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Sample records for american indian children

  1. Body composition assessment in American Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, T G; Caballero, B; Himes, J H; Hunsberger, S; Reid, R; Stewart, D; Skipper, B

    1999-04-01

    Although the high prevalence of obesity in American Indian children was documented in several surveys that used body mass index (BMI, in kg/m2) as the measure, there is limited information on more direct measurements of body adiposity in this population. The present study evaluated body composition in 81 boys (aged 11.2+/-0.6 y) and 75 girls (aged 11.0+/-0.4 y) attending public schools in 6 American Indian communities: White Mountain Apache, Pima, and Tohono O'Odham in Arizona; Oglala Lakota and Sicangu Lakota in South Dakota; and Navajo in New Mexico and Arizona. These communities were participating in the feasibility phase of Pathways, a multicenter intervention for the primary prevention of obesity. Body composition was estimated by using a combination of skinfold thickness and bioelectrical impedance measurements, with a prediction equation validated previously in this same population. The mean BMI was 20.4+/-4.2 for boys and 21.1+/-5.0 for girls. The sum of the triceps plus subscapular skinfold thicknesses averaged 28.6+/-7.0 mm in boys and 34.0+/-8.0 mm in girls. Mean percentage body fat was 35.6+/-6.9 in boys and 38.8+/-8.5 in girls. The results from this study confirmed the high prevalence of excess body fatness in school-age American Indian children and permitted the development of procedures, training, and quality control for measurement of the main outcome variable in the full-scale Pathways study.

  2. Children's Early Literacy Environment in Chinese and American Indian Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-lei; Bernas, Ronan; Eberhard, Philippe

    This study examined how Chinese and American Indian mothers support their young children's early literacy development in everyday interactions. Twenty mother-child dyads in each cultural community participated in the study. Analysis of videotaped interactions indicated that the mothers in the two communities differed greatly in the ways they…

  3. The Nature of Teacher-Community Contact in Schools Serving Southwest Indian Children. American Indian Education Papers, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Margaret E.

    Previous school-community research in American Indian communities has demonstrated that "isolation" or lack of communication between school staff and community parents has contributed to the failure of educating American Indian children. To validate this research in the Southwest, a diary indicating the out-of-school activities was…

  4. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2015, 240, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 60% more ...

  5. Using Electronic Health Records to Examine Disease Risk in Small Populations: Obesity Among American Indian Children, Wisconsin, 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomayko, Emily J; Weinert, Bethany A; Godfrey, Liz; Adams, Alexandra K; Hanrahan, Lawrence P

    2016-02-25

    Tribe-based or reservation-based data consistently show disproportionately high obesity rates among American Indian children, but little is known about the approximately 75% of American Indian children living off-reservation. We examined obesity among American Indian children seeking care off-reservation by using a database of de-identified electronic health records linked to community-level census variables. Data from electronic health records from American Indian children and a reference sample of non-Hispanic white children collected from 2007 through 2012 were abstracted to determine obesity prevalence. Related community-level and individual-level risk factors (eg, economic hardship, demographics) were examined using logistic regression. The obesity rate for American Indian children (n = 1,482) was double the rate among non-Hispanic white children (n = 81,042) (20.0% vs 10.6%, P American Indian children were less likely to have had a well-child visit (55.9% vs 67.1%, P American Indian records (18.3% vs 14.6%, P obesity risk among American Indian children (odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-2.1) independent of age, sex, economic hardship, insurance status, and geographic designation. An electronic health record data set demonstrated high obesity rates for nonreservation-based American Indian children, rates that had not been previously assessed. This low-cost method may be used for assessing health risk for other understudied populations and to plan and evaluate targeted interventions.

  6. A Review of Child Psychiatric Epidemiology With Special Reference to American Indian and Alaska Native Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ben Ezra; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Places the limited knowledge of the psychological problems of American Indian and Alaska Native children in context of general child psychiatric epidemiology, using the taxonomy of the American Psychiatric Association's third "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual." Available from: White Cloud Center, Gaines Hall UOHSC, 840 Southwest Gaines…

  7. Trends of overweight and obesity among white and American Indian school children in South Dakota, 1998-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearst, Mary O; Biskeborn, Kristin; Christensen, Mathew; Cushing, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among white and American Indian children in a predominantly rural state. Using a repeated, cross-sectional design of school children's height and weight, the study sample included 361,352 measures of children who were 5.0-19.9 years, attending school across 13 academic calendar years. Trained staff measured height, weight, and recorded gender, age, and race. Data were voluntarily reported to the State Department of Health. American Indian children consistently had higher rates of overweight and obesity compared to white children. Across the years, 16.3% of white students were overweight, whereas 19.3% of American Indian students were overweight. In addition, 14.5% of white children were obese and 25.9% of American Indian children were obese. Examining by rural versus urban schools, prevalence of overweight had been increasing among white male and female students and American Indian female students living in rural areas. Obesity is also increasing among rural white females and male and female American Indian children. The findings here suggest that although American Indian children are at higher risk, in general, compared to white children, rural populations in general are experiencing increases in childhood overweight and obesity. Targeted rural interventions beginning at an early age are necessary to improve the health of rural children, especially in American Indian communities. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  8. Maternal correlates of 2-year-old American Indian children's social-emotional development in a Northern Plains tribe.

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    Sarche, Michelle C; Croy, Calvin D; Crow, Cecelia Big; Mitchell, Christina M; Spicer, Paul

    2009-07-01

    The developmental experiences of very young American Indian children today are not well documented in the current literature. The present study sought to explore the social-emotional development of American Indian toddlers living on a Northern Plains reservation, as a function of maternal variables. Mothers completed self-report questionnaires about their experiences and their children's development. Observer ratings of children's development also were conducted. Maternal stress, substance use/abuse, perceptions of stress in the mother-child relationship, social support, and American Indian cultural identity were significantly related to children's social-emotional development. This study is the first to explore these relationships in a Northern Plains American Indian sample of young children and their mothers. Results suggest possible points of intervention for improving the developmental outcomes of very young American Indian children. Copyright © 2009 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  9. Leadership in the Era of the Trump Presidency: Implications for the Education of American Indian Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faircloth, Susan C.

    2018-01-01

    In this manuscript, I outline what I perceive to be the potential implications of the Trump presidency for the education of American Indian children and youth. In doing so, I argue that failure to provide adequate educational programs and services for American Indian children and youth represents an abrogation of the federal government's trust…

  10. Household food insecurity and dietary patterns in rural and urban American Indian families with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomayko, Emily J; Mosso, Kathryn L; Cronin, Kate A; Carmichael, Lakeesha; Kim, KyungMann; Parker, Tassy; Yaroch, Amy L; Adams, Alexandra K

    2017-06-30

    High food insecurity has been demonstrated in rural American Indian households, but little is known about American Indian families in urban settings or the association of food insecurity with diet for these families. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of food insecurity in American Indian households by urban-rural status, correlates of food insecurity in these households, and the relationship between food insecurity and diet in these households. Dyads consisting of an adult caregiver and a child (2-5 years old) from the same household in five urban and rural American Indian communities were included. Demographic information was collected, and food insecurity was assessed using two validated items from the USDA Household Food Security Survey. Factors associated with food insecurity were examined using logistic regression. Child and adult diets were assessed using food screeners. Coping strategies were assessed through focus group discussions. These cross-sectional baseline data were collected from 2/2013 through 4/2015 for the Healthy Children, Strong Families 2 randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyles intervention for American Indian families. A high prevalence of food insecurity was determined (61%) and was associated with American Indian ethnicity, lower educational level, single adult households, WIC participation, and urban settings (p = 0.05). Food insecure adults had significantly lower intake of vegetables (p insecure children had significantly higher intakes of fried potatoes (p insecurity. The prevalence of food insecurity in American Indian households in our sample is extremely high, and geographic designation may be an important contributing factor. Moreover, food insecurity had a significant negative influence on dietary intake for families. Understanding strategies employed by households may help inform future interventions to address food insecurity. ( NCT01776255 ). Registered: January 16, 2013. Date of enrollment

  11. Involvement in Traditional Cultural Practices and American Indian Children's Incidental Recall of a Folktale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsethlikai, Monica; Rogoff, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This study examined incidental recall of a folktale told to 91 Tohono O'odham American Indian children (average age 9 years) who either were directly addressed or had the opportunity to overhear the telling of the folktale. Learning from surrounding incidental events contrasts with learning through direct instruction common in Western schooling,…

  12. American Indian and Alaska Native Children and Mental Health: Development, Context, Prevention, and Treatment. Child Psychology and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarche, Michelle C., Ed.; Spicer, Paul, Ed.; Farrell, Patricia, Ed.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This unique book examines the physical, psychological, social, and environmental factors that support or undermine healthy development in American Indian children, including economics, biology, and public policies. American Indian and Alaska Native youth suffer disproportionately higher rates of trauma, substance abuse, and youth suicide. At the…

  13. Obesity and Overweight in American Indian and Alaska Native Children, 2006-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Ann; Sheff, Karen; Moore, Kelly; Manson, Spero

    2017-09-01

    To estimate obesity and overweight prevalence in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children across genders, ages, and geographic regions in the Indian Health Service active clinical population. We obtained data from the Indian Health Service National Data Warehouse. At least 184 000 AI/AN children aged 2 to 19 years had body mass index data for each year studied, 2006 to 2015. We calculated body mass index percentiles with the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. In 2015, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in AI/AN children aged 2 to 19 years was 18.5% and 29.7%, respectively. Boys had higher obesity prevalence than girls (31.5% vs 27.9%). Children aged 12 to 19 years had a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity than younger children. The AI/AN children in our study had a higher prevalence of obesity than US children overall in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results for 2006 through 2014 were similar. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among AI/AN children in this population may have stabilized, while remaining higher than prevalence for US children overall.

  14. Household food insecurity and dietary patterns in rural and urban American Indian families with young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Tomayko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High food insecurity has been demonstrated in rural American Indian households, but little is known about American Indian families in urban settings or the association of food insecurity with diet for these families. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of food insecurity in American Indian households by urban-rural status, correlates of food insecurity in these households, and the relationship between food insecurity and diet in these households. Methods Dyads consisting of an adult caregiver and a child (2–5 years old from the same household in five urban and rural American Indian communities were included. Demographic information was collected, and food insecurity was assessed using two validated items from the USDA Household Food Security Survey. Factors associated with food insecurity were examined using logistic regression. Child and adult diets were assessed using food screeners. Coping strategies were assessed through focus group discussions. These cross-sectional baseline data were collected from 2/2013 through 4/2015 for the Healthy Children, Strong Families 2 randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyles intervention for American Indian families. Results A high prevalence of food insecurity was determined (61% and was associated with American Indian ethnicity, lower educational level, single adult households, WIC participation, and urban settings (p = 0.05. Food insecure adults had significantly lower intake of vegetables (p < 0.05 and higher intakes of fruit juice (<0.001, other sugar-sweetened beverages (p < 0.05, and fried potatoes (p < 0.001 than food secure adults. Food insecure children had significantly higher intakes of fried potatoes (p < 0.05, soda (p = 0.01, and sports drinks (p < 0.05. Focus group participants indicated different strategies were used by urban and rural households to address food insecurity. Conclusions The prevalence of food insecurity in

  15. PATTERNS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AMONG AMERICAN INDIAN CHILDREN: AN ASSESSMENT OF BARRIERS AND SUPPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Janice L.; Davis, Sally M.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Going, Scott; Becenti, Alberta; Metcalfe, Lauve; Stone, Elaine; Harnack, Lisa; Ring, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Estimates indicate that 10% to 50% of American Indian and non-Indian children in the U.S. are obese, defined as a body mass index ≥ 95th percentile of the NHANES II reference data. Pathways is a two-phase, multi-site study to develop and test a school-based obesity prevention program in American Indian schoolchildren in grades three through five. During Phase I feasibility prior to initiation of the Pathways trial, data were collected related to physical activity patterns, and the supports of, and barriers to, physical activity. Nine schools from communities representing six different tribal groups participated in this study. Multiple measures were used for data collection including direct observation, paired child interviews, and in-depth interviews and focus groups with adults. Students completed the self-administered Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors (KAB) survey, and a Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ). Barriers to physical activity at schools included a lack of facilities, equipment, and trained staff persons for PE. Adults were not consistently active with their children, but they were highly supportive of their children’s activity level. Children reported a strong enjoyment of physical activity and strong peer support to be physically active. Weather conditions, safety concerns, and homework/chores were common barriers to physical activity reported by children and adult caregivers. The information was used to design culturally and age-appropriate, practical interventions including the five physical activity programs for schoolchildren in the Pathways study. PMID:11759094

  16. American Indian Community Colleges.

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    One Feather, Gerald

    With the emergence of reservation based community colleges (th Navajo Community College and the Dakota Community Colleges), the American Indian people, as decision makers in these institutions, are providing Indians with the technical skills and cultural knowledge necessary for self-determination. Confronted with limited numbers of accredited…

  17. Genotypic characterization of initial acquisition of Streptococcus mutans in American Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Lynch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Severe-early childhood caries (S-ECC is one of the most common infectious diseases in children and is prevalent in lower socio-economic populations. American Indian children suffer from the highest levels of S-ECC in the United States. Members of the mutans streptococci, Streptococcus mutans, in particular, are key etiologic agents in the development of caries. Children typically acquire S. mutans from their mothers and early acquisition is often associated with higher levels of tooth decay. Methods: We have conducted a 5-year birth cohort study with a Northern Plains Tribe to determine the temporality and fidelity of S. mutans transmission from mother to child in addition to the genotypic diversity of S. mutans in this community. Plaque samples were collected from 239 mother/child dyads at regular intervals from birth to 36 months and S. mutans were isolated and genotyped by arbitrarily primed-polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR. Results: Here we present preliminary findings from a subset of the cohort. The focus for this paper is on initial acquisition events in the children. We identified 17 unique genotypes in 711 S. mutans isolates in our subset of 40 children, 40 mothers and 14 primary caregivers. Twelve of these genotypes were identified in more than one individual. S. mutans colonization occurred by 16 months in 57.5% of the children and early colonization was associated with higher decayed, missing and filled surface (DMFS scores (p=0.0007. Children colonized by S. mutans shared a common genotype with their mothers 47.8% of the time. While multiple genotypes were common in adults, only 10% of children harbored multiple genotypes. Conclusion: These children acquire S. mutans at an earlier age than the originally described ‘window of infectivity’ and often, but not exclusively, from their mothers. Early acquisition is associated with both the caries status of the children and the mothers.

  18. Social Marketing Risk-Framing Approaches for Dental Sealants in Rural American Indian Children.

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    Larsson, Laura S; Champine, Dorothy; Hoyt, Dee; Lin, Lillian; Salois, Emily; Silvas, Sharon; Tail, Terri Weasel; Williams, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    To compare three variants of a culturally relevant and theoretically based message to determine the most influential risk-framing approach for improving intention to place dental sealants for preschool children. A convenience sample of adult, American Indian participants (n = 89) attending a community health fair were assigned to view a gain-framed, loss-framed, or mix-framed dental sealant message. We compared participants' scores on a 46-item survey to determine the relative effect of the frame assignment on seven indices of behavior change. The mean difference in participants' stage-of-change scores (x = 1.17, n = 89, SD = 1.90) demonstrated a significant improvement for all groups after watching the dental sealant message t88  = 5.81, p mix-framed message resulted in the highest scores. The gain-framed message was the least influential on four constructs. This finding is in contrast to findings that gain-framed oral health messages are most influential (Gallagher & Updegraff, 2012; O'Keefe & Jensen, 2007). Community advisory board members determined to use the mix-framed approach in an oral health social marketing campaign with a rural, American Indian audience. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Low-Income, African American and American Indian Children's Viewpoints on Body Image Assessment Tools and Body Satisfaction: A Mixed Methods Study.

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    Heidelberger, Lindsay; Smith, Chery

    2018-03-03

    Objectives Pediatric obesity is complicated by many factors including psychological issues, such as body dissatisfaction. Body image assessment tools are used with children to measure their acceptance of their body shape or image. Limited research has been conducted with African American and American Indian children to understand their opinions on assessment tools created. This study investigated: (a) children's perception about body image and (b) differences between two body image instruments among low-income, multi-ethnic children. Methods This study uses mixed methodology including focus groups (qualitative) and body image assessment instruments (quantitative). Fifty-one children participated (25 girls, 26 boys); 53% of children identified as African American and 47% as American Indian. The average age was 10.4 years. Open coding methods were used by identify themes from focus group data. SPSS was used for quantitative analysis. Results Children preferred the Figure Rating Scale (FRS/silhouette) instrument over the Children's Body Image Scale (CBIS/photo) because their body parts and facial features were more detailed. Children formed their body image perception with influence from their parents and the media. Children verbalized that they have experienced negative consequences related to poor body image including disordered eating habits, depression, and bullying. Healthy weight children are also aware of weight-related bullying that obese and overweight children face. Conclusions for Practice Children prefer that the images on a body image assessment tool have detailed facial features and are clothed. Further research into body image assessment tools for use with African American and American Indian children is needed.

  20. Summer effects on body mass index (BMI) gain and growth patterns of American Indian children from kindergarten to first grade: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jianduan; Himes, John H; Hannan, Peter J; Arcan, Chrisa; Smyth, Mary; Rock, Bonnie Holy; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are highly prevalent among American Indian children, especially those living on reservations. There is little scientific evidence about the effects of summer vacation on obesity development in children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of summer vacation between kindergarten and first grade on growth in height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) for a sample of American Indian children. Methods Children had their height and wei...

  1. Once in Contact, Always in Contact: Contagious Essence and Conceptions of Purification in American and Hindu Indian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejmadi, Ahalya; Rozin, Paul; Siegal, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Cultural and age differences in responses to contamination and conceptions of purification were examined in Hindu Indian (N = 125) and American (N = 106) 4- to 5-year-olds and 8-year-olds, who were provided with stories of juice contaminated by contact with a cockroach, a human hair, and a stranger (via sipping). Children who rejected the juice as…

  2. Lung function in North American Indian children: reference standards for spirometry, maximal expiratory flow volume curves, and peak expiratory flow.

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    Wall, M A; Olson, D; Bonn, B A; Creelman, T; Buist, A S

    1982-02-01

    Reference standards of lung function was determined in 176 healthy North American Indian children (94 girls, 82 boys) 7 to 18 yr of age. Spirometry, maximal expiratory flow volume curves, and peak expiratory flow rate were measured using techniques and equipment recommended by the American Thoracic Society. Standing height was found to be an accurate predictor of lung function, and prediction equations for each lung function variable are presented using standing height as the independent variable. Lung volumes and expiratory flow rates in North American Indian children were similar to those previously reported for white and Mexican-American children but were greater than those in black children. In both boys and girls, lung function increased in a curvilinear fashion. Volume-adjusted maximal expiratory flow rates after expiring 50 or 75% of FVC tended to decrease in both sexes as age and height increased. Our maximal expiratory flow volume curve data suggest that as North American Indian children grow, lung volume increases at a slightly faster rate than airway size does.

  3. Neuropsychological study of FASD in a sample of American Indian children: processing simple versus complex information.

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    Aragón, Alfredo S; Kalberg, Wendy O; Buckley, David; Barela-Scott, Lindsey M; Tabachnick, Barbara G; May, Philip A

    2008-12-01

    Although a large body of literature exists on cognitive functioning in alcohol-exposed children, it is unclear if there is a signature neuropsychological profile in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). This study assesses cognitive functioning in children with FASD from several American Indian reservations in the Northern Plains States, and it applies a hierarchical model of simple versus complex information processing to further examine cognitive function. We hypothesized that complex tests would discriminate between children with FASD and culturally similar controls, while children with FASD would perform similar to controls on relatively simple tests. Our sample includes 32 control children and 24 children with a form of FASD [fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) = 10, partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS) = 14]. The test battery measures general cognitive ability, verbal fluency, executive functioning, memory, and fine-motor skills. Many of the neuropsychological tests produced results consistent with a hierarchical model of simple versus complex processing. The complexity of the tests was determined "a priori" based on the number of cognitive processes involved in them. Multidimensional scaling was used to statistically analyze the accuracy of classifying the neurocognitive tests into a simple versus complex dichotomy. Hierarchical logistic regression models were then used to define the contribution made by complex versus simple tests in predicting the significant differences between children with FASD and controls. Complex test items discriminated better than simple test items. The tests that conformed well to the model were the Verbal Fluency, Progressive Planning Test (PPT), the Lhermitte memory tasks, and the Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT). The FASD-grouped children, when compared with controls, demonstrated impaired performance on letter fluency, while their performance was similar on category fluency. On the more complex PPT trials (problems 5 to

  4. Vaccine-preventable, hospitalizations among American Indian/Alaska Native children using the 2012 Kid's Inpatient Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Amanda J; Puumala, Susan E; Kharbanda, Anupam B

    2018-02-08

    Our aim was to assess the odds of hospitalization for a vaccine-preventable, infectious disease (VP-ID) in American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) children compared to other racial and ethnic groups using the 2012 Kid's Inpatient Database (KID) The KID is a nationally representative sample, which allows for evaluation of VP-ID in a non-federal, non-Indian Health Service setting. In a cross-sectional analysis, we evaluated the association of race/ethnicity and a composite outcome of hospitalization due to vaccine-preventable infection using multivariate logistic regression. AI/AN children were more likely (OR=1.81, 95% CI=1.34, 2.45) to be admitted to the hospital in 2012 for a VP-ID compared to Non-Hispanic white children after adjusting for age, sex, chronic disease status, metropolitan location, and median household income. This disparity highlights the necessity for a more comprehensive understanding of immunization and infectious disease exposure among American Indian children, especially those not covered or evaluated by Indian Health Service. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Facts about American Indian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Indian College Fund, 2010

    2010-01-01

    As a result of living in remote rural areas, American Indians living on reservations have limited access to higher education. One-third of American Indians live on reservations, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. According to the most recent U.S. government statistics, the overall poverty rate for American Indians/Alaska Natives, including…

  6. Pathways family intervention for third-grade American Indian children1–3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel, Nicolette I; Perry, Cheryl L; Story, Mary; Flint-Wagner, Hilary G; Levin, Sarah; Clay, Theresa E; Davis, Sally M; Gittelsohn, Joel; Altaha, Jackie; Pablo, Juanita L

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the feasibility phase of the Pathways family intervention was to work with families of third-grade American Indian children to reinforce health behaviors being promoted by the curriculum, food service, and physical activity components of this school-based obesity prevention intervention. Family behaviors regarding food choices and physical activity were identified and ranked according to priority by using formative assessment and a literature review of school-based programs that included a family component. The family intervention involved 3 primary strategies designed to create an informed home environment supportive of behavioral change: 1) giving the children “family packs” containing worksheets, interactive assignments, healthful snacks, and low-fat tips and recipes to take home to share with their families; 2) implementing family events at the school to provide a fun atmosphere in which health education concepts could be introduced and reinforced; and 3) forming school-based family advisory councils composed of family members and community volunteers who provided feedback on Pathways strategies, helped negotiate barriers, and explored ideas for continued family participation. For strategy 2, a kick-off Family Fun Night provided a series of learning booths that presented the healthful behaviors taught by Pathways. At an end-of-year Family Celebration, a healthy meal was served, students demonstrated newly learned Pathways activities, and certificates were presented in recognition of completion of the Pathways curriculum. Based on evaluation forms and attendance rosters, strategies 1 and 2 were more easily implemented and better received than strategy 3. Implications for developing family involvement strategies for intervention programs are discussed. PMID:10195606

  7. Celebrating National American Indian Heritage Month

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mann, Diane

    2004-01-01

    November has been designated National American Indian Heritage Month to honor American Indians and Alaska Natives by increasing awareness of their culture, history, and, especially, their tremendous...

  8. The Family Spirit trial for American Indian teen mothers and their children: CBPR rationale, design, methods and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullany, Britta; Barlow, Allison; Neault, Nicole; Billy, Trudy; Jones, Tanya; Tortice, Iralene; Lorenzo, Sherilynn; Powers, Julia; Lake, Kristin; Reid, Raymond; Walkup, John

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale, design, methods and baseline results of the Family Spirit trial. The goal of the trial is to evaluate the impact of the paraprofessional-delivered "Family Spirit" home-visiting intervention to reduce health and behavioral risks for American Indian teen mothers and their children. A community based participatory research (CBPR) process shaped the design of the current randomized controlled trial of the Family Spirit intervention. Between 2006 and 2008, 322 pregnant teens were randomized to receive the Family Spirit intervention plus Optimized Standard Care, or Optimized Standard Care alone. The Family Spirit intervention is a 43-session home-visiting curriculum administered by American Indian paraprofessionals to teen mothers from 28 weeks gestation until the baby's third birthday. A mixed methods assessment administered at nine intervals measures intervention impact on parental competence, mother's and children's social, emotional and behavioral risks for drug use, and maladaptive functioning. Participants are young (mean age = 18.1 years), predominantly primiparous, unmarried, and challenged by poverty, residential instability and low educational attainment. Lifetime and pregnancy drug use were ~2-4 times higher and ~5-6 times higher, respectively, than US All Races. Baseline characteristics were evenly distributed between groups, except for higher lifetime cigarette use and depressive symptoms among intervention mothers. If study aims are achieved, the public health field will have new evidence supporting multi-generational prevention of behavioral health disparities affecting young American Indian families and the utility of indigenous paraprofessional interventionists in under-resourced communities.

  9. Associations of American Indian children's screen-time behavior with parental television behavior, parental perceptions of children's screen time, and media-related resources in the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Smyth, Mary; Himes, John H; Hannan, Peter J; Holy Rock, Bonnie; Story, Mary

    2011-09-01

    American Indian children have high rates of overweight and obesity, which may be partially attributable to screen-time behavior. Young children's screen-time behavior is strongly influenced by their environment and their parents' behavior. We explored whether parental television watching time, parental perceptions of children's screen time, and media-related resources in the home are related to screen time (ie, television, DVD/video, video game, and computer use) among Oglala Lakota youth residing on or near the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota. We collected baseline data from 431 child and parent/caregiver pairs who participated in Bright Start, a group-randomized, controlled, school-based obesity prevention trial to reduce excess weight gain. Controlling for demographic characteristics, we used linear regression analysis to assess associations between children's screen time and parental television watching time, parental perceptions of children's screen time, and availability of media-related household resources. The most parsimonious model for explaining child screen time included the children's sex, parental body mass index, parental television watching time, how often the child watched television after school or in the evening, parental perception that the child spent too much time playing video games, how often the parent limited the child's television time, and the presence of a VCR/DVD player or video game player in the home (F(7,367) = 14.67; P strategy for reducing overweight and obesity in American Indian children.

  10. American Indians in Graduate Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Clara Sue

    1989-01-01

    The number of American Indians enrolled in institutions of higher education is very small. Enrollment figures for fall 1984 show Indians made up .68% of the total enrollment in institutions of higher education in the country, but only 15% of them were in universities. Their largest representation was in two-year institutions, where 54% of Indian…

  11. Textbooks and the American Indian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costo, Rupert, Ed.

    An independent Indian publishing house has been formed to provide classroom instructional materials which deal accurately with the history, culture, and role of the American Indian. This book is a preliminary statement in that publishing program. General criteria, valid for instructional materials from elementary through high school, are applied…

  12. Correlates of Overweight and Obesity Among American Indian/Alaska Native and Non-Hispanic White Children and Adolescents: National Survey of Children’s Health, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Ness, Maria; Barradas, Danielle T.; Irving, Jennifer; Manning, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    Risk factors for overweight and obesity may be different for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children compared to children of other racial/ethnic backgrounds, as obesity prevalence among AI/AN children remains much higher. Using data from the 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health, behavioral (child’s sport team participation, vigorous physical activity, television viewing, and computer use), household (parental physical activity, frequency of family meals, rules limiting televis...

  13. Taxation and the American Indian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, David

    1973-01-01

    The article explores American Indian tribal rights to tax exemptions and self-imposed taxation; general recommendations on possible tribal tax alternatives; and evaluation of the probable economic effect of taxation. (FF)

  14. Food Perceptions and Dietary Behavior of American-Indian Children, Their Caregivers, and Educators: Formative Assessment Findings from Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Toporoff, Elanah Greer; Story, Mary; Evans, Marguerite; Anliker, Jean; Davis, Sally; Sharma, Anjali; White, Jean

    2000-01-01

    Dietary findings from a school-based obesity prevention project (Pathways) are reported for children from six different American-Indian nations. A formative assessment was undertaken with teachers, caregivers, and children from nine schools to design a culturally appropriate intervention, including classroom curriculum, food service, physical education, and family components. This assessment employed a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods (including direct observations, paired-child in-depth interviews, focus groups with child caregivers and teachers, and semistructured interviews with caregivers and foodservice personnel) to query local perceptions and beliefs about foods commonly eaten and risk behaviors associated with childhood obesity at home, at school, and in the community. An abundance of high-fat, high-sugar foods was detected in children's diets described by caregivers, school food-service workers, and the children themselves. Although children and caregivers identified fruits and vegetables as healthy food choices, this knowledge does not appear to influence actual food choices. Frequent high-fat/high-sugar food sales in the schools, high-fat entrees in school meals, the use of food rewards in the classroom, rules about finishing all of one's food, and limited family resources are some of the competing factors that need to be addressed in the Pathways intervention.

  15. Urban American Indian/Alaskan Natives Compared to Non-Indians in Out-of-Home Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Vernon B.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) children have been disproportionately represented in the foster care system. In this study, nationally representative child welfare data from October 1999 was used to compare urban AI/AN children to non-Indian children placed into out-of-home care. Compared to non-Indian children, urban AI/AN…

  16. Red Women, White Policy: American Indian Women and Indian Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Linda Sue

    This paper discusses American Indian educational policies and implications for educational leadership by Indian women. The paper begins with an overview of federal Indian educational policies from 1802 to the 1970s. As the tribes have moved toward self-determination in recent years, a growing number of American Indian women have assumed leadership…

  17. American Indian Women: Sorting through Myth and History. A Study of American Indian Women, Stereotypes, and Education in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attardo, Jessica L.

    2005-01-01

    The following study was conducted to examine existing research in education regarding the development of stereotypes in children, analyze historical documents and research to acquire an accurate portrayal of American Indian women, and determine if secondary social studies students lack adequate knowledge about the history of American Indian women,…

  18. Polydactyly in the American Indian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingle, G J; Niswander, J D

    1975-01-01

    Polydactyly has an incidence in the American Indian twice that of Caucasians. A minimum estimate of this incidence is 2.40 per 1,000 live births. Preaxial type 1 has an incidence three to four times that reported for Caucasians or Negroes. The overall sex ratio in Indians is distorted with more males affected than females. The preaxial type 1 anomaly has a strong predilection for the hands and always is unilateral in contrast to postaxial type B where more than one-half are bilateral. The evidence to date, consisting of varying incidences of specific types of polydactyly among American whites, Negroes, and Indians in varying enviroments, suggests different gene-frequencies for polydactyly in each population. The incidence in Indians with 50% Caucasian admixture suggests that the factors controlling polydactyly are in large part genetically determined. Family studies and twin studies reported elsewhere offer no clear-cut genetic model which explains the highly variable gene frequencies.

  19. Summer effects on body mass index (BMI gain and growth patterns of American Indian children from kindergarten to first grade: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jianduan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are highly prevalent among American Indian children, especially those living on reservations. There is little scientific evidence about the effects of summer vacation on obesity development in children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of summer vacation between kindergarten and first grade on growth in height, weight, and body mass index (BMI for a sample of American Indian children. Methods Children had their height and weight measured in four rounds of data collection (yielded three intervals: kindergarten, summer vacation, and first grade as part of a school-based obesity prevention trial (Bright Start in a Northern Plains Indian Reservation. Demographic variables were collected at baseline from parent surveys. Growth velocities (Z-score units/year for BMI, weight, and height were estimated and compared for each interval using generalized linear mixed models. Results The children were taller and heavier than median of same age counterparts. Height Z-scores were positively associated with increasing weight status category. The mean weight velocity during summer was significantly less than during the school year. More rapid growth velocity in height during summer than during school year was observed. Obese children gained less adjusted-BMI in the first grade after gaining more than their counterparts during the previous two intervals. No statistically significant interval effects were found for height and BMI velocities. Conclusions There was no indication of a significant summer effect on children's BMI. Rather than seasonal or school-related patterns, the predominant pattern indicated by weight-Z and BMI-Z velocities might be related to age or maturation. Trial registration Bright Start: Obesity Prevention in American Indian Children Clinical Trial Govt ID# NCT00123032

  20. AMERICAN INDIANS AND EDUCATIONAL LABORATORIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BASS, WILLARD P.; BURGER, HENRY G.

    MANY OF THE DIVERSE EDUCATIONAL PROBLEMS OF THE AMERICAN INDIAN HAVE BEEN IDENTIFIED FOR YEARS, BUT HAVE BEEN PERMITTED TO LAY DORMANT. SOCIO-ECONOMIC DISADVANTAGEMENT IS EXHIBITED IN AREAS OF INCOME, UNEMPLOYMENT, SCHOOL DROPOUT RATE, EXPECTED LIFE SPAN, INFANT MORTALITY RATE, BIRTH RATE, AND HEALTH HISTORY. COMMUNICATION PROBLEMS BLOCK THE…

  1. Lower respiratory tract infection hospitalizations among American Indian/Alaska Native children and the general United States child population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M. Foote

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI-associated hospitalization rate in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN children aged <5 years declined during 1998–2008, yet remained 1.6 times higher than the general US child population in 2006–2008. Purpose: Describe the change in LRTI-associated hospitalization rates for AI/AN children and for the general US child population aged <5 years. Methods: A retrospective analysis of hospitalizations with discharge ICD-9-CM codes for LRTI for AI/AN children and for the general US child population <5 years during 2009–2011 was conducted using Indian Health Service direct and contract care inpatient data and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, respectively. We calculated hospitalization rates and made comparisons to previously published 1998–1999 rates prior to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction. Results: The average annual LRTI-associated hospitalization rate declined from 1998–1999 to 2009–2011 in AI/AN (35%, p<0.01 and the general US child population (19%, SE: 4.5%, p<0.01. The 2009–2011 AI/AN child average annual LRTI-associated hospitalization rate was 20.7 per 1,000, 1.5 times higher than the US child rate (13.7 95% CI: 12.6–14.8. The Alaska (38.9 and Southwest regions (27.3 had the highest rates. The disparity was greatest for infant (<1 year pneumonia-associated and 2009–2010 H1N1 influenza-associated hospitalizations. Conclusions: Although the LRTI-associated hospitalization rate declined, the 2009–2011 AI/AN child rate remained higher than the US child rate, especially in the Alaska and Southwest regions. The residual disparity is likely multi-factorial and partly related to household crowding, indoor smoke exposure, lack of piped water and poverty. Implementation of interventions proven to reduce LRTI is needed among AI/AN children.

  2. Teaching American Indian Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Dick

    1991-01-01

    Reviews "Native American Architecture," by Nabokov and Easton, an encyclopedic work that examines technology, climate, social structure, economics, religion, and history in relation to house design and the "meaning" of space among tribes of nine regions. Describes this book's use in a college course on Native American architecture. (SV)

  3. Black-white unions: West Indians and African Americans compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Model, S; Fisher, G

    2001-05-01

    In this research we use 1990 PUMS data to compare the propensity for unions between African Americans and native whites with the propensity for unions between British West Indians and native whites. In addition, we distinguish women and men. Descriptive statistics indicate that West Indians, with the exception of men who arrived as adults, are more likely than African Americans to have white partners. After the introduction of controls for several correlates of intermarriage, however, West Indian men of any generation have lower exogamy rates than African American men, while exogamy rates are higher among West Indian women who arrived as children or who were born in the United States than among African American women. Thus we find no consistent evidence of greater exogamy for British West Indians than for African Americans.

  4. Efficacy of a pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine against rotavirus gastroenteritis among American Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Lindsay R; Watt, James P; Weatherholtz, Robert C; Moulton, Lawrence H; Reid, Raymond; Santosham, Mathuram; O'Brien, Katherine L

    2012-02-01

    Before the widespread use of rotavirus vaccines, rotavirus was a leading cause of gastroenteritis among children. Navajo and White Mountain Apache children suffer a disproportionate burden of severe rotavirus disease compared with the general U.S. population. We enrolled Navajo and White Mountain Apache infants in a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine (PRV). Subjects received 3 doses of vaccine or placebo at 4 to 10 week intervals, with the first dose given between 6 and 12 weeks of age. Gastroenteritis episodes were identified by active surveillance. Disease severity was determined by a standardized scoring system. There were 509 and 494 randomized children who received vaccine and placebo, respectively. Among placebo recipients, the incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis was 34.2 episodes/100 child-years (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 25.8-38.9) versus 8.1 episodes/100 child-years (95% CI: 5.4-12.5) in the vaccine group. The percentage of rotavirus episodes caused by serotypes G1, G2, and G3 was 72.3%, 23.4%, and 2.1%, respectively. There were no severe rotavirus episodes among vaccinees and 4 among placebo recipients. PRV was 77.1% (95% CI: 59.7-87.6), 89.5% (95% CI: 65.9-97.9), and 82.9% (95% CI: 61.1-93.6) effective against G1-G4 rotavirus disease, severe and moderate rotavirus disease combined, and outpatient visits for rotavirus disease, respectively. The risk of adverse events was similar for the vaccine and placebo groups. PRV was highly effective in preventing rotavirus disease and related health care utilization in these American Indian infants. Vaccine efficacy and immunogenicity were similar to the overall study population enrolled in the multicenter trial.

  5. Examining American Indian Perspectives in the Central Region on Parent Involvement in Children's Education. Issues & Answers. REL 2008-No. 059

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackety, Dawn M.; Linder-VanBerschot, Jennifer A.

    2008-01-01

    Parent involvement is recognized as an important factor in encouraging student achievement. However, a survey by the National Center for Education Statistics found that in public schools with 25 percent or more American Indian students, teachers identified lack of parent involvement as one of their schools' three most serious problems. At an…

  6. Washington Irving and the American Indian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Daniel F., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Some modern scholars feel that Washington Irving vacillated between romanticism and realism in his literary treatment of the American Indian. However, a study of all his works dealing with Indians, placed in context with his non-Indian works, reveals that his attitude towards Indians was intelligent and enlightened for his time. (CM)

  7. American Indian Education Opportunities Program. Supplement 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molin, Paulette F.

    1997-01-01

    Activities of the American Indian Educational Opportunities Program (AIEOP) at Hampton University for this reporting period included the establishment of a student chapter of the American Indian Science & Engineering Society (AISES), a move to new office space, hosting events on campus for visiting students from the American Indian Education Program of Oxon Hill, Maryland and Onondaga Community College in Syracuse, New York, collaboration with the Multicultural Leadership Team at NASA Langley Research Center for a Native American elder to serve as a speaker, participation in Native American conferences and other events, and continuing efforts to recruit and retain American Indian students.

  8. Congressional Social Darwinism and the American Indian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinderman, Abraham

    1978-01-01

    Summarizing a congressional report on civil and military treatment of American Indians, this article asserts that the social Darwinism of the day prevailed among all congressional committee members ("Even friends of the Indian... knew American expansionism, technology, and racial ideology would reduce the Indian to a pitiful remnant...) (JC)

  9. Asian Indian American Children's Creative Writing: An Approach for Cultural Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Kalpana Mukunda; Smith, Howard L.

    2016-01-01

    Many children from diverse cultures experience disconnectedness between their home and school. As they attempt to reconcile the conflicts among their multiple worlds, they must negotiate their situatedness in a variety of contexts, i.e., home community versus school, and construct a multifaceted identity. Absent support from school, Asian Indian…

  10. Current Conditions in American Indian and Alaska Native Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Margaret Connell

    The school experience of American Indian and Alaska Native children hinges on the context in which their schooling takes place. This context includes the health and well-being of their families, communities, and governments, as well as the relationship between Native and non-Native people. Many Native children are in desperate straits because of…

  11. Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Indian/Alaska Native > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives American Indian/Alaska ... as compared to non-Hispanic white mothers. Infant Mortality Rate: Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  12. American Indian Studies. Library Research Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Phillip M.

    This guide to sources for students at San Diego State University doing library research in topics related to American Indian Studies begins by noting that information on North American Indians can be found in a variety of subject disciplines including history, anthropology, education, sociology, health care, law, business, and politics. The…

  13. Teaching about Human Rights and American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Karen D.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a flexible lesson plan integrating teaching about human rights into the existing curriculum about American Indians. Asserts that American Indians have the right to maintain their cultural ways and connects that subject to the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Includes three lists of resources and references. (MJP)

  14. The Healthy Children, Strong Families intervention promotes improvements in nutrition, activity and body weight in American Indian families with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomayko, Emily J; Prince, Ronald J; Cronin, Kate A; Adams, Alexandra K

    2016-10-01

    American Indian children of pre-school age have disproportionally high obesity rates and consequent risk for related diseases. Healthy Children, Strong Families was a family-based randomized trial assessing the efficacy of an obesity prevention toolkit delivered by a mentor v. mailed delivery that was designed and administered using community-based participatory research approaches. During Year 1, twelve healthy behaviour toolkit lessons were delivered by either a community-based home mentor or monthly mailings. Primary outcomes were child BMI percentile, child BMI Z-score and adult BMI. Secondary outcomes included fruit/vegetable consumption, sugar consumption, television watching, physical activity, adult health-related self-efficacy and perceived health status. During a maintenance year, home-mentored families had access to monthly support groups and all families received monthly newsletters. Family homes in four tribal communities, Wisconsin, USA. Adult and child (2-5-year-olds) dyads (n 150). No significant effect of the mentored v. mailed intervention delivery was found; however, significant improvements were noted in both groups exposed to the toolkit. Obese child participants showed a reduction in BMI percentile at Year 1 that continued through Year 2 (PChild fruit/vegetable consumption increased (P=0·006) and mean television watching decreased for children (P=0·05) and adults (P=0·002). Reported adult self-efficacy for health-related behaviour changes (P=0·006) and quality of life increased (P=0·02). Although no effect of delivery method was demonstrated, toolkit exposure positively affected adult and child health. The intervention was well received by community partners; a more comprehensive intervention is currently underway based on these findings.

  15. Healthy Children, Strong Families 2: A randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyle intervention for American Indian families designed using community-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomayko, Emily J; Prince, Ronald J; Cronin, Kate A; Parker, Tassy; Kim, Kyungmann; Grant, Vernon M; Sheche, Judith N; Adams, Alexandra K

    2017-04-01

    Background/Aims Few obesity prevention trials have focused on young children and their families in the home environment, particularly in underserved communities. Healthy Children, Strong Families 2 is a randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyle intervention for American Indian children and their families, a group at very high risk of obesity. The study design resulted from our long-standing engagement with American Indian communities, and few collaborations of this type resulting in the development and implementation of a randomized clinical trial have been described. Methods Healthy Children, Strong Families 2 is a lifestyle intervention targeting increased fruit and vegetable intake, decreased sugar intake, increased physical activity, decreased TV/screen time, and two less-studied risk factors: stress and sleep. Families with young children from five American Indian communities nationwide were randomly assigned to a healthy lifestyle intervention ( Wellness Journey) augmented with social support (Facebook and text messaging) or a child safety control group ( Safety Journey) for 1 year. After Year 1, families in the Safety Journey receive the Wellness Journey, and families in the Wellness Journey start the Safety Journey with continued wellness-focused social support based on communities' request that all families receive the intervention. Primary (adult body mass index and child body mass index z-score) and secondary (health behaviors) outcomes are assessed after Year 1 with additional analyses planned after Year 2. Results To date, 450 adult/child dyads have been enrolled (100% target enrollment). Statistical analyses await trial completion in 2017. Lessons learned Conducting a community-partnered randomized controlled trial requires significant formative work, relationship building, and ongoing flexibility. At the communities' request, the study involved minimal exclusion criteria, focused on wellness rather than obesity, and included an active

  16. Indian Voices; The First Convocation of American Indian Scholars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costo, Rupert; And Others

    The document reports on The First Convocation of American Indian Scholars, which was attended by professional people, artists, traditional historians, etc. As noted, the 4-day convocation was conceived, organized, and directed entirely by Native Americans and was limited to 200 participants, among whom were 36 Native American students. The…

  17. Effects of Alcohol Use and Anti-American Indian Attitudes on Domestic-Violence Culpability Decisions for American Indian and Euro-American Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda, Cynthia Willis; Hack, Lori; Tehee, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have focused on the unique issues surrounding American Indian violence. Yet American Indian women are at high risk for domestic abuse, and domestic violence has been identified as the most important issue for American Indians now and in the future by the National Congress of American Indians. American Indian women suffer from domestic…

  18. American Indian Men's Perceptions of Breast Cancer Screening for American Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Melissa K; Pacheco, Joseph; James, Aimee S; Brown, Travis; Ndikum-Moffor, Florence; Choi, Won S; Greiner, K Allen; Daley, Christine M

    2014-01-01

    Screening, especially screening mammography, is vital for decreasing breast cancer incidence and mortality. Screening rates in American Indian women are low compared to other racial/ethnic groups. In addition, American Indian women are diagnosed at more advanced stages and have lower 5-year survival rate than others. To better address the screening rates of American Indian women, focus groups (N=8) were conducted with American Indian men (N=42) to explore their perceptions of breast cancer screening for American Indian women. Our intent was to understand men's support level toward screening. Using a community-based participatory approach, focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using a text analysis approach developed by our team. Topics discussed included breast cancer and screening knowledge, barriers to screening, and suggestions to improve screening rates. These findings can guide strategies to improve knowledge and awareness, communication among families and health care providers, and screening rates in American Indian communities.

  19. American Indian Studies, Multiculturalism, and the Academic Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, David L.

    2013-01-01

    The current status of multicultural and diversity efforts suggests the need for incorporating into the discussion of librarianship an understanding of previously underrepresented populations such as the American Indian. American Indian Studies speaks from the American Indian perspective and addresses the contemporary condition of American Indians.…

  20. A Community-Based Intervention to Prevent Obesity Beginning at Birth among American Indian Children: Study Design and Rationale for the PTOTS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanja, Njeri; Aickin, Mikel; Lutz, Tam; Mist, Scott; Jobe, Jared B.; Maupomé, Gerardo; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Eating and physical activity behaviors associated with adult obesity have early antecedents, yet few studies have focused on obesity prevention interventions targeting very young children. Efforts to prevent obesity beginning at birth seem particularly important in populations at risk for early-onset obesity. National estimates indicate that American Indian (AI) children have higher rates of overweight and obesity than children of other races/ethnicities. The Prevention of Toddler Obesity and Teeth Health Study (PTOTS) is a community-partnered randomized controlled trial designed to prevent obesity beginning at birth in AI children. PTOTS was developed to test the effectiveness of a multi-component intervention designed to: promote breastfeeding, reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, appropriately time the introduction of healthy solid foods, and counsel parents to reduce sedentary lifestyles in their children. A birth cohort of 577 children from five AI tribes is randomized by tribe to either the intervention (three tribes) or the comparison condition (two tribes). The strengths and weaknesses of PTOTS include a focus on a critical growth phase, placement in the community, and intervention at many levels, using a variety of approaches. PMID:23001689

  1. Promoting Books and Media: A Native American Indian Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses children's literature on Native American Indians and suggests ideas for using the literature in the school library media center or classroom by the library media specialist or by the classroom teacher. Activities and appropriate materials are suggested for the topics of housing, poetry, food, biography, crafts and music, and traditional…

  2. CHILE: Outcomes of a group randomized controlled trial of an intervention to prevent obesity in preschool Hispanic and American Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sally M; Myers, Orrin B; Cruz, Theresa H; Morshed, Alexandra B; Canaca, Glenda F; Keane, Patricia C; O'Donald, Elena R

    2016-08-01

    We examined the outcomes of the Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) study, a group randomized controlled trial to design, implement, and test the efficacy of a trans-community intervention to prevent obesity in children enrolled in Head Start centers in rural American Indian and Hispanic communities in New Mexico. CHILE was a 5-year evidence-based intervention that used a socioecological approach to improving dietary intake and increasing physical activity of 1898 children. The intervention included a classroom curriculum, teacher and food service training, family engagement, grocery store participation, and healthcare provider support. Height and weight measurements were obtained four times (fall of 2008, spring and fall of 2009, and spring of 2010), and body mass index (BMI) z-scores in the intervention and comparison groups were compared. At baseline, demographic characteristics in the comparison and intervention groups were similar, and 33% of all the children assessed were obese or overweight. At the end of the intervention, there was no significant difference between the two groups in BMI z-scores. Obesity prevention research among Hispanic and AI preschool children in rural communities is challenging and complex. Although the CHILE intervention was implemented successfully, changes in overweight and obesity may take longer than 2years to achieve. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. THE SURVEY OF WELL-BEING OF YOUNG CHILDREN: RESULTS OF A FEASIBILITY STUDY WITH AMERICAN INDIAN AND ALASKA NATIVE COMMUNITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Sarche, Michelle; Trucksess, Caitlin

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of the Survey of Well-Being of Young Children (SWYC), a new screener for socioemotional and developmental problems and family risk in children birth to age 5 years, for use in American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) communities. A Community of Learning within the Tribal Early Childhood Research Center, composed of university researchers, tribal early childhood program staff and evaluators, and federal partners, utilized a community-based participatory research approach to guide this qualitative study. Thirty-two focus groups and 20 key informant interviews (N = 199) were conducted with staff from Head Start, Home Visiting, and Child Care programs; pediatricians; behavioral health providers; parents of young children; tribal leaders; and other stakeholders in seven diverse AIAN communities. Three themes emerged: (a) a strong need to screen early for socioemotional and developmental problems and family risk; (b) the importance of a carefully designed process for screening; and (c) the importance of examining the content of the SWYC for cultural fit specific to tribal communities. Findings support two recommendations: (a) the development of guidelines for using the SWYC in tribal early childhood settings and (b) a full-scale validation study to determine appropriate use with and norms for children in tribal communities. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  4. Paraprofessional-delivered home-visiting intervention for American Indian teen mothers and children: 3-year outcomes from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Allison; Mullany, Britta; Neault, Nicole; Goklish, Novalene; Billy, Trudy; Hastings, Ranelda; Lorenzo, Sherilynn; Kee, Crystal; Lake, Kristin; Redmond, Cleve; Carter, Alice; Walkup, John T

    2015-02-01

    The Affordable Care Act provides funding for home-visiting programs to reduce health care disparities, despite limited evidence that existing programs can overcome implementation and evaluation challenges with at-risk populations. The authors report 36-month outcomes of the paraprofessional-delivered Family Spirit home-visiting intervention for American Indian teen mothers and children. Expectant American Indian teens (N=322, mean age=18.1 years) from four southwestern reservation communities were randomly assigned to the Family Spirit intervention plus optimized standard care or optimized standard care alone. Maternal and child outcomes were evaluated at 28 and 36 weeks gestation and 2, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months postpartum. At baseline the mothers had high rates of substance use (>84%), depressive symptoms (>32%), dropping out of school (>57%), and residential instability (51%). Study retention was ≥83%. From pregnancy to 36 months postpartum, mothers in the intervention group had significantly greater parenting knowledge (effect size=0.42) and parental locus of control (effect size=0.17), fewer depressive symptoms (effect size=0.16) and externalizing problems (effect size=0.14), and lower past month use of marijuana (odds ratio=0.65) and illegal drugs (odds ratio=0.67). Children in the intervention group had fewer externalizing (effect size=0.23), internalizing (effect size=0.23), and dysregulation (effect size=0.27) problems. The paraprofessional home-visiting intervention promoted effective parenting, reduced maternal risks, and improved child developmental outcomes in the U.S. population subgroup with the fewest resources and highest behavioral health disparities. The methods and results can inform federal efforts to disseminate and sustain evidence-based home-visiting interventions in at-risk populations.

  5. 76 FR 76603 - Improving American Indian and Alaska Native Educational Opportunities and Strengthening Tribal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ..., including Native language immersion programs, that encourage the learning and development of AI/AN children... Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1059c). Sec. 3. White House Initiative on American Indian and Alaska Native Education. (a) Establishment. There is hereby established the White House Initiative on American Indian and...

  6. American Indian Studies as an Academic Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Clara Sue

    2011-01-01

    When American Indian/Native American studies (AI/NAS) programs began to emerge in the halls of academia during the late 1960s and early 1970s, some who served as faculty and staff questioned whether they would be one-generation phenomena. Would the programs survive, would they continue to draw students, and could they make an impact on…

  7. Building bridges in American Indian bereavement research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Andrea C

    2009-01-01

    Due to the severity of the risks involved in violation of ethical principles with research of American Indian populations, more attention in literature is needed on the topic. This article reviews discussions of ethical and methodological issues, uses Muscogee Creeks' responses from the author's prior study (Walker, 2008; Walker & Balk, 2007) as an example and application, and specifically focuses on the research of death and bereavement. The article provides ethical reflection and recommendations for designing death and bereavement research as an outsider to the culture, as well as for building trust with participants in American Indian populations.

  8. Honoring Their Way: Counseling American Indian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayle, Andrea Dixon; Chee, Christine; Sand, Jennifer K.

    2006-01-01

    The authors review current literature on issues facing American Indian (AI) women and discuss implications for providing culturally sensitive counseling with these women. A case study of a Dine (Navajo) woman living within mainstream society and holding true to her traditional cultural beliefs illustrates how a culturally responsive approach to…

  9. American Indian Women and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struthers, Roxanne; Savik, Kay; Hodge, Felicia Schanche

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is currently the number one killer of American women. Consequently, CVD is a concern for all women, including ethnic women. However, little is known about CVD behaviors and responses to CVD symptomology among minority women, especially American Indian women. Response behaviors to chest pain require important actions. This article examines response behaviors to chest pain in a group of American Indian women participants of the Inter-Tribal Heart Project. In 1992 to 1994, 866 American Indian women, aged 22 years and older, participated in face-to-face interviews to answer survey questions on multiple areas related to cardiovascular disease on 3 rural reservations in Minnesota and Wisconsin. A secondary data analysis was conducted on selected variables including demographic characteristics, healthcare access, rating of health status, personal and family history of cardiovascular disease, and action in response to crushing chest pain that lasted longer than 15 minutes. Research findings report that 68% of women would actively seek healthcare immediately if experiencing crushing chest pain that lasted longer than 15 minutes. However, 264 women (32%) would take a passive action to crushing chest pain, with 23% reporting they would sit down and wait until it passed. Analysis revealed women reporting a passive response were younger in age (under age 45) and had less education (less than a high school education). These findings have implications for nurses and other healthcare providers working in rural, geographically isolated Indian reservations. How to present CVD education in a culturally appropriate manner remains a challenge. PMID:15191257

  10. Elder Abuse in American Indian Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisko, Briana

    2009-01-01

    Although the many American Indian tribes of the United States are unique in their own customs, languages, and histories, a common thread throughout their traditions and cultural lifestyles is that they are of a culture that reveres the elder in their communities. Elders are the carriers of the culture/history; they are the storytellers, holders of…

  11. Hereditary polymorphic light eruption of American Indians: occurrence in non-Indians with polymorphic light eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, R M; Johnson, J A

    1996-04-01

    Hereditary polymorphic light eruption (HPLE) occurs unique ly in the American Indian and Inuit and exhibits autosomal dominant transmission. Because the cutaneous expression of HPLE resembles that of polymorphic light eruption (PLE) and because many non-Indians in the United States have American Indian heritage, some instances of PLE may actually be HPLE. Our purpose was to determine whether non-Indian patients with PLE have characteristics suggestive of HPLE. We surveyed in Nebraska 25 European-Caucasian and 36 African-American patients with PLE for American Indian heritage and photosensitive relatives. Nonphotosensitive subjects (52 Caucasians and 40 African Americans) were surveyed for American Indian heritage. American Indian heritage occurred in 11 Caucasian patients (44%); of those, seven (64%) had photosensitive relatives. Likewise, 29 African Americans (81%) had American Indian heritage; 19 (66%) of those had photosensitive relatives. American Indian heritage occurred in 10 Caucasian control subjects (19%) and in 34 African-American control subjects (85%). If American Indian heritage and a family history of photosensitivity are definitive for HPLE, seven (28%) of our Caucasian patients and 19 (53%) of our African-American patients have HPLE rather than PLE. We urge physicians who suspect PLE in non-Indians to ask about American Indian heritage and photosensitive relatives and to screen their present patients with PLE for such characteristics.

  12. Cross-Sectional Relationships Between Household Food Insecurity and Child BMI, Feeding Behaviors, and Public Assistance Utilization Among Head Start Children From Predominantly Hispanic and American Indian Communities in the CHILE Study

    OpenAIRE

    Trappmann, Jessica L.; Jimenez, Elizabeth Yakes; Keane, Patricia C.; Cohen, Deborah A.; Davis, Sally M.

    2015-01-01

    Associations between food insecurity and overweight/obesity, feeding behaviors, and public food assistance utilization have been explored to a greater extent among adults and adolescents than among young children. This cross-sectional study examines a subset of pre-intervention implementation data (n = 347) among families participating in the Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) study conducted in rural New Mexico among predominantly Hispanic and American Indian He...

  13. Assessing food selection in a health promotion program: validation of a brief instrument for American Indian children in the southwest United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, K M; Cunningham-Sabo, L; Lambert, L C; McCalman, R; Skipper, B J; Davis, S M

    2000-02-01

    Brief dietary assessment instruments are needed to evaluate behavior changes of participants in dietary intervention programs. The purpose of this project was to design and validate an instrument for children participating in Pathways to Health, a culturally appropriate, cancer prevention curriculum. Validation of a brief food selection instrument, Yesterday's Food Choices (YFC), which contained 33 questions about foods eaten the previous day with response choices of yes, no, or not sure. Reference data for validation were 24-hour dietary recalls administered individually to 120 students selected randomly. The YFC and 24-hour dietary recalls were administered to American Indian children in fifth- and seventh-grade classes in the Southwest United States. Dietary recalls were coded for food items in the YFC and results were compared for each item using percentage agreement and the kappa statistic. Percentage agreement for all items was greater than 60%; for most items it was greater than 70%, and for several items it was greater than 80%. The amount of agreement beyond that explained by chance (kappa statistic) was generally small. Three items showed substantial agreement beyond chance (kappa > or = 0.6); 2 items showed moderate agreement (kappa = 0.40 to 0.59) most items showed fair agreement (kappa = 0.20 to 0.39). The food items showing substantial agreement were hot or cold cereal, low-fat milk, and mutton or chile stew. Fried or scrambled eggs and deep-fried foods showed moderate agreement beyond chances. Previous development and validation of brief food selection instruments for children participating in health promotion programs has had limited success. In this study, instrument-related factors that apparently contributed to poor agreement between data from the YFC and 24-hour dietary recall were inclusion of categories of foods vs specific foods; food knowledge, preparation, and vocabulary, item length, and overreporting of attractive foods. Collecting and

  14. Indian Education in the American Colonies, 1607-1783.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Margaret Connell

    Indian schooling in colonial America was continuously immersed in the exchange between cultures that involved religion, land ownership, disease, alcohol, and warfare, and was molded by trade in furs and hides, and Indian slaves. In the past two decades American scholars have begun to reinterpret colonial North American Indian history and the…

  15. An Exploratory Analysis of American Indian Children's Cultural Engagement, Fluid Cognitive Skills, and Standardized Verbal IQ Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsethlikai, Monica

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory cross-sectional study examined fluid cognitive skills and standardized verbal IQ scores in relation to cultural engagement amongst Tohono O'odham children (N = 99; ages 7 to 12 years). Guardians with higher socioeconomic status engaged their children in more cultural activities, and participation in more cultural activities…

  16. Culturally Informed Social Work Practice with American Indian Clients: Guidelines for Non-Indian Social Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Edith Ellison; Ellison, Florence

    1996-01-01

    Culturally informed social work health and mental health interventions directed toward American Indian clients must be harmonious with their environment and acculturation. Discusses American Indian beliefs about health and illness and degrees of acculturation. Guidelines are offered to help non-Indian social workers design culturally appropriate…

  17. American Indian Studies: Intellectual Navel Gazing or Academic Discipline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Clara Sue

    2009-01-01

    The academic field of Native American/American Indian studies (NAS/AIS) has been and largely remains a product of political forces at the national level and now at the tribal level. The very recognition of American Indians as a unique group by the U.S. government is a political statement of survival. In this article, the author revisits the…

  18. A Research Note on American Indian Criminal Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunstein, Rich; Anderson, Bill

    2008-01-01

    One confronts many difficulties when conducting policy-relevant criminal justice research that focuses on American Indian interests. Foremost among these difficulties is the great variation in relevant contexts that apply to this area of research. From the urban context of large American cities, where American Indians constitute a slim minority…

  19. California Wellness Study: American Indians and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Felicia Schanche; Kotkin-Jaszi, Suzanne T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies the prevalence and predictors of obesity among California’s American Indian adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted at 13 rural sites. Indian healthcare clinics served as the sampling frame and were selected because of their proximity and access to the target population. Four-hundred and fifty adult American Indians participated; 74 percent were female and 26 percent were male. The average age was 40, ranging from 18–74. Measures included socio-demographics, general health, BMI, type 2 diabetes, exercise and dietary habits. Eighty-two percent were overweight, obese or morbidly obese. Chi-square tests revealed three variables significantly associated with BMI categories: having type 2 diabetes, female gender and poor general health status. A logistic regression model for obese/morbidly obese (BMI > 30) versus overweight/normal (BMI < 30) persons found gender and diabetes status as significant predictors, while general health status showed trend. Females had 1.59 greater odds of being obese than males (p=0.04). Those that do not have diabetes are less likely to be obese (p=0.02). Those that do not have good general health were 2.5 times more likely to be obese than those that have good general health (p=0.06). Overall goodness of fit was significant (p=0.0009). It is important to identify individuals and population who are normal/overweight, obese/morbidly obese so support and interventions can be planned and implemented. PMID:21625381

  20. Advantages of video questionnaire in estimating asthma prevalence and risk factors for school children: findings from an asthma survey in American Indian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Fawn; Rhoades, Everett R; Tarpay, Martha; Eichner, June E

    2010-09-01

    The aims of the present study were to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of asthma among a sample of American Indian youth and to evaluate survey instruments used in determining asthma prevalence and risk factors. Three hundred and fifty-two adolescents aged 9 to 21 years enrolled in an Indian boarding school completed an asthma screening. The survey instruments were a written questionnaire and a video-illustrated questionnaire prepared from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), school health records, and a health questionnaire. Participants also underwent spirometry testing. The prevalence of self-reported asthma varied from 12.7% to 13.4% depending upon the instrument used and the questions asked. A history of hay fever, respiratory infections, and family history of asthma were found to be risk factors for asthma by all instruments. Female gender and living on a reservation were significantly associated with asthma by some, but not all, instruments. Airway obstruction was highly associated with one asthma symptom (wheeze) shown in the video questionnaire. Associations for most risk factors with asthma were strongest for the video questionnaire. The prevalence of self-reported asthma among these American Indian youth was similar to rates reported for other ethnic groups. The video-based questionnaire may be the most sensitive tool for identifying individuals at risk for asthma.

  1. Ohoyo Makachi: Words of Today's American Indian Women. A First Collection of Oratory by American Indian/Alaska Native Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verble, Sedelta, Ed.

    The volume presents a collection of 39 conference speeches symbolizing an effort by American Indian and Alaska Native women to speak for themselves, about themselves and to each other. Topics of speeches presented at Tahlequah consist of: past positives and present problems of Indian women; squaw image stereotyping; status of Indian women in…

  2. Effect of Otitis Media upon Reading Scores of Indian Children in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaldwell, William A.

    1989-01-01

    Finds that lower reading scores were related to evidence of past or present middle ear infection among 524 American Indian children in northern and southern Ontario. Discusses the high incidence of otitis media among young Indian children, and educational implications. Contains 29 references. (SV)

  3. American Indian Studies. Library Research Guide. 2nd Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Phillip M.

    This guide to sources for San Diego (California) State University students doing library research on topics related to American Indian Studies begins by noting that information on North American Indians can be found in a variety of subject disciplines including history, anthropology, education, sociology, health care, law, business, and politics.…

  4. "Starting Stories" among Older Northern Plains American Indian Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Christopher E.

    2009-01-01

    American Indian adults have the highest smoking rate of any racial group in the nation. By the turn of the 21st century, smoking rates for the general adult population were reported to be 24%. Among adolescents in the United States, 34.8% of high school students reported they currently smoked in 1999. In comparison, American Indian adults report…

  5. Guide to Financial Aid for American Indian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Hanna J., Ed.; Thomason, Timothy C., Ed.

    This directory compiles information on college financial aid for American Indian and Alaska Native students. Information is provided on approximately 175 programs exclusively for American Indian and Alaska Native students, including private scholarships and fellowships, school-specific programs and scholarships, state financial aid, tribal…

  6. Giving Voice: A Course on American Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krouse, Susan Applegate

    1997-01-01

    Presents the story of the creation of an undergraduate course on the traditional and contemporary roles of women in North American Indian cultures. Notes that the course was designed around experiential learning precepts and the idea of "giving voice" to American Indian women. Lists texts used and evaluates course strengths. (DSK)

  7. Circles of Women: Professional Skills Training with American Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFromboise, Teresa D.

    This manual is a resource guide for organizing leadership training workshops for American Indian women at various levels of professional training. The resources and ideas for training were supplied by American Indian women who participated in such workshops. Section 1 of the manual presents an overview of critical issues in the professionalization…

  8. Sex Role Attributions of American-Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe

    2001-01-01

    Examines the sex role attributes of American-Indian women as compared to a predominately White normative group using the short form of the Bem Sex Role Inventory. Results indicate a significant difference on the masculine subscale between the two groups with American-Indian women having higher scores. Provides implications for mental health…

  9. The Sky Clears; Poetry of the American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, A. Grove

    More than 200 authentic poems and lyrics of North American Indians are compiled in this anthology. The poetry was translated from tribal languages into English over the past 100 years by students of Indian language, lore, and life. The poems, taken from about 40 North American tribes, include songs of Eskimos of the Arctic coasts, totem-pole…

  10. Financial Management and Culture: The American Indian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danes, Sharon M.; Garbow, Jennifer; Jokela, Becky Hagen

    2016-01-01

    Study investigates distal and proximal contextual influences of the American Indian culture that affect financial decisions and behaviors. Primary household financial managers were interviewed. Study was grounded in Deacon and Firebaugh's "Family Resource Management" theory. Findings indicated that American Indians view many concepts…

  11. The American Indian: Tradition and Transition through Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zastrow, Leona M.

    The purpose of this teaching guide is to educate middle school students about American Indian culture reflected through Indian art forms. Ten contemporary Native American artists are featured with works representing both traditional and transitional techniques and materials. Represented art forms include beadwork, carvings, basketry, jewelry,…

  12. American Indian working women: correlates of subclinical depression among American Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napholz, L

    1999-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which role conflict, life satisfaction, self-esteem, instrumentality, expressiveness, age and education predicts ambulatory depression among a community based sample of urban American Indian working women. The convenience sample consisted of a total of 148 Midwestern American Indian working women, ranging in age from 18 to 65 years. Participants completed five instruments assessing gender-related traits of instrumentality and expressiveness, self-esteem, depression, life satisfaction, role conflict, and socio-demographic information. A forced entry stepwise multiple regression was conducted which included all the designated predictor variables. The significant negative Beta in Step 1 indicated that women scoring on the Masculinity (instrumentality) sub-scale were less likely to have a high depression score. The prediction of depression by the Masculinity sub-scale was no longer significant after the life satisfaction and self-esteem variables were added to the equation in Step 2. There was a significant inverse relationship for life satisfaction and self-esteem in predicting the criterion variable, depression. Thirty-two percent of the variance in the prediction of the dependent variable (depression scores) was accounted for by the six variables. In counselling urban American Indian women, supporting instrumentality, enhancing self-esteem and life satisfaction, can positively impact on ambulatory dysphoria.

  13. Integrating Storytelling into the Mindset of Prospective Teachers of American Indian Students: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeseman, Gary W.; Gapp, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    This study is part of a larger project that explored the use of storytelling as a learning tool in schools in the United States. Here the authors examine storytelling as a pedagogical tool for prospective teachers of American Indian children to enhance classroom learning. The specific intention is to illuminate the pedagogical methodology of…

  14. "In Our Voice": Lessons Learned from a Cardiovascular Disease Curriculum for American Indian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, D.; Burgoyne, K.; Vallie, D. La; Buchwald, D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: American Indian children and adolescents are at risk for obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, elevated cholesterol, and smoking, all of which are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To address these health issues, we developed, implemented, and evaluated a culturally appropriate cardiovascular disease curriculum…

  15. Investigation of Factors Contributing to Diabetes Risk in American Indian/Alaska Native Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam-Zwart, Kayleen; Cawston, Alvina

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between family history, sedentary behaviors, and childhood risk for type 2 diabetes. Participants were 480 students attending schools on or near an American Indian reservation. Data were collected through survey and BMI measurement. Children who frequently watched television or played video games did not…

  16. American Indian Tribal Values: A Critical Consideration in the Education of American Indians/Alaska Natives Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippeconnic, John W., III; Tippeconnic Fox, Mary Jo

    2012-01-01

    The education of American Indians and Alaska Natives has increasingly become more complex given the differences in tribal languages and cultures, especially as changing demographics and issues of Indian identity are considered. There are over 200 languages and vast cultural differences between and within the 565 federally recognized tribes in…

  17. Prevalence of obesity among young Asian-American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anjali; Mitchell, Stephanie; Chirumamilla, Radha; Zhang, Jin; Horn, Ivor B; Lewin, Amy; Huang, Z Jennifer

    2012-12-01

    Asian-American children are considered to be at low risk of obesity, but previous estimates have not distinguished between children from different Asian countries. We estimate the prevalence of obesity among Asian-American children by mother's country of origin, generational status, and family socioeconomic factors using a secondary analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) wave III (children ∼4 years old) dataset. The ECLS-B is a nationally representative study of children born in 2001 that oversampled births to Asian mothers. Asian ethnic categories included Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Asian Indian, Korean, Vietnamese, and Other Asian/Pacific Islander. The primary outcome variable was weight status; overweight = BMI ≥85(th) and obese = BMI ≥95(th) percentile for age and gender. Twenty-six percent [95% confidence interval (CI) 23.6-29.1] of Asian-American 4 year olds were overweight or obese, and 13% (95% CI 10.2-15.2) were obese. Chinese-American children were at lower risk of overweight or obesity (23.5%, 95% CI 18.4-29.5 ) compared to whites (36%, 95% CI 34.3-37.7); Asian-Indian 4 year olds had the lowest rates of overweight or obesity (15.6%, 95% CI 8.0-28.2) and were most likely to be underweight (10%, 95% CI 4.9-19.4). Among Asians,Vietnamese-American children had the highest rate of overweight or obesity (34.7%, 95% CI 0.6-52.3). Vietnamese-American children are at elevated risk of obesity and overweight, whereas Chinese and Asian-Indian children are at low risk. After controlling for Asian ethnicity, maternal education, and household poverty status, Asian-American children whose mothers were born outside the United States were less likely to be obese [odds ratio = 0.55 (0.32-0.95), p = 0.03].

  18. The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act and Its Effects on American Indian Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Randall K. Q. Akee; Katherine A. Spilde; Jonathan B. Taylor

    2015-01-01

    The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (IGRA), passed by the US Congress in 1988, was a watershed in the history of policymaking directed toward reservation-resident American Indians. IGRA set the stage for tribal government-owned gaming facilities. It also shaped how this new industry would develop and how tribal governments would invest gaming revenues. Since then, Indian gaming has approached commercial, state-licensed gaming in total revenues. Gaming operations have had a far-reaching and trans...

  19. Interprofessional oral health initiative in a nondental, American Indian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kate L; Larsson, Laura S

    2017-12-01

    Tooth decay is the most common chronic childhood disease and American Indian (AI) children are at increased risk. Pediatric primary care providers are in an opportune position to reduce tooth decay. The purpose of this study was to integrate and evaluate a pediatric oral health project in an AI, pediatric primary care setting. The intervention set included caregiver education, caries risk assessment, and a same-day dental home referral. All caregiver/child dyads age birth to 5 years presenting to the pediatric clinic were eligible (n = 47). Most children (n = 35, 91.1%) were scored as high risk for caries development. Of those with first tooth eruption (n = 36), ten had healthy teeth (27.8%) and seven had seen a dentist in the past 3 months (19.4%). All others were referred to a dentist (n = 29) and 21 families (72.4%) completed the referral. In fewer than 5 min per appointment (x = 4.73 min), the primary care provider integrated oral health screening, education, and referral into the well-child visit. Oral health is part of total health, and thus should be incorporated into routine well-child visits. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  20. American Indian Parents’ Assessment of and Concern About Their Kindergarten Child’s Weight Status, South Dakota, 2005-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Arcan, Chrisa; Hannan, Peter J.; Himes, John H.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Holy Rock, Bonnie; Smyth, Mary; Story, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is highly prevalent among American Indians, and effective prevention efforts require caregiver involvement. We examined American Indian (AI) parents' assessment of and level of concern about their kindergarten child's weight status. Methods We collected baseline data (fall of 2005 and fall of 2006) on children and their parents or caregivers for a school-based obesity prevention trial (Bright Start) on an AI reservation in South Dakota. The current study uses 413 parent-c...

  1. Association of American Indian cultural identity with physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Glen E; McDougall, Casey L; Dansie, Elizabeth; Garroutte, Eva; Buchwald, Dedra; Henderson, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    Cultural factors are associated with health behaviors among American Indians. Accordingly, the objective of our study was to investigate whether cultural identity, defined as the primary language spoken at home, is associated with: 1) higher total physical activity levels, and 2) levels of leisure-time physical activity recommended for health benefits in a diverse sample of American Indians. Cross-sectional analysis of 5,207 American Indian adults 18 to 82 years. Participants resided on the Oglala Sioux (n=2,025) and Cheyenne River Sioux (n=1,528) reservations in South Dakota, and the Gila River Indian Community (n=1,654) in Arizona. Bicultural participants in South Dakota, but not Arizona, reported significantly higher total physical activity compared to the English-only group (Pcultures with which they identify are recommended.

  2. Rocky mountain spotted fever hospitalizations among American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demma, Linda J; Holman, Robert C; Mikosz, Christina A; Curns, Aaron T; Swerdlow, David L; Paisano, Edna L; Cheek, James E

    2006-09-01

    To describe the epidemiology of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) among American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs), we conducted a retrospective analysis of hospitalization records with an RMSF diagnosis using Indian Health Service (IHS) hospital discharge data for calendar years 1980-2003. A total of 261 RMSF hospitalizations were reported among AIs, for an average annual hospitalization rate of 1.21 per 100,000 persons; two deaths were reported (0.8%). Most hospitalizations (88.5%) occurred in the Southern Plains region, where the rate was 4.23 per 100,000 persons. Children 1-4 years of age had the highest age-specific hospitalization rate of 2.50 per 100,000 persons. The overall annual RMSF hospitalization rate declined during the study period. Understanding the epidemiology of RMSF among AI/ANs and educating IHS/tribal physicians on the diagnosis of tick-borne diseases remain important for the prompt treatment of RMSF and the reduction of the disease occurrence among AI/ANs, particularly in high-risk areas.

  3. Indian Treaties: Two Centuries of Dishonor. American Indian Reader: Current Affairs, Volume 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costo, Rupert; Henry, Jeannette

    Today self-determination, economy, tribal jurisdiction, taxation, water and resource rights, and other aspects of American Indian affairs are affected by issues raised through the treaties and agreements made with Indian nations and tribes, and through the executive orders and statutes. Government policy has been influenced by the pressure brought…

  4. Changing Women: The Cross-Currents of American Indian Feminine Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsosie, Rebecca

    1988-01-01

    Examines the writings of contemporary American Indian women with regard to Euro-American stereotypes and their own concepts of femininity and Indian identity. Relates these writings to the social history of American Indians, traditional beliefs, and the autobiographical experiences of early twentieth century Indian women. Contains 32 references.…

  5. 8 CFR 289.3 - Recording the entry of certain American Indians born in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Indians born in Canada. 289.3 Section 289.3 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS AMERICAN INDIANS BORN IN CANADA § 289.3 Recording the entry of certain American Indians born in Canada. The lawful admission for permanent residence of an American Indian born in Canada...

  6. Sovereignty and social justice: how the concepts affect federal American Indian policy and American Indian health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Donalee

    2018-04-19

    The health disparities that are prevalent among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities are connected to the ideology of sovereignty and often ignored in social work and public health literature. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to examine the health outcomes of American Indians from the time of contact with European settlers to the present through the ideology of sovereignty and federal government AI health policy. The foundation for the health outcomes of AIs and the governmental policies affecting them lie in the ideology of tribal sovereignty. This ideology has greatly impacted how the government views and treats AIs and consequently, how it has impacted their health. From the earliest treaties between European settlers and AIs, this legal relationship has been and remains a perplexing issue. With the examination of tribal sovereignty comes the realization that colonization and governmental polices have greatly contributed to the many social and health problems that AIs suffer from today. Understanding that the health disparities that exist among AI/AN populations cannot only be attributed to individual behavior and choice but is driven by societal, economic and political factors may be used to inform social work education, practice, and research.

  7. American Indian Areas Located in Region 2 (CENSUS.AM_INDIAN_AREAS_R2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are both legal and statistical American Indian, Alaska Native, and native Hawaiian entities for which the U.S. Census Bureau provides data for Census 2000. The...

  8. Temperament Styles of Indian and USA Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, Thomas; Singh, Kuldeep; Callueng, Camelo; Puri, Gurmit Singh; Goen, Akiko

    2011-01-01

    Age, gender, and cross-national differences of children ages 8- through 16-years-old in India (n = 400) and the United States of America (n = 3,200) are examined on four bipolar temperament styles: extroversion-introversion, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling, and organized-flexible styles. In general, Indian children prefer extroverted to…

  9. Moral Minimalism in American Indian Land Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Burke A.

    2005-01-01

    This is an essay about Indian claims for the return of historically stolen lands, written from the perspective of a "Western" academic moral philosopher. I want to try to outline points of agreement and disagreement between Indian and Western moral conceptions and to seek common ground on which land claims can be more clearly evaluated…

  10. American Indian and Alaska Native Heart Disease and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... percent have a bachelor’s degree or higher. The poverty rate of people who report American Indian and ... I11, I13, 120–151. Data Sources: National Vital Statistics System, CDC, and the U.S. Census Bureau. American ...

  11. American Indians, Place Meanings and the Old/New West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo McAvoy

    2002-01-01

    The American West includes millions of acres of national parks, forests and other protected lands. These landscapes are often associated with sense of place and place meanings for those who live there and for people who go there for recreation and tourism. American Indian place meanings regarding national parks and protected areas are often very different from those of...

  12. Motivations of North American Indians in Athletic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Wilma J.

    This is a report on the motives of North American Indians in holding their athletic games. Data were researched from "Annual Reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology" published between 1881 and 1933. Anthropologists, artifact collectors, artist-writers, and historians provided primary evidential sources for athletic game motivation.…

  13. Obesity, Overweightness, and Depressive Symptomology Among American Indian Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitle, David; Eitle, Tamela McNulty

    2018-03-09

    Despite evidence that American Indian adolescents are at a heightened risk of obesity/overweightness and experiencing depression, relative to other groups, there exists a dearth of studies that have examined the association between objective and perceptual measures of obesity and overweightness and depression with this understudied group. Our study represents one of the first studies to examine this association among American Indian youth. Using a subsample of American Indian youth from waves I and II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (a survey of schools and students in the USA, with wave I collected in 1994 and wave II collected in 1995), we explore this association. We examine three measures of weight: obesity, body mass index, and weight perception. We also consider gender-specific models and a subsample of non-Hispanic whites, in order to assess race differences in the obesity and overweightness-depression relationship. Our findings reveal that neither of our objective measures of weight, obesity, nor body mass index are significant predictors of depressive symptoms for either American Indian or white youth. However, we find evidence that the subjective measure of weight perception is a significant predictor of depressive symptoms for white females, but not for American Indian females. Our results contribute to past findings that measures of obesity/overweightness weight may be more important to white female's mental health than females from other racial groups, although additional research is warranted.

  14. Adult caregiving among American Indians: the role of cultural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goins, R Turner; Spencer, S Melinda; McGuire, Lisa C; Goldberg, Jack; Wen, Yang; Henderson, Jeffrey A

    2011-06-01

    With a sample of American Indian adults, we estimated the prevalence of adult caregiving, assessed the demographic and cultural profile of caregivers, and examined the association between cultural factors and being a caregiver. This is the first such study conducted with American Indians. Data came from a cross-sectional study of 5,207 American Indian adults residing on 2 closely related Lakota Sioux reservations in the Northern Plains and one American Indian community in the Southwest. Cultural factors included measures of cultural identity and traditional healing practices. Seventeen percent of our sample reported being caregivers. In both the Northern Plains and Southwest, caregiving was positively correlated with younger age, being a woman, larger household size, attending and participating in Native events, and endorsement of traditional healing practices. In both regions, attendance and participation in Native events and engagement in traditional healing practices were associated with increased odds of caregiving after adjusting for covariates. Only in the Northern Plains did we find that speaking some Native language at home was associated with increased odds of being a caregiver. Examination of interaction terms indicated some sex differences in the association between cultural factors and caregiving in the Northern Plains but not in the Southwest. Our findings indicate that greater cultural identity and engagement in traditional healing practices are related to caregiving in American Indian populations. Caregiving research, intervention efforts, and caregiving programs and services in Native communities should pay special attention to the dynamics of culture and caregiving.

  15. A Preliminary Study of Library Programs Related to American Indian Studies Programs in Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Charles

    The presence of library programs and their relationship to academic programs of Native American Studies were surveyed in 27 institutions of higher education. Institutions surveyed were those with (1) a program for recruiting American Indians, (2) a distinct staff devoted to American Indians, and (3) some course about American Indians offered in a…

  16. The ethics of heroism in medieval and American Indian tales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, A

    1990-01-01

    Oral-traditional stories detail their heroes' growth through a narrative pattern of exile and return that places the heroes in situations repeatedly challenging their strength and resolve. Through the motif of the quest, medieval and American Indian tales alike reaffirm general psychological truths that bear upon our understanding of human nature. Stories about heroes are stories about us: about our desires to grow up, to defeat death, to prove ourselves in difficult situations, and to achieve recognition or admiration among our peers (Becker, 1973, p. 4). In this way, medieval and American Indian tales are about self-actualization. They maintain that "one has within oneself proclivity toward growth and unity of personality ... and an automatic thrust toward expression" of these qualities (Yalom, 1980, p. 9). All forms of literature, however, reflect ideas peculiar to their cultures. The ways in which these basic human truths are represented in medieval and American Indian tales suggest the differing religious or social concerns that have informed these truths and have given them shape. To a large degree, the medieval knight's view of "self" and "other" encompasses the view that Western humanity has had (and continues to have) of itself. This is a view conditioned upon the superiority of the "self" as measured against the inferiority of the "other," reinforced through existing social (hierarchial) and religious (Judeo-Christian) codes of behavior. Such codes are not only inadequate to the task of interpreting American Indian perceptions of "self" and "other," they are inimical to the ethical foundation underlying them. Scott Momaday remarks that "you cannot understand how the Indian thinks of himself in relation to the world around him unless you understand his conception of what is appropriate; particularly what is morally appropriate within the context of that relationship" (Basso, 1984, p. 46). For the American Indian hero, self-actualization is self

  17. Fatherhood roles and drug use among young American Indian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neault, Nicole; Mullany, Britta; Powers, Julia; Coho-Mescal, Valerie; Parker, Sean; Walkup, John; Barlow, Allison

    2012-09-01

    High rates of substance abuse among young American Indian (AI) fathers pose multigenerational challenges for AI families and communities. The objective of this study was to describe substance use patterns among young AI fathers and examine the intersection of substance use with men's fatherhood roles and responsibilities. As part of a home-visiting intervention trial for AI teen mothers and their children, in 2010 we conducted a descriptive study of fatherhood and substance use on three southwestern reservations. Substance use and parenting data were collected from n = 87 male partners of adolescent mothers using audio computer-assisted self-interviews. Male partners were on average 22.9 years old, primarily living with their children (93%), unmarried (87%), and unemployed (70%). Lifetime substance use was high: 80% reported alcohol; 78% marijuana; 34% methamphetamines; 31% crack/cocaine; and 16% reported drinking binge in the past 6 months. Substance use was associated with history of alcohol abuse among participants' fathers (but not mothers); participants' poor relationships with their own fathers; unemployment status; and low involvement in child care. Drug and alcohol abuse may be obstructing ideal fatherhood roles among multiple generations of AI males. Targeting drug prevention among young AI men during early fatherhood may provide special opportunity to reduce substance use and improve parenting. Intergenerational approaches may hold special promise.

  18. Sleep Problems, Suicidality and Depression among American Indian Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; McCall, Vaughn W; Anderson, Andrea; Bryant, Alfred; Bell, Ronny

    2013-09-01

    Mental health and sleep problems are important public health concerns among adolescents yet little is known about the relationship between sleep, depressive symptoms, and suicidality among American Indian youth. This study examined the impact of sleep and other factors on depressive symptoms and suicidality among Lumbee American Indian adolescents (N=80) ages 11-18. At the bivariate level, sleepiness, was associated with depression but not with suicidality. Time in bed (TIB) was not associated with depression, but more TIB decreased the likelihood of suicidality. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with increased likelihood of suicidality. At the multivariate level, sleepiness, suicidality, and self-esteem were associated with depression. TIB and depressive symptoms were the only variables associated with suicidality. In working with American Indian youth, it may be helpful to consider sleep patterns as part of a comprehensive assessment process for youth who have or are at risk for depression and suicide.

  19. Assessing accuracy of genotype imputation in American Indians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Malhotra

    Full Text Available Genotype imputation is commonly used in genetic association studies to test untyped variants using information on linkage disequilibrium (LD with typed markers. Imputing genotypes requires a suitable reference population in which the LD pattern is known, most often one selected from HapMap. However, some populations, such as American Indians, are not represented in HapMap. In the present study, we assessed accuracy of imputation using HapMap reference populations in a genome-wide association study in Pima Indians.Data from six randomly selected chromosomes were used. Genotypes in the study population were masked (either 1% or 20% of SNPs available for a given chromosome. The masked genotypes were then imputed using the software Markov Chain Haplotyping Algorithm. Using four HapMap reference populations, average genotype error rates ranged from 7.86% for Mexican Americans to 22.30% for Yoruba. In contrast, use of the original Pima Indian data as a reference resulted in an average error rate of 1.73%.Our results suggest that the use of HapMap reference populations results in substantial inaccuracy in the imputation of genotypes in American Indians. A possible solution would be to densely genotype or sequence a reference American Indian population.

  20. A Report on: The National Seminar of American Indian Women [and] the North American Indian Women's Association Established by Delegates of this Seminar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    A report on the National Seminar of American Indian Women is presented. This meeting was planned to provide an opportunity for American Indian women to discuss the needs of Indian communities and expand their understanding of what constitutes an adequate community. The delegates were lay people selected from their home communities. Sixty-eight of…

  1. Aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphism in North American, South American, and Mexican Indian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedde, H W; Agarwal, D P; Harada, S; Rothhammer, F; Whittaker, J O; Lisker, R

    1986-01-01

    While about 40% of the South American Indian populations (Atacameños, Mapuche, Shuara) were found to be deficient in aldehyde dehydrogenase isozyme I (ALDH2 or E2), preliminary investigations showed very low incidence of isozyme deficiency among North American natives (Sioux, Navajo) and Mexican Indians (mestizo). Possible implications of such trait differences on cross-cultural behavioral response to alcohol drinking are discussed. PMID:3953578

  2. History of Indian Arts Education in Santa Fe: The Institute of American Indian Arts with Historical Background 1890 to 1962.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmhausen, Winona

    This book traces the history of the Institute of American Indian Arts in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Sections cover four time periods in the evolution of the Institute: the United States Indian Industrial School at Sante Fe, 1890-1932; the Santa Fe Indian School, 1930-62; and the Institute of American Indian Arts, 1962-70 and 1970-78. The United States…

  3. Tobacco industry misappropriation of American Indian culture and traditional tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Silva, Joanne; O'Gara, Erin; Villaluz, Nicole T

    2018-02-19

    Describe the extent to which tobacco industry marketing tactics incorporated American Indian culture and traditional tobacco. A keyword search of industry documents was conducted using document archives from the Truth Tobacco Documents Library. Tobacco industry documents (n=76) were analysed for themes. Tobacco industry marketing tactics have incorporated American Indian culture and traditional tobacco since at least the 1930s, with these tactics prominently highlighted during the 1990s with Natural American Spirit cigarettes. Documents revealed the use of American Indian imagery such as traditional headdresses and other cultural symbols in product branding and the portrayal of harmful stereotypes of Native people in advertising. The historical and cultural significance of traditional tobacco was used to validate commercially available tobacco. The tobacco industry has misappropriated culture and traditional tobacco by misrepresenting American Indian traditions, values and beliefs to market and sell their products for profit. Findings underscore the need for ongoing monitoring of tobacco industry marketing tactics directed at exploiting Native culture and counter-marketing tactics that raise awareness about the distinction between commercial and traditional tobacco use. Such efforts should be embedded within a culturally sensitive framework to reduce the burden of commercial tobacco use. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. NAP SACC: Implementation of an Obesity Prevention Intervention in an American Indian Head Start Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, Julie A; Andresen, Pamela A

    2016-01-01

    Low-income American Indian preschoolers are at greatest risk for overweight and obesity among children aged 2-5 years. The Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) program is an evidence-based intervention that promotes healthy weight development for children enrolled in child care centers. The goal of this continuous quality improvement program is for the child care staff to establish environmental policies and practices that positively influence nutrition and physical activity-related behaviors. A community needs assessment of a Head Start program on an American Indian reservation identified obesity as a priority issue. This project implemented NAP SACC at 15 Head Start sites on the reservation.

  5. PROTAGONISM OF AMERICAN INDIANS IN WALTER LANTZ'S CARTOONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Duarte Oliveira Venancio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Condemned to a dubious media representation in early cinema through the novels of the late nineteenth century, the North American Indians never had a high profile in films of this period. However, an animator, Walter Lantz, has a high degree of characterization of Native Americans in his work. The aim of this paper is to study the role of Native Americans in these cartoons and analyze the social implications of these choices, using the concepts of apparatus and formula. Furthermore, the analysis will include a portrayal of the American media scene before and after Lantz, seeking disruptions and legacies.

  6. Living and Working in Two Worlds: Case Studies of Five American Indian Women Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Brenda; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents case studies of five American Indian women teachers, examining how these contemporary Indian women teachers view the importance of their own tribal and/or American Indian culture and how they have balanced it with the pervasive Euro-American society in their own lives and classrooms. (SR)

  7. Modeling: An Important Ingredient in Higher Education for American Indian Women Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, E. Daniel; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Discusses characteristics and behaviors of effective role models for American Indian women, based on surveys of graduates of the American Indian Social Work Career Training Program at the University of Utah. Recruitment and retention of American Indian women students will require an active support system. (JAC)

  8. Through the Eyes of the Eagle (American Indian translation in Chickasaw)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Through the Eyes of the Eagle tells children about looking to the healthy ways and wisdom of their elders (American Indian translation in Chickasaw).

  9. Through the Eyes of the Eagle (American Indian translation in Paiute)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Through the Eyes of the Eagle tells children about looking to the healthy ways and wisdom of their elders (Listen to the American Indian translation in Paiute).

  10. Through the Eyes of the Eagle (American Indian translation in Shoshone)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Through the Eyes of the Eagle tells children about looking to the healthy ways and wisdom of their elders (Listen to the American Indian translation in Shoshone).

  11. Making meaning of urban American Indian identity: a multistage integrative process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Nancy M

    2010-10-01

    The cultural identity and tribal connectedness of American Indians are commonly believed to have been negatively affected by the urbanization process in which American Indians have been involved during the past half century. This phenomenological study examined the processes through which cultural identity was formed and maintained by a group of American Indians who had lived since childhood in urban areas, away from their reservations or tribal communities. Seven urban Indian adults, each from a different tribe, shared their experiences related to coming to understand what it means to be American Indian and the development of their American Indian cultural identity. Four themes emerged from participant interviews and were seen to correspond to stages that participants passed through, from their teens through their 30s, that led to understanding and integration of their American Indian identity. Findings point to the importance of considering issues of cultural identity development when providing social work services to urban American Indian young adults.

  12. Preventing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancy among American-Indian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jamie; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Hanson, Jessica D.

    2016-01-01

    Research has determined that the prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) must occur preconceptually, either by reducing alcohol intake in women planning pregnancy or at risk for becoming pregnant, or by preventing pregnancy in women drinking at risky levels. One such AEP prevention programme with non-pregnant American-Indian (AI) women is…

  13. Exploitation of American Indian Symbols: A First Amendment Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, Joseph J., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    American Indian symbols are used extensively as logos, mascots, nicknames, and trademarks. These images identify postsecondary as well as secondary academic institutions, professional sports franchises, commercial products, and geographic locations. Over the past few decades, efforts have been directed at eliminating or at least reducing the use…

  14. Health Factors Influencing Education of American Indians. A Position Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deMontigny, Lionel H.

    The resume of health problems facing the American Indian school child emphasized that health, culture, education, and economics are mutually interdependent and must be evaluated and planned for jointly. Specific health problems discussed include general health, nutrition, fever and chronic illness, hearing, sight, and mental health.…

  15. Mental Health and American Indian Women's Multiple Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napholz, Linda

    1995-01-01

    Survey of 148 college educated, employed American Indian women in urban Wisconsin examined sex role orientation and indicators of mental well-being. Sex-typed respondents had significantly higher depression, higher role conflict, lower self-esteem, and lower life satisfaction than cross-typed or androgynous respondents. Undifferentiated…

  16. Motivating American Indians into Graduate Studies. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Clara Sue

    There are no quick and easy tips to motivating American Indian students into graduate education. The decision to make a commitment of time and money to graduate training, particularly at the doctoral level, and the ability to succeed in such a program, is affected by a number of factors: (1) parental and peer encouragement; (2) awareness of career…

  17. Tribal Governance and Economic Development of American Indian Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Paige; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes a study examining the political and administrative maturity of two American Indian tribes, one in a high state of development and one in a low state of development. Indicates that there was stability, separation of powers, and minimal conflict in the high development tribe, as well as more independence from federal authority. (MAB)

  18. Physical Activity and Cervical Cancer Testing among American Indian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muus, Kyle J.; Baker-Demaray, Twyla B.; Bogart, T. Andy; Duncan, Glen E.; Jacobsen, Clemma; Buchwald, Dedra S.; Henderson, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Studies have shown that women who engage in high levels of physical activity have higher rates of cancer screening, including Papanicalaou (Pap) tests. Because American Indian (AI) women are at high risk for cervical cancer morbidity and mortality, we examined Pap screening prevalence and assessed whether physical activity was associated…

  19. The American Indian Holocaust: Healing Historical Unresolved Grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brave Heart, Maria Yellow Horse; DeBruyn, Lemyra M.

    1998-01-01

    Argues for the existence of historical unresolved grief among American Indians. Outlines the historical legacy of war, genocide, and boarding schools resulting in intergenerational trauma and a host of associated social problems. Suggests healing strategies that integrate modern and traditional approaches to healing at the individual, family, and…

  20. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: American Indian Religious Freedom Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-11-01

    This Reference Book contains a copy of the American Indian Religious Freedom Act and guidance for DOE compliance with the statute. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically.

  1. General Strain Theory and Substance Use among American Indian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Despite the well-established finding that American Indian adolescents are at a greater risk of illicit substance use and abuse than the general population, few generalist explanations of deviance have been extended to American Indian substance use. Using a popular generalist explanation of deviance, General Strain Theory, we explore the predictive utility of this model with a subsample of American Indian adolescents from waves one and two of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add-Health). Overall, we find mixed support for the utility of General Strain Theory to account for American Indian adolescent substance use. While exposure to recent life events, a common measure of stress exposure, was found to be a robust indicator of substance use, we found mixed support for the thesis that negative affect plays a key role in mediating the link between strain and substance use. However, we did find evidence that personal and social resources serve to condition the link between stress exposure and substance use, with parental control, self-restraint, religiosity, and exposure to substance using peers each serving to moderate the association between strain and substance use, albeit in more complex ways than expected.

  2. Predicting an Alcohol Use Disorder in Urban American Indian Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Linda R.; Miller, Kimberly A.; Beauvais, Fred; Walker, Patricia Silk; Walker, R. Dale

    2014-01-01

    This study examines predictors of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) among an urban American Indian cohort who were followed from approximately age 11 to age 20. Approximately 27% of the sample had a lifetime diagnosis of alcohol abuse or dependence. The results indicated that externalizing, but not internalizing, behaviors, family conflict, and school…

  3. Adult social roles and alcohol use among American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Kaylin M; Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David

    2014-09-01

    American Indians are disproportionately burdened by alcohol-related problems. Yet, research exploring predictors of alcohol use among American Indians has been limited by cross-sectional designs and reservation-based samples. Guided by a life course developmental perspective, the current study used a subsample of American Indians (n=927) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to explore alcohol use (current drinking, usual number of drinks, and binge drinking) among this population. We examined whether adult social roles (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, parenthood, college enrollment, and full-time work) were linked to the rise and fall of alcohol use. Multi-level models demonstrated that adult social roles were linked to alcohol use at the within- and between-person levels. Becoming a parent was linked to a lower likelihood of being a current drinker, fewer alcoholic drinks, and less frequent binge drinking. Transitioning to full-time work was associated with a higher likelihood of being a current drinker and more frequent binge drinking. Results point to the importance of exploring within-group trajectories of alcohol use and highlight the protective and risky nature of adult social roles among American Indians. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Walking in Beauty: An American Indian Perspective on Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Evan Allen; Robbins, Rockey

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce "walking in beauty," an American Indian spiritual perspective related to social justice that emphasizes beauty, harmony, connectedness/unity of experience, and imagination. Walking in beauty includes 3 processes: embodiment, creativity, and appreciation of the sublime. Recommendations are offered for…

  5. Indian boarding school experience, substance use, and mental health among urban two-spirit American Indian/Alaska natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Campbell, Teresa; Walters, Karina L; Pearson, Cynthia R; Campbell, Christopher D

    2012-09-01

    Systematic efforts of assimilation removed many Native children from their tribal communities and placed in non-Indian-run residential schools. To explore substance use and mental health concerns among a community-based sample of 447 urban two-spirit American Indian/Alaska Native adults who had attended boarding school as children and/or who were raised by someone who attended boarding school. Eighty-two respondents who had attended Indian boarding school as children were compared to respondents with no history of boarding school with respect to mental health and substance use. Former boarding school attendees reported higher rates of current illicit drug use and living with alcohol use disorder, and were significantly more likely to have attempted suicide and experienced suicidal thoughts in their lifetime compared to non-attendees. About 39% of the sample had been raised by someone who attended boarding school. People raised by boarding school attendees were significantly more likely to have a general anxiety disorder, experience posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and have suicidal thoughts in their lifetime compared to others.

  6. Mentoring Factors in Doctoral Programs of Mexican American and American Indian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Madeline J.; Fenske, Robert H.

    The purpose of this study was to determine factors affecting satisfaction of Mexican American (MA) and American Indian (AI) students with their doctoral programs. Faculty mentoring plays an extremely significant role in minority education. Previous research indicates differences between males and females in their interaction with faculty. Minority…

  7. Parental psychosocial factors and childhood caries prevention: Data from an American Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albino, Judith; Tiwari, Tamanna; Henderson, William G; Thomas, Jacob F; Braun, Patricia A; Batliner, Terrence S

    2018-04-10

    The objective of this study was to examine the association among psychological and social variables reported by American Indian parents/caregivers of preschool children and changes in their Oral Health Knowledge and Behaviors related to care of their children's teeth. We also investigated the relationship of these factors with progression of caries, as reflected by changes in their children's dmfs. The data used for this study were collected at baseline in a clinical trial of an oral health promotion intervention comprising behavioural and clinical interventions for caries prevention delivered by tribal members on a large Southwestern American Indian reservation. Linear regression analyses were performed for changes (baseline to Year 1) in dmfs, Oral Health Knowledge and Oral Health Behavior scores, with baseline psychosocial measures, taken individually, as the independent variables. Parents' attitudes and beliefs were associated with increases in their Oral Health Knowledge and Behavior and also with the progression of caries for their children. When all participants were considered together, increases in children's dmfs were smaller when the caregiver had higher Internal Oral Health Locus of Control (e = -1.33, P = .004), higher Health Literacy (e = -1.55, P Health Belief Model. For parents in the Intervention group, higher scores on Locus of Control, reflecting beliefs that chance, or other people determine their children's oral health, were associated with larger increases in Oral Health Knowledge (e = 1.73, P = .04) and Behaviors (e = 4.00, P = .005). Prevention of early childhood caries in American Indian children has proved to be especially challenging. Some of the measures identified in this report may suggest promising directions to prevention through approaches that build on competencies and skills to be learned and used within a context more broadly focused on parenting and management of health and family challenges. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A

  8. Early Education for Asian American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Margie K.

    1980-01-01

    A review of early education for Asian American children (Japanese, Chinese, Filipinos, Vietnamese, Koreans, Hawaiians, and Samoans) focuses on the 1975 Asian American Education Project, a study of the learning characteristics of preschool age children and its educational implications. (CM)

  9. The Continuum of Literacy in American Indian Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, Ofelia

    1995-01-01

    Describes the O'odham language and oral tradition of the Tohono O'odham Indians of southern Arizona, relating it to the development of O'odham children's English literacy. Oral tradition and school literacy constitute opposite ends of a literacy continuum, in which English literacy is often isolated from and in conflict with O'odham literacy. (10…

  10. Indian mental concepts on children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitholey, Prabhat; Agarwal, Vivek; Vrat, Satya

    2013-01-01

    Ancient Indian mental concepts of children and adolescents are very similar to the contemporary modern concepts. The ancient concepts were based on a very positive regard for the children's development, education and future independence, adult role and contribution to society. Children were wanted and considered precious. The children were categorized in to 4 different varnas based on their intelligence, abilities, merit and aptitude and educated accordingly, away from their home, at Gurukuls. They had universal right to education. Girls received attention equal to boys. The boys were expected to earn their livelihood, while the girls were expected to be homemakers. Graduation of the young person at the end of education and return to home marked the emancipation from adolescence. Children's physical and mental health and its disorders were given due attention. Aetiology and treatment of physical and mental disorders was in accordance with the overall scientific development of those times.

  11. Assimilating American Indians in James Fenimore Cooper’s Novels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peprník Michal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article employs critical concepts from sociology and anthropology to examine the stereotype of the Vanishing Indian and disclose its contradictory character. The article argues that in James Fenimore Cooper’s late novels from the 1840s a type of American Indian appears who can be regarded as a Vanishing Indian in many respects as he displays some slight degree of assimilation but at the same time he can be found to reveal a surprising amount of resistance to the process of vanishing and marginalization. His peculiar mode of survival and his mode of living demonstrate a certain degree of acculturation, which comes close to Gerald Vizenor’s survivance and for which I propose a term critical integration. I base my study on Susquesus (alias Trackless, Cooper’s less well-known character from The Littlepage Manuscripts, a three-book family saga.

  12. Indian sports nicknames/logos: affective difference between American Indian and non-Indian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRocque, Angela R; McDonald, J Douglas; Weatherly, Jeffrey N; Ferraro, F Richard

    2011-01-01

    The use of American Indian (AI) words and images in athletic teams' nicknames, logos, and mascots remains a controversial issue. This study investigated the emotional impact of the University of North Dakota's "Fighting Sioux" nickname/logo on 33 AI and 36 majority culture (MC) students enrolled at the university. Participants completed the Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist-Revised (MAACL-R) before viewing two slide presentations of Fighting Sioux-related images: one neutral (i.e., non-controversial) and one controversial. Participants completed the MAACL-R after each presentation. They also completed the Nickname and Logo Distress Scale, and AI participants completed the Northern Plains Biculturalism Inventory to assess their degree of cultural orientation. Results showed that AIs experienced higher negative affect following both slide presentations than did MC participants. MC participants' affect was only changed following the controversial slide presentation. The findings suggest AI students may experience significantly higher levels of psychological distress when viewing even neutral images of AI nicknames/logos.

  13. Cultural Difference as the Basis for Creative Education at the Institute of American Indian Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of American Indian Arts, Santa Fe, NM.

    The task of setting up and administering educational programs for the American Indian has been fraught with seemingly insurmountable problems and inbuilt frustrations for both the Indian population and the Federal Government. Many programs are now under way to increase Indian control of Indian affairs, including their own educational institutions.…

  14. Assessing the Language Proficiency of Tribal Heritage Language Learners: Issues and Concerns for American Indian Pueblo Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Among American Indian Pueblo tribes, community-based language revitalisation initiatives have been established in response to a growing language shift towards English. This has been most prominent among school age children, prompting some tribes to extend tribal language programmes into local public schools. For centuries, the transmission of…

  15. Utilizing Traditional Storytelling to Promote Wellness in American Indian Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    HODGE, FELICIA SCHANCHE; PASQUA, ANNA; MARQUEZ, CAROL A.; GEISHIRT-CANTRELL, BETTY

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing storytelling to transmit educational messages is a traditional pedagogical method practiced by many American Indian tribes. American Indian stories are effective because they present essential ideas and values in a simple, entertaining form. Different story characters show positive and negative behaviors. The stories illustrate consequences of behaviors and invite listeners to come to their own conclusions after personal reflection. Because stories have been passed down through tribal communities for generations, listeners also have the opportunity to reconnect and identify with past tribal realities. This article reports on a research intervention that is unique in promoting health and wellness through the use of storytelling. The project utilized stories to help motivate tribal members to once more adopt healthy, traditional lifestyles and practices. The authors present and discuss the stories selected, techniques used in their telling, the preparation and setting for the storytelling, and the involvement and interaction of the group. PMID:11776018

  16. Beliefs and experiences regarding smoking cessation among American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Diana; Fu, Steven S; Joseph, Anne M; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Solomon, Jody; van Ryn, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    A dearth of information exists about American Indians' views about smoking and cessation. We present results from six focus groups conducted among current and former smokers from American Indian communities in the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area, as part of a larger qualitative study. Findings indicate that, although smoking is common and acceptable among this population, many would like to quit. The majority of focus group participants attempted cessation without the aid of counseling and pharmacotherapy. Many held negative attitudes toward pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation, including worries about side effects, skepticism about effectiveness, and dislike of medications in general. Negative attitudes were grounded partly in a lack of trust in conventional medicine and, for some, were related to historic and continuing racism. Participants also reported a lack of information about tobacco dependence treatment from health care providers, including information about the functional benefits of such treatment. Nonetheless, participants thought smokers might try pharmacotherapy if it was made more accessible in their community and if community members could offer word-of-mouth testimonials regarding its effectiveness. Results point to the need for community- and peer-based smoking cessation treatment in the American Indian community, including accurate information from trusted sources.

  17. Implications of American Indian gambling for social work research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momper, Sandra L

    2010-04-01

    Since the 1988 passage of the Indian Gaming and Regulatory Act (IGRA), American Indian tribal communities have rapidly opened up casinos. American Indian participation in recreational gambling has increased, resulting in an increase in problem and pathological gambling. However, increased revenues from gaming have significantly benefited tribes. Background information on the Supreme Court case that led to passage of the IGRA and subsequently the opening of casinos on Indian reservations is provided. Data are presented on American Indian gambling studies that explore the impact of gambling on the development of problem or pathological gambling among American Indians. Reports and data are presented on the effects of gambling on the socioeconomic development of tribal communities. The implications of American Indian gaming for social work research and practice are discussed.

  18. A Community-Based Intervention to Prevent Obesity Beginning at Birth among American Indian Children: Study Design and Rationale for the PTOTS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanja, Njeri; Aickin, Mikel; Lutz, Tam; Mist, Scott; Jobe, Jared B.; Maupome, Gerardo; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Eating and physical activity behaviors associated with adult obesity have early antecedents, yet few studies have focused on obesity prevention interventions targeting very young children. Efforts to prevent obesity beginning at birth seem particularly important in populations at risk for early-onset obesity. National estimates indicate that…

  19. Energy resources technical training and development programs for American Indians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R E; White, W S

    1978-08-01

    Because of the energy resources located on Native American owned lands, it is pertinent that the tribes on these reservations receive information, training, and technical assistance concerning energy and the environment and the decisions that must be made about energy-resource development. In the past, attempts to enlist Indians in technical-assistance programs met with little success because teaching methods seldom incorporated program planning by both tribal leaders and the technical training staff. Several technical-assistance programs given on reservations in the central and western parts of the country were conducted by Argonne National Lab.--programs that stressed practical, on-the-job experience through lecture, laboratory, and field studies. Each program was designed by ANL and tribal leaders to fit the needs and concerns of a particular tribe for its environment. The individual programs met with an impressive degree of success; they also prompted several Indians to pursue this type of education further at ANL and local Indian community colleges and to obtain funds for energy projects. Despite the positive feedback, several difficulties were encountered. Among them are the necessity to continually modify the programs to fit diverse tribal needs, to diminish politically motivated interference, and to increase portions of the funding to involve more Native Americans.

  20. Repertoire, Authenticity, and Instruction: The Presentation of American Indian Music in Oklahoma's Elementary Schools. Native Americans: Interdisciplinary Perspectives--A Garland Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, Robert J.

    This book examines the presentation of American Indian music by elementary music educators in Oklahoma, which has the largest American Indian population of any state. A literature review covers an historical profile of multicultural music education, ethnomusicological studies of American Indian music, dissertations pertaining to American Indian…

  1. American Indian and Alaska native aboriginal use of alcohol in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, P J

    1996-01-01

    Alcohol beverages prior to White contact originated with the Mayan and the Aztec Nations and spread to the American Indians of the Southwest. Surprisingly, there are a number of accounts of alcohol use among other American Indians and Alaska Natives. Beverages were limited to wine and beer, and included: balche, pulque, and "haren a pitahaya" wines, tulpi beer and other beverages. White contact brought dramatic shifts in the use and function of alcoholic beverages in American Indian and Alaska Native societies.

  2. 78 FR 42788 - American Indians Into Nursing; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians Into...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... postsecondary vocational institutions (as defined in section 390(2) of the Tribally Controlled Vocational... Preference Will Be Given to Applicants Who Have: A. Programs that provide a preference to Indian students... 1988. If an eligible organization claims preference in order to be given priority, the organization...

  3. Contextualised worship amongst the Nanticoke-Lenape American Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Norwood

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Christian history of the Nanticoke-Lenape people who live in three American Indian tribal communities of ‘first contact’ around the Delaware Bay (USA, is over three centuries old and continues in the contemporary tribal community congregations. The modern era of tribal cultural reprisal and rise of Pan-Indian neo-traditionalism has heightened an awareness of, and cast a critical eye on the absence of contextualisation in the regular worship of the tribal community churches. This article is a study in ethno-doxology and seeks to determine the need for contextualised worship, to analyse the challenges of contextualisation, and provide guidance for an approach to contextualisation of worship amongst the Nanticoke-Lenape Christian congregations.

  4. North American Indian rock art and hallucinogenic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmann, K F

    1978-04-14

    It is proposed that the aboriginal rock paintings in two areas of North America may have been produced by shamans while they were under the influence of hallucinogenic agents derived from plants. The first of these areas is the Chumash and Yokuts Indian region of California, where polychrome paintings show designs similar to those visualized during the trance induced by decoctions of jimsonweed (Datura species). The second area is the lower Pecos River region of Texas, where shamanistic figures display traits considered to be conceptual analogues of the mescal bean (Sophora secundiflora) cult as practiced during historic times by Great Plains Indians. Although the evidence is only circumstantial, the proposed connections between these rock drawings and mind-expanding pharmacologic compounds fit well into the documented relationship that encompasses hallucinogenic drugs and certain movable objects of pre-Columbian American art.

  5. Intestinal helminths in lowland South American Indians: some evolutionary interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confalonieri, U; Ferreira, L F; Araújo, A

    1991-12-01

    Data on intestinal parasite infections for South American Indians in prehistoric times as revealed by coprolite analysis are being used to support transoceanic migration routes from the Old World to the New World. These same findings on modern semi-isolated aborigines, considered persisting prehistoric patterns, are also of great importance as indicators of pre-Columbian peopling of South America. This is the case for the Lengua Indians from Paraguay, studied in the 1920s, and the Yanomami and the Salumã from Brazil, studied in the 1980s. The intestinal parasitic profile of these groups can be empirically associated with culture change, but no clear correlations with the population biology of their hosts can be made at present because of scarcity of data.

  6. Marketplace Clinics Complementing Diabetes Care for Urban Residing American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, Robert; Hoye, Robert E; Thron, Raymond W; Kumar, Vibha

    2017-10-01

    For several decades, the Minneapolis American Indian population has experienced limited health care access and threefold diabetes health disparity. As part of an urban health initiative, the marketplace clinics located in nearby CVS, Target, and Supervalu stores committed financial support, providers, certified educators, and pharmacy staff for a community-based diabetes support group. To measure the extent to which collaborating marketplace clinics and the community-based support group expanded diabetes care and provided self-management education for this largely urban Indian neighborhood. A controlled quasi-experimental study and 3-years retrospective analysis of secondary data were used to test whether the Minneapolis marketplace clinics and the community diabetes support group participants (n = 48) had improved diabetes health outcomes relative to the comparison group (n = 87). The marketplace complemented intervention group employed motivational interviewing and the patient activation measure (PAM®) in coaching diabetes self-care and behavioral modification. The federally funded comparison group received only basic self-management education. T tests and effect sizes were used to quantify the difference between the study intervention and comparison groups. Statistical significance was determined for the following outcome variables: A1C ( P < .01), body mass index ( P < .04), and PAM® ( P < .001). Includes strengths, limitations, and future study recommendations. Positive effects of marketplace clinics and community health complementation were found with regard to improved blood glucose control, weight loss, and healthful lifestyle adaptation. Primary care and community health improvements could be realized by incorporating patient activation with diabetes prevention programs for the urban Indian two-thirds majority of the United States 5 million American Indian population.

  7. A cultural contracts perspective: examining American Indian identity negotiations in academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsam, Teresa Trumbly

    2014-01-01

    Education has played a central role in identity confusion, and to this day, it is used to assimilate American Indians. For those American Indians who persist through doctoral degrees and enter academe, resisting assimilation is especially risky and often tiresome. In this conceptual exploration of identity, Cultural Contracts theory serves to illuminate the path of the American Indian academic journey. Although never applied in an American Indian context, cultural contracts theory may provide a bridge between the seemingly disparate strains of identity research and leave us with a sense of scope and potential for the theory's application.

  8. Blood politics, ethnic identity, and racial misclassification among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haozous, Emily A; Strickland, Carolyn J; Palacios, Janelle F; Solomon, Teshia G Arambula

    2014-01-01

    Misclassification of race in medical and mortality records has long been documented as an issue in American Indian/Alaska Native data. Yet, little has been shared in a cohesive narrative which outlines why misclassification of American Indian/Alaska Native identity occurs. The purpose of this paper is to provide a summary of the current state of the science in racial misclassification among American Indians and Alaska Natives. We also provide a historical context on the importance of this problem and describe the ongoing political processes that both affect racial misclassification and contribute to the context of American Indian and Alaska Native identity.

  9. Through the Eyes of the Eagle (American Indian translation in Shoshone)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Through the Eyes of the Eagle tells children about looking to the healthy ways and wisdom of their elders (Listen to the American Indian translation in Shoshone).  Created: 4/9/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/9/2009.

  10. Through the Eyes of the Eagle (American Indian translation in Chickasaw)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Through the Eyes of the Eagle tells children about looking to the healthy ways and wisdom of their elders (American Indian translation in Chickasaw).  Created: 4/9/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/9/2009.

  11. Through the Eyes of the Eagle (American Indian translation in Paiute)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Through the Eyes of the Eagle tells children about looking to the healthy ways and wisdom of their elders (Listen to the American Indian translation in Paiute).  Created: 4/9/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/9/2009.

  12. Surviving the War by Singing the Blues: The Contemporary Ethos of American Indian Political Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsosie, Rebecca

    1986-01-01

    Explores major themes in contemporary American Indian poetry that comprise the Native ethos of cultural resistance and survival. Correlates certain themes of Indian poetry with those of Black spiritual and blues. Discusses Western and Indian world views, political and social conflict, and art as the agent of criticism and change. Contains 28…

  13. Premature mortality patterns among American Indians in South Dakota, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Mathew; Kightlinger, Lon

    2013-05-01

    American Indians in South Dakota have the highest mortality rates in the nation compared to other racial and ethnic groups and American Indians in other states. Cause-related and age-specific mortality patterns among American Indians in South Dakota are identified to guide prevention planning and policy efforts designed to reduce mortality within this population, in both South Dakota and other parts of the U.S. Death certificate data from South Dakota (2000-2010), on 5738 American Indians and 70,580 whites, were used to calculate age-specific mortality rates and rate ratios. These values were examined in order to identify patterns among the leading causes of death. Analyses were completed in 2011 and 2012. Within the South Dakota population, 70% of American Indians died before reaching age 70 years, compared to 25% of whites. Fatal injuries and chronic diseases were the leading causes of premature mortality. Nine leading causes of death showed consistent patterns of mortality disparity between American Indians and whites, with American Indians having significantly higher rates of mortality at lower ages. Premature mortality among American Indians in South Dakota is a serious public health problem. Unified efforts at the federal, tribal, state, and local levels are needed to reduce premature death within this population. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Penile anthropometry in North Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilal Bhat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physicians frequently encounter questions by parents regarding the normal size of a child′s penis. We evaluated normal variations of penile dimensions, correlation of penile length with height, weight, and body mass index (BMI of boys and analyzed the differences in penile dimensions from those reported from other countries. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at our institution during October 2012-December 2012. A total of 250 subjects (birth to 10 years were evaluated and divided into 10 groups with 1-year interval taking 25 children in each. Penile dimensions measured twice by a single observer with Vernier calipers included the length of flaccid penis fully stretched and diameters at mid-shaft and corona. Diameters were multiplied by pi (π = 3.14 to calculate circumferences. Mean, standard deviation, and range were calculated. Height, weight, and BMI were noted and statistically correlated with the penile length using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Data were compared with similar studies reported on other populations in the past and individually evaluated with every study using Student′s t-test. Results: The mean values for the penile length, mid-shaft circumference, and coronal circumference were 3.34, 3.05, 3.29 cm during infancy, 4.28, 3.86, 4.11 cm during 4-5 years, and 5.25, 4.78, 5.05 cm during 9-10 years, respectively. The penile length increased with advancing age in successive age groups, but it did not have a direct correlation with either height, weight, or BMI. Penile dimensions in North Indian children were found to be statistically smaller in comparison with most studies from other countries. Conclusion: We provide the normal range and variations of penile dimensions in North Indian children.

  15. Epidemiology of Dysglycemia in Pregnant Oklahoma American Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Madona; Stoner, Julie A; Dao, Hanh Dung; Stephens, Lancer; Goodman, Jean R; Maynard, John; Lyons, Timothy J

    2015-08-01

    Minority communities are disproportionately affected by diabetes, and minority women are at an increased risk for glucose intolerance (dysglycemia) during pregnancy. In pregnant American Indian women, the objectives of the study were to use current criteria to estimate the prevalence of first-trimester (Tr1) dysglycemia and second-trimester (Tr2) incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to explore new candidate measures and identify associated clinical factors. This was a prospective cohort study. In Tr1 we performed a 75-g, 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) to determine the following: fasting insulin; homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol; noninvasive skin autofluorescence (SCOUT). We defined dysglycemia by American Diabetes Association and Endocrine Society criteria and as HbA1c of 5.7% or greater. In Tr2 in an available subset, we performed a repeat OGTT and SCOUT. Pregnant American Indian women (n = 244 at Tr1; n = 114 at Tr2) participated in the study. The prevalence of dysglycemia at Tr1 and incidence of GDM at Tr2 were measured. At Tr1, one woman had overt diabetes; 36 (15%) had impaired glucose tolerance (American Diabetes Association criteria and/or abnormal HbA1c) and 59 (24%) had GDM-Tr1 (Endocrine Society criteria). Overall, 74 (30%) had some form of dysglycemia. Associated factors were body mass index, hypertension, waist/hip circumferences, SCOUT score, fasting insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. At Tr2, 114 of the Tr1 cohort underwent a repeat OGTT and SCOUT, and 26 (23%) had GDM. GDM-Tr2 was associated with increased SCOUT scores (P = .029) and Tr1 body mass index, waist/hip circumferences, diastolic blood pressure, fasting insulin, and triglyceride levels. Overall, dysglycemia at Tr1 and/or Tr2 affected 38% of the women. Dysglycemia at some point during pregnancy was common among American Indian women. It was associated with

  16. Cultural identity and patient trust among older American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, Vanessa W; Goins, R Turner; Krantz, Elizabeth M; Garroutte, Eva Marie

    2014-03-01

    Patients' trust in healthcare providers and institutions has been identified as a likely contributor to racial-ethnic health disparities. The likely influence of patients' cultural characteristics on trust is widely acknowledged but inadequately explored. To compare levels of patients' trust in primary care provider (interpersonal trust) with trust in healthcare organizations (institutional trust) among older American Indians (AIs), and determine associations with cultural identity. Patient survey administered following primary care visits. Two-hundred and nineteen American Indian patients ≥ 50 years receiving care for a non-acute condition at two clinics operated by the Cherokee Nation in northeastern Oklahoma. Self-reported sociodemographic and cultural characteristics. Trust was measured using three questions about interpersonal trust and one measure of institutional trust; responses ranged from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Finding substantial variation only in institutional trust, we used logistic generalized estimating equations to examine relationships of patient cultural identity with institutional trust. Ninety-five percent of patients reported trusting their individual provider, while only 46 % reported trusting their healthcare institution. Patients who strongly self-identified with an AI cultural identity had significantly lower institutional trust compared to those self-identifying less strongly (OR: 0.6, 95 % CI: 0.4, 0.9). Interpersonal and institutional trust represent distinct dimensions of patients' experience of care that may show important relationships to patients' cultural characteristics. Strategies for addressing low institutional trust may have special relevance for patients who identify strongly with AI culture.

  17. Food Environments around American Indian Reservations: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodur, Gwen M; Shen, Ye; Kodish, Stephen; Oddo, Vanessa M; Antiporta, Daniel A; Jock, Brittany; Jones-Smith, Jessica C

    2016-01-01

    To describe the food environments experienced by American Indians living on tribal lands in California. Geocoded statewide food business data were used to define and categorize existing food vendors into healthy, unhealthy, and intermediate composite categories. Distance to and density of each of the composite food vendor categories for tribal lands and nontribal lands were compared using multivariate linear regression. Quantitative results were concurrently triangulated with qualitative data from in-depth interviews with tribal members (n = 24). After adjusting for census tract-level urbanicity and per capita income, results indicate there were significantly fewer healthy food outlets per square mile for tribal areas compared to non-tribal areas. Density of unhealthy outlets was not significantly different for tribal versus non-tribal areas. Tribal members perceived their food environment negatively and reported barriers to the acquisition of healthy food. Urbanicity and per capita income do not completely account for disparities in food environments among American Indians tribal lands compared to nontribal lands. This disparity in access to healthy food may present a barrier to acting on the intention to consume healthy food.

  18. Planning for seven generations: Energy planning of American Indian tribes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookshire, Daniel; Kaza, Nikhil

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of energy resources on American Indian lands, the links between energy management and tribal sovereignty, and recent federal government incentives make tribal energy planning an interesting case study for community energy planning in the US. This paper studies the strategic energy planning efforts, energy resource development, and energy efficiency policies established by tribes within the continental US. The paper analyzes the results of a survey of various tribes′ energy resource development and planning efforts and supplements the responses with publicly available information on resources, economics, and demographics. We find that incentives and advisory services from the federal government are key to developing the capacity of the tribes to pursue energy planning and energy resource development. These incentives largely avoid the misdeeds of past federal policy by promoting tribal control over energy planning and energy resource development efforts. Tribes with formal energy plans or visions are more likely to develop energy resources than tribes without them and are engaged in a more comprehensive and sustainable approach to energy resource development and energy efficiency. - Highlights: • American Indian tribal energy planning is an understudied topic. • Tribal energy planning is interconnected with tribal sovereignty and sustainability. • We report the results of a survey of energy planning and development efforts. • Federal Government assistance is critical to the efforts of the tribes. • Tribes with energy plans take a more comprehensive approach to energy resource development

  19. Healing pathways: art therapy for American Indian cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warson, Elizabeth

    2012-04-01

    There is a paucity of research addressing quality of life factors for American Indian and Alaska Native cancer survivors. Complementary forms of therapy, such as art therapy, are beginning to address quality of life factors through the "healing" arts for cancer survivors. The purpose of this mixed methods pilot was to explore the effects of culturally relevant art interventions on stress reduction for American Indian cancer survivors and their family members. Forty-six adult participants attended one of three workshops held within two settlements of the Coharie tribe and one southeastern urban tribal center. The data collected consisted of a pretest and posttest State-Trait Personality Inventory (STPI) and artwork resulting from three directed interventions. The artwork was analyzed using qualitative coding methods; however, the scores from the STPI were inconclusive because the inventory was determined to be culturally biased. While statistical significance was not achieved, the findings from qualitative coding reinforced a native concept of wellness focusing on the complex interaction between mind, body, spirit, and context. This pilot study also demonstrated how a community-driven approach was instrumental in the development of the overall workshop format. An expansion of the pilot study is also presented with preliminary results available in 2012.

  20. Food Environments around American Indian Reservations: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwen M Chodur

    Full Text Available To describe the food environments experienced by American Indians living on tribal lands in California.Geocoded statewide food business data were used to define and categorize existing food vendors into healthy, unhealthy, and intermediate composite categories. Distance to and density of each of the composite food vendor categories for tribal lands and nontribal lands were compared using multivariate linear regression. Quantitative results were concurrently triangulated with qualitative data from in-depth interviews with tribal members (n = 24.After adjusting for census tract-level urbanicity and per capita income, results indicate there were significantly fewer healthy food outlets per square mile for tribal areas compared to non-tribal areas. Density of unhealthy outlets was not significantly different for tribal versus non-tribal areas. Tribal members perceived their food environment negatively and reported barriers to the acquisition of healthy food.Urbanicity and per capita income do not completely account for disparities in food environments among American Indians tribal lands compared to nontribal lands. This disparity in access to healthy food may present a barrier to acting on the intention to consume healthy food.

  1. Documenting Nursing and Medical Students’ Stereotypes about Hispanic and American Indian Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Meghan G.; Focella, Elizabeth S.; Covarrubias, Rebecca; Stone, Jeff; Moskowitz, Gordon B.; Badger, Terry A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hispanic Americans and American Indians face significant health disparities compared with White Americans. Research suggests that stereotyping of minority patients by members of the medical community is an important antecedent of race and ethnicity-based health disparities. This work has primarily focused on physicians’ perceptions, however, and little research has examined the stereotypes healthcare personnel associate with Hispanic and American Indian patients. The present study assesses: 1) the health-related stereotypes both nursing and medical students hold about Hispanic and American Indian patients, and 2) nursing and medical students’ motivation to treat Hispanic and American Indian patients in an unbiased manner. Design Participants completed a questionnaire assessing their awareness of stereotypes that healthcare professionals associate with Hispanic and American Indian patients then completed measures of their motivation to treat Hispanics and American Indians in an unbiased manner. Results Despite being highly motivated to treat Hispanic and American Indian individuals fairly, the majority of participants reported awareness of stereotypes associating these patient groups with noncompliance, risky health behavior, and difficulty understanding and/or communicating health-related information. Conclusion This research provides direct evidence for negative health-related stereotypes associated with two understudied minority patient groups—Hispanics and American Indians—among both nursing and medical personnel. PMID:26504671

  2. The Policing of Native Bodies and Minds: Perspectives on Schooling from American Indian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijada Cerecer, Patricia D.

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that high school campus climates are contentious for students of color, particularly as they negotiate institutional and personal racism. Unfortunately, minimal research centers on the experiences of American Indian youth. In response, this qualitative study explores American Indian responses to hostile campus climates. Using a…

  3. 36 CFR 219.15 - Interaction with American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interaction with American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives. 219.15 Section 219.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... Collaborative Planning for Sustainability § 219.15 Interaction with American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives...

  4. Honoring the Ways of American Indian Women: A Group Therapy Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Paula T.; Robbins, Rockey; Vaughn, Karen; Youngbull, Natalie; Burks, Derek; Willmon-Haque, Sadie; Schuetz, Suzan; Brandes, Joyce A.; Nael, Andrea Zainab Omidy

    2010-01-01

    A culturally grounded group intervention for a typically underserved population of urban American Indian women is described. The intervention is designed to increase interpersonal connection, improve inter-tribal acceptance and trust, and enhance psychological well being of marginalized urban American Indian women. Topics used to structure the…

  5. Child Maltreatment Prevalence and Mental Disorders Outcomes among American Indian Women in Primary Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Bonnie; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Sanders, Margaret; Waitzkin, Howard; Skipper, Betty; Yager, Joel

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine (1) the prevalence, types, and severity of child abuse and neglect (CAN) and (2) the relationship between CAN and lifetime psychiatric disorders among American Indian women using primary care services. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 234 American Indian women, age 18-45 who presented for outpatient…

  6. Bicultural Resynthesis: Tailoring an Effectiveness Trial for a Group of Urban American Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napholz, Linda

    2000-01-01

    A phenomenological study examined experiences of eight urban American Indian women participating in a 6-week intervention aimed at reclaiming and adapting Native women's traditional roles as part of bicultural resynthesis. Psychoeducational methods were used to uncover past ethnic shame, facilitate a return to American Indian pride and identity,…

  7. A Study of State Social Studies Standards for American Indian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Connor K.

    2015-01-01

    In this study the author surveys social studies standards from 14 U.S. states seeking to answer: (a) what social studies knowledge about American Indians is deemed essential by those states mandating the development of American Indian Education curricula for all public K-12 students? and (b) at what grade levels is this social studies content…

  8. Alcohol Use and American Indian/Alaska Native Student Academic Performance among Tribal Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cometsevah, Cecelia L.

    2013-01-01

    Student academic performance, persistence, and graduation among American Indian/Alaska Native students in higher education are very low compared to other racial groups. Studies have shown that American Indian students enter higher education with a lack of academic preparedness, financial challenges, lack of social skills development, and lack of…

  9. Making Meaning of Urban American Indian Identity: A Multistage Integrative Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    The cultural identity and tribal connectedness of American Indians are commonly believed to have been negatively affected by the urbanization process in which American Indians have been involved during the past half century. This phenomenological study examined the processes through which cultural identity was formed and maintained by a group of…

  10. Taxing Those They Found Here. An Examination of the Tax Exempt Status of the American Indian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jay Vincent

    In 1971, the Institute for the Development of American Indian Law was organized to develop a program which would begin to sort out the inconsistencies and contradictory doctrines blocking any final settlement of the rights of American Indians. The field of taxation is one in which conflicts have continually arisen. This text is intended to give…

  11. The Institute of American Indian Arts Background Information (Task One of the Transition Evaluation). Background Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippeconnic, John W., Jr.

    The paper, prepared as Task One of the Institute of American Indian Arts Transition Evaluation, provides pertinent background information about the Institute of American Indian Arts in Santa Fe, New Mexico. A brief history of the Institute is given, with information about its philosophy and purpose; objectives; organization and administration; the…

  12. A longitudinal study of self-esteem, cultural identity, and academic success among American Indian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Mitchell, Christina M.; Spicer, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Latent growth curve modeling was used to estimate developmental trajectories of self-esteem and cultural identity among American Indian high school students and to explore the relationships of these trajectories to personal resources, problem behaviors, and academic performance at the end of high school. The sample included 1,611 participants from the Voices of Indian Teens project, a three-year longitudinal study of adolescents from three diverse American Indian cultural groups in the wester...

  13. Attitudes Toward Mental Health Services Among American Indians by Two Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Soonhee; Brown-Rice, Kathleen A; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Yee-Melichar, Darlene; Talbot, Elizabeth P

    2015-11-01

    This study examined determinants of attitudes toward mental health services with a sample of American Indian younger-old-adults (aged 50-64, n = 158) and American Indian older-old adults (aged 65 and older, n = 69). Adapting Andersen's behavioral model of healthcare utilization, predisposing factors, mental health needs, and enabling factors were considered as potential predictors. Female and those with higher levels of social support tend to report more positive attitudes toward mental health services. Culture-influenced personal belief was associated with negative attitudes toward mental health services among American Indian younger-old -adults. Age and higher chronic medical conditions were significantly related to negative attitudes toward mental health services. Health insurance was positively associated with positive attitudes toward mental health services in the American Indian older-old adults. Findings indicate that practitioners should engage how culture, social support, and chronic conditions influence the response to mental health needs when working with older American Indians.

  14. Evidence of Early Emergence of the Primary Dentition in a Northern Plains American Indian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, D V; Blanchette, D R; Douglass, J M; Tinanoff, N; Kramer, K W O; Warren, J J; Phipps, K R; Starr, D E; Marshall, T A; Mabry, T R; Pagan-Rivera, K; Banas, J A; Drake, D R

    2018-04-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe primary tooth emergence in an American Indian (AI) population during the first 36 mo of life to compare 1) patterns of emergence between male and female children and 2) tooth emergence between these AI children and other U.S. ethnic groups. Data were derived from a birth cohort of 239 AI children from a Northern Plains tribe participating in a longitudinal study of early childhood caries, with examination data at target ages of 8, 12, 16, 22, 28, and 36 mo of age (±1 mo). Patterns of emergence in AI children were characterized and sex comparisons accomplished with interval-censored survival methodology. Numbers of erupted teeth in AI children at each age were compared via Kruskal-Wallis tests against those in children of the same age, as drawn from a cross-sectional study of dental caries patterns in Arizona; these comparisons were based on the dental examinations of 547 White non-Hispanic and 677 Hispanic children. Characterization of time to achievement of various milestones-including emergence of the anterior teeth, the first molars, and the complete primary dentition-provided no evidence of sex differences among AI children. AI children had significantly more teeth present at 8 mo (median, 3) than either White non-Hispanic ( P 0.05). These results provide evidence of earlier tooth emergence in AI children than in the other 2 ethnicities. Although the underlying etiology of the severity of early childhood caries in AI children is likely to be multifactorial, earlier tooth emergence may be a contributing factor. Knowledge Transfer Statement: The findings of this study have practical implications for practitioners providing childhood oral health care to ethnic groups with early tooth emergence. It may be important to provide parents with information on toothbrushing, dentist visits, and other practices supportive of good oral health as early as possible to protect their children's primary dentition.

  15. 75 FR 35070 - American Indians Into Medicine; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... health professions and removing the multiple barriers to their entrance into the IHS and private practice... consistent with the PHS mission to protect and advance the physical and mental health of the American people... enrolled in a health career program of study at the respective college or university. Tuition and stipends...

  16. Information technology as a tool to improve the quality of American Indian health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequist, Thomas D; Cullen, Theresa; Ayanian, John Z

    2005-12-01

    The American Indian/Alaska Native population experiences a disproportionate burden of disease across a spectrum of conditions. While the recent National Healthcare Disparities Report highlighted differences in quality of care among racial and ethnic groups, there was only very limited information available for American Indians. The Indian Health Service (IHS) is currently enhancing its information systems to improve the measurement of health care quality as well as to support quality improvement initiatives. We summarize current knowledge regarding health care quality for American Indians, highlighting the variation in reported measures in the existing literature. We then discuss how the IHS is using information systems to produce standardized performance measures and present future directions for improving American Indian health care quality.

  17. Bureau of Indian Affairs Special Education Opportunities for Exceptional Children, Youth and Adults: The First Annual Report to the Department of the Interior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The first annual report (1979) of the 15-member Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Advisory Committee for Exceptional Children (ACEC) reflects activities, concerns, and recommendations to the Department of the Interior for providing appropriate specialized programs and services for education of the projected 4,506 American Indian and Alaska Native…

  18. Applying the Theory of Reasoned Action to Understanding Teen Pregnancy with American Indian Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dippel, Elizabeth A; Hanson, Jessica D; McMahon, Tracey R; Griese, Emily R; Kenyon, DenYelle B

    2017-07-01

    Objectives American Indian girls have higher teen pregnancy rates than the national rate. Intervention studies that utilize the Theory of Reasoned Action have found that changing attitudes and subjective norms often leads to subsequent change in a variety of health behaviors in young adults. The current study goal is to better understand sexual decision-making among American Indian youth using the Theory of Reasoned Action model and to introduce ways to utilize attitudes and subjective norms to modify risky behaviors. Methods The project collected qualitative data at a reservation site and an urban site through 16 focus groups with American Indian young people aged 16-24. Results Attitudes towards, perceived impact of, and perception of how others felt about teen pregnancy vary between American Indian parents and non-parents. Particularly, young American Indian parents felt more negatively about teen pregnancy. Participants also perceived a larger impact on female than male teen parents. Conclusions There are differences between American Indian parents and non-parents regarding attitudes towards, the perceived impact of, and how they perceived others felt about teen pregnancy. Teen pregnancy prevention programs for American Indian youth should include youth parents in curriculum creation and curriculum that addresses normative beliefs about teen pregnancy and provides education on the ramifications of teen pregnancy to change attitudes.

  19. Predictors of performance on the MMSE and the DRS-2 among American Indian elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jervis, Lori L; Fickenscher, Alexandra; Beals, Janette; Cullum, C Munro; Novins, Douglas K; Manson, Spero M; Arciniegas, David B

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about factors that predict older American Indians' performance on cognitive tests. This study examined 137 American Indian elders' performance on the MMSE and the Dementia Rating Scale-Second Edition (DRS-2). Multivariate regression identified younger age, more education, not receiving Supplemental Security Income, and frequent receipt of needed health care as predictors of better performance on the MMSE. Better performance on the DRS-2 was predicted by more education, boarding school attendance, not receiving Supplemental Security Income, and frequent receipt of needed health care. This study points to the importance of economic and educational factors on cognitive test performance among American Indian elders.

  20. Fears of American Children Following Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Joy J.; Hooper, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Two months after 9/11, the fears of children and adolescents in Grades 2-12 were examined utilizing the American Fear Survey Schedule for Children and Adolescents (FSSC-AM). Fear intensity scores and age and gender differences are reported. Terrorist-related content on the FSSC-AM (e.g., terrorist attacks, our country being invading by enemies)…

  1. Committee opinion no. 515: Health care for urban American Indian and Alaska Native women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Sixty percent of American Indian and Alaska Native women live in metropolitan areas. Most are not eligible for health care provided by the federal Indian Health Service (IHS). The IHS partly funds 34 Urban Indian Health Organizations, which vary in size and services. Some are small informational and referral sites that are limited even in the scope of outpatient services provided. Compared with other urban populations, urban American Indian and Alaska Native women have higher rates of teenaged pregnancy, late or no prenatal care, and alcohol and tobacco use in pregnancy. Their infants have higher rates of preterm birth, mortality, and sudden infant death syndrome than infants in the general population. Barriers to care experienced by American Indian and Alaska Native women should be addressed. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists encourages Fellows to be aware of the risk profile of their urban American Indian and Alaska Native patients and understand that they often are not eligible for IHS coverage and may need assistance in gaining access to other forms of coverage. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists also recommends that Fellows encourage their federal legislators to support adequate funding for the Indian Health Care Improvement Act, permanently authorized as part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

  2. Methylmercury risk and awareness among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland northwest reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntz, Sandra W., E-mail: skuntz@montana.edu [Montana State University, College of Nursing, 32 Campus Drive 7416, Missoula, MT 59812-7416 (United States); Hill, Wade G. [Montana State University, Sherrick Hall, PO Box 173560, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States); Linkenbach, Jeff W.; Lande, Gary [Montana State University, Culbertson Hall, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States); Larsson, Laura [Montana State University, Sherrick Hall, PO Box 173560, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    American Indian women and children may be the most overrepresented among the list of disparate populations exposed to methylmercury. American Indian people fish on home reservations where a state or tribal fishing license (a source of advisory messaging) is not required. The purpose of this study was to examine fish consumption, advisory awareness, and risk communication preferences among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland Northwest reservation. For this cross-sectional descriptive study, participants (N=65) attending a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinic were surveyed between March and June 2006. An electronic questionnaire adapted from Anderson et al. (2004) was evaluated for cultural acceptability and appropriateness by tribal consultants. Regarding fish consumption, approximately half of the women surveyed (49%) indicated eating locally caught fish with the majority signifying they consumed medium- and large-size fish (75%) that could result in exposure to methylmercury. In addition, a serendipitous discovery indicated that an unanticipated route of exposure may be fish provided from a local food bank resulting from sportsman's donations. The majority of women (80%) were unaware of tribal or state fish advisory messages; the most favorable risk communication preference was information coming from doctors or healthcare providers (78%). Since the population consumes fish and has access to locally caught potentially contaminated fish, a biomonitoring study to determine actual exposure is warranted.

  3. Methylmercury risk and awareness among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland northwest reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntz, Sandra W.; Hill, Wade G.; Linkenbach, Jeff W.; Lande, Gary; Larsson, Laura

    2009-01-01

    American Indian women and children may be the most overrepresented among the list of disparate populations exposed to methylmercury. American Indian people fish on home reservations where a state or tribal fishing license (a source of advisory messaging) is not required. The purpose of this study was to examine fish consumption, advisory awareness, and risk communication preferences among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland Northwest reservation. For this cross-sectional descriptive study, participants (N=65) attending a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinic were surveyed between March and June 2006. An electronic questionnaire adapted from Anderson et al. (2004) was evaluated for cultural acceptability and appropriateness by tribal consultants. Regarding fish consumption, approximately half of the women surveyed (49%) indicated eating locally caught fish with the majority signifying they consumed medium- and large-size fish (75%) that could result in exposure to methylmercury. In addition, a serendipitous discovery indicated that an unanticipated route of exposure may be fish provided from a local food bank resulting from sportsman's donations. The majority of women (80%) were unaware of tribal or state fish advisory messages; the most favorable risk communication preference was information coming from doctors or healthcare providers (78%). Since the population consumes fish and has access to locally caught potentially contaminated fish, a biomonitoring study to determine actual exposure is warranted.

  4. Abdominal complications in black and Indian children with nephrotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdominal complications were detected and investigated in 19 (10%) of 191 children with nephrotic syndrome who experienced 35 episodes of these complications. Fourteen children were Indian with steroid-responsive nephrotic syndrome, and 5 were black, of whom 4 had membranous nephropathy and 1 focal ...

  5. Medication education program for Indian children with asthma: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medication education program for Indian children with asthma: A feasibility study. C Grover, N Goel, C Armour, PP Van Asperen, SN Gaur, RJ Moles, B Saini. Abstract. Objective: It is postulated that children with asthma who receive an interactive, comprehensive, culturally relevant education program would improve their ...

  6. Helplessness, Hopelessness, and Despair: Identifying the Precursors to Indian Youth Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Troy; Tomren, Holly

    1999-01-01

    Discusses suicide among American Indian youth. Examines Indian youth suicide rates, general characteristics of Indian suicides, behavioral characteristics and environmental stresses, guidelines for planning interventions, the use of American Indian culture to engage at-risk youth, and the high risk status of Indian foster children in non-Indian…

  7. Factors Related to Academic Outcomes of Mexican American and American Indian Students in Doctoral Programs. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Madeline J.; Fenske, Robert H.

    In response to concern about the supply of minority faculty available to replace retiring academics, a study investigated academic achievement in doctoral programs by two of the United States' fastest-growing subpopulations, Mexican-Americans (MA) and American Indians (AI). The objectives were to establish a conceptual framework, to refine…

  8. Towards a New Image of American Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimes, Marie Annette

    1982-01-01

    Examines matriarchy, androgyny, and spiritual unity among men and women from a traditional indigenous world view. Parallels this with brain theory from both Indian and non-Indian perspectives. Asserts that Indian women must reclaim their "power" and strength by finding that source in their traditional past and among their spiritual…

  9. The American Indian Reader: History. Book Four of a Series in Educational Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costo, Rupert; Henry, Jeannette, Ed.

    In an attempt to rewrite American history incorporating "long hidden facts" pertinent to the American Indian, this book endeavors to relate the "truth in history" and make "humanity see itself face to face without fear and in spite of the pangs of conscience". Each of 7 chapters addresses a specific aspect of American history relevant to the…

  10. Reviews of 12 Books, Magazines, and Other Materials for American Indian Students and Their Teachers .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Independent American Indian Review, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Recommends seven books about American Indian culture, history, folk tales, leaders, and philosophy; a calendar featuring Navajo professional women; three magazines focusing on Arizona Indian nations, contemporary Native arts and music, and multicultural education; and CD or cassette of contemporary Native instrumental music. Includes bibliographic…

  11. Math Avoidance: A Barrier to American Indian Science Education and Science Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rayna

    1978-01-01

    For American Indian students, math anxiety and math avoidance are the most serious obstacles to general education and to the choice of scientific careers. Indian students interviewed generally exhibited fear and loathing of mathematics and a major lack of basic skills which were caused by a missing or negative impression of the mathematics…

  12. Listening to Neglected Voices - American Indian Perspectives on Natural Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston

    2004-01-01

    Forestry agencies must ensure that the views of all citizens in our increasingly diverse society are included in decisionmaking. But gaining clear insights into the perspectives of ethnic and minority communities is often difficult. This article summarizes an analysis of news articles about resource management issues written by American Indians and published in Indian...

  13. Investigating Differences between American and Indian Raters in Assessing TOEFL iBT Speaking Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jing; Llosa, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of the role raters' language background plays in raters' assessment of test takers' speaking ability. Specifically, this article examines differences between American and Indian raters in their scores and scoring processes when rating Indian test takers' responses to the Test of English as a Foreign…

  14. 76 FR 35462 - Proposed Renewal of Information Collection; Source Directory of American Indian and Alaska Native...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... contact the business. Internet Web site address To identify whether the business advertises and/or sells...; Source Directory of American Indian and Alaska Native Owned and Operated Arts and Crafts Businesses... Alaska Native Owned and Operated Arts and Crafts Businesses (Source Directory) is a program of the Indian...

  15. A Review of Stressors from the Built and Natural Environments Impacting American Indian Children’s Health and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposures to chemical and non-chemical stressors from children’s environments during early development may contribute to differences in their health and well-being outcomes. Children from American Indian tribes may have a disproportionate burden of these stressors from thei...

  16. Materials Developed from American Indian Culture-Based Curriculum Workshop (Tacoma, Washington, April 25-29, 1977). Book One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, Dick, Comp.

    Materials presented in this resource guide are the direct result of an American Indian Culture-Based Curriculum Development Workshop. Activities consist of nine flannelboard stories (including The Fire War, How Coyote Made the Columbia River, Legend of the Mayan Moon God); two games (American Indian Games and Indian Picture Symbol Checkerboard);…

  17. FastStats: Health of American Indian or Alaska Native Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health of American Indian or Alaska Native Population Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... Source: Summary Health Statistics Tables for the U.S. Population: National Health Interview Survey, 2015, Table P-1c [ ...

  18. Establishing survey validity and reliability for American Indians through "think aloud" and test-retest methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauge, Cindy Horst; Jacobs-Knight, Jacque; Jensen, Jamie L; Burgess, Katherine M; Puumala, Susan E; Wilton, Georgiana; Hanson, Jessica D

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a mixed-methods approach to determine the validity and reliability of measurements used within an alcohol-exposed pregnancy prevention program for American Indian women. To develop validity, content experts provided input into the survey measures, and a "think aloud" methodology was conducted with 23 American Indian women. After revising the measurements based on this input, a test-retest was conducted with 79 American Indian women who were randomized to complete either the original measurements or the new, modified measurements. The test-retest revealed that some of the questions performed better for the modified version, whereas others appeared to be more reliable for the original version. The mixed-methods approach was a useful methodology for gathering feedback on survey measurements from American Indian participants and in indicating specific survey questions that needed to be modified for this population. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. The Trail of Tears Continues: Dispossession and Genocide of the Native American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Albert M.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the high cultural level of native American Indian populations at the time of conquest. Illustrates how cultural breakdown and demographic decimation have resulted from systematic policies that focused on exploiting natural resources at the expense of native peoples. (GC)

  20. Excerpt from The Red Land to the South: American Indian Writers and Indigenous Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Cox

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Excerpted from James H. Cox, The Red Land to the South: American Indian Writers and Indigenous Mexico (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2012.Reprinted with permission from University of Minnesota Press.

  1. American Indian internet cigarette sales: another avenue for selling tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Felicia S; Geishirt Cantrell, Betty A; Struthers, Roxanne; Casken, John

    2004-02-01

    A study conducted by the University of Minnesota found that cigarettes can be purchased on American Indian-owned Internet sites for about one fifth of the price at grocery stores, making this a more convenient, lower-priced, and appealing method of purchasing cigarettes. Researchers and educators are challenged to address this new marketing ploy and to discover ways to curb rising smoking rates in American Indian communities.

  2. Effect of Tribal Language Use on Colorectal Cancer Screening among American Indians

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales, Angela A.; Garroutte, Eva; Ton, Thanh G.N.; Goldberg, Jack; Buchwald, Dedra

    2012-01-01

    American Indians have one of the lowest colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates for any racial/ethnic group in the U.S., yet reasons for their low screening participation are poorly understood. Limited English language use may create barriers to cancer screening in Hispanic and other ethnic minority immigrant populations; the extent to which this hypothesis is generalizable to American Indians is unknown. We examine whether tribal (indigenous) language use is associated with knowledge and use...

  3. Increasing incidence of Rocky Mountain spotted fever among the American Indian population in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Robert C; McQuiston, Jennifer H; Haberling, Dana L; Cheek, James E

    2009-04-01

    To examine trends of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) incidence among American Indians compared with other race groups, a retrospective analysis of national RMSF surveillance data reported to the National Electronic Telecommunications System for Surveillance and the Tickborne Rickettsial Disease Case Report Forms system were used. The RMSF incidence for American Indians, which was comparable to those for other race groups during 1990-2000, increased at a disproportionate rate during 2001-2005. The average annual incidence of RMSF reported among American Indians for 2001-2005 was 16.8 per 1,000,000 persons compared with 4.2, 2.6, and 0.5 for white, black, and Asian/Pacific Islander persons, respectively. Most cases in American Indians were reported from Oklahoma (113.1 cases per 1,000,000), North Carolina (60.0), and Arizona (17.2). The incidence of RMSF increased dramatically among American Indians disproportionately to trends for other race groups. Education about tick-borne disease and prevention measures should be addressed for high-risk American Indian populations.

  4. Reducing the Grade Disparities between American Indians and Euro-American Students in Introduction to Psychology through Small-Group, Peer-Mentored, Supplemental Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Morris Alan; Berlin, Anna; Hanrahan, Jeanne; Lewis, James; Johnson, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Supplemental instruction (SI) is a small-group, peer-mentored programme which is compatible with the learning preferences of American Indian students. We tested the hypothesis that SI is a compensatory strategy that reduces the differences in the grades earned in introduction to psychology by Euro-American and American Indian students. The sample…

  5. Assessment of parental oral health knowledge and behaviors among American Indians of a Northern Plains tribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anne; Brega, Angela G; Batliner, Terrence S; Henderson, William; Campagna, Elizabeth J; Fehringer, Karen; Gallegos, Joaquin; Daniels, Dallas; Albino, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Investigate the relationship between sociodemographic variables and oral health knowledge and behaviors of American Indian (AI) parents as the initial step in a program aimed at reducing caries experience among AI children. Survey data were collected from a sample of 147 AI parents of children ages 0-7 years who are residents of a Northern Plains reservation. Questions addressed sociodemographic variables for parents/their children and parent oral health knowledge and behavior. Overall knowledge was measured as percentage of items answered correctly. Overall behavior was measured as percentage of items reflecting behavior consistent with accepted oral health recommendations. Oral health knowledge and behaviors, and the relationship between them, were evaluated across groups defined by quartiles. Parent sociodemographic variables were not significantly associated with behavior scores. Female gender, higher level of education, and higher income were significantly and positively associated with mean knowledge scores. Behavior and knowledge scores were significantly correlated. On average, survey participants identified the best answer for 75 percent of knowledge items and engaged in 58 percent of optimal oral health behaviors. Participants in higher oral health knowledge quartiles had greater adherence with recommended oral health behaviors than those in lower quartiles. Surveyed AI parents had reasonably high levels of knowledge about oral health and caries prevention for their children but engaged at relatively lower levels in parental behaviors necessary to promote oral health. Strategies focused on behavior change, rather than knowledge alone, may be most likely to affect oral health outcomes for AI children. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  6. Food Security and Diet Among American Indians in the Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryhill, Kelly; Hale, Jason; Chase, Brian; Clark, Lauren; He, Jianghua; Daley, Christine M

    2018-04-05

    The purpose of this study was to determine levels of food security among American Indians (AI) living in the Midwest and possible correlations between food security levels and various health outcomes, diet, and demographic variables. This study used a cross-sectional design to determine health behaviors among AI. Participants (n = 362) were recruited by AI staff through various cultural community events in the Midwest, such as powwows and health fairs. Inclusion criteria included the following: age 18 years or older, self-identify as an AI, and willing to participate in the survey. Of all participants, 210 (58%) had either low or very low food security, with 96 in the very low category (26.5%). Participants with very low food security tended to have significantly more chronic conditions. Additional significant differences for very low food security existed by demographic variables, including having no insurance (p security levels and the consumption of fast food within the past week (p value = 0.0420), though no differences were found in fruit and vegetable consumption. AI in our sample had higher levels of food insecurity than those reported in the literature for other racial/ethnic groups. AI and non-Native health professionals should be aware of the gravity of food insecurity and the impact it has on overall health. Additional research is needed to determine specific aspects of food insecurity affecting different Native communities to develop appropriate interventions.

  7. Healthcare barriers and supports for American Indian women with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, Jessica L; Burnette, Catherine E; Roh, Soonhee; Lee, Yeon-Shim

    2018-05-18

    Although American Indian (AI) women continue to experience cancer at higher rates and have not seen the same decline in cancer prevalence as the general U.S. population, little research examines how interactions with health care providers may influence and exacerbate these health disparities. The purpose of the study was to understand the experiences of AI women who receive cancer treatment, which is integral for eradication of AI cancer disparities among women. A qualitative descriptive methodology was used with a sample of 43 AI women with breast, cervical, colon, and other types of cancer from the Northern Plains region of South Dakota. Interviews were conducted from June 2014 to February 2015. Qualitative content analysis revealed that women experienced: (a) health concerns being ignored or overlooked; (b) lack of consistent and qualified providers; (c) inadequate healthcare infrastructure; (d) sub-optimal patient-healthcare provider relationships; (e) positive experiences with healthcare providers; and (f) pressure and misinformation about treatment. Results indicate the types of support AI women may need when accessing healthcare. Culturally informed trainings for healthcare professionals may be needed to provide high-quality and sensitive care for AI women who have cancer, and to support those providers already providing proper care.

  8. Teaching and Learning with Computers! A Method for American Indian Bilingual Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth

    Computer instruction can offer particular benefits to the Indian child. Computer use emphasizes the visual facets of learning, teaches language based skills needed for higher education and careers, and provides types of instruction proven effective with Indian children, such as private self-testing and cooperative learning. The Hupa, Yurok, Karuk,…

  9. DEPRESSION AND GUILT IN INDIAN AND NORTH AMERICAN PATIENTS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, Jambur; Engelsman, Frank; Ghadirian, A.M.; Wohl, Marcy; Shamasundara, Padmini; Narayanan, H.S.

    1993-01-01

    SUMMARY One hundred and nineteen Indian and one hundred and fourteen North American depressed patients were compared to assess the differences in psychopathology. The study revealed two important findings: 1) Indian patients scored significantly higher than American patients on the HAMD items of poor appetite, hypochondriasis, diurnal variation, and psychomotor retardation; and lower on the items of anxiety and middle insomnia. 2) Guilt was expressed less often by Indian patients. Guilt was more common among those who felt that God was responsible for their depression and in those who believed in reincarnation. These differences may be related to cultural factors and not to religious beliefs. PMID:21776166

  10. The Gambling Behavior of American Indian and Non-Indian Participants: Effects of the Actions and Ethnicity of a Confederate

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Casey L.; McDonald, J. Douglas; Weatherly, Jeffrey N.

    2008-01-01

    The present experiment investigated whether the gambling of American Indian (AI) and non-AI participants would be sensitive to the actions and/or ethnicity of another gambler (i.e., a confederate) when playing a slot-machine simulation. Eight male AIs and eight male non-AIs participated in five gambling sessions. In one, the participant gambled…

  11. The relationship of gender and trauma characteristics to posttraumatic stress disorder in a community sample of traumatized northern plains American Indian adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanadesikan, Mukund; Novins, Douglas K; Beals, Janette

    2005-09-01

    Previous studies have identified a high prevalence (25%-80%) of trauma among American Indian and non-American Indian adolescents and adults. However, only a fraction of traumatized individuals develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This article examines the relationships of gender and trauma characteristics to a diagnosis of PTSD among a community sample of traumatized American Indian adolescents and young adults. Complete data were collected from 349 American Indians aged 15 to 24 years who participated in a cross-sectional community-based study from July 1997 to December 1999 and reported experiencing at least 1 traumatic event. Traumatic events and PTSD were assessed using a version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Logistic regression determined the relationships of gender, trauma type, age at first trauma, and number of traumas to the development of PTSD. Forty-two participants (12.0% of those who experienced a traumatic event) met criteria for lifetime PTSD. While all 4 of the independent variables noted above demonstrated univariate associations with PTSD, multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that only experiencing a sexual trauma (odds ratio [OR] = 4.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.76 to 11.28) and having experienced 6 or more traumas (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.06 to 6.04) were independent predictors of meeting criteria for PTSD. American Indian children and adolescents who experience sexual trauma and multiple traumatic experiences may be at particularly high risk for developing PTSD.

  12. Making science education meaningful for American Indian students: The effect of science fair participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Cynthia Ann

    Creating opportunities for all learners has not been common practice in the United States, especially when the history of Native American educational practice is examined (Bull, 2006; Chenoweth, 1999; Starnes, 2006a). The American Indian Science and Engineering Society (AISES) is an organization working to increase educational opportunity for American Indian students in science, engineering, and technology related fields (AISES, 2005). AISES provides pre-college support in science by promoting student science fair participation. The purpose of this qualitative research is to describe how American Indian student participation in science fairs and the relationship formed with their teacher affects academic achievement and the likelihood of continued education beyond high school. Two former American Indian students mentored by the principal investigator participated in this study. Four ethnographic research methods were incorporated: participant observation, ethnographic interviewing, search for artifacts, and auto-ethnographic researcher introspection (Eisenhart, 1988). After the interview transcripts, photos documenting past science fair participation, and researcher field notes were analyzed, patterns and themes emerged from the interviews that were supported in literature. American Indian academic success and life long learning are impacted by: (a) the effects of racism and oppression result in creating incredible obstacles to successful learning, (b) positive identity formation and the importance of family and community are essential in student learning, (c) the use of best practice in science education, including the use of curricular cultural integration for American Indian learners, supports student success, (d) the motivational need for student-directed educational opportunities (science fair/inquiry based research) is evident, (e) supportive teacher-student relationships in high school positively influences successful transitions into higher education. An

  13. The Power of Women in Three American Indian Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Clara Sue

    1978-01-01

    The persistence of the Indian woman's biological function and role in the society has provided a sense of security and stability in the changing Indian world, and their flexibility in adapting to other roles has been a survival factor in processes of acculturation. (Author/EB)

  14. American Indian Women Cancer Survivor's Needs and Preferences: Community Support for Cancer Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnette, Catherine E; Roh, Soonhee; Liddell, Jessica; Lee, Yeon-Shim

    2018-03-15

    Cancer (the focus of this inquiry) is the leading cause of death among American Indian and Alaska Native women. The purpose of this study was to identify American Indian women cancer survivors' needs and preferences related to community supports for their cancer experience. This qualitative study examined female American Indian cancer survivors' needs and preferences about community support. The sample included 43 American Indian women cancer survivors (the types of cancer survivors included cervical cancer: n = 14; breast cancer: n = 14; and colon and other types: n = 15) residing in the Northern Plains region, in the state of South Dakota. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and were collected between June of 2014 and February of 2015. When asked about their needs and preferences, 82% of participants (n = 35) of female American Indian cancer survivors reported at least one of the following most commonly reported themes: cancer support groups (n = 31, 72%), infrastructure for community support (n = 17, 40%), and cancer education (n = 11, 26%). In addition to the aforementioned themes, 33% of participants (n = 14) indicated the need for an improved healthcare system, with 11% (n = 5) of participants expressly desiring the integration of spirituality and holistic healing options. The majority of American Indian women cancer survivor participants of this study identified a need for more community-based support systems and infrastructures to aid with the cancer survivor experience. Results warrant a community approach to raise awareness, education, and support for American Indian cancer survivors.

  15. Prenatal alcohol exposure among Alaska Native/American Indian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Burhan A; Robinson, Renee F; Smith, Julia J; Dillard, Denise A

    2013-01-01

    Recent reports indicate a decline in rates of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) among Alaska Native and American Indian (AN/AI) infants. Nevertheless, AN/AI infants remain disproportionately impacted by the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. AN/AI pregnant women in their 3rd trimester completed a questionnaire on demographic data and the amount and frequency of their alcohol consumption in the month prior to conception and during pregnancy. Differences across demographics and trimesters were tested with the Chi-square, Fisher's exact or McNemar's test as appropriate. Of the 125 participants, 56% (n = 71) reported no alcohol consumption in the 1st through 3rd trimesters of pregnancy; 30% (n = 38) of the 125 participants also reported no alcohol consumption in the month before pregnancy. Of the 43% (n = 54) who reported consuming alcohol during pregnancy (1st, 2nd and/or 3rd trimester), most (35%) reported alcohol use only in the 1st trimester. Binge drinking in the 1st or 2nd trimester was reported amongst 20% (n = 25) of participants with an additional 18% (n = 29) reporting binge drinking in the month prior to pregnancy. Women who reported pre-conception binge drinking were significantly more likely to report binge drinking during their 1st trimester (p pregnancy (p pregnancy. Among study participants, reported use of alcohol was primarily limited to pre-conception and the 1st trimester, with a dramatic decrease in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Prevention programmes, such as the Alaska FAS Prevention Project, may have contributed to observed decreases in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Additional study and focus on pre-conception, the 1st trimester and binge drinking, as well as tobacco use might augment Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder prevention efforts.

  16. Affirming Identity: The Role of Language and Culture in American Indian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyhner, Jon

    2017-01-01

    With the passage of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001, the United States spent millions upon millions of dollars in a largely unsuccessful effort to close the academic achievement gap between American-Indian and some other ethnic minorities and mainstream Americans. NCLB's focus on teacher quality and evidence-based curriculum and…

  17. Reframing Diabetes in American Indian Communities: A Social Determinants of Health Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Felicia M.

    2012-01-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) experience some of the greatest health inequities of any group within the United States. AI/ANs are diagnosed with diabetes more than twice as often as non-Hispanic white Americans. Diabetes is a chronic preventable disease often associated with individual risk factors and behaviors that indicate what…

  18. Social Networks, Support, and Psychosocial Functioning among American Indian Women in Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Jenny; Lopez, Darlene

    2005-01-01

    The relationship of social networks and social support to the psychosocial functioning (self-efficacy, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and hostility) of 159 American Indian women undergoing residential substance abuse treatment at Native American Connections was assessed. Social support and active participation by clients' families during…

  19. Breast Cancer--Screening Behavior among Rural California American Indian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Felicia Schanche

    2009-01-01

    A community-based Wellness Circles Program was designed and implemented at 13 sites in California to evaluate a culturally appropriate community-based health care model for American Indian families. Data obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) that was administered to a subset of women demonstrate that American Indian…

  20. Catalog of Vocational Education and Related Programs Designed for Instruction of American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBain, Susan; And Others

    To plan a curriculum for a vocationally based community school in Navajo, New Mexico, the Navajo Department of Education (with assistance from the American Institutes for Research) surveyed the nation for vocational education programs which had been developed or adapted specifically for use with American Indians or Alaska Natives. State directors…

  1. American Indians, hunting and fishing rates, risk, and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, J.

    1999-01-01

    Hunting, fishing, and recreational rates of 276 American Indians attending a festival at Fort Hall, near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), were examined. Nearly half of the sample lived on the Fort Hall Reservation, and half were American Indians from elsewhere in the western United States. An additional 44 White people attending the festival were also interviewed. The hypothesis that there are differences in hunting, fishing, and recreational rates as a function of tribal affiliation, educational level, gender, and age was examined. Information on hunting and fishing rates are central for understanding potential exposure scenarios for American Indians if the Department of Energy's INEEL lands are ever opened to public access, and the data are important because of the existence of tribal treaties that govern the legal and cultural rights of the Shoshone-Bannock regarding INEEL lands. Variations in hunting, fishing, and photography rates were explained by tribal affiliation (except fishing), gender, age, and schooling. Hunting rates were significantly higher for Indians (both those living on Fort Hall and others) than Whites. Men engaged in significantly higher rates of outdoor activities than women (except for photography). Potential and current hunting and fishing on and adjacent to INEEL was more similar among the local Whites and Fort Hall Indians than between these two groups and other American Indians

  2. Developments in Undernutrition in Indian Children Under Five

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nie, Peng; Rammohan, Anu; Gwozdz, Wencke

    This study uses two waves (2004-2005 and 2011-2012) of the nationally representative Indian Human Development Survey to conduct a systematic decompositional analysis of the demographic and socio-economic factors contributing to undernutrition among children under five in India. The analytic method...... improvements on some measures, undernutrition among India's young children remains widespread. The improvements we do identify are partly attributable to changes in household wealth and maternal characteristics like body mass index and education....

  3. Chronic disease risk factors among American Indian/Alaska Native women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amparo, Pamela; Farr, Sherry L; Dietz, Patricia M

    2011-11-01

    The magnitude of chronic conditions and risk factors among American Indian/Alaska Native women of reproductive age is unknown. The objective of our study was to estimate this magnitude. We analyzed data for 2,821 American Indian/Alaska Native women and 105,664 non-Hispanic white women aged 18 to 44 years from the 2005 and 2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We examined prevalence of high cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, body mass index (kg/m(2)) ≥25.0, physical inactivity, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and frequent mental distress, and the cumulative number of these chronic conditions and risk factors (≥3, 2, 1, or 0). In a multivariable, multinomial logistic regression model, we examined whether American Indian/Alaska Native race was associated with the cumulative number of chronic conditions and risk factors. American Indian/Alaska Native women, compared with white women, had significantly higher rates of high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, smoking, and frequent mental distress. Of American Indian/Alaska Native women, 41% had 3 or more chronic conditions or risk factors compared with 27% of white women (χ(2), P Indian/Alaska Native race was not associated with having either 1, 2, or 3 or more chronic conditions or risk factors. Three out of every 5 American Indian/Alaska Native women aged 18 to 44 years have 3 or more chronic conditions or risk factors. Improving economic status and education for AI/AN women could help eliminate disparities in health status.

  4. Psychological distress among Plains Indian mothers with children referred to screening for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Tassy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological distress (PD includes symptoms of depression and anxiety and is associated with considerable emotional suffering, social dysfunction and, often, with problematic alcohol use. The rate of current PD among American Indian women is approximately 2.5 times higher than that of U.S. women in general. Our study aims to fill the current knowledge gap about the prevalence and characteristics of PD and its association with self-reported current drinking problems among American Indian mothers whose children were referred to screening for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. Methods Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data was conducted from maternal interviews of referred American Indian mothers (n = 152 and a comparison group of mothers (n = 33 from the same Plains culture tribes who participated in an NIAAA-funded epidemiology study of FASD. Referred women were from one of six Plains Indian reservation communities and one urban area who bore children suspected of having an FASD. A 6-item PD scale (PD-6, Cronbach's alpha = .86 was constructed with a summed score range of 0-12 and a cut-point of 7 indicating serious PD. Multiple statistical tests were used to examine the characteristics of PD and its association with self-reported current drinking problems. Results Referred and comparison mothers had an average age of 31.3 years but differed (respectively on: education ( Conclusions Psychological distress among referred mothers is significantly associated with having a self-reported drinking problem. FASD prevention requires multi-level prevention efforts that provide real opportunities for educational attainment and screening and monitoring of PD and alcohol use during the childbearing years. Mixed methods studies are needed to illuminate the social and cultural determinants at the base of the experience of PD and to identify the strengths and protective factors of unaffected peers who reside within the same

  5. The income and health effects of tribal casino gaming on American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Barbara; Jakubowski, Jessica; Haveman, Robert; Courey, Marissa

    2012-05-01

    The legalization of American Indian casino gaming in the late 1980s allows examination of the relationship between income and health in a quasi-experimental way. Revenue from gaming accrues to individual tribes and has been used both to supplement tribe members' income and to finance tribal infrastructure. We assembled annual data from 1988-2003 on tribal gaming, health care access (from the Area Resource File), and individual health and socioeconomic characteristics data (from the Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System). We use this information within a structural, difference-in-differences framework to study the effect of casino gaming on tribal members' income, health status, access to health care, and health-related behaviors. Our difference-in-differences framework relies on before-after comparisons among American Indians whose tribe has at some time operated a casino and with-without comparisons between American Indians whose tribe has and those whose tribe has not initiated gaming. Our results provide identified estimates of the positive effect of gaming on American Indian income and on several indicators of American Indian health, health-related behaviors, and access to health care.

  6. An Overview of the Labor Market Problems of Indians and Native Americans. Research Report No. 89-02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Robert G.

    This booklet provides an overview of the labor market problems facing Indians and Native Americans, the most economically disadvantaged ethnic group in the United States. It summarizes Indian policy, particularly major policies and laws that relate to early trade restrictions and the exploitation of Indians through trade; their forced removal from…

  7. An evaluation of the American Indian Air Quality Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartaroli, Marylynn

    During centuries of geographic, economic, and cultural domination, the federal government held the responsibility for the management of environmental issues on tribal lands. Today, tribes are reasserting their sovereignty in many ways, including the development of their own environmental programs. Tribal agencies desperately search for tribal members who are qualified to make decisions for the benefit of the tribes from both Western scientific and traditional cultural viewpoints. To meet this need, the American Indian Air Quality Training Program (AIAQTP) offers technical and regulatory training courses that are both scientifically up-to-date and culturally responsive to this community. This study is an evaluation of these courses. To supplement data from existing program documents and databases, I also observed five courses, sent follow-up questionnaires, and interviewed lead instructors and course participants to develop an understanding of their perceptions of the training received. Computer analysis of this quantitative and qualitative data revealed patterns and themes; an external reviewer also independently analyzed the data set. The training courses offered by AIAQTP were judged to have merit and value by the course instructors, the participants, the external evaluator, and me. Designed to be both culturally responsive and technically rigorous, these courses provided relevant and useful information and skills to the tribal environmental professionals in attendance, meeting the demands of their jobs. Although not all training needs or expectations were met, the study participants indicated their intentions to continue their education and training in air quality and other environmental media. A significant benefit of attendance at AIAQTP training courses was the development of a network of tribal professionals across the nation that acts as a support system for the implementation and continuation of changes in the professional practice for the trainees and

  8. Are the Motivational Effects of Autonomy-Supportive Conditions Universal? Contrasting Results Among Indians and Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Ritu; Cervone, Daniel; Savani, Krishna

    2018-04-01

    In Western theories of motivation, autonomy is conceived as a universal motivator of human action; enhancing autonomy is expected to increase motivation panculturally. Using a novel online experimental paradigm that afforded a behavioral measure of motivation, we found that, contrary to this prevailing view, autonomy cues affect motivation differently among American and Indian corporate professionals. Autonomy-supportive instructions increased motivation among Americans but decreased motivation among Indians. The motivational Cue × Culture interaction was extraordinarily large; the populations exhibited little statistical overlap. A second study suggested that this interaction reflects culturally specific norms that are widely understood by members of the given culture. When evaluating messages to motivate workers, Indians, far more than Americans, preferred a message invoking obligations to one invoking autonomous personal choice norms. Results cast doubt on the claim, made regularly in both basic and applied psychology, that enhancing autonomy is a universally preferred method for boosting motivation.

  9. Settler colonial power and the American Indian sovereignty movement: forms of domination, strategies of transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Erich

    2012-01-01

    The article extends the multi-institutional model of power and change through an analysis of the American Indian Sovereignty Movement. Drawing upon cultural models of the state, and articulating institutionalist conceptions of political opportunities and resources, the analysis demonstrates that this framework can be applied to challenges addressing the state as well as nonstate fields. The rational-legal diminishment of tribal rights, bureaucratic paternalism, commonsense views of tribes as racial/ethnic minorities, and the binary construction of American and Indian as oppositional identities diminished the appeal of "contentious" political action. Instead, to establish tribes' status as sovereign nations, tribal leaders aggressively enacted infrastructural power, transposed favorable legal rulings across social fields to legitimize sovereignty discourses, and promoted a pragmatic coexistence with state and local governments. Identifying the United States as a settler colonial society, the study suggests that a decolonizing framework is more apt than racial/ethnicity approaches in conceptualizing the struggle of American Indians.

  10. Factors Associated With American Indian and White Adolescent Drug Selling in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitle, David; Eitle, Tamela McNulty

    2014-01-01

    Relatively few studies have examined the correlates of adolescent drug selling in America, with most of these studies focusing on urban settings. The present study examines the risk and protective factors associated with drug selling among American Indian and white adolescents residing in a rural Northwestern state in the United States. Using survey data collected in 2010-2012, we conduct logistic regression analyses exploring the correlates of drug selling (n=568). Generally, we found support for prior explanations of drug selling, but identified some important race-specific differences. Specifically, we found that stress exposure was a risk factor for American Indians, but not whites. Conversely, academic achievement served as a protective factor for white adolescents but not American Indians. Our findings suggest that the race gap in rural drug selling can be explained by considering differences in social bonds, stress exposure, and exposure to substance using family and friends. PMID:26120365

  11. Working for India or against Islam? Islamophobia in Indian American Lobbies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Therwath

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, the Indian American community has gained an unprecedented visibility in the international arena. It is indeed often projected as a model community and now constitutes growing and influential ethnic lobbies in Washington. But, in the face of its sheer division, Islamophobia did provide a unifying force sometimes bigger than the interest of Indian Americans or of their country of origin. Other factors can also be summoned. Among them, a leniency of many post-1965 migrants towards Hindu nationalist ideology and the wish to align with Jewish pressure groups in the context of the war against terrorism and to further the India-Israel-US strategic partnership play a major role in explaining Islamophobic overtones in the Indian American lobbies.

  12. Tobacco Industry Promotional Strategies Targeting American Indians/Alaska Natives and Exploiting Tribal Sovereignty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Lauren K; Glantz, Stanton A

    2018-03-12

    American Indians/Alaska Natives have the highest commercial tobacco use in the United States, resulting in higher tobacco-caused deaths and diseases than the general population. Some American Indians/Alaska Natives use commercial tobacco for ceremonial as well as recreational uses. Because federally-recognized Tribal lands are sovereign, they are not subject to state cigarette taxes and smokefree laws. This study analyzes tobacco industry promotional efforts specifically targeting American Indians/Alaska Natives and exploiting Tribal lands to understand appropriate policy responses in light of American Indians'/Alaska Natives' unique sovereign status and culture. We analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents available at the Truth Tobacco Documents Library (https://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/). Tobacco companies used promotional strategies targeting American Indians/Alaska Natives and exploiting Tribal lands that leveraged the federally-recognized Tribes' unique sovereign status exempting them from state cigarette taxes and smokefree laws, and exploited some Tribes' existing traditional uses of ceremonial tobacco and poverty. Tactics included price reductions, coupons, giveaways, gaming promotions, charitable contributions and sponsorships. Additionally, tobacco companies built alliances with Tribal leaders to help improve their corporate image, advance ineffective "youth smoking prevention" programs, and defeat tobacco control policies. The industry's promotional tactics likely contribute to disparities in smoking prevalence and smoking-related diseases among American Indians//Alaska Natives. Proven policy interventions to address these disparities including tobacco price increases, cigarette taxes, comprehensive smokefree laws, and industry denormalization campaigns to reduce smoking prevalence and smoking-related disease could be considered by Tribal communities. The sovereign status of federally-recognized Tribes does not prevent them

  13. Women finding the way: American Indian women leading intervention research in Native communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brave Heart, Maria Yellow Horse; Chase, Josephine; Elkins, Jennifer; Martin, Jennifer; Nanez, Jennifer; Mootz, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Although there is literature concentrating on cross-cultural approaches to academic and community partnerships with Native communities, few address the process and experiences of American Indian women leading federally funded and culturally grounded behavioral health intervention research in Native communities. This paper summarizes relevant literature on community-engaged research with Native communities, examines traditional roles and modern challenges for American Indian women, describes the culturally grounded collaborative process for the authors' behavioral health intervention development with Native communities, and considers emergent themes from our own research experiences navigating competing demands from mainstream and Native communities. It concludes with recommendations for supporting and enhancing resilience.

  14. Conference on the Educational and Occupational Needs of American Indian Women (Albuquerque, New Mexico, October 12-13, 1976).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Twenty-one American Indian women, selected from state and federal government agencies, professional and research organizations, and academic institutions, began by discussing 10 background papers (presented here in revised form) dealing with: the employment and educational status of American Indian women; the interaction of sex roles and culture…

  15. The Central Nervous System and Alcohol Use. Science of Alcohol Curriculum for American Indians. Training Unit [and] Participant Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Cecelia; And Others

    The Science of Alcohol Curriculum for American Indians uses the Medicine Circle and the "new science paradigm" to study the science of alcohol through a culturally relevant holistic approach. Intended for teachers and other educational personnel involved with American Indians, this curriculum aims to present a framework for alcohol…

  16. The Digestive System and Alcohol Use. Science of Alcohol Curriculum for American Indians. Training Unit [and] Participant Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Cecelia; And Others

    The Science of Alcohol Curriculum for American Indians uses the Medicine Circle and the "new science paradigm" to study the science of alcohol through a culturally relevant holistic approach. Intended for teachers and other educational personnel involved with American Indians, this curriculum presents a framework for alcohol education…

  17. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2014, Series Information File for the Current American Indian/Alaska Native/Native Hawaiian Areas (AIANNH) National Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The American Indian/Alaska Native/Native Hawaiian (AIANNH) Areas Shapefile includes the following legal entities: federally recognized American Indian reservations...

  18. A Bibliography on American Indians. Bibliographic Series No. 36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Larry S.

    The information sources on Indians of North and South America which are listed were selected from the holdings of the Arkansas University library. Materials are grouped by type, including bibliographies, biographies, catalogs and directories, documentary histories, laws and treaties, encyclopedias and guides, handbooks and sourcebooks, microfilm,…

  19. American Indian Telecommunications Satellite Demonstration Project. Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX.

    The technical feasibility of voice and television communication within and between tribes, between tribes and federal agencies, and between educational institutions and tribes was demonstrated by broadcasts which took place April 10, 12, and 14, 1978, with equipment located at four sites: Crow Agency, Montana; All- Indian Culture Center, New…

  20. Cooperation, decision time, and culture: Online experiments with American and Indian participants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Nishi

    Full Text Available Two separate bodies of work have examined whether culture affects cooperation in economic games and whether cooperative or non-cooperative decisions occur more quickly. Here, we connect this work by exploring the relationship between decision time and cooperation in American versus Indian subjects. We use a series of dynamic social network experiments in which subjects play a repeated public goods game: 80 sessions for a total of 1,462 subjects (1,059 from the United States, 337 from India, and 66 from other countries making 13,560 decisions. In the first round, where subjects do not know if connecting neighbors are cooperative, American subjects are highly cooperative and decide faster when cooperating than when defecting, whereas a majority of Indian subjects defect and Indians decide faster when defecting than when cooperating. Almost the same is true in later rounds where neighbors were previously cooperative (a cooperative environment except decision time among Indian subjects. However, when connecting neighbors were previously not cooperative (a non-cooperative environment, a large majority of both American and Indian subjects defect, and defection is faster than cooperation among both sets of subjects. Our results imply the cultural background of subjects in their real life affects the speed of cooperation decision-making differentially in online social environments.

  1. American Indians and Minnesota's Private Colleges. An Evaluation of the Minnesota Private College Research Foundation's Indian Education Project, 1971-72 -- 1974-75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitz, Emanuel

    The Minnesota Private College Research Foundation - Indian Education Project (MPCRF-IEP) provided additional financial support for programs that were unique, developmental, and Indian in their approach to expansion of higher educational opportunities for Native American students. Funding allocated by the Project was made on a dollar for dollar…

  2. The Incidence of Molluscum contagiosum among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary G Reynolds

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of Molluscum contagiosum (MC in the United States is largely unknown, despite the fact that the virus is directly communicable and large outbreaks occur. This study provides population-based estimates to describe the epidemiology of MC in the United States among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN persons. This population was selected because of the comprehensiveness and quality of available data describing utilization of out-patient services.Outpatient visits listing MC as a diagnosis in the Indian Health Service National Patient Information Reporting System during 2001-2005 were analyzed to assess patient characteristics, visit frequency and concurrent skin conditions. Outpatient visit rates and incidence rates were calculated based on known population denominators (retrospective cohort. Overall outpatient visit rates were also calculated for the general US population using national data. The average annual rate of MC-associated outpatient visits was 20.15/10,000 AI/AN persons for 2001-2005 (13,711 total visits, which was similar to the rate for the general US population (22.0/10,000 [95% CI: 16.9-27.1]. The incidence of MC-associated visits was 15.34/10,000. AI/AN children 1-4 years old had the highest incidence (77.12, more than twice that for children 5-14 years old (30.79; the incidence for infants (<1 year was higher than that for adults. AI/AN persons living in the West region had the highest incidence, followed by those in the East and Alaska regions (26.96, 22.88 and 21.38, respectively. There were age-specific associations between MC and concurrent skin conditions (e.g., atopic dermatitis, eczema.This study highlights the need for periodic population-based measurements to assess trends in incidence and healthcare utilization for MC in the United States. High rates of MC were found among AI/AN persons, especially among children <15 years old. The AI/AN population would benefit from greater availability of

  3. Dental Caries in American Indian Toddlers after a Community-Based Beverage Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupomé, Gerardo; Karanja, Njeri; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Lutz, Tam; Aickin, Mikel; Becker, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Objective/Setting The Toddler Overweight and Tooth decay prevention Study (TOTS) was an overweight and early childhood caries (ECC) project in the Pacific Northwest USA. It targeted American Indian (AI) toddlers from birth, to effect changes in breastfeeding and sweetened beverage consumption. Design/Intervention/Participants The intervention cohort was children born in three communities during 12 months; expectant mothers were identified through prenatal visits, and recruited by tribal coordinators. The local comparison cohorts were children in those communities who were 18–30 months at study start. A control longitudinal cohort consisted of annual samples of children aged 18–30 months in a fourth community, supplying secular trends. Outcome measures d1–2mfs was used to identify incident caries in intervention, comparison, and control cohorts after 18-to-30 months of follow-up in 2006. Results No missing or filled teeth were found. For d1t, all three intervention cohorts showed statistically significant downward intervention effects, decreases of between 0.300 and 0.631 in terms of the fraction of affected mouths. The results for d2t were similar but of smaller magnitudes, decreases of between 0.342 and 0.449; these results met the 0.05 level for significance in two of three cases. In light of an estimated secular increase in dental caries in the control site, all three intervention cohorts showed improvements in both d1t and d2t. Conclusions Simple interventions targeting sweetened beverage availability (in combination with related measures) reduced high tooth decay trends, and were both feasible and acceptable to the AI communities we studied. PMID:21305835

  4. Imaging of American football injuries in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podberesky, Daniel J.; Anton, Christopher G. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Unsell, Bryan J. [Wilford Hall Medical Center, Lackland Air Force Base, Department of Radiology, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2009-12-15

    It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population. (orig.)

  5. Imaging of American football injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podberesky, Daniel J; Unsell, Bryan J; Anton, Christopher G

    2009-12-01

    It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population.

  6. Imaging of American football injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podberesky, Daniel J.; Anton, Christopher G.; Unsell, Bryan J.

    2009-01-01

    It is estimated that 3.2 million children ages 6 to 14 years participated in organized youth football in the United States in 2007. Approximately 240,000 children play football in the nation's largest youth football organization, with tackle divisions starting at age 5 years. The number of children playing unsupervised football is much higher, and the overall number of children participating in American football is increasing. Sports are the leading cause of injury-related emergency room visits for teenagers, and football is a leading precipitating athletic activity for these visits. Football is also the most hazardous organized sports in the United States. Though most pediatric football-related injuries are minor, such as abrasions, sprains, and strains of the extremities, football accounts for more major and catastrophic injuries than any other sport. Given football's popularity with children in the United States, combined with the high rate of injury associated with participation in this activity, radiologists should be familiar with the imaging features and injury patterns seen in this patient population. (orig.)

  7. Community Self-Determination in Uptown Chicago: A Social and Cultural History of American Indian Educational Programs and Experiences, 1952-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukaitis, John J.

    2009-01-01

    This work examines the under-studied urban dimension of the American Indian self-determination in education by showing how American Indians in Chicago established, developed, influenced, and utilized programs to meet the particular objectives and needs of their local community. By showing how American Indians worked outside of and within systems,…

  8. Intervention effects on kindergarten and 1st grade teachers’ classroom food practices and food-related beliefs in American Indian reservation schools

    OpenAIRE

    Arcan, Chrisa; Hannan, Peter J.; Himes, John H.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Rock, Bonnie Holy; Smyth, Mary; Story, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of obesity among American Indian (AI) children is higher than the general US population. The school environment and teachers play important roles in helping students develop healthy eating habits. The aim of this prospective study was to examine teachers’ classroom and school food practices and beliefs and the effect of teacher training on these practices and beliefs. Data were used from the Bright Start study, a group-randomized, school-based trial on the Pine Ri...

  9. Behavioral Problems in Indian Children with Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Om P; Upadhyay, Aishvarya; Prasad, Rajniti; Upadhyay, Shashi K; Piplani, Satya K

    2017-02-15

    To assess prevalence of behavioral problems in children with epilepsy. This was a cross-sectional study of children with epilepsy, and normal controls enrolled between July 2013 to June 2015. Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was used as a tool to assess the behavior based on parents reported observation. There were 60 children with epilepsy in 2-5 years and 80 in 6-14 years age groups, and 74 and 83 unaffected controls, respectively. Mean CBCL scores for most of the domains in children of both age groups were significantly higher than controls. Clinical range abnormalities were mainly detected in externalizing domain (23.3%) in 2-5 years, and in both internalizing (21.2%) and externalizing (45%) domains in children of 6-14 years. Younger age of onset, frequency of seizures and duration of disease had significant correlation with behavioral problems in both the age groups. Antiepileptic drug polytherapy was significantly associated with internalizing problems in older children. Age at onset, frequency of seizures and duration of disease were found to be significantly associated with occurrence of behavioral problems.

  10. 77 FR 43560 - American Indian Vocational Rehabilitation Services Program; Proposed Waivers and Extensions of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... Program; Proposed Waivers and Extensions of the Project Periods AGENCY: Office of Special Education and... rehabilitation services to American Indians with disabilities who reside on or near Federal or State reservations... documents published by the Department. Dated: July 19, 2012. Alexa Posny, Assistant Secretary for Special...

  11. 77 FR 59085 - Final Waivers and Extensions of Project Periods; American Indian Vocational Rehabilitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ...) Number: 84.250C] AGENCY: Rehabilitation Services Administration, Office of Special Education and...), provide vocational rehabilitation services to American Indians with disabilities who reside on or near... documents published by the Department. Dated: September 20, 2012. Melody Musgrove, Director of Special...

  12. Scientific Discourse in the Academy: A Case Study of an American Indian Undergraduate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Carol B.

    2008-01-01

    This case study explores how an American Indian woman experienced scientific discourse and the issues of language, power, and authority that occurred while she was an undergraduate student at a university in the southwestern United States. This ethnographic research, using a phenomenological perspective, describes her experiences as she searched…

  13. Perceptions and Practices of Culturally Relevant Science Teaching in American Indian Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Younkyeong; Roehrig, Gillian; Kern, Anne; Reynolds, Bree

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the perceptions of culturally relevant science teaching of 35 teachers of American Indian students. These teachers participated in professional development designed to help them better understand climate change science content and teaching climate change using both Western science and traditional and cultural knowledge. Teacher…

  14. American Indian Women: Problems of Communicating a Cultural/Sexual Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Clara Sue

    In traditional American Indian cultures, sex roles were clearly defined and women were the keepers of the home, child bearers, and food gathers. Sometimes, however, stereotypes and preconceptions become barriers to cross-cultural communication. For instance, feminists who see themselves as victims of a male-dominated society cannot assume that…

  15. Spirits of the Air: Birds and American Indians in the South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Anderson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Review of Spirits of the Air: Birds and American Indians in the South. Shepard Krech III. 2009. University of Georgia Press, Athens. Pp. 245, copiously illustrated. $44.95 (hardbound. ISBN-13 978-0-8203-2815-7.

  16. Preparing Teachers as Allies in Indigenous Education: Benefits of an American Indian Content and Pedagogy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Brian D.

    2017-01-01

    The study explores relationship building and improvements in knowledge, skills, and dispositions of pre-service teachers enrolled in an Indigenous education content and pedagogy methods course. The Teaching American Indian Students in the Elementary Classroom course stands alone from other diversity education offerings at the University of…

  17. The Dream Catcher Meditation: a therapeutic technique used with American Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, R

    2001-01-01

    This article describes a short-term treatment insight-oriented model for American Indian adolescents, called Dream Catcher Meditation. It is aimed at helping clients' express unconscious conflicts and to facilitate differentiation and healthy mutuality. Though its duration can vary, twelve sessions are outlined here. Session descriptions include goals and sample questions. Also included are anecdotal material and reflections about cultural relevancy.

  18. Beloved Women: Nurturing the Sacred Fire of Leadership from an American Indian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe; Garrett, Michael Tlanusta

    2005-01-01

    American Indian women have been consistently involved in leadership throughout indigenous history. Their leadership provides a strong, nurturing influence passed down from generation to generation. In the U.S. society, this type of leadership style is recognized among contemporary authors of leadership manuals as relational and is attributed to…

  19. Predictors of Relapse for American Indian Women after Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Jenny; Lopez, Darlene

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the predictors of substance use relapse of American Indian (AI) women up to one year following substance abuse treatment. Relapse is defined as any use of alcohol or drugs in the past 30 days at the follow-up points. Data were collected from AI women in a 45-day residential substance abuse treatment…

  20. Weaving dreamcatchers: mothering among American Indian women who were teen mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Janelle F; Strickland, Carolyn J; Chesla, Catherine A; Kennedy, Holly P; Portillo, Carmen J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the mothering experience and practice among reservation-based adult American Indian women who had been adolescent mothers. Adolescent American Indian women are at an elevated risk for teen pregnancy and poor maternal/child outcomes. Identifying mothering practices among this population may help guide intervention development that will improve health outcomes. A collaborative orientation to community-based participatory research approach. Employing interpretive phenomenology, 30 adult American Indian women who resided on a Northwestern reservation were recruited. In-depth, face-to-face and telephone interviews were conducted between 2007-2008. Women shared their mothering experience and practice, which encompassed a lifespan perspective grounded in their American Indian cultural tradition. Four themes were identified as follows: mother hen, interrupted mothering and second chances, breaking cycles and mothering a community. Mothering originated in childhood, extended across their lifespan and moved beyond mothering their biological offspring. These findings challenge the Western construct of mothering and charge nurses to seek culturally sensitive interventions that reinforce positive mothering practices and identify when additional mothering support is needed across a woman's lifespan. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. American Indian Women and Screening Mammography: Findings from a Qualitative Study in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolma, Eleni; Batterton, Chasity; Hamm, Robert M.; Thompson, David; Engelman, Kimberly K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is an important public health issue within the American Indian (AI) community in Oklahoma; however, there is limited information to explain the low screening mammography rates among AI women. Purpose: To identify the motivational factors affecting an AI woman's decision to obtain a mammogram. Methods: Through the use of…

  2. The Successful Educational Journeys of American Indian Women: Forming Aspirations for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Maureen Snow

    2014-01-01

    American Indians (AIs) have lower higher education enrollment and completion rates than Whites and most minority groups. AI women, however, participate at higher rates than AI men, White women, and White men. Research has not examined what contributes to their higher education aspirations. This study explored the middle and high school experiences…

  3. Examining Correlates of Methamphetamine and Other Drug Use in Pregnant American Indian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Allison; Mullany, Britta C.; Neault, Nicole; Davis, Yvonne; Billy, Trudy; Hastings, Ranelda; Coho-Mescal, Valerie; Lake, Kristin; Powers, Julia; Clouse, Emily; Reid, Raymond; Walkup, John T.

    2010-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) adolescents have high rates of pregnancy, as well as alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and, increasingly, methamphetamine (meth) use. The progression of adolescent drug use to meth use could have devastating impacts on AI communities, particularly when youth are simultaneously at risk for teen childbearing. In…

  4. Body Mass Index and Cancer Screening in Older American Indian and Alaska Native Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muus, Kyle J.; Baker-Demaray, Twyla; McDonald, Leander R.; Ludtke, Richard L.; Allery, Alan J.; Bogart, T. Andy; Goldberg, Jack; Ramsey, Scott D.; Buchwald, Dedra S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Regular screenings are important for reducing cancer morbidity and mortality. There are several barriers to receiving timely cancer screening, including overweight/obesity. No study has examined the relationship between overweight/obesity and cancer screening among American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). Purpose: To describe the…

  5. Postpartum Depression Prevention for Reservation-Based American Indians: Results from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Barlow, Allison; Goklish, Novalene; Hastings, Ranelda; Baker, Elena Varipatis; Mullany, Britta; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Walkup, John

    2012-01-01

    Background: Postpartum depression is a devastating condition that affects a significant number of women and their offspring. Few preventive interventions have targeted high risk youth, such as American Indians (AIs). Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of a depression prevention program for AI adolescents and young adults. Methods: Expectant AI…

  6. Incorporating the Culture of American Indian/Alaska Native Students into the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, Raphael M.; Williams, Garnet L.

    2014-01-01

    Focus group interviews were conducted with educators and stakeholders for American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) students, including teachers, elementary and high school principals, tribal community leaders, and parents, to determine a global definition of culture and ways of infusing culture into curriculum to better educate AI/AN students. Focus…

  7. Teaching the Role of the Indian in American History and Upgrading Curricula. A Position Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costo, Rupert

    Presented in this document is a discussion of the need for an ongoing evaluation of the accuracy and adequacy of materials pertaining to American Indians in textbooks and reference books in use, or being produced for use, in the nation's schools. During this ongoing evaluation, to be done by a recognized permanent national committee of Indian…

  8. Challenges to Evaluating Physical Activity Programs in American Indian/Alaska Native Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Erica Blue; Butler, James; Green, Kerry M.

    2018-01-01

    Despite the importance of evaluation to successful programming, a lack of physical activity program (PAP) evaluation for American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) programs exists, which is significant given the high rates of obesity and diabetes in this population. While evaluation barriers have been identified broadly among AI/AN programs, challenges…

  9. Tailoring a Web-Based Weight Maintenance Intervention for Northern Plains American Indian Public University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmingson, Kaitlyn; Lucchesi, Roxanne; Droke, Elizabeth; Kattelmann, Kendra K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: High levels of obesity-related health disparities are common among US American Indian (AI) populations. AI public university students often face unique challenges that may contribute to weight gain and related consequences. Few weight maintenance interventions have been developed that meet the needs of AI public university students. The…

  10. Reaching American Indian Special/Elementary Educators through a Partnership with a Navajo Nation School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbecker, Connie; Medina, Catherine; Peterson, Patricia; Redsteer, Denise; Prater, Greg

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the Reaching American Indian Special/Elementary Educators (RAISE) program, a community-based native teacher education program located on the Navajo reservation in Kayenta, Arizona. The preservice teacher preparation partnership program is designed for uncertified Navajo special and elementary education preservice students…

  11. Childhood Abuse and Later Parenting Outcomes in Two American Indian Tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, Anne M.; Orton, Heather D.; Beals, Janette; Buchwald, Dedra; Manson, Spero M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship of childhood physical and sexual abuse with reported parenting satisfaction and parenting role impairment later in life among American Indians (AIs). Methods: AIs from Southwest and Northern Plains tribes who participated in a large-scale community-based study (n=3,084) were asked about traumatic events and…

  12. Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program Recommendations from Urban and Reservation Northern Plains American Indian Community Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Tracey R.; Hanson, Jessica D.; Griese, Emily R.; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete

    2015-01-01

    Despite declines over the past few decades, the United States has one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy compared to other industrialized nations. American Indian youth have experienced higher rates of teen pregnancy compared to the overall population for decades. Although it's known that community and cultural adaptation enhance program…

  13. Ethnic Identity, Sense of Community, and Psychological Well-Being among Northern Plains American Indian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Carter, Jessica S.

    2011-01-01

    Limited research has examined how ethnic identity and sense of community may be associated with psychological well-being in American Indian adolescents. Via survey data, we examined the relationships among ethnic identity, sense of community, psychosomatic symptoms, positive affect, and feelings of depression with students from a tribal high…

  14. Turkish, Indian, and American Chemistry Textbooks Use of Inscriptions to Represent "Types of Chemical Reactions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Sevgi; Sinha, Somnath; Izci, Kemal; Volkmann, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate inscriptions used in "Types of Chemical Reactions" topic in Turkish, Indian, and American chemistry textbooks. We investigated both the types of inscriptions and how they were used in textbooks to support learning. A conceptual analysis method was employed to determine how those textbooks use…

  15. General Strain Theory and Delinquency: Extending a Popular Explanation to American Indian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitle, David; Eitle, Tamela McNulty

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence that American Indian (AI) adolescents are disproportionately involved in crime and delinquent behavior, there exists scant research exploring the correlates of crime among this group. We posit that Agnew's General Strain Theory (GST) is well suited to explain AI delinquent activity. Using the National Longitudinal Study of…

  16. Substance Use and Sexual Risk Behaviors among American Indian and Alaska Native High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ravello, Lori; Everett Jones, Sherry; Tulloch, Scott; Taylor, Melanie; Doshi, Sonal

    2014-01-01

    Background: We describe the prevalence of behaviors that put American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) high school students at risk for teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and the relationships among race/ethnicity and these behaviors. Methods: We analyzed merged 2007 and 2009 data from the national Youth Risk Behavior…

  17. Complex Personhood as the Context for Intimate Partner Victimization: One American Indian Woman's Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sharon; Lemire, Lynne; Wisman, Mindi

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative case study explores one American Indian (AI) woman's experience of intimate partner violence and the subsequent murder of her abusive partner. The lens of complex personhood (Gordon, 1997) has been applied as a method for understanding "Annie's" multiple identities of AI woman, victim of intimate partner violence, mother, and…

  18. Balancing Culture and Professional Education: American Indians/Alaska Natives and the Helping Professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Hilary N.

    2000-01-01

    Surveys of 132 American Indian social workers, nurses, psychologists, and college students in those fields examined their experiences of professional education. Themes included extent of cultural content within professional training; types of support for indigenous identities; and struggles with stereotypes, institutional and faculty insensitivity…

  19. Contested Conversations: Presentations, Expectations, and Responsibility at the National Museum of the American Indian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Joanne; Dumont, Clayton

    2006-01-01

    This article interrogates the politics of representation, expectation, and responsibility at the new National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) in Washington, DC. The authors explore the interpretive contests (between and among Natives and non-Natives) provoked by the museum's representational strategies. They think that NMAI has positioned…

  20. Look local: the value of cancer surveillance and reporting by American Indian clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Paul D; Strickland, Rick; Stephenson, Laura; Pierce-Hudson, Kimmine; Matloub, Jacqueline; Waukau, Jerry; Adams, Alexandra; Kaur, Judith; Remington, Patrick L

    2013-11-27

    Cancer incidence and mortality rates for American Indians in the Northern Plains region of the United States are among the highest in the nation. Reliable cancer surveillance data are essential to help reduce this burden; however, racial data in state cancer registries are often misclassified, and cases are often underreported. We used a community-based participatory research approach to conduct a retrospective ascertainment of cancer cases in clinic medical records over a 9-year period (1995-2003) and compared the results with the state cancer registry to evaluate missing or racially misclassified cases. Six tribal and/or urban Indian clinics participated in the study. The project team consisted of participating clinics, a state cancer registry, a comprehensive cancer center, an American Indian/Alaska Native Leadership Initiative on Cancer, and a set of diverse organizational partners. Clinic personnel were trained by project staff to accurately identify cancer cases in clinic records. These records were then matched with the state cancer registry to assess misclassification and underreporting. Forty American Indian cases were identified that were either missing or misclassified in the state registry. Adding these cases to the registry increased the number of American Indian cases by 21.3% during the study period (P = .05). Our results indicate that direct reporting of cancer cases by tribal and urban Indian health clinics to a state cancer registry improved the quality of the data available for cancer surveillance. Higher-quality data can advance the efforts of cancer prevention and control stakeholders to address disparities in Native communities.

  1. Evaluation of American Indian Science and Engineering Society Intertribal Middle School Science and Math Bowl Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AISES, None

    2013-09-25

    The American Indian Science and Engineering Society (AISES) has been funded under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant (Grant Award No. DE-SC0004058) to host an Intertribal Middle-School Science and Math Bowl (IMSSMB) comprised of teams made up of a majority of American Indian students from Bureau of Indian Education-funded schools and public schools. The intent of the AISES middle school science and math bowl is to increase participation of American Indian students at the DOE-sponsored National Science Bowl. Although national in its recruitment scope, the AISES Intertribal Science and Math Bowl is considered a “regional” science bowl, equivalent to the other 50 regional science bowls which are geographically limited to states. Most regional bowls do not have American Indian student teams competing, hence the AISES bowl is meant to encourage American Indian student teams to increase their science knowledge in order to participate at the national level. The AISES competition brings together teams from various American Indian communities across the nation. Each team is provided with funds for travel to and from the event, as well as for lodging and meals. In 2011 and 2012, there were 10 teams participating; in 2013, the number of teams participating doubled to 20. Each Science and Math Bowl team is comprised of four middle school — grades 6 through 8 — students, one alternate, and a teacher who serves as advisor and coach — although in at least two cases, the coach was not a teacher, but was the Indian Education Coordinator. Each team member must have at least a 3.0 GPA. Furthermore, the majority of students in each team must be comprised of American Indian, Alaska Native or Native Hawaiian students. Under the current DOE grant, AISES sponsored three annual middle school science bowl competitions over the years 2011, 2012 and 2013. The science and math bowls have been held in late March concurrently with the National American Indian Science and

  2. Indian women of childbearing age do not metabolically conserve arginine as do American and Jamaican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Christina C; Hsu, Jean W; Dwarkanath, Pratibha; Karnes, Jeffrey M; Baker, Tameka M; Bohren, Kurt M; Badaloo, Asha; Thame, Minerva M; Kurpad, Anura V; Jahoor, Farook

    2015-05-01

    In a previous study in pregnant American women, we reported that arginine flux and nitric oxide synthesis increased in trimester 2. More recently, we reported that Indian women do not increase arginine flux during pregnancy as their American or Jamaican counterparts do. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Indian women of childbearing age are producing less arginine and/or catabolizing more arginine and therefore have less available for anabolic pathways than do Jamaican and American women. Thirty healthy women aged 28.3 ± 0.8 y from the United States, India, and Jamaica (n = 10/group) were given 6 h primed, constant intravenous infusions of guanidino-¹⁵N₂-arginine, 5,5-²H₂-citrulline, ¹⁵N₂-ornithine, and ring-²H₅-phenylalanine, in addition to primed, oral doses of U-¹³C₆-arginine in both the fasting and postprandial states. An oral dose of deuterium oxide was also given to determine fat-free mass (FFM). Compared with American women, Indian and Jamaican women had greater ornithine fluxes (μmol · kg fat FFM⁻¹ · h⁻¹) in the fasting and postprandial states (27.3 ± 2.5 vs. 39.6 ± 3.7 and 37.2 ± 2.0, respectively, P = 0.01), indicating greater arginine catabolism. However, Jamaican women had a higher endogenous arginine flux than did Indian and American women in the fasting (66.1 ± 3.1 vs. 54.2 ± 3.1 and 56.1 ± 2.1, respectively, P = 0.01) and postprandial (53.8 ± 2.2 vs. 43.7 ± 4.9 and 42.8 ± 3.1, respectively, P = 0.06) states. As a consequence, Indian women had lower arginine bioavailability (μmol · kg FFM⁻¹ · h⁻¹) in the fasting state (42.0 ± 2.6) than did American (49.9 ± 1.3, P = 0.045) and Jamaican (55.5 ± 3.5, P = 0.004) women, as well as in the postprandial state (40.7 ± 3.5 vs. 51.8 ± 1.2 and 57.5 ± 3.2, respectively, P = 0.001). Compared with American and Jamaican women, Indian women of childbearing age have a decreased arginine supply because of increased arginine catabolism without an

  3. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Preterm Birth Among American Indian and Alaska Native Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raglan, Greta B; Lannon, Sophia M; Jones, Katherine M; Schulkin, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth disproportionately affects American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women. This disparity in birth outcomes may stem from higher levels of exposure to psychosocial, sociodemographic, and medical risk factors. This paper reviews relevant research related to preterm birth in American Indian and Alaska Native women. This narrative review examines disparities in preterm birth rates between AI/AN and other American women, and addresses several maternal risk factors and barriers that contribute to elevated preterm birth rates among this racial minority group. Additionally, this paper focuses on recent evidence that geographical location can significantly impact preterm birth rates among AI/AN women. In particular, access to care among AI/AN women and differences between rural and urban areas are discussed.

  4. Dysphonia Severity Index in Typically Developing Indian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebbili, Gopi Kishore; Kidwai, Juhi; Shabnam, Srushti

    2017-01-01

    Dysphonia is a variation in an individual's quality, pitch, or loudness from the voice characteristics typical of a speaker of similar age, gender, cultural background, and geographic location. Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI) is a recognized assessment tool based on a weighted combination of maximum phonation time, highest frequency, lowest intensity, and jitter (%) of an individual. Although dysphonia in adults is accurately evaluated using DSI, standard reference values for school-age children have not been studied. This study aims to document the DSI scores in typically developing children (8-12 years). A total of 42 typically developing children (8-12 years) without complaint of voice problem on the day of testing participated in the study. DSI was computed by substituting the raw scores of substituent parameters: maximum phonation time, highest frequency, lowest intensity, and jitter% using various modules of CSL 4500 software. The average DSI values obtained in children were 2.9 (1.23) and 3.8 (1.29) for males and females, respectively. DSI values are found to be significantly higher (P = 0.027) for females than those for males in Indian children. This could be attributed to the anatomical and behavioral differences among females and males. Further, pubertal changes set in earlier for females approximating an adult-like physiology, thereby leading to higher DSI values in them. The mean DSI value obtained for male and female Indian children can be used as a preliminary reference data against which the DSI values of school-age children with dysphonia can be compared. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Tribal Colleges and Universities/American Indian Research and Education Initiatives Advanced Manufacturing Technical Assistance Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atcitty, Stanley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The overall goal of this project is to establish a network of TCUs with essential advanced manufacturing (AM) facilities, associated training and education programs, and private sector and federal agency partnerships to both prepare an American Indian AM workforce and create economic and employment opportunities within Tribal communities through design, manufacturing, and marketing of high quality products. Some examples of high quality products involve next generation grid components such as mechanical energy storage, cabling for distribution of energy, and electrochemical energy storage enclosures. Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) is tasked to provide technical advising, planning, and academic program development support for the TCU/American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC) Advanced Manufacturing Project. The TCUs include Bay Mills Community College (BMCC), Cankdeska Cikana Community College (CCCC), Navajo Technical University (NTU), Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute (SIPI), and Salish Kooteani College. AIHEC and Sandia, with collaboration from SIPI, will be establishing an 8-week summer institute on the SIPI campus during the summer of 2017. Up to 20 students from TCUs are anticipated to take part in the summer program. The goal of the program is to bring AM science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) awareness and opportunities for the American Indian students. Prior to the summer institute, Sandia will be providing reviews on curriculum plans at the each of the TCUs to ensure the content is consistent with current AM design and engineering practice. In addition, Sandia will provide technical assistance to each of the TCUs in regards to their current AM activities.

  6. Trends in clinical diagnoses of Rocky Mountain spotted fever among American Indians, 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkema, Arianne M; Holman, Robert C; McQuiston, Jennifer H; Cheek, James E

    2012-01-01

    American Indians are at greater risk for Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) than the general U.S. population. The epidemiology of RMSF among American Indians was examined by using Indian Health Service inpatient and outpatient records with an RMSF International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis. For 2001-2008, 958 American Indian patients with clinical diagnoses of RMSF were reported. The average annual RMSF incidence was 94.6 per 1,000,000 persons, with a significant increasing incidence trend from 24.2 in 2001 to 139.4 in 2008 (P = 0.006). Most (89%) RMSF hospital visits occurred in the Southern Plains and Southwest regions, where the average annual incidence rates were 277.2 and 49.4, respectively. Only the Southwest region had a significant increasing incidence trend (P = 0.005), likely linked to the emergence of brown dog ticks as an RMSF vector in eastern Arizona. It is important to continue monitoring RMSF infection to inform public health interventions that target RMSF reduction in high-risk populations.

  7. Trends in Clinical Diagnoses of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever among American Indians, 2001–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkema, Arianne M.; Holman, Robert C.; McQuiston, Jennifer H.; Cheek, James E.

    2012-01-01

    American Indians are at greater risk for Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) than the general U.S. population. The epidemiology of RMSF among American Indians was examined by using Indian Health Service inpatient and outpatient records with an RMSF International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis. For 2001–2008, 958 American Indian patients with clinical diagnoses of RMSF were reported. The average annual RMSF incidence was 94.6 per 1,000,000 persons, with a significant increasing incidence trend from 24.2 in 2001 to 139.4 in 2008 (P = 0.006). Most (89%) RMSF hospital visits occurred in the Southern Plains and Southwest regions, where the average annual incidence rates were 277.2 and 49.4, respectively. Only the Southwest region had a significant increasing incidence trend (P = 0.005), likely linked to the emergence of brown dog ticks as an RMSF vector in eastern Arizona. It is important to continue monitoring RMSF infection to inform public health interventions that target RMSF reduction in high-risk populations. PMID:22232466

  8. U.S. Geological Survey Activities Related to American Indians and Alaska Natives: Fiscal Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This report describes the activities that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted with American Indian and Alaska Native governments, educational institutions, and individuals during Federal fiscal year (FY) 2005. Most of these USGS activities were collaborations with Tribes, Tribal organizations, or professional societies. Others were conducted cooperatively with the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) or other Federal entities. The USGS is the earth and natural science bureau within the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI). The USGS does not have regulatory or land management responsibilities. As described in this report, there are many USGS activities that are directly relevant to American Indians, Alaska Natives, and to Native lands. A USGS website, dedicated to making USGS more accessible to American Indians, Alaska Natives, their governments, and institutions, is available at www.usgs.gov/indian. This website includes information on how to contact USGS American Indian/Alaska Native Liaisons, training opportunities, and links to other information resources. This report and previous editions are also available through the website. The USGS realizes that Native knowledge and cultural traditions of living in harmony with nature result in unique Native perspectives that enrich USGS studies. USGS seeks to increase the sensitivity and openness of its scientists to the breadth of Native knowledge, expanding the information on which their research is based. USGS scientific studies include data collection, mapping, natural resource modeling, and research projects. These projects typically last 2 or 3 years, although some are parts of longer-term activities. Some projects are funded cooperatively, with USGS funds matched or supplemented by individual Tribal governments, or by the BIA. These projects may also receive funding from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the Indian Health Service (part of the Department of Health and Human Services

  9. Efficient neutralization of primary isolates by the plasma from HIV-1 infected Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, S S; Chaudhary, Alok Kumar; Lodha, Rakesh; Kabra, S K; Vajpayee, Madhu; Hazarika, Anjali; Bagga, Barun; Luthra, Kalpana

    2011-10-01

    We tested the plasma of 51 HIV-1-infected children (23 naïve and 28 ART treated) for neutralization against five primary isolates (PIs) generated from adult Indian HIV-1-infected patients. The plasma exhibited neutralization potential with significantly higher neutralizing antibody titers in ART-treated children than naïve children against three out of five PIs (pIndian children.

  10. Maria Tallchief. Raintree/Rivilo American Indian Stories Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdrich, Heidi Ellen

    The great American ballerina, Maria Tallchief, was born in 1925 in Fairfax, Oklahoma. Her mother was White and her father was a full-blood Osage. Her younger sister, Marjorie, also became a famous dancer. The Osage originally lived in western Missouri. They lived in lodges or tepees and were farmers and hunters. The U.S. Government moved them to…

  11. Beyond Tradition: Culture, Symbolism, and Practicality in American Indian Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Barbara Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous people have always created what colonial language labels art. Yet there is no Native word for "art" as defined in a Euro-American sense. Art, as the dominant culture envisions, is mostly ornamental. This is in sharp juxtaposition to a Native perspective, which sees art as integrative, inclusive, practical, and constantly…

  12. A Few Cautions at the Millennium on the Merging of Feminist Studies with American Indian Women's Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihesuah, Devon A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses possible intersections between feminist studies and American Indian women's studies, noting the complexity of identity politics when most contemporary Indians have mixed blood. No single authoritative Native women's position or feminist theory of Native women exists. These labels are often umbrella terms that inadequately represent those…

  13. Identification of Information Needs of the American Indian Community That Can Be Met by Library Services. Final Report, June 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Charles T.

    As the final report on the National Indian Education Association's (NIEA) Library Project, this document presents the following: (1) an introduction (describes the general condition of American Indian library service, the involvement of NIEA, and the project's objectives and time line); (2) the methodology of Phase I: identification of…

  14. Obesity and sexual abuse in American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, James A; McCrady-Spitzer, Shelly K; Bighorse, William

    2016-08-01

    Mainstream American culture frequently minimizes the prevalence and significance of sexual abuse. Unfortunately, this denial of extensive victimization of women is also present in many underserved populations. In June 2007, Amnesty International released its report on sexual abuse in indigenous women, which states that, "One in three Native American or Alaska Native women will be raped at some point in their lives. Most do not seek justice because they know they will be met with inaction or indifference." This report highlighted an infrequently discussed issue namely, very high levels of sexual abuse in Native American and Alaska Native women. The relationship between sexual abuse and obesity has been delineated in several studies; overall about one quarter to one half of women with high levels of obesity have been sexually abused and it has been postulated that weight-gain serves as an adaptive response for many survivors of sexual abuse. It is also well known in Native American and Alaskan Native women that there is a high prevalence of obesity (about 40% greater than the population average) and that this obesity is associated with a many-fold greater risk of diabetes and increased risks of hypertension, cancer and cardiovascular disease. The link between the concomitantly high rates of sexual abuse and obesity in this population may or may not be partial causality but the issue is nonetheless important. If approaches are to succeed in reversing the trend of increasing levels of obesity in Native American and Alaskan Native women, the high prevalence of sexual abuse will need to be specifically and comprehensively addressed.

  15. The effects of brief prayer on the experience of forgiveness: An American and Indian comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Loren; Kamble, Shanmukh; Marschall, Justin C; Duggi, Deepti B

    2016-08-01

    The present study offers a cross-cultural examination of the effect of prayer on forgiveness. American (n = 51) and Indian (n = 100) participants either prayed for their romantic partner (prayer condition) or described their romantic partner's physical attributes (control condition). Prayers were self-guided and lasted 3 minutes. Pre-test and post-test measures of retaliation were completed. Results showed that participants in the prayer group showed statistically significant decreases in retaliation motives from pre-test to post-test and the magnitude of this change was not different across cultures. Control groups in both cultures showed no change. Because of the religious diversity present in the Indian sample, the robustness of the effect of prayer on forgiveness was tested across Christian, Hindu and Muslim Indians. Religious affiliation did not moderate the effect of prayer on forgiveness in this sample. Results suggest that a brief prayer is capable of producing real change in forgiveness and this change is consistent across American and Indian cultures and across three different religious groups in India. Brief prayer for others that enhances forgiveness may be useful for individuals in close relationships, in certain counselling settings and for people in many different walks of life. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  16. Fostering Social Determinants of Health Transdisciplinary Research: The Collaborative Research Center for American Indian Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy J. Elliott

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Collaborative Research Center for American Indian Health (CRCAIH was established in September 2012 as a unifying structure to bring together tribal communities and health researchers across South Dakota, North Dakota and Minnesota to address American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN health disparities. CRCAIH is based on the core values of transdisciplinary research, sustainability and tribal sovereignty. All CRCAIH resources and activities revolve around the central aim of assisting tribes with establishing and advancing their own research infrastructures and agendas, as well as increasing AI/AN health research. CRCAIH is comprised of three divisions (administrative; community engagement and innovation; research projects, three technical cores (culture, science and bioethics; regulatory knowledge; and methodology, six tribal partners and supports numerous multi-year and one-year pilot research projects. Under the ultimate goal of improving health for AI/AN, this paper describes the overarching vision and structure of CRCAIH, highlighting lessons learned in the first three years.

  17. SUSTAINABILITY REPORTING QUALITY OF INDIAN AND AMERICAN MANUFACTURING FIRMS: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diganta Munshi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The content analysis method has been adopted to study the pattern of reporting on sustainability indicators by 10 American and 10 Indian manufacturing firms in their sustainability reports prepared as per the GRI framework and published during 2011-2013. Scores of 2, 1 and 0 have been respectively assigned for full, partial and non disclosure of sub clauses of economic, environmentand social indicators to compute a SDI (sustainability disclosure index. Independent t test found a significant difference in the quality of sustainability disclosure of the sampled American and Indian manufacturing firms during 2011-13. The improvement/ deterioration in the quality of disclosure over the period were correlated with changes in performance parameters like EPS and ROA to examine if betterment in quality of sustainability reporting translates into financial performance of the firms. Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the variables which explain the variation in the sustainability reporting quality of firms.

  18. Self-Efficacy About Sexual Risk/Protective Behaviors: Intervention Impact Trajectories Among American Indian Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Christina M; Kaufman, Carol E; Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Beals, Janette; Keane, Ellen M

    2017-09-01

    For adolescents, normative development encompasses learning to negotiate challenges of sexual situations; of special importance are skills to prevent early pregnancy, HIV, and other sexually transmitted diseases. Disparities in sexual risk among American Indian youth point to the importance of intervening to attenuate this risk. This study explored the impact of Circle of Life (COL), an HIV prevention intervention based on social cognitive theory, on trajectories of self-efficacy (refusing sex, avoiding sexual situations) among 635 students from 13 middle schools on one American Indian reservation. COL countered a normative decline of refusal self-efficacy among girls receiving the intervention by age 13, while girls participating at age 14 or older, girls in the comparison group, and all boys showed continuing declines. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  19. The Racial and Ethnic Identity Formation Process of Second-Generation Asian Indian Americans: A Phenomenological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Negi, Nalini Junko; Partiali, Rachel Negar; Creswell, John W

    2013-10-01

    This phenomenological study elucidates the identity development processes of 12 second-generation adult Asian Indian Americans. The results identify salient sociocultural factors and multidimensional processes of racial and ethnic identity development. Discrimination, parental, and community factors seemed to play a salient role in influencing participants' racial and ethnic identity development. The emergent Asian Indian American racial and ethnic identity model provides a contextualized overview of key developmental periods and turning points within the process of identity development.

  20. Academic achievement of American Indian and Alaska native students: Does social-emotional competence reduce the impact of poverty?

    OpenAIRE

    Chain, J; Shapiro, VB; LeBuffe, PA; Bryson, AMK

    2017-01-01

    © Centers for American Indian and Alaska Native Health. Social-emotional competence may be a protective factor for academic achievement among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) students. This study used Fisher's r to Z transformations to test for group differences in the magnitude of relationships between socialemotional competence and achievement. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to det ermine the variance in academic achievement explained by student race, poverty, and social-emo...

  1. "We're Changing Our Ways": Women's Coping Strategies for Obesity Risk-reducing Behaviors in American Indian Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadhoke, Preety; Christiansen, Karina; Pardilla, Marla; Frick, Kevin; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2015-01-01

    This article reveals women caregivers' perceptions and coping strategies to improve households' food and physical activity habits. Results emerged from the pre-intervention formative research phase of a multi-site, multi-level obesity prevention pilot intervention on American Indian (AI) reservations. Using purposive sampling, 250 adults and children participated in qualitative research. Results reveal that having local institutional support was a key structural facilitator. 'Family connectedness' emerged as a key relational facilitator. Hegemony of systems, food deserts, transportation, and weather were key structural barriers; Childcare needs and time constraints were key relational barriers. Women's coping strategies included planning ahead, maximizing, apportioning, tempting healthy, and social support. Findings informed the development and implementation of a novel obesity prevention pilot intervention tailored for each participating AI community addressing culturally relevant messages, institutional policies, and programs. We conclude with future consideration for comparative, ethnicity-based, class-based, and gender-specific studies on women's coping strategies for household health behaviors.

  2. Recent Alcohol Use and Episodic Heavy Drinking among American Indian Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hill, Mallory K.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 366 American Indian students in grades 7 through 12 completed the PRIDE questionnaire. Recent alcohol use was reported by 31.9% of students, whereas 26.7% reported frequent episodic heavy drinking. One in three students felt it was harmful/very harmful to use alcohol and less than half felt alcohol was easy/very easy to obtain. A series…

  3. American Indian Access to Department of Defense Facilities: Source Documents and Bibliography (Legacy Resource Management Program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    who under the terms of the Archeological and Historic Preservation Act must respond within 48 hours of notification. The DCA may render an immediate...1965 The Surviving Chumash. UCLA Archaeological Survey Annual Reports 65:277-302. Grant, Campbell 1973a Chuirash: Introduction. In R.F. Heizer , ed...Coastal Chumash. In R.F. Heizer , et., California. Volume 8, Handbook of North American"Indians, William C. Sturtevant, General Editor. Washington

  4. Stress Exposure and Physical, Mental, and Behavioral Health among American Indian Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Walls, Melissa L.; Sittner, Kelley J.; Aronson, Benjamin D.; Forsberg, Angie K.; Whitbeck, Les B.; al’Absi, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    American Indian (AI) communities experience disproportionate exposure to stressors and health inequities including type 2 diabetes. Yet, we know little about the role of psychosocial stressors for AI diabetes-related health outcomes. We investigated associations between a range of stressors and psychological, behavioral, and physical health for AIs with diabetes. This community-based participatory research with 5 AI tribes includes 192 AI adult type 2 diabetes patients recruited from clinical...

  5. Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program Recommendations from Urban and Reservation Northern Plains American Indian Community Members

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Tracey R.; Hanson, Jessica D.; Griese, Emily R.; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete

    2015-01-01

    Despite declines over the past few decades, the United States has one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy compared to other industrialized nations. American Indian youth have experienced higher rates of teen pregnancy compared to the overall population for decades. Although it's known that community and cultural adaptation enhance program effectiveness, few teen pregnancy prevention programs have published on recommendations for adapting these programs to address the specific needs of Nort...

  6. Native Americans in Cold War Public Diplomacy: Indian Politics, American History, and the US Information Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This essay examines the depiction of Native Americans by the US Information Agency (USIA), the bureau charged with explaining American politics to the international public during the Cold War. In the 1950s and 1960s, the USIA broadcast the message that Americans had begun to acknowledge their nation's history of conquest and were working to…

  7. Institute of American Indian Arts. To Amend the Act of August 27, 1935, to Provide for the Administration, Maintenance, and Operation of the Institute of American Indian Arts by the Indian Arts and Crafts Board. Hearing Before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. House of Representatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress, Second Session on H.R. 6850.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs.

    The Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs met July 1, 1980, to take testimony on Bill H.R. 6850 which proposed specific statutory authorization for the Institute of American Indian Arts (IAIA), transferred administrative control from the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) to the Indian Arts and Crafts Board (IACB), and reserved the BIA educational…

  8. Insomnia Symptoms and Cardiovascular Disease among Older American Indians: The Native Elder Care Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabanayagam, Ch.; Shankar, A.; Sabanayagam, Ch.; Buchwald, D.; Goins, R.T.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among American Indians. It is not known if symptoms of insomnia are associated with CVD in this population. Methods. We examined 449 American Indians aged =55 years from the Native Elder Care Study. The main outcome-of-interest was self-reported CVD. Results. Short sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and difficulty falling asleep were positively associated with CVD after adjusting for demographic, lifestyle, and clinical risk factors. Compared with a sleep duration of 7 h, the multivariable odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of CVD among those with sleep duration =5 h was 2.89 (1.17-7.16). Similarly, the multivariable OR (95% CI) of CVD was 4.45 (1.85-10.72) and 2.60 (1.25-5.42) for daytime sleepiness >2 h and difficulty falling asleep often/always. Conclusion. Symptoms of insomnia including short sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and difficulty falling asleep are independently associated with CVD in American Indians aged =55 years

  9. Tobacco Use and Cardiovascular Disease among American Indians: The Strong Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K. Welty

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use among American Indians has a long and complicated history ranging from its utilization in spiritual ceremonies to its importance as an economic factor for survival. Despite this cultural tradition and long history, there are few studies of the health effects of tobacco in this population. The Strong Heart Study is a prospective observational study of cardiovascular disease (CVD in 13 American Indian tribes in Arizona, Oklahoma, and North and South Dakota with 4,549 participants. Baseline examinations were followed by two examinations at regular intervals and 16 years of morbidity and mortality follow-up. Hazard ratios (HRs for non-fatal CVD for current smokers vs. non-smokers after adjusting for other risk factors were significant in women (HR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.54 to 2.45 and men (HR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.18. Hazard ratios for fatal CVD for current smokers vs. non-smokers after adjusting for other risk factors were significant in women (HR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.58, but not in men. Individuals who smoked and who were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, hypertension or renal insufficiency were more likely to quit smoking than those without these conditions. On average, American Indians smoke fewer cigarettes per day than other racial/ethnic groups; nevertheless, the ill effects of habitual tobacco use are evident in this population.

  10. Knowledge and screening of head and neck cancer among American Indians in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwojak, Sunshine; Deschler, Daniel; Sargent, Michele; Emerick, Kevin; Guadagnolo, B Ashleigh; Petereit, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    We established the level of awareness of risk factors and early symptoms of head and neck cancer among American Indians in South Dakota and determined whether head and neck cancer screening detected clinical findings in this population. We used the European About Face survey. We added questions about human papillomavirus, a risk factor for head and neck cancer, and demographics. Surveys were administered at 2 public events in 2011. Participants could partake in a head and neck cancer screening at the time of survey administration. Of the 205 American Indians who completed the survey, 114 participated in the screening. Mean head and neck cancer knowledge scores were 26 out of 44. Level of education was the only factor that predicted higher head and neck cancer knowledge (b = 0.90; P = .01). Nine (8%) people had positive head and neck cancer screening examination results. All abnormal clinical findings were in current or past smokers (P = .06). There are gaps in American Indian knowledge of head and neck cancer risk factors and symptoms. Community-based head and neck cancer screening in this population is feasible and may be a way to identify early abnormal clinical findings in smokers.

  11. Soda intake and osteoporosis risk in postmenopausal American-Indian women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supplee, Joy D; Duncan, Glen E; Bruemmer, Barbara; Goldberg, Jack; Wen, Yang; Henderson, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Objective Low bone mass often leads to osteoporosis and increased risk of bone fractures. Soda consumption may contribute to imbalances that lead to decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and general bone health. We examined the relationship between soda consumption and osteoporosis risk in postmenopausal American-Indian women, an at-risk population because of nutritional and other lifestyle-related factors. Design Cross-sectional analysis using logistic regression to examine associations between soda consumption and osteoporosis, and linear regression to examine the association between soda consumption and BMD, with and without adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors. Quantitative ultrasound of the heel was performed to estimate BMD (g/cm2). Setting American-Indian communities in the Northern Plains and Southwestern USA. Subjects A total of 438 postmenopausal American-Indian women. Results Women with osteoporosis were significantly older and had lower BMI, average daily soda intakes, BMD levels and use of hormones than women without osteoporosis (P 0·05), although age (increased), BMI (decreased) and past hormone use (decreased) were all significantly associated with osteoporosis risk (PIndian women, analyses did confirm confounding between soda consumption and age and BMI. This suggests that any potential effects of soda consumption on bone health are largely mediated through these factors. PMID:21208477

  12. The diffusion of telehealth in rural American Indian communities: a retrospective survey of key stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Elizabeth; Manson, Spero M; Bair, Byron; Dailey, Nancy; Shore, Jay H

    2012-01-01

    Mental health issues are a serious concern for many American Indian Veterans, especially for post-traumatic stress disorder and related psychiatric conditions. Yet, acquiring mental health treatment can be a challenge in Native communities where specialized services are largely unavailable. Consequently, telehealth is increasingly being suggested as a way to expand healthcare access on or near reservation lands. In this study, we wanted to understand the factors affecting the diffusion of telehealth clinics that provided mental health care to rural, American Indian Veterans. We surveyed 39 key personnel and stakeholders who were involved in the decision-making process, technological infrastructure, and implementation of three clinics. Using Roger Everett's Diffusion Theory as a framework, we gathered information about specific tasks, factors hindering progress, and personal reactions to telehealth both before and after implementation. Many participants expressed initial concerns about using telehealth; however, most became positive over time. Factors that influenced participants' viewpoint largely included patient and staff feedback and witnessing the fulfillment of a community health need. The use of outside information to support the implementation of the clinics and personal champions also showed considerable influence in the clinics' success. The findings presented here address critical gaps in our understanding of telehealth diffusion and inform research strategies regarding the cultural issues and outcomes related to telemental health services. Information contained in this report serves as a long overdue guide for developing telemental health programs and policies among American Indians, specifically, and rural populations in general.

  13. Stressors, Coping Resources, and Depressive Symptoms among Rural American Indian Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Soonhee; Brown-Rice, Kathleen A; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Lawler, Michael J; Martin, James I

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of physical health stressors and coping resources with depressive symptoms among American Indian older adults age 50 years or older. The study used a convenience sample of 227 rural American Indian older adults. A hierarchical multiple regression tested three sets of predictors on depressive symptoms: (a) sociodemographics, (b) physical health stressors (functional disability and chronic medical conditions), and (c) coping resources (social support and spirituality). Most participants reported little difficulty in performing daily activities (e.g., eating, dressing, traveling, and managing money), while presenting over two types of chronic medical conditions. Depressive symptoms were predicted by higher scores on perceived social support and lower scores on functional disability; women and those having no health insurance also had higher levels of depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that social work practitioners should engage family and community support, advocate for access to adequate health care, and attend to women's unique circumstances and needs when working with American Indian older adults.

  14. Effect of tribal language use on colorectal cancer screening among American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Angela A; Garroutte, Eva; Ton, Thanh G N; Goldberg, Jack; Buchwald, Dedra

    2012-12-01

    American Indians have one of the lowest colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates for any racial/ethnic group in the U.S., yet reasons for their low screening participation are poorly understood. We examine whether tribal language use is associated with knowledge and use of CRC screening in a community-based sample of American Indians. Using logistic regression to estimate the association between tribal language use and CRC test knowledge and receipt we found participants speaking primarily English were no more aware of CRC screening tests than those speaking primarily a tribal language (OR = 1.16 [0.29, 4.63]). Participants who spoke only a tribal language at home (OR = 1.09 [0.30, 4.00]) and those who spoke both a tribal language and English (OR = 1.74 [0.62, 4.88]) also showed comparable odds of receipt of CRC screening. Study findings failed to support the concept that use of a tribal language is a barrier to CRC screening among American Indians.

  15. Mathematics achievement of Chinese, Japanese, and American children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, H.W.; Lee, S.Y.; Stigler, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    American kindergarten children lag behind Japanese children in their understanding of mathematics; by fifth grade they are surpassed by both Japanese and Chinese children. Efforts to isolate bases for these differences involved testing children on other achievement and cognitive tasks, interviewing mothers and teachers, and observing children in their classrooms. Cognitive abilities of children in the three countries are similar, but large differences exist in the children's life in school, the attitudes and beliefs of their mothers, and the involvement of both parents and children in schoolwork

  16. Clinical characteristics of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus among southwestern American Indian youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coddington, D A; Hisnanick, J J

    2001-03-01

    The clinical characteristics and presentation of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) among 22 youths, aged less than 20 years, of an American Indian tribe Tohono O'odham Nation in the southwestern United States were studied. Ten males and 12 females (7-20 years old) were identified with a 13.7-year mean age of onset of diabetes. Over 80% (18/22) of the patients were obese at diagnosis having a body mass index greater than the 95th percentile for their age and sex, and there was a strong family history of NIDDM; eight patients were born to mothers who had gestational diabetes, and 19 patients had at least one parent with NIDDM. At the time of diagnosis, plasma glucose levels ranged from 10.3 mmol/L to 33 mmol/L, with nearly 60% (13/22) of the patients having a glucose reading greater than 16.8 mmol/L. C-peptide levels were done on 10 patients, and these were in the normal to elevated range. Clinical management of the 22 patients varied. To control hyperglycaemia and symptoms, such as nocturia and polyuria, 14 patients were on oral hypoglycaemic medication, and five were on insulin therapy. Compliance with dietary management was very difficult for these patients as evidenced by the fact that only three patients were on dietary control for their diabetes. The cases described in this series demonstrate NIDDM in childhood and illustrate the importance of accurate classification of diabetes during childhood, particularly in children from populations at high risk for NIDDM.

  17. Helicobacter pylori infection in apparently healthy South Indian children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurpad, A.V.; Caszo, B.; Raj, T.; Vaz, M.

    2000-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection has been established as a major cause of chronic gastritis in adults, and it has been implicated in the genesis of gastric carcinomas and the development of gastric and duodenal ulcers. It is now postulated that neatly 90% of the adult population in developing countries may be affected with the infection since childhood. Earlier studies on Indians using serology and endoscopic biopsy have shown a high incidence of H. pylori infection in small numbers of patients. The 13 C-urea breath test, which is simple, specific and non-invasive, is also increasingly being used to determine the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Preliminary data from India has shown a high prevalence in the urban Indian environment, and there is an urgent need to quantify the prevalence of H. pylori infections on an epidemiological basis in both urban and rural settings. It is also important to study the possible impact of this infection on growth in children, particularly in environments with low sanitation and high crowding. In this paper, we outline a proposal to study the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infections in children from the following different environments: urban middle socio-economic class, urban slum, rural middle socio-economic class and rural village. (author)

  18. Medication use in Indian children with asthma: the user's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Charu; Goel, Nitin; Chugh, Krishan; Gaur, Shailendra Nath; Armour, Carol; van Asperen, Peter Paul; Moles, Rebekah Jane; Saini, Bandana

    2013-07-01

    Despite the high prevalence of asthma in children, there has been limited research into patient perception of medication use, particularly in the developing world. This study therefore aimed to carry out an in-depth exploration of the views of carers and children with asthma on asthma medication use. Grounded theory approach was used to conduct semistructured qualitative interviews in a purposive convenience sample of parents and children with asthma. The participants were recruited from two specialty hospitals in New Delhi, India. Interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Twenty children (7-12 years old) with asthma and their parent or carer were interviewed in July 2011. Major reported issues included poor parent and child understanding of disease and medications. Fears, misinformed beliefs and lack of self-management skills were apparent. Child self-image, resistance to medication use and lack of responsibility in medication taking were themes that emerged from child interviews. This is one of the first research studies exploring the viewpoint of children with asthma about their medications. Resource constraints dictate a pragmatic paternalistic approach by physicians which, in contrast to patients in westernized nations, seems to be acceptable and satisfactory to Indian patients (carers). © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  19. 25 CFR 20.502 - Can Child Assistance funds be used to place Indian children in residential care facilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can Child Assistance funds be used to place Indian children in residential care facilities? 20.502 Section 20.502 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Child Assistance How...

  20. American Indian tribes and electric industry restructuring: Issues and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, D. [Morse, Richard, and Weisenmiller, and Associates Inc., Oakland, CA (United States); Busch, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Starrs, T. [Kelso, Starrs, and Associates LLC, Vashon, WA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The US electric utility industry is undergoing a period of fundamental change that has significant implications for Native American tribes. Although many details remain to be determined, the future electric power industry will be very different from that of the present. It is anticipated that the new competitive electric industry will be more efficient, which some believe will benefit all participants by lowering electricity costs. Recent developments in the industry, however, indicate that the restructuring process will likely benefit some parties at the expense of others. Given the historical experience and current situation of Native American tribes in the US, there is good reason to pay attention to electric industry changes to ensure that the situation of tribes is improved and not worsened as a result of electric restructuring. This paper provides a review of electricity restructuring in the US and identifies ways in which tribes may be affected and how tribes may seek to protect and serve their interests. Chapter 2 describes the current status of energy production and service on reservations. Chapter 3 provides an overview of the evolution of the electric industry to its present form and introduces the regulatory and structural changes presently taking place. Chapter 4 provides a more detailed discussion of changes in the US electric industry with a specific focus on the implications of these changes for tribes. Chapter 5 presents a summary of the conclusions reached in this paper.

  1. A comparison of cycloplegic autorefraction and retinoscopy in Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Sujata; Shah, Sanil; Shah, Khyati; Hurakadli, Preeti; Majee, Debalina; Gandhi, Shyamali

    2017-01-01

    Correction of significant refractive errors in childhood helps in preventing amblyopia and strabismus. India has a huge demand for eye-care services related to uncorrected refractive errors with limited manpower resources. This can be overcome by autorefractors, which are free of operator bias, do not need skilled eye-care professionals and can be operated with ease. Hence, the purpose of this study, the first in the Indian population, was to determine the accuracy of autorefraction compared to traditional retinoscopy under cycloplegia. A cross-sectional study of all children meeting our inclusion criteria was conducted from July till October 2011 in a tertiary eye care centre. Children underwent cycloplegic (cyclopentolate plus tropicamide) refraction with an auto-refractometer (Topcon KR-8900) and traditional retinoscopy and the results were compared. Patients were divided into three groups: Group 1: Myopia and myopic astigmatism, Group 2: Hyperopia and hyperopic astigmatism and Group 3: Mixed astigmatism. Clinically significant difference was defined as either of more than 0.50 D difference in sphere, more than 0.5 D difference in cylinder or more than 20 degrees difference in axis. The left eyes of 294 children (148 male) were included in the study. Mean age was 8.22 ± 3.47 years. Clinically significant differences were noted in 13.22 per cent of eyes in Group 1, 15.09 per cent of eyes in Group 2 and 20.90 per cent of eyes in Group 3. Clinically significant differences were more common in children aged less than six years (25 per cent) compared to older children (9.19 per cent). Comparing the sphere, cylinder, spherical equivalent and length of power vector values gained by autorefraction and retinoscopy, no statistically significant differences were found in any group. Autorefraction with Topcon KR-8900 can be used reliably in Indian children older than six years, if conducted under cycloplegia. In mixed astigmatism and children less than six years, it should

  2. "Color Me Healthy." Risk Reduction for Indian Children through Good Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Frances

    Life expectancy among certain American Indian tribes is only 50 years of age as compared with 74.6 years for the general population. Leading causes of death among Indian infants continue to be respiratory, digestive, infective, parasitic disease, and congenital malformations. Child obesity, dental caries, atherosclerosis, iron deficiency anemia,…

  3. Schizophrenia and psychotic symptoms in families of two American Indian tribes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albaugh Bernard

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of schizophrenia is thought to be higher in population isolates that have recently been exposed to major and accelerated cultural change, accompanied by ensuing socio-environmental stressors/triggers, than in dominant, mainstream societies. We investigated the prevalence and phenomenology of schizophrenia in 329 females and 253 males of a Southwestern American Indian tribe, and in 194 females and 137 males of a Plains American Indian tribe. These tribal groups were evaluated as part of a broader program of gene-environment investigations of alcoholism and other psychiatric disorders. Methods Semi-structured psychiatric interviews were conducted to allow diagnoses utilizing standardized psychiatric diagnostic criteria, and to limit cultural biases. Study participants were recruited from the community on the basis of membership in pedigrees, and not by convenience. After independent raters evaluated the interviews blindly, DSM-III-R diagnoses were assigned by a consensus of experts well-versed in the local cultures. Results Five of the 582 Southwestern American Indian respondents (prevalence = 8.6 per 1000, and one of the 331 interviewed Plains American Indians (prevalence = 3.02 per 1000 had a lifetime diagnosis of schizophrenia. The lifetime prevalence rates of schizophrenia within these two distinct American Indian tribal groups is consistent with lifetime expectancy rates reported for the general United States population and most isolate and homogeneous populations for which prevalence rates of schizophrenia are available. While we were unable to factor in the potential modifying effect that mortality rates of schizophrenia-suffering tribal members may have had on the overall tribal rates, the incidence of schizophrenia among the living was well within the normative range. Conclusion The occurrence of schizophrenia among members of these two tribal population groups is consistent with prevalence rates reported for

  4. Changes in Body Mass Index During a 3-Year Elementary School-Based Obesity Prevention Program for American Indian and White Rural Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeltanz-Holm, Nancy; Holm, Jeffrey

    2018-04-01

    Childhood obesity is a significant but largely modifiable health risk, disproportionately affecting socioeconomically disadvantaged, racial/ethnic minority, and rural children. Elementary school-aged children typically experience the greatest increases in excess weight gain and therefore are important targets for reducing adolescent and adult obesity while improving children's health. Our study evaluated outcomes of a 3-year elementary school-based program for reducing obesity in American Indian and White students attending eight rural schools in the U.S. upper Midwest. Researchers measured body mass indexes (BMI) and other health indicators and behaviors of 308 beginning third-grade students and then again at the end of students' third, fourth, and fifth grades. The primary focus of this study is a mixed multilevel longitudinal model testing changes in age- and gender-adjusted BMI z scores ( zBMI). There was a significant decrease in zBMI across the 3-year study period. Ethnicity analyses showed that White students had overall decreases in zBMI whereas American Indian students' zBMIs remained stable across the program. Comparisons with children from an age- and cohort-matched national sample provided support for the effectiveness of the school program in reducing BMI and obesity during the study period. An elementary school-based health program that addresses a range of students' obesity-related health behaviors, the school health environment, and that involves educators and parents is an effective intervention for reducing or stabilizing BMI in rural White and American Indian students. School health programs for students living in rural communities may be especially effective due to greater school and community cohesiveness, and valuing of the school's primary role in improving community health.

  5. High prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in American Indian women of the Northern Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Maria C.; Schmidt-Grimminger, Delf; Patrick, Sarah; Ryschon, Tim; Linz, Laurie; Chauhan, Subhash C.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Cervical cancer is the leading gynecological malignancy worldwide, and the incidence of this disease is very high in American Indian women. Infection with the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for more than 95% of cervical squamous carcinomas. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to analyze oncogenic HPV infections in American Indian women residing in the Northern Plains. Methods Cervical samples were collected from 287 women attending a Northern Plains American Indian reservation outpatient clinic. DNA was extracted from the cervical samples and HPV specific DNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the L1 consensus primer sets. The PCR products were hybridized with the Roche HPV Line Blot assay for HPV genotyping to detect 27 different low and high-risk HPV genotypes. The chi-square test was performed for statistical analysis of the HPV infection and cytology diagnosis data. Results Of the total 287 patients, 61 women (21.25%) tested positive for HPV infection. Among all HPV-positive women, 41 (67.2%) were infected with high-risk HPV types. Of the HPV infected women, 41% presented with multiple HPV genotypes. Additionally, of the women infected with oncogenic HPV types, 20 (48.7%) were infected with HPV 16 and 18 and the remaining 21 (51.3%) were infected with other oncogenic types (i.e., HPV59, 39, 73). Women infected with oncogenic HPV types had significantly higher (p=0.001) abnormal Papanicolaou smear tests (Pap test) compared to women who were either HPV negative or positive for non-oncogenic HPV types. The incidence of HPV infection was inversely correlated (pIndian women residing on Northern Plains Reservations. In addition, a significant proportion of the oncogenic HPV infections were other than HPV16 and 18. PMID:17659767

  6. Cultural Differences in Chinese American and European American Children's Drawing Skills over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsinger, Carol S.; Jose, Paul E.; Krieg, Dana Balsink; Luo, Zupei

    2011-01-01

    Parents and early childhood teachers in Chinese societies and the United States have had dissimilar views about appropriate art instruction for young children. The Chinese view is that creativity will emerge after children have been taught essential drawing skills. The American view has been that children's drawing skills emerge naturally and that…

  7. Materials Developed from American Indian Culture-Based Curriculum Workshop (Tacoma, Washington, October 24-28, 1978). Book Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, Dick, Comp.

    Developed as a result of the second 5-day American Indian Culture-Based Curriculum Workshop conducted in Tacoma, Washington, the resource guide presents materials oriented toward Native American dance, music, and games, which were the major thrust of the workshop. The guide provides four flannelboard stories/legends (How Man Was Created, The Gull…

  8. Anthropometric characterisation of elbow angles and lines among Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Awasthi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: For understanding injuries in paediatric elbow and checking the degree of reduction after manipulation, various radiological criteria using anthropometric parameters are used. Since anthropometric parameters of Caucasians are different from European and Mongoloids, their parameters cannot be applied on our population. Hence, there is a need to characterise anthropometric parameters of elbow among children in the Indian population. Materials and Methods: The study population comprised all cases of injury to the elbow joint between 3 and 13 years of age reporting to the Department of Orthopaedics during the study. The X-rays films were preserved, and the angles and lines (as anthropometric parameters were drawn on the radiographs. Results: Mean ± (standard deviation [SD] for Baumann angle in children included in this study was 75° ± 4.70°. Mean ± (SD of Baumann angle in males was 76° ± 4.44° and females was 74° ± 5.37°. Mean ± (SD for lateral capitellohumeral angle in children from 3 to 13 years of age was 49 ± 5.75. Conclusions: As the values of normal side have been found to affect the functional and cosmetic outcome of the affected extremity, slight changes in values of our population in comparison to that of the Western population can significantly affect the outcome.

  9. Problem-gambling severity and psychiatric disorders among American-Indian/Alaska native adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Grace; Smith, Philip H; Pilver, Corey; Hoff, Rani; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the association between problem-gambling severity and psychiatric disorders among American-Indian/Alaska-Native (AI/AN) individuals. Thus, we examined these factors among a nationally representative sample of AI/AN and other American adults in the USA. Using the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) data, we conducted separate Wald tests and multinomial logistic regression analyses comparing AI/AN to black/African American, white/Caucasian, and all other racial/ethnic groups, respectively. Relative to other American adults, AI/AN adults were least likely to report non-/low-frequency gambling (NG: AI/AN 66.5%, white/Caucasian 70.5%, black/African American 72.8%, other racial/ethnic group 72.3%) and most likely to report low-risk gambling (LRG: AI/AN 30.1%, white/Caucasian 26.5%, black/African American 23.4%, other racial/ethnic group 24.7%). The association between at-risk/problem-gambling (ARPG) and any past-year Axis-I disorder was stronger among AI/AN versus other American adults. Although ARPG and LRG were associated with multiple past-year Axis-I and lifetime Axis-II psychiatric disorders in both AI/AN and other American adults, LRG was more strongly associated with both Axis-I disorders (particularly major depression, generalized anxiety disorder and nicotine dependence) and Cluster-B Axis-II (particularly antisocial personality disorder) disorders in AI/AN versus other American adults. A stronger association between problem-gambling severity and past-year psychiatric disorders among AI/AN relative to other American adults suggests the importance of enhancing mental health and problem-gambling prevention and treatment strategies that may help AI/AN individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of disability and other physical health issues on academic outcomes among American Indian and Alaskan Native college students: an exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson Silver Wolf Adelv Unegv Waya, David A; Vanzile-Tamsen, Carol; Black, Jessica; Billiot, Shanondora M; Tovar, Molly

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether self-identified disabilities among American Indian and Alaskan Native college students impact academic performance and persistence to graduation and explored the differences in health and academic grades between American Indian and Alaskan Native students and students of other racial and ethnic identities using the National College Health Assessment. Findings indicate that American Indian or Alaskan Native students have significantly lower grades than White and Asian students, and American Indian and Alaskan Native women report the highest incidence of health problems of any demographic group. Exploratory results point to future research to determine the full impact of disabilities and poor health on academic success.

  11. The Microbiome, Intestinal Function, and Arginine Metabolism of Healthy Indian Women Are Different from Those of American and Jamaican Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Christina C; Cope, Julia L; Hsu, Jean W; Dwarkanath, Pratibha; Karnes, Jeffrey M; Luna, Ruth A; Hollister, Emily B; Thame, Minerva M; Kurpad, Anura V; Jahoor, Farook

    2016-03-09

    Indian women have slower arginine flux during pregnancy compared with American and Jamaican women. Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid that becomes essential during periods of rapid lean tissue deposition. It is synthesized only from citrulline, a nondietary amino acid produced mainly in the gut. The gut is therefore a key site of arginine and citrulline metabolism, and gut microbiota may affect their metabolism. The objective of this study was to identify differences in the gut microbiota of nonpregnant American, Indian, and Jamaican women and characterize the relations between the gut microbiota, gut function, and citrulline and arginine metabolism. Thirty healthy American, Indian, and Jamaican women (n = 10/group), aged 28.3 ± 0.8 y, were infused intravenously with [guanidino- 15 N 2 ]arginine, [5,5- 2 H 2 ]citrulline, and [ 15 N 2 ]ornithine and given oral [U- 13 C 6 ]arginine in the fasting and postprandial states. Fecal bacterial communities were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. In the fasting state, Indian women had lower citrulline flux than did American and Jamaican women [7.0 ± 0.4 compared with 9.1 ± 0.4 and 8.9 ± 0.2 μmol ⋅ kg fat-free mass (FFM) -1  ⋅ h -1 , P = 0.01] and greater enteral arginine conversion to ornithine than did American women (1.4 ± 0.11 compared with 1.0 ± 0.08 μmol ⋅ kg FFM -1  ⋅ h -1 , P = 0.04). They also had lower mannitol excretion than American and Jamaican women (154 ± 37.1 compared with 372 ± 51.8 and 410 ± 39.6 mg/6 h, P Indian women had increased mean relative abundances of Prevotella (42%) compared to American and Jamaican women (7% and Indian women. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Asian and Pacific American Exceptional Children. A Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decano, Pio

    1979-01-01

    Presented in the format of an imaginary dialogue between seven educators of Asian and Pacific American (APA) backgrounds, the article addresses some issues and concerns in the training of special education personnel to work with APA handicapped children. (DLS)

  13. Cultural investment: providing opportunities to reduce risky behavior among gay American Indian males.

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    Gilley, Brian Joseph; Co-Cké, John Hawk

    2005-09-01

    Many gay American Indian (GAI) men feel alienated from their tribal, ceremonial and social communities because of homophobia and heterosexism. As a result, they often turn to their local gay community for social participation and sex opportunities. It is no secret that a significant aspect of some gay communities is socializing in local bars and clubs. The gay bar scene makes healthy living difficult for Native American gay men. This is especially the case for those who are in alcohol or drug recovery. In response, gay Native men's support groups are attempting to make available a cultural alternative to the double bind of alienation from one's Native community and exposure to substance abuse by providing alcohol and substance free opportunities for ceremonial and social involvement. The hope is that the men will go to bars less frequently and instead turn to Native cultural activities in men's groups for social, spiritual and emotional support. The logic of this approach assumes that individuals who are culturally invested in a community will gain a level of self and social acceptance, making them less likely to abuse substances and put themselves at risk for HIV infection. The information presented in this article comes from over six years of ethnographic research among GAI men concerning self and social acceptance, HIV/AIDS and American Indian GLBT identity.

  14. Factors associated with obesity in Chinese-American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jyu-Lin; Kennedy, Christine

    2005-01-01

    A cross-sectional study design was utilized to examine factors associated with obesity in Chinese-American children. Chinese-American children (8 to 10 years old) and their mothers (N = 68) in California participated in the study. Mothers completed demographic information, the Family Assessment Device, Attitudes Toward Child Rearing Scale, and Suinn-Lew Asian Self-identity Acculturation Scale. Children's body mass index was measured, and children completed a self-administered physical activity checklist, Food Frequency Questionnaire, and the Schoolagers' Coping Strategies Inventory. Results indicated three variables that predicted children's body mass index: older age, a more democratic parenting style, and poor communication (R2=.263, F=8.727, p = .0001). Children whose mothers had a low level of acculturation were also more likely to be overweight than were children whose mothers were highly acculturated. This study revealed that children's ages, a democratic parenting style, and poor family communication contribute to increased body mass index in Chinese-American children. Other factors related to children's BMI and dietary intake include acculturation level of the mother and family affective responses. Future studies should examine the change in BMI over time and in different age groups and why parenting and family communication impact children's body weight.

  15. Association of diabetes and cancer mortality in American Indians: the Strong Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Lyle G; García-Esquinas, Esther; Yeh, Jeun-Liang; Yeh, Fawn; Zhang, Ying; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Farley, John H; Welty, Thomas K; Rhoades, Dorothy A; Rhoades, Everett R; Umans, Jason G; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2015-11-01

    The metabolic abnormalities that accompany diabetes mellitus are associated with an increased risk of many cancers. These associations, however, have not been well studied in American Indian populations, which experience a high prevalence of diabetes. The Strong Heart Study is a population-based, prospective cohort study with extensive characterization of diabetes status. Among a total cohort of 4,419 participants who were followed for up to 20 years, 430 cancer deaths were identified. After adjusting for sex, age, education, smoking status, drinking status, and body mass index, participants with diabetes at baseline showed an increased risk of gastric (HR 4.09; 95% CI 1.42-11.79), hepatocellular (HR 2.94; 95% CI 1.17-7.40), and prostate cancer mortality (HR 3.10; 95% CI 1.22-7.94). Further adjustment for arsenic exposure showed a significantly increased risk of all-cause cancer mortality with diabetes (HR 1.27; 95% CI 1.03-1.58). Insulin resistance among participants without diabetes at baseline was associated with hepatocellular cancer mortality (HR 4.70; 95% CI 1.55-14.26). Diabetes mellitus, and/or insulin resistance among those without diabetes, is a risk factor for gastric, hepatocellular, and prostate cancer in these American Indian communities, although relatively small sample size suggests cautious interpretation. Additional research is needed to evaluate the role of diabetes and obesity on cancer incidence in American Indian communities as well as the importance of diabetes prevention and control in reducing the burden of cancer incidence and mortality in the study population.

  16. Impact of the CHOICES Intervention in Preventing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies in American Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jessica D; Nelson, Morgan E; Jensen, Jamie L; Willman, Amy; Jacobs-Knight, Jacque; Ingersoll, Karen

    2017-04-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) comprise a continuum of lifelong outcomes in those born prenatally exposed to alcohol. Although studies have shown no differences in rates by race, FASD is of particular concern for American Indian communities. One tribally run prevention program is the Oglala Sioux Tribe (OST) CHOICES Program, which is modeled after the evidence-based CHOICES program that was focused on preconceptional prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancy (AEP) by reducing risky drinking in women at risk for pregnancy and/or preventing unintended pregnancy. The OST CHOICES Program was made culturally appropriate for American Indian women and implemented with 3 communities, 2 on the reservation and 1 off. Data on drinking, sexual activity, and contraception use were collected at baseline and 3 and 6 months postintervention. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, 1-way analysis of variance, and a random intercept generalized estimating equation model. A total of 193 nonpregnant American Indian women enrolled in the OST CHOICES Program, and all were at risk for AEP because of binge drinking and being at risk for an unintended pregnancy. Fifty-one percent of participants completed both 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Models showed a significant decrease in AEP risk from baseline at both 3- and 6-month follow-ups, indicating the significant impact of the OST CHOICES intervention. Women in the OST CHOICES Program were more likely to reduce their risk for AEP by utilizing contraception, rather than decreasing binge drinking. Even with minor changes to make the CHOICES intervention culturally and linguistically appropriate and the potential threats to program validity those changes entail, we found a significant impact in reducing AEP risk. This highlights the capacity for the CHOICES intervention to be implemented in a wide variety of settings and populations. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  17. The Association of Panic Disorder, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Major Depression With Smoking in American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk, Craig N; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Noonan, Carolyn; Bogart, Andy; Goldberg, Jack; Manson, Spero M; Buchwald, Dedra

    2016-03-01

    Rates of cigarette smoking are disproportionately high among American Indian populations, although regional differences exist in smoking prevalence. Previous research has noted that anxiety and depression are associated with higher rates of cigarette use. We asked whether lifetime panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and major depression were related to lifetime cigarette smoking in two geographically distinct American Indian tribes. Data were collected in 1997-1999 from 1506 Northern Plains and 1268 Southwest tribal members; data were analyzed in 2009. Regression analyses examined the association between lifetime anxiety and depressive disorders and odds of lifetime smoking status after controlling for sociodemographic variables and alcohol use disorders. Institutional and tribal approvals were obtained for all study procedures, and all participants provided informed consent. Odds of smoking were two times higher in Southwest participants with panic disorder and major depression, and 1.7 times higher in those with posttraumatic stress disorder, after controlling for sociodemographic variables. After accounting for alcohol use disorders, only major depression remained significantly associated with smoking. In the Northern Plains, psychiatric disorders were not associated with smoking. Increasing psychiatric comorbidity was significantly linked to increased smoking odds in both tribes, especially in the Southwest. This study is the first to examine the association between psychiatric conditions and lifetime smoking in two large, geographically diverse community samples of American Indians. While the direction of the relationship between nicotine use and psychiatric disorders cannot be determined, understanding unique social, environmental, and cultural differences that contribute to the tobacco-psychiatric disorder relationship may help guide tribe-specific commercial tobacco control strategies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  18. Parenting African American Children in the Context of Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Angela W.; Smyke, Anna T.; Middleton, Melissa; Black, Corey L.

    2015-01-01

    The legacy of slavery in the United States has impacted generations of African Americans, especially parents who must prepare their children to face the challenges associated with being a person of color in this country. The authors explore aspects of racism, White privilege, racial socialization, and African American parents' fears as they equip…

  19. Breast cancer literacy and health beliefs related to breast cancer screening among American Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Soonhee; Burnette, Catherine E; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Jun, Jung Sim; Lee, Hee Yun; Lee, Kyoung Hag

    2018-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the health beliefs and literacy about breast cancer and their relationship with breast cancer screening among American Indian (AI) women. Using the Health Belief Model (HBM) and hierarchical logistic regression with data from a sample of 286 AI female adults residing in the Northern Plains, we found that greater awareness of breast cancer screening was linked to breast cancer screening practices. However, perceived barriers, one of the HBM constructs, prevented such screening practices. This study suggested that culturally relevant HBM factors should be targeted when developing culturally sensitive breast cancer prevention efforts.

  20. Understanding gender roles in teen pregnancy prevention among American Indian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jessica D; McMahon, Tracey R; Griese, Emily R; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete

    2014-11-01

    To examine the impact of gender norms on American Indian (AI) adolescents' sexual health behavior. The project collected qualitative data at a reservation site and an urban site through 24 focus groups and 20 key informant interviews. The reasons that AI youth choose to abstain or engage in sexual intercourse and utilize contraception vary based on gender ideologies defined by the adolescent's environment. These include social expectations from family and peers, defined roles within relationships, and gender empowerment gaps. Gender ideology plays a large role in decisions about contraception and sexual activity for AI adolescents, and it is vital to include redefinitions of gender norms within AI teen pregnancy prevention program.

  1. African American and Puerto Rican American Parenting Styles, Paternal Involvement, and Head Start Children's Social Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay

    2000-01-01

    Examined similarities and differences in parenting styles and paternal involvement within and between African American and Puerto Rican American parent groups and the relationship between parenting styles, child care involvement, and Head Start children's social competence. Found a significant relationship between high levels of parental…

  2. A comparison of adoptive parents' perceptions of their child's behavior among Indian children adopted to Norway, the United States, and within country: implications for adoption policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Suzanne; Groza, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The Hague Convention on the Protection of Children suggests that intercountry adoption be considered as a permanent care option only after other solutions within the child's country of origin have been exhausted. Data from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were examined for 478 Indian children ages 4-18 adopted domestically, adopted to Norway, and adopted to the United States. The CBCL has a reported reliability of .9 (Achenbach, 1991; Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1983) and contains five subscales assessing internalizing problems plus a summative Internalizing Scale, and three subscales assessing externalizing problems plus a summative Externalizing Scale. Perceptions of Norwegian, American, and Indian adoptive parents regarding their child's functioning were compared. Children adopted to Norway and the United States were perceived by their parents to be functioning significantly better behaviorally than children adopted within country, while controlling for age of child and gender of adoptive parent completing the CBCL. Policymakers should examine the evidence prioritizing within country adoption over intercountry adoption.

  3. Japanese and American Children's Moral Evaluations of Reporting on Transgressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu Loke, Ivy; Heyman, Gail D.; Itakura, Shoji; Toriyama, Rie; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    American and Japanese children's evaluations of the reporting of peers' transgressions to authority figures were investigated. Seven-, 9-, and 11-year-old children (N = 160) and adults (N = 62) were presented with vignettes and were asked to evaluate the decisions of child observers who reported their friend's either major or relatively minor…

  4. Balancing multiple roles among a group of urban midlife American Indian working women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napholz, L

    2000-06-01

    Presented are the results of a secondary analysis of group data from a study of a six-week role conflict reduction intervention among a group of urban American Indian women (n = 8). The specific aim of this researcher was to understand the process of balancing multiple roles as expressed in the participants' daily lived experiences as mothers, wives, and workers. A construction of the process of balancing multiple roles was accomplished through the use of narratives. Balancing multiple roles represented a major current attempt on the part of the participants to integrate and balance traditional and contemporary feminine strengths in a positive, culturally consistent manner. The study themes included: traditional sex role expectation conflicts, family guilt, guilt management, transitioning inner conflict and stress, breaking the silence-learning to say no, and healing the spirit to reclaim the self. Further support for retraditionalization of roles for this group of Indian women was maintained as an effective means of balancing roles and achieving Indian self-determination.

  5. Determinants of inhalant (whitener) use among street children in a South Indian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Devarsetty; Maulik, Pallab K; Raghavendra, Bellara; Khan, Maseer; Guggilla, Rama K; Bhatia, Prakash

    2012-08-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in the year 2008 among 174 children in observation homes in Hyderabad, India, to estimate the distribution of inhalant (whitener) use among this population. Data were collected using an instrument developed for this purpose. About 61% of the children were boys and their mean age was 12.2 years (range 5-18 years). Whitener use was found in 35% of the children along with concurrent use of other substances. Peer pressure was the commonest cause reported for initiating substance use. The high prevalence is an important concern for the Indian policymakers given the large number of street children in Indian cities.

  6. Assessment training for practice in American Indian and Alaska Native settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, James

    2002-10-01

    The collaborative assessment model is extended as a training model. The experience of psychological assessment in American Indian and Alaska Native communities is often negative due to culturally inappropriate services and test interpretation. It is productive to address this negative experience, using it as a catalyst for learning. Training in measurement and construct validation provides initial basis for critique of negative experience. Training in collaborative assessment procedures then focuses on culturally appropriate assessment service practices, cultural orientation's affect on test interpretation, and multicultural assessment ethics. Writing skills are emphasized, including procedures in report writing for description of local adaptations, norms, and interpretative rules, and integration of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (4th ed., text revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) cultural formulation. Development of local norms and emic tests are emphasized.

  7. Intervention effects on kindergarten and first-grade teachers' classroom food practices and food-related beliefs in American Indian reservation schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcan, Chrisa; Hannan, Peter J; Himes, John H; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Rock, Bonnie Holy; Smyth, Mary; Story, Mary

    2013-08-01

    Prevalence of obesity among American Indian children is higher than the general US population. The school environment and teachers play important roles in helping students develop healthy eating habits. The aim of this prospective study was to examine teachers' classroom and school food practices and beliefs and the effect of teacher training on these practices and beliefs. Data were used from the Bright Start study, a group-randomized, school-based trial that took place on the Pine Ridge American Indian reservation (fall 2005 to spring 2008). Kindergarten and first-grade teachers (n=75) from 14 schools completed a survey at the beginning and end of the school year. Thirty-seven survey items were evaluated using mixed-model analysis of variance to examine the intervention effect for each teacher-practice and belief item (adjusting for teacher type and school as random effect). At baseline, some teachers reported classroom and school food practices and beliefs that supported health and some that did not. The intervention was significantly associated with lower classroom use of candy as a treat (P=0.0005) and fast-food rewards (P=0.008); more intervention teachers disagreed that fast food should be offered as school lunch alternatives (P=0.019), that it would be acceptable to sell unhealthy foods as part of school fundraising (P=0.006), and that it would not make sense to limit students' food choices in school (P=0.035). School-based interventions involving teacher training can result in positive changes in teachers' classroom food practices and beliefs about the influence of the school food environment in schools serving American Indian children on reservations. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Growth & development of Indian children adopted in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proos, Lemm A

    2009-11-01

    More than 6800 children from India have been adopted in Sweden over the last four decades. At arrival many were undernourished and suffered from infectious diseases. Catch-up growth was common. Unexpectedly, cases of early pubertal development were subsequently reported. In order to investigate the growth and development of adopted children more in detail we studied 114 children adopted from India prospectively during two years. The majority were stunted at arrival and caught up in height and weight after two years. Psychomotor retardation and common infections diminished fairly soon. Those that were stunted did not attain the higher catch-up levels of those not stunted at arrival. Low birthweight also limited the degree of catch-up growth. 107 girls were analysed retrospectively in another study. The median menarcheal age was 11.6 yr (range 7.3-14.6 yr) which is significantly earlier than the mean in Swedish and privileged Indian girls (13.0 and 12.4-12.9 yr, respectively). The pubertal linear growth component was normal in duration and magnitude but likewise started 1.5 yr earlier. The final height/age was 154 cm (-1.4 SDS) and the weight/age 46.9 kg (-1.1 SDS) 8 per cent were 145 cm or shorter. Stunting limited catch-up growth and final height. Those that were most stunted at arrival, and had the fastest catch-up growth, had the earliest menarche. Good maternal and child nutrition is necessary for full expression of a child's growth potential. What is lost in growth early in life can only partially be recovered by catch-up growth. Such growth is associated with risk for early pubertal development which abbreviates the childhood growth period and limits final height. The mechanism underlying the early pubertal development, and the optimal management of nutrition rehabilitation after chronic malnutrition, need to be clarified by further studies.

  9. Correlates of social support in older American Indians: the Native Elder Care Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Kathleen P.; Schure, Marc B.; Goins, R. Turner

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study examined social support and identified demographic and health correlates among American Indians aged 55 years and older. Methods Data were derived from the Native Elder Care Study, a cross-sectional study of 505 community-dwelling American Indians aged ≥55 years. Social support was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey measure (MOS-SSS) of which psychometric properties were examined through factor analyses. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify associations between age, sex, educational attainment, marital status, depressive symptomatology, lower body physical functioning, and chronic pain and social support. Results Study participants reported higher levels of affectionate and positive interaction social support (88.2% and 81.8%, respectively) than overall (75.9%) and emotional (69.0%) domains. Increased age, being married/partnered, and female sex were associated with high social support in the final model. Decreased depressive symptomatology was associated with high overall, affectionate, and positive interaction support, and decreased chronic pain with affectionate support. The count of chronic conditions and functional disability were not associated with social support. Conclusions Overall, we found high levels of social support for both men and women in this population, with the oldest adults in our study exhibiting the highest levels of social support. Strong cultural values of caring for older adults and a historical tradition of community cooperation may explain this finding. Future public health efforts may be able to leverage social support to reduce health disparities and improve mental and physical functioning. PMID:25322933

  10. Metabolic Profiles of Obesity in American Indians: The Strong Heart Family Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhao

    Full Text Available Obesity is a typical metabolic disorder resulting from the imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. American Indians suffer disproportionately high rates of obesity and diabetes. The goal of this study is to identify metabolic profiles of obesity in 431 normoglycemic American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Family Study. Using an untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we detected 1,364 distinct m/z features matched to known compounds in the current metabolomics databases. We conducted multivariate analysis to identify metabolic profiles for obesity, adjusting for standard obesity indicators. After adjusting for covariates and multiple testing, five metabolites were associated with body mass index and seven were associated with waist circumference. Of them, three were associated with both. Majority of the obesity-related metabolites belongs to lipids, e.g., fatty amides, sphingolipids, prenol lipids, and steroid derivatives. Other identified metabolites are amino acids or peptides. Of the nine identified metabolites, five metabolites (oleoylethanolamide, mannosyl-diinositol-phosphorylceramide, pristanic acid, glutamate, and kynurenine have been previously implicated in obesity or its related pathways. Future studies are warranted to replicate these findings in larger populations or other ethnic groups.

  11. Ensuring Healthy American Indian Generations for Tomorrow through Safe and Healthy Indoor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Joseph A.; Pacheco, Christina M.; Lewis, Charley; Williams, Chandler; Barnes, Charles; Rosenwasser, Lanny; Choi, Won S.; Daley, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    American Indians (AI) have the highest rate of severe physical housing problems in the U.S. (3.9%). Little information exists about the environmental hazards in AI homes. The purposes of this paper are to discuss challenges that were encountered when recruiting AI for a home-and employment-based environmental health assessments, highlight major successes, and propose recommendations for future indoor environmental health studies. The Center for American Indian Community Health (CAICH) and Children’s Mercy Hospital’s Center for Environmental Health and Allergy and Immunology Research Lab collaborated to provide educational sessions and healthy home assessments for AI. Through educational trainings, more than 240 AI were trained on the primary causes of health problems in homes. A total of 72 homes and places of employment were assessed by AI environmental health specialists. The top three categories with the most concerns observed in the homes/places of employment were allergens/dust (98%), safety/injury (89%) and chemical exposure (82%). While some information on smoking inside the home was collected, these numbers may have been underreported due to stigma. This was CAICH’s first endeavor in environmental health and although challenges arose, many more successes were achieved. PMID:25749318

  12. Metabolic Profiles of Obesity in American Indians: The Strong Heart Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qi; Zhu, Yun; Best, Lyle G; Umans, Jason G; Uppal, Karan; Tran, ViLinh T; Jones, Dean P; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Zhao, Jinying

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a typical metabolic disorder resulting from the imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. American Indians suffer disproportionately high rates of obesity and diabetes. The goal of this study is to identify metabolic profiles of obesity in 431 normoglycemic American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Family Study. Using an untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we detected 1,364 distinct m/z features matched to known compounds in the current metabolomics databases. We conducted multivariate analysis to identify metabolic profiles for obesity, adjusting for standard obesity indicators. After adjusting for covariates and multiple testing, five metabolites were associated with body mass index and seven were associated with waist circumference. Of them, three were associated with both. Majority of the obesity-related metabolites belongs to lipids, e.g., fatty amides, sphingolipids, prenol lipids, and steroid derivatives. Other identified metabolites are amino acids or peptides. Of the nine identified metabolites, five metabolites (oleoylethanolamide, mannosyl-diinositol-phosphorylceramide, pristanic acid, glutamate, and kynurenine) have been previously implicated in obesity or its related pathways. Future studies are warranted to replicate these findings in larger populations or other ethnic groups.

  13. A diabetes self-management program designed for urban American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Sarah; O'Toole, Mary; Brownson, Carol; Plessel, Kimberly; Schauben, Laura

    2009-10-01

    Although the American Indian population has a disproportionately high rate of type 2 diabetes, little has been written about culturally sensitive self-management programs in this population. Community and clinic partners worked together to identify barriers to diabetes self-management and to provide activities and services as part of a holistic approach to diabetes self-management, called the Full Circle Diabetes Program. The program activities and services addressed 4 components of holistic health: body, spirit, mind, and emotion. Seven types of activities or services were available to help participants improve diabetes self-management; these included exercise classes, educational classes, and talking circles. Ninety-eight percent of program enrollees participated in at least 1 activity, and two-thirds participated in 2 or more activities. Program participation resulted in a significant improvement in knowledge of resources for managing diabetes. The Full Circle Diabetes Program developed and implemented culturally relevant resources and supports for diabetes self-management in an American Indian population. Lessons learned included that a holistic approach to diabetes self-management, community participation, and stakeholder partnerships are needed for a successful program.

  14. Genetic and environmental contributions to cardiovascular disease risk in American Indians: the strong heart family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Kari E; Howard, Barbara V; Welty, Thomas K; Best, Lyle G; Lee, Elisa T; Yeh, J L; Fabsitz, Richard R; Roman, Mary J; MacCluer, Jean W

    2003-02-15

    The aims of the Strong Heart Family Study are to clarify the genetic determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in American Indians and to map and identify genes for CVD susceptibility. The authors describe the design of the Strong Heart Family Study (conducted between 1998 and 1999) and evaluate the heritabilities of CVD risk factors in American Indians from this study. In the first phase of the study, approximately 950 individuals, aged 18 years or more, in 32 extended families, were examined. The examination consisted of a personal interview, physical examination, laboratory tests, and an ultrasound examination of the carotid arteries. The phenotypes measured during the physical examination included anthropometry, lipoproteins, blood pressure, glycemic status, and clotting factors. Heritabilities for CVD risk factor phenotypes were estimated using a variance component approach and the program SOLAR. After accounting for the effects of covariates, the authors detected significant heritabilities for many CVD risk factor phenotypes (e.g., high density lipoprotein cholesterol (heritability = 0.50) and diastolic blood pressure (heritability = 0.34)). These results suggest that heredity explains a substantial proportion of the variability of CVD risk factors and that these heritabilities are large enough to warrant a search for major risk factor genes.

  15. Culture and context: buffering the relationship between stressful life events and risky behaviors in American Indian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Julie A; Brown, Betty G; Wayment, Heidi A; Nez, Ramona Antone; Brelsford, Kathleen M

    2011-01-01

    The Sacred Mountain Youth Project was conducted to investigate risk and protective factors related to alcohol and drug use among American Indian youth. Findings indicated that stressful life events were positively associated with depressed mood, substance use, and risky behavior; cultural identity had no direct effects, but a secondary model showed that social support and protective family and peer influences were related to cultural identity. These findings suggest that the relationships between stressors and their negative sequelae are complex. Emphasis on protective processes that are culturally specific to American Indian youth may lead to effective alcohol and drug use prevention programs.

  16. Potential use of food/activity, parenting style, and caregiver feeding style measurement tools with American Indian families: A brief report

    Science.gov (United States)

    To provide preliminary descriptive data on caregiver and child weight status, parenting styles, feeding styles, and feeding practices of a small American Indian sample. Participants included a subsample of American Indian caregivers (n = 23) identified from a larger study that was conducted in five ...

  17. Left Behind: Are Public Schools Failing Indian Kids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado, Michelle

    2001-01-01

    American Indian children have the poorest academic performance among public school students. Reasons include poverty, racism, cultural incompatibility, low teacher expectations, high student mobility, lack of American Indian teachers, communication and learning differences, and cultural bias in standardized tests. New Mexico initiatives to improve…

  18. Ethnic identity and mental health in American Indian youth: examining mediation pathways through self-esteem, and future optimism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R; Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L; Webber, Kristina C

    2014-03-01

    Mental health functioning in American Indian youth is an understudied topic. Given the increased rates of depression and anxiety in this population, further research is needed. Using multiple group structural equation modeling, the current study illuminates the effect of ethnic identity on anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and externalizing behavior in a group of Lumbee adolescents and a group of Caucasian, African American, and Latino/Hispanic adolescents. This study examined two possible pathways (i.e., future optimism and self-esteem) through which ethnic identity is associated with adolescent mental health. The sample (N = 4,714) is 28.53% American Indian (Lumbee) and 51.38% female. The study findings indicate that self-esteem significantly mediated the relationships between ethnic identity and anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and externalizing behavior for all racial/ethnic groups (i.e., the total sample). Future optimism significantly mediated the relationship between ethnic identity and externalizing behavior for all racial/ethnic groups and was a significant mediator between ethnic identity and depressive symptoms for American Indian youth only. Fostering ethnic identity in all youth serves to enhance mental health functioning, but is especially important for American Indian youth due to the collective nature of their culture.

  19. Effect of severe obesity in childhood and adolescence on risk of type 2 diabetes in youth and early adulthood in an American Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanamas, Stephanie K; Reddy, Sanil P; Chambers, Melissa A; Clark, Elena J; Dunnigan, Diana L; Hanson, Robert L; Nelson, Robert G; Knowler, William C; Sinha, Madhumita

    2017-12-28

    The risk of early-onset type 2 diabetes associated with the severity of obesity in youth is not well understood. This study aims to determine metabolic alterations and type 2 diabetes risk among American Indian children who are obese or severely obese. Incidence rates of diabetes before 20 years (youth-onset) and 45 years were computed in 2728 children who were from 5 to Obesity was defined as age-sex-adjusted body mass index (BMI) ≥95th percentile, and its severity was quantified as the percentage of the 95th percentile (%BMI p95 ). In the younger cohort, 0.9% of those non-obese and 2.9% of those with 100% to obese and 9.8% of those with 100% to youth-onset diabetes was 3.8 and 4.9/1000 person-years in the child and adolescent cohorts, respectively, and before the age of 45 was 12.3 and 16.8/1000 person-years, respectively. Incidence rates of youth-onset diabetes in those with the most severe obesity (≥140%BMI p95 ) were 2.3 to 5.1 times as high as in those with the least severe obesity (100 to obesity in an American Indian population is a major driver of type 2 diabetes developing in adolescents and young adults. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. A partnership of a Catholic faith-based health system, nursing and traditional American Indian medicine practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbert, Ann O

    2008-04-01

    The paper presents a historically unique partnership between an American Southwestern, Catholic faith-based, urban hospital and a program it sponsored on the spirituality of American Indian Traditional Indian Medicine (TIM) by a Comanche medicine man. A discussion is offered on the cultural partnerships, experiences and benefits achieved through the cultural accommodations of these spiritual beliefs and practices within this healthcare system. The theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality (Culture Care Theory), including the Sunrise Enabler, is applied in discussion of these past experiences to explore the relationships among and between the participating cultures. The intent of the partnerships within this program was not to 'learn Indian healing ceremonies' but to share the philosophy of TIM with all people (clients and professionals) as a means to enhance their own way of living. Examples of actual nursing decisions and actions are provided including outcomes from the program within the healthcare system and globally.

  1. EEG spectral phenotypes: heritability and association with marijuana and alcohol dependence in an American Indian community study

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Phillips, Evelyn; Gizer, Ian R.; Gilder, David A.; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C.

    2009-01-01

    Native Americans have some of the highest rates of marijuana and alcohol use and abuse, yet neurobiological measures associated with dependence on these substances in this population remain unknown. The present investigation evaluated the heritability of spectral characteristics of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and their correlation with marijuana and alcohol dependence in an American Indian community. Participants (n=626) were evaluated for marijuana (MJ) and alcohol (ALC) dependence, as we...

  2. Ectopic pregnancy among American Indian and Alaska Native women, 2002-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ravello, Lori; Folkema, Arianne; Tulloch, Scott; Taylor, Melanie; Reilley, Brigg; Hoover, Karen; Holman, Robert; Creanga, Andreea

    2015-04-01

    To examine rates of ectopic pregnancy (EP) among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women aged 15-44 years seeking care at Indian Health Service (IHS), Tribal, and urban Indian health facilities during 2002-2009. We used 2002-2009 inpatient and outpatient data from the IHS National Patient Information Reporting System to identify EP-associated visits and obtain the number of pregnancies among AI/AN women. Repeat visits for the same EP were determined by calculating the interval between visits; if more than 90 days between visits, the visit was considered related to a new EP. We identified 229,986 pregnancies among AI/AN women 15-44 years receiving care at IHS-affiliated facilities during 2002-2009. Of these, 2,406 (1.05 %) were coded as EPs, corresponding to an average annual rate of 10.5 per 1,000 pregnancies. The EP rate among AI/AN women was lowest in the 15-19 years age group (5.5 EPs per 1,000 pregnancies) and highest among 35-39 year olds (18.7 EPs per 1,000 pregnancies). EP rates varied by geographic region, ranging between 6.9 and 24.4 per 1,000 pregnancies in the Northern Plains East and the East region, respectively. The percentage of ectopic pregnancies found among AI/AN women is within the national 1-2 % range. We found relatively stable annual rates of EP among AI/AN women receiving care at IHS-affiliated facilities during 2002-2009, but considerable variation by age group and geographic region. Coupling timely diagnosis and management with public health interventions focused on tobacco use and sexually transmitted diseases may provide opportunities for reducing EP and EP-associated complications among AI/AN women.

  3. Ectopic Pregnancy Among American Indian and Alaska Native Women, 2002–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkema, Arianne; Tulloch, Scott; Taylor, Melanie; Reilley, Brigg; Hoover, Karen; Holman, Robert; Creanga, Andreea

    2015-01-01

    To examine rates of ectopic pregnancy (EP) among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women aged 15–44 years seeking care at Indian Health Service (IHS), Tribal, and urban Indian health facilities during 2002–2009. We used 2002–2009 inpatient and outpatient data from the IHS National Patient Information Reporting System to identify EP-associated visits and obtain the number of pregnancies among AI/AN women. Repeat visits for the same EP were determined by calculating the interval between visits; if more than 90 days between visits, the visit was considered related to a new EP. We identified 229,986 pregnancies among AI/AN women 15–44 years receiving care at IHS-affiliated facilities during 2002–2009. Of these, 2,406 (1.05 %) were coded as EPs, corresponding to an average annual rate of 10.5 per 1,000 pregnancies. The EP rate among AI/AN women was lowest in the 15–19 years age group (5.5 EPs per 1,000 pregnancies) and highest among 35–39 year olds (18.7 EPs per 1,000 pregnancies). EP rates varied by geographic region, ranging between 6.9 and 24.4 per 1,000 pregnancies in the Northern Plains East and the East region, respectively. The percentage of ectopic pregnancies found among AI/AN women is within the national 1–2 % range. We found relatively stable annual rates of EP among AI/AN women receiving care at IHS-affiliated facilities during 2002–2009, but considerable variation by age group and geographic region. Coupling timely diagnosis and management with public health interventions focused on tobacco use and sexually transmitted diseases may provide opportunities for reducing EP and EP-associated complications among AI/AN women. PMID:25023759

  4. Intimate Partner Violence and Alcohol, Drug, and Mental Disorders among American Indian Women from Southwest Tribes in Primary Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Bonnie; Oetzel, John; Parker, Tassy; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Lucero, Julie; Jiang, Yizhou

    2009-01-01

    The relationship of intimate partner violence (IPV) with mental disorders was investigated among 234 American Indian/Alaska Native female primary care patients. Results indicated that unadjusted prevalence ratios for severe physical or sexual abuse (relative to no IPV) were significant for anxiety, PTSD, mood, and any mental disorder. Adjusted…

  5. Images of American Indians in Environmental Education: Anthropological Reflections on the Politics and History of Cultural Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willow, Anna J.

    2010-01-01

    For hundreds of years, North America's colonizers worked systematically to eradicate the indigenous cultural practices, religious beliefs, and autonomous political systems many venerate. This article illustrates that imperialist nostalgia underlies and directs portrayals of American Indians in environmental education today. Whether unconsciously…

  6. English Learners (ELs) Who Are American Indian and/or Alaska Native (AI/AN). Fast Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on English Learners (ELs) Who Are American Indian and/or Alaska Native (AI/AN) include: (1) States With the Highest Percentage of ELs Who Were AI/AN:…

  7. Relations among Ethnic Identity, Parenting Style, and Adolescent Psychosocial Outcomes in European American and East Indian Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadha, Bakhtawar

    The challenges of identity formation are particularly difficult for minority youth because of the clash of traditional culture and the host culture. This study examined the effects of parenting style, acculturation, and parent and adolescent ethnic identity on the self-esteem and school performance of East Indian and European American adolescents.…

  8. Attitudes toward HPV Vaccination among Rural American Indian Women and Urban White Women in the Northern Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwald, Dedra; Muller, Clemma; Bell, Maria; Schmidt-Grimminger, Delf

    2013-01-01

    Background: American Indian women in the Northern Plains have a high incidence of cervical cancer. We assessed attitudes on vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) in this population. Method: In partnership with two tribal communities, from 2007 to 2009, we surveyed women 18 to 65 years old attending two reservation clinics ("n" =…

  9. Consistency in the Reporting of Sensitive Behaviors by Adolescent American Indian Women: A Comparison of Interviewing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullany, Britta; Barlow, Allison; Neault, Nicole; Billy, Trudy; Hastings, Ranelda; Coho-Mescal, Valerie; Lorenzo, Sherilyn; Walkup, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Computer-assisted interviewing techniques have increasingly been used in program and research settings to improve data collection quality and efficiency. Little is known, however, regarding the use of such techniques with American Indian (AI) adolescents in collecting sensitive information. This brief compares the consistency of AI adolescent…

  10. Incorporating Traditional Healing into an Urban American Indian Health Organization: A Case Study of Community Member Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, William E.; Gone, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    Facing severe mental health disparities rooted in a complex history of cultural oppression, members of many urban American Indian (AI) communities are reaching out for indigenous traditional healing to augment their use of standard Western mental health services. Because detailed descriptions of approaches for making traditional healing available…

  11. On the Pursuit of Sound Science for the Betterment of the American Indian Community: Reply to Beals et al. (2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, Nichea S.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2009-01-01

    The authors of this reply argue that ongoing criticism of existing theories, the development of alternative theories, and empirical theory tests offer the best chance for advancing American Indian research. The authors therefore note their appreciation for the comments of J. Beals et al. The authors nevertheless disagree with many of the specific…

  12. The Association of Resilience with Mental and Physical Health among Older American Indians: The Native Elder Care Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schure, Marc B.; Odden, Michelle; Goins, R. Turner

    2013-01-01

    We examined the association of resilience with measures of mental and physical health in a sample of older American Indians (AIs). A validated scale measuring resilience was administered to 185 noninstitutionalized AIs aged greater than or equal to 55 years. Unadjusted analyses revealed that higher levels of resilience were associated with lower…

  13. Conceptualizing American Indian/Alaska Native College Student's Classroom Experiences: Negotiating Cultural Identity between Faculty and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Nanci M.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. dominant culture's values and ways of knowing depicted in college curriculum assume that American Indian/Alaska Native college students will assimilate to dominant cultural beliefs and values in order to acquire a degree in higher education. Representative of this hegemonic pedagogical paradigm is the prescribed basic communication course…

  14. A comparison of risk factors associated with suicide ideation/attempts in American Indian and White youth in Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Karen; Tiesman, Hope; Stewart, Jera; Hobbs, Gerald R; Knox, Sarah S

    2015-01-01

    We examined racial/ethnic and gender-specific associations between suicide ideation/attempts and risky behaviors, sadness/hopelessness, and victimization in Montana American Indian and White youth using 1999-2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey data. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals in stratified racial/ethnic-gender groups. The primary results of this study show that although the American Indian youth had more statistically significant suicidal thoughts and attempts than the White youth, they had fewer statistically significant predictors compared to the White youth. Sadness/hopelessness was the strongest, and the only statistically significant, predictor of suicide ideation/attempts common across all four groups. The unhealthy weight control cluster was a significant predictor for the White youth and the American Indian/Alaska Native girls; the alcohol/tobacco/marijuana cluster was a significant predictor for the American Indian boys only. Results show important differences across the groups and indicate directions for future research targeting prevention and intervention.

  15. EFFECT OF JOB SKILLS TRAINING ON EMPLOYMENT AND JOB SEEKING BEHAVIORS IN AN AMERICAN INDIAN SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT SAMPLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, K; Pallas, D; Forcehimes, A A; Houck, J M; Bogenschutz, M P; Keyser-Marcus, L; Svikis, D

    2010-10-26

    Employment difficulties are common among American Indian individuals in substance abuse treatment. To address this problem, the Southwest Node of NIDA's Clinical Trials Network conducted a single-site adaptation of its national Job Seekers Workshop study in an American Indian treatment program, Na'Nizhoozhi Center (NCI). 102 (80% men, 100% American Indian) participants who were in residential treatment and currently unemployed were randomized to (1) a three session, manualized program (Job seekers workshop: JSW) or (2) a 40-minute Job Interviewing Video: JIV). Outcomes were assessed at 3-month follow up: 1) number of days to a new taxed job or enrollment in a job-training program, and 2) total hours working or enrolled in a job-training program. No significant differences were found between the two groups for time to a new taxed job or enrollment in a job-training program. There were no significant differences between groups in substance use frequency at 3-month follow-up. These results do not support the use of the costly and time-consuming JSW intervention in this population and setting. Despite of the lack of a demonstrable treatment effect, this study established the feasibility of including a rural American Indian site in a rigorous CTN trial through a community-based participatory research approach.

  16. Urban American Indian Community Perspectives on Resources and Challenges for Youth Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrage, Rachel L; Gone, Joseph P; Momper, Sandra L

    2016-09-01

    American Indian (AI) youth have some of the highest rates of suicide of any group in the United States, and the majority of AI youth live in urban areas away from tribal communities. As such, understanding the resources available for suicide prevention among urban AI youth is critical, as is understanding the challenges involved in accessing such resources. Pre-existing interview data from 15 self-identified AI community members and staff from an Urban Indian Health Organization were examined to understand existing resources for urban AI youth suicide prevention, as well as related challenges. A thematic analysis was undertaken, resulting in three principal themes around suicide prevention: formal resources, informal resources, and community values and beliefs. Formal resources that meet the needs of AI youth were viewed as largely inaccessible or nonexistent, and youth were seen as more likely to seek help from informal sources. Community values of mutual support were thought to reinforce available informal supports. However, challenges arose in terms of the community's knowledge of and views on discussing suicide, as well as the perceived fit between community values and beliefs and formal prevention models. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  17. Cervical cancer incidence and mortality among American Indian and Alaska Native women, 1999-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Meg; Benard, Vicki; Thomas, Cheryll; Brayboy, Annie; Paisano, Roberta; Becker, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    We analyzed cervical cancer incidence and mortality data in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women compared with women of other races. We improved identification of AI/AN race, cervical cancer incidence, and mortality data using Indian Health Service (IHS) patient records; our analyses focused on residents of IHS Contract Health Service Delivery Area (CHSDA) counties. Age-adjusted incidence and death rates were calculated for AI/AN and White women from 1999 to 2009. AI/AN women in CHSDA counties had a death rate from cervical cancer of 4.2, which was nearly twice the rate in White women (2.0; rate ratio [RR] = 2.11). AI/AN women also had higher incidence rates of cervical cancer compared with White women (11.0 vs 7.1; RR = 1.55) and were more often diagnosed with later-stage disease (RR = 1.84 for regional stage and RR = 1.74 for distant stage). Death rates decreased for AI/AN women from 1990 to 1993 (-25.8%/year) and remained stable thereafter. Although rates decreased over time, AI/AN women had disproportionately higher cervical cancer incidence and mortality. The persistently higher rates among AI/AN women compared with White women require continued improvements in identifying and treating cervical cancer and precancerous lesions.

  18. Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality Among American Indian and Alaska Native Women, 1999–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, Vicki; Thomas, Cheryll; Brayboy, Annie; Paisano, Roberta; Becker, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed cervical cancer incidence and mortality data in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women compared with women of other races. Methods. We improved identification of AI/AN race, cervical cancer incidence, and mortality data using Indian Health Service (IHS) patient records; our analyses focused on residents of IHS Contract Health Service Delivery Area (CHSDA) counties. Age-adjusted incidence and death rates were calculated for AI/AN and White women from 1999 to 2009. Results. AI/AN women in CHSDA counties had a death rate from cervical cancer of 4.2, which was nearly twice the rate in White women (2.0; rate ratio [RR] = 2.11). AI/AN women also had higher incidence rates of cervical cancer compared with White women (11.0 vs 7.1; RR = 1.55) and were more often diagnosed with later-stage disease (RR = 1.84 for regional stage and RR = 1.74 for distant stage). Death rates decreased for AI/AN women from 1990 to 1993 (−25.8%/year) and remained stable thereafter. Conclusions. Although rates decreased over time, AI/AN women had disproportionately higher cervical cancer incidence and mortality. The persistently higher rates among AI/AN women compared with White women require continued improvements in identifying and treating cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. PMID:24754650

  19. Breast Cancer Mortality Among American Indian and Alaska Native Women, 1990–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Arica; Richardson, Lisa C.; Li, Chunyu; Ekwueme, Donatus U.; Kaur, Judith S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We compared breast cancer death rates and mortality trends among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) and White women using data for which racial misclassification was minimized. Methods. We used breast cancer deaths and cases linked to Indian Health Service (IHS) data to calculate age-adjusted rates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by IHS-designated regions from 1990 to 2009 for AI/AN and White women; Hispanics were excluded. Mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIR) were calculated for 1999 to 2009 as a proxy for prognosis after diagnosis. Results. Overall, the breast cancer death rate was lower in AI/AN women (21.6 per 100 000) than in White women (26.5). However, rates in AI/ANs were higher than rates in Whites for ages 40 to 49 years in the Alaska region, and ages 65 years and older in the Southern Plains region. White death rates significantly decreased (annual percent change [APC] = −2.1; 95% CI = −2.3, −2.0), but regional and overall AI/AN rates were unchanged (APC = 0.9; 95% CI = 0.1, 1.7). AI/AN women had higher MIRs than White women. Conclusions. There has been no improvement in death rates among AI/AN women. Targeted screening and timely, high-quality treatment are needed to reduce mortality from breast cancer in AI/AN women. PMID:24754658

  20. Early life trauma, post-traumatic stress disorder, and allostatic load in a sample of American Indian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Zaneta; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; McDonell, Michael; Nelson, Lonnie; Buchwald, Dedra; Manson, Spero

    2017-05-06

    Among American Indians, prior research has found associations between early life trauma and the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood. Given the physiological changes associated with PTSD, early life trauma could indirectly contribute to chronic disease risk. However, the impact of early life trauma on adult physical health in this population has not been previously investigated. We evaluated associations among early life trauma, PTSD, and 13 physiological biomarkers that index cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine, anthropometric, and immune function in adulthood by conducting correlation and structural equation modeling path analyses (N = 197). Physiological systems were analyzed individually as well as in a composite measure of allostatic load. We found early life trauma was related to PTSD, which in turn was related to elevated allostatic load in adulthood. Among the various components of allostatic load, the neuroendocrine system was the only one significantly related to early life stress and subsequent PTSD development. Changes in allostatic load might reflect adaptive adjustments that maximize short-term survival by enhancing stress reactivity, but at a cost to later health. Interventions should focus on improving access to resources for children who experience early life trauma in order to avoid PTSD and other harmful sequelae. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Regular tobacco use among American Indian and Alaska native adolescents: an examination of protective mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osilla, Karen Chan; Lonczak, Heather S; Mail, Patricia D; Larimer, Mary E; Marlatt, G Alan

    2007-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) adolescents use tobacco at earlier ages and in larger quantities compared to non-AIAN peers. Regular tobacco use was examined against five protective factors (peer networks supportive of not using drugs, college aspirations, team sports, playing music, and volunteerism). Participants consisted of 112 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 19 who participated in a study testing the efficacy of a life-skills program aimed at reducing substance-related consequences. Findings indicated that, with the exception of prosocial peer networks and volunteerism, each of the above factors was significantly associated with a reduced probability of being a regular tobacco user. Gender differences were notable. These results hold important treatment implications regarding the reduction and prevention of tobacco use among AIAN youth.

  2. A traditional American Indian death ritual: Developing nursing knowledge through aesthetic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau-Dahlen, Barbara K

    2018-01-01

    The theoretical and practical application of Boykin and Schoenhofer's Nursing as Caring: A Model for Transforming Practice (2001) provided a framework for the exploration of an aesthetic project of quilting, which was undertaken in order to explain the death journey for a cherished mentor of American Indian nursing students. In particular, the nursing situation was used to guide the making of the quilt sampler. Aesthetics nested into the teaching-learning process became another way to help students solidify their professional self-identity as caring persons. This research has implications for the intentional development of studying quilting as an aesthetic way to express valuable lessons learned while caring for patients and telling stories. This idea of quilting opens up a line of enquiry into caring that can be expressed through a new and creative medium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Exploring sexual risk taking among American Indian adolescents through protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Rachel; Tingey, Lauren; Mullany, Britta; Parker, Sean; Lee, Angelita; Barlow, Allison

    2016-09-01

    This paper examines decision-making around sexual behavior among reservation-based American Indian youth. Focus group discussions were conducted with youth ages 13-19 years old. Through these discussions, we explored youth's knowledge, attitudes and behaviors related to sexual risk taking through the lens of the protection motivation theory to inform the adaptation of an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention. Findings suggest that condom use self-efficacy and HIV prevention knowledge is low, vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections is lacking and alcohol plays a significant role in sexual risk taking in this population. In addition, parental monitoring and peer influence may contribute to or protect against sexual risk taking. Results suggest that future HIV prevention interventions should be delivered to gender-specific peer groups, include a parental component, teach sexual health education and communication skills, integrate substance-use prevention, and work to remove stigma around obtaining and using condoms.

  4. The prostitution and trafficking of American Indian/Alaska Native women in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Melissa; Deer, Sarah; Golding, Jacqueline M; Matthews, Nicole; Lopez, Guadalupe; Stark, Christine; Hudon, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    We examined social and physical violence experienced by American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women in prostitution and their impacts on the mental and physical health of 105 women (81% Anishinaabe, mean age = 35 years) recruited through service agencies in three Minnesota cities. In childhood, abuse, foster care, arrests, and prostitution were typical. Homelessness, rape, assault, racism, and pimping were common. The women's most prevalent physical symptoms included muscle pain, impaired memory or concentration, and headaches. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociation were common, with more severe psychological symptoms associated with worse health. Most of the women wanted to leave prostitution and they most often identified counseling and peer support as necessary to accomplish this. Most saw colonization and prostitution of AI/AN women as connected.

  5. Obesity, appearance, and psychosocial adaptation in young African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Hyman, Deborah; Schlundt, David G; Herman-Wenderoth, Leanna; Bozylinski, Khristine

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the contributions of weight status, skin tone, peer teasing, and parental appraisals of child's size to self-esteem and psychosocial adjustment in overweight African American children. Overweight to very obese 5- to 10-year-old African American children (N = 117) completed measures of self-esteem, skin tone satisfaction, peer teasing, and body size perception. Caregivers completed the Child Behavior Checklist and rated their child's body size. Overweight was associated with low appearance self-esteem, and body size dissatisfaction with low global self-worth and low appearance self-esteem in children 8 and older. Appearance self-esteem but not global self-worth was lower in girls than boys. Parental perception of child's size as heavier than average was associated with low child appearance self-esteem. Heavier children also had more parental report of behavior and psychosocial problems, but their scores were in the nonclinical range. Child skin tone dissatisfaction was associated with low global self-worth. Weight-related peer teasing was associated with low self-esteem. The relationship between obesity and self-esteem in African American children depends upon age, gender, and children's experiences with teasing and parental evaluation of their size. Other factors, like skin tone satisfaction, contribute to a child's sense of self-worth.

  6. Disparities in Smoking-Related Mortality Among American Indians/Alaska Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowery, Paul D; Dube, Shanta R; Thorne, Stacy L; Garrett, Bridgette E; Homa, David M; Nez Henderson, Patricia

    2015-11-01

    Smoking-related disparities continue to be a public health problem among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) population groups and data documenting the health burden of smoking in this population are sparse. The purpose of this study was to assess mortality attributable to cigarette smoking among AI/AN adults relative to non-Hispanic white adults (whites) by calculating and comparing smoking-attributable fractions and mortality. Smoking-attributable fractions and mortality among AI/ANs (n=1.63 million AI/ANs) and whites were calculated for people living in 637 Indian Health Service Contract Health Service Delivery Area counties in the U.S., from mortality data collected during 2001-2009. Differences in smoking-attributable mortality between AI/ANs and whites for five major causes of smoking-related deaths were examined. All data analyses were carried out in 2013-2014. Overall, from 2001 to 2009, age-adjusted death rates, smoking-attributable fractions, and smoking-attributable mortality for all-cause mortality were higher among AI/ANs than among whites for adult men and women aged ≥35 years. Smoking caused 21% of ischemic heart disease, 15% of other heart disease, and 17% of stroke deaths in AI/AN men, compared with 15%, 10%, and 9%, respectively, for white men. Among AI/AN women, smoking caused 18% of ischemic heart disease deaths, 13% of other heart diseases deaths, and 20% of stroke deaths, compared with 9%, 7%, and 10%, respectively, among white women. These findings underscore the need for comprehensive tobacco control and prevention efforts that can effectively reach and impact the AI/AN population to prevent and reduce smoking. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. Barriers and Strategies for Healthy Food Choices among American Indian Tribal College Students: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Jill F; Stastny, Sherri; Brunt, Ardith; Agnew, Wanda

    2018-06-01

    American Indian and Alaskan Native individuals experience disproportionate levels of chronic health conditions such as type 2 diabetes and overweight and obesity that are influenced by dietary patterns and food choices. Understanding factors that influence healthy food choices among tribal college students can enrich education and programs that target dietary intake. To build an understanding of factors that influence healthy food choices among tribal college students at increased risk for college attrition. A nonexperimental cohort design was used for qualitative descriptive analysis. Participants (N=20) were purposively sampled, newly enrolled, academically underprepared tribal college students enrolled in a culturally relevant life skills course at an upper Midwest tribal college between September 2013 and May 2015. Participant demographic characteristics included various tribal affiliations, ages, and number of dependents. Participant responses to qualitative research questions about dietary intake, food choices, self-efficacy for healthy food choices, psychosocial determinants, and barriers to healthy food choices during telephone interviews were used as measures. Qualitative analysis included prestudy identification of researcher bias/assumptions, audiorecording and transcription, initial analysis (coding), secondary analysis (sorting and identifying meaning), and verification (comparative pattern analysis). Qualitative analysis revealed a variety of themes and subthemes about healthy food choices. Main themes related to barriers included taste, food gathering and preparation, and difficulty clarifying healthy food choices. Main themes related to strategies included taste, cultural traditions and practices, and personal motivation factors. Qualitative analysis identified barrier and strategy themes that may assist nutrition and dietetics practitioners working with tribal/indigenous communities, tribal college educators and health specialists, and tribal

  8. A longitudinal study of structural risk factors for obesity and diabetes among American Indian young adults, 1994-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Tennille L; Metzger, Molly W

    2015-05-07

    American Indian young adults have higher rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes than the general US population. They are also more likely than the general population to have higher rates of structural risk factors for obesity and diabetes, such as poverty, frequent changes of residence, and stress. The objective of this study was to investigate possible links between these 2 sets of problems. Data from the American Indian subsample of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) were used to examine potential links between obesity and type 2 diabetes and structural risk factors such as neighborhood poverty, housing mobility, and stress. We used logistic regression to explore explanatory factors. American Indians in the subsample had higher rates of poor health, such as elevated hemoglobin A1c levels, self-reported high blood glucose, self-reported diabetes, and overweight or obesity. They also had higher rates of structural risk factors than non-Hispanic whites, such as residing in poorer and more transient neighborhoods and having greater levels of stress. Self-reported stress partially mediated the increased likelihood of high blood glucose or diabetes among American Indians, whereas neighborhood poverty partially mediated their increased likelihood of obesity. Neighborhood poverty and stress may partially explain the higher rates of overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes among American Indian young adults than among non-Hispanic white young adults. Future research should explore additional neighborhood factors such as access to grocery stores selling healthy foods, proximity and safety of playgrounds or other recreational space, and adequate housing.

  9. "The red man and the white plague": rethinking race, tuberculosis, and American Indians, ca. 1890-1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Christian W

    2008-01-01

    From the time it emerged as an epidemic in the last decades of the nineteenth century until it had become their number-one health problem in the 1950s, multiple explanations for the etiology of tuberculosis (TB) among American Indians competed for prominence. None was more debated than racial susceptibility-and none held on with such tenacity. Various race-based explanations -Indians' inherent racial susceptibility, virgin soil theory, and degree of Indian blood-had great explanatory power. These explanations faded from view by the 1950s as a result of epidemiological research begun in the 1930s-research that for the first time filled in many of the pieces of the Indian TB puzzle and allowed TB specialists to know the unknown: who and where the disease struck and why. Combining case finding, X rays, sputum tests-all the modern methods of tracking a TB epidemic-the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) was finally able to understand the Indian TB epidemic. But they also wanted to control it. To this end, the BIA and the Phipps Institute, under the direction of Esmond Long and Joseph Aronson, joined together to begin the first controlled trial of the BCG vaccine.

  10. Prevalence of astigmatism in Native American infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Erin M; Dobson, Velma; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E; Green, Tina K; Messer, Dawn H; Miller, Joseph M

    2010-06-01

    To describe the prevalence of high astigmatism in infants and young children who are members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. SureSight autorefraction measurements were obtained for 1461 Tohono O'odham children aged 6 months to 8 years. The prevalence of astigmatism >2.00 diopters was 30% in Tohono O'odham children during infancy (6 months to O'odham infants show a high prevalence of astigmatism, which decreases in the second year of life. However, the prevalence of high astigmatism in Tohono O'odham children increases by age 2 to <3 years to a level near that seen in infancy and remains at that level until at least age 8 years. Longitudinal data are needed to determine whether the increase in high astigmatism after infancy occurs in infants who had astigmatism as infants or is due to the development of high astigmatism in children who did not show astigmatism during infancy.

  11. Teacher ratings of ODD symptoms: measurement equivalence across Malaysian Malay, Chinese and Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson

    2014-04-01

    The study examined the measurement equivalence for teacher ratings across Malaysian Malay, Chinese and Indian children. Malaysian teachers completed ratings of the ODD symptoms for 574 Malay, 247 Chinese and 98 Indian children. The results supported the equivalences for the configural, metric, and error variances models, and the equivalences for ODD latent variances and mean scores. Together, these findings suggest good support for measurement and structural equivalences of the ODD symptoms across these ethnic groups. The theoretical and clinical implications of the findings for cross-cultural equivalence of the ODD symptoms are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Lead poisoning among Arab American and African American children in the Detroit metropolitan area, Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nriagu, Jerome; Senthamarai-Kannan, Raghavendra; Jamil, Hikmet; Fakhori, Monty; Korponic, Summer

    2011-09-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that acculturation is a risk factor for childhood lead poisoning in the Detroit area of Michigan. Blood lead levels (BLLs) were determined in 429 Arab American and African American children, aged 6 months to 15 years, who were receiving well-child examination in three Women, Infant, and Children (WIC) clinics in the city. Mean BLL was 3.8 ± 2.3 μg/dL (range: 1-18 μg/dL) and 3.3% of the children tested had blood lead values above the 10 μg/dL level of concern. Neither the age of the dwelling units nor ethnicity of the child was significantly associated with the BLL. Multivariable analyses instead identified a number of acculturation-related factors that are associated with elevation in blood lead including paternal education, language spoken at home (English only, English and Arabic, or Arabic only), home ownership, smoking in the home, and exposure of child to home health remedies. The difference in blood lead between Arab American children from families where Arabic only versus Arabic and English is spoken at home was found to be statistically significant. This study provides information showing that immigrant children are at heightened risk of being poisoned by lead which can be useful in identifying groups at risk of atypical exposures.

  13. Work, worksites, and wellbeing among North American Indian women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Karina; Gadhoke, Preety; Pardilla, Marla; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2017-04-10

    The purpose of this study was to understand what factors influenced work-family balance and related health behaviors among a sample of rural North American Indian women. We interviewed 89 women through both in-depth interviews and focus groups across four tribal communities in the American Southwest and Upper Midwest between July 2010 and August 2011. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed for emerging themes related to work- family demands placed on women and resources available to cope with those demands. Three prominent themes emerged: structural characteristics (the context of rural reservation life), role stressors (women's multiple and conflicting roles) and the influence of social support (communal nature of care in the family and institutional support in the workplace). We found that women in participating rural reservation communities often acted as primary caregivers for both immediate and extended family, and often placed the needs of others before themselves. The context of rural reservations, with high rates of unemployment, poverty, and chronic illnesses associated with the collective trauma of colonization, placed high demands on female caregivers. Social support from within the workplace, family, and cultural traditions helped some female caregivers balance the demands of home and work. Tribal worksites could be a resource for promoting health and work-life balance by being responsive to the particular demands placed on women that often interfere with engaging in positive health behaviors in general and tribal wellness programs in particular.

  14. Indian Ledger Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcoat, George W.

    1990-01-01

    Offers an innovative way to teach mid-nineteenth century North American Indian history by having students create their own Indian Ledger art. Purposes of the project are: to understand the role played by American Indians, to reveal American Indian stereotypes, and to identify relationships between cultures and environments. Background and…

  15. 76 FR 3120 - Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students; Overview Information; Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program...

  16. Assessment of Mammography Experiences and Satisfaction among American Indian/Alaska Native Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndikum-Moffor, Florence M.; Braiuca, Stacy; Daley, Christine Makosky; Gajewski, Byron J.; Engelman, Kimberly K.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women have lower breast cancer (BCA) screening and 5-year survival rates than non-Hispanic Whites. Understanding reasons for low screening rates is important to combat later stage diagnoses. The purpose of this study was to assess mammography experiences and satisfaction among AI/AN women. METHODS Nine focus groups were held with rural (N=15) and urban (N=38) AI/AN women 40 years and older in Kansas and Kansas City, Missouri, living both near and far from Indian Health Service (IHS) and tribal facilities, to examine experiences and satisfaction with mammography. Transcripts were coded and themes identified using a community-based participatory research approach. FINDINGS Themes were classified under knowledge, communication, and awareness of breast cancer, barriers to mammography, mammogram facility size, impressions of mammogram technologist, motivations to getting a mammogram, and how to improve the mammogram experience. Participants had knowledge of prevention, but described cultural reasons for not discussing it and described better experiences in smaller facilities. Participants indicated having a mammogram technologist who was friendly, knowledgeable, respectful, competent, and explained the test was a determining factor in satisfaction. Other factors included family history, physician recommendation, and financial incentives. Barriers included transportation, cost, perceptions of prejudice, and time constraints. Participants on reservations or near IHS facilities preferred IHS over mainstream providers. Suggestions for improvement included caring technologists, better machines with less discomfort, and education. CONCLUSIONS Interventions to enhance the professionalism, empathy, and cultural awareness of mammogram technologists, reduce barriers, and provide positive expectations and incentives could improve satisfaction and compliance with screening mammography. PMID:24183414

  17. Disparities in Infectious Disease Hospitalizations for American Indian/Alaska Native People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Robert C.; Folkema, Arianne M.; Singleton, Rosalyn J.; Redd, John T.; Christensen, Krista Y.; Steiner, Claudia A.; Schonberger, Lawrence B.; Hennessy, Thomas W.; Cheek, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We described disparities in infectious disease (ID) hospitalizations for American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) people. Methods We analyzed hospitalizations with an ID listed as the first discharge diagnosis in 1998–2006 for AI/AN people from the Indian Health Service National Patient Information Reporting System and compared them with records for the general U.S. population from the Nationwide Inpatient Survey. Results The ID hospitalization rate for AI/AN people declined during the study period. The 2004–2006 mean annual age-adjusted ID hospitalization rate for AI/AN people (1,708 per 100,000 populiation) was slightly higher than that for the U.S. population (1,610 per 100,000 population). The rate for AI/AN people was highest in the Southwest (2,314 per 100,000 population), Alaska (2,063 per 100,000 population), and Northern Plains West (1,957 per 100,000 population) regions, and among infants (9,315 per 100,000 population). ID hospitalizations accounted for approximately 22% of all AI/AN hospitalizations. Lower-respiratory--tract infections accounted for the largest proportion of ID hospitalizations among AI/AN people (35%) followed by skin and soft tissue infections (19%), and infections of the kidney, urinary tract, and bladder (11%). Conclusions Although the ID hospitalization rate for AI/AN people has declined, it remains higher than that for the U.S. general population, and is highest in the Southwest, Northern Plains West, and Alaska regions. Lower-respiratory-tract infections; skin and soft tissue infections; and kidney, urinary tract, and bladder infections contributed most to these health disparities. Future prevention strategies should focus on high-risk regions and age groups, along with illnesses contributing to health disparities. PMID:21800745

  18. Selecting SNPs informative for African, American Indian and European Ancestry: application to the Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert C; Elston, Robert C; Kumar, Pankaj; Knowler, William C; Abboud, Hanna E; Adler, Sharon; Bowden, Donald W; Divers, Jasmin; Freedman, Barry I; Igo, Robert P; Ipp, Eli; Iyengar, Sudha K; Kimmel, Paul L; Klag, Michael J; Kohn, Orly; Langefeld, Carl D; Leehey, David J; Nelson, Robert G; Nicholas, Susanne B; Pahl, Madeleine V; Parekh, Rulan S; Rotter, Jerome I; Schelling, Jeffrey R; Sedor, John R; Shah, Vallabh O; Smith, Michael W; Taylor, Kent D; Thameem, Farook; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Winkler, Cheryl A; Guo, Xiuqing; Zager, Phillip; Hanson, Robert L

    2016-05-04

    The presence of population structure in a sample may confound the search for important genetic loci associated with disease. Our four samples in the Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND), European Americans, Mexican Americans, African Americans, and American Indians are part of a genome- wide association study in which population structure might be particularly important. We therefore decided to study in detail one component of this, individual genetic ancestry (IGA). From SNPs present on the Affymetrix 6.0 Human SNP array, we identified 3 sets of ancestry informative markers (AIMs), each maximized for the information in one the three contrasts among ancestral populations: Europeans (HAPMAP, CEU), Africans (HAPMAP, YRI and LWK), and Native Americans (full heritage Pima Indians). We estimate IGA and present an algorithm for their standard errors, compare IGA to principal components, emphasize the importance of balancing information in the ancestry informative markers (AIMs), and test the association of IGA with diabetic nephropathy in the combined sample. A fixed parental allele maximum likelihood algorithm was applied to the FIND to estimate IGA in four samples: 869 American Indians; 1385 African Americans; 1451 Mexican Americans; and 826 European Americans. When the information in the AIMs is unbalanced, the estimates are incorrect with large error. Individual genetic admixture is highly correlated with principle components for capturing population structure. It takes ~700 SNPs to reduce the average standard error of individual admixture below 0.01. When the samples are combined, the resulting population structure creates associations between IGA and diabetic nephropathy. The identified set of AIMs, which include American Indian parental allele frequencies, may be particularly useful for estimating genetic admixture in populations from the Americas. Failure to balance information in maximum likelihood, poly-ancestry models creates biased

  19. Cross-cultural differences in beliefs and practices that affect the language spoken to children: mothers with Indian and Western heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Noreen; Johnston, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists often advise families about interaction patterns that will facilitate language learning. This advice is typically based on research with North American families of European heritage and may not be culturally suited for non-Western families. The goal of the project was to identify differences in the beliefs and practices of Indian and Euro-Canadian mothers that would affect patterns of talk to children. A total of 47 Indian mothers and 51 Euro-Canadian mothers of preschool age children completed a written survey concerning child-rearing practices and beliefs, especially those about talk to children. Discriminant analyses indicated clear cross-cultural differences and produced functions that could predict group membership with a 96% accuracy rate. Items contributing most to these functions concerned the importance of family, perceptions of language learning, children's use of language in family and society, and interactions surrounding text. Speech-language pathologists who wish to adapt their services for families of Indian heritage should remember the centrality of the family, the likelihood that there will be less emphasis on early independence and achievement, and the preference for direct instruction.

  20. 76 FR 80347 - Applications for New Awards; Indian Education-Demonstration Grants for Indian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... entry into school at the kindergarten school level. Absolute Priority Two College preparatory programs... matters, including math and science, to enable Indian students to transition successfully to postsecondary.... The actual level of funding, if any, depends on final congressional action. However, we are inviting...

  1. 77 FR 75420 - Applications for New Awards; Indian Education-Demonstration Grants for Indian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ... entry into school at the kindergarten school level. Absolute Priority Two College preparatory programs... matters, including math and science, to enable Indian students to transition successfully to postsecondary... program for FY 2013. The actual level of funding, if any, depends on final congressional action. However...

  2. Hunger and Nutrition Problems among American Indians: A Case Study of North Dakota. Hearing before the Select Committee on Hunger. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (New Town, North Dakota, July 10, 1987).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Hunger.

    This document reports the oral and written testimony of 14 witnesses who discussed general health and nutrition problems among American Indians and focused on the high incidence of diabetes among North Dakota Indians. Diabetes was relatively rare among American Indians before 1940. Nearly one in three members of The Three Affiliated Tribes aged 40…

  3. [National Congress of American Indians]: Final 1985-1986 progress report, March 1, 1986-October 7, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This quarterly report summarizes the activities of the National Congress of American Indians NCAI Fund program to disseminate information and provide technical assistance to American Indian governments regarding nuclear waste management, site selection and transportation issues. The report covers the grant period March 1, 1986, to October 7, 1986, which includes the no-cost extension granted in March of 1986 and the grant amendment for July 3 to October 3, 1986. During this period, the project held three national meetings of the National Indian Nuclear Waste Policy Committee (NINWPC); monitored the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) program and congressional activity and provided information to the tribes; published five issues of the Sentinel/Bulletin - NCAI News, which included a number of articles on nuclear waste; provided informational mailings to the NINWPC representatives; attended and coordinated meetings between the tribes, Department of Energy (DOE), Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Sandia National Laboratories; and provided speakers to conferences and groups

  4. Assessment of elder mistreatment in two American Indian samples: psychometric characteristics of the HS-EAST and the Native Elder Life-Financial Exploitation and -Neglect measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jervis, Lori L; Fickenscher, Alexandra; Beals, Janette

    2014-04-01

    Although elder mistreatment among ethnic minorities is increasingly gaining attention, our empirical knowledge of this phenomenon among American Indians remains quite limited, especially with respect to measurement. The Shielding American Indian Elders (SAIE) Project used a collaborative approach to explore culturally informed measurement of elder mistreatment in two American Indian elder samples (a Northern Plains reservation and a South Central metropolitan area). The project sought to investigate the performance characteristics of the commonly used Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test (HS-EAST), as well as to examine the psychometric properties of a new measure developed to capture culturally salient aspects of mistreatment in American Indian contexts--the Native Elder Life Scale (NELS). Using methods and samples comparable to those in the literature, the HS-EAST performed adequately in these Native samples. The NELS also shows promise for use with this population and assesses different aspects of elder mistreatment than does the HS-EAST.

  5. Language Practices and Attitudes of Australian Children of Indian Descent in a Primary Education Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissoonauth, Anu

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigated linguistic practices and choices of Australian children of Indian descent, an under-researched group, who are studying Hindi in primary education. Data was collected using a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews with sixty participants across 3 primary schools in the Sydney area. The findings revealed, as expected,…

  6. Preference for Social Support by Indian Street Children and Adolescents in Stressful Life Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anubha; Verma, Suman

    This study had three aims: (1) to identify stressful situations faced by Indian children and adolescents working on the streets; (2) to study their preference for social support when faced with stress; and (3) to identify gender differences in social support preferences. One hundred 8- to 18-year-olds, working as beggars, vendors, or ragpickers,…

  7. Effects of Recurrent Otitis Media on Language, Speech, and Educational Achievement in Menominee Indian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielke, Helen M.; Shriberg, Lawrence D.

    1990-01-01

    Among 28 monolingual English-speaking Menominee Indian children, a history of otitis media was associated with significantly lower scores on measures of language comprehension and speech perception and production at ages 3-5, and on school standardized tests 2 years later. Contains 38 references. (SV)

  8. What counts as a choice? U.S. Americans are more likely than Indians to construe actions as choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savani, Krishna; Markus, Hazel Rose; Naidu, N V R; Kumar, Satishchandra; Berlia, Neha

    2010-03-01

    People everywhere select among multiple alternatives, but are they always making choices? In five studies, we found that people in U.S. American contexts, where the disjoint model of agency is prevalent, are more likely than those in Indian contexts to construe their own and other individuals' behaviors as choices, to construe ongoing behaviors and behaviors recalled from memory as choices, to construe naturally occurring and experimentally controlled behaviors as choices, to construe mundane and important actions as choices, and to construe personal and interpersonal actions as choices. Indians showed a greater tendency to construe actions as choices when these actions involved responding to other people than when they did not. These findings show that whether people construe actions as choices is significantly shaped by sociocultural systems of meanings and practices. Together, they suggest that the positive consequences associated with maximizing the availability of personal choice may not be universal and instead may be limited to North American contexts.

  9. Socialization of Culture and Coping with Discrimination Among American Indian Families: Examining Cultural Correlates of Youth Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Miwa; Dishion, Thomas J; Stormshak, Elizabeth; Ball, Alison

    2015-01-01

    The current study examines the interrelations between observed parental cultural socialization and socialization of coping with discrimination, and youth outcomes among a sample of 92 American Indian adolescents and their parents in a rural reservation. Path analysis is used to examine the relationships among observed parental socialization (cultural socialization and socialization of coping with discrimination), and youth-reported perceived discrimination, ethnic identity and depression. Findings reveal that higher levels of observed parental cultural socialization and socialization of coping with discrimination predict lower levels of depression as reported by youth 1 year later. Path analyses also show that observed parental cultural socialization and socialization of coping with discrimination are positively associated with youth ethnic identity. These findings point to the importance of integrating familial socialization of culture and coping with discrimination in fostering resilience among American Indian youth.

  10. Conduct disorder, war zone stress, and war-related posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in American Indian Vietnam veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, Denise; Jacobsen, Clemma; Ramsey, Scott; Manson, Spero

    2007-02-01

    This study examined whether conduct disorder (CD) was associated with war zone stress and war-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in American Indian (AI) Vietnam veterans. Cross-sectional lay-interview data was analyzed for 591 male participants from the American Indian Vietnam Veterans Project. Logistic regression evaluated the association of CD with odds of high war zone stress and linear regression evaluated the association of CD and PTSD symptom severity. Childhood CD was not associated with increased odds of high war zone stress. Conduct disorder was associated with elevated war-related PTSD symptoms among male AI Vietnam Veterans independent of war zone stress level and other mediators. Future efforts should examine reasons for this association and if the association exists in other AI populations.

  11. Access to Digital Communication Technology and Perceptions of Telemedicine for Patient Education among American Indian Patients with Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Kathleen; Leafman, Joan S; Horton, Mark B

    2017-01-01

    Health care access for medically underserved patients managing chronic conditions is challenging. While telemedicine can support patient education and engagement, the "digital divide" may be particularly problematic among the medically underserved. This study evaluated physical access to digital devices, use of e-mail and social media tools, and perceptions of telemedicine among American Indian (AI) patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Survey data were collected from AI patients with DM during teleophthalmology exams. Eighty-eight percent of patients had access to digital device(s), 70% used e-mail, and 56% used social media. Younger age and greater education were positively associated with e-mail and social media use (p < .05). Most (60%) considered telemedicine an excellent medium for health-related patient education. American Indian patients with DM had access enabling patient education via telemedicine. Future work should examine patient technology preferences and effectiveness of technology-based education in improving outcomes among medically underserved populations.

  12. Improving Health Promotion to American Indians in the Midwest United States: Preferred Sources of Health Information and Its Use for the Medical Encounter

    OpenAIRE

    Geana, Mugur V.; Greiner, K. Allen; Cully, Angelia; Talawyma, Myrietta; Daley, Christine Makosky

    2012-01-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives suffer significant health disparities for many infectious and chronic diseases as compared to the general population. Providing accurate and culturally tailored health information to underserved groups has been shown to influence health behaviors and health outcomes. Little prior research has explored American Indians health information use and preferences. National representative sample surveys such as the Health Information National Trends Survey provide ...

  13. The Relationship Between Pregnancy Prevention and STI/HIV Prevention and Sexual Risk Behavior Among American Indian Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, Elizabeth; FourStar, Kristofer; Anastario, Michael P

    2017-01-01

    We examined the relationship between American Indian men's attitudes toward pregnancy prevention, STI/HIV prevention, and sexual risk behavior. Attention was given to: (1) attitudes and intentions to use condoms and sexual risk behavior; (2) STI/HIV prevention characteristics and sexual risk behavior; (3) attitudes toward abstinence and monogamy and sexual risk behavior; and (4) decision-making in relationships and sexual risk behavior. Our sample included 120 heterosexual American Indian men aged 18 to 24 living on a reservation. Data were collected during in-depth interviews. A community-based participatory research framework was used to ensure the relevancy and acceptability of the study given the sensitivity of the topic. Results demonstrated that attitudinal factors were associated with sexual risk behavior, particularly inconsistent condom use. Attitudes associated with consistent condom use suggested greater levels of positive dispositions toward prevention and intention to use condoms. Consistent condom use was associated with more cautious attitudes toward sex with multiple sex partners. Study results suggested that American Indian men who reported sex with multiple partners exhibited a set of attitudes and beliefs toward pregnancy prevention and STI/HIV prevention that corresponded with a disposition resulting from their behaviors, in that engaging in sexual risk behavior elevated their levels of risk perception. Our findings suggest that heterosexual American Indian men living in rural environments need sexual and reproductive health programs and clinical services that address differing attitudes toward condom use within the context of multiple sex partners and sexual risk behavior. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  14. Older American Indians' Perspectives on Health, Arthritis, and Physical Activity: Implications for Adapting Evidence-Based Interventions, Oregon, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Kathleen P; Schure, Marc B; Goins, R Turner

    2016-06-23

    Despite the high prevalence of arthritis and physical disability among older American Indians, few evidence-based interventions that improve arthritis self-management via physical activity have been adapted for use in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify beliefs about health, arthritis, and physical activity among older American Indians living in a rural area in Oregon to help select and adapt an arthritis self-management program. In partnership with a tribal health program, we conducted surveys, a focus group, and individual interviews with older American Indians with arthritis. Our sample comprised 6 focus group participants and 18 interviewees. The 24 participants were aged 48 to 82 years, of whom 67% were women. Forms B and C of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) instrument, modified for arthritis, measured MHLC. The concepts of health, arthritis, and physical activity overlapped in that health was a holistic concept informed by cultural teachings that included living a healthy lifestyle, socializing, and being functionally independent. Arthritis inhibited health and healthy behaviors. Participants identified barriers such as unreliable transportation and recruiting challenges that would make existing interventions challenging to implement in this setting. The Doctor subscale had the highest MHLC (mean = 4.4 [standard deviation (SD), 1.0]), followed by the Internal subscale (3.9 [SD, 1.4]) and the Other People subscale (2.8 [SD, 1.1]). Existing evidence-based programs for arthritis should be adapted to address implementation factors, such as access to transportation, and incorporate cultural values that emphasize holistic wellness and social interconnectedness. Culturally sensitive programs that build on indigenous values and practices to promote active coping strategies for older American Indians with arthritis are needed.

  15. Joint association of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor variants with abdominal obesity in American Indians: the Strong Heart Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun; Yang, Jingyun; Yeh, Fawn; Cole, Shelley A; Haack, Karin; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Zhao, Jinying

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is a strong risk factor for obesity and cardiovascular disease. The effect of genetic variants involved in nicotine metabolism on obesity or body composition has not been well studied. Though many genetic variants have previously been associated with adiposity or body fat distribution, a single variant usually confers a minimal individual risk. The goal of this study is to evaluate the joint association of multiple variants involved in cigarette smoke or nicotine dependence with obesity-related phenotypes in American Indians. To achieve this goal, we genotyped 61 tagSNPs in seven genes encoding nicotine acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in 3,665 American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Family Study. Single SNP association with obesity-related traits was tested using family-based association, adjusting for traditional risk factors including smoking. Joint association of all SNPs in the seven nAChRs genes were examined by gene-family analysis based on weighted truncated product method (TPM). Multiple testing was controlled by false discovery rate (FDR). Results demonstrate that multiple SNPs showed weak individual association with one or more measures of obesity, but none survived correction for multiple testing. However, gene-family analysis revealed significant associations with waist circumference (p = 0.0001) and waist-to-hip ratio (p = 0.0001), but not body mass index (p = 0.20) and percent body fat (p = 0.29), indicating that genetic variants are jointly associated with abdominal, but not general, obesity among American Indians. The observed combined genetic effect is independent of cigarette smoking per se. In conclusion, multiple variants in the nAChR gene family are jointly associated with abdominal obesity in American Indians, independent of general obesity and cigarette smoking per se.

  16. Understanding Informal and Formal Mathematical Abilities in Mainland Chinese and Chinese-American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zheng; Cheng, Christine; Mottram, Lisa; Rosenblum, Stacey

    Informal and formal mathematical abilities were studied in the preschool, kindergarten, and first grade children in Beijing, China and Chinese-American children in New York City. Test of Early Mathematical Abilities-2nd Edition (TEMA-2) was administered to the three groups of children (children from Beijing, Chinese-American from lower-class, and…

  17. Similarity of Deleterious Effects of Divorce on Chinese and American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zheng; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Xin, Tao

    2001-01-01

    Reviews and contrasts the effects of divorce on Chinese children's adjustment to American children of divorce. Results indicate that the deleterious effects of divorce on children's academic and social functioning appear to be similar to that experienced by American children. (Contains 23 references.) (GCP)

  18. On the Pursuit of Sound Science for the Betterment of the American Indian Community: Reply to Beals et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, Nichea S; Smith, Gregory T

    2009-03-01

    We argue that ongoing criticism of existing theories, the development of alternative theories, and empirical theory tests offer the best chance for advancing American Indian research. We, therefore note our appreciation for Beals et al.'s comments. We nevertheless did disagree with many of Beals et al.'s specific claims, noting that (a) our characterization of the existing literature on reservation-dwelling American Indian drinking was accurate; (b) no argument made by Beals et al. undermines their theoretical contention that there is a relative lack of contingency between access to basic life reinforcers and sobriety on many reservations; (c) our theory was developed in a responsible manner: a reservation-tied American Indian developed the theory, which was reviewed by a reservation leadership team, a cultural consultant, and reviewers for this journal, at least one of whom consulted leaders of other reservations; and (d) our theory was based on previous interdisciplinary theory development. We encourage the development and testing of new, alternative theories.

  19. OPREVENT2: Design of a multi-institutional intervention for obesity control and prevention for American Indian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Gittelsohn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and other nutrition-related chronic disease rates are high in American Indian (AI populations, and an urgent need exists to identify evidence-based strategies for prevention and treatment. Multi-level, multi-component (MLMC interventions are needed, but there are significant knowledge gaps on how to deliver these types of interventions in low-income rural AI communities. Methods OPREVENT2 is a MLMC intervention targeting AI adults living in six rural reservations in New Mexico and Wisconsin. Aiming to prevent and reduce obesity in adults by working at multiple levels of the food and physical activity (PA environments, OPREVENT2 focuses on evidence-based strategies known to increase access to, demand for, and consumption of healthier foods and beverages, and increase worksite and home-based opportunities for PA. OPREVENT2 works to create systems-level change by partnering with tribal stakeholders, multiple levels of the food and PA environment (food stores, worksites, schools, and the social environment (children as change agents, families, social media. Extensive evaluation will be conducted at each level of the intervention to assess effectiveness via process and impact measures. Discussion Novel aspects of OPREVENT2 include: active engagement with stakeholders at many levels (policy, institutional, and at multiple levels of the food and PA system; use of community-based strategies to engage policymakers and other key stakeholders (community workshops, action committees; emphasis on both the built environment (intervening with retail food sources and the social environment. This paper describes the design of the intervention and the evaluation plan of the OPREVENT2. Trial registration Clinical Trial Registration: NCT02803853 (June 10, 2016

  20. Assessing Acceptability of Self-Sampling Kits, Prevalence, and Risk Factors for Human Papillomavirus Infection in American Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winer, Rachel L; Gonzales, Angela A; Noonan, Carolyn J; Cherne, Stephen L; Buchwald, Dedra S

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of self-sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and calculated the prevalence of and risk factors for high-risk (hr) HPV infections in a community-based sample of American Indian women. To this end, we recruited 329 Hopi women aged 21-65 years to self-collect vaginal samples for hrHPV testing. Samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction for 14 hrHPV genotypes. We used Chi square tests to identify correlates of preference for clinician Pap testing versus HPV self-sampling, and age-adjusted Poisson regression to evaluate correlates of hrHPV prevalence. We found that satisfaction with HPV self-sampling was high, with 96 % of women reporting that the sample was easy to collect and 87 % reporting no discomfort. The majority (62 %) indicated that they preferred HPV self-sampling to receiving a Pap test from a clinician. Preference for Pap testing over HPV self-sampling was positively associated with adherence to Pap screening and employment outside the home. All samples evaluated were satisfactory for HPV testing, and 22 % were positive for hrHPV. HrHPV prevalence peaked in the late 20 s and declined with increasing age. HrHPV positivity was inversely associated with having children living the household. In conclusion, HPV self-sampling is feasible and acceptable to Hopi women, and could be effective in increasing rates of cervical cancer screening in Hopi communities. HrHPV prevalence was similar to estimates in the general United States population.

  1. OPREVENT2: Design of a multi-institutional intervention for obesity control and prevention for American Indian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Jock, Brittany; Redmond, Leslie; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Eckmann, Thomas; Bleich, Sara N; Loh, Hong; Ogburn, Elizabeth; Gadhoke, Preety; Swartz, Jacqueline; Pardilla, Marla; Caballero, Benjamin

    2017-01-23

    Obesity and other nutrition-related chronic disease rates are high in American Indian (AI) populations, and an urgent need exists to identify evidence-based strategies for prevention and treatment. Multi-level, multi-component (MLMC) interventions are needed, but there are significant knowledge gaps on how to deliver these types of interventions in low-income rural AI communities. OPREVENT2 is a MLMC intervention targeting AI adults living in six rural reservations in New Mexico and Wisconsin. Aiming to prevent and reduce obesity in adults by working at multiple levels of the food and physical activity (PA) environments, OPREVENT2 focuses on evidence-based strategies known to increase access to, demand for, and consumption of healthier foods and beverages, and increase worksite and home-based opportunities for PA. OPREVENT2 works to create systems-level change by partnering with tribal stakeholders, multiple levels of the food and PA environment (food stores, worksites, schools), and the social environment (children as change agents, families, social media). Extensive evaluation will be conducted at each level of the intervention to assess effectiveness via process and impact measures. Novel aspects of OPREVENT2 include: active engagement with stakeholders at many levels (policy, institutional, and at multiple levels of the food and PA system); use of community-based strategies to engage policymakers and other key stakeholders (community workshops, action committees); emphasis on both the built environment (intervening with retail food sources) and the social environment. This paper describes the design of the intervention and the evaluation plan of the OPREVENT2. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT02803853 (June 10, 2016).

  2. Parenting in 2 Worlds: Effects of a Culturally Adapted Intervention for Urban American Indians on Parenting Skills and Family Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulis, Stephen S.; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Harthun, Mary L.; Jager, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Parenting in 2 Worlds (P2W) is a culturally grounded parenting intervention that addresses the distinctive social and cultural worlds of urban American Indian (AI) families. P2W was culturally adapted through community-based participatory research in three urban AI communities with diverse tribal backgrounds. This paper reports the immediate outcomes of P2W in a randomized controlled trial, utilizing data from 575 parents of AI children (ages 10–17). Parents were assigned to P2W or to the comparison group, an informational family health curriculum, Healthy Families in 2 Worlds (HF2W). Both the P2W and HF2W curricula consisted of 10 workshops delivered weekly by AI community facilitators. Pretests were administered at the first workshop and a post-test at the last workshop. Tests of the efficacy of P2W versus HF2W on parenting skills and family functioning were analyzed with pairwise t-tests, within intervention type, and by baseline adjusted path models using FIML estimation in Mplus. Intervention effect sizes were estimated with Cohen’s d. Participants in P2W reported significant improvements in parental agency, parenting practices, supervision and family cohesion, and decreases in discipline problems and parent-child conflict. Compared to HF2W, P2W participants reported significantly larger increases in parental self-agency and positive parenting practices, and fewer child discipline problems. Most of these desired program effects for P2W approached medium size. Culturally adapted parenting interventions like P2W can effectively strengthen parenting practices and family functioning among urban AI families and help address their widespread need for targeted, culturally grounded programs. PMID:27129476

  3. Is a structured, manualized, evidence-based treatment protocol culturally competent and equivalently effective among American Indian parents in child welfare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Mark; Bard, David; Bigfoot, Dolores Subia; Maher, Erin J

    2012-08-01

    In a statewide implementation, the manualized SafeCare home-based model was effective in reducing child welfare recidivism and producing high client satisfaction. Concerns about the effectiveness and acceptability of structured, manualized models with American Indians have been raised in the literature, but have rarely been directly tested. This study tests recidivism reduction equivalency and acceptability among American Indian parents. A subpopulation of 354 American Indian parents was drawn from a larger trial that compared services with versus without modules of the SafeCare model. Outcomes were 6-year recidivism, pre/post/follow-up measures of depression and child abuse potential, and posttreatment consumer ratings of working alliance, service satisfaction, and cultural competency. Recidivism reduction among American Indian parents was found to be equivalent for cases falling within customary SafeCare inclusion criteria. When extended to cases outside customary inclusion boundaries, there was no apparent recidivism advantage or disadvantage. Contrary to concerns, SafeCare had higher consumer ratings of cultural competency, working alliance, service quality, and service benefit. Findings support using SafeCare with American Indians parents who meet customary SafeCare inclusion criteria. Findings do not support concerns in the literature that a manualized, structured, evidence-based model might be less effective or culturally unacceptable for American Indians.

  4. Reconsidering American Indian historical trauma: lessons from an early Gros Ventre war narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gone, Joseph P

    2014-06-01

    Professional clinicians and human services providers are increasingly attributing the mental health problems of American Indians (AIs) to historical trauma (HT). As an alternative to established psychiatric disorders, AI HT was formulated to explain enduring mental health disparities as originating in tribal experiences of Euro-American colonization. As a result, AI HT has been described as the collective, cumulative, and intergenerational psychosocial disability resulting from massive group-based oppression, such as forced relocation, political subjugation, cultural domination, and genocide. One objective of the HT construct is to frame AI distress and dysfunction in social and historical terms. Given widespread indigenous experiences of colonization, the debilitating effects of HT are presumed to affect most AI communities today. With this background in mind, I explore AI HT with specific reference to a "war narrative" obtained by an anthropologist in 1901 from an elderly Gros Ventre woman. In this account, Watches All described her participation in a historic intertribal battle, and her subsequent captivity and escape from the enemy during the late 1860s. This historical narrative references many first-hand experiences that would today be identified as traumatogenic. Interestingly, however, this account complicates several assumptions underlying AI HT, leading to vexing questions of whether Watches All's ordeal actually qualifies as an instance of AI HT. No matter how one answers these questions, such ambiguity highlights serious theoretical confusions requiring elaboration and refinement if AI HT is to remain a useful construct in the behavioral health sciences. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Sex differences in HDL ApoC-III in American Indian youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blackett Piers R

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since American Indians are predisposed to type 2 diabetes (DM2 and associated cardiovascular risk, Cherokee boys and girls (n = 917 were studied to determine whether BMI Z (body mass index Z score is associated with the apoC-III (apolipoprotein C-III content of HDL (high density lipoprotein, a previously reported predictor of DM2. Methods An ad hoc cross-sectional analysis was conducted on a previously studied cohort. Participants were grouped by gender-specific age groups (5 to 9, 10 to 14 and 15 to 19 years. ApoA-I (apolipoprotein A-I and HDL apoC-III were assayed by electroimmunoassay. ApoC-III was measured in whole plasma, and in HDL to determine the molar proportion to apoA-I. General linear models were used to assess association. Results The HDL apoC-III to apoA-I molar ratio increased by BMI Z quartile in girls aged 10–14 years (p  Conclusions ApoC-III showed an obesity-related increase relative to apoA-I during adolescence beginning in girls aged 10 to 14 years and in boys aged 15 to 19 years. The earlier changes in girls may alter HDL’s protective properties on the β-cell and contribute to their increased risk for DM2.

  6. The HLA polymorphism of two distinctive South-American Indian tribes: the Kaingang and the Guarani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzl-Erler, M L; Luz, R; Sotomaior, V S

    1993-05-01

    The HLA-A, B, C, DR and DQ antigens of 240 Kaingang and 98 Guarani individuals have been characterized. The most frequent antigens found among the Kaingang are A31, 2, 24; B35, 51, 39, 48; Cw4, 7, 3, 1; DR8, 4, 2; DQ blank, 3. In the Guarani, they are A2, 28, 31; B40, 62, "53G"; Cw3, 4; DR2, 4, 8, 6; DQ3, blank. B " 53G" is an unusual antigen of the B5 cross-reactive group. DQ blank possibly corresponds to DQ4, not tested in this study. The reaction patterns of B35, B40 and DR4 indicate intra-tribal (of B35 and B40), and inter-tribal (DR4, B40 and B35) heterogeneity of these antigens. 408 Kaingang and 141 Guarani haplotypes were defined by segregation analysis. Of the commonest 10 Guarani and 9 Kaingang haplotypes, only one is shared by both tribes. Significant, positive linkage disequilibrium values for HLA-A,B; HLA-A,C; HLA-B,DR and most HLA-B,C antigen pairs were also different for the two populations. Genetic distance estimates between these two and another seven South-American Indian populations, and relative to the major human races (negroids, caucasoids, and mongoloids) reveal a comparatively high degree of divergence between the Kaingang and the Guarani, which is uncommon for Amerindian populations living close one to another.

  7. Trauma-related nightmares among American Indian veterans: views from the dream catcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Jay H; Orton, Heather; Manson, Spero M

    2009-01-01

    Dreams hold particular relevance in mental health work with American Indians (AIs). Nightmares are a common sequelae of trauma and a frequent defining feature of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Despite mounting evidence of the prevalence of trauma and PTSD among AIs and the important cultural role of dreams, no work to date has directly examined nightmares in trauma. Drawing from epidemiological and clinical sources, data are presented about nightmares among Northern Plains AI veterans. Nightmares are common among these veterans: 97% of combat veterans with PTSD report nightmares. These rates are higher than rates among other veteran populations. The frequency of nightmares and sleep disturbances increases with trauma and PTSD severity in this population. Qualitative materials, in the form of a brief cultural overview and a case presentation, are included to illustrate clinical and cultural contexts of nightmares in the Northern Plains. Clinicians working with this population should be aw are of the high frequency and cultural context of nightmares for AI veterans. In order to improve culturally appropriate care, further research is needed to better understand the frequency, meaning, and context of nightmares in trauma and PTSD for AI populations.

  8. Identifying Barriers and Pathways to Success for Renewable Energy Development on American Indian Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Necefer, Len Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Jones, Thomas Elisha [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-11-01

    American Indian tribes possess lands rich with renewable energy (RE) resources. Tribes have great potential and need to develop these resources, yet face a host of barriers that continue to impede development. Understanding these challenges as well as the pathways that can be taken to overcome them may facilitate more economic development to meet community needs and better position tribes to play a role in securing a low-carbon energy future for the United States. This paper presents the results of an expert elicitation of 24 tribal energy experts from federal, tribal, academic, and private industry backgrounds to identify barriers and opportunities for federally recognized tribes in the lower 48 states. Experts identified a number of unique challenges facing tribes including financing and funding, infrastructure, tribal leadership and staff, state-level influence, and partnerships. Cultural factors were seen only to be of concern with large-scale development. Tribal sovereignty is a significant motivation for RE development and has yet to be fully realized. Cultural considerations are critical to the success of future projects; smaller residential and community-scale projects may be a better fit. Improving partnerships between tribes and the private sector can increase RE deployment and overcome historical distrust. States can have a double-ended influence on projects within tribal lands through taxation.

  9. Understanding the social and community support networks of American Indian women cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnette, Catherine E; Liddell, Jessica; Roh, Soonhee; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Lee, Hee Yun

    2018-04-02

    Cancer is the leading cause of death among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women, and although cancer disparities among AI women are alarming, there is little research focused on the topic of social support and cancer treatment and outcomes. A community advisory board was used to develop and administer the project, and a qualitative descriptive study methodology was used. This research was conducted in partnership with two community-based hospitals in the Northern Plains. The sample included 43 AI female cancer survivors who were interviewed with a semi-structured interview guide. The data were analyzed using content analysis. Emergent themes revealed that AI cancer survivors' non-familial support systems included friends (n = 12), support groups (n = 6), churches (n = 10), co-workers (n = 5), communities (n = 4), support from health practitioners (n = 3) and additional forms of support. Results indicate that survivors' networks are diverse, and support broad prevention programs that reach out to churches, community groups, and online forums. These sources of supports can be enhanced through sustainable community-based infrastructures.

  10. Female Sterilization and Poor Mental Health: Rates and Relatedness among American Indian and Alaska Native Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cackler, Christina J J; Shapiro, Valerie B; Lahiff, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    To describe the reproductive and mental health of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women, an understudied population. Data from the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey were analyzed to determine the 1) prevalence of female sterilization among a nationally representative sample of reproductive age AI/AN women and 2) the association of female sterilization and poor mental health among AI/AN women compared with non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic women. Nearly 25% of AI/AN women reported female sterilization, a prevalence higher than the comparison racial/ethnic groups (p women reporting female sterilization had nearly 2.5 times the odds of poor mental health compared with AI/AN women not reporting female sterilization (p = .001). The same magnitude of relationship between female sterilization and poor mental health was not found for non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic women. The prevalence of female sterilization is greater among AI/AN women compared with non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic women, and AI/AN women reporting female sterilization have higher odds of reporting poor mental health. Common cultural experiences, such as a shared ancestral history of forced sterilizations, may be relevant, and could be considered when providing reproductive and mental health services to AI/AN women. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessing HPV and Cervical Knowledge, Preference and HPV Status Among Urban American Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cina, Kristin R; Omidpanah, Adam A; Petereit, Daniel G

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate whether or not an educational intervention would lead to a change in knowledge and attitudes about human papillomavirus (HPV), HPV vaccines, and cervical cancer. The HPV status was also investigated for interested participants. We provided HPV and cervical cancer education to urban American Indian (AI) women 18 and older using a pre and post-knowledge exam to assess knowledge and attitudes. Women were also given the option to perform vaginal self-tests for high risk HPV (hrHPV) analysis immediately after the education. Ninety-six women participated in our educational sessions. Improvement in performance on a knowledge exam increased from 61.6 to 84.3 percent. Ninety-three women performed the vaginal self-test with 63.1 percent of women preferring vaginal self-testing over conventional screening methods. Thirty-five out of 91 women (38.5 percent) had hrHPV types with 12 of the 35 harboring multiple hrHPV types (13 percent overall). HPV and cervical cancer education was beneficial for urban AI women with the majority of women preferring vaginal self-testing. HPV self-testing may be a strategy to improve screening rates for cervical cancer. Urban AI women had high rates of hrHPV compared to rural AI populations as reported in previous studies.

  12. Perceptions and Concerns Regarding Diabetes Mellitus During Pregnancy Among American Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, L D; Henderson, J Neil; King, Kama; Kleszynski, Keith; Thompson, David M; Mayer, Patricia

    2014-12-01

    Diabetes among American Indian (AI) people is a. condition that creates excessive morbidity and mortality and is a significant health disparity. This research delineated culturally constructed models of diabetes mellitus (DM) among 97 pregnant women in 2 large AI Nations to Oklahoma. Analysis of data revealed intense anxiety, fear, and dread related to DM during pregnancy. The sample was stratified by DM status: (a) absence of DM ( n = 66), (b) DM prior to pregnancy ( n = 4), and (c) gestational ( n = 27). Structured and semistructured interviews elicited patient culturally based explanatory models (EMs) of etiology, course, and treatment. The research incorporated an integrated phenomenologic and ethnographic approach and yielded both quantitative and qualitative data. General findings comprised the following main categories of patients' concerns regarding DM as an illness: (a) care-seeking behaviors, (b) medical management, (c) adherence and self-management, (d) complications, and (e) the conceptual sense of DM as a "severe" and feared condition. Many findings varied according to acculturation status, but all included significant fear and anxiety surrounding (a) the health and well-being of the unborn child, (b) the use of insulin injections, (c) blindness, (d) amputation, and (e) death, but with (f) a paradoxically lowered anxiety level about diabetes severity overall, while at the same time expressing extreme dread of specific outcomes. The latter finding is considered consistent with the presence of chronic conditions that can usually be managed, yet still having risk if severe.

  13. Fertility change in the American Indian and Alaska Native population, 1980-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cannon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since 1990, Vital Statistics reports show a dramatic decline in the total fertility rates (TFRs of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN women in the United States. Objective: We study whether the decrease in TFRs is due to a real change in fertility for a stable population; a compositional change in who identifies as AI/AN; or a methodological issue stemming from differences in identifying race across the data systems used to calculate fertility rates. Methods: We use data from the decennial US Census to study change in AI/AN fertility from 1980-2010. Results: We find declining TFRs when fertility is calculated within a single data system. Additionally, although TFRs are relatively stable within the subgroups of married and unmarried AI/AN women, the proportion of AI/AN women who are married has declined across birth cohorts. Conclusions: The decrease in TFRs for AI/AN women is a real change in fertility patterns and is not due to differences in racial identification across data systems. Contribution: We update knowledge of AI/AN fertility to include the decline in TFRs between 1980 and 2010.

  14. Traumatic Stress, Social Support, and Health Among Older American Indians: The Native Elder Care Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehee, Melissa; Buchwald, Dedra; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Omidpanah, Adam; Manson, Spero M; Goins, R Turner

    2017-01-03

    To estimate the prevalence of lifetime traumatic experiences, describe related symptoms of traumatic stress, and examine their association with perceived social support and physical and mental health among older American Indians. Analyses of existing interview data from the Native Elder Care Study, a random age-stratified sample of 505 tribal members ≥55 years of age conducted in partnership with a large Southeastern tribe. Interviews assessed trauma exposure, traumatic stress, measures of social support, and physical and mental health status. Overall, 31% of participants had experienced a traumatic event; of these, 43% reported traumatic stress at the time of the interview. Higher perceived social support was associated with a reduced prevalence of traumatic stress. Compared to their counterparts without traumatic stress, women participants reporting traumatic stress reported more symptoms of depression, and both symptomatic men and women had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease and chronic pain. Traumatic stress was associated with less perceived social support and poorer health. Social support was not found to moderate the relationship between traumatic stress and physical and mental health. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Resilience in American Indian and Alaska Native Public Health: An Underexplored Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel-Shone, Nicolette I; Tippens, Julie A; McCrary, Hilary C; Ehiri, John E; Sanderson, Priscilla R

    2018-02-01

    To conduct a systematic literature review to assess the conceptualization, application, and measurement of resilience in American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) health promotion. We searched 9 literature databases to document how resilience is discussed, fostered, and evaluated in studies of AIAN health promotion in the United States. The article had to (1) be in English; (2) peer reviewed, published from January 1, 1980, to July 31, 2015; (3) identify the target population as predominantly AIANs in the United States; (4) describe a nonclinical intervention or original research that identified resilience as an outcome or resource; and (5) discuss resilience as related to cultural, social, and/or collective strengths. Sixty full texts were retrieved and assessed for inclusion by 3 reviewers. Data were extracted by 2 reviewers and verified for relevance to inclusion criteria by the third reviewer. Attributes of resilience that appeared repeatedly in the literature were identified. Findings were categorized across the lifespan (age group of participants), divided by attributes, and further defined by specific domains within each attribute. Nine articles (8 studies) met the criteria. Currently, resilience research in AIAN populations is limited to the identification of attributes and pilot interventions focused on individual resilience. Resilience models are not used to guide health promotion programming; collective resilience is not explored. Attributes of AIAN resilience should be considered in the development of health interventions. Attention to collective resilience is recommended to leverage existing assets in AIAN communities.

  16. Using Storytelling to Address Oral Health Knowledge in American Indian and Alaska Native Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Brenda; Gebel, Christina; Crawford, Andrew; Barker, Judith C; Henshaw, Michelle; Garcia, Raul I; Riedy, Christine; Wimsatt, Maureen A

    2018-05-24

    We conducted a qualitative analysis to evaluate the acceptability of using storytelling as a way to communicate oral health messages regarding early childhood caries (ECC) prevention in the American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) population. A traditional story was developed and pilot tested among AIAN mothers residing in 3 tribal locations in northern California. Evaluations of the story content and acceptability followed a multistep process consisting of initial feedback from 4 key informants, a focus group of 7 AIAN mothers, and feedback from the Community Advisory Board. Upon story approval, 9 additional focus group sessions (N = 53 participants) were held with AIAN mothers following an oral telling of the story. Participants reported that the story was culturally appropriate and used relatable characters. Messages about oral health were considered to be valuable. Concerns arose about the oral-only delivery of the story, story content, length, story messages that conflicted with normative community values, and the intent to target audiences. Feedback by focus group participants raised some doubts about the relevance and frequency of storytelling in AIAN communities today. AIAN communities value the need for oral health messaging for community members. However, the acceptability of storytelling as a method for the messaging raises concerns, because the influence of modern technology and digital communications may weaken the acceptability of the oral tradition. Careful attention must be made to the delivery mode, content, and targeting with continual iterative feedback from community members to make these messages engaging, appropriate, relatable, and inclusive.

  17. Barriers to and Facilitators of South Asian Indian-Americans' Engagement in Advanced Care Planning Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Kavita; Saxena, Shubhada; Jillapalli, Regina; Jang, Yuri; Kim, Miyong

    2017-05-01

    To identify barriers to and facilitators of older South Asian Indian-Americans' (SAIAs') engagement in behaviors associated with advance care planning (ACP). Using a descriptive qualitative design guided by the transcultural nursing assessment model, data were collected in focus groups of community-dwelling older SAIA participants, SAIA family caregivers, and SAIA physicians. A directed approach using predetermined coding categories derived from the Transcultural Nursing Assessment model and aided by NVivo 10 software (Melbourne, Australia) facilitated the qualitative data analysis. Eleven focus groups with 36 older SAIAs (61% female, 83% 70+ years old), 10 SAIA family caregivers, and 4 SAIA physicians indicated prior lack of awareness of ACP, good health status, lack of access to linguistically and health literacy-tailored materials, healthcare provider hesitation to initiate discussions on ACP, trust in healthcare providers' or oldest sons' decision making, busy family caregiver work routines, and cultural assumptions about filial piety and after-death rituals as major barriers to engaging in ACP. Introducing ACP using personal anecdotes in a neutral, group-based community setting and incentivizing ACP discussions by including long-term care planning were suggested as facilitators to engage in ACP. The study's findings will guide development of culturally sensitive interventions to raise awareness about ACP among SAIAs and encourage SAIA older adults to engage in ACP. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  18. Obesity, Diabetes, and Birth Outcomes Among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kermyt G; Spicer, Paul; Peercy, Michael T

    2016-12-01

    Objectives To examine the relationships between prepregnancy diabetes mellitus (DM), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and prepregnancy body mass index, with several adverse birth outcomes: preterm delivery (PTB), low birthweight (LBW), and macrosomia, comparing American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) with other race/ethnic groups. Methods The sample includes 5,193,386 singleton US first births from 2009-2013. Logistic regression is used to calculate adjusted odds ratios controlling for calendar year, maternal age, education, marital status, Kotelchuck prenatal care index, and child's sex. Results AI/AN have higher rates of diabetes than all other groups, and higher rates of overweight and obesity than whites or Hispanics. Neither overweight nor obesity predict PTB for AI/AN, in contrast to other groups, while diabetes predicts increased odds of PTB for all groups. Being overweight predicts reduced odds of LBW for all groups, but obesity is not predictive of LBW for AI/AN. Diabetes status also does not predict LBW for AI/AN; for other groups, LBW is more likely for women with DM or GDM. Overweight, obesity, DM, and GDM all predict higher odds of macrosomia for all race/ethnic groups. Conclusions for Practice Controlling diabetes in pregnancy, as well as prepregnancy weight gain, may help decrease preterm birth and macrosomia among AI/AN.

  19. Short leukocyte telomere length is associated with obesity in American Indians: the Strong Heart Family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shufeng; Yeh, Fawn; Lin, Jue; Matsuguchi, Tet; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Zhao, Jinying

    2014-05-01

    Shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL) has been associated with a wide range of age-related disorders including cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. Obesity is an important risk factor for CVD and diabetes. The association of LTL with obesity is not well understood. This study for the first time examines the association of LTL with obesity indices including body mass index, waist circumference, percent body fat, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio in 3,256 American Indians (14-93 years old, 60% women) participating in the Strong Heart Family Study. Association of LTL with each adiposity index was examined using multivariate generalized linear mixed model, adjusting for chronological age, sex, study center, education, lifestyle (smoking, alcohol consumption, and total energy intake), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, hypertension and diabetes. Results show that obese participants had significantly shorter LTL than non-obese individuals (age-adjusted P=0.0002). Multivariate analyses demonstrate that LTL was significantly and inversely associated with all of the studied obesity parameters. Our results may shed light on the potential role of biological aging in pathogenesis of obesity and its comorbidities.

  20. Obesity and Associated Health Disparities Among Understudied Multiracial, Pacific Islander, and American Indian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subica, Andrew M; Agarwal, Neha; Sullivan, J Greer; Link, Bruce G

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the state of obesity, diabetes, and associated health disparities among understudied multiracial, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI), and American Indian and Alaskan Native (AIAN) adults. Aggregated data for 184,617 adults from the California Health Interview Survey (2005 to 2011) were analyzed to determine obesity, diabetes, poor/fair health, and physical disability prevalence by racial group. Logistic regressions controlling for age, gender, and key social determinants (education, marital status, poverty, health insurance) generated multiracial, NHOPI, and AIAN adults' odds ratios (ORs) for our targeted health conditions versus non-Hispanic white adults. Obesity, diabetes, and other targeted health conditions were highly prevalent among multiracial, NHOPI, and AIAN adults, who displayed significantly greater adjusted odds than non-Hispanic white adults for obesity (ORs = 1.2-1.9), diabetes (ORs = 1.6-2.4), poor/fair health (ORs = 1.4-1.7), and, with the exception of NHOPI adults, physical disability (ORs = 1.5-1.6). Multiracial and AIAN adults with obesity also had significantly higher adjusted odds of diabetes (OR = 1.5-2.6) than non-Hispanic white adults with obesity. Multiracial, NHOPI, and AIAN adults experience striking obesity-related disparities versus non-Hispanic white adults, urging further disparities research with these vulnerable minority populations. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  1. Cultural macroevolution on neighbor graphs : vertical and horizontal transmission among Western North American Indian societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, Mary C; Grote, Mark N; Venti, Jay; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique

    2012-09-01

    What are the driving forces of cultural macroevolution, the evolution of cultural traits that characterize societies or populations? This question has engaged anthropologists for more than a century, with little consensus regarding the answer. We develop and fit autologistic models, built upon both spatial and linguistic neighbor graphs, for 44 cultural traits of 172 societies in the Western North American Indian (WNAI) database. For each trait, we compare models including or excluding one or both neighbor graphs, and for the majority of traits we find strong evidence in favor of a model which uses both spatial and linguistic neighbors to predict a trait's distribution. Our results run counter to the assertion that cultural trait distributions can be explained largely by the transmission of traits from parent to daughter populations and are thus best analyzed with phylogenies. In contrast, we show that vertical and horizontal transmission pathways can be incorporated in a single model, that both transmission modes may indeed operate on the same trait, and that for most traits in the WNAI database, accounting for only one mode of transmission would result in a loss of information.

  2. Diabetes training for community health workers on an American Indian reservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policicchio, Judith M; Dontje, Katherine

    2018-01-01

    To improve the knowledge and skills of community health workers (CHWs) on an American Indian (AI) Reservation related to the management of diabetes to allow CHWs, with no prior formal diabetes education to work more effectively with individuals in the community with diabetes. Training was provided in six "face-to-face" sessions with the CHWs using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CHW Training Resource on Heart Disease and Stroke. This is a quality improvement program guided by the Model for Improvement: Plan, Do, Study, Act and using a pre-post evaluation design. Ten AI CHWs were recruited for the training. Knowledge and attitudes, participation rates, and participant satisfaction were measured. Knowledge increased overall with largest changes in diabetes, depression and cholesterol. Diabetes attitudes were high and consistent with those found in caregivers who support patient-centered care. Participants reported learning, liking the class, and finding the materials helpful. This QI program provided by a public health nurse improved CHW's knowledge of diabetes and the management of diabetes. Next steps include formalizing the Reservation's CHW training program, expanding this training to other AI Health Service areas, and measuring the impact of CHWs in the community. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Nucleolar localization of cirhin, the protein mutated in North American Indian childhood cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Bin; Mitchell, Grant A.; Richter, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Cirhin (NP 1 16219), the product of the CIRH1A gene is mutated in North American Indian childhood cirrhosis (NAIC/CIRH1A, OMIM 604901), a severe autosomal recessive intrahepatic cholestasis. It is a 686-amino-acid WD40-repeat containing protein of unknown function that is predicted to contain multiple targeting signals, including an N-terminal mitochondrial targeting signal, a C-terminal monopartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a bipartite nuclear localization signal (BNLS). We performed the direct determination of subcellular localization of cirhin as a crucial first step in unraveling its biological function. Using EGFP and His-tagged cirhin fusion proteins expressed in HeLa and HepG2, cells we show that cirhin is a nucleolar protein and that the R565W mutation, for which all NAIC patients are homozygous, has no effect on subcellular localization. Cirhin has an active C-terminal monopartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a unique nucleolar localization signal (NrLS) between residues 315 and 432. The nucleolus is not known to be important specifically for intrahepatic cholestasis. These observations provide a new dimension in the study of hereditary cholestasis

  4. Stress Exposure and Physical, Mental, and Behavioral Health among American Indian Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L. Walls

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available American Indian (AI communities experience disproportionate exposure to stressors and health inequities including type 2 diabetes. Yet, we know little about the role of psychosocial stressors for AI diabetes-related health outcomes. We investigated associations between a range of stressors and psychological, behavioral, and physical health for AIs with diabetes. This community-based participatory research with 5 AI tribes includes 192 AI adult type 2 diabetes patients recruited from clinical records at tribal clinics. Data are from computer-assisted interviews and medical charts. We found consistent bivariate relationships between chronic to discrete stressors and mental and behavioral health outcomes; several remained even after accounting for participant age, gender, and income. Fewer stressors were linked to physical health. We also document a dose–response relationship between stress accumulation and worse health. Findings underscore the importance of considering a broad range of stressors for comprehensive assessment of stress burden and diabetes. Policies and practices aimed at reducing stress exposure and promoting tools for stress management may be mechanisms for optimal health for AI diabetes patients.

  5. Stress Exposure and Physical, Mental, and Behavioral Health among American Indian Adults with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Melissa L; Sittner, Kelley J; Aronson, Benjamin D; Forsberg, Angie K; Whitbeck, Les B; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2017-09-16

    American Indian (AI) communities experience disproportionate exposure to stressors and health inequities including type 2 diabetes. Yet, we know little about the role of psychosocial stressors for AI diabetes-related health outcomes. We investigated associations between a range of stressors and psychological, behavioral, and physical health for AIs with diabetes. This community-based participatory research with 5 AI tribes includes 192 AI adult type 2 diabetes patients recruited from clinical records at tribal clinics. Data are from computer-assisted interviews and medical charts. We found consistent bivariate relationships between chronic to discrete stressors and mental and behavioral health outcomes; several remained even after accounting for participant age, gender, and income. Fewer stressors were linked to physical health. We also document a dose-response relationship between stress accumulation and worse health. Findings underscore the importance of considering a broad range of stressors for comprehensive assessment of stress burden and diabetes. Policies and practices aimed at reducing stress exposure and promoting tools for stress management may be mechanisms for optimal health for AI diabetes patients.

  6. Evaluating Disparities in Inpatient Surgical Cancer Care Among American Indian/Alaska Native Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simianu, Vlad V.; Morris, Arden M.; Varghese, Thomas K.; Porter, Michael P.; Henderson, Jeffrey A.; Buchwald, Dedra S.; Flum, David R.; Javid, Sara H.

    2016-01-01

    Background American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) patients with cancer have the lowest survival rates of all racial and ethnic groups, possibly because they are less likely to receive “best practice” surgical care than patients of other races. Methods Prospective cohort study comparing adherence to generic and cancer-specific guidelines on processes of surgical care between AI/AN and non-Hispanic white (NHW) patients in Washington State (2010–2014). Results 156 AI/AN and 6,030 NHW patients underwent operations for 10 different cancers, and had similar mean adherence to generic surgical guidelines (91.5% vs 91.9%, p=0.57). AI/AN patients with breast cancer less frequently received preoperative diagnostic core-needle biopsy (81% versus 94%, p=0.004). AI/AN patients also less frequently received care adherent to prostate cancer-specific guidelines (74% versus 92%,p=0.001). Conclusions While AI/ANs undergoing cancer operations in Washington receive similar overall best practice surgical cancer care to NHW patients, there remain important, modifiable disparities that may contribute to their lower survival. PMID:26846176

  7. Partnering with American Indian communities in health using methods of strategic collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Shireen S; Grimm, Brandon; Giroux, Jennifer; Peck, Magda; Ramos, Athena

    2014-01-01

    The Association for Prevention Teaching and Research (APTR) sponsored six regional workshops in 2010 on community engagement and community-engaged research. One of the six workshops was a collaborative effort between the Great Plains Tribal Chairman's Health Board (GPTCHB)-Northern Plains Tribal Epidemiology Center and the College of Public Health at the University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC-COPH). To create a meaningful and dynamic forum for the exchange of ideas and co-learning between researchers from urban, tribal and nontribal communities and to build the groundwork for development of sustainable partnerships between researchers and American Indian (AI) communities to eliminate health disparities. To enhance meaningful community engagement, we utilized methods of Strategic Collaboration using the Appreciative Inquiry, 4D Change Process Model and designed several interactive group activities including Collaborative Learning and Understanding Exercises (CLUE) and the Research Café. The key themes that emerged from the interactive sessions stressed the importance of building relationships and trust; mutual use and sharing of data; and acquiring knowledge, skills, and abilities to enable sustainable research partnerships with AI communitiesConclusions: Innovative, dynamic, and strategic collaborative methods of Appreciative Inquiry and the World Café can served to engage people in a constructive dialogue to create a shared vision and plan for more meaningful research partnerships based on principles of equity and social justice, essential for the elimination of health disparities. These collaborative methods can be replicated and adapted in diverse communities, locally, nationally, and globally.

  8. Case management to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in American Indians and Alaska Natives with diabetes: results from the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Healthy Heart Demonstration Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kelly; Jiang, Luohua; Manson, Spero M; Beals, Janette; Henderson, William; Pratte, Katherine; Acton, Kelly J; Roubideaux, Yvette

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) with diabetes in the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Healthy Heart (SDPI-HH) Demonstration Project. Multidisciplinary teams implemented an intensive case management intervention among 30 health care programs serving 138 tribes. The project recruited 3373 participants, with and without current CVD, between 2006 and 2009. We examined data collected at baseline and 1 year later to determine whether improvements occurred in CVD risk factors and in Framingham coronary heart disease (CHD) risk scores, aspirin use, and smoking status. A1c levels decreased an average of 0.2% (P risk scores also decreased significantly. Aspirin therapy increased significantly, and smoking decreased. Participants with more case management visits had significantly greater reductions in LDL cholesterol and A1c values. SDPI-HH successfully translated an intensive case management intervention. Creative retention strategies and an improved understanding of organizational challenges are needed for future Indian health translational efforts.

  9. Food packaged with toys: an investigation on potential obesogenic effects in Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, Dario; Gulati, Achal; Hochdorn, Alexander; Ballali, Simonetta; Paramesh, Haralappa; Kumar, Malathi; Baldi, Ileana

    2014-09-01

    To investigate, in a large pan Indian sample of school children, whether gadgets (toys) added to food increase food consumption, and if contemporary exposure to TV and/or advertising is a further promoting factor. A total of 1,680 Indian children were first randomized to food exposure with or without toy and then to a five-level exposure to TV viewing and advertising according to a 2 × 5 full factorial ad libitum eating design study. The sample size was computed to detect a difference of 20 Kcal of caloric intake (assuming the same standard deviation of 20 Kcal in both groups) between "food with gadget" (Toy) and "food alone" (No Toy) groups in each level of the exposure to TV and advertising factor, given an alpha error equal to 0.05 and a power of 0.90. Mean caloric intake both in "Toy" and "No Toy" group was around 223 Kcal. When considering exposure to TV and advertising, mean values varied negligibly between 222 and 225 Kcal. According to linear models for the effect of gadget and exposure to TV and/or advertising on children's intake, no significant adjusted associations were found, neither as main effects nor as interactions. Food consumption by children is not influenced by the presence of added toys, even after adjustment for several potential confounding factors. The city where they live and age significantly influences Indian children's caloric intake.

  10. Entry Risk into the Juvenile Justice System: African American, American Indian, Asian American, European American, and Hispanic Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Chen, Pan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Findings on disproportionate minority contact remain mixed. Few empirical studies have examined to what extent entry risk into juvenile justice varies across ethnic/racial groups, and to what extent childhood aggressive behaviors foretell later deviance and entry risk. In the current study, we sought to address these shortcomings by…

  11. Sociocultural perspective on organ and tissue donation among reservation-dwelling American Indian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenwald, Nancy L; Stabnow, Wendy

    2005-11-01

    To discover the sociocultural patterns that influence decisions about organ and tissue donation among American Indian (AI) adults. This qualitative ethnographic study used a social-ecological framework. A snowball sampling technique was used to recruit 21 Oglala Lakota Sioux participants (age >or= 19 years) living on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota, USA. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using open-ended questions derived from the social-ecological perspective of Stokols (1992). Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. Data were categorized into construct codes to identify concepts and to discover emerging themes. Personal and environmental themes regarding organ and tissue donation emerged. There were two personal themes: uncertain knowledge and the diabetes crisis. Participants knew very little about organ and tissue donation but there was a basic understanding of donor/recipient compatibility. The prevalence of diabetes in the community is contributing to a dire need for kidney donors. The diabetes crisis was acknowledged by every participant. There were three environmental themes: cultural transitions, healthcare system competence and outreach efforts. Traditional cultural beliefs such as entering the spirit world with an intact body were acknowledged. However, conversations reflected re-examination of traditional beliefs because of the need for kidney donors. The healthcare environmental context of organ and tissue donation emerged as a theme. Participants were not confident that the local health system was prepared to either address traditional beliefs about organ and tissue donation or implement a donation protocol. The final theme was the environmental context of outreach efforts. Participants desired relevant outreach targeted to the community and disseminated through local communication networks including the family, the media and tribal leaders. Sociocultural factors relevant to the personal and environmental context of the

  12. Different sex ratios of children born to Indian and Pakistani immigrants in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brekke Torkel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A low female-to-male ratio has been observed in different Asian countries, but this phenomenon has not been well studied among immigrants living in Western societies. In this study, we investigated whether a low female-to-male ratio exists among Indian and Pakistani immigrants living in Norway. In particular, we investigated whether the determination of sex via ultrasound examination, a common obstetric procedure that has been used in Norway since the early 1980 s, has influenced the female-to-male ratio among children born to parents of Indian or Pakistani origin. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of live births in mothers of Indian (n = 1597 and Pakistani (n = 5617 origin. Data were obtained from "Statistics Norway" and the female-to-male (F/M sex ratio was evaluated among 21,325 children born, in increasing birth order, during three stratified periods (i.e., 1969-1986, 1987-1996, and 1997-2005. Results A significant low female-to-male sex ratio was observed among children in the third and fourth birth order (sex ratio 65; 95% CI 51-80 from mothers of Indian origin who gave birth after 1987. Sex ratios did not deviate from the expected natural variation in the Indian cohort from 1969 to 1986, and remained stable in the Pakistani cohort during the entire study period. However, the female-to-male sex ratio seemed less skewed in recent years (i.e., 1997-2005. Conclusion Significant differences were observed in the sex ratio of children born to mothers of Indian origin compared with children born to mothers of Pakistani origin. A skewed number of female births among higher birth orders (i.e., third or later may partly reflect an increase in sex-selective abortion among mothers of Indian origin, although the numbers are too small to draw firm conclusions. Further research is needed to explain the observed differences in the female-to-male ratio among members of these ethnic groups who reside in Norway.

  13. Spatial Epidemiology of Alcohol- and Drug-Related Health Problems Among Northern Plains American Indians: Nebraska and South Dakota, 2007 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponicki, William R; Henderson, Jeffrey A; Gaidus, Andrew; Gruenewald, Paul J; Lee, Juliet P; Moore, Roland S; Davids, Sharice; Tilsen, Nick

    2018-03-01

    Despite high abstinence rates, American Indians experience elevated rates of many alcohol and other drug problems. American Indians also predominantly reside in poor and rural areas, which may explain some observed health disparities. We investigated whether geographic areas including reservations or large American Indian populations exhibited greater incidence of alcohol- and drug-related hospitalizations. We obtained inpatient hospitalization records for 2 Northern Plain states (Nebraska and South Dakota) for the years 2007 to 2012. We constructed zip code counts for 10 categories of hospitalization with diagnoses or injury causation commonly associated with alcohol or drug use. We related these to community sociodemographic characteristics using Bayesian Poisson space-time regression models and examined associations with and without controls for whether each zip code was located within an American Indian reservation. Controlling for other demographic and economic characteristics, zip codes with greater percentage of American Indians exhibited greater incidence for all 10 substance abuse-related health outcomes (9 of 10 well supported); zip code areas within American Indian reservations had greater incidence of self-inflicted injury and drug dependence and abuse, and reduced incidence of alcohol cirrhosis and prescription opioid poisoning. However, the analyses generally demonstrated no well-supported differences in incidence associated with local residence percentages of American Indian versus African American. In our analyses, ethnicity or heredity alone did not account for alcohol- and drug-related hospitalizations among Native populations. Aspects of social, economic, and political dimensions of Native lives must be considered in the etiology of alcohol- and drug-related problems for rural-dwelling indigenous peoples. Copyright © 2018 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  14. Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978. S.1214 to Establish Standards for the Placement of Indian Children in Foster or Adoptive Homes, to Prevent the Breakup of Indian Families, and for Other Purposes. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Indian Affairs and Public Lands of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. House of Representatives, Ninety-Fifth Congress, Second Session (February 9 and March 9, 1978).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs.

    Testimonies were heard by the Subcommittee on Indian Affairs and Public Lands in reference to the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978, which establishes standards for the placement of Indian children in foster or adoptive homes to prevent the breakup of Indian families. Representatives from the following organizations testified: Administration for…

  15. Changing trend? Sex ratios of children born to Indian immigrants in Norway revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tønnessen, Marianne; Aalandslid, Vebjørn; Skjerpen, Terje

    2013-09-05

    In some Western countries, a disturbingly low share of girls has been observed among new-borns from Indian immigrants. Also in Norway, a previous study based on figures from 1969-2005 showed a high percentage of boys among children of Indian origin living in Norway, when the birth was of higher order (third birth or later). This was suggested to reflect a practice of sex-selective abortions in the Indian immigrant population. In this article we have seen whether extended time series for the period 2006-2012 give further support to this claim. Based on data from the Norwegian Central Population Register we used observations for the sex of all live births in Norway for the period 1969-2012 where the mother was born in India. The percentage of boys was calculated for each birth order, during four sub periods. Utilising a binomial probability model we tested whether the observed sex differences among Indian-born women were significantly different from sex differences among all births. Contrary to findings from earlier periods and other Western countries, we found that Indian-born women in Norway gave birth to more girls than boys of higher order in the period 2006-2012. This is somewhat surprising, since sex selection is usually expected to be stronger if the mother already has two or more children. The extended time series do not suggest a prevalence of sex selective abortions among Indian-born women in Norway. We discuss whether the change from a majority of boys to a majority of girls in higher order could be explained by new waves of immigrant women, by new preferences among long-residing immigrant women in Norway - or by mere coincidence.

  16. A genome-wide association study in American Indians implicates DNER as a susceptibility locus for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Robert L; Muller, Yunhua L; Kobes, Sayuko; Guo, Tingwei; Bian, Li; Ossowski, Victoria; Wiedrich, Kim; Sutherland, Jeffrey; Wiedrich, Christopher; Mahkee, Darin; Huang, Ke; Abdussamad, Maryam; Traurig, Michael; Weil, E Jennifer; Nelson, Robert G; Bennett, Peter H; Knowler, William C; Bogardus, Clifton; Baier, Leslie J

    2014-01-01

    Most genetic variants associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in Europeans. The current study reports a GWAS for young-onset T2DM in American Indians. Participants were selected from a longitudinal study conducted in Pima Indians and included 278 cases with diabetes with onset before 25 years of age, 295 nondiabetic controls ≥45 years of age, and 267 siblings of cases or controls. Individuals were genotyped on a ∼1M single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, resulting in 453,654 SNPs with minor allele frequency >0.05. SNPs were analyzed for association in cases and controls, and a family-based association test was conducted. Tag SNPs (n = 311) were selected for 499 SNPs associated with diabetes (P associated with T2DM (odds ratio = 1.29 per copy of the T allele; P = 6.6 × 10(-8), which represents genome-wide significance accounting for the number of effectively independent SNPs analyzed). Transfection studies in murine pancreatic β-cells suggested that DNER regulates expression of notch signaling pathway genes. These studies implicate DNER as a susceptibility gene for T2DM in American Indians.

  17. Metabolic risk factors and arterial stiffness in Indian children of parents with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Anuradha V; Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Pandit, Deepa S; Kinare, Arun S; Khadilkar, Vaman V

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the possible association between metabolic syndrome (MS) and arterial stiffness in Indian children with parental MS status. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 140 overweight/obese and 60 normal-weight Indian children (mean age, 11.4 ± 2.8 years) along with one of their parents during 2008-2009. Data on weight, height, blood pressure, serum lipids, zinc, insulin, and glucose were collected. Intima media thickness (CIMT) and stiffness parameters were assessed in the right carotid artery. Physical activity and diet were assessed using structured questionnaires. Body composition was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. A gradual increase in the percentage of MS children with an increasing number of MS components in parents was observed. Mean values for arterial stiffness, pulse wave velocity, and elastic modulus were significantly higher in MS children of MS parents than in MS children of normal parents (p parent pairs (p children's CIMT and arterial stiffness were significantly associated (p parental MS-CIMT. Parental MS status and lifestyle factors increase the risk of MS and arterial abnormalities in children.

  18. A history of binge drinking during adolescence is associated with poorer sleep quality in young adult Mexican Americans and American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Wills, Derek; Gilder, David A

    2018-06-01

    Binge drinking during adolescence is common, and adolescents and young adults with alcohol problems may also have sleep difficulties. However, few studies have documented the effects of a history of adolescent binge drinking on sleep in young adulthood in high-risk minority populations. To quantify sleep disturbance, as indexed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), in a sample of young adult Mexican American and American Indian men and women (18-30 years, n = 800) with and without a history of alcohol binge drinking during adolescence, controlling for age, gender, and race. Gender was found to affect PSQI responses with females reporting waking up at night, having more bad dreams, and later habitual bedtimes than males, and males reporting more problems with breathing and snoring. Increasing age was associated with snoring or coughing, less hours spent in bed, and later evening bedtimes. Race also influenced the PSQI with American Indians reporting longer sleep latencies and sleep durations, more hours spent in bed, and more trouble with coughing and snoring than Mexican Americans, and Mexican Americans reporting later bedtimes. A history of adolescent regular binge drinking was associated with longer sleep latencies, more problems with breathing, bad dreams, and an overall higher PSQI total score, when controlling for age, race, and gender. This report suggests, like what has been found in young adults in general population samples, that binge drinking during adolescence is associated with deleterious consequences on sleep quality in young adulthood in these high-risk and understudied ethnic groups.

  19. Trends in dental caries in Indian children for the past 25 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Abhishek

    2018-01-01

    The economic liberalization which was started 25 years back in India has led to a rising gross domestic product and per capita income and a decline in poverty. There has been an improvement in various health status indicators in the Indian population. As oral health is an integral part of general health, a retrospective study was designed to assess the effect of economic liberalization on dental caries experience in Indian children. A systematic literature search was conducted to find studies done on dental caries prevalence in children in India from the year 1992-2016. Mesh and free text terms "child," "dental caries," and "India" were searched in databases - PubMed and PubMed Central. A total of 1468 titles were screened, out of which 191 articles were shortlisted for further inspection. Finally, 69 studies were found suitable for final analysis. The pooled caries prevalence was between 50.84% and 62.41% at 5-year interval. There was a decline in caries prevalence in 2-5 and 11-15 years of age group. The overall weighed mean of 2.4, 2.7, and 1.9 was observed in three different age groups. Significant caries index (SiC) of more than 3 was observed in all the age groups. The present review suggests that more than half of Indian children have been affected by dental caries. High SIC index score suggests a skewed distribution of caries among Indian children. This data may aid in planning further exploratory research and oral health care services for children by the stakeholders.

  20. Addressing Cancer Disparities Among American Indians through Innovative Technologies and Patient Navigation: The Walking Forward Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petereit, Daniel G. [Department of Oncology, John T. Vucurevich Cancer Care Institute, Rapid City, SD (United States); Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States); Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Wong, Rosemary; Coleman, C. Norman, E-mail: dpetereit@regionalhealth.com [Radiation Research Program, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD (United States)

    2011-06-22

    Purpose/Objective(s): American Indians (AIs) present with more advanced stages of cancer and, therefore, suffer from higher cancer mortality rates compared to non-AIs. Under the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Disparities Research Partnership (CDRP) Program, we have been researching methods of improving cancer treatment and outcomes since 2002, for AIs in Western South Dakota, through the Walking Forward (WF) Program. Materials/Methods: This program consists of (a) a culturally tailored patient navigation program that facilitated access to innovative clinical trials in conjunction with a comprehensive educational program encouraging screening and early detection, (b), surveys to evaluate barriers to access, (c) clinical trials focusing on reducing treatment length to facilitate enhanced participation using brachytherapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for breast and prostate cancer, as AIs live a median of 140 miles from the cancer center, and (d) a molecular study (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) to address whether there is a specific profile that increases toxicity risks. Results: We describe the design and implementation of this program, summary of previously published results, and ongoing research to influence stage at presentation. Some of the critical outcomes include the successful implementation of a community-based research program, development of trust within tribal communities, identification of barriers, analysis of nearly 400 navigated cancer patients, clinical trial accrual rate of 10%, and total enrollment of nearly 2,500 AIs on WF research studies. Conclusion: This NCI funded pilot program has achieved some initial measures of success. A research infrastructure has been created in a community setting to address new research questions and interventions. Efforts underway to promote cancer education and screening are presented, as well as applications of the lessons learned to other health disparity populations – both nationally and

  1. Community-Based Study Recruitment of American Indian Cigarette Smokers and Electronic Cigarette Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Dana Mowls; Brame, Lacy S; Stephens, Lancer D; Wagener, Theodore L; Campbell, Janis E; Beebe, Laura A

    2018-02-01

    Data on the effectiveness of strategies for the recruitment of American Indians (AIs) into research is needed. This study describes and compares methods for identifying and recruiting AI tobacco users into a pilot study. Community-based strategies were used to recruit smokers (n = 35), e-cigarette users (n = 28), and dual users (n = 32) of AI descent. Recruitment was considered proactive if study staff contacted the individual at a pow wow, health fair, or vape shop and participation on-site or reactive if the individual contacted the study staff and participation occurred later. Screened, eligible, participated and costs and time spent were compared with Chi square tests. To understand AI descent, the relationship between number of AI grandparents and AI blood quantum was examined. Number of participants screened via the proactive strategy was similar to the reactive strategy (n = 84 vs. n = 82; p-value = 0.8766). A significantly greater proportion of individuals screened via the proactive than the reactive strategy were eligible (77 vs. 50%; p-value = 0.0002) and participated (75 vs. 39%; p-value = < 0.0001). Per participant cost and time estimated for the proactive strategy was $89 and 87 min compared to $79 and 56 min for the reactive strategy. Proportion at least half AI blood quantum was 32, 33, and 70% among those with 2, 3, and 4 AI grandparents, respectively (p = 0.0017). Proactive strategies resulted in two-thirds of the sample, but required more resources than reactive strategies. Overall, we found both strategies were feasible and resulted in the ability to reach sample goals. Lastly, number of AI biological grandparents may be a good, non-invasive indicator of AI blood quantum.

  2. Education, Income, and Employment and Prevalence of Chronic Disease Among American Indian/Alaska Native Elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamsen, Collette; Schroeder, Shawnda; LeMire, Steven; Carter, Paula

    2018-03-22

    Chronic disease studies have omitted analyses of the American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) population, relied on small samples of AI/ANs, or focused on a single disease among AI/ANs. We measured the influence of income, employment status, and education level on the prevalence of chronic disease among 14,632 AI/AN elders from 2011 through 2014. We conducted a national survey of AI/AN elders (≥55 y) to identify health and social needs. Using these data, we computed cross-tabulations for each independent variable (annual personal income, employment status, education level), 2 covariates (age, sex), and presence of any chronic disease. We also compared differences in values and used a binary logistic regression model to control for age and sex. Most AI/AN elders (89.7%) had been diagnosed with at least one chronic disease. AI/AN elders were also more than twice as likely to have diabetes and more likely to have arthritis. AI/AN elders with middle-to-low income levels and who were unemployed were more likely to have a chronic disease than were high-income and employed AI/AN elders. Addressing disparities in chronic disease prevalence requires focus on more than access to and cost of health care. Economic development and job creation for all age cohorts in tribal communities may decrease the prevalence of long-term chronic diseases and may improve the financial status of the tribe. An opportunity exists to address health disparities through social and economic equity among tribal populations.

  3. Cultural Identity among Urban American Indian/Native Alaskan Youth: Implications for Alcohol and Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan A.; Dickerson, Daniel L.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth exhibit high rates of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use, which is often linked to the social and cultural upheaval experienced by AI/ANs during the colonization of North America. Urban AI/AN youth may face unique challenges, including increased acculturative stress due to lower concentrations of AI/AN populations in urban areas. Few existing studies have explored cultural identity among urban AI/AN youth and its association with AOD use. Objectives This study used systematic qualitative methods with AI/AN communities in two urban areas within California to shed light on how urban AI/AN youth construct cultural identity and how this relates to AOD use and risk behaviors. Methods We conducted 10 focus groups with a total of 70 youth, parents, providers, and Community Advisory Board members and used team-based structured thematic analysis in the Dedoose software platform. Results We identified 12 themes: intergenerational stressors, cultural disconnection, AI/AN identity as protective, pan-tribal identity, mixed racial-ethnic identity, rural vs. urban environments, the importance of AI/AN institutions, stereotypes and harassment, cultural pride, developmental trajectories, risks of being AI/AN, and mainstream culture clash. Overall, youth voiced curiosity about their AI/AN roots and expressed interest in deepening their involvement in cultural activities. Adults described the myriad ways in which involvement in cultural activities provides therapeutic benefits for AI/AN youth. Conclusions Interventions that provide urban AI/AN youth with an opportunity to engage in cultural activities and connect with positive and healthy constructs in AI/AN culture may provide added impact to existing interventions. PMID:27450682

  4. The role of culture in substance abuse treatment programs for American Indian and Alaska Native communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legha, Rupinder Kaur; Novins, Douglas

    2012-07-01

    Culture figures prominently in discussions regarding the etiology of alcohol and substance abuse in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities, and a substantial body of literature suggests that it is critical to developing meaningful treatment interventions. However, no study has characterized how programs integrate culture into their services. Furthermore, reports regarding the associated challenges are limited. Twenty key informant interviews with administrators and 15 focus groups with clinicians were conducted in 18 alcohol and substance abuse treatment programs serving AI/AN communities. Transcripts were coded to identify relevant themes. Substance abuse treatment programs for AI/AN communities are integrating culture into their services in two discrete ways: by implementing specific cultural practices and by adapting Western treatment models. More important, however, are the fundamental principles that shape these programs and their interactions with the people and communities they serve. These foundational beliefs and values, defined in this study as the core cultural constructs that validate and incorporate AI/AN experience and world view, include an emphasis on community and family, meaningful relationships with and respect for clients, a homelike atmosphere within the program setting, and an “open door” policy for clients. The primary challenges for integrating these cultural practices include AI/AN communities' cultural diversity and limited socioeconomic resources to design and implement these practices. The prominence of foundational beliefs and values is striking and suggests a broader definition of culture when designing services. This definition of foundational beliefs and values should help other diverse communities culturally adapt their substance abuse interventions in more meaningful ways.

  5. Cultural Identity Among Urban American Indian/Alaska Native Youth: Implications for Alcohol and Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan A; Dickerson, Daniel L; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2016-10-01

    American Indian / Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth exhibit high rates of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use, which is often linked to the social and cultural upheaval experienced by AI/ANs during the colonization of North America. Urban AI/AN youth may face unique challenges, including increased acculturative stress due to lower concentrations of AI/AN populations in urban areas. Few existing studies have explored cultural identity among urban AI/AN youth and its association with AOD use. This study used systematic qualitative methods with AI/AN communities in two urban areas within California to shed light on how urban AI/AN youth construct cultural identity and how this relates to AOD use and risk behaviors. We conducted 10 focus groups with a total of 70 youth, parents, providers, and Community Advisory Board members and used team-based structured thematic analysis in the Dedoose software platform. We identified 12 themes: intergenerational stressors, cultural disconnection, AI/AN identity as protective, pan-tribal identity, mixed racial-ethnic identity, rural vs. urban environments, the importance of AI/AN institutions, stereotypes and harassment, cultural pride, developmental trajectories, risks of being AI/AN, and mainstream culture clash. Overall, youth voiced curiosity about their AI/AN roots and expressed interest in deepening their involvement in cultural activities. Adults described the myriad ways in which involvement in cultural activities provides therapeutic benefits for AI/AN youth. Interventions that provide urban AI/AN youth with an opportunity to engage in cultural activities and connect with positive and healthy constructs in AI/AN culture may provide added impact to existing interventions.

  6. Food choice considerations among American Indians living in rural Oklahoma: The THRIVE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherill, Marianna S; Williams, Mary B; Hartwell, Micah L; Salvatore, Alicia L; Jacob, Tvli; Cannady, Tamela K; Standridge, Joy; Fox, Jill; Spiegel, Jennifer; Anderson, Natia; Jernigan, Valarie Blue Bird

    2018-05-17

    In rural American Indian (AI) communities, access to affordable, healthy foods is often limited. Understanding AI food choice considerations when selecting foods, such as sensory appeal, cost, or health, is an important yet understudied topic for eliminating persistent AI health disparities. In partnership with the Chickasaw Nation and Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, we administered a modified version of the Food Choice Values (FCV) Questionnaire to a cross-sectional sample of 83 AI patrons shopping at tribally-owned convenience stores ≥3 times per week. The FCV Questionnaire uses 25 items to assess eight FCV subscales related to buying and eating food, including sensory appeal; safety; accessibility; convenience; health/weight control; organic; tradition; and comfort. We compared mean scores for each FCV subscale by demographic groups using t-tests and ANOVA. We used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to examine how well the data from this population fit FCV subscale constructs. We then used cluster analysis, MANOVA, and discriminant analysis to characterize distinct segments of the population based on patterns of FCV endorsement. Appeal, safety, and access FCVs were most strongly endorsed across the sample. Prioritization of FCVs varied by age, gender, income, and education. Our cluster analysis identified four groups, or segments, each with distinct patterns of FCV endorsement: limited endorsement of any FCVs (23.3%); safety and sensory appeal (32.9%); health/weight control (17.8%); and broad endorsement of FCVs (26.0%). These groups varied by age and employment status. Findings from this analysis informed the design and implementation of a healthy retail intervention comprised of new healthful foods and beverages, product placement and marketing strategies within four tribally-owned and operated convenience stores. Public health interventions aimed at reducing nutrition-related disparities in rural AI populations may benefit from assessing food choice

  7. Addressing Cancer Disparities Among American Indians through Innovative Technologies and Patient Navigation: The Walking Forward Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petereit, Daniel G.; Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh; Wong, Rosemary; Coleman, C. Norman

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): American Indians (AIs) present with more advanced stages of cancer and, therefore, suffer from higher cancer mortality rates compared to non-AIs. Under the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Disparities Research Partnership (CDRP) Program, we have been researching methods of improving cancer treatment and outcomes since 2002, for AIs in Western South Dakota, through the Walking Forward (WF) Program. Materials/Methods: This program consists of (a) a culturally tailored patient navigation program that facilitated access to innovative clinical trials in conjunction with a comprehensive educational program encouraging screening and early detection, (b), surveys to evaluate barriers to access, (c) clinical trials focusing on reducing treatment length to facilitate enhanced participation using brachytherapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for breast and prostate cancer, as AIs live a median of 140 miles from the cancer center, and (d) a molecular study (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) to address whether there is a specific profile that increases toxicity risks. Results: We describe the design and implementation of this program, summary of previously published results, and ongoing research to influence stage at presentation. Some of the critical outcomes include the successful implementation of a community-based research program, development of trust within tribal communities, identification of barriers, analysis of nearly 400 navigated cancer patients, clinical trial accrual rate of 10%, and total enrollment of nearly 2,500 AIs on WF research studies. Conclusion: This NCI funded pilot program has achieved some initial measures of success. A research infrastructure has been created in a community setting to address new research questions and interventions. Efforts underway to promote cancer education and screening are presented, as well as applications of the lessons learned to other health disparity populations – both nationally and

  8. Validity of Measures Assessing Oral Health Beliefs of American Indian Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anne R; Brega, Angela G; Thomas, Jacob F; Henderson, William G; Lind, Kimberly E; Braun, Patricia A; Batliner, Terrence S; Albino, Judith

    2018-03-05

    This aimed to validate measures of constructs included in an extended Health Belief Model (EHBM) addressing oral health beliefs among American Indian (AI) parents. Questionnaire data were collected as part of a randomized controlled trial (n = 1016) aimed at reducing childhood caries. Participants were AI parents with a preschool-age child enrolled in the Navajo Nation Head Start program. Questionnaire items addressed five EHBM constructs: perceived susceptibility, severity, barriers, benefits, and parental self-efficacy. Subscales representing each construct underwent reliability and validity testing. Internal consistency reliability of each subscale was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha. Convergent validity was assessed using linear regression to evaluate the association of each EHBM subscale with oral health-related measures. Internal consistency reliability was high for self-efficacy (α = 0.83) and perceived benefits (α = 0.83) compared to remaining EHBM subscales (α Parents with more education (p parents (ps = 0.02) and those with more education (ps oral health behavior. Female parents (p Parental knowledge was associated with all EHBM measures (ps  0.05). Parents with increased self-efficacy had greater behavioral adherence (p parents who reported higher perceived barriers (p oral health outcomes were associated with higher levels of self-efficacy (p < 0.0001) and lower levels of perceived severity (p = 0.02) and barriers (p = 0.05). Results support the value of questionnaire items addressing the EHBM subscales, which functioned in a manner consistent with the EHBM theoretical framework in AI participants.

  9. Community-based game intervention to improve South Asian Indian Americans' engagement with advanced care planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Kavita; Van Scoy, Lauren Jodi; Jillapalli, Regina; Saxena, Shubhada; Kim, Miyong T

    2017-07-27

    Advance care planning (ACP) allows individuals to express their preferences for medical treatment in the event that they become incapable of making their own decisions. This study assessed the efficacy of a conversation game intervention for increasing South Asian Indian Americans' (SAIAs') engagement in ACP behaviors as well as the game's acceptability and cultural appropriateness among SAIAs. Eligible community-dwelling SAIAs were recruited at SAIA cultural events held in central Texas during the summer of 2016. Pregame questionnaires included demographics and the 55-item ACP Engagement Survey. Played in groups of 3-5, the game consists of 17 open-ended questions that prompt discussions of end-of-life issues. After each game session, focus groups and questionnaires were used to examine the game's cultural appropriateness and self-rated conversation quality. Postintervention responses on the ACP Engagement Survey and rates of participation in ACP behaviors were collected after 3 months through phone interviews or online surveys. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, frequencies, and paired t-tests comparing pre/post averages at a .05 significance level. Of the 47 participants, 64% were female, 62% had graduate degrees, 92% had lived in the U.S. for >10 years, 87% were first-generation immigrants, and 74% had no advance directive prior to the game. At the 3-month follow-up, 58% of participants had completed at least one ACP behavior, 42% had discussed end-of-life issues with loved ones, 15% did so with their healthcare providers, and 18% had created an advanced directive. ACP Engagement Survey scores increased significantly on all four of the process subscales by 3 months postgame. SAIA individuals who played a conversation game had a relatively high rate of performing ACP behaviors 3 months after the intervention. These findings suggest that conversation games may be useful tools for motivating people from minority communities to engage in ACP behaviors.

  10. Treatment eligibility in Alaska Native and American Indian persons with hepatitis C virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen E. Livingston

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin may prevent progression of liver disease among patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection (HCV. Treatment initiation is based on published clinical eligibility criteria, patients’ willingness to undergo treatment and likelihood of success. We examined treatment eligibility in a cohort of Alaska Native and American Indian persons with chronic HCV infection. Study design. Retrospective cohort study. Methods. Medical records of all treatment naïve HCV RNA positive patients given an appointment by hepatology specialty clinic staff in 2003 and 2007 were evaluated by a hepatology provider to investigate documented reasons for treatment deferral. Results. Treatment was initiated in 4 of 94 patients (4% in 2003 and 14 of 146 patients (10% in 2007. Major reasons for treatment deferral in 2003 versus 2007 included inconsistent appointment attendance (36% of deferrals vs. 18%, active substance abuse (17% vs. 22%, patient decision (17% vs. 27%, liver biopsy without fibrosis or normal ALT (8% vs. 3%, uncontrolled psychiatric condition (7% vs. 7% and concurrent medical condition (6% vs. 9%. There was significant improvement in proportion of appointments attended in 2007 versus 2003 (76% vs. 67%, p = 0.04 and the percentage of patients attending at least 1 appointment (84% vs. 66%, p = 0.002. Conclusions. Multiple reasons for treatment deferral were documented. Despite a significant improvement in hepatology clinic attendance and an increase in the number of patients started on treatment in 2007 compared to 2003, the overall percentage of those treated remained low.

  11. Associations Between Bullying Involvement, Protective Factors, and Mental Health Among American Indian Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloppen, Kari; McMorris, Barbara; Gower, Amy; Eisenberg, Marla

    2017-08-17

    Bullying involvement as a victim or perpetrator is associated with depression and suicidality, and American Indian (AI) youth experience a disproportionately high rate of these mental health issues. This study assessed whether AI young people involved in bullying were more likely to experience negative mental health problems than AI youth who were not involved in bullying, and identified protective factors that might support this particularly vulnerable population. Data come from 1,409 8th, 9th, and 11th Grade AI students who completed the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey. Logistic regression models estimated associations between bullying involvement and internalizing symptoms and suicidality. Selected protective factors (internal assets, empowerment, positive student-teacher relationships, and feeling safe at school) were also examined as independent variables. All forms of bullying perpetration and victimization were associated with increased risk for mental health problems (odds ratio [OR]: 1.57-2.87). AI youth who reported higher levels of protective factors were less likely to report internalizing symptoms and suicidality even in the presence of bullying involvement. For example, AI youth who reported high levels of internal assets had half the odds of reporting internalizing symptoms compared with those with low levels of internal assets (OR = 0.53, confidence interval [CI] 0.38, 0.74). Findings suggest that, similar to a general sample of students, bullying-involved AI students are significantly more likely to experience mental health problems. Promoting school as a safe place and incorporating culturally relevant programming to promote internal assets such as positive identity, social competence, and empowerment among AI students could help reduce the negative effects of bullying involvement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The role of goal representations, cultural identity, and dispositional optimism in the depressive experiences of American Indian youth from a Northern Plains tribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyser, Jason; Scott, Walter D; Readdy, Tucker; McCrea, Sean M

    2014-03-01

    American Indian researchers and scholars have emphasized the importance of identifying variables that promote resilience and protect against the development of psychopathology in American Indian youth. The present study examined the role of self-regulation, specifically goal characteristics (i.e., goal self-efficacy, goal specificity, intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation, and goal conflict) and dispositional optimism, as well as cultural identity and self-reported academic grades in the depressive experiences of American Indian youth from a North American plains tribe. One hundred and sixty-four participants (53% female) completed measures of goal representations, cultural identity, dispositional optimism, academic performance, and depressive symptoms. Results supported a model in which higher goal self-efficacy, American Indian cultural identity, grade point average, and dispositional optimism each significantly predicted fewer depressive symptoms. Moreover, grade point average and goal self-efficacy had both direct and indirect (through dispositional optimism) relationships with depressive symptoms. Our findings underscore the importance of cognitive self-regulatory processes and cultural identity in the depressive experiences for these American Indian youth and may have implications for youth interventions attempting to increase resiliency and decrease risk for depressive symptoms.

  13. An American Paradox: Hunger in an Affluent Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, George S.

    1974-01-01

    Nutritionally vulnerable mothers and children, American Indians and Alaskan Natives, migrant laborers, and the elderly are described as the hungry in America. Additional and more effective government food programs are proposed as the solution. (DE)

  14. Community-Based Assessment to Inform a Chlamydia Screening Program for Women in a Rural American Indian Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smartlowit-Briggs, Lucy; Pearson, Cynthia; Whitefoot, Patricia; Altamirano, Bianca N; Womack, Michelle; Bastin, Marie; Dombrowski, Julia C

    2016-06-01

    Rates of chlamydial infection in American Indian/Alaska Native women in the United States are approximately 4-fold those in non-Hispanic white women. We conducted a community-based survey of self-identified American Indian/Alaska Native women 14 to 25 years of age on a reservation in the Northwestern United States to inform a chlamydia screening strategy. The anonymous survey assessed respondents' knowledge, perceptions, and preferences related to chlamydia screening, results receipt, and partner notification. We recruited women using respondent-driven sampling, school-based sampling, and direct recruitment through social media and fliers. Participants in schools completed the survey as a paper-based, self-administered survey. Other participants could complete the survey in person, by phone as an interviewer-administered survey, or online. We recruited 162 participants, most in schools (n = 83; 51%) or by peer referral (n = 55; 34%). Only 1 woman completed the survey online. Thirty-one respondents (19%) reported a history of an unplanned first pregnancy, and 19 (12%) reported a history of a diagnosed sexually transmitted disease. Most women (n = 98; 63%) recognized the potential impact of Chlamydia trachomatis on fertility. The preferred site for chlamydia screening was the Indian Health Service Clinic (n = 114; 70%), but 79 women (41%) would accept a C. trachomatis test at a nonclinical testing site. Of the 56 women (35%) who would accept home testing, most preferred to get the test kit from a clinic. Our results suggest that Indian Health Service efforts to increase chlamydia screening in the clinic and through outreach may be more successful than promotion of home testing in this population.

  15. Wrongdoing and Retribution: Children's Conceptions of Illness Causality in a Central Indian Village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froerer, Peggy

    2007-12-01

    This paper is a study of children's conceptions of illness causality. Based on ethnographic research in a central Indian tribal community, it is a response to the lack of systematic attention within mainstream anthropology on children, and within medical anthropology on children's understanding of illness causation. A combination of participant observation and structured interviews was used to examine local distinctions between 'natural' and 'supernatural' illness, which are underpinned by ideas about supernatural retribution. The focus in this paper is on how children learn and reason about such ideas, and on the processes by which they assume culpability for 'supernatural' illnesses. By arguing that children do not simply replicate adult conceptions about illness causality but instead apply their own experience to their understanding and representation of such ideas, this paper challenges taken-for-granted assumptions about the acquisition and reproduction of cultural knowledge.

  16. Growth and development profile of Indian children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Beena; Navamani, Kirubakaran; Oommen, Samuel Philip; Srivastava, Vivi M

    2012-08-01

    In this retrospective study, we describe the profile of 88 children with Down syndrome. The average BMI for children showed a progressive increase with age. Compared to the previously published development profile, there was a significant improvement in the language domain.

  17. Prevalence of specific learning disabilities among primary school children in a South Indian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogasale, Vijayalaxmi V; Patil, Vishwanath D; Patil, Nanasaheb M; Mogasale, Vittal

    2012-03-01

    To measure the prevalence of specific learning disabilities (SpLDs) such as dyslexia, dysgraphia and dyscalculia among primary school children in a South Indian city. A cross-sectional multi-staged stratified randomized cluster sampling study was conducted among children aged 8-11 years from third and fourth standard. A six level screening approach that commenced with identification of scholastic backwardness followed by stepwise exclusion of impaired vision and hearing, chronic medical conditions and subnormal intelligence was carried out among these children. In the final step, the remaining children were subjected to specific tests for reading, comprehension, writing and mathematical calculation. The prevalence of specific learning disabilities was 15.17% in sampled children, whereas 12.5%, 11.2% and 10.5% had dysgraphia, dyslexia and dyscalculia respectively. This study suggests that the prevalence of SpLDs is at the higher side of previous estimations in India. The study is unique due to its large geographically representative design and identification of the problem using simplified screening approach and tools, which minimizes the number and time of specialist requirement and spares the expensive investigation. This approach and tools are suitable for field situations and resource scarce settings. Based on the authors' experience, they express the need for more prevalence studies, remedial education and policy interventions to manage SpLDs at main stream educational system to improve the school performance in Indian children.

  18. Dietary modifications to improve micronutrient status of Indian children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Lavanya S; Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Khadilkar, Anuradha V; Khadilkar, Vaman V

    2015-01-01

    Diet plays a crucial role for maintaining normal growth and development while optimizing glycemic control in children with diabetes. Dietary restrictions, in a diabetic child's diet may lead to micronutrient deficiencies. To examine dietary nutritional deficiencies of Asian Indian children with Type 1 diabetes mellitus and develop micronutrient-rich recipes suitable for them. Anthropometry, diet (3-day recall) of 70 children with diabetes (24 boys) was recorded. Daily nutrient intakes and nutrient content of recipes were estimated using CDIET version 2.0. Mean intake amongst children for energy was 79% of Indian Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), protein was 105% RDA, but fat intakes were high (143% RDA). Mean intakes of riboflavin, β carotene, zinc, iron were less than 50%, and thiamin and calcium were around 60% RDA suggesting a possible multiple micronutrient deficiency. Based on popularly consumed snacks, 20 healthy recipes were devised that can be incorporated in children's diet. Mean energy content of new recipes was similar to routine snacks (281±28 kcal/100 g vs 306±27 kcal/100 g cooked weight). However, the mean vitamin and mineral content of new recipes was significantly higher (pcontent (zinc, calcium and iron) and twofold increase in total vitamin content (β carotene, vitamin C, vitamin B-1, B-2, and B-3) in new recipes compared with the routine snacks. Multiple dietary micronutrient deficiencies are observed in diabetic children. Addition of newly developed recipes in their everyday diet may help to enhance micronutrient intakes without increasing their energy load.

  19. Revised Indian Academy of Pediatrics 2015 growth charts for height, weight and body mass index for 5-18-year-old Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaman V Khadilkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth chart committee of Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP has revised growth charts for 5-18-year-old Indian children in Jan 2015. The last IAP growth charts (2007 were based on data collected in 1989-92 which is now >2 decades old. India is in an economic and nutrition transition and hence growth pattern of Indian children has changed over last few years. Thus, it was necessary to produce contemporary, updated growth references for Indian children. The new IAP charts were prepared by collating data from nine groups who had published studies in indexed journals on growth from India in the last decade. Growth charts were constructed from a total of 87022 middle and upper socioeconomic class children (m 54086, f 32936 from all five zones of India. Data from middle and upper socioeconomic class children are likely to have higher prevalence of overweight and obesity and hence growth charts produced on such populations are likely to "normalize" obesity. To remove such unhealthy weights form the data, method suggested by World Health Organization was used to produce weight charts. Thus, the new IAP weight charts are much lower than the recently published studies on affluent Indian children. Since Indian′s are at a higher risk of obesity-related cardiometabolic complications at lower body mass index (BMI, BMI charts adjusted for 23, and 27 adult equivalent cut-offs as per International obesity task force guidelines were constructed. IAP now recommends use of these new charts to replace the 2007 IAP charts.

  20. Culture, ethnicity, and children's facial expressions: a study of European American, Mainland Chinese, Chinese American, and adopted Chinese girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camras, Linda A; Bakeman, Roger; Chen, Yinghe; Norris, Katherine; Cain, Thomas R

    2006-02-01

    This investigation extends previous research documenting differences in Chinese and European American infants' facial expressivity. Chinese girls adopted by European American families, nonadopted Mainland Chinese girls, nonadopted Chinese American girls, and nonadopted European American girls responded to emotionally evocative slides and an odor stimulus. European American girls smiled more than Mainland Chinese and Chinese American girls and scored higher than Mainland Chinese girls for disgust-related expressions and overall expressivity. Adopted Chinese girls produced more disgust-related expressions than Mainland Chinese girls. Self-reported maternal strictness, aggravation, positive expressiveness, and cultural identification correlated with children's facial responses, as did number of siblings and adults in the home. Results suggest that culture and family environment influences facial expressivity, creating differences among children of the same ethnicity.