slaughter house. Parameters measured were meat pH, waterholding capacity, cooking loss and bacterial total count. The result showed that the average of pH was5.25- 6.03; water holding capacity was 17.07-38.87%; cooking loss was 33.15-48.20 and bacterial totalcount was 1.48x106-10.75x106 CFU/g. It was concluded that bacterial total count in slaughter house andspecial market (meat shop and supermarket were less than those in traditional market.

  8. Development and assessment of healthy properties of meat and meat products designed as functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2013-12-01

    This review deals with the two major aspects to be considered in the context of meat-based functional foods and human health. One involves the different strategies used to improve (increase or reduce) the presence of bioactive (healthy and unhealthy) compounds in meat and meat products in order to develop potential meat-based functional foods; these strategies are basically concerned with animal production practices, meat processing and storage, distribution and consumption conditions. Since the link between the consumption of those foods and their potentially beneficial effects (improving health and/or reducing the risk of several chronic diseases) needs to be demonstrated scientifically, the second aspect considered is related to intervention studies to examine the functional capacity of meat-based potentially functional foods in humans, discussing how the functionality of a food can be assessed in terms of its effects on health in relation to both target body functions and risk factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The future of meat: a qualitative analysis of cultured meat media coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, J N; Shoulders, C W

    2013-11-01

    This study sought to explore the informational themes and information sources cited by the media to cover stories of cultured meat in both the United States and the European Union. The results indicated that cultured meat news articles in both the United States and the European Union commonly discuss cultured meat in terms of benefits, history, process, time, livestock production problems, and skepticism. Additionally, the information sources commonly cited in the articles included cultured meat researchers, sources from academia, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), New Harvest, Winston Churchill, restaurant owners/chefs, and sources from the opposing countries (e.g. US use some EU sources and vice versa). The implications of this study will allow meat scientists to understand how the media is influencing consumers' perceptions about the topic, and also allow them to strategize how to shape future communication about cultured meat. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Genetics of Poultry Meat Production in Organic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul

    2012-01-01

    Organic Meat Production and Processing describes the challenges of production, processing and food safety of organic meat. The editors and international collection of authors explore the trends in organic meats and how the meat industry is impacted. Commencing with chapters on the economics, market...... and regulatory aspects of organic meats, coverage then extends to management issues for organically raised and processed meat animals. Processing, sensory and human health aspects are covered in detail, as are the incidences of foodborne pathogens in organic beef, swine, poultry and other organic meat species....... The book concludes by describing pre-harvest control measures for assuring the safety of organic meats. Organic Meat Production and Processing serves as a unique resource for fully understanding the current and potential issues associated with organic meats...

  11. Institutional advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Xavier

    Is there such a thing as institutional advantage—and what does it mean for the study of corporate competitive advantage? In this article, I develop the concept of institutional competitive advantage, as distinct from plain competitive advantage and from comparative institutional advantage. I first

  12. Evolutionary institutionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenberg, Dr Kai

    Institutions are hard to define and hard to study. Long prominent in political science have been two theories: Rational Choice Institutionalism (RCI) and Historical Institutionalism (HI). Arising from the life sciences is now a third: Evolutionary Institutionalism (EI). Comparative strengths and weaknesses of these three theories warrant review, and the value-to-be-added by expanding the third beyond Darwinian evolutionary theory deserves consideration. Should evolutionary institutionalism expand to accommodate new understanding in ecology, such as might apply to the emergence of stability, and in genetics, such as might apply to political behavior? Core arguments are reviewed for each theory with more detailed exposition of the third, EI. Particular attention is paid to EI's gene-institution analogy; to variation, selection, and retention of institutional traits; to endogeneity and exogeneity; to agency and structure; and to ecosystem effects, institutional stability, and empirical limitations in behavioral genetics. RCI, HI, and EI are distinct but complementary. Institutional change, while amenable to rational-choice analysis and, retrospectively, to criticaljuncture and path-dependency analysis, is also, and importantly, ecological. Stability, like change, is an emergent property of institutions, which tend to stabilize after change in a manner analogous to allopatric speciation. EI is more than metaphorically biological in that institutional behaviors are driven by human behaviors whose evolution long preceded the appearance of institutions themselves.

  13. Retort pouch processing of Chettinad style goat meat curry — a heritage meat product

    OpenAIRE

    Rajkumar, V.; Dushyanthan, K.; Das, Arun K.

    2010-01-01

    Chettinad style goat meat curry, a heritage meat product, was thermal processed in retort pouches having 4 layer configurations. Physical properties of retort pouches indicated that they are suitable for processing. Pouches filled with 150 g of goat meat and 100 g of curry medium were retorted to a FO value of 12.1 min. Retort cooked products were tested for sterility and quality characteristics. Retorting decreased the product pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and shear force value...

  14. Can we cut out the meat of the dish? Constructing consumer-oriented pathways toward meat substitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schösler, H.; de Boer, J.; Boersema, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The shift towards a more sustainable diet necessitates less reliance on foods of animal origin. This study presents data from a representative survey of Dutch consumers on their practices related to meat, meat substitution and meat reduction. The practices reflected a cultural gradient of meat

  15. Preparation of salted meat products, e.g. cured bacon - by injecting liquid comprising meat proteins hydrolysed with enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    Preparation of salted meat products comprises the following:(1) meat is chopped into fine pieces and mixed with water to form a slurry; (2) enzymes hydrolyse proteins in the meat; (3) adding a culture to the resulting medium, which comprises short peptide chains or amino acids; (4) forming...... flavourings as the culture is growing, and (5) injecting the liquid into pieces of meat....

  16. Reduction of radioactive caesium in meat and fish by soaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petaejae, E.; Puolanne, E. (Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Meat Technology); Rantavaara, A.; Paakkola, O. (Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), Helsinki (Finland))

    1992-01-01

    The removal of radioactive caesium from meat by soaking in brine or water and the effect of injection curing, temperature, size of meat piece and cooking on this removal were studied. The availability of the brined meat for the manufacture of cured, smoked and cooked meat, oven-cooked meat and cooked sausages was also investigated. The soaking method was also tested on fish. (Author).

  17. Prospects of achieving the world standards of meat consumption in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrypnyk Andrii V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses possible variants of growth of the level of consumption of meat products (beef, pork, and poultry during the nearest 6 years. The article considers, as a basic variant, planned indicators provided by the Institute of Agrarian Economy and approved in “Strategy of Development of the Agrarian Sector for the Period until 2020”. Based on the time series of meat products consumption during 2000 – 2012, the article builds a forecast of consumption until 2020 using methods of econometric analysis. The article compares the obtained forecast indicators with official indicators, on the basis of which a conclusion is made with respect to groundlessness of planned indicators of beef consumption, for realisation of which the 15% annual growth is needed. In order to specify the level of meat products consumption depending on the level of income, the whole population was presented in the form of three groups: under-provided (40%, averagely provided (30% and well-provided (30%. Optimisation task for maximum of caloricity of the meat products basket, with availability of budget and production (built up on the forecast restrictions, was solved for each group. In the result an optimal ration, which differs significantly both in composition and caloricity, was obtained for each group. Moreover, the article shows that in order to achieve these meat products baskets, it is necessary to bring beef import up to 210 thousand tonnes and the unclaimed 190 thousand tonnes of pork and 210 tonnes of poultry could be exported.

  18. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF ORGANIC GOAT KID MEAT FROM DAIRY GOAT AND CROSSBRED MEAT GOAT KIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, Sophia; Ude, Gracia; Rahmann, Gerold; Aulrich, Karen; Georg, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the increasing demand for dairy goat products in Germany, a market for goat kid meat as a related product does not exist. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop a concept for organic goat kid meat production for dairy goat farms. In collaboration with a wholesaler, organic dairy goat farmers and marketing research the experimental part of this study was to find out if cross-breeding of meat-goats could improve meat quality and performance of fattening goat kids togeth...

  19. Charqui meats as fermented meat products: role of bacteria for some sensorial properties development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, M F; Ponsano, E H G; Franco, B D G M; Shimokomaki, M

    2002-06-01

    Jerked beef, a derivative of charqui meat, is a cured, salted and dried meat product. The presence of halotolerant bacteria, where Staphylococcus spp. (84.2%) were the predominant species, would act eventually as starter cultures and was followed throughout processing. Jerked beef prepared separately with exogenous S. carnosus and S. xylosus as starter cultures resulted in high proteolysis. Samples prepared with S. xylosus had the highest proteolysis and were preferred by the sensory panel. This research has suggested that jerked beef (and thus charqui meat) prepared under these conditions is a fermented meat product.

  20. Evaluation and monitoring of the satisfaction of meat and meat products consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Constanta Rușeț

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The managers have to be focused on clients and satisfy their needs, so that the products meet their expectations. The evaluation and monitoring the consumers satisfaction is very important because it is a managerial instrument which offers the possibility to understand and satisfy the needs of the existing consumers. In this study we used the questionnaire as research method and after analyzing and processing the data we noticed the consumers preferences related to the meat and meat products consumption, the frequency of consumption and the places from where the consumers procure their meat and meat products.

  1. Revenue impact on the demand of Slovak households for meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Kubicová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Global economical crisis was felt in the differences in the incomes of the households and their food consumption. In the paper are analyzed the changing patterns in the structure of demand for meat and the impact on total expenditure on meat and meat products in the households of employees, households of self-employed persons and households of pensioners. When examining the sensitivity of demand to changes in consumer meat prices in different social groups of households was estimated own-price elasticity of demand, as well as cross-price elasticity.

  2. American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Directory of Accredited Practices EER Endowment for Education & Research Journal Latest News AIUM Names Newest Fellows The New Paradigm for Understanding, Teaching, and Testing Sonographic Principles Do You Allow Patients ...

  3. An Interior's Interior. The American Film Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, David

    1974-01-01

    In the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, architects have broken some old conventions and rules of good taste in designing offices and a film theater through intelligent use of space and tacky flowered carpeting, garish colors, and automobile hoods and fenders. (Author/MF)

  4. A SYBR Green real-time PCR assay to detect and quantify pork meat in processed poultry meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Sónia; Amaral, Joana S; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel

    2013-05-01

    Species identification in meat products has grown in interest in recent years since these foodstuffs are susceptible targets for fraudulent labelling. In this work, a real-time PCR approach based on SYBR Green dye was proposed for the quantitative detection of pork meat in processed meat products. For the development of the method, binary meat mixtures containing known amounts of pork meat in poultry meat were used to obtain a normalised calibration model from 0.1 to 25% with high linear correlation and PCR efficiency. The method revealed high specificity by melting curve analysis, being successfully validated through its application to blind meat mixtures, which confirmed its adequacy for pork meat determination. The fully applicability of the method was further demonstrated in commercial meat products, allowing verification of labelling compliance and identification of meat species in processed foods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Institutional entrepreneurship:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne

    2018-01-01

    of agents or organisations in the policy arena. The present chapter understands institutional entrepreneurship as the process of changing institutionalised practices. Based on a literature review, it describes the triggers, activities and potential effects of institutional entrepreneurs. The chapter......Institutional entrepreneurship pays specific attention to the process and outcomes of agents who are willing and capable of changing institutions. It has some common ground with the political entrepreneur, a concept that proposes change in norms and institutions because of commitment and activities...... concludes by tentatively arguing that political entrepreneurs can be institutional entrepreneurs, but institutional entrepreneurship can be considered as the broader concept that incorporates strategies and visions as well as interpretative-discursive power into the conceptual framework....

  6. Consumer perception of meat quality and safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone

    2003-01-01

    The evaluation of meat quality and safety is not an easy task for consumers. In this article, the Total Food Quality Model will be introduced as a framework for understanding how consumers perceive meat quality, and results from a Danish study dealing with consumer perception and experience of beef...... will be presented. Consumers form expectations about the eating quality of meat at the point of purchase, based on prior experience and information available in the shopping environment, while the eating quality is experienced in the home during and after meal preparation. Results show that consumers have...... difficulty in evaluating meat quality, resulting in uncertainty and dissatisfaction, and reveal a need for educating consumers about evaluating eating quality during shopping....

  7. Value added meat marketing around the globe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grebitus, Carola; Mueller Loose, Simone

    In highly competitive meat markets it is important to offer value added products to consumers. Thus, we need to understand which attributes are especially valued by consumers. This track session will contribute to a better understanding of consumer preferences for value added meats across different...... countries and simultaneously address different stages of the food chain by acknowledging factors such as breeding, forage (fat content), meat cuts as well as product labelling and packaging. Comparing consumers’ choices for value added pork and beef across different countries is the main theme and focus...... practices will be examined and the economic and technological dimensions of meat packaging will be related to each other presenting work from the US and Germany. Lastly, we will uncover the competitive nature between different beef cuts for Italian consumers....

  8. Additives In Meat and Poultry Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... indicate the substances are not safe for human consumption. [ Top of Page ] When were color additives addressed? ... glycerine, which may be used in dried meat snacks. HYDROLYZED (SOURCE) PROTEIN - flavor enhancers that can be ...

  9. Competitiveness of the EU poultry meat sector

    OpenAIRE

    Horne, van, P.L.M.; Bondt, N.

    2013-01-01

    EU poultry meat producers have to comply with legislation on environmental protection, animal welfare and food safety. This legislation has increased the production costs of poultry meat. At the same time the EU is negotiating with other countries or groups of countries to liberalise trade in agricultural products. This report examines how lowering import levies impacts the competitiveness of the EU poultry industry. The results show that the offer price of broiler breast fillet in 2011 of so...

  10. Microbiology of Fresh Comminuted Turkey Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-12

    during processing procedures. equipment and meat Scontrol as well as processing procedures within the become contaminated with the organisms carried by...Since comminuted turkey is a new product. its level of processed turkey products. Further processed products, bacterial contamination is not reflected in... abattoirs and processing plants. be involved in outbreaks of staphylococcal intoxication. Cooked red meat products with their natural enteric However, if

  11. Transport of live animals versus meat

    OpenAIRE

    Baltussen, Willy; Nuhoff-Isakhanyan, Gohar; Wagenberg, van, Coen

    2017-01-01

    These study responses to two main research questions: What model can we use to measure or estimate the sustainability of long-distance transport of meat/carcass vs. transport of meat? What is the outcome of the model if applied in two cases: transport of spent hens for slaughter from the Netherlands to Poland, and transport of lambs for slaughter from Hungary to Italy?

  12. Irradiation of poultry meat and its products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, I.; Lapidot, M.

    1992-02-01

    Modern poultry production methods provide many opportunities for microbial contamination, and poultry meat is considered to have a high bacterial load. This document describes means by which poultry meat can be decontaminated, placing especial emphasis on the use of ionizing radiation. Separate chapters describe the irradiation process, methods for detecting whether the food has been irradiated, the wholesomeness of the irradiated products and the regulatory aspects of poultry irradiation. 441 refs, 35 figs, 16 tabs

  13. Cultured meat: every village its own factory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weele, Cor; Tramper, Johannes

    2014-06-01

    Rising global demand for meat will result in increased environmental pollution, energy consumption, and animal suffering. Cultured meat, produced in an animal-cell cultivation process, is a technically feasible alternative lacking these disadvantages, provided that an animal-component-free growth medium can be developed. Small-scale production looks particularly promising, not only technologically but also for societal acceptance. Economic feasibility, however, emerges as the real obstacle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. From killing cows to culturing meat.

    OpenAIRE

    Buscemi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate how in Britain, France and Italy the idea of the living animal is being detached from the action of eating meat. It is an ongoing historical process, which has recently been fuelled by the new issue of cultured meat.\\ud Design/methodology/approach – Starting from Goody’s developmentalist stages (Production, Distribution, Preparation and Consumption), first this work analyses historically how these stages have undergone the process of the d...

  15. Fate and transport modeling with American Petroleum Institute decision support system applied in a site assessment for residual crude oil in unconsolidated sediments: Case study in Kern County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinchuch, L.A.; Waldron, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Historical crude oil leaks from a pipeline affected unconsolidated alluvial sediments near a sensitive groundwater recharge area in Kern County, California. The residual crude oil is confined to the vadose zone and occurs from ∼3 m below ground surface (BGS) to a maximum depth of 24 m BGS. The water table beneath the affected sediments is currently 46 m BGS. The site is irrigated regularly for agriculture. To date, the residual crude oil has not impacted groundwater quality. Future groundwater recharge plans may raise the water table to 15 m BGS in the area affected by the crude oil. Fate and transport modeling using site-specific data shows that the existing hydrocarbons in the subsurface do not pose a significant risk to groundwater quality. The computer models selected for this project are incorporated as modules in the American Petroleum Institute's Exposure and Risk Assessment Decision Support System. Transport of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) is modeled using Seasonal Soil (SESOIL) for the unsaturated zone coupled with AT123D for the saturated zone. The SESOIL model is calibrated using actual soil moisture measurements and groundwater recharge estimates based on applied irrigation. Peak BTEX concentrations in groundwater predicted for the site are well below maximum contaminant levels. A sensitivity analysis confirms that aerobic biodegradation significantly reduces BTEX compounds. Due to the high availability of dissolved oxygen in groundwater at this site, natural attenuation may be the most favorable mechanism to remediate BTEX in the subsurface

  16. Occupational mental health promotion: a prevention agenda based on education and treatment. The American Psychological Association/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Health Promotion Panel, 1990 Work and Well-Being Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW. Psychological disorders are one of the 10 leading work-related diseases and injuries in the United States according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. This article addresses occupational metal health and preventive stress management in the workplace. The individual and organizational costs are briefly considered with concern for reducing the burden of suffering associated with these problems. SEARCH METHOD. As an American Psychological Association interdisciplinary panel, we searched the psychological, medical, public health, and organizational literature. We selected articles relevant to the problem of psychological disorders in the workplace and to enhancing occupational mental health and preventive stress management. IMPORTANT FINDINGS. The panel proposed a national agenda of education and treatment, combined with a program of evaluation research, for addressing these issues. Target populations are identified, and the need for collaboration among a variety of national constituencies is considered. Advancing occupational mental health and promoting skills in preventive stress management is considered in the context of comprehensive health promotion. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS. The panel concluded that there is a pressing need to: 1) set a 'gold' standard concerning the current state of knowledge in the domains of occupational mental health and stress management; 2) identify Diagnostically Related Groups (DRGs) which are stress-related; 3) establish assessment standards for stress and mental health; 4) set guidelines for reasonable interventions; and 5) establish acceptable post-outcome criteria.

  17. The New Unified International Diabetes Federation/American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Metabolic Syndrome definition: does it correlate better with C-reactive protein in Chinese patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, B; Zhang, S; Wen, J; Yang, Y; Yang, Z; Zhang, Z; Wang, X; Hu, R

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the association between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and metabolic syndrome, defined by the definition proposed by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), American Heart Association (AHA) and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) versus the older IDF definition, in 506 Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were compared and analysed using multivariate linear regression models. Serum hsCRP was higher in patients with metabolic syndrome compared with those without metabolic syndrome for both definitions and increased as the number of components of metabolic syndrome increased (after adjusting for age, gender and smoking). Patients with metabolic syndrome according to the IDF/AHA/NHLBI but not the IDF definition had significantly higher hsCRP levels than those not meeting either definition and similar hsCRP levels to those meeting both definitions. Serum hsCRP levels were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome according to the IDF definition after adjusting for age, gender and smoking. Adding metabolic syndrome status according to the IDF/AHA/NHLBI definition significantly increased the fit of the multivariate linear regression model. The new IDF/AHA/NHLBI definition of metabolic syndrome may have a stronger relationship with serum hsCRP than the IDF definition.

  18. Preparing for the American Board of Surgery Flexible Endoscopy Curriculum: Development of multi-institutional proficiency-based training standards and pilot testing of a simulation-based mastery learning curriculum for the Endoscopy Training System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Brenton R; Placek, Sarah B; Gardner, Aimee K; Korndorffer, James R; Wagner, Mercy D; Pearl, Jonathan P; Ritter, E Matthew

    2017-09-20

    The Fundamentals of Endoscopic Surgery (FES) exam is required for American Board of Surgery certification. The purpose of this study was to develop performance standards for a simulation-based mastery learning (SBML) curriculum for the FES performance exam using the Endoscopy Training System (ETS). Experienced endoscopists from multiple institutions and specialties performed each ETS task (scope manipulation (SM), tool targeting (TT), retroflexion (RF), loop management (LM), and mucosal inspection (MI)) with scores used to develop performance standards for a SBML training curriculum. Trainees completed the curriculum to determine feasibility, and effect on FES performance. Task specific training standards were determined (SM-121sec, TT-243sec, RF-159sec, LM-261sec, MI-180-480sec, 7 polyps). Trainees required 29.5 ± 3.7 training trials over 2.75 ± 0.5 training sessions to complete the SBML curriculum. Despite high baseline FES performance, scores improved (pre 73.4 ± 7, post 78.1 ± 5.2; effect size = 0.76, p > 0.1), but this was not statistically discernable. This SBML curriculum was feasible and improved FES scores in a group of high performers. This curriculum should be applied to novice endoscopists to determine effectiveness for FES exam preparation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Plants as natural antioxidants for meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomović, V.; Jokanović, M.; Šojić, B.; Škaljac, S.; Ivić, M.

    2017-09-01

    The meat industry is demanding antioxidants from natural sources to replace synthetic antioxidants because of the negative health consequences or beliefs regarding some synthetic ones. Plants materials provide good alternatives. Spices and herbs, generally used for their flavouring characteristics, can be added to meat products in various forms: whole, ground, or as isolates from their extracts. These natural antioxidants contain some active compounds, which exert antioxidative potential in meat products. This antioxidant activity is most often due to phenolic acids, phenolic diterpenes, flavonoids and volatile oils. Each of these compounds often has strong H-donating activity, thus making them extremely effective antioxidants; some compounds can chelate metals and donate H to oxygen radicals, thus slowing oxidation via two mechanisms. Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of natural antioxidants when used in meat products. Based on this literature review, it can be concluded that natural antioxidants are added to fresh and processed meat and meat products to delay, retard, or prevent lipid oxidation, retard development of off-flavours (rancidity), improve colour stability, improve microbiological quality and extend shelf-life, without any damage to the sensory or nutritional properties.

  20. Black bone syndrome in chiken meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAA Baldo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Black bone syndrome (BBS affects poultry industry, and it is caused by the darkening of the tissue adjacent to the bone due to leak age of bone marrow contents during cooking. The objective of this experiment was to estimate BBS incidence in chicken thighs. A completely randomized experimental design, with two treatments (refrigerated or frozen of 50 replicates each, was applied. The influence of BBS on meat quality was assessed according to bone lightness (*L, and meat appearance and sensorial characteristics. Lightness was measured using a colorimeter (Minolta® 410R positioned on the proximal epiphyseal growth plate. Meat quality was evaluated after roasting by assigning scores for appearance (acceptable = no darkening, intermediate = little darkened, and unacceptable = severe darkening. Twelve refrigerated and 12 frozen thighs were used for sensorial analysis (adjacent muscle appearance, odor, tenderness, and flavor, assessed using a hedonic scale (1 = bad to 10 = very good by trained panelists. Lightness was submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test (p37.5=normal. The incidence of BBS was 35%,with a 16%increase thighs were frozen. Meat taste was not influenced by the treatments. Meat appearance, flavor, and tenderness were not affected by freezing or refrigeration, only by BBS degree. It was concluded that freezing increases the incidence of BBS and chicken thighs with bones presenting lower luminosity have worse meat quality.

  1. Factors influencing internal color of cooked meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Surendranath P; Nair, Mahesh N; Joseph, Poulson; Hunt, Melvin C

    2016-10-01

    This manuscript overviews the pertinent research on internal color of uncured cooked meats, biochemical processes involved in meat cookery, and fundamental mechanisms governing myoglobin thermal stability. Heat-induced denaturation of myoglobin, responsible for the characteristic dull-brown color of cooked meats, is influenced by a multitude of endogenous (i.e., pH, muscle source, species, redox state) and exogenous (i.e., packaging, ingredients, storage) factors. The interactions between these factors critically influence the internal cooked color and can confuse the consumers, who often perceive cooked color to be a reliable indicator for doneness and safety. While certain phenomena in cooked meat color are cosmetic in nature, others can mislead consumers and result in foodborne illnesses. Research in meat color suggests that processing technologies and cooking practices in industry as well as households influence the internal cooked color. Additionally, the guidelines of many international public health and regulatory authorities recommend using meat thermometers to determine safe cooking endpoint temperature and to ensure product safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Muscle growth and poultry meat quality issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracci, Massimiliano; Cavani, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growing bird and it has resulted in histological and biochemical modifications of the muscle tissue by impairing some meat quality traits. The most current poultry meat quality concerns are associated with deep pectoral muscle disease and white striping which impair product appearance, and increased occurrence of problems related with the meat's poor ability to hold water during processing and storage (PSE-like condition) as well as poor toughness and cohesiveness related to immaturity of intramuscular connective tissue. This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry.

  3. Improving efficiency in meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brameld, John M; Parr, Tim

    2016-08-01

    Selective breeding and improved nutritional management over the past 20-30 years has resulted in dramatic improvements in growth efficiency for pigs and poultry, particularly lean tissue growth. However, this has been achieved using high-quality feed ingredients, such as wheat and soya that are also used for human consumption and more recently biofuels production. Ruminants on the other hand are less efficient, but are normally fed poorer quality ingredients that cannot be digested by human subjects, such as grass or silage. The challenges therefore are to: (i) maintain the current efficiency of growth of pigs and poultry, but using more ingredients not needed to feed the increasing human population or for the production of biofuels; (ii) improve the efficiency of growth in ruminants; (iii) at the same time produce animal products (meat, milk and eggs) of equal or improved quality. This review will describe the use of: (a) enzyme additives for animal feeds, to improve feed digestibility; (b) known growth promoting agents, such as growth hormone, β-agonists and anabolic steroids, currently banned in the European Union but used in other parts of the world; (c) recent transcriptomic studies into molecular mechanisms for improved growth efficiency via low residual feed intake. In doing so, the use of genetic manipulation in animals will also be discussed.

  4. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh D. Jayasena

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for

  5. The role of red meat in a balanced diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruxton, Carrie

    Lean red meat is rich in essential nutrients, such as iron and zinc. Recent changes in farming practice have lowered the fat content of meat significantly. Observational studies have associated high meat consumption with negative health outcomes, but these studies have limitations. The only consistent data relate to colorectal cancer, although it is unclear whether the risk relates to all red meat or to processed or overcooked meats only. The UK government has recently recommended that high consumers of red meat should reduce their intake to 500g per week, although average meat consumption is actually below this figure. This article describes patterns of meat consumption, discusses associations with health and offers guidance on how patients can consume meat as part of a healthy, balanced diet.

  6. Studies Regarding the Meat Quality of the Specie Clarias Gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Marcu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the meat is one of the most important characteristics. For the fish meat quality there are only few specific data comparatively with those that exist about animal meat. The results obtained from a study done on the meat quality of the fish specie Clarias gariepinus (African catfish with a body weight of around 1200 – 1550g are presented in this paper. The obtained results emphasized a great quality of the Clarias gariepinus meat. The meat proteins content had a big value and it was indirectly proportional to the body weight. The meat hydration was higher in fishes with low body weight and indirectly proportional to the fat content. Taking in consideration the fat content of this meat, it can be concluded that the African catfish could be included in the half fat fish category. The meat caloricity calculated is growing proportionally to the body weight, being influenced by the fat content.

  7. Developing a heme iron database for meats according to meat type, cooking method and doneness level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Amanda J; Harnly, James M; Ferrucci, Leah M; Risch, Adam; Mayne, Susan T; Sinha, Rashmi

    2012-07-01

    Animal studies have demonstrated that iron may be related to carcinogenesis, and human studies found that heme iron can increase the formation of N -nitroso compounds, which are known carcinogens. One of the postulated mechanisms linking red meat intake to cancer risk involves iron. Epidemiologic studies attempt to investigate the association between heme iron intake and cancer by applying a standard factor to total iron from meat. However, laboratory studies suggest that heme iron levels in meat vary according to cooking method and doneness level. We measured heme iron in meats cooked by different cooking methods to a range of doneness levels to use in conjunction with a food frequency questionnaire to estimate heme iron intake. Composite meat samples were made to represent each meat type, cooking method and doneness level. Heme iron was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Steak and hamburgers contained the highest levels of heme iron, pork and chicken thigh meat had slightly lower levels, and chicken breast meat had the lowest. Although heme iron levels varied, there was no clear effect of cooking method or doneness level. We outline the methods used to create a heme iron database to be used in conjunction with food frequency questionnaires to estimate heme iron intake in relation to disease outcome.

  8. Whole genome QTL mapping for growth, meat quality and breast meat yield traits in turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, M.L.; Bastiaansen, J.W.M.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Vereijken, J.M.; Groenen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is an important agricultural species and is the second largest contributor to the world's poultry meat production. Demand of turkey meat is increasing very rapidly. Genetic markers linked to genes affecting quantitative traits can increase the selection

  9. Microbial analysis of meat and meat products sold in fast food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to investigate the rate of microbial contamination of ready-to-eat meat and meat products sold in different fast food restaurants in Aba. This study was carried out between June and August, 2015. Samples were collected aseptically from five fast food restaurants using sterile polythene bags.

  10. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures: Carcass merit and meat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and meat quality parameters when meat goat kids were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pretense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L; OGR) pastures. Final shrunk body weights were similar whe...

  11. Effect of dietary plant extract on meat quality and sensory parameters of meat from Equidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Raffaella; Ratti, Sabrina; Pastorelli, Grazia; Maghin, Federica; Martemucci, Giovanni; Casamassima, Donato; D'Alessandro, Angela Gabriella; Corino, Carlo

    2017-11-01

    Plant extracts as Lippia spp. have been proven antioxidant properties. Recent studies have been shown that dietary supplementation with plant extracts is able to enhance meat quality parameters. Studies regarding meat quality in Equidae are limited. The effect of dietary plant extract (PE), containing verbascoside, on meat quality, oxidative stability and sensory parameters of Longissimus Lumborum (LL) muscle in Equidae was studied. Dietary treatment did not affect (P > 0.05) pH, colour indices and chemical parameters of muscle in both donkey and horse. Dietary PE improved (P animals fed PE. Oxidative stability was lower (P meat and to affect the sensory attributes of Equidae meat. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Serotype distribution of Salmonella isolates from turkey ground meat and meat parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Irfan; Goncuoglu, Muammer; Ayaz, Naim Deniz; Ellerbroek, Lüppo; Ormanci, Fatma Seda Bilir; Kangal, Ozlem Iseri

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to find out the serotype distribution of 169 Salmonella colonies recovered from 112 Salmonella positive ground turkey (115 colonies) and 52 turkey meat parts (54 colonies). Out of 15 Salmonella serotypes: S. Corvallis, S. Kentucky, S. Bredeney, S. Virchow, S. Saintpaul and S. Agona were identified as the predominant serovars at the rates of 27%, 13%, 12%, 12%, 11%, and 10%, respectively. Other serotypes were below 6% of the total isolates. All S. Kentucky and S. Virchow and most of the S. Corvallis (39/46) and S. Heidelberg (9/9) serotypes were recovered from ground turkey. The results indicate that turkey ground meat and meat parts were contaminated with quite distinct Salmonella serotypes. This is the first study reporting Salmonella serotype distribution in turkey meat and S. Corvallis as predominant serotype in poultry meat in Turkey.

  13. Effects of electrical stimulation on meat quality of lamb and goat meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Omer; Bingol, Enver Baris; Colak, Hilal; Hampikyan, Hamparsun

    2012-01-01

    Effect of various voltage of electrical stimulation (ES) on meat quality of lamb and goat was investigated by using a total of 36 animals at 3-5 years old. Constant 50 Hz frequency and 50, 100, and 250 V, 90 sec of ES were administered to 1/2 carcasses and were examined according their textural, physicochemical, and sensorial characteristics. ES decreased the pH values of lamb and goat meat, and accelerated the rigor mortis (P meat, and tenderness was improved depending on voltage range used (P meat compared with the control groups (P Sensorial characteristics were also improved with various levels of ES treatments. In conclusion, ES had positive effects on meat quality of lamb and goat, in contrast to undesirable consumer preferences.

  14. Consumer preference, behavior and perception about meat and meat products: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font-I-Furnols, Maria; Guerrero, Luis

    2014-11-01

    Meat and meat products currently represent an important source of protein in the human diet, and their quality varies according to intrinsic and extrinsic parameters that can sometimes be shaped to make a product more desirable. Because consumers are the final step in the production chain, it is useful to identify which factors affect their behavioral patterns. This would allow the meat sector to better satisfy consumer expectations, demands and needs. This paper focuses on features that might influence consumer behavior, preferences and their perception of meat and meat products with respect to psychological, sensory and marketing aspects. This multidisciplinary approach includes evaluating psychological issues such as attitudes, beliefs, and expectations; sensory properties such as appearance, texture, flavor and odor; and marketing-related aspects such as price and brand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Serotype Distribution of Salmonella Isolates from Turkey Ground Meat and Meat Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Erol

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to find out the serotype distribution of 169 Salmonella colonies recovered from 112 Salmonella positive ground turkey (115 colonies and 52 turkey meat parts (54 colonies. Out of 15 Salmonella serotypes: S. Corvallis, S. Kentucky, S. Bredeney, S. Virchow, S. Saintpaul and S. Agona were identified as the predominant serovars at the rates of 27%, 13%, 12%, 12%, 11%, and 10%, respectively. Other serotypes were below 6% of the total isolates. All S. Kentucky and S. Virchow and most of the S. Corvallis (39/46 and S. Heidelberg (9/9 serotypes were recovered from ground turkey. The results indicate that turkey ground meat and meat parts were contaminated with quite distinct Salmonella serotypes. This is the first study reporting Salmonella serotype distribution in turkey meat and S. Corvallis as predominant serotype in poultry meat in Turkey.

  16. Institutional Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Warren J.

    1984-01-01

    Institutional economics remains a viable alternative approach to economics. It stresses power, technology, and a holistic and evolutionary approach while critiquing the neoclassical approach. General features of institutional economics are examined, and the work of institutionalists in specific areas is discussed. (RM)

  17. Policy plan for the early approval for irradiated meat products and the promotion of irradiated meats in market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Wang Geun; Kim, Kyong Su; Yook, Hong Sun; Kim, Cheon Jei

    2008-01-01

    The consumption of meat products is gradually being increased by the development of livestock raising technology, industrialized farm management and international trade. This increased consumption also created new market for ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook meat products. However, these convenience meat products can be easily contaminated during the processing and storage by pathogens, and there have been many reported cases of food borne illness by meats. One of the most effective methods for the decontamination of meat products is the radiation technology. Food irradiation was the established, well-recognized and safe sterilization method. Many other countries researched the effect of irradiation on the meat products and approved the irradiation. In this article, the effectiveness, the international acceptance, the economics and the research trend of irradiation on meat products have been reviewed. Also, the policy plans for the early approval of the irradiated meat products in Korea and the promotion policy of irradiated meats in market were discussed

  18. Studies on the quality of duck meat sausages during refrigeration

    OpenAIRE

    Naveen, Z.; Naik, B. R.; Subramanyam, B. V.; Reddy, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Duck farming is on the raise in the current scenario, but processed products from duck meat are still uncommon to find. Investigating the duck meat qualities during storage will provide information to enhance duck meat utilization. Development of ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook duck meat products is expected to increase and improve non-chicken meat-based protein. The Study was aimed to evaluate the changes in quality characteristics of duck meat sausages preserved by refrigeration (7???1??C). ...

  19. Prospects for new technology of meat processing in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Ryoichi

    2010-09-01

    This review starts by introducing the history and underlying culture of meat production and consumption in Japan since early times, and the effects of social change on these parameters. Meat processing in Japan is described, and certain other related papers are also introduced. Automatic machines for meat cutting have been developed by the Japanese food industry and are currently being used throughout the world, particularly in Europe. Soft meat products specially produced for the elderly, along with diet meat products low in salt and calorie content for middle aged persons have recently gone into production. The intensification of color formation of meat using naturally occurring materials, and tenderization of sausage casing are discussed.

  20. Micro-Raman spectroscopy for meat type detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Biasio, M.; Stampfer, P.; Leitner, R.; Huck, C. W.; Wiedemair, V.; Balthasar, D.

    2015-06-01

    The recent horse meat scandal in Europe increased the demand for optical sensors that can identify meat type. Micro-Raman spectroscopy is a promising technique for the discrimination of meat types. Here, we present micro-Raman measurements of chicken, pork, turkey, mutton, beef and horse meat test samples. The data was analyzed with different combinations of data normalization and classification approaches. Our results show that Raman spectroscopy can discriminate between different meat types. Red and white meat are easily discriminated, however a sophisticated chemometric model is required to discriminate species within these groups.

  1. Colonial Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAtackney, Laura; Palmer, Russell

    2016-01-01

    Archaeologically based explorations of colonialism or institutions are common case-studies in global historical archaeology, but the “colonial institution”—the role of institutions as operatives of colonialism—has often been neglected. In this thematic edition we argue that in order to fully...... understand the interconnected, global world one must explicitly dissect the colonial institution as an entwined, dual manifestation that is central to understanding both power and power relations in the modern world. Following Ann Laura Stoler, we have selected case studies from the Australia, Europe, UK...... and the USA which reveal that the study of colonial institutions should not be limited to the functional life of these institutions—or solely those that take the form of monumental architecture—but should include the long shadow of “imperial debris” (Stoler 2008) and immaterial institutions....

  2. Meat consumption, Cooking Practices, Meat Mutagens and Risk of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Esther M.; Stern, Mariana C.; Sinha, Rashmi; Koo, Jocelyn

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of red meat, particularly well done meat, has been associated with increased prostate cancer risk. High temperature cooking methods such as grilling and barbequeing may produce heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are known carcinogens. We assessed the association with meat consumption and estimated HCA and PAH exposure in a population-based case-control study of prostate cancer. Newly diagnosed cases aged 40–79 years (531 advanced cases, 195 localized cases) and 527 controls were asked about dietary intake, including usual meat cooking methods and doneness levels. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression. For advanced prostate cancer, but not localized disease, increased risks were associated with higher consumption of hamburgers (OR=1.79. CI=1.10–2.92), processed meat (OR=1.57, CI=1.04, 2.36), grilled red meat (OR=1.63, CI=0.99–2.68), and well done red meat (OR=1.52, CI=0.93–2.46), and intermediate intake of 2-amino-1-methyl1-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) (quartile 2 vs. 1: OR=1.41, CI=0.98–2.01; quartile 3 vs. 1: OR=1.42, CI=0.98–2.04), but not for higher intake. White meat consumption was not associated with prostate cancer. These findings provide further evidence that consumption of processed meat and red meat cooked at high temperature is associated with increased risk of advanced, but not localized prostate cancer. PMID:21526454

  3. Effect of Gradual Heating and Fat/Oil Type on Fat Stability, Texture, Color, and Microstructure of Meat Batters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbut, S; Youssef, M K

    2016-09-01

    The effects of endpoint cooking temperature (40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 °C) on emulsion stability, texture, color, and microstructure of meat batters prepared with different fats/oils were studied. Canola oil treatments showed the highest cooking loss whereas hydrogenated palm oil provided the most stable meat batters. Rendered beef fat was less stable than regular beef fat. Increasing endpoint cooking temperatures resulted in a progressive reduction of water holding capacity in all treatments. As temperature was raised, meat batters showed higher hardness and cohesiveness values, but no appreciable changes in cohesiveness above 60 °C. Canola and hydrogenated palm oil treatments showed the highest hardness and chewiness values. Lightness (L(*) ) values of all meat batters increased significantly with increasing temperature from 40 to 60 or 70 °C; no major changes observed above 70 °C. Light microscopy revealed no substantial changes in the microstructure of all the stable meat batters cooked to between 50 and 70 °C. Heating to 90 °C changed the microstructure in all meat batters except the hydrogenated palm oil treatments, which still showed nonround fat particles and a less aggregated protein matrix. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Preventing the First Cesarean Delivery: Summary of a Joint Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, Catherine Y.; Berghella, Vincenzo; Wenstrom, Katharine D.; Mercer, Brian M.; Saade, George R.

    2012-01-01

    With over one-third of pregnancies in the United States being delivered by cesarean and the growing knowledge of morbidities associated with repeat cesarean deliveries, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists convened a workshop to address the concept of preventing the first cesarean. The available information on maternal and fetal factors, labor management and induction, and non-medical factors leading to the first cesarean were reviewed as well as the implications of the first cesarean on future reproductive health. Key points were identified to assist with reduction in cesarean rates including that labor induction should be performed primarily for medical indication; if done for non-medical indications, the gestational age should be at least 39 weeks or more and the cervix should be favorable, especially in the nulliparous patient. Review of the current literature demonstrates the importance of adhering to appropriate definitions for failed induction and arrest of labor progress. The diagnosis of “failed induction” should only be made after an adequate attempt. Adequate time for normal latent and active phases of the first stage, and for the second stage, should be allowed, as long as the maternal and fetal conditions permit. The adequate time for each of these stages appears to be longer than traditionally estimated. Operative vaginal delivery is an acceptable birth method when indicated, and can safely prevent cesarean delivery. Given the progressively declining use, it is critical that training and experience in operative vaginal delivery is facilitated and encouraged. When discussing the first cesarean with a patient, counseling should include its effect on future reproductive health. PMID:23090537

  5. MEAT GOAT DEMOGRAPHICS AND NICHE MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Fisher

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Six focus groups were conducted with each having ten people who attend different Islamic Centers in Ohio. The objective of the focus groups was to understand Halal meat purchase patterns and consumption patterns of the Moslem population with special attention to goat. The Ohio State University Extension personnel are utilizing these results to work with meat goat producers to understand and meet the requirements of the Halal meat market.  Participants discussed the Zabiha approach to slaughtering animals as the most merciful by causing the least pain. Many participants noted they had no way of knowing where the animal  came from and this held tremendous concerns relative to the feeding of animal by-products, use of hormones, and adulteration with pork. These trust concerns led to decisions about where to purchase their meat with 72% purchasing from a Moslem owned retail store. Only 13% purchased from a large grocery and 8% direct from a farmer.   Participants indicated their consumption patterns according to weekly, seasonal, and holiday use in addition to variations according to their personal geographic origin. The average meat purchase was 23 pounds with an average occurrence of 12.5 times per annum.  Purchasing trends indicated that 78% prefer lean over marbled cuts. Nearly 86% prefer fresh over frozen goat meat and nearly a third responded that they would pay more for fresh. Intact males were preferred by 42% of the respondents. Preferences for meat goat cuts were: Leg (71%, Chops (42%, Shoulder (24%, Breast (7%. Nearly a third indicated they also want the kidneys, heart, or head. Demographic shifts in the United States indicate that there are almost 53 million people who have a preference for goat meat. There are 2.4 million goats in the US according to the 2007 Agricultural Statistics. Based on consumption trends of this study, goat demand exceeds inventory by 160%. Meat goat consumer trends are changing regarding

  6. Sensory Characterization and Consumer Preference Mapping of Fresh Sausages Manufactured with Goat and Sheep Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulos, Kátia; Rodrigues, Sandra; Oliveira, António Filipe; Leite, Ana; Pereira, Etelvina; Teixeira, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    The main objective of this study was the sensory characterization, by a taste and a consumers' panel, of fresh sausages from 140 culled goats and 140 culled ewes. Species and type of preparation effects were studied. All data were previously analyzed by analysis of variance. Taste panel data were analyzed by a Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA). Consumers' panel data were analyzed by Preference Mapping. The 1st 2 factors explained 88.22% of total variation in GPA. Different sausages samples were perfectly differentiated by assessors. Goat sausages have been considered harder, more fibrous, and less juicy than sheep sausages. The panelists observed that sheep sausages without paprika had greater intensity of flavor, tasted spicy, and had an off-odor, while goat sausages with paprika were considered sweeter. Consumers' panel did not show any preference for the different types of sausages. This means that all types of sausages can have market opportunity. The present study was a result of a project in co-promotion between 2 breeder associations, an industry unit and a research center. Results indicated that the meat from animals out of quality commercial brands could be useful as processed meat in a product with consumer acceptability. Also these new meat products brought diversity to meat industry to reach new markets and originating 2 new meat brands recorded at INPI (Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial—Natl. Industrial Property Inst.) with the numbers of 489664 and 489662 of National Brands of sheep and goat meat, respectively. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Shelf-Life of Boiled Salted Duck Meat Stored Under Normal and Modified Atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yang; Huang, Jichao; Khan, Iftikhar Ali; Guo, Yuchen; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the physicochemical properties and changes in the microbial counts of boiled salted duck (BSD) meat packed under various conditions. BSD meat was stored under normal atmosphere (C) and two modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) conditions: M1 (N 2 , 100%) and M2 (CO 2 /N 2 , 30%/70%) at 4 °C. Microbiological quality, pH, redness, lipid oxidation, headspace gas composition, and water activity of BSD meat were measured. The results showed that the time to reach the maximum acceptable total viable counts (TVC, 4.9 log CFU/g) was 12, 18, and 21 d in C, M1, and M2 samples, respectively. Significant difference in the redness values was observed in all treatments during storage. The redness value of C group was significantly lower than that in M1 and M2 groups at the end of storage. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values under MAP were 0.24 to 0.26 mg MDA/kg meat at the end of storage, lower (P shelf-life of BSD meat to 21 d during storage at 4 °C, suggesting that MAP can be a practical approach to extend the shelf-life and maintain the quality of BSD products. This study evaluated the application of MAP for a cooked duck product. Our results showed that MAP can be utilized to extend the shelf-life. This technology may be used for preservation of other cooked meat products. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. Chemical Aspects of Lesser Mouse Deer Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalal Rosyidi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment aiming for studying chemical aspects of lesser mouse deer meat (Tragulus javanicus. This research explored the chemical aspects of lesser mouse deer meat (Tragulus javanicus. Eight lesser mouse deer (four female and four male were used in chemical aspects of lesser mouse deer meat. The parameters observed included proximate analysis, amino acid, fatty acid, cholesterol and EPA-DHA of the meat. The results showed that average meat chemical composition were content of water, protein, fat, ash and cholesterol were 76.33 %, 21.42 %, 0.51 %, 1.20% and 50.00 mg/100 g, respectively. Fatty acid consist of lauric acid, miristate, palmitate, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic were 1.04 % 3.09%, 30.97, 0.77%., 59.41%, 3.22% and 1.12%, respectively. The total EPA and DHA was 0.13% and 0.05%,   Keywords: amino acid, fatty acid, cholesterol and EPA-DHA

  9. Muscle Growth and Poultry Meat Quality Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Petracci

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growing bird and it has resulted in histological and biochemical modifications of the muscle tissue by impairing some meat quality traits. The most current poultry meat quality concerns are associated with deep pectoral muscle disease and white striping which impair product appearance, and increased occurrence of problems related with the meat’s poor ability to hold water during processing and storage (PSE-like condition as well as poor toughness and cohesiveness related to immaturity of intramuscular connective tissue. This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry.

  10. Rationalizing meat consumption. The 4Ns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Jared; Ruby, Matthew B; Loughnan, Steve; Luong, Mischel; Kulik, Juliana; Watkins, Hanne M; Seigerman, Mirra

    2015-08-01

    Recent theorizing suggests that the 4Ns - that is, the belief that eating meat is natural, normal, necessary, and nice - are common rationalizations people use to defend their choice of eating meat. However, such theorizing has yet to be subjected to empirical testing. Six studies were conducted on the 4Ns. Studies 1a and 1b demonstrated that the 4N classification captures the vast majority (83%-91%) of justifications people naturally offer in defense of eating meat. In Study 2, individuals who endorsed the 4Ns tended also to objectify (dementalize) animals and included fewer animals in their circle of moral concern, and this was true independent of social dominance orientation. Subsequent studies (Studies 3-5) showed that individuals who endorsed the 4Ns tend not to be motivated by ethical concerns when making food choices, are less involved in animal-welfare advocacy, less driven to restrict animal products from their diet, less proud of their animal-product decisions, tend to endorse Speciesist attitudes, tend to consume meat and animal products more frequently, and are highly committed to eating meat. Furthermore, omnivores who strongly endorsed the 4Ns tended to experience less guilt about their animal-product decisions, highlighting the guilt-alleviating function of the 4Ns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Salmonellosis: the role of poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, P; Mourão, J; Campos, J; Peixe, L

    2016-02-01

    Salmonellosis remains one of the most frequent food-borne zoonoses, constituting a worldwide major public health concern. Currently, at a global level, the main sources of infection for humans include meat products, including the consumption of contaminated poultry meat, in spite of the success of Salmonella control measures implemented in food-animal production of industrialized countries. In recent years, a shift in Salmonella serotypes related to poultry and poultry production has been reported in diverse geographical regions, being particularly associated with the spread of certain well-adapted clones. Moreover, antimicrobial resistance in non-typhoidal Salmonella is considered one of the major public health threats related with food-animal production, including the poultry production chain and poultry meat, which is an additional concern in the management of salmonellosis. The circulation of the same multidrug-resistant Salmonella clones and/or identical mobile genetic elements encoding antibiotic resistance genes from poultry to humans highlights this scenario. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of the role of poultry meat on salmonellosis at a global scale and the main problems that could hinder the success of Salmonella control measures at animal production level. With the increasing globalization of foodstuffs like poultry meat, new problems and challenges might arise regarding salmonellosis control, making new integrated intervention strategies necessary along the food chain. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Clostridium difficile in poultry and poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Roger B; Norman, Keri N; Andrews, Kathleen; Hume, Michael E; Scanlan, Charles M; Callaway, Todd R; Anderson, Robin C; Nisbet, David J

    2011-12-01

    The incidence and severity of disease associated with toxigenic Clostridium difficile have increased in hospitals in North America from the emergence of newer, more virulent strains. Toxigenic C. difficile has been isolated from food animals and retail meat with potential implications of transfer to human beings. The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of toxigenic C. difficile in chickens and retail poultry meat in Texas. Seven C. difficile isolates were detected in fecal samples of 300 (2.3%) broiler chickens. Three cultivation procedures were evaluated for isolation of C. difficile from poultry meat and detected 1/32 (3.1%), 2/32 (6.2%), and 4/32 (12.5%) for the three procedures, respectively. Chicken and poultry meat isolates were characterized as toxinotype V and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis gel type-NAP7 or NAP7-variant. Susceptibilities to 11 antimicrobial agents in the current study suggested somewhat reduced resistance than reported for other meat or animal toxinotype V isolates.

  13. American Studies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Luca

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available American Studies at the University of BucharestThe idea of teaching American Studies and founding a program in American Studies was first voiced in the long meetings of faculty and students held at the University of Bucharest soon after the collapse of the communist regime. The proposal was one of many that reflected the spirit of reform and hope for radical changes at the outset of Romania’s transition to democracy. The absence of institutional structures other than English departments and t...

  14. In vitro meat: A future animal-free harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Zuhaib Fayaz; Kumar, Sunil; Bhat, Hina Fayaz

    2017-03-04

    In vitro meat production is a novel idea of producing meat without involving animals with the help of tissue engineering techniques. This biofabrication of complex living products by using various bioengineering techniques is a potential solution to reduce the ill effects of current meat production systems and can dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing "animal-free" meat and meat products. Nutrition-related diseases, food-borne illnesses, resource use and pollution, and use of farm animals are some serious consequences associated with conventional meat production methods. This new way of animal-free meat production may offer health and environmental advantages by reducing environmental pollution and resource use associated with current meat production systems and will also ensure sustainable production of designer, chemically safe, and disease-free meat as the conditions in an in vitro meat production system are controllable and manipulatable. Theoretically, this system is believed to be efficient enough to supply the global demand for meat; however, establishment of a sustainable in vitro meat production would face considerably greater technical challenges and a great deal of research is still needed to establish this animal-free meat culturing system on an industrial scale.

  15. Institutional actorhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Uhrenholdt

    In this paper I describe the changing role of intra-organizational experts in the face of institutional complexity of their field. I do this through a qualitative investigation of the institutional and organizational roles of actors in Danish organizations who are responsible for the efforts to c...... to comply with the Danish work environment regulation. And by doing so I also describe how institutional complexity and organizational responses to this complexity are particular important for the changing modes of governance that characterizes contemporary welfare states....

  16. Meat eaters by dissociation: How we present, prepare and talk about meat increases willingness to eat meat by reducing empathy and disgust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, Jonas R; Hohle, Sigrid M

    2016-10-01

    Many people enjoy eating meat but dislike causing pain to animals. Dissociating meat from its animal origins may be a powerful way to avoid cognitive dissonance resulting from this 'meat paradox'. Here, we provide the first comprehensive test of this hypothesis, highlighting underlying psychological mechanisms. Processed meat made participants less empathetic towards the slaughtered animal than unprocessed meat (Study 1). When beheaded, a whole roasted pork evoked less empathy (Study 2a) and disgust (Study 2b) than when the head was present. These affective responses, in turn, made participants more willing to eat the roast and less willing to consider an alternative vegetarian dish. Conversely, presenting a living animal in a meat advertisement increased empathy and reduced willingness to eat meat (Study 3). Next, describing industrial meat production as "harvesting" versus "killing" or "slaughtering" indirectly reduced empathy (Study 4). Last, replacing "beef/pork" with "cow/pig" in a restaurant menu increased empathy and disgust, which both equally reduced willingness to eat meat and increased willingness to choose an alternative vegetarian dish (Study 5). In all experiments, effects were strongly mediated by dissociation and interacted with participants' general dissociation tendencies in Study 3 and 5, so that effects were particularly pronounced among participants who generally spend efforts disassociating meat from animals in their daily lives. Together, this line of research demonstrates the large role various culturally-entrenched processes of dissociation play for meat consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Association analyses of porcine SERPINE1 reveal sex-specific effects on muscling, growth, fat accretion and meat quality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weisz, Filip; Bartenschlager, H.; Knoll, Aleš; Mileham, A.; Deeb, N.; Geldermann, H.; Čepica, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 5 (2012), s. 614-619 ISSN 0268-9146 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/10/1216 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : association study * fat deposition * meat quality Subject RIV: GI - Animal Husbandry ; Breeding Impact factor: 2.584, year: 2012

  18. Institutional Controls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of institutional control data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different...

  19. Institutional upbringing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2008-01-01

    current testing of Danish language fluency levels among pre-school minority children. Testing language skills marks and defines distinctions that reinforce images of deviance that, in turn, legitimize initiatives to enrol children, specifically minority children, in child care institutions....

  20. Study on Influence of Different Types of Meat on the Quality of Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Nagy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Meat species in processed food products have been gaining an increasing interest mainly due to public health, economic and legal concerns, but also due to religious reasons. In the recent years there was an increasing demand for healthier meat products. Formulation of healthier meat products based on processing strategies is one of the most important current approaches to the development of potential meat-based functional foods. The main objective of the study was to characterize different type of meat and to use that to obtain a meat product-smoked sausage. The physico-chemical analyses highlighted the moisture content (drying-oven at 105 ºC, protein (Kjeldahl method and fat (Soxhlet method content and sodium chloride content (Mohr method of the meat and the final product. Sensory analyses of the samples as well as control sample were evaluated by 17 untrained panellists using a 9 point hedonic scale. Following this study, it was noted an improvement of organoleptic characteristics (texture and appearance as well as physico-chemical and sensorial properties of the new product compared with the limits stipulated.

  1. Influence of turkey meat on residual nitrite in cured meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, B; Cassens, R G; Borchert, L L

    2001-02-01

    A response surface experimental design was employed to estimate residual nitrite level at various initial nitrite concentrations, percent turkey meat in the formula, and heat quantity (F) values using a typical wiener as the test system. Pork and mechanically separated turkey were used as the meat ingredients. Residual nitrite and pH were measured at day 1, 7 days, 14 days, and 49 days after processing. Protein, fat, salt, moisture, and CIE (L*a*b*) color values were also determined. Results showed that the effect of turkey meat on residual nitrite level was significant (P meat in the formula resulted in lower residual nitrite levels at a fixed pH. The residual nitrite level was initially proportional to initial nitrite concentration, but it became a nonsignificant factor during longer storage time. Differences in heat quantity had a significant effect (P meat products at a fixed pH. However, this effect became nonsignificant during longer storage. Reduction of residual nitrite in wieners because of turkey meat addition at a fixed pH was due to characteristics of the turkey tissue, but the mechanism of action remains unknown. It was also established that commercial wieners had a higher pH if poultry meat was included in the formulation.

  2. Benevolent technotopias and hitherto unimaginable meats: Tracing the promises of in vitro meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Erik

    2016-10-01

    Today, in vitro (Latin: in glass) meat researchers strive to overhaul meat production technologies by producing meat outside animal bodies, primarily by culturing cells. In the process, meat should become healthier, more environmentally friendly and kinder to animals. In this article, I scrutinize (and problematize) this promissory discourse by examining the world that proponents envision alongside the world from which promises emerge. First, I trace the increasing number of publications striving to pinpoint the nature of in vitro meat to unveil the creation of an in vitro meat canon wherein perceived possibilities become taken for granted. Second, I investigate how the promissory discourse is often relatively silent on key aspects of how this technology could remake the world. Wet laboratories, animals and end products become foregrounded at the expense of political economy and the biophysical properties of cultured cells. Thus, questions concerning how funding requirements shape representations of this new technology, together with in vitro meat's particular socio-spatial and socio-ecological implications, become problematically de-emphasized.

  3. Polymorphism screening and mapping of nine meat performance-related genes in the pig

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Pavel; Stratil, Antonín; Svatoňová, Martina; Maštálková, Lucie; Patáková, Jitka; Van Poucke, M.; Bartenschlager, H.; Peelman, L. J.; Geldermann, H.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 3 (2010), s. 334-335 ISSN 0268-9146 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB500450801; GA ČR GA523/09/0844; GA ČR(CZ) GA523/06/1302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : genomics * meat performance-related genes * pig Subject RIV: GI - Animal Husbandry ; Breeding Impact factor: 2.203, year: 2010

  4. Quality tracing in meat supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Miriam; Dittmer, Patrick; Veigt, Marius; Kus, Mehmet; Nehmiz, Ulfert; Kreyenschmidt, Judith

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the development of a quality tracing model for vacuum-packed lamb that is applicable in different meat supply chains. Based on the development of relevant sensory parameters, the predictive model was developed by combining a linear primary model and the Arrhenius model as the secondary model. Then a process analysis was conducted to define general requirements for the implementation of the temperature-based model into a meat supply chain. The required hardware and software for continuous temperature monitoring were developed in order to use the model under practical conditions. Further on a decision support tool was elaborated in order to use the model as an effective tool in combination with the temperature monitoring equipment for the improvement of quality and storage management within the meat logistics network. Over the long term, this overall procedure will support the reduction of food waste and will improve the resources efficiency of food production. PMID:24797136

  5. Perspectives in production of functional meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilev, D.; Glišić, M.; Janković, V.; Dimitrijević, M.; Karabasil, N.; Suvajdžić, B.; Teodorović, V.

    2017-09-01

    The meat industry has met new challenges since the World Health Organization classified processed meat in carcinogenic Group 1. In relation to this, the functional food concept in meat processing has gained importance, especially in reducing carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as an additional imperative, apart from the usual fat and salt reduction and product enrichment with functional ingredients. PAH reduction relies on control of the smoking process, but there is also a possibility they could be degraded by means of probiotic microorganisms or spices. The reduction of N-nitroso compounds could be provided by lowering the amount of added nitrite/nitrate, using substitutes for these chemicals, and/or by preventing conditions for the creation of N-nitroso compounds. Nevertheless, fat and salt reductions still remain topical, and rely mostly on the use of functional ingredients as their substitutes.

  6. MEAT QUALITY OF LOCAL AND HYBRID RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paci

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available pH, colour and oxidative status were evaluated to study the effect of rabbit genotype on meat quality. Commercial Hybrids, selected for high growth rate and a local population, characterized by slow growing, were used. Meat quality characteristics of L. lumborum and B. femoris muscles showed significant differences between genotypes. Local population had higher pHu values but lower pH fall values than Hybrids. Hybrids showed higher lightness values and TBARS contents than local population. Meat quality parameters were influenced by genotype. The differences between genotypes could be related to the different degree of maturity because the rabbits, in relation to the different growth rate, were slaughtered at the same weight but at different age.

  7. Quality tracing in meat supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Miriam; Dittmer, Patrick; Veigt, Marius; Kus, Mehmet; Nehmiz, Ulfert; Kreyenschmidt, Judith

    2014-06-13

    The aim of this study was the development of a quality tracing model for vacuum-packed lamb that is applicable in different meat supply chains. Based on the development of relevant sensory parameters, the predictive model was developed by combining a linear primary model and the Arrhenius model as the secondary model. Then a process analysis was conducted to define general requirements for the implementation of the temperature-based model into a meat supply chain. The required hardware and software for continuous temperature monitoring were developed in order to use the model under practical conditions. Further on a decision support tool was elaborated in order to use the model as an effective tool in combination with the temperature monitoring equipment for the improvement of quality and storage management within the meat logistics network. Over the long term, this overall procedure will support the reduction of food waste and will improve the resources efficiency of food production.

  8. Detection of antibiotic residues in poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Abdul; Kashif, Natasha; Kifayat, Nasira; Ahmad, Shabeer

    2016-09-01

    The antibiotic residues in poultry meat can pose certain hazards to human health among them are sensitivity to antibiotics, allergic reactions, mutation in cells, imbalance of intestinal micro biota and bacterial resistance to antibiotics. The purpose of the present paper was to detect antibiotic residue in poultry meat. During the present study a total of 80 poultry kidney and liver samples were collected and tested for detection of different antibiotic residues at different pH levels Eschericha coli at pH 6, 7 and Staphyloccocus aureus at pH 8 & 9. Out of 80 samples only 4 samples were positive for antibiotic residues. The highest concentrations of antibiotic residue found in these tissues were tetracycline (8%) followed by ampicilin (4%), streptomycine (2%) and aminoglycosides (1%) as compared to other antibiotics like sulfonamides, neomycine and gentamycine. It was concluded that these microorganism at these pH levels could be effectively used for detection of antibiotic residues in poultry meat.

  9. Meat and masculinity in the Norwegian Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kildal, Charlotte Lilleby; Syse, Karen Lykke

    2017-05-01

    In 2013, the Norwegian Armed Forces decided to introduce a meat reduction scheme in its military mess halls, for both health reasons and environmental concerns. This article explores Norwegian soldiers' reactions to the introduction of Meat free Monday, and their attitudes towards reducing meat consumption. As of yet, Meat free Monday has not been implemented due to both structural and contextual challenges. We explore both the process and potential of the Norwegian military's Meat free Monday initiative to promote sustainable and climate friendly diets. We found significant barriers preventing the military from implementing Meat free Monday. The main reason behind the resistance to reduce meat consumption among Norwegian soldiers was meat's associations with protein, masculinity and comfort. Our results underline the importance of acknowledging the social and cultural role of food. The study is qualitative and uses focus group interviews as its main methodology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Procedure and Checklist for Water Vaccination of Meat Turkey Flocks

    OpenAIRE

    Frame, David D.

    2011-01-01

    Vaccination for certain diseases is an important component of the health management program for commercial meat turkey production. Because of logistical challenges almost all routine vaccination of meat turkey flocks is administered through the drinking water.

  11. Comparison of DNA extraction methods for meat analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçınkaya, Burhanettin; Yumbul, Eylem; Mozioğlu, Erkan; Akgoz, Muslum

    2017-04-15

    Preventing adulteration of meat and meat products with less desirable or objectionable meat species is important not only for economical, religious and health reasons, but also, it is important for fair trade practices, therefore, several methods for identification of meat and meat products have been developed. In the present study, ten different DNA extraction methods, including Tris-EDTA Method, a modified Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide (CTAB) Method, Alkaline Method, Urea Method, Salt Method, Guanidinium Isothiocyanate (GuSCN) Method, Wizard Method, Qiagen Method, Zymogen Method and Genespin Method were examined to determine their relative effectiveness for extracting DNA from meat samples. The results show that the salt method is easy to perform, inexpensive and environmentally friendly. Additionally, it has the highest yield among all the isolation methods tested. We suggest this method as an alternative method for DNA isolation from meat and meat products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Tourist ships on the Danube as an opportunity for export of meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tešanović Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism development launches growth of other complementary industries. River tourism, as a special selective tourism form, experiences intensive development, with an importance for all the regions through which the Danube, as an integral part of the Rhine - Main - Danube waterway, flows. During cruising, the largest consumption is achieved on the ship itself, where meat and meat products are an integral element of every meal and represent the most expensive component of the dish. The task of this paper is to analyse the consumption of meat and meat products on six tourist ships run by to 'Grand Circle Corporation' in 2013, in order to point out the possibility of supplying them with meat and meat products from sources in the territory where the ships sail. The paper presents the current suppliers and manufacturers of meat and meat products in Republic of Serbia that could supply the company 'Grand Circle Cruise Line' and other tourist ships that cruise on the Danube. Also, the research indicates that the export of meat products from the Republic Serbia could have a significant effect on improving the agricultural conditions and food production through increased competition, assuming the Serbian manufacturers supply most of tourist ships and not only the six ships analysed in this paper. Research results, specifically, point out the possibility of increasing export of poultry and beef if the potential demand of each of the eight companies with their 54 ships which operate tourist cruises on the Danube is taken into account. The data have been systematized, analysed and presented statistically in tables and graphs.

  13. Studies on the quality of duck meat sausages during refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen, Z; Naik, B R; Subramanyam, B V; Reddy, P M

    2016-01-01

    Duck farming is on the raise in the current scenario, but processed products from duck meat are still uncommon to find. Investigating the duck meat qualities during storage will provide information to enhance duck meat utilization. Development of ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook duck meat products is expected to increase and improve non-chicken meat-based protein. The Study was aimed to evaluate the changes in quality characteristics of duck meat sausages preserved by refrigeration (7 ± 1 °C). Duck meat sausages were prepared by utilizing raw and partially cooked duck meat with addition of soy flour at 10% level as a binder. Different quality characteristics like physical and chemical characteristics, proximate composition, and organoleptic characteristics were evaluated. Cooking loss of partially cooked meat sausages was lower than raw duck meat sausages, whereas emulsion stability and 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of raw duck meat sausages were lesser than partially cooked meat sausages. Cooking loss and emulsion stability decreased in both types of meat sausages, while, 2-TBA values increased as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent moisture content of raw duck meat sausages was higher than partially cooked meat sausages, which decreased in both types of meat sausages as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent crude protein (CP) and percent ether extract (EE) content of partially cooked duck meat sausages were higher than raw duck meat sausages. Regardless of type of meat used, refrigerated storage of sausages increased CP and EE up to 10th day but decreased upon further storage up to 14th day. Organoleptic scores for raw duck meat sausages were higher than partially cooked duck meat sausages and all the scores decreased with an increase in the storage period. However the scores were within the acceptable limits. The findings prove that, duck meat can be effectively acclaimed as an alternative avenue to meet the escalating

  14. PUFA loses after cookingg of chicken meat.

    OpenAIRE

    López-Ferrer, S.

    1999-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the effect ofsupplying with fish or linseed oils on the performance, quality parameters and fatty acid (FA) composition of the meat of broiler chickens. Besides, it aimed to test the relative stability of the FA composition after cooking of the chicken meat. A diet with 4% of tallow plus 4% linseed oil (Tl ) or 4% fish oil (T2) was fed to the birds throughout the 5 wk growth period. After slaughtering of the animals, the FA profile of the raw samples was ...

  15. Biotechnology of Flavor Generation in Fermented Meats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toldrá, Fidel

    Traditionally, meat fermentation was based on the use of natural flora, including the “back-slopping”, or addition of a previous successful fermented sausage. However, these practices gave a great variability in the developed flora and affected the safety and quality of the sausages (Toldrá, 2002; Toldrá & Flores, 2007). The natural flora of fermented meat has been studied for many years (Leistner, 1992; Toldrá, 2006a), and more recently, these micro-organisms have been isolated and biochemically identified through molecular methods applied to extracted DNA and RNA (Cocolin, Manzano, Aggio, Cantoni, & Comi, 2001; Cocolin, Manzano, Cantoni, & Comi, 2001; Comi, Urso, Lacumin, Rantsiou, Cattaneo & Cantoni, 2005).

  16. Meat grinder injuries to the upper extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandner, M; Bunkis, J; Trengove-Jones, G

    1985-05-01

    Three cases of hand injury caused by meat grinders are presented. All 3 injuries involved the dominant hand and resulted in varying degrees of deformity. Two of the 3 patients arrived in the emergency room with the injured hand still firmly wedged in the meat grinder. Although these injuries continue to prove very mutilating, maximum restoration of the injured hand can be accomplished by careful extrication, followed by preservation and reconstruction of all viable tissues. Perioperative antibiotics and wound irrigation with antibiotic solution are recommended. Microsurgical technique can be of value in treating selected patients.

  17. An Annotated Dataset of 14 Meat Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille

    2002-01-01

    This note describes a dataset consisting of 14 annotated images of meat. Points of correspondence are placed on each image. As such, the dataset can be readily used for building statistical models of shape. Further, format specifications and terms of use are given.......This note describes a dataset consisting of 14 annotated images of meat. Points of correspondence are placed on each image. As such, the dataset can be readily used for building statistical models of shape. Further, format specifications and terms of use are given....

  18. In vitro meat production system: why and how?

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Shruti; Thind, Sukhcharanjit Singh; Kaur, Amarjeet

    2015-01-01

    Due to the nutritional importance and the sustained popularity of meat as a foodstuff, the livestock production sector has been expanding incessantly. This exponential growth of livestock meat sector poses a gigantic challenge to the sustainability of food production system. A new technological breakthrough is being contemplated to develop a substitute for livestock meat. The idea is to grow meat in a culture in the lab and manipulate its composition selectively. This paper aims to discuss th...

  19. Biological defense system against xenobiotics in meat-producing animals

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelrahem Abdallah Darwish, Wageh Sobhy

    2010-01-01

    Meat-producing animals are frequently exposed during their lifetime to a lot of xenobiotics which affect on their biological systems, growth, disease response and lead to changes on the carcass quality. These changes may have some public health impact if people consumed such contaminated meat or meat products. Meat-producing animals have developed enzyme systems which help them to metabolize such xenobiotics. Studying of the profile of the different enzymes used in xenobiotics metabolism may ...

  20. Turkey breast meat development and maximising the genetic potential

    OpenAIRE

    NOIRAULT JÉRÔME

    2015-01-01

    Breast Meat is the most lucrative part of the turkey carcass contributing to 70% of the profit whilst only representing 23-26% of the liveweight. Thus breast meat is the most sought after genetic trait in the poultry industry with the aim to maximise breast meat per bird in percentage of the carcass. Before assessing Breast meat yield (BMY) and its deposition it is necessary to look at muscle development.

  1. Antibiogram profile of pathogens isolated from processed cow meat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-30

    Jun 30, 2016 ... Cow meat or beef is the culinary name for meat from bovines especially cattle. The generic name of cow meat is Bos taurus and the habitable weather of Bos taurus includes temperature of 101.50F (38.60C) and ability to live in a harsh terrains (Li et al., 2006). The processing of cow meat begins from ...

  2. Prospectus of cultured meat—advancing meat alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat, Zuhaib Fayaz; Fayaz, Hina

    2010-01-01

    The in vitro production of meat is probably feasible with existing tissue engineering techniques and may offer health and environmental advantages by reducing environmental pollution and land use associated with current meat production systems. By culturing loose myosatellite cells on a substrate, it is probably possible to produce cultured meat by harvesting mature muscle cells after differentiation and processing them into various meat products. Besides reducing the animal suffering signifi...

  3. Bacterial Contaminants of Poultry Meat: Sources, Species, and Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Rouger, Amélie; Tresse, Odile; Zagorec, Monique

    2017-01-01

    With the constant increase in poultry meat consumption worldwide and the large variety of poultry meat products and consumer demand, ensuring the microbial safety of poultry carcasses and cuts is essential. In the present review, we address the bacterial contamination of poultry meat from the slaughtering steps to the use-by-date of the products. The different contamination sources are identified. The contaminants occurring in poultry meat cuts and their behavior toward sanitizing treatments ...

  4. Chautauqua Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbland, Walter

    1978-01-01

    Once synonymous with tent lectures and spread eagle oratory, the Chautauqua Movement was the pop culture of its day and as such shaped American attitudes toward education and culture. Today, Chautauqua is an education center, a forum for theological and philosophical inquiry, an arts festival, and a vacation resort. (Author/MA)

  5. Individual and combined effects of genistein and hesperidin supplementation on meat quality in meat-type broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamboh, Asghar A; Zhu, Wei-Yun

    2013-10-01

    There is growing interest in improving the production and meat quality of farm animals through dietary supplementation with phytochemical (e.g. flavonoids)-rich plants and/or their extracts. This study was conducted to analyse the supplemental effects of two purified flavonoids (genistein and hesperidin) individually and in combination on the oxidative status, sensory score and quality of breast meat in meat-type broiler chickens. A significant increase (P meat colour (L* score) and pH was observed for the group supplemented with 20 mg kg(-1) genistein and hesperidin. Water-holding capacity was also improved significantly (P meat remained unaffected. Lipid oxidation of breast meat was reduced significantly (P meat quality in a dose-dependent fashion, with pronounced effects of combined treatment. The results indicated that purified flavonoids such as genistein and hesperidin could potentially be used as feed additives in broiler production to promote meat quality. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Effects of moist- and dry-heat cooking on the meat quality, microstructure and sensory characteristics of native chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Chen, Chih-Feng; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of moist- (water-cooking; WC) and dry-heat (oven-cooking; OC) on the quality, microstructure and sensory characteristics of native chicken breast meat. The results revealed that OC meat had a significantly higher cooking time, cooking loss, and shear force values and lower L* values. Protein solubility decreased after cooking in both cooking methods; however, no statistical difference was observed between WC and OC meats, whereas collagen solubility and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI) increased after cooking and WC meat exhibited higher collagen solubility and MFI (P meat (P meat exhibited a significantly higher moisture release and lower initial hardness, chewdown hardness and residual loose particles. A darker color and enhanced chickeny flavor were observed for OC meat. Based on the unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics in demand, producers should employ appropriate cooking methods to optimize native chicken meat quality. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. Fatty acid composition and oxidative stability of lambs' meat as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uvp

    one of the most promising steps in improving meat quality because of its antioxidant properties. The colour of meat is seen as the most .... Table 1 The effect of dietary antioxidant and fat source on the fatty acid content of muscle and subcutaneous fat tissue of S.A. Mutton Merino lamb meat. Parameter. (% of total fatty acids).

  8. Broiler meat quality: Proteins and lipids of muscle tissue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proteins and lipids of muscle tissue are important meat quality parameters. They contribute substantially to the nutritional characteristics of meat. A number of studies has been conducted on the effect of different factors on the protein and lipid content of broiler meat. Given the above, the subject matter of the present paper ...

  9. Vision-based method for tracking meat cuts in slaughterhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo; Hviid, Marchen Sonja; Engbo Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    Meat traceability is important for linking process and quality parameters from the individual meat cuts back to the production data from the farmer that produced the animal. Current tracking systems rely on physical tagging, which is too intrusive for individual meat cuts in a slaughterhouse envi...

  10. Preliminary Studies on the Development of Meat Balls | Igene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The UUFB sample was rated highest in terms of overall likeness and may economically complement some of the existing popular meat-based snacks in Nigeria. The significance of the study is discussed. @JASEM Keyterms: Meat, Meat ball, Quality, Product development. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. June, 2012, Vol.

  11. 9 CFR 327.9 - Burlap wrapping for foreign meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. 327... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.9 Burlap wrapping for foreign meat. Burlap shall not be...

  12. properties of fried minced meat ( Dambun nama ) processed from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was done to evaluate the potential of different meat sources in producing acceptable dambun nama when compared with the traditional beef dambun nama in Nigeria. Five meat types viz: beef, mutton, chevon, camel and broiler chicken meat were used for this experiment. Sensory evaluation was conducted ...

  13. 9 CFR 319.721 - Fluid extract of meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fluid extract of meat. 319.721 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes...

  14. Full Length Research Paper Identification of species (meat and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crocodile meat product is an alternative protein source. Although, crocodile meat is more expensive, its taste is similar to that of chicken and fish. The authentication of commercial meat species is important for consumer's confidence. In this study, sensitive and specific method multiplex nested-PCR was applied to identify ...

  15. Preference for goat meat and milk products consumption in Bauchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of the study revealed significant (p<0.01) differences in the consumption pattern of meat and milk products produced from goats. However, among the various meat products tsire was most preferred, followed by balangu to other meat products. Very few people were involved in the consumption of goat milk and ...

  16. China's meat industry revolution: challenges and opportunities for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guanghong; Zhang, Wangang; Xu, Xinglian

    2012-11-01

    From a very limited ration of meat only for urban citizens to the world's largest meat-producing country, from a handful of processing facilities in major cities to thousands of modern meat packing and processing plants throughout the country, the Chinese meat industry has gone through drastic revolutionary changes particularly in the last three decades. Before the national economic reform in the late 1970s, meat production in China was extremely limited; hence, meat was rationed, treated as a highly precious food, and was highly valued. However, new processing technology developments, as related to meat animal production, slaughtering, processing, and distribution have transformed the inefficient Chinese meat industry that prepared only a handful of traditional products into a vast enterprise today that is manufacturing a huge variety of fresh and further processed items enjoyed by the average Chinese household. Along with this evolution, there has been the emergence of mega-scale meat companies and rapid advances in meat science and technology that address many aspects of meat. This review will highlight some milestone changes of the Chinese meat industry and discuss challenges and opportunities ahead in the global market for China. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Exploring meat substitutes: consumer experiences and contextual factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzerman, J.E.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Luning, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Meat substitutes can be environmentally more sustainable alternatives to meat. However, the image of these products in The Netherlands is still low. The purpose of this paper is to explore consumers' experiences and sensory expectations of meat substitutes and the appropriateness of the

  18. Should the South African red meat classification system be revised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this review was to determine whether the current South African red meat classification system still needs to be revised and changed or maintained. It also gives insight into the most significant challenges related to meat quality evaluation in this system. Red Meat Research and Development South Africa ...

  19. NIR spectroscopy for determining soy contents in processed meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soy products such as soy concentrate, soy protein and soy grits are used as a meat extender in processed meat products to improve meat texture. However, soy allergies are one of the common food allergies, especially in infants and young children, and can be mild to life-threatening. The United State...

  20. Economic valuation of pastoral meat production system in Arusha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    specifically on red meat which has a crucial role for food security as well as in the culture of the country. The results of the ..... Abattoirs or Slaughter houses: A change in legislation for meat safety reasons and for generating ... slaughtered animals and sell sliced and filleted meat to nyama choma joints, restaurants, hotels.

  1. Cultured meat; will it separate us from nature?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welin, S.; Weele, van der C.

    2012-01-01

    In vitro meat, or cultured meat, is one of the ideas that are being proposed to help solve the problems associated with the ever growing global meat consumption. The prospect is a source or great moral hope, but also generates doubts and criticism. In this paper, we focus on worries about (1) the

  2. Emerging profiles for cultured meat; ethics through and as design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weele, van der C.; Driessen, C.P.G.

    2013-01-01

    The development of cultured meat has gained urgency through the increasing problems associated with meat, but what it might become is still open in many respects. In existing debates, two main moral profiles can be distinguished. Vegetarians and vegans who embrace cultured meat emphasize how it

  3. The perception and preference of consumers for local poultry meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the preference for and perception of consumers concerning the locally produced poultry meat in the Kumasi metropolis in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Fifty consumers were randomly selected. The results demonstrated that most consumers preferred the local poultry meat to the imported meat.

  4. American Indian Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Feather, Gerald

    With the emergence of reservation based community colleges (th Navajo Community College and the Dakota Community Colleges), the American Indian people, as decision makers in these institutions, are providing Indians with the technical skills and cultural knowledge necessary for self-determination. Confronted with limited numbers of accredited…

  5. Safe meat-handling knowledge, attitudes and practices of private and government meat processing plants' workers: implications for future policy

    OpenAIRE

    ADESOKAN, H.K.; RAJI, A.O.Q.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Introduction. Food-borne disease outbreaks remain a major global health challenge and cross-contamination from raw meat due to poor handling is a major cause in developing countries. Adequate knowledge of meat handlers is important in limiting these outbreaks. This study evaluated and compared the safe meat-handling knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of private (PMPP) and government meat processing plants' (GMPP) workers in south-western Nigeria. Methods. This cross sectional st...

  6. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research Guideline Is Associated With Better Health-Related Quality of Life Among Chinese Patients With Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yuan-Yuan; Ho, Suzanne C; Cheng, Ashley; Kwok, Carol; Lee, Chi-Kiu Iris; Cheung, Ka Li; Lee, Roselle; Loong, Herbert H F; He, Yi-Qian; Yeo, Winnie

    2018-03-01

    Background: The 2007 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) guideline provides recommendations for cancer prevention among cancer survivors. Limited data have examined whether guideline adherence is related to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among Chinese patients with breast cancer. Methods: An ongoing prospective cohort study involving 1,462 Chinese women with early-stage breast cancer assessed exercise, diet, and body mass index (BMI) at baseline and at 18-months follow-up after diagnosis. Each assessment recorded patient habits within the previous 12 months. HRQoL was evaluated by the EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30). We first compared the level of adherence to WCRF/AICR recommendations before and after cancer diagnosis. We then examined whether adherence to these recommendations after diagnosis was associated with HRQoL at 18 months. Results: The mean adherence score significantly increased from baseline (3.2; SD, 1.1) to 18-month follow-up (3.9; SD, 1.1; P <.001). Overall, increasing adherence to the WCRF/AICR guideline was associated with higher scores of global health status/quality of life (QoL; P trend =.011), physical ( P trend <.001) and role functioning ( P trend =.024), and lower scores for fatigue ( P trend =.016), nausea and vomiting ( P trend <.001), pain ( P trend =.004), dyspnea ( P trend =.030), loss of appetite ( P trend =.007), and diarrhea ( P trend =.020). Patients with cancer who met the BMI recommendation had higher scores for physical functioning ( P =.001) and lower scores for fatigue ( P =.024), pain ( P <.001), and dyspnea ( P =.045). Adherence to physical activity recommendation was associated with better scores of global health status/QoL ( P <.001), physical functioning ( P =.003), fatigue ( P =.002), pain ( P =.018), and dyspnea ( P =.021). Higher adherence to diet recommendation was associated with lower scores of nausea and vomiting ( P trend =.005), loss of

  7. Pure meat – public perceptions of risk reduction strategies in meat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzen, Sara Marie; Sandøe, Peter; Lassen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    of risk reduction strategy in meat production, with the aim of distinguishing between forms of risk reduction in terms of their acceptability. The paper reports the result of a focus-group study. Six focus groups with Danish citizens (N: 5–9) were conducted during May 2006. The design of the groups took...... a bottom-up approach and included elements of meat quality, meat safety and risk reduction strategies. The study shows the dilemma risk reduction presents to members of the public. On the one hand, people want safe meat; on the other, the study showed that with the exception of hygiene practices, people...... generally have an aversion to risk reduction strategies. Some variation was found, however, in the rejection of the strategies. Thus, more acceptable strategies are characterised by a low degree of technological interference, and by being close to the consumer’s experience in everyday life and/or familiar...

  8. Lactobacilli and ionising radiation: an example of the application to meat and meat products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzapfel, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    Ionising radiation provides a practical pasteurisation method for the terminal treatment of refrigerated vacuum-packaged meat products with the aim of shelf life extension. However, the relatively high radiation resistance (γ-D 10 = 0.70-1.2 kGy) of typical meat Lactobacilli, especially Lb. sake, selectively favours their total domination after treatments with 5 kGy. Typical meat strains show higher resistance (in term of γ-D 10 values the decimal reduction value due to irradiation) in the log (exponential) than in the stationary phase. This phenomenon was observed both in semi-synthetic broth and in meat, and may be explained in terms of a DNA repair mechanism operative during the exponential phase. Packaging under different gas atmospheres resulted in increased resistance to radiation in presence of N 2 , whilst the highest death rate was observed in presence of CO 2 . (orig.) [de

  9. Institutional Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlvik, Carina; Boxenbaum, Eva

    Drawing on dual-process theory and mindfulness research this article sets out to shed light on the conditions that need to be met to create “a reflexive shift in consciousness” argued to be a key foundational mechanism for agency in institutional theory. Although past research has identified diff...... in consciousness to emerge and argue for how the varying levels of mindfulness in the form of internal and external awareness may manifest as distinct responses to the institutional environment the actor is embedded in....

  10. Longitudinal Changes in BMI in Older Adults Are Associated with Meat Consumption Differentially, by Type of Meat Consumed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilsing, A.M.J.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Hughes, L.A.E.; Ambergen, T.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Goldbohm, A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Schouten, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    Hypotheses regarding the role of meat consumption in body weight modulation are contradictory. Prospective studies on an association between meat consumption and BMI change are limited. We assessed the association between meat consumption and change in BMI over time in 3902 men and women aged 55-69

  11. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  12. The nutritional value of some processed meat products in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babji, A S; Mohdyusof, S

    1995-03-01

    Per capita consumption of meat and meat products in Malaysia more than doubled from 15.70 kg in 1970 to 35.71 kg in 1990. This increase in meat consumption is mainly due to the rapid development and wide acceptance of value added meat and poultry products amongst Malaysian consumers. Meat products such as burgers, sausages, hotdogs and nuggets are widely accepted and consumed by all ethnic groups at home as well as in the fast food restaurants. The significant expansion of the fast food industry and the increase consumption of processed meat products makes it necessary for a re-evaluation of the nutritional quality of popular meat products currently available in the market. This review paper described the quality of some processed meat products, their proximate composition, meat quality, use of non meat proteins and binders, and the use of additives in the formulation of burgers, frankfurters, nuggets, bologna, chicken and beef balls. Preliminary results on the protein efficiency ratio of local meat products seemed favourable but this study is limited to only one laboratory. In vivo and in vitro protein digestibility studies indicated high values on the digestibility of locally manufactured meat products. Proximate analysis of the raw materials used in the formulation of such products showed many with high fat and low protein contents being utilized. The meat content was lower than the minimum amount stated by the food regulation. This paper concludes that due to lack of information and studies on the nutritional composition of processed meat products, concerned bodies should take positive steps to generate reliable data to elucidate the actual nutritional composition of such products. It is also observed that many by-products from the animal industry from non-conventional sources are increasingly being utilized in the manufacture of processed meat product.

  13. Relationship between red meat allergy and sensitization to gelatin and galactose-α-1,3-galactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Raymond James; James, Hayley; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E; Commins, Scott

    2012-05-01

    We have observed patients clinically allergic to red meat and meat-derived gelatin. We describe a prospective evaluation of the clinical significance of gelatin sensitization, the predictive value of a positive test result, and an examination of the relationship between allergic reactions to red meat and sensitization to gelatin and galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal). Adult patients evaluated in the 1997-2011 period for suspected allergy/anaphylaxis to medication, insect venom, or food were skin tested with gelatin colloid. In vitro (ImmunoCAP) testing was undertaken where possible. Positive gelatin test results were observed in 40 of 1335 subjects: 30 of 40 patients with red meat allergy (12 also clinically allergic to gelatin), 2 of 2 patients with gelatin colloid-induced anaphylaxis, 4 of 172 patients with idiopathic anaphylaxis (all responded to intravenous gelatin challenge of 0.02-0.4 g), and 4 of 368 patients with drug allergy. Test results were negative in all patients with venom allergy (n = 241), nonmeat food allergy (n = 222), and miscellaneous disorders (n = 290). ImmunoCAP results were positive to α-Gal in 20 of 24 patients with meat allergy and in 20 of 22 patients with positive gelatin skin test results. The results of gelatin skin testing and anti-α-Gal IgE measurements were strongly correlated (r = 0.46, P meat were sensitized to gelatin, and a subset was clinically allergic to both. The detection of α-Gal in gelatin and correlation between the results of α-Gal and gelatin testing raise the possibility that α-Gal IgE might be the target of reactivity to gelatin. The pathogenic relationship between tick bites and sensitization to red meat, α-Gal, and gelatin (with or without clinical reactivity) remains uncertain. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Meat science and foodomics: application of omics approaches to meat quality management

    OpenAIRE

    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Terlouw, Claudia; Boudjellal, Abdelghani; Picard, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of new biotechnologies, including OMICs, has had a positive impact on all disciplines in the biological and life sciences. During the past two decades, advancements in the field of omic technologies have further contributed to the expansion of our understanding of the molecular bases underpinning the conversion of muscle to meat. The process of muscle to meat conversion corresponds to the onset of so - called apoptosis, which result s from progressive ...

  15. Consumer Perception on Halal meat logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieman, H.; Ghazali, M.C.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the preferred minimum level of segregation for halal meat in supermarket, transport, storage and terminals; the responsibility of halal logistics; and the willingness to pay for halal logistics in a Muslim and non-Muslim country.

  16. Microbial challenges of poultry meat production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolder, N.M.

    2007-01-01

    Food safety and shelf-life are both important microbial concerns in relation to broiler meat production. Focus is mainly placed on the absence or control of potentially pathogenic microbes such as Salmonella and Campylobacter but, from commercial point of view, other spoilage bacteria also play a

  17. Hypoxanthine enhances the cured meat taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yukinobu; Yoshida, Yuka; Hattori, Akihito

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the enhancement of cured meat taste during maturation by sensory analysis. We focused on the heat‐stable sarcoplasmic fraction (HSSF) to identify the factors related to cured meat taste. Because the dry matter of HSSF contained more than 30% nitrogen, nitrogen compounds such as free amino acids, small peptides and adenosine triphosphate‐related compounds seemed to be the important components of HSSF. The samples cured with HSSF for 2 h exhibited the same taste profile as ones cured without HSSF for 168 h. Therefore, the changes in the amount and fractions of nitrogen compounds were examined in HSSF during incubation from 0 to 168 h. The concentration of hypoxanthine (Hx) gradually increased, while inosine‐5′‐monophosphate decreased during the incubation. The samples cured with pickles containing various concentrations of Hx were subjected to sensory analysis. The addition of Hx, in a dose‐dependent fashion, enhanced cured meat taste by maturation for 2 h. It was concluded that Hx is essential for the enhancement of cured meat taste. PMID:27169902

  18. Physicochemical and microbiological meat quality, growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beatriz

    2015-05-15

    May 15, 2015 ... weight gain, hot carcass yield, cold carcass yield, weight loss by cooling and rib eye area (94.45%, ... saturated fat and calories than other red meats ... carcass with age (François, 2009). Fat has the greatest variability among animal tissue, both quantitatively and with regard to its distribution (Pelegrini et al., ...

  19. CARCASS AND MEAT QUALITY CONSUMER AND RESEARCH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . /o of lean and bone in c:ucass. 'Lean meat': bone. 536,7 r 1,96. 472,4 t9,33. 'll,l x0,92. 70,7 tl,20 .... ness may reduce moisture loss during cooking but I find it hard to believe that in beef ..... fluences the intensity of colour. Young animals have a.

  20. What is in vitro meat? Food phreaking

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, NS

    2015-01-01

    This book gathers the ideas and opinions of a number of scientists and other experts around the topic of in vitro meat. The authors in this publication range from being in vitro meat’s developers and most vocal supporters, to some adamant opposers. Collectively, these essays present a diversity of perspectives, and illustrate the challenge of pinning down an emerging technology.

  1. Relationships between technological and nutritional meat quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current work aims at determining relationships between technological and nutritional meat quality parameters in Holli, Fulani, Sahoue, North and South indigenous chicken ecotypes of Benin. Color parameters (L*, a*, b*, hue and chroma), pH, texture, dry matter content, protein content, fat content, and ash content were ...

  2. Haematological, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LW) of 10, 12, 14, and 16kg to determine the effect of live weight at slaughtering on the carcass characteristics and meat quality. Prior to slaughtering, blood samples were collected through jugular vein of each animal to determine the ...

  3. Consumers' perceptions of African wildlife meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radder, Laetitia; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2009-01-01

    attributes included low levels of fat, dryness, novelty, and special preparation requirements. Significant values included security, self-esteem, hedonism, tradition, and stimulation. Promoters of the product are advised to capitalize on consumers' interest in health and the health benefits of the meat...

  4. A MEAT PRODUCTION STRATEGYFOR SOUTHERN AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    department of agricultural technical services, statutory. b o d i e s , c o ... meat industry. Most animal products are rnailrly sources of protein so that globally, about 25 per cent of man's protein requirements and only l0 per cent of his energy. (caloric) needs are ..... It seems clear that consumers want lean, but firrn, tencler and ...

  5. A model for composing meat replacers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierlo, Van Klara; Rohmer, Sonja; Lemmen-Gerdessen, van Joke

    2017-01-01

    Current food consumption patterns have a substantial impact on our environment and are thus considered unsustainable. In the context of global warming and a rising world population, shifting from meat towards more plant-based products holds potential to reduce the environmental impact of our food

  6. Online Multi-Spectral Meat Inspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannik Boll; Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo

    2013-01-01

    We perform an explorative study on multi-spectral image data from a prototype device developed for fast online quality inspection of meat products. Because the camera setup is built for speed, we sacrifice exact pixel correspondences between the different bands of the multi-spectral images. Our...

  7. Meat consumption: trends and quality matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henchion, Maeve; McCarthy, Mary; Resconi, Virginia C; Troy, Declan

    2014-11-01

    This paper uses quality theory to identify opportunities for the meat sector that are consistent with trends in meat consumption. Meat consumption has increased and is likely to continue into the future. Growth is largely driven by white meats, with poultry in particular of increasing importance globally. The influence of factors such as income and price is likely decline over time so that other factors, such as quality, will become more important. Quality is complex and consumers' quality expectations may not align with experienced quality due to misconception of certain intrinsic cues. Establishing relevant and effective cues, based on extrinsic and credence attributes, could offer advantage on the marketplace. The use of extrinsic cues can help convey quality characteristics for eating quality, but also for more abstract attributes that reflect individual consumer concerns e.g. health/nutrition, and collective concerns, e.g. sustainability. However, attributes are not of equal value to all consumers. Thus consumer segmentation and production differentiation is needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of probiotics on broiler meat quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... The study was carried out on “Hubbard Isa Starbo” broilers to evaluate the raw meat quality of both probiotics and conventional ... performance have indicated that probiotic supplemen- tation can have positive ..... Influence of dietary supplementation with Streptococcus faecium M-74 on broiler body weight ...

  9. Radiation decontamination of meat lyophilized products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owczarczyk, H.B.; Migdal, W.

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for powder soups and sauces compose with lyophilized products. Technology of lyophilization is not always accompanied by thermal treatment of raw materials. That is the reason the products lyophilization process does not ensure as good microbiological quality as is required. Degree of microbiological decontamination and organoleptic properties of lyophilized meat were investigated after radiation treatment. (author)

  10. Pickle from blood clam (Anadara granosa) meat

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, S.S.; Basu, S.

    1985-01-01

    A pickle was prepared from blood clam (Anadara granosa) meat. The pickle was subjected to biochemical, bacteriological and organoleptic tests at different stages of storage. The pickle has a shelf-life of more than 5½ months at ambient temperature.

  11. Biochemical and microstructural characteristics of meat samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to compare the efficiency of different plant proteases for changing biochemical and microstructural characteristics in muscle foods. The meat samples from chicken, giant catfish, pork and beef were treated with four types of proteolytic enzymes: Calotropis procera latex proteases, papaya latex ...

  12. Meat, Fish, and Poultry Processing Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchfield, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of industrial wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes studies on: (1) meat industry wastes; (2) fish-processing waste treatment; and (3) poultry-processing waste treatment. A list of 76 references is also presented. (HM)

  13. Natural antioxidants in meat and poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karre, Liz; Lopez, Keyla; Getty, Kelly J K

    2013-06-01

    In response to recent claims that synthetic antioxidants have the potential to cause toxicological effects and consumers' increased interest in purchasing natural products, the meat and poultry industry has been seeking sources of natural antioxidants. Due to their high phenolic compound content, fruits and other plant materials provide a good alternative to conventional antioxidants. Plum, grape seed extract, cranberry, pomegranate, bearberry, pine bark extract, rosemary, oregano, and other spices functions as antioxidants in meat and poultry products. Pomegranate, pine bark extract, cinnamon, and cloves have exhibited stronger antioxidant properties than some synthetic options. Plum products, grape seed extract, pine bark extract, rosemary, and some spices all have been shown to affect the color of finished meat or poultry products; however, in some products such as pork sausage or uncured meats, an increase in red color may be desired. When selecting a natural antioxidant, sensory and quality impact on the product should be considered to achieve desired traits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary patterns as identified by factor analysis and colorectal cancer among middle-aged Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Andrew; Rastogi, Tanuja; Wirfält, Elisabet; Mitrou, Panagiota N; Reedy, Jill; Subar, Amy F; Kipnis, Victor; Mouw, Traci; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Leitzmann, Michael; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2008-07-01

    Although diet has long been suspected as an etiological factor for colorectal cancer, studies of single foods and nutrients have provided inconsistent results. We used factor analysis methods to study associations between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer in middle-aged Americans. Diet was assessed among 293,615 men and 198,767 women in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. Principal components factor analysis identified 3 primary dietary patterns: a fruit and vegetables, a diet foods, and a red meat and potatoes pattern. State cancer registries identified 2151 incident cases of colorectal cancer in men and 959 in women between 1995 and 2000. Men with high scores on the fruit and vegetable pattern were at decreased risk [relative risk (RR) for quintile (Q) 5 versus Q1: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.93; P for trend = 0.004]. Both men and women had a similar risk reduction with high scores on the diet food factor: men (RR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.72, 0.94; P for trend = 0.001) and women (RR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.71, 1.07; P for trend = 0.06). High scores on the red meat factor were associated with increased risk: men (RR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.35; P for trend = 0.14) and women (RR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.20, 1.83; P for trend = 0.0002). These results suggest that dietary patterns characterized by a low frequency of meat and potato consumption and frequent consumption of fruit and vegetables and fat-reduced foods are consistent with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer.

  15. Multistate outbreak of Listeriosis linked to turkey deli meat and subsequent changes in US regulatory policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Sami L; Newbern, E Claire; Griffin, Patricia M; Graves, Lewis M; Hoekstra, R Michael; Baker, Nicole L; Hunter, Susan B; Holt, Kristin G; Ramsey, Fred; Head, Marcus; Levine, Priscilla; Johnson, Geraldine; Schoonmaker-Bopp, Dianna; Reddy, Vasudha; Kornstein, Laura; Gerwel, Michal; Nsubuga, Johnson; Edwards, Leslie; Stonecipher, Shelley; Hurd, Sharon; Austin, Deri; Jefferson, Michelle A; Young, Suzanne D; Hise, Kelley; Chernak, Esther D; Sobel, Jeremy

    2006-01-01

    Listeriosis, a life-threatening foodborne illness caused by Listeria monocytogenes, affects approximately 2500 Americans annually. Between July and October 2002, an uncommon strain of L. monocytogenes caused an outbreak of listeriosis in 9 states. We conducted case finding, a case-control study, and traceback and microbiological investigations to determine the extent and source of the outbreak and to propose control measures. Case patients were infected with the outbreak strain of L. monocytogenes between July and November 2002 in 9 states, and control patients were infected with different L. monocytogenes strains. Outcome measures included food exposure associated with outbreak strain infection and source of the implicated food. Fifty-four case patients were identified; 8 died, and 3 pregnant women had fetal deaths. The case-control study included 38 case patients and 53 control patients. Case patients consumed turkey deli meat much more frequently than did control patients (P = .008, by Wilcoxon rank-sum test). In the 4 weeks before illness, 55% of case patients had eaten deli turkey breast more than 1-2 times, compared with 28% of control patients (odds ratio, 4.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-17.1). Investigation of turkey deli meat eaten by case patients led to several turkey processing plants. The outbreak strain was found in the environment of 1 processing plant and in turkey products from a second. Together, the processing plants recalled > 30 million pounds of products. Following the outbreak, the US Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service issued new regulations outlining a L. monocytogenes control and testing program for ready-to-eat meat and poultry processing plants. Turkey deli meat was the source of a large multistate outbreak of listeriosis. Investigation of this outbreak helped guide policy changes designed to prevent future L. monocytogenes contamination of ready-to-eat meat and poultry products.

  16. Antimicrobial Edible Films and Coatings for Meat and Meat Products Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ortega, Irais; García-Almendárez, Blanca E.; Santos-López, Eva María; Amaro-Reyes, Aldo; Barboza-Corona, J. Eleazar; Regalado, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Animal origin foods are widely distributed and consumed around the world due to their high nutrients availability but may also provide a suitable environment for growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. Nowadays consumers demand high quality food with an extended shelf life without chemical additives. Edible films and coatings (EFC) added with natural antimicrobials are a promising preservation technology for raw and processed meats because they provide good barrier against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. This review gathers updated research reported over the last ten years related to antimicrobial EFC applied to meat and meat products. In addition, the films gas barrier properties contribute to extended shelf life because physicochemical changes, such as color, texture, and moisture, may be significantly minimized. The effectiveness showed by different types of antimicrobial EFC depends on meat source, polymer used, film barrier properties, target microorganism, antimicrobial substance properties, and storage conditions. The perspective of this technology includes tailoring of coating procedures to meet industry requirements and shelf life increase of meat and meat products to ensure quality and safety without changes in sensory characteristics. PMID:25050387

  17. Antimicrobial Edible Films and Coatings for Meat and Meat Products Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irais Sánchez-Ortega

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal origin foods are widely distributed and consumed around the world due to their high nutrients availability but may also provide a suitable environment for growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. Nowadays consumers demand high quality food with an extended shelf life without chemical additives. Edible films and coatings (EFC added with natural antimicrobials are a promising preservation technology for raw and processed meats because they provide good barrier against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. This review gathers updated research reported over the last ten years related to antimicrobial EFC applied to meat and meat products. In addition, the films gas barrier properties contribute to extended shelf life because physicochemical changes, such as color, texture, and moisture, may be significantly minimized. The effectiveness showed by different types of antimicrobial EFC depends on meat source, polymer used, film barrier properties, target microorganism, antimicrobial substance properties, and storage conditions. The perspective of this technology includes tailoring of coating procedures to meet industry requirements and shelf life increase of meat and meat products to ensure quality and safety without changes in sensory characteristics.

  18. Comparison of different methods for total lipid quantification in meat and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Palacios, T; Ruiz, J; Martín, D; Muriel, E; Antequera, T

    2008-10-15

    This study was aimed to evaluate the efficiency of six extraction methods for the quantification of total lipid content in meat and meat products: standard Soxhlet method (with and without previous acid hydrolysis), continuous Soxhlet method (with and without previous acid hydrolysis), and those methods based in the use of a mixture of chloroform and methanol, and described by Folch, Less, and Sloane (1957) and Bligh and Dyer (1959). Lipid content was determined in nine different meat products with different fat contents and physico-chemical features: cooked turkey breast, fresh pork loin, cooked ham, dry-cured ham, mortadella, beef burger, fresh sausage, dry-cured sausage and salami. The most effective methods for determining fat content in the studied meat products were the method described by Folch et al. (1957) and the Soxhlet with previous acid hydrolysis method. The Soxhlet method without previous acid hydrolysis adequately extracted lipids only in those meat products with very high fat content. The use of the method described by Bligh and Dyer (1959) gave rise to the lowest lipid contents in all the studied meat products. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Update on microbiological quality assurance meat and meat products in Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachidi, H; Latrache, H

    2018-03-01

    Food safety has become an absolute necessity in all countries. As a result, Morocco has taken several measures and actions to develop food safety and food-borne disease control. This study aimed to highlight the level of improvement in the quality assurance of meat and meat products in Morocco. It is based on a non-exhaustive review of the regulatory texts governing food safety in the country, as well as a statistical study on establishments of meat and meat products adopting a self-checking system and approved by the National Office of Sanitary Safety of Food. Morocco has introduced several laws and regulations requiring sanitary control of food products. Also, the number of establishments of meat and meat products adopting a system of self-control and approved by the National Office of Sanitary Safety of Food has improved significantly. It has increased from 58 in 2007 to 273 in 2016. The adoption of self-monitoring systems allows better access to international markets, improved quality of food products and a considerable reduction in microbial contamination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Technology for meat-grinding systems to improve removal of hard particles from ground meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Sebranek, J G

    1997-03-01

    With increased consumption of ground meat, especially ground beef, quality issues for these products have become more important to industry and consumers alike. Ground meats are usually obtained from relatively low-value cuts and trimmings, and may on occasion contain undesirable hard particles. Hard particles in coarse-ground meat products may include bone chips or fragments, cartilage and dense connective tissue; all of which are considered undesirable defects and which can be reduced by utilizing hard-particle removal systems during grinding operations. This review discusses the principles of hard-particle separation from ground meat, the factors which influence performance of particle separation and some commercially available particle removal systems. Product and processing parameters such as initial bone and connective tissue content, fat content, temperature, pre-grinding size and grinder knife design are considered important for removing hard particles effectively. Pressure gradient on the grinder knife/plate interface was found to play a significant role in particle separation from soft (fat and lean) tissue. Various commercial systems, which are classified as central removal and periphery removal systems, are also discussed. Finally, the authors suggest some processing considerations for meat grinding to help achieve the best quality ground meat for consumers' satisfaction.

  1. In vitro meat production system: why and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shruti; Thind, Sukhcharanjit Singh; Kaur, Amarjeet

    2015-12-01

    Due to the nutritional importance and the sustained popularity of meat as a foodstuff, the livestock production sector has been expanding incessantly. This exponential growth of livestock meat sector poses a gigantic challenge to the sustainability of food production system. A new technological breakthrough is being contemplated to develop a substitute for livestock meat. The idea is to grow meat in a culture in the lab and manipulate its composition selectively. This paper aims to discuss the concept of In Vitro Meat production system, articulate the underlying technology and analyse the context of its implications, as proposed by several scientists and stakeholders. The challenges facing this emerging technology have also been discussed.

  2. Bacterial Contaminants of Poultry Meat: Sources, Species, and Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouger, Amélie; Zagorec, Monique

    2017-01-01

    With the constant increase in poultry meat consumption worldwide and the large variety of poultry meat products and consumer demand, ensuring the microbial safety of poultry carcasses and cuts is essential. In the present review, we address the bacterial contamination of poultry meat from the slaughtering steps to the use-by-date of the products. The different contamination sources are identified. The contaminants occurring in poultry meat cuts and their behavior toward sanitizing treatments or various storage conditions are discussed. A list of the main pathogenic bacteria of concern for the consumer and those responsible for spoilage and waste of poultry meat is established. PMID:28841156

  3. Effect of irradiation on erythromycin residues in poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurowski, P.

    1993-01-01

    Ionising radiation in doses used for radurisation (Recommendations of international organizations admit for poultry meat doses up to 5 kGy. Practically doses up to 3 kGy are applied does not influence erythromycin concentration in poultry meat. Doses on a level 10 kGy reduce its concentration in slurry more effectively, but results of earlier studies on penicillin and streptomycin suggest, that reduction of erythromycin level in meat should be smaller than in slurry. This allows an assumption that poultry meat irradiation with radurisation doses (up to 5 kGy), does not cause danger of overlooking of erythromycin residues in meat, with traditional, microbiological methods of detection. (orig.)

  4. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  5. Meat standards and grading: a world view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkinghorne, R J; Thompson, J M

    2010-09-01

    This paper addresses the principles relating to meat standards and grading of beef and advances the concept that potential exists to achieve significant desirable change from adopting more consumer focused systems within accurate value-based payment frameworks. The paper uses the definitions that classification is a set of descriptive terms describing features of the carcass that are useful to those involved in the trading of carcasses, whereas grading is the placing of different values on carcasses for pricing purposes, depending on the market and requirements of traders. A third definition is consumer grading, which refers to grading systems that seek to define or predict consumer satisfaction with a cooked meal. The development of carcass classification and grading schemes evolved from a necessity to describe the carcass using standard terms to facilitate trading. The growth in world trade of meat and meat products and the transition from trading carcasses to marketing individual meal portions raises the need for an international language that can service contemporary needs. This has in part been addressed by the United Nations promoting standard languages on carcasses, cuts, trim levels and cutting lines. Currently no standards exist for describing consumer satisfaction. Recent Meat Standards Australia (MSA) research in Australia, Korea, Ireland, USA, Japan and South Africa showed that consumers across diverse cultures and nationalities have a remarkably similar view of beef eating quality, which could be used to underpin an international language on palatability. Consumer research on the willingness to pay for eating quality shows that consumers will pay higher prices for better eating quality grades and generally this was not affected by demographic or meat preference traits of the consumer. In Australia the MSA eating quality grading system has generated substantial premiums to retailers, wholesalers and to the producer. Future grading schemes which measure

  6. Neutralising the meat paradox: Cognitive dissonance, gender, and eating animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, Elisha; Semmler, Carolyn; Bray, Heather; Ankeny, Rachel A; Chur-Hansen, Anna

    2018-04-01

    Meat eating is a common behaviour, despite many people claiming to like, love, and care about animals. The apparent disconnection between not wanting animals to suffer, yet killing them for food, has been termed the 'meat paradox.' In this experimental study (N = 460), participants completed pre-affect, post-affect, meat attachment, and attitude towards animals questionnaires, under two conditions: exposure to the life of an Australian meat lamb, and information about the nutritional benefits of meat. A factorial MANOVA revealed that negative affect was significantly greater when participants were exposed to the meat-animal connection; however, more entrenched attitudes towards animals and attachment to meat remained unaffected. Significant gender effects were found across all variables: most notably, meat attachment differed according to gender, decreasing in women and increasing in men when exposed to the meat-animal condition. Open-ended responses were subjected to content analysis to understand participants' future meat-consumption preferences and accompanying reasoning strategies. Findings from the present study contribute to understanding how cognitive dissonance and inconsistencies are rationalised by meat consumers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biosensors for Detecting Pathogenic Bacteria in the Meat Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alocilja, Evangelyn C.

    Global meat production in 2006 increased 1.6% compared to 2005 (Food and Agriculture Organization [FAO], 2006). According to a September 2007 report by the U.S.Meat Export Federation, the U.S. beef and beef variety meat exports worldwide increased 27% in value to 1.42 billion with a volume of 425,394 metric tons (mt) while U.S. pork and pork variety meat exports were up 5% in value to 1.7 billion with a volume of 704,138 mt. However, with increasing production also comes increasing product recalls, averaging 4,536 mt of meat and poultry every year since 1997 (Teratanavat &Hooker, 2004). For example, in September 2007, a major meat processing company recalled up to 9,843 mt (21.7 million pounds) of ground beef due E. coli O157:H7 contamination, one of the largest meat recalls in U.S. history.

  8. The Effect of Thawing Condition for Frozen Fish Meats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Shuji; Osako, Kazufumi; Watanabe, Manabu; Suzuki, Toru

    The influence of thawing speed on denaturation of muscle protein and quality of several kinds frozen fish meat was studied by measuring Ca-ATPase activity, drip loss, and microscopic observation. Frozen bigeye tuna, chub mackerel, alaska pollack and yellow tail meat thawed at 10°C by air (slow thawing) and water (rapid thawing). Ca-ATPase activity of slow thawed fishes meat decreased than it of rapid thawed fishes meat. On the other hand drip loss of slow thawed fishes meat increased than it of rapid thawed fishes meat. Decreasing of Ca-ATPase activity showed a good linear relation to increasing of drip loss. Further, from microscopic observation, it was confirmed that muscle cells of slow thawed fishes meat were disrupted than it of rapid thawed samples. Therefore,it was suggested that rapid warming on thawing process is better to inhibit protein denaturation and drip loss.

  9. An Updated Review of Meat Authenticity Methods and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachos, Antonios; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Tserkezou, Persefoni

    2016-05-18

    Adulteration of foods is a serious economic problem concerning most foodstuffs, and in particular meat products. Since high-priced meat demand premium prices, producers of meat-based products might be tempted to blend these products with lower cost meat. Moreover, the labeled meat contents may not be met. Both types of adulteration are difficult to detect and lead to deterioration of product quality. For the consumer, it is of outmost importance to guarantee both authenticity and compliance with product labeling. The purpose of this article is to review the state of the art of meat authenticity with analytical and immunochemical methods with the focus on the issue of geographic origin and sensory characteristics. This review is also intended to provide an overview of the various currently applied statistical analyses (multivariate analysis (MAV), such as principal component analysis, discriminant analysis, cluster analysis, etc.) and their effectiveness for meat authenticity.

  10. Haitian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanese, Anthony V.

    1998-01-01

    Uses 1990 U.S. Census data to show the changing demographic profile of Haitian Americans. Haitian Americans are likely to live along the Atlantic seaboard and to have relatively low, although not the lowest, incomes. However, the demographic mosaic of Haitian Americans is diverse, showing the effects of Haitian national and ethnic history. (SLD)

  11. Interventional spine and pain procedures in patients on antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications: guidelines from the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, the European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy, the American Academy of Pain Medicine, the International Neuromodulation Society, the North American Neuromodulation Society, and the World Institute of Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narouze, Samer; Benzon, Honorio T; Provenzano, David A; Buvanendran, Asokumar; De Andres, José; Deer, Timothy R; Rauck, Richard; Huntoon, Marc A

    2015-01-01

    Interventional spine and pain procedures cover a far broader spectrum than those for regional anesthesia, reflecting diverse targets and goals. When surveyed, interventional pain and spine physicians attending the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ASRA) 11th Annual Pain Medicine Meeting exhorted that existing ASRA guidelines for regional anesthesia in patients on antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications were insufficient for their needs. Those surveyed agreed that procedure-specific and patient-specific factors necessitated separate guidelines for pain and spine procedures. In response, ASRA formed a guidelines committee. After preliminary review of published complication reports and studies, committee members stratified interventional spine and pain procedures according to potential bleeding risk as low-, intermediate-, and high-risk procedures. The ASRA guidelines were deemed largely appropriate for the low- and intermediate-risk categories, but it was agreed that the high-risk targets required an intensive look at issues specific to patient safety and optimal outcomes in pain medicine. The latest evidence was sought through extensive database search strategies and the recommendations were evidence-based when available and pharmacology-driven otherwise. We could not provide strength and grading of these recommendations as there are not enough well-designed large studies concerning interventional pain procedures to support such grading. Although the guidelines could not always be based on randomized studies or on large numbers of patients from pooled databases, it is hoped that they will provide sound recommendations and the evidentiary basis for such recommendations.

  12. Institutional obligation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowan, S.S.; Berwager, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    The institutional obligation is to act to meet primary responsibilities in the face of risks. There are risks involved in taking action, both of a quantifiable and unquantifiable nature. This paper explores weighing the risks, choosing approaches that balance primary obligations with broader ones, and presenting ethical philosophies upon which policies and strategies are based. Federal government organizations and utilities--and Bonneville Power Administration qualifies as both--have a variety of responsibilities to the public they serve. The common responsibility is that of service; for Bonneville the primary responsibility is to serve the energy related needs. It is this primary institutional obligation, as it relates to other responsibilities--and the resulting strategy for handling indoor air quality in Bonneville's new homes program--that this paper examines

  13. Flavor-enhancing properties of mushrooms in meat-based dishes in which sodium has been reduced and meat has been partially substituted with mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrdal Miller, A; Mills, K; Wong, T; Drescher, G; Lee, S M; Sirimuangmoon, C; Schaefer, S; Langstaff, S; Minor, B; Guinard, J-X

    2014-09-01

    The effects of beef substitution with crimini or white mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) on the flavor profiles of carne asada and beef taco blends were measured with a descriptive analysis panel. Sensory mitigation of sodium reduction through the incorporation of mushrooms was also investigated in the taco blends. The substitution of beef with mushrooms in the carne asada did not alter the overall flavor strength of the dish, but the incorporation of 50% or 80% ground mushroom in the beef taco blend did enhance its overall flavor as well as mushroom, veggie, onion, garlic and earthy flavors, and umami and sweet tastes. Overall flavor intensity of the 25% reduced-salt version of the 80% mushroom taco blend matched that of the full-salt versions of the 100% and 50% beef formulations, thus indicating that the substitution of 80% of the meat with mushrooms did mitigate the 25% sodium reduction in terms of the overall flavor impact of the dish, even if it did not quite compensate for the reduction in salty taste. This proof-of-concept study for the Healthy Flavors Research Initiative indicates that because of their flavor-enhancing umami principles, mushrooms can be used as a healthy substitute for meat and a mitigating agent for sodium reduction in meat-based dishes without loss of overall flavor. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolated from meat and meat products in Algiers (Algeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezali, Lynda; Hamdi, Taha Mossadak

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted in order to estimate the proportion of raw meat and processed meat products contaminated by Salmonella in the region of Algiers, Algeria, to identify serovars and to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of isolates. Out of the total 314 samples (144 of raw red meat and meat products, 128 of raw poultry meat and poultry products, and 42 of processed meat products) collected from various retail outlets, 61 (19.43%) were tested positive for Salmonella. The most significant occurrences were recorded for the categories of red meat (23.61%, n=34) and poultry (17.97%, n=23). Among the 64 isolates recovered, 21 different serovars were identified and two strains were nontypable. The most prevalent serovars were Salmonella Anatum (14.6%, n=9), Salmonella Altona (12.50%, n=8), Salmonella Corvallis (7.81%, n=5), Salmonella Enteritidis (7.81%, n=5), and Salmonella Typhimurium (7.81%, n=5). Sixty-two Salmonella isolates were tested for their susceptibility to 32 selected antimicrobial agents. Fifty-six (90.32%) isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, of which 20 (32.26%) showed multidrug resistance. Resistance to sulphonamides (87.10%, n=54) was the most common. Resistance rates were lower to nalidixic acid (16.13%, n=10), streptomycin (16.13%, n=10), and tetracycline (12.90%, n=8), while resistance to pefloxacin was estimated at 4.84% (n=3). Fourteen different resistance patterns were observed. The "ACSSuT" pentaresistance pattern was observed in three of the Salmonella Typhimurium strains. The obtained results show that these foodstuffs are a potential source of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella for human infections.

  15. Contribution of High-Pressure-Induced Protein Modifications to the Microenvironment and Functional Properties of Rabbit Meat Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Siwen; Yu, Xiaobo; Yang, Huijuan; Xu, Xinglian; Ma, Hanjun; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-06-01

    Rabbit meat batters were subjected to high pressure (HP, 100 to 300 MPa for 3, 9, or 15 min) to elucidate their effects on proteins structures, the microenvironment, and the resulting functionalities of the subsequently heated products. To determine these effects, we investigated structural and microenvironmental changes using Raman spectroscopy and also expressible moisture content, textural characteristics, and dynamic rheological properties of batters during heating (20 to 80 °C). Untreated samples served as controls. Analysis of specific Raman spectral regions demonstrated that applications of HP to rabbit meat batters tended to induce the transformation of the all-gauche S-S conformation to gauche-gauche-trans in the batter system. HP treatment higher than 100 MPa for 9 min promoted secondary structural rearrangements, and molecular polarity enhancement in the proteins prior to cooking. Also, increases of O-H stretching intensities of rabbit meat sausages were obtained by HP treatment, denoting the strengthening of water-holding capacity. These HP-induced alterations resulted in improved texture and, perhaps, improved juiciness of rabbit meat sausages (P < 0.05), however they had relatively poorer rheological properties than the controls. Nevertheless, HP treatment, especially 200 MPa for 9 or 15 min, was an effective technique for improving the functionalities of gel-type products through modification of meat proteins. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Interventional Spine and Pain Procedures in Patients on Antiplatelet and Anticoagulant Medications (Second Edition): Guidelines From the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, the European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy, the American Academy of Pain Medicine, the International Neuromodulation Society, the North American Neuromodulation Society, and the World Institute of Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narouze, Samer; Benzon, Honorio T; Provenzano, David; Buvanendran, Asokumar; De Andres, José; Deer, Timothy; Rauck, Richard; Huntoon, Marc A

    2018-04-01

    The American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ASRA) 2012 survey of meeting attendees showed that existing ASRA anticoagulation guidelines for regional anesthesia were insufficient for their needs. Those surveyed agreed that procedure-specific and patient-specific factors required separate guidelines for pain and spine procedures. In response, a guidelines committee was formed. After preliminary review of published complications reports and studies, the committee stratified interventional spine and pain procedures according to potential bleeding risk: low-, intermediate-, and high-risk procedures. The ASRA regional anesthesia anticoagulation guidelines were largely deemed appropriate for the low- and intermediate-risk categories, but the high-risk category required further investigation. The first guidelines specific to interventional spine and pain procedures were published in 2015. Recent reviews evaluating bleeding complications in patients undergoing specific interventional pain procedures, the development of new regional anesthesia and acute pain guidelines, and the development of new anticoagulants and antiplatelet medications necessitate complementary updated guidelines. The authors desired coordination with the authors of the recently updated regional and acute pain anticoagulation guidelines. The latest evidence was sought through extensive database search strategies and the recommendations were evidence based when available and pharmacology driven otherwise. We could not provide strength and grading of these recommendations because there are not enough well-designed large studies concerning interventional pain procedures to support such grading. Although the guidelines could not always be based on randomized studies or on large numbers of patients from pooled databases, it is hoped that they will provide sound recommendations and the evidentiary basis for such recommendations. This publication is intended as a living document to be updated

  17. Certification of a meat reference material based on a collaborative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Marcela Salazar Arzate

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Through a collaborative project, comparison studies were carried out to improve measurement capabilities of participating laboratories, supporting them to produce, characterize and distribute reference materials in the food sector. The project was planned in four annual stages (milk, water, meat and grains. The third stage aimed specifically to quantify and certify the nutritional content of the parameters (nitrogen, fat, sodium and potassium of a batch candidate as Certified Reference Material (CRM of canned beef. This study was conducted in collaboration between several National Metrology Institutes (NMIs and/or collaborating laboratories, which, once identified the possible causes of variability or bias in the measurements, as well as the opportunities of improvement, achieved the certification of the material beef. The CRM was distributed among the participants to cover the needs of the food industry of meat products and testing laboratories in their respective countries.

  18. Red and processed meat and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalić, Bruno; Toth, Jurica; Atalić, Vlasta; Radanović, Danijela; Miskulin, Maja; Lucin, Ana

    2013-06-01

    The British National Diet and Nutrition 2000/1 Survey data set records on 1,724 respondents (766 males and 958 females) were analyzed in order to assess the potential influences of red and processed meat intakes on cardiovascular risk factors. Linear regression of the associations of the red, processed, combination of red and processed, and total meat intakes with body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure and plasma total cholesterol as cardiovascular risk factors was conducted, paying due attention to the subject age and sex as potential confounders. Linear analyses showed the total meat intake and combined red and processed meat intake to cause a 1.03 kg/m2 rise in BMI each, while the red and processed meat intakes analyzed as separate categories caused 1.02 kg/m2 rise each. The greatest effects were observed on the systolic blood pressure with a 1.7 mm Hg rise for the total and the red and processed meat intakes, 1.5 mm Hg rise for the red meat intake, and 1.02 mm Hg rise for the processed meat intake. There were no associations between different meat intakes and plasma total cholesterol. Study results revealed the interquartile ranges of the mentioned meat type intakes to increase BMI by around 1 kg/m2 and systolic blood pressure by around 1.5 mm Hg, while they had no influence on plasma total cholesterol.

  19. Efforts to overcome vegetarian-induced dissonance among meat eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothgerber, Hank

    2014-08-01

    Meat eaters face dissonance whether it results from inconsistency ("I eat meat; I don't like to hurt animals"), aversive consequences ("I eat meat; eating meat harms animals"), or threats to self image ("I eat meat; compassionate people don't hurt animals"). The present work proposes that there are a number of strategies that omnivores adopt to reduce this dissonance including avoidance, dissociation, perceived behavioral change, denial of animal pain, denial of animal mind, pro-meat justifications, reducing perceived choice, and actual behavioral change. The presence of vegetarians was speculated to cause meat eating to be a scrutinized behavior, remind meat eaters of their discomfort, and undermine the effectiveness of these strategies. It was therefore hypothesized that exposure to a description of a vegetarian would lead omnivores to embrace dissonance-reducing strategies. Supporting this hypothesis, participants who read a vignette about a vegetarian denied animal mind more than participants who read about a gluten-free individual. It was also hypothesized that omnivores would be sensitive to individual differences between vegetarians and would demonstrate using dissonance-reducing strategies more when the situation failed to provide cognitions consonant with eating meat or to reduce dissonant cognitions. Four experiments supported this prediction and found that authentic vegetarians, vegetarians freely making the decision to abandon meat, consistent vegetarians, and anticipating moral reproach from vegetarians produced greater endorsement of dissonance-reducing strategies than their counterpart conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A novel approach for in vitro meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2015-07-01

    The present review describes the possibility of in vitro meat production with the help of advanced co-culturing methods. In vitro meat production method could be a possible alternative for the conventional meat production. Originally, the research on in vitro meat production was initiated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for space voyages. The required key qualities for accepting in vitro meat for consumption would be good efficiency ratio, increased protein synthesis rate in skeletal muscles, and mimicking the conventional meat qualities. In vitro culturing of meat is possible with the use of skeletal muscle tissue engineering, stem cell, cell co-culture, and tissue culture methods. Co-culture of myoblast and fibroblast is believed as one of the major techniques for in vitro meat production. In our lab, we have co-cultured myoblast and fibroblast. We believe that a billion pounds of in vitro meat could be produced from one animal for consumption. However, we require a great deal of research on in vitro meat production.

  1. Physicochemical properties of meat of ducks of mulberries in modern technologies of meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Galin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studying the chemical composition of mullards duck meat in comparison with the ducks of the Beijingg white breed and musk ducks. The chemical analysis results allow us to note the high moisture content for mullard duck meat. The low fat content for white and red mullard duck meat opens up wide opportunities for the development of an assortment of meat products with a functional orientation. The limited amino acids are determined. The total number of essential amino acids in the mullard duck meat is higher than in musk (by 1.02 g / 100 g protein and Beijingg (by 0.86 g / 100 g protein, which indicates a higher biological value. The limiting amino acid is methionine and cysteine. The article presents the results of the raw material aroma assessment using the "MAG 8" - "electronic nose" analyzer. The content of easily volatile compounds in the equilibrium gas phase for samples of muscle and fat tissue from ducks of different breeding was compared and evaluated. The most informative in the matrix are sensors with films of polydiethylene glycol succinate, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyethylene glycol PEG-2000, 18-crown-6, trioctylphosphine oxidase, which show maximum sensitivity to polar and nitrogen-containing compounds, aromatic hydrocarbons. This is explained by the fact that the easily volatile fraction of both meat and fat of the samples under study is represented by a variety of organic compounds of different concentrations. Such a variety of substances can be perceived by tasters as "a noticeable smell, difficult". In accordance with the results obtained, we concluded that the aroma of muscle and fat tissue of mulard ducks is more intense, more saturated than the Beijingg duck. The obtained data on the chemical composition indicate possible dietary properties of meat of ducks of mullards. The rich, pronounced aroma of muscle and fatty tissue causes high organoleptic parameters of the finished product, which is

  2. Emotions generated by meat and other food products in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousset, S; Deiss, V; Juillard, E; Schlich, P; Droit-Volet, S

    2005-10-01

    Eating behaviour depends partly on food preference, which is itself determined by different types of emotions. Among the emotions generated by food, disgust with red meat is common in women and can lead to reduced meat consumption. We tested the hypothesis that low meat intake is related to different negative emotions towards meat but does not affect the emotions expressed towards other food categories. Food intake of sixty women was followed throughout each day for 1 week and allowed us to assign women to two groups (low v. high meat-eating women). They were then invited to assess the intensity of twenty-six emotions described by words and induced by thirty food pictures. We determined the number of necessary dimensions to describe the space created by the twenty-six words. The results showed differences in emotions between the low and high meat-eating women. As expected, there were overall differences in the emotions generated by the thirty food pictures. Six clusters of emotions were necessary and sufficient to summarise the emotional space. These dimensions were described by 'disappointment', 'satisfaction', 'guilt', 'doubt', 'amused' and 'indifference'. As expected, the low meat-eating women felt more 'disappointment', 'indifference' and less 'satisfaction' towards meat than did the high meat-eating women. However, the low meat-eating women also stated other negative emotions such as 'doubt' towards some starchy foods. The only foods that they liked more than high meat-eating women were pears and French beans. In conclusion, low meat consumption was associated with specific negative emotions regarding meat and other foods.

  3. INFLUENCE OF AUTOLYTIC TRANSFORMATIONS ON ELECTROPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF GOAT MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Antipova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods represented an important element of a balanced, healthy diet. They play an important role in improving the structure of the diet of the population, are a means of prevention, correction and prevention of early transition premorbid conditions and various diseases. Meat and meat products based on it can be considered as a promising raw material for functional foods. Goat has certain dietary properties and can be used in manufacturing, but the production of high-grade products from goat meat, capable of long-term storage is not well developed. The chemical composition of the new raw meat - goat meat, on the example of the longissimus muscle of back is rich in protein, moisture, ash, and low-fat compared with other types of raw meat, which lets you create based on goat meat sector wide functional meat products. Therefore investigated the possibility of using goat meat in the production technology of functional foods. Showing the prospects for the development of goat in Russia. Investigated character of autolysis goat meat electro-physical methods and histological analysis. In the process of autolysis of goat meat are changing the electrical properties of raw meat, which are correlated with the morphological characteristics. Basic autolytic changes occurring in muscle tissue in the early stages of ripening, were reduced to a small extent the political process involving varying degrees of muscle structure in the early stages. In the later stages of maturation revealed changing widespread. Revealed that autolysis has characteristic periods and develops within 12 hours, further changes are irreversible. Shows the change in pH, carbohydrate fractions in the longissimus muscle of back goat. Results of the study of dynamics of change in pH, carbohydrate fractions in the longissimus muscle of back goat show compliance with the laws of classical autolysis noted in other sources, but differ in the time period. Defined stages of autolysis in

  4. Microorganisms, Qualitative Indicators for Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marioara Nicoleta Filimon

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that, for a few years now, our focus is more and more concentrated on safety and security of meat and vegetable products, this study’s aim is to evaluate the quality of certain well - known meat products (sausages, dry salami, and half-dried salami, purchased in a supermarket, from Timisoara. Microbiological tests were made especially on sanitary microbiological indicators (Escherichia, Enterobacter, Klebsiella. These tests emphasize hygiene in processing ang handling of products. In some cases, it higtlights how various heat treatments (pasteurization type apply to food products. It also establishes the microbial load on the microscopic field and the colony forming units, by a culture method in plates, at 37º C for 48 hours. Based on the obtained results, it has been established that, concerning the microbial load and the presence or absence of coliform bacteria, studied products fall into the quality permitted by applicable law.

  5. Biocontrol of Pathogens in the Meat Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Catherine M.; Rivas, Lucia; McDonnell, Mary J.; Duffy, Geraldine

    Bacterial foodborne zoonotic diseases are of major concern, impacting public health and causing economic losses for the agricultural-food sector and the wider society. In the United States (US) alone foodborne illness from pathogens is responsible for 76 million cases of illnesses each year (Mead et al., 1999). Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni and Enterohaemorraghic Escherichia coli (EHEC; predominately serotype O157:H7) and Listeria monocytogenes are the most predominant foodborne bacterial pathogens reported in the developed world (United States Department of Agriculture, 2001). The importance of meat and meat products as a vehicle of foodborne zoonotic pathogens cannot be underestimated (Center for Disease Control, 2006; Gillespie, O’Brien, Adak, Cheasty, & Willshaw, 2005; Mazick, Ethelberg, Nielsen, Molbak, & Lisby, 2006; Mead et al., 2006).

  6. Xanthine oxidase biosensor for monitoring meat spoilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas, D. C.; Gomes, C.; McLamore, E. S.

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we have designed an electrochemical biosensor for real-time detection of specific biomarkers of bacterial metabolism related to meat spoilage (hypoxanthine and xanthine). The selective biosensor was developed by assembling a `sandwich' of nanomaterials and enzymes on a platinum-iridium electrode (1.6 mm tip diameter). The materials deposited on the sensor tip include amorphous platinum nanoclusters (i.e. Pt black), reduced graphene oxide, nanoceria, and xanthine oxidase. Xanthine oxidase was encapsulated in laponite hydrogel and used for the biorecognition of hypoxanthine and xanthine (two molecules involved in the rotting of meat by spoilage microorganisms). The developed biosensor demonstrated good electrochemical performance toward xanthine with sensitivity of 2.14 +/- 1.48 μA/mM, response time of 5.2 +/- 1.5 sec, lower detection limit of 150 +/- 39 nM, and retained at least 88% of its activity after 7 days of continuous use.

  7. Institutional Investors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkmose, Hanne Søndergaard; Strand, Therese

    Research Question/Issue: Institutional investors are facing increased pressure and threats of legislation from the European Union to abandon passive ownership strategies. This study investigates the prerequisites for – and potential dissimilarities in the practice of, active ownership among......, as such a setup transfers power from the board to the owners. Presumably, this reduces the impact of free rider and collective action problems, and increases the shareholders’ inclination to make proposals, which is also what we find. Theoretical/Academic Implications: We contribute to literature by investigating...

  8. Institutional ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rebecca; Tienari, Janne

    2016-01-01

    The study of M&As is dominated by positivist and functionalist world views and the use of quantitative methods. Although extant research also uses qualitative and mixed methods, it can be criticized for viewing its subject matter through an abstract and external lens. The researcher is placed in ......, and point to some of the problems in M&A studies identified through this lens. Finally, we argue why institutional ethnography, in comparison with other methods of inquiry, is particularly fruitful in the study of mergers and acquisitions....

  9. Effects of Electrical Stimulation on Meat Quality of Lamb and Goat Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Cetin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of various voltage of electrical stimulation (ES on meat quality of lamb and goat was investigated by using a total of 36 animals at 3–5 years old. Constant 50 Hz frequency and 50, 100, and 250 V, 90 sec of ES were administered to 1/2 carcasses and were examined according their textural, physicochemical, and sensorial characteristics. ES decreased the pH values of lamb and goat meat, and accelerated the rigor mortis (<0.05. Additionally, ES enhanced the water activity, water-holding capacity, and drip loss of both animals. Shear force varied between lamb and goat meat, and tenderness was improved depending on voltage range used (<0.001. ES caused difference in instrumental colour (CIE ∗, ∗, ∗ values of lamb and goat meat compared with the control groups (<0.05 during aging period at 4°C. Sensorial characteristics were also improved with various levels of ES treatments. In conclusion, ES had positive effects on meat quality of lamb and goat, in contrast to undesirable consumer preferences.

  10. DNA adduct profiling of in vitro colonic meat digests to map red vs. white meat genotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemeryck, Lieselot Y; Rombouts, Caroline; De Paepe, Ellen; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2018-02-16

    The consumption of red meat has been linked to an increased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. One of the major hypotheses states that heme iron (present in red meat) stimulates the formation of genotoxic N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) and lipid peroxidation products (LPOs). By means of DNA adductomics, chemically induced DNA adduct formation can be mapped in relation to e.g. dietary exposures. In this study, this state-of-the-art methodology was used to investigate alkylation and (lipid per)oxidation induced DNA adduct formation in in vitro red vs. white meat digests. In doing so, 90 alkylation and (lipid per)oxidation induced DNA adduct types could be (tentatively) identified. Overall, 12 NOC- and/or LPO-related DNA adduct types, i.e. dimethyl-T (or ethyl-T), hydroxymethyl-T, tetramethyl-T, methylguanine (MeG), guanidinohydantoin, hydroxybutyl-C, hydroxymethylhydantoin, malondialdehyde-x3-C, O 6 -carboxymethylguanine, hydroxyethyl-T, carboxyethyl-T and 3,N 4 -etheno-C were singled out as potential heme-rich meat digestion markers. The retrieval of these DNA adduct markers is in support of the heme, NOC and LPO hypotheses, suggesting that DNA adduct formation may indeed contribute to red meat related CRC risk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Meat morals: relationship between meat consumption consumer attitudes towards human and animal welfare and moral behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S; Hudders, Liselot

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to explore the relation between morality and diet choice by investigating how animal and human welfare attitudes and donation behaviors can predict a meat eating versus flexitarian versus vegetarian diet. The results of a survey study (N=299) show that animal health concerns (measured by the Animal Attitude Scale) can predict diet choice. Vegetarians are most concerned, while full-time meat eaters are least concerned, and the contrast between flexitarians and vegetarians is greater than the contrast between flexitarians and full-time meat eaters. With regards to human welfare (measured by the Moral Foundations Questionnaire), results show that attitudes towards human suffering set flexitarians apart from vegetarians and attitudes towards authority and respect distinguish between flexitarians and meat eaters. To conclude, results show that vegetarians donate more often to animal oriented charities than flexitarians and meat eaters, while no differences between the three diet groups occur for donations to human oriented charities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Authentic sheep meat in the European Union: Factors influencing and validating its unique meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Sara W; Muller, Magdalena; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2017-05-01

    Authentic meat products are gaining attention through their unique quality characteristics linked to their origin. Various factors are known to influence the quality of fresh meat. This review describes the different Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) and Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) lamb types and discusses the factors which influences its unique sensory and chemical characteristics. Flavour, aroma, texture and colour play an integral part in the sensory quality of denomination of origin fresh meat products. For authentic fresh sheep meat the sensory (as well as chemical) quality is largely influenced by diet followed by breed, age and gender. However, diet forms the link with the geographical area of origin, which together with the traditional production system and sheep breeds used, lends the product its authentic nature. This review shows how diet linked to origin can affect the quality of the meat and furthermore how other factors such as breed can also have an effect. Research relating to the authentic lamb types were evaluated and the shortcomings highlighted in order to assist with the development of PDO and PGI specifications in the future. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Quantifying and predicting meat and meat products quality attributes using electromagnetic waves: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damez, Jean-Louis; Clerjon, Sylvie

    2013-12-01

    The meat industry needs reliable meat quality information throughout the production process in order to guarantee high-quality meat products for consumers. Besides laboratory researches, food scientists often try to adapt their tools to industrial conditions and easy handling devices useable on-line and in slaughterhouses already exist. This paper overviews the recently developed approaches and latest research efforts related to assessing the quality of different meat products by electromagnetic waves and examines the potential for their deployment. The main meat quality traits that can be assessed using electromagnetic waves are sensory characteristics, chemical composition, physicochemical properties, health-protecting properties, nutritional characteristics and safety. A wide range of techniques, from low frequency, high frequency impedance measurement, microwaves, NMR, IR and UV light, to X-ray interaction, involves a wide range of physical interactions between the electromagnetic wave and the sample. Some of these techniques are now in a period of transition between experimental and applied utilization and several sensors and instruments are reviewed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. MONITORING OF A GLUTEN CONTENT IN SELECTED MEAT PRODUCTS FROM THREE BIGGEST MEAT PRODUCERS IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Staruch

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The work is focused on a monitoring of a gluten content in selected meat products from three biggest and most popular meat producers in Slovakia. Gluten is a type of protein complex which is typical naturally presented component of wheat, barley and rye. Flour from this sources with natural gluten content is also added into the some type of meat products and other foodstuffs for a technological reasons hand in hand with economic reasons.  Some of the gluten quantities could be hazardous for sensitive people as celiatics and allergic to gluten. Within the context of this reasons there is a need to control the amounts of this hidden type of gluten inclusive of spice mixes using in a meat production. Monitoring by itself was realized with a use of the sandwich ELISA RIDASCREEN® Fast Gliadin test. ELISA means enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. It is based on a specific reaction among the enzyme and antigen leading to a creation of a complex.  This test provides us exact quantitification of a gluten content in this type of food products using a colorimetric reaction of a complex by observing of all fundamentals of this technique. There were analysed 16 meat products and 5 types of spice mixes in total.doi:10.5219/167

  15. Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Pérez, J V; De Prados, M; Pérez-Muelas, N; Cárcel, J A; Benedito, J

    2012-01-01

    Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 °C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (p 2 = 0.975) and moisture (R 2 = 0.863) contents. In addition, the change of the ultrasonic velocity with the increase of the salt content showed a good agreement with the Kinsler equation. Therefore, low intensity ultrasound emerges as a potential technique to monitor, in a non destructive way, the meat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

  16. MODERN TECHNOLOGY OF FERMENTED MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Antipova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. New trends of meat industry development, on the example of sausages are shown. The detailed description of indicators of quality of meat raw materials, auxiliary materials and their influence on the processes of tissue and microbial fermentation in the process of ripening raw sausages. Measures for improving the quality control of meat raw materials, auxiliary materials, as well as the processing conditions in all stages of production of smoked products are suggested. The modern technology of production of raw sausages with starter cultures and complex products, allowing better standardization process is considered. Questions of chemistry of color formation, the formation of taste and flavor, textures and the suppression of undesired microflora in foods in general, and in particular the raw sausage are thoroughly covered. Ideas about factors affecting the formation of color in sausages are given. It is pointed out that the susceptibility to oxidation of nitrosilmioglobin is directly related to the fat oxidation in the whole redox potential. Trends in the market of raw sausages are shown. Requirements used in the meat industry to starting cultures are shown. Recommendations on the rational use of starter cultures, and other functional additives in technology of uncooked fermented products, which are used to improve the quality and ensure a high level of product safety are given. The characteristic of the innovative series of starter cultures Protect, its species belonging and qualitative composition, providing a unique protection system in the process of ripening and storage of smoked products is given. The properties are proved on the example of smoked poultry sausage.

  17. The meat grinder - Theoretical and practical limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, O.; Wyatt, J.; Lindner, K.

    1984-03-01

    The meat grinder (Zucker and Long, 1980) is shown to be a purely inductive energy transfer system whose opening switch problem is drastically reduced because of its reversibility. It is also shown that the number of switches is a function only of the desired overall efficiency, the coupling coefficient, and the desired current. The dynamic behavior of the voltage on the switches is demonstrated, and a calculation is made for a typical application.

  18. Americans taking the plunge with videoconferencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marszewski, C. M.

    1989-05-01

    The growing use of videoconferencing by American businesses and institutions is outlined. Case studies of the use three American firms make of videoconferring techniques are presented. The choice of videoconferencing services offered on the American market is summarized. New developments in the area of standards is predicted to further accelerate the growth of international videoconferencing.

  19. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Smoked Meats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimko, Peter

    Meat smoking belongs to the oldest food technologies that has been used by mankind at minimum for 10,000 years. Probably a protection against canines led a man to hung a catch over the fire and from this time the smoking has started to be widely used not only for production of smoked products with a special organoleptic profile, but also for inactivating effects on enzymes and microorganisms. So far, techniques of smoking have been gradually improved and various procedures have been developed in different regions for treating meat and fish. Nowadays, the technology is used mainly for enrichment of foods with specific taste, odor, and appearance to be demanded widely on the market. On the other hand, the role of the preservative effects is going down gradually with regard to the latest trends in alternative preservation procedures. Today it is supposed that the technology is applied in many forms to treat 40-60% of the total amount of meat products (Sikorski, 2004) and 15% of fish (Stołyhwo & Sikorski, 2005).

  20. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in poultry meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ELMALI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe objectives of this study were i to isolate Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in broiler wing meat samples, ii to confirm the isolates by PCR, based on prs and hly A gene sequences, iii to determine the seasonal and monthly distribution of the isolates. A total of 120 broiler wing meat samples (60 packaged pieces wrapped using strech film in styrofoam plates and 60 unpackaged pieces bought from different markets in Hatay province were analysed. Listeria spp. was isolated from 57 (47.5% out of 120 samples. Fifty-four, out of 57 Listeria spp. isolates were identified as L. monocytogenes. L. monocytogenes was isolated from the samples collected during the spring, winter, summer, and autumn at the levels of 26.6%, 40%, 53.3%, 60%, respectively. In this study, the isolation rates were found to be the highest in autumn, while the isolation rates were found to be the lowest in spring. As a consequence, high prevalence of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in poultry wing meat samples may pose a risk for human health. We consider that with obeying the rules of good hygiene practices (GHP, good manufacturing practices (GMP and HACCP can minimize the contamination with Listeria spp.