WorldWideScience

Sample records for american history cluster

  1. History of American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Margaret Cain

    2011-01-01

    "History of American Higher Education" documents the fascinating evolution of American colleges and universities, touching on the historical events that shaped them, from the colonial era through the early twenty-first century. Throughout history, higher education has played an important role in the transmission of cultural identity from one…

  2. American History (an introduction)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David Edwin

    I et letforståeligt engelsk giver professor David Nye en fængende præsentation af amerikansk historie fra den tidlige kolonisationsperiode til præsident Obama. Bogen giver et helhedsportræt af perioderne og inkluderer til hver periode en kortfattet præsentation af kultur- og litteraturhistorien....

  3. Women in Latin American History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrin, Asuncion

    1981-01-01

    Presents a bibliography and suggests a number of topics around which a college level history course on Latin American women could be organized. Course topics include migration of women, definition of sex roles, legal status of women, women's work and society, feminism, politics, religion, women and the family, and women's education and…

  4. The Indian in American History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Virgil J.

    The treatment of American Indians is discussed historically with reference to the 4 principal methods used to create or perpetuate false impressions: obliteration, defamation, disembodiment, and disparagement. Indian contributions to American civilization are cited in contrast with historical references to Indians in textbooks. The author suggests…

  5. Clustering Genes of Common Evolutionary History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Kevin; Suchan, Tomasz; Alvarez, Nadir; Goldman, Nick; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    Phylogenetic inference can potentially result in a more accurate tree using data from multiple loci. However, if the loci are incongruent-due to events such as incomplete lineage sorting or horizontal gene transfer-it can be misleading to infer a single tree. To address this, many previous contributions have taken a mechanistic approach, by modeling specific processes. Alternatively, one can cluster loci without assuming how these incongruencies might arise. Such "process-agnostic" approaches typically infer a tree for each locus and cluster these. There are, however, many possible combinations of tree distance and clustering methods; their comparative performance in the context of tree incongruence is largely unknown. Furthermore, because standard model selection criteria such as AIC cannot be applied to problems with a variable number of topologies, the issue of inferring the optimal number of clusters is poorly understood. Here, we perform a large-scale simulation study of phylogenetic distances and clustering methods to infer loci of common evolutionary history. We observe that the best-performing combinations are distances accounting for branch lengths followed by spectral clustering or Ward's method. We also introduce two statistical tests to infer the optimal number of clusters and show that they strongly outperform the silhouette criterion, a general-purpose heuristic. We illustrate the usefulness of the approach by 1) identifying errors in a previous phylogenetic analysis of yeast species and 2) identifying topological incongruence among newly sequenced loci of the globeflower fly genus Chiastocheta We release treeCl, a new program to cluster genes of common evolutionary history (http://git.io/treeCl). PMID:26893301

  6. Clustering Genes of Common Evolutionary History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Kevin; Suchan, Tomasz; Alvarez, Nadir; Goldman, Nick; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic inference can potentially result in a more accurate tree using data from multiple loci. However, if the loci are incongruent—due to events such as incomplete lineage sorting or horizontal gene transfer—it can be misleading to infer a single tree. To address this, many previous contributions have taken a mechanistic approach, by modeling specific processes. Alternatively, one can cluster loci without assuming how these incongruencies might arise. Such “process-agnostic” approaches typically infer a tree for each locus and cluster these. There are, however, many possible combinations of tree distance and clustering methods; their comparative performance in the context of tree incongruence is largely unknown. Furthermore, because standard model selection criteria such as AIC cannot be applied to problems with a variable number of topologies, the issue of inferring the optimal number of clusters is poorly understood. Here, we perform a large-scale simulation study of phylogenetic distances and clustering methods to infer loci of common evolutionary history. We observe that the best-performing combinations are distances accounting for branch lengths followed by spectral clustering or Ward’s method. We also introduce two statistical tests to infer the optimal number of clusters and show that they strongly outperform the silhouette criterion, a general-purpose heuristic. We illustrate the usefulness of the approach by 1) identifying errors in a previous phylogenetic analysis of yeast species and 2) identifying topological incongruence among newly sequenced loci of the globeflower fly genus Chiastocheta. We release treeCl, a new program to cluster genes of common evolutionary history (http://git.io/treeCl). PMID:26893301

  7. History of cluster structure in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contribution focuses on the history of clustering in nuclei. Elementary alpha models treat light 4-n nuclei as systems of alpha-particles obeying Bose Einstein statistics. These models neglect the internal structure of the alphas and effects of the Pauli principle between the nucleons in the alpha clusters are taken into account by introducing a short range repulsion between the clusters. The orthogonality condition model and excluded state model treat the alphas as elementary particles, but include effects of the Pauli principle in a more microscopic way. Wheeler's resonating group method is a fully microscopic theory for calculating properties of cluster systems. It makes simplifying assumptions about the internal structure of the clusters but takes the Pauli principle explicitly. Hartree-Fock theory can be used for a microscopic theory of nuclear structure but it is not suitable for light nuclei because there is no well defined mean field. Margenau's microscopic cluster model avoids this problem by using trial wave functions which are antisymmetrized products of parametrized single particle wave functions

  8. Chinese/American Physicists: A Transnational History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuoyue

    2011-03-01

    As part of a broader project on ``Chinese/American Scientists: Transnational Science during the Cold War and Beyond,'' this paper examines the movements of American-trained Chinese physicists following the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949. While a majority of these physicists chose to stay in the US (the ``stayees''), a number went back to China in the 1950s (the ``returnees'') against many obstacles during the McCarthy era. After the reopening of US-China relations in the 1970s, the two groups joined hands in promoting China-US scientific and educational exchanges, leading eventually to the coming to the US of a new generation of Chinese physics students and the return to China of some of the original ``stayees.'' This transnational history of Chinese/American physicists aims to illustrate the nature and extent of the Americanization of international science and the internationalization of American science in the post-World War II era. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. SES-1026879.

  9. “American” Pictures and (Trans-National Iconographies: Mapping Interpictorial Clusters in American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo J. Hebel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Udo J. Hebel examines the recent critical history of visual cultures in American Studies in his essay “‘American’ Pictures and (Trans-National Iconographies: Mapping Interpictorial Clusters in American Studies,” focusing his analysis specifically on “political photography” and the concurrency of contexts that inform his reading of the history of US presidential images. This beautifully researched article, previously published in American Studies Today: New Research Agendas (Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter, 2014, takes up questions related to “tensions” between disciplinary concerns and transdisciplinary potentialities for interpreting the representation of the political inside the framework of transnational American Studies.

  10. 76 FR 6519 - National African American History Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... imagined, African Americans have strengthened our Nation by leading reforms, overcoming obstacles, and... of African Americans to our Nation's history and identity. This year's theme, ``African Americans and... enslaved within rebellious areas, he also opened the door for African Americans to join the Union...

  11. A Bicentennial Review of the Black Contribution to American History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Ella D. Lewis

    1976-01-01

    To illustrate the importance of black people in American history, specific individuals are identified who played major roles in the American Revolution, the War of 1812, exploration and pioneering, and science and technology. (AV)

  12. Amanda Porterfield and John Corrigan, eds., Religion in American History.

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Krabbendam

    2011-01-01

    This book offers an overview of the intertwining links between religion and American history, by following both a thematic and a chronological approach. The resulting kaleidoscope is a condensed introduction of religion in American history. It perfects the approach chosen by Philip Goff and Paul Harvey who had eleven themes followed in seven periods in their 2004 collection Themes in Religion and American Culture.For this book leading scholars in history and religion, Amanda Porterfield and J...

  13. Minority Groups and the Teaching of American History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benosky, Alan L.

    1971-01-01

    The current campaign to make American history palatable to Negro aspirations has reached proportions of hysteria and unrealism, which, if not arrested, threatens the intellectual autonomy of teachers and the scholarly integrity of historical writing. (Author)

  14. Native American History in a Box: A New Approach to Teaching Native American Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Emory C.; Hitt, Austin M.; Schipper, Jason A.; Jones, Adam M.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the Native American History in a Box curriculum which is designed to introduce elementary and middle-level students to Native American cultures. The curriculum consists of a five day unit addressing the following concepts pertaining to Native American Nations: settlements, tools, sustenance, pottery, and contact with…

  15. The Zoot Suit Riots: Exploring Social Issues in American History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, John J.

    2013-01-01

    The Zoot Suit Riots provide students with a case study of social unrest in American history. The influx of Latinos into the Los Angeles area prior to World War II created high levels of social unrest between Mexican Americans, military servicemen, and local residences. With large numbers of soldiers stationed in the area during the Second World…

  16. Evolutionary History Reconstruction for Mammalian Complex Gene Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yu; Song, Giltae; Vinař, Tomáš; Green, Eric D; Siepel, Adam; Miller, Webb

    2009-01-01

    Clusters of genes that evolved from single progenitors via repeated segmental duplications present significant challenges to the generation of a truly complete human genome sequence. Such clusters can confound both accurate sequence assembly and downstream computational analysis, yet they represent a hotbed of functional innovation, making them of extreme interest. We have developed an algorithm for reconstructing the evolutionary history of gene clusters using only human genomic sequence dat...

  17. Mapping Early American History: Beyond What Happened Where

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milson, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    American history demands to be mapped. The stories of exploration, the colonies, the Louisiana Purchase, and so on are incomplete without maps to locate historical places, events, and conflicts. Yet maps can do more for the history teacher than simply illustrating what happened where or what territory was acquired when. Maps also provide clues…

  18. A History of American Music Education. Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Michael; Gary, Charles L.

    2007-01-01

    This book covers the history of American music education, from its roots in Biblical times through recent historical events and trends. It describes the educational, philosophical, educational, and sociological aspects of the subject, always putting it in the context of the history of the United States. It offers the most complete information on…

  19. Reconstructing Galaxy Histories from Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    West, M J; Marzke, R O; Jordan, A; West, Michael J.; Cote, Patrick; Marzke, Ronald O.; Jordan, Andres

    2004-01-01

    Nearly a century after the true nature of galaxies as distant "island universes" was established, their origin and evolution remain great unsolved problems of modern astrophysics. One of the most promising ways to investigate galaxy formation is to study the ubiquitous globular star clusters that surround most galaxies. Recent advances in our understanding of the globular cluster systems of the Milky Way and other galaxies point to a complex picture of galaxy genesis driven by cannibalism, collisions, bursts of star formation and other tumultuous events.

  20. Book History and African American Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Claire Parfait; Laurence Cossu-Beaumont

    2009-01-01

    In the fifty years that have elapsed since the publication of Lucien Febvre and Henri-Jean Martin’s L’Apparition du livre, the field of book history has expanded tremendously, on both sides of the Atlantic. As defined by the Society for the History of Authorship, Reading and Publishing (SHARP), “The history of the book is not only about books per se: broadly speaking, it concerns the creation, dissemination, and reception of script and print, including newspapers, periodicals, and ephemera. B...

  1. A Course in Latin American Family History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmori, Diana

    1981-01-01

    Presents a bibliographic review essay on Latin American families. The essay is presented in three major categories: (1) the family and enterprise; (2) the family--different regions, time periods, and socioeconomic conditions and (3) family networks. Entries include historical literature and articles in the English language, films, and novels. (DB)

  2. The challenge to american literary history today

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegler, Heide

    1993-01-01

    This essay ought to be seen as part of an ongoing attempt to view America's recent and almost feverish struggle to redefine its literature in multicultural terms from a more distant European perspective. Implied in this attempt is the observation that American literary critics - quite in contrast to their European counterparts - are increasingly faced with the need to consider the growing impact of literature on the academic politics of their nation.

  3. American History's Problem with Standardized Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoog, Ian J.

    2005-01-01

    This article looks at current research concerning how students best learn the discipline of history, commentaries both in favor of and against standardized testing, and basic philosophical beliefs about the discipline. It explains methods of how to incorporate differentiated lessons and performance based assessments to NCLB standards and…

  4. A Brief History of American Drug Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musto, David F.

    1991-01-01

    Traces the history of drug control in the United States from the extensive consumption of opium, heroin, and cocaine before World War I to the popularity of marijuana and LSD during the 1960s. Discusses public concern over drug use that seems to peak following periods of widespread drug use that is linked to foreign influences. (DK)

  5. The star cluster formation history of the LMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgardt, H.; Parmentier, G.; Anders, P.; Grebel, E. K.

    2013-03-01

    The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is one of the nearest galaxies to us and is one of only few galaxies where the star formation history can be determined from studying resolved stellar populations. We have compiled a new catalogue of ages, luminosities and masses of LMC star clusters and used it to determine the age distribution and dissolution rate of LMC star clusters. We find that the frequency of massive clusters with masses M > 5000 M⊙ is almost constant between 10 and 200 Myr, showing that the influence of residual gas expulsion is limited to the first 10 Myr of cluster evolution or clusters less massive than 5000 M⊙. Comparing the cluster frequency in that interval with the absolute star formation rate, we find that about 15 per cent of all stars in the LMC were formed in long-lived star clusters that survive for more than 10 Myr. We also find that the mass function of LMC clusters younger than 109 Gyr can be fitted by a power-law mass function N(m) ˜ m-α with slope α = 2.3, while older clusters follow a significantly shallower slope and interpret that this is a sign of either incompleteness or the ongoing dissolution of low-mass clusters. Our data show that for ages older than 200 Myr, about 90 per cent of all clusters are lost per dex of lifetime. The implied cluster dissolution rate is significantly faster than that based on analytic estimates and N-body simulations. Our cluster age data finally show evidence for a burst in cluster formation about 109 yr ago, but little evidence for bursts at other ages.

  6. Hate Speech: The History of an American Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Samuel

    Noting that no other country in the world offers protection to offensive speech, this book provides a comprehensive account of the history of the hate speech controversy in the United States. The book examines the issue, from the conflicts over the Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s and American Nazi groups in the 1930s, to the famous Skokie, Illinois…

  7. The American Council on Education for Journalism: An Accrediting History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Earl Lewis

    It was the purpose of this study to present an evolutionary history of the American Council on Education for Journalism (ACEJ) and to draw some conclusions about some issues now facing the council. Data for the study came from minutes of councils and associations involved in journalism accrediting, personal files, interviews, and other sources.…

  8. Consensus and Difference: American Students' Perspectives on the National History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Yongjun; Todd, Reese; Lan, William

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to re-examine the consensus and difference in American students' understanding of national history, on which there were divergent research results. With three sets of questions that examined students' perspectives of the collective memory, historical significance, and credibility of historical sources, we found that…

  9. American Library History Literature, 1947-1997: Theoretical Perspectives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Wayne A.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews 50 years of published research literature in American library history that shows a lack of theoretical perspective. Suggests that library historians should join with critical theorists and with social and cultural historians to help place the library in a larger context of social and cultural forces. (Contains 131 references.) (LRW)

  10. Exploring 350 Years of Jewish American History on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Michael J.; Cruz, Barbara C.

    2005-01-01

    The recent Library of Congress exhibition, From Haven to Home: 350 Years of Jewish Life in America, has sparked renewed interest in the history of Jews in the United States. The collection featured more than 200 documents, images, and artifacts that chronicle the Jewish American experience. In exhibit from September through December 2004, From…

  11. Tracing the merger history of MACS clusters using the GMRT

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, S; Intema, H T

    2014-01-01

    Galaxy-cluster merger shocks efficiently accelerate the ambient electrons through diffusive shock acceleration and amplify magnetic field by compressing the Inter Cluster Medium. As a result, such objects produce a significant amount of synchrotron radio emission. Radio halo and Mpc scale peripheral radio relics thus help us to trace back the cluster formation history. To study the dynamical state of the galaxy clusters and their relation to the merging scenario, as a pilot project, we thus observed four suitable candidates from the MACS (Massive Cluster Survey) cluster sample. Observations were carried out simultaneously at 610 and 235 MHz with the GMRT. We observed a rare phenomena in the cluster MACSJ0014.3-3022, which hosts both a peripheral spectacular radio relic and an unusually flat spectrum central giant radio halo of more than 1.5 Mpc dimension. We also report that another cluster MACSJ0152.5-2852 is possibly showing the sign of one of the earliest and young merging system where, we saw a faint 0.5 ...

  12. The genetic structure and history of Africans and African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Tishkoff, Sarah A; Reed, Floyd A; Friedlaender, Françoise R; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B.; Awomoyi, Agnes A; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T; Kotze, Maritha J.; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H.

    2009-01-01

    Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic p...

  13. The Archives of the History of American Psychology: An Interview with David B. Baker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Loreto R.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with David B. Baker, Director of the Archives of the History of American Psychology. Covers topics such as: Baker's interest in the history of psychology, his work at the Archives of the History of American Psychology, and recommendations for teachers when addressing history in non-history courses. (CMK)

  14. Latin american contemporary history: problems and tendencies. An interview of John H. Coatsworth.

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Castro, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Prof. John H. Coatsworth is a specialist of Latin American history and the actual Provost of Columbia University. He is the author or editor of eight books and many scholarly articles on Latin American economic and international history. He has served on the editorial boards of numerous scholarly journals including the American Historical Review, the Journal of Economic History, and the Hispanic American Historical Review and as well as social science and history journals published in Britain...

  15. Space-time clusters of breast cancer using residential histories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Meliker, Jaymie R; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A large proportion of breast cancer cases are thought related to environmental factors. Identification of specific geographical areas with high risk (clusters) may give clues to potential environmental risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate whether clusters of breast...... cancer existed in space and time in Denmark, using 33 years of residential histories. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of 3138 female cases from the Danish Cancer Registry, diagnosed with breast cancer in 2003 and two independent control groups of 3138 women each, randomly...... selected from the Civil Registration System. Residential addresses of cases and controls from 1971 to 2003 were collected from the Civil Registration System and geo-coded. Q-statistics were used to identify space-time clusters of breast cancer. All analyses were carried out with both control groups, and...

  16. Not To Repeat History: Racialization and Combinatory Textuality in Contemporary Asian American and African American Experimental Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Christopher Sze-Ming

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation, Not To Repeat History: Racialization and Combinatory Textuality in Contemporary Asian American and African American Experimental Writing, examines the relationship between textual strategies and political imagination at work in Asian American and African American experimental writers Nathaniel Mackey, Myung Mi Kim, and Ed Roberson. Providing one of the first cross-cultural studies of contemporary Asian American and African American experimental writing, I contend that these...

  17. Integrating Language and Culture in Middle School American History Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Short, Deborah J.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes preliminary findings from a study examining school American history classes with English language learners. The study has investigated the construction of social studies knowledge in these and the development and implementation of lessons that address the and educational backgrounds of the learners while integrating language content, and culture objectives. After briefly describing some features studies language, revealed through analyses of classroom discourse books, th...

  18. Digital History: Using the Internet to Enhance African American Studies in the Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuerell, Scott; Jaeger, Matt

    2015-01-01

    The authors discuss how high school students participated in a unit in which they learned about African American history in a 1:1 computer classroom--in particular, how they were able to use digital history to learn about a variety of African American leaders who are not frequently covered in the traditional American History textbook. In addition,…

  19. Online Astronomy Resources from the American Museum of Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Robert

    2010-02-01

    The American Museum of Natural History, one of the world's largest natural history museums, is the locus of a rich array of scientific research, exhibition and educational resources through its Department of Astrophysics, its Rose Center for Earth and Space and its Hall of Meteorites. For the past decade, the Museum's National Center for Science Literacy, Education and Technology has leveraged these assets to create a panoply of web-based resources for students, teachers and the general public. This session will review several of these resources, including the Digital Universe (a three-dimensional mapping of the Universe); The Solar System (an online graduate course for K-12 teachers); multimedia highlighting searches for exoplanets and ultra-high-energy cosmic rays; Journey to the Stars (a DVD version of the current planetarium show); and the astronomy section of Ology (a website for children ages 7 and up). A copy of the Journey to the Stars DVD will be provided to all attendees. )

  20. Mass distributions of star clusters for different star formation histories in a galaxy cluster environment

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, Christine; Kroupa, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Clusters of galaxies usually contain rich populations of globular clusters (GCs). We investigate how different star formation histories (SFHs) shape the final mass distribution of star clusters. We assume that every star cluster population forms during a formation epoch of length dt at a constant star-formation rate (SFR). The mass distribution of such a population is described by the embedded cluster mass function (ECMF), which is a pure power law extending to an upper limit M_max. Since the SFR determines M_max, the ECMF implicitly depends on the SFR. Starting with different SFHs, each SFH is divided into formation epochs of length dt at different SFRs. The requested mass function arises from the superposition of the star clusters of all formation epochs. An improved optimal sampling technique is introduced that allows generating number and mass distributions, both of which accurately agree with the ECMF. Moreover, for each SFH the distribution function of all involved SFRs, F(SFR), is computed. For monoton...

  1. Native American/span>s in Cold War Public Diplomacy: Indian Politics, American History, and the US Information Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This essay examines the depiction of Native Americans by the US Information Agency (USIA), the bureau charged with explaining American politics to the international public during the Cold War. In the 1950s and 1960s, the USIA broadcast the message that Americans had begun to acknowledge their nation's history of conquest and were working to…

  2. Influence of subduction history on South American topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, Nicolas; Gurnis, Michael; Müller, R. Dietmar; Bower, Dan J.; Husson, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    The Cenozoic evolution of South American topography is marked by episodes of large-scale uplift and subsidence not readily explained by lithospheric deformation. The drying up of the inland Pebas system, the drainage reversal of the Amazon river, the uplift of the Sierras Pampeanas and the uplift of Patagonia have all been linked to the evolution of mantle flow since the Miocene in separate studies. Here we investigate the evolution of long-wavelength South American topography as a function of subduction history in a time-dependent global geodynamic model. This model is shown to be consistent with these inferred changes, as well as with the migration of the Chaco foreland basin depocentre, that we partly attribute to the inboard migration of subduction resulting from Andean mountain building. We suggest that the history of subduction along South America has had an important influence on the evolution of the topography of the continent because time-dependent mantle flow models are consistent with the history of vertical motions as constrained by the geological record at four distant areas over a whole continent. Testing alternative subduction scenarios reveals flat slab segments are necessary to reconcile inferred Miocene shorelines with a simple model paleogeography. As recently suggested, we find that the flattening of a subduction zone results in dynamic uplift between the leading edge of the flat slab segment and the trench, and in a wave of dynamic subsidence associated with the inboard migration of the leading edge of flat subduction. For example, the flattening of the Peruvian subduction contributed to the demise of Pebas shallow-water sedimentation, while continental-scale tilting also contributed to the drainage reversal of the Amazon River. The best correlation to P-wave tomography models for the Peruvian flat slab segment is obtained for a case when the asthenosphere, here considered to be 150 km thick and 10 times less viscous than the upper mantle, is

  3. The Utilization of Local History in Teaching American Religious History: A Gilded Age and Progressive Era North Dakota Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Christopher Neal

    2013-01-01

    Teachers of college-level courses on American religious history generally leave out the importance of local and regional histories when telling the story of religion in America. The study of local history provides a fertile ground for understanding broad national trends in a local context. This dissertation focuses upon a little-studied religious…

  4. Breaking Away from Progressive History: The Past and Politics in American Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Helo, Ari

    2014-01-01

    This article suggests that, contrary to a widely shared view among American scholars, a progressive view of history is neither essential nor helpful to historical research in American studies—or in any other academic field.

  5. American Heroism Incarnated in Different Ways in the History of America%American Heroism Incarnated in DifferentDiirerent Ways in the History of America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武莹

    2009-01-01

    American heroism is a noble spirit of self-sacrifice and a form of courage,for life,for others,for nation,and even for the whole human-being in recent days.It has been incamated in the American history.

  6. 77 FR 42365 - Price for the Making American History Coin and Currency Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Price for the Making American History Coin and Currency Set AGENCY: United States Mint... for the Making American History Coin and Currency Set. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: B.B....

  7. American Handbooks of Music History: Breadth, Depth, and the Critique of Pedagogy

    OpenAIRE

    C. Matthew Balensuela

    2015-01-01

    American music history textbooks have traditionally covered the entire history of Western music in a single volume. This approach reflects the now dominant teaching methodology at American universities of a multiple-semester survey that covers the breadth of music history from Ancient Greece to modern times. An obvious problem with a broad survey is the lack of depth on issues relevant to current musicological scholarship such as music in society, feminism, archival research, or patronage. As...

  8. Those Who Can't, Teach: The Disabling History of American Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousmaniere, Kate

    2013-01-01

    This essay is an exploratory history of American educators as viewed through the lens of disability studies. By this the author means that she is looking at the history of school teachers with disability as the primary marker of social relations, in much the same way that she and others have looked at the history of education through the primary…

  9. North American Ground Surface Temperature Histories: A Contribution to the PAGES2k North American Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareschal, J. C.; Jaume Santero, F.; Beltrami, H.

    2015-12-01

    Within the framework of the PAGES NorthAmerica2k project, three hundred and seventy three (373) North American temperature-depth profiles from boreholes deeper than 300 meters were analyzed for recent climate. To facilitate comparisons and examine the same time period, the profiles were truncated at 300 m. The ground surface temperature (GST) histories for the last 500 years were inverted from the subsurface temperature anomalies using singular value decomposition for a model of 10 temperature changes along time-intervals of increasing duration. The inversion retains four singular values and accounts for the data acquisition time difference. The reference surface temperature and geothermal gradient were estimated by linear regression to the deepest 100 meters with a 95% confidence interval. Additionally, a Monte-Carlo method was used to find the range of solutions within a maximum subsurface anomaly error determined by the root mean square between the model and the data. The GST history results for North America, given by the mean and 95% confidence interval, reveal in most cases, a warming up to 1°C - 2.5°C during the last 100-150 years.

  10. Performance of cancer cluster Q-statistics for case-control residential histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Chantel D.; Jacquez, Geoffrey M.; Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Ward, Mary H.; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Meliker, Jaymie R.

    2012-01-01

    Few investigations of health event clustering have evaluated residential mobility, though causative exposures for chronic diseases such as cancer often occur long before diagnosis. Recently developed Q-statistics incorporate human mobility into disease cluster investigations by quantifying space- and time-dependent nearest neighbor relationships. Using residential histories from two cancer case-control studies, we created simulated clusters to examine Q-statistic performance. Results suggest the intersection of cases with significant clustering over their life course, Qi, with cases who are constituents of significant local clusters at given times, Qit, yielded the best performance, which improved with increasing cluster size. Upon comparison, a larger proportion of true positives were detected with Kulldorf’s spatial scan method if the time of clustering was provided. We recommend using Q-statistics to identify when and where clustering may have occurred, followed by the scan method to localize the candidate clusters. Future work should investigate the generalizability of these findings. PMID:23149326

  11. American Exceptionalism as a Problem in Global History

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Allen

    2013-01-01

    The causes of the USA's exceptional economic performance are investigated by comparing American wages and prices with wages and prices in Great Britain, Egypt, and India. Habakkuk's views on the causes of American industrial pre-eminence are reassessed. While the USA had abundant natural resources, they did not promote manufacturing since international trade equalized prices in Britain and the USA or American tariffs made resources dearer in the USA. Wages were higher in the USA than in Brita...

  12. Associations among body size dissatisfaction, perceived dietary control, and diet history in African American and European American women

    OpenAIRE

    Chandler-Laney, Paula; Hunter, Gary; Bush, Nikki; Alvarez, Jessica; Roy, Jane; Byrne, Nuala; Gower, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    European American (EA) women report greater body dissatisfaction and less dietary control than do African American (AA) women. This study investigated whether ethnic differences in dieting history contributed to differences in body dissatisfaction and dietary control, or to differential changes that may occur during weight loss and regain. Eighty-nine EA and AA women underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure body composition and completed questionnaires to assess body dissatisfact...

  13. The Economic History of the American Economic Review : A Century's Explosion of Economics Research

    OpenAIRE

    Margo, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Written in celebration of the upcoming 100th anniversary of the American Economic Review (February 2011), this paper recounts the history of the journal. The recounting has an analytic core that sees the American Economic Association as an organization supplying goods and services to its members, one of which is the AER. Early in its history the AER was a multi-purpose publication with highly disparate content. Over time the economics profession expanded and more economics research was produc...

  14. Black Chronicle: An American History Textbook Supplement. Third Edition. Bulletin No. 91546.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailin, Clarence S.

    This book, a revision and updating of a work first published under the same title in 1974, presents a detailed chronological history of African Americans in the United States. The description begins with the origins of Homo sapiens in Africa, and traces the African American story from slavery in North America through the U.S. Civil War, the…

  15. Misplaced Multiculturalism: Representations of American Indians in U.S. History Academic Content Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carl B.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative textual analysis investigates the ideological lenses through which U.S. History content standards for grades 5-12 for Arizona and Washington frame interactions between American Indians and European Americans during U.S. national development. The study's multiperspective critical conceptual framework interrogates the standards not…

  16. Are CRIS Cluster Patterns Differentially Associated with African American Enculturation and Social Distance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Korell, Shannon; Vandiver, Beverly J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether Black racial identity cluster patterns, using Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores, were differentially associated with preference for African American culture and social distance from various cultural groups. African American college students (N = 351) completed the CRIS, an enculturation scale, and a social…

  17. Reconstructing the Merger History of the A3266 Galaxy Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Henriksen, M; Davis, D S; Henriksen, Mark; Davis, David S.

    1999-01-01

    A temperature map of the A3266 galaxy cluster has been derived from the ASCA GIS observations. It shows an asymmetric pattern of heating indicative of an ongoing merger between a group sized sub-cluster and the main cluster. The galaxy distribution shows two peaks connected in a barlike structure running NE to SW through the central region of the main cluster, defining the merger axis. The temperature of the intergalactic medium generally decreases from SW to NE along the merger axis with a peak of 13.2 +3.4/-2.0 keV in a region which is perpendicular to the merger axis and extends through the main cluster density peak. The central bar has a velocity dispersion of ~1300 km/s, compared to density peaks in the distribution of galaxies, yet it has a velocity distribution which is consistent with a single Gaussian. This implies a merger in the plane of the sky. The optical and X-ray data taken together show that a loose group of about ~30 galaxies has penetrated the main cluster from the SW, decoupling from their...

  18. Featured Image: Violent History of the Toothbrush Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    This stunning composite image shows the components of the galaxy cluster RX J0603.3+4214, located at a redshift of z=0.225. This image contains Chandra X-ray data (red), radio data from the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (green), and optical from the Subaru Telescope (background). The shape of the enormous (6.5 million light-years across!) radio relic, shown in green, gives this collection of galaxies its nickname: the Toothbrush Cluster. A team of scientists led by Myungkook James Jee (Yonsei University and University of California, Davis) used Hubble and Subaru to study weak gravitational lensing by the Toothbrush Cluster, in order to determine how the clusters mass is distributed. Jee and collaborators found that most of the dark-matter mass is located in two large clumps on a north-south axis (shown by the white contours overlaid on the image), suggesting that the Toothbrush Cluster is the result of a past merger between two clusters. This violent merger is likely what caused the enormous Toothbrush radio relic. Check out the paper below for more information!CitationM. James Jee et al 2016 ApJ 817 179. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/817/2/179

  19. Performance of cancer cluster Q-statistics for case-control residential histories

    OpenAIRE

    Sloan, Chantel D.; Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Ward, Mary H; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Meliker, Jaymie R.

    2012-01-01

    Few investigations of health event clustering have evaluated residential mobility, though causative exposures for chronic diseases such as cancer often occur long before diagnosis. Recently developed Q-statistics incorporate human mobility into disease cluster investigations by quantifying space- and time-dependent nearest neighbor relationships. Using residential histories from two cancer case-control studies, we created simulated clusters to examine Q-statistic performance. Results suggest ...

  20. A History of Learning Communities within American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, John E.; Inkelas, Karen Kurotsuchi

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the historical development of learning communities within American higher education. We examine the forces both internal and external to higher education that contributed to and stalled the emergence of learning communities in their contemporary form.

  1. Globular cluster content and evolutionary history of NGC147

    CERN Document Server

    Sharina, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of spectroscopic observations of eight globular cluster candidates in NGC147, a satellite dwarf elliptical galaxy of M31. Our goal is to make a complete inventory of the globular cluster system of this galaxy, determine the properties of their stellar populations, and compare these properties with those of systems of globular clusters in other dwarf galaxies. The candidates were identified on Canada-France-Hawaii telescope photographic plates. Medium resolution spectra were obtained with the SCORPIO spectrograph at the prime focus of the 6m telescope of the Russian Academy of Sciences. We were able to confirm the nature of all eight candidates, three of which (GC5, GC7, and GC10) are indeed globular clusters, and to estimate evolutionary parameters for the two brightest ones and for Hodge II. The bright clusters GC5 and GC7 appear to have metallicities ([Z/H]~ -1.5- -1.8) that are lower than the oldest stars in the galaxy. The fainter GC Hodge II has a metallicity [Z/H]=-1.1 dex, simila...

  2. A New Historicist Analysis of the Rewriting of Chinese American History in Donald Duk

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaoxue

    2014-01-01

    Frank Chin creates the methods of recovering the lost history of Chinese Americans in his book Donald Duk. He constructs the male heroism through traditional Chinese culture, challenges American education of history through describing the changing process of Donald’s attitudes towards anything about China, and rewrites his version of Chinese American history by analyzing the relation between dreams and reality. Thus Chin achieves his strategy to subvert “History” with “history.” This paper in...

  3. Deconstructing Black History Month: Three African American Boys' Exploration of Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Melissa Hare

    2012-01-01

    Every February, schools celebrate Black History Month and teachers teach the grand narrative of famous African Americans such as Martin Luther King, Jr. While the stories communicate bravery, they are also about racism and violence. Here, through narrative inquiry, a teacher deconstructs Black History Month, inviting student responses to stories…

  4. Discrimination History, Backlash Fear, and Ethnic Identity among Arab Americans: Post-9/11 Snapshots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia C.; Lambert, Richard G.; Hakim-Larson, Julie

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined discrimination history, backlash fear, and ethnic identity of Arab Americans nationally at 3 times, beginning shortly after September 11, 2001. Relations between variables were moderate, and discrimination history and backlash fear were statistically significant predictors of ethnic identity. Implications for acculturation and…

  5. Latin American Literature as a Source of History: Why It Flies in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macune, Charles W., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the use of novels in a Latin American history course. Provides a theoretical basis for the course. Outlines course format, class assignments, and reading lists. Points out the value of the novel to students in understanding the history of Latin America. (RW)

  6. Including Religion in American History: Some Notes on Student Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbert, Kevin M.; Romanowski, Michael H.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the importance of teaching religion in U.S. history courses. Discusses problems that teachers encounter when teaching religion, addresses the issue of students resisting learning about religion in the history classroom, and explores how teachers can reduce this resistance. Includes references. (CMK)

  7. Emerging from the Shadows: The Visual Arts and Asian American History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon H Chang

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Asian American Art: A History, 1850-1970, the book from which this foreword is excerpted, is the first comprehensive study of the lives and artistic production of artists of Asian ancestry active in the United States before 1970. The publication features original essays by ten leading scholars, biographies of more than 150 artists, and over 400 reproductions of artwork, ephemera, and images of the artists. Aside from a few artists such as Dong Kingman, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Isamu Noguchi, and Yun Gee, artists of Asian ancestry have received inadequate historical attention, even though many of them received wide critical acclaim during their productive years. This pioneering work recovers the extraordinarily impressive artistic production of numerous Asian Americans, and offers richly informed interpretations of a long-neglected art history. To unravel the complexity of Asian American art expression and its vital place in American art, the texts consider aesthetics, the social structures of art production and criticism, and national and international historical contexts. Without a doubt, Asian American Art will profoundly influence our understanding of the history of art in America and the Asian American experience for years to come. Chang, Gordon H., Mark Johnson, and Paul Karlstrom, eds. Asian American Art: A History, 1850-1970. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2008. Reprinted with the permission of Stanford University Press. http://www.sup.org

  8. Emerging from the Shadows: The Visual Arts and Asian American History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon H Chang

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Asian American Art: A History, 1850-1970, the book from which this foreword is excerpted, is the first comprehensive study of the lives and artistic production of artists of Asian ancestry active in the United States before 1970. The publication features original essays by ten leading scholars, biographies of more than 150 artists, and over 400 reproductions of artwork, ephemera, and images of the artists. Aside from a few artists such as Dong Kingman, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Isamu Noguchi, and Yun Gee, artists of Asian ancestry have received inadequate historical attention, even though many of them received wide critical acclaim during their productive years. This pioneering work recovers the extraordinarily impressive artistic production of numerous Asian Americans, and offers richly informed interpretations of a long-neglected art history. To unravel the complexity of Asian American art expression and its vital place in American art, the texts consider aesthetics, the social structures of art production and criticism, and national and international historical contexts. Without a doubt, Asian American Art will profoundly influence our understanding of the history of art in America and the Asian American experience for years to come. Chang, Gordon H., Mark Johnson, and Paul Karlstrom, eds. Asian American Art: A History, 1850-1970. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2008. Reprinted with the permission of Stanford University Press. http://www.sup.org

  9. Fire resistance in American heavy timber construction history and preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Heitz, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents a history of heavy timber construction (HTC) in the United States, chronicling nearly two centuries of building history, from inception to a detailed evaluation of one of the best surviving examples of the type, with an emphasis on fire resistance. The book does not limit itself in scope to serving only as a common history. Rather, it provides critical analysis of HTC in terms of construction methods, design, technical specifications, and historical performance under fire conditions. As such, this book provides readers with a truly comprehensive understanding and exploration of heavy timber construction in the United States and its performance under fire conditions.

  10. Bayesian History Reconstruction of Complex Human Gene Clusters on a Phylogeny

    CERN Document Server

    Vinař, Tomáš; Song, Giltae; Siepel, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Clusters of genes that have evolved by repeated segmental duplication present difficult challenges throughout genomic analysis, from sequence assembly to functional analysis. Improved understanding of these clusters is of utmost importance, since they have been shown to be the source of evolutionary innovation, and have been linked to multiple diseases, including HIV and a variety of cancers. Previously, Zhang et al. (2008) developed an algorithm for reconstructing parsimonious evolutionary histories of such gene clusters, using only human genomic sequence data. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic model for the evolution of gene clusters on a phylogeny, and an MCMC algorithm for reconstruction of duplication histories from genomic sequences in multiple species. Several projects are underway to obtain high quality BAC-based assemblies of duplicated clusters in multiple species, and we anticipate that our method will be useful in analyzing these valuable new data sets.

  11. Return to Old Times: Rural Romanticism in American Education History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Donald

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the rural-urban dichotomy that regularly surfaces in educational history and argues that a full understanding of the role of cities is needed to overcome a rural romanticism that ill-serves public education policy. (CMG)

  12. New Perspectives on the History of American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Emily; Delaporte, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Examinations of the etymology of American Sign Language have typically involved superficial analyses of signs as they exist over a short period of time. While it is widely known that ASL is related to French Sign Language, there has yet to be a comprehensive study of this historic relationship between their lexicons. This article presents…

  13. Comments on the Short History of American Linguistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王广俊

    2008-01-01

    @@ This book is one of the Series of Mordern Linguistics and it is compiled by Z hao Shikai(赵世开).It offers the readers the general picture of American linguist ic developing course. Generally speaking,the content of the book can be roughly divided into three parts.

  14. The Paranoid Style in American History of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Reisch

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Historian Richard Hofstadter’s observations about American cold-war politics are used to contextualize Thomas Kuhn’s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions and argue that substantive claims about the nature of scientific knowledge and scientific change found in Structure were adopted from this cold-war political culture

  15. Asian American Transnational Literature and United States American Cold War History

    OpenAIRE

    Šesnič, Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Starting with the observation that the Korean War is not properly represented in American historiography nor accounted for in American cultural memory, the article contends that it is only recently with the new wave of Asian (Korean) American authors that the war gets the recognition it deserves. The revision of the Korean War takes place in the ambit of an Asian American critique, as recently articulated by Jodi Kim, that re-centers attention from the European to the Asian axis of the Cold W...

  16. Life Histories of Three Exemplary American Physical Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazers, Gunars

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the following article-style dissertation was to present the life histories of three exemplary physical educators, to give them voice, explore ways in which they experienced marginalization, and describe how they persevered in spite of difficulties they experienced in their careers. The participants included (a) Robin, a female…

  17. Hanoi and the American War: Two International Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey C. Stewart

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pierre Asselin, Hanoi’s Road to the Vietnam War, 1954-1965. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013. 319 pp. $55 (cloth Lien-Hang T. Nguyen, Hanoi’s War: An International History of the War for Peace in Vietnam. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2012. 444 pp. $34.95 (cloth.

  18. Latin American Journal of Psychology: Four Decades of History: 1969-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Gallegos

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the history of Latin American Journal of Psychology (RLP) in the last four decades (1969-2009). From the beginning, the RLP has sustained its editorial quality, three numbers a year, different theoretical perspectives and methodologies, authors from different countries, etc. Original editor’s motivations and interests are presented, also editorial indicators descriptions are analyzed showing the relevance of the Journal both in Latin American and international context. It...

  19. Space-time clusters of breast cancer using residential histories: A Danish case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Meliker, Jaymie R.; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Background A large proportion of breast cancer cases are thought related to environmental factors. Identification of specific geographical areas with high risk (clusters) may give clues to potential environmental risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate whether clusters of breast cancer existed in space and time in Denmark, using 33 years of residential histories. Methods We conducted a population-based case–control study of 3138 female cases from the Danish Cancer Registry, dia...

  20. Merged or monolithic? Using machine-learning to reconstruct the dynamical history of simulated star clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquato, Mario; Chung, Chul

    2016-01-01

    Context. Machine-Learning (ML) solves problems by learning patterns from data, with limited or no human guidance. In Astronomy, it is mainly applied to large observational datasets, e.g. for morphological galaxy classification. Aims. We apply ML to gravitational N-body simulations of star clusters that are either formed by merging two progenitors or evolved in isolation, planning to later identify Globular Clusters (GCs) that may have a history of merging from observational data. Methods. We ...

  1. Integrating Women's History into an Early American History Course: Three Lesson Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Sarah; Williams, Lisa; Fralinger, Meghan

    2008-01-01

    The authors present three lesson ideas that integrate women's history into the curriculum and that support the development of important social studies skills. The first lesson, for teachers to use at the beginning of the school year, encourages students to think critically about the nature of history and the importance of understanding the point…

  2. Phonetic study of North American languages history and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddieson, Ian

    2005-04-01

    Serious phonetic study of North America languages started at the beginning of the 20th century. Within limits of available technology, aspects of speech articulation, aerodynamics and acoustics were investigated. One clear motivation was to understand how classes of sounds unfamiliar from study of better-known European and Asian languages were produced. Glottalized consonants and stops then referred to as ``intermediate'' (voiceless unaspirated) received particular attention. Nasal airflow, lip position in vowels, and tone and pitch accent were also investigated. Significant insights on relative timing were obtained, inter alia foreshadowing VOT measurement as a useful discriminator of laryngeal activity and revealing part of the mechanism by which ejective consonants are made. After the 1920's, the idea of ``psychologically real'' phonemes which ignored phonetic differences became the ruling paradigm in American linguistics, contributing to a decline of interest in phonetic studies that basically lasted until around the 1980's. When interest renewed, a new vision that phonetic patterns show regularities independent of phonemic structure guided research, and considerable attention was also paid to how indigenous American languages fit into overall phonetic typologies. Recent work is also often informed by concern for documentation of endangered languages and community interest in language revival.

  3. Case-control geographic clustering for residential histories accounting for risk factors and covariates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goovaerts Pierre

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methods for analyzing space-time variation in risk in case-control studies typically ignore residential mobility. We develop an approach for analyzing case-control data for mobile individuals and apply it to study bladder cancer in 11 counties in southeastern Michigan. At this time data collection is incomplete and no inferences should be drawn – we analyze these data to demonstrate the novel methods. Global, local and focused clustering of residential histories for 219 cases and 437 controls is quantified using time-dependent nearest neighbor relationships. Business address histories for 268 industries that release known or suspected bladder cancer carcinogens are analyzed. A logistic model accounting for smoking, gender, age, race and education specifies the probability of being a case, and is incorporated into the cluster randomization procedures. Sensitivity of clustering to definition of the proximity metric is assessed for 1 to 75 k nearest neighbors. Results Global clustering is partly explained by the covariates but remains statistically significant at 12 of the 14 levels of k considered. After accounting for the covariates 26 Local clusters are found in Lapeer, Ingham, Oakland and Jackson counties, with the clusters in Ingham and Oakland counties appearing in 1950 and persisting to the present. Statistically significant focused clusters are found about the business address histories of 22 industries located in Oakland (19 clusters, Ingham (2 and Jackson (1 counties. Clusters in central and southeastern Oakland County appear in the 1930's and persist to the present day. Conclusion These methods provide a systematic approach for evaluating a series of increasingly realistic alternative hypotheses regarding the sources of excess risk. So long as selection of cases and controls is population-based and not geographically biased, these tools can provide insights into geographic risk factors that were not specifically

  4. Customized recommendations for production management clusters of North American automatic milking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Marlène; Hess, Justin P; Christenson, Brock M; McIntyre, Kolby K; Smink, Ben; van der Kamp, Arjen J; de Jong, Lisanne G; Döpfer, Dörte

    2016-07-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) are implemented in a variety of situations and environments. Consequently, there is a need to characterize individual farming practices and regional challenges to streamline management advice and objectives for producers. Benchmarking is often used in the dairy industry to compare farms by computing percentile ranks of the production values of groups of farms. Grouping for conventional benchmarking is commonly limited to the use of a few factors such as farms' geographic region or breed of cattle. We hypothesized that herds' production data and management information could be clustered in a meaningful way using cluster analysis and that this clustering approach would yield better peer groups of farms than benchmarking methods based on criteria such as country, region, breed, or breed and region. By applying mixed latent-class model-based cluster analysis to 529 North American AMS dairy farms with respect to 18 significant risk factors, 6 clusters were identified. Each cluster (i.e., peer group) represented unique management styles, challenges, and production patterns. When compared with peer groups based on criteria similar to the conventional benchmarking standards, the 6 clusters better predicted milk produced (kilograms) per robot per day. Each cluster represented a unique management and production pattern that requires specialized advice. For example, cluster 1 farms were those that recently installed AMS robots, whereas cluster 3 farms (the most northern farms) fed high amounts of concentrates through the robot to compensate for low-energy feed in the bunk. In addition to general recommendations for farms within a cluster, individual farms can generate their own specific goals by comparing themselves to farms within their cluster. This is very comparable to benchmarking but adds the specific characteristics of the peer group, resulting in better farm management advice. The improvement that cluster analysis allows for is

  5. The Constraints of History: Revision and Revolution in American Literary Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carafiol, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Asserts that rigorous historicism might change the following: (1) American literary study, by dropping the traditional nationalist project; (2) the notion of canon, by abandoning it; (3) and the institutional structure that supports academic literary criticism, by interrogating current critical conversation and, by recuperating its history,…

  6. 77 FR 11567 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... museum, institution or Federal agency that has control of the Native American cultural items. The... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: American Museum of Natural History... Natural History, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, has determined that cultural...

  7. Synopsis of History of American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology 1958-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To provide a synopsis of the history of the association of radiation oncologists in the United States, currently known as the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO), with the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the organization. Methods and Materials: The history of ASTRO, from its beginning as the American Club of Therapeutic Radiologists, is the subject of a book that is to be released with the occasion of the 50th Annual Meeting of the Society in 2008. This book was prepared by members of ASTRO's History Committee and History Working Subcommittee. The source material for the book was the archives of the Society and recorded interviews, conducted by members of the subcommittee, of members of the Society and of the past and present Society staff. The book was also based on previously published material. This article used the source material used for the Society anniversary book. Results: This synopsis of the history of the Society will provide a source of reference for anyone interested in the history of the Society from its foundation in 1958 to the present, 2008

  8. From Wilderness to Environment: The Role of ‘Nature’ in Western American History from Frederick Jackson Turner to Donald Worster and the New Western History

    OpenAIRE

    Schiffhauer, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation examines the role of ‘nature’ as an analytic concept in Western American History from the emergence of the field at the end of the nineteenth century to the formation of the New Western History in the late 1980s. Starting with an analysis of Frederick Jackson Turner’s concept of the ‘wilderness’ in “The Significance of the Frontier in American History” in 1893, the dissertation traces the evolution of Western ...

  9. Manifest Meanings: The Selling (Not Telling) of American Indian History and the Case of "The Black Horse Ledger"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gercken, Becca

    2010-01-01

    What is the value or perceived necessity--for an Indian or for a white man--of changing Northern Cheyenne history? How are a reader's conclusions affected by her perception of the race of the person altering that history? Why is it acceptable to sell but not tell American Indian history? An examination of the visual and discursive rhetoric of "The…

  10. The Incorporation of Deaf American Culture and History in Secondary Education Classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Bilingual-Bicultural Education (Bi-Bi) has a positive impact on language development and social-psychological development of Deaf children (Baker, 2011; Scott, 2010; Humphries & Humphries, 2010). This development is predicated on the child’s access to American Sign Language (ASL); however, the role of Deaf culture and history in Bi-Bi is not well-defined (Ladd, 2003). Children at Bi-Bi schools and programs often acquire cultural aspects through social interactions among their Deaf acquaintanc...

  11. Student Attitudes toward Technology Enhanced History Education: Comparison between Turkish and American Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Turan

    2010-01-01

    Similar with all educational approaches in technology enhanced instruction teacher and student attitudes toward the new approach plays a critical role in determining its effectiveness. The purpose of the study is to examine Turkish and American student attitudes and thoughts toward the use of educational technologies in history courses and the factors that might affect their attitudes. The study also aims to compare the results to determine whether there are any differences between the attitu...

  12. Post Civil War African American History: Brief Periods of Triumph, and Then Despair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Gilda

    2016-01-01

    During Reconstruction, which is often called the most progressive period in American history, African Americans made great strides. By 1868 African American men constituted a majority of registered voters in South Carolina and Mississippi, and by 1870 eighty-five percent of Mississippi's black jurors could read and write. However, Reconstruction was followed by approximately one hundred years of Jim Crow laws, lynching, disenfranchisement, sharecropping, unequal educational resources, terrorism, racial caricatures, and convict leasing. The Civil Rights Revolution finally ended that period of despair, but the era of mass incarceration can be understood as a reaction to the Civil Rights Movement. This article attempts to understand the persistence of racism in the United States from slavery's end until the present. PMID:27108470

  13. The IMF and star formation history of the stellar clusters in the Vela D cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massi, F.; Testi, L.; Vanzi, L.

    2006-03-01

    Aims.We present the results of a Near-Infrared deep photometric survey of a sample of six embedded star clusters in the Vela-D molecular cloud, all associated with luminous (˜ 103 L⊙) IRAS sources. The clusters are unlikely to be older than a few 106 yrs, since all are still associated with molecular gas.Methods.We employed the fact that all clusters lie at the same distance and were observed with the same instrumental setting to derive their properties in a consistent way, being affected by the same instrumental and observational biases. We extracted the clusters' K Luminosity Functions and developed a simple method to correct them for extinction, based on colour-magnitude diagrams. The reliability of the method has been tested by constructing synthetic clusters from theoretical tracks for pre-main sequence stars and a standard Initial Mass Function. The clusters' Initial Mass Functions have been derived from the dereddened K Luminosity Functions by adopting a set of pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks and assuming coeval star formation.Results.All clusters are small (˜ 100 members) and compact (radius ˜ 0.1-0.2 pc); their most massive stars are intermediate-mass (˜ 2-10 M⊙) ones. The dereddened K Luminosity Functions are likely to arise from the same distribution, suggesting that the selected clusters have quite similar Initial Mass Functions and star formation histories. The Initial Mass Functions are consistent with those derived for field stars and clusters. Adding them together we found that the "global" Initial Mass Function appears steeper at the high-mass end and exhibits a drop-off at ˜ 10 M⊙. In fact, a standard Initial Mass Function would predict a star with M > 22.5 M⊙ within one of the clusters, which is not found. Hence, either high-mass stars need larger clusters to be formed, or the Initial Mass Function of the single clusters is steeper at the high-mass end because of the physical conditions in the parental gas.

  14. Chao Fa Movies: The Transnational Production of Hmong American History and Identity by Ian G. Baird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Baird

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Films made by and for particular social and ethnic peoples can reveal a great deal about identity issues. Here, I examine the cultural production, the content, and the socio-cultural and political significance of three Chao Fa-inspired Hmong films produced at Khek Noi, Thailand by Hmong American producers working with largely Hmong Thai actors. The first two, Chao Fa 1 and 2, were directed in 2009 by Kou Thao. The third, Vaj Tuam Thawj – The Legend of Chao Fa, was put together by Jimmy Vang, in 2010. Even though these Chao Fa films are fictional, they attempt to depict events and circumstances that are familiar to many first generation Hmong Americans, and they can muster strong emotions from people who see them as depicting factual history. In addition, just like many other American youth, many 1.5 generation Hmong are tied together by shared media experiences, including Hmong movies. Thus, the Chao Fa movies are important for producing and reproducing, reinforcing and dispersing ideas related to Hmong American identity and culture. They tell stories of the Hmong being oppressed by many different groups, and this history suggests why many Hmong—not only the Chao Fa—have long desired the type of independence and freedom from prejudice and discrimination that they imagine would come if the Hmong only had their own nation state.

  15. The oral histories of six African American males in their ecology of Advanced Placement Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasa, Katrina Bassam

    The major purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the past in order to understand the complex phenomenon of students engaging in science (Newman, Ridenour, Newman, & DeMarco, 2003) specifically through the oral histories of six self-identified African American males enrolled in a high school Advanced Placement Biology class and the oral histories about events that followed during their post high school experiences. To elucidate an understanding of this phenomenon, this research explored the ecology of African American males' descriptions of their school science, their peer school science community, their lived experiences during and after graduation, and their meso-community (Bronfenbrenner, 1979). Many minority and low-income students are less likely to enroll in rigorous courses during high school (Education Trust, 2006). This study is of utmost importance because capturing the informants' oral histories may improve rigorous science education. Many African American male students are attending urban schools with an ever growing achievement gap among their White counterparts (Norman, Ault, Bentz, & Meskimen, 2001); therefore, they are disengaging in science. As a result, African American males are underrepresented in both science careers and achievements in science (Atwater, 2000; National Science Foundation, 1994). The six oral histories highlighted the ecological factors that affected African American males regarding (1) the impact of their relationship with their mothers, (2) the understanding of personal responsibility, (3) the notion of a scientist, (4) the issue of gender being more of an obstacle than race, (5) the understanding that education is valuable, (6) the interactions and influence of relationships with others on their decisions, (7) the development of integrity through the participation in sports, (8) the ecological neighborhood environment influences an image, (9) the enrollment of Advanced Placement Biology course helped the transition

  16. Risk Reduction for HIV-Positive African American and Latino Men with Histories of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, John K.; Wyatt, Gail E.; Rivkin, Inna; Ramamurthi, Hema Codathi; Li, Xiaomin; Liu, Honghu

    2008-01-01

    While the HIV epidemic has disproportionately affected African American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM), few HIV prevention interventions have focused on African American and Latino men who have sex with both men and women (MSMW). Even fewer interventions target HIV-positive African American and Latino MSM and MSMW with histories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), a population that may be vulnerable to high-risk sexual behaviors, having multiple sexual partners, and depression. The M...

  17. Suzaku Observations of Chemical Enrcihment History of Galaxy Cluster A3112

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Cemile; Nihal Ercan, Enise; Bulbul, Esra

    2016-07-01

    Galaxy clusters are known as grand reservoir of metals as their intracluster medium (ICM) are gradually enriched by supernova (SN) explosions. The azimuthal and spatial distributions of these metals from cluster's centre out to the virial radius are of vital importance since they record all the information on nucleosynthesis and chemical enrichment history of the formation. In this study, we present results from Suzaku observations of an archetypal cluster A3112 out to ˜1470 kpc. We additionally used overlapping Chandra observations to detect unresolved point sources. We studied the total number of SN explosions and the ratio of type Ia (SN Ia) to core-collapse (SNcc) integrated over the cluster lifetime by directly fitting the X-ray spectra. We investigated almost flat radial distribution of the relative contribution of SN Ia to SNcc and the percentage of SN Ia contributing to ICM is found to be 10%-25%. We also studied the α element (Mg, Si and S) abundances. Ultimate results will be presented and they are expected to unravel the enrichment type of the evolution.

  18. Merged or monolithic? Using machine-learning to reconstruct the dynamical history of simulated star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Pasquato, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Context. Machine-Learning (ML) solves problems by learning patterns from data, with limited or no human guidance. In Astronomy, it is mainly applied to large observational datasets, e.g. for morphological galaxy classification. Aims. We apply ML to gravitational N-body simulations of star clusters that are either formed by merging two progenitors or evolved in isolation, planning to later identify Globular Clusters (GCs) that may have a history of merging from observational data. Methods. We create mock-observations from simulated GCs, from which we measure a set of parameters (also called features in the machine-learning field). After dimensionality reduction on the feature space, the resulting datapoints are fed to various classification algorithms. Using repeated random subsampling validation we check whether the groups identified by the algorithms correspond to the underlying physical distinction between mergers and monolithically evolved simulations. Results. The three algorithms we considered (C5.0 tree...

  19. 75 FR 58426 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Thomas Gilcrease Institute of American History and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... History and Art, Tulsa, OK AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is here given... American History and Art (Gilcrease Museum), Tulsa, OK, that meet the definition of objects of cultural... spiritual significance and sacred power for the Osage people requiring protection of these objects...

  20. Love Song of the Foreign Liberator: Teaching Tibetan History to American Students in the PRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Cathcart

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article takes as its point of departure 'Love Song of Kangding '(康定情歌, ''a romantic film from fall 2010 which propagandizes the positive consequences of the liberation of Tibetan cultural areas by the People’s Liberation Army (PLA in 1950-51.  The article describes how the film fit into a semester-long course on contemporary Tibet taught to American students in Chengdu, Sichuan, and the particular sensitivities and difficulties relating to learning about Tibetan history in China.     ''

  1. Targeting American Women: Movie Marketing, Genre History, and the Hollywood Women-in-Danger Film

    OpenAIRE

    Nowell, Richard

    2013-01-01

    By concentrating on elements of film content and the cultural politics of feminist activists, scholars have suggested that Hollywood’s women-in-danger films of the early 1980s represented the greatest misogynist trend in the history of American cinema. However, by focusing on the marketing of such films as Dressed to Kill (Brian De Palma, 1980), He Knows You’re Alone (Armand Mastroianni, 1980), and The Fan (Ed Bianchi, 1981), it is clear that Hollywood distributors consistently framed these t...

  2. STAR FORMATION HISTORIES IN A CLUSTER ENVIRONMENT AT z ∼ 0.84

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a spectrophotometric analysis of galaxies belonging to the dynamically young, massive cluster RX J0152.7-1357 at z ∼ 0.84, aimed at understanding the effects of the cluster environment on the star formation history (SFH) of cluster galaxies and the assembly of the red sequence (RS). We use VLT/FORS spectroscopy, ACS/WFC optical, and NTT/SofI near-IR data to characterize SFHs as a function of color, luminosity, morphology, stellar mass, and local environment from a sample of 134 spectroscopic members. In order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, individual galaxy spectra are stacked according to these properties. Moreover, the D4000, Balmer, CN3883, Fe4383, and C4668 indices are also quantified. The SFH analysis shows that galaxies in the blue faint-end of the RS have on average younger stars (Δt ∼ 2 Gyr) than those in the red bright-end. We also found, for a given luminosity range, differences in age (Δt ∼ 0.5-1.3 Gyr) as a function of color, indicating that the intrinsic scatter of the RS may be due to age variations. Passive galaxies in the blue faint-end of the RS are preferentially located in the low density areas of the cluster, likely being objects entering the RS from the 'blue cloud'. It is likely that the quenching of the star formation of these RS galaxies is due to interaction with the intracluster medium. Furthermore, the SFH of galaxies in the RS as a function of stellar mass reveals signatures of 'downsizing' in the overall cluster.

  3. The Truth about Truth-Telling in American Medicine: A Brief History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, Bryan; Frankel, Richard; Kodish, Eric; Harry Isaacson, J

    2016-01-01

    Transparency has become an ethical cornerstone of American medicine. Today, patients have the right to know their health information, and physicians are obliged to provide it. It is expected that patients will be informed of their medical condition regardless of the severity or prognosis. This ethos of transparency is ingrained in modern trainees from the first day of medical school onward. However, for most of American history, the intentional withholding of information was the accepted norm in medical practice. It was not until 1979 that a majority of physicians reported disclosing cancer diagnoses to their patients. To appreciate the current state of the physician-patient relationship, it is important to understand how physician-patient communication has developed over time and the forces that led to these changes. In this article, we trace the ethics and associated practices of truth-telling during the past two centuries, and outline the many pressures that influenced physician behavior during that time period. We conclude that the history of disclosure is not yet finished, as physicians still struggle to find the best way to share difficult information without causing undue harm to their patients. PMID:27352417

  4. Merged or monolithic? Using machine-learning to reconstruct the dynamical history of simulated star clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquato, Mario; Chung, Chul

    2016-05-01

    Context. Machine-learning (ML) solves problems by learning patterns from data with limited or no human guidance. In astronomy, ML is mainly applied to large observational datasets, e.g. for morphological galaxy classification. Aims: We apply ML to gravitational N-body simulations of star clusters that are either formed by merging two progenitors or evolved in isolation, planning to later identify globular clusters (GCs) that may have a history of merging from observational data. Methods: We create mock-observations from simulated GCs, from which we measure a set of parameters (also called features in the machine-learning field). After carrying out dimensionality reduction on the feature space, the resulting datapoints are fed in to various classification algorithms. Using repeated random subsampling validation, we check whether the groups identified by the algorithms correspond to the underlying physical distinction between mergers and monolithically evolved simulations. Results: The three algorithms we considered (C5.0 trees, k-nearest neighbour, and support-vector machines) all achieve a test misclassification rate of about 10% without parameter tuning, with support-vector machines slightly outperforming the others. The first principal component of feature space correlates with cluster concentration. If we exclude it from the regression, the performance of the algorithms is only slightly reduced.

  5. Clustering, persistence and control of a pollinator brood disease: epidemiology of American foulbrood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mill, Aileen C; Rushton, Steven P; Shirley, Mark D F; Smith, Graham C; Mason, Phil; Brown, Mike A; Budge, Giles E

    2014-12-01

    American foulbrood (AFB), caused by Paenibacillus larvae, is the most damaging bacterial brood disease of the honeybee (Apis mellifera), causing colony deaths on all continents where honeybees are managed. AFB has been a persistent problem in the UK for over 70 years, with a fluctuating number of cases discovered annually. Once diseased colonies are identified, they are destroyed to reduce pathogen spread. We investigated the pattern of AFB cases recorded over the period 1994 to 2012 using spatial-statistical approaches, with a view to identifying the nature of spread across England and Wales. Our results indicated that AFB exhibits significant spatial aggregation at distances from 10 to 30 km, with aggregations lasting between 1 and 5 years. Kernel smoothing indicated areas of elevated relative risk in different years, and these were further detailed by spatial-scan statistics. We identified disease clusters and successfully estimated their size, location and duration. The majority of clusters did not persist in all years, indicating that management measures may lead to localized extinction of the disease. Whilst less common, persistent clusters likely indicate potential endemic or exotic risk points. The application of robust epidemiological approaches to improve the control of AFB is discussed. PMID:24119163

  6. Assessing DNA Barcodes for Species Identification in North American Reptiles and Amphibians in Natural History Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, E. Anne; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2016-01-01

    Background High rates of species discovery and loss have led to the urgent need for more rapid assessment of species diversity in the herpetofauna. DNA barcoding allows for the preliminary identification of species based on sequence divergence. Prior DNA barcoding work on reptiles and amphibians has revealed higher biodiversity counts than previously estimated due to cases of cryptic and undiscovered species. Past studies have provided DNA barcodes for just 14% of the North American herpetofauna, revealing the need for expanded coverage. Methodology/Principal Findings This study extends the DNA barcode reference library for North American herpetofauna, assesses the utility of this approach in aiding species delimitation, and examines the correspondence between current species boundaries and sequence clusters designated by the BIN system. Sequences were obtained from 730 specimens, representing 274 species (43%) from the North American herpetofauna. Mean intraspecific divergences were 1% and 3%, while average congeneric sequence divergences were 16% and 14% in amphibians and reptiles, respectively. BIN assignments corresponded with current species boundaries in 79% of amphibians, 100% of turtles, and 60% of squamates. Deep divergences (>2%) were noted in 35% of squamate and 16% of amphibian species, and low divergences (<2%) occurred in 12% of reptiles and 23% of amphibians, patterns reflected in BIN assignments. Sequence recovery declined with specimen age, and variation in recovery success was noted among collections. Within collections, barcodes effectively flagged seven mislabeled tissues, and barcode fragments were recovered from five formalin-fixed specimens. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates that DNA barcodes can effectively flag errors in museum collections, while BIN splits and merges reveal taxa belonging to deeply diverged or hybridizing lineages. This study is the first effort to compile a reference library of DNA barcodes for herpetofauna

  7. Posttraumatic Cognitions, Somatization, and PTSD severity among Asian American and White College Women with Sexual Trauma Histories

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, Kelly H.; Nguyen, Hong V.; Gilmore, Amanda K.; Blayney, Jessica A.; Kaysen, Debra L.

    2014-01-01

    The need for trauma research with monoracial groups such as Asian Americans (AA) has recently been emphasized to better understand trauma experiences and inform interventions across populations. Given AA cultural contexts, posttraumatic cognitions and somatization may be key in understanding trauma experiences for this group. AA and White American (WA) trauma-exposed college women completed a survey on sexual trauma history, posttraumatic cognitions, somatic symptoms, and PTSD severity. For t...

  8. Online Physics Education Resources from the American Museum of Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Robert

    2006-04-01

    Through its National Center for Science Literacy, Education and Technology, the American Museum of Natural History has created a rich array of physics education resources for teachers, students and the general public. Many of these resources, which include essays, images, videos and interactive simulations, leverage ongoing research within the Division of Physical Sciences at the Museum as well as exhibitions and specimens from the Museum's collections. The online resources featured include Science Bulletins (current research and recent discoveries) , Ology (a website for children), Resources for Learning (a searchable database of curricular resources) and Seminars on Science (online teacher professional development). The genesis of these projects, their underlying strategies and their implementation will be reviewed. Sample resources will be presented, including colliding galaxies, the tracking of near-Earth asteroids, Einstein's legacy and geophysics. A CD of physics resources from the Museum will be provided to attendees.

  9. The House, the Street and the Brothel: Gender in Latin American History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Kuznesof

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article delineates scholarship in Latin American history (mostly in English defined by gender relations and/or focused on women. From 1492 until 1750, the honor code, the process of miscegenation or race mixture, and property rights are emphasized. Scholarship has overturned the traditional view that colonial households and production were invariably patriarchal, since between 25 to 45 percent of households were headed by women. Illegitimacy and consensual unions were found to be prevalent principally among the non-white and non-elite populations. From 1750 to 1930, profound and contradictory changes included a secularization process that caused women’s loss of many colonial protections. However, new opportunities developed for women’s employment and control of property. Women were essentially controlled within the private sphere during the colonial period, but that control moved to the workplace in the nineteenth century, and to the state in the early twentieth century. Gender was an important discourse in struggles to define the nation-state, with prostitution and disease as central themes. In the twentieth century social historians have demonstrated the differential gender impacts of economic and technological change brought by development projects, industrialization, and shifting strategies of multinational corporations. The most striking contributions of recent books on gender in Latin America include the continuing significance of honor after independence. Motherhood is another recurring theme in writings about women and their history in Latin America.

  10. Four and one more: The formation history and total mass of globular clusters in the Fornax dSph

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, T. J. L.; Fraser, M.

    2016-05-01

    We have determined the detailed star formation history and total mass of the globular clusters in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal using archival HST WFPC2 data. Colour-magnitude diagrams were constructed in the F555W and F814W bands and corrected for the effect of Fornax field star contamination, after which we used the routine Talos to derive the quantitative star formation history as a function of age and metallicity. The star formation history of the Fornax globular clusters shows that Fornax 1, 2, 3, and 5 are all dominated by ancient (>10 Gyr) populations. Clusters Fornax 1, 2, and 3 display metallicities as low as [Fe/H] = -2.5, while Fornax 5 is slightly more metal-rich at [Fe/H] = -1.8, consistent with resolved and unresolved metallicity tracers. Conversely, Fornax 4 is dominated by a more metal-rich ([Fe/H] = -1.2) and younger population at 10 Gyr, inconsistent with the other clusters. A lack of stellar populations overlapping with the main body of Fornax argues against the nucleus cluster scenario for Fornax 4. The combined stellar mass in globular clusters as derived from the SFH is (9.57 ± 0.93) × 105 M⊙, which corresponds to 2.5 ± 0.2 percent of the total stellar mass in Fornax. The mass of the four most metal-poor clusters can also be compared to the metal-poor Fornax field to yield a mass fraction of 19.6 ± 3.1 percent. Therefore, the SFH results provide separate supporting evidence for the unusually high mass fraction of the globular clusters compared to the Fornax field population.

  11. The Trouble with Unifying Narratives: African Americans and the Civil Rights Movement in U.S. History Content Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carl B.

    2013-01-01

    This textual analysis is a collective case study of K-12 United States History content standards in light of how they represent the historical experiences of African Americans during the Civil Rights Movement. The study uses a multi-perspective critical conceptual framework to evaluate the standards for nine state-level polities on both the…

  12. African American History, Race and Textbooks: An Examination of the Works of Harold O. Rugg and Carter G. Woodson

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, LaGarrett J.; Davis, Christopher; Brown, Anthony L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes that as a way to broaden the theoretical and historical context of social studies foundational literature and curriculum history, attention must be given to issues of race and racism related the experiences of African Americans. First, race and racism should be used as an analytical tool to examine longstanding foundations…

  13. Four and one more: The formation history and total mass of globular clusters in the Fornax dSph

    CERN Document Server

    de Boer, T J L

    2015-01-01

    We have determined the detailed star formation history and total mass of the globular clusters in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal using archival HST WFPC2 data. Colour magnitude diagrams are constructed in the F555W and F814W bands and corrected for the effect of Fornax field star contamination, after which we use the routine Talos to derive the quantitative star formation history as a function of age and metallicity. The star formation history of the Fornax globular clusters shows that Fornax 1, 2, 3 and 5 are all dominated by ancient~(>10 Gyr) populations. Cluster Fornax 1 and 3 display metallicities as low as [Fe/H]=-2.5 while Fornax 2 and 5 are slightly more metal-rich at [Fe/H]=-2.0, consistent with resolved and unresolved metallicity tracers. Conversely, Fornax 4 displays a more extended star formation history dominated by metal-rich~([Fe/H]=-1.4 dex) stars, with an age of ~10 Gyr, inconsistent with the other clusters. Its central location and complex population mix favours the proposed model that it might ...

  14. Defensive Localism in White and Black: A Comparative History of European-American and African-American Youth Gangs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Compares European American and African American youth gangs in four historical periods (seaboard, immigrant, racially changing, and hypersegregated cities), showing that differences can be traced to race-specific effects of labor, housing, and consumer markets, government policies, local politics, and organized crime on their communities.…

  15. Star formation history of the Milky Way halo traced by the Oosterhoff dichotomy among globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Jang, Sohee

    2015-01-01

    In our recent investigation of the Oosterhoff dichotomy in the multiple population paradigm (Jang et al. 2014), we have suggested that the RR Lyrae variables in the Oosterhoff groups I, II, and III globular clusters (GCs) are produced mostly by the first, second, and third generation stars (G1, G2, and G3), respectively. Here we show, for the first time, that the observed dichotomies in the inner and outer halo GCs can be naturally reproduced when these models are extended to all metallicity regimes, while maintaining reasonable agreements in the horizontal-branch type versus [Fe/H] correlations. In order to achieve this, however, specific star formation histories are required for the inner and outer halos. In the inner halo GCs, the star formation commenced and ceased earlier with relatively short formation timescale between the subpopulations (~0.5 Gyr), while in the outer halo, the formation of G1 was delayed by ~0.8 Gyr with more extended timescale between G1 and G2 (~1.4 Gyr). This is consistent with the...

  16. Online and Blended Climate Change Courses for Secondary School Educators from the American Museum of Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, R. V.; Contino, J.; Kinzler, R. J.; Mathez, E. A.; Randle, D. E.; Schmidt, G. A.; Shindell, D. T.

    2012-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) has created both online and blended climate change education courses directed toward secondary school educators. The online course carries graduate credit and is authored by leading scientists at AMNH and at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies. It focuses on weather and climate; sources of climate change; the response of the climate system to input; modeling, theory and observation; what we can learn from past climates; and potential consequences, risks and uncertainties. The blended course includes an abbreviated version of the online course along with additional activities, many suitable for classroom use. Both the online and blended course experiences will be reviewed, including the use of an educational version of NASA's Global Climate Model. Attendees will be provided with a DVD of Climate Change videos and data visualizations from the American Museum of Natural History.

  17. New York City International Polar Weekend at the American Museum of Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S.; Turrin, M.; Macphee, R.

    2008-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History, in partnership with Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the Earth Institute of Columbia University and Barnard College, is featuring the International Polar Year through a New York City International Polar Weekend (NYC-IPW) in 2007, 2008 and 2009. The event showcases current polar research, polar environmental changes, history and culture during two days of family programs and activities, performances, and lectures. The goal of the NYC-IPW is to engage diverse audiences and enhance the public understanding of polar science, in particular IPY research, through close interactions with polar experts. Activities for the public include many disciplines, ranging from the physical sciences and cultural anthropology to music and art, and are presented in many forms, from lectures, panels and films to posters and play. Highlights of the NYC-IPW include: 1) A polar fair for youth and adults, showcasing scientists, artists, and educators who have worked at one or both poles and including many interactive exhibits featuring such topics as life in New York at the end of the last Ice Age, how Arctic sea ice is changing, and life on and under the ice. 2) Performances and presentations oriented towards children and families, including Inuit Throat Singers, Central Park Zoo Theater Group, and a northern lights show. 3) Lectures showcasing current IPY research and addressing such issues as the possible effects of climate change on the poles and the rest of the world, as well as polar poetry, art and film. 4) A partnership with New York City Urban Advantage program for Middle School students in the city to meet with scientists, teachers and students who had participated in polar research and travel. 5) Norwegian Consulate sponsorship of science presenters and Sami performers. The March 2007 event involved 85 presenters and volunteers from 22 institutions, and attracted ca. 3,500 visitors. Approximately 5,000 visitors attended the February 2008

  18. The Closure History of the Central American Seaway and its Relationship to Ocean Circulation and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, A. J.; Martin, E. E.; Lawrence, K. T.; Ladlow, C. G.; Newkirk, D.

    2014-12-01

    Paleoceanographic and ecologic studies suggest that gradual shoaling of the Central American Seaway (CAS) as the Isthmus of Panama rose between ~13 to 2 Ma caused a stepwise shutdown of deep, intermediate, and shallow Pacific water flow through the seaway into the Caribbean. This diminishing communication is thought to have significantly influenced surface currents, ocean circulation at depth, and ultimately regional and global climate. However, new studies of Panama's volcanic/tectonic history suggest the isthmus rose much earlier than previous estimates, calling into question many of our accepted implications for this gateway event under the 'Panama Hypothesis,' including strengthened thermohaline circulation, North Atlantic Deep Water production, increased North Atlantic temperature, and ties to Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Despite considerable research, few paleoceanographic studies have directly examined the possibility of earlier events in the closure history of the CAS and thus the precise linkages and timing are not well defined. To investigate early restricted CAS flow related to sill formation or pulsed exhumation events, we examine two sets of independent paleoceanographic reconstructions from Ocean Drilling Program sediment cores from the region. We assess the presence of Pacific waters within the Caribbean over the last 30 Ma via the Nd-isotopic composition of fish teeth from several Caribbean sites; these records point to sustained transport of Pacific waters into the Caribbean from at least 30 to 10 Ma. Further, alkenone-derived sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions from the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) indicate the presence of consistently warm (>27 °C) waters in the EEP from ~12 to ~5 Ma, after which time SSTs at sites within the modern cold tongue begin to cool appreciably. The SST data imply that the EEP cold tongue, which some studies suggest is linked in part to the rise of the Panamanian isthmus, did not develop until after 5

  19. Introducing Hyperworld(s: Language, Culture, and History in the Latin American world(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Allatson

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This introduction to the January 2008 special edition of PORTAL engages with the processes by which, in the early 21st century—an information age of hypertechnology, post-nationalism, post-Fordism, and dominating transnational media—culture and economy have become fused, and globalizations tend towards the mercantilization, commodification, and privatization of human experience. We recognize that access to the technologies of globalizations is uneven. Although cyberspace and other hypertechnologies have become an integral part of workspaces, and of the domestic space in most households, across Western industrialized societies, and for the middle and upper-classes everywhere, this is not a reality for most people in the world, including the Latin American underclasses, the majority of the continent’s population. But we also agree with pundits who note how that limited access has not prevented a ‘techno-virtual spillover’ into the historical-material world. More and more people are increasingly touched by the techno-virtual realm and its logics, with a resultant transformation of global imaginaries in response to, for instance, the global spread of privatised entertainment and news via TV, satellites and the internet, and virtualized military operations (wars on terror, drugs, and rogue regimes. Under these hyperworldizing conditions, we asked, how might we talk about language, culture and history in Latin America, especially since language has an obvious, enduring importance as a tool for communication, and as the means to define culture and give narrative shape to our histories and power struggles? Our central term ‘hyperworld(s’ presents us with numerous conceptual and epistemological challenges, not least because, whether unintended or not, it evokes cyberspace, thus gesturing toward either the seamless integration of physical and virtual reality, or its converse, a false opposition between the material and the virtual. The term

  20. “Using History to Make Slavery History”: The African American Past and the Challenge of Contemporary Slavery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B. Stewart

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that contemporary antislavery activism in the United States is programmatically undermined and ethically compromised unless it is firmly grounded in a deep understanding of the African American past. Far too frequently those who claim to be “the new abolitionists” evince no interest in what the original abolitionist movement might have to teach them and seem entirely detached from a U.S. history in which the mass, systematic enslavement of African Americans and its consequences are dominating themes. As a result contemporary antislavery activism too often marginalizes the struggle for racial justice in the United States and even indulges in racist ideology. In an effort to overcome these problems, this article seeks to demonstrate in specific detail how knowledge of the African American past can empower opposition to slavery as we encounter it today.

  1. Oil shale through the ages : American resource history a tale of steamships and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article outlined the history of oil shale development in the United States. Over 90 per cent of America's oil shale deposits are located in the Green River formation, a series of dry lake beds situated in the upper Rocky Mountain range. The United States Naval Oil Shale Reserve, which was created in Wyoming to meet the needs of the United States Navy, was mapped in 1915. Reports from the United States Geological Survey stated that the region contained an estimated 418 billion barrels of shale oil. Oil shale production ceased after conventional oil production increased during the 1930s. An oil shale recovery program was instituted as a result of the second world war. However, the war ended before the oil shale reserves could be exploited. Petroleum industry leaders lobbied against oil shale production, and issued reports which suggested that oil shale production was not economically viable. Nonetheless, well-financed speculators began to purchase leases. Domestic oil production in the United States peaked in the 1960s, and the first international oil crisis of 1973 focused the attention of Americans on energy security. The United States Synthetic Fuel Corporation funded research into oil shale production in 1980 after oil prices reached $80 per barrel. The Colony Oil Shale project in Colorado was then closed due to sustained low prices for conventional crude oil after 1982. In 2005, Congress held hearings on oil shale, and experimental leases have been let out to several major oil and gas companies. Numerous start-ups are attempting to lease or purchase land outside of the federal reserves. It was concluded that the size of the oil shale resource will ensure that further government and political actions will take place. 3 figs

  2. Approaches to Climate Literacy at the American Museum of Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, R. V.

    2015-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) offers a suite of courses, workshops and special events in climate change education for audiences ranging from young children to adults and utilizing both online and in-person formats. These offerings are supported by rich digital resources including video, animations and data visualizations. These efforts have the potential to raise awareness of climate change, deepen understandings and improve public discourse and decision-making on this critical issue. For adult audiences, Our Earth's Future offers participants a five-week course at AMNH that focuses on climate change science, impacts and communication, taking advantage of both AMNH expertise and exhibitry. Online versions of this course include both a ten-week course as well as three different three-week thematic courses. (The longer course is now available as a MOOC in Coursera.) These activities have been supported by a grant from IMLS. The results of independent evaluation provide insight into participant needs and how they might be addressed. For K-12 educators, the Museum's Seminars on Science program of online teacher professional development offers, in collaboration with its higher education partners, a graduate course in climate change that is authored by both an AMNH curator and leading NASA scientists. Developed with support from both NASA and NSF, the course provides a semester-equivalent introduction to climate change science for educators, including digital resources, assignments and discussions for classroom use. The results of independent evaluation will be presented. For younger audiences, the presentation will highlight resources from the AMNH Ology site; television programming conducted in partnership with HBO; Science Bulletinsvideos that include current climate change research; resources related to the GRACE mission for tracking water from space; and special event programming at the Museum on climate change. This presentation will address the

  3. Tracing the star formation history of three Blue Compact galaxies through the analysis of their star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Adamo, Angela; Zackrisson, Erik; Hayes, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a study of the compact star cluster populations in three local luminous blue compact galaxies: ESO 185-IG 013, ESO 350-IG 038 (a.k.a. Haro 11), and MRK 930. These systems show peculiar morphologies and the presence of hundreds of SCs that have been produced by the past, recent, and/or current starburst phases. We use a complete set of HST images ranging from the UV to IR for each galaxy. Deep images in V (WFPC2/f606w) and I (WFPC2/f814w) are used to capture most of the star cluster candidates up to the old ones (fainter) which have had, in the past, less possibility to be detected. The other bands are used in the SED fitting technique for constraining ages and masses. Our goals are to investigate the evolution of these three blue compact galaxies and the star cluster formation impact on their star formation history.

  4. Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness. Materials for Using American Issues Forum in the American History Classroom, Topic IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    Four modules of classroom strategies provide suggestions for examining U.S. history in light of contemporary issues. "The Right to Life" uses the Karen Anne Quinlan case as a model for exploring moral, legal, and medical issues related to euthanasia. Students discuss the reasoning and viewpoints of various groups associated with the case, and they…

  5. Forgotten History: Mexican American School Segregation in Arizona from 1900-1951

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jeanne M.

    2008-01-01

    This article documents the efforts by Mexican Americans to challenge school segregation in Arizona in the first half of the twentieth century. As in Texas and California, although state law never formally mandated the segregation of Mexican American students, school districts in Arizona often established separate "Mexican Schools" for Mexican…

  6. Orange County, Yellow History: An Intimate Encounter with Vietnamese American Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranguyen, Trangdai

    2004-01-01

    Anchored on the Vietnamese American Project (VAP), this essay presents the documentation of the Vietnamese American Experience through the voices of ethnic Vietnamese in Orange County, California, home to the largest concentration of this ethnic group outside Vietnam. Groundbreaking in its approach and method, VAP is an open forum that enables…

  7. Critical Contexts for Biomedical Research in a Native American Community: Health Care, History, and Community Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahota, Puneet Chawla

    2012-01-01

    Native Americans have been underrepresented in previous studies of biomedical research participants. This paper reports a qualitative interview study of Native Americans' perspectives on biomedical research. In-depth interviews were conducted with 53 members of a Southwest tribal community. Many interviewees viewed biomedical research studies as a…

  8. Peter Swirski, American Utopia and Social Engineering in Literature, Social Thought, and Political History (Routledge Transnational Perspectives on American Literature).

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Alice

    2012-01-01

    With Greece undergoing one of the most dramatic periods of social engineering in postwar history, the European Union trying to engineer a supranational federation, and China social-engineering not only the sociopolitical but the family life of one and a half billion people, the subject of social engineering should be on everyone’s mind. Not that you would notice. Certainly not in the United States which has just completed one of its most dramatic decades of social engineering on the national ...

  9. North American Droughts of the Mid-late Nineteenth Century: a History and Model Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herweijer, C.; Seager, R. C.

    2004-12-01

    Unlike the major droughts of the 20th century that are readily identified in the instrumental record, similar events in the 19th century have be identified using a combination of proxy data, historical accounts and a sparse collection of early instrumental records. In the United States, three distinct periods of widespread and persistent drought stand out in these records for the latter half of the 19th century: 1856-1865, 1870 -1878 and 1890 - 1896. Each of these events is shown to coincide with the existence of an anomalously cool, La Nina -like tropical Pacific. To examine the physical mechanisms behind these droughts two simple experiments were performed: the first forces an atmosphere general circulation model (AGCM) with the observed history of SSTs everywhere from 1856 to 2001 (the GOGA experiment), the second forces the AGCM only with tropical Pacific SSTs, being coupled to a two-layer entraining mixed layer (ML) ocean (the POGA-ML experiment). The AGCM used is the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Climate Community Model 3 (CCM3). The extent to which the ensemble mean of the climate model is able to simulate the observed drought intervals is a test of both whether the dry conditions are SST-forced, globally or from the tropical Pacific only, and also whether the model is able to capture this. Due to a sparsity of instrumental precipitation data at this time, proxy evidence from tree rings is used as verification. A comparison of modeled soil moisture with PDSI data, a proxy for soil moisture, from the North American Drought Atlas (Cook et al., 2001) is made. Both the POGA-ML and GOGA ensemble means capture the three multi-year droughts of the mid-late nineteenth century identified by the `drought atlas' PDSI data. In each case the models reproduce the large-scale features of these droughts, albeit with some error, indicating that the droughts were SST forced. The similarity of the POGA-ML and GOGA simulations implies that the component of the

  10. Domestic politics and international expertise in the history of American disability policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, E D

    1989-01-01

    Architects of American disability policy partly emulated British and German social insurance programs through the New Deal's early years. Thereafter, social planners failed to tailor European manpower and income-maintenance programs to gain American lawmakers' approval. Distrust between the planners and legislators, intrafederal bureaucratic competition, congressional responsiveness to particular interests, and revitalized federalism all politically hindered Social Security from becoming a full-fledged social insurance program. Public/private-sector linkages, court actions, and voluntaryism constitute other salient American means of aiding persons with disabilities. PMID:2532295

  11. Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfei Liu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available DBSCAN is a well-known density-based clustering algorithm which offers advantages for finding clusters of arbitrary shapes compared to partitioning and hierarchical clustering methods. However, there are few papers studying the DBSCAN algorithm under the privacy preserving distributed data mining model, in which the data is distributed between two or more parties, and the parties cooperate to obtain the clustering results without revealing the data at the individual parties. In this paper, we address the problem of two-party privacy preserving DBSCAN clustering. We first propose two protocols for privacy preserving DBSCAN clustering over horizontally and vertically partitioned data respectively and then extend them to arbitrarily partitioned data. We also provide performance analysis and privacy proof of our solution..

  12. A data mining approach to dinoflagellate clustering according to sterol composition: Correlations with evolutionary history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the sterol compositions of 102 dinoflagellates (including several previously unexamined species) using clustering techniques as a means of determining the relatedness of the organisms. In addition, dinoflagellate sterol-based relationships were compared statistically to dinoflag...

  13. Medical history for the masses: how American comic books celebrated heroes of medicine in the 1940s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bert

    2004-01-01

    When comic books rose to mass popularity in the early 1940s, one segment of the industry specialized in "true adventures," with stories about real people from the past and the present--in contrast to competing books that offered fantasy, science fiction, superheroes, detectives and crime, funny people, or funny animals. This study examines the figures from both medical history and twentieth-century medicine who were portrayed as heroes and role models in these comic books: first, to call attention to this very popular, if unknown, genre of medical history, and second, to illustrate how medical history was used at that time to popularize scientific and medical ideas, to celebrate the achievements of medical research, to encourage medical science as a career choice, and to show medicine as a humane and noble enterprise. The study explains how these medical history stories were situated in American popular culture more generally, and how the graphic power of comic books successfully conveyed both values and information while also telling a good story. Attention to this colorful genre of popular medical history enriches our picture of the mid-twentieth-century public's enthusiasm for medical progress. PMID:15161089

  14. The formation history of massive cluster galaxies as revealed by CARLA

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, E A; Rettura, A; Wylezalek, D; Galametz, A; Stern, D; Brodwin, M; Muldrew, S I; Almaini, O; Conselice, C J; Eisenhardt, P R; Hartley, W G; Jarvis, M; Seymour, N; Stanford, S A

    2015-01-01

    We use a sample of 37 of the densest clusters and protoclusters across $1.3 \\le z \\le 3.2$ from the Clusters Around Radio-Loud AGN (CARLA) survey to study the formation of massive cluster galaxies. We use optical $i'$-band and infrared 3.6$\\mu$m and 4.5$\\mu$m images to statistically select sources within these protoclusters and measure their median observed colours; $\\langle i'-[3.6] \\rangle$. We find the abundance of massive galaxies within the protoclusters increases with decreasing redshift, suggesting these objects may form an evolutionary sequence, with the lower redshift clusters in the sample having similar properties to the descendants of the high redshift protoclusters. We find that the protocluster galaxies have an approximately unevolving observed-frame $i'-[3.6]$ colour across the examined redshift range. We compare the evolution of the $\\langle i'-[3.6] \\rangle$ colour of massive cluster galaxies with simplistic galaxy formation models. Taking the full cluster population into account, we show tha...

  15. The IMF and Star Formation History of the Stellar Clusters in the Vela D Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Massi, F; Vanzi, L; Massi, Fabrizio; Testi, Leonardo; Vanzi, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of a Near-Infrared deep photometric survey of a sample of six embedded star clusters in the Vela-D molecular cloud, all associated with luminous (~10^3 Lsun) IRAS sources. The clusters are unlikely to be older than a few 10^6 yrs, since all are still associated with molecular gas. We employed the fact that all clusters lie at the same distance and were observed with the same instrumental setting to derive their properties in a consistent way, being affected by the same instrumental and observational biases. We extracted the clusters' K Luminosity Functions (KLF) and developed a simple method to correct them for extinction, based on colour-magnitude diagrams. The reliability of the method has been tested by constructing synthetic clusters from theoretical tracks for pre-main sequence stars and a standard Initial Mass Function (IMF). The clusters' IMFs have been derived from the dereddened KLFs by adopting a set of pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks and assuming coeval star formation. ...

  16. Genomic evidence for the Pleistocene and recent population history of Native Americans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavan, Maanasa; Steinruecken, Matthias; Harris, Kelley;

    2015-01-01

    Howand when the Americas were populated remains contentious. Using ancient and modern genome-wide data, we found that the ancestors of all present-day Native Americans, including Athabascans and Amerindians, entered the Americas as a single migration wave from Siberia no earlier than 23 thousand...... years ago (ka) and after no more than an 8000-year isolation period in Beringia. After their arrival to the Americas, ancestral Native Americans diversified into two basal genetic branches around 13 ka, one that is now dispersed across North and South America and the other restricted to North America....... Subsequent gene flow resulted in some Native Americans sharing ancestry with present-day East Asians (including Siberians) and, more distantly, Australo-Melanesians. Putative "Paleoamerican" relict populations, including the historical Mexican Pericues and South American Fuego-Patagonians, are not directly...

  17. Genomic evidence for the Pleistocene and recent population history of Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Anders; Moltke, Ida; Metspalu, Mait; Homburger, Julian R.; Wall, Jeff; Cornejo, Omar E.; Moreno-Mayar, J. Víctor; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S.; Pierre, Tracey; Rasmussen, Morten; Campos, Paula F.; de Barros Damgaard, Peter; Allentoft, Morten E.; Lindo, John; Metspalu, Ene; Rodríguez-Varela, Ricardo; Mansilla, Josefina; Henrickson, Celeste; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Malmström, Helena; Stafford, Thomas; Shringarpure, Suyash S.; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Karmin, Monika; Tambets, Kristiina; Bergström, Anders; Xue, Yali; Warmuth, Vera; Friend, Andrew D.; Singarayer, Joy; Valdes, Paul; Balloux, Francois; Leboreiro, Ilán; Vera, Jose Luis; Rangel-Villalobos, Hector; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata; Davis, Loren G.; Heyer, Evelyne; Zollikofer, Christoph P. E.; Ponce de León, Marcia S.; Smith, Colin I.; Grimes, Vaughan; Pike, Kelly-Anne; Deal, Michael; Fuller, Benjamin T.; Arriaza, Bernardo; Standen, Vivien; Luz, Maria F.; Ricaut, Francois; Guidon, Niede; Osipova, Ludmila; Voevoda, Mikhail I.; Posukh, Olga L.; Balanovsky, Oleg; Lavryashina, Maria; Bogunov, Yuri; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Gubina, Marina; Balanovska, Elena; Fedorova, Sardana; Litvinov, Sergey; Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Mosher, M. J.; Archer, David; Cybulski, Jerome; Petzelt, Barbara; Mitchell, Joycelynn; Worl, Rosita; Norman, Paul J.; Parham, Peter; Kemp, Brian M.; Kivisild, Toomas; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Crawford, Michael; Villems, Richard; Smith, David Glenn; Waters, Michael R.; Goebel, Ted; Johnson, John R.; Malhi, Ripan S.; Jakobsson, Mattias; Meltzer, David J.; Manica, Andrea; Durbin, Richard; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Song, Yun S.; Nielsen, Rasmus; Willerslev, Eske

    2016-01-01

    How and when the Americas were populated remains contentious. Using ancient and modern genome-wide data, we find that the ancestors of all present-day Native Americans, including Athabascans and Amerindians, entered the Americas as a single migration wave from Siberia no earlier than 23 thousand years ago (KYA), and after no more than 8,000-year isolation period in Beringia. Following their arrival to the Americas, ancestral Native Americans diversified into two basal genetic branches around 13 KYA, one that is now dispersed across North and South America and the other is restricted to North America. Subsequent gene flow resulted in some Native Americans sharing ancestry with present-day East Asians (including Siberians) and, more distantly, Australo-Melanesians. Putative ‘Paleoamerican’ relict populations, including the historical Mexican Pericúes and South American Fuego-Patagonians, are not directly related to modern Australo-Melanesians as suggested by the Paleoamerican Model. PMID:26198033

  18. Evaluation findings from genetics and family health history community-based workshops for African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Manswell Butty, Jo-Anne; Richardson, Finie; Mouton, Charles P.; Royal, Charmaine D. M.; Green, Rodney D.; Munroe, Kerry-Ann

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation and effectiveness of community education workshops to change genetics and health-related knowledge, intentions, and behavior of urban African Americans. Eight workshops were held and 183 participants consented to participate in the study. A majority of the participants were African American (97%) and female (84%) and just over half were 65 years and older (60%), and had some high school or were high school graduates (52%). The commun...

  19. „Lenin’s Ghost!” History of Soviet Comics Characters in American Pop Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Przemysław Dudziński; Dawid Głownia; Radosław Pisula; Michał Wolski

    2014-01-01

    The tension between Soviet Union and United States thatdefined the global political landscape of the second half of the twentiethcentury, had its clear impact on perceptions and creation of Soviet heroes in the context of American culture. The first and primary goal of our article is to investigate and describe the functioning of a particular theme – Russian characters, especially Russian meta-humans in the area of American popular culture, especially mainstream comics. This inquiry is intend...

  20. Space-time clustering of non-hodgkin lymphoma using residential histories in a Danish case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baastrup Nordsborg, Rikke; Meliker, Jaymie R; Kjær Ersbøll, Annette; Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a frequent cancer and incidence rates have increased markedly during the second half of the 20(th) century; however, the few established risk factors cannot explain this rise and still little is known about the aetiology of NHL. Spatial analyses have been applied in an attempt to identify environmental risk factors, but most studies do not take human mobility into account. The aim of this study was to identify clustering of NHL in space and time in Denmark, using 33 years of residential addresses. We utilised the nation-wide Danish registers and unique personal identification number that all Danish citizens have to conduct a register-based case-control study of 3210 NHL cases and two independent control groups of 3210 each. Cases were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry and controls were matched by age and sex and randomly selected from the Civil Registration System. Residential addresses of cases and controls from 1971 to 2003 were collected from the Civil Registration System and geocoded. Data on pervious hospital diagnoses and operations were obtained from the National Patient Register. We applied the methods of the newly developed Q-statistics to identify space-time clustering of NHL. All analyses were conducted with each of the two control groups, and we adjusted for previous history of autoimmune disease, HIV/AIDS or organ transplantation. Some areas with statistically significant clustering were identified; however, results were not consistent across the two control groups; thus we interpret the results as chance findings. We found no evidence for clustering of NHL in space and time using 33 years of residential histories, suggesting that if the rise in incidence of NHL is a result of risk factors that vary across space and time, the spatio-temporal variation of such factors in Denmark is too small to be detected with the applied method. PMID:23560108

  1. Space-time clustering of non-hodgkin lymphoma using residential histories in a Danish case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Baastrup Nordsborg

    Full Text Available Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL is a frequent cancer and incidence rates have increased markedly during the second half of the 20(th century; however, the few established risk factors cannot explain this rise and still little is known about the aetiology of NHL. Spatial analyses have been applied in an attempt to identify environmental risk factors, but most studies do not take human mobility into account. The aim of this study was to identify clustering of NHL in space and time in Denmark, using 33 years of residential addresses. We utilised the nation-wide Danish registers and unique personal identification number that all Danish citizens have to conduct a register-based case-control study of 3210 NHL cases and two independent control groups of 3210 each. Cases were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry and controls were matched by age and sex and randomly selected from the Civil Registration System. Residential addresses of cases and controls from 1971 to 2003 were collected from the Civil Registration System and geocoded. Data on pervious hospital diagnoses and operations were obtained from the National Patient Register. We applied the methods of the newly developed Q-statistics to identify space-time clustering of NHL. All analyses were conducted with each of the two control groups, and we adjusted for previous history of autoimmune disease, HIV/AIDS or organ transplantation. Some areas with statistically significant clustering were identified; however, results were not consistent across the two control groups; thus we interpret the results as chance findings. We found no evidence for clustering of NHL in space and time using 33 years of residential histories, suggesting that if the rise in incidence of NHL is a result of risk factors that vary across space and time, the spatio-temporal variation of such factors in Denmark is too small to be detected with the applied method.

  2. Teaching the Role of Religion in American History: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlinger, Mary Jessica

    1990-01-01

    Recounts how participation in various summer teacher workshops gave the author access to materials for use in teaching about the religious influences in U.S. history. Relates that the National Archives'"Primarily Teaching" workshop revealed primary source documents representing every period in U.S. history. Provides ways these historical documents…

  3. Sequence analysis of mouse vomeronasal receptor gene clusters reveals common promoter motifs and a history of recent expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Robert P.; Cutforth, Tyler; Axel, Richard; Hood, Leroy; Trask, Barbara J.

    2002-01-01

    We have analyzed the organization and sequence of 73 V1R genes encoding putative pheromone receptors to identify regulatory features and characterize the evolutionary history of the V1R family. The 73 V1Rs arose from seven ancestral genes around the time of mouse–rat speciation through large local duplications, and this expansion may contribute to speciation events. Orthologous V1R genes appear to have been lost during primate evolution. Exceptional noncoding homology is observed across four V1R subfamilies at one cluster and thus may be important for locus-specific transcriptional regulation. PMID:11752409

  4. A history of the gamma-ray burst flux at the Earth from Galactic globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Domainko, W; Feng, F

    2013-01-01

    Nearby gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are likely to have represented a significant threat to life on the Earth. Recent observations suggest that a significant source of such bursts is compact binary mergers in globular clusters. This link between globular clusters and GRBs offers the possibility to find time intervals in the past with higher probabilities of a nearby burst, by tracing globular cluster orbits back in time. Here we show that the expected flux from such bursts is not flat over the past 550 Myr but rather exhibits three broad peaks, at 70, 180 and 340 Myr ago. The main source for nearby GRBs for all three time intervals is the globular cluster 47 Tuc, a consequence of its large mass and high stellar encounter rate, as well as the fact that it is one of the globular clusters which comes quite close to the Sun. Mass extinction events indeed coincide with all three time intervals found in this study, although a chance coincidence is quite likely. Nevertheless, the identified time intervals can be used as a...

  5. Is there any ´Latin´ in the Latin American environmental history? New challenges for the consolidation of a regional intellectual community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Alfonso Palacio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, the Latin American environmental history community has faced three principal obstacles: novelty, dispersion, and complexity. As a result of the growth in both the quantity and quality of scholarship, a critical perspective on Latin American environmental history becomes urgent. Since the nineteenth century, the Americas were subjected to a divide between ‘Latin’ and ‘Anglo’. Due to several two-way factors of transnational character that are weakening this divide, it is time to re-think critically on the meaning, utility, and explanatory potential of it. One can ask: is there any ‘Latin’ in Latin American environmental history? Consequently, both Latin American and North American environmental history scholars must take account of the porous and debilitated Latin/Anglo divide and be aware of transnationalism. This article also explores some of the ways in which the Latin American scholarship has already elaborated the global and transnational connections inherent to the study of environmental history.

  6. Genomic evidence for the Pleistocene and recent population history of Native Americans

    KAUST Repository

    Raghavan, Maanasa

    2015-07-21

    How and when the Americas were populated remains contentious. Using ancient and modern genome-wide data, we found that the ancestors of all present-day Native Americans, including Athabascans and Amerindians, entered the Americas as a single migration wave from Siberia no earlier than 23 thousand years ago (ka) and after no more than an 8000-year isolation period in Beringia. After their arrival to the Americas, ancestral Native Americans diversified into two basal genetic branches around 13 ka, one that is now dispersed across North and South America and the other restricted to North America. Subsequent gene flow resulted in some Native Americans sharing ancestry with present-day East Asians (including Siberians) and, more distantly, Australo-Melanesians. Putative "Paleoamerican" relict populations, including the historical Mexican Pericúes and South American Fuego-Patagonians, are not directly related to modern Australo-Melanesians as suggested by the Paleoamerican Model. © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights reserved.

  7. A brief foreword to « Wars and New Beginnings in American History: An American National Rhetoric from the Early Republic to the Obama Presidency »

    OpenAIRE

    Jenel Virden

    2012-01-01

    War has been a defining moment in the history of nations and no more so than in the United States.  It gives the editors of EJAS great pleasure to present this excellent volume of essays focussed on the issue of American national rhetoric and American wars.  This volume is comprised of essays that were presented at a workshop on “Wars and New Beginnings in American History”, which took place in Dublin in 2010 at the biennial conference of the European Association for American Studies, or are ...

  8. A brief foreword to « Wars and New Beginnings in American History: An American National Rhetoric from the Early Republic to the Obama Presidency »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenel Virden

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available War has been a defining moment in the history of nations and no more so than in the United States.  It gives the editors of EJAS great pleasure to present this excellent volume of essays focussed on the issue of American national rhetoric and American wars.  This volume is comprised of essays that were presented at a workshop on “Wars and New Beginnings in American History”, which took place in Dublin in 2010 at the biennial conference of the European Association for American Studies, or are ...

  9. The star formation history of the Large Magellanic Cloud star clusters NGC1846 and NGC1783

    CERN Document Server

    Rubele, Stefano; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera; Kerber, Leandro; Goudfrooij, Paul; Bressan, Alessandro; Marigo, Paola

    2013-01-01

    NGC1846 and NGC1783 are two massive star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud, hosting both an extended main sequence turn-off and a dual clump of red giants. They present similar masses but differ mainly in angular size. Starting from their high-quality ACS data in the F435W, F555W and F814W filters, and updated sets of stellar evolutionary tracks, we derive their star formation rates as a function of age, SFR(t), by means of the classical method of CMD reconstruction which is usually applied to nearby galaxies. The method confirms the extended periods of star formation derived from previous analysis of the same data. When the analysis is performed for a finer resolution in age, we find clear evidence for a 50-Myr long hiatus between the oldest peak in the SFR(t), and a second prolonged period of star formation, in both clusters. For the more compact cluster NGC1846, there seems to be no significant difference between the SFR(t) in the cluster centre and in an annulus with radii between 20 and 60 arcsec (f...

  10. Depositional history of sedimentary linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) in a large South American industrial coastal area (Santos Estuary, Southeastern Brazil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Cesar C., E-mail: ccmart@ufpr.b [Centro de Estudos do Mar da Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 50.002, 83255-000, Pontal do Sul, Pontal do Parana, PR (Brazil); Instituto Oceanografico da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Praca do Oceanografico, 191, 05508-900, Sao Paulo - SP (Brazil); Bicego, Marcia C.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Tessler, Moyses G.; Montone, Rosalinda C. [Instituto Oceanografico da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Praca do Oceanografico, 191, 05508-900, Sao Paulo - SP (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    This paper reports the reconstruction of the contamination history of a large South American industrial coastal area (Santos Estuary, Brazil) using linear alkylbenzenes (LABs). Three sediment cores were dated by {sup 137}Cs. Concentrations in surficial layers were comparable to the midrange concentrations reported for coastal sediments worldwide. LAB concentrations increased towards the surface, indicating increased waste discharges into the estuary in recent decades. The highest concentration values occurred in the early 1970s, a time of intense industrial activity and marked population growth. The decreased LAB concentration, in the late 1970s was assumed to be the result of the world oil crisis. Treatment of industrial effluents, which began in 1984, was represented by decreased LAB levels. Microbial degradation of LABs may be more intense in the industrial area sediments. The results show that industrial and domestic waste discharges are a historical problem in the area. - The contamination history of a large South American industrial coastal area indicated by molecular indicator of sewage input.

  11. American Dream in Early American Literatuer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈彩娥; 李小玺

    2008-01-01

    American dream has often been closely rehted to American literature.Many say that the American literary history can be seen as the history of American dreams.In most periods in history,writers,whose dreams have been infused in a variety of characters create the American literature.While in Early American literature,American dream had been presented in a dif-ferent way.

  12. Black Americans, Africa and History: A Reassessment of the Pan-African and Identity Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, Tunde

    1998-01-01

    Examines the paradigm of Pan-Africanism and the identity construct in the historic and cultural contexts of blacks outside of Africa, critiquing theories on the African identity construct. Suggests that black American identity is too complex for this simplification and must be considered within the context of world acculturation. Contains 34…

  13. 3 CFR 8345 - Proclamation 8345 of February 2, 2009. National African American History Month, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... classic literature. This legacy has only added luster to the brand of the United States, which has drawn...,” is a chance to examine the evolution of our country and how African Americans helped draw us ever... citizenship with all of the rights and privileges afforded others in this country is also the story of...

  14. The American Academy of Social Work and Social Welfare: History and Grand Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Richard P.; Gilmore, Grover C.; Flynn, Marilyn S.; Fraser, Mark W.; Brekke, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Conceptualized by social work deans and actualized with the support of major social work organizations, the American Academy of Social Work and Social Welfare was established in 2009. This article describes the historical context and creation of the Academy, whose objectives include recognizing outstanding social work scholars and practitioners;…

  15. Evolutionary History of the phl Gene Cluster in the Plant-Associated Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Moynihan, J.A.; Morrissey, J P; Coppoolse, E.; Stiekema, W. J.; O'Gara, F.; Boyd, E F

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is of agricultural and economic importance as a biological control agent largely because of its plant-association and production of secondary metabolites, in particular 2, 4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2, 4-DAPG). This polyketide, which is encoded by the eight gene phl cluster, has antimicrobial effects on phytopathogens, promotes amino acid exudation from plant roots, and induces systemic resistance in plants. Despite its importance, 2, 4-DAPG production is limited to a s...

  16. The merger history of the complex cluster Abell 1758: a combined weak lensing and spectroscopic view

    CERN Document Server

    Monteiro-Oliveira, Rogério; Machado, Rubens E G; Lima-Neto, Gastão B; Ribeiro, André L B; Sodré, Laerte; Dupke, Renato A

    2016-01-01

    We present a weak-lensing and dynamical study of the complex cluster Abell 1758 (A1758, z = 0.278) supported by hydrodynamical simulations. This cluster is composed of two structures, each one experiencing a merger event. The Northern structure is composed of A1758NW & A1758NE, with lensing determined masses of 7.90_{-1.55}^{+1.89} x 10^{14} M_{\\odot} and 5.49_{-1.33}^{+1.67} x 10^{14} M_{\\odot}, respectively. They show a remarkable feature: while in A1758NW there is a spatial agreement among weak lensing mass distribution, intracluster medium and its brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in A1758NE the X-ray peak is located 96_{-15}^{+14} arcsec away from the mass peak and BCG positions in a configuration we have called "demi-bullet". Give the detachment between gas and mass we could use the local surface mass density to estimate an upper limit for the dark matter self-interaction cross section: \\sigma/m<5.83 cm^2 g^{-1}. Combining our velocity data with hydrodynamical simulations we have shown that A1758~NW...

  17. The historical context of science and education at the American Museum of Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jennifer D.

    2007-04-01

    In this article I critically examine the historical context of science education in a natural history museum and its relevance to using museum resources to teach science today. I begin with a discussion of the historical display of race and its relevance to my practice of using the Museum's resources to teach science. I continue with a critical review of the history of the education department in a natural history museum to demonstrate the historical constitution of current practices of the education department. Using sociocultural constructs around identity formation and transformation, I move to the present with a case study of a teacher who transforms the structure of science education in her classroom and school as a result of her identity transformation and association with a museum-based professional education program.

  18. SPATIALLY RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPY AND CHEMICAL HISTORY OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES IN THE HERCULES CLUSTER: THE EFFECTS OF THE ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spatially resolved spectroscopy has been obtained for a sample of 27 star-forming (SF) galaxies selected from our deep Hα survey of the Hercules cluster. We have applied spectral synthesis models to all emission-line spectra of this sample using the population synthesis code STARLIGHT and have obtained fundamental parameters of stellar components such as mean metallicity and age. The emission-line spectra were corrected for underlying stellar absorption using these spectral synthesis models. Line fluxes were measured and O/H and N/O gas chemical abundances were obtained using the latest empirical calibrations. We have derived the masses and total luminosities of the galaxies using available Sloan Digital Sky Survey broadband photometry. The effects of cluster environment on the chemical evolution of galaxies and on their mass-metallicity (MZ) and luminosity-metallicity (LZ) relations were studied by combining the derived gas metallicities, the mean stellar metallicities and ages, the masses and luminosities of the galaxies, and their existing H I data. Our Hercules SF galaxies are divided into three main subgroups: (1) chemically evolved spirals with truncated ionized-gas disks and nearly flat oxygen gradients, demonstrating the effect of ram-pressure stripping; (2) chemically evolved dwarfs/irregulars populating the highest local densities, possible products of tidal interactions in preprocessing events; and (3) less metallic dwarf galaxies that appear to be 'newcomers' to the cluster and are experiencing pressure-triggered star formation. Most Hercules SF galaxies follow well-defined MZ and LZ sequences (for both O/H and N/O), though the dwarf/irregular galaxies located at the densest regions appear to be outliers to these global relations, suggesting a physical reason for the dispersion in these fundamental relations. The Hercules cluster appears to be currently assembling via the merger of smaller substructures, providing an ideal laboratory where the local

  19. Individual placement and support (IPS) for patients with offending histories: the IPSOH feasibility cluster randomised trial protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, N; Talbot, E; Schneider, J; Walker, D M; Bates, P; Bird, Y; Davies, D; Brookes, C; Hall, J; Völlm, B

    2016-01-01

    Introduction People with involvement in forensic psychiatric services face many obstacles to employment, arising from their offending, as well as their mental health problems. This study aims to assess the feasibility of conducting a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the effectiveness of individual placement and support (IPS), in improving employment rates and associated psychosocial outcomes in forensic psychiatric populations. IPS has been found consistently to achieve employment rates above 50% in psychiatric patients without a history of involvement in criminal justice services. Methods/design This is a single-centre feasibility cluster RCT. Clusters will be defined according to clinical services in the community forensic services of Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust (NHCT). IPS will be implemented into 2 of the randomly assigned intervention clusters in the community forensic services of NHCT. A feasibility cluster RCT will estimate the parameters required to design a full RCT. The primary outcome is the proportion of people in open employment at 12-month follow-up. Secondary outcome measures will include employment, educational activities, psychosocial and economic outcomes, as well as reoffending rates. Outcome measures will be recorded at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. In accordance with the UK Medical Research Council guidelines on the evaluation of complex interventions, a process evaluation will be carried out; qualitative interviews with patients and staff will explore general views of IPS as well as barriers and facilitators to implementation. Fidelity reviews will assess the extent to which the services follow the principles of IPS prior, during and at the end of the trial. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from the East Midlands Research Ethics Committee-Nottingham 1 (REC reference number 15/EM/0253). Final and interim reports will be prepared for project funders, the study sponsor and clinical

  20. Ancient proteins resolve the evolutionary history of Darwin's South American ungulates

    OpenAIRE

    Welker, Frido; Collins, Matthew J.; Thomas, Jessica A.; Wadsley, Marc; Brace, Selina; Cappellini, Enrico; Turvey, Samuel T.; Reguero, Marcelo; Gelfo, Javier N.; Kramarz, Alejandro; Burger, Joachim; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Ashford, David A.; Ashton, Peter D.; Rowsell, Keri

    2015-01-01

    No large group of recently extinct placental mammals remains as evolutionarily cryptic as the approximately 280 genera grouped as South American native ungulates'. To Charles Darwin, who first collected their remains, they included perhaps the strangest animal[s] ever discovered'. Today, much like 180 years ago, it is no clearer whether they had one origin or several, arose before or after the Cretaceous/Palaeogene transition 66.2 million years ago, or are more likely to belong with the eleph...

  1. Population Biology and Life History of the North American Menhadens, Brevoortia spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahrenholz, Dean W.

    1991-01-01

    Four recognized species of menhaden, Brevoortia spp., occur in North American marine waters: Atlantic menhaden, B. tyrannus; Gulf menhaden, B. patronus; yellowfin menhaden. B. smithi; and finescale menhaden, B. gunteri. Three of the menhaden species are known to form two hybrid types. Members of the genus range from coastal waters of Veracruz, Mex., to Nova Scotia, Can. Atlantic and Gulf menhaden are extremely abundant within their respective ranges and support extensive purse-seine reduction...

  2. Counseling Asians: psychotherapy in the context of racism and Asian-American history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toupin, E S

    1980-01-01

    The historical experience of Asian immigrants to the United States is outlined, and implications for counseling and psychotherapy with Asian-Americans are considered. It is suggested that, in charting therapeutic goals for Asians, three major factors must be taken into account: 1) when and why Asians migrated to the United States, and where they settled; 2) the number of years, and the impact, of public education; and 3) conflicting cultural norms that complicate the acculturation process. PMID:7356003

  3. Commentary: Advancing Our Understanding of Asian American Child Development: History, Context, and Culture as Essential Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoyd, Vonnie C

    2016-07-01

    The Special Section will help scholars make informed choices about how to conceptualize developmental processes and assess contextually and culturally relevant variables in future research with Asian American children and youth. It undertakes tasks and addresses challenges that have broad relevance to the study of developmental processes and stands as a reminder of the vital role of interdisciplinary perspectives in the advancement of developmental science. PMID:27392798

  4. „Lenin’s Ghost!” History of Soviet Comics Characters in American Pop Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Dudziński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tension between Soviet Union and United States thatdefined the global political landscape of the second half of the twentiethcentury, had its clear impact on perceptions and creation of Soviet heroes in the context of American culture. The first and primary goal of our article is to investigate and describe the functioning of a particular theme – Russian characters, especially Russian meta-humans in the area of American popular culture, especially mainstream comics. This inquiry is intended to demonstrate the basic historical dimension, i.e. the periods of growth and decline in popularity, and even the complete disappearance of that theme. The purpose of the second goal is an attempt to analyze the structures of comics characters associated with the Soviet Union and place them in a broader historical and cultural context. These treatments allow to signal changes in time-sensitive structure, which consists of values, stereotypes and pop culture clichés appropriate for the American culture. Thus, we hope that this article will be an important contribution to the further study of these issues.

  5. Many Educational Pasts: Conservative Visions and Revisions of American Educational History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laats, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Recent attention to Texas's revision of its state social-studies curricula has focused on the Texas School Board's conservative vision of America's history. Texas is not alone. Conservative educational activists have achieved a great deal of success in recent years in revising the historical narrative prescribed for America's…

  6. Noted black American psychologist to deliver keynote address during Black History Month

    OpenAIRE

    Felker, Susan B.

    2005-01-01

    A pioneer in the development of an African-centered approach to modern psychology, the noted clinical psychologist and author Na'im Akbar of Florida State University, will deliver the keynote address for Virginia Tech's Black History Month observances at 7 p.m. Thursday, Feb. 3, in the Haymarket Theatre, Squires Student Center.

  7. The Great Depression: A Textbook Case of Problems with American History Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Steven L.; Rose, Stephen A.

    1983-01-01

    The 16 US history textbooks reviewed failed to incorporate economists' research on the causes of the Great Depression and consistently presented information that the economics profession has rejected. Strategies that social studies educators might adopt to improve the quality of economic analysis in textbooks is suggested. (Author/RM)

  8. Reconstruction to Progressivism: Booklet 3. Critical Thinking in American History. [Student Manual].

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Kevin

    One of a series of curriculum materials in U.S. history designed to teach critical thinking skills systematically, this teacher's guide presents high school students with supplementary lessons on the Reconstruction period, industrialism, labor and immigration, and progressivism and populism. The student booklet begins with a guide to critical…

  9. Reconstruction to Progressivism: Booklet 3. Critical Thinking in American History. Teacher's Guide and Source Materials Envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Kevin

    One of a series of curriculum materials in U.S. history designed to teach critical thinking skills systematically, this teacher's guide presents supplementary lesson plans for teaching high school students about the Reconstruction period, industrialism, labor and immigration, and progressivism and populism. The booklet begins with a guide to…

  10. American Religion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田甜

    2008-01-01

    It is said that American religion,as a great part of American culture,plays an important role in American culture. It is hoped that some ideas can be obtained from this research paper,which focuses on analyzing the great impact is produced to American culture by American religion. Finally, this essay gives two useful standpoints to English learners:Understunding American religion will help understand the American history, culture and American people,and help you to communic.ate with them better. Understanding American religion will help you understand English better.

  11. Rob Kroes, Photographic Memories: Private Pictures, Public Images, and American History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Kempf

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In his latest opus, Rob Kroes gives us a very personal meditation on images, as well as a powerful and engaging semiotic voyage through America and Europe. Although the subtitle reads “Private Pictures, Public Images, and American History”, it is too modest to the point of being misleading. In this book Kroes writes with “elegance, wisdom, and originality” (to quote Richard Pells’s reaction to the book as the true polyglot humanist he is, a man who has extensively traveled throughout the US ...

  12. A CLUSTER ANALYSIS OF DRUG USE AND SEXUAL HIV RISKS AND THEIR CORRELATES IN A SAMPLE OF AFRICAN-AMERICAN CRACK COCAINE SMOKERS WITH HIV INFECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Schönnesson, Lena Nilsson; Atkinson, John; Williams, Mark L.; Bowen, Anne; Michael W. Ross; Timpson, Sandra C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to classify a sample of HIV seropositive African American crack cocaine smokers into homogenous HIV drug use and sexual risk groups using a two step multivariate cluster analysis. Two hundred and fifty eight crack cocaine smokers participated in the study. Cluster analysis revealed three distinct HIV risk groups. The highest risk group, the largest one, was characterized by frequent, daily crack use, multiple sex partners, trading sex, and inconsi...

  13. Genomic Data from Extinct North American Camelops Revise Camel Evolutionary History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintzman, Peter D; Zazula, Grant D; Cahill, James A; Reyes, Alberto V; MacPhee, Ross D E; Shapiro, Beth

    2015-09-01

    Recent advances in paleogenomic technologies have enabled an increasingly detailed understanding of the evolutionary relationships of now-extinct mammalian taxa. However, a number of enigmatic Quaternary species have never been characterized with molecular data, often because available fossils are rare or are found in environments that are not optimal for DNA preservation. Here, we analyze paleogenomic data extracted from bones attributed to the late Pleistocene western camel, Camelops cf. hesternus, a species that was distributed across central and western North America until its extinction approximately 13,000 years ago. Despite a modal sequence length of only around 35 base pairs, we reconstructed high-coverage complete mitochondrial genomes and low-coverage partial nuclear genomes for each specimen. We find that Camelops is sister to African and Asian bactrian and dromedary camels, to the exclusion of South American camelids (llamas, guanacos, alpacas, and vicuñas). These results contradict previous morphology-based phylogenetic models for Camelops, which suggest instead a closer relationship between Camelops and the South American camelids. The molecular data imply a Late Miocene divergence of the Camelops clade from lineages that separately gave rise to the extant camels of Eurasia. Our results demonstrate the increasing capacity of modern paleogenomic methods to resolve evolutionary relationships among distantly related lineages. PMID:26037535

  14. Ella Thea Smith and the lost history of American high school biology textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Ronald P

    2008-01-01

    Two influential articles published in the 1970s suggested that pressure from Christian fundamentalists, subsequent to the Scopes trial of 1925, forced American high school biology textbook authors and publishers to significantly limit discussion of the topic of evolution. The conclusions reached by these studies have become foundational for historians examining the interplay between science and religion in the United States in the twentieth century. However, a reexamination of key twentieth century biology textbooks suggests that the narrative that the treatment of the theory of evolution was held hostage to anti-rational cultural forces is largely a myth, created first as part of a public relations effort by the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) to differentiate, defend, and promote its work, and later as part of an attempt by scholars to sound a warning concerning the rise of the religious right. A focus on this narrative has not only allowed biologists to sidestep uncomfortable questions regarding the race-biased and class-biased assumptions embedded within the concept of evolutionary progress, it has also limited reliance on the texts in question as reliable reflections of the cultural assumptions of educators and scientists. A reexamination of the most popular American biology textbooks from 1907 to 1963, particularly the work of Ella Thea Smith, provides evidence in support of these contentions. PMID:19244720

  15. Early history of electroencephalography and establishment of the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James L; Hughes, John R

    2013-02-01

    The field of electroencephalography (EEG) had its origin with the discovery of recordable electrical potentials from activated nerves and muscles of animals and in the last quarter of the 19th century from the cerebral cortex of animals. By the 1920s, Hans Berger, a neuropsychiatrist from Germany, recorded potentials from the scalp of patients with skull defects and, a few years later, with more sensitive equipment from intact subjects. Concurrently, the introduction of electronic vacuum tube amplification and the cathode ray oscilloscope was made by American physiologists or "axonologists," interested in peripheral nerve recordings. Berger's findings were independently confirmed in early 1934 by Lord Adrian in England and by Hallowell Davis at Harvard, in the United States. In the United States, the earliest contributions to human EEG were made by Hallowell Davis, Herbert H. Jasper, Frederic A. Gibbs, William Lennox, and Alfred L. Loomis. Remarkable progress in the development of EEG as a useful clinical tool followed the 1935 report by the Harvard group on the electrographic and clinical correlations in patients with absence (petit mal) seizures and altered states of consciousness. Technical aspects of the EEG and additional clinical EEG correlations were elucidated by the above investigators and a number of others. Further study led to gatherings of the EEG pioneers at Loomis' laboratory in New York (1935-1939), Regional EEG society formation, and the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society in 1946. PMID:23377440

  16. Investigation of spatio-temporal cancer clusters using residential histories in a case–control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Sloan, Chantel D.; Shahid, Haseeb; Jacquez, Geoffrey M; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Cerhan, James R.; Cozen, Wendy; Severson, Richard; Ward, Mary H; Morton, Lindsay; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Meliker, Jaymie R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is an enigmatic disease with few known risk factors. Spatio-temporal epidemiologic analyses have the potential to reveal patterns that may give clues to new risk factors worthy of investigation. We sought to investigate clusters of NHL through space and time based on life course residential histories. Methods We used residential histories from a population-based NHL case–control study of 1300 cases and 1044 controls with recruitment centers in Iowa, Detro...

  17. Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian O.

    of the ruling class. The book helps explain how capitalism regained its social legitimacy in the face of different kinds of legitimacy crises, by appealing to ideals such as the social responsibility of industrialists, the soulful corporation, serving the public, or responsibility for humanity and...... social legitimacy of capitalism, responding to critiques of capitalism, avoiding union and state interference, and preserving the power of private command and private property. But it has also been a way in which business has been critiqued, and can therefore hardly be understood simply to be an ideology...... life itself. Through a history of the idea of progressive business and its critics, we can not only get a better understanding of how and why it has been advocated—but also for what reasons it has disturbed critics from the right, who often feared that it would undermine the shareholder view of the...

  18. The Pan American Health Organization and international health: a history of training, conceptualization, and collective development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Annella; Guerrero Espinel, Juan Eduardo

    2011-08-01

    A constantly changing and increasingly complex global environment requires leaders with special competencies to respond effectively to this scenario. Within this context, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) goes beyond traditional leadership training models both in terms of its design as well as its conceptual approach to international health. As an intergovernmental, centenary organization in health, PAHO allows participants a unique vantage point from which to conceptualize, share experiences and develop projects relevant to international health. Derived from over two decades of experience (1985-2006) training professionals through its predessor Training Program in International Health, the Leaders in International Health Program "Edmundo Granda Ugalde" (LIHP) utilizes an innovative design, virtual and practical learning activities, and a problem-based approach to analyze the main concepts, theories, actors, forces, and processes relevant to international health. In collaboration with PAHO/WHO Representative Offices and national institutions, participants develop country projects based on priority health issues, many of which are integrated into the Organization's technical cooperation and/or implemented by relevant ministries and other entities in their respective countries/subregions. A total of 185 participants representing 31 countries have participated in the LIHP since its inception in 2008, building upon the 187 trained through its predecessor. These initiatives have contributed to the development of health professionals in the Region of the Americas devoted to international health, as well as provided important input towards a conceptual understanding of international health by fostering debate on this issue. PMID:22159721

  19. Global change and thermal history as recorded by northern North American tree-ring data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal regimes and heat exchange of the polar and subpolar regions play a key role in global climatic change. Principal components analysis of instrumental data for the globe indicate that northern high latitude temperatures are a very strong component of global temperature variations. Tree-ring data from thermally responsive sites in Canada and Alaska yield records of polar and subpolar temperature changes for centuries prior to the relatively short period of instrumental measurements. Tree-ring width based reconstructions of Arctic and northern North American temperatures through 1973 reflect the general positive trend in large-scale instrumental data over the past century. These reconstructions, as well as the raw tree-ring measurements, show that this recent period of warming is unusual relative to the prior few centuries. More recently developed data from Canada confirm previous reconstructions. A maximum latewood density chronology from the Northwest Territories shows a stronger climatic response to warm-season temperatures than ring width data from the same trees. The density information also shows a response to several other temperature-related parameters, including ground-level solar radiation measurements. In detecting and quantifying global climatic change, tree-ring analysis of high latitude trees provides evidence of recent wide-scale warming in northern North America. This warming will affect boreal forests, northern waters, and human activities. However, more, studies are needed to better determine the extent of recent and possible future climatic change and the resulting environmental consequences

  20. Genetic relationships among native americans based on b-globin gene cluster haplotype frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousinho-Ribeiro Rita de Cassia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of b-globin gene haplotypes was studied in 209 Amerindians from eight tribes of the Brazilian Amazon: Asurini from Xingú, Awá-Guajá, Parakanã, Urubú-Kaapór, Zoé, Kayapó (Xikrin from the Bacajá village, Katuena, and Tiriyó. Nine different haplotypes were found, two of which (n. 11 and 13 had not been previously identified in Brazilian indigenous populations. Haplotype 2 (+ - - - - was the most common in all groups studied, with frequencies varying from 70% to 100%, followed by haplotype 6 (- + + - +, with frequencies between 7% and 18%. The frequency distribution of the b-globin gene haplotypes in the eighteen Brazilian Amerindian populations studied to date is characterized by a reduced number of haplotypes (average of 3.5 and low levels of heterozygosity and intrapopulational differentiation, with a single clearly predominant haplotype in most tribes (haplotype 2. The Parakanã, Urubú-Kaapór, Tiriyó and Xavante tribes constitute exceptions, presenting at least four haplotypes with relatively high frequencies. The closest genetic relationships were observed between the Brazilian and the Colombian Amerindians (Wayuu, Kamsa and Inga, and, to a lesser extent, with the Huichol of Mexico. North-American Amerindians are more differentiated and clearly separated from all other tribes, except the Xavante, from Brazil, and the Mapuche, from Argentina. A restricted pool of ancestral haplotypes may explain the low diversity observed among most present-day Brazilian and Colombian Amerindian groups, while interethnic admixture could be the most important factor to explain the high number of haplotypes and high levels of diversity observed in some South-American and most North-American tribes.

  1. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Low-Income, Predominantly African American Women with PTSD and a History of Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Mary Ann; Bermudez, Diana; Matas, Armely; Majid, Haseeb; Myers, Neely L.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we consider the use of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR; Kabat-Zinn, 1991) as a community-based intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among low-income, predominantly African American women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV). The results of a pilot randomized clinical trial (RCT) of MBSR as an…

  2. Slavery, the Civil War Era, and African American Representation in U.S. History: An Analysis of Four States' Academic Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carl B.; Metzger, Scott Alan

    2011-01-01

    This study is a mixed-methods text analysis of African American representation within K-12 U.S. History content standards treating the revolutionary era, the early U.S. republic, the Civil War era, and Reconstruction. The states included in the analysis are Michigan, New Jersey, South Carolina, and Virginia. The analysis finds that the reviewed…

  3. The Impact of Stress on the Life History Strategies of African American Adolescents: Cognitions, Genetic Moderation, and the Role of Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Frederick X.; Roberts, Megan E.; Gerrard, Meg; Li, Zhigang; Beach, Steven R. H.; Simons, Ronald L.; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Philibert, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of 3 different sources of stress--environmental, familial (e.g., low parental investment), and interpersonal (i.e., racial discrimination)--on the life history strategies (LHS) and associated cognitions of African American adolescents were examined over an 11-year period (5 waves, from age 10.5 to 21.5). Analyses indicated that each one…

  4. Knowledge about type 2 diabetes risk and prevention of African-American and Hispanic adults and adolescents with family history of type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to assess type 2 diabetes knowledge, perceptions, risk factor awareness, and prevention practices among African-American and Hispanic families with a history of diabetes. Ninth and tenth grade Houston area students who had a parent who spoke English or Spanish and had a...

  5. "Artforum," Andy Warhol, and the Art of Living: What Art Educators Can Learn from the Recent History of American Art Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, David

    2005-01-01

    What is the best way to understand the recent development of American art? An older tradition of commentary focuses on the role of tradition, noting how each new form of painting is rooted in a long history. But Jack Bankoswky and some other art writers discussing Andy Warhol have adapted a different approach, arguing that his art breaks radically…

  6. The Phase Space of z~1.2 SpARCS Clusters: Using Herschel to probe Dust Temperature as a Function of Environment and Accretion History

    CERN Document Server

    Noble, A G; Yee, H K C; Muzzin, A; Wilson, G; van der Burg, R F J; Balogh, M L; Shupe, D L

    2015-01-01

    We present a five-band Herschel study (100-500um) of three galaxy clusters at z~1.2 from the Spitzer Adaptation of the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey (SpARCS). With a sample of 120 spectroscopically-confirmed cluster members, we investigate the role of environment on galaxy properties utilizing the projected cluster phase space (line-of-sight velocity versus clustercentric radius), which probes the time-averaged galaxy density to which a galaxy has been exposed. We divide cluster galaxies into phase-space bins of (r/r200) x (v/sigma_v), tracing a sequence of accretion histories in phase space. Stacking optically star-forming cluster members on the Herschel maps, we measure average infrared star formation rates, and, for the first time in high-redshift galaxy clusters, dust temperatures for dynamically distinct galaxy populations---namely, recent infalls and those that were accreted onto the cluster at an earlier epoch. Proceeding from the infalling to virialized (central) regions of phase space, we find a steady...

  7. The Origin of S0s in Clusters: evidence from the bulge and disc star formation histories

    CERN Document Server

    Johnston, Evelyn J; Merrifield, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    The individual star formation histories of bulges and discs of lenticular (S0) galaxies can provide information on the processes involved in the quenching of their star formation and subsequent transformation from spirals. In order to study this transformation in dense environments, we have decomposed long-slit spectroscopic observations of a sample of 21 S0s from the Virgo Cluster to produce one-dimensional spectra representing purely the bulge and disc light for each galaxy. Analysis of the Lick indices within these spectra reveals that the bulges contain consistently younger and more metal-rich stellar populations than their surrounding discs, implying that the final episode of star formation within S0s occurs in their central regions. Analysis of the $\\alpha$-element abundances in these components further presents a picture in which the final episode of star formation in the bulge is fueled using gas that has previously been chemically enriched in the disc, indicating the sequence of events in the transfo...

  8. A review of American psychiatry through its diagnoses: the history and development of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Bernard A

    2012-12-01

    The history of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) reflects the larger history of American psychiatry. As the field anticipates DSM-5, it is useful to take stock of this history and consider not only how diagnosis impacts our understanding of mental illness but also how contemporary thought influences diagnosis. Before the DSM, the field was disjointed. The publication of the first American diagnostic manual, the precursor of the DSM, mirrored society's interest in organized record keeping and prevention rather than treatment of mental illness. The first and second editions of DSM brought a common language to diagnosis and were largely the work of outpatient and academic psychiatrists rather than those based in large state hospitals. The third edition of the DSM saw the shift in American psychiatry's leadership from the eminent clinician to the researcher, whereas the fourth edition reflected the rise of "evidence-based medicine." DSM-5 will likewise represent the current status of the field-not only with regard to science but also reflecting the place of American psychiatry in medicine today. PMID:23197117

  9. The Phase Space of z~1.2 SpARCS Clusters: Using Herschel to Probe Dust Temperature as a Function of Environment and Accretion History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, A. G.; Webb, T. M. A.; Yee, H. K. C.; Muzzin, A.; Wilson, G.; van der Burg, R. F. J.; Balogh, M. L.; Shupe, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    We present a five-band Herschel study (100-500 μm) of three galaxy clusters at z˜ 1.2 from the Spitzer Adaptation of the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey. With a sample of 120 spectroscopically confirmed cluster members, we investigate the role of environment on galaxy properties utilizing the projected cluster phase space (line-of-sight velocity versus clustercentric radius), which probes the time-averaged galaxy density to which a galaxy has been exposed. We divide cluster galaxies into phase-space bins of (r/{r}200)× ({{Δ }}v/{σ }v), tracing a sequence of accretion histories in phase space. Stacking optically star-forming cluster members on the Herschel maps, we measure average infrared star formation rates, and, for the first time in high-redshift galaxy clusters, dust temperatures for dynamically distinct galaxy populations—namely, recent infalls and those that were accreted onto the cluster at an earlier epoch. Proceeding from the infalling to virialized (central) regions of phase space, we find a steady decrease in the specific star formation rate and increase in the stellar age of star-forming cluster galaxies. We perform a probability analysis to investigate all acceptable infrared spectral energy distributions within the full parameter space and measure a ˜ 4σ drop in the average dust temperature of cluster galaxies in an intermediate phase-space bin, compared to an otherwise flat trend with phase space. We suggest one plausible quenching mechanism which may be consistent with these trends, invoking ram-pressure stripping of the warmer dust for galaxies within this intermediate accretion phase. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  10. Big Bangs in Galaxy Clusters: Using X-ray Temperature Maps to Trace Merger Histories in Clusters with Radio Halos/Relics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jack O.; Datta, Abhirup; Hallman, Eric J.

    2016-06-01

    Galaxy clusters are assembled through large and small mergers which are the most energetic events ("bangs") since the Big Bang. Cluster mergers "stir" the intracluster medium (ICM) creating shocks and turbulence which are illuminated by ~Mpc-sized radio features called relics and halos. These shocks heat the ICM and are detected in x-rays via thermal emission. Disturbed morphologies in x-ray surface brightness and temperatures are direct evidence for cluster mergers. In the radio, relics (in the outskirts of the clusters) and halos (located near the cluster core) are also clear signposts of recent mergers. Our recent ENZO cosmological simulations suggest that around a merger event, radio emission peaks very sharply (and briefly) while the x-ray emission rises and decays slowly. Hence, a sample of galaxy clusters that shows both luminous x-ray emission and radio relics/halos are good candidates for very recent mergers. We are in the early stages of analyzing a unique sample of 48 galaxy clusters with (i) known radio relics and/or halos and (ii) significant archival x-ray observations (>50 ksec) from Chandra and/or XMM. We have developed a new x-ray data analysis pipeline, implemented on parallel processor supercomputers, to create x-ray surface brightness, high fidelity temperature, and pressure maps of these clusters in order to study merging activity. The temperature maps are made using three different map-making techniques: Weighted Voronoi Tessellation, Adaptive Circular Binning, and Contour Binning. In this talk, we will show preliminary results for several clusters, including Abell 2744 and the Bullet cluster. This work is supported by NASA ADAP grant NNX15AE17G.

  11. The Phase Space of z=1.2 Clusters: Probing Dust Temperature and Star Formation Rate as a Function of Environment and Accretion History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Allison; SpARCS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the influence of environment is a fundamental goal in studies of galaxy formation and evolution, and galaxy clusters offer ideal laboratories with which to examine environmental effects on their constituent members. Clusters continually evolve and build up mass through the accumulation of galaxies and groups, resulting in distinct galaxy populations based on their accretion history. In Noble et al. 2013, we presented a novel definition for environment using the phase space of line-of-sight velocity and clustercentric radius, which probes the time-averaged density to which a galaxy has been exposed and traces out accretion histories. Using this dynamical definition of environment reveals a decline in specific star formation towards the cluster core in the earliest accreted galaxies, and was further shown to isolate post-starburst galaxies within clusters (Muzzin et al. 2014). We have now extended this work to higher-redshift clusters at z=1.2 using deep Herschel-PACS and -SPIRE data. With a sample of 120 spectroscopically-confirmed cluster members, we investigate various galaxy properties as a function of phase-space environment. Specifically, we use 5-band Herschel photometry to estimate the dust temperature and star formation rate for dynamically distinct galaxy populations, namely recent infalls and those that were accreted into the cluster at an earlier epoch (Noble et al. submitted). These properties are then compared to a field sample of star-forming galaxies at 1.1 results, focusing on how this accretion-based definition aids our understanding of quenching mechanisms within z=1.2 galaxies.

  12. STAR FORMATION HISTORY OF A YOUNG SUPER-STAR CLUSTER IN NGC 4038/39: DIRECT DETECTION OF LOW-MASS PRE-MAIN SEQUENCE STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an analysis of the near-infrared spectrum of a young massive star cluster in the overlap region of the interacting galaxies NGC 4038/39 using population synthesis models. Our goal is to model the cluster population as well as provide rough constraints on its initial mass function (IMF). The cluster shows signs of youth, such as thermal radio emission and strong hydrogen emission lines in the near-infrared. Late-type absorption lines are also present which are indicative of late-type stars in the cluster. The strength and ratio of these absorption lines cannot be reproduced through either late-type pre-main sequence (PMS) stars or red supergiants alone. Thus, we interpret the spectrum as a superposition of two star clusters of different ages, which is feasible since the 1'' spectrum encompasses a physical region of ∼90 pc and radii of super-star clusters (SSCs) are generally measured to be a few parsecs. One cluster is young (≤ 3 Myr) and is responsible for part of the late-type absorption features, which are due to PMS stars in the cluster, and the hydrogen emission lines. The second cluster is older (6 Myr-18 Myr) and is needed to reproduce the overall depth of the late-type absorption features in the spectrum. Both are required to accurately reproduce the near-infrared spectrum of the object. Thus, we have directly detected PMS objects in an unresolved SSC for the first time using a combination of population synthesis models and PMS tracks. This analysis serves as a testbed of our technique to constrain the low-mass IMF in young SSCs as well as an exploration of the star formation history of young UC H II regions.

  13. Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Computerized Self-Administered Diet History Questionnaire for Use in Studies of American Indian and Alaskan Native People

    OpenAIRE

    Slattery, Martha L; Murtaugh, Maureen A.; Schumacher, Mary Catherine; Johnson, Jennifer; Edwards, Sandra; Edwards, Roger; Benson, Joan; Tom-Orme, Lillian; Lanier, Anne P.

    2008-01-01

    Collection of dietary intake in epidemiologic studies involves using methods that are comprehensive yet appropriate for the population being studied. Here we describe a diet history questionnaire (DHQ) that was developed using an audio self-administered computer-assisted interview technique. The DHQ was developed for use in a cohort of American Indians and Alaskan Natives with tribal input and area-specific modules to incorporate local food availability. The DHQ includes 54 main food group qu...

  14. A Re-examination on the writers of the “Roaring 20s”and their significance in the history of American Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉冰冰

    2014-01-01

    <正>Ⅰ.Introduction Two disasters,the World WarⅠwhich ended in 1919 and the Great Depression began in 1929,distinguish the 1920s from the rest of the American history.These 10 years,called"the Roaring 20s",is a period of peaceful development,flourishing and encouraging,and a period of shapely changes,disturbing and annoying(Tao,1).Many famous writers appeared in this critical

  15. Targeted Teaching: Engaged Learning with the Inquiry-Based Question Cluster Discussion Technique: Student Outcomes in a History of Economic Thought Course

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsten K. Madden

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-six undergraduate students explored the meaning of the classics (Adam Smith and Karl Marx) and two lesser-known contributions in ethics and economics (Robert Owen and John Ruskin) in a spring 2007 history of economic thought course. This article introduces the inquiry-based discussion technique used in the course and presents five question clusters fulfilling requirements for an inquiry-based discussion. A proposed hypothesis is that the technique increases student understanding of cha...

  16. The VMC survey - XV. The Small Magellanic Cloud--Bridge connection history as traced by their star cluster populations

    CERN Document Server

    Piatti, A E; Rubele, S; Cioni, M R; Ripepi, V; Kerber, L

    2015-01-01

    We present results based on YJKs photometry of star clusters located in the outermost, eastern region of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We analysed a total of 51 catalogued clusters whose colour--magnitude diagrams (CMDs), having been cleaned from field-star contamination, were used to assess the clusters' reality and estimate ages of the genuine systems. Based on CMD analysis, 15 catalogued clusters were found to be possible non-genuine aggregates. We investigated the properties of 80% of the catalogued clusters in this part of the SMC by enlarging our sample with previously obtained cluster ages, adopting a homogeneous scale for all. Their spatial distribution suggests that the oldest clusters, log(t yr-1) >= 9.6, are in general located at greater distances to the galaxy's centre than their younger counterparts -- 9.0 <= log(t yr-1) <= 9.4 -- while two excesses of clusters are seen at log(t yr-1) ~ 9.2 and log(t yr-1) ~ 9.7. We found a trail of younger clusters which follow the Wing/Bridge componen...

  17. Dissecting 30 Doradus: Optical and Near Infrared Star Formation History of the starburst cluster NGC2070 from the Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cignoni, Michele

    2015-08-01

    I will present new results on the star formation history of 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud based on the panchromatic imaging survey Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP). Here the focus is on the starburst cluster NGC2070. The star formation history is derived by comparing the deepest ever optical and NIR color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) with state-of-the-art synthetic CMDs generated with the latest PARSEC models, which include all stellar phases from pre-main sequence (PMS) to post-main sequence. For the first time in this region we are able to measure the star formation using intermediate and low mass stars simultaneously. Our results suggest that NGC2070 experienced a prolonged activity. I will discuss the detailed star formation history, initial mass function and reddening distribution and how these relate to previous studies of this starburst region.

  18. A TALE OF A RICH CLUSTER AT z ∼ 0.8 AS SEEN BY THE STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF ITS EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a detailed stellar population analysis for a sample of 24 early-type galaxies (ETGs) belonging to the rich cluster RX J0152.7-1357 at z = 0.83. We have derived the age, metallicity, abundance pattern, and star formation history (SFH) for each galaxy individually to further characterize this intermediate-z reference cluster. We then study how these stellar population parameters depend on the local environment. This provides a better understanding on the formation timescales and subsequent evolution of the substructures in this cluster. We have also explored the evolutionary link between z ∼ 0.8 ETGs and those in the local universe by comparing the trends that the stellar population parameters followed with galaxy velocity dispersion at each epoch. We find that the ETGs in Coma are consistent with being the (passively evolving) descendants of the ETG population in RX J10152.7-1357. Furthermore, our results favor a downsizing picture, where the subclumps centers were formed first. These central parts contain the most massive galaxies, which formed the bulk of their stars in a short, burst-like event at high z. On the contrary, the cluster outskirts are populated with less-massive, smaller galaxies that show a wider variety of SFHs. In general, they present extended star formation episodes over cosmic time, which seems to be related to their posterior incorporation into the cluster around 4 Gyr after the initial event of formation

  19. Is the Escape Velocity in Star Clusters Linked to Extended Star Formation Histories? Using NGC 7252: W3 as a Test Case

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrera-Ziri, I; Hilker, M; Davies, B; Schweizer, F; Kruijssen, J M D; Mejía-Narváez, A; Niederhofer, F; Brandt, T D; Rejkuba, M; Bruzual, G; Magris, G

    2016-01-01

    The colour-magnitude diagrams of some intermediate-age clusters (1-2 Gyr) star clusters show unexpectedly broad main-sequence turnoffs, raising the possibility that these clusters have experienced more than one episode of star formation. Such a scenario predicts the existence of an extended main sequence turn off (eMSTO) only in clusters with escape velocities above a certain threshold ($>15$ km s$^{-1}$), which would allow them to retain or accrete gas that eventually would fuel a secondary extended star-formation episode. This paper presents a test of this scenario based on the study of the young and massive cluster NGC 7252: W3. We use the HST photometry from WFPC2 and WFC3 images obtained with UV and optical filters, as well as MagE echellette spectrograph data from the Las Campanas Clay 6.5m telescope, in order to construct the observed UV/optical SED of NGC 7252: W3. The observations are then compared with synthetic spectra based on different star formation histories consistent with those of the eMSTO c...

  20. A TALE OF A RICH CLUSTER AT z ∼ 0.8 AS SEEN BY THE STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF ITS EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferré-Mateu, Anna [Subaru Telescope, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Sánchez-Blázquez, Patricia [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Vazdekis, Alexandre; De la Rosa, Ignacio G., E-mail: aferre@naoj.org [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-12-20

    We present a detailed stellar population analysis for a sample of 24 early-type galaxies (ETGs) belonging to the rich cluster RX J0152.7-1357 at z = 0.83. We have derived the age, metallicity, abundance pattern, and star formation history (SFH) for each galaxy individually to further characterize this intermediate-z reference cluster. We then study how these stellar population parameters depend on the local environment. This provides a better understanding on the formation timescales and subsequent evolution of the substructures in this cluster. We have also explored the evolutionary link between z ∼ 0.8 ETGs and those in the local universe by comparing the trends that the stellar population parameters followed with galaxy velocity dispersion at each epoch. We find that the ETGs in Coma are consistent with being the (passively evolving) descendants of the ETG population in RX J10152.7-1357. Furthermore, our results favor a downsizing picture, where the subclumps centers were formed first. These central parts contain the most massive galaxies, which formed the bulk of their stars in a short, burst-like event at high z. On the contrary, the cluster outskirts are populated with less-massive, smaller galaxies that show a wider variety of SFHs. In general, they present extended star formation episodes over cosmic time, which seems to be related to their posterior incorporation into the cluster around 4 Gyr after the initial event of formation.

  1. When Lions Write History: Black History Textbooks, African-American Educators, & the Alternative Black Curriculum in Social Studies Education, 1890-1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, LaGarrett J.

    2014-01-01

    The African proverb, "Until the lions have their historians, tales of the hunt shall always glorify the hunter," is used to metaphorically describe how dominant groups inscribe power through historical narrative. In this article the author discusses how African-American educators between the years of 1890-1940 conceptualized citizenship…

  2. A review of the South American Monsoon history as recorded in stable isotopic proxies over the past two millennia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vuille

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We review the history of the South American summer monsoon (SASM over the past ~2000 yr based on high-resolution stable isotope proxies from speleothems, ice cores and lake sediments. Our review is complemented by an analysis of an isotope-enabled atmospheric General Circulation Model (GCM for the past 130 yr. Proxy records from the monsoon belt in the tropical Andes and SE Brazil show a very coherent behavior over the past 2 millennia with significant decadal to multidecadal variability superimposed on large excursions during three key periods, the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, the Little Ice Age (LIA and the Current Warm Period (CWP. We interpret these three periods as times when the SASM's mean state was significantly weakened (MCA and CWP and strengthened (LIA, respectively. During the LIA each of the proxy archives considered contains the most negative δ18O values recorded during the entire record length. On the other hand the monsoon strength is currently rather weak in a 2000-yr historical perspective, rivaled only by the low intensity during the MCA. Our climatic interpretation of these archives is consistent with our isotope-based GCM analysis, which suggests that these sites are sensitive recorders of large-scale monsoon variations.

    We hypothesize that these centennial-scale climate anomalies were at least partially driven by temperature changes in the Northern Hemisphere and in particular over the North Atlantic, leading to a latitudinal displacement of the ITCZ and a change in monsoon intensity over the tropical continent. This interpretation is supported by several independent proxy archives and modeling studies. Although ENSO is the main forcing for δ18O variability over tropical South America on interannual time scales, our results suggest that its influence may be significantly modulated by North Atlantic climate variability on longer time scales.

    Finally our analyses indicate that

  3. A review of the South American monsoon history as recorded in stable isotopic proxies over the past two millennia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vuille

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We review the history of the South American summer monsoon (SASM over the past ~2000 yr based on high-resolution stable isotope proxies from speleothems, ice cores and lake sediments. Our review is complemented by an analysis of an isotope-enabled atmospheric general circulation model (GCM for the past 130 yr. Proxy records from the monsoon belt in the tropical Andes and SE Brazil show a very coherent behavior over the past 2 millennia with significant decadal to multidecadal variability superimposed on large excursions during three key periods: the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, the Little Ice Age (LIA and the current warm period (CWP. We interpret these three periods as times when the SASM's mean state was significantly weakened (MCA and CWP and strengthened (LIA, respectively. During the LIA each of the proxy archives considered contains the most negative δ18O values recorded during the entire record length. On the other hand, the monsoon strength is currently rather weak in a 2000-yr historical perspective, rivaled only by the low intensity during the MCA. Our climatic interpretation of these archives is consistent with our isotope-based GCM analysis, which suggests that these sites are sensitive recorders of large-scale monsoon variations.

    We hypothesize that these centennial-scale climate anomalies were at least partially driven by temperature changes in the Northern Hemisphere and in particular over the North Atlantic, leading to a latitudinal displacement of the ITCZ and a change in monsoon intensity (amount of rainfall upstream over the Amazon Basin. This interpretation is supported by several independent records from different proxy archives and modeling studies. Although ENSO is the main forcing for δ18O variability over tropical South America on interannual time scales, our results suggest that its influence may be significantly modulated by North Atlantic climate variability on longer time scales

  4. Factors influencing the underutilization of mental health services among Asian American women with a history of depression and suicide

    OpenAIRE

    Augsberger, Astraea; Yeung, Albert; Dougher, Meaghan; Hahm, Hyeouk Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the substantially high prevalence of depression, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among Asian American women who are children of immigrants, little is known about the prevalence of mental health utilization and the perceived barriers to accessing care. Methods The data were from the Asian American Women’s Sexual Health Initiative Project (AWSHIP), a 5-year mixed methods study at Boston University. The quantitative analysis examined the differential proportion of menta...

  5. Factors influencing the underutilization of mental health services among Asian American women with a history of depression and suicide

    OpenAIRE

    Augsberger, Astraea; Yeung, Albert; Dougher, Meaghan; Hahm, Hyeouk Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the substantially high prevalence of depression, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among Asian American women who are children of immigrants, little is known about the prevalence of mental health utilization and the perceived barriers to accessing care. Methods: The data were from the Asian American Women’s Sexual Health Initiative Project (AWSHIP), a 5-year mixed methods study at Boston University. The quantitative analysis examined the differential proportion of men...

  6. Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project: Unraveling Tarantula's Web. II. Optical and Near Infrared Star Formation History of the Starburst Cluster NGC 2070 in 30 Doradus

    OpenAIRE

    Cignoni, M.; Sabbi, E.; van der Marel, R. P.; Tosi, M.; Zaritsky, D.; Anderson, J.; Lennon, D.J.; Aloisi, A.; De Marchi, G.; Gouliermis, D.A.; Grebel, E. K.; Smith, L. J.; Zeidler, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of the recent star formation of 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using the panchromatic imaging survey Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP). In this paper we focus on the stars within 20 pc of the center of the massive ionizing cluster of 30 Doradus, NGC 2070. We recovered the star formation history by comparing deep optical and NIR color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) with state-of-the-art synthetic CMDs generated with the latest PARSEC models, which include a...

  7. The Evolution of Research on American Curriculum History%美国课程史研究的历史演进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱治军

    2016-01-01

    美国课程史研究最早是作为传统教育史的次领域而萌芽的,秉持传统教育史的进步史观、重视史料、编年体叙写等特点。20世纪70年代,课程领域的转向和修正教育史学的兴起,促使课程史研究开始思考与教育史的关系,并自觉寻求课程历史的理论解释。20世纪90年代,在后现代、后结构思潮和课程研究“理解范式”的影响下,课程史研究走向多元理论解释的路径。应从课程史与课程理论内在关联的角度,充分认识课程史研究的学术价值。%The research on American curriculum history initially sprouted as a secondary field of the traditional history of education , with such characteristics of traditional education history as progressive views ,emphasis on historical data , and chronological narration . In 1970's , with the turning of the curriculum field and the rising of the revisionist history of education , research on curriculum history started to explore its relationship with education history , and consciously seek for the theoretical interpretation of curriculum history . In 1990's , under the influence of post‐modernism , post‐structuralism thoughts and the paradigm of understanding curriculum , research on curriculum history began to take multiple paths of theoretical interpretation . Full understanding of the academic value of research on curriculum history should be made from the perspective of the tight relationship between curriculum history and curriculum theory .

  8. The history of mass assembly of faint red galaxies in 28 galaxy clusters since z=1.3

    CERN Document Server

    Andreon, S

    2007-01-01

    We measure the relative evolution of the number of bright and faint (as faint as 0.05 L*) red galaxies in a sample of 28 clusters, of which 16 are at 0.50<= z<=1.27, all observed through a pair of filters bracketing the 4000 Angstrom break rest-frame. The abundance of red galaxies, relative to bright ones, is constant over all the studied redshift range, 0cluster mass, parametrized by velocity dispersion or X-ray luminosity. Our analysis, with respect to previous one, samples a wider redshift range, minimizes systematics and put a more attention to statistical issues, keeping at the same time a large number of clusters.

  9. The role of land-use history in major invasions by woody plant species in the northeastern North American landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Mosher, Eric S.; Silander, John A.; Latimer, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    Land-use history as a predictor of invasive alien plant distributions has received little study, especially across large spatial and temporal scales. Here we evaluate the importance of land-use history and other environmental characteristics as predictors of the distributions of a suite important invasive woody plant species in the northeastern United States. Using historical aerial photographs, we delineated 69 years (1934–2003) of land-use change across a typically heterogeneous 95 km2 land...

  10. Constituting a Sense of "American" Identity and Place through Language and Literary Study: A Curriculum History, 1898-1912

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brass, Jory

    2013-01-01

    This article examines constructions of "American" identity and place in the first influential guides for English teaching published in the United States at the cusp of the 20th Century. It recovers how English teaching was to weaken youths' ties to more immediate people and places and to reorient their sense of self, others and the…

  11. The Meaning of Freedom of Speech: First Amendment Freedoms from Wilson to FDR. Contributions in American History No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Paul L.

    Using the Jazz Age as his frame of reference, the author analyzes the role of dissent and its suppression in American life. The crisis in civil liberties which began with a wartime restriction of freedom of speech in 1918 evoked a counteraction from concerned citizens during the 1920s. Their efforts were vindicated in 1931 when a…

  12. Native American Students' Understanding of Geologic Time Scale: 4th-8th Grade Ojibwe Students' Understanding of Earth's Geologic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Younkyeong; Karahan, Engin; Roehrig, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Geologic time scale is a very important concept for understanding long-term earth system events such as climate change. This study examines forty-three 4th-8th grade Native American--particularly Ojibwe tribe--students' understanding of relative ordering and absolute time of Earth's significant geological and biological events. This study also…

  13. Images of American Indians in Environmental Education: Anthropological Reflections on the Politics and History of Cultural Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willow, Anna J.

    2010-01-01

    For hundreds of years, North America's colonizers worked systematically to eradicate the indigenous cultural practices, religious beliefs, and autonomous political systems many venerate. This article illustrates that imperialist nostalgia underlies and directs portrayals of American Indians in environmental education today. Whether unconsciously…

  14. A tale of a rich cluster at z$\\sim$0.8 as seen by the Star Formation Histories of its ETGs

    CERN Document Server

    Ferré-Mateu, Anna; Vazdekis, Alexandre; de la Rosa, Ignacio G

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed stellar population analysis for a sample of 24 early-type galaxies belonging to the rich cluster RXJ0152.7-1357 at z=0.83. We have derived the age, metallicity, abundance pattern and star formation history for each galaxy individually, to further characterize this intermediate-z reference cluster. We then study how these stellar population parameters depend on local environment. This provides a better understanding on the formation timescales and subsequent evolution of the substructures in this cluster. We have also explored the evolutionary link between z$\\sim$0.8 ETGs and those in the local Universe by comparing the trends that the stellar population parameters follow with galaxy velocity dispersion at each epoch. We find that the ETGs in Coma are consistent with being the (passively-evolving) descendants of the ETG population in RXJ10152.7-1357. Furthermore, our results favor a downsizing picture, where the subclumps centers were formed first. This central parts contain the most mass...

  15. Cardiovascular disease risks in adult Native and Mexican Americans with a history of alcohol use disorders: association with cardiovascular autonomic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, José R; Gilder, David A; Kalafut, Mary A; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2016-04-01

    Hypertension and obesity are serious health problems that have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We recently showed a relationship between hypertension, obesity and cardiovagal control in a sample of Native and Mexican Americans at high risk of alcohol use disorders (AUD). While studies have shown that Native and Mexican Americans exhibit high rates of AUD, the consequences of AUD on CVD risk factors and their relationship with cardiovascular autonomic control is not well understood in these ethnic groups. This study investigated whether an association could be demonstrated between cardiovascular autonomic control and several CVD risk factors in Native and Mexican American men and women (n = 228) who are literate in English and are residing legally in San Diego County. Participants with lifetime history of AUD showed higher rates of systolic and diastolic hypertension and obesity than participants without lifetime AUD. Lifetime AUD was significantly associated with reduced HR response to deep breathing (HRDB) measure of cardiovagal control, higher current drinking quantity, and obesity. Reduced HRDB was also associated with increased systolic pre-hypertension or hypertension (pre-/hypertension) and with higher diastolic blood pressure in a linear regression model that included several diagnostic and demographic variables. HRDB and time- and frequency-domain measures of cardiovagal control were significantly reduced in participants with diastolic pre-/hypertension. These data suggest that lower cardiovagal control may play a role in the prevalence of systolic and diastolic pre-/hypertension in a community sample with a history of alcohol and substance use disorders. PMID:26758567

  16. Evolutionary history of HIV-1 subtype B and CRF01_AE transmission clusters among men who have sex with men (MSM in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Tien Ng

    Full Text Available HIV-1 epidemics among men who have sex with men (MSM continue to expand in developed and developing countries. Although HIV infection in MSM is amongst the highest of the key affected populations in many countries in Southeast Asia, comprehensive molecular epidemiological study of HIV-1 among MSM remains inadequate in the region including in Malaysia. Here, we reported the phylodynamic profiles of HIV-1 genotypes circulating among MSM population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of n = 459 newly-diagnosed treatment-naïve consenting subjects were recruited between March 2006 and August 2012, of whom 87 (18.9% were self-reported MSM. Transmitted drug resistance mutations were absent in these isolates. Cumulatively, phylogenetic reconstructions of the pro-rt gene (HXB2∶2253-3275 showed that HIV-1 subtype B and CRF01_AE were predominant and contributed to approximately 80% of the total HIV-1 infection among MSM. In addition to numerous unique transmission lineages within these genotypes, twelve monophyletic transmission clusters of different sizes (2-7 MSM sequences, supported by posterior probability value of 1 were identified in Malaysia. Bayesian coalescent analysis estimated that the divergence times for these clusters were mainly dated between 1995 and 2005 with four major transmission clusters radiating at least 12 years ago suggesting that active spread of multiple sub-epidemic clusters occurred during this period. The changes in effective population size of subtype B showed an exponential growth within 5 years between 1988 and 1993, while CRF01_AE lineage exhibited similar expansion between 1993 and 2003. Our study provides the first insight of the phylodynamic profile of HIV-1 subtype B and CRF01_AE circulating among MSM population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, unravelling the importance of understanding transmission behaviours as well as evolutionary history of HIV-1 in assessing the risk of outbreak or epidemic expansion.

  17. Evolutionary history of HIV-1 subtype B and CRF01_AE transmission clusters among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kim Tien; Ong, Lai Yee; Lim, Sin How; Takebe, Yutaka; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 epidemics among men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to expand in developed and developing countries. Although HIV infection in MSM is amongst the highest of the key affected populations in many countries in Southeast Asia, comprehensive molecular epidemiological study of HIV-1 among MSM remains inadequate in the region including in Malaysia. Here, we reported the phylodynamic profiles of HIV-1 genotypes circulating among MSM population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of n = 459 newly-diagnosed treatment-naïve consenting subjects were recruited between March 2006 and August 2012, of whom 87 (18.9%) were self-reported MSM. Transmitted drug resistance mutations were absent in these isolates. Cumulatively, phylogenetic reconstructions of the pro-rt gene (HXB2∶2253-3275) showed that HIV-1 subtype B and CRF01_AE were predominant and contributed to approximately 80% of the total HIV-1 infection among MSM. In addition to numerous unique transmission lineages within these genotypes, twelve monophyletic transmission clusters of different sizes (2-7 MSM sequences, supported by posterior probability value of 1) were identified in Malaysia. Bayesian coalescent analysis estimated that the divergence times for these clusters were mainly dated between 1995 and 2005 with four major transmission clusters radiating at least 12 years ago suggesting that active spread of multiple sub-epidemic clusters occurred during this period. The changes in effective population size of subtype B showed an exponential growth within 5 years between 1988 and 1993, while CRF01_AE lineage exhibited similar expansion between 1993 and 2003. Our study provides the first insight of the phylodynamic profile of HIV-1 subtype B and CRF01_AE circulating among MSM population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, unravelling the importance of understanding transmission behaviours as well as evolutionary history of HIV-1 in assessing the risk of outbreak or epidemic expansion. PMID:23840653

  18. From Presidential Protection to Campus Security: A Brief History of Threat Assessment in North American Schools and Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, Marisa R.; Cameron, J. Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of the development of behavioral threat assessment within colleges and universities in the United States and Canada, from the original Secret Service model used to evaluate threats against the U.S. president, to its adaptations for workplace settings and United States and Canadian secondary schools, to its…

  19. Communal visual histories to detect environmental change in northern areas: Examples of emerging North American and Eurasian practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, Tero

    2015-12-01

    This article explores the pioneering potential of communal visual-optic histories which are recorded, painted, documented, or otherwise expressed. These materials provide collective meanings of an image or visual material within a specific cultural group. They potentially provide a new method for monitoring and documenting changes to ecosystem health and species distribution, which can effectively inform society and decision makers of Arctic change. These visual histories can be positioned in a continuum that extends from rock art to digital photography. They find their expressions in forms ranging from images to the oral recording of knowledge and operate on a given cultural context. For monitoring efforts in the changing boreal zone and Arctic, a respectful engagement with visual histories can reveal emerging aspects of change. The examples from North America and case studies from Eurasia in this article include Inuit sea ice observations, Yu'pik visual traditions of masks, fish die-offs in a sub-boreal catchment area, permafrost melt in the Siberian tundra and early, first detection of a scarabaeid beetle outbreak, a Southern species in the Skolt Sámi area. The pros and cons of using these histories and their reliability are reviewed. PMID:26008615

  20. Life History Traits and Niche Instability Impact Accuracy and Temporal Transferability for Historically Calibrated Distribution Models of North American Birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guinevere O U Wogan

    Full Text Available A primary assumption of environmental niche models (ENMs is that models are both accurate and transferable across geography or time; however, recent work has shown that models may be accurate but not highly transferable. While some of this is due to modeling technique, individual species ecologies may also underlie this phenomenon. Life history traits certainly influence the accuracy of predictive ENMs, but their impact on model transferability is less understood. This study investigated how life history traits influence the predictive accuracy and transferability of ENMs using historically calibrated models for birds. In this study I used historical occurrence and climate data (1950-1990s to build models for a sample of birds, and then projected them forward to the 'future' (1960-1990s. The models were then validated against models generated from occurrence data at that 'future' time. Internal and external validation metrics, as well as metrics assessing transferability, and Generalized Linear Models were used to identify life history traits that were significant predictors of accuracy and transferability. This study found that the predictive ability of ENMs differs with regard to life history characteristics such as range, migration, and habitat, and that the rarity versus commonness of a species affects the predicted stability and overlap and hence the transferability of projected models. Projected ENMs with both high accuracy and transferability scores, still sometimes suffered from over- or under- predicted species ranges. Life history traits certainly influenced the accuracy of predictive ENMs for birds, but while aspects of geographic range impact model transferability, the mechanisms underlying this are less understood.

  1. Sequence analysis of mouse vomeronasal receptor gene clusters reveals common promoter motifs and a history of recent expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Robert P.; Cutforth, Tyler; Axel, Richard; Hood, Leroy; Trask, Barbara J.

    2001-01-01

    We have analyzed the organization and sequence of 73 V1R genes encoding putative pheromone receptors to identify regulatory features and characterize the evolutionary history of the V1R family. The 73 V1Rs arose from seven ancestral genes around the time of mouse–rat speciation through large local duplications, and this expansion may contribute to speciation events. Orthologous V1R genes appear to have been lost during primate evolution. Exceptional noncoding homol...

  2. Coping Patterns of African American Adolescents: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis of the Children's Coping Strategies Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Gipson, Polly; Mance, GiShawn; Grant, Kathryn E.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined patterns of coping strategies in a sample of 497 low-income urban African American adolescents (mean age = 12.61 years). Results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the 4-factor structure of the Children's Coping Strategies Checklist (T. S. Ayers, I. N. Sandler, S. G. West, & M. W. Roosa, 1996) was not…

  3. THE MASS-DEPENDENT CLUSTERING HISTORY OF K-SELECTED GALAXIES AT z < 4 IN THE SXDS/UDS FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate mass-dependent galaxy evolution based on a large sample of (more than 50,000) K-band selected galaxies in a multi-wavelength catalog of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey and the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey/Ultra Deep Survey. We employ optical to near-infrared photometry to determine photometric redshifts of these galaxies. Then, we estimate the stellar mass of our sample galaxies using a standard fitting procedure as we used for estimation of the photometric redshift. From the sample galaxies, we obtain the stellar mass function of galaxies and the cosmic stellar mass density up to z ∼ 4. Our results are consistent with previous studies and we find a considerable number of low-mass galaxies (M* ∼ 1010.5) at the redshift range 3 14 Msun) to low (1013 Msun) with decreasing redshift at around z ∼ 2. We also find some high-mass density regions of massive galaxies at 1.4 ≤ z < 2.5 in our sample. These concentrations of massive galaxies may be candidate progenitors of the present-day clusters of galaxies. At this redshift range, massive star-forming galaxies are the dominant population making up the structures and the passively evolving galaxies show stronger clustering and they may have formed earlier than those star-forming galaxies.

  4. X-ray Supercavities in the Hydra A Cluster and the Outburst History of the Central Galaxy's Active Nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Wise, M W; Nulsen, P E J; Houck, J C; David, L P

    2006-01-01

    A 227 ksec Chandra Observatory X-ray image of the hot plasma in the Hydra A cluster has revealed an extensive cavity system. The system was created by a continuous outflow or a series of bursts from the nucleus of the central galaxy over the past 200-500 Myr. The cavities have displaced 10% of the plasma within a 300 kpc radius of the central galaxy, creating a swiss-cheese-like topology in the hot gas. The surface brightness decrements are consistent with empty cavities oriented within 40 degrees of the plane of the sky. The outflow has deposited upward of 10^61 erg into the cluster gas, most of which was propelled beyond the inner ~100 kpc cooling region. The supermassive black hole has accreted at a rate of approximately 0.1-0.25 solar masses per year over this time frame, which is a small fraction of the Eddington rate of a ~10^9 solar mass black hole, but is dramatically larger than the Bondi rate. Given the previous evidence for a circumnuclear disk of cold gas in Hydra A, these results are consistent w...

  5. Stellar models simulating the disk-locking mechanism and the evolutionary history of the Orion Nebula cluster and NGC 2264

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landin, N. R.; Mendes, L. T. S.; Vaz, L. P. R.; Alencar, S. H. P.

    2016-02-01

    Context. Rotational evolution in young stars is described by pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks including non-gray boundary conditions, rotation, conservation of angular momentum, and simulations of disk-locking. Aims: By assuming that disk-locking is the regulation mechanism for the stellar angular velocity during the early stages of pre-main sequence evolution, we use our rotating models and observational data to constrain disk lifetimes (Tdisk) of a representative sample of low-mass stars in two young clusters, the Orion Nebula cluster (ONC) and NGC 2264, and to better understand their rotational evolution. Methods: The period distributions of the ONC and NGC 2264 are known to be bimodal and to depend on the stellar mass. To follow the rotational evolution of these two clusters' stars, we generated sets of evolutionary tracks from a fully convective configuration with low central temperatures (before D- and Li-burning). We assumed that the evolution of fast rotators can be represented by models considering conservation of angular momentum during all stages and of moderate rotators by models considering conservation of angular velocity during the first stages of evolution. With these models we estimate a mass and an age for all stars. Results: The resulting mass distribution for the bulk of the cluster population is in the ranges of 0.2-0.4 M⊙ and 0.1-0.6 M⊙ for the ONC and NGC 2264, respectively. For the ONC, we assume that the secondary peak in the period distribution is due to high-mass objects still locked in their disks, with a locking period (Plock) of ~8 days. For NGC 2264 we make two hypotheses: (1) the stars in the secondary peak are still locked with Plock = 5 days, and (2) NGC 2264 is in a later stage in the rotational evolution. Hypothesis 2 implies in a disk-locking scenario with Plock = 8 days, a disk lifetime of 1 Myr and, after that, constant angular momentum evolution. We then simulated the period distribution of NGC 2264 when the mean age

  6. (No) Limits to Anglo-American Accounting? Reconstructing the History of the International Accounting Standards Committee ; A Review Article

    OpenAIRE

    Botzem, S.; S Quack

    2009-01-01

    The development of the current International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) from the earlier International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC) provides insight into many issues of international financial reporting, among them the characteristics of international accounting standards themselves. This article reviews Camfferman and Zeff’s [Camfferman, K., & Zeff, S. A. (2007). Financial reporting and global capital markets. A history of the international accounting standards committee 1973...

  7. Identity & Relocation Policy: Using Oral History to Affectively Map the Experience of Relocated American Indians in Los Angeles.

    OpenAIRE

    Dobroski, Sonja Liza

    2012-01-01

    The relocation policy began in the early 1950's and ended in the 1970's. The policy was created to move reservation Indians into cities by providing relocation assistance in the form of housing, job placement, training, etc. This policy, and Federal Indian policies like it, present logics of assimilation. Existing scholarship has shared these views and has discussed the response to Urban Indian Identity in a variety of ways. In this thesis I will use the oral history accounts of eight reloca...

  8. A brief history of the American radium industry and its ties to the scientific community of its early Twentieth Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federally funded remedial action projects are presently underway in New Jersey and Colorado at sites containing 226Ra and other radionuclides from radium-uranium ore extraction plants that operated during the early twentieth century. They are but the latest chapter in the story of an American industry that emerged and perished in the span of three decades. Major extraction plants were established in or near Denver (CO), Pittsburgh (PA), and New York City (NY) to process radium from ore that came largely from the carnotite deposits of western Colorado and eastern Utah. The staffs of these plants included some of the finest chemists and physicists in the nation, and the highly-refined radium products found a variety of uses in medicine and industry. The discovery of high-grade pitchblende ores in the Belgian Congo and the subsequent opening of an extraction plant near Antwerp, Belgium, in 1992, however, created an economic climate that put an end to the American radium industry. The geologic, chemical, and engineering information gathered during this era formed the basis of the uranium industry of the later part of the century, while the tailings and residues came to be viewed as environmental problems during the same period

  9. High-resolution Holocene South American monsoon history recorded by a speleothem from Botuverá Cave, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, J. P.; Cruz, Francisco W.; Stríkis, Nicolás M.; Wang, Xianfeng; Deininger, Michael; Catunda, Maria Carolina A.; Ortega-Obregón, C.; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Auler, Augusto S.

    2016-09-01

    A Holocene stalagmite from Botuverá Cave, southeastern Brazil was analyzed by LA-ICPMS for Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca. The observed variability in the record was demonstrated to be modulated by prior calcite precipitation, and, thus, is interpreted to reflect monsoon intensity. We find that the calcite δ18O is strongly correlated with Sr/Ca, indicating that atmospheric circulation over South America and monsoon intensity have been tightly correlated throughout most of the Holocene, both directly responding to solar precession. Comparison with other contemporaneous high-resolution hydroclimate records reveals that SAMS has shown a degree of complexity during the Holocene not previously detected, with periods where the South American Convergence Zone (SACZ) expanded to cover most of the South American sub-continent, and coincident with periods of low-SST in the north Atlantic. We also detect periods where rainfall amount in northeastern and southeastern Brazil are markedly anti-phased, suggesting a north-south migration of SACZ, which it appears to be mediated by solar irradiance. The high-resolution nature of our record allow us to examine the effect that Holocene climate anomalies had upon SAMS dynamics and hydroclimate in southeastern Brazil, in particular the 8.2 ka event and the Little Ice Age. In addition to confirm the internal structure of the events, we also detect the possible consequences of the climatic anomalies upon ocean-atmosphere interactions through its effects upon SAMS.

  10. Estudio descriptivo y comparativo del slang en la traducción para doblaje de la película American History X (Tony Kaye, 1998)

    OpenAIRE

    Estal Daries, Lester

    2014-01-01

    Treball Final de Grau en Traducció i Interpretació. Codi: TI0983. Curs acadèmic 2013-2014 El presente trabajo investiga sobre cómo se traslada el slang del inglés al español en la película American History X, para averiguar si existe una homofuncionalidad entre el texto origen y el texto meta y, si es así, determinar qué estrategias y técnicas lo han hecho posible. Los principales objetivos son describir el slang de la película, describir las técnicas que se han empleado para su traducción...

  11. Clustering with Spectral Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Gaertler, Marco

    2002-01-01

    Grouping and sorting are problems with a great tradition in the history of mankind. Clustering and cluster analysis is a small aspect in the wide spectrum. But these topics have applications in most scientific disciplines. Graph clustering is again a little fragment in the clustering area. Nevertheless it has the potential for new pioneering and innovative methods. One such method is the Markov Clustering presented by van Dongen in 'Graph Clustering by Flow Simulation'. We investigated the qu...

  12. A cluster analysis of drug use and sexual HIV risks and their correlates in a sample of African-American crack cocaine smokers with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönnesson, Lena Nilsson; Atkinson, John; Williams, Mark L; Bowen, Anne; Ross, Michael W; Timpson, Sandra C

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to classify a sample of HIV-seropositive African-American crack cocaine smokers into homogenous HIV drug use and sexual risk groups using a two step multivariate cluster analysis. Two hundred and fifty-eight crack cocaine smokers participated in the study. Cluster analysis revealed three distinct HIV risk groups. The highest risk group, the largest one, was characterized by frequent, daily crack use, multiple sex partners, trading sex, and inconsistent condom use. The consistent condom use group, the smallest group, was characterized by consistent condom use. The inconsistent condom use group, the second largest group, was distinguished by inconsistent condom use. Comparisons of the three HIV risk groups revealed that the highest risk group had a higher proportion of illegal sources of income, higher proportion of binged crack use, frequent, daily, alcohol use, same gender sex partners, and scored higher on depressive symptoms. Members of the consistent condom use group were more likely to have been HIV diagnosed for a shorter time, to have HIV serodiscordant casual sex partners, higher psychological motivation for condom use, and a lower frequency of vaginal sex. Members of the inconsistent condom use group were more likely to have a main sex partner, to be married, to be on public assistance, to know the HIV serostatus of their casual partner, and less likely to conceal their HIV serostatus. An alarming finding was that a large number of participants inconsistently used condoms with HIV serodiscordant sex partners. Interventions aiming to prevent the secondary spread of HIV infection in African-American crack cocaine smokers should take this variability in account and focus on the differences. PMID:18495380

  13. Comparative life cycles and life histories of North American Rhabdias spp. (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae): lungworms from snakes and anurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Gabriel J; Janovy, John

    2009-10-01

    The present study used experimental infections to compare the life cycles and life histories of 6 Rhabdias spp. infecting snakes and anurans. Free-living development of anuran lungworms was primarily limited to heterogonic reproduction, and females utilized matricidal endotoky exclusively, whereas snake lungworms primarily reproduced homogonically and, when heterogonic reproduction occurred, females used a combination of releasing eggs and matricidal endotoky. Infective snake lungworms survived for longer periods in fresh water compared to anuran worms. Infective anuran lungworms penetrated into the skin of frogs and toads; few infections resulted from per os infections. In contrast, snake lungworms were unable to penetrate skin; instead, infective juveniles penetrated into snake esophageal tissue during per os infections. Despite separate points of entry, anuran and snake lungworms both migrated and developed in the fascia, eventually penetrating into the body cavity of the host. Worms molted to adulthood inside the body cavity and subsequently penetrated into the host's lungs, where they fed on blood while becoming gravid. Adult lungworm survival varied among lungworm species, but, in general, snake lungworms were longer lived than anuran worms. Anuran lungworms were poorly suited for transmission via transport hosts, whereas snake lungworms were consistently capable of establishing infections using transport hosts. Overall, these observations suggest that snake and anuran lungworms have discrepant life cycles and life history strategies. PMID:19348516

  14. Historiography, American Theatre, and the First Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Linda Walsh

    American theatre history should include a study of Native American performances, since these performances are rich with "American" symbolic materials such as imagery, symbols, and heraldic visions of animals and landscapes. Indian cultures understood the importance of performance for both the visionary and the community at large. Even the pow-wow…

  15. Stellar models simulating the disk-locking mechanism and the evolutionary history of the Orion Nebula cluster and NGC2264

    CERN Document Server

    Landin, N R; Vaz, L P R; Alencar, S H P

    2015-01-01

    Rotational evolution in young stars is described by pMS evolutionary tracks including rotation, conservation of angular momentum (AM), and simulations of disk-locking (DL). By assuming that DL is the regulation mechanism for the stellar angular velocity during the early stages of pMS, we use our models and observational data to constrain disk lifetimes (Tdisk) of a sample of low-mass stars in the ONC and NGC2264. The period distributions of the ONC and NGC2264 are bimodal and depend on the stellar mass. To follow the rotational evolution of these two clusters' stars, we generated some sets of evolutionary tracks. We assumed that the evolution of fast rotators can be modeled by considering conservation of AM during all stages and of moderate rotators by considering conservation of angular velocity during the first stages of evolution. With these models we estimate a mass and an age for all stars. For the ONC, we assume that the secondary peak in the period distribution is due to high-mass objects locked in the...

  16. Interaction between 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and abuse history on adolescent African-American females' condom use behavior following participation in an HIV prevention intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Jessica M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Brody, Gene H; Philibert, Robert A; Rose, Eve

    2014-06-01

    Not everyone exposed to an efficacious human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) intervention will reduce sexual risk behaviors, yet little is known about factors associated with "failure to change" high-risk sexual behaviors post-intervention. History of abuse and polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) may be associated with non-change. The current study sought to identify genetic, life history, and psychosocial factors associated with adolescents' failure to change condom use behaviors post-participation in an HIV prevention intervention. A sub-set of participants from a clinic-based sample of adolescent African-American females (N = 254) enrolled in a randomized trial of an HIV-prevention was utilized for the current study. Forty-four percent did not increase their condom use from baseline levels 6 months after participating in the sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV prevention intervention. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, an interaction between abuse and 5-HTTLPR group was significantly associated with non-change status, along with partner communication frequency scores at follow-up. Follow-up tests found that having a history of abuse was significantly associated with greater odds of non-change in condom use post-intervention for only those with the s allele. For those with ll allele, participants with higher partner communication frequency scores were at decreased odds of non-change in condom use post-intervention. Thus, STI/HIV interventions for adolescent females may consider providing a more in-depth discussion and instruction on how to manage and overcome fear or anxiety related to being assertive in sexual decisions or sexual situations. Doing so may improve the efficacy of STI/HIV prevention programs for adolescent women who have experienced abuse in their lifetime. PMID:23479192

  17. The American atom: A documentary history of nuclear policies from the discovery of fission to the present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In selecting these historical documents the authors have applied three general tests: first, does the document help tell the story of the development of American nuclear policy in a nontechnical way; second, is the source primary rather than secondary, written by an actor in the drama rather than by a member of the audience; third, does the document provide coverage of the major chapters in the story? The Manhattan Project was America's $2 billion secret project to build an atomic bomb. Many documents associated with the project have come to light only in recent years. In Section II they use the letters of J. Robert Oppenheimer and the recently declassified minutes of policy committees to tell the story of how the bomb was designed and built and how the decision was made to drop the first uranium and plutonium devices on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. How did a weapon of war become the key to a peacetime industry? In considering atomic energy after World War II, they focus in Section III on the legislative enabling acts that established the Atomic Energy Commission, the short-lived dream of international control of nuclear weapons under the Baruch Plan, and the ''atoms for peace'' program of President Dwight D. Eisenhower. By 1954 the highly classified work on nuclear weapons paralleled a new development of nuclear energy and power reactors. Knowledge was shared with both private industry and other countries. The fruits of this program are considered in the later section on nuclear power

  18. An Ecological Analysis of the Effects of Deviant Peer Clustering on Sexual Promiscuity, Problem Behavior, and Childbearing from Early Adolescence to Adulthood: An Enhancement of the Life History Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishion, Thomas J.; Ha, Thao; Veronneau, Marie-Helene

    2012-01-01

    The authors propose that peer relationships should be included in a life history perspective on adolescent problem behavior. Longitudinal analyses were used to examine deviant peer clustering as the mediating link between attenuated family ties, peer marginalization, and social disadvantage in early adolescence and sexual promiscuity in middle…

  19. Late Pleistocene/Holocene paleoclimate reconstruction and eruptive history of Central American volcanoes from lake bottom sediments of Lake Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, S.; Dull, R. A.; Mann, P.; McIntosh, K. D.; Gardner, J. E.

    2007-12-01

    A shallow coring program in Lake Nicaragua was completed in May/June 2006 by the University of Texas (UT Department of Geography and UT Institute for Geophysics). A total of 35 sediment cores with lengths ranging between 12 cm and 100 cm along with five longer cores were extracted from the lake using a gravity corer and a modified manual square rod piston corer, respectively. Analyses of lake sediments have the following objectives: 1) to correlate the geophysical results with the core data to provide a stratigraphic framework for the shallow lake sediments; 2) to constrain past climate variability in this rather poorly investigated area; and 3) to establish a time series of explosive volcanic activity based on the identification and dating of tephra layers in the cores. Initial measurements of magnetic susceptibility, dry density, loss on ignition and XRF scanning indicated a dominance of fine-grained homogeneous diatomaceous sediments cover most of the lake floor. Increasing values in magnetic susceptibility in the upper part of several short cores most likely reflect increased erosion caused by land-use changes during the Spanish colonial period (1522-1822). Results on the two longest cores from the northeastern (355 cm) and southwestern (478 cm) parts of the lake reveal complete Holocene paleoclimate records in both areas that are comparable to other terrestrial and marine records in the Central and South- American tropics (i.e. Cariaco Basin). A lithologic change from homogeneous gyttia (diatomaceous mud) to blue- grayish waxy clay at the bottom of these records marks the Late Pleistocene-Holocene transition as indicated by a radiocarbon dating on plant remains. The latter dense clay forms a distinctive stratigraphic marker in the lake basin. Tephra layers to date were detected in most gravity cores recovered west of Ometepe Island (Volcan Concepcion), and in long records in the northeastern basin (San Antonio Tephra, Masaya volcano, ca. 7,400 interpolated cal

  20. Partitional clustering algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book summarizes the state-of-the-art in partitional clustering. Clustering, the unsupervised classification of patterns into groups, is one of the most important tasks in exploratory data analysis. Primary goals of clustering include gaining insight into, classifying, and compressing data. Clustering has a long and rich history that spans a variety of scientific disciplines including anthropology, biology, medicine, psychology, statistics, mathematics, engineering, and computer science. As a result, numerous clustering algorithms have been proposed since the early 1950s. Among these algorithms, partitional (nonhierarchical) ones have found many applications, especially in engineering and computer science. This book provides coverage of consensus clustering, constrained clustering, large scale and/or high dimensional clustering, cluster validity, cluster visualization, and applications of clustering. Examines clustering as it applies to large and/or high-dimensional data sets commonly encountered in reali...

  1. Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project: Unraveling Tarantula's Web. II. Optical and Near Infrared Star Formation History of the Starburst Cluster NGC 2070 in 30 Doradus

    CERN Document Server

    Cignoni, M; van der Marel, R P; Tosi, M; Zaritsky, D; Anderson, J; Lennon, D J; Aloisi, A; de Marchi, G; Gouliermis, D A; Grebel, E K; Smith, L J; Zeidler, P

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of the recent star formation of 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using the panchromatic imaging survey Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP). In this paper we focus on the stars within 20 pc of the center of the massive ionizing cluster of 30 Doradus, NGC 2070. We recovered the star formation history by comparing deep optical and NIR color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) with state-of-the-art synthetic CMDs generated with the latest PARSEC models, which include all stellar phases from pre-main sequence to post- main sequence. For the first time in this region we are able to measure the star formation using intermediate and low mass stars simultaneously. Our results suggest that NGC2070 experienced a prolonged activity. In particular, we find that the star formation in the region: i) exceeded the average LMC rate ~ 20 Myr ago; ii) accelerated dramatically ~ 7 Myr ago; and iii) reached a peak value 1-3 Myr ago. We did not find significant deviations from a Kroupa initial mass funct...

  2. Two Bg1II RFLPs of the human. alpha. -globin gene cluster in the American sickle cell population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Embury, S.H.; Blachman, T.; Kroop, G.L.; Suzuki, J.K.; Boyle, M. (Univ. of California and Northern California Comprehensive Sickle Cell Center, San Fransicso (USA))

    1989-11-11

    Human {alpha}-globin cDNA cloned into plasmid pMB9(JW101) was used as a hybridization probe for assessing the {alpha}-globin genotypes of 2271 Americans with sickle cell anemia. The normal duplicated human {alpha}-globin genes, {alpha}2 and {alpha}1, residue on separate Bg1 II fragments, each of which is cleaved by Hin dIII. Both {alpha} loci reside on a single 14 kb Bam HI fragment. The authors performed single Bg1 II and BAM HI digests to detect {alpha}-globin gene deletions in 2271 subjects enrolled in the National Cooperative Study of Sickel Cell Disease (NCSSCD). In addition to gene deletions and duplications, two Bg1 II RFLP were found. The human {alpha}-globin genes reside on the short arm of chromosome 16. The {alpha}2-specific RFLP occurs in linkage dysequilibrium and the mother of one subject with the {alpha}1-specific RFLP had this RFLP, suggesting their Mendelian inheritance.

  3. Sommerferiens historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Summer holiday is a pleasure which did not become available to many people until the 20th Century. The article describes the early mountain rambles of the bourgeoisie and their holidays in seaside boarding houses. Outdoor pursuits and stays in boarding houses at bathing resorts also became favour...... pattern. Finally, the history of the special holiday camps is told, which were established by American Jews because they were excluded from many hotels....

  4. Development, implementation, and evaluation of a computerized self-administered diet history questionnaire for use in studies of American Indian and Alaskan native people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Martha L; Murtaugh, Maureen A; Schumacher, Mary Catherine; Johnson, Jennifer; Edwards, Sandra; Edwards, Roger; Benson, Joan; Tom-Orme, Lillian; Lanier, Anne P

    2008-01-01

    Collection of dietary intake in epidemiologic studies involves using methods that are comprehensive yet appropriate for the population being studied. Here we describe a diet history questionnaire (DHQ) that was developed using an audio self-administered computer-assisted interview technique. The DHQ was developed for use in a cohort of American Indians and Alaskan Natives with tribal input and area-specific modules to incorporate local food availability. The DHQ includes 54 main food group questions, specific food items within the main food group, and food preparation and general eating practice questions. The questionnaire was programmed to be self-administered using a computer with a touch screen. The average time for the first 6,604 participants to complete the questionnaire was 36 minutes. Almost 100% of participants had complete DHQ data and the average number of food items selected was 70. The methods developed for collection of dietary data appear to be appropriate for the targeted population and may have usefulness for other populations where collecting dietary data in a self-administered format is desirable. PMID:18155994

  5. On the history of cultural psychiatry: Georges Devereux, Henri Ellenberger, and the psychological treatment of Native Americans in the 1950s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delille, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    Henri Ellenberger (1905-1993) wrote the first French-language synthesis of transcultural psychiatry ("Ethno-psychiatrie") for the French Encyclopédie Médico-Chirurgicale in 1965. His work casts new light on the early development of transcultural psychiatry in relation to scientific communities and networks, particularly on the role of Georges Devereux (1908-1985). The Ellenberger archives offer the possibility of comparing published texts with archival ones to create a more nuanced account of the history of transcultural psychiatry, and notably of the psychological treatment of Native Americans. This paper examines some key moments in the intellectual trajectories of Devereux and Ellenberger, including Devereux's dispute with Ackerknecht, the careers of Devereux and Ellenberger as therapists at the Menninger Foundation (Topeka, Kansas) in the 1950s, and their respective positions in the research network developed by McGill University (Montreal, Quebec) with the newsletter Transcultural Research in Mental Health Problems Finally, I consider their ties to other important figures in this field as it transitioned from colonial medicine to academic medicine, including Roger Bastide (France), Henri Collomb and the Ortigues (France and Africa), as well as Eric Wittkower and Brian Murphy (Canada) and Alexander Leighton (United States and Canada). PMID:27235144

  6. Asian American-Pacific American Relations: The Asian American Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sucheng

    This paper examines the migration and settlement history of Asians into the United States and the interaction of the major Asian immigrants with each other and with American society. An important thesis is that, because the differences between Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are much greater than the similarities between them, they should no…

  7. American Museum of Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Defeating Disease Crocs: Ancient Predators in a Modern World Upcoming Exhibitions Permanent Exhibitions Past Exhibitions Learn & Teach Find Programs and Resources for... Adults Families Pre-K to Grade 2 ...

  8. Lifetime history of traumatic events in an American Indian Community Sample: Heritability and relation to substance dependence, affective disorder, conduct disorder and PTSD

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Gizer, Ian R.; Gilder, David A.; Yehuda, Rachael

    2012-01-01

    American Indians appear to experience a higher rate of traumatic events than what has been reported in general population surveys. American Indians also suffer higher alcohol related death rates than any other ethnic group in the U.S. population. Therefore efforts to delineate factors which may uniquely contribute to increased likelihood of trauma, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and substance use disorders (SUD) over the lifetime in American Indians are important because of the high b...

  9. Putting teachers-to-be in the field and the lab: Hands-on research at the American Museum of Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, P. A.; Ebel, D. S.; Harlow, G. E.; Landman, N. H.; Pagnotta, A.; Sessa, J.; Shara, M.; Ustunisik, G. K.; Webster, J. D.; Blair, D.; Shumer, M.

    2013-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) is halfway through a pilot program designed to prepare Earth Science teachers for grades 7-12 in high-needs schools in New York. The program was implemented to address a critical shortage of qualified Earth Science teachers throughout the state as well as to reach student populations that traditionally have limited science exposure and hands-on learning opportunities. This Master of Arts in Teaching is unique amongst teacher preparation programs, not only in that it is housed at a world-class research museum and places the teacher candidates in a year-long teaching residency, but also in that it accepts only students with a strong background in Earth Science via a degree in geology, meteorology, oceanography, astronomy, or a related discipline. Following a year of graduate courses in science and pedagogy, as well as teaching residencies, and only months before embarking on teaching career, candidates begin a seven-week science practicum. This exercise combines field and lab work under the tutelage of AMNH science curators and postdoctoral research fellows to provide experience with the scientific process, from field work and data collection to interpretation and public presentation of results. In the science practicum, teaching candidates begin by selecting one of four topics on which to focus their research: astrophysics, experimental petrology, mineralogy, or paleontology. An introduction to lab materials, techniques, and instrumentation is followed by two weeks in the field, both upstate and in New York City, where rocks of all types are encountered and discussed. Nights are devoted to astronomical observing and data collection to supplement the geology-oriented daytime sessions. Following the trips, candidates are back at AMNH analyzing data and samples in preparation for a short, scientific-style manuscript and presentation of results in an AGU-style talk. Three research groups have already discovered potentially

  10. Star Formation History of a Young Super-Star Cluster in NGC 4038/39: Direct Detection of Low-Mass Pre-Main Sequence Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Greissl, Julia; Meyer, Michael R.; Christopher, Micol; Scoville, Nick

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of the near-infrared spectrum of a young massive star cluster in the overlap region of the interacting galaxies NGC 4038/39 using population synthesis models. Our goal is to model the cluster population as well as provide rough constraints on its initial mass function (IMF). The cluster shows signs of youth such as thermal radio emission and strong hydrogen emission lines in the near-infrared. Late-type absorption lines are also present which are indicative of late-type...

  11. On the American“Teaching American History Grant Program”and the New Trend on the Teacher Training%从“美国史教学资助计划”看美国教师培训新趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳

    2015-01-01

    21世纪以来,美国教育改革的首要目标是提高教育质量和学生学习成绩。为此,美国政府从发展教师能力、改善教学质量和转变教育观念的角度加强了对教师的教育和培训力度。本文以《美国史教学资助计划》为例,对新世纪以来美国师资教育培训的特点和趋势进行考察。%The reform of American history education is deepening. Following the established National History Standards, new American Elementary and Secondary Education Act was established. The aim of the new Act referring to the history reform is to improve the quality of American history teaching and the stress of it is to train the teachers who teach American history, which is “Teaching American History Grant Program”. The goal of this article is to discuss the settings, content, and performance of the Program and to evaluate it. And sum up the reference to the history teaching reform of China.

  12. Epigenetic clustering of lung adenocarcinomas based on DNA methylation profiles in adjacent lung tissue: Its correlation with smoking history and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takashi; Arai, Eri; Kohno, Takashi; Takahashi, Yoriko; Miyata, Sayaka; Tsuta, Koji; Watanabe, Shun-ichi; Soejima, Kenzo; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Kanai, Yae

    2014-07-15

    The aim of this study was to clarify the significance of DNA methylation alterations during lung carcinogenesis. Infinium assay was performed using 139 paired samples of non-cancerous lung tissue (N) and tumorous tissue (T) from a learning cohort of patients with lung adenocarcinomas (LADCs). Fifty paired N and T samples from a validation cohort were also analyzed. DNA methylation alterations on 1,928 probes occurred in N samples relative to normal lung tissue from patients without primary lung tumors, and were inherited by, or strengthened in, T samples. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering using DNA methylation levels in N samples on all 26,447 probes subclustered patients into Cluster I (n = 32), Cluster II (n = 35) and Cluster III (n = 72). LADCs in Cluster I developed from the inflammatory background in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in heavy smokers and were locally invasive. Most patients in Cluster II were non-smokers and had a favorable outcome. LADCs in Cluster III developed in light smokers were most aggressive (frequently showing lymphatic and blood vessel invasion, lymph node metastasis and an advanced pathological stage), and had a poor outcome. DNA methylation levels of hallmark genes for each cluster, such as IRX2, HOXD8, SPARCL1, RGS5 and EI24, were again correlated with clinicopathological characteristics in the validation cohort. DNA methylation profiles reflecting carcinogenetic factors such as smoking and COPD appear to be established in non-cancerous lung tissue from patients with LADCs and may determine the aggressiveness of tumors developing in individual patients, and thus patient outcome. PMID:24921089

  13. ‘Warlord’: a discursive history of the concept in British and American imperialism, 1815-1914 and 1989-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Stanski, Keith Raymond Russell; Nabulsi, Karma

    2012-01-01

    The renewed interest in empire, particularly in its British and American variants, has brought into sharper relief the difficulties both metropoles faced in projecting order in the global south. Far from cohesive entities, the British and American empires tried to manage territories that defied many of the political, economic, and legal systems, as well as normative and moral understandings, that enabled their imperial ascendancy. Despite a considerable literature about how metropoles compreh...

  14. Native American Tribal Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric L.

    1999-01-01

    Lists Web sites maintained by 38 different Native American nations that deal with topics ranging from tribal history, news, arts and crafts, tourism, entertainment, and commerce. Represented nations include Apache, Blackfeet, Creek, Iroquois, Mohegan, and Sioux. (CMK)

  15. Aleuts: Ecosystem, Holocene Historys, and Siberian Origin: Soviet and U.S. scientists join in a study of the origins of the first Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, W S

    1975-08-15

    An original objective of these multidisciplinary studies was to determine the position of the Aleuts in the Aleutian ecosystem with time depth. This has been done in a variety of ways (7, 14, 20, 21). One of the most useful approaches is the construction of life expectancy tables. The greater longevity of Aleuts compared with Eskimos represents an effective biological and cultural human adaptation within this ecosystem. The Aleuts defined their ecosystem by expanding to the limits of the area they could effectively exploit with their complex technology, population structure, and population deployment system. Their intellectual achievements played a tangible role in their longevity in the pre-Russian period, and their sophisticated knowledge of human anatomy is both a causal and a consequential correlate of their longevity. From the Aleut point of view, the food resources were diverse, abundant, and accessible, and they also provided fabricational materials necessary for their complex material culture. The Aleuts successfully hunted the world's largest range of sea mammals, from the sea otter to the whales. At the same time, extensive use of invertebrates easily available on the ice-free strandflats enabled disadvantaged sectors of the population to make important contributions to their own food supply and thus improve life expectancy. The rich food and fabricational materials antedate the Holocene history of Nikolski Bay and the arrival of the ancestral Aleuts. The natural resources of this area are fundamentally related to the former peninsular extension of Beringia and the permanent upwelling system in Samalga Pass (22). Sea otters, seals, and sea lions were present when the first Aleuts came to the area. Nikolski Bay has been an ideal place to obtain samples representing the entire Holocene Epoch. The earliest Asiatic migrants came from Siberia and traversed the southern coastline of Beringia. They established a large and permanent village on the northern arm of

  16. A History of American Archaeology, by Gordon R. Willey and Jeremy A. Sabloff, 3rd edition. W. H. Freeman and Co., New York, 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew L. Christenson

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available Those who were waiting to see dramatic changes in Willey and Sabloff will be disappointed. The first five chapters are virtually identical to the previous edition, except that Indians have been transformed into Native Americans and the footnotes have been expanded somewhat to incorporate new publications. I have little to say about this section, which comprises two thirds of the book, and which does a reasonable job of covering the major archaeologists and themes of the first 100+ years of American archaeology. There are always specific points that one can take issue with but the authors make a real effort to cover American archaeology prior to 1960 in its broadest sense.

  17. Artificial neural network modeling and cluster analysis for organic facies and burial history estimation using well log data: A case study of the South Pars Gas Field, Persian Gulf, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Bahram; Najjari, Saeid; Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi, Ali

    2012-08-01

    Intelligent and statistical techniques were used to extract the hidden organic facies from well log responses in the Giant South Pars Gas Field, Persian Gulf, Iran. Kazhdomi Formation of Mid-Cretaceous and Kangan-Dalan Formations of Permo-Triassic Data were used for this purpose. Initially GR, SGR, CGR, THOR, POTA, NPHI and DT logs were applied to model the relationship between wireline logs and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The correlation coefficient (R2) between the measured and ANN predicted TOC equals to 89%. The performance of the model is measured by the Mean Squared Error function, which does not exceed 0.0073. Using Cluster Analysis technique and creating a binary hierarchical cluster tree the constructed TOC column of each formation was clustered into 5 organic facies according to their geochemical similarity. Later a second model with the accuracy of 84% was created by ANN to determine the specified clusters (facies) directly from well logs for quick cluster recognition in other wells of the studied field. Each created facies was correlated to its appropriate burial history curve. Hence each and every facies of a formation could be scrutinized separately and directly from its well logs, demonstrating the time and depth of oil or gas generation. Therefore potential production zone of Kazhdomi probable source rock and Kangan- Dalan reservoir formation could be identified while well logging operations (especially in LWD cases) were in progress. This could reduce uncertainty and save plenty of time and cost for oil industries and aid in the successful implementation of exploration and exploitation plans.

  18. Post-Slavery? Post-Segregation? Post-Racial? A History of the Impact of Slavery, Segregation, and Racism on the Education of African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Span, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter details how slavery, segregation, and racism impacted the educational experiences of African Americans from the colonial era to the present. It argues that America has yet to be a truly post-slavery and post-segregation society, let alone a post-racial society.

  19. "I Never Really Knew the History behind African American Language": Critical Language Pedagogy in an Advanced Placement English Language Arts Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Bell, April

    2013-01-01

    This article responds to two long-standing dilemmas that limit the effectiveness of language education for students who speak and write in African American Language (AAL): (1) the gap between theory and research on AAL and classroom practice, and (2) the need for critical language pedagogies. This article presents the effectiveness of a critical…

  20. Las historias de la narrativa hispanoamericana: Criterios, metodos y ausencias. (Histories of the Latin-American Narrative: Criteria, Methods, and Absences).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavalo, Lauro

    This paper explains that materials on the teaching of Latin-American literature are sparse, even though most researchers in the field will dedicate much of their time to teaching. The paper adds that, in scholarly journals, little attention is given to teaching literature, and the topic is also absent from most academic congresses. The paper then…

  1. 施拉姆在美国心理战中的角色扮演以及传播思想%Role and Communication Ideas of Schramm during Psychology Warfare in American History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯泽

    2014-01-01

    Several important communication books have created marvelous academic sight since 1990.Theses books are trying to prove such a point:The establishment of American Communication Science is the result of American Psychology Warfare which constituted real war and Cold War in American history.Schramm played important role in Psychology Warfare.His many researches are relevant to that.%20世纪90年代美国出版的一些传播学著作创造了令人惊讶的学术景观,这些著作试图证明:美国传播学学科的发展和建立是美国心理战的产物,心理战争是现实战争以及冷战的重要组成部分,而施拉姆在美国对内对外心理战中扮演了十分特殊的角色,他的许多研究与此密切相关。

  2. The phylogeography of trypanosomes from South American alligatorids and African crocodilids is consistent with the geological history of South American river basins and the transoceanic dispersal of Crocodylus at the Miocene

    OpenAIRE

    Fermino, Bruno R.; Viola, Laerte B; Paiva, Fernando; Garcia, Herakles A; de Paula, Catia D; Botero-Arias, Robinson; Takata, Carmen S. A.; Campaner, Marta; Hamilton, Patrick B; Camargo, Erney P.; Teixeira, Marta MG

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the diversity, phylogenetic relationships, and biogeography of trypanosomes infecting non-mammalian hosts. In this study, we investigated the influence of host species and biogeography on shaping the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationship, and distribution of trypanosomes from South American alligatorids and African crocodilids. Methods Small Subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) and glycosomal Glyceraldehyde Phosphate Dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) genes were employed for ph...

  3. Genetic evidence of hybridization between the critically endangered Cuban crocodile and the American crocodile: implications for population history and in situ/ex situ conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Milián-García, Y; Ramos-Targarona, R; Pérez-Fleitas, E; Sosa-Rodríguez, G; Guerra-Manchena, L; Alonso-Tabet, M; Espinosa-López, G; Russello, M A

    2014-01-01

    Inter-specific hybridization may be especially detrimental when one species is extremely rare and the other is abundant owing to the potential for genetic swamping. The Cuban crocodile (Crocodylus rhombifer) is a critically endangered island endemic largely restricted to Zapata Swamp, where it is sympatric with the widespread American crocodile (C. acutus). An on-island, C. rhombifer captive breeding program is underway with the goals of maintaining taxonomic integrity and providing a source ...

  4. Tunnel Vision and Blind Spots: What the Past Tells Us about the Present; Reflections on the Twentieth-Century History of American Librarianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Wayne A.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the history of United States librarianship. Suggests that the profession has failed to analyze the meaning of library service and its significance to users. Argues that this has limited the ability to understand the present role of the U.S. library and thus affects efforts to plan for the future. Contains 131 references. (Author/LRW)

  5. Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian R Homburger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available South America has a complex demographic history shaped by multiple migration and admixture events in pre- and post-colonial times. Settled over 14,000 years ago by Native Americans, South America has experienced migrations of European and African individuals, similar to other regions in the Americas. However, the timing and magnitude of these events resulted in markedly different patterns of admixture throughout Latin America. We use genome-wide SNP data for 437 admixed individuals from 5 countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and Argentina to explore the population structure and demographic history of South American Latinos. We combined these data with population reference panels from Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas to perform global ancestry analysis and infer the subcontinental origin of the European and Native American ancestry components of the admixed individuals. By applying ancestry-specific PCA analyses we find that most of the European ancestry in South American Latinos is from the Iberian Peninsula; however, many individuals trace their ancestry back to Italy, especially within Argentina. We find a strong gradient in the Native American ancestry component of South American Latinos associated with country of origin and the geography of local indigenous populations. For example, Native American genomic segments in Peruvians show greater affinities with Andean indigenous peoples like Quechua and Aymara, whereas Native American haplotypes from Colombians tend to cluster with Amazonian and coastal tribes from northern South America. Using ancestry tract length analysis we modeled post-colonial South American migration history as the youngest in Latin America during European colonization (9-14 generations ago, with an additional strong pulse of European migration occurring between 3 and 9 generations ago. These genetic footprints can impact our understanding of population-level differences in biomedical traits and, thus, inform

  6. Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homburger, Julian R.; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Nelson, Dominic; Sanchez, Elena; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Acevedo-Vasquez, Eduardo; Miranda, Pedro; Langefeld, Carl D.; Gravel, Simon; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2015-01-01

    South America has a complex demographic history shaped by multiple migration and admixture events in pre- and post-colonial times. Settled over 14,000 years ago by Native Americans, South America has experienced migrations of European and African individuals, similar to other regions in the Americas. However, the timing and magnitude of these events resulted in markedly different patterns of admixture throughout Latin America. We use genome-wide SNP data for 437 admixed individuals from 5 countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and Argentina) to explore the population structure and demographic history of South American Latinos. We combined these data with population reference panels from Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas to perform global ancestry analysis and infer the subcontinental origin of the European and Native American ancestry components of the admixed individuals. By applying ancestry-specific PCA analyses we find that most of the European ancestry in South American Latinos is from the Iberian Peninsula; however, many individuals trace their ancestry back to Italy, especially within Argentina. We find a strong gradient in the Native American ancestry component of South American Latinos associated with country of origin and the geography of local indigenous populations. For example, Native American genomic segments in Peruvians show greater affinities with Andean indigenous peoples like Quechua and Aymara, whereas Native American haplotypes from Colombians tend to cluster with Amazonian and coastal tribes from northern South America. Using ancestry tract length analysis we modeled post-colonial South American migration history as the youngest in Latin America during European colonization (9–14 generations ago), with an additional strong pulse of European migration occurring between 3 and 9 generations ago. These genetic footprints can impact our understanding of population-level differences in biomedical traits and, thus, inform future medical

  7. Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homburger, Julian R; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gignoux, Christopher R; Nelson, Dominic; Sanchez, Elena; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A; Acevedo-Vasquez, Eduardo; Miranda, Pedro; Langefeld, Carl D; Gravel, Simon; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2015-12-01

    South America has a complex demographic history shaped by multiple migration and admixture events in pre- and post-colonial times. Settled over 14,000 years ago by Native Americans, South America has experienced migrations of European and African individuals, similar to other regions in the Americas. However, the timing and magnitude of these events resulted in markedly different patterns of admixture throughout Latin America. We use genome-wide SNP data for 437 admixed individuals from 5 countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and Argentina) to explore the population structure and demographic history of South American Latinos. We combined these data with population reference panels from Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas to perform global ancestry analysis and infer the subcontinental origin of the European and Native American ancestry components of the admixed individuals. By applying ancestry-specific PCA analyses we find that most of the European ancestry in South American Latinos is from the Iberian Peninsula; however, many individuals trace their ancestry back to Italy, especially within Argentina. We find a strong gradient in the Native American ancestry component of South American Latinos associated with country of origin and the geography of local indigenous populations. For example, Native American genomic segments in Peruvians show greater affinities with Andean indigenous peoples like Quechua and Aymara, whereas Native American haplotypes from Colombians tend to cluster with Amazonian and coastal tribes from northern South America. Using ancestry tract length analysis we modeled post-colonial South American migration history as the youngest in Latin America during European colonization (9-14 generations ago), with an additional strong pulse of European migration occurring between 3 and 9 generations ago. These genetic footprints can impact our understanding of population-level differences in biomedical traits and, thus, inform future medical

  8. A cluster randomized trial of standard quality improvement versus patient-centered interventions to enhance depression care for African Americans in the primary care setting: study protocol NCT00243425

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghods Bri K

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies document disparities in access to care and quality of care for depression for African Americans. Research suggests that patient attitudes and clinician communication behaviors may contribute to these disparities. Evidence links patient-centered care to improvements in mental health outcomes; therefore, quality improvement interventions that enhance this dimension of care are promising strategies to improve treatment and outcomes of depression among African Americans. This paper describes the design of the BRIDGE (Blacks Receiving Interventions for Depression and Gaining Empowerment Study. The goal of the study is to compare the effectiveness of two interventions for African-American patients with depression--a standard quality improvement program and a patient-centered quality improvement program. The main hypothesis is that patients in the patient-centered group will have a greater reduction in their depression symptoms, higher rates of depression remission, and greater improvements in mental health functioning at six, twelve, and eighteen months than patients in the standard group. The study also examines patient ratings of care and receipt of guideline-concordant treatment for depression. Methods/Design A total of 36 primary care clinicians and 132 of their African-American patients with major depressive disorder were recruited into a cluster randomized trial. The study uses intent-to-treat analyses to compare the effectiveness of standard quality improvement interventions (academic detailing about depression guidelines for clinicians and disease-oriented care management for their patients and patient-centered quality improvement interventions (communication skills training to enhance participatory decision-making for clinicians and care management focused on explanatory models, socio-cultural barriers, and treatment preferences for their patients for improving outcomes over 12 months of follow

  9. Exploring Asian American racial identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Grace A; Lephuoc, Paul; Guzmán, Michele R; Rude, Stephanie S; Dodd, Barbara G

    2006-07-01

    In this study the authors used cluster analysis to create racial identity profiles for a sample of Asian Americans using the People of Color Racial Identity Attitudes Scale (PCRIAS). A four-cluster solution was chosen: each cluster corresponded to one PCRIAS subscale and was named accordingly. Scores on the Asian American Racism-Related Stress Inventory and the Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale were compared across clusters. As expected, the Dissonance and Immersion clusters were characterized by relatively high racism-related stress and low levels of color-blind attitudes; the Conformity cluster showed roughly the opposite pattern. Surprisingly, the Internalization cluster showed a pattern similar to that for Conformity and thus may reflect "pseudoindependence" as discussed by Helms. PMID:16881750

  10. Chemical Heterogeneity of a Large Cluster IDP: Clues to its Formation History Using X-ray Fluorescence Mapping and XANES Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirick, S.; Flynn, G. J.; Sutton, S.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    Chondritic porous IDPs may be among the most primitive objects found in our solar system [1]. They consist of many micron to submicron minerals, glasses and carbonaceous matter [2,3,4,5,6,7] with > 10(exp 4) grains in a 10 micron cluster [8]. Speculation on the environment where these fine grained, porous IDPs formed varies with possible sources being presolar dusty plasma clouds, protostellar condensation, solar asteroids or comets [4,6,9]. Also, fine grained dust forms in our solar system today [10,11]. Isotopic anomalies in some particles in IDPs suggest an interstellar source[4,7,12]. IDPs contain relic particles left from the dusty plasma that existed before the protostellar disk formed and other grains in the IDPs formed later after the cold dense nebula cloud collapsed to form our protostar and other grains formed more recently. Fe and CR XANES spectroscopy is used here to investigate the oxygen environment in a large (>50 10 micron or larger sub-units) IDP. Conclusions: Analyzing large (>50 10 micron or larger sub-units) CP IDPs gives one a view on the environments where these fine dust grains formed which is different from that found by only analyzing the small, 10 micron IDPs. As with cluster IDP L2008#5 [3], L2009R2 cluster #13 appears to be an aggregate of grains that sample a diversity of solar and perhaps presolar environments. Sub-micron, grain by grain measurement of trace element contents and elemental oxidation states determined by XANES spectroscopy offers the possibility of understanding the environments in which these grains formed when compared to standard spectra. By comparing thermodynamic modeling of condensates with analytical data an understanding of transport mechanisms operating in the early solar system may be attained.

  11. Life-history of the South American darter, Characidium pterostictum (Crenuchidae): evidence for small scale spatial variation in a piedmont stream

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Gertum Becker; Silene de Carvalho; Sandra Maria Hartz

    2008-01-01

    The present study compares the reproduction, condition and size of the small characiform fish, Characidium pterostictum, sampled at close sites differing in severity of flash flood effects. Data were obtained from seasonal samples in two sites situated 8 km apart in the same stream. In the upstream site, habitat is more severely affected by flash floods than in the downstream site, and this difference was hypothesized to produce differences in life history and individual reproduction trade-of...

  12. Heritability and a genome-wide linkage analysis of a Type II/B Cluster Construct for cannabis dependence in an American Indian community

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Gilder, David A.; Gizer, Ian R; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C.

    2009-01-01

    Subtyping of substance dependence disorders holds promise for a number of important research areas including phenotyping for genetic studies, characterizing clinical course, and matching treatment and prevention strategies. This study sought to investigate whether a dichotomous construct similar to Babor’s Types A/B and Cloninger’s Types I/II for alcohol dependence can be identified for cannabis dependence in a Native American sample. In addition, heritability of this construct and its behavi...

  13. History's Purpose in Antebellum Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnis, Edward Cromwell

    2012-01-01

    Many scholars have argued that history education during the antebellum period in the United States supported conservative values and sought to produce close-minded citizens. History textbooks of that era, they frequently posit, cast Americans as God's chosen people and present the past in a style that reaffirms established social conventions. Ruth…

  14. Rhetorical Histories and Arms Negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    Argues that the use of historical events as rhetorical artifacts has sustained cold war assumptions and attitudes; that rhetorical events provide composites for rhetorical histories which become the basis for argumentative appeals; and that these rhetorical histories continue to permeate American diplomacy in general and arms negotiations in…

  15. Alcohol Use, Partner Violence, and Depression: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial Among Urban South African Mothers Over 3 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Rotheram-Borus, MJ; Tomlinson, M.; Roux, IL; Stein, JA

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Introduction Pregnant South African women with histories of drinking alcohol, abuse by violent partners, depression, and living with HIV are likely to have their post-birth trajectories over 36 months significantly influenced by these risks. Design All pregnant women in 24 Cape Town neighborhoods were recruited into a cluster RCT by neighborhood to either: (1) a standard care condition (n=12 neighborhoods, n=594 mothers); or (2) a home-visiting ...

  16. Cluster Automorphisms

    OpenAIRE

    Assem, Ibrahim; Schiffler, Ralf; Shramchenko, Vasilisa

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we introduce the notion of cluster automorphism of a given cluster algebra as a $\\ZZ$-automorphism of the cluster algebra that sends a cluster to another and commutes with mutations. We study the group of cluster automorphisms in detail for acyclic cluster algebras and cluster algebras from surfaces, and we compute this group explicitly for the Dynkin types and the Euclidean types.

  17. Life-history of the South American darter, Characidium pterostictum (Crenuchidae: evidence for small scale spatial variation in a piedmont stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gertum Becker

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study compares the reproduction, condition and size of the small characiform fish, Characidium pterostictum, sampled at close sites differing in severity of flash flood effects. Data were obtained from seasonal samples in two sites situated 8 km apart in the same stream. In the upstream site, habitat is more severely affected by flash floods than in the downstream site, and this difference was hypothesized to produce differences in life history and individual reproduction trade-off patterns, as predicted by life-history theory. The results provided evidence for small-scale spatial variation in life-history and trade-off patterns within the studied population. At the most severely disturbed site, C. pterostictum displayed a trade-off pattern that favored reproductive life-span (e.g., larger size, higher and seasonally stable condition, larger mean size of mature females over instantaneous reproductive output (lower gonadosomatic index, while the opposite pattern was observed in the less disturbed site. Because of the differences in disturbance effects between each sampling site, these results suggest that within-stream variability in the severity of hydrological disturbance can influence life-history patterns at small spatial scales. An implication of the results is that fish occupying areas that are hydrologically more variable within a stream are not necessarily at an energetic or reproductive disadvantage, but may be simply under environmental conditions that favor distinct patterns of energy allocation (or trade-offs and population persistence, as predicted by life-history theory. Therefore, plasticity in life-history is expected to be common in stream fish populations that are widespread in a stream system with spatially variable or patchy habitat characteristics.Este estudo compara a estrutura populacional e a reprodução do pequeno caraciforme, Characidium pterostictum, amostrado em locais sujeitos a diferentes efeitos de

  18. American Studies in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Fasce

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the early 1990s, introducing the Journal of American History’s internationalization project, Maurizio Vaudagna urged his Italian colleagues and all “non-English-speaking American historians in Europe […] to abandon the melancholic but somewhat comfortable situation of being marginal in both worlds.” More than a decade later, now that studying American history has been enormously complicated by the seismic changes connected with the end of the Cold War, the tragedy of 9/11, and the attendan...

  19. The Violence Factors in American Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董陶

    2015-01-01

    Violence symbolized the dark side of America culture. The theme of this article is to explore the causes of the violence factors in American culture. American violence exists as a result of a complex network of elements from American history, American value, various social factors such as economic inequality, racial discrimination, mass media, wide spread of guns as well as drug abuse. Besides, the governmental policy plays an essential role in American violence to some extent.

  20. Genetic evidence of hybridization between the critically endangered Cuban crocodile and the American crocodile: implications for population history and in situ/ex situ conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milián-García, Y; Ramos-Targarona, R; Pérez-Fleitas, E; Sosa-Rodríguez, G; Guerra-Manchena, L; Alonso-Tabet, M; Espinosa-López, G; Russello, M A

    2015-03-01

    Inter-specific hybridization may be especially detrimental when one species is extremely rare and the other is abundant owing to the potential for genetic swamping. The Cuban crocodile (Crocodylus rhombifer) is a critically endangered island endemic largely restricted to Zapata Swamp, where it is sympatric with the widespread American crocodile (C. acutus). An on-island, C. rhombifer captive breeding program is underway with the goals of maintaining taxonomic integrity and providing a source of individuals for reintroduction, but its conservation value is limited by lack of genetic information. Here we collected mtDNA haplotypic and nuclear genotypic data from wild and captive C. rhombifer and C. acutus in Cuba to: (1) investigate the degree of inter-specific hybridization in natural (in situ) and captive (ex situ) populations; (2) quantify the extent, distribution and in situ representation of genetic variation ex situ; and (3) reconstruct founder relatedness to inform management. We found high levels of hybridization in the wild (49.1%) and captivity (16.1%), and additional evidence for a cryptic lineage of C. acutus in the Antilles. We detected marginally higher observed heterozygosity and allelic diversity ex situ relative to the wild population, with captive C. rhombifer exhibiting over twice the frequency of private alleles. Although mean relatedness was high in captivity, we identified 37 genetically important individuals that possessed individual mean kinship (MK) values lower than the population MK. Overall, these results will guide long-term conservation management of Cuban crocodiles for maintaining the genetic integrity and viability of this species of high global conservation value. PMID:25335559

  1. Black History, Inc! Investigating the Production of Black History through Walmart's Corporate Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, LaGarrett J.; Brown, Anthony L.

    2012-01-01

    Social and public sites are becoming a popular medium for intellectual consumption of Black history. Given the educational climate in which many students' exposure to Black history may come from outside of schools, the authors examine how Walmart's Black History Month Web site produced simplistic and safe narratives about African American history.

  2. A History of Ashes: An 80 Year Comparative Portrait of Smoking Initiation in American Indians and Non-Hispanic Whites—the Strong Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Goldberg

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of starting smoking by age 18 are significant. Early smoking initiation is associated with higher tobacco dependence, increased difficulty in smoking cessation and more negative health outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine how closely smoking initiation in a well-defined population of American Indians (AI resembles a group of Non-Hispanic white (NHW populations born over an 80 year period. We obtained data on age of smoking initiation among 7,073 AIs who were members of 13 tribes in Arizona, Oklahoma and North and South Dakota from the 1988 Strong Heart Study (SHS and the 2001 Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS and 19,747 NHW participants in the 2003 National Health Interview Survey. The participants were born as early as 1904 and as late as 1985. We classified participants according to birth cohort by decade, sex, and for AIs, according to location. We estimated the cumulative incidence of smoking initiation by age 18 in each sex and birth cohort group in both AIs and NHWs and used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios for the association of birth cohort, sex and region with the age at smoking initiation. We found that the cumulative incidence of smoking initiation by age 18 was higher in males than females in all SHS regions and in NHWs (p < 0.001. Our results show regional variation of age of initiation significant in the SHS (p < 0.001. Our data showed that not all AIs (in this sample showed similar trends toward increased earlier smoking. For instance, Oklahoma SHS male participants born in the 1980s initiated smoking before age 18 less often than those born before 1920 by a ratio of 0.7. The results showed significant variation in age of initiation across sex, birth cohort, and location. Our preliminary analyses suggest that AI smoking trends are not uniform across region or gender but are likely shaped by local context. If tobacco prevention and control programs depend in part on addressing the origin of AI

  3. Bohmian Histories and Decoherent Histories

    OpenAIRE

    Hartle, James B.

    2002-01-01

    The predictions of the Bohmian and the decoherent (or consistent) histories formulations of the quantum mechanics of a closed system are compared for histories -- sequences of alternatives at a series of times. For certain kinds of histories, Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories may both be formulated in the same mathematical framework within which they can be compared. In that framework, Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories represent a given history by different operators. Their ...

  4. A Preliminary Study on the Academic Research Concepts of American Psychological History School%美国心理史学学派学术研究理念初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 张晓武

    2015-01-01

    American psychological history school is an important genre of the West new historiography, the school has formed a relatively mature concepts of academic research in the process of long-term development:Pay attention to the subject blend;Put the historical figures and their psychological activities as the main object of study;Research related to the history of the problem based on the historical figures and their psychological activities. But, the concept of academic research of this school has some defects which mainly displays in the limits of the applicability of the modern psychology theory in the research. And it also has some limits of the historical data to identify.%美国心理史学学派是西方新史学的一个重要流派,这一学派在长期的发展过程中形成了一套相对成熟的学术研究理念:注重学科间的交叉、融合;以历史上的人及其心理活动为主要研究对象;以历史上的人的心理活动为依据来探究与之相关的历史问题。但是,这一学派的学术研究理念也存在一些缺陷,主要表现在其依靠的现代心理学理论在研究中的适用性的局限以及在史料鉴别方面的局限。

  5. Asian-American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, William T.; Yu, Elena S. H.

    Although Asian Americans enjoy the image of a "successful minority," they also have endured hardships and prejudices. This report traces the history of the Japanese and Chinese experience in the United States. Some similarities are discernible in the immigration patterns of the two ethnic populations. The first wave of immigrants provided cheap…

  6. Leishmaniose tegumentar americana: histórico, epidemiologia e perspectivas de controle American cutaneous leishmaniasis: history, epidemiology and prospects for control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio de Almeida Basano

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana (LTA é uma doença causada por protozoários do gênero Leishmania, transmitida ao homem pela picada de mosquitos flebotomíneos (Ordem Diptera; Família Psychodidae; Sub-Família Phlebotominae. No Brasil existem atualmente 6 espécies de Leishmania responsáveis pela doença humana, e mais de 200 espécies de flebotomíneos implicados em sua transmissão. Trata-se de uma doença que acompanha o homem desde tempos remotos e que tem apresentado, nos últimos 20 anos, um aumento do número de casos e ampliação de sua ocorrência geográfica, sendo encontrada atualmente em todos os Estados brasileiros, sob diferentes perfis epidemiológicos. Estima-se que, entre 1985 e 2003, ocorreram 523.975 casos autóctones, a sua maior parte nas regiões Nordeste e Norte do Brasil. Neste estudo, são discutidos aspectos relacionados ao tratamento e ao controle dessa doença, assim como também as dificuldades para a implementação dessas medidas. São apontadas alternativas que passam pela estruturação dos serviços de saúde, com respeito ao diagnóstico, no desenvolvimento de drogas de aplicação tópica ou por via oral, no desenvolvimento de vacinas, no controle diferenciado de vetores e no aprofundamento de estudos relacionados à biologia celular do parasita.American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL is an infectious disease transmitted by the bite of phlebotomines mosquitos (Order Diptera: Family Psychodidae: Sub-Family Phlebotominae and caused by protozoa from the genus Leishmania (ROSS 1903. In Brazil, there are six different species of Leishmania and more than 200 different species of phlebotomines. It's a disease that has been afflicting human beings for many centuries, and in Brazil, in the past two decades, there has been an important increase in the number of cases and also in its geographical distribution. Presently, ACL cases are registered in all Brazilian states under three different epidemiological

  7. In Search of Our Past: Units in Women's History. U.S. History Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Suzanne, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to supplement what is customarily taught in junior high school United States History courses, this student manual contains three units which focus on women's history. Unit I concerns Native American women in Pre-Columbian America. Readings include The Story of a Zuni Girl--Blue Corn, Native American legends, Women as Leaders, and Native…

  8. Gênese "ateneísta" da história cultural latino-americana The "Ateneísta" origin of Latin American cultural history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Myers

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa a formação de uma rede transnacional de intelectuais, os "ateneístas" - um grupo intelectual constituído originalmente no México em torno da dupla experiência do Ateneo de la Juventud e da participação nas diversas iniciativas culturais (em especial a criação da Universidade Nacional do México promovidas pelos governos da Revolução Mexicana -, e seu papel nas origens da história cultural da América Latina. As trajetórias intelectuais de seus membros mais importantes - Pedro Henríquez Ureña e Alfonso Reyes - e que contribuíram para a formação de um circuito intelectual que vinculava entre si os campos intelectuais mexicano, argentino, espanhol e brasileiro, são examinadas com certo detalhe. O propósito do trabalho é duplo: de um lado, se propõe a explorar a relação entre a circulação internacional de idéias e as condições para a emergência de novas formações culturais no interior dos campos intelectuais nacionais; e, de outro, analisar o processo específico pelo qual tomou corpo - por meio da confluência entre obras específicas, de projetos editoriais, de instituições culturais e de intercâmbios ou contatos culturais entre os distintos países ibero-americanos - um discurso historiográfico com características novas na região. O período compreendido é o que vai aproximadamente de 1906 a 1960.In this article, the formation of a transnational network of intellectuals, that of the "Ateneístas" - a group which was originally constituted in Mexico through the double experience of the "Ateneo de la Juventud" and of participation in the various cultural initiatives promoted by the Revolutionary governments of Mexico (and especially in the creation of the Universidad Nacional de México -, is analyzed; as is its role in the origins of the cultural history of Latin America. The intellectual trajectories of two of its most prominent members - which, through their agency, contributed to the

  9. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina;

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a natural generalization of the classical clustering problem, considering clustering tasks in which different instances may have different weights.We conduct the first extensive theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in both the...... partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...

  10. Cluster Headache

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick G Freitag

    1985-01-01

    Learning Objectives: Review the current understanding of the pathophysiology of cluster headache Be able to recognize the clinical features of cluster headache Be able to develop a strategy for treatment of cluster headache Cluster headache is divided into multiple subtypes under the IHC classification criteria. The vast majority of patients present with episodic cluster headache (3.1.1). This will be the focus of the presentation. The syndrome is characterized by repeated at...

  11. Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History ...

  12. The American South in the Atlantic World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    "A refreshing and intriguing interdisciplinary examination of the ways in which the history and cultures of the American South have been largely shaped by forces beyond the geographical boundaries of the United States." --Allison Graham, author of Framing the South "This is an impressive collecti...... author of The Postsouthern Sense of Place in Contemporary Fiction. William A. Link, Richard J. Milbauer Professor of History at the University of Florida, is the author of Links: My Family in American History....

  13. The history of space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Martin J.; Kraemer, Sylvia K.

    1994-01-01

    Presented are the acknowledgements and introduction sections of the book 'Space: Discovery and Exploration.' The goal of the book is to address some basic questions of American space history, including how this history compares with previous eras of exploration, why the space program was initiated when it was, and how the U.S. space program developed. In pursuing these questions, the intention is not to provide exhaustive answers, but to point the reader toward a more varied picture of how our venture in space has intersected with American government, politics, business, and science.

  14. Active clusters in disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce an exact algorithm to calculate the distribution of large low energy clusters (droplets) in disordered manifolds and disordered magnets, and we analyze the extent to which these clusters can be treated as independent two-level systems. We show that interfaces in randomly diluted networks always have broad droplet distributions, while diluted antiferromagnets in a field can have either power law or exponential droplet distributions. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  15. 20 African-Americans Your Students Should Meet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardeen, Tara

    2008-01-01

    There is more to Black History Month than honoring Martin Luther King Jr. Black History Month is a time to honor the significant contributions of African-Americans throughout history. This article presents 20 super-achievers new generation of African-Americans heroes students should meet: (1) Kimberly Oliver; (2) John Lewis; (3) Rita Dove; (4)…

  16. What is a polycentric history of psychology?

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Charles Brock

    2014-01-01

    The term, "polycentric history of psychology" was originally used by Kurt Danziger and it has since been adopted by other historians of psychology. The article provides an introduction to this approach. The trend towards the internationalisation of psychology has led to the history of American psychology being supplemented by other local histories. Polycentric history is contrasted this approach. It is concerned with the interrelationships between centres and not individual centres considered...

  17. The Assembly of Galaxy Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrier, Joel C.; Stewart, Kyle R.; Bullock, James S.; Purcell, Chris W.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2008-05-16

    We study the formation of fifty-three galaxy cluster-size dark matter halos (M = 10{sup 14.0-14.76} M{sub {circle_dot}}) formed within a pair of cosmological {Lambda}CDM N-body simulations, and track the accretion histories of cluster subhalos with masses large enough to host {approx} 0.1L{sub *} galaxies. By associating subhalos with cluster galaxies, we find the majority of galaxies in clusters experience no 'pre-processing' in the group environment prior to their accretion into the cluster. On average, {approx} 70% of cluster galaxies fall into the cluster potential directly from the field, with no luminous companions in their host halos at the time of accretion; and less than {approx} 12% are accreted as members of groups with five or more galaxies. Moreover, we find that cluster galaxies are significantly less likely to have experienced a merger in the recent past ({approx}< 6 Gyr) than a field halo of the same mass. These results suggest that local, cluster processes like ram-pressure stripping, galaxy harassment, or strangulation play the dominant role in explaining the difference between cluster and field populations at a fixed stellar mass; and that pre-evolution or past merging in the group environment is of secondary importance for setting cluster galaxy properties for most clusters. The accretion times for z = 0 cluster members are quite extended, with {approx} 20% incorporated into the cluster halo more than 7 Gyr ago and {approx} 20% within the last 2 Gyr. By comparing the observed morphological fractions in cluster and field populations, we estimate an approximate time-scale for late-type to early-type transformation within the cluster environment to be {approx} 6 Gyr.

  18. Leopoldo Zea e o movimento latino-americano de História das idéias Leopoldo Zea and the Latin-American movement of History of Ideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio Rezende de Carvalho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa as etapas de fundação e consolidação de um dos mais importantes movimentos intelectuais da América Latina no século XX - o movimento latino-americano de História das Ideias -, a partir, sobretudo, das ações e escritos de seu principal líder e fundador, o filósofo mexicano Leopoldo Zea Aguilar (1912-2004. Na etapa de fundação, que corresponde à década de 1940, o foco principal é na obra inicial de Zea, bem como em seus primeiros esforços no sentido da articulação e organização institucional do movimento em escala continental. Já na etapa seguinte, que corresponde à década de 1950, é abordado o processo de consolidação orgânica e epistemológica do movimento.This article analyzes the stages of foundation and consolidation of one of the most important intellectual movements of Latin America in the twentieth century - the Latin-American movement of History of Ideas -, starting from actions and writings of its main leader and founder, the Mexican philosopher Leopoldo Zea Aguilar (1912-2004. In the 1940s, during the foundation period, the main focus is on the primary work of Zea, as well as on his first efforts to articulate and organize this movement in continental scale. Moreover, in the following stage held in the 1950s, the process of organic and epistemology consolidation of the movement is invoked.

  19. American Heroism Seen From the Band of Brothers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武莹

    2009-01-01

    Band of Brothers is a mirror of American heroism. It shows us a clear view of what is really American heroism, which spiritually leads the American society, not only in the American history, but also in the recent development of the nation.

  20. Cluster headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Histamine headache; Headache - histamine; Migrainous neuralgia; Headache - cluster; Horton's headache ... Doctors do not know exactly what causes cluster headaches. They ... (chemical in the body released during an allergic response) or ...

  1. Isotopic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectra of isotopically mixed clusters (dimers of SF6) are calculated as well as transition frequencies. The result leads to speculations about the suitability of the laser-cluster fragmentation process for isotope separation. (Auth.)

  2. Weighted Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina; Loker, David

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a natural generalization of the classical clusteringproblem, considering clustering tasks in which differentinstances may have different weights.We conduct the firstextensive theoretical analysis on the influence of weighteddata on standard clustering algorithms in both the partitionaland hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions underwhich algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent frameworkfor clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitiveproperties that...

  3. Meaningful Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Calapristi, Augustin J.; Crow, Vernon L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2004-05-26

    We present an approach to the disambiguation of cluster labels that capitalizes on the notion of semantic similarity to assign WordNet senses to cluster labels. The approach provides interesting insights on how document clustering can provide the basis for developing a novel approach to word sense disambiguation.

  4. Cluster Lenses

    CERN Document Server

    Kneib, Jean-Paul; 10.1007/s00159-011-0047-3

    2012-01-01

    Clusters of galaxies are the most recently assembled, massive, bound structures in the Universe. As predicted by General Relativity, given their masses, clusters strongly deform space-time in their vicinity. Clusters act as some of the most powerful gravitational lenses in the Universe. Light rays traversing through clusters from distant sources are hence deflected, and the resulting images of these distant objects therefore appear distorted and magnified. Lensing by clusters occurs in two regimes, each with unique observational signatures. The strong lensing regime is characterized by effects readily seen by eye, namely, the production of giant arcs, multiple-images, and arclets. The weak lensing regime is characterized by small deformations in the shapes of background galaxies only detectable statistically. Cluster lenses have been exploited successfully to address several important current questions in cosmology: (i) the study of the lens(es) - understanding cluster mass distributions and issues pertaining...

  5. Using Cluster Analysis to Examine Husband-Wife Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds-Raacke, Jennifer M.

    2006-01-01

    Cluster analysis has a rich history in many disciplines and although cluster analysis has been used in clinical psychology to identify types of disorders, its use in other areas of psychology has been less popular. The purpose of the current experiments was to use cluster analysis to investigate husband-wife decision making. Cluster analysis was…

  6. AAS Oral History Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Holbrook, Jarita; AAS Oral History Team

    2016-06-01

    Now in its fourth year, the AAS Oral History Project has interviewed over 80 astronomers from all over the world. Led by the AAS Historical Astronomy Division (HAD) and partially funded by the American Institute of Physics Niels Bohr Library and ongoing support from the AAS, volunteers have collected oral histories from astronomers at professional meetings starting in 2015, including AAS, DPS, and the IAU general assembly. Each interview lasts one and a half to two hours and focuses on interviewees’ personal and professional lives. Questions include those about one’s family, childhood, strong influences on one’s scientific career, career path, successes and challenges, perspectives on how astronomy is changing as a field, and advice to the next generation. Each interview is audio recorded and transcribed, the content of which is checked with each interviewee. Once complete, interview transcripts are posted online as part of a larger oral history library at https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories. Future analysis will reveal a rich story of astronomers and will help the community address issues of diversity, controversies, and the changing landscape of science. We are still recruiting individuals to be interviewed from all stages of career from undergraduate students to retired and emeritus astronomers. Contact Jarita Holbrook to schedule an interview or to find out more information about the project (astroholbrook@gmail.com). Also, contact Jarita Holbrook if you would like to become an interviewer for the project.

  7. Animal Magnetism and Curriculum History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Bernadette

    2007-01-01

    This article elaborates the impact that crises of authority provoked by animal magnetism, mesmerism, and hypnosis in the 19th century had for field formation in American education. Four layers of analysis elucidate how curriculum history's repetitive focus on public school policy and classroom practice became possible. First, the article surveys…

  8. Living History: Elsworth R. Buskirk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the American Physiological Society (APS) initiated the Living History of Physiology Archival Program to recognize senior members who have made significant contributions during their career to the advancement of the discipline and the profession of physiology. Subsequently, the leadership of the APS Section of Environmental and Exercise…

  9. Living History: Clark M. Blatteis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Ning

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the American Physiological Society (APS) initiated the Living History Project to recognize senior members who have made extraordinary contributions during their career to the advancement of the discipline and profession of physiology. During 2007, the APS Section of Environmental and Exercise Physiology selected Clark M. Blatteis to be…

  10. History Sources on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Kenneth D.

    This paper provides descriptions of key online history resources useful to teachers, librarians, and other education professionals. Highlights include: primary sources on the Internet; archives; Online Public Access Catalogs (OPACs); the American Historical Association (AHA) Web site; state and federal government resources; business history…

  11. Romerrigets historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik

    Romerrigets historie fra Roms legendariske grundlæggelse i 753 f.v.t. til Heraklios' tronbestigelse i 610 e.v.t.......Romerrigets historie fra Roms legendariske grundlæggelse i 753 f.v.t. til Heraklios' tronbestigelse i 610 e.v.t....

  12. Intellectual History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...

  13. Data Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2012-03-01

    On obtaining a new data set, the researcher is immediately faced with the challenge of obtaining a high-level understanding from the observations. What does a typical item look like? What are the dominant trends? How many distinct groups are included in the data set, and how is each one characterized? Which observable values are common, and which rarely occur? Which items stand out as anomalies or outliers from the rest of the data? This challenge is exacerbated by the steady growth in data set size [11] as new instruments push into new frontiers of parameter space, via improvements in temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution, or by the desire to "fuse" observations from different modalities and instruments into a larger-picture understanding of the same underlying phenomenon. Data clustering algorithms provide a variety of solutions for this task. They can generate summaries, locate outliers, compress data, identify dense or sparse regions of feature space, and build data models. It is useful to note up front that "clusters" in this context refer to groups of items within some descriptive feature space, not (necessarily) to "galaxy clusters" which are dense regions in physical space. The goal of this chapter is to survey a variety of data clustering methods, with an eye toward their applicability to astronomical data analysis. In addition to improving the individual researcher’s understanding of a given data set, clustering has led directly to scientific advances, such as the discovery of new subclasses of stars [14] and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) [38]. All clustering algorithms seek to identify groups within a data set that reflect some observed, quantifiable structure. Clustering is traditionally an unsupervised approach to data analysis, in the sense that it operates without any direct guidance about which items should be assigned to which clusters. There has been a recent trend in the clustering literature toward supporting semisupervised or constrained

  14. Cluster Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Cansisting of eight scientists from the State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Xiamen University, this creative research group is devoted to the research of cluster chemistry and creation of nanomaterials.After three-year hard work, the group scored a series of encouraging progresses in synthesis of clusters with special structures, including novel fullerenes, fullerene-like metal cluster compounds as well as other related nanomaterials, and their properties study.

  15. Who is Teaching the History of Chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Kenneth G.; DeLoach, Will S.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study into how the history of chemistry is being taught in colleges and universities. Results indicate that courses on the history of chemistry are hardly ever required of chemistry majors, and they are offered in only 10 percent of American Chemical Society approved chemistry departments. (TW)

  16. Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury XVI. Star Cluster Formation Efficiency and the Clustered Fraction of Young Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, L. Clifton; Seth, Anil C.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Beerman, Lori C.; Fouesneau, Morgan; Lewis, Alexia R.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Bell, Eric F.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Larsen, Søren S.; Sandstrom, Karin; Skillman, Evan D.

    2016-01-01

    We use the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) survey dataset to perform spatially resolved measurements of star cluster formation efficiency ($\\Gamma$), the fraction of stellar mass formed in long-lived star clusters. We use robust star formation history and cluster parameter constraints, obtained through color-magnitude diagram analysis of resolved stellar populations, to study Andromeda's cluster and field populations over the last $\\sim$300 Myr. We measure $\\Gamma$ of 4-8% for y...

  17. Ready or Not: The Academic College Readiness of Southeast Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her, Chia S.

    2014-01-01

    The educational experiences of Southeast Asian Americans, particularly Cambodian Americans, Hmong Americans, Laotian Americans, and Vietnamese Americans, are characterized by numerous challenges, which can be attributed to their migration history, socioeconomic status, and English proficiency. By the end of 11th grade, a high percentage of…

  18. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  19. Asian-American Women in Educational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lily

    1980-01-01

    Provides information on the immigration history, education, income, and occupation representation in the social sciences and cultural and language barriers of Asian American women educational researchers. Includes recommendations to facilitate their entry into the social sciences in general. (MJL)

  20. Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  1. What is a polycentric history of psychology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Charles Brock

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The term, "polycentric history of psychology" was originally used by Kurt Danziger and it has since been adopted by other historians of psychology. The article provides an introduction to this approach. The trend towards the internationalisation of psychology has led to the history of American psychology being supplemented by other local histories. Polycentric history is contrasted this approach. It is concerned with the interrelationships between centres and not individual centres considered in isolation. The article concludes with some examples of history that has been written from a polycentric perspective.

  2. Yellow supergiants in open clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superluminous giant stars (SLGs) have been reported in young globular clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). These stars appear to be in the post-asymptotic-giant-branch phase of evolution. This program was an investigation of galactic SLG candidates in open clusters, which are more like the LMC young globular clusters. These were chosen because luminosity, mass, and age determinations can be made for members since cluster distances and interstellar reddenings are known. Color magnitude diagrams were searched for candidates, using the same selection criteria as for SLGs in the LMC. Classification spectra were obtained of 115 program stars from McGraw-Hill Observatory and of 68 stars from Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory Chile. These stars were visually classified on the MK system using spectral scans of standard stars taken at the respective observations. Published information was combined with this program's data for 83 stars in 30 clusters. Membership probabilities were assigned to these stars, and the clusters were analyzed according to age. It was seen that the intrinsically brightest supergiants are found in the youngest clusters. With increasing cluster age, the absolute luminosities attained by the supergiants decline. Also, it appears that the evolutionary tracks of luminosity class II stars are more similar to those of class I than of class III

  3. Cancer Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of cancer. Cancer clusters can help scientists identify cancer-causing substances in the environment. For example, in the early 1970s, a cluster ... the area and time period over which the cancers were diagnosed. They also ask about specific environmental hazards or concerns in the affected area. If ...

  4. A chemical evolution model for galaxy clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Portinari, L.; A. Moretti(Fermilab, Batavia, IL, USA); Chiosi, C.

    2001-01-01

    We develop a toy-model for the chemical evolution of the intracluster medium, polluted by the galactic winds from elliptical galaxies. The model follows the "galaxy formation history" of cluster galaxies, constrained by the observed luminosity function.

  5. Clustering processes

    CERN Document Server

    Ryabko, Daniil

    2010-01-01

    The problem of clustering is considered, for the case when each data point is a sample generated by a stationary ergodic process. We propose a very natural asymptotic notion of consistency, and show that simple consistent algorithms exist, under most general non-parametric assumptions. The notion of consistency is as follows: two samples should be put into the same cluster if and only if they were generated by the same distribution. With this notion of consistency, clustering generalizes such classical statistical problems as homogeneity testing and process classification. We show that, for the case of a known number of clusters, consistency can be achieved under the only assumption that the joint distribution of the data is stationary ergodic (no parametric or Markovian assumptions, no assumptions of independence, neither between nor within the samples). If the number of clusters is unknown, consistency can be achieved under appropriate assumptions on the mixing rates of the processes. (again, no parametric ...

  6. HANDLING HISTORY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Disputes over historical issues have been a factor affecting China-Japan relations for quite some time. If mishandled, they could remain an obstacle to the further improvement of bilateral ties, some American scholars believe.Richard C. Bush, senior fell

  7. American ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some research suggests that taking a specific American ginseng extract called CVT-E002 (Cold-FX, Afexa Life Sciences, ... AD-fX, Afexa Life Sciences, Canada) containing American ginseng extract in combination with ginkgo leaf extract might help ...

  8. Liberating Filipino Americans through Decolonizing Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halagao, Patricia Espiritu

    2010-01-01

    As Filipino Americans continue to struggle academically in our public schools, we must seek alternative frameworks to understand how their historical backgrounds and cultural identities have impacted their educational experience. Filipino Americans have a colonial history that has produced what scholars termed as "colonial mentality", a…

  9. Depression, Sociocultural Factors, and African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…

  10. Guns as a Symbol of American Individualism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许丹

    2011-01-01

    Due to continuous gun violence, Americans' crazy love for guns has always been attacked home and abroad. Americans' passion for guns derives from individualism through the development of American history. They consider guns as a means to guarantee independence and freedom, and therefore as a symbol of American individualism.

  11. Beyond Bound Feet: Relocating Asian American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumdar, Sucheta

    1996-01-01

    Attempts to correct the limited and stereotypical portrayal of Asian American women found in most histories. Reveals that women often played a more central and active role in the Asian American experience. Discusses little-known facets of this experience (e.g., many immigrants returned home after achieving financial security). (MJP)

  12. Placing Asterisks: An Approach to American Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Daniel O.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how he co-teaches an interdisciplinary American Studies class that fosters inquiry and reflection on the complexity of an authentic telling of US history. With the help of his partner, a social studies teacher, the author designed an American Studies course that aims to reveal to students that America's…

  13. African Americans in the Early Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Gary B.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses five topics on African Americans that are essential to studying United States History in the years between 1760 and 1830: (1) African Americans in the Revolutionary War ; (2) the rise of free black communities; (3) early abolitionism; (4) the spread of slavery; and (5) black resistance to slavery. (CMK)

  14. Asian Americans and Creative Music Legacies

    OpenAIRE

    Dessen, MJ

    2006-01-01

    This essay is an introduction to what has been called the Asian American Creative Music Movement, focusing especially on musicians based in the San Francisco Bay area. It examines the history of those musicians' networks and situates their work as both musicians and activists in relation to African American creative music legacies.

  15. A Brief Introduction of American Political Cultrue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓杰

    2009-01-01

    @@ The American Constitution in 1787 After the repeated compromise, the work of drawing up a constitution was completed on September 17,1787, a day which has been designated as Constitution Day of America. The appearance of constitution was a great event in American history. It established the Federal System which was the first in the world at that time.

  16. American Studies Center:An Introduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu; HONG

    2013-01-01

    <正>The year 2012 was remarkable in the history of American Studies at Sichuan University.First,it marked the 28thAnniversary of the founding of the American Studies Center,which had its official debut in May,1984,coinciding with the establishment of the US Consulate General in Chengdu.U.S.Vice President George Bush was present at the Inauguration Ceremony of the American Studies Center,and

  17. Modeling the Metallicity Distribution of Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Muratov, Alexander L

    2010-01-01

    Observed metallicities of globular clusters reflect physical conditions in the interstellar medium of their high-redshift host galaxies. Globular cluster systems in most large galaxies display bimodal color and metallicity distributions, which are often interpreted as indicating two distinct modes of cluster formation. The metal-rich and metal-poor clusters have systematically different locations and kinematics in their host galaxies. However, the red and blue clusters have similar internal properties, such as the masses, sizes, and ages. It is therefore interesting to explore whether both metal-rich and metal-poor clusters could form by a common mechanism and still be consistent with the bimodal distribution. We present such a model, which prescribes the formation of globular clusters semi-analytically using galaxy assembly history from cosmological simulations coupled with observed scaling relations for the amount and metallicity of cold gas available for star formation. We assume that massive star clusters...

  18. Learning Early Twentieth-Century History through First-Person Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, Lisa A.

    2007-01-01

    For many of the students in the author's American history class, early twentieth-century American history seems far removed from their daily lives. Being first and second-generation American citizens, many of the students do not have the luxury of hearing grandparents and great-grandparents telling stories about FDR and Henry Ford. More…

  19. Unique post-doctoral positions in Master of Arts in Teaching Earth Science program at the American Museum of Natural History: Involving early-career research scientists in Earth science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, K. E.; Nadeau, P. A.; Zirakparvar, N. A.; Grcevich, J.; Ustunisik, G. K.

    2012-12-01

    Post-doctoral positions in Earth science fields traditionally emphasize research within a university setting or research institute. Such positions may include a teaching component, but one which is often restricted to introductory undergraduate Earth science courses or upper-level courses within their own field of specialization. With such a specific focus, there may not be much inclination on the part of a post-doctoral fellow to involve themselves in broader education programs, such as public outreach or secondary schools. The American Museum of Natural History is now conducting a non-traditional post-doctoral position as part of its new Master of Arts in Teaching Earth Science (MAT). This pilot program involves forging a one-of-a-kind partnership between a world-class research museum and high-needs schools in New York City with the goal of addressing a critical shortage of qualified Earth Science teachers in New York State, particularly in high-needs schools with diverse populations. The program, which is part of the state's Race to the Top initiative, is approved by the NYS Board of Regents and will prepare a total of 50 candidates in two cohorts to earn a Board of Regents-awarded Masters of Arts in Teaching (MAT) degree with a specialization in Earth Science for grades 7-12. The post-doctoral fellows of the MAT program have unique 3-year positions, with more traditional research-based work comprising 65% of the tenure and non-traditional educational roles 35%. The MAT fellows are divided into two types: those with a teaching role, who are involved in the co-design and co-teaching of graduate-level Earth science courses; and those in a research/mentoring role, who design and teach a summer-long science research practicum while also providing informal support to MAT teaching candidates throughout the school year. Over the first year of the MAT program's implementation, fellows have been exposed to a range of activities outside the realm of a traditional post

  20. Clustering analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluster analysis is the name of group of multivariate techniques whose principal purpose is to distinguish similar entities from the characteristics they process.To study this analysis, there are several algorithms that can be used. Therefore, this topic focuses to discuss the algorithms, such as, similarity measures, and hierarchical clustering which includes single linkage, complete linkage and average linkage method. also, non-hierarchical clustering method, which is popular name K-mean method' will be discussed. Finally, this paper will be described the advantages and disadvantages of every methods

  1. Cluster editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böcker, S.; Baumbach, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The Cluster Editing problem asks to transform a graph into a disjoint union of cliques using a minimum number of edge modifications. Although the problem has been proven NP-complete several times, it has nevertheless attracted much research both from the theoretical and the applied side. The...... algorithms for biological problems. © 2013 Springer-Verlag....... problem has been the inspiration for numerous algorithms in bioinformatics, aiming at clustering entities such as genes, proteins, phenotypes, or patients. In this paper, we review exact and heuristic methods that have been proposed for the Cluster Editing problem, and also applications of these...

  2. Cluster analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Everitt, Brian S; Leese, Morven; Stahl, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Cluster analysis comprises a range of methods for classifying multivariate data into subgroups. By organizing multivariate data into such subgroups, clustering can help reveal the characteristics of any structure or patterns present. These techniques have proven useful in a wide range of areas such as medicine, psychology, market research and bioinformatics.This fifth edition of the highly successful Cluster Analysis includes coverage of the latest developments in the field and a new chapter dealing with finite mixture models for structured data.Real life examples are used throughout to demons

  3. Spitzer Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krick, Kessica

    This proposal is a specific response to the strategic goal of NASA's research program to "discover how the universe works and explore how the universe evolved into its present form." Towards this goal, we propose to mine the Spitzer archive for all observations of galaxy groups and clusters for the purpose of studying galaxy evolution in clusters, contamination rates for Sunyaev Zeldovich cluster surveys, and to provide a database of Spitzer observed clusters to the broader community. Funding from this proposal will go towards two years of support for a Postdoc to do this work. After searching the Spitzer Heritage Archive, we have found 194 unique galaxy groups and clusters that have data from both the Infrared array camera (IRAC; Fazio et al. 2004) at 3.6 - 8 microns and the multiband imaging photometer for Spitzer (MIPS; Rieke et al. 2004) at 24microns. This large sample will add value beyond the individual datasets because it will be a larger sample of IR clusters than ever before and will have sufficient diversity in mass, redshift, and dynamical state to allow us to differentiate amongst the effects of these cluster properties. An infrared sample is important because it is unaffected by dust extinction while at the same time is an excellent measure of both stellar mass (IRAC wavelengths) and star formation rate (MIPS wavelengths). Additionally, IRAC can be used to differentiate star forming galaxies (SFG) from active galactic nuclei (AGN), due to their different spectral shapes in this wavelength regime. Specifically, we intend to identify SFG and AGN in galaxy groups and clusters. Groups and clusters differ from the field because the galaxy densities are higher, there is a large potential well due mainly to the mass of the dark matter, and there is hot X-ray gas (the intracluster medium; ICM). We will examine the impact of these differences in environment on galaxy formation by comparing cluster properties of AGN and SFG to those in the field. Also, we will

  4. Multiwavelength Constraints on the Dynamical History of Omega Centauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggard, Daryl; Cool, A. M.; Arias, T.; Brochmann, M. B.; Dorfman, J.; Gafford, A.; White, V.; Anderson, J.; Davies, M. B.

    2012-09-01

    Omega Centauri, the Milky Way's most massive and enigmatic old stellar cluster, offers a treasure trove of astronomical discovery and controversy. Is the cluster a globular or a dwarf galaxy remnant? Does it host a massive central black hole? What are the origins and dynamical histories of the cluster's multiple stellar populations? I will discuss our multiwavelength imaging and spectroscopic campaigns, and in particular a new Chandra X-ray flux limit on the cluster's purported IMBH. These observations also probe Omega Cen's binary populations and shed light on the cluster's dynamical history.

  5. Impostor Syndrome, a Reparative History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Simmons

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This is an attempt to insert the stories we tell about fear and shame into a history of twentieth-century psychology and its obsession with achievement and modernization. It is an attempt to write an affective history of achievement at the turn of the millennium - and to make this feeling history. Impostor Syndrome is a pop-psychological diagnosis, employed to explain the low presence of women in STEM fields, business and academic administration and ’thought leadership’ in the pubic sphere. The article follows the intellectual lineage of two precursors of Impostor Syndrome, Fear of Success and the Impostor Phenomenon. It argues that the grouping of gender/ race/ success/ affect was a keystone of twentieth-century American psychology and development theory. The history of this feeling has consequences for thinking about situated knowledge, realism and epistemic justice.

  6. Linjefaget historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch-Christensen, Andreas

    Afhandlingen er en undersøgelse af linjefaget historie ved læreruddannelsen. Med fokus på subjektperspektivet peger afhandlingen på en række afgørende udviklingsperspektiver for læreruddannelsen, uddannelsen af historielærere og folkeskolens historieundervisning.......Afhandlingen er en undersøgelse af linjefaget historie ved læreruddannelsen. Med fokus på subjektperspektivet peger afhandlingen på en række afgørende udviklingsperspektiver for læreruddannelsen, uddannelsen af historielærere og folkeskolens historieundervisning....

  7. Matematikkens historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2009-01-01

    Matematikkens historie i syv kapitler: 1. Matematik i støbeskeen; 2. Matematikkens græske arv; 3. Den gyldne tidsalder for hinduer og arabere; 4. Matematik i Kina; 5. Renæssancens matematik; 6. Regning med infinitesimaler ser dagens lys; 7. Matematik i det tyvende århundrede.......Matematikkens historie i syv kapitler: 1. Matematik i støbeskeen; 2. Matematikkens græske arv; 3. Den gyldne tidsalder for hinduer og arabere; 4. Matematik i Kina; 5. Renæssancens matematik; 6. Regning med infinitesimaler ser dagens lys; 7. Matematik i det tyvende århundrede....

  8. Environmental history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2016-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...... for solutions and policies, is the agenda for an engaged environmental history from now on....

  9. Green Medicine: Traditional Mexican-American Herbal Remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Eliseo

    Traditional Mexican American herbal potions and remedies and their history are explained in an introductory book for the general reader. The importance of curanderismo, or green medicine, in Mexican and Mexican American cultures is explored. A brief history traces the herbal aspects of curanderismo through Mayan and Aztec cultures, the Spanish…

  10. 75 FR 32075 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... indelible contributions to our Nation and our world. Throughout our history, African-American music has... traces our Nation's history. These quintessentially American styles of music have helped provide a common... America the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-13660 Filed 6-4-10; 8:45...

  11. African Americans Who Teach German Language and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, Robert Jr.

    2001-01-01

    A large number of black scholars have pursued advanced degrees in the German language, history, and culture. Describes the history of African American interest in the German language and culture, highlighting various black scholars who have studied German over the years. Presents data on African Americans in German graduate programs and examines…

  12. Cluster Bulleticity

    OpenAIRE

    Massey, Richard; Kitching, Thomas D.; Nagai, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    The unique properties of dark matter are revealed during collisions between clusters of galaxies, like the bullet cluster (1E 0657-56) and baby bullet (MACSJ0025-12). These systems provide evidence for an additional, invisible mass in the separation between the distribution of their total mass, measured via gravitational lensing, and their ordinary 'baryonic' matter, measured via its X-ray emission. Unfortunately, the information available from these systems is limited by th...

  13. Cluster Bulleticity

    OpenAIRE

    Massey, R; Kitching, T.; Nagai, D.

    2010-01-01

    The unique properties of dark matter are revealed during collisions between clusters of galaxies, such as the bullet cluster (1E 0657−56) and baby bullet (MACS J0025−12). These systems provide evidence for an additional, invisible mass in the separation between the distributions of their total mass, measured via gravitational lensing, and their ordinary ‘baryonic’ matter, measured via its X-ray emission. Unfortunately, the information available from these systems is limited by their rarity. C...

  14. Cluster generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchev, Todor I.; Petrov, Ivan G.

    2011-05-31

    Described herein is an apparatus and a method for producing atom clusters based on a gas discharge within a hollow cathode. The hollow cathode includes one or more walls. The one or more walls define a sputtering chamber within the hollow cathode and include a material to be sputtered. A hollow anode is positioned at an end of the sputtering chamber, and atom clusters are formed when a gas discharge is generated between the hollow anode and the hollow cathode.

  15. Potted history

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, T. van

    2010-01-01

    The Jordan Valley was once populated by a people, now almost forgotten by historians, with whom the pharaoh of Egypt sought favour. That is the conclusion reached by Niels Groot, the first researcher to take a PhD at the Delft-Leiden Centre for Archaeology, Art History and Science.

  16. Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risky behaviors (such as smoking) and increasing healthy behaviors (such as regular exercise). Learn more about heart attacts. Q: How can knowing my family health history help lower my risk of disease? A: You ... you can change behaviors that affect your health, such as smoking, inactivity ...

  17. Business History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that a cultural and narrative perspective can enrich the business history field, encourage new and different questions and answers, and provide new ways of thinking about methods and empirical material. It discusses what culture is and how it relates to narratives. Taking...

  18. Myopic Perceptions and Textbooks: Chinese Americans' Search for Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Albert H.

    1973-01-01

    Narrow stereotypic perceptions of and prejudice toward the Chinese have been so pervasive and tenable that Americans of Chinese ancestry do not perceive themselves with a meaningful identity; examination of American social studies textbooks shows that involvement of Asians in American history is barely mentioned or neglected completely. (Author/JM)

  19. The Mexican American Heritage: With Writing Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Carlos M.

    Written by a Los Angeles history teacher frustrated by the lack of culturally relevant materials, this book covers some of the most interesting events in the history of Mexico and the heritage of Mexican Americans. Chapters are: (1) Indian Mexico (Teotihuacan, the Maya, the Toltecs, and the Aztecs); (2) La Conquista (Cortes and Moctezuma, conquest…

  20. Review on the Disillusionment of Gatsby’s American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳丽

    2014-01-01

    As a spokesperson of the Jazz Age, the American famous novelist F· Scott Fitzgerald who published his masterpiece The Great Gatsby in 1925 is recognized as one of the most important novelists in American literature history. With profound meaning, it is considered as a classic novel revealing the ilusory essence of the American dream. By narrating Gatsby's life, the author skilfuly interprets the conflict between the dream and reality as wel as the intense clash of the spiritual desire and substantial desire in real life. And ultimately Gatsby’s destruction in such conflicts is linked with American history, which implies national tragedy of the United States and satirizes ilusion of American dream.

  1. Narratives from within: An Arendtian Approach to Life Histories and the Writing of History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamboukou, Maria

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I draw on my current research of writing a genealogy of women artists, focusing in particular on the life history of the American working-class artist, May Stevens (1924-). I am particularly interested in how an analysis of the textual and visual narratives in her work, seen in the context of her life history, can intervene in the…

  2. Star Cluster Buzzing With Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    A dense globular star cluster near the center of our Milky Way Galaxy holds a buzzing beehive of rapidly-spinning millisecond pulsars, according to astronomers who discovered 21 new pulsars in the cluster using the National Science Foundation's 100-meter Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia. The cluster, called Terzan 5, now holds the record for pulsars, with 24, including three known before the GBT observations. Pulsar Diagram Pulsar Diagram: Click on image for more detail. "We hit the jackpot when we looked at this cluster," said Scott Ransom, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Charlottesville, VA. "Not only does this cluster have a lot of pulsars -- and we still expect to find more in it -- but the pulsars in it are very interesting. They include at least 13 in binary systems, two of which are eclipsing, and the four fastest-rotating pulsars known in any globular cluster, with the fastest two rotating nearly 600 times per second, roughly as fast as a household blender," Ransom added. Ransom and his colleagues reported their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in San Diego, CA, and in the online journal Science Express. The star cluster's numerous pulsars are expected to yield a bonanza of new information about not only the pulsars themselves, but also about the dense stellar environment in which they reside and probably even about nuclear physics, according to the scientists. For example, preliminary measurements indicate that two of the pulsars are more massive than some theoretical models would allow. "All these exotic pulsars will keep us busy for years to come," said Jason Hessels, a Ph.D student at McGill University in Montreal. Globular clusters are dense agglomerations of up to millions of stars, all of which formed at about the same time. Pulsars are spinning, superdense neutron stars that whirl "lighthouse beams" of radio waves or light around as they spin. A neutron star is what is

  3. Social history and historical sociology

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Knöbl

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with exchanges and misunderstandings between the German school of social history (most prominently represented by scholars from the University of Bielefeld (such as Hans-Ulrich Wehler) and Anglo-American trends in historical sociology (exemplified by the works of Barrington Moore, Theda Skocpol and Michael Mann). The social historians tended to dismiss historical sociology as too dependent on modernization theory, without taking into account the critique of that tradition by ...

  4. A History of Online Gatekeeping

    OpenAIRE

    Zittrain, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    The brief but intense history of American judicial and legislative confrontation with problems caused by the online world has demonstrated a certain wisdom: a reluctance to intervene in ways that dramatically alter online architectures; a solicitude for the collateral damage that interventions might wreak upon innocent activity; and, in the balance, a refusal to allow unambiguously damaging activities to remain unchecked if there is a way to curtail them. The ability to regulate lightly ...

  5. Restoring Politics to Political History

    OpenAIRE

    Kousser, J. Morgan

    1982-01-01

    If history ever was simply the study of past politics, it is no longer. Dissatisfied with narratives of Great Men, more interested in analyzing the impact of larger forces and in tracing out patterns of the lives of the masses of people, skeptical that a recounting of election campaigns and a counting of votes reveals much about social thought or action, strongly affected by currents of opinion which have long run deep in France, American historians have turned increas...

  6. THE AMERICAN DARK AGES

    OpenAIRE

    Hayırlı, Onur; İşler, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    This article historically will review some cases for lynch culture which is again blacks in America. And will examine the term ‘Afro-American’. Cases like ‘Michael Brown’, ‘Eric Garner’ and ‘Antonio Martin’ are proof of violence is still going on again black society.Lynching is a part of America’s dark sides. Behind lynching, it lays a brutal history of domestic violence. For years, maybe for centuries, American people have lynched Black people because of various accusations. These lynching w...

  7. Denominators of cluster variables

    OpenAIRE

    Buan, Aslak Bakke; Marsh, Robert J.; Reiten, Idun

    2007-01-01

    Associated to any acyclic cluster algebra is a corresponding triangulated category known as the cluster category. It is known that there is a one-to-one correspondence between cluster variables in the cluster algebra and exceptional indecomposable objects in the cluster category inducing a correspondence between clusters and cluster-tilting objects. Fix a cluster-tilting object T and a corresponding initial cluster. By the Laurent phenomenon, every cluster variable can be written as a Laurent...

  8. A Brief Analysis to Modern American Slang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖煜晨; 李洋

    2014-01-01

    Modern American slang has a unique display of feelings and ideas and a long history. It has become a language used widely in every field of work, and it continues to appear in newspapers, TVs, reports, and even election speeches. Modern American slang has gained importance over the years, During its development process, American slang has formed its own unique characteristics: it is humorous, vivid, easy to express feelings, and updates fast. Although scholars’ opinions toward slang have a wide discrepancy, it is undeniable that the emergence and development of modern American slang has conformed to the needs of the society and times.

  9. Young star clusters: Metallicity tracers in external galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Anders, P.; Alvensleben, U. Fritze--v.; de Grijs, R.

    2003-01-01

    Star cluster formation is a major mode of star formation in the extreme conditions of interacting galaxies and violent starbursts. These newly-formed clusters are built from recycled gas, pre-enriched to various levels within the interacting galaxies. Hence, star clusters of different ages represent a fossil record of the chemical enrichment history of their host galaxy, as well as of the host galaxy's violent star formation history. We present a new set of evolutionary synthesis models of ou...

  10. Cluster Bulleticity

    CERN Document Server

    Massey, Richard; Nagai, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    The unique properties of dark matter are revealed during collisions between clusters of galaxies, like the bullet cluster (1E 0657-56) and baby bullet (MACSJ0025-12). These systems provide evidence for an additional, invisible mass in the separation between the distribution of their total mass, measured via gravitational lensing, and their ordinary 'baryonic' matter, measured via its X-ray emission. Unfortunately, the information available from these systems is limited by their rarity. Constraints on the properties of dark matter, such as its interaction cross-section, are therefore restricted by uncertainties in the individual systems' impact velocity, impact parameter and orientation with respect to the line of sight. Here we develop a complementary, statistical measurement in which every piece of substructure falling into every massive cluster is treated as a bullet. We define 'bulleticity' as the mean separation between dark matter and ordinary matter, and we measure a positive signal in hydrodynamical si...

  11. An Empirical Examination of Inter-Ethnic Stereotypes: Comparing Asian American and African American Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jackie; Carr-Ruffino, Norma; Ivancevich, John M.; Lownes-Jackson, Millicent

    2003-01-01

    Undergraduates (n=127) read career histories (including photographs) of fictitious employees in a 2x2x2 design depicting job type (engineer/human resources), ethnicity (Asian or African American), and gender, with the same qualifications and performance information. African-American males were rated most negatively on work characteristics;…

  12. Star Clusters in the Magellanic Clouds-1: Parameterisation and Classification of 1072 Clusters in the LMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, P. K.; Subramaniam, A.; Choudhury, S.; Indu, G.; Sagar, Ram

    2016-08-01

    We have introduced a semi-automated quantitative method to estimate the age and reddening of 1072 star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) III survey data. This study brings out 308 newly parameterised clusters. In a first of its kind, the LMC clusters are classified into groups based on richness/mass as very poor, poor, moderate and rich clusters, similar to the classification scheme of open clusters in the Galaxy. A major cluster formation episode is found to happen at 125±25 Myr in the inner LMC. The bar region of the LMC appears prominently in the age range 60 - 250 Myr and is found to have a relatively higher concentration of poor and moderate clusters. The eastern and the western ends of the bar are found to form clusters initially, which later propagates to the central part. We demonstrate that there is a significant difference in the distribution of clusters as a function of mass, using a movie based on the propagation (in space and time) of cluster formation in various groups. The importance of including the low mass clusters in the cluster formation history is demonstrated. The catalog with parameters, classification, and cleaned and isochrone fitted CMDs of 1072 clusters, which are available as online material, can be further used to understand the hierarchical formation of clusters in selected regions of the LMC.

  13. The UCLA Asian Pacific American Voter Registration Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nakanishi, Don T.

    1986-01-01

    Asian Pacific American political involvement is not a new phenomenon, but it has clearly become a significant focus of attention for the Asian Pacific American population. Perhaps at no other period in Asian Pacific American history have so many individuals and organizations of different issue orientations participated in a wide array of political activities, especially in relation to American electoral politics, but also in the affairs of the Pacific Rim. At the same time, what has come to b...

  14. Black Americans Facing Racial Obstacles (1890-1980)

    OpenAIRE

    Belhadji, Chakib

    2015-01-01

    During a long period in history, the black Americans were not considered as American citizens, they suffered from bad treatments under slavery, the different kinds of racism and discrimination. In spite of these problems, they could challenge them and prove themselves over the society as American citizens. The first problem that faced the black Americans was slavery since their arrival to America from Africa across the Atlantic in slave ships in which many died. They were fo...

  15. Regional Innovation Clusters: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Junbo Yu; Randall W. Jackson

    2010-01-01

    This paper begins by investigating the Obama administration’s rationale of promoting regional innovation clusters (RICs) in the context of increasing public concerns on the Strategy for American Innovation. Next, the connections between RICs and existing research and policies in clusters, innovation and regional economic development are identified and analyzed to highlight those most critical challenges in conceptualizing and theorizing RICs. While we applaud the long overdue focus of economi...

  16. Cluster Table - KAIKOcDNA | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us ...dentical cDNA sequences that make up cluster. Data file File name: kaiko_cdna_cluster.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archiv...scription Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Cluster Table - KAIKOcDNA | LSDB Archive ...

  17. Uncovering History for Future History Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Fritz

    2010-01-01

    The art of history teaching is at a crossroads. Recent scholarship focuses on the need to change the teaching of history so students can better learn history, and insists that history teachers must move beyond traditional structures and methods of teaching in order to improve their students' abilities to think with history. This article presents…

  18. Ildens historier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Henrik Roesgaard

    In December 2012 a manuscript entitled "Tællelyset" ['The Tallow Candle'] was discovered in an archive. The story was subsequently presented to the world as Hans Christian Andersen's first fairy tale and rather bombastically celebrated as such. In this book it is demonstrated that the text cannot...... have been written by Andersen. In several chapters the curiously forgotten history of fire-lighting technology is outlined, and it is demonstrated that "Tællelyset" is written by a person with a modern perspective on how to light a candle - among other things. The central argument in the book springs...

  19. Fuzzy Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berks, G.; Keyserlingk, Diedrich Graf von; Jantzen, Jan;

    2000-01-01

    and clustering are the basic concerns in medicine. Classification depends on definitions of the classes and their required degree of participant of the elements in the cases' symptoms. In medicine imprecise conditions are the rule and therefore fuzzy methods are much more suitable than crisp ones...

  20. American Culture Reflected in American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华芳

    2013-01-01

    Language is a vehicle for culture. It is also a key component of culture. It not only reflects culture but also influences culture. As a variety of British English, American English, especially American words and expressions can reflect American culture from many aspects. This paper studies some typical traits of American culture reflected in words and expressions of American Eng-lish.

  1. Penal modernism: an American tragedy

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses Whitman’s analysis of penal modernism. While I am in agreement with the central claim that penal modernism has been ignored and caricatured, I argue here that Whitman’s account of the penal modernist theory of judging must be understood in the context of a wider reframing of the social functions of the criminal law in penal modernism. This is explored by considering the unusual connection that the novel An American Tragedy (1925) has to the history of American criminal la...

  2. Quotients of cluster categories

    OpenAIRE

    Jorgensen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Higher cluster categories were recently introduced as a generalization of cluster categories. This paper shows that in Dynkin types A and D, half of all higher cluster categories are actually just quotients of cluster categories. The other half can be obtained as quotients of 2-cluster categories, the "lowest" type of higher cluster categories. Hence, in Dynkin types A and D, all higher cluster phenomena are implicit in cluster categories and 2-cluster categories. In contrast, the same is not...

  3. Fluff and Feathers: Treatment of American Indians in the Literature and the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pewewardy, Cornel

    1998-01-01

    Addresses common issues in teaching about American-Indian culture, history, and values, and discusses errors made by teachers of American-Indian students or when teaching other students about American Indians. Teachers' lack of knowledge about American-Indian culture and students and about their students' preferred learning styles is the greatest…

  4. Regional Innovation Clusters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — The Regional Innovation Clusters serve a diverse group of sectors and geographies. Three of the initial pilot clusters, termed Advanced Defense Technology clusters,...

  5. A Short History of the Bulletin of the History of Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas R. Givens

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available As my tenure as Editor of the Bulletin ofthe History of Archaeology (BHA draws to a close (31 December 2002,I think it useful to the readership that I provide a very brief history of the BRA covering its inception, early years, and my aspirations for its future. The BHA was just a passing idea in my mind in 1990 when I organized an Advanced Seminar held at the School of American Search (SAR in Santa Fe,New Mexico (14-18 July 1990, concerning the then current state of writing the history of archaeology for the Society for American Archaeology's Committee on theHistory.of Archaeology. To a great degree the SAR advanced seminar grew out of a seminal gathering (Visitor Scholar's Conference that Andrew Christenson had put together in 1987 at Southern Ilinois University at Carbondaie,Dlinois - a gathering of those working in the history of archaeology.

  6. American Houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦华

    2004-01-01

    American houses usually have private kitchens,a living room and sometimes separate areas for eating and watching television,A house usually has its own mailbox,a yard with plants or perhaps a lawn,and a place to store garbage out of sight.

  7. The Confucian Asian cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Sergiu Pirju

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Confucian Asian cluster consists of China, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan. Confucian tradition countries were defined by achieving a consistent performance in the global economy, they still representing the major competitors in the EU and North American countries. Their progress is defined by a great national management that was able to influence beneficial management systems applied in organizations, these rules characterized by authority; aims to ensure the confidence in business. This article will present the intercultural values characterizing it, the leadership style and also tracing major macroeconomic considerations. The research is synchronic, analysing the contemporary situation of these countries, and the analysis will be interdisciplinary exploratory, identifying specific regional cultural elements.

  8. American Headache Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us American Migraine Foundation Login THE AMERICAN Headache Society is a professional society of health care providers dedicated to the study ... MIGRAINE MOMENT” FILM CONTEST WINNERS The American Headache Society and American Migraine Foundation, the AHS’s charitable division, ...

  9. Cancer and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  10. American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language American Sign Language On this page: What is American Sign Language? ... signs "I love you." What is American Sign Language? American Sign Language (ASL) is a complete, complex ...

  11. History Textbooks for Poor Readers--At What Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Allen

    1980-01-01

    Analyzes seven junior high school American history textbooks for slow readers. Results indicate weaknesses in historical explanations, causal-effect relationships, background, and synthesizing historical information, specifically when depicting the Civil War and the Great Depression. (Author/KC)

  12. Review of Wonderful Things: A History of Egyptology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Sheppard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Review of Wonderful Things: A History of Egyptology, Volume 1: From Antiquity to 1881, by Jason Thompson, Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 352 pages, $39.95, 2015, ISBN: 9789774165993

  13. The Runaway Child in America: A Social History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libertoff, Ken

    1980-01-01

    Runaways have existed throughout American history. It is imperative to develop a context and perspective to understand running away and to formulate responsive and appropriate social policies to address this problem. (Author/NRB)

  14. Clustering experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhengwei; Tan, Ken; Di, Zengru; Roehner, Bertrand M

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that bees cluster together in cold weather, in the process of swarming (when the ``old'' queen leaves with part of the colony) or absconding (when the queen leaves with all the colony) and in defense against intruders such as wasps or hornets. In this paper we describe a fairly different clustering process which occurs at any temperature and independently of any special stimulus or circumstance. As a matter of fact, this process is about four times faster at 28 degree Celsius than at 15 degrees. Because of its simplicity and low level of ``noise'' we think that this phenomenon can provide a means for exploring the strength of inter-individual attraction between bees or other living organisms. For instance, and at first sight fairly surprisingly, our observations showed that this attraction does also exist between bees belonging to different colonies. As this study is aimed at providing a comparative perspective, we also describe a similar clustering experiment for red fire ants.

  15. Vetas y vertientes de la historia ambiental latinoamericana: una nota metodológica y epistemológica Rich seams and perspectives in latin american environmental history: an epistemological and metodological view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Leff

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute a necessidade da realização de um corte epistemológico que estabeleça o campo próprio de uma história ambiental, incluindo um repertório de métodos para a abordagem de diferentes processos, como as racionalidades econômicas, ecológicas e culturais do uso da natureza, assim como o regate de saberes e práticas tradicionais das diferentes culturas com seu entorno ecológico. São abordadas três vertentes para o estudo da história ambiental: a história epistemol ógica da complexidade ambiental, a hermenêutica das narrativas sobre as relações sociedade-natureza, a construção de identidades e as transformações sociais induzidas pelo movimento ambientalista.This article discusses the need to make an epistemological separation that establishes the very field of an environmental history, including a collection of methods for the approach to different processes, such as economic, ecological, and cultural rationalities of the usage of nature, as well as the rescue of traditional knowledge and practices from different cultures about their ecological surroundings. Three issues are discussed in the study of environmental history: the epistemological history of environmental complexity, the hermeneutics of narratives on society- nature relationship, the construction of identities, and the social transformations induced by the environmental movement.

  16. Factor PD-Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Gettler Summa, Mireille; Palumbo, Francesco; Tortora, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Factorial clustering methods have been developed in recent years thanks to the improving of computational power. These methods perform a linear transformation of data and a clustering on transformed data optimizing a common criterion. Factorial PD-clustering is based on Probabilistic Distance clustering (PD-clustering). PD-clustering is an iterative, distribution free, probabilistic, clustering method. Factor PD-clustering make a linear transformation of original variables into a reduced numb...

  17. Sequential oxygen atom chemisorption on surfaces of small iron Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report photoelectron spectra of iron oxide clusters, FexOy- (x=1 endash 4, y=1 endash 6). For a given x, we find that the electron affinity increases with the number of O atoms, consistent with an increasing degree of oxidation. The results are interpreted based on charge transfer interactions between the Fex clusters and the O atoms, and provide key information about the oxide cluster structures, in which each O atom is suggested to locate on the surface of the clusters for the x=3 and 4 series. These clusters provide novel model systems to understand the electronic structure of bulk iron oxides. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  18. A History of Education in Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Music has pervaded American history since the founding fathers sang hymns aboard the Mayflower. From that time until the present, music has been so embedded in U.S. society that it is experienced subconsciously in events and activities that are a part of daily life. Learning and instruction take place in the home, in churches, in the community,…

  19. Influential Factors in American Abortion Issue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴培

    2015-01-01

    The landmark case Roe v.Wade remains one of the most controversial and essential ones in American history.The divergent opinions on abortion also play a crucial part in American political arena.What factors are influencing the dispute about abortion? This essay will thoroughly discuss the factors: the value of freedom and pro-choice and the consideration on women’s self-development; Contrarily,the firm religious faith and the concerns for women’s healt

  20. Influential Factors in American Abortion Issue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The landmark case Roe v.Wade remains one of the most controversial and essential ones in American history. The divergent opinions on abortion also play a crucial part in American political arena.What factors are influencing the dispute about abortion? This essay will thoroughly discuss the factors:the value of freedom and pro-choice and the consideration on women’s self-development; Contrarily,the firm religious faith and the concerns for women’s health.

  1. Cluster automorphisms and compatibility of cluster variables

    OpenAIRE

    Assem, Ibrahim; Schiffler, Ralf; Shramchenko, Vasilisa

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a notion of unistructural cluster algebras, for which the set of cluster variables uniquely determines the clusters. We prove that cluster algebras of Dynkin type and cluster algebras of rank 2 are unistructural, then prove that if $\\mathcal{A}$ is unistructural or of Euclidean type, then $f: \\mathcal{A}\\to \\mathcal{A}$ is a cluster automorphism if and only if $f$ is an automorphism of the ambient field which restricts to a permutation of the cluster variables. In ...

  2. Globular Cluster Formation in the Virgo Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Moran, C Corbett; Lake, G

    2014-01-01

    Metal poor globular clusters (MPGCs) are a unique probe of the early universe, in particular the reionization era. Systems of globular clusters in galaxy clusters are particularly interesting as it is in the progenitors of galaxy clusters that the earliest reionizing sources first formed. Although the exact physical origin of globular clusters is still debated, it is generally admitted that globular clusters form in early, rare dark matter peaks (Moore et al. 2006; Boley et al. 2009). We provide a fully numerical analysis of the Virgo cluster globular cluster system by identifying the present day globular cluster system with exactly such early, rare dark matter peaks. A popular hypothesis is that that the observed truncation of blue metal poor globular cluster formation is due to reionization (Spitler et al. 2012; Boley et al. 2009; Brodie & Strader 2006); adopting this view, constraining the formation epoch of MPGCs provides a complementary constraint on the epoch of reionization. By analyzing both the l...

  3. Local Clustering in Provenance Graphs (Extended Version)

    OpenAIRE

    MACKO Peter; Margo, Daniel Wyatt; Seltzer, Margo I.

    2013-01-01

    Systems that capture and store data provenance, the record of how an object has arrived at its current state, accumulate historical metadata over time, forming a large graph. Local clustering in these graphs, in which we start with a seed vertex and grow a cluster around it, is of paramount importance because it supports critical provenance applications such as identifying semantically meaningful tasks in an object’s history and selecting appropriate truncation points for returning an object’...

  4. Cluster headache associated with acute maxillary sinusitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Edvardsson, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    Background Cluster headache is a primary headache by definition not caused by any known underlying structural pathology. However, symptomatic cases have been described, for example tumours, particularly pituitary adenomas, malformations, and infections/inflammations. The evaluation of cluster headache is an issue unresolved. Case description I present a case of a 24-year-old patient who presented with a 4-week history of side-locked attacks of pain located in the left orbit. He satisfied the ...

  5. Perceived parental security profiles in African American adolescents involved in the juvenile justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, James R; Ramirez, Aaron M; Barnes, Michael E; Odom, Terri; Roberson-Adams, Shelia; Woodland, Malcolm H

    2015-12-01

    Many researchers have shown the importance of parent attachment in childhood and adolescence. The present study extends the attachment literature to African Americans involved in the juvenile justice system (N = 213), and provides an initial inquiry using person-oriented methods. The average age was 16.17 years (SD = 1.44), and the sample was predominantly male (71%). Results of a confirmatory factor analysis of Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment-Short Form (IPPA-S) scores supported a 3-factor model: (a) Communication, (b) Trust, and (c) Alienation. Model-based clustering was applied to IPPA-S scores, and results pointed to 4 perceived parental security profiles: high security, moderately high security, moderately low security, and low security. In keeping with our hypotheses, IPPA-S profiles were associated with prosocial behaviors, depression, anxiety, and oppositional defiance. Contrary to hypotheses, IPPA-S profiles were not associated with perspective taking, emotional concern, or behaviors characteristic of a conduct disorder. Results also showed that gender, age, family member with whom the participant resides, charge severity, and offense history did not have an effect on IPPA-S clustering. Implications for therapeutic jurisprudence in African Americans involved with the juvenile justice system are provided. PMID:26376427

  6. Cluster algorithms and computational complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuenan

    Cluster algorithms for the 2D Ising model with a staggered field have been studied and a new cluster algorithm for path sampling has been worked out. The complexity properties of Bak-Seppen model and the Growing network model have been studied by using the Computational Complexity Theory. The dynamic critical behavior of the two-replica cluster algorithm is studied. Several versions of the algorithm are applied to the two-dimensional, square lattice Ising model with a staggered field. The dynamic exponent for the full algorithm is found to be less than 0.5. It is found that odd translations of one replica with respect to the other together with global flips are essential for obtaining a small value of the dynamic exponent. The path sampling problem for the 1D Ising model is studied using both a local algorithm and a novel cluster algorithm. The local algorithm is extremely inefficient at low temperature, where the integrated autocorrelation time is found to be proportional to the fourth power of correlation length. The dynamic exponent of the cluster algorithm is found to be zero and therefore proved to be much more efficient than the local algorithm. The parallel computational complexity of the Bak-Sneppen evolution model is studied. It is shown that Bak-Sneppen histories can be generated by a massively parallel computer in a time that is polylog in the length of the history, which means that the logical depth of producing a Bak-Sneppen history is exponentially less than the length of the history. The parallel dynamics for generating Bak-Sneppen histories is contrasted to standard Bak-Sneppen dynamics. The parallel computational complexity of the Growing Network model is studied. The growth of the network with linear kernels is shown to be not complex and an algorithm with polylog parallel running time is found. The growth of the network with gamma ≥ 2 super-linear kernels can be realized by a randomized parallel algorithm with polylog expected running time.

  7. Adaptive Evolutionary Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Kevin S.; Kliger, Mark; Hero III, Alfred O.

    2011-01-01

    In many practical applications of clustering, the objects to be clustered evolve over time, and a clustering result is desired at each time step. In such applications, evolutionary clustering typically outperforms traditional static clustering by producing clustering results that reflect long-term trends while being robust to short-term variations. Several evolutionary clustering algorithms have recently been proposed, often by adding a temporal smoothness penalty to the cost function of a st...

  8. Relational visual cluster validity

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Y.; Harrison, R F

    2007-01-01

    The assessment of cluster validity plays a very important role in cluster analysis. Most commonly used cluster validity methods are based on statistical hypothesis testing or finding the best clustering scheme by computing a number of different cluster validity indices. A number of visual methods of cluster validity have been produced to display directly the validity of clusters by mapping data into two- or three-dimensional space. However, these methods may lose too much information to corre...

  9. The Development of American English Vocabulary and Its Causes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高万全

    2004-01-01

    This paper mainly centers on the development of American English vocabulary and its causes .To English learners, it will be helpful for them to get to know clearly the outline of American English vocabulary and find answers to many puzzling phenomena, such as why the American English vocabulary is so numerous and jumbled; why there are so many foreign words; why the synonyms are so plentiful and why the spellings of American English are so disorderly, etc. Meanwhile, through vocabulary study, English learners can know well American history, politics, economy, culture, social problem, science and technology and so on.

  10. He Shunguo, The Evolution of Civilizations: A History of the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    This book is written by a famous scholar and senior professor who graduated inDepartment of History at Peking University and chose world history as his field duringhis early years. Forty years later, the author was remembered as "a true gifted student"by one of his teachers in a public address. After graduation, the author was assignedto teach American history at Peking University. In his teaching career, he first broughtthe studies on American history into considerations of capitalism, then put Americanhistory and the history of capitalism under the exploration of world history.

  11. Corporal Punishment in American Schools: A Review of the Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Fritz

    1985-01-01

    Outlines the history of corporal punishment in American schools and the development of the debate on its application in the schools. Reviews court decisions since the 1970s that affect the controversy. Includes a list of references. (MD)

  12. Teaching the History of Christianity: Critical Themes and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Patricia O'Connell; Duntley, Madeline; Furey, Constance; Gilpin, W. Clark; Six-Means, Horace E.

    2009-01-01

    At the November 2008 meeting of the American Academy of Religion, the History of Christianity section sponsored a panel around the question: "What are the key challenges, opportunities, and goals in the History of Christianity classroom today and how best should teachers respond to them?" Beginning with brief sketches of institutional context and…

  13. Collaborative Research of Open Star Clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alisher S. Hojaev

    2005-06-01

    Preliminary results on observations of open clusters are presented. The project has been initiated in the framework of the Uzbek–Taiwan and Taiwan–Baltic collaboration, mainly to upgrade and make use of facilities at Maidanak Observatory. We present detailed, multiwavelength studies of the young cluster NGC 6823 and the associated complex nebulosity, to diagnose the young stellar population and star formation history in the region. In addition, 7 compact open clusters have been monitored for stellar variability. We show how observations like these could feasibly be used to look for exoplanet transit events. We also expect to join the Whole-Earth Telescope effort in future campaigns for asteroseismology.

  14. Galaxy Evolution in Clusters Since z ~ 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-Salamanca, A.

    Galaxy clusters provide some of the most extreme environments in which galaxies evolve, making them excellent laboratories to study the age old question of "nature" vs. "nurture" in galaxy evolution. Here I review some of the key observational results obtained during the last decade on the evolution of the morphology, structure, dynamics, star-formation history and stellar populations of cluster galaxies since the time when the Universe was half its present age. Many of the results presented here have been obtained within the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS) and Space Telescope A901/02 Galaxy Evolution Survey (STAGES) collaborations.

  15. Health, height, and history: an overview of recent developments in anthropometric history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, B

    1994-08-01

    This paper examines some of the major developments in the field of anthropometric history since the end of the 1970s. The first two sections of the paper consider the conceptual basis of anthropometric history and the relationship between height and the standard of living. Sections 3-7 discuss the contributions made by anthropometric historians to our understanding of the social and economic history of the United States, the history of American slavery, the social history of the United Kingdom, the origins of Habsburg industrialization, and the standard of living in nineteenth-century Sweden. The concluding section summarizes the impact of anthropometric history and identifies a number of areas for further research. PMID:11639331

  16. Comparative genomics of vertebrate Fox cluster loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimeld Sebastian M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebrate genomes contain numerous duplicate genes, many of which are organised into paralagous regions indicating duplication of linked groups of genes. Comparison of genomic organisation in different lineages can often allow the evolutionary history of such regions to be traced. A classic example of this is the Hox genes, where the presence of a single continuous Hox cluster in amphioxus and four vertebrate clusters has allowed the genomic evolution of this region to be established. Fox transcription factors of the C, F, L1 and Q1 classes are also organised in clusters in both amphioxus and humans. However in contrast to the Hox genes, only two clusters of paralogous Fox genes have so far been identified in the Human genome and the organisation in other vertebrates is unknown. Results To uncover the evolutionary history of the Fox clusters, we report on the comparative genomics of these loci. We demonstrate two further paralogous regions in the Human genome, and identify orthologous regions in mammalian, chicken, frog and teleost genomes, timing the duplications to before the separation of the actinopterygian and sarcopterygian lineages. An additional Fox class, FoxS, was also found to reside in this duplicated genomic region. Conclusion Comparison of loci identifies the pattern of gene duplication, loss and cluster break up through multiple lineages, and suggests FoxS1 is a likely remnant of Fox cluster duplication.

  17. When efficient star formation drives cluster formation

    CERN Document Server

    Parmentier, G

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the impact of the star formation efficiency in cluster forming cores on the evolution of the mass in star clusters over the age range 1-100Myr, when star clusters undergo their infant weight-loss/mortality phase. Assuming a constant formation rate of gas-embedded clusters and a weak tidal field, we show that the ratio between the total mass in stars bound to the clusters over that age range and the total mass in stars initially formed in gas-embedded clusters is a strongly increasing function of the averaged local SFE, with little influence from any assumed core mass-radius relation. Our results suggest that, for young starbursts with estimated tidal field strength and known recent star formation history, observed cluster-to-star mass ratios, once corrected for the undetected clusters, constitute promising probes of the local SFE, without the need of resorting to gas mass estimates. Similarly, the mass ratio of stars which remain in bound clusters at the end of the infant mortality/weight-loss ...

  18. Social History and Historical Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Knöbl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with exchanges and misunderstandings between the German school of social history (most prominently represented by scholars from the University of Bielefeld (such as Hans-Ulrich Wehler and Anglo-American trends in historical sociology (exemplified by the works of Barrington Moore, Theda Skocpol and Michael Mann. The social historians tended to dismiss historical sociology as too dependent on modernization theory, without taking into account the critique of that tradition by authors who brought processes of state formation and revolutionary change into the debate. On the other side, mainstream historical sociology worked with assumptions that limited its ability to change the terms and directions of sociological discourse, and to assimilate lessons from history. Among these inbuilt biases, organizational realism and materialism - particularly pronounced in the work of Michael Mann - stand out as particularly important. The paper closes with arguments in favour of bringing more history into historical sociology, with particular emphasis on three sets of problems. There is a need for more historical approaches to differentiation, less dependent on functionalist premises than the hitherto prevalent paradigm. A more explicit thematization of temporality in history and society would, among other things, help to clarify issues linked to the notion of path dependency. Finally, a reconsideration of the models and types of explanation in historical sociology would place more emphasis on their interpretive dimension.

  19. The Mexican American/Chicano Experience...A Special Report. Project R.E.A.C.H. Ethnic Perspectives Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Gary; Neal, Colleen

    Events in American history are looked at through the eyes of Mexican Americans. Chapter 1 covers the American Indian (primarily Aztec) and Spanish background of the Mexican people, and the problems between the white settlers and liberal Mexicans living in Texas that eventually gave rise to the Mexican American War of 1846. Chapter 2 discusses the…

  20. A Tribute to Thomas P. Carter (1927-2001): Activist Scholar and Pioneer in Mexican American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Richard R.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a testimony to the late Dr. Thomas P. Carter. Well known for his classic (1970) book, Mexican Americans in School: A History of Educational Neglect, Carter was an activist scholar and pioneer in Mexican American education. His considerable interactions with South Americans, Mexicans, and Mexican Americans served as a…

  1. Promoting Reading among Mexican American Children. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Yvonne I.; Velazquez, Jose

    Good books can help children develop pride in their ethnic identity, knowledge about cultural history and positive role models, and improved self-esteem. However, Mexican American students often do not experience literature in this way. This digest briefly reviews Mexican American children's literature, recommends classroom strategies, provides…

  2. Is the "American Dream" of Homeownership an Equal Opportunity Goal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viator, Martha Graham; Halper, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Teaching empathy can be a means to teach multiple perspectives in the social studies classroom. Examining U.S. history through the lens of the pursuit of the "American Dream" will resonate with many high school students. This article suggests a framework using the theme of the "American Dream" of homeownership for a high school…

  3. Reorienting the English Classroom: Asian American Writers in the Canon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Simon S.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that numerous works written by Asian-American authors merit consideration on reading lists. Discusses several of these books, noting how they can be used in class in units on Identity, History, and Stereotypes. Argues that English classrooms have ignored the existence and the contributions of Asian-Americans to the United States for far too…

  4. 75 FR 25099 - Jewish American Heritage Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... America the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-11013 Filed 5-6-10; 8:45 am...;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8513 of April 30, 2010 Jewish American Heritage.... During Jewish American Heritage Month we celebrate this proud history and honor the...

  5. With the Ears of Strangers; The Mexican in American Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Cecil

    A review of American literature dealing with Mexican development and involvement in American history includes major writings which reflect the effects of the Spanish conquests and the resultant guilt feelings and attitudes engendered by destruction of highly civilized Aztec cultures. Emphasis is also placed on literature describing the feelings of…

  6. Perceived Racism and Encouragement among African American Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowles, Joanna; Duan, Changming

    2012-01-01

    Racial discrimination has negatively affected African Americans in the United States for centuries and produced one of the most publicly recognized histories of social oppression. Extensive research has shown the deleterious effects of racism on African American people and clearly demonstrated that perceived racism and discrimination may…

  7. Observations of metals in the intra-cluster medium

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, N.; Durret, F.; Ohashi, T.; Schindler, S.; Wiersma, R. P. C.

    2008-01-01

    Because of their deep gravitational potential wells, clusters of galaxies retain all the metals produced by the stellar populations of the member galaxies. Most of these metals reside in the hot plasma which dominates the baryon content of clusters. This makes them excellent laboratories for the study of the nucleosynthesis and chemical enrichment history of the Universe. Here we review the history, current possibilities and limitations of the abundance studies, and the present observational ...

  8. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  9. Cluster Evaluation of Density Based Subspace Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Sembiring, Rahmat Widia; Zain, Jasni Mohamad

    2010-01-01

    Clustering real world data often faced with curse of dimensionality, where real world data often consist of many dimensions. Multidimensional data clustering evaluation can be done through a density-based approach. Density approaches based on the paradigm introduced by DBSCAN clustering. In this approach, density of each object neighbours with MinPoints will be calculated. Cluster change will occur in accordance with changes in density of each object neighbours. The neighbours of each object ...

  10. Relation of Plasma Lipoprotein(a) to Subclinical Coronary Plaque Volumes, Three-Vessel and Left Main Coronary Disease, and Severe Coronary Stenoses in Apparently Healthy African-Americans With a Family History of Early-Onset Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Brian G; Kalyani, Rita R; Yanek, Lisa R; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Fishman, Elliot K; Becker, Diane M; Becker, Lewis C

    2016-09-01

    Serum lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factor in persons of European ancestry. Levels are twofold to threefold higher in African-Americans (AAs), but reported associations with CAD have been inconsistent. The relation of Lp(a) with the extent and severity of subclinical coronary plaque has not been described in AAs. We screened 269 apparently healthy AAs for risk factors and coronary plaque using advanced coronary computed tomographic angiography. Total coronary plaque (TCP), noncalcified coronary plaque, and calcified coronary plaque volumes (mm(3)) were quantified using a validated automated method. Lp(a) was measured by ELISA. Multivariable modeling was performed with adjustment for traditional CAD risk factors and intrafamilial correlations. Mean age was 51 ± 11 years and 64% were female. Plaque was present in 41%. Lp(a) was independently associated with TCP volume [log(TCP + 1)] (p = 0.04), 3-vessel and/or left main involvement (p = 0.04), and at least 1 stenosis >50% (p = 0.006). Best-fit regression analyses showed that subjects with Lp(a) >40 mg/dl were threefold more likely to have 3-vessel and/or left main disease (95% confidence interval 1.4 to 6.8, p = 0.005) and fourfold more likely to have stenosis >50% (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 15.0, p = 0.02). In subjects with plaque (n = 110), multivariable models showed the Lp(a) level was significantly and independently associated with TCP (p = 0.009), noncalcified coronary plaque (p = 0.01), and calcified coronary plaque (p = 0.003) and affected vessel length (p = 0.01). In conclusion, high Lp(a) is strongly associated with coronary plaque volumes, extent, and severity in apparently healthy AAs. High levels of Lp(a) may be particularly important in the pathogenesis of CAD in AAs. PMID:27530333

  11. Sparse Convex Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Binhuan; Zhang, Yilong; Sun, Wei; Fang, Yixin

    2016-01-01

    Convex clustering, a convex relaxation of k-means clustering and hierarchical clustering, has drawn recent attentions since it nicely addresses the instability issue of traditional nonconvex clustering methods. Although its computational and statistical properties have been recently studied, the performance of convex clustering has not yet been investigated in the high-dimensional clustering scenario, where the data contains a large number of features and many of them carry no information abo...

  12. Natural history of pT3-4 or node positive bladder cancer treated with radical cystectomy and no neoadjuvant chemotherapy in a contemporary North-American multi-institutional cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Nicholas E.; Kassouf, Wassim; Bell, David; Aprikian, Armen G.; Fradet, Yves; Lacombe, Louis; Chin, Joseph; Izawa, Jonathan; Estey, Eric; Fairey, Adrian; Cagiannos, Ilias; Lattouf, Jean-Baptiste; Drachenberg, Darrel; Rendon, Ricardo A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The present study documents the natural history and outcomes of high-risk bladder cancer after radical cystectomy (RC) in patients who did not receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy during a contemporary time period. Methods: We analyzed 1180 patients from 1993 to 2008 with >pT3N0 or pT0-4N+ bladder cancer who underwent RC ± standard (sLND) or extended (eLND) lymph node dissection from 8 Canadian centres. Results: Of the 1180 patients, 55% (n = 643) underwent sLND, 34% (n = 402) underwent ePLND and 11% did not undergo a formal LND. Of the total number of patients, 321 (27%) received adjuvant chemotherapy. The median follow-up was 2.1 years (range: 0.6 to 12.9). Overall 30-day mortality was 3.2%. Clinical and pathological stages T3-4 were present in 6.1% and 86.7% of the patients, respectively; this demonstrates a dramatic understaging. Overall survival (OS) at 2 and 5 years was 60% and 43%, respectively. Patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy had a 2- and 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) of 72% and 57% versus 64% and 51% for those who did not (log-rank p = 0.0039). The 2- and 5-year OS for high-risk node-negative disease was 67% and 52%, respectively, whereas for node-positive patients, the OS was 52% and 32%, respectively (p < 0.001). The OS, DSS and RFS for patients with pN0 were significantly improved compared to those who did not undergo a LND (log-rank p = 0.0035, 0.0241 and 0.0383, respectively). Interpretation: This series suggests that bladder cancer outcomes in advanced disease have improved in the modern era. The need for improved staging investigations, use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and performance of complete LND is emphasized. PMID:23283097

  13. The Advantages of Teaching American Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botsch, Robert E.; Botsch, Carol S.

    2015-01-01

    Many arguments support mandating American National Government for undergraduates. South Carolina is one of the few states with such a legal mandate, but the law is badly flawed. We briefly review the history of a failed 1994 effort by the SC Political Science Association to improve the law and encourage implementation. We examine the impact of an…

  14. Economics at the American Chemistry Council

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Kevin Swift

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the role of the economics team at the American Chemistry Council, a major trade association representing the leading companies in the business of chemistry. The history of the team, its organization, its role in providing good statistics, monitoring and forecasting business conditions, conducting policy analysis, and thoughts on managing professionals are presented.

  15. Foreign assistance: What's in it for Americans?

    OpenAIRE

    Business Alliance for International Economic Development

    1996-01-01

    In Foreign Assistance: Whats In It For Americans? The Business Alliance for International Economic Development documents how America's foreign assistance program is an engine for U.S. economic growth. This report also warns of the consequences of continuing cuts in foreign aid, already at its lowest real level in history.

  16. Finite mixture models and model-based clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Melnykov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite mixture models have a long history in statistics, having been used to model population heterogeneity, generalize distributional assumptions, and lately, for providing a convenient yet formal framework for clustering and classification. This paper provides a detailed review into mixture models and model-based clustering. Recent trends as well as open problems in the area are also discussed.

  17. Young star clusters: Clues to galaxy formation and evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Anders, P.; Alvensleben, U. Fritze--v.; de Grijs, R.

    2003-01-01

    Young clusters are observed to form in a variety of interacting galaxies and violent starbursts, a substantial number resembling the progenitors of the well-studied globular clusters in mass and size. By studying young clusters in merger remnants and peculiar galaxies, we can therefore learn about the violent star formation history of these galaxies. We present a new set of evolutionary synthesis models of our GALEV code specifically developed to include the gaseous emission of presently form...

  18. CAGE: Combinatorial Analysis of Gene-Cluster Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Giltae; Zhang, Louxin; Vinar, Tomas; Miller, Webb

    2010-01-01

    Much important evolutionary activity occurs in gene clusters, where a copy of a gene may be free to acquire new functions. Current computational methods to extract evolutionary information from sequence data for such clusters are suboptimal, in part because accurate sequence data are often lacking in these genomic regions, making existing methods difficult to apply. We describe a new method for reconstructing the recent evolutionary history of gene clusters, and evaluate its performance on bo...

  19. Adulteration and cultivation region identification of American ginseng using HPLC coupled with multivariate analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Chunhao; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Zhou, Chun-Jie; Wang, Bin; Han, Lide; Zhang, Chun-Feng; Wu, Xiao-hui; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2014-01-01

    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is originally grown in North America. Due to price difference and supply shortage, American ginseng recently has been cultivated in northern China. Further, in the market, some Asian ginsengs are labeled as American ginseng. In this study, forty-three American ginseng samples cultivated in the USA, Canada or China were collected and 14 ginseng saponins were determined using HPLC. HPLC coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component ana...

  20. Cluster categories and cluster-tilted algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Torkildsen, Hermund Andre

    2006-01-01

    We have given an introduction to the theory of cluster categories and cluster-tilted algebras, and this was one of our main objectives in this thesis. We have seen that cluster-tilted algebras are relation-extension algebras, and this gave us a way of constructing the quiver of a cluster-tilted algebra from a tilted algebra. A cluster-tilted algebra of finite representation type is determined by its quiver, and this raised questions about the generality of this result. We defined a new class...

  1. American eugenics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Polsek

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a troubled history of eugenics in the US, from its beginnings at the end of the 19th century, through the whole of the 20th. It is a part of a larger historical study on eugenics. It focuses on Davenport, Laughlin, Estabrook and the Eugenic Record Office, on the early racist eugenicists like Grant and Ross, and on sterilization legislation in the twenties and thirties. The intention however was to put the historical debate into a contemporary context, or at least to show that some eugenic ideas have lived long after everybody thought they were dead. There are some hints and quotations that show it might still be possible to misuse sterilisation in the US today.

  2. History of Hanford Site Defense Production (Brief)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper acquaints the audience with the history of the Hanford Site, America's first full-scale defense plutonium production site. The paper includes the founding and basic operating history of the Hanford Site, including World War II construction and operations, three major postwar expansions (1947-55), the peak years of production (1956-63), production phase downs (1964-the present), a brief production spurt from 1984-86, the end of the Cold War, and the beginning of the waste cleanup mission. The paper also delineates historical waste practices and policies as they changed over the years at the Hanford Site, past efforts to chemically treat, ''fractionate,'' and/or immobilize Hanford's wastes, and resulting major waste legacies that remain today. This paper presents original, primary-source research into the waste history of the Hanford Site. Finally, the paper places the current Hanford Site waste remediation endeavors in the broad context of American and world history

  3. Star clusters as simple stellar populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzual A, Gustavo

    2010-02-28

    In this paper, I review to what extent we can understand the photometric properties of star clusters, and of low-mass, unresolved galaxies, in terms of population-synthesis models designed to describe 'simple stellar populations' (SSPs), i.e. groups of stars born at the same time, in the same volume of space and from a gas cloud of homogeneous chemical composition. The photometric properties predicted by these models do not readily match the observations of most star clusters, unless we properly take into account the expected variation in the number of stars occupying sparsely populated evolutionary stages, owing to stochastic fluctuations in the stellar initial mass function. In this case, population-synthesis models reproduce remarkably well the full ranges of observed integrated colours and absolute magnitudes of star clusters of various ages and metallicities. The disagreement between the model predictions and observations of cluster colours and magnitudes may indicate problems with or deficiencies in the modelling, and does not necessarily tell us that star clusters do not behave like SSPs. Matching the photometric properties of star clusters using SSP models is a necessary (but not sufficient) condition for clusters to be considered SSPs. Composite models, characterized by complex star-formation histories, also match the observed cluster colours. PMID:20083506

  4. Self-Knowledge and Identity in a Mexican American Counseling Course: A Qualitative Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamarripa, Manuel X.; Lane, Ileana; Lerma, Eunice; Holin, Lyle, II

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the lived experiences of Mexican American graduate students who completed a course on Mexican American counseling and mental health. The experiences of Mexican American students taking a mental health course that focuses on their own ethnic group has not been previously discussed in the literature. Given the history of…

  5. Mexican and Mexican-American Literature for the Junior High School. Short Story, Novel, Biography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Jose Unified School District, CA.

    Mexican and Mexican American literature for use with existing literature programs is presented in this curriculum guide for junior high school instruction. Purposes of the guide are to improve instruction for both Mexican American students and those of other ethnic backgrounds and to emphasize that American history and literature should be…

  6. The Broken of the American Dream—looking through The Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑾; 李妍

    2016-01-01

    F. Scott Fitzgerald is one of the greatest American writers of the 1920s. his masterpiece The Great Gatsby just holds up a mirror to the social conviction and meditation on American history. In this novel, we could see Gatsby's disillusionment and the end of the American dream.

  7. Revisiting the population of Galactic open clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskunov, A. E.; Kharchenko, N. V.; Röser, S.; Schilbach, E.; Scholz, R.-D.

    2006-01-01

    We present results of a study of the galactic open cluster population based on the all-sky catalogue ASCC-2.5 (I/280A) compiled from Tycho-2, Hipparcos and other catalogues. The sample of optical clusters from ASCC-2.5 is complete up to about 850 pc from the Sun. The symmetry plane of the clusters' distribution is determined to be at Z_0=-22±4 pc, and the scale height of open clusters is only 56±3 pc. The total surface density and volume density in the symmetry plane are Σ= 114 kpc-2 and D(Z_0)=1015 kpc-3, respectively. We find the total number of open clusters in the Galactic disk to be of order of 105 at present. Fluctuations in the spatial and velocity distributions are attributed to the existence of four open cluster complexes (OCCs) of different ages containing up to a few tens of clusters. Members in an OCC show the same kinematic behaviour, and a narrow age spread. We find, that the youngest cluster complex, OCC 1 (log tclusters of the Perseus-Auriga group, having the same age as OCC 2, but different kinematics are seen in breaks between Perseus-Auriga clouds. The oldest (log t≈8.85) and sparsest group was identified due to a large motion in the Galactic anticentre direction. Formation rate and lifetime of open clusters are found to be 0.23±0.03 kpc-2 Myr-1 and 322±31 Myr, respectively. This implies a total number of cluster generations in the history of the Galaxy between 30 to 40. We estimate that less than about 10% of the total Galactic stellar disk population has ever passed an open cluster membership.

  8. Learning predictive clustering rules

    OpenAIRE

    Ženko, Bernard; Džeroski, Sašo; Struyf, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The two most commonly addressed data mining tasks are predictive modelling and clustering. Here we address the task of predictive clustering, which contains elements of both and generalizes them to some extent. We propose a novel approach to predictive clustering called predictive clustering rules, present an initial implementation and its preliminary experimental evaluation.

  9. Clustering of correlated networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dorogovtsev, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    We obtain the clustering coefficient, the degree-dependent local clustering, and the mean clustering of networks with arbitrary correlations between the degrees of the nearest-neighbor vertices. The resulting formulas allow one to determine the nature of the clustering of a network.

  10. Structures of Mn clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tina M Briere; Marcel H F Sluiter; Vijay Kumar; Yoshiyuki Kawazoe

    2003-01-01

    The geometries of several Mn clusters in the size range Mn13–Mn23 are studied via the generalized gradient approximation to density functional theory. For the 13- and 19-atom clusters, the icosahedral structures are found to be most stable, while for the 15-atom cluster, the bcc structure is more favoured. The clusters show ferrimagnetic spin configurations.

  11. Foodservice Occupations Cluster Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    Intended to assist vocational teachers in developing and implementing a cluster program in food service occupations, this guide contains sections on cluster organization and implementation and instructional emphasis areas. The cluster organization and implementation section covers goal-based planning and includes a proposed cluster curriculum, a…

  12. International collaboration clusters in Africa

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Jonathan; Hook, Daniel; Leydesdorff, Loet

    2013-01-01

    Recent discussion about the increase in international research collaboration suggests a comprehensive global network centred around a group of core countries and driven by generic socio-economic factors where the global system influences all national and institutional outcomes. In counterpoint, we demonstrate that the collaboration pattern for countries in Africa is far from universal. Instead, it exhibits layers of internal clusters and external links that are explained not by monotypic global influences but by regional geography and, perhaps even more strongly, by history, culture and language. Analysis of these bottom-up, subjective, human factors is required in order to provide the fuller explanation useful for policy and management purposes.

  13. Relevant Subspace Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Günnemann, Stephan; Krieger, Ralph; Seidl, Thomas

    Subspace clustering aims at detecting clusters in any subspace projection of a high dimensional space. As the number of possible subspace projections is exponential in the number of dimensions, the result is often tremendously large. Recent approaches fail to reduce results to relevant subspace...... clusters. Their results are typically highly redundant, i.e. many clusters are detected multiple times in several projections. In this work, we propose a novel model for relevant subspace clustering (RESCU). We present a global optimization which detects the most interesting non-redundant subspace clusters...... achieves top clustering quality while competing approaches show greatly varying performance....

  14. Teaching History to Adolescents: A Quest for Relevance. Adolescent Cultures, School, and Society. Volume 52

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beineke, John A.

    2011-01-01

    "Teaching History to Adolescents: A Quest for Relevance" is an exploration of research, ideas, trends, and practices for educators who teach American history to adolescents from the middle grades through high school. Higher education faculty in history and professional education will also find the book germane to their work. Topics within the…

  15. Doing Local History: A Case Study of New Brunswick, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Michael P.; Crocco, Margaret Smith

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a methodology that teachers can use to incorporate themes and ideas related to local history in their classrooms. Using the city of New Brunswick, New Jersey as a case study, the article offers different approaches that allow local history to be connected to wider themes in American history. The focus here on a small,…

  16. Tilting theory and cluster algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Reiten, Idun

    2010-01-01

    We give an introduction to the theory of cluster categories and cluster tilted algebras. We include some background on the theory of cluster algebras, and discuss the interplay with cluster categories and cluster tilted algebras.

  17. Structures and dynamical properties of Cn, Sin, Gen, and Snn clusters with n up to 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulated annealings were carried out for clusters Sin, Gen, and Snn (n≤13). We investigate the temperature regions in which these clusters transform from a ''liquidlike'' phase to a ''solidlike'' phase, and then from the ''solidlike'' phase to the ground-state structures. Additional simulated annealing was also performed for the cluster C13 which is selected as a prototype of small carbon clusters. In addition to the discovery of structures for Sn and Ge clusters, our simulation results also provide insights into the dynamics of cluster formation. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  18. Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury XVI. Star Cluster Formation Efficiency and the Clustered Fraction of Young Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, L Clifton; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Beerman, Lori C; Fouesneau, Morgan; Lewis, Alexia R; Weisz, Daniel R; Williams, Benjamin F; Bell, Eric F; Dolphin, Andrew E; Larsen, Søren S; Sandstrom, Karin; Skillman, Evan D

    2016-01-01

    We use the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) survey dataset to perform spatially resolved measurements of star cluster formation efficiency ($\\Gamma$), the fraction of stellar mass formed in long-lived star clusters. We use robust star formation history and cluster parameter constraints, obtained through color-magnitude diagram analysis of resolved stellar populations, to study Andromeda's cluster and field populations over the last $\\sim$300 Myr. We measure $\\Gamma$ of 4-8% for young, 10-100 Myr old populations in M31. We find that cluster formation efficiency varies systematically across the M31 disk, consistent with variations in mid-plane pressure. These $\\Gamma$ measurements expand the range of well-studied galactic environments, providing precise constraints in an HI-dominated, low intensity star formation environment. Spatially resolved results from M31 are broadly consistent with previous trends observed on galaxy-integrated scales, where $\\Gamma$ increases with increasing star formation r...

  19. Parallel Local Graph Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Shun, Julian; Roosta-Khorasani, Farbod; Fountoulakis, Kimon; Mahoney, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Graph clustering has many important applications in computing, but due to growing sizes of graph, even traditionally fast clustering methods such as spectral partitioning can be computationally expensive for real-world graphs of interest. Motivated partly by this, so-called local algorithms for graph clustering have received significant interest due to the fact that they can find good clusters in a graph with work proportional to the size of the cluster rather than that of the entire graph. T...

  20. Clustering and classification

    CERN Document Server

    Arabie, Phipps

    1996-01-01

    At a moderately advanced level, this book seeks to cover the areas of clustering and related methods of data analysis where major advances are being made. Topics include: hierarchical clustering, variable selection and weighting, additive trees and other network models, relevance of neural network models to clustering, the role of computational complexity in cluster analysis, latent class approaches to cluster analysis, theory and method with applications of a hierarchical classes model in psychology and psychopathology, combinatorial data analysis, clusterwise aggregation of relations, review

  1. Cluster ion beam facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief state-of-the-art review in the field of cluster-surface interactions is presented. Ionised cluster beams could become a powerful and versatile tool for the modification and processing of surfaces as an alternative to ion implantation and ion assisted deposition. The main effects of cluster-surface collisions and possible applications of cluster ion beams are discussed. The outlooks of the Cluster Implantation and Deposition Apparatus (CIDA) being developed in Guteborg University are shown

  2. Graded cluster algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Grabowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In the cluster algebra literature, the notion of a graded cluster algebra has been implicit since the origin of the subject. In this work, we wish to bring this aspect of cluster algebra theory to the foreground and promote its study. We transfer a definition of Gekhtman, Shapiro and Vainshtein to the algebraic setting, yielding the notion of a multi-graded cluster algebra. We then study gradings for finite type cluster algebras without coefficients, giving a full classification. Translating ...

  3. Cluster-cluster aggregation of Ising dipolar particles under thermal noise

    KAUST Repository

    Suzuki, Masaru

    2009-08-14

    The cluster-cluster aggregation processes of Ising dipolar particles under thermal noise are investigated in the dilute condition. As the temperature increases, changes in the typical structures of clusters are observed from chainlike (D1) to crystalline (D2) through fractal structures (D1.45), where D is the fractal dimension. By calculating the bending energy of the chainlike structure, it is found that the transition temperature is associated with the energy gap between the chainlike and crystalline configurations. The aggregation dynamics changes from being dominated by attraction to diffusion involving changes in the dynamic exponent z=0.2 to 0.5. In the region of temperature where the fractal clusters grow, different growth rates are observed between charged and neutral clusters. Using the Smoluchowski equation with a twofold kernel, this hetero-aggregation process is found to result from two types of dynamics: the diffusive motion of neutral clusters and the weak attractive motion between charged clusters. The fact that changes in structures and dynamics take place at the same time suggests that transitions in the structure of clusters involve marked changes in the dynamics of the aggregation processes. © 2009 The American Physical Society.

  4. Galactic Globular Cluster Relative Ages. II

    CERN Document Server

    De Angeli, F; Cassisi, S; Busso, G; Recio-Blanco, A; Salaris, M; Aparicio, A; Rosenberg, A L

    2005-01-01

    We present accurate relative ages for a sample of 55 Galactic globular clusters. The ages have been obtained by measuring the difference between the horizontal branch and the turnoff in two, internally photometrically homogeneous databases. The mutual consistency of the two data sets has been assessed by comparing the ages of 16 globular clusters in common between the two databases. We have also investigated the consistency of our relative age determination within the recent stellar model framework. All clusters with [Fe/H]-0.8 are ~1 Gyr younger than the most metal poor ones, with a relatively small age dispersion, though the metal rich sample is still too small to allow firmer conclusions. There is no correlation of the cluster age with the Galactocentric distance. We briefly discuss the implication of these observational results for the formation history of the Galaxy.

  5. Intracluster Light in Galaxy Groups and Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMaio, Tahlia; Gonzalez, Anthony; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Zaritsky, Dennis F.

    2016-01-01

    We present recent results from our study on the origin and assembly history of the intracluster starlight (ICL) for a sample of 29 galaxy groups and clusters with 3x1013BCG). We also find ICL luminosities of 3-9 L* in the range 10 BCG.This sample of groups and clusters is the largest with HST/WFC3 data for ICL analysis that spans two orders of magnitude in halo mass at redshifts >0.3. Because of this we can investigate how the ICL color profile changes as a function of cluster mass for the first time, as well as expand previous studies of the changing fraction of cluster luminosity that is contained in the BCG+ICL as a function of halo mass. We present our preliminary results and describe our next steps using this sample to investigate the intracluster light in massive halos.

  6. Cluster magnetic fields from active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Sutter, P M; Yang, H -Y

    2009-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) found at the centers of clusters of galaxies are a possible source for weak cluster-wide magnetic fields. To evaluate this scenario, we present 3D adaptive mesh refinement MHD simulations of a cool-core cluster that include injection of kinetic, thermal, and magnetic energy via an AGN-powered jet. Using the MHD solver in FLASH 2, we compare several sub-resolution approaches that link the estimated accretion rate as measured on the simulation mesh to the accretion rate onto the central black hole and the resulting feedback. We examine the effects of magnetized outflows on the accretion history of the black hole and discuss the ability of these models to magnetize the cluster medium.

  7. THE STELLAR MASS GROWTH OF BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES IN THE IRAC SHALLOW CLUSTER SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The details of the stellar mass assembly of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) remain an unresolved problem in galaxy formation. We have developed a novel approach that allows us to construct a sample of clusters that form an evolutionary sequence, and have applied it to the Spitzer IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey (ISCS) to examine the evolution of BCGs in progenitors of present-day clusters with mass of (2.5-4.5) × 1014 M☉. We follow the cluster mass growth history extracted from a high resolution cosmological simulation, and then use an empirical method that infers the cluster mass based on the ranking of cluster luminosity to select high-z clusters of appropriate mass from ISCS to be progenitors of the given set of z = 0 clusters. We find that, between z = 1.5 and 0.5, the BCGs have grown in stellar mass by a factor of 2.3, which is well-matched by the predictions from a state-of-the-art semi-analytic model. Below z = 0.5 we see hints of differences in behavior between the model and observation.

  8. IAU Commission 37 "Star Clusters and Associations" Legacy report

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni; Elmegreen, Bruce; Anthony-Twarog, Barbara; Geisler, Douglas; Goodwin, Simon; Stetson, Peter; Minniti, Dante

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that stars do not form in isolation but result from the fragmentation of molecular clouds, which in turn leads to star cluster formation. Over time, clusters dissolve or are destroyed by interactions with molecular clouds or tidal stripping, and their members become part of the general field population. Star clusters are thus among the basic building blocks of galaxies. In turn, star cluster populations, from young associations and open clusters to old globulars, are powerful tracers of the formation, assembly, and evolutionary history of their parent galaxies. Although their importance had been recognised for decades, major progress in this area has only become possible in recent years, both for Galactic and extragalactic cluster populations. Star clusters are the observational foundation for stellar astrophysics and evolution, provide essential tracers of galactic structure, and are unique stellar dynamical environments. Star formation, stellar structure, stellar evolution, and stellar...

  9. The Global History of Reionisation

    CERN Document Server

    Greig, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Using a Bayesian framework, we quantify what current observations imply about the history of the epoch of reionisation (EoR). We use a popular, three-parameter EoR model, flexible enough to accommodate a wide range of physically-plausible reionisation histories. We study the impact of various EoR observations: (i) the optical depth to the CMB measured by Planck 2016; (ii) the dark fraction in the Lyman $\\alpha$ and $\\beta$ forests; (iii) the redshift evolution of galactic Ly$\\alpha$ emission (so-called "Ly$\\alpha$ fraction"); (iv) the clustering of Ly$\\alpha$ emitters; (v) the IGM damping wing imprint in the spectrum of QSO ULASJ1120+0641; (vi) and the patchy kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich signal. Combined, (i) and (ii) already place interesting constraints on the reionisation history, with the epochs corresponding to an average neutral fraction of (75, 50, 25) per cent, constrained at 1$\\sigma$ to $z= (9.21\\substack{+1.22 \\\\ -1.15}, 8.14\\substack{+1.08 \\\\ -1.00}, 7.26\\substack{+1.13 \\\\ -0.96})$. Folding-in more ...

  10. Toward a Scholarship of Music History Pedagogy

    OpenAIRE

    The Editors

    2010-01-01

    The Editors of the Journal cite the traditional omission of pedagogy as a valued scholarly pursuit in American musicology. They contrast this view with the growing need for music historians to understand pedagogy and the growing interest in pedagogy as seen in recent publications and workshops as the rationale for starting the Journal of Music History Pedagogy. The editorial concludes with outlining the goals of the publication and a call for submissions.

  11. History and Policy: The Case of Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce Kuklick

    2008-01-01

    The decision by Americans to go to war against Iraq has appeared to be such a colossal mistake that it has called forth many condemnations by historically minded intellectuals. Most have condemned the hubris and historical insouciance of the administration of George Bush. Few historians think that the President resembles Abraham Lincoln, guiding his country through a necessarily difficult but morally majestic period. Rather, we are told, history directs us to other policy choices and will mer...

  12. History and Policy: The Case of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Kuklick

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The decision by Americans to go to war against Iraq has appeared to be such a colossal mistake that it has called forth many condemnations by historically minded intellectuals. Most have condemned the hubris and historical insouciance of the administration of George Bush. Few historians think that the President resembles Abraham Lincoln, guiding his country through a necessarily difficult but morally majestic period. Rather, we are told, history directs us to other policy choices and will me...

  13. The History of entomology in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Barragan, A. R.; Dangles, Olivier; Cardenas, R. E.; Onore, G.

    2009-01-01

    This work is not intended to be a complete review of all publications about entomology in Ecuador. It compiles the history of entomology in Ecuador in a chronological order. It first provides observations about the influence of pre-Columbian cultures and the cultural heritage of indigenous populations. It then presents the contribution of the Spanish conquest and colonization chroniclers, the specialists that described American species during the Renaissance period and the great scientific ex...

  14. Cluster Evaluation of Density Based Subspace Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Sembiring, Rahmat Widia

    2010-01-01

    Clustering real world data often faced with curse of dimensionality, where real world data often consist of many dimensions. Multidimensional data clustering evaluation can be done through a density-based approach. Density approaches based on the paradigm introduced by DBSCAN clustering. In this approach, density of each object neighbours with MinPoints will be calculated. Cluster change will occur in accordance with changes in density of each object neighbours. The neighbours of each object typically determined using a distance function, for example the Euclidean distance. In this paper SUBCLU, FIRES and INSCY methods will be applied to clustering 6x1595 dimension synthetic datasets. IO Entropy, F1 Measure, coverage, accurate and time consumption used as evaluation performance parameters. Evaluation results showed SUBCLU method requires considerable time to process subspace clustering; however, its value coverage is better. Meanwhile INSCY method is better for accuracy comparing with two other methods, altho...

  15. A Glimpse of American Society through the American TV Drama Series"the Desperate Housewives"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jia-wei

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents an analytical study on the American society through a popular American drama series"the Desper-ate House Wives". Typical American values can be found everywhere on the show as they have been ingrained in the soul of the American people. As a nation with not very long history but great achievements, its people are the one that should be highlight-ed. Unlike China, the nation of which have formed since thousands of years ago, so has its culture, America ’s history is an immi-gration history. People started migrating from other parts of the world since the 17th century and gathered at the land of America to build up their new homes and realize their dreams. They influence each other and fuse with each other. America is one of the countries in the world that plural cultures successfully mix together.The paper focuses on the American people ’s daily life to explain to the readers the American traits and values prevailing in their society. Except the Foreword which is the general intro-duction to the paper, this paper is presented in five parts. The first part to the forth part are the emphasis of the paper which re-spectively analyze the American traits and values. A series of vivid examples are provided with a wide range of study objects, man and woman, kids to elders, in hope of making the paper understandable and persuasive. It is expected that the study can offer a general idea to the people who are interested in the American society and its people.

  16. Media Clusters and Media Cluster Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Charlie; Picard, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Large media clusters have emerged in a limited number of large cities, characterizing the geographical concentration of the global media industry. This paper explores the reasons behind the localization patterns of media industries, the effect of the rapid advancement of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) on media clusters and the role of media cluster policies. One might draw the conclusion that with the developments of the ICT sector and the fact that there are no raw material...

  17. On the consistent effect histories approach to quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A formulation of the consistent histories approach to quantum mechanics in terms of generalized observables (POV measures) and effect operators is provided. The usual notion of open-quote open-quote history close-quote close-quote is generalized to the notion of open-quote open-quote effect history.close-quote close-quote The space of effect histories carries the structure of a D-poset. Recent results of J. D. Maitland Wright imply that every decoherence functional defined for ordinary histories can be uniquely extended to a bi-additive decoherence functional on the space of effect histories. Omngrave es close-quote logical interpretation is generalized to the present context. The result of this work considerably generalizes and simplifies the earlier formulation of the consistent effect histories approach to quantum mechanics communicated in a previous work of this author. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  18. Cluster selection in divisive clustering algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Savaresi, Sergio,; Boley, Daniel L.; Bittanti, Sergio; Gazzaniga, Giovanna

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of clustering a data-set. In particular, the bisecting divisive approach is here considered. This approach can be naturally divided into two sub-problems: the problem of choosing which cluster must be divided, and the problem of splitting the selected cluster. The focus here is on the first problem. The contribution of this work is to propose a new technique for the selection of the cluster to split. This technique is based upon the shape of...

  19. Sildenafil can induce the onset of a cluster headache bout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guan-Yu; Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Peng, Giia-Sheun; Yang, Fu-Chi

    2014-05-01

    About 25% of patients who are prescribed sildenafil, the phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitor, for erectile dysfunction (ED) experience headaches. These migraine effects are well-described, including cluster headaches. We report the case of a man who experienced a cluster headache attack following each of 2 sildenafil doses. His symptoms were resolved by adding naproxen to his treatment regimen and changing his ED treatment from 50 mg of sildenafil to 5 mg of vardenafil. To our knowledge, no study has reported cluster headaches triggered by the less commonly used PDE-5 inhibitors, namely vardenafil and tadalafil. Urologists should be cautious in prescribing sildenafil to patients with ED and with a history of cluster headaches. In these patients, they should consider prescribing low-dose vardenafil or tadalafil instead. Failure to recognize sildenafil risks could result in unnecessary headache bouts in patients with a history of cluster headaches. PMID:24940471

  20. Young massive star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Zwart, Simon Portegies; Gieles, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Young massive clusters are dense aggregates of young stars that form the fundamental building blocks of galaxies. Several examples exist in the Milky Way Galaxy and the Local Group, but they are particularly abundant in starburst and interacting galaxies. The few young massive clusters that are close enough to resolve are of prime interest for studying the stellar mass function and the ecological interplay between stellar evolution and stellar dynamics. The distant unresolved clusters may be effectively used to study the star-cluster mass function, and they provide excellent constraints on the formation mechanisms of young cluster populations. Young massive clusters are expected to be the nurseries for many unusual objects, including a wide range of exotic stars and binaries. So far only a few such objects have been found in young massive clusters, although their older cousins, the globular clusters, are unusually rich in stellar exotica. In this review we focus on star clusters younger than $\\sim100$\\,Myr, m...

  1. How did the Virgo cluster form?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorce, Jenny G.; Gottlöber, Stefan; Hoffman, Yehuda; Yepes, Gustavo

    2016-08-01

    While the Virgo cluster is the nearest galaxy cluster and therefore the best observed one, little is known about its formation history. In this paper, a set of cosmological simulations that resemble the Local Universe is used to shed the first light on this mystery. The initial conditions for these simulations are constrained with galaxy peculiar velocities of the second catalogue of the Cosmicflows project using algorithms developed within the Constrained Local UniversE Simulation project. Boxes of 500 h-1 Mpc on a side are set to run a series of dark matter only constrained simulations. In each simulation, a unique dark matter halo can be reliably identified as Virgo's counterpart. The properties of these Virgo haloes are in agreement at a 10-20 per cent level with the global properties of the observed Virgo cluster. Their zero-velocity masses agree at 1σ with the observational mass estimate. In all the simulations, the matter falls on to the Virgo objects along a preferential direction that corresponds to the observational filament and the slowest direction of collapse. A study of the mass accretion history of the Virgo candidates reveals the most likely formation history of the Virgo cluster, namely a quiet accretion over the last 7 Gyr.

  2. The combat film : the death and rebirth of an American film tradition

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This thesis analyzes how four popular combat films produced by Hollywood portray and interprets important events in American history. The films exemplify how American cinema has varied in its portrayal of the American army in relation to both the perspectives of the film makers and widely held attitudes toward war and American foreign policy. In regard to social attitudes, militarism has been an instrument to create support for war. The term describes a process where a societ...

  3. Cluster automorphism groups of cluster algebras with coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Wen; Zhu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    We study the cluster automorphism group of a skew-symmetric cluster algebra with geometric coefficients. For this, we introduce the notion of gluing free cluster algebra, and show that under a weak condition the cluster automorphism group of a gluing free cluster algebra is a subgroup of the cluster automorphism group of its principal part cluster algebra (i.e. the corresponding cluster algebra without coefficients). We show that several classes of cluster algebras with coefficients are gluin...

  4. Dynamics of melting argon clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With increasing total energy, small atomic clusters show a smooth transition from a rigid solidlike to a floppy liquidlike open-quotes phase.close quotes In certain clusters, depending on their structure and stability, this transition takes place over a finite energy range where both these open-quotes phasesclose quotes coexist in a dynamical sense, whereas in others the transition does not involve a coexistence region and has been called open-quotes slushlike.close quotes Previous studies in Ar13, which belongs to the first kind, have established the energy variation of maximal Lyapunov exponent (MLE) and the dynamic structure factor (DSF) as open-quotes dynamical indicatorsclose quotes of this transition. To understand the general features of these dynamic indicators better, we investigated the dynamic properties of two clusters Ar19 and Ar17. The former is a magic number cluster whose behavior is expected to be similar to Ar13, whereas the latter which does not show a coexistence region belongs to the second kind. Ar19 shows a behavior similar to Ar13. In Ar17, we find that above the transition but close to it, the DSF still shows features exhibiting the interplay of a open-quotes hot solidclose quotesand a open-quotes cold liquidclose quotes as observed in the coexistence region of Ar13 and Ar19. Unlike the bond length fluctuation which exhibits a rapid increase near the transition, the behavior of MLE is rather smooth and it does not serve as a good dynamical indicator of the transition in the Ar17 system. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  5. Constraining the evolutionary histories of spiral disks

    OpenAIRE

    Mollá, M.; Hardy, E.

    2003-01-01

    We study the old problem of the uniqueness of chemical evolution models. We showed in Molla et al. (1999) that multiphase models for three Virgo cluster galaxies were able to reproduce the observed radial distributions of spectral indices Mg2 and Fe52. But those models may fit the present-epoch radial distributions with different star formation histories. The two spectral indices are in turn affected by the well known age-metallicity degeneracy which prevents the disentagling of age and metal...

  6. What Makes Clusters Decline?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Park, Eun Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Most studies on regional clusters focus on identifying factors and processes that make clusters grow. However, sometimes technologies and market conditions suddenly shift, and clusters decline. This paper analyses the process of decline of the wireless communication cluster in Denmark. The...... longitudinal study on the high-tech cluster reveals that technological lock-in and exit of key firms have contributed to decline. Entrepreneurship has a positive effect on the cluster’s adaptive capabilities, while multinational companies have contradicting effects by bringing in new resources to the cluster...

  7. Evolution of orthologous tandemly arrayed gene clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Denis

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tandemly Arrayed Gene (TAG clusters are groups of paralogous genes that are found adjacent on a chromosome. TAGs represent an important repertoire of genes in eukaryotes. In addition to tandem duplication events, TAG clusters are affected during their evolution by other mechanisms, such as inversion and deletion events, that affect the order and orientation of genes. The DILTAG algorithm developed in 1 makes it possible to infer a set of optimal evolutionary histories explaining the evolution of a single TAG cluster, from an ancestral single gene, through tandem duplications (simple or multiple, direct or inverted, deletions and inversion events. Results We present a general methodology, which is an extension of DILTAG, for the study of the evolutionary history of a set of orthologous TAG clusters in multiple species. In addition to the speciation events reflected by the phylogenetic tree of the considered species, the evolutionary events that are taken into account are simple or multiple tandem duplications, direct or inverted, simple or multiple deletions, and inversions. We analysed the performance of our algorithm on simulated data sets and we applied it to the protocadherin gene clusters of human, chimpanzee, mouse and rat. Conclusions Our results obtained on simulated data sets showed a good performance in inferring the total number and size distribution of duplication events. A limitation of the algorithm is however in dealing with multiple gene deletions, as the algorithm is highly exponential in this case, and becomes quickly intractable.

  8. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Guide Reaching At-Risk Populations MedCon Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min 38 sec) Watch Specific ...

  9. Essays in History & Finance

    OpenAIRE

    D'ACUNTO, FRANCESCO

    2015-01-01

    To which extent may history help us understand current financial outcomes? FinancialHistory typically tests for financial theories using historical data, or studies past financialoutcomes to understand the present through analogy. This dissertation focuses on an alternative approach to the use of history in finance, which I label "History & Finance." This approach exploits facts and institutions of the past, and the persistence of the economic and social phenomena they determine, to directly...

  10. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  11. Analysis of Various Clustering Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Asst Prof. Sunila Godara,; Ms. Amita Verma,

    2013-01-01

    Data clustering is a process of putting similar data into groups. A clustering algorithm partitions a data set into several groups such that the similarity within a group is larger than among groups. This paper reviews four types of clustering techniques- k-Means Clustering, Farther first clustering, Density Based Clustering, Filtered clusterer. These clustering techniques are implemented and analyzed using a clustering tool WEKA. Performance of the 4 techniques are presented and compared.

  12. Between the national and the universal: natural history networks in Latin America in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Regina Horta

    2013-12-01

    This essay examines contemporary Latin American historical writing about natural history from the nineteenth through the twentieth centuries. Natural history is a "network science," woven out of connections and communications between diverse people and centers of scholarship, all against a backdrop of complex political and economic changes. Latin American naturalists navigated a tension between promoting national science and participating in "universal" science. These tensions between the national and the universal have also been reflected in historical writing on Latin America. Since the 1980s, narratives that recognize Latin Americans' active role have become more notable within the renewal of the history of Latin American science. However, the nationalist slant of these approaches has kept Latin American historiography on the margins. The networked nature of natural history and Latin America's active role in it afford an opportunity to end the historiographic isolation of Latin America and situate it within world history. PMID:24783494

  13. Conducting the Medical History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Martin A.; Alexander, Randell A.

    2011-01-01

    A key portion of the medical evaluation of child sexual abuse is the medical history. This differs from interviews or histories obtained by other professionals in that it is focuses more on the health and well-being of the child. Careful questions should be asked about all aspects of the child's medical history by a skilled, compassionate,…

  14. Studying Ancient History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Robin

    1982-01-01

    Defends the value and relevance of the study of ancient history and classics in history curricula. The unique homogeneity of the classical period contributes to its instructional manageability. A year-long, secondary-level course on fifth-century Greece and Rome is described to illustrate effective approaches to teaching ancient history. (AM)

  15. Modern History of Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Authored by Xu Guangzhi, this book is a subsidiary project of Research Into Traditional Culture and History (of the PRC Ministry of Education) conducted by China Tibetology Research Institute of Tibet University. The book combines modern history of Tibet with modern history of China as a whole. It tells the close ties between various members of the Chinese nation.

  16. Diet History Questionnaire: Database Revision History

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following details all additions and revisions made to the DHQ nutrient and food database. This revision history is provided as a reference for investigators who may have performed analyses with a previous release of the database.

  17. Clustering high dimensional data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assent, Ira

    2012-01-01

    for clustering are required. Consequently, recent research has focused on developing techniques and clustering algorithms specifically for high-dimensional data. Still, open research issues remain. Clustering is a data mining task devoted to the automatic grouping of data based on mutual similarity. Each cluster......High-dimensional data, i.e., data described by a large number of attributes, pose specific challenges to clustering. The so-called ‘curse of dimensionality’, coined originally to describe the general increase in complexity of various computational problems as dimensionality increases, is known...... groups objects that are similar to one another, whereas dissimilar objects are assigned to different clusters, possibly separating out noise. In this manner, clusters describe the data structure in an unsupervised manner, i.e., without the need for class labels. A number of clustering paradigms exist...

  18. Star clusters and associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All 33 papers presented at the symposium were inputted to INIS. They dealt with open clusters, globular clusters, stellar associations and moving groups, and local kinematics and galactic structures. (E.S.)

  19. Migrating Art History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Review of Hiroko Ikegami, The Great Migrator. Robert Rauschenberg and the Global Rise of American Art. Cambridge Mass., The MIT Press, 2010. 277 pages. ISBN 978-0-262-01425-0.......Review of Hiroko Ikegami, The Great Migrator. Robert Rauschenberg and the Global Rise of American Art. Cambridge Mass., The MIT Press, 2010. 277 pages. ISBN 978-0-262-01425-0....

  20. Modeling the formation and evolution of star cluster populations in galaxy simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Kruijssen, J M Diederik; Lamers, Henny J G L M; Zwart, Simon F Portegies; Icke, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    (Abridged) The formation and evolution of star cluster populations are related to the galactic environment. Cluster formation is governed by processes acting on galactic scales, and star cluster disruption is driven by the tidal field. In this paper, we present a self-consistent model for the formation and evolution of star cluster populations, for which we combine an N-body/SPH galaxy evolution code with semi-analytic models for star cluster evolution. The model includes star formation, feedback, stellar evolution, and star cluster disruption by two-body relaxation and tidal shocks. We apply the model by simulating a suite of 9 isolated disc galaxies and 24 galaxy mergers. The evolutionary histories of individual clusters in these simulations are discussed to illustrate how the environment of clusters changes in time and space. The resulting variability of the disruption rate with time and space affects the properties of star cluster populations. The combined effect of clusters escaping their dense formation...