WorldWideScience

Sample records for american history cluster

  1. Writing American Indian History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noley, Grayson B.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to critique the manner in which history about American Indians has been written and propose a rationale for the rethinking of what we know about this subject. In particular, histories of education as regards the participation of American Indians is a subject that has been given scant attention over the years and when…

  2. Singing American History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Fred

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how to use music when teaching U.S. History. Provides examples such as teaching about the Civil War, the Great Depression, and the Vietnam War and showing the contributions of African Americans. Includes a discography. (CMK)

  3. History of American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Margaret Cain

    2011-01-01

    "History of American Higher Education" documents the fascinating evolution of American colleges and universities, touching on the historical events that shaped them, from the colonial era through the early twenty-first century. Throughout history, higher education has played an important role in the transmission of cultural identity from…

  4. History of Asian American psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T L; Okazaki, Sumie

    2009-10-01

    An overview of the history of Asian American psychology is provided by reviewing the context for the development of the field as well as the early founding of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). The presidents of AAPA as well as key events and conferences are noted. The involvement of AAPA leaders in national mental health policies and activities are reviewed. The substantive areas of Asian American psychology and the education and training of Asian American psychologists are also discussed. The article ends with some comments about the future of Asian American psychology. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. American History (an introduction)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David Edwin

    I et letforståeligt engelsk giver professor David Nye en fængende præsentation af amerikansk historie fra den tidlige kolonisationsperiode til præsident Obama. Bogen giver et helhedsportræt af perioderne og inkluderer til hver periode en kortfattet præsentation af kultur- og litteraturhistorien....

  6. History of American Education Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boers, David

    2007-01-01

    This book depicts the evolution of American educational history from 1630 to the present. The book highlights how ideological managers have shaped society and, because schools mirror society, have thus had a profound impact on education and schooling. Five common areas of study - philosophy, politics, economics, social sciences, and religion -…

  7. Women in Latin American History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrin, Asuncion

    1981-01-01

    Presents a bibliography and suggests a number of topics around which a college level history course on Latin American women could be organized. Course topics include migration of women, definition of sex roles, legal status of women, women's work and society, feminism, politics, religion, women and the family, and women's education and…

  8. Teaching American History in a Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri; Carl, Ed.; Davis, James, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This comprehensive resource is an invaluable aid for adding a global dimension to students' understanding of American history. It includes a wide range of materials from scholarly articles and reports to original syllabi and ready-to-use lesson plans to guide teachers in enlarging the frame of introductory American history courses to an…

  9. Teaching American History Evaluation: Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Phyllis; Tseng, Fannie; Humphrey, Daniel; Gillespie, Marilyn; Yee, Kaily

    2011-01-01

    In 2001, Congress established the Teaching American History (TAH) program, which seeks to improve student achievement by improving teachers' knowledge, understanding, and appreciation of traditional American history as a separate subject within the core curriculum. Under this program, grants are awarded to local education agencies (LEAs), which…

  10. History of cluster structure in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brink, D M

    2008-01-01

    This contribution focuses on the history of clustering in nuclei. Elementary alpha models treat light 4-n nuclei as systems of alpha-particles obeying Bose Einstein statistics. These models neglect the internal structure of the alphas and effects of the Pauli principle between the nucleons in the alpha clusters are taken into account by introducing a short range repulsion between the clusters. The orthogonality condition model and excluded state model treat the alphas as elementary particles, but include effects of the Pauli principle in a more microscopic way. Wheeler's resonating group method is a fully microscopic theory for calculating properties of cluster systems. It makes simplifying assumptions about the internal structure of the clusters but takes the Pauli principle explicitly. Hartree-Fock theory can be used for a microscopic theory of nuclear structure but it is not suitable for light nuclei because there is no well defined mean field. Margenau's microscopic cluster model avoids this problem by using trial wave functions which are antisymmetrized products of parametrized single particle wave functions

  11. The Farm in American History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shideler, James H.

    1991-01-01

    Explores the family farm as an economic institution and cultural symbol in U.S. history. Explains how farms worked as economic units. Contrasts the idyllic family farm against realities of business failures and family problems. Examines the family farm's role in shaping the U.S. character and asks what its essential demise will mean. (CH)

  12. Reconstructing Native American population history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, David; Patterson, Nick; Campbell, Desmond; Tandon, Arti; Mazieres, Stéphane; Ray, Nicolas; Parra, Maria V; Rojas, Winston; Duque, Constanza; Mesa, Natalia; García, Luis F; Triana, Omar; Blair, Silvia; Maestre, Amanda; Dib, Juan C; Bravi, Claudio M; Bailliet, Graciela; Corach, Daniel; Hünemeier, Tábita; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Salzano, Francisco M; Petzl-Erler, María Luiza; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Riba, Laura; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Lopez-Alarcón, Mardia; Coral-Vazquez, Ramón; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan Carlos; Contreras, Alejandra V; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Gómez-Vázquez, Maria José; Molina, Julio; Carracedo, Angel; Salas, Antonio; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Witonsky, David B; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Sukernik, Rem I; Osipova, Ludmila; Fedorova, Sardana A; Vasquez, René; Villena, Mercedes; Moreau, Claudia; Barrantes, Ramiro; Pauls, David; Excoffier, Laurent; Bedoya, Gabriel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Larrouy, Georges; Klitz, William; Labuda, Damian; Kidd, Judith; Kidd, Kenneth; Di Rienzo, Anna; Freimer, Nelson B; Price, Alkes L; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2012-08-16

    The peopling of the Americas has been the subject of extensive genetic, archaeological and linguistic research; however, central questions remain unresolved. One contentious issue is whether the settlement occurred by means of a single migration or multiple streams of migration from Siberia. The pattern of dispersals within the Americas is also poorly understood. To address these questions at a higher resolution than was previously possible, we assembled data from 52 Native American and 17 Siberian groups genotyped at 364,470 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Here we show that Native Americans descend from at least three streams of Asian gene flow. Most descend entirely from a single ancestral population that we call 'First American'. However, speakers of Eskimo-Aleut languages from the Arctic inherit almost half their ancestry from a second stream of Asian gene flow, and the Na-Dene-speaking Chipewyan from Canada inherit roughly one-tenth of their ancestry from a third stream. We show that the initial peopling followed a southward expansion facilitated by the coast, with sequential population splits and little gene flow after divergence, especially in South America. A major exception is in Chibchan speakers on both sides of the Panama isthmus, who have ancestry from both North and South America.

  13. Reconstructing Native American Population History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, David; Patterson, Nick; Campbell, Desmond; Tandon, Arti; Mazieres, Stéphane; Ray, Nicolas; Parra, Maria V.; Rojas, Winston; Duque, Constanza; Mesa, Natalia; García, Luis F.; Triana, Omar; Blair, Silvia; Maestre, Amanda; Dib, Juan C.; Bravi, Claudio M.; Bailliet, Graciela; Corach, Daniel; Hünemeier, Tábita; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Salzano, Francisco M.; Petzl-Erler, María Luiza; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Riba, Laura; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Lopez-Alarcón, Mardia; Coral-Vazquez, Ramón; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan Carlos; Contreras, Alejandra V.; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Gómez-Vázquez, María José; Molina, Julio; Carracedo, Ángel; Salas, Antonio; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Witonsky, David B.; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Sukernik, Rem I.; Osipova, Ludmila; Fedorova, Sardana; Vasquez, René; Villena, Mercedes; Moreau, Claudia; Barrantes, Ramiro; Pauls, David; Excoffier, Laurent; Bedoya, Gabriel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Dugoujon, Jean Michel; Larrouy, Georges; Klitz, William; Labuda, Damian; Kidd, Judith; Kidd, Kenneth; Rienzo, Anna Di; Freimer, Nelson B.; Price, Alkes L.; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    The peopling of the Americas has been the subject of extensive genetic, archaeological and linguistic research; however, central questions remain unresolved1–5. One contentious issue is whether the settlement occurred via a single6–8 or multiple streams of migration from Siberia9–15. The pattern of dispersals within the Americas is also poorly understood. To address these questions at higher resolution than was previously possible, we assembled data from 52 Native American and 17 Siberian groups genotyped at 364,470 single nucleotide polymorphisms. We show that Native Americans descend from at least three streams of Asian gene flow. Most descend entirely from a single ancestral population that we call “First American”. However, speakers of Eskimo-Aleut languages from the Arctic inherit almost half their ancestry from a second stream of Asian gene flow, and the Na-Dene-speaking Chipewyan from Canada inherit roughly one-tenth of their ancestry from a third stream. We show that the initial peopling followed a southward expansion facilitated by the coast, with sequential population splits and little gene flow after divergence, especially in South America. A major exception is in Chibchan-speakers on both sides of the Panama Isthmus, who have ancestry from both North and South America. PMID:22801491

  14. Situational or Personal: Interest in American History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Victoria Caterina

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to investigate how individuals with a stated interest in American history described their interest. Understanding interest and the factors influencing interest development in a particular content is important as personal interest has been described as "having a critical role in the learning and development of…

  15. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Mack McKinney (left), chief, Programs Resources Management, and Delores Abraham (right), with the Astronaut office, flank one of the posters decorating the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. McKinney is chairperson for the event.

  16. “American” Pictures and (Trans-National Iconographies: Mapping Interpictorial Clusters in American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo J. Hebel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Udo J. Hebel examines the recent critical history of visual cultures in American Studies in his essay “‘American’ Pictures and (Trans-National Iconographies: Mapping Interpictorial Clusters in American Studies,” focusing his analysis specifically on “political photography” and the concurrency of contexts that inform his reading of the history of US presidential images. This beautifully researched article, previously published in American Studies Today: New Research Agendas (Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter, 2014, takes up questions related to “tensions” between disciplinary concerns and transdisciplinary potentialities for interpreting the representation of the political inside the framework of transnational American Studies.

  17. Chinese/American Physicists: A Transnational History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuoyue

    2011-03-01

    As part of a broader project on ``Chinese/American Scientists: Transnational Science during the Cold War and Beyond,'' this paper examines the movements of American-trained Chinese physicists following the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949. While a majority of these physicists chose to stay in the US (the ``stayees''), a number went back to China in the 1950s (the ``returnees'') against many obstacles during the McCarthy era. After the reopening of US-China relations in the 1970s, the two groups joined hands in promoting China-US scientific and educational exchanges, leading eventually to the coming to the US of a new generation of Chinese physics students and the return to China of some of the original ``stayees.'' This transnational history of Chinese/American physicists aims to illustrate the nature and extent of the Americanization of international science and the internationalization of American science in the post-World War II era. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. SES-1026879.

  18. 77 FR 5375 - National African American History Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... History Month, we celebrate the rich legacy of African Americans and honor the remarkable contributions... History,'' invites us to pay special tribute to the role African American women have played in shaping the... National African American History Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A...

  19. Representing African American Women in U.S. History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…

  20. The African-American History of Martha's Vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Elaine

    1993-01-01

    Reports on research into African American history and experiences in Martha's Vineyard (Massachusetts). Examines primary sources and oral traditions of African American cultural and social history from 1703 to the present. Discusses African American sailors, race relations, and contributions by African American individuals to the community. (CFR)

  1. History of the american college health association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Following Dr Edward Hitchcock's lead at Amherst College in 1861, soon other institutions of higher education established physical education departments that evolved into independent college health programs. As the field of college health expanded, leaders from numerous campuses began meeting to share information and discuss formation of a national organization. As a result, the American Student Health Association was founded in 1920 to promote campus health care for students and advance the interests of college health. The name was changed to the American College Health Association in 1948. The past history of this organization has been well documented in the literature, so this review will focus more on ACHA's accomplishments over the past 20 years.(1)(,) (2)(,) (3)(,) (4).

  2. Merging history of three bimodal clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurogordato, S.; Sauvageot, J. L.; Bourdin, H.; Cappi, A.; Benoist, C.; Ferrari, C.; Mars, G.; Houairi, K.

    2011-01-01

    We present a combined X-ray and optical analysis of three bimodal galaxy clusters selected as merging candidates at z ~ 0.1. These targets are part of MUSIC (MUlti-Wavelength Sample of Interacting Clusters), which is a general project designed to study the physics of merging clusters by means of multi-wavelength observations. Observations include spectro-imaging with XMM-Newton EPIC camera, multi-object spectroscopy (260 new redshifts), and wide-field imaging at the ESO 3.6 m and 2.2 m telescopes. We build a global picture of these clusters using X-ray luminosity and temperature maps together with galaxy density and velocity distributions. Idealized numerical simulations were used to constrain the merging scenario for each system. We show that A2933 is very likely an equal-mass advanced pre-merger ~200 Myr before the core collapse, while A2440 and A2384 are post-merger systems (~450 Myr and ~1.5 Gyr after core collapse, respectively). In the case of A2384, we detect a spectacular filament of galaxies and gas spreading over more than 1 h-1 Mpc, which we infer to have been stripped during the previous collision. The analysis of the MUSIC sample allows us to outline some general properties of merging clusters: a strong luminosity segregation of galaxies in recent post-mergers; the existence of preferential axes - corresponding to the merging directions - along which the BCGs and structures on various scales are aligned; the concomitance, in most major merger cases, of secondary merging or accretion events, with groups infalling onto the main cluster, and in some cases the evidence of previous merging episodes in one of the main components. These results are in good agreement with the hierarchical scenario of structure formation, in which clusters are expected to form by successive merging events, and matter is accreted along large-scale filaments. Based on data obtained with the European Southern Observatory, Chile (programs 072.A-0595, 075.A-0264, and 079.A-0425

  3. The twentieth century: an American sexual history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuczka, D

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the history of American sexuality in the 20th century. Section 1 reveals how the nation dealt with the economic technological and social effects of industrialization at the start of the century. Section 2 examines the second decade of the century, which was characterized by the emergence of social and feminist theorists such as Sigmund Freud, who reevaluated the meaning of sex and sexuality beyond the procreative framework. Section 3 explores the shift in sexual behaviors and attitudes, which began during the 1920s. Practices like dating, necking, and petting became part of growing up and a real form of sexuality education. Sections 4 and 5, respectively, examine American sexuality during the Great Depression and the changes in the sexual landscape during the 1940s. Section 6 offers a glimpse on sexuality in the pop culture decade, when television entered American homes. In this period sexual ethics became a hotly debated issue. Section 7 examines the effect of scientific research on female sexuality. Institutional breakthroughs on human sexuality in 1970s are considered in section 8. During this decade, a new goal for sexual education emerged: the promotion of sexual health. Section 9 reviews the issue of AIDS amidst religious-political extremism, which used the epidemic to advance an anti-homosexuality agenda and push abstinence education in schools. Section 10 describes American sexuality at the end of the 20th century, the availability of school-based sexuality education programs, the public response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, sexuality and politics, and the role of the Internet.

  4. North American box turtles: A natural history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, C. Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    Once a familiar backyard visitor in many parts of the United States and Mexico, the box turtle is losing the battle against extinction. In North American Box Turtles, C. Kenneth Dodd, Jr., has written the first book-length natural history of the twelve species and subspecies of this endangered animal. This volume includes comprehensive information on the species’ evolution, behavior, courtship and reproduction, habitat use, diet, population structure, systematics, and disease. Special features include color photos of all species, subspecies, and their habitats; a simple identification guide to both living and fossil species; and a summary of information on fossil Terrapene and Native uses of box turtles. End-of-chapter sections highlight future research directions, including the need for long-term monitoring and observation of box turtles within their natural habitat and conservation applications. A glossary and a bibliography of literature on box turtles accompany the text.

  5. Eugenics and public health in American history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernick, M S

    1997-01-01

    Supporters of eugenics, the powerful early 20th-century movement for improving human heredity, often attacked that era's dramatic improvements in public health and medicine for preserving the lives of people they considered hereditarily unfit. Eugenics and public health also battled over whether heredity played a significant role in infectious diseases. However, American public health and eugenics had much in common as well. Eugenic methods often were modeled on the infection control techniques of public health. The goals, values, and concepts of disease of these two movements also often overlapped. This paper sketches some of the key similarities and differences between eugenics and public health in the United States, and it examines how their relationship was shaped by the interaction of science and culture. The results demonstrate that eugenics was not an isolated movement whose significance is confined to the histories of genetics and pseudoscience, but was instead an important and cautionary part of past public health and a general medical history as well. PMID:9366633

  6. Symptom-Based Clustering in Chronic Rhinosinusitis Relates to History of Aspirin Sensitivity and Postsurgical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divekar, Rohit; Patel, Neil; Jin, Jay; Hagan, John; Rank, Matthew; Lal, Devyani; Kita, Hirohito; O'Brien, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms burden in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) may be assessed by interviews or by means of validated tools such as the 22-item SinoNasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22). However, when only the total SNOT-22 scores are used, the pattern of symptom distribution and heterogeneity in patient symptoms is lost. To use a standardized symptom assessment tool (SNOT-22) on preoperative symptoms to understand symptom heterogeneity in CRS and to aid in characterization of distinguishing clinical features between subgroups. This was a retrospective review of 97 surgical patients with CRS. Symptom-based clusters were derived on the basis of presurgical SNOT-22 scores using unsupervised analysis and network graphs. Comparison between clusters was performed for clinical and demographic parameters, postsurgical symptom scores, and presence or absence of a history of aspirin sensitivity. Unsupervised analysis reveals coclustering of specific symptoms in the SNOT-22 tool. Using symptom-based clustering, patients with CRS were stratified into severe overall (mean total score, 90.8), severe sinonasal (score, 62), moderate sinonasal (score, 40), moderate nonsinonasal (score, 37) and mild sinonasal (score, 16) clusters. The last 2 clusters were associated with lack of history of aspirin sensitivity. The first cluster had a rapid relapse in symptoms postoperatively, and the last cluster demonstrated minimal symptomatic improvement after surgery. Symptom-based clusters in CRS reveal a distinct grouping of symptom burden that may relate to aspirin sensitivity and treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sacred and Profane American History: Does It Exist in Textbooks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Tony Waters, a sociologist at California State University, Chico, has raised an interesting issue about the intellectual conflict some of his students experienced when they arrived on campus and enrolled in American history classes. He reported students were perplexed to find there were two kinds of American history--the version they learned in…

  8. Nostalgia and Educational History: An American Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousmaniere, Kate

    2017-01-01

    This essay examines the way in which nostalgia informs the 1953 painting of a school setting by the popular American artist Norman Rockwell. "The Girl with Black Eye", the cover image of the American popular magazine "The Saturday Evening Post" on 23 May 1953, draws on traditional American iconography of the disciplining of…

  9. What's Wrong with the History of American Jewish Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Benjamin M.

    2005-01-01

    The history of education is a worthwhile pursuit within the study of history writ-large, for education is a powerful cultural device that has been manipulated for a variety of social, political, and economic purposes. So, why is it the case that little work has been done to date on the history of American Jewish schooling? This article assesses…

  10. Teaching and Learning African American History in a Multiracial Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikkatur, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The author explores the challenges of teaching and learning African American history, a history fraught with uncomfortable implications about contemporary race relations and race-based inequalities. Drawing on various theories of anti-oppressive education, and using data from an ethnographic study conducted in one history classroom, the author…

  11. Mexican Americans: A Brief Look at Their History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Julian

    This short survey begins with a definition of the Mexican American and some of the questions asked by the general public about his culture and aims. It outlines the history of the United States' involvement with Mexico and explains the experience of the Mexican Americans after the end of the Mexican War in 1848. Their ethnic origins and the rich…

  12. 78 FR 8347 - National African American History Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... unfulfilled. For African Americans, it was a dream denied until 150 years ago, when a great emancipator called... National African American History Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation In America, we share a dream that lies at the heart of our founding: that no matter who you are...

  13. The Zoot Suit Riots: Exploring Social Issues in American History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, John J.

    2013-01-01

    The Zoot Suit Riots provide students with a case study of social unrest in American history. The influx of Latinos into the Los Angeles area prior to World War II created high levels of social unrest between Mexican Americans, military servicemen, and local residences. With large numbers of soldiers stationed in the area during the Second World…

  14. Teaching African-American History in the Age of Obama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    When the author proposed a spring course on major topics in African-American history, drawing a large enrollment was her chief concern. She had previously taught the course under a different title at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, a campus with a sizable African-American presence among students and faculty members. She now teaches…

  15. Social Studies: Great Debates in American History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Marsha

    This elective course in American Studies, one of a series revised to fit the quinmester organization of schools, is intended for 10th through 12th grade students. The aim of the course is for students to develop their capacity to examine and make judgements about controversial issues of the past and present. Emphasis is on an analysis of selected…

  16. The American Revolution. An Eyewitness History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, David F.

    While the American Revolution officially began in Lexington, Massachusetts, in April 1775, the seeds of rebellion had been sown for decades. The struggle for representation in the British Parliament left many colonists eager to seek out independence. This book provides hundreds of firsthand accounts of the period from diary entries, letters,…

  17. Asian American History: Reflections on Imperialism, Immigration, and "The Body."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Catherine Ceniza

    2000-01-01

    Draws on a historical study of the immigration of nurses from the Philippines to the United States and other countries to illustrate the prevalence of stereotypes in images of Asian American history and to show how to confront stereotypes in the writing of history. (SLD)

  18. The American Psychiatric Association and the history of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshbein, Laura

    2011-09-01

    The history committee within the American Psychiatric Association was actively involved in the history of psychiatry in the early decades of the twentieth century, as well as from 1942 to 2009.This paper explores the role of this committee in the context of changes in the psychiatric profession over the twentieth century.

  19. Evaluating American History Teachers' Professional Development: Effects on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Paz, Susan; Malkus, Nathaniel; Monte-Sano, Chauncey; Montanaro, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    The United States government has invested nearly one billion dollars in funding to professional historians and history educators across the country since 2000 to strengthen the teaching of American history in elementary and secondary schools, yet we know little about how these programs impact student learning. Using data from one such Teaching…

  20. Mapping Early American History: Beyond What Happened Where

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milson, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    American history demands to be mapped. The stories of exploration, the colonies, the Louisiana Purchase, and so on are incomplete without maps to locate historical places, events, and conflicts. Yet maps can do more for the history teacher than simply illustrating what happened where or what territory was acquired when. Maps also provide clues…

  1. 76 FR 6519 - National African American History Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... and women have persevered to enrich our national life and bend the arc of history toward justice. From... justice and equality laid out by our forbearers. In the Emancipation Proclamation, President Abraham... to climb out of poverty. During National African American History Month, we recognize the...

  2. KSC kicks off African-American History Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Michelle Amos, mistress of ceremonies for the kick-off of African-American History Month, works with the audience to assist them in the pronunciation of a few token words in native Swahili. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  3. American History Lessons in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrupski, Adam

    2002-01-01

    A committee of secondary school and college educators met in 2001 to develop content standards for teaching public school history. Adam Scrupski came away from that meeting amazed at the arrogance with which they imposed on New Jersey students, the firmly held belief that the story of America is predominantly one of capitalist, imperialist…

  4. A Brief History of American Drug Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musto, David F.

    1991-01-01

    Traces the history of drug control in the United States from the extensive consumption of opium, heroin, and cocaine before World War I to the popularity of marijuana and LSD during the 1960s. Discusses public concern over drug use that seems to peak following periods of widespread drug use that is linked to foreign influences. (DK)

  5. Explorations in Latin American economic history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López Arnaut, Javier

    2017-01-01

    More than in other regions, the long-term economic development of Latin America has been used to exemplify how historical legacies shape the present. This thesis takes a closer look into some of these legacies by examining four major economic subjects of the history of the region: fiscal

  6. American Higher Education: A History. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    The roots of controversy surrounding higher education in the US extend deep into the past. This original, incisive history goes far in offering a needed sense of perspective on current debates over such issues as access, costs, academic quality, social equity, and curricula. Eminently readable and always lively, this timely historical account is…

  7. A Short History of American Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, DC.

    This document traces the U.S. labor movement's history, documents its achievements, and describes its goals. The labor movement played a central role in the elevation of the U.S. standard of living through benefits negotiated by unions, such as vacations with pay, pensions, health and welfare protection, and grievance and arbitration procedures.…

  8. Native American History in a Box: A New Approach to Teaching Native American Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Emory C.; Hitt, Austin M.; Schipper, Jason A.; Jones, Adam M.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the Native American History in a Box curriculum which is designed to introduce elementary and middle-level students to Native American cultures. The curriculum consists of a five day unit addressing the following concepts pertaining to Native American Nations: settlements, tools, sustenance, pottery, and contact with…

  9. Native Americans in Cold War Public Diplomacy: Indian Politics, American History, and the US Information Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This essay examines the depiction of Native Americans by the US Information Agency (USIA), the bureau charged with explaining American politics to the international public during the Cold War. In the 1950s and 1960s, the USIA broadcast the message that Americans had begun to acknowledge their nation's history of conquest and were working to…

  10. Space-time clusters of breast cancer using residential histories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Meliker, Jaymie R; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2014-01-01

    cancer existed in space and time in Denmark, using 33 years of residential histories. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of 3138 female cases from the Danish Cancer Registry, diagnosed with breast cancer in 2003 and two independent control groups of 3138 women each, randomly...... selected from the Civil Registration System. Residential addresses of cases and controls from 1971 to 2003 were collected from the Civil Registration System and geo-coded. Q-statistics were used to identify space-time clusters of breast cancer. All analyses were carried out with both control groups...

  11. History of science and American science policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuoyue; Oreskes, Naomi

    2008-06-01

    Historians of science have participated actively in debates over American science policy in the post-World War II period in a variety of ways, but their impact has been more to elucidate general concepts than to effect specific policy changes. Personal experiences, in the case of the debate over global warming, have demonstrated both the value and the limits of such involvement for the making of public policy. To be effective, historians of science need to strive for clarity in public expression, to accept the importance of engaging with the public at all levels and through diverse media, and, above all, to recognize that the nature of such debates will make normal scholarly nuance hard to achieve. Moreover, in the current political climate, historians may be surprised to find themselves defending sciences, when the usual stance of historians is to be critical.

  12. The checkered history of American psychiatric epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Allan V; Grob, Gerald N

    2011-12-01

    American psychiatry has been fascinated with statistics ever since the specialty was created in the early nineteenth century. Initially, psychiatrists hoped that statistics would reveal the benefits of institutional care. Nevertheless, their fascination with statistics was far removed from the growing importance of epidemiology generally. The impetus to create an epidemiology of mental disorders came from the emerging social sciences, whose members were concerned with developing a scientific understanding of individual and social behavior and applying it to a series of pressing social problems. Beginning in the 1920s, the interest of psychiatric epidemiologists shifted to the ways that social environments contributed to the development of mental disorders. This emphasis dramatically changed after 1980 when the policy focus of psychiatric epidemiology became the early identification and prevention of mental illness in individuals. This article reviews the major developments in psychiatric epidemiology over the past century and a half. The lack of an adequate classification system for mental illness has precluded the field of psychiatric epidemiology from providing causal understandings that could contribute to more adequate policies to remediate psychiatric disorders. Because of this gap, the policy influence of psychiatric epidemiology has stemmed more from institutional and ideological concerns than from knowledge about the causes of mental disorders. Most of the problems that have bedeviled psychiatric epidemiology since its inception remain unresolved. In particular, until epidemiologists develop adequate methods to measure mental illnesses in community populations, the policy contributions of this field will not be fully realized. © 2011 Milbank Memorial Fund.

  13. History of the American Board of Ophthalmology Oral Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamming, Nancy A; Kline, Lanning B; Keltner, John C; Orcutt, James C; Farber, Martha J

    2016-09-01

    The oral examination has been an integral part of certification by the American Board of Ophthalmology (ABO) since its founding in 1916. An overview is provided regarding the history, evolution, and application of new technology for the oral examination. This part of the certifying process allows the ABO to assess candidates for a variety of competencies, including communication skills and professionalism. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The art of Indigenous Americans and American art history: a century of exhibitions

    OpenAIRE

    Berlo, Janet Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The indigenous arts of the United States have long stood in a vexed relationship with the canons of American art history. This brief essay covers only the highlights of this relationship, by considering some major exhibits and installations of Native art in American art museums (and, occasionally, in other exhibition spaces) during the past century. I make these comments as an art historian who has for more than three decades focused on Native American art, with some contributions to others a...

  15. The American Council on Education for Journalism: An Accrediting History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Earl Lewis

    It was the purpose of this study to present an evolutionary history of the American Council on Education for Journalism (ACEJ) and to draw some conclusions about some issues now facing the council. Data for the study came from minutes of councils and associations involved in journalism accrediting, personal files, interviews, and other sources.…

  16. Consensus and Difference: American Students' Perspectives on the National History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Yongjun; Todd, Reese; Lan, William

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to re-examine the consensus and difference in American students' understanding of national history, on which there were divergent research results. With three sets of questions that examined students' perspectives of the collective memory, historical significance, and credibility of historical sources, we found that…

  17. Hate Speech: The History of an American Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Samuel

    Noting that no other country in the world offers protection to offensive speech, this book provides a comprehensive account of the history of the hate speech controversy in the United States. The book examines the issue, from the conflicts over the Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s and American Nazi groups in the 1930s, to the famous Skokie, Illinois…

  18. Exploring 350 Years of Jewish American History on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Michael J.; Cruz, Barbara C.

    2005-01-01

    The recent Library of Congress exhibition, From Haven to Home: 350 Years of Jewish Life in America, has sparked renewed interest in the history of Jews in the United States. The collection featured more than 200 documents, images, and artifacts that chronicle the Jewish American experience. In exhibit from September through December 2004, From…

  19. Ancient DNA perspectives on American colonization and population history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, Jennifer A; Bolnick, Deborah A; Tackney, Justin; O'Rourke, Dennis H

    2011-12-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) analyses have proven to be important tools in understanding human population dispersals, settlement patterns, interactions between prehistoric populations, and the development of regional population histories. Here, we review the published results of sixty-three human populations from throughout the Americas and compare the levels of diversity and geographic patterns of variation in the ancient samples with contemporary genetic variation in the Americas in order to investigate the evolution of the Native American gene pool over time. Our analysis of mitochondrial haplogroup frequencies and prehistoric population genetic diversity presents a complex evolutionary picture. Although the broad genetic structure of American prehistoric populations appears to have been established relatively early, we nevertheless identify examples of genetic discontinuity over time in select regions. We discuss the implications this finding may have for our interpretation of the genetic evidence for the initial colonization of the Americas and its subsequent population history. 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Tabanidae (Diptera) of the American Museum of Natural History Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Augusto Loureiro

    2016-07-11

    A checklist of Tabanidae in the American Museum of Natural History was compiled. Over 9,000 specimens were studied. The currently accepted taxa names have been listed based on general catalogs and recent publications. Where possible, modern locality names are given and determiners of each species are provided. A total of 882 species are listed in alphabetical order; including 52 primary and 219 secondary types. The collection includes a substantial global representation of species records for this family.

  1. The Archives of the History of American Psychology: An Interview with David B. Baker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Loreto R.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with David B. Baker, Director of the Archives of the History of American Psychology. Covers topics such as: Baker's interest in the history of psychology, his work at the Archives of the History of American Psychology, and recommendations for teachers when addressing history in non-history courses. (CMK)

  2. Population genetics, history, and health patterns in native americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Connie J; Hunley, Keith; Cole, Suzanne; Long, Jeffrey C

    2004-01-01

    Over the past two decades, detailed studies of mitochondrial DNA and the Y chromosome have increased our understanding of the history and population genetics of Native American populations. Variation in autosomal DNA has also been investigated, but to a more limited extent. A low level of genetic diversity in Native American populations is a robust finding from all lines of evidence. In contrast to the previous multiple migration scenarios for the Pleistocene peopling of the Americas, it now seems that a single migration satisfactorily explains the genetic data. Native Americans show greater genetic similarity to populations in east central Asia than they do to the current easternmost Siberian populations. Recent studies on the Y chromosome indicate a date of entry (about 17,000 years ago) into the Americas roughly consistent with the archaeological record. Native Americans experienced two episodes of reduced population size: one with the peopling of the Americas and the other with European contact. The former is the more important determinant for the number of gene lineages and founding haplotypes seen in populations. It may also be an important determinant of the genetic variation underlying common complex diseases, and especially diabetes. The tribal structure of contemporary Native American populations is relevant to the distribution of rare Mendelian disorders because most tribes constitute relatively small, semi-independent gene pools. This leads us to expect that the allelic spectrum for Mendelian diseases will be simple within individual tribes but complex for Native Americans as a whole.

  3. Myth as History, History as Myth: Family and Church Among Italo-Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passi, Michael M.

    1975-01-01

    Asserts that the history of white ethnics has been written far too long as the story of disorganization and disintegration. Argues that the themes of rebirth and creativity should be explored, discarding the myth of the American as a new man emerging after stripping away Old World traditions and institutions. (Author/RJ)

  4. Reading, Interpreting, and Teaching African American History: Examining How African American History Influences the Curricular and Pedagogical Decisions of Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, LaGarrett Jarriel

    2012-01-01

    African American history and how it is taught in classroom spaces have been a point of contention with activists, historians, and educators for decades. In it current form, African American history narratives often are ambiguous and truncated, leaving students with a disjointed construction about U.S. history. Additionally, the pedagogical…

  5. History of Publications from the American Otological Society: A Celebration of the 150-Year History of the American Otological Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Lawrence R

    2018-04-01

    : The American Otological Society (AOS) has been on the forefront of advancing the science of auditory and vestibular physiology, and art of ear medicine since its founding in 1868. For 150 years, through its publications, the AOS has provided a critical forum to debate these advances, highlighting treatment successes and failures, and served a place to celebrate its history. This historical review provides an overview of the publications of the AOS since its founding: the Transactions of the annual meeting from 1868 through 2006, Treatises on Otosclerosis (1928-1935), the History of the Society from the 100 and 125th anniversary, and the sponsored Society journals-American Journal of Otology (1879-1883, 1979-2000) and Otology & Neurotology (2001-present).

  6. The Depiction of Native Americans in Recent (1991-1998) Secondary American History Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Antonio R.

    As a follow-up to studies by R. Costo and J. Henry (1970) and J. Loewen (1995), this study examined 12 current secondary level U.S. history textbooks to evaluate their accuracy in depicting Native Americans. The criteria embodied an authenticity guideline based upon the "Five Great Values" (generosity and sharing, respect for elders and…

  7. 75 FR 52318 - Presidential Academies for American History and Civics Education; Congressional Academies for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Presidential Academies for American History and Civics Education; Congressional Academies for Students of American History and Civics Education AGENCY: Office of Innovation and... Presidential Academies for American History and Civics Education, and 34 CFR 75.261(c)(2), as it applies to the...

  8. 77 FR 52058 - Notice of Inventory Completion: American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY... completion of an inventory of human remains in the possession of the American Museum of Natural History, New... following sentence: Officials of the American Museum of Natural History have determined that, pursuant to 25...

  9. 76 FR 43712 - Notice of Inventory Completion: American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The American Museum of Natural History... human remains may contact the American Museum of Natural History. Repatriation of the human remains to...

  10. The American Indian Reader: History. Book Four of a Series in Educational Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costo, Rupert; Henry, Jeannette, Ed.

    In an attempt to rewrite American history incorporating "long hidden facts" pertinent to the American Indian, this book endeavors to relate the "truth in history" and make "humanity see itself face to face without fear and in spite of the pangs of conscience". Each of 7 chapters addresses a specific aspect of American history relevant to the…

  11. Digital History: Using the Internet to Enhance African American Studies in the Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuerell, Scott; Jaeger, Matt

    2015-01-01

    The authors discuss how high school students participated in a unit in which they learned about African American history in a 1:1 computer classroom--in particular, how they were able to use digital history to learn about a variety of African American leaders who are not frequently covered in the traditional American History textbook. In addition,…

  12. Online Astronomy Resources from the American Museum of Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Robert

    2010-02-01

    The American Museum of Natural History, one of the world's largest natural history museums, is the locus of a rich array of scientific research, exhibition and educational resources through its Department of Astrophysics, its Rose Center for Earth and Space and its Hall of Meteorites. For the past decade, the Museum's National Center for Science Literacy, Education and Technology has leveraged these assets to create a panoply of web-based resources for students, teachers and the general public. This session will review several of these resources, including the Digital Universe (a three-dimensional mapping of the Universe); The Solar System (an online graduate course for K-12 teachers); multimedia highlighting searches for exoplanets and ultra-high-energy cosmic rays; Journey to the Stars (a DVD version of the current planetarium show); and the astronomy section of Ology (a website for children ages 7 and up). A copy of the Journey to the Stars DVD will be provided to all attendees. )

  13. The surprising evolutionary history of South American deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti; González, Susana; Maldonado, Jesus E

    2008-10-01

    To clarify the systematic relationships and evolutionary history of South American deer, we conducted a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis using representative species of all of the genera of Neotropical deer. Our results revealed high levels of molecular and cytogenetic divergence between groups of morphologically similar species of brockets (Mazama), and suggest a polyphyletic origin. At least eight ancestral forms of deer invaded South America during the late Pliocene (2.5-3 MYA), and members of the red brockets had an independent early explosive diversification soon after their ancestor arrived there, giving rise to a number of morphologically cryptic species.

  14. Featured Image: Violent History of the Toothbrush Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    This stunning composite image shows the components of the galaxy cluster RX J0603.3+4214, located at a redshift of z=0.225. This image contains Chandra X-ray data (red), radio data from the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (green), and optical from the Subaru Telescope (background). The shape of the enormous (6.5 million light-years across!) radio relic, shown in green, gives this collection of galaxies its nickname: the Toothbrush Cluster. A team of scientists led by Myungkook James Jee (Yonsei University and University of California, Davis) used Hubble and Subaru to study weak gravitational lensing by the Toothbrush Cluster, in order to determine how the clusters mass is distributed. Jee and collaborators found that most of the dark-matter mass is located in two large clumps on a north-south axis (shown by the white contours overlaid on the image), suggesting that the Toothbrush Cluster is the result of a past merger between two clusters. This violent merger is likely what caused the enormous Toothbrush radio relic. Check out the paper below for more information!CitationM. James Jee et al 2016 ApJ 817 179. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/817/2/179

  15. American plastic surgery and global health: a brief history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christopher D; Alkire, Blake; Martin, Christine; Semer, Nadine; Meara, John G

    2012-02-01

    Access to essential surgical care in resource-poor settings is gaining recognition as a major component of international public health efforts. As evidence is mounting about the burden of surgically treatable disease in low- and middle-income countries, so too is the evidence for the significant need for plastic surgery treatment of disease rising in these areas. American plastic surgery has a long history with international surgical efforts in resource-poor regions around the world. Early experiences were not formalized until after World War II, when a foundation partnership provided a venue for interested plastic surgeons to volunteer. These efforts progressed and advanced throughout the 1960s-1970s, but were ultimately devastated by the Vietnam War. Subsequent international plastic surgical experiences by American surgeons over the last 40 years have been largely through several nongovernmental organizations. American plastic surgical involvement in global surgery has changed significantly over the last 70 years. Although quality care is being delivered to resource-poor regions around the world, many of the challenges of regionally appropriate, sustainable care persist today.

  16. The Utilization of Local History in Teaching American Religious History: A Gilded Age and Progressive Era North Dakota Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Christopher Neal

    2013-01-01

    Teachers of college-level courses on American religious history generally leave out the importance of local and regional histories when telling the story of religion in America. The study of local history provides a fertile ground for understanding broad national trends in a local context. This dissertation focuses upon a little-studied religious…

  17. A Comparative Study of History Interests between American and Chinese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Yong-jun; She, Xiao-bo; Lan, William

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the history interests between American and Chinese college students. Research studies have consistently shown that American students have very limited knowledge on their country's history. American college students usually do better than K-12 students, but their scores are still low. To address the issue,…

  18. A history of the American Society for Clinical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Joel D.

    2009-01-01

    One hundred years ago, in 1909, the American Society for Clinical Investigation (ASCI) held its first annual meeting. The founding members based this new society on a revolutionary approach to research that emphasized newer physiological methods. In 1924 the ASCI started a new journal, the Journal of Clinical Investigation. The ASCI has also held an annual meeting almost every year. The society has long debated who could be a member, with discussions about whether members must be physicians, what sorts of research they could do, and the role of women within the society. The ASCI has also grappled with what else the society should do, especially whether it ought to take a stand on policy issues. ASCI history has reflected changing social, political, and economic contexts, including several wars, concerns about the ethics of biomedical research, massive increases in federal research funding, and an increasingly large and specialized medical environment. PMID:19348041

  19. 76 FR 9760 - Presidential Academies for Teaching of American History and Civics; Office of Innovation and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Presidential Academies for Teaching of American History and Civics; Office...: American Civics and History Education Act of 2004, 20 U.S.C. 6713. Applicable Regulations: (a) The... History and Civics; Notice Inviting Applications for New Awards for Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 Catalog of...

  20. America in the World. Materials for Using American Issues Forum in the American History Classroom, Topic VII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    This booklet of secondary level classroom strategies was developed as one in a set of materials for studying American history in light of issues identified by the American Issues Forum. Divided into four sections, the materials emphasize the meaning of the American dream, implications of belonging to a worldwide economic system, the role of the…

  1. H. Bloemsma on Groseclose and Wierich’s Internationalizing the History of American Art.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Barbara Groseclose and Jochen Wierich, eds. Internationalizing the History of American Art. Views. University Park, Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2009. 244 pp.  (Hardcover) ISBN 978-0-271-03200-9 The history of pre-1945 painting and sculpture in the United States has been predominantly written by American scholars. The essays in this volume want to supplement this perceived parochialism of American art history scholarship by addressing an aspect of the historiography...

  2. H. Bloemsma on Groseclose and Wierich’s Internationalizing the History of American Art.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Barbara Groseclose and Jochen Wierich, eds. Internationalizing the History of American Art. Views. University Park, Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2009. 244 pp.  (Hardcover ISBN 978-0-271-03200-9 The history of pre-1945 painting and sculpture in the United States has been predominantly written by American scholars. The essays in this volume want to supplement this perceived parochialism of American art history scholarship by addressing an aspect of the historiography ...

  3. Eruptive history of the Ubehebe Crater cluster, Death Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierstein, Judy; Hildreth, Wes

    2017-04-01

    A sequence of late Holocene eruptions from the Ubehebe Crater cluster in Death Valley was short-lived, emplacing several phreatomagmatic and magmatic deposits. Seven craters form the main group, which erupted along a north-south alignment 1.5 km long. At least five more make a 500-m east-west alignment west of the main crater group. One more is an isolated shallow crater 400 m south of that alignment. All erupted through Miocene fanglomerate and sandstone, which are now distributed as comminuted matrix and lithic clasts in all Ubehebe deposits. Stratigraphic evidence showing that all Ubehebe strata were emplaced within a short time interval includes: (1) deposits from the many Ubehebe vents make a multi-package sequence that conformably drapes paleo-basement topography with no erosive gullying between emplacement units; (2) several crater rims that formed early in the eruptive sequence are draped smoothly by subsequent deposits; and (3) tack-welded to agglutinated spatter and bombs that erupted at various times through the sequence remained hot enough to oxidize the overlying youngest emplacement package. In addition, all deposits sufficiently consolidated to be drilled yield reliable paleomagnetic directions, with site mean directions showing no evidence of geomagnetic secular variation. Chemical analyses of juvenile components representing every eruptive package yield a narrow range in major elements [SiO2 (48.65-50.11); MgO (4.98-6.23); K2O (2.24-2.39)] and trace elements [Rb (28-33); Sr (1513-1588); Zr (373-404)]. Despite lithologic similarities, individual fall units can be traced outward from vent by recording layer thicknesses, maximum scoria and lithic sizes, and juvenile clast textural variations. This permits reconstruction of the eruptive sequence, which produced a variety of eruptive styles. The largest and northernmost of the craters, Ubehebe Crater, is the youngest of the group. Its largely phreatomagmatic deposits drape all of the others, thicken in

  4. Case-control geographic clustering for residential histories accounting for risk factors and covariates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goovaerts Pierre

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methods for analyzing space-time variation in risk in case-control studies typically ignore residential mobility. We develop an approach for analyzing case-control data for mobile individuals and apply it to study bladder cancer in 11 counties in southeastern Michigan. At this time data collection is incomplete and no inferences should be drawn – we analyze these data to demonstrate the novel methods. Global, local and focused clustering of residential histories for 219 cases and 437 controls is quantified using time-dependent nearest neighbor relationships. Business address histories for 268 industries that release known or suspected bladder cancer carcinogens are analyzed. A logistic model accounting for smoking, gender, age, race and education specifies the probability of being a case, and is incorporated into the cluster randomization procedures. Sensitivity of clustering to definition of the proximity metric is assessed for 1 to 75 k nearest neighbors. Results Global clustering is partly explained by the covariates but remains statistically significant at 12 of the 14 levels of k considered. After accounting for the covariates 26 Local clusters are found in Lapeer, Ingham, Oakland and Jackson counties, with the clusters in Ingham and Oakland counties appearing in 1950 and persisting to the present. Statistically significant focused clusters are found about the business address histories of 22 industries located in Oakland (19 clusters, Ingham (2 and Jackson (1 counties. Clusters in central and southeastern Oakland County appear in the 1930's and persist to the present day. Conclusion These methods provide a systematic approach for evaluating a series of increasingly realistic alternative hypotheses regarding the sources of excess risk. So long as selection of cases and controls is population-based and not geographically biased, these tools can provide insights into geographic risk factors that were not specifically

  5. 75 FR 3449 - Office of Innovation and Improvement; Overview Information; Teaching American History Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ..., and appreciation of traditional American history. Grant awards assist local educational agencies (LEAs... teachers to develop a deeper understanding and appreciation of traditional American history as a separate... domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use or...

  6. 77 FR 42365 - Price for the Making American History Coin and Currency Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Price for the Making American History Coin and Currency Set AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing a price of $72.95 for the Making American History Coin and Currency Set. FOR...

  7. Learning Other People's History: Pre-Service Teachers' Developing African American Historical Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, LaGarrett Jarriel

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from the historical lens of cultural memory, I examined the development of three social studies pre-service teachers' African American history knowledge. The participants were engaged in a rigorous summer reading program dedicated to learning African American history. This qualitative case study examined both pre and post interpretations…

  8. The Depiction of Native Americans in Recent (1991-2004) Secondary American History Textbooks: How Far Have We Come?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Tony R.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined 15 secondary American history textbooks to evaluate their accuracy in depicting Native Americans as a follow-up to studies by Costo and Henry (1970) and Loewen (1995). The criteria embodied an authenticity guideline based upon the Five Great Values with a rating scale between 1 (lowest) and 5 (highest). The results indicate…

  9. National History/Transnational Themes: Inaugural Addresses and American Mythology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marie

    2004-01-01

    Amerikansk historie, amerikansk mytologi, amerikansk præsidenttaler, indsættelsestaler, civil religion......Amerikansk historie, amerikansk mytologi, amerikansk præsidenttaler, indsættelsestaler, civil religion...

  10. North American Ground Surface Temperature Histories: A Contribution to the PAGES2k North American Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareschal, J. C.; Jaume Santero, F.; Beltrami, H.

    2015-12-01

    Within the framework of the PAGES NorthAmerica2k project, three hundred and seventy three (373) North American temperature-depth profiles from boreholes deeper than 300 meters were analyzed for recent climate. To facilitate comparisons and examine the same time period, the profiles were truncated at 300 m. The ground surface temperature (GST) histories for the last 500 years were inverted from the subsurface temperature anomalies using singular value decomposition for a model of 10 temperature changes along time-intervals of increasing duration. The inversion retains four singular values and accounts for the data acquisition time difference. The reference surface temperature and geothermal gradient were estimated by linear regression to the deepest 100 meters with a 95% confidence interval. Additionally, a Monte-Carlo method was used to find the range of solutions within a maximum subsurface anomaly error determined by the root mean square between the model and the data. The GST history results for North America, given by the mean and 95% confidence interval, reveal in most cases, a warming up to 1°C - 2.5°C during the last 100-150 years.

  11. Formation history of open clusters constrained by detailed asteroseismology of red giant stars observed by Kepler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, Enrico; Lee, Yueh-Ning; García, Rafael A.; Hennebelle, Patrick; Mathur, Savita; Beck, Paul G.; Mathis, Stephane; Stello, Dennis; Bouvier, Jérôme

    2017-10-01

    Stars originate by the gravitational collapse of a turbulent molecular cloud of a diffuse medium, and are often observed to form clusters. Stellar clusters therefore play an important role in our understanding of star formation and of the dynamical processes at play. However, investigating the cluster formation is diffcult because the density of the molecular cloud undergoes a change of many orders of magnitude. Hierarchical-step approaches to decompose the problem into different stages are therefore required, as well as reliable assumptions on the initial conditions in the clouds. We report for the first time the use of the full potential of NASA Kepler asteroseismic observations coupled with 3D numerical simulations, to put strong constraints on the early formation stages of open clusters. Thanks to a Bayesian peak bagging analysis of about 50 red giant members of NGC 6791 and NGC 6819, the two most populated open clusters observed in the nominal Kepler mission, we derive a complete set of detailed oscillation mode properties for each star, with thousands of oscillation modes characterized. We therefore show how these asteroseismic properties lead us to a discovery about the rotation history of stellar clusters. Finally, our observational findings will be compared with hydrodynamical simulations for stellar cluster formation to constrain the physical processes of turbulence, rotation, and magnetic fields that are in action during the collapse of the progenitor cloud into a proto-cluster.

  12. Girls Like Us: Looking at History through the American Girl Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Sarah Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Quality historical fiction enables readers to imagine what life might have been like for a variety of people, particularly those not typically written about in history texts. Social history of an era is often of particular interest to young students. This article looks at using the American Girl Series to interest students in history and provides…

  13. Those Who Can't, Teach: The Disabling History of American Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousmaniere, Kate

    2013-01-01

    This essay is an exploratory history of American educators as viewed through the lens of disability studies. By this the author means that she is looking at the history of school teachers with disability as the primary marker of social relations, in much the same way that she and others have looked at the history of education through the primary…

  14. The Relationship between Trauma, Arrest, and Incarceration History among Black Americans: Findings from the National Survey of American Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäggi, Lena J; Mezuk, Briana; Watkins, Daphne C; Jackson, James S

    2016-11-01

    Prior research indicates an association between exposure to trauma (e.g., being victimized) and perpetration of crime, especially in the context of chronic victimization. This study examines the relationship between trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and history of arrest and incarceration among a representative sample of black Americans from the National Survey of American Life (N = 5,189). One-third had a history of arrest, and 18 percent had a history of incarceration. Frequency of trauma exposure was associated with involvement with the criminal justice system. Relative to never experiencing trauma, experiencing ≥4 traumas was associated with elevated odds of arrest (odds ratio [OR] = 4.03), being jailed (OR = 5.15), and being imprisoned (OR = 4.41), all p history of trauma (OR = 2.18, p Americans.

  15. Hispanic America to 1776. Globe Mosaic of American History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Stephen, Ed.; And Others

    This textbook examines Spanish exploration, conquest, settlement, and colonization of present-day Mexico, United States, and the Caribbean, and the conflicts and exchanges resulting from culture contact between Spaniards and Native Americans. Chapters cover: (1) first contacts in the Caribbean, enslavement of Native Americans, arrival of African…

  16. Fire resistance in American heavy timber construction history and preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Heitz, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents a history of heavy timber construction (HTC) in the United States, chronicling nearly two centuries of building history, from inception to a detailed evaluation of one of the best surviving examples of the type, with an emphasis on fire resistance. The book does not limit itself in scope to serving only as a common history. Rather, it provides critical analysis of HTC in terms of construction methods, design, technical specifications, and historical performance under fire conditions. As such, this book provides readers with a truly comprehensive understanding and exploration of heavy timber construction in the United States and its performance under fire conditions.

  17. American Military History and its Insights into Fourth Generation Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Scott A

    2006-01-01

    .... The case studies of Braddock's Campaign, the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution, and the Philippines Insurrection provide justification for the presence of the tenets of 4GW throughout...

  18. Life history patters among North American tree-feeding sawflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack; William J. Mattson

    1993-01-01

    This chapter deals broadly with the North American (NA) sawflies in the two superfamilies  Megalodontoidea (Xyelidae and Pamphiliidae, listed phylogenetically) and Tenthredinoidea (Pergidae, Argidae, Cimbicidae, Diprionidae, and...

  19. A History of Learning Communities within American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, John E.; Inkelas, Karen Kurotsuchi

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the historical development of learning communities within American higher education. We examine the forces both internal and external to higher education that contributed to and stalled the emergence of learning communities in their contemporary form.

  20. Return to Old Times: Rural Romanticism in American Education History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Donald

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the rural-urban dichotomy that regularly surfaces in educational history and argues that a full understanding of the role of cities is needed to overcome a rural romanticism that ill-serves public education policy. (CMG)

  1. History of academic advising development in american higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdykhalykova J.E.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available the article analyzes the history of the development and establishment of academic advising in the context of US higher education, defines the functions and features of the academic advising in the educational space.

  2. 77 FR 65015 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: American Museum of Natural History... Resources, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024... after that date if no additional claimants come forward. The American Museum of Natural History is...

  3. 77 FR 11567 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: American Museum of Natural History... with the cultural items should contact the American Museum of Natural History at the address below by... American Museum of Natural History that meet the definition of unassociated funerary objects under 25 U.S.C...

  4. 75 FR 58425 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: American Museum of Natural History... intent to repatriate cultural items in the possession of the American Museum of Natural History, New York... History. No known individual was identified. This individual has been identified as Native American based...

  5. Learning Historical Thinking with Oral History Interviews: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Intervention Study of Oral History Interviews in History Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Christiane; Wagner, Wolfgang; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of the oral history approach with respect to students' historical competence. A total of 35 ninth-grade classes (N = 900) in Germany were randomly assigned to one of four conditions--live, video, text, or a (nontreated) control group--in a pretest, posttest, and follow-up design. Comparing the three…

  6. American Handbooks of Music History: Breadth, Depth, and the Critique of Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Matthew Balensuela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available American music history textbooks have traditionally covered the entire history of Western music in a single volume. This approach reflects the now dominant teaching methodology at American universities of a multiple-semester survey that covers the breadth of music history from Ancient Greece to modern times. An obvious problem with a broad survey is the lack of depth on issues relevant to current musicological scholarship such as music in society, feminism, archival research, or patronage. As new approaches to teaching music history become more popular in US colleges, in part due to the “pedagogy movement” in American musicology, the canonical status of single-volume history of music is under increased scrutiny and review.

  7. A history of the American College of Medical Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterolf, Donald; Brodie, Bridget

    2011-01-01

    The American College of Medical Quality is a national organization of health care professionals who are interested in the advancement of medical quality as a field. Composed primarily of doctorate-level individuals in medicine, dentistry, and podiatry, it also includes affiliate members in preprofessional training as well as nursing. Origins of the organization date to 1973, when it was first called the American College of Utilization Review Physicians. It is formally recognized by the American Medical Association and holds a seat in its House of Delegates. The College views the advancement of medical quality as a field of study within itself and offers multiple venues for self-education, testing, and professional networking for its members. Recently, rising national awareness of quality in health care as a field of endeavor has elevated enrollment levels and increased interest in the organization.

  8. Heritage of Struggle. A History of American Working People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Howard

    The materials in this pamphlet describe the difficulties encountered by various racial and ethnic groups as they attempted to become assimilated into the American labor force. The experiences and problems faced by blacks, Jews, and immigrants from England, Ireland, the Scandinavian countries, China, Italy, and Puerto Rico are described in an…

  9. Revolutions: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Teaching Printmaking and Latin American History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiddy, Elizabeth; Woodward, Kristen T.

    2013-01-01

    As part of a U.S. Department of Education grant to expand Latin American and Caribbean Studies at Albright College, the authors of this article, one a historian and one an artist, teamed up to teach a course called Revolutions: Art and Revolution in Latin America. In the class, they proposed to combine a studio art printmaking class with Latin…

  10. New Perspectives on the History of American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Emily; Delaporte, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Examinations of the etymology of American Sign Language have typically involved superficial analyses of signs as they exist over a short period of time. While it is widely known that ASL is related to French Sign Language, there has yet to be a comprehensive study of this historic relationship between their lexicons. This article presents…

  11. American Schools and the Uses of Shame: An Ambiguous History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Peter N.; Stearns, Clio

    2017-01-01

    This article traces the uses of and attacks on shame in classroom discipline, in the United States, from the nineteenth century to the present. Shame was once routinely used in the classroom. In American society generally, the emotion came under new attack from the early nineteenth century onwards, as demeaning and contrary to human dignity; the…

  12. Ravitch Reversed: Ideology and the History of American Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukaitis, John

    2017-01-01

    Diane Ravitch's "The Death and Life of the Great American School System" (2010) and "Reign of Error" (2013) represent a significant shift in the contemporary political dialogue on education reform. The once staunch supporter of national academic standards and market-based reforms, Ravitch reversed nearly every position she…

  13. Oral History and American Advertising: How the "Pepsi Generation" Came Alive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfus, Carol; Connors, Thomas

    1985-01-01

    Described is a project in which the Archives Center of the National Museum of American History and the George Meany Memorial Archives analyzed a collection of advertising materials of the Pepsi-Cola USA company and conducted interviews to gather historically valuable information concerning the company. Valuable social history information was…

  14. Discrimination History, Backlash Fear, and Ethnic Identity among Arab Americans: Post-9/11 Snapshots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia C.; Lambert, Richard G.; Hakim-Larson, Julie

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined discrimination history, backlash fear, and ethnic identity of Arab Americans nationally at 3 times, beginning shortly after September 11, 2001. Relations between variables were moderate, and discrimination history and backlash fear were statistically significant predictors of ethnic identity. Implications for acculturation and…

  15. The Dark Ages of Education and a New Hope: Teaching Native American History in Maine Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, Donna

    2009-01-01

    In 2001, the author wrote legislation that required all public schools in Maine to teach Maine Indian history. On June 14 of that year, Gov. Angus King signed "An Act to Require Maine Native American History and Culture in Maine's Schools" into law--the first of its kind in the U.S. What makes the law unique is its requirement that…

  16. Setting out the (Un) Welcome Mat: A Portrayal of Immigration in State Standards for American History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journell, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    This article frames history education as a social construction designed to create a national identity through the inclusion, exclusion, and treatment of various societal groups. Using this lens, the author analyzes curriculum standards from nine states that annually assess student knowledge of American history to better understand the depiction of…

  17. Play and the History of American Childhood: An Interview with Steven Mintz

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Journal of Play, 2010

    2010-01-01

    An authority on the history of American children and families, Steven Mintz is a professor of history at Columbia University, where he also directs the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences Teaching Center. Previously, he was a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University and the Moores Professor of…

  18. Collaborative Complexities: Co-Authorship, Voice, and African American Rhetoric in Oral History Community Literacy Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobman, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    This co-authored article describes a community literacy oral history project involving 14 undergraduate students. It is intellectually situated at the intersection of writing studies, oral history, and African American rhetoric and distinguished by two features: 1) we were a combined team of 20 collaborators, and 2) our narrator, Frank Gilyard,…

  19. The laughing librarian a history of American library humor

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Jeanette C

    2012-01-01

    ""Should be required reading for all librarians and library-school students""--Booklist; ""a must have...recommend""--Library History Buff Blog; ""charts the largely unexplored territory of library wit and satire, both inside and outside the profession""--C&RL News.

  20. Skinheads. Shaved for Battle. A Cultural History of American Skinheads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jack B.

    The origins and history of the skinhead movement in the United States are traced, beginning with their links with skinheads in England and focusing on racist skinheads rather than the less-well-known nonracist skinheads. How skinheads have developed within the larger youth group scenes, their ideas and activities, the role of music in their…

  1. Hanoi and the American War: Two International Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey C. Stewart

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pierre Asselin, Hanoi’s Road to the Vietnam War, 1954-1965. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013. 319 pp. $55 (cloth Lien-Hang T. Nguyen, Hanoi’s War: An International History of the War for Peace in Vietnam. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2012. 444 pp. $34.95 (cloth.

  2. The History of American Settlement at Camp Atterbury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Wisconsinan ice sheet only 10,000 to 16,000 years ago ( Hedge 1997:195). * See...and Shumard’s oaks, with green ash, American elm, sycamore and red maple ( Hedge 1997:195; ERDC/CERL TR-10-3 15 Hoyoma et al. 1985:255). The...solve some of Indiana farmer’s prob- lems during the 1930s. For instance, in the 1930s, soybeans were intro- duced and it became a popular crop. In

  3. Emerging from the Shadows: The Visual Arts and Asian American History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon H Chang

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Asian American Art: A History, 1850-1970, the book from which this foreword is excerpted, is the first comprehensive study of the lives and artistic production of artists of Asian ancestry active in the United States before 1970. The publication features original essays by ten leading scholars, biographies of more than 150 artists, and over 400 reproductions of artwork, ephemera, and images of the artists. Aside from a few artists such as Dong Kingman, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Isamu Noguchi, and Yun Gee, artists of Asian ancestry have received inadequate historical attention, even though many of them received wide critical acclaim during their productive years. This pioneering work recovers the extraordinarily impressive artistic production of numerous Asian Americans, and offers richly informed interpretations of a long-neglected art history. To unravel the complexity of Asian American art expression and its vital place in American art, the texts consider aesthetics, the social structures of art production and criticism, and national and international historical contexts. Without a doubt, Asian American Art will profoundly influence our understanding of the history of art in America and the Asian American experience for years to come. Chang, Gordon H., Mark Johnson, and Paul Karlstrom, eds. Asian American Art: A History, 1850-1970. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2008. Reprinted with the permission of Stanford University Press. http://www.sup.org

  4. Emerging from the Shadows: The Visual Arts and Asian American History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon H Chang

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Asian American Art: A History, 1850-1970, the book from which this foreword is excerpted, is the first comprehensive study of the lives and artistic production of artists of Asian ancestry active in the United States before 1970. The publication features original essays by ten leading scholars, biographies of more than 150 artists, and over 400 reproductions of artwork, ephemera, and images of the artists. Aside from a few artists such as Dong Kingman, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Isamu Noguchi, and Yun Gee, artists of Asian ancestry have received inadequate historical attention, even though many of them received wide critical acclaim during their productive years. This pioneering work recovers the extraordinarily impressive artistic production of numerous Asian Americans, and offers richly informed interpretations of a long-neglected art history. To unravel the complexity of Asian American art expression and its vital place in American art, the texts consider aesthetics, the social structures of art production and criticism, and national and international historical contexts. Without a doubt, Asian American Art will profoundly influence our understanding of the history of art in America and the Asian American experience for years to come. Chang, Gordon H., Mark Johnson, and Paul Karlstrom, eds. Asian American Art: A History, 1850-1970. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2008. Reprinted with the permission of Stanford University Press. http://www.sup.org

  5. Connecting health and natural history: a failed initiative at the American Museum of Natural History, 1909-1922.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie K

    2014-10-01

    In 1909, curator Charles-Edward Winslow established a department of public health in New York City's American Museum of Natural History (AMNH). Winslow introduced public health as a biological science that connected human health-the modern sciences of physiology, hygiene, and urban sanitation-to the natural history of plants and animals. This was the only time an American museum created a curatorial department devoted to public health. The AMNH's Department of Public Health comprised a unique collection of live bacterial cultures-a "Living Museum"-and an innovative plan for 15 exhibits on various aspects of health. I show how Winslow, facing opposition from AMNH colleagues, gathered scientific experts and financial support, and explain the factors that made these developments seem desirable and possible. I finish with a discussion of how the Department of Public Health met an abrupt and "inglorious end" in 1922 despite the success of its collections and exhibitions.

  6. The environmental history of group and cluster galaxies in a Λ cold dark matter universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucia, Gabriella; Weinmann, Simone; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2012-06-01

    We use publicly available galaxy merger trees, obtained applying semi-analytic techniques to a large high-resolution cosmological simulation, to study the environmental history of group and cluster galaxies. Our results highlight the existence of an intrinsic history bias which makes the nature versus nurture (as well as the mass versus environment) debate inherently ill posed. In particular, we show that (i) surviving massive satellites were accreted later than their less massive counterparts, from more massive haloes and (ii) the mixing of galaxy populations is incomplete during halo assembly, which creates a correlation between the time a galaxy becomes satellite and its present distance from the parent halo centre. The weakest trends are found for the most massive satellites, as a result of efficient dynamical friction and late formation times of massive haloes. A large fraction of the most massive group/cluster members are accreted on to the main progenitor of the final halo as central galaxies, while about half of the galaxies with low and intermediate stellar masses are accreted as satellites. Large fractions of group and cluster galaxies (in particular those of low stellar mass) have therefore been ‘pre-processed’ as satellites of groups with mass ˜1013 M⊙. To quantify the relevance of hierarchical structure growth on the observed environmental trends, we have considered observational estimates of the passive galaxy fractions and their variation as a function of halo mass and clustercentric distance. Comparisons with our theoretical predictions require relatively long times (˜5-7 Gyr) for the suppression of star formation in group and cluster satellites. It is unclear how such a gentle mode of strangulation can be achieved by simply relaxing the assumption of instantaneous stripping of the hot gas reservoir associated with accreting galaxies, or if the difficulties encountered by recent galaxy formation models in reproducing the observed trends

  7. Samuel D. Gross, the Writing of American Surgical History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkow, Ira

    2015-12-01

    To explore the details of Samuel D. Gross's achievements as America's foremost historian of medicine in the mid-nineteenth century. The life of Samuel D. Gross, the most renowned of the nation's surgeons in the nineteenth century, has been extensively researched and celebrated. Despite the long-standing interest in Gross's accomplishments, there is an important and influential aspect of his career that has been forgotten. Gross was the country's first surgical historian and his boosting of the popular image of the knife bearer was crucial to shaping the future of the craft, in particular surgery's rise as a respected specialty within the whole of medicine. An analysis of the published medical literature and unpublished documents relating to Samuel D. Gross and his status as the country's earliest historian of surgery. At a time when surgery was not considered a separate branch of medicine but a mere technical mode of treatment, Gross's efforts in medical and surgical history provided a much needed boost to surgeons in their pursuit of self-confidence and self-respect. Although Gross's accomplishments as a medical historian have been overlooked, it is undeniable that he was America's pioneer surgical historian and, as such, afforded surgeons their earliest measure of self-esteem, a critical attribute that was indispensable for the rise of surgery as a distinguished profession.

  8. Patterns of family health history communication among older African American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovick, Shelly R; Yamasaki, Jill S; Burton-Chase, Allison M; Peterson, Susan K

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examined patterns of communication regarding family health history among older African American adults. The authors conducted 5 focus groups and 6 semi-structured interviews with African Americans aged 60 years and older (N = 28). The authors identified 4 distinct patterns of family health history communication: noncommunication, open communication, selective communication (communication restricted to certain people or topics), and one-way communication (communication not reciprocated by younger family members). In general, participants favored open family health history communication, often resulting from desires to change patterns of noncommunication in previous generations regarding personal and family health history. Some participants indicated that they were selective about what and with whom they shared health information in order to protect their privacy and not worry others. Others described family health history communication as one-way or unreciprocated by younger family members who appeared uninterested or unwilling to share personal and family health information. The communication patterns that the authors identified are consistent with communication privacy management theory and with findings from studies focused on genetic testing results for hereditary conditions, suggesting that individuals are consistent in their communication of health and genetic risk information. Findings may guide the development of health message strategies for African Americans to increase family health history communication.

  9. From natural history to science: display and the transformation of American museums of science and nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Rader

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains how and why many American museums of science and nature moved away from the traditional content and methods of natural history in the period from 1930 to 1980. It explores diverse motivations for the shift from dead, stuffed displays to live, interactive exhibits, and the consequences of that shift for museums as both educational institutions and as institutions of research. Ultimately, it argues that debates over museums’ content and display strategies drew strength from and reinforced a profound transformation in the institutional history of twentieth-century American science and technology: namely, the separation of research and public education. By the late 1960s, the American museum landscape had been transformed by this development. Older natural history museums competed for visitors and resources with ‘new’ style science museums, and although both remained popular cultural institutions, neither had achieved a coherent new institutional identity because debates about the role of the museum in science continued. Thus, we suggest, in the mid-twentieth century natural history and science museums were more important in both the history of biology and the history of science’s public culture than has previously been acknowledged.

  10. Sermons in American History: Selected Issues in the American Pulpit 1630-1967.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, DeWitte, Ed.; And Others

    This anthology presents 43 American sermons in the context of the social, cultural, and historical development of America. Two or more sermons treat the pro and con viewpoints on nineteen specific issues--from seventeenth century Puritan debates on the authority of God, to the pre-Civil War slavery controversy, to the current questions of Popular…

  11. Inclusion of Arab-Americans and Muslim-Americans within Secondary U.S. History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraqi, Monica M.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 2 decades, textbook publishers have made large improvements by including multicultural education within their texts. U.S. history textbooks have specifically included diverse perspectives. The increased inclusion of diverse perspectives creates a more historically accurate depiction of how various cultures have contributed to the…

  12. Objects and Objectivity: The Evolution Controversy at the American Museum of Natural History, 1915-1928

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homchick, Julie

    2010-01-01

    For the purpose of this essay, I examine how evolutionary theory was treated and responded to in the American Museum of Natural History's Hall of the Age of Man during the early 1900s. Specifically, I examine how the curatorial work of the museum's president, Henry Fairfield Osborn, relied on the purported use of objectivity as a means by which to…

  13. 76 FR 5789 - Teaching American History Grant Program; Office of Innovation and Improvement; Overview...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... Improvement; Overview Information; Teaching American History Grant Program; Notice Inviting Applications for... principals who are ineffective, particularly in high-poverty schools (as defined in this notice) including... rates (as defined in this notice) and college enrollment rates in high-poverty schools (as defined in...

  14. Century of Innovation: A History of European and American Theatre and Drama Since 1870.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockett, Oscar G.; Findlay, Robert R.

    This book discusses the history of European and American drama from the advent of the "modern" era (around 1870) until the early 1970s. Coverage is further restricted to persons and events most characteristic of an era or of greatest significance later. Both theatrical and dramatic practice are treated as integral parts of a whole. Some…

  15. Clio in Cyberspace: Using the Computer for Research in American History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitschke, Marie Morris

    1995-01-01

    Examines the types of computerized resources and services available for research in American history, finding that electronic mail, discussion lists, and library catalogs are most frequently utilized. Internet documents are used cautiously due to unreliable locations and authenticity. In the future, historians will want electronic journals and…

  16. The National Museum of African American History and Culture: The Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Lonnie G., III

    2017-01-01

    One challenge many museums cite is unintentional exclusion. There is too much power and respect that museums hold to be exclusive--intentionally or unintentionally. From the outset, the National Museum of African American History and Culture has been a place for everyone. Inclusion is built in its mission and vision. This article discusses how…

  17. Stepping outside the Master Script: Re-Connecting the History of American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Inaccurate and incomplete presentations of American education history in teacher education programs play a central role in the poor preparation of pre-service teachers. This article exemplifies how the praxis of late 19th and 20th century African descent educators--who viewed education as a vehicle for freedom and an affirmation of…

  18. The Sounds of Silence: American History Textbook Representations of Non-Violence and the Abolition Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoskopf, Alan; Bermudez, Angela

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we examine how the Abolition Movement's approach to non-violent resistance has been silenced in four American history textbooks. Despite extensive research that reveals an extensive network of groups dedicated to the peaceful abolishment of slavery little of this historical record is included in the textbooks. Instead, a skewed…

  19. Synopsis of history of American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology 1958-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana, Gustavo S

    2008-10-01

    To provide a synopsis of the history of the association of radiation oncologists in the United States, currently known as the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO), with the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the organization. The history of ASTRO, from its beginning as the American Club of Therapeutic Radiologists, is the subject of a book that is to be released with the occasion of the 50th Annual Meeting of the Society in 2008. This book was prepared by members of ASTRO's History Committee and History Working Subcommittee. The source material for the book was the archives of the Society and recorded interviews, conducted by members of the subcommittee, of members of the Society and of the past and present Society staff. The book was also based on previously published material. This article used the source material used for the Society anniversary book. This synopsis of the history of the Society will provide a source of reference for anyone interested in the history of the Society from its foundation in 1958 to the present, 2008.

  20. Synopsis of History of American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology 1958-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montana, Gustavo S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a synopsis of the history of the association of radiation oncologists in the United States, currently known as the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO), with the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the organization. Methods and Materials: The history of ASTRO, from its beginning as the American Club of Therapeutic Radiologists, is the subject of a book that is to be released with the occasion of the 50th Annual Meeting of the Society in 2008. This book was prepared by members of ASTRO's History Committee and History Working Subcommittee. The source material for the book was the archives of the Society and recorded interviews, conducted by members of the subcommittee, of members of the Society and of the past and present Society staff. The book was also based on previously published material. This article used the source material used for the Society anniversary book. Results: This synopsis of the history of the Society will provide a source of reference for anyone interested in the history of the Society from its foundation in 1958 to the present, 2008

  1. Backlash against American psychology: an indigenous reconstruction of the history of German critical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    After suggesting that all psychologies contain indigenous qualities and discussing differences and commonalities between German and North American historiographies of psychology, an indigenous reconstruction of German critical psychology is applied. It is argued that German critical psychology can be understood as a backlash against American psychology, as a response to the Americanization of German psychology after WWII, on the background of the history of German psychology, the academic impact of the Cold War, and the trajectory of personal biographies and institutions. Using an intellectual-historical perspective, it is shown how and which indigenous dimensions played a role in the development of German critical psychology as well as the limitations to such an historical approach. Expanding from German critical psychology, the role of the critique of American psychology in various contexts around the globe is discussed in order to emphasize the relevance of indigenous historical research.

  2. Connecting Health and Natural History: A Failed Initiative at the American Museum of Natural History, 1909–1922

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In 1909, curator Charles-Edward Winslow established a department of public health in New York City’s American Museum of Natural History (AMNH). Winslow introduced public health as a biological science that connected human health—the modern sciences of physiology, hygiene, and urban sanitation—to the natural history of plants and animals. This was the only time an American museum created a curatorial department devoted to public health. The AMNH’s Department of Public Health comprised a unique collection of live bacterial cultures—a “Living Museum”—and an innovative plan for 15 exhibits on various aspects of health. I show how Winslow, facing opposition from AMNH colleagues, gathered scientific experts and financial support, and explain the factors that made these developments seem desirable and possible. I finish with a discussion of how the Department of Public Health met an abrupt and “inglorious end” in 1922 despite the success of its collections and exhibitions. PMID:24205997

  3. The History and Future of the Southern Bible Institute: A Post-Secondary School of Biblical Studies for African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The United States of America has a long history in higher education, but one area of its history not exhausted through research involves higher education for African Americans. Specifically, higher education for African Americans in the area of theology or biblical studies presents numerous opportunities for further research. Soon after the…

  4. 75 FR 58426 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Gilcrease Institute of American History and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Gilcrease Institute of American History and Art, Tulsa, OK AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior... Thomas Gilcrease Institute of American History and Art (Gilcrease Museum), Tulsa, OK, that meet the...

  5. The structure and assembly history of cluster-sized haloes in self-interacting dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinckmann, Thejs; Zavala, Jesús; Rapetti, David; Hansen, Steen H.; Vogelsberger, Mark

    2018-02-01

    We perform dark-matter-only simulations of 28 relaxed massive cluster-sized haloes for cold dark matter (CDM) and self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) models, to study structural differences between the models at large radii, where the impact of baryonic physics is expected to be very limited. We find that the distributions for the radial profiles of the density, ellipsoidal axial ratios and velocity anisotropies (β) of the haloes differ considerably between the models (at the ˜1σ level), even at ≳ 10 per cent of the virial radius, if the self-scattering cross-section is σ/mχ = 1 cm2 g-1. Direct comparison with observationally inferred density profiles disfavours SIDM for σ/mχ = 1 cm2 g-1, but in an intermediate radial range ( ˜ 3 per cent of the virial radius), where the impact of baryonic physics is uncertain. At this level of the cross-section, we find a narrower β distribution in SIDM, clearly skewed towards isotropic orbits, with no SIDM (90 per cent of CDM) haloes having β > 0.12 at 7 per cent of the virial radius. We estimate that with an observational sample of ˜30 (˜1015 M⊙) relaxed clusters, β can potentially be used to put competitive constraints on SIDM, once observational uncertainties improve by a factor of a few. We study the suppression of the memory of halo assembly history in SIDM clusters. For σ/mχ = 1 cm2 g-1, we find that this happens only in the central halo regions (˜1/4 of the scale radius of the halo), and only for haloes that assembled their mass within this region earlier than a formation redshift zf ˜ 2. Otherwise, the memory of assembly remains and is reflected in ways similar to CDM, albeit with weaker trends.

  6. Association between Obesity and History of Abuse among American Indians in Rural California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Felicia; Stemmler, M Susan; Nandy, Karabi

    2014-01-01

    To explore factors associated with obesity among American Indians. A cross-sectional survey of American Indian adults (N=459) was conducted at 13 rural reservation sites in California. Participants responded to a survey about their health and wellness perceptions. The Body Mass Index (BMI) was used to assess obesity. A predictive model for BMI was built using a generalized regression model. Having high blood pressure and having a history of verbal abuse in childhood were significant predictors of higher BMI. Participants with high blood pressure were likely to have 3.2 units of BMI higher on average than those who do not have high blood pressure (p-value history of childhood verbal abuse were likely to have 1.9 units higher BMI on average compared to those with no such history. Having a history of diabetes or sexual abuse in childhood trend towards increased BMI, although not statistically significant. Identifying childhood trauma and its impact on adult obesity rates among American Indians provides new avenues for intervention. Efforts to reduce over weight and obesity should include culturally sensitive interventions to ameliorate and repair what is lost through personal violations of stigma, abuse or neglect.

  7. Asian American Women's Victimization History and In-The-Moment Responses to Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hong V; Schacht, Rebecca L; Yang, Joyce P; George, William H; Pantalone, David W

    2018-04-01

    Between 20% and 50% of Asian American women report experiencing partner violence (PV). Furthermore, nearly half of PV victims experience their first assault between the age of 18 and 24 years, suggesting that Asian American college women may be particularly at risk of PV. Experiencing childhood abuse (CA) may impair women's capacity to perceive risk during a potential PV situation, increasing their risk for revictimization. The purpose of the current study was to examine differences among Asian American college women's ( N = 324) in-the-moment behavioral intention, risk perception, and likelihood to stay in an abusive relationship during a progressively threatening PV scenario, based on victimization history and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. We tested three path models, each assessing the relations among CA, PV, PTSD, current and future risk perception, likelihood of staying in the relationship, and one of three behavioral intentions (soothe the perpetrator, escape, and escalation/resistance). As hypothesized, CA history positively predicted PV history and PTSD symptoms. Furthermore, CA and PV predicted more in-the-moment soothe behavioral intentions and fewer escape behavioral intentions which, in turn, predicted diminished current and future risk perception. CA and PV also predicted stronger escalation/resistance behavioral intentions, such that escalation/resistance intentions were associated with higher risk perception during a more violent part of the scenario but lower risk perception during a less violent part of the scenario. Finally, higher risk perception predicted lower likelihood of staying in the relationship. Findings indicate that victimization history is associated with increased risky behavioral intentions among Asian American college women and suggest that targeted interventions to improve assault-exposed Asian American women's awareness of risk cues may be warranted.

  8. Asian Americans in American History: An AsianCrit Perspective on Asian American Inclusion in State U.S. History Curriculum Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Sohyun

    2016-01-01

    Compared to other groups of color, Asian Americans and their perspectives have rarely been given attention in curriculum studies. This article seeks to address the gap in the literature. It uses AsianCrit, a branch of critical race theory, as a theoretical lens to analyze and explicate common patterns across various states' scripting of Asian…

  9. Family History of Cancer in Relation to Breast Cancer Subtypes in African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethea, Traci N; Rosenberg, Lynn; Castro-Webb, Nelsy; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E; Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A; Charlot, Marjory; Park, Song-Yi; Bandera, Elisa V; Troester, Melissa A; Ambrosone, Christine B; Palmer, Julie R

    2016-02-01

    The evidence on the relation of family history of cancers other than breast cancer to breast cancer risk is conflicting, and most studies have not assessed specific breast cancer subtypes. We assessed the relation of first-degree family history of breast, prostate, lung, colorectal, ovarian, and cervical cancer and lymphoma or leukemia, to the risk of estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)), ER(-), and triple-negative breast cancer in data from the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk Consortium. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). There were 3,023 ER(+) and 1,497 ER(-) breast cancer cases (including 696 triple-negative cases) and 17,420 controls. First-degree family history of breast cancer was associated with increased risk of each subtype: OR = 1.76 (95% CI, 1.57-1.97) for ER(+), 1.67 (1.42-1.95) for ER(-), and 1.72 (1.38-2.13) for triple-negative breast cancer. Family history of cervical cancer was associated with increased risk of ER(-) (OR = 2.39; 95% CI, 1.36-4.20), but not ER(+) cancer. Family history of both breast and prostate cancer was associated with increased risk of ER(+) (3.40; 2.42-4.79) and ER(-) (2.09; 1.21-3.63) cancer, but family history of both breast and lung cancer was associated only with ER(-) cancer (2.11; 1.29-3.46). A family history of cancers other than breast may influence the risk of breast cancer, and associations may differ by subtype. Greater surveillance and counseling for additional screening may be warranted for women with a family history of cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Comparison of loline alkaloid gene clusters across fungal endophytes: predicting the co-regulatory sequence motifs and the evolutionary history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutil, Brandi L; Greenwald, Charles; Liu, Gang; Spiering, Martin J; Schardl, Christopher L; Wilkinson, Heather H

    2007-10-01

    LOL, a fungal secondary metabolite gene cluster found in Epichloë and Neotyphodium species, is responsible for production of insecticidal loline alkaloids. To analyze the genetic architecture and to predict the evolutionary history of LOL, we compared five clusters from four fungal species (single clusters from Epichloë festucae, Neotyphodium sp. PauTG-1, Neotyphodium coenophialum, and two clusters we previously characterized in Neotyphodium uncinatum). Using PhyloCon to compare putative lol gene promoter regions, we have identified four motifs conserved across the lol genes in all five clusters. Each motif has significant similarity to known fungal transcription factor binding sites in the TRANSFAC database. Conservation of these motifs is further support for the hypothesis that the lol genes are co-regulated. Interestingly, the history of asexual Neotyphodium spp. includes multiple interspecific hybridization events. Comparing clusters from three Neotyphodium species and E. festucae allowed us to determine which Epichloë ancestors are the most likely contributors of LOL in these asexual species. For example, while no present day Epichloë typhina isolates are known to produce lolines, our data support the hypothesis that the E. typhina ancestor(s) of three asexual endophyte species contained a LOL gene cluster. Thus, these data support a model of evolution in which the polymorphism in loline alkaloid production phenotypes among endophyte species is likely due to the loss of the trait over time.

  11. Manifest Meanings: The Selling (Not Telling) of American Indian History and the Case of "The Black Horse Ledger"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gercken, Becca

    2010-01-01

    What is the value or perceived necessity--for an Indian or for a white man--of changing Northern Cheyenne history? How are a reader's conclusions affected by her perception of the race of the person altering that history? Why is it acceptable to sell but not tell American Indian history? An examination of the visual and discursive rhetoric of "The…

  12. Space-time analysis of testicular cancer clusters using residential histories: a case-control study in Denmark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantel D Sloan

    Full Text Available Though the etiology is largely unknown, testicular cancer incidence has seen recent significant increases in northern Europe and throughout many Western regions. The most common cancer in males under age 40, age period cohort models have posited exposures in the in utero environment or in early childhood as possible causes of increased risk of testicular cancer. Some of these factors may be tied to geography through being associated with behavioral, cultural, sociodemographic or built environment characteristics. If so, this could result in detectable geographic clusters of cases that could lead to hypotheses regarding environmental targets for intervention. Given a latency period between exposure to an environmental carcinogen and testicular cancer diagnosis, mobility histories are beneficial for spatial cluster analyses. Nearest-neighbor based Q-statistics allow for the incorporation of changes in residency in spatial disease cluster detection. Using these methods, a space-time cluster analysis was conducted on a population-wide case-control population selected from the Danish Cancer Registry with mobility histories since 1971 extracted from the Danish Civil Registration System. Cases (N=3297 were diagnosed between 1991 and 2003, and two sets of controls (N=3297 for each set matched on sex and date of birth were included in the study. We also examined spatial patterns in maternal residential history for those cases and controls born in 1971 or later (N= 589 case-control pairs. Several small clusters were detected when aligning individuals by year prior to diagnosis, age at diagnosis and calendar year of diagnosis. However, the largest of these clusters contained only 2 statistically significant individuals at their center, and were not replicated in SaTScan spatial-only analyses which are less susceptible to multiple testing bias. We found little evidence of local clusters in residential histories of testicular cancer cases in this Danish

  13. Space-time analysis of testicular cancer clusters using residential histories: a case-control study in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Chantel D; Nordsborg, Rikke B; Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Meliker, Jaymie R

    2015-01-01

    Though the etiology is largely unknown, testicular cancer incidence has seen recent significant increases in northern Europe and throughout many Western regions. The most common cancer in males under age 40, age period cohort models have posited exposures in the in utero environment or in early childhood as possible causes of increased risk of testicular cancer. Some of these factors may be tied to geography through being associated with behavioral, cultural, sociodemographic or built environment characteristics. If so, this could result in detectable geographic clusters of cases that could lead to hypotheses regarding environmental targets for intervention. Given a latency period between exposure to an environmental carcinogen and testicular cancer diagnosis, mobility histories are beneficial for spatial cluster analyses. Nearest-neighbor based Q-statistics allow for the incorporation of changes in residency in spatial disease cluster detection. Using these methods, a space-time cluster analysis was conducted on a population-wide case-control population selected from the Danish Cancer Registry with mobility histories since 1971 extracted from the Danish Civil Registration System. Cases (N=3297) were diagnosed between 1991 and 2003, and two sets of controls (N=3297 for each set) matched on sex and date of birth were included in the study. We also examined spatial patterns in maternal residential history for those cases and controls born in 1971 or later (N= 589 case-control pairs). Several small clusters were detected when aligning individuals by year prior to diagnosis, age at diagnosis and calendar year of diagnosis. However, the largest of these clusters contained only 2 statistically significant individuals at their center, and were not replicated in SaTScan spatial-only analyses which are less susceptible to multiple testing bias. We found little evidence of local clusters in residential histories of testicular cancer cases in this Danish population.

  14. The Concept of Systematic Corruption in American Political and Economic History

    OpenAIRE

    John Joseph Wallis

    2004-01-01

    The critical role of governance in the promotion of economic development has created intense interest in the manner in which the United States eliminated corruption. This paper examines the concept of corruption in American history; tracing the term corruption to its roots in British political philosophy of the 17th and 18th century, and from there back to Machiavelli, Polybius and Artistole. Corruption was defined prior to 1850 in a way that was significantly different from how it was define...

  15. Emerging from the Shadows: The Visual Arts and Asian American History

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon H Chang

    2009-01-01

    Asian American Art: A History, 1850-1970, the book from which this foreword is excerpted, is the first comprehensive study of the lives and artistic production of artists of Asian ancestry active in the United States before 1970. The publication features original essays by ten leading scholars, biographies of more than 150 artists, and over 400 reproductions of artwork, ephemera, and images of the artists. Aside from a few artists such as Dong Kingman, Yasuo Ku...

  16. The history and visions of African American psychology: multiple pathways to place, space, and authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Bertha Garrett

    2009-10-01

    The author describes the multiple pathways of events and strategies that served to nurture African American psychology in the United States. Special attention is given to strategies for inclusion and empowerment used in 4 psychological professional and scholarly associations: the American Counseling Association, the American Psychological Association, the Association of Black Psychologists, and the Society for Research in Child Development. In addition, the author describes 4 major intellectual traditions that informed not only the strategies of inclusion but also the theoretical, research, and intervention perspectives and other professional and academic efforts of African American psychologists. Those perspectives are the Afrocentric/African-centered tradition derived from longstanding nationalist/Pan-African and culturally centered traditions within African American communities; the social contextual/multidisciplinary research tradition of the University of Chicago School of Social Science; the empirical social science research tradition of the University of Michigan; and the Black scholar/activist tradition of Howard University. This article also presents a chronological timeline of major events in the history of African American psychology. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Return to Beringia: parasites reveal cryptic biogeographic history of North American pikas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbreath, Kurt E; Hoberg, Eric P

    2012-01-22

    Traditional concepts of the Bering Land Bridge as a zone of predominantly eastward expansion from Eurasia and a staging area for subsequent colonization of lower latitudes in North America led to early inferences regarding biogeographic histories of North American faunas, many of which remain untested. Here we apply a host-parasite comparative phylogeographical (HPCP) approach to evaluate one such history, by testing competing biogeographic hypotheses for five lineages of host-specific parasites shared by the collared pika (Ochotona collaris) and American pika (Ochotona princeps) of North America. We determine whether the southern host species (O. princeps) was descended from a northern ancestor or vice versa. Three parasite phylogenies revealed patterns consistent with the hypothesis of a southern origin, which is corroborated by four additional parasite lineages restricted to O. princeps. This finding reverses the traditional narrative for the origins of North American pikas and highlights the role of dispersal from temperate North America into Beringia in structuring northern diversity considerably prior to the Holocene. By evaluating multiple parasite lineages simultaneously, the study demonstrates the power of HPCP for resolving complex biogeographic histories that are not revealed by characteristics of the host alone.

  18. Post Civil War African American History: Brief Periods of Triumph, and Then Despair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Gilda

    2016-01-01

    During Reconstruction, which is often called the most progressive period in American history, African Americans made great strides. By 1868 African American men constituted a majority of registered voters in South Carolina and Mississippi, and by 1870 eighty-five percent of Mississippi's black jurors could read and write. However, Reconstruction was followed by approximately one hundred years of Jim Crow laws, lynching, disenfranchisement, sharecropping, unequal educational resources, terrorism, racial caricatures, and convict leasing. The Civil Rights Revolution finally ended that period of despair, but the era of mass incarceration can be understood as a reaction to the Civil Rights Movement. This article attempts to understand the persistence of racism in the United States from slavery's end until the present.

  19. Fiction as Reconstruction of History: Narratives of the Civil War in American Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Isensee

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Even after more than 140 years the American Civil War continues to serve as a major source of inspiration for a plethora of literature in various genres. While only amounting to a brief period in American history in terms of years, this war has proved to be one of the central moments for defining the American nation since the second half of the nineteenth century. The facets of the Civil War, its protagonists, places, events, and political, social and cultural underpinnings seem to hold an ongoing fascination for both academic studies and fictional representations. Thus, it has been considered by many the most written-about war in the United States.

  20. Chao Fa Movies: The Transnational Production of Hmong American History and Identity by Ian G. Baird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Baird

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Films made by and for particular social and ethnic peoples can reveal a great deal about identity issues. Here, I examine the cultural production, the content, and the socio-cultural and political significance of three Chao Fa-inspired Hmong films produced at Khek Noi, Thailand by Hmong American producers working with largely Hmong Thai actors. The first two, Chao Fa 1 and 2, were directed in 2009 by Kou Thao. The third, Vaj Tuam Thawj – The Legend of Chao Fa, was put together by Jimmy Vang, in 2010. Even though these Chao Fa films are fictional, they attempt to depict events and circumstances that are familiar to many first generation Hmong Americans, and they can muster strong emotions from people who see them as depicting factual history. In addition, just like many other American youth, many 1.5 generation Hmong are tied together by shared media experiences, including Hmong movies. Thus, the Chao Fa movies are important for producing and reproducing, reinforcing and dispersing ideas related to Hmong American identity and culture. They tell stories of the Hmong being oppressed by many different groups, and this history suggests why many Hmong—not only the Chao Fa—have long desired the type of independence and freedom from prejudice and discrimination that they imagine would come if the Hmong only had their own nation state.

  1. Psychosocial predictors of mammography history among Chinese American women without a recent mammogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brittany C; Sarma, Elizabeth A; Sun, Yiyuan; Messina, Catherine R; Moyer, Anne

    2018-03-05

    Chinese American women have lower rates of mammography screening compared with non-Hispanic White women. Although the extent of perceived barriers, as conceptualized by the Health Belief Model, have been shown to distinguish between currently non-adherent Chinese American women who have ever and never had a mammogram, it is less clear which types of perceived barriers differentiate them. One hundred twenty-eight Chinese American women in the New York metropolitan area who had not had a mammogram in the past year completed baseline assessments for a mammography framing intervention study. Demographics, medical access variables, and perceived barriers to mammography (lack of access, lack of need for screening, and modesty) were used to predict mammography history (ever versus never screened). Fifty-five women (43%) reported having been screened at least once. A sequential logistic regression showed that English speaking ability and having health insurance significantly predicted mammography history. However, these control variables became non-significant when the three barrier factors were included in the final model. Women who reported a greater lack of access (OR = 0.36, p American women should identify and target specific perceived barriers with consideration of previous adherence.

  2. Foster Care History and HIV Infection among Drug-Using African American Female Sex Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surratt, Hilary L.; Kurtz, Steven P.

    2011-01-01

    Foster care has been associated with increased HIV risk behaviors among youth, yet long-term association with HIV infection has not been examined. This study explored the associations between foster placement, victimization, mental health, onset of sex work and HIV infection among highly vulnerable female sex workers. 562 drug-involved African American women were enrolled into an intervention study to increase health services utilization and reduce HIV risk. Seventeen percent reported a history of foster placement. Foster history was associated with significantly lower educational attainment, higher victimization, and more severe mental health problems. Women with foster histories reported significantly earlier entry into paid sex work, with some 62% active in the sex trade before age 18. Multivariate analyses found that foster care was independently associated with HIV seropositivity, and that early sex work partially mediated this association. The potential long-term health vulnerabilities associated with foster placement are understudied and warrant additional research. PMID:21818654

  3. Discrimination Fully Mediates the Effects of Incarceration History on Depressive Symptoms and Psychological Distress Among African American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Miller, Reuben Jonathan; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Mouzon, Dawne; Keith, Verna; Chatters, Linda M

    2018-04-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of African American men, this study investigated the associations between lifetime history of incarceration, discrimination, and mental health (e.g., depressive symptoms and psychological distress). We hypothesized that discrimination would fully mediate the association between incarceration history and mental health outcomes among African American men. Using a cross-sectional design, our analysis included 1271 African American men who participated in the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2001-2003. Incarceration history was the main independent variable. Depressive symptoms and psychological distress were the dependent variables. Everyday discrimination was the mediator. Age, education, and income were covariates. Structural equation models (SEMs) were used for data analysis. Among African American men, incarceration history was positively associated with perceived discrimination, depressive symptoms, and psychological distress. Everyday discrimination fully mediated the associations between incarceration history and both depressive symptoms and psychological distress. Discrimination may play an important role in the mental health problems of African American men with a history of incarceration. These findings have public policy implications as well as clinical implications for mental health promotion of African American men. Policies that reduce preventable incarceration or at least reduce subsequent discrimination for those who have been incarcerated may enhance mental health of previously incarcerated African American men.

  4. Space-time clustering of non-hodgkin lymphoma using residential histories in a danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baastrup Nordsborg, Rikke; Meliker, Jaymie R; Kjær Ersbøll, Annette

    2013-01-01

    System. Residential addresses of cases and controls from 1971 to 2003 were collected from the Civil Registration System and geocoded. Data on pervious hospital diagnoses and operations were obtained from the National Patient Register. We applied the methods of the newly developed Q-statistics to identify...... space-time clustering of NHL. All analyses were conducted with each of the two control groups, and we adjusted for previous history of autoimmune disease, HIV/AIDS or organ transplantation. Some areas with statistically significant clustering were identified; however, results were not consistent across...... the two control groups; thus we interpret the results as chance findings. We found no evidence for clustering of NHL in space and time using 33 years of residential histories, suggesting that if the rise in incidence of NHL is a result of risk factors that vary across space and time, the spatio...

  5. Juan Comas's summary history of the American association of physical anthropologists (1928-1968).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Marta P; Little, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    This translation of Juan Comas's Summary History of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists was originally published in Spanish by the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico, in 1969 (Departamento de Investigaciones Antropológicas, Publication 22). Physical anthropologists from North America and members of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists owe Juan Comas a debt of gratitude for having labored to produce this Summary History of the AAPA. There is much useful and interesting material in this document: extensive endnotes that are helpful to the historian of the profession; an appendix of the Journal issues where the proceedings of annual meetings can be found; a detailed listing of contributors of papers to annual meetings from 1930-1968; a warm acknowledgment and history of the contributions of the Wenner-Gren Foundation to biological anthropology; a history of the Yearbook of Physical Anthropology; and comments on the short-lived PA Newsletter. In addition, there are appendices with the founding AAPA Constitution and By-Laws from 1930 and as they existed in 1968. All of this synoptic information saves the reader with interests in the history of the AAPA considerable effort, especially when few university and college libraries have the full (old and new) series of the AJPA on their shelves. We have tried to provide a translation of Comas's history that is faithful to the original Spanish-language publication. In a few cases, we shortened sentences and applied a slightly more modern usage than was popular in the late 1960s. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Family history and its relationship with dementia stigma beliefs among Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Benjamin Kp

    2017-01-01

    It is known that Chinese Americans associate dementia with stigma and "loss of face." However, further research is required to provide a more complete picture of the extent and nature of stigma in Chinese Americans with family histories of dementia (FHD). The present study examined whether FHD are associated with quantitative measures of stigma in Chinese Americans. A total of 300 Chinese Americans in two health seminars answered a 15-item, true/false questionnaire to assess their beliefs toward dementia. Two groups were dichotomized and compared based on FHD. Both groups subscribed to moderately stigmatizing views about dementia. Our findings showed that the group with FHD was more likely to disclose having relatives with dementia. However, this group was also more likely to perceive patients with dementia to be incapable of feeling other people's worries or concerns at once. Strategies to decrease stigma toward dementia are required. Cultural interventions must also extend into the Chinese American general public to reduce stigma of dementia. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 122-125. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  7. The oral histories of six African American males in their ecology of Advanced Placement Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasa, Katrina Bassam

    The major purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the past in order to understand the complex phenomenon of students engaging in science (Newman, Ridenour, Newman, & DeMarco, 2003) specifically through the oral histories of six self-identified African American males enrolled in a high school Advanced Placement Biology class and the oral histories about events that followed during their post high school experiences. To elucidate an understanding of this phenomenon, this research explored the ecology of African American males' descriptions of their school science, their peer school science community, their lived experiences during and after graduation, and their meso-community (Bronfenbrenner, 1979). Many minority and low-income students are less likely to enroll in rigorous courses during high school (Education Trust, 2006). This study is of utmost importance because capturing the informants' oral histories may improve rigorous science education. Many African American male students are attending urban schools with an ever growing achievement gap among their White counterparts (Norman, Ault, Bentz, & Meskimen, 2001); therefore, they are disengaging in science. As a result, African American males are underrepresented in both science careers and achievements in science (Atwater, 2000; National Science Foundation, 1994). The six oral histories highlighted the ecological factors that affected African American males regarding (1) the impact of their relationship with their mothers, (2) the understanding of personal responsibility, (3) the notion of a scientist, (4) the issue of gender being more of an obstacle than race, (5) the understanding that education is valuable, (6) the interactions and influence of relationships with others on their decisions, (7) the development of integrity through the participation in sports, (8) the ecological neighborhood environment influences an image, (9) the enrollment of Advanced Placement Biology course helped the transition

  8. Bringing dinosaurs back to life: exhibiting prehistory at the American Museum of Natural History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieppel, Lukas

    2012-09-01

    This essay examines the exhibition of dinosaurs at the American Museum of Natural History during the first two decades of the twentieth century. Dinosaurs provide an especially illuminating lens through which to view the history of museum display practices for two reasons: they made for remarkably spectacular exhibits; and they rested on contested theories about the anatomy, life history, and behavior of long-extinct animals to which curators had no direct observational access. The American Museum sought to capitalize on the popularity of dinosaurs while mitigating the risks of mounting an overtly speculative display by fashioning them into a kind of mixed-media installation made of several elements, including fossilized bone, shellac, iron, and plaster. The resulting sculptures provided visitors with a vivid and lifelike imaginative experience. At the same time, curators, who were anxious to downplay the speculative nature of mounted dinosaurs, drew systematic attention to the material connection that tied individual pieces of fossilized bone to the actual past. Freestanding dinosaurs can therefore be read to have functioned as iconic sculptures that self-consciously advertised their indexical content.

  9. Relating archaeology and environmental history of the American past: the case of Hohokam irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertsen, Maurits

    2017-04-01

    When the first Europeans entered the Salt River Valley, they found abandoned platform mounds, ball courts and irrigation canals. In the mid-1800s, these canal remains became the source of inspiration for new irrigated farming - often through re-use of these canals. A new European-based agricultural civilization would rise from the ashes of Hohokam society - as the culture that had produced these remains was labelled. In Arizona, we encounter a rather direct, material connection between those that are typically studied within archaeology (Hohokam) and within environmental history (Europeans and Native Americans). Another link that we should explore are the many cultural claims on "the Hohokam". Hohokam society would be a major symbol of how irrigation-dependent societies would collapse, even though the reasons for rather sudden disappearance of Hohokam society in the 15th century are still not clear. A third link is the importance of Hohokam heritage for current society, as for example expressed in the activities of the Gila River Indian Community, whose Department of Natural & Cultural Resources develops modern irrigation facilities and preserves the canal remains of the Hohokam as much as possible. The story of the Hohokam not only extends the time frame of American environmental history into prehistory, but also allows us to study how ideas and interpretations of our archaeological and historical pasts are claimed, changed and maintained in history and our own present.

  10. clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-09-27

    Sep 27, 2017 ... while CuCoNO, Co3NO, Cu3CoNO, Cu2Co3NO, Cu3Co3NO and Cu6CoNO clusters display stronger chemical stability. Magnetic and electronic properties are also discussed. The magnetic moment is affected by charge transfer and the spd hybridization. Keywords. CumConNO (m + n = 2–7) clusters; ...

  11. Sexual Orientation Differences as Deficits: Science and Stigma in the History of American Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herek, Gregory M

    2010-11-01

    This article briefly describes how psychology, psychiatry, and the mental health professions (here collectively referred to as Psychology) treated sexual orientation differences as deficits for much of the 20th century, as well as some of the negative consequences that practice had for sexual minorities. The 1970s witnessed a remarkable turnaround when the American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the American Psychological Association called for psychologists to work to remove the stigma historically associated with homosexuality. This history illustrates not only how cultural institutions play a central role in legitimating stigma, but also how they can recognize their own complicity in this process and work effectively to undo its harmful effects. It is argued that Psychology still has an important role to play in challenging the differences-as-deficits model in contemporary policy debates. © The Author(s) 2010.

  12. Liberating history: the context of the challenge of psychologists of color to American psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickren, Wade E

    2009-10-01

    The history of race and ethnicity in North America is long and complex. It has been fraught with racism and various forms of oppression--intellectual, social, and physical--and defies easy analysis. This article examines the history of race and ethnicity in the United States, and how it played out in the field of psychology. Although other articles in this issue examine the specific impact of racism and internal colonialism on racial and ethnic minorities, this article places these events within an international context, specifically the post-World War II era when oppressed peoples around the world sought liberation from colonial oppressors. The article suggests that the struggles and successes of racial and ethnic minority psychologists may provide the best opportunity for American psychology to connect with emerging indigenous psychologies in other parts of the world, which represent the future of psychology in a globalizing world. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Love Song of the Foreign Liberator: Teaching Tibetan History to American Students in the PRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Cathcart

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article takes as its point of departure 'Love Song of Kangding '(康定情歌, ''a romantic film from fall 2010 which propagandizes the positive consequences of the liberation of Tibetan cultural areas by the People’s Liberation Army (PLA in 1950-51.  The article describes how the film fit into a semester-long course on contemporary Tibet taught to American students in Chengdu, Sichuan, and the particular sensitivities and difficulties relating to learning about Tibetan history in China.     ''

  14. History, power, and electricity: American popular magazine accounts of electroconvulsive therapy, 1940-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshbein, Laura; Sarvananda, Sharmalie

    2008-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a psychiatric treatment that has been in use in the United States since the 1940s. During the whole of its existence, it has been extensively discussed and debated within American popular magazines. While initial reports of the treatment highlighted its benefits to patients, accounts by the 1970s and 1980s were increasingly polarized. This article analyzes the popular accounts over time, particularly the ways in which the debates over ECT have revolved around different interpretations of ECT's history and its power dynamics. Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Abandoning evolution. The forgotten history of antievolution activism and the transformation of American social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienesch, Michael

    2012-12-01

    From its inception, antievolution activism has been aimed not only at the natural sciences but also, and almost as often, at the social sciences. Although almost entirely overlooked by scholars, this activism played a significant part in the development of American social science in the early twentieth century. Analyzing public writings and private papers of antievolution activists, academic social scientists, and university officials from the 1920s, this essay recalls this forgotten history, showing how antievolution activism contributed to the abandonment of evolutionary theory and the adoption of a set of secular, scientific, and professional characteristics that have come to define much of modern social science.

  16. Cluster analysis of the clinical histories of cattle affected with bovine anaemia associated with Theileria orientalis Ikeda type infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, K E; Forsyth, S F; Vaatstra, B L; McFadden, Amj; Pulford, D J; Govindaraju, K; Pomroy, W E

    2017-11-01

    AIM To determine the most commonly used words in the clinical histories of animals naturally infected with Theileria orientalis Ikeda type; whether these words differed between cases categorised by age, farm type or haematocrit (HCT), and if there was any clustering of the common words in relation to these categories. METHODS Clinical histories were transcribed for 605 cases of bovine anaemia associated with T. orientalis (TABA), that were submitted to laboratories with blood samples which tested positive for T. orientalis Ikeda type infection by PCR analysis, between October 2012 and November 2014. χ 2 tests were used to determine whether the proportion of submissions for each word was similar across the categories of HCT (normal, moderate anaemia or severe anaemia), farm type (dairy or beef) and age (young or old). Correspondence analysis (CA) was carried out on a contingency table of the frequency of the 28 most commonly used history words, cross-tabulated by age categories (young, old or unknown). Agglomerative hierarchical clustering, using Ward's method, was then performed on the coordinates from the correspondence analysis. RESULTS The six most commonly used history words were jaundice (204/605), lethargic (162/605), pale mucous membranes (161/605), cow (151/605), anaemia (147/605), and off milk (115/605). The proportion of cases with some history words differed between categories of age, farm type and HCT. The cluster analysis indicated that the recorded history words were grouped in two main clusters. The first included the words weight loss, tachycardia, pale mucous membranes, anaemia, lethargic and thin, and was associated with adult (pcluster included the words deaths, ill-thrift, calves, calf and diarrhoea, and was associated with young (pCluster analysis of words recorded in clinical histories submitted with blood samples from cases of TABA indicates that two potentially different disease syndromes were associated with T. orientalis Ikeda type

  17. Across Generations: Culture, History, and Policy in the Social Ecology of American Indian Grandparents Parenting Their Grandchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooradian, John K.; Cross, Suzanne L.; Stutzky, Glenn R.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes an investigation of ecological factors related to the experience of American Indian grandparents raising their grandchildren. Elements of American Indian culture and history, and United States policy, were used to generate explanatory hypotheses that were subjected to a thematic analysis of qualitative interview data. This…

  18. Thermal load histories for North American roof assembles using various cladding materials including wood-thermoplastic composite shingles

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. E. Winandy

    2006-01-01

    Since 1991, thermal load histories for various roof cladding types have been monitored in outdoor attic structures that simulate classic North American light-framed construction. In this paper, the 2005 thermal loads for wood-based composite roof sheathing, wood rafters, and attics under wood-plastic composite shingles are compared to common North American roof...

  19. Women in American History: A Series. Book Three, Women during and after the Civil War 1860-1890.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Beverly

    The document, one in a series of four on women in American history, discusses the role of women during and after the Civil War (1860-1890). Designed to supplement high school U.S. history textbooks, the book is comprised of five chapters. Chapter I describes the work of Union and Confederate women ln the Civil War. Topics include the army nursing…

  20. Resistance and Assent: How Racial Socialization Shapes Black Students' Experience Learning African American History in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, Theodore E.

    2016-01-01

    African American history is often taught poorly in high school U.S. history courses. However, we know little about how Black students perceive and experience this situation. I use a refined racial socialization framework and interview data with 32 Black college students in the Northeast to investigate how familial racial socialization shapes their…

  1. Star cluster formation history along the minor axis of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatti, Andrés E.; Cole, Andrew A.; Emptage, Bryn

    2018-01-01

    We analysed Washington CMT1 photometry of star clusters located along the minor axis of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), from the LMC optical centre up to ∼39° outwards to the North-West. The data base was exploited in order to search for new star cluster candidates, to produce cluster CMDs cleaned from field star contamination and to derive age estimates for a statistically complete cluster sample. We confirmed that 146 star cluster candidates are genuine physical systems, and concluded that an overall ∼30 per cent of catalogued clusters in the surveyed regions are unlikely to be true physical systems. We did not find any new cluster candidates in the outskirts of the LMC (deprojected distance ≳ 8°). The derived ages of the studied clusters are in the range 7.2 < log(t yr-1) ≤ 9.4, with the sole exception of the globular cluster NGC 1786 (log(t yr-1) = 10.10). We also calculated the cluster frequency for each region, from which we confirmed previously proposed outside-in formation scenarios. In addition, we found that the outer LMC fields show a sudden episode of cluster formation (log(t yr-1) ∼7.8-7.9) which continued until log(t yr-1) ∼7.3 only in the outermost LMC region. We link these features to the first pericentre passage of the LMC to the Milky Way (MW), which could have triggered cluster formation due to ram pressure interaction between the LMC and MW halo.

  2. The Truth about Truth-Telling in American Medicine: A Brief History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, Bryan; Frankel, Richard; Kodish, Eric; Harry Isaacson, J

    2016-01-01

    Transparency has become an ethical cornerstone of American medicine. Today, patients have the right to know their health information, and physicians are obliged to provide it. It is expected that patients will be informed of their medical condition regardless of the severity or prognosis. This ethos of transparency is ingrained in modern trainees from the first day of medical school onward. However, for most of American history, the intentional withholding of information was the accepted norm in medical practice. It was not until 1979 that a majority of physicians reported disclosing cancer diagnoses to their patients. To appreciate the current state of the physician-patient relationship, it is important to understand how physician-patient communication has developed over time and the forces that led to these changes. In this article, we trace the ethics and associated practices of truth-telling during the past two centuries, and outline the many pressures that influenced physician behavior during that time period. We conclude that the history of disclosure is not yet finished, as physicians still struggle to find the best way to share difficult information without causing undue harm to their patients.

  3. The American Association of Plastic Surgeons Recent History, with a Review of the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, W Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The American Association of Plastic Surgeons was founded in 1921 and is the oldest of the plastic surgery societies. It was born out of the enthusiasm of reconstructive surgeons who had recently increased in numbers and expanded the scope of their activities as a result of the challenges posed by battle-injured soldiers during World War I. Early meetings were small, focused exclusively on the head and neck, and often included live surgical demonstrations. The Association has grown in size and scope with time, but it has maintained its academic focus. This article focuses on the most recent 15 years of the Association's history, as prior publications have chronicled the history of the organization up to 2000. The organization has remained robust in the new millennium, with the national meetings being its most prominent activity. The format of the meetings has continually been improved to remain relevant and of interest to the membership and other attendees. The organization continues to support the development of young academic plastic surgeons through the Academic Scholars Program. It has established new programs such as the Constable Fellowship to support international exchange and has also sponsored two consensus conferences to help define standards of care in plastic surgery-related issues. The Association annually recognizes significant contributors to the field through the variety of awards that it bestows as well. The mission of the American Association of Plastic Surgeons is to provide scholarly leadership in plastic surgery, and the organization continues to successfully accomplish this mission.

  4. cluster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    has been investigated electrochemically in positive and negative microenvironments, both in solution and in film. Charge nature around the active centre ... in plants, bacteria and also in mammals. This cluster is also an important constituent of a ..... selection of non-cysteine amino acid in the active centre of Rieske proteins.

  5. Probing the formation history of the nuclear star cluster at the Galactic Centre with millisecond pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, F.; Mastrobuono-Battisti, A.; Colpi, M.; Possenti, A.; Sippel, A. C.; Dotti, M.

    2018-01-01

    The origin of the nuclear star cluster in the centre of our Galaxy is still unknown. One possibility is that it formed after the disruption of stellar clusters that spiralled into the Galactic Centre due to dynamical friction. We trace the formation of the nuclear star cluster around the central black hole, using state-of-the-art N-body simulations, and follow the dynamics of the neutron stars born in the clusters. We then estimate the number of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) that are released in the nuclear star cluster during its formation. The assembly and tidal dismemberment of globular clusters lead to a population of MSPs distributed over a radius of about 20 pc, with a peak near 3 pc. No clustering is found on the subparsec scale. We simulate the detectability of this population with future radio telescopes like the MeerKAT radio telescope and SKA1, and find that about an order of 10 MSPs can be observed over this large volume, with a paucity of MSPs within the central parsec. This helps discriminating this scenario from the in situ formation model for the nuclear star cluster that would predict an overabundance of MSPs closer to the black hole. We then discuss the potential contribution of our MSP population to the gamma-ray excess at the Galactic Centre.

  6. Ancient collagen reveals evolutionary history of the endemic South American 'ungulates'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Michael

    2015-05-07

    Since the late eighteenth century, fossils of bizarre extinct creatures have been described from the Americas, revealing a previously unimagined chapter in the history of mammals. The most bizarre of these are the 'native' South American ungulates thought to represent a group of mammals that evolved in relative isolation on South America, but with an uncertain affinity to any particular placental lineage. Many authors have considered them descended from Laurasian 'condylarths', which also includes the probable ancestors of perissodactyls and artiodactyls, whereas others have placed them either closer to the uniquely South American xenarthrans (anteaters, armadillos and sloths) or the basal afrotherians (e.g. elephants and hyraxes). These hypotheses have been debated owing to conflicting morphological characteristics and the hitherto inability to retrieve molecular information. Of the 'native' South American mammals, only the toxodonts and litopterns persisted until the Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene. Owing to known difficulties in retrieving ancient DNA (aDNA) from specimens from warm climates, this research presents a molecular phylogeny for both Macrauchenia patachonica (Litopterna) and Toxodon platensis (Notoungulata) recovered using proteomics-based (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) sequencing analyses of bone collagen. The results place both taxa in a clade that is monophyletic with the perissodactyls, which today are represented by horses, rhinoceroses and tapirs.

  7. Ancient collagen reveals evolutionary history of the endemic South American ‘ungulates’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Since the late eighteenth century, fossils of bizarre extinct creatures have been described from the Americas, revealing a previously unimagined chapter in the history of mammals. The most bizarre of these are the ‘native’ South American ungulates thought to represent a group of mammals that evolved in relative isolation on South America, but with an uncertain affinity to any particular placental lineage. Many authors have considered them descended from Laurasian ‘condylarths’, which also includes the probable ancestors of perissodactyls and artiodactyls, whereas others have placed them either closer to the uniquely South American xenarthrans (anteaters, armadillos and sloths) or the basal afrotherians (e.g. elephants and hyraxes). These hypotheses have been debated owing to conflicting morphological characteristics and the hitherto inability to retrieve molecular information. Of the ‘native’ South American mammals, only the toxodonts and litopterns persisted until the Late Pleistocene–Early Holocene. Owing to known difficulties in retrieving ancient DNA (aDNA) from specimens from warm climates, this research presents a molecular phylogeny for both Macrauchenia patachonica (Litopterna) and Toxodon platensis (Notoungulata) recovered using proteomics-based (liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry) sequencing analyses of bone collagen. The results place both taxa in a clade that is monophyletic with the perissodactyls, which today are represented by horses, rhinoceroses and tapirs. PMID:25833851

  8. Fabricating authenticity: modeling a whale at the American Museum of Natural History, 1906-1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Historians of science have in recent years become increasingly attentive to the ways in which issues of process, matter, meaning, and value combine in the fabrication of scientific objects. This essay examines the techniques that went into the construction--and authentication--of one such scientific object: a model of a blue, or "sulfur-bottom," whale manufactured at the American Museum of Natural History in 1907. In producing their model, exhibitors at the American Museum employed a patchwork of overlapping discursive, procedural, and material techniques to argue that their fabrication was as authentic--as truthful, accurate, authoritative, and morally and aesthetically worthy of display--as an exhibit containing a real, preserved cetacean. Through an examination of the archival and published traces left by these exhibitors as they built their whale, I argue that the scientific meanings of authenticity at the American Museum were neither static nor timeless, but rather were subject to constant negotiation, examination, re-evaluation, and upkeep.

  9. Efficacy of GPS cluster analysis for predicting carnivory sites of a wide-ranging omnivore: the American black bear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindschuh, Sarah R.; Cain, James W.; Daniel, David; Peyton, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    The capacity to describe and quantify predation by large carnivores expanded considerably with the advent of GPS technology. Analyzing clusters of GPS locations formed by carnivores facilitates the detection of predation events by identifying characteristics which distinguish predation sites. We present a performance assessment of GPS cluster analysis as applied to the predation and scavenging of an omnivore, the American black bear (Ursus americanus), on ungulate prey and carrion. Through field investigations of 6854 GPS locations from 24 individual bears, we identified 54 sites where black bears formed a cluster of locations while predating or scavenging elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), or cattle (Bos spp.). We developed models for three data sets to predict whether a GPS cluster was formed at a carnivory site vs. a non-carnivory site (e.g., bed sites or non-ungulate foraging sites). Two full-season data sets contained GPS locations logged at either 3-h or 30-min intervals from April to November, and a third data set contained 30-min interval data from April through July corresponding to the calving period for elk. Longer fix intervals resulted in the detection of fewer carnivory sites. Clusters were more likely to be carnivory sites if they occurred in open or edge habitats, if they occurred in the early season, if the mean distance between all pairs of GPS locations within the cluster was less, and if the cluster endured for a longer period of time. Clusters were less likely to be carnivory sites if they were initiated in the morning or night compared to the day. The top models for each data set performed well and successfully predicted 71–96% of field-verified carnivory events, 55–75% of non–carnivory events, and 58–76% of clusters overall. Refinement of this method will benefit from further application across species and ecological systems.

  10. Ethnic boundaries in national literary histories: Classification of ethnic minority fiction authors in American, Dutch and German anthologies and literary history books, 1978-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.L. Berkers (Pauwke)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis article compares the classification of ethnic minority fiction writers in American, Dutch and German literary anthologies and literary history books for the period of 1978-2006. Using content analyses, ethnic boundaries are much stronger in Dutch and German textbooks than in their

  11. The History That Is inside of Us: L. Thomas Hopkins and the Transformation of American History at Brewster High, 1912-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, O. L., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    On the day before the Thanksgiving school recess in 1912, teacher L. Thomas Hopkins made an unusual admission to his small American history class at Brewster High School on Massachusetts' Cape Cod. He told his students that he knew they disliked the course. He confessed that he, too, disliked how the course was going. Following a short period of…

  12. Acculturation, Behavioral Factors, and Family History of Breast Cancer among Mexican and Mexican-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodora, Jesse N; Cooper, Renee; Talavera, Gregory A; Gallo, Linda; Meza Montenegro, María Mercedes; Komenaka, Ian; Natarajan, Loki; Gutiérrez Millán, Luis Enrique; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Bondy, Melissa; Brewster, Abenaa; Thompson, Patricia; Martinez, María Elena

    2015-01-01

    Incidence rates for breast cancer are higher among Mexican-American (MA) women in the United States than women living in Mexico. Studies have shown higher prevalence of breast cancer risk factors in more acculturated than less acculturated Hispanic/Latinas in the United States. We compared the prevalence of behavioral risk factors and family history of breast cancer by level of acculturation and country of residence in women of Mexican descent. Data were collected from 1,201 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients living in Mexico (n = 581) and MAs in the United States (n = 620). MA participants were categorized into three acculturation groups (Spanish dominant, bilingual, and English dominant); women living in Mexico were used as the referent group. The prevalence of behavioral risk factors and family history of breast cancer were assessed according to acculturation level, adjusting for age at diagnosis and education. In the adjusted models, bilingual and English-dominant MAs were significantly more likely to have a body mass index of 30 kg/m(2) or greater, consume more than one alcoholic beverage a week, and report having a family history of breast cancer than women living in Mexico. All three U.S. acculturation groups were significantly more likely to have lower total energy expenditure (≤533 kcal/d) than women in Mexico. English-dominant women were significantly less likely to ever smoke cigarettes than the Mexican group. Our findings add to the limited scientific literature on the relationships among acculturation, health behavior, and family history of breast cancer in Mexican and MA women. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing DNA Barcodes for Species Identification in North American Reptiles and Amphibians in Natural History Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, E Anne; Hebert, Paul D N

    2016-01-01

    High rates of species discovery and loss have led to the urgent need for more rapid assessment of species diversity in the herpetofauna. DNA barcoding allows for the preliminary identification of species based on sequence divergence. Prior DNA barcoding work on reptiles and amphibians has revealed higher biodiversity counts than previously estimated due to cases of cryptic and undiscovered species. Past studies have provided DNA barcodes for just 14% of the North American herpetofauna, revealing the need for expanded coverage. This study extends the DNA barcode reference library for North American herpetofauna, assesses the utility of this approach in aiding species delimitation, and examines the correspondence between current species boundaries and sequence clusters designated by the BIN system. Sequences were obtained from 730 specimens, representing 274 species (43%) from the North American herpetofauna. Mean intraspecific divergences were 1% and 3%, while average congeneric sequence divergences were 16% and 14% in amphibians and reptiles, respectively. BIN assignments corresponded with current species boundaries in 79% of amphibians, 100% of turtles, and 60% of squamates. Deep divergences (>2%) were noted in 35% of squamate and 16% of amphibian species, and low divergences (reptiles and 23% of amphibians, patterns reflected in BIN assignments. Sequence recovery declined with specimen age, and variation in recovery success was noted among collections. Within collections, barcodes effectively flagged seven mislabeled tissues, and barcode fragments were recovered from five formalin-fixed specimens. This study demonstrates that DNA barcodes can effectively flag errors in museum collections, while BIN splits and merges reveal taxa belonging to deeply diverged or hybridizing lineages. This study is the first effort to compile a reference library of DNA barcodes for herpetofauna on a continental scale.

  14. A data mining approach to dinoflagellate clustering according to sterol composition: Correlations with evolutionary history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the sterol compositions of 102 dinoflagellates (including several previously unexamined species) using clustering techniques as a means of determining the relatedness of the organisms. In addition, dinoflagellate sterol-based relationships were compared statistically to dinoflag...

  15. DSM-III and the transformation of American psychiatry: a history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M

    1993-03-01

    The author traces the history of the development of DSM-III within the larger context--intellectual, economic, scientific, and ideological--of the development of American psychiatry since World War II. Data were obtained through a literature review, investigation of archival material from the DSM-III task force and APA, and interviews with key participants. This research indicates that from the end of World War II until the mid-1970s, a broadly conceived biopsychosocial model, informed by psychoanalysis, sociological thinking, and biological knowledge, was the organizing model for American psychiatry. However, the biopsychosocial model did not clearly demarcate the mentally well from the mentally ill, and this failure led to a crisis in the legitimacy of psychiatry by the 1970s. The publication of DSM-III in 1980 represented an answer to this crisis, as the essential focus of psychiatric knowledge shifted from the clinically-based biopsychosocial model to a research-based medical model. The author concludes that while DSM-III, and the return to descriptive psychiatry which it inaugurated, has had positive consequences for the profession, at the same time it represents a significant narrowing of psychiatry's clinical gaze.

  16. The House, the Street and the Brothel: Gender in Latin American History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Kuznesof

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article delineates scholarship in Latin American history (mostly in English defined by gender relations and/or focused on women. From 1492 until 1750, the honor code, the process of miscegenation or race mixture, and property rights are emphasized. Scholarship has overturned the traditional view that colonial households and production were invariably patriarchal, since between 25 to 45 percent of households were headed by women. Illegitimacy and consensual unions were found to be prevalent principally among the non-white and non-elite populations. From 1750 to 1930, profound and contradictory changes included a secularization process that caused women’s loss of many colonial protections. However, new opportunities developed for women’s employment and control of property. Women were essentially controlled within the private sphere during the colonial period, but that control moved to the workplace in the nineteenth century, and to the state in the early twentieth century. Gender was an important discourse in struggles to define the nation-state, with prostitution and disease as central themes. In the twentieth century social historians have demonstrated the differential gender impacts of economic and technological change brought by development projects, industrialization, and shifting strategies of multinational corporations. The most striking contributions of recent books on gender in Latin America include the continuing significance of honor after independence. Motherhood is another recurring theme in writings about women and their history in Latin America.

  17. Association of CHI3L1 in African-Americans with prior history of asthma exacerbations and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Hector; Prazma, Charlene; Suruki, Robert Y; Li, Hao; Anderson, Wayne H

    2013-02-01

    Asthma exacerbations are influenced by multiple factors including environmental exposures, psychosocial interactions, and genetic variations. To better understand the correlation between clinical, physiologic, genetic, and psychological dimensions in asthma phenotypes and exacerbations. Supervised cluster analysis of a previously conducted clinical trial of asthma was used to identify subpopulations with differing exacerbation rates in an African-American study population (n = 475). The clusters were characterized by their clinical characteristics and genetic variations. The genetic analysis (n = 322) compared subgroups across 40 different polymorphisms of 10 genes associated with asthma exacerbations. Four clusters were identified with varying annualized rates of exacerbations. Cluster 1 (n = 272) was represented by subjects with a mean age of 25 years and 52% females. In contrast, cluster 4, most divergent from cluster 1, was represented by subjects with the highest rate of asthma exacerbations (1.18 events per year), was mostly female (>80%), with a mean body mass index of 34, and was distinguished by the report of stress and emotions as the cause for prior exacerbations. Lower lung function and increased rescue medication use was also reported in cluster 4. Additionally, genetic analysis revealed a significant difference in distribution of genotypes among the four clusters for rs4950928, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located in the promoter region of the CHI3L1, the chitinase 3-like 1 gene encoding YKL-40. African-Americans who reported stress and emotions as a primary historical cause of exacerbations had the highest annualized rate of exacerbation. Further, a significant correlation with the genotypes in CHI3L1/YKL-40 was observed in the context of stress and asthma severity.

  18. History of Indian Arts Education in Santa Fe: The Institute of American Indian Arts with Historical Background 1890 to 1962.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmhausen, Winona

    This book traces the history of the Institute of American Indian Arts in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Sections cover four time periods in the evolution of the Institute: the United States Indian Industrial School at Sante Fe, 1890-1932; the Santa Fe Indian School, 1930-62; and the Institute of American Indian Arts, 1962-70 and 1970-78. The United States…

  19. Perspectives:The Strength of a People: Exploring the Impact of History and Culture on African American Families Who Are Homeless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Tabitha; Diamond-Berry, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    The authors share their perspective on how the history of African American's in the U.S., and an awareness of the role of African cultural traditions, can provide insight on working effectively with African American families.

  20. Evolutionary history of the phl gene cluster in the plant-associated bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moynihan, J.A.; Morrissey, J.P.; Coppoolse, E.; Stiekema, W.J.; O'Gara, F.; Boyd, E.F.

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is of agricultural and economic importance as a biological control agent largely because of its plant-association and production of secondary metabolites, in particular 2, 4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2, 4-DAPG). This polyketide, which is encoded by the eight gene phl cluster,

  1. Defensive Localism in White and Black: A Comparative History of European-American and African-American Youth Gangs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Compares European American and African American youth gangs in four historical periods (seaboard, immigrant, racially changing, and hypersegregated cities), showing that differences can be traced to race-specific effects of labor, housing, and consumer markets, government policies, local politics, and organized crime on their communities.…

  2. Rhapsody. I. Structural Properties and Formation History from a Statistical Sample of Re-simulated Cluster-size Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao-Yi; Hahn, Oliver; Wechsler, Risa H.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Behroozi, Peter S.

    2013-02-01

    We present the first results from the RHAPSODY cluster re-simulation project: a sample of 96 "zoom-in" simulations of dark matter halos of 1014.8 ± 0.05 h -1 M ⊙, selected from a 1 h -3 Gpc3 volume. This simulation suite is the first to resolve this many halos with ~5 × 106 particles per halo in the cluster mass regime, allowing us to statistically characterize the distribution of and correlation between halo properties at fixed mass. We focus on the properties of the main halos and how they are affected by formation history, which we track back to z = 12, over five decades in mass. We give particular attention to the impact of the formation history on the density profiles of the halos. We find that the deviations from the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) model and the Einasto model depend on formation time. Late-forming halos tend to have considerable deviations from both models, partly due to the presence of massive subhalos, while early-forming halos deviate less but still significantly from the NFW model and are better described by the Einasto model. We find that the halo shapes depend only moderately on formation time. Departure from spherical symmetry impacts the density profiles through the anisotropic distribution of massive subhalos. Further evidence of the impact of subhalos is provided by analyzing the phase-space structure. A detailed analysis of the properties of the subhalo population in RHAPSODY is presented in a companion paper.

  3. "No Unfavorable Comments from Any Quarter": Teaching Black History to White Students in the American South, 1928-1943

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woyshner, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: The history curriculum is often used to help reach the goal of racial tolerance and understanding by teaching about the nation's diversity. Many educators believe that teaching about diverse peoples in schools will bring about greater equity in society. This historical study looks at the segregated American South from 1928 to…

  4. Beyond Hegemony: Reappraising the History of Philanthropy and African-American Higher Education in the Nineteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Tyrone McKinley

    2010-01-01

    This historiographic essay urges a reappraisal of the revisionist view of philanthropy and African-American higher education in the nineteenth century as hegemonic by adopting agency as a theoretical framework to excavate the institutional histories and other primary sources on the northern black colleges--specifically Wilberforce University--for…

  5. Debating the Study of the Past: A Historical Analysis of American History Curriculum and Instruction between 1890 and 1920

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galligan, Mark N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the research design, rationale, and the results of a historical document-based research project to answer the following two-part question: How do popular and dominant political, social, and economic forces affect the creation and delivery of American history curriculum in public schools between 1890 and 1920 and how is this…

  6. Selection and quality assessment of Landsat data for the North American forest dynamics forest history maps of the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen Schleeweis; Samuel N. Goward; Chengquan Huang; John L. Dwyer; Jennifer L. Dungan; Mary A. Lindsey; Andrew Michaelis; Khaldoun Rishmawi; Jeffery G. Masek

    2016-01-01

    Using the NASA Earth Exchange platform, the North American Forest Dynamics (NAFD) project mapped forest history wall-to-wall, annually for the contiguous US (1986-2010) using the Vegetation Change Tracker algorithm. As with any effort to identify real changes in remotely sensed time-series, data gaps, shifts in seasonality, misregistration, inconsistent radiometry and...

  7. African American History, Race and Textbooks: An Examination of the Works of Harold O. Rugg and Carter G. Woodson

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, LaGarrett J.; Davis, Christopher; Brown, Anthony L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes that as a way to broaden the theoretical and historical context of social studies foundational literature and curriculum history, attention must be given to issues of race and racism related the experiences of African Americans. First, race and racism should be used as an analytical tool to examine longstanding foundations…

  8. An Analysis of the Treatment of Corporate Influence on Government by United States History and American Government High School Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation to explore the possibility that ideology might be expressed in the treatment of corporate influence on federal government by social studies textbooks. Two textbooks were examined in the study--United States history and American government. Corporate influence involves activities that affect election and…

  9. Cluster Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... re at risk of cluster headache. A family history. Having a parent or sibling who has had cluster headache might ... of Nondiscrimination Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  10. Family History in the Primary Open-Angle African American Glaucoma Genetics Study Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Joan M; Salowe, Rebecca J; Fertig, Raymond; Salinas, Julia; Pistilli, Maxwell; Sankar, Prithvi S; Miller-Ellis, Eydie; Lehman, Amanda; Murphy, Windell; Homsher, Melissa; Gordon, Katelyn; Ying, Gui-Shuang

    2018-03-16

    To determine the relationship between positive family history (FH) and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) diagnosis and clinical presentation in the Primary Open-Angle African American Glaucoma Genetics (POAAGG) cohort. FH of POAG in first-degree relatives was assessed in 2365 subjects in the POAAGG cohort. A standardized interview was used to assess FH of glaucoma, demographic characteristics, lifestyle choices, and medical and ocular comorbidities. Positive FH was associated with increased risk of POAG (age-adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval 3.4[2.8, 4.1]). In age-adjusted analysis among POAG cases, positive FH was associated with younger age (P<0.001), female gender (P<.001), hypertension (P=.006), use of hypertension medication (P=.03), and prior glaucoma surgery (P=.02). Cases with positive FH also had thicker retinal nerve fiber layers (P=.03). The risk conferred by positive FH suggests strong genetic underpinnings for some patients with this disease, which will be investigated by genome-wide association studies and whole exome sequencing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A history of binge drinking during adolescence is associated with poorer sleep quality in young adult Mexican Americans and American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Wills, Derek; Gilder, David A

    2018-03-27

    Binge drinking during adolescence is common, and adolescents and young adults with alcohol problems may also have sleep difficulties. However, few studies have documented the effects of a history of adolescent binge drinking on sleep in young adulthood in high-risk minority populations. To quantify sleep disturbance, as indexed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), in a sample of young adult Mexican American and American Indian men and women (18-30 years, n = 800) with and without a history of alcohol binge drinking during adolescence, controlling for age, gender, and race. Gender was found to affect PSQI responses with females reporting waking up at night, having more bad dreams, and later habitual bedtimes than males, and males reporting more problems with breathing and snoring. Increasing age was associated with snoring or coughing, less hours spent in bed, and later evening bedtimes. Race also influenced the PSQI with American Indians reporting longer sleep latencies and sleep durations, more hours spent in bed, and more trouble with coughing and snoring than Mexican Americans, and Mexican Americans reporting later bedtimes. A history of adolescent regular binge drinking was associated with longer sleep latencies, more problems with breathing, bad dreams, and an overall higher PSQI total score, when controlling for age, race, and gender. This report suggests, like what has been found in young adults in general population samples, that binge drinking during adolescence is associated with deleterious consequences on sleep quality in young adulthood in these high-risk and understudied ethnic groups.

  12. MASSIVE+: The Growth Histories of MASSIVE Survey Galaxies from their Globular Cluster Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, John

    2017-08-01

    The MASSIVE survey is targeting the 100 most massive galaxies within 108 Mpc that are visible in the northern sky. These most massive galaxies in the present-day universe reside in a surprisingly wide variety of environments, from rich clusters to fossil groups to near isolation. We propose to use WFC3/UVIS and ACS to carry out a deep imaging study of the globular cluster populations around a selected subset of the MASSIVE targets. Though much is known about GC systems of bright galaxies in rich clusters, we know surprisingly little about the effects of environment on these systems. The MASSIVE sample provides a golden opportunity to learn about the systematics of GC systems and what they can tell us about environmental drivers on the evolution of the highest mass galaxies. The most pressing questions to be addressed include: (1) Do isolated giants have the same constant mass fraction of GCs to total halo mass as BCGs of similar luminosity? (2) Do their GC systems show the same color (metallicity) distribution, which is an outcome of the mass spectrum of gas-rich halos during hierarchical growth? (3) Do the GCs in isolated high-mass galaxies follow the same radial distribution versus metallicity as in rich environments (a test of the relative importance of growth by accretion)? (4) Do the GCs of galaxies in sparse environments follow the same mass function? Our proposed second-band imaging will enable us to secure answers to these questions and add enormously to the legacy value of existing HST imaging of the highest mass galaxies in the universe.

  13. American Labor in U.S. History Textbooks: How Labor's Story Is Distorted in High School History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Paul F.; Megivern, Lori; Hilgert, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Imagine opening a high school U.S. history textbook and finding no mention of--or at most a passing sentence about--Valley Forge, the Missouri Compromise, or the League of Nations. Imagine not finding a word about Benjamin Franklin, Lewis and Clark, Sitting Bull, Andrew Carnegie, or Rosa Parks. Imagine if these key events and people just…

  14. Recasting History: Are Race, Class, and Gender Dominating American History? A Study of U.S. History Courses at the University of Texas and Texas A&M University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonte, Richard W.; Wood, Peter W.; Thorne, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    In 1971, the state of Texas enacted a legislative requirement that students at public institutions complete two courses in American history. With that mandate in mind, the Texas Association of Scholars and the National Association of Scholars' Center for the Study of the Curriculum proposed to determine how students today meet the requirement, and…

  15. American ways and their meaning: Edith Wharton’s post-war fiction and American history, ideology, and national identity

    OpenAIRE

    Jenny Lynn Glennon

    2011-01-01

    This thesis argues that Edith Wharton’s assessment of American ways and their meaning in her post-war fiction has been widely misread. Its title derives from French Ways and Their Meaning (1919), which she wrote to educate her countrymen about French culture and society. Making sense of America was as great a challenge to Wharton. Much of her later fiction was for a long time dismissed by critics on the grounds that she had failed to ‘make sense’ of America. Wharton was troubled by American m...

  16. New York City International Polar Weekend at the American Museum of Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S.; Turrin, M.; Macphee, R.

    2008-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History, in partnership with Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the Earth Institute of Columbia University and Barnard College, is featuring the International Polar Year through a New York City International Polar Weekend (NYC-IPW) in 2007, 2008 and 2009. The event showcases current polar research, polar environmental changes, history and culture during two days of family programs and activities, performances, and lectures. The goal of the NYC-IPW is to engage diverse audiences and enhance the public understanding of polar science, in particular IPY research, through close interactions with polar experts. Activities for the public include many disciplines, ranging from the physical sciences and cultural anthropology to music and art, and are presented in many forms, from lectures, panels and films to posters and play. Highlights of the NYC-IPW include: 1) A polar fair for youth and adults, showcasing scientists, artists, and educators who have worked at one or both poles and including many interactive exhibits featuring such topics as life in New York at the end of the last Ice Age, how Arctic sea ice is changing, and life on and under the ice. 2) Performances and presentations oriented towards children and families, including Inuit Throat Singers, Central Park Zoo Theater Group, and a northern lights show. 3) Lectures showcasing current IPY research and addressing such issues as the possible effects of climate change on the poles and the rest of the world, as well as polar poetry, art and film. 4) A partnership with New York City Urban Advantage program for Middle School students in the city to meet with scientists, teachers and students who had participated in polar research and travel. 5) Norwegian Consulate sponsorship of science presenters and Sami performers. The March 2007 event involved 85 presenters and volunteers from 22 institutions, and attracted ca. 3,500 visitors. Approximately 5,000 visitors attended the February 2008

  17. A History of Cluster Analysis Using the Classification Society's Bibliography Over Four Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, Fionn; Kurtz, Michael J.

    2016-04-01

    The Classification Literature Automated Search Service, an annual bibliography based on citation of one or more of a set of around 80 book or journal publications, ran from 1972 to 2012. We analyze here the years 1994 to 2011. The Classification Society's Service, as it was termed, has been produced by the Classification Society. In earlier decades it was distributed as a diskette or CD with the Journal of Classification. Among our findings are the following: an enormous increase in scholarly production post approximately 2000; a very major increase in quantity, coupled with work in different disciplines, from approximately 2004; and a major shift also from cluster analysis in earlier times having mathematics and psychology as disciplines of the journals published in, and affiliations of authors, contrasted with, in more recent times, a "centre of gravity" in management and engineering.

  18. The History of American Art Education: Learning about Art in American Schools. Contributions to the Study of Education, Number 67.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter J.

    This document examines some of the currents, figures, and moments in U.S. art education. The text is organized in 12 chapters: (1) "The Beginnings of Education in the Visual Arts in America"; (2) "The Dismissal of Walter Smith: Historiographic Explanation, the American Art Scene, and Visual Arts Education in the Late Nineteenth…

  19. Introducing Hyperworld(s: Language, Culture, and History in the Latin American world(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Allatson

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This introduction to the January 2008 special edition of PORTAL engages with the processes by which, in the early 21st century—an information age of hypertechnology, post-nationalism, post-Fordism, and dominating transnational media—culture and economy have become fused, and globalizations tend towards the mercantilization, commodification, and privatization of human experience. We recognize that access to the technologies of globalizations is uneven. Although cyberspace and other hypertechnologies have become an integral part of workspaces, and of the domestic space in most households, across Western industrialized societies, and for the middle and upper-classes everywhere, this is not a reality for most people in the world, including the Latin American underclasses, the majority of the continent’s population. But we also agree with pundits who note how that limited access has not prevented a ‘techno-virtual spillover’ into the historical-material world. More and more people are increasingly touched by the techno-virtual realm and its logics, with a resultant transformation of global imaginaries in response to, for instance, the global spread of privatised entertainment and news via TV, satellites and the internet, and virtualized military operations (wars on terror, drugs, and rogue regimes. Under these hyperworldizing conditions, we asked, how might we talk about language, culture and history in Latin America, especially since language has an obvious, enduring importance as a tool for communication, and as the means to define culture and give narrative shape to our histories and power struggles? Our central term ‘hyperworld(s’ presents us with numerous conceptual and epistemological challenges, not least because, whether unintended or not, it evokes cyberspace, thus gesturing toward either the seamless integration of physical and virtual reality, or its converse, a false opposition between the material and the virtual. The term

  20. Prescribed fire in North American forests and woodlands: history, current practice, and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin C. Ryan; Eric E. Knapp; J. Morgan Varner

    2013-01-01

    Whether ignited by lightning or by Native Americans, fire once shaped many North American ecosystems. Euro-American settlement and 20th-century fire suppression practices drastically altered historic fire regimes, leading to excessive fuel accumulation and uncharacteristically severe wildfires in some areas and diminished flammability resulting from shifts to more fire...

  1. Making history: Field testing of blight-resistant American chestnut (Castanea dentata) in the Southern Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy L. Clark; Scott E. Schlarbaum; A.M. Saxton; Fred V. Hebard

    2011-01-01

    The American chestnut (Castanea dentata Marsh. Borkh.) was decimated by an exotic fungus (chestnut blight [Cryphonectria parasitica Murr. Bar]) in the early part of the 20th century. The American Chestnut Foundation (TACF) uses a back-cross breeding program to produce a tree that is predicted to be American chestnut in character...

  2. Approaches to Climate Literacy at the American Museum of Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, R. V.

    2015-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) offers a suite of courses, workshops and special events in climate change education for audiences ranging from young children to adults and utilizing both online and in-person formats. These offerings are supported by rich digital resources including video, animations and data visualizations. These efforts have the potential to raise awareness of climate change, deepen understandings and improve public discourse and decision-making on this critical issue. For adult audiences, Our Earth's Future offers participants a five-week course at AMNH that focuses on climate change science, impacts and communication, taking advantage of both AMNH expertise and exhibitry. Online versions of this course include both a ten-week course as well as three different three-week thematic courses. (The longer course is now available as a MOOC in Coursera.) These activities have been supported by a grant from IMLS. The results of independent evaluation provide insight into participant needs and how they might be addressed. For K-12 educators, the Museum's Seminars on Science program of online teacher professional development offers, in collaboration with its higher education partners, a graduate course in climate change that is authored by both an AMNH curator and leading NASA scientists. Developed with support from both NASA and NSF, the course provides a semester-equivalent introduction to climate change science for educators, including digital resources, assignments and discussions for classroom use. The results of independent evaluation will be presented. For younger audiences, the presentation will highlight resources from the AMNH Ology site; television programming conducted in partnership with HBO; Science Bulletinsvideos that include current climate change research; resources related to the GRACE mission for tracking water from space; and special event programming at the Museum on climate change. This presentation will address the

  3. American Military Veteran Entrepreneurs: A Comprehensive Profile of Demographic, Service History, and Psychosocial Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Adrienne J; Freeman, Michael A; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2017-01-01

    American military veterans are nearly twice as likely to be self-employed compared to non-veterans, and are majority owners in nine percent of all businesses nationwide. Despite their contribution to the broader economy and the potential for training programs to cultivate and foster successful self-employment and veteran-lead entrepreneurial ventures, research on veteran entrepreneurs remains limited. In order to gain a better understanding of the potential strengths and vulnerabilities of veteran entrepreneurs, the current study utilized data from a large, nationally representative sample to profile self-employed veterans (n=230) and compare them to veterans who work as employees (n=1,055) with respect to demographic, military service history, and psychosocial characteristics. Results indicated that self-employed veterans were older and more educated and more likely to utilize VA healthcare. Self-employed veterans were more likely to serve in Vietnam and to serve in the military for fewer years. No differences were noted in perceived military experience, level of combat exposure, or military branch served as a function of self-employment. Although reporting more lifetime traumas, self-employed veterans did not experience higher rates of current or lifetime psychopathology or lower perceived quality of life. Potential protective resilience-promoting factors may be associated with the higher levels of openness, extraversion, optimism, achievement-orientation (purpose in life), and greater need for autonomy and professional development observed among self-employed veterans. Moreover, self-employed veterans demonstrated higher levels of gratitude, community integration, and altruistic service to others. Findings have potential to inform human resources management strategies and vocational training and reintegration initiatives for veterans.

  4. American Military Veteran Entrepreneurs: A Comprehensive Profile of Demographic, Service History, and Psychosocial Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Adrienne J.; Freeman, Michael A.; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan; Pietrzak, Robert H.

    2017-01-01

    American military veterans are nearly twice as likely to be self-employed compared to non-veterans, and are majority owners in nine percent of all businesses nationwide. Despite their contribution to the broader economy and the potential for training programs to cultivate and foster successful self-employment and veteran-lead entrepreneurial ventures, research on veteran entrepreneurs remains limited. In order to gain a better understanding of the potential strengths and vulnerabilities of veteran entrepreneurs, the current study utilized data from a large, nationally representative sample to profile self-employed veterans (n=230) and compare them to veterans who work as employees (n=1,055) with respect to demographic, military service history, and psychosocial characteristics. Results indicated that self-employed veterans were older and more educated and more likely to utilize VA healthcare. Self-employed veterans were more likely to serve in Vietnam and to serve in the military for fewer years. No differences were noted in perceived military experience, level of combat exposure, or military branch served as a function of self-employment. Although reporting more lifetime traumas, self-employed veterans did not experience higher rates of current or lifetime psychopathology or lower perceived quality of life. Potential protective resilience-promoting factors may be associated with the higher levels of openness, extraversion, optimism, achievement-orientation (purpose in life), and greater need for autonomy and professional development observed among self-employed veterans. Moreover, self-employed veterans demonstrated higher levels of gratitude, community integration, and altruistic service to others. Findings have potential to inform human resources management strategies and vocational training and reintegration initiatives for veterans. PMID:29290645

  5. Effect of attitudes towards patients on sexual history taking: a survey of Iranian-American physicians in California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, Mitra; Minichiello, Victor; Knutsen, Synnove F; Ghamsary, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Although obtaining sexual history from patients is essential, the attitudes of physicians can become a barrier to sexual health care. Iranian-American physicians may face particular challenges because talking about sexuality is considered a taboo within their culture. Our study examined these physicians' attitudes when taking a sexual history from their patients. In 2013, a self-administrated questionnaire was sent to 1550 Iranian-American physicians in California, USA. Using factor analysis, the principal components approach with a Varimax rotation was used on a set of 12-item questions (five-point Likert scales) to detect latent factors that explain attitudes affecting sexual history taking. Scores are generated to determine physicians' attitudes towards sexual history taking. In total, 354 questionnaires were returned (23% response rate). Three factors were identified as internally consistent (Cronbach's α=0.84 - 0.94): (1) attitude towards various patients; (2) female sexuality; and (3) age and marriage. Significant association were found between these three factors and some variables such as physicians' gender, country of medical graduation, religion, birthplace and age. Results revealed that cultural attitudes are important factors affecting physicians' involvement in sexual history taking. Additional studies from this population and other subpopulations of US physicians are needed. New strategies that reflect on physicians' attitude on sexual healthcare delivery is needed. If confirmed in other studies, our findings could have implications for the training of medical graduates globally.

  6. RHAPSODY. I. STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES AND FORMATION HISTORY FROM A STATISTICAL SAMPLE OF RE-SIMULATED CLUSTER-SIZE HALOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hao-Yi; Hahn, Oliver; Wechsler, Risa H.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Behroozi, Peter S., E-mail: hywu@umich.edu [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Physics Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    We present the first results from the RHAPSODY cluster re-simulation project: a sample of 96 'zoom-in' simulations of dark matter halos of 10{sup 14.8{+-}0.05} h {sup -1} M {sub Sun }, selected from a 1 h {sup -3} Gpc{sup 3} volume. This simulation suite is the first to resolve this many halos with {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} particles per halo in the cluster mass regime, allowing us to statistically characterize the distribution of and correlation between halo properties at fixed mass. We focus on the properties of the main halos and how they are affected by formation history, which we track back to z = 12, over five decades in mass. We give particular attention to the impact of the formation history on the density profiles of the halos. We find that the deviations from the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) model and the Einasto model depend on formation time. Late-forming halos tend to have considerable deviations from both models, partly due to the presence of massive subhalos, while early-forming halos deviate less but still significantly from the NFW model and are better described by the Einasto model. We find that the halo shapes depend only moderately on formation time. Departure from spherical symmetry impacts the density profiles through the anisotropic distribution of massive subhalos. Further evidence of the impact of subhalos is provided by analyzing the phase-space structure. A detailed analysis of the properties of the subhalo population in RHAPSODY is presented in a companion paper.

  7. The context of collecting family health history: examining definitions of family and family communication about health among African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Tess; Seo, Joann; Griffith, Julia; Baxter, Melanie; James, Aimee; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2015-04-01

    Public health initiatives encourage the public to discuss and record family health history information, which can inform prevention and screening for a variety of conditions. Most research on family health history discussion and collection, however, has predominantly involved White participants and has not considered lay definitions of family or family communication patterns about health. This qualitative study of 32 African American women-16 with a history of cancer-analyzed participants' definitions of family, family communication about health, and collection of family health history information. Family was defined by biological relatedness, social ties, interactions, and proximity. Several participants noted using different definitions of family for different purposes (e.g., biomedical vs. social). Health discussions took place between and within generations and were influenced by structural relationships (e.g., sister) and characteristics of family members (e.g., trustworthiness). Participants described managing tensions between sharing health information and protecting privacy, especially related to generational differences in sharing information, fear of familial conflict or gossip, and denial (sometimes described as refusal to "own" or "claim" a disease). Few participants reported that anyone in their family kept formal family health history records. Results suggest family health history initiatives should address family tensions and communication patterns that affect discussion and collection of family health history information.

  8. Robin's Story: Life History of an Exemplary American Female Physical Education Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazers, Gunars; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to construct the life history of Robin, an exemplary female physical educator, to hear her voice, and to explore ways in which she experienced marginalization. Few life histories of exemplary physical educators have been recounted. Method: Robin's life history was investigated in light of the theory of occupational…

  9. A "Great Roads" Approach to Teaching Modern World History and Latin American Regional Survey Courses: A Veracruz to Mexico City Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Seay, Jr.; Sullivan-Gonzalez, Douglass

    2002-01-01

    Outlines an innovative way of teaching "World History Since 1500" at Samford University (Birmingham, Alabama) called the "great roads" approach, centered upon important roads in a country's history. Presents the "Veracruz to Mexico City corridor" case study used to teach a Latin American modern history course. (CMK)

  10. Comparison of Smoking History Patterns Among African American and White Cohorts in the United States Born 1890 to 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holford, Theodore R; Levy, David T; Meza, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    Characterizing smoking history patterns summarizes life course exposure for birth cohorts, essential for evaluating the impact of tobacco control on health. Limited attention has been given to patterns among African Americans. Life course smoking histories of African Americans and whites were estimated beginning with the 1890 birth cohort. Estimates of smoking initiation and cessation probabilities, and intensity can be used as a baseline for studying smoking intervention strategies that target smoking exposure. US National Health Interview Surveys conducted from 1965 to 2012 yielded cross-sectional information on current smoking behavior among African Americans and whites. Additional detail for smokers including age at initiation, age at cessation and smoking intensity were available in some surveys and these were used to construct smoking histories for participants up to the date that they were interviewed. Age-period-cohort models with constrained natural splines provided estimates of current, former and never-smoker prevalence in cohorts beginning in 1890. This approach yielded yearly estimates of initiation, cessation and smoking intensity by age for each birth cohort. Smoking initiation probabilities tend to be lower among African Americans compared to whites, and cessation probabilities also were generally lower. Higher initiation leads to higher smoking prevalence among whites in younger ages, but lower cessation leads to higher prevalence at older ages in blacks, when adverse health effects of smoking become most apparent. These estimates provide a summary that can be used to better understand the effects of changes in smoking behavior following publication of the Surgeon General's Report in 1964. A novel method of estimating smoking histories was applied to data from the National Health Interview Surveys, which provided an extensive summary of the smoking history in this population following publication of the Surgeon General's Report in 1964. The results

  11. Environmental filtering of eudicot lineages underlies phylogenetic clustering in tropical South American flooded forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana, Ana M; Carlucci, Marcos B; Fine, Paul V A; Stevenson, Pablo R

    2017-02-01

    The phylogenetic community assembly approach has been used to elucidate the role of ecological and historical processes in shaping tropical tree communities. Recent studies have shown that stressful environments, such as seasonally dry, white-sand and flooded forests tend to be phylogenetically clustered, arguing for niche conservatism as the main driver for this pattern. Very few studies have attempted to identify the lineages that contribute to such assembly patterns. We aimed to improve our understanding of the assembly of flooded forest tree communities in Northern South America by asking the following questions: are seasonally flooded forests phylogenetically clustered? If so, which angiosperm lineages are over-represented in seasonally flooded forests? To assess our hypotheses, we investigated seasonally flooded and terra firme forests from the Magdalena, Orinoco and Amazon Basins, in Colombia. Our results show that, regardless of the river basin in which they are located, seasonally flooded forests of Northern South America tend to be phylogenetically clustered, which means that the more abundant taxa in these forests are more closely related to each other than expected by chance. Based on our alpha and beta phylodiversity analyses we interpret that eudicots are more likely to adapt to extreme environments such as seasonally flooded forests, which indicates the importance of environmental filtering in the assembly of the Neotropical flora.

  12. Central American mothers report family history of depression and alcohol abuse as a predictor of teenage health risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiegue, Ann

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships of family history of depression and alcohol abuse as a predictor of health risk behaviors among Central American teenagers. Demographic data were collected from a convenience sample of 101 Central American mothers with a teenage daughter ages 12-17 years who were living in Northern Virginia. The research questions assessed the family history of depression, alcohol abuse, and maternal depression. Scores were calculated to predict risk of teenage health risk behaviors. The Hispanic mothers in this study reported that their teenagers had significant health risk behaviors, including school dropout and expulsion, alcohol and substance use, pregnancy, and gang membership. Family history of depression and alcohol abuse in a first degree relative predicted teenage risk behavior 71% of the time. There is no consensus on a standard screening approach for depression in teenagers. Developing a standardized approach to gathering information from teenagers that includes genetic family traits may have significant effects on interventions for teenage health risk behavior and ways to provide the best services for vulnerable teenagers. The results of this study have implications for nurse practitioners caring for teenagers. ©2010 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2010 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.

  13. Tracing the assembly history of NGC 1395 through its Globular Cluster System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Carlos G.; Faifer, Favio R.; Smith Castelli, Analía V.; Forte, Juan C.; Sesto, Leandro A.; González, Nélida M.; Scalia, María C.

    2018-03-01

    We used deep Gemini-South/GMOS g΄r΄i΄z΄ images to study the globular cluster (GC) system of the massive elliptical galaxy NGC 1395, located in the Eridanus supergroup. The photometric analysis of the GC candidates reveals a clear colour bimodality distribution, indicating the presence of `blue' and `red' GC subpopulations. While a negative radial colour gradient is detected in the projected spatial distribution of the red GCs, the blue GCs display a shallow colour gradient. The blue GCs also display a remarkable shallow and extended surface density profile, suggesting a significant accretion of low-mass satellites in the outer halo of the galaxy. In addition, the slope of the projected spatial distribution of the blue GCs in the outer regions of the galaxy, is similar to that of the X-ray halo emission. Integrating up to 165 kpc the profile of the projected spatial distribution of the GCs, we estimated a total GC population and specific frequency of 6000 ± 1100 and SN = 7.4 ± 1.4, respectively. Regarding NGC 1395 itself, the analysis of the deep Gemini/GMOS images shows a low surface brightness umbrella-like structure indicating, at least, one recent merger event. Through relations recently published in the literature, we obtained global parameters, such as Mstellar = 9.32 × 1011 M⊙ and Mh = 6.46 × 1013 M⊙. Using public spectroscopic data, we derive stellar population parameters of the central region of the galaxy by the full spectral fitting technique. We have found that this region seems to be dominated for an old stellar population, in contrast to findings of young stellar populations from the literature.

  14. The History and Founding Organizations of the American Board of Ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, Bruce E

    2016-09-01

    In the early 1900s, ophthalmologists became the first group of American physicians to lead the call for the establishment of higher standards in the practice of medicine. This movement for excellence in practice evolved into a program of board certification through the creation of what is today the American Board of Ophthalmology (ABO). Three organizations-the American Ophthalmological Society, the Section on Ophthalmology of the American Medical Association, and the American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology-are credited as the founders of the ABO. Representatives from these organizations were charged with overseeing the development of board certification programs from the ABO's inception in 1916 through 1982, when it became a fully autonomous organization. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup variation of contemporary mixed South Americans reveals prehistoric displacements linked to archaeologically-derived culture history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothhammer, Francisco; Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Puddu, Giannina; Capriles, José

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine South American population structure and prehistoric population displacements prior to the Spanish conquest, utilizing mitochondrial DNA haplogroups of extant mixed populations from Mexico, Costa Rica, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, Argentina, and Chile. Relative frequencies of four pan-American haplogroups, obtained from published databases, were analyzed to evaluate patterns of variations, population structure and possible prehistoric migration pathways. Patterns of mtDNA variation verify biogeographic drift processes and possible migratory pathways. We propose an updated model of South American colonization that is fully compatible with previous studies based on autosomal, mtDNA, and Y chromosome variation and with archaeologically-derived culture history. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. “Using History to Make Slavery History”: The African American Past and the Challenge of Contemporary Slavery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B. Stewart

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that contemporary antislavery activism in the United States is programmatically undermined and ethically compromised unless it is firmly grounded in a deep understanding of the African American past. Far too frequently those who claim to be “the new abolitionists” evince no interest in what the original abolitionist movement might have to teach them and seem entirely detached from a U.S. history in which the mass, systematic enslavement of African Americans and its consequences are dominating themes. As a result contemporary antislavery activism too often marginalizes the struggle for racial justice in the United States and even indulges in racist ideology. In an effort to overcome these problems, this article seeks to demonstrate in specific detail how knowledge of the African American past can empower opposition to slavery as we encounter it today.

  17. The History, Role, and Value of Public Directors on Certifying Boards: The American Board of Ophthalmology Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Suzanne T; Nora, Lois M; McEntee, Christine W; Fitzgerald, Matthew E; Nugent, Samantha Guastella

    2016-09-01

    The mission of the American Board of Ophthalmology (ABO) is to serve the public by improving the quality of ophthalmic practice through a continuing certification process that fosters excellence and encourages continual learning. Since 2001, achieving this mission has been enhanced by including public directors in the ABO governance. We review the evolution of including nonprofessional members on the governing boards of professional regulatory and self-regulatory organizations generally, provide history about the incorporation of non-professional public directors into the governance structure of the American Board of Medical Specialties and the ABO, and offer insights about the perceived impact of public directors on the ABO. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. On the Edge: A History of Poor Black Children and Their American Dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Carl Husemoller

    This book provides an account of life in the inner city from World War II to the present. Poor, jobless, and racially outcast young black people are economically and socially excluded from the American mainstream. To compensate for this, inner-city children turn to American traditions of consumerism and violence. Buying into the implicit message…

  19. 3 CFR 8345 - Proclamation 8345 of February 2, 2009. National African American History Month, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... African Americans designed our beautiful Capital City, gave us the melodic rhythms of New Orleans Jazz... classic literature. This legacy has only added luster to the brand of the United States, which has drawn...,” is a chance to examine the evolution of our country and how African Americans helped draw us ever...

  20. At the Crossroads of Hualapai History, Memory, and American Colonization: Contesting Space and Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Jeffrey P.

    2008-01-01

    Standard, even "new Indian history" narratives of relocation and removal have generally avoided critical discussions of colonialism, memory, and space. Choosing instead to emphasize the important political, economic, social, and even cultural implications of such dislocations, much of what passes as "Indian" history fails to…

  1. Genetic relationships among native americans based on beta-globin gene cluster haplotype frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cassia Mousinho-Ribeiro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of b-globin gene haplotypes was studied in 209 Amerindians from eight tribes of the Brazilian Amazon: Asurini from Xingú, Awá-Guajá, Parakanã, Urubú-Kaapór, Zoé, Kayapó (Xikrin from the Bacajá village, Katuena, and Tiriyó. Nine different haplotypes were found, two of which (n. 11 and 13 had not been previously identified in Brazilian indigenous populations. Haplotype 2 (+ - - - - was the most common in all groups studied, with frequencies varying from 70% to 100%, followed by haplotype 6 (- + + - +, with frequencies between 7% and 18%. The frequency distribution of the b-globin gene haplotypes in the eighteen Brazilian Amerindian populations studied to date is characterized by a reduced number of haplotypes (average of 3.5 and low levels of heterozygosity and intrapopulational differentiation, with a single clearly predominant haplotype in most tribes (haplotype 2. The Parakanã, Urubú-Kaapór, Tiriyó and Xavante tribes constitute exceptions, presenting at least four haplotypes with relatively high frequencies. The closest genetic relationships were observed between the Brazilian and the Colombian Amerindians (Wayuu, Kamsa and Inga, and, to a lesser extent, with the Huichol of Mexico. North-American Amerindians are more differentiated and clearly separated from all other tribes, except the Xavante, from Brazil, and the Mapuche, from Argentina. A restricted pool of ancestral haplotypes may explain the low diversity observed among most present-day Brazilian and Colombian Amerindian groups, while interethnic admixture could be the most important factor to explain the high number of haplotypes and high levels of diversity observed in some South-American and most North-American tribes.

  2. Johns Hopkins's first professorship in philosophy: a critical pivot point in the history of American psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher D

    2007-01-01

    The first professorship in philosophy at Johns Hopkins University was contested in the early 1880s by two of the most prominent and influential scholars in America: Charles Sanders Peirce and George Sylvester Morris. A third figure also vied for the position, although he was much less well known at the time: Granville Stanley Hall. Through a series of unexpected circumstances, Hall ultimately won the professorship and then used it to leverage an extraordinary career that included his opening the first American research laboratory in psychology, establishing the American Journal of Psychology, becoming president of Clark University, founding the American Psychological Association, and profoundly affecting the character of developmental psychology in America.

  3. Medical history for the masses: how American comic books celebrated heroes of medicine in the 1940s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bert

    2004-01-01

    When comic books rose to mass popularity in the early 1940s, one segment of the industry specialized in "true adventures," with stories about real people from the past and the present--in contrast to competing books that offered fantasy, science fiction, superheroes, detectives and crime, funny people, or funny animals. This study examines the figures from both medical history and twentieth-century medicine who were portrayed as heroes and role models in these comic books: first, to call attention to this very popular, if unknown, genre of medical history, and second, to illustrate how medical history was used at that time to popularize scientific and medical ideas, to celebrate the achievements of medical research, to encourage medical science as a career choice, and to show medicine as a humane and noble enterprise. The study explains how these medical history stories were situated in American popular culture more generally, and how the graphic power of comic books successfully conveyed both values and information while also telling a good story. Attention to this colorful genre of popular medical history enriches our picture of the mid-twentieth-century public's enthusiasm for medical progress.

  4. Contemporary History in High Schools: Brazilian, North American and French Content Standards (1999-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar Freitas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses Contemporary History (CH during the formation of students in high school years. The objects are the assigned curricula for high schools in Brazil, USA and France in the last two decades. By using comparative history strategies, we examine how present time is configured in different cultures, the ways in which the State appropriates itself of this period’s historical representation in school programs and standards, the historians’ degree of intervention (and that of CH in particular in the elaboration of curricula for the teaching of History and the representations these countries make of each other on the theme of the 20th and 21st centuries.

  5. Genomic evidence for the Pleistocene and recent population history of Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Anders; Moltke, Ida; Metspalu, Mait; Homburger, Julian R.; Wall, Jeff; Cornejo, Omar E.; Moreno-Mayar, J. Víctor; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S.; Pierre, Tracey; Rasmussen, Morten; Campos, Paula F.; de Barros Damgaard, Peter; Allentoft, Morten E.; Lindo, John; Metspalu, Ene; Rodríguez-Varela, Ricardo; Mansilla, Josefina; Henrickson, Celeste; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Malmström, Helena; Stafford, Thomas; Shringarpure, Suyash S.; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Karmin, Monika; Tambets, Kristiina; Bergström, Anders; Xue, Yali; Warmuth, Vera; Friend, Andrew D.; Singarayer, Joy; Valdes, Paul; Balloux, Francois; Leboreiro, Ilán; Vera, Jose Luis; Rangel-Villalobos, Hector; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata; Davis, Loren G.; Heyer, Evelyne; Zollikofer, Christoph P. E.; Ponce de León, Marcia S.; Smith, Colin I.; Grimes, Vaughan; Pike, Kelly-Anne; Deal, Michael; Fuller, Benjamin T.; Arriaza, Bernardo; Standen, Vivien; Luz, Maria F.; Ricaut, Francois; Guidon, Niede; Osipova, Ludmila; Voevoda, Mikhail I.; Posukh, Olga L.; Balanovsky, Oleg; Lavryashina, Maria; Bogunov, Yuri; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Gubina, Marina; Balanovska, Elena; Fedorova, Sardana; Litvinov, Sergey; Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Mosher, M. J.; Archer, David; Cybulski, Jerome; Petzelt, Barbara; Mitchell, Joycelynn; Worl, Rosita; Norman, Paul J.; Parham, Peter; Kemp, Brian M.; Kivisild, Toomas; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Crawford, Michael; Villems, Richard; Smith, David Glenn; Waters, Michael R.; Goebel, Ted; Johnson, John R.; Malhi, Ripan S.; Jakobsson, Mattias; Meltzer, David J.; Manica, Andrea; Durbin, Richard; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Song, Yun S.; Nielsen, Rasmus; Willerslev, Eske

    2016-01-01

    How and when the Americas were populated remains contentious. Using ancient and modern genome-wide data, we find that the ancestors of all present-day Native Americans, including Athabascans and Amerindians, entered the Americas as a single migration wave from Siberia no earlier than 23 thousand years ago (KYA), and after no more than 8,000-year isolation period in Beringia. Following their arrival to the Americas, ancestral Native Americans diversified into two basal genetic branches around 13 KYA, one that is now dispersed across North and South America and the other is restricted to North America. Subsequent gene flow resulted in some Native Americans sharing ancestry with present-day East Asians (including Siberians) and, more distantly, Australo-Melanesians. Putative ‘Paleoamerican’ relict populations, including the historical Mexican Pericúes and South American Fuego-Patagonians, are not directly related to modern Australo-Melanesians as suggested by the Paleoamerican Model. PMID:26198033

  6. Using family history and health risk behaviors to determine predictors of depressive symptoms in Central American immigrant mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiegue, Ann H; Lyon, Debra E; Meyers, Melanie F

    2013-06-01

    In this study, depressive symptomatology in Central American immigrant mothers with adolescent daughters living in the USA was explored. Using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Short Scale, the Family History Scale, an Acculturation Scale, and the core section of the Youth Conduct Disorder scale from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 101 Central American mothers were analyzed to identify predictors of depressive symptoms. Over one-third of the participants had depressive symptoms. There were no significant findings for acculturation as a predictor of depressive symptoms. Predictors that related to depressive symptomatology were a positive family history of depression, marital status (divorced), and having a daughter engaged in health risk behaviors. Clinicians working with mothers from Central America should consider risk of depression, whether there is a family history of depression; and additional stresses, such as the health risk behaviors of adolescents. Unprecedented levels of immigration around the world underscore the importance of meeting the healthcare needs of culturally-diverse groups. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Cinema and the Great War - Andrew Kelly, 1997. History by Hollywood. The use and abuse of the American past - Robert Brant Toplin, 1996

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, Bernadette

    1998-01-01

    textabstractReview of: Cinema and the Great War. Andrew Kelly, Londen, New York (Routledge), 1997, 219 p.History by Hollywood. The use and abuse of the American past. Robert Brant Toplin, Chicago (Urbana), 1996, 267 p.

  8. Accuracies of genomic breeding values in American Angus beef cattle using K-means clustering for cross-validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatchi, Mahdi; McClure, Mathew C; McKay, Stephanie D; Rolf, Megan M; Kim, JaeWoo; Decker, Jared E; Taxis, Tasia M; Chapple, Richard H; Ramey, Holly R; Northcutt, Sally L; Bauck, Stewart; Woodward, Brent; Dekkers, Jack C M; Fernando, Rohan L; Schnabel, Robert D; Garrick, Dorian J; Taylor, Jeremy F

    2011-11-28

    Genomic selection is a recently developed technology that is beginning to revolutionize animal breeding. The objective of this study was to estimate marker effects to derive prediction equations for direct genomic values for 16 routinely recorded traits of American Angus beef cattle and quantify corresponding accuracies of prediction. Deregressed estimated breeding values were used as observations in a weighted analysis to derive direct genomic values for 3570 sires genotyped using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip. These bulls were clustered into five groups using K-means clustering on pedigree estimates of additive genetic relationships between animals, with the aim of increasing within-group and decreasing between-group relationships. All five combinations of four groups were used for model training, with cross-validation performed in the group not used in training. Bivariate animal models were used for each trait to estimate the genetic correlation between deregressed estimated breeding values and direct genomic values. Accuracies of direct genomic values ranged from 0.22 to 0.69 for the studied traits, with an average of 0.44. Predictions were more accurate when animals within the validation group were more closely related to animals in the training set. When training and validation sets were formed by random allocation, the accuracies of direct genomic values ranged from 0.38 to 0.85, with an average of 0.65, reflecting the greater relationship between animals in training and validation. The accuracies of direct genomic values obtained from training on older animals and validating in younger animals were intermediate to the accuracies obtained from K-means clustering and random clustering for most traits. The genetic correlation between deregressed estimated breeding values and direct genomic values ranged from 0.15 to 0.80 for the traits studied. These results suggest that genomic estimates of genetic merit can be produced in beef cattle at a young age but

  9. Accuracies of genomic breeding values in American Angus beef cattle using K-means clustering for cross-validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saatchi Mahdi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic selection is a recently developed technology that is beginning to revolutionize animal breeding. The objective of this study was to estimate marker effects to derive prediction equations for direct genomic values for 16 routinely recorded traits of American Angus beef cattle and quantify corresponding accuracies of prediction. Methods Deregressed estimated breeding values were used as observations in a weighted analysis to derive direct genomic values for 3570 sires genotyped using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip. These bulls were clustered into five groups using K-means clustering on pedigree estimates of additive genetic relationships between animals, with the aim of increasing within-group and decreasing between-group relationships. All five combinations of four groups were used for model training, with cross-validation performed in the group not used in training. Bivariate animal models were used for each trait to estimate the genetic correlation between deregressed estimated breeding values and direct genomic values. Results Accuracies of direct genomic values ranged from 0.22 to 0.69 for the studied traits, with an average of 0.44. Predictions were more accurate when animals within the validation group were more closely related to animals in the training set. When training and validation sets were formed by random allocation, the accuracies of direct genomic values ranged from 0.38 to 0.85, with an average of 0.65, reflecting the greater relationship between animals in training and validation. The accuracies of direct genomic values obtained from training on older animals and validating in younger animals were intermediate to the accuracies obtained from K-means clustering and random clustering for most traits. The genetic correlation between deregressed estimated breeding values and direct genomic values ranged from 0.15 to 0.80 for the traits studied. Conclusions These results suggest that genomic estimates

  10. POPULATION GENETICS. Genomic evidence for the Pleistocene and recent population history of Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Maanasa; Steinrücken, Matthias; Harris, Kelley; Schiffels, Stephan; Rasmussen, Simon; DeGiorgio, Michael; Albrechtsen, Anders; Valdiosera, Cristina; Ávila-Arcos, María C; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Eriksson, Anders; Moltke, Ida; Metspalu, Mait; Homburger, Julian R; Wall, Jeff; Cornejo, Omar E; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Pierre, Tracey; Rasmussen, Morten; Campos, Paula F; de Barros Damgaard, Peter; Allentoft, Morten E; Lindo, John; Metspalu, Ene; Rodríguez-Varela, Ricardo; Mansilla, Josefina; Henrickson, Celeste; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Malmström, Helena; Stafford, Thomas; Shringarpure, Suyash S; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Karmin, Monika; Tambets, Kristiina; Bergström, Anders; Xue, Yali; Warmuth, Vera; Friend, Andrew D; Singarayer, Joy; Valdes, Paul; Balloux, Francois; Leboreiro, Ilán; Vera, Jose Luis; Rangel-Villalobos, Hector; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata; Davis, Loren G; Heyer, Evelyne; Zollikofer, Christoph P E; Ponce de León, Marcia S; Smith, Colin I; Grimes, Vaughan; Pike, Kelly-Anne; Deal, Michael; Fuller, Benjamin T; Arriaza, Bernardo; Standen, Vivien; Luz, Maria F; Ricaut, Francois; Guidon, Niede; Osipova, Ludmila; Voevoda, Mikhail I; Posukh, Olga L; Balanovsky, Oleg; Lavryashina, Maria; Bogunov, Yuri; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Gubina, Marina; Balanovska, Elena; Fedorova, Sardana; Litvinov, Sergey; Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Mosher, M J; Archer, David; Cybulski, Jerome; Petzelt, Barbara; Mitchell, Joycelynn; Worl, Rosita; Norman, Paul J; Parham, Peter; Kemp, Brian M; Kivisild, Toomas; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Crawford, Michael; Villems, Richard; Smith, David Glenn; Waters, Michael R; Goebel, Ted; Johnson, John R; Malhi, Ripan S; Jakobsson, Mattias; Meltzer, David J; Manica, Andrea; Durbin, Richard; Bustamante, Carlos D; Song, Yun S; Nielsen, Rasmus; Willerslev, Eske

    2015-08-21

    How and when the Americas were populated remains contentious. Using ancient and modern genome-wide data, we found that the ancestors of all present-day Native Americans, including Athabascans and Amerindians, entered the Americas as a single migration wave from Siberia no earlier than 23 thousand years ago (ka) and after no more than an 8000-year isolation period in Beringia. After their arrival to the Americas, ancestral Native Americans diversified into two basal genetic branches around 13 ka, one that is now dispersed across North and South America and the other restricted to North America. Subsequent gene flow resulted in some Native Americans sharing ancestry with present-day East Asians (including Siberians) and, more distantly, Australo-Melanesians. Putative "Paleoamerican" relict populations, including the historical Mexican Pericúes and South American Fuego-Patagonians, are not directly related to modern Australo-Melanesians as suggested by the Paleoamerican Model. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Genomic evidence for the Pleistocene and recent population history of Native Americans

    KAUST Repository

    Raghavan, Maanasa

    2015-07-21

    How and when the Americas were populated remains contentious. Using ancient and modern genome-wide data, we found that the ancestors of all present-day Native Americans, including Athabascans and Amerindians, entered the Americas as a single migration wave from Siberia no earlier than 23 thousand years ago (ka) and after no more than an 8000-year isolation period in Beringia. After their arrival to the Americas, ancestral Native Americans diversified into two basal genetic branches around 13 ka, one that is now dispersed across North and South America and the other restricted to North America. Subsequent gene flow resulted in some Native Americans sharing ancestry with present-day East Asians (including Siberians) and, more distantly, Australo-Melanesians. Putative "Paleoamerican" relict populations, including the historical Mexican Pericúes and South American Fuego-Patagonians, are not directly related to modern Australo-Melanesians as suggested by the Paleoamerican Model. © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights reserved.

  12. Cenozoic History of Paleo-Currents through the Central American Seaway: Insights from Deep Sea Sediments and Outcrops in Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, A. J.; Martin, E. E.

    2015-12-01

    Paleontologic, oceanographic, and ecologic studies suggest gradual shoaling of the Central American Seaway between ~15 to 2 Ma that caused a stepwise shutdown of deep, intermediate, and shallow water exchange between the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea. This diminishing communication has been further associated with changes in surface and deep ocean currents, atmospheric flow, and ultimately regional and global climate. Recent studies of the Isthmus of Panama's exhumation history, palm phylogenies, and fossil/molecularly derived migration rates, however, suggest that the isthmus may have risen much earlier. An earlier rise scenario would call into question many accepted consequences of this gateway event under the 'Panama Hypothesis,' including strengthened thermohaline circulation, North Atlantic Deep Water production, the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation, and the Great American Biotic Interchange. Despite considerable research on the Neogene, few paleoceanographic studies have directly examined long-term changes in the adjacent oceans over the Cenozoic to evaluate the potential for earlier events in the closure history of the seaway. In this study, we extend records of bottom water circulation reconstructed from the Nd-isotopes of fish teeth from several Caribbean International Ocean Discovery Program sediment cores (ODP Sites 998, 999, 1000). These reconstructions clearly depict an increase in Pacific volcanism throughout the Cenozoic and sustained transport of Pacific waters into the Caribbean basin from ~50 to 9 Ma, although there appear to be interesting complexities within the Caribbean basin itself. We also present preliminary investigations into the potential of Nd-isotopic analyses on fossil fish teeth recovered from outcrops and exposures of marine strata across Panama to further elucidate the regional dynamics and shoaling history of the Central American Seaway.

  13. A history of the American Board of Surgery: vignettes from the certifying examination: The Edgar J. Poth Memorial Lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, John Patrick

    2015-12-01

    The American Board of Surgery was established in 1937 to certify surgeons who through training, experience, and examination meet the highest standards of surgical care. This lecture was given as the Edgar Poth lecture at the April 2015 meeting of the Southwestern Surgical Congress. Dr Poth was a surgical educator from the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston who was President of the Southwestern in 1963. The paper presents the history of the founding of the American Board of Surgery, with particular emphasis on the certifying examination-Part 2. Vignettes of occurrences associated with the "Oral" examination are given. The examination has changed substantially from a 2-day event involving an actual surgical procedure to the 90-minute quiz given today. The oral examinations remain an important part in the process of certification of surgeons of the highest quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ancient proteins resolve the evolutionary history of Darwin's South American ungulates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welker, Frido; Collins, Matthew J.; Thomas, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    No large group of recently extinct placental mammals remains as evolutionarily cryptic as the approximately 280 genera grouped as 'South American native ungulates'. To Charles Darwin, who first collected their remains, they included perhaps the 'strangest animal[s] ever discovered'. Today, much...... proteomic analysis to screen bone samples of the Late Quaternary South American native ungulate taxa Toxodon (Notoungulata) and Macrauchenia (Litopterna) for phylogenetically informative protein sequences. For each ungulate, we obtain approximately 90% direct sequence coverage of type I collagen α1- and α2...... by genomics, but with the possibility of reaching much further back in time....

  15. Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian O.

    of the ruling class. The book helps explain how capitalism regained its social legitimacy in the face of different kinds of legitimacy crises, by appealing to ideals such as the social responsibility of industrialists, the soulful corporation, serving the public, or responsibility for humanity and life itself......This book is a history of ideas about progressive business. Against the conventional view that such ideas are fairly new, the book traces their history in three defining periods of US history: the late nineteenth century and its paternalistic spirit of capitalism, the New Deal era and its...... the social legitimacy of capitalism, responding to critiques of capitalism, avoiding union and state interference, and preserving the power of private command and private property. But it has also been a way in which business has been critiqued, and can therefore hardly be understood simply to be an ideology...

  16. Reemergence of the Natural History of Otolaryngologic Infections: Lessons Learned from 2 American Presidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naples, James; Schwartz, Marissa; Eisen, Marc

    2017-09-01

    Presidents George Washington and Theodore Roosevelt suffered complications of epiglottitis and otomastoiditis, respectively. The introduction of antibiotics and vaccinations against Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae has significantly reduced the incidence of these otolaryngologic infections, such that the natural history of the disease is rarely encountered. However, antibiotic resistance and pathogenic evolution has raised concern about increased virulence of these common organisms. A retrospective evaluation of the complications suffered by Washington and Roosevelt provides valuable insight to the natural history of common otolaryngologic infections that may reemerge as a result of organism evolution in response to antibiotics and vaccines.

  17. Genomic evidence for the Pleistocene and recent population history of Native Americans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavan, Maanasa; Steinruecken, Matthias; Harris, Kelley

    2015-01-01

    years ago (ka) and after no more than an 8000-year isolation period in Beringia. After their arrival to the Americas, ancestral Native Americans diversified into two basal genetic branches around 13 ka, one that is now dispersed across North and South America and the other restricted to North America...

  18. Our Documents: A National Initiative on American History, Civics, and Service. Teacher Sourcebook, Volume II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzenga, Maria, Ed.; McCullough, Julie, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    What do Matthew Brady, Carrie Chapman Catt, Ansel Adams, Orson Welles, and J. Howard Miller have to do with the 100 milestone documents? A few hints: Matthew Brady created the first photographic documentation of a war. Carrie Chapman Catt was the president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association in 1920. Orson Welles produced plays for…

  19. Black Americans, Africa and History: A Reassessment of the Pan-African and Identity Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, Tunde

    1998-01-01

    Examines the paradigm of Pan-Africanism and the identity construct in the historic and cultural contexts of blacks outside of Africa, critiquing theories on the African identity construct. Suggests that black American identity is too complex for this simplification and must be considered within the context of world acculturation. Contains 34…

  20. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (North Atlantic). AMERICAN LOBSTER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    Temperature. .. .... ...... ...... ...... ....... 11 Salinity .. .... ...... ...... ...... ...... ... 13 Dissolved Oxygen...anteriorly, the appendages stages of the American lobster and the of the cephalothorax are the first European lobster, Homarus gammarus antennae, second...surface After extrusion, fertilized eggs current velocity and direction, tpm- become f irmly attached to pleopods, perature, salinity , light intensity

  1. The American Academy of Social Work and Social Welfare: History and Grand Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Richard P.; Gilmore, Grover C.; Flynn, Marilyn S.; Fraser, Mark W.; Brekke, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Conceptualized by social work deans and actualized with the support of major social work organizations, the American Academy of Social Work and Social Welfare was established in 2009. This article describes the historical context and creation of the Academy, whose objectives include recognizing outstanding social work scholars and practitioners;…

  2. Life-history strategies of North American elk: trade-offs associated with reproduction and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabrina Morano; Kelley M. Stewart; James S. Sedinger; Christopher A. Nicolai; Marty Vavra

    2013-01-01

    The principle of energy allocation states that individuals should attempt to maximize fitness by allocating resources optimally among growth, maintenance, and reproduction. Such allocation may result in trade-offs between survival and reproduction, or between current and future reproduction. We used a marked population of North American elk (Cervus elaphus...

  3. The 1960s &'70s: Creative Activities for Teaching American History. Teacher's Guide. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Lawrence

    The activities in this manual explore some of the issues of the 1960s and 1970s that reflected changes in U.S. patterns of thought: minorities sought their share of the American pie; young people challenged established authority; massive protests erupted against the Vietnam War; political corruption was found in high office and a marked change…

  4. Teaching about the Influence of the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment on Early American History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Randy K.; Woods, John C.

    1996-01-01

    Utilizes selections from 17th century philosophical writing as instructional material for a series of learning activities that reveal the influence of the material on early American democratic thought. Activities involve selections from Isaac Newton, John Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau, The Declaration of Independence, and Bishop Bossuet. (MJP)

  5. Phylogeography, postglacial gene flow, and population history of North American northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley Bayard de Volo; Richard T. Reynolds; Sarah A. Sonsthagen; Sandra L. Talbot; Michael F. Antolin

    2013-01-01

    Climate cycling during the Quaternary played a critical role in the diversification of avian lineages in North America, greatly influencing the genetic characteristics of contemporary populations. To test the hypothesis that North American Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) were historically isolated within multiple Late Pleistocene refugia, we assessed diversity...

  6. Teaching the Role of the Indian in American History and Upgrading Curricula. A Position Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costo, Rupert

    Presented in this document is a discussion of the need for an ongoing evaluation of the accuracy and adequacy of materials pertaining to American Indians in textbooks and reference books in use, or being produced for use, in the nation's schools. During this ongoing evaluation, to be done by a recognized permanent national committee of Indian…

  7. Meeting Yesterday Head-On: The Vietnam War in Vietnamese, American, and World History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockard, Craig A.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that the American-Vietnamese War can be analyzed best in the context of three distinct entities: (1) Vietnam; (2) the United States; and (3) the larger world. Discusses Vietnam's revolutionary tradition, U.S. Cold War foreign policy, and the global context of anticolonialism and antiimperialism. (CFR)

  8. A History of Black and Brown: Chicana/o-African American Cultural and Political Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Luis; Widener, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Rather than assume that ethnicity or race necessarily marks the edges of one's culture or politics, the contributors to this dossier highlight the messy, blurry, and often contradictory relationships that arise when Chicana/os and African Americans engage one another. The essays explore the complicated mix of cooperation and conflict that…

  9. Variability of innate immune system genes in Native American populations-relationship with history and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenau, Juliana Dal-Ri; Salzano, Francisco Mauro; Hurtado, Ana Magdalena; Hill, Kim R; Petzl-Erler, Maria Luiza; Tsuneto, Luiza Tamie; Hutz, Mara Helena

    2016-04-01

    The immune system of a host, defending him/her against invading pathogens, has two main subsystems: innate immunity and acquired immunity. There are several evidences showing that Native American populations are immunologically different from non-Native populations. Our aim was to describe the variability of innate immune system genes in Native American populations. We investigated heterozygozities and patterns of population differentiation (FST ) of 14 polymorphisms related to the innate immune response in five Native American populations (Aché, Guarani-Kaiowá, Guarani-Ñandeva, Kaingang, and Xavante) and the results were compared with the three major world population data (YRI, CEU, and CHB) available at the 1,000 genomes database. Mean heterozygosities ranged between 0.241 ± 0.057 (Aché) and 0.343 ± 0.033 (Kaingang), but no significant differences were observed (Friedman test, P = 0.197). Mean heterozygosities were also not significantly different when Amerindians were pooled and compared with the 1000 genomes populations (Friedman test, P = 0.506). When the Native American populations were grouped as Amerindians, a significantly higher FST value (0.194) was observed between the Amerindian and African populations. The Ewens-Watterson neutrality test showed that these markers are not under strong selective pressure. Native American populations present similar levels of heterozygosity as those of other continents, but are different from Africans in the frequency of polymorphisms of innate immune genes. This higher differentiation is probably due to demographic processes that occurred during the out-of-Africa event. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Communication Strategies in a Telecollaboration Project with a Focus on Latin American History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Susana S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper will present and discuss the linguistic challenges that Argentinian university students of history and Danish university students of Spanish met during the course of a telecollaboration project based on synchronous communication in Skype. The purpose of this discussion is to identify linguistic pitfalls and the solutions adopted by both…

  11. Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian O.

    . Through a history of the idea of progressive business and its critics, we can not only get a better understanding of how and why it has been advocated—but also for what reasons it has disturbed critics from the right, who often feared that it would undermine the shareholder view of the corporation...

  12. Crossroads: A K-16 American History Curriculum. The Elementary Curriculum. [Part Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Citizenship Education, Troy, NY.

    This U.S. history curriculum guide, based upon historical essays written by Richard B. Bernstein, is part of the 'Crossroads' curriculum project. The elementary school component of the 'Crossroads' curriculum introduces students to the important things about the world they live in, the nation that they are a part of, the connection between the…

  13. The Images of Our Time: Using Iconic Photographs in Developing a Modern American History Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, David H.

    2012-01-01

    History courses based on chronological narratives in textbooks often assume a linear format through which students accumulate substantial amounts of surface-level information, with the various pieces of that information being disconnected from each other and from larger historical contexts. In addition, such narratives are often dry and lifeless,…

  14. Factors influencing the underutilization of mental health services among Asian American women with a history of depression and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augsberger, Astraea; Yeung, Albert; Dougher, Meaghan; Hahm, Hyeouk Chris

    2015-12-08

    Despite the substantially high prevalence of depression, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among Asian American women who are children of immigrants, little is known about the prevalence of mental health utilization and the perceived barriers to accessing care. The data were from the Asian American Women's Sexual Health Initiative Project (AWSHIP), a 5-year mixed methods study at Boston University. The quantitative analysis examined the differential proportion of mental health utilization among 701 survey participants based on their mental health risk profile determined by current moderate to severe depression symptoms and lifetime history of suicidality. Mental health risk groups were created based on participants' current depression symptoms and history of suicide behaviors: Group 1-low-risk; Group 2-medium-risk; Group 3-high-risk. Mental health care utilization outcomes were measured by any mental health care, minimally adequate mental health care, and intensive mental health care. The qualitative analysis explored the perceived barriers to mental health care among 17 participants from the medium and high-risk groups. Among 701 participants, 43% of women (n = 299) reported that they either suffered from current moderate to severe depression symptoms or a lifetime history of suicidal ideation or suicide attempt. Although the high-risk group demonstrated statistically significant higher mental health utilization compared to the low and medium-risk groups, more than 60% of the high-risk group did not access any mental health care, and more than 80% did not receive minimally adequate care. The qualitative analysis identified three underutilization factors: Asian family contributions to mental health stigma, Asian community contributions to mental health stigma, and a mismatch between cultural needs and available services. Despite the high prevalence of depression and suicidal behaviors among young Asian American women in the sample, the proportion of mental

  15. WOMEN’S SUFFRAGE, POLITICAL RESPONSIVENESS, AND CHILD SURVIVAL IN AMERICAN HISTORY*

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Grant

    2008-01-01

    Women’s choices appear to emphasize child welfare more than those of men. This paper presents new evidence on how suffrage rights for American women helped children to benefit from the scientific breakthroughs of the bacteriological revolution. Consistent with standard models of electoral competition, suffrage laws were followed by immediate shifts in legislative behavior and large, sudden increases in local public health spending. This growth in public health spending fueled large-scale door...

  16. Population Biology and Life History of the North American Menhadens, Brevoortia spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahrenholz, Dean W.

    1991-01-01

    Four recognized species of menhaden, Brevoortia spp., occur in North American marine waters: Atlantic menhaden, B. tyrannus; Gulf menhaden, B. patronus; yellowfin menhaden. B. smithi; and finescale menhaden, B. gunteri. Three of the menhaden species are known to form two hybrid types. Members of the genus range from coastal waters of Veracruz, Mex., to Nova Scotia, Can. Atlantic and Gulf menhaden are extremely abundant within their respective ranges and support extensive purse-seine reduction...

  17. „Lenin’s Ghost!” History of Soviet Comics Characters in American Pop Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Dudziński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tension between Soviet Union and United States thatdefined the global political landscape of the second half of the twentiethcentury, had its clear impact on perceptions and creation of Soviet heroes in the context of American culture. The first and primary goal of our article is to investigate and describe the functioning of a particular theme – Russian characters, especially Russian meta-humans in the area of American popular culture, especially mainstream comics. This inquiry is intended to demonstrate the basic historical dimension, i.e. the periods of growth and decline in popularity, and even the complete disappearance of that theme. The purpose of the second goal is an attempt to analyze the structures of comics characters associated with the Soviet Union and place them in a broader historical and cultural context. These treatments allow to signal changes in time-sensitive structure, which consists of values, stereotypes and pop culture clichés appropriate for the American culture. Thus, we hope that this article will be an important contribution to the further study of these issues.

  18. Communication, control, and co-operation: (Latin) American interchanges in the history of international health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn, Anne-Emanuelle; Hochman, Gilberto

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the development of historical studies of international health since the 1980s, showing that the field has gained considerable density and complexity. The authors touch on various current research trends in the history of international health, including reconsideration of so-called centre-periphery and imperial-colonial relations. They emphasize the important, if often forgotten, role of Latin America in the history of international health and bring attention to the relevance of Canada to the international health field, especially in the last 30 years. The article concludes by introducing the articles that make up this special issue of CBMH, pointing out their most significant findings and cross-cutting themes.

  19. EEG alpha and level of response to alcohol in Hispanic- and non-Hispanic-American young adults with a family history of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Phillips, Evelyn; Wall, Tamara L; Wilhelmsen, Kirk; Schuckit, Marc A

    2004-05-01

    A person's level of response to alcohol is associated with family history of alcoholism, ethnic heritage and electroencephalogram (EEG) phenotype. The present study's aims were to investigate EEG alpha and response to alcohol in Hispanic-American and non-Hispanic-American young adults. EEG power in the slow and fast alpha frequency ranges (7.5-9 Hz, 9-12 Hz) was obtained at baseline and at 74 minutes following the administration of alcohol to Hispanic-American (n = 79) and white non-Hispanic-American (n = 208) young adult men and women (18-25 years old), all of whom had a family history but no personal history of alcohol dependence. Measures of breath alcohol concentrations and subjective responses to alcohol (Subjective High Assessment Scale [SHAS]) also were ascertained. Alcohol was found to produce significant effects on EEG power in the slow (F = 79.5, p SHAS scores (F = 5.2, 2/283 df, p SHAS.

  20. Ancient proteins resolve the evolutionary history of Darwin's South American ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, Frido; Collins, Matthew J; Thomas, Jessica A; Wadsley, Marc; Brace, Selina; Cappellini, Enrico; Turvey, Samuel T; Reguero, Marcelo; Gelfo, Javier N; Kramarz, Alejandro; Burger, Joachim; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Ashford, David A; Ashton, Peter D; Rowsell, Keri; Porter, Duncan M; Kessler, Benedikt; Fischer, Roman; Baessmann, Carsten; Kaspar, Stephanie; Olsen, Jesper V; Kiley, Patrick; Elliott, James A; Kelstrup, Christian D; Mullin, Victoria; Hofreiter, Michael; Willerslev, Eske; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Orlando, Ludovic; Barnes, Ian; MacPhee, Ross D E

    2015-06-04

    No large group of recently extinct placental mammals remains as evolutionarily cryptic as the approximately 280 genera grouped as 'South American native ungulates'. To Charles Darwin, who first collected their remains, they included perhaps the 'strangest animal[s] ever discovered'. Today, much like 180 years ago, it is no clearer whether they had one origin or several, arose before or after the Cretaceous/Palaeogene transition 66.2 million years ago, or are more likely to belong with the elephants and sirenians of superorder Afrotheria than with the euungulates (cattle, horses, and allies) of superorder Laurasiatheria. Morphology-based analyses have proved unconvincing because convergences are pervasive among unrelated ungulate-like placentals. Approaches using ancient DNA have also been unsuccessful, probably because of rapid DNA degradation in semitropical and temperate deposits. Here we apply proteomic analysis to screen bone samples of the Late Quaternary South American native ungulate taxa Toxodon (Notoungulata) and Macrauchenia (Litopterna) for phylogenetically informative protein sequences. For each ungulate, we obtain approximately 90% direct sequence coverage of type I collagen α1- and α2-chains, representing approximately 900 of 1,140 amino-acid residues for each subunit. A phylogeny is estimated from an alignment of these fossil sequences with collagen (I) gene transcripts from available mammalian genomes or mass spectrometrically derived sequence data obtained for this study. The resulting consensus tree agrees well with recent higher-level mammalian phylogenies. Toxodon and Macrauchenia form a monophyletic group whose sister taxon is not Afrotheria or any of its constituent clades as recently claimed, but instead crown Perissodactyla (horses, tapirs, and rhinoceroses). These results are consistent with the origin of at least some South American native ungulates from 'condylarths', a paraphyletic assembly of archaic placentals. With ongoing

  1. Two traditions of American reform: immigration regulation and the lessons of history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichenor, D J

    1995-04-01

    "Immigration reform long has produced fierce conflict among U.S. policymakers over how to regulate racial and ethnic diversity, economic opportunity, and global involvement in American life. This essay attempts to provide an historical perspective on recent innovations in [U.S.] immigration policy, comparing them with restrictionist and expansionist traditions in U.S. political development. While recent reforms exemplify an unprecedented openness in keeping with a more inclusive democracy, their failure to address public anxieties about porous borders inadvertently breathed life into a new anti-immigrant politics that may threaten these policy achievements." excerpt

  2. Sexual victimization and family violence among urban African American adolescent women: do violence cluster profiles predict partner violence victimization and sex trade exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Angie C; Bybee, Deborah; Kulkarni, Shanti J; Archer, Gretchen

    2012-11-01

    Guided by an intersectional feminist perspective, we examined sexual victimization, witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) in the family, and familial physical abuse among a sample of 180 urban African American adolescent women. We used cluster analysis to better understand the profiles of cumulative victimization, and the relationships between profiles and IPV victimization and personal exposure to the sex trade. Just under one third of the sample reported sexual victimization, with cooccurrence with both forms of family violence common. The cluster profile with high levels of severe family violence was associated with the highest rate of IPV victimization and sex trade exposure.

  3. Phylogeography, post-glacial gene flow, and population history of North American goshawks (Accipeter gentilis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard De Volo, Shelley; Reynolds, Richard T.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Talbot, Sandra; Antolin, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Climate cycling during the Quaternary played a critical role in the diversification of avian lineages in North America, greatly influencing the genetic characteristics of contemporary populations. To test the hypothesis that North American Northern Goshawks (Accipitergentilis) were historically isolated within multiple Late Pleistocene refugia, we assessed diversity and population genetic structure as well as migration rates and signatures of historical demography using mitochondrial control-region data. On the basis of sampling from 24 locales, we found that Northern Goshawks were genetically structured across a large portion of their North American range. Long-term population stability, combined with strong genetic differentiation, suggests that Northern Goshawks were historically isolated within at least three refugial populations representing two regions: the Pacific (CascadesSierra-Vancouver Island) and the Southwest (Colorado Plateau and Jemez Mountains). By contrast, populations experiencing significant growth were located in the Southeast Alaska-British Columbia, Arizona Sky Islands, Rocky Mountains, Great Lakes, and Appalachian bioregions. In the case of Southeast Alaska-British Columbia, Arizona Sky Islands, and Rocky Mountains, Northern Goshawks likely colonized these regions from surrounding refugia. The near fixation for several endemic haplotypes in the Arizona Sky Island Northern Goshawks (A. g apache) suggests long-term isolation subsequent to colonization. Likewise, Great Lakes and Appalachian Northern Goshawks differed significantly in haplotype frequencies from most Western Northern Goshawks, which suggests that they, too, experienced long-term isolation prior to a more recent recolonization of eastern U.S. forests.

  4. Ella Thea Smith and the lost history of American high school biology textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Ronald P

    2008-01-01

    Two influential articles published in the 1970s suggested that pressure from Christian fundamentalists, subsequent to the Scopes trial of 1925, forced American high school biology textbook authors and publishers to significantly limit discussion of the topic of evolution. The conclusions reached by these studies have become foundational for historians examining the interplay between science and religion in the United States in the twentieth century. However, a reexamination of key twentieth century biology textbooks suggests that the narrative that the treatment of the theory of evolution was held hostage to anti-rational cultural forces is largely a myth, created first as part of a public relations effort by the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) to differentiate, defend, and promote its work, and later as part of an attempt by scholars to sound a warning concerning the rise of the religious right. A focus on this narrative has not only allowed biologists to sidestep uncomfortable questions regarding the race-biased and class-biased assumptions embedded within the concept of evolutionary progress, it has also limited reliance on the texts in question as reliable reflections of the cultural assumptions of educators and scientists. A reexamination of the most popular American biology textbooks from 1907 to 1963, particularly the work of Ella Thea Smith, provides evidence in support of these contentions.

  5. Early history of electroencephalography and establishment of the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James L; Hughes, John R

    2013-02-01

    The field of electroencephalography (EEG) had its origin with the discovery of recordable electrical potentials from activated nerves and muscles of animals and in the last quarter of the 19th century from the cerebral cortex of animals. By the 1920s, Hans Berger, a neuropsychiatrist from Germany, recorded potentials from the scalp of patients with skull defects and, a few years later, with more sensitive equipment from intact subjects. Concurrently, the introduction of electronic vacuum tube amplification and the cathode ray oscilloscope was made by American physiologists or "axonologists," interested in peripheral nerve recordings. Berger's findings were independently confirmed in early 1934 by Lord Adrian in England and by Hallowell Davis at Harvard, in the United States. In the United States, the earliest contributions to human EEG were made by Hallowell Davis, Herbert H. Jasper, Frederic A. Gibbs, William Lennox, and Alfred L. Loomis. Remarkable progress in the development of EEG as a useful clinical tool followed the 1935 report by the Harvard group on the electrographic and clinical correlations in patients with absence (petit mal) seizures and altered states of consciousness. Technical aspects of the EEG and additional clinical EEG correlations were elucidated by the above investigators and a number of others. Further study led to gatherings of the EEG pioneers at Loomis' laboratory in New York (1935-1939), Regional EEG society formation, and the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society in 1946.

  6. Contrasting demographic history and gene flow patterns of two mangrove species on either side of the Central American Isthmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerón-Souza, Ivania; Gonzalez, Elena G; Schwarzbach, Andrea E; Salas-Leiva, Dayana E; Rivera-Ocasio, Elsie; Toro-Perea, Nelson; Bermingham, Eldredge; McMillan, W Owen

    2015-08-01

    Comparative phylogeography offers a unique opportunity to understand the interplay between past environmental events and life-history traits on diversification of unrelated but co-distributed species. Here, we examined the effects of the quaternary climate fluctuations and palaeomarine currents and present-day marine currents on the extant patterns of genetic diversity in the two most conspicuous mangrove species of the Neotropics. The black (Avicennia germinans, Avicenniaceae) and the red (Rhizophora mangle, Rhizophoraceae) mangroves have similar geographic ranges but are very distantly related and show striking differences on their life-history traits. We sampled 18 Atlantic and 26 Pacific locations for A. germinans (N = 292) and R. mangle (N = 422). We performed coalescence simulations using microsatellite diversity to test for evidence of population change associated with quaternary climate fluctuations. In addition, we examined whether patterns of genetic variation were consistent with the directions of major marine (historical and present day) currents in the region. Our demographic analysis was grounded within a phylogeographic framework provided by the sequence analysis of two chloroplasts and one flanking microsatellite region in a subsample of individuals. The two mangrove species shared similar biogeographic histories including: (1) strong genetic breaks between Atlantic and Pacific ocean basins associated with the final closure of the Central American Isthmus (CAI), (2) evidence for simultaneous population declines between the mid-Pleistocene and early Holocene, (3) asymmetric historical migration with higher gene flow from the Atlantic to the Pacific oceans following the direction of the palaeomarine current, and (4) contemporary gene flow between West Africa and South America following the major Atlantic Ocean currents. Despite the remarkable differences in life-history traits of mangrove species, which should have had a strong influence on seed

  7. Contrasting demographic history and gene flow patterns of two mangrove species on either side of the Central American Isthmus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerón-Souza, Ivania; Gonzalez, Elena G; Schwarzbach, Andrea E; Salas-Leiva, Dayana E; Rivera-Ocasio, Elsie; Toro-Perea, Nelson; Bermingham, Eldredge; McMillan, W Owen

    2015-01-01

    Comparative phylogeography offers a unique opportunity to understand the interplay between past environmental events and life-history traits on diversification of unrelated but co-distributed species. Here, we examined the effects of the quaternary climate fluctuations and palaeomarine currents and present-day marine currents on the extant patterns of genetic diversity in the two most conspicuous mangrove species of the Neotropics. The black (Avicennia germinans, Avicenniaceae) and the red (Rhizophora mangle, Rhizophoraceae) mangroves have similar geographic ranges but are very distantly related and show striking differences on their life-history traits. We sampled 18 Atlantic and 26 Pacific locations for A. germinans (N = 292) and R. mangle (N = 422). We performed coalescence simulations using microsatellite diversity to test for evidence of population change associated with quaternary climate fluctuations. In addition, we examined whether patterns of genetic variation were consistent with the directions of major marine (historical and present day) currents in the region. Our demographic analysis was grounded within a phylogeographic framework provided by the sequence analysis of two chloroplasts and one flanking microsatellite region in a subsample of individuals. The two mangrove species shared similar biogeographic histories including: (1) strong genetic breaks between Atlantic and Pacific ocean basins associated with the final closure of the Central American Isthmus (CAI), (2) evidence for simultaneous population declines between the mid-Pleistocene and early Holocene, (3) asymmetric historical migration with higher gene flow from the Atlantic to the Pacific oceans following the direction of the palaeomarine current, and (4) contemporary gene flow between West Africa and South America following the major Atlantic Ocean currents. Despite the remarkable differences in life-history traits of mangrove species, which should have had a strong influence on seed

  8. Life histories and conservation of long-lived reptiles, an illustration with the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs-Gonzalez, Venetia; Bonefant, Christophe; Basille, Mathieu; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Beauchamp, Jeff; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2017-01-01

    Successful species conservation is dependent on adequate estimates of population dynamics, but age-specific demographics are generally lacking for many long-lived iteroparous species such as large reptiles. Accurate demographic information allows estimation of population growth rate, as well as projection of future population sizes and quantitative analyses of fitness trade-offs involved in the evolution of life-history strategies.Here, a long-term capture–recapture study was conducted from 1978 to 2014 on the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) in southern Florida. Over the study period, 7,427 hatchlings were marked and 380 individuals were recaptured for as many as 25 years. We estimated survival to be strongly age dependent with hatchlings having the lowest survival rates (16%) but increasing to nearly 90% at adulthood based on mark–recapture models. More than 5% of the female population were predicted to be reproductive by age 8 years; the age-specific proportion of reproductive females steadily increased until age 18 when more than 95% of females were predicted to be reproductive. Population growth rate, estimated from a Leslie–Lefkovitch stage-class model, showed a positive annual growth rate of 4% over the study period.Using a prospective sensitivity analysis, we revealed that the adult stage, as expected, was the most critical stage for population growth rate; however, the survival of younger crocodiles before they became reproductive also had a surprisingly high elasticity. We found that variation in age-specific fecundity has very limited impact on population growth rate in American crocodiles.We used a comparative approach to show that the original life-history strategy of American crocodiles is actually shared by other large, long-lived reptiles: while adult survival rates always have a large impact on population growth, this decreases with declining increasing growth rates, in favour of a higher elasticity of the juvenile stage.Crocodiles, as

  9. Life histories and conservation of long-lived reptiles, an illustration with the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs-Gonzalez, Venetia; Bonenfant, Christophe; Basille, Mathieu; Cherkiss, Michael; Beauchamp, Jeff; Mazzotti, Frank

    2017-09-01

    Successful species conservation is dependent on adequate estimates of population dynamics, but age-specific demographics are generally lacking for many long-lived iteroparous species such as large reptiles. Accurate demographic information allows estimation of population growth rate, as well as projection of future population sizes and quantitative analyses of fitness trade-offs involved in the evolution of life-history strategies. Here, a long-term capture-recapture study was conducted from 1978 to 2014 on the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) in southern Florida. Over the study period, 7,427 hatchlings were marked and 380 individuals were recaptured for as many as 25 years. We estimated survival to be strongly age dependent with hatchlings having the lowest survival rates (16%) but increasing to nearly 90% at adulthood based on mark-recapture models. More than 5% of the female population were predicted to be reproductive by age 8 years; the age-specific proportion of reproductive females steadily increased until age 18 when more than 95% of females were predicted to be reproductive. Population growth rate, estimated from a Leslie-Lefkovitch stage-class model, showed a positive annual growth rate of 4% over the study period. Using a prospective sensitivity analysis, we revealed that the adult stage, as expected, was the most critical stage for population growth rate; however, the survival of younger crocodiles before they became reproductive also had a surprisingly high elasticity. We found that variation in age-specific fecundity has very limited impact on population growth rate in American crocodiles. We used a comparative approach to show that the original life-history strategy of American crocodiles is actually shared by other large, long-lived reptiles: while adult survival rates always have a large impact on population growth, this decreases with declining increasing growth rates, in favour of a higher elasticity of the juvenile stage. Crocodiles, as a

  10. Impact of Abuse History on Adolescent African-American Women's Current HIV/STD-associated Behaviors and Psychosocial Mediators of HIV/STD Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer L; Young, April M; Sales, Jessica M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Rose, Eve S; Wingood, Gina M

    2014-02-01

    This study examined if relationship power, sex refusal self-efficacy, and/or fear of condom negotiation mediated the relationship between abuse history and consistent condom use (CCU) among African-American female adolescents (n=593). Participants with an abuse history (58%) were less likely to report CCU (p=.003). Women with an abuse history reported less relationship power (p=.006) and self-efficacy for refusing sex (phistory of abuse was associated with CCU across mediator models (p=.037 to p=.067), despite inclusion of psychosocial mediators. This study demonstrates the importance of understanding adolescents' condom use behaviors within the context of their life experiences, especially past abuse history.

  11. Patterns of variation at Ustilago maydis virulence clusters 2A and 19A largely reflect the demographic history of its populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Kellner

    Full Text Available The maintenance of an intimate interaction between plant-biotrophic fungi and their hosts over evolutionary times involves strong selection and adaptative evolution of virulence-related genes. The highly specialised maize pathogen Ustilago maydis is assigned with a high evolutionary capability to overcome host resistances due to its high rates of sexual recombination, large population sizes and long distance dispersal. Unlike most studied fungus-plant interactions, the U. maydis - Zea mays pathosystem lacks a typical gene-for-gene interaction. It exerts a large set of secreted fungal virulence factors that are mostly organised in gene clusters. Their contribution to virulence has been experimentally demonstrated but their genetic diversity within U. maydis remains poorly understood. Here, we report on the intraspecific diversity of 34 potential virulence factor genes of U. maydis. We analysed their sequence polymorphisms in 17 isolates of U. maydis from Europe, North and Latin America. We focused on gene cluster 2A, associated with virulence attenuation, cluster 19A that is crucial for virulence, and the cluster-independent effector gene pep1. Although higher compared to four house-keeping genes, the overall levels of intraspecific genetic variation of virulence clusters 2A and 19A, and pep1 are remarkably low and commensurate to the levels of 14 studied non-virulence genes. In addition, each gene is present in all studied isolates and synteny in cluster 2A is conserved. Furthermore, 7 out of 34 virulence genes contain either no polymorphisms or only synonymous substitutions among all isolates. However, genetic variation of clusters 2A and 19A each resolve the large scale population structure of U. maydis indicating subpopulations with decreased gene flow. Hence, the genetic diversity of these virulence-related genes largely reflect the demographic history of U. maydis populations.

  12. Student Snapshots: An Alternative Approach to the Visual History of American Indian Boarding Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Strathman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Photographs of American Indian boarding school students have often been usedto illustrate the federal forced assimilation practices of the 1870s–1930s. Taken by officialschool photographers, these propagandistic images were produced to emphasize the“civilizing” benefits of the boarding school system. Although some Native studentsobtained cameras and recorded their own boarding school experiences, the visual historystill relies on the institutionally-produced images. Using a collection of photographscreated by Parker McKenzie (Kiowa and his classmates while attending Rainy Mountainand Phoenix Indian Schools, this paper intends to rectify that exclusion through a readingof these snapshots as examples of visual sovereignty. The concept of visual sovereigntyinvolves examining Native self-representations as the (reclaiming of indigenous identitiesin order to counter colonial imagery that has dominated the archives.

  13. Fifty years of the American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Anesthesiology: a history of our specialty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rita; Riefe, Jennifer; Houck, Constance S

    2017-06-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine celebrated its 50th Anniversary in 2015. The Section was one of the first and only subspecialty organizations in anesthesiology at the time. This special article will focus on the contributions of the Section to the practice of pediatric anesthesiology in the areas of advocacy, education and member contributions. In 1986, the Section created the Robert M. Smith Award to honor those members who had made significant advances in the practice of pediatric anesthesiology. It is named after one of the Section founders, an influential educator, inventor, and researcher in our field. We will focus the latter part of the article on the Robert M. Smith award winners to illustrate the contributions of the Section and its members to the development of the field of pediatric anesthesiology. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC): 50 Years of History and Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccabe, Andrew T; Crawford, Lester; Heider, Lawrence E; Hooper, Billy; Mann, Curt J; Pappaioanou, Marguerite

    2015-01-01

    The mission of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) is to advance the quality of academic veterinary medicine. Founded in 1966 by the 18 US colleges of veterinary medicine and 3 Canadian colleges of veterinary medicine then in existence, the AAVMC is celebrating 50 years of public service. Initially, the AAVMC comprised the Council of Deans, the Council of Educators, and the Council of Chairs. In 1984, the tri-cameral structure was abandoned and a new governing structure with a board of directors was created. In 1997, the AAVMC was incorporated in Washington, DC and a common application service was created. Matters such as workforce issues and the cost of veterinary medical education have persisted for decades. The AAVMC is a champion of diversity in the veterinary profession and a strong advocate for One Health. The AAVMC has adopted a global perspective as more international colleges of veterinary medicine have earned COE accreditation and become members.

  15. The lost history of American veterinary medicine: the need for preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, C Trenton

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to survey holdings of ephemeral veterinary literature. World Cat OCLC catalog, the Library of Congress online catalog, the US National Agricultural Library online catalog, and the Dictionary Catalog of the National Agricultural Library, 1862-1965, were used to determine current library holdings of materials published by veterinary schools that are no longer in existence and veterinary associations that are defunct, veterinary supply catalogs, veterinary house organs, patent medicine publications, and veterinary advertisements. Individual library catalogs were also consulted. In addition, the practice of removing advertisements from bound volumes was examined. There are many gaps in the cataloged library holdings of primary source materials relating to the history of the education of veterinarians in the United States. A proactive action plan needs to be designed and activated to locate, catalog, and preserve this primary source material of veterinary medicine for posterity.

  16. The lost history of American veterinary medicine: the need for preservation*†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, C. Trenton

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to survey holdings of ephemeral veterinary literature. Methods: WorldCat OCLC catalog, the Library of Congress online catalog, the US National Agricultural Library online catalog, and the Dictionary Catalog of the National Agricultural Library, 1862–1965, were used to determine current library holdings of materials published by veterinary schools that are no longer in existence and veterinary associations that are defunct, veterinary supply catalogs, veterinary house organs, patent medicine publications, and veterinary advertisements. Individual library catalogs were also consulted. In addition, the practice of removing advertisements from bound volumes was examined. Results: There are many gaps in the cataloged library holdings of primary source materials relating to the history of the education of veterinarians in the United States. Conclusions: A proactive action plan needs to be designed and activated to locate, catalog, and preserve this primary source material of veterinary medicine for posterity. PMID:21243050

  17. Pubertal timing and sexual risk behaviors among rural African American male youth: testing a model based on life history theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Steven M; Cho, Junhan; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Allen, Kimberly A; Beach, Steven R H; Simons, Ronald L; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2015-04-01

    Life History Theory (LHT), a branch of evolutionary biology, describes how organisms maximize their reproductive success in response to environmental conditions. This theory suggests that challenging environmental conditions will lead to early pubertal maturation, which in turn predicts heightened risky sexual behavior. Although largely confirmed among female adolescents, results with male youth are inconsistent. We tested a set of predictions based on LHT with a sample of 375 African American male youth assessed three times from age 11 to age 16. Harsh, unpredictable community environments and harsh, inconsistent, or unregulated parenting at age 11 were hypothesized to predict pubertal maturation at age 13; pubertal maturation was hypothesized to forecast risky sexual behavior, including early onset of intercourse, substance use during sexual activity, and lifetime numbers of sexual partners. Results were consistent with our hypotheses. Among African American male youth, community environments were a modest but significant predictor of pubertal timing. Among those youth with high negative emotionality, both parenting and community factors predicted pubertal timing. Pubertal timing at age 13 forecast risky sexual behavior at age 16. Results of analyses conducted to determine whether environmental effects on sexual risk behavior were mediated by pubertal timing were not significant. This suggests that, although evolutionary mechanisms may affect pubertal development via contextual influences for sensitive youth, the factors that predict sexual risk behavior depend less on pubertal maturation than LHT suggests.

  18. An index predictive of cognitive outcome in retired professional American Football players with a history of sports concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Mathew J; Woo, Ellen; Birath, J Brandon; Siders, Craig A; Kelly, Daniel F; Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald; Romero, Elizabeth; Kernan, Claudia; Cantu, Robert C; Guskiewicz, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Various concussion characteristics and personal factors are associated with cognitive recovery in athletes. We developed an index based on concussion frequency, severity, and timeframe, as well as cognitive reserve (CR), and we assessed its predictive power regarding cognitive ability in retired professional football players. Data from 40 retired professional American football players were used in the current study. On average, participants had been retired from football for 20 years. Current neuropsychological performances, indicators of CR, concussion history, and play data were used to create an index for predicting cognitive outcome. The sample displayed a range of concussions, concussion severities, seasons played, CR, and cognitive ability. Many of the participants demonstrated cognitive deficits. The index strongly predicted global cognitive ability (R(2) = .31). The index also predicted the number of areas of neuropsychological deficit, which varied as a function of the deficit classification system used (Heaton: R(2) = .15; Wechsler: R(2) = .28). The current study demonstrated that a unique combination of CR, sports concussion, and game-related data can predict cognitive outcomes in participants who had been retired from professional American football for an average of 20 years. Such indices may prove to be useful for clinical decision making and research.

  19. The Pan American Health Organization and international health: a history of training, conceptualization, and collective development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Annella; Guerrero Espinel, Juan Eduardo

    2011-08-01

    A constantly changing and increasingly complex global environment requires leaders with special competencies to respond effectively to this scenario. Within this context, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) goes beyond traditional leadership training models both in terms of its design as well as its conceptual approach to international health. As an intergovernmental, centenary organization in health, PAHO allows participants a unique vantage point from which to conceptualize, share experiences and develop projects relevant to international health. Derived from over two decades of experience (1985-2006) training professionals through its predessor Training Program in International Health, the Leaders in International Health Program "Edmundo Granda Ugalde" (LIHP) utilizes an innovative design, virtual and practical learning activities, and a problem-based approach to analyze the main concepts, theories, actors, forces, and processes relevant to international health. In collaboration with PAHO/WHO Representative Offices and national institutions, participants develop country projects based on priority health issues, many of which are integrated into the Organization's technical cooperation and/or implemented by relevant ministries and other entities in their respective countries/subregions. A total of 185 participants representing 31 countries have participated in the LIHP since its inception in 2008, building upon the 187 trained through its predecessor. These initiatives have contributed to the development of health professionals in the Region of the Americas devoted to international health, as well as provided important input towards a conceptual understanding of international health by fostering debate on this issue.

  20. The Context of Collecting Family Health History: Examining Definitions of Family and Family Communication About Health Among African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    THOMPSON, TESS; SEO, JOANN; GRIFFITH, JULIA; BAXTER, MELANIE; JAMES, AIMEE; KAPHINGST, KIMBERLY A.

    2015-01-01

    Public health initiatives encourage the public to discuss and record family health history (FHH) information, which can inform prevention and screening for a variety of conditions. Most research on FHH discussion and collection, however, has involved predominantly White participants and has not considered lay definitions of family or family communication patterns about health. This qualitative study of 32 African American women, 16 with a history of cancer, analyzed participants’ definitions of family, family communication about health, and collection of FHH information. “Family” was defined by biological relatedness, social ties, interactions, and proximity. Several participants noted using different definitions of family for different purposes (e.g. biomedical vs. social). Health discussions took place between and within generations and were influenced by structural relationships (e.g. sister) and characteristics of family members (e.g. trustworthiness). Participants described managing tensions between sharing health information and protecting privacy, especially related to generational differences in sharing information, fear of familial conflict or gossip, and denial (sometimes described as refusal to “own” or “claim” a disease). Few participants reported that anyone in their family kept formal FHH records. Results suggest FHH initiatives should address family tensions and communication patterns that affect discussion and collection of FHH information. PMID:25730634

  1. The role of fecundity and reproductive effort in defining life-history strategies of North American freshwater mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Wendell R

    2013-08-01

    Selection is expected to optimize reproductive investment resulting in characteristic trade-offs among traits such as brood size, offspring size, somatic maintenance, and lifespan; relative patterns of energy allocation to these functions are important in defining life-history strategies. Freshwater mussels are a diverse and imperiled component of aquatic ecosystems, but little is known about their life-history strategies, particularly patterns of fecundity and reproductive effort. Because mussels have an unusual life cycle in which larvae (glochidia) are obligate parasites on fishes, differences in host relationships are expected to influence patterns of reproductive output among species. I investigated fecundity and reproductive effort (RE) and their relationships to other life-history traits for a taxonomically broad cross section of North American mussel diversity. Annual fecundity of North American mussel species spans nearly four orders of magnitude, ranging from 200000). Estimates of RE also were highly variable, ranging among species from 0.06 to 25.4%. Median fecundity and RE differed among phylogenetic groups, but patterns for these two traits differed in several ways. For example, the tribe Anodontini had relatively low median fecundity but had the highest RE of any group. Within and among species, body size was a strong predictor of fecundity and explained a high percentage of variation in fecundity among species. Fecundity showed little relationship to other life-history traits including glochidial size, lifespan, brooding strategies, or host strategies. The only apparent trade-off evident among these traits was the extraordinarily high fecundity of Leptodea, Margaritifera, and Truncilla, which may come at a cost of greatly reduced glochidial size; there was no relationship between fecundity and glochidial size for the remaining 61 species in the dataset. In contrast to fecundity, RE showed evidence of a strong trade-off with lifespan, which was

  2. The history of South American tropical precipitation for the past 25,000 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P A; Seltzer, G O; Fritz, S C; Dunbar, R B; Grove, M J; Tapia, P M; Cross, S L; Rowe, H D; Broda, J P

    2001-01-26

    Long sediment cores recovered from the deep portions of Lake Titicaca are used to reconstruct the precipitation history of tropical South America for the past 25,000 years. Lake Titicaca was a deep, fresh, and continuously overflowing lake during the last glacial stage, from before 25,000 to 15,000 calibrated years before the present (cal yr B.P.), signifying that during the last glacial maximum (LGM), the Altiplano of Bolivia and Peru and much of the Amazon basin were wetter than today. The LGM in this part of the Andes is dated at 21,000 cal yr B.P., approximately coincident with the global LGM. Maximum aridity and lowest lake level occurred in the early and middle Holocene (8000 to 5500 cal yr B.P.) during a time of low summer insolation. Today, rising levels of Lake Titicaca and wet conditions in Amazonia are correlated with anomalously cold sea-surface temperatures in the northern equatorial Atlantic. Likewise, during the deglacial and Holocene periods, there were several millennial-scale wet phases on the Altiplano and in Amazonia that coincided with anomalously cold periods in the equatorial and high-latitude North Atlantic, such as the Younger Dryas.

  3. A meningioma and its consequences for American history and the rise of neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Shaheryar F; Gianaris, Nicholas G; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2011-12-01

    The case of General Leonard Wood is notable both for its contribution to the field of neurosurgery and its historical significance. As one of Harvey Cushing's first successful brain tumor operations in 1910, Wood's surgery was part of the case series that culminated in Cushing's monograph Meningioma. This case was important to the rise of Cushing's career and his recognition as a member of the next generation of neurosurgeons who did not settle for mere bony decompression to taper intracranial tension but who dared to pursue intradural resections-operations that had been performed by surgeons for decades but were frowned upon because of the attendant risks. Cushing's operation to remove a recurrent brain tumor ended Wood's life in 1927. The authors discuss the effects the tumor may have had on Wood's life and career, explore an alternate explanation for the cause of Wood's death, and provide a brief account of the life of General Wood, highlighting events in his military and administrative career juxtaposed against the progression of his illness. Furthermore, the case history of the General is reviewed, using information drawn from the original patient notes and recently discovered images from the Cushing Brain Tumor Registry that elucidate more details about General Wood's story, from the injury that caused his first tumor to his final surgery, leading to his demise.

  4. American archivists on oral history – review of the subject of texts published in the second half of the 20th century in pages of „The American Archivist”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Wiśniewska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In its first part, the article consists of a detailed discussion on eighteen texts on oral history published in the second half of the 20th century in the leading American archival journal „The American Archivist”. The second part are conclusions concerning the presence of the subject of oral history in archival discourse in the United States in the latter half of the 20th century. In the analyzed texts a lot of space has been given to the character of oral history interviews as historical sources. Especially, the question of reliability of oral history has been raised, as well as ways of guaranteeing it (e.g. through a proper description. Moreover, in many cases these texts attempt to persuade their readers to use oral history in their research. Also, it may be noticed, that at some point the understanding of oral history as historical source changes – an audio or video recording of the interview becomes a source itself, and not notes made while carrying it out or its transcription. Also relations between oral history and traditional (paper records are an important issue in discussions of the American authors. The analysis of the articles also indicates that the authors were interested more in issues of the historical nature, than of the archival one. Those latter are mostly providing access to oral history materials. But also the question of the role of archives and archivists in recording oral history is touched. Discussion on the issue of storing oral history is not present at all.

  5. Designing and evaluating health systems level hypertension control interventions for African-Americans: lessons from a pooled analysis of three cluster randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlik, Valory N; Chan, Wenyaw; Hyman, David J; Feldman, Penny; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Schwartz, Joseph E; McDonald, Margaret; Einhorn, Paula; Tobin, Jonathan N

    2015-01-01

    African-Americans (AAs) have a high prevalence of hypertension and their blood pressure (BP) control on treatment still lags behind other groups. In 2004, NHLBI funded five projects that aimed to evaluate clinically feasible interventions to effect changes in medical care delivery leading to an increased proportion of AA patients with controlled BP. Three of the groups performed a pooled analysis of trial results to determine: 1) the magnitude of the combined intervention effect; and 2) how the pooled results could inform the methodology for future health-system level BP interventions. Using a cluster randomized design, the trials enrolled AAs with uncontrolled hypertension to test interventions targeting a combination of patient and clinician behaviors. The 12-month Systolic BP (SBP) and Diastolic BP (DBP) effects of intervention or control cluster assignment were assessed using mixed effects longitudinal regression modeling. 2,015 patients representing 352 clusters participated across the three trials. Pooled BP slopes followed a quadratic pattern, with an initial decline, followed by a rise toward baseline, and did not differ significantly between intervention and control clusters: SBP linear coefficient = -2.60±0.21 mmHg per month, pcontrol in health systems serving AAs should plan for small effect sizes and employ a "run-in" period in which BP can be expected to improve in both experimental and control clusters.

  6. [The William P. Didusch Center for Urologic History of the American Urological Association: new exciting approaches in presenting urologic history, not only in the USA - a personal guided tour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, R M

    2011-04-01

    The Didusch Center for Urologic History encompasses a rich and varied collection of drawings, photographs, and instruments of historical importance to urology, many displayed in the urological exhibits during the American Urological Association (AUA) conventions. The Center also houses a library devoted to urological and early medical texts and the AUA archives and is the institution of research in all fields of urologic history in the USA. The museum collection features most of Didusch's original drawings, as well as an impressive instrument collection acquired primarily through donations by urologists. The original William P. Didusch Museum (now known as the William P. Didusch Center for Urologic History) was originally housed in the AUA's Baltimore City headquarters building. Upon the association's move to Linthicum, MD in 2003, the museum has evolved into the William P. Didusch Center for Urologic History and taken on new tasks and responsibilities that include the topic of research in urologic history.

  7. The Holocene History of the North American Flux lobe: New Constraints From Fish Lake, Harney County, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, J. S.; Abbott, M. B.; Ziegler, L. B.; Reilly, B. T.; Finkenbinder, M. S.; Hatfield, R. G.; Hillman, A. L.; Konyndyk, D.

    2015-12-01

    To constrain the Holocene history of the North American flux lobe we present new relative paleointensity (RPI) and paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) data from Fish Lake, Harney County Oregon. Located high on Steens Mt, Fish Lake (42° 44' 15" N, 118° 38' 57" W, 2,246.7 m) is the largest of several lakes in the Fish Lake glacial valley. Cored along with Pate Lake in the summer of 2012, sediment from four offset holes were cored to a maximum depth of 9 m using a UWITEC coring system. Field based magnetic susceptibility insured that a completely duplicated sediment sequence was recovered. Computer tomographic scans confirmed the quality of the recovered sediment and allowed precise mapping of overlapping sequences. Additional physical properties data, along with Pb-210, radiocarbon dating and discrete tephra layers, including Mazama, tightly constrain this sequence from -0.06 to 14 ka. Progressive alternating field demagnetization of u-channel samples demonstrate that a consistently strong, stable, and low coercivity magnetization is preserved, with low MAD values both before and after deconvolution. Inclinations vary around expected values for the site latitude, with no evidence for inclination shallowing as suggested in previous studies. Declination was reconstructed by initially rotating the declination of each drive to a mean of zero, then further rotating to achieve maximum alignment of overlapping sections, followed by a final rotation of the entire sequence base upon a 400 yr historical model calibration. Remanence is normalized using ARM acquisition, ARM demagnetization, and IRM demagnetization and agreement between these suggests that RPI is preserved. RPI from Fish Lake provides a previously missing proxy for the North American flux lobe that invites comparison with other high quality, high resolution, and independently dated paleomagnetic and archeomagnetic records from the NE Pacific to Europe; allowing us to tease out modes of variability of a large

  8. "Artforum," Andy Warhol, and the Art of Living: What Art Educators Can Learn from the Recent History of American Art Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, David

    2005-01-01

    What is the best way to understand the recent development of American art? An older tradition of commentary focuses on the role of tradition, noting how each new form of painting is rooted in a long history. But Jack Bankoswky and some other art writers discussing Andy Warhol have adapted a different approach, arguing that his art breaks radically…

  9. The Impact of Stress on the Life History Strategies of African American Adolescents: Cognitions, Genetic Moderation, and the Role of Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Frederick X.; Roberts, Megan E.; Gerrard, Meg; Li, Zhigang; Beach, Steven R. H.; Simons, Ronald L.; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Philibert, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of 3 different sources of stress--environmental, familial (e.g., low parental investment), and interpersonal (i.e., racial discrimination)--on the life history strategies (LHS) and associated cognitions of African American adolescents were examined over an 11-year period (5 waves, from age 10.5 to 21.5). Analyses indicated that each one…

  10. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Low-Income, Predominantly African American Women with PTSD and a History of Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Mary Ann; Bermudez, Diana; Matas, Armely; Majid, Haseeb; Myers, Neely L.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we consider the use of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR; Kabat-Zinn, 1991) as a community-based intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among low-income, predominantly African American women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV). The results of a pilot randomized clinical trial (RCT) of MBSR as an…

  11. Resisting Official Knowledge: The Incorporation and Abjection of Race and Poverty in High School American History Textbooks, 1960s-2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearl, Benjamin Kelsey

    2014-01-01

    Through an interpretive analysis of how high school American history textbooks depict the urban-riots of the late-1960s, in this article the author discusses how textbooks incorporate and abject official knowledge related to the intersections of race and poverty. Incorporation is related with Raymond Williams' theory of the selective tradition and…

  12. Demographic history and biologically relevant genetic variation of Native Mexicans inferred from whole-genome sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián; Garcíarrubio, Alejandro; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Antúnez-Argüelles, Erika; Balcazar-Quintero, Martha; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Carnevale, Alessandra; Cornejo-Granados, Fernanda; Fernández-López, Juan Carlos; García-Herrera, Rodrigo; García-Ortíz, Humberto; Granados-Silvestre, Ángeles; Granados, Julio; Guerrero-Romero, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the genetic structure of Native American populations is important to clarify their diversity, demographic history, and to identify genetic factors relevant for biomedical traits. Here, we show a demographic history reconstruction from 12 Native American whole genomes belonging to six distinct ethnic groups representing the three main described genetic clusters of Mexico (Northern, Southern, and Maya). Effective population size estimates of all Native American groups remained bel...

  13. Selection and quality assessment of Landsat data for the North American forest dynamics forest history maps of the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleeweis, Karen; Goward, Samuel N.; Huang, Chengquan; Dwyer, John L.; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Lindsey, Mary A.; Michaelis, Andrew; Rishmawi, Khaldoun; Masek, Jeffery G.

    2016-01-01

    Using the NASA Earth Exchange platform, the North American Forest Dynamics (NAFD) project mapped forest history wall-to-wall, annually for the contiguous US (1986–2010) using the Vegetation Change Tracker algorithm. As with any effort to identify real changes in remotely sensed time-series, data gaps, shifts in seasonality, misregistration, inconsistent radiometry and cloud contamination can be sources of error. We discuss the NAFD image selection and processing stream (NISPS) that was designed to minimize these sources of error. The NISPS image quality assessments highlighted issues with the Landsat archive and metadata including inadequate georegistration, unreliability of the pre-2009 L5 cloud cover assessments algorithm, missing growing-season imagery and paucity of clear views. Assessment maps of Landsat 5–7 image quantities and qualities are presented that offer novel perspectives on the growing-season archive considered for this study. Over 150,000+ Landsat images were considered for the NAFD project. Optimally, one high quality cloud-free image in each year or a total of 12,152 images would be used. However, to accommodate data gaps and cloud/shadow contamination 23,338 images were needed. In 220 specific path-row image years no acceptable images were found resulting in data gaps in the annual national map products.

  14. Evolutionary history of HIV-1 subtype B and CRF01_AE transmission clusters among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kim Tien; Ong, Lai Yee; Lim, Sin How; Takebe, Yutaka; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 epidemics among men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to expand in developed and developing countries. Although HIV infection in MSM is amongst the highest of the key affected populations in many countries in Southeast Asia, comprehensive molecular epidemiological study of HIV-1 among MSM remains inadequate in the region including in Malaysia. Here, we reported the phylodynamic profiles of HIV-1 genotypes circulating among MSM population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of n = 459 newly-diagnosed treatment-naïve consenting subjects were recruited between March 2006 and August 2012, of whom 87 (18.9%) were self-reported MSM. Transmitted drug resistance mutations were absent in these isolates. Cumulatively, phylogenetic reconstructions of the pro-rt gene (HXB2∶2253-3275) showed that HIV-1 subtype B and CRF01_AE were predominant and contributed to approximately 80% of the total HIV-1 infection among MSM. In addition to numerous unique transmission lineages within these genotypes, twelve monophyletic transmission clusters of different sizes (2-7 MSM sequences, supported by posterior probability value of 1) were identified in Malaysia. Bayesian coalescent analysis estimated that the divergence times for these clusters were mainly dated between 1995 and 2005 with four major transmission clusters radiating at least 12 years ago suggesting that active spread of multiple sub-epidemic clusters occurred during this period. The changes in effective population size of subtype B showed an exponential growth within 5 years between 1988 and 1993, while CRF01_AE lineage exhibited similar expansion between 1993 and 2003. Our study provides the first insight of the phylodynamic profile of HIV-1 subtype B and CRF01_AE circulating among MSM population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, unravelling the importance of understanding transmission behaviours as well as evolutionary history of HIV-1 in assessing the risk of outbreak or epidemic expansion.

  15. Evolutionary history of HIV-1 subtype B and CRF01_AE transmission clusters among men who have sex with men (MSM in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Tien Ng

    Full Text Available HIV-1 epidemics among men who have sex with men (MSM continue to expand in developed and developing countries. Although HIV infection in MSM is amongst the highest of the key affected populations in many countries in Southeast Asia, comprehensive molecular epidemiological study of HIV-1 among MSM remains inadequate in the region including in Malaysia. Here, we reported the phylodynamic profiles of HIV-1 genotypes circulating among MSM population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of n = 459 newly-diagnosed treatment-naïve consenting subjects were recruited between March 2006 and August 2012, of whom 87 (18.9% were self-reported MSM. Transmitted drug resistance mutations were absent in these isolates. Cumulatively, phylogenetic reconstructions of the pro-rt gene (HXB2∶2253-3275 showed that HIV-1 subtype B and CRF01_AE were predominant and contributed to approximately 80% of the total HIV-1 infection among MSM. In addition to numerous unique transmission lineages within these genotypes, twelve monophyletic transmission clusters of different sizes (2-7 MSM sequences, supported by posterior probability value of 1 were identified in Malaysia. Bayesian coalescent analysis estimated that the divergence times for these clusters were mainly dated between 1995 and 2005 with four major transmission clusters radiating at least 12 years ago suggesting that active spread of multiple sub-epidemic clusters occurred during this period. The changes in effective population size of subtype B showed an exponential growth within 5 years between 1988 and 1993, while CRF01_AE lineage exhibited similar expansion between 1993 and 2003. Our study provides the first insight of the phylodynamic profile of HIV-1 subtype B and CRF01_AE circulating among MSM population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, unravelling the importance of understanding transmission behaviours as well as evolutionary history of HIV-1 in assessing the risk of outbreak or epidemic expansion.

  16. A review of American psychiatry through its diagnoses: the history and development of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Bernard A

    2012-12-01

    The history of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) reflects the larger history of American psychiatry. As the field anticipates DSM-5, it is useful to take stock of this history and consider not only how diagnosis impacts our understanding of mental illness but also how contemporary thought influences diagnosis. Before the DSM, the field was disjointed. The publication of the first American diagnostic manual, the precursor of the DSM, mirrored society's interest in organized record keeping and prevention rather than treatment of mental illness. The first and second editions of DSM brought a common language to diagnosis and were largely the work of outpatient and academic psychiatrists rather than those based in large state hospitals. The third edition of the DSM saw the shift in American psychiatry's leadership from the eminent clinician to the researcher, whereas the fourth edition reflected the rise of "evidence-based medicine." DSM-5 will likewise represent the current status of the field-not only with regard to science but also reflecting the place of American psychiatry in medicine today.

  17. Life history attributes of Arizona Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum ammolegus) and comparisons with other North American subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Janet M.

    2017-01-01

    Ammodramus savannarum ammolegus—commonly referred to as the Arizona Grasshopper Sparrow—occurs in the desert and plains grasslands of southeastern Arizona, southwestern New Mexico, and northern Sonora, Mexico. Although a subspecies of conservation concern, this is the first intensive study of its life history and breeding ecology, providing baseline data and facilitating comparisons with other North American Grasshopper Sparrow subspecies. Specifically, I found A. s. ammolegus males generally weighed less than other subspecies (16.0 ± 0.8 g) but with intermediate exposed culmen length (11.6 ± 0.5 mm) and wing chord length similar to the other two migratory subspecies (62.7 ± 1.5 mm). Territory size for A. s. ammolegus was 0.72 ± 0.37 ha, with some variation between sites and among years, possibly indicating variation in habitat quality across spatial and temporal scales. The return rate for A. s. ammolegus males was 39.2%. Nest initiation for A. s. ammolegus was early to mid-July after the monsoons had begun. Domed nests were constructed on the ground, primarily under native bunch grasses, and frequently with a tunnel extending beyond the nest rim, with nest openings oriented north. Clutch size was 3.97 ± 0.68, with no evidence of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) nest parasitism. Extreme climate factors in the arid Southwest may have affected the life history and morphology of A. s. ammolegus as compared to other subspecies, influencing body size and mass, culmen length, breeding phenology, and nest orientation. Other geographic variation occurred in return rates, clutch size, and nest parasitism rates. The baseline data for A. s. ammolegus obtained in this study will inform future taxonomic and ecological studies as well as conservation planning. Comparisons of A. s. ammolegus morphometrics with those of other subspecies will assist field biologists in distinguishing among subspecies where they overlap, especially on wintering grounds.

  18. Look Past the Stuffed Animals and Learn about the Earth: Dioramas at the American Museum of Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passow, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    The dioramas at the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) in New York City provide great examples of artwork depicting locations of interest and value for teaching the Earth Sciences. When the Museum was established in 1869, it—like most institutions of that time—merely provided a taxidermy collection in cases. But as it expanded into the dozens of Halls in its multiple public buildings, curators made a deliberate effort to display the specimens with backdrops depicting the habitats where the animals were collected. Such `curatorial giants' as Frank Chapman and Carl Ackley spearheaded pioneering efforts to present displays in the curved, framed settings. The impact of these large- and small-scale artworks on the Public cannot be underestimated. Instead of just viewing the remains of a dead animal, visitors are transported around the world into a wide variety of ecosystems. With no more effort than walking from one display to the next, viewers "magically travel" to the multitude of environments across Planet Earth. The dioramas may take one from mountaintop vistas to the microsystem just a few centimeters above and below the forest floor. This presentation will provide selected examples of the artwork in AMNH dioramas. The AMNH website provides numerous videos and posts about its dioramas. I will also provide insights into the creation of more recent artwork using an online interview with Sean Murtha, the artist who created many of the Hall of Ocean Life dioramas. Predating modern technologies, including color photography, television, and computers, these dioramas are rightly described as powerful tools for nurturing scientific education and environmental awareness. These dioramas frequently are utilized to teach important Earth System Science concepts to school groups and other visitors, and examples of such lessons will be included.

  19. Stellar models simulating the disk-locking mechanism and the evolutionary history of the Orion Nebula cluster and NGC 2264

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landin, N. R.; Mendes, L. T. S.; Vaz, L. P. R.; Alencar, S. H. P.

    2016-02-01

    Context. Rotational evolution in young stars is described by pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks including non-gray boundary conditions, rotation, conservation of angular momentum, and simulations of disk-locking. Aims: By assuming that disk-locking is the regulation mechanism for the stellar angular velocity during the early stages of pre-main sequence evolution, we use our rotating models and observational data to constrain disk lifetimes (Tdisk) of a representative sample of low-mass stars in two young clusters, the Orion Nebula cluster (ONC) and NGC 2264, and to better understand their rotational evolution. Methods: The period distributions of the ONC and NGC 2264 are known to be bimodal and to depend on the stellar mass. To follow the rotational evolution of these two clusters' stars, we generated sets of evolutionary tracks from a fully convective configuration with low central temperatures (before D- and Li-burning). We assumed that the evolution of fast rotators can be represented by models considering conservation of angular momentum during all stages and of moderate rotators by models considering conservation of angular velocity during the first stages of evolution. With these models we estimate a mass and an age for all stars. Results: The resulting mass distribution for the bulk of the cluster population is in the ranges of 0.2-0.4 M⊙ and 0.1-0.6 M⊙ for the ONC and NGC 2264, respectively. For the ONC, we assume that the secondary peak in the period distribution is due to high-mass objects still locked in their disks, with a locking period (Plock) of ~8 days. For NGC 2264 we make two hypotheses: (1) the stars in the secondary peak are still locked with Plock = 5 days, and (2) NGC 2264 is in a later stage in the rotational evolution. Hypothesis 2 implies in a disk-locking scenario with Plock = 8 days, a disk lifetime of 1 Myr and, after that, constant angular momentum evolution. We then simulated the period distribution of NGC 2264 when the mean age

  20. The Antebellum American Textbook Authors' Populist History of Roman Land Reform and the Gracchi Brothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnis, Edward

    2015-01-01

    This essay explores social and political values conveyed by nineteenth century world and universal history textbooks in relation to the antebellum era. These textbooks focused on the histories of ancient Greece and Rome rather than on histories of the United States. I argue that after 1830 these textbooks reinforced both the US land reform and the…

  1. Partitional clustering algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book summarizes the state-of-the-art in partitional clustering. Clustering, the unsupervised classification of patterns into groups, is one of the most important tasks in exploratory data analysis. Primary goals of clustering include gaining insight into, classifying, and compressing data. Clustering has a long and rich history that spans a variety of scientific disciplines including anthropology, biology, medicine, psychology, statistics, mathematics, engineering, and computer science. As a result, numerous clustering algorithms have been proposed since the early 1950s. Among these algorithms, partitional (nonhierarchical) ones have found many applications, especially in engineering and computer science. This book provides coverage of consensus clustering, constrained clustering, large scale and/or high dimensional clustering, cluster validity, cluster visualization, and applications of clustering. Examines clustering as it applies to large and/or high-dimensional data sets commonly encountered in reali...

  2. When Lions Write History: Black History Textbooks, African-American Educators, & the Alternative Black Curriculum in Social Studies Education, 1890-1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, LaGarrett J.

    2014-01-01

    The African proverb, "Until the lions have their historians, tales of the hunt shall always glorify the hunter," is used to metaphorically describe how dominant groups inscribe power through historical narrative. In this article the author discusses how African-American educators between the years of 1890-1940 conceptualized citizenship…

  3. Associations between a history of binge drinking during adolescence and self-reported responses to alcohol in young adult Native and Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Stouffer, Gina M; Gilder, David A

    2014-07-01

    Binge drinking during adolescence is common and may predict increased drinking in young adulthood and enhanced risk of alcohol dependence. Variation in level of response to the hedonic and adverse effects of alcohol is in part an inherited factor that may also influence its use, abuse, and dependence. This study investigated, in young adults, whether an association could be demonstrated between variation in self-reported responses to alcohol and a history of binge drinking during adolescence. Young adult (18 to 30 years, n = 790) Native Americans and Mexican Americans were recruited from the community and completed a structured diagnostic interview. Response to alcohol was indexed using the expectation version of the Subjective High Assessment Scale (SHAS-E). An adolescent history of regular binge drinking was defined as drinking 5 or more drinks for boys and 4 or more drinks for girls per drinking occasion at least once a month during their highest drinking period prior to the age of 18. An adolescent history of regular binge drinking was found to be associated with a lower level of self-reported responses to the negative aspects of alcohol intoxication (feeling terrible) as well as to the overall level of intoxication, but not to the positive impressions of intoxication (feeling great) on the SHAS-E. A history of regular adolescent binge drinking was also correlated with less feelings of the "terrible" and "total" effects of alcohol, as indexed by the SHAS-E, in a linear regression model that included several diagnostic and demographic variables such as a history of conduct disorder and current levels of drinking. These data suggest that a history of adolescent binge drinking is associated with a reduction in the self-reported level of intoxication in young adulthood, a factor that could theoretically lead to increased risk of alcohol dependence. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. A Brief History of International Latin American Student Fraternities: A Movement That Lasted 86 Years (1889-1975)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    An international Latin American student fraternity movement preceded the current Latino Greeks that are seen on college campuses today. This document provides new information that has not been published. The movement lasted 86 years and primarily served wealthy international Latin American students who came to the United States to study and, once…

  5. Cluster randomized controlled trial of a psycho-educational intervention for people with a family history of depression for use in general practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The strongest risk factor for depression is having a family history of the condition. Many individuals with a family history of depression are concerned about their personal risk for depression and report unmet educational and psychological support needs. No supportive and/or educational interventions are currently available that target this group of individuals. In this study we will develop and evaluate the first online psycho-educational intervention targeted to individuals with a family history of depression. Genetic risk information and evidence-rated information on preventive strategies for depression will be provided to such individuals in a general practice setting. The intervention will also incorporate a risk assessment tool. The content and delivery of the intervention will be pilot-tested. Methods/design The proposed intervention will be evaluated in the general practitioner (GPs) setting, using a cluster randomized controlled trial. GP practices will be randomized to provide either access to the online, targeted psycho-educational intervention or brief generic information about depression (control) to eligible patients. Eligibility criteria include having at least one first-degree relative with either major depressive disorder (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD). The primary outcome measure is 'intention to adopt, or actual adoption of, risk-reducing strategies’. Secondary outcome measures include: depression symptoms, perceived stigma of depression, knowledge of risk factors for development of depression and risk-reducing strategies, and perceived risk of developing depression or having a recurrence of family history. Over the course of the study, participants will complete online questionnaires at three time points: at baseline, and two weeks and six months after receiving the intervention or control condition. Discussion This novel psycho-educational intervention will provide individuals with a family history of depression with information

  6. Haitian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanese, Anthony V.

    1998-01-01

    Uses 1990 U.S. Census data to show the changing demographic profile of Haitian Americans. Haitian Americans are likely to live along the Atlantic seaboard and to have relatively low, although not the lowest, incomes. However, the demographic mosaic of Haitian Americans is diverse, showing the effects of Haitian national and ethnic history. (SLD)

  7. The Formation of Supermassive Black Holes from Population III.1 Seeds. I. Cosmic Formation Histories and Clustering Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banik, Nilanjan; Tan, Jonathan C.; Monaco, Pierluigi

    2016-08-15

    We calculate the cosmic distributions in space and time of the formation sites of the first, "Pop III.1" stars, exploring a model in which these are the progenitors of all supermassive black holes (SMBHs). Pop III.1 stars are defined to form from primordial composition gas in dark matter minihalos with $\\sim10^6\\:M_\\odot$ that are isolated from neighboring astrophysical sources by a given isolation distance, $d_{\\rm{iso}}$. We assume Pop III.1 sources are seeds of SMBHs, based on protostellar support by dark matter annihilation heating that allows them to accrete a large fraction of their minihalo gas, i.e., $\\sim 10^5\\:M_\\odot$. Exploring $d_{\\rm{iso}}$ from 10--$100\\:\\rm{kpc}$ (proper distances), we predict the redshift evolution of Pop III.1 source and SMBH remnant number densities. The local, $z=0$ density of SMBHs constrains $d_{\\rm{iso}}\\lesssim 100\\:\\rm{kpc}$ (i.e., $3\\:\\rm{Mpc}$ comoving distance at $z\\simeq30$). In our simulated ($\\sim60\\:\\rm{Mpc}$)$^3$ comoving volume, Pop III.1 stars start forming just after $z=40$. Their formation is largely complete by $z\\simeq25$ to 20 for $d_{\\rm{iso}}=100$ to $50\\:\\rm{kpc}$. We follow source evolution to $z=10$, by which point most SMBHs reside in halos with $\\gtrsim10^8\\:M_\\odot$. Over this period, there is relatively limited merging of SMBHs for these values of $d_{\\rm{iso}}$. We also predict SMBH clustering properties at $z=10$: feedback suppression of neighboring sources leads to relatively flat angular correlation functions. Finally, we consider a simple "Str\\"omgren" model for $d_{\\rm iso}$, based on ionizing feedback from zero age main sequence supermassive Pop III.1 stars that may be the direct progenitors of SMBHs in this scenario. Such models naturally produce feedback effects on scales of $\\sim100\\:$kpc and thus self-consistently generate a SMBH number density similar to the observed value.

  8. Moderating Effect of Residential History on the Effects of a Fatherhood Program on Parenting Skills Satisfaction among Nonresident African American Fathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqing Qian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nonresident African American (AA fathers sometimes face challenges to achieving satisfaction with their parenting skills, which may inhibit their motivations for parenting. Studies have found that residential history of fathers is associated with parental involvement; however, current fatherhood programs rarely consider the influence of different residential history on fathering. In the current study, we examined whether nonresident AA fathers’ residential history with their sons moderated their parenting skills satisfaction after participating in the Fathers and Sons Program. Our results indicated that after controlling for fathers’ pretest parenting skills satisfaction, age, education, marital status, employment, and ever lived with their son’s mother; there was a moderating effect of residential history on the intervention’s effects on posttest parenting skills satisfaction. The regression analyses showed that fathers in the intervention group who had lived with their son increased their parenting skills satisfaction more at posttest compared with fathers who had never lived with their sons. However, fathers in the comparison group who had lived with their sons had lower posttest parenting skills satisfaction. Future fatherhood programs for nonresident AA fathers should develop more nuanced group-specific interventions that consider residential history as a critical factor to enhance their parenting skills satisfaction as a strategy for improving father involvement.

  9. Moderating Effect of Residential History on the Effects of a Fatherhood Program on Parenting Skills Satisfaction among Nonresident African American Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yiqing; De Loney, E Hill; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2018-02-09

    Nonresident African American (AA) fathers sometimes face challenges to achieving satisfaction with their parenting skills, which may inhibit their motivations for parenting. Studies have found that residential history of fathers is associated with parental involvement; however, current fatherhood programs rarely consider the influence of different residential history on fathering. In the current study, we examined whether nonresident AA fathers' residential history with their sons moderated their parenting skills satisfaction after participating in the Fathers and Sons Program. Our results indicated that after controlling for fathers' pretest parenting skills satisfaction, age, education, marital status, employment, and ever lived with their son's mother; there was a moderating effect of residential history on the intervention's effects on posttest parenting skills satisfaction. The regression analyses showed that fathers in the intervention group who had lived with their son increased their parenting skills satisfaction more at posttest compared with fathers who had never lived with their sons. However, fathers in the comparison group who had lived with their sons had lower posttest parenting skills satisfaction. Future fatherhood programs for nonresident AA fathers should develop more nuanced group-specific interventions that consider residential history as a critical factor to enhance their parenting skills satisfaction as a strategy for improving father involvement.

  10. Latin American Art Music in the Music History Curriculum: Taking Stock in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. Hess

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay surveys the teaching of Latin American art music in U.S. post-secondary education from the 1930s to the present. After a rush of enthusiasm during the Good Neighbor period (World War II, decades of indifference set in. After 2000, an increasing number of instructors began either (1 teaching the art music of Latin America in courses dedicated to all types of Latin America music or (2 incorporating the subject into existing courses on Western art music. Yet many instructors still omit Latin American art music, as do certain authors. In this essay, I question such a stance. Not only does Latin American art music offer a window into Latin American culture but it can help counteract persistent stereotypes about Latin America, a perspective that is all the more critical in light of recent demographic trends in the United States and recent political developments.

  11. An Ecological Analysis of the Effects of Deviant Peer Clustering on Sexual Promiscuity, Problem Behavior, and Childbearing from Early Adolescence to Adulthood: An Enhancement of the Life History Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishion, Thomas J.; Ha, Thao; Veronneau, Marie-Helene

    2012-01-01

    The authors propose that peer relationships should be included in a life history perspective on adolescent problem behavior. Longitudinal analyses were used to examine deviant peer clustering as the mediating link between attenuated family ties, peer marginalization, and social disadvantage in early adolescence and sexual promiscuity in middle…

  12. An Ecological Analysis of the Effects of Deviant Peer Clustering on Sexual Promiscuity, Problem Behavior, and Childbearing From Early Adolescence to Adulthood: An Enhancement of the Life History Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dishion, T.J.; Ha, P.T.; Veronneau, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The authors propose that peer relationships should be included in a life history perspective on adolescent problem behavior. Longitudinal analyses were used to examine deviant peer clustering as the mediating link between attenuated family ties, peer marginalization, and social disadvantage in early

  13. The mediating role of partner communication skills on HIV/STD-associated risk behaviors in young African American females with a history of sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Jessica McDermott; Salazar, Laura F; Wingood, Gina M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Rose, Eve; Crosby, Richard A

    2008-05-01

    To examine the prevalence of sexual violence among young African American females and to explore the mediating role that partner communication plays on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease-associated risk behaviors among youth with a history of sexual violence relative to those without. Only data from baseline, before randomization, were used for this analysis. A clinic-based sample of young females enrolled in a randomized trial of an HIV-prevention program in Atlanta, Georgia, from March 2002 to August 2004. African American females aged 15 to 21 years who reported sexual activity in the previous 60 days. Of 1558 screened, 874 females were eligible and 82% (n = 715) participated at baseline. History of sexual violence as well as (1) sexual partner communication skills, (2) current sexual behaviors, and (3) psychological well-being. Lifetime prevalence of sexual violence was 26%. Communication skills partially mediated the relationship between sexual violence and psychological well-being and sexual behavior outcomes. Given the lifetime prevalence of sexual violence and its adverse sexual, psychological, and relational sequelae, it is paramount that effective interventions are developed. Based on our findings, improving partner communications skills is one particularly important area for HIV/sexually transmitted disease risk-reduction interventions for youths with a history of sexual violence.

  14. Lifetime history of traumatic events in an American Indian community sample: heritability and relation to substance dependence, affective disorder, conduct disorder and PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Gizer, Ian R; Gilder, David A; Yehuda, Rachael

    2013-02-01

    American Indians appear to experience a higher rate of traumatic events than what has been reported in general population surveys. American Indians also suffer higher alcohol related death rates than any other ethnic group in the U.S. population. Therefore efforts to delineate factors which may uniquely contribute to increased likelihood of trauma, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and substance use disorders (SUD) over the lifetime in American Indians are important because of the high burden of morbidity and mortality that they pose to American Indian communities. Participants were American Indians recruited from reservations that were assessed with the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA), family history assessment and the stressful-life-events scale. Of the 309 participants, equivalent numbers of men and women (94%) reported experiencing traumas; however, a larger proportion of women received a PTSD diagnosis (38%) than men (29%). Having experienced multiple trauma and sexual abuse were most highly associated with PTSD. Having experienced assaultive trauma and having PTSD symptoms were both found to be moderately heritable (30-50%). Logistic regression revealed that having an anxiety and/or affective disorder and having a substance dependent diagnosis, but not having antisocial personality disorder/conduct disorder, were significantly correlated with having a diagnosis of PTSD. These studies suggest that trauma is highly prevalent in this American Indian community, it is heritable, is associated with PTSD, affective/anxiety disorders and substance dependence. Additionally, trauma, PTSD and substance dependence appear to all co-emerge in early adulthood in this high-risk population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. William Cain Ruffin, M.D., and some history of the Ruffin family as it pertains to the American Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoch, Jay M

    2012-01-01

    In the late 1970s, Prof. Herbert ("Herb") Kaufman, M.D., a fine Harvard-trained ophthalmologist who had both developed and chaired the Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, University of Florida. Gainesville, FL, chose to resign his appointment there. Prof. Kaufman had accepted the Chair in Ophthalmology at Louisiana State U. in New Orleans. The writer was a member of the Department of Ophthalmology faculty in Gainesville, FL, at the time. Following Herb Kaufman's resignation, Professor William Cain Ruffin, M.D., a psychiatrist with academic credentials, was assigned to serve as the Interim Chairman of the Department of Ophthalmology at Gainesville for a few years by the then Dean of the Medical School at the U. of Florida. This paper addresses some interesting facts regarding Prof./Dr. Ruffin and his family history, particularly as that history relates to the American Civil War.

  16. Images of American Indians in Environmental Education: Anthropological Reflections on the Politics and History of Cultural Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willow, Anna J.

    2010-01-01

    For hundreds of years, North America's colonizers worked systematically to eradicate the indigenous cultural practices, religious beliefs, and autonomous political systems many venerate. This article illustrates that imperialist nostalgia underlies and directs portrayals of American Indians in environmental education today. Whether unconsciously…

  17. Native American Students' Understanding of Geologic Time Scale: 4th-8th Grade Ojibwe Students' Understanding of Earth's Geologic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Younkyeong; Karahan, Engin; Roehrig, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Geologic time scale is a very important concept for understanding long-term earth system events such as climate change. This study examines forty-three 4th-8th grade Native American--particularly Ojibwe tribe--students' understanding of relative ordering and absolute time of Earth's significant geological and biological events. This study also…

  18. Constituting a Sense of "American" Identity and Place through Language and Literary Study: A Curriculum History, 1898-1912

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brass, Jory

    2013-01-01

    This article examines constructions of "American" identity and place in the first influential guides for English teaching published in the United States at the cusp of the 20th Century. It recovers how English teaching was to weaken youths' ties to more immediate people and places and to reorient their sense of self, others and the…

  19. "Making History Go" at a Local Community Center: Popular Media and the Construction of Historical Knowledge among African American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Greg

    2000-01-01

    Looks at how young people use historical knowledge, gained from media sources, to deal with current situations. A group of young African Americans draw on behavioral examples from the film, "Panther," instead of school-based learning, to give them ways to deal with the Ku Klux Klan in their neighborhood. (DAJ)

  20. The history of the German Cardiac Society and the American College of Cardiology and their two founders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüderitz, Berndt; Holmes, David R; Harold, John

    2013-02-26

    The German Cardiac Society is the oldest national cardiac society in Europe, founded on June 3, 1927, in Bad Nauheim by Dr. Bruno Kisch and Professor Arthur Weber. They were actively supported by Dr. Franz Groedel, who together with Kisch became co-founders of the American College of Cardiology in 1949. Both Groedel and Kisch would be proud to see the fulfillment of their visions and dreams, which was commemorated at the joint session of the two societies held during the 78th annual meeting of the German Cardiac Society in Mannheim, Germany. "It is ironic that their dreadful years in Germany and their loss to German Cardiology helped to contribute to advances in American and international Cardiology," said Dr. Simon Dack, American College of Cardiology president in 1956 and 1957. The legacy of Groedel might be reflected by his own words: "We will meet the future not merely by dreams but by concerned action and inextinguishable enthusiasm". Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. "I Feel I Am Really Pleading the Cause of My Own People": US Southern White Students' Study of African-American History and Culture in the 1930s through Art and the Senses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woyshner, Christine

    2018-01-01

    In the 1930s there emerged an initiative to teach black history and culture to white students, which pre-dates more widespread efforts of the post-Second World War era. This article analyses student work--considering sight, sound and text--and investigates what white students learned about African-American history and culture. Curriculum history…

  2. Two Bg1II RFLPs of the human. alpha. -globin gene cluster in the American sickle cell population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Embury, S.H.; Blachman, T.; Kroop, G.L.; Suzuki, J.K.; Boyle, M. (Univ. of California and Northern California Comprehensive Sickle Cell Center, San Fransicso (USA))

    1989-11-11

    Human {alpha}-globin cDNA cloned into plasmid pMB9(JW101) was used as a hybridization probe for assessing the {alpha}-globin genotypes of 2271 Americans with sickle cell anemia. The normal duplicated human {alpha}-globin genes, {alpha}2 and {alpha}1, residue on separate Bg1 II fragments, each of which is cleaved by Hin dIII. Both {alpha} loci reside on a single 14 kb Bam HI fragment. The authors performed single Bg1 II and BAM HI digests to detect {alpha}-globin gene deletions in 2271 subjects enrolled in the National Cooperative Study of Sickel Cell Disease (NCSSCD). In addition to gene deletions and duplications, two Bg1 II RFLP were found. The human {alpha}-globin genes reside on the short arm of chromosome 16. The {alpha}2-specific RFLP occurs in linkage dysequilibrium and the mother of one subject with the {alpha}1-specific RFLP had this RFLP, suggesting their Mendelian inheritance.

  3. Communal visual histories to detect environmental change in northern areas: Examples of emerging North American and Eurasian practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, Tero

    2015-12-01

    This article explores the pioneering potential of communal visual-optic histories which are recorded, painted, documented, or otherwise expressed. These materials provide collective meanings of an image or visual material within a specific cultural group. They potentially provide a new method for monitoring and documenting changes to ecosystem health and species distribution, which can effectively inform society and decision makers of Arctic change. These visual histories can be positioned in a continuum that extends from rock art to digital photography. They find their expressions in forms ranging from images to the oral recording of knowledge and operate on a given cultural context. For monitoring efforts in the changing boreal zone and Arctic, a respectful engagement with visual histories can reveal emerging aspects of change. The examples from North America and case studies from Eurasia in this article include Inuit sea ice observations, Yu'pik visual traditions of masks, fish die-offs in a sub-boreal catchment area, permafrost melt in the Siberian tundra and early, first detection of a scarabaeid beetle outbreak, a Southern species in the Skolt Sámi area. The pros and cons of using these histories and their reliability are reviewed.

  4. No Good Wars: Teaching the History of Modern American Wars as a Means of Resisting Current Ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    In the fall 2005 semester, the author designed a course in the history of America's modern wars hoping to encourage students to criticize and oppose the country's current aggressions in Afghanistan and Iraq. Surveys of student attitude change suggest that the course did promote criticism but did far less to facilitate student activism. The author…

  5. Power and Liberty: A Long-Term Course Planning Strategy to Encourage the Contextualization of Events in American History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endacott, Jason L.

    2011-01-01

    Applying a consistent historical theme throughout a social studies course is an effective long-term planning strategy that can promote student engagement, retention of information, and contextualized knowledge of history's continuity and change. This article demonstrates how one such theme, power and liberty, might be incorporated into a secondary…

  6. The role of fecundity and reproductive effort in defining life history strategies of North American freshwater mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell R. Haag

    2013-01-01

    Selection is expected to optimize reproductive investment resulting in characteristic trade-offs among traits such as brood size, offspring size, somatic maintenance, and lifespan; relative patterns of energy allocation to these functions are important in defining life-history strategies. Freshwater mussels are a diverse and imperiled component of aquatic ecosystems,...

  7. Thinking Historically, Teaching Historically: Perspectives on the Professional Development of Teachers from a Teaching American History Grant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Kevin B.

    2010-01-01

    In teacher's idealized history classroom, students are abuzz with questions. They are eager to jump into a serious analysis of primary sources. They relish additional opportunities to engage historiographical debates. They are, as teachers like to say, "thinking historically." While there are few easy ways to create these idealized…

  8. Life History Traits and Niche Instability Impact Accuracy and Temporal Transferability for Historically Calibrated Distribution Models of North American Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogan, Guinevere O U

    2016-01-01

    A primary assumption of environmental niche models (ENMs) is that models are both accurate and transferable across geography or time; however, recent work has shown that models may be accurate but not highly transferable. While some of this is due to modeling technique, individual species ecologies may also underlie this phenomenon. Life history traits certainly influence the accuracy of predictive ENMs, but their impact on model transferability is less understood. This study investigated how life history traits influence the predictive accuracy and transferability of ENMs using historically calibrated models for birds. In this study I used historical occurrence and climate data (1950-1990s) to build models for a sample of birds, and then projected them forward to the 'future' (1960-1990s). The models were then validated against models generated from occurrence data at that 'future' time. Internal and external validation metrics, as well as metrics assessing transferability, and Generalized Linear Models were used to identify life history traits that were significant predictors of accuracy and transferability. This study found that the predictive ability of ENMs differs with regard to life history characteristics such as range, migration, and habitat, and that the rarity versus commonness of a species affects the predicted stability and overlap and hence the transferability of projected models. Projected ENMs with both high accuracy and transferability scores, still sometimes suffered from over- or under- predicted species ranges. Life history traits certainly influenced the accuracy of predictive ENMs for birds, but while aspects of geographic range impact model transferability, the mechanisms underlying this are less understood.

  9. National Institute of Mental Health Multisite Eban HIV/STD Prevention Intervention for African American HIV Serodiscordant Couples: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bassel, Nabila; Jemmott, John B; Landis, J Richard; Pequegnat, Willo; Wingood, Gina M; Wyatt, Gail E; Bellamy, Scarlett L

    2010-09-27

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has disproportionately affected African Americans. Couple-level interventions may be a promising intervention strategy. To determine if a behavioral intervention can reduce HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk behaviors among African American HIV serodiscordant couples, a cluster randomized controlled trial (Eban) was conducted in Atlanta, Georgia; Los Angeles, California; New York, New York; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; with African American HIV serodiscordant heterosexual couples who were eligible if both partners were at least 18 years old and reported unprotected intercourse in the previous 90 days and awareness of each other's serostatus. One thousand seventy participants were enrolled (mean age, 43 years; 40% of male participants were HIV positive). Couples were randomized to 1 of 2 interventions: couple-focused Eban HIV/STD risk-reduction intervention or attention-matched individual-focused health promotion comparison. The primary outcomes were the proportion of condom-protected intercourse acts and cumulative incidence of STDs (chlamydia, gonorrhea, or trichomonas). Data were collected preintervention and postintervention, and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Data were analyzed for 535 randomized couples: 260 in the intervention group and 275 in the comparison group; 81.9% were retained at the 12-month follow-up. Generalized estimating equation analyses revealed that the proportion of condom-protected intercourse acts was larger among couples in the intervention group (0.77) than in the comparison group (0.47; risk ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 1.41; P = .006) when adjusted for the baseline criterion measure. The adjusted percentage of couples using condoms consistently was higher in the intervention group (63%) than in the comparison group (48%; risk ratio, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.24 to 1.70; P STD incidence over the 12-month follow-up did not differ between couples in the intervention and comparison

  10. Trauma history in African-American women living with HIV: effects on psychiatric symptom severity and religious coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownley, Julie R; Fallot, Roger D; Wolfson Berley, Rebecca; Himelhoch, Seth S

    2015-01-01

    Women living with HIV (WLHIV) have rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) up to 5 times higher than the general population. Individuals living with HIV and a concurrent diagnosis of PTSD have poorer HIV-related outcomes; however, the prevalence and impact of PTSD on African-American WLHIV seeking mental health treatment is unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the associations between PTSD symptoms with psychiatric symptom severity and psychological/religious coping strategies in African-American WLHIV who are seeking mental health treatment. This is a cross-sectional study of 235 African-American WLHIV attending an urban community mental health clinic. Bivariate analyses were conducted to evaluate associations between a PTSD symptoms scale (PSS≥21 versus PSSAmerican WLHIV attending an outpatient mental health clinic had symptoms associated with PTSD. These symptoms were associated with worse mental health symptoms and utilization of dysfunctional religious and nonreligious coping strategies. Untreated PTSD in WLHIV predicts poorer HIV-related health outcomes and may negatively impact comorbid mental health outcomes. Screening for PTSD in WLHIV could identify a subset that would benefit from evidence-based PTSD-specific therapies in addition to mental health interventions already in place. PTSD-specific interventions for WLHIV with PTSD may improve outcomes, improve coping strategies, and allow for more effective treatment of comorbid mental health disorders.

  11. An assemblage of fragments : history, revolutionary aesthetics and global capitalism in Vietnamese/American literature, films and visual culture

    OpenAIRE

    Võ, Ch'o'ng-Đài Ĥòng

    2009-01-01

    This project examines the politics of knowledge production in Vietnam during the transition from socialist realism to post-socialist aesthetics and neoliberalism. I look at literary, filmic and visual culture productions that challenge and present alternatives to the construction of history in the discourses of Vietnamese nationalism, French colonialism and U.S. imperialism. I attend to the cultural violence that came out of the Vietnamese civil war and that continues to haunt the post-social...

  12. A history of shaker nurse-herbalists, health reform, and the american botanical medical movement (1830-1860).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libster, Martha M

    2009-12-01

    During the mid 19th century, herbal remedies were the platform for a major health reform movement in America known as the Botanical Medical Movement (BMM). A number of histories have been written on the BMM from the perspectives of physicians and pharmacists. This article describes the history of nurse-herbalism during the period and the impact that Shaker nurses, in particular, had on the BMM. The article traces the history and findings of a triangulated case study. Shaker nurses used herbs extensively in their caring and curing practices. They applied the botanical remedies recommended by BMM leaders. The nurses were also expert herbal medicine makers who used their own remedies in patient care. The Shaker infirmary was the nurses' behind-the-scenes research and development laboratory for the Shaker herbal cottage industry, which ultimately developed into an international, entrepreneurial endeavor. The Shaker infirmary was the nurses' organized proving ground for the implementation of the botanical health reforms of the mid 19th century. The nurse-herbalists' contribution to the promotion and production of herbal remedies had a significant impact on the success of botanical health reform in America.

  13. Radiologic history exhibit: the American Association for Women Radiologists (AAWR): 25 years of promoting women in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angtuaco, Teresita L; Macura, Katarzyna J; Lewicki, Ann M; Rosado-de-Christenson, Melissa L; Rumack, Carol M

    2008-01-01

    On the 25th anniversary of the American Association for Women Radiologists (AAWR), the association's accomplishments in promoting the careers of women radiologists were reviewed. Programs that feature opportunities for women to balance their careers and their personal lives have contributed greatly to promoting networking opportunities at national meetings. Highlights of women's accomplishments in national radiology organizations underline how far women have advanced in the specialty. Future initiatives for the organization center on increasing women's involvement in recruiting and mentoring other women in radiology. (c) RSNA, 2008

  14. Distal biceps tendon history, updates, and controversies: from the closed American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons meeting-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christopher C; Savoie, Felix H; Steinmann, Scott P; Hausman, Michael; Voloshin, Ilya; Morrey, Bernard F; Sotereanos, Dean G; Bero, Emily H; Brown, Brandon T

    2016-10-01

    Understanding of the distal biceps anatomy, mechanics, and biology during the last 75 years has greatly improved the physician's ability to advise and to treat patients with ruptured distal tendons. The goal of this paper is to review the past and current advances on complete distal biceps ruptures as well as controversies and future directions that were discussed and debated during the closed American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons meeting in 2015. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Constraining the thermal history of the North American Midcontinent Rift System using carbonate clumped isotopes and organic thermal maturity indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Timothy M.; Sheldon, Nathan D.; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Petersen, Sierra V.; Gueneli, Nur; Brocks, Jochen J.

    2017-01-01

    The Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) is a Late Mesoproterozoic (∼1.1 Ga) sequence of volcanic and sedimentary rocks exposed in the Lake Superior Region of North America. The MRS continues to be the focus of much research due to its economic mineral deposits as well as its archive of Precambrian life and tectonic processes. In order to constrain the post-depositional thermal history of the MRS, samples were analyzed for carbonate clumped isotope composition and organic thermal maturity. Clumped isotope values from sedimentary/early-diagenetic samples were partially reset during burial to temperatures between 68 and 75 °C. Solid-state reordering models indicate that maximum burial temperatures of 125–155 °C would reset the clumped isotope values to the observed temperature range prior to the onset of regional cooling and uplift. Clumped isotope results from late-stage veins in the White Pine Mine encompass a greater temperature range (49–116 °C), indicative of spatially variable hydrothermal activity and vein emplacement after burial temperatures fell below 100 °C during regional cooling and uplift. Clumped isotope and organic thermal maturity data do not indicate significant spatial differences in thermal history along the MRS. Observed variability in bulk organic matter composition and biomarker indices are therefore more likely a result of shifts in primary productivity or early-degradation processes. These results demonstrate that the MRS experienced a spatially consistent, relatively mild thermal history (125–155 °C) and is therefore a valuable archive for understanding the Late Mesoproterozoic environment.

  16. A brief history of the American radium industry and its ties to the scientific community of its early twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, E.R.

    1993-01-01

    Federally funded remedial action projects are presently underway in New Jersey and Colorado at sites containing 226Ra and other radionuclides from radium-uranium ore extraction plants that operated during the early twentieth century. They are but the latest chapter in the story of an American industry that emerged and perished in the span of three decades. Major extraction plants were established in or near Denver (CO), Pittsburgh (PA), and New York City (NY) to process radium from ore that came largely from the carnotite deposits of western Colorado and eastern Utah. The staffs of these plants included some of the finest chemists and physicists in the nation, and the highly-refined radium products found a variety of uses in medicine and industry. The discovery of high-grade pitchblende ores in the Belgian Congo and the subsequent opening of an extraction plant near Antwerp, Belgium, in 1992, however, created an economic climate that put an end to the American radium industry. The geologic, chemical, and engineering information gathered during this era formed the basis of the uranium industry of the later part of the century, while the tailings and residues came to be viewed as environmental problems during the same period.

  17. The history of the North African mitochondrial DNA haplogroup U6 gene flow into the African, Eurasian and American continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secher, Bernard; Fregel, Rosa; Larruga, José M; Cabrera, Vicente M; Endicott, Phillip; Pestano, José J; González, Ana M

    2014-05-19

    Complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome analyses have greatly improved the phylogeny and phylogeography of human mtDNA. Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup U6 has been considered as a molecular signal of a Paleolithic return to North Africa of modern humans from southwestern Asia. Using 230 complete sequences we have refined the U6 phylogeny, and improved the phylogeographic information by the analysis of 761 partial sequences. This approach provides chronological limits for its arrival to Africa, followed by its spreads there according to climatic fluctuations, and its secondary prehistoric and historic migrations out of Africa colonizing Europe, the Canary Islands and the American Continent. The U6 expansions and contractions inside Africa faithfully reflect the climatic fluctuations that occurred in this Continent affecting also the Canary Islands. Mediterranean contacts drove these lineages to Europe, at least since the Neolithic. In turn, the European colonization brought different U6 lineages throughout the American Continent leaving the specific sign of the colonizers origin.

  18. A brief history of the American radium industry and its ties to the scientific community of its early Twentieth Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landa, E.R.

    1993-01-01

    Federally funded remedial action projects are presently underway in New Jersey and Colorado at sites containing 226 Ra and other radionuclides from radium-uranium ore extraction plants that operated during the early twentieth century. They are but the latest chapter in the story of an American industry that emerged and perished in the span of three decades. Major extraction plants were established in or near Denver (CO), Pittsburgh (PA), and New York City (NY) to process radium from ore that came largely from the carnotite deposits of western Colorado and eastern Utah. The staffs of these plants included some of the finest chemists and physicists in the nation, and the highly-refined radium products found a variety of uses in medicine and industry. The discovery of high-grade pitchblende ores in the Belgian Congo and the subsequent opening of an extraction plant near Antwerp, Belgium, in 1992, however, created an economic climate that put an end to the American radium industry. The geologic, chemical, and engineering information gathered during this era formed the basis of the uranium industry of the later part of the century, while the tailings and residues came to be viewed as environmental problems during the same period

  19. The Distribution and Ages of Star Clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud: Constraints on the Interaction History of the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsakis, Theodoros; González-Lópezlira, R. A.; Bonfini, P.; Bruzual, G.; Maravelias, G.; Zaritsky, D.; Charlot, S.; Ramírez-Siordia, V. H.

    2018-02-01

    We present a new study of the spatial distribution and ages of the star clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). To detect and estimate the ages of the star clusters we rely on the new fully automated method developed by Bitsakis et al. Our code detects 1319 star clusters in the central 18 deg2 of the SMC we surveyed (1108 of which have never been reported before). The age distribution of those clusters suggests enhanced cluster formation around 240 Myr ago. It also implies significant differences in the cluster distribution of the bar with respect to the rest of the galaxy, with the younger clusters being predominantly located in the bar. Having used the same setup, and data from the same surveys as for our previous study of the LMC, we are able to robustly compare the cluster properties between the two galaxies. Our results suggest that the bulk of the clusters in both galaxies were formed approximately 300 Myr ago, probably during a direct collision between the two galaxies. On the other hand, the locations of the young (≤50 Myr) clusters in both Magellanic Clouds, found where their bars join the H I arms, suggest that cluster formation in those regions is a result of internal dynamical processes. Finally, we discuss the potential causes of the apparent outside-in quenching of cluster formation that we observe in the SMC. Our findings are consistent with an evolutionary scheme where the interactions between the Magellanic Clouds constitute the major mechanism driving their overall evolution.

  20. Mental health of heroin users with differing injection drug use histories: A non-treatment sample of Mexican American young adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotny, Kathryn M; Perdue, Tasha; Cepeda, Alice; Valdez, Avelardo

    2017-12-01

    While the comorbidity of mental health and injecting heroin has been documented, current research is limited by describing the mental health of people who inject drugs without a comparison group and by the lack of research on nontreatment samples in the United States, particularly among Hispanics. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of injecting history (never, former, occasional, and daily) and multiple outcomes of global and mental health using a sample of U.S.-based Latinos not currently in treatment. Data are from a sample of street-recruited Mexican American young adult men (n=275) in San Antonio, TX. Multiple logistic regression and structural equation modeling were used. Overall 54% of men reported lifetime injecting drug use (20.7% former users, 11.1% occasional users, and 21.9% daily users). We found varying prevalence rates of global and mental health status among different histories of injecting. After covariate adjustment, daily injecting remained strongly associated with all four outcomes: perceived poor health status (AOR=4.39; p≤0.001), psychological distress (AOR=2.78; p≤0.05), depression (AOR=4.37; p≤0.001), and suicidal ideation (OR=4.75; p≤0.001). Acculturation, gang membership, and incarceration history also emerged as important factors. This study provides new information about the relationship between mental health and injecting heroin use. Support the need to consider mental health states among people who inject drugs, and to examine varying histories of injecting with socially and culturally relevant factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative life cycles and life histories of North American Rhabdias spp. (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae): lungworms from snakes and anurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Gabriel J; Janovy, John

    2009-10-01

    The present study used experimental infections to compare the life cycles and life histories of 6 Rhabdias spp. infecting snakes and anurans. Free-living development of anuran lungworms was primarily limited to heterogonic reproduction, and females utilized matricidal endotoky exclusively, whereas snake lungworms primarily reproduced homogonically and, when heterogonic reproduction occurred, females used a combination of releasing eggs and matricidal endotoky. Infective snake lungworms survived for longer periods in fresh water compared to anuran worms. Infective anuran lungworms penetrated into the skin of frogs and toads; few infections resulted from per os infections. In contrast, snake lungworms were unable to penetrate skin; instead, infective juveniles penetrated into snake esophageal tissue during per os infections. Despite separate points of entry, anuran and snake lungworms both migrated and developed in the fascia, eventually penetrating into the body cavity of the host. Worms molted to adulthood inside the body cavity and subsequently penetrated into the host's lungs, where they fed on blood while becoming gravid. Adult lungworm survival varied among lungworm species, but, in general, snake lungworms were longer lived than anuran worms. Anuran lungworms were poorly suited for transmission via transport hosts, whereas snake lungworms were consistently capable of establishing infections using transport hosts. Overall, these observations suggest that snake and anuran lungworms have discrepant life cycles and life history strategies.

  2. Sixty-Five Million Years of Change in Temperature and Topography Explain Evolutionary History in Eastern North American Plethodontid Salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Richard; Clark, Adam Thomas

    2017-07-01

    For many taxa and systems, species richness peaks at midelevations. One potential explanation for this pattern is that large-scale changes in climate and geography have, over evolutionary time, selected for traits that are favored under conditions found in contemporary midelevation regions. To test this hypothesis, we use records of historical temperature and topographic changes over the past 65 Myr to construct a general simulation model of plethodontid salamander evolution in eastern North America. We then explore possible mechanisms constraining species to midelevation bands by using the model to predict plethodontid evolutionary history and contemporary geographic distributions. Our results show that models that incorporate both temperature and topographic changes are better able to predict these patterns, suggesting that both processes may have played an important role in driving plethodontid evolution in the region. Additionally, our model (whose annotated source code is included as a supplement) represents a proof of concept to encourage future work that takes advantage of recent advances in computing power to combine models of ecology, evolution, and earth history to better explain the abundance and distribution of species over time.

  3. History, law, and policy as a foundation for health care delivery for American Indian and Alaska native children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry, Judith; Brenneman, George; Rhoades, Everett; Chilton, Lance

    2009-12-01

    Most American Indian and Alaska Native Children (AIAN) receive health care that is based on the unique historical legacy of tribal treaty obligations and a trust relationship of sovereign nation to sovereign nation. From colonial America to the early 21st century, the wellbeing of AIAN children has been impacted as federal laws were crafted for the health, education and wellbeing of its AIAN citizens. Important public laws are addressed in this article, highlighting the development of the Indian Health Service (IHS), a federal agency designed to provide comprehensive clinical and public health services to citizens of federally recognized tribes. The context during which various acts were made into law are described to note the times during which the policy making process took place. Policies internal and external to the IHS are summarized, widening the lens spanning the past 200 years and into the future of these first nations' youngest members.

  4. History: Hindrance to Unity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Robert J.

    1973-01-01

    Differing histories, racial compositions, economic interests, and present circumstances cut across the Mexican American people obliquely and work against a sense of ethnic identity or cultural nationalism. (Author)

  5. The American atom: A documentary history of nuclear policies from the discovery of fission to the present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.C.; Cantelon, P.L.

    1984-01-01

    In selecting these historical documents the authors have applied three general tests: first, does the document help tell the story of the development of American nuclear policy in a nontechnical way; second, is the source primary rather than secondary, written by an actor in the drama rather than by a member of the audience; third, does the document provide coverage of the major chapters in the story? The Manhattan Project was America's $2 billion secret project to build an atomic bomb. Many documents associated with the project have come to light only in recent years. In Section II they use the letters of J. Robert Oppenheimer and the recently declassified minutes of policy committees to tell the story of how the bomb was designed and built and how the decision was made to drop the first uranium and plutonium devices on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. How did a weapon of war become the key to a peacetime industry? In considering atomic energy after World War II, they focus in Section III on the legislative enabling acts that established the Atomic Energy Commission, the short-lived dream of international control of nuclear weapons under the Baruch Plan, and the ''atoms for peace'' program of President Dwight D. Eisenhower. By 1954 the highly classified work on nuclear weapons paralleled a new development of nuclear energy and power reactors. Knowledge was shared with both private industry and other countries. The fruits of this program are considered in the later section on nuclear power

  6. The vital role of the American Journal of Psychology in the early and continuing history of mental chronometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Geoffrey; Bashore, Theodore R

    2012-01-01

    The American Journal of Psychology (AJP) was founded in 1887 by G. Stanley Hall during what Edwin G. Boring (1950) called the Period of Mental Chronometry and, consistent with the prevailing interests of the time, featured articles of relevance to scientists in this research domain. Contained in the early volumes of AJP were several articles that examined what have become some of the enduring issues faced by researchers studying the structure and timing of mental processing using reaction time (RT) procedures. Collectively, RT research published in AJP during its early years contributed to establishing mental chronometry as an important subfield of psychology. From 1900 to 1950 interest in mental chronometry waned, during what has been called its Dark Age. Nonetheless, interest in the effects of factors such as age and intelligence on total RT continued unabated. Numerous articles pertinent to these effects appeared in AJP. Finally, with the publication of Neisser's (1963) seminal work on visual search, AJP played an important role in reviving interest in mental chronometry in the latter half of the 20th century and continues in its 125th year of existence to contribute pertinent articles on contemporary research in mental chronometry.

  7. The phylogeography of trypanosomes from South American alligatorids and African crocodilids is consistent with the geological history of South American river basins and the transoceanic dispersal of Crocodylus at the Miocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermino, Bruno R; Viola, Laerte B; Paiva, Fernando; Garcia, Herakles A; de Paula, Catia D; Botero-Arias, Robinson; Takata, Carmen S A; Campaner, Marta; Hamilton, Patrick B; Camargo, Erney P; Teixeira, Marta M G

    2013-10-29

    Little is known about the diversity, phylogenetic relationships, and biogeography of trypanosomes infecting non-mammalian hosts. In this study, we investigated the influence of host species and biogeography on shaping the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationship, and distribution of trypanosomes from South American alligatorids and African crocodilids. Small Subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) and glycosomal Glyceraldehyde Phosphate Dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) genes were employed for phylogenetic inferences. Trypanosomes from crocodilians were obtained by haemoculturing. Growth behaviour, morphology, and ultrastructural features complement the molecular description of two new species strongly supported by phylogenetic analyses. The inferred phylogenies disclosed a strongly supported crocodilian-restricted clade comprising three subclades. The subclade T. grayi comprised the African Trypanosoma grayi from Crocodylus niloticus and tsetse flies. The subclade T. ralphi comprised alligatorid trypanosomes represented by Trypanosoma ralphi n. sp. from Melanosuchus niger, Caiman crocodilus and Caiman yacare from Brazilian river basins. T. grayi and T. ralphi were sister subclades. The basal subclade T. terena comprised alligatorid trypanosomes represented by Trypanosoma terena n. sp. from Ca. yacare sharing hosts and basins with the distantly genetic related T. ralphi. This subclade also included the trypanosome from Ca. crocodilus from the Orinoco basin in Venezuela and, unexpectedly, a trypanosome from the African crocodilian Osteolaemus tetraspis. The close relationship between South American and African trypanosomes is consistent with paleontological evidence of recent transoceanic dispersal of Crocodylus at the Miocene/Pliocene boundaries (4-5 mya), and host-switching of trypanosomes throughout the geological configuration of South American hydrographical basins shaping the evolutionary histories of the crocodilians and their trypanosomes.

  8. A history of radiologic pathology correlation at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology and its evolution into the American Institute for Radiologic Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphey, Mark D; Madewell, John E; Olmsted, William W; Ros, Pablo R; Neiman, Harvey L

    2012-02-01

    The evolution of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) has played an important role in the history of pathology education and in radiologic pathology correlation in the United States. From its humble beginnings as a museum, showcasing dried and varnished morbid specimens--human relics of the Civil War, the institute became a leader in pathology. Later, it became a center of instruction for radiology residents seeking to understand the pathologic findings that underlay the radiologic appearance of disease. Images were gathered by the AFIP and the American Registry of Pathology (ARP) and have been used in research and education in radiology and other fields (ophthalmology, otalaryngology, dermatology, obstetrics and gynecology, and surgery). Despite the contributions of the AFIP, the ARP, and the Radiologic Pathology Correlation Course, high-ranking members of the military and the federal government frowned on a military-owned educational system that also served civilians. Although support from the radiology community dissuaded military officers and federal officials from taking action against the participation of civilians, the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) provisions mandated the disestablishment of the AFIP, forcing the redistribution of some of its resources to other military-only organizations and disbanding other AFIP functions. To ensure that the correlation course, known to radiology residents as the "rad-path" course, was not a casualty of the BRAC, the American College of Radiology (ACR) and leaders of the AFIP and ARP agreed that the ACR should continue this vital educational endeavor. In January 2011, the American Institute for Radiologic Pathology of the ACR debuted and successfully instructed 268 radiology residents, including 40 international residents. The faculty and staff, who had been part of the course at the AFIP, continue to help enrich and improve the course established by their predecessors. © RSNA, 2011

  9. Family history and body mass index predict perceived risks of diabetes and heart attack among community-dwelling Caucasian, Filipino, Korean, and Latino Americans--DiLH Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Choi, JiWon; S Bender, Melinda; Gonzalez, Prisila; Arai, Shoshana

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the perceived risk for diabetes and heart attack and associated health status of Caucasian, Filipino, Korean, and Latino Americans without diabetes. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 904 urban adults (mean age 44.3±16.1 years; 64.3% female) in English, Spanish or Korean between August and December 2013. Perceived risk for developing diabetes was indicated by 46.5% (n=421), and 14.3% (n=129) perceived themselves to be at risk for having a heart attack in their lifetime. Significant predictors of pessimistic diabetes risk perceptions: Filipino (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.7; 95% CI: 1.04-2.86) and Korean (AOR=2.4; 1.33-4.48) ethnicity, family history of diabetes (AOR=1.4; 1.00-1.84), female gender (AOR=1.4; 1.04-1.96), high cholesterol (AOR= 1.6; 1.09-2.37) and higher body mass index (BMI) (AOR=1.1; 1.08-1.15). Predictors of pessimistic heart attack risk perceptions were family history of an early heart attack (AOR=2.9; 1.69-5.02), high blood pressure (AOR=2.4; 1.45-3.84), and higher BMI (AOR=1.1; 1.04-1.12) after controlling for socio-demographic factors. Older age, physical inactivity, smoking, and low HDL levels were not associated with risk perceptions. Multiple risk factors were predictive of greater perceived diabetes risk, whereas, only family history of heart attack, high blood pressure and increases in BMI significantly contributed to perceived risk of heart attack among ethnically diverse at risk middle-aged adults. It is important that healthcare providers address the discordance between an individual's risk perceptions and the presence of actual risk factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Celebrating National American Indian Heritage Month

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mann, Diane

    2004-01-01

    .... Installation planning for American Indian Heritage Month should incorporate cultural traditions and history specific to Native Americans of the area, patriotism of Native Americans who have served...

  11. The Holocene history of the North American Monsoon: 'known knowns' and 'known unknowns' in understanding its spatial and temporal complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Sarah E.; Barron, John A.; Davies, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence for climatic change across the North American Monsoon (NAM) and adjacent areas is reviewed, drawing on continental and marine records and the application of climate models. Patterns of change at 12,000, 9000, 6000 and 4000 cal yr BP are presented to capture the nature of change from the Younger Dryas (YD) and through the mid-Holocene. At the YD, conditions were cooler overall, wetter in the north and drier in the south, while moving into the Holocene wetter conditions became established in the south and then spread north as the NAM strengthened. Until c. 8000 cal yr BP, the Laurentide Ice Sheet influenced precipitation in the north by pushing the Bermuda High further south. The peak extent of the NAM seems to have occurred around 6000 cal yr BP. 4000 cal yr BP marks the start of important changes across the NAM region, with drying in the north and the establishment of the clear differences between the summer-rain dominated south and central areas and the north, where winter rain is more important. This differentiation between south and north is crucial to understanding many climate responses across the NAM. This increasing variability is coincident with the declining influence of orbital forcing. 4000 cal yr BP also marks the onset of significant anthropogenic activity in many areas. For the last 2000 years, the focus is on higher temporal resolution change, with strong variations across the region. The Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) is characterised by centennial scale ‘megadrought’ across the southwest USA, associated with cooler tropical Pacific SSTs and persistent La Niña type conditions. Proxy data from southern Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean reveal generally wetter conditions, whereas records from the highlands of central Mexico and much of the Yucatan are typified by long -term drought. The Little Ice Age (LIA), in the north, was characterised by cooler, wetter winter conditions that have been linked with increased

  12. Black-tailed and white-tailed jackrabbits in the American West: History, ecology, ecological significance, and survey methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simes, Matthew; Longshore, Kathleen M.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Beatty, Greg L.; Brown, David E.; Esque, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    Across the western United States, Leporidae are the most important prey item in the diet of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Leporids inhabiting the western United States include black-tailed (Lepus californicus) and white-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus townsendii) and various species of cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus spp.). Jackrabbits (Lepus spp.) are particularly important components of the ecological and economic landscape of western North America because their abundance influences the reproductive success and population trends of predators such as coyotes (Canis latrans), bobcats (Lynx rufus), and a number of raptor species. Here, we review literature pertaining to black-tailed and white-tailed jackrabbits comprising over 170 published journal articles, notes, technical reports, conference proceedings, academic theses and dissertations, and other sources dating from the late 19th century to the present. Our goal is to present information to assist those in research and management, particularly with regard to protected raptor species (e.g., Golden Eagles), mammalian predators, and ecological monitoring. We classified literature sources as (1) general information on jackrabbit species, (2) black-tailed or (3) white-tailed jackrabbit ecology and natural history, or (4) survey methods. These categories, especially 2, 3, and 4, were further subdivided as appropriate. The review also produced several tables on population trends, food habits, densities within various habitats, and jackrabbit growth and development. Black-tailed and white-tailed jackrabbits are ecologically similar in general behaviors, use of forms, parasites, and food habits, and they are prey to similar predators; but they differ in their preferred habitats. While the black-tailed jackrabbit inhabits agricultural land, deserts, and shrublands, the white-tailed jackrabbit is associated with prairies, alpine tundra, and sagebrush-steppe. Frequently considered abundant, jackrabbit numbers in western North

  13. Population genetic structure of traditional populations in the Peruvian Central Andes and implications for South American population history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabana, Graciela S; Lewis, Cecil M; Tito, Raúl Y; Covey, R Alan; Cáceres, Angela M; Cruz, Augusto F De La; Durand, Diana; Housman, Genevieve; Hulsey, Brannon I; Iannacone, Gian Carlo; López, Paul W; Martínez, Rolando; Medina, Ángel; Dávila, Olimpio Ortega; Pinto, Karla Paloma Osorio; Santillán, Susan I Polo; Domínguez, Percy Rojas; Rubel, Meagan; Smith, Heather F; Smith, Silvia E; Massa, Verónica Rubín de Celis; Lizárraga, Beatriz; Stone, Anne C

    2014-01-01

    Molecular-based characterizations of Andean peoples are traditionally conducted in the service of elucidating continent-level evolutionary processes in South America. Consequently, genetic variation among "western" Andean populations is often represented in relation to variation among "eastern" Amazon and Orinoco River Basin populations. This west-east contrast in patterns of population genetic variation is typically attributed to large-scale phenomena, such as dual founder colonization events or differing long-term microevolutionary histories. However, alternative explanations that consider the nature and causes of population genetic diversity within the Andean region remain underexplored. Here we examine population genetic diversity in the Peruvian Central Andes using data from the mtDNA first hypervariable region and Y-chromosome short tandem repeats among 17 newly sampled populations and 15 published samples. Using this geographically comprehensive data set, we first reassessed the currently accepted pattern of western versus eastern population genetic structure, which our results ultimately reject: mtDNA population diversities were lower, rather than higher, within Andean versus eastern populations, and only highland Y-chromosomes exhibited significantly higher within-population diversities compared with eastern groups. Multiple populations, including several highland samples, exhibited low genetic diversities for both genetic systems. Second, we explored whether the implementation of Inca state and Spanish colonial policies starting at about ad 1400 could have substantially restructured population genetic variation and consequently constitute a primary explanation for the extant pattern of population diversity in the Peruvian Central Andes. Our results suggest that Peruvian Central Andean population structure cannot be parsimoniously explained as the sole outcome of combined Inca and Spanish policies on the region's population demography: highland populations

  14. The latitudinal diversity gradient in South American mammals revisited using a regional analysis approach: The importance of climate at extra-tropical latitudes and history towards the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergnani, Paula Nilda; Ruggiero, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    The latitudinal diversity gradient has been considered a consequence of a shift in the impact of abiotic and biotic factors that limit species distributions from the poles to the equator, thus influencing species richness variation. It has also been considered the outcome of evolutionary processes that vary over geographical space. We used six South American mammal groups to test the association of environmental and evolutionary factors and the ecological structuring of mammal assemblages with spatial variation in taxonomic richness (TR), at a spatial resolution of 110 km x 110 km, at tropical and extra-tropical latitudes. Based on attributes that represent what mammal species do in ecosystems, we estimated ecological diversity (ED) as a mean pairwise ecological distance between all co-occurring taxa. The mean pairwise phylogenetic distance between all co-occurring taxa (AvPD) was used as an estimation of phylogenetic diversity. Geographically Weighted Regression analyses performed separately for each mammal group identified tropical and extra-tropical high R2 areas where environmental and evolutionary factors strongly accounted for richness variation. Temperature was the most important predictor of TR in high R2 areas outside the tropics, as was AvPD within the tropics. The proportion of TR variation accounted for by environment (either independently or combined with AvPD) was higher in tropical areas of high richness and low ecological diversity than in tropical areas of high richness and high ecological diversity. In conclusion, we confirmed a shift in the impact of environmental factors, mainly temperature, that best account for mammal richness variation in extra-tropical regions, whereas phylogenetic diversity best accounts for richness variation within the tropics. Environment in combination with evolutionary history explained the coexistence of a high number of ecologically similar species within the tropics. Consideration of the influence of contemporary

  15. Spatially explicit models of dynamic histories: examination of the genetic consequences of Pleistocene glaciation and recent climate change on the American Pika.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jason L; Knowles, L Lacey

    2012-08-01

    A central goal of phylogeography is to identify and characterize the processes underlying divergence. One of the biggest impediments currently faced is how to capture the spatiotemporal dynamic under which a species evolved. Here, we described an approach that couples species distribution models (SDMs), demographic and genetic models in a spatiotemporally explicit manner. Analyses of American Pika (Ochotona princeps) from the sky islands of the central Rocky Mountains of North America are used to provide insights into key questions about integrative approaches in landscape genetics, population genetics and phylogeography. This includes (i) general issues surrounding the conversion of time-specific SDMs into simple continuous, dynamic landscapes from past to current, (ii) the utility of SDMs to inform demographic models with deme-specific carrying capacities and migration potentials as well as (iii) the contribution of the temporal dynamic of colonization history in shaping genetic patterns of contemporary populations. Our results support that the inclusion of a spatiotemporal dynamic is an important factor when studying the impact of distributional shifts on patterns of genetic data. Our results also demonstrate the utility of SDMs to generate species-specific predictions about patterns of genetic variation that account for varying degrees of habitat specialization and life history characteristics of taxa. Nevertheless, the results highlight some key issues when converting SDMs for use in demographic models. Because the transformations have direct effects on the genetic consequence of population expansion by prescribing how habitat heterogeneity and spatiotemporal variation is related to the species-specific demographic model, it is important to consider alternative transformations when studying the genetic consequences of distributional shifts. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Holocene sea level history, modern-day vertical uplift and forebulge evolution: further constraints on the GIA process over the North American continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, K.

    2015-12-01

    The intense cycles of glaciation and deglaciation that have characterized Earth's climate over the past 900,000 years have had a profound impact on the Earth system. The significant imprints that the related variations in surface mass load have had on sea level history and the Earth's shape can be employed to constrain models of the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) process. These models rely on two fundamental inputs, namely a history of ice-sheet loading and a representation of the variation of viscosity in the lithosphere and in the mantle. Especially important GIA related observables include Global Positioning System (GPS) observations of the movement of the solid Earth's surface and inferences of past relative sea level evolution. Depending on the region from which they originate, these data provide information on different model characteristics. In particular, while the relative sea level constrained relaxation occurring near former centers of glaciation can be relatively easily parametrized to facilitate an inversion for mantle viscosity, the same process in the regions of forebulge collapse is much more complex but nevertheless provides essential further constraints upon mantle viscosity. In this paper, we examine how recently available high-quality datasets of relative sea level evolution from the U.S. East coast (Engelhart et al., Geology, 2011) and the North American Pacific coast (Engelhart et al., QSR, 2015) can be employed, together with an extensive dataset of space-geodetic observations of present-day vertical uplift of the crust over North America (Peltier et al., JGR - Solid Earth, 2015), to further improve the latest state-of-the-art ICE-6G_C (VM5a) model (Peltier et al., JGR - Solid Earth, 2015). It will be demonstrated that the high quality of the data does not only provide further constraints on radial variations of viscosity in the mantle, but also on the history of the deglaciation that occurred over North America after the Last Glacial

  17. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL-NT): An update on epidemiology, clinical presentation, and natural history in North American and European cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkos, Bradley M.; Pan, Zenggang; Gru, Alejandro A.; Freud, Aharon G.; Rabinovitch, Rachel; Xu-Welliver, Meng; Otto, Brad; Barrionuevo, Carlos; Baiocchi, Robert A.; Rochford, Rosemary; Porcu, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

    Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL-NT) is an aggressive extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma most commonly occurring in East Asia and Latin America but with increasing incidence in the U.S. Data on epidemiology, disease presentation, and outcome for European and North American (“Western”) cases are very limited. We review published landmark clinical studies on ENKTL-NT in the West and report in detail recent data, including our institutional experience. We highlight key observations in its epidemiology, natural history, and trends in clinical management. In the U.S., ENKTL-NT is more common among Asian Pacific Islanders (API) and Hispanics compared to non-Hispanic whites. Published studies indicate less heterogeneity in clinical presentation in Western ENKTL-NT compared to Asian patients. While there is variation in age at diagnosis, presence of antecedent lymphoproliferative disorders, and outcomes among racial/ethnic groups, the universal association of ENKTL-NT with EBV and the poor response of this neoplasm to anthracycline-based therapy are consistent across all geographic areas. PMID:27778143

  18. "Journey to the Stars": Presenting What Stars Are to Global Planetarium Audiences by Blending Astrophysical Visualizations Into a Single Immersive Production at the American Museum of Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmart, Carter; Mac Low, M.; Oppenheimer, B. R.; Kinzler, R.; Paglione, T. A. D.; Abbott, B. P.

    2010-01-01

    "Journey to the Stars" is the latest and fourth space show based on storytelling from data visualization at the Rose Center for Earth and Space at the American Museum of Natural History. This twenty five minute, full dome movie production presents to planetarium audiences what the stars are, where they come from, how they vary in type and over time, and why they are important to life of Earth. Over forty scientists from around the world contributed their research to what is visualized into roughly fifteen major scenes. How this production is directed into a consolidated immersive informal science experience with learning goals is an integrative process with many inputs and concerns for scientific accuracy. The goal is a seamless merger of visualizations at varying spatial and temporal scales with acuity toward depth perception, revealing unseen phenomena, and the layering of concepts together to build an understanding of stars; to blend our common experience of them in the sky with the uncommon meaning we have come to know through science. Scripted by Louise Gikow who has worked for Children's Television Workshop, narrated by Whoopie Goldberg, and musically scored by Robert Miller, this production strives to guide audiences through challenging scientific concepts by complimenting the natural beauty the subject matter presents with understandable prose and musical grandeur. "Journey to the Stars" was produced in cooperation with NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Heliophysics Division and is in release at major planetariums, worldwide.

  19. Artificial neural network modeling and cluster analysis for organic facies and burial history estimation using well log data: A case study of the South Pars Gas Field, Persian Gulf, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Bahram; Najjari, Saeid; Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi, Ali

    2012-08-01

    Intelligent and statistical techniques were used to extract the hidden organic facies from well log responses in the Giant South Pars Gas Field, Persian Gulf, Iran. Kazhdomi Formation of Mid-Cretaceous and Kangan-Dalan Formations of Permo-Triassic Data were used for this purpose. Initially GR, SGR, CGR, THOR, POTA, NPHI and DT logs were applied to model the relationship between wireline logs and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The correlation coefficient (R2) between the measured and ANN predicted TOC equals to 89%. The performance of the model is measured by the Mean Squared Error function, which does not exceed 0.0073. Using Cluster Analysis technique and creating a binary hierarchical cluster tree the constructed TOC column of each formation was clustered into 5 organic facies according to their geochemical similarity. Later a second model with the accuracy of 84% was created by ANN to determine the specified clusters (facies) directly from well logs for quick cluster recognition in other wells of the studied field. Each created facies was correlated to its appropriate burial history curve. Hence each and every facies of a formation could be scrutinized separately and directly from its well logs, demonstrating the time and depth of oil or gas generation. Therefore potential production zone of Kazhdomi probable source rock and Kangan- Dalan reservoir formation could be identified while well logging operations (especially in LWD cases) were in progress. This could reduce uncertainty and save plenty of time and cost for oil industries and aid in the successful implementation of exploration and exploitation plans.

  20. FORMATION EPOCHS, STAR FORMATION HISTORIES, AND SIZES OF MASSIVE EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN CLUSTER AND FIELD ENVIRONMENTS AT z = 1.2: INSIGHTS FROM THE REST-FRAME ULTRAVIOLET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rettura, Alessandro; Demarco, R.; Ford, H. C.; Rosati, P.; Gobat, R.; Nonino, M.; Fosbury, R. A. E.; Menci, N.; Strazzullo, V.; Mei, S.

    2010-01-01

    We derive stellar masses, ages, and star formation histories (SFHs) of massive early-type galaxies in the z = 1.237 RDCS1252.9-2927 cluster and compare them with those measured in a similarly mass-selected sample of field contemporaries drawn from the Great Observatories Origin Deep Survey South Field. Robust estimates of these parameters are obtained by comparing a large grid of composite stellar population models with 8-9 band photometry in the rest-frame near-ultraviolet, optical, and IR, thus sampling the entire relevant domain of emission of the different stellar populations. Additionally, we present new, deep U-band photometry of both fields, giving access to the critical far-ultraviolet rest frame, in order to empirically constrain the dependence of the most recent star formation processes on the environment. We also analyze the morphological properties of both samples to examine the dependence of their scaling relations on their mass and environment. We find that early-type galaxies, both in the cluster and in the field, show analogous optical morphologies, follow comparable mass versus size relation, have congruent average surface stellar mass densities, and lie on the same Kormendy relation. We also show that a fraction of early-type galaxies in the field employ longer timescales, τ, to assemble their mass than their cluster contemporaries. Hence, we conclude that while the formation epoch of early-type galaxies only depends on their mass, the environment does regulate the timescales of their SFHs. Our deep U-band imaging strongly supports this conclusion. We show that cluster galaxies are at least 0.5 mag fainter than their field contemporaries of similar mass and optical-to-infrared colors, implying that the last episode of star formation must have happened more recently in the field than in the cluster.

  1. Immigration in American Economic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramitzky, Ran; Boustan, Leah

    2016-01-01

    The United States has long been perceived as a land of opportunity for immigrants. Yet, both in the past and today, US natives have expressed concern that immigrants fail to integrate into US society and lower wages for existing workers. This paper reviews the literatures on historical and contemporary migrant flows, yielding new insights on migrant selection, assimilation of immigrants into US economy and society, and the effect of immigration on the labor market. PMID:29398723

  2. Course Syllabus: American Environmental History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppes, Clayton R.

    1988-01-01

    Focuses on the intellectual and political forces that have influenced man's relationship with the environment. Discusses why the use of the environment has occurred as it has, and who benefited from these choices. Concludes with a look at global deforestation. Includes daily assignments and readings. (MVL)

  3. American History Brought to Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, Joetta

    2011-01-01

    For the past twenty years, a major project for the author's eighth-grade art classes has been a group diorama with plaster figures. The group has to include two to four people participating in a sport or an occupation while showing some kind of action and interaction. Not too long ago, a couple of girls asked to depict the signing of the…

  4. Sommerferiens historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Summer holiday is a pleasure which did not become available to many people until the 20th Century. The article describes the early mountain rambles of the bourgeoisie and their holidays in seaside boarding houses. Outdoor pursuits and stays in boarding houses at bathing resorts also became...... pattern. Finally, the history of the special holiday camps is told, which were established by American Jews because they were excluded from many hotels....

  5. Utilizing Genomics through Family Health History with the Theory of Planned Behavior: Prediction of Type 2 Diabetes Risk Factors and Preventive Behavior in an African American Population in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaborn, Cynthia; Suther, Sandra; Lee, Torhonda; Kiros, Gebre-Egziabher; Becker, Alan; Campbell, Ellen; Collins-Robinson, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to assess to what extent African Americans' knowledge and awareness of family health history and related risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes influence their likelihood of adopting a preventive behavior. This study employed an anonymous pencil-and-paper, self-administered survey consisting of two sections. Section 1 was a modified version of the US Surgeon General's Family Health History Initiative and the American Diabetes Association Diabetes Risk Factor Survey. Section 2 of the survey was based on the constructs of the theory of planned behavior. Over 394 African American participants completed the survey. 'Perceived behavioral control' was the strongest predictor of 'likelihood of adopting preventive behavior'. Participants were aware of their family history as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes, but it was not a significant predictor of behavior modifications based on that knowledge. The lack of perceived risk in this population shows the importance of not only knowing one's risk factors but translating those risk factors to a more personalized form that fits into the current lifestyle of the individual in a meaningful way. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Cluster headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Histamine headache; Headache - histamine; Migrainous neuralgia; Headache - cluster; Horton's headache; Vascular headache - cluster ... Doctors do not know exactly what causes cluster headaches. They ... (chemical in the body released during an allergic response) or ...

  7. Chemical Heterogeneity of a Large Cluster IDP: Clues to its Formation History Using X-ray Fluorescence Mapping and XANES Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirick, S.; Flynn, G. J.; Sutton, S.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    Chondritic porous IDPs may be among the most primitive objects found in our solar system [1]. They consist of many micron to submicron minerals, glasses and carbonaceous matter [2,3,4,5,6,7] with > 10(exp 4) grains in a 10 micron cluster [8]. Speculation on the environment where these fine grained, porous IDPs formed varies with possible sources being presolar dusty plasma clouds, protostellar condensation, solar asteroids or comets [4,6,9]. Also, fine grained dust forms in our solar system today [10,11]. Isotopic anomalies in some particles in IDPs suggest an interstellar source[4,7,12]. IDPs contain relic particles left from the dusty plasma that existed before the protostellar disk formed and other grains in the IDPs formed later after the cold dense nebula cloud collapsed to form our protostar and other grains formed more recently. Fe and CR XANES spectroscopy is used here to investigate the oxygen environment in a large (>50 10 micron or larger sub-units) IDP. Conclusions: Analyzing large (>50 10 micron or larger sub-units) CP IDPs gives one a view on the environments where these fine dust grains formed which is different from that found by only analyzing the small, 10 micron IDPs. As with cluster IDP L2008#5 [3], L2009R2 cluster #13 appears to be an aggregate of grains that sample a diversity of solar and perhaps presolar environments. Sub-micron, grain by grain measurement of trace element contents and elemental oxidation states determined by XANES spectroscopy offers the possibility of understanding the environments in which these grains formed when compared to standard spectra. By comparing thermodynamic modeling of condensates with analytical data an understanding of transport mechanisms operating in the early solar system may be attained.

  8. OBSERVED SCALING RELATIONS FOR STRONG LENSING CLUSTERS: CONSEQUENCES FOR COSMOLOGY AND CLUSTER ASSEMBLY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comerford, Julia M.; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2010-01-01

    Scaling relations of observed galaxy cluster properties are useful tools for constraining cosmological parameters as well as cluster formation histories. One of the key cosmological parameters, σ 8 , is constrained using observed clusters of galaxies, although current estimates of σ 8 from the scaling relations of dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters are limited by the large scatter in the observed cluster mass-temperature (M-T) relation. With a sample of eight strong lensing clusters at 0.3 8 , but combining the cluster concentration-mass relation with the M-T relation enables the inclusion of unrelaxed clusters as well. Thus, the resultant gains in the accuracy of σ 8 measurements from clusters are twofold: the errors on σ 8 are reduced and the cluster sample size is increased. Therefore, the statistics on σ 8 determination from clusters are greatly improved by the inclusion of unrelaxed clusters. Exploring cluster scaling relations further, we find that the correlation between brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) luminosity and cluster mass offers insight into the assembly histories of clusters. We find preliminary evidence for a steeper BCG luminosity-cluster mass relation for strong lensing clusters than the general cluster population, hinting that strong lensing clusters may have had more active merging histories.

  9. Continental scale analysis of bird migration timing: influences of climate and life history traits-a generalized mixture model clustering and discriminant approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Lynda E; Beaumont, Linda J; Hudson, Irene L

    2014-08-01

    There is substantial evidence of climate-related shifts to the timing of avian migration. Although spring arrival has generally advanced, variable species responses and geographical biases in data collection make it difficult to generalise patterns. We advance previous studies by using novel multivariate statistical techniques to explore complex relationships between phenological trends, climate indices and species traits. Using 145 datasets for 52 bird species, we assess trends in first arrival date (FAD), last departure date (LDD) and timing of peak abundance at multiple Australian locations. Strong seasonal patterns were found, i.e. spring phenological events were more likely to significantly advance, while significant advances and delays occurred in other seasons. However, across all significant trends, the magnitude of delays exceeded that of advances, particularly for FAD (+22.3 and -9.6 days/decade, respectively). Geographic variations were found, with greater advances in FAD and LDD, in south-eastern Australia than in the north and west. We identified four species clusters that differed with respect to species traits and climate drivers. Species within bird clusters responded in similar ways to local climate variables, particularly the number of raindays and rainfall. The strength of phenological trends was more strongly related to local climate variables than to broad-scale drivers (Southern Oscillation Index), highlighting the importance of precipitation as a driver of movement in Australian birds.

  10. Putting teachers-to-be in the field and the lab: Hands-on research at the American Museum of Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, P. A.; Ebel, D. S.; Harlow, G. E.; Landman, N. H.; Pagnotta, A.; Sessa, J.; Shara, M.; Ustunisik, G. K.; Webster, J. D.; Blair, D.; Shumer, M.

    2013-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) is halfway through a pilot program designed to prepare Earth Science teachers for grades 7-12 in high-needs schools in New York. The program was implemented to address a critical shortage of qualified Earth Science teachers throughout the state as well as to reach student populations that traditionally have limited science exposure and hands-on learning opportunities. This Master of Arts in Teaching is unique amongst teacher preparation programs, not only in that it is housed at a world-class research museum and places the teacher candidates in a year-long teaching residency, but also in that it accepts only students with a strong background in Earth Science via a degree in geology, meteorology, oceanography, astronomy, or a related discipline. Following a year of graduate courses in science and pedagogy, as well as teaching residencies, and only months before embarking on teaching career, candidates begin a seven-week science practicum. This exercise combines field and lab work under the tutelage of AMNH science curators and postdoctoral research fellows to provide experience with the scientific process, from field work and data collection to interpretation and public presentation of results. In the science practicum, teaching candidates begin by selecting one of four topics on which to focus their research: astrophysics, experimental petrology, mineralogy, or paleontology. An introduction to lab materials, techniques, and instrumentation is followed by two weeks in the field, both upstate and in New York City, where rocks of all types are encountered and discussed. Nights are devoted to astronomical observing and data collection to supplement the geology-oriented daytime sessions. Following the trips, candidates are back at AMNH analyzing data and samples in preparation for a short, scientific-style manuscript and presentation of results in an AGU-style talk. Three research groups have already discovered potentially

  11. The American Dream

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with the deceptive nature of The American Dream and its place in American culture in the first six decades of the 20th century, namely in the three quintessential novels The Great Gatsby, The Grapes of Wrath and Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas. With the aid of Jim Cullen's The American Dream – A short history of an idea that shaped a nation and Lawrence Samuel's The American Dream – A cultural history the different types of American Dreams are investigated, as well as how the...

  12. Biology and life history of Atanycolus cappaerti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a north american larval parasitoid attacking the invasive Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanycolus cappaerti Marsh and Strazanac is a native North American parasitoid that has been found to parasitize the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, a serious invasive pests of North American ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). To facilitate the development of potential augmentative biocon...

  13. Celebrating National American Indian Heritage Month

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mann, Diane

    2004-01-01

    November has been designated National American Indian Heritage Month to honor American Indians and Alaska Natives by increasing awareness of their culture, history, and, especially, their tremendous...

  14. American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Pechatnov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The "Founding fathers" of American Studies at MGIMO are considered to be A.V. Efimov and L.I. Clove. Alexey Efimov - Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences since 1938, Head of the Department of Modern and Contemporary History and Dean of the Historical School at the Moscow State University - one of the first professors of the Faculty of International Relations MGIMO. Efimov distinguished himself by a broad vision and scope of scientific interests. Back in 1934 he published a monograph "On the history of capitalism in the United States," which initiated a series of research culminating in the fundamental work "The United States. The path of capitalist development (pre-imperialist era". Alexey was not only a great scientist but also a great teacher, whose lectures was popular throughout Moscow. His lecture courses, given at the end of the 1940s at MGIMO, became the basis for the first post-war history textbooks USA - "Essays on the history of the United States." At least as colorful a figure was Professor Leo Izrailevich Zubok - a man of unusual destiny. As a teenager he emigrated to the United States with his parents, where he soon joined the American revolutionary movement in the 1920s and was forced to leave the country. He came to MGIMO being already an experienced scientists. His research interests were very wide: from the study of American foreign policy expansion to the history of the labor movement in the United States. Zubok's fundamental works still have not lost its scientific significance. He has successfully combined scientific work with teaching. Tutorials that are based on his lectures were very popular not only among students of MGIMO.

  15. Family history study of the familial coaggregation of borderline personality disorder with axis I and nonborderline dramatic cluster axis II disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanarini, Mary C; Barison, Leah K; Frankenburg, Frances R; Reich, D Bradford; Hudson, James I

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the familial coaggregation of borderline personality disorder (BPD) with a full array of axis I disorders and four axis II disorders (antisocial personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and sadistic personality disorder) in the first-degree relatives of borderline probands and axis II comparison subjects. Four hundred and forty-five inpatients were interviewed about familial psychopathology using the Revised Family History Questionnaire-a semistructured interview of demonstrated reliability. Of these 445 subjects, 341 met both DIB-R and DSM-III-R criteria for BPD and 104 met DSM-III-R criteria for another type of personality disorder (and neither criteria set for BPD). The psychopathology of 1,580 first-degree relatives of borderline probands and 472 relatives of axis II comparison subjects was assessed. Using structural models for familial coaggregation, it was found that BPD coaggregates with major depression, dysthymic disorder, bipolar I disorder, alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/dependence, panic disorder, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, somatoform pain disorder, and all four axis II disorders studied. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that common familial factors, particularly in the areas of affective disturbance and impulsivity, contribute to borderline personality disorder.

  16. A cluster randomized trial of standard quality improvement versus patient-centered interventions to enhance depression care for African Americans in the primary care setting: study protocol NCT00243425

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghods Bri K

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies document disparities in access to care and quality of care for depression for African Americans. Research suggests that patient attitudes and clinician communication behaviors may contribute to these disparities. Evidence links patient-centered care to improvements in mental health outcomes; therefore, quality improvement interventions that enhance this dimension of care are promising strategies to improve treatment and outcomes of depression among African Americans. This paper describes the design of the BRIDGE (Blacks Receiving Interventions for Depression and Gaining Empowerment Study. The goal of the study is to compare the effectiveness of two interventions for African-American patients with depression--a standard quality improvement program and a patient-centered quality improvement program. The main hypothesis is that patients in the patient-centered group will have a greater reduction in their depression symptoms, higher rates of depression remission, and greater improvements in mental health functioning at six, twelve, and eighteen months than patients in the standard group. The study also examines patient ratings of care and receipt of guideline-concordant treatment for depression. Methods/Design A total of 36 primary care clinicians and 132 of their African-American patients with major depressive disorder were recruited into a cluster randomized trial. The study uses intent-to-treat analyses to compare the effectiveness of standard quality improvement interventions (academic detailing about depression guidelines for clinicians and disease-oriented care management for their patients and patient-centered quality improvement interventions (communication skills training to enhance participatory decision-making for clinicians and care management focused on explanatory models, socio-cultural barriers, and treatment preferences for their patients for improving outcomes over 12 months of follow

  17. Aleuts: Ecosystem, Holocene Historys, and Siberian Origin: Soviet and U.S. scientists join in a study of the origins of the first Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, W S

    1975-08-15

    An original objective of these multidisciplinary studies was to determine the position of the Aleuts in the Aleutian ecosystem with time depth. This has been done in a variety of ways (7, 14, 20, 21). One of the most useful approaches is the construction of life expectancy tables. The greater longevity of Aleuts compared with Eskimos represents an effective biological and cultural human adaptation within this ecosystem. The Aleuts defined their ecosystem by expanding to the limits of the area they could effectively exploit with their complex technology, population structure, and population deployment system. Their intellectual achievements played a tangible role in their longevity in the pre-Russian period, and their sophisticated knowledge of human anatomy is both a causal and a consequential correlate of their longevity. From the Aleut point of view, the food resources were diverse, abundant, and accessible, and they also provided fabricational materials necessary for their complex material culture. The Aleuts successfully hunted the world's largest range of sea mammals, from the sea otter to the whales. At the same time, extensive use of invertebrates easily available on the ice-free strandflats enabled disadvantaged sectors of the population to make important contributions to their own food supply and thus improve life expectancy. The rich food and fabricational materials antedate the Holocene history of Nikolski Bay and the arrival of the ancestral Aleuts. The natural resources of this area are fundamentally related to the former peninsular extension of Beringia and the permanent upwelling system in Samalga Pass (22). Sea otters, seals, and sea lions were present when the first Aleuts came to the area. Nikolski Bay has been an ideal place to obtain samples representing the entire Holocene Epoch. The earliest Asiatic migrants came from Siberia and traversed the southern coastline of Beringia. They established a large and permanent village on the northern arm of

  18. Meaningful Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Calapristi, Augustin J.; Crow, Vernon L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2004-05-26

    We present an approach to the disambiguation of cluster labels that capitalizes on the notion of semantic similarity to assign WordNet senses to cluster labels. The approach provides interesting insights on how document clustering can provide the basis for developing a novel approach to word sense disambiguation.

  19. Celebration Time: Black History Month

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkney, Andrea Davis

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, more students, teachers, and librarians are aware of African-American History Month and try to give it greater attention. However, the author questions herself if people do really "celebrate" African-American History Month or is it just something folks feel obligated to do, so they "celebrate" by displaying a collection of books about…

  20. The susceptibility of Asian, European and North American Fraxinus species to the ash dieback pathogen Hymenoscyphus fraxineus reflects their phylogenetic history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard; McKinney, Lea Vig; Hietala, Ari M.

    2017-01-01

    In Europe, common ash (Fraxinus excelsior) is being decimated because of the invasive fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. In its native range in Asia this ascomycete is considered a harmless leaf associate of F. mandshurica and F. chinensis subsp. rhynchophylla. Field observations from Europe suggest...... that there is species-specific variation in disease susceptibility among European and North American Fraxinus species, but a wider comparison at the genus level has been missing so far. We assessed disease symptoms and pathogen apothecium development in 17 Fraxinus species from Asia, Europe and North America exposed...... susceptibility where closely related Asian, European and North American species in section Fraxinus had relatively high levels of H. fraxineus DNA in the leaves and supported high production of apothecia. Leaves from some North American species also contained relatively high levels of H. fraxineus DNA, supported...

  1. The evolution of early-type galaxies in distant clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanford, S.A.; Eisenhardt, P.R.; Dickinson, M.

    1998-01-01

    We present results from an optical-infrared photometric study of early-type (E+S0) galaxies in 19 galaxy clusters out to z=0.9. The galaxy sample is selected on the basis of morphologies determined from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 images and is photometrically defined in the K band in order to minimize redshift-dependent selection biases. Using new ground-based photometry in five optical and infrared bands for each cluster, we examine the evolution of the color-magnitude relation for early-type cluster galaxies, considering its slope, intercept, and color scatter around the mean relation. New multiwavelength photometry of galaxies in the Coma Cluster is used to provide a baseline sample at z∼0 with which to compare the distant clusters. The optical - IR colors of the early-type cluster galaxies become bluer with increasing redshift in a manner consistent with the passive evolution of an old stellar population formed at an early cosmic epoch. The degree of color evolution is similar for clusters at similar redshift and does not depend strongly on the optical richness or X-ray luminosity of the cluster, which suggests that the history of early-type galaxies is relatively insensitive to environment, at least above a certain density threshold. The slope of the color-magnitude relationship shows no significant change out to z=0.9, which provides evidence that it arises from a correlation between galaxy mass and metallicity, not age. Finally, the intrinsic scatter in the optical - IR colors of the galaxies is small and nearly constant with redshift, which indicates that the majority of giant, early-type galaxies in clusters share a common star formation history, with little perturbation due to uncorrelated episodes of later star formation. Taken together, our results are consistent with models in which most early-type galaxies in rich clusters are old, formed the majority of their stars at high redshift in a well-synchronized fashion, and evolved quiescently

  2. Post-Slavery? Post-Segregation? Post-Racial? A History of the Impact of Slavery, Segregation, and Racism on the Education of African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Span, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter details how slavery, segregation, and racism impacted the educational experiences of African Americans from the colonial era to the present. It argues that America has yet to be a truly post-slavery and post-segregation society, let alone a post-racial society.

  3. Las historias de la narrativa hispanoamericana: Criterios, metodos y ausencias. (Histories of the Latin-American Narrative: Criteria, Methods, and Absences).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavalo, Lauro

    This paper explains that materials on the teaching of Latin-American literature are sparse, even though most researchers in the field will dedicate much of their time to teaching. The paper adds that, in scholarly journals, little attention is given to teaching literature, and the topic is also absent from most academic congresses. The paper then…

  4. "I Never Really Knew the History behind African American Language": Critical Language Pedagogy in an Advanced Placement English Language Arts Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Bell, April

    2013-01-01

    This article responds to two long-standing dilemmas that limit the effectiveness of language education for students who speak and write in African American Language (AAL): (1) the gap between theory and research on AAL and classroom practice, and (2) the need for critical language pedagogies. This article presents the effectiveness of a critical…

  5. History of the College of the Holy Cross American Sign Language Program and Its Collaborative Partnerships with the Worcester Deaf Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jami N.

    2014-01-01

    Most postsecondary American Sign Language programs have an inherent connection to their local Deaf communities and rely on the community's events to provide authentic linguistic and cultural experiences for their students. While this type of activity benefits students, there is often little effort toward meaningful engagement or attention to…

  6. Expanding the Secondary Literature Curriculum: Annotated Bibliographies of American Indian, Asian American, and Hispanic American Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Ogle B.; Tongchinsub, Helen J.

    1990-01-01

    Aids teachers looking for literature selections of established literary worth which reflect the diversity of American culture. Discusses briefly the history and development of American Indian, Asian American, and Hispanic American literature. Offers annotated bibliographies of selections appropriate for use in secondary schools. (SR)

  7. Associations between posttraumatic stress disorder symptom clusters and cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jodie B; Ameringer, Katherine J; Trujillo, Michael A; Sun, Ping; Sussman, Steve; Brightman, Molly; Pitts, Stephanie R; Leventhal, Adam M

    2012-03-01

    Understanding the relationship between Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and cigarette smoking has been difficult because of PTSD's symptomatic heterogeneity. This study examined common and unique lifetime cross-sectional relationships between PTSD symptom clusters [Re-experiencing (intrusive thoughts and nightmares about the trauma), Avoidance (avoidance of trauma-associated memories or stimuli), Emotional Numbing (loss of interest, interpersonal detachment, restricted positive affect), and Hyperarousal (irritability, difficulty concentrating, hypervigilance, insomnia)] and three indicators of smoking behavior: (1) smoking status; (2) cigarettes per day; and (3) nicotine dependence. Participants were adult respondents in the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions with a trauma history (n = 23,635). All four symptom clusters associated with each smoking outcome in single-predictor models (ps Emotional Numbing was the only cluster to retain a significant association with lifetime smoking over and above the other clusters, demographics, and Axis-I comorbidity (OR = 1.30, p dependence in multivariate models, these relations fell below significance after adjusting for demographics and comorbidity. No clusters uniquely associated with cigarettes per day. Hyperarousal uniquely related with nicotine dependence over and above the other clusters, demographics, and Axis-I comorbidity (OR = 1.51, p < .001). These results suggest the following: (a) common variance across PTSD symptom clusters contribute to PTSD's linkage with smoking in the American population; and (b) certain PTSD symptom clusters may uniquely associate with particular indicators of smoking behavior. These findings may clarify the underpinnings of PTSD-smoking comorbidity and inform smoking interventions for trauma-exposed individuals. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Data Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2012-03-01

    On obtaining a new data set, the researcher is immediately faced with the challenge of obtaining a high-level understanding from the observations. What does a typical item look like? What are the dominant trends? How many distinct groups are included in the data set, and how is each one characterized? Which observable values are common, and which rarely occur? Which items stand out as anomalies or outliers from the rest of the data? This challenge is exacerbated by the steady growth in data set size [11] as new instruments push into new frontiers of parameter space, via improvements in temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution, or by the desire to "fuse" observations from different modalities and instruments into a larger-picture understanding of the same underlying phenomenon. Data clustering algorithms provide a variety of solutions for this task. They can generate summaries, locate outliers, compress data, identify dense or sparse regions of feature space, and build data models. It is useful to note up front that "clusters" in this context refer to groups of items within some descriptive feature space, not (necessarily) to "galaxy clusters" which are dense regions in physical space. The goal of this chapter is to survey a variety of data clustering methods, with an eye toward their applicability to astronomical data analysis. In addition to improving the individual researcher’s understanding of a given data set, clustering has led directly to scientific advances, such as the discovery of new subclasses of stars [14] and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) [38]. All clustering algorithms seek to identify groups within a data set that reflect some observed, quantifiable structure. Clustering is traditionally an unsupervised approach to data analysis, in the sense that it operates without any direct guidance about which items should be assigned to which clusters. There has been a recent trend in the clustering literature toward supporting semisupervised or constrained

  9. Lesson Study and History Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Anne-Lise; Kesler Lund, Alisa

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the experiences of a group of fifth-grade teachers who used lesson study, a teacher-driven form of professional development, to teach history in a project supported by a Teaching American History Grant. The project addressed the following questions: What does a lesson study cycle for history education look like? What…

  10. The American Military and the Far East, Proceedings of the Ninth Military History Symposium, United States Air Force Academy, 1-3 October 1980,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    revolution against Spain and then the Americans, but also participating in highly spiritual millennial movements or engaging in social banditry, com- mon...mission failed in its ultimate purpose because the goal was unachievable. The impulse was not Chinese.... China was a problem for which there was no...extended their perimeter into the surrounding countryside, trying not to overtax their meager numbers. Their object was to buy time until the Army

  11. Lifetime history of traumatic events in a young adult Mexican American sample: relation to substance dependence, affective disorder, acculturation stress, and PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Kim, Corinne; Gilder, David A.; Stouffer, Gina M.; Caetano, Raul; Yehuda, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Mexican Americans comprise one of the most rapidly growing populations in the United States, and within this population, trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with physical and mental health problems. Therefore, efforts to delineate factors that may uniquely contribute to increased likelihood of trauma, PTSD, and substance use disorders over the lifetime in Mexican Americans are important to address health disparities and to develop treatment and prevention programs. Six hundred fourteen young adults (age 18–30 yrs) of Mexican American heritage, largely second generation, were recruited from the community and assessed with the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism and an acculturation stress scale. More males (51.2%) reported experiencing traumas than females (41.1%), however, a larger proportion of females received a PTSD diagnosis (15%) than males (8%). Alcohol dependence and affective disorders, but not anxiety disorders, antisocial disorders, nicotine, marijuana, or stimulant dependence, were significantly comorbid with PTSD. Endorsing higher levels of acculturation stress was also significantly associated with both trauma exposure and a diagnosis of PTSD. Logistic regression revealed that female gender, having an affective disorder, alcohol dependence, higher levels of acculturation stress, and lower levels of education were all predictors of PTSD status. Additionally, alcohol dependence generally occurred after the PTSD diagnosis in early adulthood in this high-risk population. These studies suggest that treatment and prevention efforts should particularly focus on young adult second generation Mexican American women with higher levels of acculturation stress, who may be at higher risk for PTSD, affective disorder, and alcohol dependence following trauma exposure. PMID:27569652

  12. Lifetime history of traumatic events in a young adult Mexican American sample: Relation to substance dependence, affective disorder, acculturation stress, and PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Kim, Corinne; Gilder, David A; Stouffer, Gina M; Caetano, Raul; Yehuda, Rachel

    2016-12-01

    Mexican Americans comprise one of the most rapidly growing populations in the United States, and within this population, trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with physical and mental health problems. Therefore, efforts to delineate factors that may uniquely contribute to increased likelihood of trauma, PTSD, and substance use disorders over the lifetime in Mexican Americans are important to address health disparities and to develop treatment and prevention programs. Six hundred fourteen young adults (age 18-30 yrs) of Mexican American heritage, largely second generation, were recruited from the community and assessed with the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism and an acculturation stress scale. More males (51.2%) reported experiencing traumas than females (41.1%), however, a larger proportion of females received a PTSD diagnosis (15%) than males (8%). Alcohol dependence and affective disorders, but not anxiety disorders, antisocial disorders, nicotine, marijuana, or stimulant dependence, were significantly comorbid with PTSD. Endorsing higher levels of acculturation stress was also significantly associated with both trauma exposure and a diagnosis of PTSD. Logistic regression revealed that female gender, having an affective disorder, alcohol dependence, higher levels of acculturation stress, and lower levels of education were all predictors of PTSD status. Additionally, alcohol dependence generally occurred after the PTSD diagnosis in early adulthood in this high-risk population. These studies suggest that treatment and prevention efforts should particularly focus on young adult second generation Mexican American women with higher levels of acculturation stress, who may be at higher risk for PTSD, affective disorder, and alcohol dependence following trauma exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. ‘Historiography and the retracing of Latin American art history’: The Academy of San Carlos and Mexican Art History by Ray Hernández-Durán, Politics, History, and Art in Nineteenth-Century Mexico, London and New York: Routledge, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mattos Avolese

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Academy of San Carlos and Mexican Art History presents an account of the cultural and political circumstances that led to the installation of the first gallery of colonial art at the Academy of San Carlos in mid-nineteenth century Mexico City, and to the associated publication of the first art historical account of colonial Mexico. The author proposes that these two endeavors relate closely to the ambitions of the Mexican conservative elite to create a Mexican corporate identity based on the colonial past. Ray Hernández-Durán also argues that the gallery and the associated book can be seen as the starting point for the construction of the field of Latin American art history as we know it today.

  14. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...

  15. Cluster editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böcker, S.; Baumbach, Jan

    2013-01-01

    . The problem has been the inspiration for numerous algorithms in bioinformatics, aiming at clustering entities such as genes, proteins, phenotypes, or patients. In this paper, we review exact and heuristic methods that have been proposed for the Cluster Editing problem, and also applications...

  16. Teaching American Indian Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Dick

    1991-01-01

    Reviews "Native American Architecture," by Nabokov and Easton, an encyclopedic work that examines technology, climate, social structure, economics, religion, and history in relation to house design and the "meaning" of space among tribes of nine regions. Describes this book's use in a college course on Native American architecture. (SV)

  17. Merger types forming the Virgo cluster in recent gigayears

    OpenAIRE

    Olchanski, Mark; Sorce, Jenny G.

    2018-01-01

    As our closest cluster-neighbor, the Virgo cluster of galaxies is intensely studied by observers to unravel the mysteries of galaxy evolution within clusters. At this stage, cosmological numerical simulations of the cluster are useful to efficiently test theories and calibrate model. However, it is not trivial to select the perfect simulacrum of the Virgo cluster to fairly compare in detail its observed and simulated galaxy populations that are affected by the type and history of the cluster....

  18. Making Alternative Histories. The Practice ofArchaeology and History in Non-Western Settings, edited by Peter R. Schmidt and Thomas C. Patterson, School of American Research Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Murray

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available For most of the last decade archaeologists have been explicitly engaged in a gradually intensifying dialogue with the marginalised and the dispossessed in society. It is fair to say that this dialogue has been difficult and stressful for all concerned, but then again it is also true to say that no one ever thought that it was going to be easy. There have been many consequences of the failures and successes which have happened along the way, some very positive, others much less so, but apart from observing that it is still far too early to write the history of archaeology in society. it seems self evident that the discipline has been changed forever, and that it is understood to have been so by many of its practitioners.

  19. Clustering Dycom

    KAUST Repository

    Minku, Leandro L.

    2017-10-06

    Background: Software Effort Estimation (SEE) can be formulated as an online learning problem, where new projects are completed over time and may become available for training. In this scenario, a Cross-Company (CC) SEE approach called Dycom can drastically reduce the number of Within-Company (WC) projects needed for training, saving the high cost of collecting such training projects. However, Dycom relies on splitting CC projects into different subsets in order to create its CC models. Such splitting can have a significant impact on Dycom\\'s predictive performance. Aims: This paper investigates whether clustering methods can be used to help finding good CC splits for Dycom. Method: Dycom is extended to use clustering methods for creating the CC subsets. Three different clustering methods are investigated, namely Hierarchical Clustering, K-Means, and Expectation-Maximisation. Clustering Dycom is compared against the original Dycom with CC subsets of different sizes, based on four SEE databases. A baseline WC model is also included in the analysis. Results: Clustering Dycom with K-Means can potentially help to split the CC projects, managing to achieve similar or better predictive performance than Dycom. However, K-Means still requires the number of CC subsets to be pre-defined, and a poor choice can negatively affect predictive performance. EM enables Dycom to automatically set the number of CC subsets while still maintaining or improving predictive performance with respect to the baseline WC model. Clustering Dycom with Hierarchical Clustering did not offer significant advantage in terms of predictive performance. Conclusion: Clustering methods can be an effective way to automatically generate Dycom\\'s CC subsets.

  20. History, Place, and Racial Self-Representation in 21st Century America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebler, Carolyn A.; Zacher, Meghan

    2017-01-01

    How is a person’s racial self-representation related to the race history of the place in which he or she lives? We use Census Bureau data about race and ancestry to address this research question for two groups of people with mixed racial heritage: those reporting white and American Indian heritages, or reporting black and American Indian heritages. Links between history, place, and self-representation can be seen in geographic clustering for each race/ancestry response combination. We use multinomial logistic regression models to predict individuals’ race/ancestry responses (e.g., white with American Indian ancestry versus white and American Indian races) using measures of local race history and the area’s contemporary racial composition. Multivariate results highlight the relationship between a person’s identity claims and the history of the area, net of contemporary area composition. Future research should attend to the history of the place as a potential contributor to contemporary patterns. PMID:26973041

  1. Properties of the open cluster system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janes, K.A.; Tilley, C.; Lynga, G.

    1988-01-01

    A system of weights corresponding to the precision of open cluster data is described. Using these weights, some properties of open clusters can be studied more accurately than was possible earlier. It is clear that there are three types of objects: unbound clusters, bound clusters in the thin disk, and older bound clusters. Galactic gradients of metallicity, longevity, and linear diameter are studied. Distributions at right angles to the galactic plane are discussed in the light of the different cluster types. The clumping of clusters in complexes is studied. An estimate of the selection effects influencing the present material of open cluster data is made in order to evaluate the role played by open clusters in the history of the galactic disk. 58 references

  2. Clustering analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romli

    1997-01-01

    Cluster analysis is the name of group of multivariate techniques whose principal purpose is to distinguish similar entities from the characteristics they process.To study this analysis, there are several algorithms that can be used. Therefore, this topic focuses to discuss the algorithms, such as, similarity measures, and hierarchical clustering which includes single linkage, complete linkage and average linkage method. also, non-hierarchical clustering method, which is popular name K -mean method ' will be discussed. Finally, this paper will be described the advantages and disadvantages of every methods

  3. Cluster analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Everitt, Brian S; Leese, Morven; Stahl, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Cluster analysis comprises a range of methods for classifying multivariate data into subgroups. By organizing multivariate data into such subgroups, clustering can help reveal the characteristics of any structure or patterns present. These techniques have proven useful in a wide range of areas such as medicine, psychology, market research and bioinformatics.This fifth edition of the highly successful Cluster Analysis includes coverage of the latest developments in the field and a new chapter dealing with finite mixture models for structured data.Real life examples are used throughout to demons

  4. Validity of Combining History Elements and Physical Examination Tests to Diagnose Patellofemoral Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Décary, Simon; Frémont, Pierre; Pelletier, Bruno; Fallaha, Michel; Belzile, Sylvain; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Feldman, Debbie; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Vendittoli, Pascal-André; Desmeules, François

    2018-04-01

    To assess the validity of diagnostic clusters combining history elements and physical examination tests to diagnose or exclude patellofemoral pain (PFP). Prospective diagnostic study. Orthopedic outpatient clinics, family medicine clinics, and community-dwelling. Consecutive patients (N=279) consulting one of the participating orthopedic surgeons (n=3) or sport medicine physicians (n=2) for any knee complaint. Not applicable. History elements and physical examination tests were obtained by a trained physiotherapist blinded to the reference standard: a composite diagnosis including both physical examination tests and imaging results interpretation performed by an expert physician. Penalized logistic regression (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) was used to identify history elements and physical examination tests associated with the diagnosis of PFP, and recursive partitioning was used to develop diagnostic clusters. Diagnostic accuracy measures including sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratios with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Two hundred seventy-nine participants were evaluated, and 75 had a diagnosis of PFP (26.9%). Different combinations of history elements and physical examination tests including the age of participants, knee pain location, difficulty descending stairs, patellar facet palpation, and passive knee extension range of motion were associated with a diagnosis of PFP and used in clusters to accurately discriminate between individuals with PFP and individuals without PFP. Two diagnostic clusters developed to confirm the presence of PFP yielded a positive likelihood ratio of 8.7 (95% CI, 5.2-14.6) and 3 clusters to exclude PFP yielded a negative likelihood ratio of .12 (95% CI, .06-.27). Diagnostic clusters combining common history elements and physical examination tests that can accurately diagnose or exclude PFP compared to various knee

  5. Occupational Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottawattamie County School System, Council Bluffs, IA.

    The 15 occupational clusters (transportation, fine arts and humanities, communications and media, personal service occupations, construction, hospitality and recreation, health occupations, marine science occupations, consumer and homemaking-related occupations, agribusiness and natural resources, environment, public service, business and office…

  6. Cancer Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peer Review and Funding Outcomes Step 4: Award Negotiation & Issuance Manage Your Award Grants Management Contacts Monitoring ... potentially hazardous working conditions, including suspected cancer clusters. Employees, authorized employee representatives, and employers can request these ...

  7. Numerical experiments on galaxy clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the way observable clustering depends on expansion history is reported. Observable shapes that result from evolving otherwise identical systems are intercompared to show differences due to different expansion histories. Four cases are compared: nonexpanding, Omega 1, and two open universes with 0.10 and 0.03 as final values of Omega. There is remarkably little diffrence in observable forms for the expanding cases. The 0.03 universe expanded by a factor 500 during the experiment. This study is an example of the way numerical experiments can be used in studies of galaxy clustering

  8. Cluster generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchev, Todor I [Urbana, IL; Petrov, Ivan G [Champaign, IL

    2011-05-31

    Described herein is an apparatus and a method for producing atom clusters based on a gas discharge within a hollow cathode. The hollow cathode includes one or more walls. The one or more walls define a sputtering chamber within the hollow cathode and include a material to be sputtered. A hollow anode is positioned at an end of the sputtering chamber, and atom clusters are formed when a gas discharge is generated between the hollow anode and the hollow cathode.

  9. Cluster Headache Clinical Phenotypes: Tobacco Nonexposed (Never Smoker and No Parental Secondary Smoke Exposure as a Child) versus Tobacco-Exposed: Results from the United States Cluster Headache Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozen, Todd D

    2018-03-14

    To present results from the United States Cluster Headache Survey comparing the clinical presentation of tobacco nonexposed and tobacco-exposed cluster headache patients. Cluster headache is uniquely tied to a personal history of tobacco usage/cigarette smoking and, if the individual cluster headache sufferer did not smoke, it has been shown that their parent(s) typically did and that individual had significant secondary smoke exposure as a child. The true nontobacco exposed (no personal or secondary exposure) cluster headache sufferer has never been fully studied. The United States Cluster Headache Survey consisted of 187 multiple choice questions related to cluster headache including: patient demographics, clinical headache characteristics, family history, triggers, smoking history (personal and secondary), and headache-related disability. The survey was placed on a website from October through December 2008. One thousand one hundred thirty-four individuals completed the survey. One hundred thirty-three subjects or 12% of the surveyed population had no personal smoking/tobacco use history and no secondary smoke exposure as an infant/child, thus a nontobacco exposed population. In the nonexposed population, there were 87 males and 46 females with a gender ratio of 1.9:1. Episodic cluster headache occurred in 80% of nonexposed subjects. One thousand and one survey responders or 88% were tobacco-exposed (729 males and 272 females) with a gender ratio of 2.7:1. Eighty-three percent had a personal smoking history, while only 17% just had parents who smoked with secondary smoke exposure. Eighty-five percent of smokers had double exposure with a personal smoking history and secondary exposure as a child. Nonexposed cluster headache subjects are significantly more likely to develop cluster headache at ages 40 years and younger, while the exposed sufferers are significantly more likely to develop cluster headache at 40 years of age and older. Nonexposed patients have a

  10. Clustering results - Gclust Server | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Gclust Server Clustering results Data detail Data name Clustering results DOI 10.18908/lsdba...se Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Clustering results - Gclust Server | LSDB Archive ...

  11. Modelling Baryonic Effects on Galaxy Cluster Mass Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Masato; Lau, Erwin T.; Nagai, Daisuke

    2018-03-01

    Gravitational lensing is a powerful probe of the mass distribution of galaxy clusters and cosmology. However, accurate measurements of the cluster mass profiles are limited by uncertainties in cluster astrophysics. In this work, we present a physically motivated model of baryonic effects on the cluster mass profiles, which self-consistently takes into account the impact of baryons on the concentration as well as mass accretion histories of galaxy clusters. We calibrate this model using the Omega500 hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters with varying baryonic physics. Our model will enable us to simultaneously constrain cluster mass, concentration, and cosmological parameters using stacked weak lensing measurements from upcoming optical cluster surveys.

  12. Bussines Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmiza Pencea

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Clusters are complex economic structures in which similar companies, their up-stream and down-stream business partners, universities, research institutes, educational units, various service providers, diverse private and public institutions concentrate geografically, striving to get economies of agglomeration and scale, to capitalize on the resulting spill over effects, to cut costs, to better harness resources, to exchange information and experience, to improve quality, innovation, skills and productivity. By somehow unexpectedly combining competition and cooperation, they form a new, sophisticated stage in the evolution of production structures in quest of higher efficiency. This paper forays into the world of clusters and clusterization, which seem to increasingly capture the interest of businesses, scholars and policy makers. It looks at what clusters are, how they arise, what are their specific features, what benefits and challenges they can generate for companies and for the regions in which they locate and if and how they should be fostered by industrial policy interventions. The conclusion is that clusters can be very important development triggers and therefore they should be encouraged and nurtured by adequate policy measures. They should not only be used as a regular policy tool, but be placed at the very center of the development strategies of emerging economies.

  13. Contrasting patterns of genetic diversity across the ranges of Pinus monticola and P. strobus: a comparison between eastern and western North American postglacial colonization histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Simon; Godbout, Julie; Lamothe, Manuel; Gros-Louis, Marie-Claude; Isabel, Nathalie; Ritland, Kermit

    2015-08-01

    • Premises of the study: Understanding the influence of recent glacial and postglacial periods on species' distributions is key for predicting the effects of future environmental changes. We investigated the influence of two physiographic landscapes on population structure and postglacial colonization of two white pine species of contrasting habitats: P. monticola, which occurs in the highly mountainous region of western North America, and P. strobus, which occurs in a much less mountainous area in eastern North America.• To characterize the patterns of genetic diversity and population structure across the ranges of both species, 158 and 153 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers derived from expressed genes were genotyped on range-wide samples of 61 P. monticola and 133 P. strobus populations, respectively.• In P. monticola, a steep latitudinal decrease in genetic diversity likely resulted from postglacial colonization involving rare long-distance dispersal (LDD) events. In contrast, no geographic patterns of diversity were detected in P. strobus, suggesting recolonization via a gradually advancing front or frequent LDD events. For each species, structure analyses identified two distinct southern and northern genetic groups that likely originated from two different glacial lineages. At a finer scale, and for the two species, smaller subgroups were detected that could be remnants of cryptic refugia.• During postglacial colonization, the western and eastern North American landscapes had different impacts on genetic signatures in P. monticola compared with P. strobus. We discuss the importance of our findings for conservation programs and predictions of species' response to climate change. © 2015 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Published by the Botanical Society of America.

  14. Natural history of pain and disability among African-Americans and Whites with or at risk for knee osteoarthritis: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vina, E R; Ran, D; Ashbeck, E L; Kwoh, C K

    2018-04-01

    Compare knee pain and disability between African Americans (AAs) and Whites (WHs), with or at risk of knee osteoarthritis (KOA), over 9 years, and evaluate racial disparities in KOA-related symptoms across socioeconomic and clinical characteristics. Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) participants were evaluated annually over 9 years for pain and disability, assessed by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and a numerical rating scale (NRS) for knee pain severity. Mean annual WOMAC pain, NRS pain, and WOMAC disability levels were estimated by race using mixed effects models, adjusted for age, sex, education, marital status, body mass index (BMI), depression, and baseline Kellgren-Lawrence grade score. Race-specific mean WOMAC pain scores were also estimated in analyses stratified by socioeconomic and clinical characteristics. AAs reported worse mean WOMAC pain compared to WHs at baseline (3.69 vs 2.20; P ≤ 0.0001) and over 9 years of follow-up, with similar disparities reflected in NRS pain severity and WOMAC disability. Radiographic severity did not account for the differences in pain and disability, as substantial and significant racial disparities were observed after stratification by Kellgren-Lawrence grade. Depression and low income exacerbated differences in WOMAC pain between AAs and WHs by a substantial and significant magnitude. Over 9 years of follow-up, AAs reported persistently greater KOA symptoms than WHs. Socioeconomically and clinically disadvantaged AAs reported the most pronounced disparities in pain and disability. Copyright © 2018 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Yellow supergiants in open clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowell, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Superluminous giant stars (SLGs) have been reported in young globular clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). These stars appear to be in the post-asymptotic-giant-branch phase of evolution. This program was an investigation of galactic SLG candidates in open clusters, which are more like the LMC young globular clusters. These were chosen because luminosity, mass, and age determinations can be made for members since cluster distances and interstellar reddenings are known. Color magnitude diagrams were searched for candidates, using the same selection criteria as for SLGs in the LMC. Classification spectra were obtained of 115 program stars from McGraw-Hill Observatory and of 68 stars from Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory Chile. These stars were visually classified on the MK system using spectral scans of standard stars taken at the respective observations. Published information was combined with this program's data for 83 stars in 30 clusters. Membership probabilities were assigned to these stars, and the clusters were analyzed according to age. It was seen that the intrinsically brightest supergiants are found in the youngest clusters. With increasing cluster age, the absolute luminosities attained by the supergiants decline. Also, it appears that the evolutionary tracks of luminosity class II stars are more similar to those of class I than of class III

  16. A History of Ashes: An 80 Year Comparative Portrait of Smoking Initiation in American Indians and Non-Hispanic Whites—the Strong Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Goldberg

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of starting smoking by age 18 are significant. Early smoking initiation is associated with higher tobacco dependence, increased difficulty in smoking cessation and more negative health outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine how closely smoking initiation in a well-defined population of American Indians (AI resembles a group of Non-Hispanic white (NHW populations born over an 80 year period. We obtained data on age of smoking initiation among 7,073 AIs who were members of 13 tribes in Arizona, Oklahoma and North and South Dakota from the 1988 Strong Heart Study (SHS and the 2001 Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS and 19,747 NHW participants in the 2003 National Health Interview Survey. The participants were born as early as 1904 and as late as 1985. We classified participants according to birth cohort by decade, sex, and for AIs, according to location. We estimated the cumulative incidence of smoking initiation by age 18 in each sex and birth cohort group in both AIs and NHWs and used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios for the association of birth cohort, sex and region with the age at smoking initiation. We found that the cumulative incidence of smoking initiation by age 18 was higher in males than females in all SHS regions and in NHWs (p < 0.001. Our results show regional variation of age of initiation significant in the SHS (p < 0.001. Our data showed that not all AIs (in this sample showed similar trends toward increased earlier smoking. For instance, Oklahoma SHS male participants born in the 1980s initiated smoking before age 18 less often than those born before 1920 by a ratio of 0.7. The results showed significant variation in age of initiation across sex, birth cohort, and location. Our preliminary analyses suggest that AI smoking trends are not uniform across region or gender but are likely shaped by local context. If tobacco prevention and control programs depend in part on addressing the origin of AI

  17. Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homburger, Julian R; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gignoux, Christopher R; Nelson, Dominic; Sanchez, Elena; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A; Acevedo-Vasquez, Eduardo; Miranda, Pedro; Langefeld, Carl D; Gravel, Simon; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2015-12-01

    South America has a complex demographic history shaped by multiple migration and admixture events in pre- and post-colonial times. Settled over 14,000 years ago by Native Americans, South America has experienced migrations of European and African individuals, similar to other regions in the Americas. However, the timing and magnitude of these events resulted in markedly different patterns of admixture throughout Latin America. We use genome-wide SNP data for 437 admixed individuals from 5 countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and Argentina) to explore the population structure and demographic history of South American Latinos. We combined these data with population reference panels from Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas to perform global ancestry analysis and infer the subcontinental origin of the European and Native American ancestry components of the admixed individuals. By applying ancestry-specific PCA analyses we find that most of the European ancestry in South American Latinos is from the Iberian Peninsula; however, many individuals trace their ancestry back to Italy, especially within Argentina. We find a strong gradient in the Native American ancestry component of South American Latinos associated with country of origin and the geography of local indigenous populations. For example, Native American genomic segments in Peruvians show greater affinities with Andean indigenous peoples like Quechua and Aymara, whereas Native American haplotypes from Colombians tend to cluster with Amazonian and coastal tribes from northern South America. Using ancestry tract length analysis we modeled post-colonial South American migration history as the youngest in Latin America during European colonization (9-14 generations ago), with an additional strong pulse of European migration occurring between 3 and 9 generations ago. These genetic footprints can impact our understanding of population-level differences in biomedical traits and, thus, inform future medical

  18. Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian R Homburger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available South America has a complex demographic history shaped by multiple migration and admixture events in pre- and post-colonial times. Settled over 14,000 years ago by Native Americans, South America has experienced migrations of European and African individuals, similar to other regions in the Americas. However, the timing and magnitude of these events resulted in markedly different patterns of admixture throughout Latin America. We use genome-wide SNP data for 437 admixed individuals from 5 countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and Argentina to explore the population structure and demographic history of South American Latinos. We combined these data with population reference panels from Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas to perform global ancestry analysis and infer the subcontinental origin of the European and Native American ancestry components of the admixed individuals. By applying ancestry-specific PCA analyses we find that most of the European ancestry in South American Latinos is from the Iberian Peninsula; however, many individuals trace their ancestry back to Italy, especially within Argentina. We find a strong gradient in the Native American ancestry component of South American Latinos associated with country of origin and the geography of local indigenous populations. For example, Native American genomic segments in Peruvians show greater affinities with Andean indigenous peoples like Quechua and Aymara, whereas Native American haplotypes from Colombians tend to cluster with Amazonian and coastal tribes from northern South America. Using ancestry tract length analysis we modeled post-colonial South American migration history as the youngest in Latin America during European colonization (9-14 generations ago, with an additional strong pulse of European migration occurring between 3 and 9 generations ago. These genetic footprints can impact our understanding of population-level differences in biomedical traits and, thus, inform

  19. Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homburger, Julian R.; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Nelson, Dominic; Sanchez, Elena; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Acevedo-Vasquez, Eduardo; Miranda, Pedro; Langefeld, Carl D.; Gravel, Simon; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2015-01-01

    South America has a complex demographic history shaped by multiple migration and admixture events in pre- and post-colonial times. Settled over 14,000 years ago by Native Americans, South America has experienced migrations of European and African individuals, similar to other regions in the Americas. However, the timing and magnitude of these events resulted in markedly different patterns of admixture throughout Latin America. We use genome-wide SNP data for 437 admixed individuals from 5 countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and Argentina) to explore the population structure and demographic history of South American Latinos. We combined these data with population reference panels from Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas to perform global ancestry analysis and infer the subcontinental origin of the European and Native American ancestry components of the admixed individuals. By applying ancestry-specific PCA analyses we find that most of the European ancestry in South American Latinos is from the Iberian Peninsula; however, many individuals trace their ancestry back to Italy, especially within Argentina. We find a strong gradient in the Native American ancestry component of South American Latinos associated with country of origin and the geography of local indigenous populations. For example, Native American genomic segments in Peruvians show greater affinities with Andean indigenous peoples like Quechua and Aymara, whereas Native American haplotypes from Colombians tend to cluster with Amazonian and coastal tribes from northern South America. Using ancestry tract length analysis we modeled post-colonial South American migration history as the youngest in Latin America during European colonization (9–14 generations ago), with an additional strong pulse of European migration occurring between 3 and 9 generations ago. These genetic footprints can impact our understanding of population-level differences in biomedical traits and, thus, inform future medical

  20. Lessons about Art in History and History in Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Mary, Ed.; Clark, Gilbert, Ed.

    Written by teachers from the United States and Canada, these lesson plans focus on integrating the teaching of history and art history. Seventeen lesson plans cover the topics of (1) Slavery, Henry Ossawa Tanner, and His Family--Grades: Elementary; (2) Chinese Landscape Painting--Grades: Elementary; (3) Regionalism: American Art of the Great…

  1. Leishmaniose tegumentar americana: histórico, epidemiologia e perspectivas de controle American cutaneous leishmaniasis: history, epidemiology and prospects for control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio de Almeida Basano

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana (LTA é uma doença causada por protozoários do gênero Leishmania, transmitida ao homem pela picada de mosquitos flebotomíneos (Ordem Diptera; Família Psychodidae; Sub-Família Phlebotominae. No Brasil existem atualmente 6 espécies de Leishmania responsáveis pela doença humana, e mais de 200 espécies de flebotomíneos implicados em sua transmissão. Trata-se de uma doença que acompanha o homem desde tempos remotos e que tem apresentado, nos últimos 20 anos, um aumento do número de casos e ampliação de sua ocorrência geográfica, sendo encontrada atualmente em todos os Estados brasileiros, sob diferentes perfis epidemiológicos. Estima-se que, entre 1985 e 2003, ocorreram 523.975 casos autóctones, a sua maior parte nas regiões Nordeste e Norte do Brasil. Neste estudo, são discutidos aspectos relacionados ao tratamento e ao controle dessa doença, assim como também as dificuldades para a implementação dessas medidas. São apontadas alternativas que passam pela estruturação dos serviços de saúde, com respeito ao diagnóstico, no desenvolvimento de drogas de aplicação tópica ou por via oral, no desenvolvimento de vacinas, no controle diferenciado de vetores e no aprofundamento de estudos relacionados à biologia celular do parasita.American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL is an infectious disease transmitted by the bite of phlebotomines mosquitos (Order Diptera: Family Psychodidae: Sub-Family Phlebotominae and caused by protozoa from the genus Leishmania (ROSS 1903. In Brazil, there are six different species of Leishmania and more than 200 different species of phlebotomines. It's a disease that has been afflicting human beings for many centuries, and in Brazil, in the past two decades, there has been an important increase in the number of cases and also in its geographical distribution. Presently, ACL cases are registered in all Brazilian states under three different epidemiological

  2. Fuzzy Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berks, G.; Keyserlingk, Diedrich Graf von; Jantzen, Jan

    2000-01-01

    and clustering are the basic concerns in medicine. Classification depends on definitions of the classes and their required degree of participant of the elements in the cases' symptoms. In medicine imprecise conditions are the rule and therefore fuzzy methods are much more suitable than crisp ones. Fuzzy c...

  3. Cluster Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulati, Mukesh; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Suresh, Sangeetha

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, we investigate corporate social responsibility (CSR) in industrial clusters in the Indian context. We use the definition of CSR as given in the Indian Ministry of Corporate Affairs’ National Voluntary Guidelines (NVGs) for Business Responsibility: ‘the commitment of an enterprise...

  4. History Microcomputer Games: Update 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, James E.

    1985-01-01

    Provides full narrative reviews of B-1 Nuclear Bomber (Avalon, 1982); American History Adventure (Social Science Microcomputer Review Software, 1985); Government Simulations (Prentice-Hall, 1985); and The Great War, FDR and the New Deal, and Hitler's War, all from New Worlds Software, 1985. Lists additional information on five other history and…

  5. Chemical evolution of star clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Jacco Th

    2010-02-28

    I discuss the chemical evolution of star clusters, with emphasis on old Galactic globular clusters (GCs), in relation to their formation histories. GCs are clearly formed in a complex fashion, under markedly different conditions from any younger clusters presently known. Those special conditions must be linked to the early formation epoch of the Galaxy and must not have occurred since. While a link to the formation of GCs in dwarf galaxies has been suggested, present-day dwarf galaxies are not representative of the gravitational potential wells within which the GCs formed. Instead, a formation deep within the proto-Galaxy or within dark-matter mini-haloes might be favoured. Not all GCs may have formed and evolved similarly. In particular, we may need to distinguish Galactic Halo from Galactic Bulge clusters.

  6. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders among Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A MERICANS Native American cultures, which encompass American Indian, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian tribes, are rich with history, tradition, spirituality, and art. There are 562 Federally recognized tribes across the ...

  7. Cluster forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    , Portugal and New Zealand have adopted the concept. Public sector interventions that aim to support cluster development in industries most often focus upon economic policy goals such as enhanced employment and improved productivity, but rarely emphasise broader societal policy goals relating to e.......g. sustainability or quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to explore how and to what extent public sector interventions that aim at forcing cluster development in industries can support sustainable development as defined in the Brundtland tradition and more recently elaborated in such concepts as eco...... in 2000 by the Welsh Automotive Task Force under the Welsh Assembly Government. The Accelerate programme takes basically different two directions: The first one, which was the first to be launched, is concerned with the upgrading of existing supply chains in the automotive industry in Wales. The programme...

  8. Regional Innovation Clusters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — The Regional Innovation Clusters serve a diverse group of sectors and geographies. Three of the initial pilot clusters, termed Advanced Defense Technology clusters,...

  9. Star Cluster Buzzing With Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    A dense globular star cluster near the center of our Milky Way Galaxy holds a buzzing beehive of rapidly-spinning millisecond pulsars, according to astronomers who discovered 21 new pulsars in the cluster using the National Science Foundation's 100-meter Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia. The cluster, called Terzan 5, now holds the record for pulsars, with 24, including three known before the GBT observations. Pulsar Diagram Pulsar Diagram: Click on image for more detail. "We hit the jackpot when we looked at this cluster," said Scott Ransom, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Charlottesville, VA. "Not only does this cluster have a lot of pulsars -- and we still expect to find more in it -- but the pulsars in it are very interesting. They include at least 13 in binary systems, two of which are eclipsing, and the four fastest-rotating pulsars known in any globular cluster, with the fastest two rotating nearly 600 times per second, roughly as fast as a household blender," Ransom added. Ransom and his colleagues reported their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in San Diego, CA, and in the online journal Science Express. The star cluster's numerous pulsars are expected to yield a bonanza of new information about not only the pulsars themselves, but also about the dense stellar environment in which they reside and probably even about nuclear physics, according to the scientists. For example, preliminary measurements indicate that two of the pulsars are more massive than some theoretical models would allow. "All these exotic pulsars will keep us busy for years to come," said Jason Hessels, a Ph.D student at McGill University in Montreal. Globular clusters are dense agglomerations of up to millions of stars, all of which formed at about the same time. Pulsars are spinning, superdense neutron stars that whirl "lighthouse beams" of radio waves or light around as they spin. A neutron star is what is

  10. Teaching a New Chapter of History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Maribel

    2013-01-01

    The current canons of education are replete with suggestions for how to raise the achievement of Hispanic and Latino students. Absent from that discussion is what to teach them in a way that anchors them to their uniquely American culture and history. The author considers how Mexican-American history is often taught as if it were an offshoot of…

  11. FEDERAL AND REGIONAL CLUSTER POLICY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markov L. S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the history of cluster policy in Russia at the federal and regional levels. The federal cluster policy is realized in three directions, studying which allowed us to outline the main features of a formalized cluster that claims state support. The trend of reorientation of the cluster policy from supporting clusters and their infrastructure to cluster projects is revealed. Systematization and comparative analysis of the cluster policy in the regions of the country leading in terms of cluster development is carried out. It is established that the regional cluster policy is at a nascent stage and is a projection of the federal programs. At the regional level, there is no institutional basis for the cluster policy in Russia. The regional cluster policy is characterized by homogeneity of organizational structures.

  12. Black History, Inc! Investigating the Production of Black History through Walmart's Corporate Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, LaGarrett J.; Brown, Anthony L.

    2012-01-01

    Social and public sites are becoming a popular medium for intellectual consumption of Black history. Given the educational climate in which many students' exposure to Black history may come from outside of schools, the authors examine how Walmart's Black History Month Web site produced simplistic and safe narratives about African American history.

  13. Histories electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, Aidan

    2004-01-01

    Working within the HPO (History Projection Operator) Consistent Histories formalism, we follow the work of Savvidou on (scalar) field theory [J. Math. Phys. 43, 3053 (2002)] and that of Savvidou and Anastopoulos on (first-class) constrained systems [Class. Quantum Gravt. 17, 2463 (2000)] to write a histories theory (both classical and quantum) of Electromagnetism. We focus particularly on the foliation-dependence of the histories phase space/Hilbert space and the action thereon of the two Poincare groups that arise in histories field theory. We quantize in the spirit of the Dirac scheme for constrained systems

  14. American Red Cross: A History And Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Governors Report, the Board maintained eight specific committees; Executive, Biomedical Services , Finance, Disaster and Chapter Services , Audit , Public...certain other powers and decision making authority due to the FDA’s oversight of quality assurance and compliance requirements of biomedical services ... Services , Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of

  15. American Military History: A Selected Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/ndupress&CISOPTR=40021&CISOMODE= print Puryear, Edgar F., Jr. Nineteen Stars: A Study in Military Character and Leadership...A469-633) http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA469633 Toner , Sheila C. George Washington: America’s First Strategic Leader. Strategy Research Project

  16. American Women's History during the 1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Hugh Davis

    1988-01-01

    Surveys current literature dealing with the 1970s feminist movement, concentrating on national public policy. Remarks that little of the research is archival because the Nixon and Carter presidential papers were just recently opened. Offers predictions for the second wave of reconstruction and interpretation that will follow the opening of the…

  17. Exploring "American History X" through Transformational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Adult educators often struggle with finding creative ways to help students understand adult learning theories and applications of those theories in professional practice. Media analysis of popular culture can uncomplicate this task by engaging learners in understanding concepts, principles or theories (Baumgartner & Merriam, 1999). The purpose of…

  18. Cluster (Viridiplantae) - PGDBj - Ortholog DB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0”. This cluster ID is uniquely-assigned by the PGDBj Ortholog Database. Cluster size Number of proteins aff...r About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Cluster (Viridiplantae) - PGDBj - Ortholog DB | LSDB Archive ... ...List Contact us PGDBj - Ortholog DB Cluster (Viridiplantae) Data detail Data name Cluster (Viridiplantae) DO...switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data

  19. Cluster (Cyanobacteria) - PGDBj - Ortholog DB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3090”. This cluster ID is uniquely-assigned by the PGDBj Ortholog Database. Cluster size Number of proteins ...ster About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Cluster (Cyanobacteria) - PGDBj - Ortholog DB | LSDB Archive ... ...List Contact us PGDBj - Ortholog DB Cluster (Cyanobacteria) Data detail Data name Cluster (Cyanobacteria) DO...switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data

  20. Americans with Disabilities Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaesberg, Mary Ann; Murray, Kenneth T.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a 35-item checklist of practical activities for school district compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The checklist is based on ADA statutes, other civil rights legislation and litigation, as well as pertinent regulations and the legislative history of the act contained in the Congressional Record. (MLF)

  1. Teaching Asian American Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Linda H.

    2000-01-01

    Uses data from interviews with parents of Asian American students, observations, and literature reviews to identify cultural and language issues that must be considered in teaching this population. The paper discusses the history of Asian immigrants, attitudes toward education among Asians, the relationship between teaching styles and Asian…

  2. The Teaching of Asia in World History Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyunghee

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation research examines Asian history covered within a world history course in American high schools. I pose fundamental questions regarding the nature of what world history teachers classify under the category of Asian history. I research on what teachers teach as part of world history and how they instruct the Asian section of their…

  3. Discovering History at the Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Emily Sohmer

    2013-01-01

    Many of the history courses community college students take are fairly broad and ostensibly generic surveys of world, Western European, or American history. This chapter discusses an array of innovative practices that enable students to better appreciate how studying history can help them master the challenges--and reap the benefits--of a liberal…

  4. Understanding Galaxy Cluster MKW10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Tim; Henry, Swain; Coble, Kimberly A.; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team (UAT), we are studying the galaxy cluster MKW 10 (RA = 175.454, Dec = 10.306, z ~ 0.02), a poor cluster with a compact core in which tidal interactions have occurred. This cluster has been observed in HI and Hα. We used SDSS and NED to search for optical counterparts. By comparing data at multiple wavelengths, we hope to understand the structure, environment, and star formation history of this cluster. Following the techniques of others involved in the groups project and using the program TOPCAT to manipulate the data, we explored both the spatial and velocity distributions to determine cluster membership. We have determined that this cluster consists of 11 galaxies, mostly spiral in shape. Chicago State University is new the UAT and we began our work after taking part in the winter workshop at Arecibo.This work was supported by: Undergraduate ALFALFA Team NSF Grant AST-1211005 and the Illinois Space Grant Consortium.

  5. Velocity evolution of galaxy clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saslaw, W.C.; Aarseth, S.J.

    1982-02-15

    We have examined the changing velocity distribution of galaxies as they cluster in computer models of the expanding universe. The models are 4000-body numerical simulations of galaxies with a large range of masses interacting gravitationally. Clustering in velocity space is measured by calculating the residual peculiar velocities around the Hubble expansion. These form ''Hubble streaks as clustering progresses. We distinguish isolated field galaxies from clustered galaxies. In contrast to the usual belief, the velocity dispersion of the most extreme field galaxies does not decrease adiabatically. Rather, it is dominated by the perturbations of distant large clusters as they form and it decreases much more slowly than the inverse expansion length scale, R/sup -1/. The velocity dispersion of extreme field galaxies is a good cosmological indicator of ..cap omega.. = rho/rho/sub crit/. Preliminary comparison of several simulations with observtions shows that our universe agrees better with low density models, ..cap omega..< or =0.1. The velocity dispersion of cluster centers of mass is a good cosmological marker as well. We also suggest another new method for estimating ..cap omega.., based on the history of extreme field galaxies.

  6. Entangled histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotler, Jordan; Wilczek, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We introduce quantum history states and their mathematical framework, thereby reinterpreting and extending the consistent histories approach to quantum theory. Through thought experiments, we demonstrate that our formalism allows us to analyze a quantum version of history in which we reconstruct the past by observations. In particular, we can pass from measurements to inferences about ‘what happened’ in a way that is sensible and free of paradox. Our framework allows for a richer understanding of the temporal structure of quantum theory, and we construct history states that embody peculiar, non-classical correlations in time. (paper)

  7. American Indians as Economic Decisionmakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Jean; Gash, David

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that U.S. history did not begin with the colonization of North America by Europeans but with the Native American tribes that flourished prior to colonization. Discusses economic issues that determined the history and culture of various tribes. Provides a lesson plan based on economic decisions made by the Choctaw tribe. (CFR)

  8. Conceptual History, Cultural History, Social History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Zhivov (†

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available V. M. Zhivov’s introduction to Studies in Historical Semantics of the Russian Language in the Early Modern Period (2009, translated here for the first time, offers a critical survey of the historiography on Begriffsgeschichte, the German school of conceptual history associated with the work of Reinhart Koselleck, as well as of its application to the study of Russian culture.  By situating Begriffsgeschichte in the context of late-nineteenth and early twentieth-century European philosophy, particularly hermeneutics and phenomenology, the author points out the important, and as yet unacknowledged, role that Russian linguists have played in the development of a native school of conceptual history.  In the process of outlining this alternative history of the discipline, Zhivov provides some specific examples of the way in which the study of “historical semantics” can be used to analyze the development of Russian modernity.

  9. Merger relics of cluster galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, S. K.; Lee, J.; Jung, I.; Ji, I.; Sheen, Y.-K.

    2013-06-01

    Context. Sheen and collaborators recently found that a surprisingly large portion (38%) of massive early-type galaxies in heavy clusters show strong merger-related disturbed features. This contradicts the general understanding that massive clusters are hostile environments for galaxy mergers. Considering the significance of mergers in galaxy evolution, it is important to understand this. Aims: We aim to present a theoretical foundation that explains galaxy mergers in massive clusters. Methods: We used the N-body simulation technique to perform a cosmological-volume simulation and derive dark-halo merger trees. Then, we used the semi-analytic modeling technique to populate each halo with galaxies. We ran hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy mergers to estimate the lifetime of merger features for the imaging condition used by Sheen and collaborators. We applied this merger feature lifetime to our semi-analytic models. Finally, we counted the massive early-type galaxies in heavy model clusters that would show strong merger features. Results: While there still are substantial uncertainties, our preliminary results are remarkably close to the observed fraction of galaxies with merger features. Key ingredients for the success are twofold: firstly, the subhalo motion in dark haloes has been accurately traced, and, second, the lifetime of merger features has been properly estimated. As a result, merger features are expected to last very long in cluster environments. Many massive early-type galaxies in heavy clusters therefore show merger features not because they experience mergers in the current clusters in situ, but because they still carry their merger features from their previous halo environments. Conclusions: Investigating the merger relics of cluster galaxies is potentially important, because it uniquely allows us to backtrack the halo merger history.

  10. Cluster - ClEST | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...e File name: clest_cluster.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/clest/LATEST/clest_cluster.zip F...ownload License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Cluster - ClEST | LSDB Archive ...

  11. Intellectual History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...

  12. The Confucian Asian cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Confucian Asian cluster consists of China, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan. Confucian tradition countries were defined by achieving a consistent performance in the global economy, they still representing the major competitors in the EU and North American countries. Their progress is defined by a great national management that was able to influence beneficial management systems applied in organizations, these rules characterized by authority; aims to ensure the confidence in business. This article will present the intercultural values characterizing it, the leadership style and also tracing major macroeconomic considerations. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries, and the analysis will be interdisciplinary exploratory, identifying specific regional cultural elements.

  13. Heavy hitters via cluster-preserving clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green; Nelson, Jelani; Nguyen, Huy L.

    2016-01-01

    , providing correctness whp. In fact, a simpler version of our algorithm for p = 1 in the strict turnstile model answers queries even faster than the "dyadic trick" by roughly a log n factor, dominating it in all regards. Our main innovation is an efficient reduction from the heavy hitters to a clustering...... problem in which each heavy hitter is encoded as some form of noisy spectral cluster in a much bigger graph, and the goal is to identify every cluster. Since every heavy hitter must be found, correctness requires that every cluster be found. We thus need a "cluster-preserving clustering" algorithm......, that partitions the graph into clusters with the promise of not destroying any original cluster. To do this we first apply standard spectral graph partitioning, and then we use some novel combinatorial techniques to modify the cuts obtained so as to make sure that the original clusters are sufficiently preserved...

  14. Brightest Cluster Galaxies in REXCESS Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarsma, Deborah B.; Leisman, L.; Bruch, S.; Donahue, M.

    2009-01-01

    Most galaxy clusters contain a Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) which is larger than the other cluster ellipticals and has a more extended profile. In the hierarchical model, the BCG forms through many galaxy mergers in the crowded center of the cluster, and thus its properties give insight into the assembly of the cluster as a whole. In this project, we are working with the Representative XMM-Newton Cluster Structure Survey (REXCESS) team (Boehringer et al 2007) to study BCGs in 33 X-ray luminous galaxy clusters, 0.055 < z < 0.183. We are imaging the BCGs in R band at the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research (SOAR) in Chile. In this poster, we discuss our methods and give preliminary measurements of the BCG magnitudes, morphology, and stellar mass. We compare these BCG properties with the properties of their host clusters, particularly of the X-ray emitting gas.

  15. [History of viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, José Carlos Ferraz da

    2010-01-01

    The history of viral hepatitis goes back thousands of years and is a fascinating one. When humans were first infected by such agents, a natural repetitive cycle began, with the capacity to infect billions of humans, thus decimating the population and causing sequelae in thousands of lives. This article reviews the available scientific information on the history of viral hepatitis. All the information was obtained through extensive bibliographic review, including original and review articles and consultations on the internet. There are reports on outbreaks of jaundice epidemics in China 5,000 years ago and in Babylon more than 2,500 years ago. The catastrophic history of great jaundice epidemics and pandemics is well known and generally associated with major wars. In the American Civil War, 40,000 cases occurred among Union troops. In 1885, an outbreak of catarrhal jaundice affected 191 workers at the Bremen shipyard (Germany) after vaccination against smallpox. In 1942, 28,585 soldiers became infected with hepatitis after inoculation with the yellow fever vaccine. The number of cases of hepatitis during the Second World War was estimated to be 16 million. Only in the twentieth century were the main agents causing viral hepatitis identified. The hepatitis B virus was the first to be discovered. In this paper, through reviewing the history of major epidemics caused by hepatitis viruses and the history of discovery of these agents, singular peculiarities were revealed. Examples of this include the accidental or chance discovery of the hepatitis B and D viruses.

  16. Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  17. Proton-Induced Plasticity in Hydrogen Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stich, I.; Marx, D.; Parrinello, M.; Terakura, K.; Terakura, K.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of protonation of pure hydrogen clusters is investigated at low temperature using a combination of path-integral simulations and first-principles electronic structure calculations. The added proton gets trapped as a very localized H 3 + impurity in the cluster core, and is surrounded by stable shells of solvating H 2 molecules. These clusters are frozen with respect to the translational degrees of freedom, while the H 2 ligands undergo large-amplitude rotations. The classical approximation for the nuclei fails to account for this effect which is akin to plastic behavior in crystals. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  18. Proton-Induced Plasticity in Hydrogen Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stich, I. [JRCAT, Angstrom Technology Partnership, 1-1-4 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 (Japan); Marx, D.; Parrinello, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Terakura, K. [NAIR, Angstrom Technology Partnership, 1-1-4 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 (Japan); Terakura, K. [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Corporation (JST), Kawaguchi, Saitama 332 (Japan)

    1997-05-01

    The effect of protonation of pure hydrogen clusters is investigated at low temperature using a combination of path-integral simulations and first-principles electronic structure calculations. The added proton gets trapped as a very localized H{sub 3}{sup +} impurity in the cluster core, and is surrounded by stable shells of solvating H{sub 2} molecules. These clusters are frozen with respect to the translational degrees of freedom, while the H{sub 2} ligands undergo large-amplitude rotations. The classical approximation for the nuclei fails to account for this effect which is akin to plastic behavior in crystals. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. Galaxy Evolution in Clusters Since z ~ 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-Salamanca, A.

    Galaxy clusters provide some of the most extreme environments in which galaxies evolve, making them excellent laboratories to study the age old question of "nature" vs. "nurture" in galaxy evolution. Here I review some of the key observational results obtained during the last decade on the evolution of the morphology, structure, dynamics, star-formation history and stellar populations of cluster galaxies since the time when the Universe was half its present age. Many of the results presented here have been obtained within the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS) and Space Telescope A901/02 Galaxy Evolution Survey (STAGES) collaborations.

  20. Exploring the Internal Dynamics of Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Laura L.; van der Marel, Roeland; Bellini, Andrea; Luetzgendorf, Nora; HSTPROMO Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Exploring the Internal Dynamics of Globular ClustersThe formation histories and structural properties of globular clusters are imprinted on their internal dynamics. Energy equipartition results in velocity differences for stars of different mass, and leads to mass segregation, which results in different spatial distributions for stars of different mass. Intermediate-mass black holes significantly increase the velocity dispersions at the centres of clusters. By combining accurate measurements of their internal kinematics with state-of-the-art dynamical models, we can characterise both the velocity dispersion and mass profiles of clusters, tease apart the different effects, and understand how clusters may have formed and evolved.Using proper motions from the Hubble Space Telescope Proper Motion (HSTPROMO) Collaboration for a set of 22 Milky Way globular clusters, and our discrete dynamical modelling techniques designed to work with large, high-quality datasets, we are studying a variety of internal cluster properties. We will present the results of theoretical work on simulated clusters that demonstrates the efficacy of our approach, and preliminary results from application to real clusters.

  1. Diversity among galaxy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struble, M.F.; Rood, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The classification of galaxy clusters is discussed. Consideration is given to the classification scheme of Abell (1950's), Zwicky (1950's), Morgan, Matthews, and Schmidt (1964), and Morgan-Bautz (1970). Galaxies can be classified based on morphology, chemical composition, spatial distribution, and motion. The correlation between a galaxy's environment and morphology is examined. The classification scheme of Rood-Sastry (1971), which is based on clusters's morphology and galaxy population, is described. The six types of clusters they define include: (1) a cD-cluster dominated by a single large galaxy, (2) a cluster dominated by a binary, (3) a core-halo cluster, (4) a cluster dominated by several bright galaxies, (5) a cluster appearing flattened, and (6) an irregularly shaped cluster. Attention is also given to the evolution of cluster structures, which is related to initial density and cluster motion

  2. 20 African-Americans Your Students Should Meet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardeen, Tara

    2008-01-01

    There is more to Black History Month than honoring Martin Luther King Jr. Black History Month is a time to honor the significant contributions of African-Americans throughout history. This article presents 20 super-achievers new generation of African-Americans heroes students should meet: (1) Kimberly Oliver; (2) John Lewis; (3) Rita Dove; (4)…

  3. Measuring Cluster Relaxedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreland, Blythe; /Michigan U. /SLAC

    2012-08-24

    When is a dark matter halo 'relaxed'? In our efforts to understand the structure of the universe, dark matter simulations have provided essential grounds for theoretical predictions. These simulations provide a wealth of ways of parameterizing and measuring the features of astronomical objects. It is these measurements on which we base comparisons of our world and our attempts to re-create it. One of the essential questions dark matter simulations help address is how dark matter halos evolve. How does one characterize different states of that evolution? The focus of this project is identifying cluster relaxedness and how it relates to the internal structure of the halo. A dark matter simulation consists of an N-body simulation which takes an initial set of positions and velocities of the dark matter particles and evolves them under the influence of gravity [6]. Though scientists have so far not been able to detect dark matter particles, the information from these simulations is still valuable especially given the relationship between dark matter halos and galaxy clusters. Galaxies sit within dark matter halos and recent evidence points to filaments of dark matter forming the framework on which galaxy clusters grow [7]. A dark matter halo is a collapsed group of gravitationally bound dark matter particles. Subsets of bound particles form subhalos or substructures. The dark matter simulation is carried out over time - with decreasing redshift (z) or increasing scale factor (a = 1/1+z ). (Thus, z = 0 or a = 1.0 is present-day.) The merger history of a halo can be represented pictorally by a merger tree. A major merger event occurs when a structure joins the main halo with the mass ratio between it and the main halo being above a certain threshold. These events mark important points in the halo's evolution. And it is at these events that one hopes, and perhaps is more likely, to relate measures of relaxedness to this mass accretion. Cluster relaxedness

  4. Environmental history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2017-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers Geor...... for solutions and policies, is the agenda for an engaged environmental history from now on.......Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...

  5. Living History: Clark M. Blatteis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Ning

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the American Physiological Society (APS) initiated the Living History Project to recognize senior members who have made extraordinary contributions during their career to the advancement of the discipline and profession of physiology. During 2007, the APS Section of Environmental and Exercise Physiology selected Clark M. Blatteis to be…

  6. Living History: Elsworth R. Buskirk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the American Physiological Society (APS) initiated the Living History of Physiology Archival Program to recognize senior members who have made significant contributions during their career to the advancement of the discipline and the profession of physiology. Subsequently, the leadership of the APS Section of Environmental and Exercise…

  7. Introducing Labor History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmer, John Dale

    1997-01-01

    Provides a brief overview for including labor history in the social studies curriculum. Notes the broad range of subjects (geography, history, economics, music, and art) and approaches (women's history, social history, oral history) that encompass labor history. (MJP)

  8. [History of electric defibrillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qing; Wan, Zhi

    2007-07-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is one of the most effective methods in rescuing those in critical situations. In recent decades, electric cardiac defibrillation has made the biggest advance in the field of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. It has been found that the rate of successful resuscitation with electric defibrillation is much higher than by bare-handed or drug resuscitations by which more lives have been saved, has become the most essential and most important means of first aid. The history of the development of electric defibrillation is a successful modality of multidisciplinary cooperation of physicians, biologists, physiologists, and engineers. Although "early defibrillation" has been recognized as an idea of standard therapy and a basic measure of life support by international organizations as American Heart Association, it is far from being perfect and has a long way to go. A review of the history may help to bring the technique of electric defibrillation into perfection, and to save more lives in the future.

  9. Matematikkens historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2009-01-01

    Matematikkens historie i syv kapitler: 1. Matematik i støbeskeen; 2. Matematikkens græske arv; 3. Den gyldne tidsalder for hinduer og arabere; 4. Matematik i Kina; 5. Renæssancens matematik; 6. Regning med infinitesimaler ser dagens lys; 7. Matematik i det tyvende århundrede.......Matematikkens historie i syv kapitler: 1. Matematik i støbeskeen; 2. Matematikkens græske arv; 3. Den gyldne tidsalder for hinduer og arabere; 4. Matematik i Kina; 5. Renæssancens matematik; 6. Regning med infinitesimaler ser dagens lys; 7. Matematik i det tyvende århundrede....

  10. Clustering of correlated networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dorogovtsev, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    We obtain the clustering coefficient, the degree-dependent local clustering, and the mean clustering of networks with arbitrary correlations between the degrees of the nearest-neighbor vertices. The resulting formulas allow one to determine the nature of the clustering of a network.

  11. Cluster knockout reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-07

    Apr 7, 2014 ... Cluster knockout reactions are expected to reveal the amount of clustering (such as that of , d and even of heavier clusters such as 12C, 16O etc.) in the target nucleus. In simple terms, incident medium high-energy nuclear projectile interacts strongly with the cluster (present in the target nucleus) as if it ...

  12. What Makes Clusters Decline?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Park, Eun Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Most studies on regional clusters focus on identifying factors and processes that make clusters grow. However, sometimes technologies and market conditions suddenly shift, and clusters decline. This paper analyses the process of decline of the wireless communication cluster in Denmark. The longit...

  13. History, Pending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Donald; Tesconi, Charles

    2018-01-01

    Tesconi-Warren collaborations began 50 years ago at the University of Illinois-Chicago, then abbreviated fondly as "Chicago Circle," perhaps the only American institution of higher learning named for a traffic-control installation. We offered Foundations courses in teacher preparation programs of the College of Education, occasionally as…

  14. Ildens historier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Henrik Roesgaard

    have been written by Andersen. In several chapters the curiously forgotten history of fire-lighting technology is outlined, and it is demonstrated that "Tællelyset" is written by a person with a modern perspective on how to light a candle - among other things. The central argument in the book springs...

  15. Business History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that a cultural and narrative perspective can enrich the business history field, encourage new and different questions and answers, and provide new ways of thinking about methods and empirical material. It discusses what culture is and how it relates to narratives. Taking...

  16. Clustering in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drab, Klaudia; Daszykowski, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Data clustering plays an important role in the exploratory analysis of analytical data, and the use of clustering methods has been acknowledged in different fields of science. In this paper, principles of data clustering are presented with a direct focus on clustering of analytical data. The role of the clustering process in the analytical workflow is underlined, and its potential impact on the analytical workflow is emphasized.

  17. American = Independent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Hazel Rose

    2017-09-01

    U.S. American cultures and psyches reflect and promote independence. Devos and Banaji (2005) asked, does American equal White? This article asks, does American equal independent? The answer is that when compared to people in East Asian or South Asian contexts, people in American contexts tend to show an independent psychological signature-a sense of self as individual, separate, influencing others and the world, free from influence, and equal to, if not better than, others (Markus & Conner, 2013). Independence is a reasonable description of the selves of people in the White, middle-class American mainstream. Yet it is a less good characterization of the selves of the majority of Americans who are working-class and/or people of color. A cultural psychological approach reveals that much of North American psychology is still grounded in an independent model of the self and, as such, neglects social contexts and the psychologies of a majority of Americans. Given the prominence of independence in American ideas and institutions, the interdependent tendencies that arise from intersections of national culture with social class, race, and ethnicity go unrecognized and are often misunderstood and stigmatized. This unseen clash of independence and interdependence is a significant factor in many challenges, including those of education, employment, health, immigration, criminal justice, and political polarization.

  18. Who is Teaching the History of Chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Kenneth G.; DeLoach, Will S.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study into how the history of chemistry is being taught in colleges and universities. Results indicate that courses on the history of chemistry are hardly ever required of chemistry majors, and they are offered in only 10 percent of American Chemical Society approved chemistry departments. (TW)

  19. The New Deal: A Global History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, Kiran Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The New Deal: A Global History provides a radically new interpretation of a pivotal period in US history. The first comprehensive study of the New Deal in a global context, the book compares American responses to the international crisis of capitalism and democracy during the 1930s to responses by

  20. Business History as Cultural History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Jørgensen, Ida

    The paper engages with the larger question of how cultural heritage becomes taken for granted and offers a complimentary view to the anthropological ʻCopenhagen School’ of business history, one that draws attention to the way corporate wealth directly and indirectly influences the culture available...