Alper, Sandra; And Others
This article describes models and methods of advocacy for families of children with disabilities in elementary and middle school, including self-advocacy, social support advocacy, interpersonal advocacy, and legal advocacy. Issues for parents during these years are discussed, as are the role and needs of siblings. Advocacy is seen as a dynamic…
... be composed of personnel from appropriate disciplines, including, medicine, psychology, and child... in all allegations of child abuse and neglect. DATES: Comments must be received by June 25, 2013... multi-disciplinary Family Advocacy Command Assistant Team to respond to allegations of child sexual...
Huber, Douglas; Martin, Raymond; Bormet, Mona
Advocating for international family planning while avoiding miscommunications with politically and religiously conservative policy makers and the public requires care and clarity with language. We find that terms such as "international family planning" are well received when the meaning is clearly explained, such as "enabling couples to determine the number and timing of pregnancies, including the voluntary use of methods for preventing pregnancy - not including abortion - harmonious with their beliefs and values". Family planning also helps reduce abortions - a powerful message for conservative policy makers and the public. We concur with Dyer et al. (2016) that the messenger is important; we find that many of the most effective advocates are religious leaders and faith-based health providers from the Global South. They know and validate the importance of family planning for improving family health and reducing abortions in their communities. "Healthy timing and spacing of pregnancy" is positive language for policy makers, especially when describing the health impact for women and children. Universal access to contraceptive services is emerging as vital for family health and also to help achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (UN 2015). Language on international family planning will evolve, and clarity of meaning will be foundational for effective advocacy.
Shield, Renee R; Wetle, Terrie; Teno, Joan; Miller, Susan C; Welch, Lisa C
Increasing numbers of Americans die in nursing homes. Little is known about the roles and experiences of family members of persons who die in nursing homes. The authors conducted 54 qualitative telephone interviews of close family or friends of individuals who had spent at least 48 hours in the last month of life in a nursing home. Respondents had earlier participated in a national survey that found 587 of 1578 decedents (37.2%) received end-of-life nursing home care. In qualitative interviews respondents described the last year of life, focusing on the nursing home experience. Interviews were analyzed by a multidisciplinary team to identify key themes of areas of concern. An important interview theme revealed families often felt the need to advocate for their dying relative because of low expectations or experiences with poor quality nursing home care. They noted staff members who did not fully inform them about what to expect in the dying process. Respondents reported burden and gratification in care they themselves provided, which sometimes entailed collaboration with staff. Interviews also identified ways hospice care impacted families, including helping to relieve family burden. End-of-life advocacy takes on increased urgency when those close to the dying resident have concerns about basic care and do not understand the dying course. Enhancing communication, preparing families at the end of life, and better understanding of hospice are likely to increase family trust in nursing home care, improve the care of dying residents, and help reduce family burden.
Funk, Michelle; Minoletti, Alberto; Drew, Natalie; Taylor, Jacob; Saraceno, Benedetto
The World Health Organization urges countries to become more active in advocacy efforts to put mental health on governments' agendas. Health policy makers, planners and managers, advocacy groups, consumer and family organizations, through their different roles and actions, can move the mental health agenda forward. This paper outlines the importance of the advocacy movement, describes some of the roles and functions of the different groups and identifies some specific actions that can be adopted by Ministries of Health. The mental health advocacy movement has developed over the last 30 years as a means of combating stigma and prejudice against people with mental disorders and improving services. Consumer and family organizations and related NGOs have been able to influence governments on mental health policies and laws and educating the public on social integration of people with mental disorders. Governments can promote the development of a strong mental health advocacy sector without compromising this sector's independence. For instance, they can publish and distribute a directory of mental health advocacy groups, include them in their mental health activities and help fledgling groups become more established. There are also some advocacy functions that government officials can, and indeed, should perform themselves. Officials in the ministry of health can persuade officials in other branches of government to make mental health more of a priority, support advocacy activities with both general health workers and mental health workers and carry out public information campaigns about mental disorders and how to maintain good mental health. In conclusion, the World Health Organization believes mental health advocacy is one of the pillars to improve mental health care and the human rights of people with mental disorders. It is hoped that the recommendations in this article will help government officials and activists to strengthen national advocacy movements.
Cole McGrew, Martha; Wayne, Sharon; Solan, Brian; Snyder, Tiffany; Ferguson, Cheryl; Kalishman, Summers
Learners in medical education are often inadequately prepared to address the underlying social determinants of health and disease. The objective of this article is to describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of a Health Policy and Advocacy curriculum incorporated into our family medicine clerkship. We developed a Health Policy and Advocacy course for medical students within our family medicine clerkship. We evaluated the curriculum using a survey of our own design administered to students before and after their clerkship year. We created a mean score for each subscale that measured (1) physician's role, (2) knowledge, and (3) confidence in ability and calculated differences between the pre-survey and the post-survey scores for four medical school classes. We also conducted a focus group to get student input on the new curriculum. Mean scores on the pre- and post-surveys were highest for the subscale regarding attitudes about a physician's role in health policy and advocacy and did not change over time. Scores for self-reported knowledge and confidence in abilities increased significantly from the beginning to the end of the clerkship year. Students were generally positive about the curriculum but had some concerns about finding time for advocacy in their future practices. Training in health care policy and advocacy can be successfully implemented into a medical school curriculum with positive outcomes in students' self-reported knowledge and confidence in their abilities. Work remains on providing advocacy role models for students.
2/76) 2 Suspected Abuzso/Malect/Sexua1 Assault an ae2404 65.) "Suspected Abuso /Neglect/ Sexual Assault and Rape Report" 2226 60.5 NAVMED 6320/15A...ANALYSIS OF SEXUAL ASSAULT REPORTS ........... 50 HAPTER V: SUMAY ANALYSIS Or rAMILY ADVOCACY PROGRAM REPORTS . 56 APPENDIX...cont’d)I PAGE CHAPTER IV: SEXUAL ASSAULT TV-1 Fore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 IV-2 Type of Maltreatment ............... 53 IV-3
Raabe, Phyllis Hutton; Theall, Katherine P
In contrast with other developed countries, the United States lacks national paid maternity/family and sick leave policies, negatively impacting the health and economic security of both female and male workers and their children. Employer paid family and sick leave policies cover only about half of workers, and those lacking paid leaves are more likely to be less educated and with lower incomes. Louisiana has high proportions of poor and low income workers who especially would benefit from national or state paid leave policies. In the absence of national paid leaves, several states and cities have implemented paid family and sick leaves. In this context and following the American Public Health Association's endorsement of paid family and sick leaves for health and wellbeing, the Tulane University Mary Amelia Women's Center decided to advocate for paid leave policies in Louisiana. Highlights of a Louisiana spring 2015 initiative were a talk by the President of the Institute for Women's Policy Research on the economic and health benefits of paid family and sick leaves and bills submitted by a State Senator. As has happened elsewhere, opposition from businesses and Republican legislators blocked passage. This outcome fit the Center's original expectations that communicating about the important health and other benefits of paid family and sick leaves, and developing support for state-wide policies, would be a long process-but one important to begin. The initiative in Louisiana may provide insights for paid leave advocacy elsewhere. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
When an educator was invited by a Chinese university to teach a seminar in American drama, she used "family drama" as the organizing theme of her course because she was (and is) convinced that from Eugene O'Neill on, American playwrights have been obsessed with family disintegration and the failure of family harmony. This paper is an…
Zeiders, Katharine H.; Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun
Despite increases in single-parent families among Mexican Americans (MA), few studies have examined the association of family structure and family adjustment. Utilizing a diverse sample of 738 Mexican American families (21.7% single parent), the current study examined differences across family structure on early adolescent outcomes, family functioning, and parent-child relationship variables. Results revealed that early adolescents in single parent families reported greater school misconduct,...
McBride, Dawn L.
Selected clinical and ethical issues associated with providing supervision involving family violence cases are outlined. It is argued that supervisees helping clients with trauma histories require skills beyond learning how to process the trauma with their clients. Advocacy, social action, and coordinating case conferences are some of the…
Adults and Adolescents. 6. Drug and Alcohol Counseling. 7. Family Therapy. 8. Conjoint Therapy for Couples. 9. Play Therapy for Children. 10. Victims...Older Children. 6. Drug and Alcohol Counseling. 7. Family Therapy. 8. Conjoint Therapy for Couples. 9. Play Therapy for Children. PS 5.33: Clinically
Littlejohn-Blake, Sheila M.; Darling, Carol Anderson
Focuses on strengths of African-American families and how they function, relevant conceptual approaches, and trends and issues in studying African-American families that can facilitate understanding. A shift from studying dysfunctional families to more positive aspects can help African-American families meet societal challenges. (SLD)
Davanzo, J; Rahman, M O
Discussion focused on the nature of the roles of the family, a review of the major demographic changes (marriage, cohabitation, nonfamily households, remarriage, fertility, teenage pregnancy, and female employment) affecting the American family in the past decades, and the nature of the impact on women, men, and children. There were four major trends identified: 1) increased proportions of children living in single-parent families due to high rates of divorce and increased childbearing outside of marriage; 2) increased proportions of adults in nontraditional living arrangements; 3) increased female labor force participation during all stages of the life cycle; and 4) decreased proportions of children and increased proportions of older people out of total population due to declining mortality and fertility rates. Family formation arises out of childbearing and childrearing roles, the need for companionship and emotional support, and the opportunities for specialization and trade, and the economies of scale. The costs of family living may include the potential for disagreement, conflict, loss of privacy, and time and money. There were a number of reasons identified for not maintaining traditional families consisting of a married couple with children. The trends were for later age at marriage: 24.4 years in 1992 for women, increased cohabitation (almost 50% cohabiting prior to first marriage in 1985-86), decreased number of married couple households, and increased number of adults in non-family households. The divorce rate has risen over the past 100 years with peaks in the 1970s; the reasons were identified as increased baby boomers and new marriages, increased labor participation of women, and changes in gender roles. The stabilization and slight decline in rates may be due to a natural leveling, the likelihood of greater stability within new marriages, and the aging of the baby boomers. An anticipated increase in divorce rates in the future was also justified
Brindis, Claire D.; Geierstanger, Sara P.; Faxio, Adrienne
As part of their 10-year $60 million Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Initiative, The California Wellness Foundation funded 18 state and local organizations to conduct policy advocacy to strengthen teen pregnancy prevention policies. This article describes how some of these grantees accomplished noteworthy goals, including the passage of the…
Kalyanpur, Maya; Harry, Beth; Skrtic, Tom
This article contends that the equity and advocacy expectations embedded in the legal mandate for parent participation in the special education decision-making process directly contradict the hierarchy of professional status and knowledge on which the positivist paradigm of professionalism is based and are also in conflict with the values held by…
Stanley, Summer Lynn Gainey
Studies on parent involvement in education have most often been gender-neutral, although it is primarily mothers who undertake such work (Reay, 1998; West & Noden, 1998). While African American mothers advocating for their children's educational needs is not a new occurrence, it is one that has yet to receive the attention it necessitates.…
Burke, Meghan M.
Latino students and their families are the fastest growing minority group in the country, yet it is unclear whether rural (vs. urban) Latino families of students with disabilities have different needs. In this pilot study, 65 Latino family members of students with disabilities (15 rural; 50 urban) responded to a questionnaire about empowerment,…
Hwang, Wei-Chin; Wood, Jeffrey J; Fujimoto, Ken
Knowledge of acculturative processes and their impact on immigrant families remains quite limited. Acculturative family distancing (AFD) is the distancing that occurs between immigrant parents and their children and is caused by breakdowns in communication and cultural value differences. It is a more proximal and problem-focused formulation of the acculturation gap and is hypothesized to increase depression via family conflict. Data were collected from 105 Chinese American high school students and their mothers. Rasch modeling was used to refine the AFD measure, and structural equation modeling was used to determine the effects of AFD on youth and maternal depression. Findings indicate that greater AFD was associated with higher depressive symptoms and risk for clinical depression. Family conflict partially mediated this relation for youths, whereas for mothers, AFD directly increased risk for depression. Greater mother-child heritage enculturation discrepancies were associated with greater mother and child AFD. Mainstream acculturation discrepancies and language gaps between mothers and youths were not significantly associated with any of the primary outcome variables. Results highlight the need for better understanding of how AFD and other acculturation-gap phenomena affect immigrant mental health. They also underscore the need for prevention and intervention programs that target communication difficulties and intergenerational cultural value differences. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Communities across the United States, in both urban and rural areas, are seeking ways to promote well-being for their citizens in sustainable ways. This paper provides a descriptive case study of one rural community that used an inquiry-based approach to ask, “How can we engage our citizens to improve child and family well-being in our community?” The group also wondered “What if Brookings had one place for families to access all family resources that support well-being?” “What if all families had a place where their needs were heard?” and “What if all resources for families looked at the well-being of children and families in a holistic way?” This paper describes the initial journey of a community of practice advocating on several different community levels, including the role of university students, the process of the community of practice formation, its growing connections to community agencies and its initial efforts to build calls to action through participatory research and grassroots community efforts. While conveying a linear narrative, the authors also maintain a focus on the organic processes of knowledge construction and the evolution of a community of practice. Data collection, using the Delphi approach, is underway to access initial ground-up definitions of well-being and to identify areas of focus.
Camras, Linda; Kolmodin, Karen; Chen, Yinghe
This study compared Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American mothers' self-reported emotional expression within the family. Mothers of 3-year-old European American (n = 40), Chinese American (n = 39) and Mainland Chinese (n = 36) children (n = 20 girls per group) completed the Self-Expressiveness in the Family Questionnaire (SEFQ),…
Mccreary, Linda L.; Dancy, Barbara L.
Family functioning is influenced by socio-economic status, culture, family structure, and developmental stage, and is assessed primarily using instruments developed for middle-income European American two-parent families. These instruments may not validly assess low-income African American single-parent families. This qualitative study was…
Castillo, Linda G.; Zahn, Marion P.; Cano, Miguel A.
The authors examined the predictors of familial acculturative stress in 85 Asian American college students. Participants were primarily 1st- and 2nd-generation U.S. citizens. Results showed that perceived acculturative family conflict and family intragroup marginalization were related to higher levels of familial acculturative stress for…
Fuligni, Andrew J.; Tseng, Vivian; Lam, May
Examined attitudes toward family obligations in American tenth and twelfth graders from Filipino, Chinese, Mexican, Central and South American, and European backgrounds. Found that even within a society emphasizing adolescent autonomy and independence, youths from families with collectivistic traditions retain their parents' familial values and…
Lee, Don Chang
Many American servicemen have married Asian women and brought them to the United States. Asian wife-American husband families are unique compared to black-white or European-American marriages because they are both interracial and cross-cultural. Yet, few studies have been done to analyze their relationships and problems in adjusting to American…
As global impact investors gear up to support roll out of the Sustainable Development Goals in the developing world, African CSOs are urged to ensure that governments shift health funding sources away from aid and loans to innovative domestic funding sources which prioritize health. To do so, African CSOs require support to build their capacity for policy and budget advocacy. Governments and development partners have failed to invest in long term capacity building projects for indigenous NGOs and instead support INGOs to push the health advocacy agenda forward. In Nigeria, the Gates foundation has risen to the challenge of building capacity of indigenous NGOs for social accountability in child and family health. The 3 year pilot project - Partnership for Advocacy in Child and Family Health Project (PACFaH) mainstreams capacity building as an effective implementation strategy for 8 indigenous NGOs to deliver on - policy; budgetary; legislative; and administrative advocacy in four issue areas: 1) family planning; 2) nutrition; 3) routine immunization; and 4) reduction of under-5 deaths from diarrhea and pneumonia. This paper documents the achievements of the eight advocacy NGOs in PACFaH, at midterm and notes that while there have been challenges, working through capacity building as an implementation strategy has enabled the local groups in the delivery of evidence based advocacy.
Behnke, Andrew O.; MacDermid, Shelley M.; Coltrane, Scott L.; Parke, Ross D.; Duffy, Sharon; Widaman, Keith F.
This study investigated similarities and differences in relations between stress and parenting behaviors for 509 Mexican American and European American fathers and mothers in Southern California. Our model posited that family cohesion mediates the relation between stressors and parenting behavior, and we found that family cohesion strongly…
Juon, Hee-Soon; Rimal, Rajiv N; Klassen, Ann; Lee, Sunmin
Individuals' behaviors are influenced by those of others in their social environment (i.e., descriptive norms), as well as by how individuals perceive they should behave in that environment (e.g., injunctive norms). Although social norms are thought to play an important role in hepatitis B virus (HBV) screening, limited theoretical or empirical guidance exists on how the underlying process works. In addition, norms are social phenomena that are spread through family discussion about the importance of getting HBV screening. Using the theory of normative social behavior (TNSB), this study examined the roles of injunctive norms (IN), descriptive norms (DN), and family discussion in HBV screening behavior among Asian Americans. Data from a survey of Asian Americans in the Baltimore Washington metropolitan area (N = 877) were used to test underlying theoretical propositions. DN and family discussion emerged as key factors in HBV screening behavior among all Asian Americans. IN were associated with HBV screening among Chinese and Korean Americans, but not for Vietnamese Americans. Family discussion moderated the influence of DN on behavior among Chinese and Vietnamese Americans. However, the main effect of DN on screening behavior was not modified by IN (no interactions between DN and IN). The results indicate that family discussion and social norms are integral in enabling Asian Americans to undergo HBV screening and warrant sensitivity in the design and implementation of a liver cancer prevention program in this high-risk group of Asian Americans.
Nguyen, Ann W; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M; Taylor, Harry Owen; Lincoln, Karen D; Mitchell, Uchechi A
This study examined the relationship between informal social support from extended family and friends and suicidality among African Americans. Logistic regression analysis was based on a nationally representative sample of African Americans from the National Survey of American Life (N = 3263). Subjective closeness and frequency of contact with extended family and friends and negative family interaction were examined in relation to lifetime suicide ideation and attempts. Subjective closeness to family and frequency of contact with friends were negatively associated with suicide ideation and attempts. Subjective closeness to friends and negative family interaction were positively associated with suicide ideation and attempts. Significant interactions between social support and negative interaction showed that social support buffers against the harmful effects of negative interaction on suicidality. Findings are discussed in relation to the functions of positive and negative social ties in suicidality.
Bell-Tolliver, LaVerne; Burgess, Ruby; Brock, Linda J
With the exception of Hill's (1971, 1999) work, historically much of the literature on African American families has focused more on pathology than strengths. This study used interviews with 30 African American psychotherapists, self-identified as employing a strengths perspective with African American families, to investigate which strengths they identified in the families and how they use those strengths in therapy. Themes emerging from data analysis confirmed the continued importance of the five strengths Hill noted. In addition, two new strengths were identified by the participants: a willingness of a greater number of families to seek therapy, and the importance of family structure. Strategies used in engaging the families in therapy and practice implications for family therapists are discussed.
Broman, Clifford L.
Investigated the link between job-related stressors and family life among African Americans. Data from African Americans who participated in the America's Changing Lives survey indicated that job latitude positively affected marital harmony, and physical demands negatively affected marital harmony. Psychosocial demands, job bother, and chronic…
Formoso, Diana; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Barrera, Manuel, Jr.; Dumka, Larry E.
This study examined independent and interactive relations between the interparental relationship and maternal employment in predicting fathering within low-income, Mexican American two-parent families (N = 115). Interparental conflict was negatively related to quality fathering, and these relations were noted only for single-earner families. The…
Su, Jenny; Lee, Richard M.; Vang, Shary
Problem solving and social support, as different styles of coping with intergenerational family conflict, were examined among 86 Hmong American college students. Problem solving and social support were hypothesized to differentially moderate the effects of family conflict on psychological adjustment. Furthermore, the effects of attributions of…
Ghazal Read, Jen'nan
Using data from a national survey of 501 Arab American women, this study examines the extent to which family behavior mediates the influence of religion on women's labor force activity. Prior research on families has largely overlooked the role of religion in influencing women's labor force decisions, particularly at different stages of the life…
Initial attention is directed to how television -- the most typical as well as the most "mass" of the media -- appears to the broadcaster to fit into the fabric of society. This is followed by consideration of how this medium can be used more effectively in family life education. The basic social contribution derives from television's role as a mass medium that uses limited facilities (the air waves) for dissemination of its content, and inherent in television is the inherent need to serve the needs of a total society. If the sights of a society are to be raised by means of a mass medium, the society must 1st be brought to the medium. As long as there are free and alternative channels of communication, the actual influence on ideas which can be exerted by any 1 medium is very slight. The United States has chosen not to take the route of elite control of the products of communications media, preferring pluralism and diversity to orthodoxy. The 1st job of individuals who are concerned about better programming is to be selective as individuals and as families. The support of development and growth of educational television at local levels is urged. The primary objective of the family relations field in the context of the television phenomenon is the enrichment of relationships within the family unit through encouragement of healthy interpersonal attitudes and behavior. Television can be used as a medium for presenting materials which educate, inform, and encourage and to demonstrate what social agencies are doing to help people help themselves.
Skinner, Olivenne D; McHale, Susan M
Parent-adolescent conflict is frequent in families and has implications for youth adjustment and family relationships. Drawing on a family systems perspective, we examined mothers', fathers', and two adolescent-aged siblings' (50.5 % females) reports of parent-adolescent conflict in 187 African American families. Using latent profile analysis in the context of an ethnic homogeneous design, we identified three family types based on levels of and differences between parent and youth conflict reports: low conflict, father high conflict, and younger sibling high conflict. Compared to low conflict families, youth in younger sibling high conflict families reported more depressive symptoms and risky behaviors. The results for parents' acceptance revealed that, in comparison to low conflict families, older siblings in father high conflict families reported lower acceptance from mothers, and mothers in these families reported lower acceptance of their children; further, older siblings in younger sibling high conflict families reported less acceptance from fathers, and fathers in these families reported less acceptance of their children. Results underscore the significance of levels of and both differences between and direction of differences in parents' and youth's reports of their "shared" experiences, as well as the importance of examining the larger family contexts of dyadic parent-relationships.
Mandara, Jelani; Murray, Carolyn B
This study empirically identified types of African American families. Adolescents (N = 111) were assessed on family functioning. With cluster analytic methods, 3 types of families were identified. The cohesive-authoritative type was above average on parental education and income, averaged about 2 children, exhibited a high quality of family functioning and high self-esteem in adolescents. The conflictive-authoritarian type had average parental education and income, an average of 2.7 children, exhibited controlling and rigid discipline, and placed a high emphasis on achievement. The defensive-neglectful type was predominately headed by single mothers with below average education and income and averaged about 3 children. Such families displayed chaotic family processes, and adolescents tended to suffer from low self-esteem. The typology exhibited good reliability. The implications of the typology are discussed.
Parker, Ashley Dawn
This research seeks to understand the experiences of African American female undergraduates in STEM. It investigates how familial factors and science identity formation characteristics influence persistence in STEM while considering the duality of African American women's status in society. This phenomenological study was designed using critical…
Steele, Janee Marie
Social justice has become an increasingly controversial topic among members of the American Counseling Association (ACA). Specifically, concerns have been raised over what is perceived to be: (a) the liberal political agenda of social justice advocates, (b) the marginalization of conservative counselors, and (c) the inappropriate use of ACA…
Hill, Nancy E.
The influence of parenting style on aspects of family environment was studied with 174 9th graders, 11th graders and college freshmen (96% African American). Findings demonstrate that types of parenting styles are significantly related to outcome measures of family environment as predicted. Implications of authoritative parenting among blacks are…
Juang, Linda P.; Syed, Moin; Cookston, Jeffrey T.; Wang, Yijie; Kim, Su Yeong
Everyday conflict (studied primarily among European American families) is viewed as an assertion of autonomy from parents that is normative during adolescence. Acculturation-based conflict (studied primarily among Asian- and Latino-heritage families) is viewed as a threat to relatedness with parents rather than the normative assertion of autonomy.…
White, Rebecca M. B.; Roosa, Mark W.; Weaver, Scott R.; Nair, Rajni L.
Family stress theory can explain associations between contextual stressors and parenting. The theory, however, has not been tested among Mexican Americans or expanded to include cultural-contextual risks. This study examined associations between neighborhood, economic, and acculturative stressors and parenting behaviors in a sample of 570…
Kim, Suk-Sun; Kim-Godwin, Yeoun Soo; Koenig, Harold G
Spirituality has been regarded as an individual and private matter; consequently, research on spirituality as a family phenomenon has been largely neglected. In addition, most published research has been focused on Western cultures. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of family spirituality and how it influences health among Korean-American elderly couples who are the first generation to reside in the Southeastern USA. A thematic and interpretive data analysis method was used. Thirteen elderly couples (N = 26) participated in in-depth individual interviews in Korean with the primary author. Interviews were audio-taped, transcribed, and then translated by two bilingual researchers with a background in Korean and American culture. Three main themes of family spirituality were identified: (1) family togetherness, (2) family interdependence, and (3) family coping. Also, participants reported that family spirituality strengthened family health by fostering family commitment, improving emotional well-being, developing new healthy behaviors, and providing healing experiences. This finding implies that healthcare providers need to assess family spiritual issues of elderly couples to maximize their strengths for coping with health problems. As our society becomes more culturally diverse, healthcare providers should seek to understand family spirituality from different cultural perspectives to develop a more holistic approach to care.
Wu, Ed Y; Reeb, Ben T; Martin, Monica J; Gibbons, Frederick X; Simons, Ronald L; Conger, Rand D
The authors examined the hypothesized influence of maternal and paternal hostility on youth delinquency over time. The investigation addressed significant gaps in earlier research on parental hostility, including the neglect of father effects, especially in African American families. Using prospective, longitudinal data from community samples of European American (n = 422) and African American (n = 272) 2-parent families, the authors examined the independent effects of paternal and maternal hostility on youth delinquency. The results indicated that paternal hostility significantly predicted relative increases in youth delinquent behaviors above and beyond the effects of maternal hostility; conversely, maternal hostility did not predict youth delinquency after controlling for paternal hostility. Multiple-group analyses yielded similar results for both ethnic groups and for boys and girls. These results underscore the importance of including both parents in research on diverse families. Neglecting fathers provides an incomplete account of parenting in relation to youth development.
Thompson, Tess; Seo, Joann; Griffith, Julia; Baxter, Melanie; James, Aimee; Kaphingst, Kimberly A
Public health initiatives encourage the public to discuss and record family health history information, which can inform prevention and screening for a variety of conditions. Most research on family health history discussion and collection, however, has predominantly involved White participants and has not considered lay definitions of family or family communication patterns about health. This qualitative study of 32 African American women-16 with a history of cancer-analyzed participants' definitions of family, family communication about health, and collection of family health history information. Family was defined by biological relatedness, social ties, interactions, and proximity. Several participants noted using different definitions of family for different purposes (e.g., biomedical vs. social). Health discussions took place between and within generations and were influenced by structural relationships (e.g., sister) and characteristics of family members (e.g., trustworthiness). Participants described managing tensions between sharing health information and protecting privacy, especially related to generational differences in sharing information, fear of familial conflict or gossip, and denial (sometimes described as refusal to "own" or "claim" a disease). Few participants reported that anyone in their family kept formal family health history records. Results suggest family health history initiatives should address family tensions and communication patterns that affect discussion and collection of family health history information.
McLoyd, Vonnie C.; Toyokawa, Teru; Kaplan, Rachel
Using data from a sample of 455 African American children (ages 10 to 12 years) and their parents, this study tests a hypothesized model linking (a) maternal work demands to family routines through work-family conflict and depressive symptoms and (b) maternal work demands to children's externalizing and internalizing problems through family…
Jernigan, D H; Wright, P A
Media advocacy is the strategic use of mass media and community organizing as a resource for advancing a social or public policy initiative. Across the United States, communities are using media advocacy to promote healthier public policies and environments. The U.S. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention commissioned numerous case studies of media advocacy on alcohol and tobacco issues in a diverse array of communities, including efforts in African-American and Latino communities or using computer-based electronic communication systems. The paper describes these efforts briefly, and summarizes lessons learned, including: media advocacy can lead to larger victories when used as a complement to community organizing in the context of a larger strategic vision for policy change; like policy advocacy, media advocacy is best done in the context of clear long-term goals; conscious framing, guiding the choice of spokespeople, visuals, and messages, can alter media coverage and public debate of health policies; advocates need to respect the media but also remember that they have power in relation to the media; and media advocacy is often controversial and not suited to every situation. The case studies show that media advocacy is a potent tool for public health workers, making an important contribution to campaigns to promote healthier public policies.
Huntsinger, Carol S.; And Others
This study compared Chinese-American and Caucasian-American children and families in order to better understand which cultural and family characteristics, parent beliefs, and parent practices operate at the early childhood level to produce the more uniform high level of math achievement among Asian-American children. Forty second-generation…
Huntsinger, Carol S.; Jose, Paul E.
A longitudinal study examined differences in Chinese-American and Euro-American parents' facilitation of their young children's mathematics learning. Participating in the Time 2 data collection were 36 second-generation Chinese-American and 40 Euro-American first and second graders from well-educated suburban Chicago families. Children were given…
Parker, Ashley Dawn
This research seeks to understand the experiences of African American female undergraduates in STEM. It investigates how familial factors and science identity formation characteristics influence persistence in STEM while considering the duality of African American women's status in society. This phenomenological study was designed using critical race feminism as the theoretical framework to answer the following questions: 1) What role does family play in the experiences of African American women undergraduate STEM majors who attended two universities in the UNC system? 2) What factors impact the formation of science identity for African American women undergraduate STEM majors who attended two universities in the UNC system? Purposive sampling was used to select the participants for this study. The researcher conducted in-depth interviews with 10 African American female undergraduate STEM major from a predominantly White and a historically Black institution with the state of North Carolina public university system. Findings suggest that African American families and science identity formation influence the STEM experiences of the African American females interviewed in this study. The following five themes emerged from the findings: (1) independence, (2) support, (3) pressure to succeed, (4) adaptations, and (5) race and gender. This study contributes to the literature on African American female students in STEM higher education. The findings of this study produced knowledge regarding policies and practices that can lead to greater academic success and persistence of African American females in higher education in general, and STEM majors in particular. Colleges and universities may benefit from the findings of this study in a way that allows them to develop and sustain programs and policies that attend to the particular concerns and needs of African American women on their campuses. Finally, this research informs both current and future African American female
Weaver, J L
In population planning in Latin America the programs are as successful as the government's support of family planning. Colombia is one of the few Latin American countries which has actively exhorted its populace to birth control. If the propensity for large families reflects a belief in the economic or social utility of children, instead of machismo, birthrates will fall with expanded social security and economic welfare programs. If birthrates are the result of machismo, new gender models stressing the positive rewards and social esteem to be gained through responsible parenthood would have to be taught to both adults and children. The position profamily planning in most Latin American countries is generally supported by the ministers, technocrats, corporations, businessmen, middle-class women, doctors, mass media, protestant congregations, and working-class women. Family planning is usually opposed by members of the armed forces, Catholic hierarchy, Catholic lay organizations, oligarchy, university students, leftist intellectuals, Marxist insurgents, Indian communities, and peasants. The portion of the total national populations encompassed by the groups composing the core combination, ideological bias, and stability group ranges from 50-60% in Argentina, Uruguay, and Venezuela to 10-20% in Central America, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay. Most groups are outside the policy-making process.
Ford, Donna Yvette; And Others
Considers the extended African-American family, beginning with a historical perspective of the nuclear family and other family arrangements. The importance of the group rather than the individual for African-American culture is explored. Analyses of the function of the extended family indicate its role in adaptation and survival. (SLD)
THOMPSON, TESS; SEO, JOANN; GRIFFITH, JULIA; BAXTER, MELANIE; JAMES, AIMEE; KAPHINGST, KIMBERLY A.
Public health initiatives encourage the public to discuss and record family health history (FHH) information, which can inform prevention and screening for a variety of conditions. Most research on FHH discussion and collection, however, has involved predominantly White participants and has not considered lay definitions of family or family communication patterns about health. This qualitative study of 32 African American women, 16 with a history of cancer, analyzed participants’ definitions of family, family communication about health, and collection of FHH information. “Family” was defined by biological relatedness, social ties, interactions, and proximity. Several participants noted using different definitions of family for different purposes (e.g. biomedical vs. social). Health discussions took place between and within generations and were influenced by structural relationships (e.g. sister) and characteristics of family members (e.g. trustworthiness). Participants described managing tensions between sharing health information and protecting privacy, especially related to generational differences in sharing information, fear of familial conflict or gossip, and denial (sometimes described as refusal to “own” or “claim” a disease). Few participants reported that anyone in their family kept formal FHH records. Results suggest FHH initiatives should address family tensions and communication patterns that affect discussion and collection of FHH information. PMID:25730634
Vargas, Danyel A.; Roosa, Mark W.; Knight, George P.; O'Donnell, Megan
Despite the rapidly growing Mexican American population, no studies to date have attempted to explain the underlying relations between family instability and Mexican American children's development. Using a diverse sample of 740 Mexican American adolescents (49% female; 5th grade M age = 10.4; 7th grade M age = 12.8) and their mothers, we prospectively examined the relations between family instability and adolescent academic outcomes and mental health in the 7th grade. The model fit the data well and results indicated that family instability between 5th and 7th grade was related to increased 7th grade mother-adolescent conflict and in turn, mother-adolescent conflict was related to decreased school attachment and to increased externalizing and internalizing symptoms in the 7th grade. Results also indicated that 7th grade mother-adolescent conflict mediated the relations between family instability and 7th grade academic outcomes and mental health. Further, we explored adolescent familism values as a moderator and found that adolescent familism values served as a protective factor in the relation between mother-adolescent conflict and grades. Implications for future research and intervention strategies are discussed. PMID:23750521
Sotomayor-Peterson, Marcela; Figueredo, Aurelio J; Christensen, Donna H; Taylor, Angela R
This study tested a model of shared parenting as its centerpiece that incorporates cultural values as predictors and family emotional climate as the outcome variable of interest. We aimed to assess the predictive power of the Mexican cultural values of familismo and simpatia over couples' shared parenting practices. We anticipated that higher levels of shared parenting would predict family emotional climate. The participants were 61 Mexican American, low income couples, with at least one child between 3 and 4 years of age, recruited from a home-based Head Start program. The predictive model demonstrated excellent goodness of fit, supporting the hypothesis that a positive emotional climate within the family is fostered when Mexican American couples practice a sufficient level of shared parenting. Empirical evidence was previously scarce on this proposition. The findings also provide evidence for the role of cultural values, highlighting the importance of family solidarity and avoidance of confrontation as a pathway to shared parenting within Mexican American couples. © FPI, Inc.
Cherlin, A; Furstenberg Ff
The 7 chapters in this journal discuss the European family, including families in Britain, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, the German Democratic Republic, Italy, and Sweden. The authors feel that observers in the US sometimes resort to peculiarly American explanations (the budget deficit, changes in welfare benefits) to account for recent trends in marriage and fertility. The articles in this issue demonstrate that the pattern of post-WWII family change has been generally similar in North America, Western Europe, and even part of Eastern Europe, suggesting that more global rather than particular national explanations need to be sought. The post-WWII years can be divided into 2 periods: 1) the period from 1945 to 1965 that brought the unexpected marriage rush and baby boom, and 2) the period from 1965 to the present that brought a reversal of those trends in the form of later marriage, a great increase in nonmarital cohabitation, a large rise in divorce, and a sharp fall in fertility to below the replacement level. The similarity of these large-scale trends in North America and Western Europe is striking. The US is most like Britain and, beyond Europe, Canada, and Australia, suggesting that influence of the common culture of the English-speaking Western world. Yet the US has, and probably always has had, higher rates of fertility, marriage, and divorce than most Western European nations. The proportion of single-parent families is unusually large, even though some nations such as Sweden and East Germany have higher proportions of births to unmarried but cohabiting women. The level of cohabitation in the US, although greatly increased, is still moderate by European standards. Concern over the burden of government support for the elderly already has prompted changes in the Social Security program. The ability to support programs for children and for poor families is being questioned, even though the level of government support for the family is relatively low
Advocacy is a core competency of the nurse, and especially the nurse leader. It is a multidimensional concept that requires knowledge, experience, self-confidence, and above all, courage. This article describes and illustrates the perspectives of nursing administration graduate students, as they depict advocacy in many relationships. These include advocacy for the patient, family, self, community, organization, profession, and society. The themes that emerged from narratives written by these nurse leaders were the development of courage and the finding of their voices. Stories demonstrate participants' courage to speak up despite feeling conflicted due to issues of autonomy, moral distress, or fear of retribution. Implications for nurse administrators to support advocacy at all levels are presented.
Luz Sobong Porter
Full Text Available Overweight and obesity among children and adults is well-documented as an escalating problem. The purpose of this study is to determine the blood pressure, self-esteem, and eating and physical activity practices among African Americans, Filipino Americans, and Hispanic Americans; and project implications for development of childhood obesity prevention programs. This descriptive study was conducted in a convenience sample of 110 mothers recruited in health clinics and community centers located in Southeast Florida: 19% African Americans, 26% Filipino Americans, and 55% Hispanic Americans. The data, collected via self-administered questionnaires and a guided interview (Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire, Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale, Background Information Questionnaire, were analyzed via descriptive and inferential statistics with findings significant at p < .05. Results revealed differences and similarities in eating and activity practices between Filipinos and Blacks or Hispanics. Blood pressure and self-esteem did not differ by ethnicity; however, overweight mothers tended to have overweight children. The results point clearly to the importance of the mothers’ role modeling in eating and physical activity practices of families, reflecting the influence of mothers’ behaviors in children’s healthy behaviors, albeit family health. Given that mothers own physical exercise and eating habits could influence their children’s physical activity levels and food choices, a parental advice strategy could be disseminated directly to parents by health professionals. Study findings may raise public awareness of the increasing prevalence and consequences of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents, particularly among vulnerable ethnic groups. The findings provide a database for nurse practitioners and other health service providers for the development of culturally sensitive focused public health education programs to prevent
Toporek, Rebecca L.; Lewis, Judith A.; Crethar, Hugh C.
In 2003, the American Counseling Association (ACA) adopted the ACA Advocacy Competencies (J. A. Lewis, M. S. Arnold, R. House, & R. L. Toporek, 2002) to provide guidance to counselors and acknowledge advocacy as an ethical aspect of service to clients. This article provides a foundation for this special section by sharing a historical perspective…
Tutt, Kevin; Townley, Marc
Knowledge about music advocacy strategies has long been promoted as important for music educators, not only for the benefit of their individual programs but also for the specific benefit of music students and the general public. This article suggests an approach to advocacy grounded in the teacher's professional beliefs, phrased in terms…
Lee, Karen Kyeunghae; Yamada, Ann-Marie; Kim, Min Ah; Dinh, Tam Q
Family involvement is important in the recovery experience of culturally diverse adults with schizophrenia. However, little is known about the influence of family among consumers purported to have close family ties without regular contact. This study explored Asian American consumers' views about family relationships and participation in their recovery. Secondary analysis of qualitative data from a larger project was conducted to explore family related themes of 8 Asian Americans receiving services from recovery-focused programs in urban Southern California. Most consumers described their family support as adequate while simultaneously reporting limited family involvement. Asia-born and U.S.-born Asian consumers varied in describing family support, suggesting providers consider nativity in culturally responsive service delivery. Families need not be present to affect the perspectives of Asian Americans receiving recovery-oriented services. The extent of family influences on recovery, beyond the initial determination of current family contact, requires further exploration. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Parsons, Jon R.
Presents the concept of advocacy in the trenches, wherein residential care staff intercede with and for dysfunctional families, dysfunctional children, and the bureaucracy. This advocacy emphasizes individualized treatment and case-by-case networking, focusing not on broad causes but on what is in the best interest of each child. (ET)
Comparisons were made between African-American women with and without a family history of breast cancer with respect to mammography screening, attitudes towards mammography screening and perceptions...
Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Wu, Chun Yi
African American women are at greater risk for complications related to high blood pressure. This study examined relationships between high blood pressure, pulse pressure, body mass index, family adaptability, family cohesion and social support among 146 Urban African American women. Significant relationships were found between family adaptability and systolic blood pressure (p = .03) and between adaptability and pulse pressure (p ≤ .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely assess family functioning, specifically family adaptability, in African American women who are at risk for high blood pressure or diagnosed with high blood pressure to minimize complications associated with hypertension. PMID:21076625
Juang, Linda P; Alvarez, Alvin A
We examined racial/ethnic discrimination experiences of Chinese American adolescents to determine how discrimination is linked to poor adjustment (i.e., loneliness, anxiety, and somatization) and how the context of the family can buffer or exacerbate these links. We collected survey data from 181 Chinese American adolescents and their parents in Northern California. We conducted hierarchical regression analyses to examine main effects and 2-way interactions of perceived discrimination with family conflict and family cohesion. Discrimination was related to poorer adjustment in terms of loneliness, anxiety, and somatization, but family conflict and cohesion modified these relations. Greater family conflict exacerbated the negative effects of discrimination, and greater family cohesion buffered the negative effects of discrimination. Our findings highlight the importance of identifying family-level moderators to help adolescents and their families handle experiences of discrimination.
Wang, Jong-Yi; Probst, Janice C; Moore, Charity G; Martin, Amy B; Bennett, Kevin J
We examined the prevalence of and factors associated with violent and heated disagreements in the Asian American families, with an emphasis on place of birth differences between parent and child. Data were obtained from the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health, limited to five states with the highest concentration of Asian-Americans (n = 793). Multivariable analysis used generalized logistic regression models with a three-level outcome, violent and heated disagreement versus calm discussion. Violent disagreements were reported in 13.7% of Asian-American homes and 9.9% of white homes. Differential parent-child place of birth was associated with increased odds for heated disagreement in Asian-American families. Parenting stress increased the likelihood of violent disagreements in both Asian-American and white families. Asian-American families are not immune to potential family violence. Reducing parenting stress and intervening in culturally appropriate ways to reduce generation differences should be violence prevention priorities.
Meaney, Karen S.; Hart, Melanie A.; Griffin, L. Kent
Fun & Fit is a program designed to create positive physical activity experiences and to promote healthy lifestyle choices among overweight children from low-income African American and Hispanic American families. The program is a collaborative project between Texas Tech University and the Lubbock Independent School District funded through a…
... Grants Bladder Cancer Think Tank Bladder Cancer Research Network Bladder Cancer Genomics Consortium Get Involved Ways to ... us? Who we are The Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network (BCAN) is a community of patients, caregivers, survivors, ...
Davey, Maureen P; Kissil, Karni; Lynch, Laura; Harmon, La-Rhonda; Hodgson, Nancy
The primary objective of this 2-year pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a culturally adapted family intervention in improving family communication among African American parents coping with cancer and their school-age children. A secondary objective was to determine its impact on other symptoms of psychosocial distress (depression and anxiety). The third objective was to assess for acceptability and feasibility. Using a two-arm pre-intervention and post-intervention prospective design, 12 African American families received five bi-monthly sessions of either a culturally adapted family intervention (n=7 families) or psycho-education treatment (n=5 families). Parents and their children completed pre-intervention and post-intervention questionnaires assessing perceptions of family communication, quality of their relationship, and symptoms of depression. School-age children additionally completed a questionnaire assessing their levels of anxiety. Consumer satisfaction was also evaluated at post-intervention. Parents and school-age children who completed the culturally adapted family intervention reported significantly better communication with each other and were more satisfied compared with the psycho-education control group. No changes were noted in symptoms of anxiety or depression. The culturally adapted family intervention was acceptable based on our findings, families' feedback, and rates of retention. Feasibility is uncertain because our oncology clinic approach to recruitment was slower than expected. Providing culturally adapted family intervention programs to African American families who are coping with parental cancer may result in improved family communication. This pilot study serves as the first step in the development of culturally adapted family intervention programs to help African American families cope with parental cancer. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Burkett, Karen; Morris, Edith; Manning-Courtney, Patricia; Anthony, Jean; Shambley-Ebron, Donna
Cultural factors such as health care access and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom interpretations have been proposed as impacting delayed diagnosis and treatment for African American children with ASD. A qualitative study of urban African American families caring for their child with autism was conducted with 24 family members and 28 ASD…
Building a Latin American cancer patient advocacy movement: Latin American cancer NGO regional overview Desarrollando un movimiento de apoyo para pacientes de cáncer en America Latina: resumen regional - ONGs de cáncer
Full Text Available The objective of the this paper is to assess and identify the key strengths and weaknesses for cancer control NGOs in Latin America, with the goal to make recommendations about how to improve thev impact of the patient advocacy movement as it pertains to cancer. The methods included literature review, expert interviews and site visits to Latin American cancer hospitals and NGOs. The overall findings conclude that NGOs currently do not take a leadership role in cancer control in Latin America. The lack of a survivorship movement, faulty patient information services and failure of the governments to include NGOs in policy creation are identified as areas for further project work and collaboration. The stigma of cancer still remains and a burgeoning patient movement can be created to help destigmatize and debunk the myths that surround cancer.El objetivo de este artículo es el de identificar y evaluar las fortalezas y debilidades clave de las ONG dedicadas al control del cáncer en Latinoamérica, con el fin de generar recomendaciones sobre el modo de mejorar el impacto del movimiento de apoyo para pacientes de cáncer. Los métodos incluyeron una revisión de la literatura, entrevistas a expertos y visitas a hospiptales y ONG dedicados al cáncer en Latinoamérica. Los hallazgos principales permiten concluir que en este momento las ONG no tienen un rol de liderazgo para el control del cáncer en Latinoamérica. La ausencia de un movimiento de sobrevivientes, servicios de información deficientes a los pacientes y el fracaso del gobierno para incluir a las ONG en la creación de políticas se identifican como áreas de trabajo y colaboración en proyectos a futuro. El estigma del cáncer aún subsiste y es factible crear un movimiento que florezca y ayude a desvanecerlo al exponer los mitos que rodean este padecimiento.
Fang, Lin; Schinke, Steven P
Underage drinking among Asian American adolescent girls is not well understood. Based on family interaction theory, the study examined the interrelationships among acculturation variables, family relationships, girls' depressed mood, peer alcohol use, and girls' alcohol use in a sample of 130 Asian American mother-daughter dyads. The mediating role of family relationships, girls' depressed mood, and peer alcohol use on girls' drinking was also assessed. The study advances knowledge related to alcohol use among early Asian American adolescent girls, highlights the effect of immigrant generation status and family relationships, and has implications for culturally specific underage drinking prevention programs.
Ahye, Brenda A; Devine, Carol M; Odoms-Young, Angela M
This grounded theory investigation aimed to understand intergenerational family roles and the food management strategies of African American women from a social-ecological perspective. Thirty women from 10 low/moderate-income 3-generation urban families participated in interviews covering roles, health, nutrition, and food management strategies. Four dynamic family systems for managing food and nutrition emerged from qualitative data analysis. Participants expressed values of responsibility, social connections, caretaking, reward, and equal opportunity, and fulfilling responsibilities for family care, connections, and finances. These values and systems provide a basis for culturally appropriate, interpersonal-level nutrition interventions among African American women that build on family structures, needs, and resources.
Hutsinger, Carol S.; Jose, Paul E.
Examined sociocultural influences on mathematics achievement. First generation Chinese American and Caucasian American mother-father-daughter triads were audiotaped as the fifth- and sixth-grade girls solved a spatial puzzle. Chinese American triads were quieter, more respectful, more serious, and more orderly, whereas Caucasian American triads…
Schuler, Tammy A; Zaider, Talia I; Li, Yuelin; Hichenberg, Shira; Masterson, Melissa; Kissane, David W
Poor family functioning affects psychosocial adjustment and the occurrence of morbidity following bereavement in the context of a family's coping with advanced cancer. Family functioning typologies assist with targeted family-centered assessment and intervention to offset these complications in the palliative care setting. Our objective was to identify the number and nature of potential types in an American palliative care patient sample. Data from patients with advanced cancer (N = 1809) screened for eligibility for a larger randomized clinical trial were used. Cluster analyses determined whether patients could be classified into clinically meaningful and coherent groups, based on similarities in their perceptions of family functioning across the cohesiveness, expressiveness, and conflict resolution subscales of the Family Relations Index. Patients' reports of perceived family functioning yielded a model containing five meaningful family types. Cohesiveness, expressiveness, and conflict resolution appear to be useful dimensions by which to classify patient perceptions of family functioning. "At risk" American families may include those we have called hostile, low-communicating, and less-involved. Such families may benefit from adjuvant family-centered psychosocial services, such as family therapy. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cervantes, Christi A.
Mother-child conversations during story-telling play were analyzed for patterns of emotion talk. Subjects were 48 Mexican immigrant and Mexican American mothers and their children aged 3-4. Contrary to previous findings, Mexican immigrant mothers used more explanations of emotions than labels. Mexican American mothers used both, equally. Results…
Dominguez-Valentin, Mev; Nilbert, Mef; Wernhoff, Patrik
Genetic counselling and testing for Lynch syndrome have recently been introduced in several South American countries, though yet not available in the public health care system.......Genetic counselling and testing for Lynch syndrome have recently been introduced in several South American countries, though yet not available in the public health care system....
Kao, Hsueh-Fen S; An, Kyungeh
Informal family care for elders is conventional in Mexican American communities despite increasing intergenerational gaps in filial values. In our study, we explored whether acculturation and dyadic mutuality, as perceived by Mexican American family caregivers, explain the caregivers' expectations of family loyalty toward elderly relatives. A nonexperimental, correlational design with convenience sampling was used in El Paso, Texas, from October 2007 to January 2008. Three bilingual promotoras collected data from 193 Mexican American adult caregivers of community-dwelling elders using three scales designed for Mexican Americans: the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans II-Short Form, the Mutuality Scale, and the Expectations of Family Loyalty of Children Toward Elderly Relatives Scale. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to analyze the data. Acculturation had a marginal effect (r = .21, p loyalty toward elderly relatives. There was no significant correlation between acculturation and mutuality (r = .05). Although Mexican American caregivers with strong Mexican orientation may have high expectations of family loyalty toward elderly relatives, mutuality exhibits more significant effects on expectations. Among Mexican Americans, mutuality between the caregiving dyad, as perceived by caregivers, may be a better predictor of filial values than caregivers' acculturation alone. It may be useful to incorporate the dual paradigm of acculturation and mutuality into immigrant family care for elderly relatives. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Conger, Rand D.; Conger, Katherine J.; Martin, Monica J.; Brody, Gene; Simons, Ronald; Cutrona, Carolyn
Using data from a sample of 673 Mexican Origin families, the current investigation examined the degree to which family supportiveness acted as a protective buffer between neighborhood disorder and antisocial behavior during late childhood (i.e. intent to use controlled substances, externalizing, and association with deviant peers). Children’s perceptions of neighborhood disorder fully mediated associations between census and observer measures of neighborhood disorder and their antisocial behavior. Family support buffered children from the higher rates of antisocial behavior generally associated with living in disorderly neighborhoods. An additional goal of the current study was to replicate these findings in a second sample of 897 African American families, and that replication was successful. These findings suggest that family support may play a protective role for children living in dangerous or disadvantaged neighborhoods. They also suggest that neighborhood interventions should consider several points of entry including structural changes, resident perceptions of their neighborhood and family support. PMID:22089092
Chesla, Catherine A; Chun, Kevin M; Kwan, Christine M L
Although Asians demonstrate elevated levels of type 2 diabetes, little attention has been directed to their unique cultural beliefs and practices regarding diabetes. We describe cultural and family challenges to illness management in foreign-born Chinese American patients with type 2 diabetes and their spouses. This was an interpretive comparative interview study with 20 foreign-born Chinese American couples (n = 40) living with type 2 diabetes. Multiple (six to seven) semistructured interviews with each couple in individual, group, and couple settings elicited beliefs about diabetes and narratives of care within the family and community. Interpretive narrative and thematic analysis were completed. A separate respondent group of 19 patients and spouses who met the inclusion criteria reviewed and confirmed the themes developed from the initial couples. Cultural and family challenges to diabetes management within foreign-born Chinese American families included how 1) diabetes symptoms challenged family harmony, 2) dietary prescriptions challenged food beliefs and practices, and 3) disease management requirements challenged established family role responsibilities. Culturally nuanced care with immigrant Chinese Americans requires attentiveness to the social context of disease management. Patients' and families' disease management decisions are seldom made independent of their concerns for family well-being, family face, and the reciprocal responsibilities required by varied family roles. Framing disease recommendations to include cultural concerns for balance and significant food rituals are warranted.
Thulasiraj D Ravilla
Full Text Available The effectiveness of eye care service delivery is often dependant on how the different stakeholders are aligned. These stakeholders range from the ministries of health who have the capacity to grant government subsidies for eye care, down to the primary healthcare workers who can be enrolled to screen for basic eye diseases. Advocacy is a tool that can help service providers draw the attention of key stakeholders to a particular area of concern. By enlisting the support, endorsement and participation of a wider circle of players, advocacy can help to improve the penetration and effectiveness of the services provided. There are several factors in the external environmental that influence the eye care services - such as the availability of trained manpower, supply of eye care consumables, government rules and regulations. There are several instances where successful advocacy has helped to create an enabling environment for eye care service delivery. Providing eye care services in developing countries requires the support - either for direct patient care or for support services such as producing trained manpower or for research and dissemination. Such support, in the form of financial or other resources, can be garnered through advocacy.
Gilder, George; And Others
A national workfare scheme would subvert the foundations of capitalism and family life because the government is incompetent in the area of child care and because the prime role of a mother is raising children not earning money. Religious supports must undergird family values in order to diminish the moral anarchy present today. (VM)
Choi, Yoonsun; Kim, Tae Yeun; Noh, Samuel; Lee, Jeanette; Takeuchi, David
This study tests the psychometric properties of multiple survey items and scales that are either underused or newly developed to assess familism among Asian Americans. Using data collected from 150 Filipino and 188 Korean American parents (mostly mothers) in the Midwest region in 2013, the measures were examined for validity and reliability for each group and, when appropriate, for cross-cultural equivalence across the groups. Several scales and their items showed high quality psychometric properties and are ready for use to more accurately assess family process of each target group and to conduct comparative analyses. The findings also show that, contrary to the expectation, Filipino American families express more traditional aspects of familism than do Korean American families, and are more likely to reinforce traditional familism beliefs and behaviors among their children. This study reinforces a need for more empirical- and subgroup-specific research effort. © 2017 Family Process Institute.
Masood, Nausheen; Okazaki, Sumie; Takeuchi, David T.
Nationally representative data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (Alegría et al., 2004) was used to examine both disorder prevalence rates and correlates of distress for the South Asian American subgroup (n = 164). South Asian Americans generally appeared to have lower or comparable rates of lifetime and 12-month mood and anxiety disorders when compared with the overall Asian American sample. A multiple-regression model fitted to predict recent psychological distress, with 12-month diagnosis as a covariate, found gender differences. For women, lack of extended family support was related to higher levels of distress, whereas for men, greater conflict with family culture, and a lower community social position (but higher U.S. social position) predicted higher distress scores. Findings suggest that mental health services consider a broad framework of psychological functioning for South Asian Americans that reflect their gendered, familial, and sociopolitical realities. PMID:19594255
Masood, Nausheen; Okazaki, Sumie; Takeuchi, David T
Nationally representative data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (Alegría et al., 2004) was used to examine both disorder prevalence rates and correlates of distress for the South Asian American subgroup (n = 164). South Asian Americans generally appeared to have lower or comparable rates of lifetime and 12-month mood and anxiety disorders when compared with the overall Asian American sample. A multiple-regression model fitted to predict recent psychological distress, with 12-month diagnosis as a covariate, found gender differences. For women, lack of extended family support was related to higher levels of distress, whereas for men, greater conflict with family culture, and a lower community social position (but higher U.S. social position) predicted higher distress scores. Findings suggest that mental health services consider a broad framework of psychological functioning for South Asian Americans that reflect their gendered, familial, and sociopolitical realities.
Taylor, Robert Joseph; Mouzon, Dawne M; Nguyen, Ann W; Chatters, Linda M
This study examined reciprocal support networks involving extended family, friends and church members among African Americans. Our analysis examined specific patterns of reciprocal support (i.e., received only, gave only, both gave and received, neither gave or received), as well as network characteristics (i.e., contact and subjective closeness) as correlates of reciprocal support. The analysis is based on the African American sub-sample of the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Overall, our findings indicate that African Americans are very involved in reciprocal support networks with their extended family, friends and church members. Respondents were most extensively involved in reciprocal supports with extended family members, followed closely by friends and church networks. Network characteristics (i.e., contact and subjective closeness) were significantly and consistently associated with involvement with reciprocal support exchanges for all three networks. These and other findings are discussed in detail. This study complements previous work on the complementary roles of family, friend and congregational support networks, as well as studies of racial differences in informal support networks.
Weiss, JieWu; Garbanati, James A.
The primary objective of this study was to examine the combination of acculturation, family functioning, and parental smoking as predictors of smoking attitudes and behaviors among Asian-American adolescents. The participants were 106 Asian-American high school students whose ages ranged from 15 to 19 (51 male and 55 female, mean age = 16.30…
Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Desai, Uttara; George, Login S.; San Filippo, Alyssa A.; Varon, Samantha
Conflict over career decisions is a main source of intergenerational conflict among Asian American families. This qualitative study explored the topic using consensual qualitative research methodology in a sample of eight Asian Americans. Results indicated that participants experienced feelings of guilt and indebtedness due to conflicting values,…
Teen dating violence is more prevalent among African Americans than any other racial group in the United States leading to serious health consequences for victims. However, limited data exists on how African American adolescents' attitudes and perceptions regarding dating violence are formed, and whether they are influenced by family members. The…
Why do American infants have a greater amount of vocalization, and particularly of happy vocalization, than do Japanese infants? To answer this question, 30 Japanese and 30 American first-born, 3- to 4-month old infants equally divided by sex, and living in intact middle class urban families were observed in their homes on two consecutive days…
Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.
The relationships between cumulative family risk factors and American students' academic performance were examined in all 50 States and the District of Columbia. Data from the 2007 "American Community Survey" were used to ascertain the percent of birth to 18 year old children in the United States who experienced three or more risk…
Rivera, Lorna; Lavan, Nicole
This article draws upon three years of interviews and participant observation research in the Chelsea Public Schools, to discuss the impact of the Chelsea Family Literacy Program on promoting Latin American immigrant mothers' involvement in their children's education. The authors present the voices of Latin American immigrant mothers who describe…
Vela, Javier C.; Lenz, A. Stephen; Sparrow, Gregory Scott; Gonzalez, Stacey Lee
Positive psychology is a useful framework to understand Mexican American adolescents' academic experiences. We used a quantitative, predictive design to explore how presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, subjective happiness, hope, and family importance influenced 131 Mexican American adolescents' college-going beliefs. We used…
Maxwell, G Larry
Non-profit advocacy organizations have been important in raising public awareness, promoting education, and enhancing political activism for issues related to cancer. Grassroots efforts aimed at fund-raising have substantially augmented federal funding for community outreach and research. The objective of this review was to evaluate successful accomplishments of several major non-profit organizations that are focused on cancer. A review of news media, medical literature, and financial records (using GuideStar) was performed to access the organizational structure and productivity of several successful cancer advocacy organizations. Compared to other cancer advocacy groups, the American Cancer Society is the oldest (>100years old) and worth the most with net assets of over $1.25 billion dollars and an annual total revenue of over $900 million dollars. The ACS also has the highest overhead at 41%. Most of the gynecologic cancer advocacy groups are approximately 20years old and have collective total annual revenue of over $17M dollars. The Ovarian Cancer Research Fund has been the most successful at raising funds and building net assets to date while maintaining an overhead of active and financially successful cancer organizations tend to be older, have higher overhead, spend less on total administration, spend more on fund-raising, have more events (rather than a limited number), and use aggressive social media strategies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Chang, Janet; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Chen, Chih-Nan
The present study utilized data from the National Latino and Asian American Study to examine ethnic and generational differences in family cultural conflict and family cohesion and how the effects of such family conflict and cohesion on lifetime service use vary by generation status for Latino Americans (n = 2,554) and Asian Americans (n = 2,095). Findings revealed that first-generation Asian Americans reported greater family cultural conflict than their Latino counterparts, but third-generation Latino Americans had higher family conflict than their Asian American counterparts. First-generation Latino and Asian Americans had the highest levels of family cohesion. Results from logistic regression analyses indicated that Latino Americans who reported higher family cultural conflict and lower family cohesion were more likely to use mental health services. For Asian Americans, family cultural conflict, but not family cohesion, was associated with service use. Relative to third-generation Asian Americans, second-generation Asian Americans with higher family cultural conflict were more likely to use mental health services. Given that cohesive familial bonds appear to discourage service use on the part of Latino Americans irrespective of generation status, further research is needed to ascertain the extent to which this tendency stems from greater reliance on family support as opposed to the stigma associated with mental health treatment. Mental health providers and treatment programs need to address the role of family cultural conflict in the lives of Asian Americans, particularly second generation, and Latino Americans across generations, because conflictual family ties may motivate help-seeking behaviors and reveal substantial underlying distress. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Hammack, Phillip L.; Robinson, W. LaVome; Crawford, Isiaah; Li, Susan T.
We examined the role of family stress as a mediator of the relationship between poverty and depressed mood among 1,704 low-income, inner-city African-American adolescents. Nearly half of participants (47%) reported clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms. Being female, reporting higher levels of family stress, and scoring higher on a…
Thompson, Keisha V.; Lightfoot, Nicole L.; Castillo, Linda G.; Hurst, Morgan L.
This study examined family-oriented stressors on acculturative stress in 83 African American college students attending a predominately White university. Results showed that family pressure for participants not to acculturate, pressure to maintain ethnic group language, perception of Acting White, and acculturation level were related to higher…
Benner, Aprile D.; Kim, Su Yeong
In this brief report, we investigated whether the Family Stress Model could be replicated with a sample of Chinese American families. Path analyses with 444 adolescents and their parents provided support for the model's generalizability. Specifically, mothers' and fathers' reports of economic status (i.e., income, financial, and job instability)…
Mandara, Jelani; Rogers, Sheba Y.; Zinbarg, Richard E.
The relationship between family structure and marijuana use throughout adolescence was assessed among 1,069 African Americans from the NLSY. A model was also tested suggesting that the effects of family structure on marijuana use would be mediated by poverty, neighborhood quality, and adolescents' self-control. As most prior studies have found,…
KNOWLTON, CLARK S.
DATA FOR THIS PAPER WERE OBTAINED FROM EXAMINATION OF AVAILABLE LITERATURE AND FROM FIELD WORK IN SAN MIGUEL AND MORA COUNTIES OF NORTHERN NEW MEXICO. THE EXTENDED PATRIARCHAL FAMILY WAS THE PRIMARY SOCIAL SYSTEM AMONG THE SPANISH AMERICANS, OFTEN CONSISTING OF MEMBERS OF THREE OR FOUR GENERATIONS HEADED BY THE GRANDFATHER. THIS FAMILY COOPERATED…
Querido, Jane G; Warner, Tamara D; Eyberg, Sheila M
Examined the relations between parenting styles and child behavior problems in African American preschool children. Participants were 108 African American female caregivers of 3- to 6-year-old children. Correlational analysis showed that parent-reported child behavior problems were associated with maternal education, family income, and parents' endorsement of authoritative parenting, authoritarian parenting, and permissive parenting. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the authoritative parenting style was most predictive of fewer child behavior problems. These results are consistent with previous findings with European American families and provide strong support for the cross-cultural validity of the authoritative parenting style.
Wang, Xiao-lei; Bernas, Ronan; Eberhard, Philippe
This study examined how Chinese and American Indian mothers support their young children's early literacy development in everyday interactions. Twenty mother-child dyads in each cultural community participated in the study. Analysis of videotaped interactions indicated that the mothers in the two communities differed greatly in the ways they…
Roosa, Mark W.; O’Donnell, Megan; Cham, Heining; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Zeiders, Katherine H.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana
Mexican American youth are at greater risk of school failure than their peers. To identify factors that may contribute to academic success in this population, this study examined the prospective relationships from 5th grade to 7th grade of family (i.e., human capital [a parent with at least a high school education], residential stability, academically and occupationally positive family role models, and family structure) and individual characteristics (i.e., externalizing symptoms, bilingualis...
Choe, Daniel Ewon; Zimmerman, Marc A
This is the first longitudinal study of urban African American adolescents that has examined bidirectional effects between their family conflict and violent behavior across all of high school. Structured interviews were administered to 681 students each year in high school at ages 15, 16 17, and 18 years. We used structural equation modeling to test a transactional model and found bidirectional effects between family conflict and violent behavior across the middle years of high school, while accounting for sex and socioeconomic status. Findings suggest a reciprocal process involving interpersonal conflict in African American families and adolescent engagement in youth violence.
White, Rebecca M B; Roosa, Mark W; Zeiders, Katharine H
We present an integrated model for understanding Mexican American youth mental health within family, neighborhood, and cultural contexts. We combined two common perspectives on neighborhood effects to hypothesize that (a) parents' perceptions of neighborhood risk would negatively impact their children's mental health by disrupting key parenting and family processes, and (b) objective neighborhood risk would alter the effect parent and family processes had on youth mental health. We further incorporated a cultural perspective to hypothesize that an ethnic minority group's culture-specific values may support parents to successfully confront neighborhood risk. We provided a conservative test of the integrated model by simultaneously examining three parenting and family process variables: maternal warmth, maternal harsh parenting, and family cohesion. The hypothesized model was estimated prospectively in a diverse, community-based sample of Mexican American adolescents and their mothers (N = 749) living in the southwestern United States. Support for specific elements of the hypothesized model varied depending on the parenting or family process variable examined. For family cohesion results were consistent with the combined neighborhood perspectives. The effects of maternal warmth on youth mental health were altered by objective neighborhood risk. For harsh parenting, results were somewhat consistent with the cultural perspective. The value of the integrated model for research on the impacts of family, neighborhood, and cultural contexts on youth mental health are discussed, as are implications for preventive interventions for Mexican American families and youth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
White, Rebecca M. B.; Roosa, Mark W.; Zeiders, Katharine H.
We present an integrated model for understanding Mexican American youth mental health within family, neighborhood, and cultural contexts. We combined two common perspectives on neighborhood effects to hypothesize that (a) parents’ perceptions of neighborhood risk would negatively impact their children’s mental health by disrupting key parenting and family processes, and (b) objective neighborhood risk would alter the effect parent and family processes had on youth mental health. We further incorporated a cultural perspective to hypothesize that an ethnic minority group’s culture-specific values may support parents to successfully confront neighborhood risk. We provided a conservative test of the integrated model by simultaneously examining three parenting and family process variables: maternal warmth, maternal harsh parenting, and family cohesion. The hypothesized model was estimated prospectively in a diverse, community-based sample of Mexican American adolescents and their mothers (N = 749) living in the Southwestern, U.S. Support for specific elements of the hypothesized model varied depending on the parenting or family process variable examined. For family cohesion results were consistent with the combined neighborhood perspectives. The effects of maternal warmth on youth mental health were altered by objective neighborhood risk. For harsh parenting results were somewhat consistent with the cultural perspective. The value of the integrated model for research on the impacts of family, neighborhood, and cultural contexts on youth mental health are discussed, as are implications for preventive interventions for Mexican American families and youth. PMID:22866932
Hovick, Shelly R; Yamasaki, Jill S; Burton-Chase, Allison M; Peterson, Susan K
This qualitative study examined patterns of communication regarding family health history among older African American adults. The authors conducted 5 focus groups and 6 semi-structured interviews with African Americans aged 60 years and older (N = 28). The authors identified 4 distinct patterns of family health history communication: noncommunication, open communication, selective communication (communication restricted to certain people or topics), and one-way communication (communication not reciprocated by younger family members). In general, participants favored open family health history communication, often resulting from desires to change patterns of noncommunication in previous generations regarding personal and family health history. Some participants indicated that they were selective about what and with whom they shared health information in order to protect their privacy and not worry others. Others described family health history communication as one-way or unreciprocated by younger family members who appeared uninterested or unwilling to share personal and family health information. The communication patterns that the authors identified are consistent with communication privacy management theory and with findings from studies focused on genetic testing results for hereditary conditions, suggesting that individuals are consistent in their communication of health and genetic risk information. Findings may guide the development of health message strategies for African Americans to increase family health history communication.
Himle, Joseph A; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Nguyen, Ann W; Williams, Monnica T; Lincoln, Karen D; Taylor, Harry Owen; Chatters, Linda M
Although there is a large literature on the influence of social support on mental health there is limited research on social support and OCD. This is especially the case for African Americans and Black Caribbeans. This study examines the relationship between family and friendship networks and the prevalence of OCD. The analysis is based on the National Survey of American Life a nationally representative sample of African Americans and Black Caribbeans. Variables included frequency of contact with family and friends, subjective closeness with family and friends, and negative interactions (conflict, criticisms) with family members. The results indicated that only negative interaction with family members was significantly associated with OCD prevalence. African Americans and Black Caribbeans with more frequent negative interactions with family members had a higher likelihood of having OCD. Subjective closeness and frequency of contact with family and friends was not protective of OCD. Overall the findings are consistent with previous work which finds that social support is an inconsistent protective factor of psychiatric disorders, but negative interactions with support network members is more consistently associated with mental health problems.
Veronnie Faye Jones
Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity is a growing problem for children in the United States, especially for children from low-income, African American families. Objective: The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand facilitators and barriers to engaging in healthy lifestyles faced by low-income African American children and their families. Methods: This qualitative study used semi-structured focus group interviews with eight African American children clinically identified as overweight or obese (BMI > 85 and their parents. An expert panel provided insights in developing culturally appropriate intervention strategies. Results: Child and parent focus group analysis revealed eleven barriers and no definitive facilitators for healthy eating and lifestyles. Parents reported confusion regarding what constitutes nutritional eating, varying needs of family members in terms of issues with weight, and difficulty in engaging the family in appropriate and safe physical activities; to name a few themes. Community experts independently suggested that nutritional information is confusing and, often, contradictory. Additionally, they recommended simple messaging and practical interventions such as helping with shopping lists, meal planning, and identifying simple and inexpensive physical activities.Conclusions: Childhood obesity in the context of low-resource families is a complex problem with no simple solutions. Culturally sensitive and family-informed interventions are needed to support low-income African American families in dealing with childhood obesity.
Jones, Veronnie Faye; Rowland, Michael L; Young, Linda; Atwood, Katherine; Thompson, Kirsten; Sterrett, Emma; Honaker, Sarah Morsbach; Williams, Joel E; Johnson, Knowlton; Davis, Deborah Winders
Childhood obesity is a growing problem for children in the United States, especially for children from low-income, African American families. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand facilitators and barriers to engaging in healthy lifestyles faced by low-income African American children and their families. This qualitative study used semi-structured focus group interviews with eight African American children clinically identified as overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 85) and their parents. An expert panel provided insights in developing culturally appropriate intervention strategies. Child and parent focus group analysis revealed 11 barriers and no definitive facilitators for healthy eating and lifestyles. Parents reported confusion regarding what constitutes nutritional eating, varying needs of family members in terms of issues with weight, and difficulty in engaging the family in appropriate and safe physical activities; to name a few themes. Community experts independently suggested that nutritional information is confusing and, often, contradictory. Additionally, they recommended simple messaging and practical interventions such as helping with shopping lists, meal planning, and identifying simple and inexpensive physical activities. Childhood obesity in the context of low-resource families is a complex problem with no simple solutions. Culturally sensitive and family informed interventions are needed to support low-income African American families in dealing with childhood obesity.
The US decision since the 1960s to link foreign policy with family planning and population control is noteworthy for its intention to change the demographic structure of foreign countries and the magnitude of the initiative. The current population ideologies are part of the legacy of 19th century views on science, morality, and political economy. Strong constraints were placed on US foreign policy since World War II, particularly due to presumptions about the role of developing countries in Cold War ideology. Domestic debates revolved around issues of feminism, birth control, abortion, and family political issues. Since the 1960s, environmental degradation and resource depletion were an added global dimension of US population issues. Between 1935 and 1958 birth control movements evolved from the ideologies of utopian socialists, Malthusians, women's rights activists, civil libertarians, and advocates of sexual freedom. There was a shift from acceptance of birth control to questions about the role of national government in supporting distribution of birth control. Immediately postwar the debates over birth control were outside political circles. The concept of family planning as a middle class family issue shifted the focus from freeing women from the burdens of housework to making women more efficient housewives. Family planning could not be taken as a national policy concern without justification as a major issue, a link to national security, belief in the success of intervention, and a justifiable means of inclusion in public policy. US government involvement began with agricultural education, technological assistance, and economic development that would satisfy the world's growing population. Cold War politics forced population growth as an issue to be considered within the realm of foreign policy and diplomacy. US government sponsored family planning was enthusiastic during 1967-74 but restrained during the 1980s. The 1990s has been an era of redefinition of
Gonzalez, Michelle; Jones, Deborah; Parent, Justin
African American youth from single-mother homes continue to be overrepresented in statistics on risk behavior and delinquency, a trend that many be attributed to father-absence, socioeconomic disadvantage, and compromises in parenting more typical of single than two-parent families. Yet, this risk-focused perspective ignores a long-standing strength of the African American community, the involvement and potential protective impact of extended family members in childrearing. This study describes the experiences of 95 African American single mothers and their nonmarital coparents who participated in a study of African American single-mother families with an 11-16-year-old child. Specifically, the study examines: (a) the extent to which nonmarital coparents are involved in childrearing; (b) the relative levels of risk (i.e., depression, mother-coparent conflict) and protective (i.e., parenting) associated with maternal and coparent involvement; and (c) how similarly and/or differently coparent and mother variables operate with regard to youth externalizing problems. Findings reveal that a range of family members and other adults actively participate in childrearing in African American single-mother families, coparents do not differ from mothers on certain study variables (i.e., depression and mother-coparent conflict) but do for others (parenting), and coparent involvement is associated with youth adjustment in ways that are similar to our more established understanding of maternal involvement. The potential clinical implications of the findings are discussed and future research directions are highlighted. © 2014 FPI, Inc.
Durand, Tina M.; Perez, Nicole A.
Parental involvement is an important component of children's school success. Although the literature on parental involvement among Latino families is growing and moving from deficit-based perspectives, very few studies have examined the parental involvement beliefs and practices of Latino families who vary across demographic and sociocultural…
Evans, Bronwynne C; Coon, David W; Belyea, Michael J; Ume, Ebere
Specific stressors associated with caregiving in Mexican American (MA) families are not well documented, yet caregiving issues are paramount because informal care for parents is central to their culture. Although MA families who band together to provide care for one member are not unique, the literature does not describe the phenomenon of collective caregiving, which may be widespread but unrecognized. This article describes these understudied families who are poorly served by contemporary health systems because their characteristics are unknown. Descriptive, multisite, longitudinal mixed-methods study of MA caregiving families. We identified three types of collective caregivers: those providing care for multiple family members simultaneously, those providing care successively to several family members, and/or those needing care themselves during their caregiving of others. Collective caregiving of MA elders warrants further investigation. Exploration of collective caregiving may provide a foundation for tailored family interventions.
This article describes the perceptions of African American nurses regarding the interaction between work-family conflict, job satisfaction, and psychological well-being. A qualitative descriptive design was employed to conduct six focus group sessions with 23 nurses at three universities in the southeastern United States. Stressors such as racism or lack of teamwork and supervisor support caused the nurses to contemplate leaving a workplace or the profession. Family stressors, such as an ill family member, also influenced any decision regarding career longevity. Future studies examining work-family interface, especially positive spillover and psychological well-being are warranted.
Jarrett, Robin L.; Coba-Rodriguez, Sarai
Researchers have examined the impact of family on child literacy among low-income African American families and preschoolers considered to be at risk for not being ready for kindergarten. Quantitative studies identify family-parental variables associated with poorer literacy outcomes, whereas qualitative studies detail family practices that…
Full Text Available Many Cambodian American families have struggled on the economic margins since their arrival to the U.S. in the 1980s. To raise families in poverty Cambodians created family survival strategies to buffer themselves against economic uncertainty and the vagaries of the social welfare system. They combine public assistance with formal and informal work activities of household members, including teenagers and young adults, to survive. With the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 or Welfare Reform, Cambodians lost vital economic resources. Based upon a longitudinal qualitative study from 1998-2007, this article looks back on how first generation Cambodian American household members adjusted to changes in welfare policy practices and how the loss of vital resources impacted the youth (15-19 years old coming of age in these families. The research findings and family case histories presented in this article illustrate the shared struggle of Cambodian family members in poverty. It reveals the significant challenges second generation Cambodian Americans face to achieve higher education goals when welfare policies systematically undercut family survival strategies.
Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D.; Holder-Cooper, Judith C.; Gizlice, Ziya; Davis, Gwendolyn; Steele, Sonia P.; Keyserling, Thomas C.; Kumanyika, Shiriki K.; Brantley, Phillip J.; Svetkey, Laura P.
Objective To develop and test a family-centered behavioral weight loss intervention for African American adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods In this randomized trial, dyads consisting of African American adult with overweight or obesity and type 2 diabetes (index participant) paired with a family partner with overweight or obesity, but not diagnosed with diabetes, were assigned in a 2:1 ratio to a 20-week special intervention (SI) or delayed intervention (DI) control group. The primary outcome was weight loss among index participants at 20 weeks follow-up. Results One hundred-eight participants (54 dyads – 36 (SI) and 18 (DI) dyads) were enrolled: 81% females; mean age, 51 years; mean weight,103 kg; and mean BMI, 37 kg/m2. At post-intervention, 96 participants (89%) returned for follow-up measures. Among index participants, mean difference in weight loss between groups was −5.0 kg, pfamily interactions, and dietary, physical activity, and diabetes self-care behaviors. SI family partners also had significant weight loss (−3.9 kg (SI) vs. −1.0 kg (DI) p=0.02). Conclusions A family-centered, behavioral weight loss intervention led to clinically significant short-term weight loss among family dyads. PMID:27911049
Tomayko, Emily J; Mosso, Kathryn L; Cronin, Kate A; Carmichael, Lakeesha; Kim, KyungMann; Parker, Tassy; Yaroch, Amy L; Adams, Alexandra K
High food insecurity has been demonstrated in rural American Indian households, but little is known about American Indian families in urban settings or the association of food insecurity with diet for these families. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of food insecurity in American Indian households by urban-rural status, correlates of food insecurity in these households, and the relationship between food insecurity and diet in these households. Dyads consisting of an adult caregiver and a child (2-5 years old) from the same household in five urban and rural American Indian communities were included. Demographic information was collected, and food insecurity was assessed using two validated items from the USDA Household Food Security Survey. Factors associated with food insecurity were examined using logistic regression. Child and adult diets were assessed using food screeners. Coping strategies were assessed through focus group discussions. These cross-sectional baseline data were collected from 2/2013 through 4/2015 for the Healthy Children, Strong Families 2 randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyles intervention for American Indian families. A high prevalence of food insecurity was determined (61%) and was associated with American Indian ethnicity, lower educational level, single adult households, WIC participation, and urban settings (p = 0.05). Food insecure adults had significantly lower intake of vegetables (p insecure children had significantly higher intakes of fried potatoes (p insecurity. The prevalence of food insecurity in American Indian households in our sample is extremely high, and geographic designation may be an important contributing factor. Moreover, food insecurity had a significant negative influence on dietary intake for families. Understanding strategies employed by households may help inform future interventions to address food insecurity. ( NCT01776255 ). Registered: January 16, 2013. Date of enrollment
Lee, EH; Zhou, Q; Ly, J; Main, A; Tao, A; Chen, SH
Using data from a socioeconomically diverse sample of Chinese American children (n = 258, aged 6-9 years) in immigrant families, we examined the concurrent relations among neighborhood economic disadvantage and concentration of Asian residents, parenting styles, and Chinese American children's externalizing and internalizing problems. Neighborhood characteristics were measured with 2000 U.S. Census tract-level data, parents (mostly mothers) rated their own parenting styles, and parents and te...
Chen, Stephen H.
The present dissertation used a developmental, sociocultural models approach to culture and emotion, and examined the prospective relations of immigrant parents' cultural orientations and their expression of emotion in the family context. Chinese American immigrant parents (n=210) with elementary-aged children were assessed at two time points approximately two years apart. Parents reported on their own and their children's patterns of engagement in both Chinese and American cultural domains. ...
Chen, SH; Hua, M; Zhou, Q; Tao, A; Lee, EH; Ly, J; Main, A
Direct and indirect/mediated relations of (a) children's and parents' cultural orientations and (b) parent-child gaps in cultural orientations to children's psychological adjustment were examined in a socioeconomically diverse sample of 258 Chinese American children (age 6-9 years) from immigrant families. Parents reported on children's and their own Chinese and American orientations in language proficiency, media use, and social relationships. Parents and teachers rated children's externaliz...
Telzer, Eva H; Gonzales, Nancy; Fuligni, Andrew J
Adolescent substance use is one of today's most important social concerns, with Latino youth exhibiting the highest overall rates of substance use. Recognizing the particular importance of family connection and support for families from Mexican backgrounds, the current study seeks to examine how family obligation values and family assistance behaviors may be a source of protection or risk for substance use among Mexican-American adolescents. Three hundred and eighty-five adolescents (51% female) from Mexican backgrounds completed a questionnaire and daily diary for 14 consecutive days. Results suggest that family obligation values are protective, relating to lower substance use, due, in part, to the links with less association with deviant peers and increased adolescent disclosure. In contrast, family assistance behaviors are a source of risk within high parent-child conflict homes, relating to higher levels of substance use. These findings suggest that cultural values are protective against substance use, but the translation of these values into behaviors can be a risk factor depending upon the relational context of the family.
Adolescent substance use is one of today’s most important social concerns, with Latino youth exhibiting the highest overall rates of substance use. Recognizing the particular importance of family connection and support for families from Mexican backgrounds, the current study seeks to examine how family obligation values and family assistance behaviors may be a source of protection or risk for substance use among Mexican-American adolescents. Three hundred and eighty-five adolescents (51% female) from Mexican backgrounds completed a questionnaire and daily diary for 14 consecutive days. Results suggest that family obligation values are protective, relating to lower substance use, due, in part, to the links with less association with deviant peers and increased adolescent disclosure. In contrast, family assistance behaviors are a source of risk within high parent-child conflict homes, relating to higher levels of substance use. These findings suggest that cultural values are protective against substance use, but the translation of these values into behaviors can be a risk factor depending upon the relational context of the family. PMID:23532598
Hunt, Tenah K. A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Assari, Shervin
This study examined the association between perceived family economic stress, quality of father-son relationships, and depressive symptoms among African American adolescent fathers. Data were collected during pregnancy from 65 African American adolescents who were first-time fathers, ages 14-19. Results from multiple regression analyses indicated that higher paternal relationship satisfaction was associated with fewer depressive symptoms among adolescent fathers. Additionally, depressive symptoms were higher among adolescent fathers who reported experiencing higher levels of conflict with their fathers. Further, paternal conflict moderated the effect of perceived family economic stress on depressive symptoms. That is, among adolescent fathers experiencing low levels of conflict with their fathers, high perceived family economic stress was associated with more depressive symptoms. Study findings suggest that the risk for depressive symptoms is highest among adolescent fathers experiencing low family economic stress and highly conflictual relations with their fathers. These results highlight the complexities of paternal relationships and perceived economic stressors on depressive symptoms during pregnancy for African American adolescent fathers. The importance of expanding research on influential familial relationships and economic stressors on adolescent African American fathers is discussed. PMID:26617454
Pooler, Jennifer; Gleason, Stacy F
To assess Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) benefit use across Arab American, Hispanic, and non-Arab/non-Hispanic families participating in the Michigan WIC program using point-of-sale Electronic Benefits Transfer data. Cross-sectional analysis using administrative data obtained from the Michigan WIC program, which collects Arab American ethnicity in addition to Hispanic ethnicity and race. Michigan. Families participating in the Michigan WIC program in March, 2012 (n = 152,989). Families redeeming all WIC benefits. Bivariate frequencies and multivariate logistic regression model identified characteristics of families associated with full redemption of WIC food benefits. About 12% of WIC families fully redeemed their benefits in March, 2012. Compared with non-Arab/non-Hispanic families, Arab American WIC families were significantly more likely to use all of their monthly WIC benefits, even after controlling for family characteristics (adjusted odds ratio, 3.6; 95% confidence interval, 3.4-3.8). Rates of redemption for Hispanic families, however, were the same as for non-Arab/non-Hispanic families (adjusted odds ratio, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.9-1.0). State WIC programs moving toward implementation of Electronic Benefits Transfer should consider ways to enhance systems that would allow for more opportunities to conduct targeted analyses of benefit use across participant subpopulations. Findings point to low overall WIC benefit use. Additional research is needed to explore methods to increase benefit use among all WIC populations, including whether specific factors may contribute to higher redemptions among ethnic minorities, and whether they can be translated to other subpopulations. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.
Javier, Joyce R.; Chamberlain, Lisa J.; Rivera, Kahealani K.; Gonzalez, Sarah E.; Mendoza, Fernando S.; Huffman, Lynne C.
Background Filipino Americans have more adolescent pregnancies than other Asian-Pacific Islanders (APIs). Few community–academic collaborations have addressed adolescent pregnancy prevention in this community. Objectives We sought to describe the lessons learned from and impact of a community-based teen pregnancy prevention program for Filipino Americans implemented by a Filipina pediatrics resident. Methods We formed a community–academic partnership between the Filipino Youth Coalition, a community-based organization (CBO) in San Jose, California, and the Stanford School of Medicine’s Pediatric Advocacy Program. We developed a culturally tailored parent–teen conference addressing adolescent pregnancy prevention in Filipino Americans. We qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated this intervention by collecting both pre- and post-conference data using a convenience sample design. Lessons Learned Engaging particular aspects of Filipino culture (i.e., religion and intergenerational differences) helped to make this community–academic partnership successful. For physicians-in-training who are conducting community-based participatory research (CBPR), project challenges may include difficulties in building and maintaining academic–community relationships, struggles to promote sustainability, and conflicting goals of “community insiders” and “academic outsiders.” Authors offer insights and implications for residents interested in practicing CBPR. Conclusion CBPR is a key tool for exploring health issues in understudied populations. CBPR experiences can provide meaningful educational opportunities for physicians-in-training and can build sustained capacity in CBOs. They can also help residents to develop analytic skills, directly affect the health of the communities they serve, and, for minority physicians, give back to the communities they call home. PMID:21169708
Sprauve-Holmes, Nancy E; Gaughan, John; Kaslow, Nadine J.
Abstract Background Family violence among older women encompasses intimate partner violence (IPV) and elder maltreatment, both linked to poor health status. Little is known about the association between family violence and the health status of older innercity African American women. Methods One hundred fifty-eight African American women, aged ≥50, were interviewed in the ambulatory clinics of a large public hospital. Lifetime family violence exposure as an adult was measured by the Family Violence against Older Women (FVOW) scale; physical and mental health status were measured by the physical and mental component summary scores of the Short Form 8® scale. Results Mean participant age was 61.5 years (SD 7.1). Participants with FVOW scores in the top quartile were considered to have high lifetime family violence exposure. Participants with higher family violence exposure and those younger, unemployed, or disabled reported worse physical and mental health status. Lower income and not having Medicare were associated with worse physical and mental health status, respectively. Using stepwise linear regression techniques, only employment status and high family violence exposure were associated with worse physical (F = 7.16, p = 0.0011) and mental health (f = 7.09, p = 0.0012) status. Women with high FVOW scores reported physical and mental component summary scores that were 4.18 and 4.6 points lower, respectively, than those of women with lower FVOW scores. Conclusions Among older, innercity, African American women, lack of employment and high levels of family violence exposure as an adult are associated with worse physical and mental health status. Clinicians caring for older African American women need to be cognizant of the role both current and prior violence exposure may play in their patients' current health status. PMID:19183088
Sep 11, 2017 ... East African Orthopaedic Journal. Advocacy may be ... taxation of medical equipment and implants in Kenya. In 2013 a change ... Asia countries especially India were doing the opposite. They reduced ... Most developing countries have been dealing with communicable ... The role of advocacy is huge here.
American Society of Echocardiography Join Ase Renew Member Portal Log In Membership Member Portal Log In Join ASE Renew Benefits Rates FASE – Fellow of the American Society of Echocardiography Member Referral Program FAQs Initiatives Advocacy Awards, Grants, ...
Huddle, Thomas S
It is increasingly suggested that political advocacy is a core professional responsibility for physicians. The author argues that this is an error. Advocacy on behalf of societal goals, even those goals as unexceptionable as the betterment of human health, is inevitably political. Claims that political advocacy are a professional responsibility are mistaken, the author argues, because (1) civic virtues are outside the professional realm, (2) even if civic virtues were professionally obligatory, it is unclear that civic participation is necessary for such virtue, and (3) the profession of medicine ought not to require any particular political stance of its members. Claims that academic health centers should systematically foster advocacy are also deeply problematic. Although advocacy may coexist alongside the core university activities of research and education, insofar as it infects those activities, advocacy is likely to subvert them, as advocacy seeks change rather than knowledge. And official efforts on behalf of advocacy will undermine university aspirations to objectivity and neutrality.American society has conferred remarkable success and prosperity on its medical profession. Physicians are deserving of such success only insofar as they succeed in offering society excellence and dedication in professional work. Mandatory professional advocacy must displace such work but cannot substitute for it. The medical profession should steadfastly resist attempts to add advocacy to its essential professional commitments.
With open access and repositories assuming a high profile some may question whether advocacy is still necessary. Those involved in the business of setting up and populating repositories are aware that in the majority of institutions there is still a great need for advocacy. This tutorial will give participants an opportunity to discuss different advocacy methods and approaches, including the 'top down' and 'bottom up' approach, publicity methods and the opportunities offered by funding body positions on open access. Participants will have the opportunity to share experiences of what works and what doesn't. The advocacy role often encompasses responsibility for advising academics on IPR issues. This is a particularly critical area where repository staff are engaged in depositing content on behalf of academics. The tutorial will offer an opportunity to discuss the IPR issues encountered by those managing repositories. The tutorial will draw on the experience of participants who have been engaged in advocacy act...
Today, patients' families in the West are regaining the access to hospitals that they lost when hospitals emerged as the primary site for medical treatment, research and training at the beginning of the twentieth century. In China, however, families were never excluded from American mission-run hospitals, in fact, they were indispensable. Families were in the waiting rooms, consulting rooms,wards and operating theatres. They provided more than reassurance and comfort: they fed and nursed their sick relatives, acted as advocates and middlemen and may even have lowered the incidence of cross-infection, the scourge of the contemporary hospital in the West.
Cole, Portia L; Secret, Mary C
Job demands and workplace culture variables associated with work-family conflict stress, in addition to workplace racial bias, were examined for a national sample of 607 African American women in 16 Fortune 1000 companies. Similar to other studies, women in this sample who had dependents were younger, had supervisory responsibilities, and experienced a less positive workplace culture, and those in professional job positions with high job demand were most likely to experience work-family stress. Married women who experienced a more subtle form of workplace racial bias reported more work-family conflict stress. Implications for social work policy, practice, and research are considered.
Teufel, Nicolette I; Perry, Cheryl L; Story, Mary; Flint-Wagner, Hilary G; Levin, Sarah; Clay, Theresa E; Davis, Sally M; Gittelsohn, Joel; Altaha, Jackie; Pablo, Juanita L
The goal of the feasibility phase of the Pathways family intervention was to work with families of third-grade American Indian children to reinforce health behaviors being promoted by the curriculum, food service, and physical activity components of this school-based obesity prevention intervention. Family behaviors regarding food choices and physical activity were identified and ranked according to priority by using formative assessment and a literature review of school-based programs that included a family component. The family intervention involved 3 primary strategies designed to create an informed home environment supportive of behavioral change: 1) giving the children “family packs” containing worksheets, interactive assignments, healthful snacks, and low-fat tips and recipes to take home to share with their families; 2) implementing family events at the school to provide a fun atmosphere in which health education concepts could be introduced and reinforced; and 3) forming school-based family advisory councils composed of family members and community volunteers who provided feedback on Pathways strategies, helped negotiate barriers, and explored ideas for continued family participation. For strategy 2, a kick-off Family Fun Night provided a series of learning booths that presented the healthful behaviors taught by Pathways. At an end-of-year Family Celebration, a healthy meal was served, students demonstrated newly learned Pathways activities, and certificates were presented in recognition of completion of the Pathways curriculum. Based on evaluation forms and attendance rosters, strategies 1 and 2 were more easily implemented and better received than strategy 3. Implications for developing family involvement strategies for intervention programs are discussed. PMID:10195606
This study aimed to understand the dyadic relationships between family communication and quality of life (QOL) and between coping and QOL in Chinese-American and Korean-American breast cancer survivor (BCS)-family member dyads. A cross-sectional survey design was used. A total of 32 Chinese-American and Korean-American BCS-family member dyads were recruited from the California Cancer Surveillance Program and area hospitals in Los Angeles County, California, USA. The dyadic data were analyzed using a pooled regression actor-partner interdependence model. The study findings demonstrated that the survivors' general communication and use of reframing coping positively predicted their own QOL. The survivors' and family members' general communication was also a strong predictor of the family members' physical-related QOL score specifically. Meanwhile, each person's use of mobilizing coping negatively predicted his or her partner's QOL. The study findings add important information to the scarce literature on the QOL of Asian-American survivors of breast cancer. The findings suggest that Chinese-American and Korean-American BCS and their family members may benefit from interventions that enhance communication and coping within the family unit. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Simons, Leslie Gordon; Chen, Yi-Fu; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene; Cutrona, Carolyn
This article uses a sample of 867 African American households to investigate differences in parenting practices and child outcomes by type of household. Results indicate that mothers provide similar levels of parenting regardless of family structure. Secondary caregivers, however, show a great deal of variation in quality of parenting. Fathers and…
The primary research question raised in the thesis is how have films been able to construct the identity of ethnic Chinese in the United States? This question is addressed through three sub-questions. First, why is the family narrative so characteristic of films about Chinese Americans in
Nichols, Tanya M.; Kotchick, Beth A.; Barry, Carolyn McNamara; Haskins, Deborah G.
The current study examined the association between multiple systems of influence (adolescent, family, and community) and the educational aspirations of African American adolescents. Guided by ecological and integrative models of child development, in the current study the authors examined the association between the educational aspirations of 130…
Chen, Stephen H.; Hua, Michelle; Zhou, Qing; Tao, Annie; Lee, Erica H.; Ly, Jennifer; Main, Alexandra
Direct and indirect/mediated relations of (a) children's and parents' cultural orientations and (b) parent-child gaps in cultural orientations to children's psychological adjustment were examined in a socioeconomically diverse sample of 258 Chinese American children (age = 6-9 years) from immigrant families. Parents reported on children's and…
Hashimoto, Kumi; Lee, Jin Sook
This article documents the heritage-language (HL) literacy practices of three Japanese American families residing in a predominantly Anglo and Latino community. Through interviews and observations, this study investigates Japanese children's HL-literacy practices, parental attitudes toward HL literacy, and challenges in HL-literacy development in…
Al Khateeb, Jamal M.; Al Hadidi, Muna S.; Al Khatib, Amal J.
The authors present a brief introduction to Americans of Arab descent and a brief overview of Arab culture. Then, culturally appropriate counseling considerations related to family, attitudes toward disability, religion, communication, acculturation, help-seeking behaviors, and stereotypes are highlighted. In the last section, the authors provide…
Collins, Wanda Lott; Doolittle, Amy
This article introduces the authors' experiences and observations as grief/bereavement counselors participating in urban and rural funerals. A vignette illustrates the use of rituals and spirituality of one African American family, living in a rural area of Kentucky, and their efforts to cope with their own grief and loss of a loved one. The…
Allen, Andrea; Marcelin, Louis Herns; Schmitz, Susan; Hausmann, Vicky; Shultz, James M.
Individuals who are indirectly exposed to disasters may be affected psychologically. The impact of the 2010 Haiti earthquake reverberated throughout the Haitian American community in Miami, Florida. Many within the community held strong transnational family and friendship bonds to their homeland. We examined associations between indicators of…
Edwards, Lisa M.; Lopez, Shane J.
In this article, the authors describe a mixed-methods study designed to explore perceived family support, acculturation, and life satisfaction among 266 Mexican American adolescents. Specifically, the authors conducted a thematic analysis of open-ended responses to a question about life satisfaction to understand participants' perceptions of…
Winters-Smith, Carol; Larner, Mary
This presentation describes a home visiting health education program serving Mexican and Mexican-American migrant farmworkers in Florida. The purposes of the program were to educate farmworker families about pregnancy, childbirth, nutrition, and child development, and to encourage the use of preventive health care services. Home visitors were…
Brody, Gene H.; Flor, Douglas L.
Tested a model linking maternal/family characteristics to child cognitive and psychosocial competence in African-American 6- to 9-year olds in rural single-mother-headed households. Found that maternal education, religiosity, and financial resources were linked with parenting style, mother-child relationship, and maternal school involvement.…
Emily G. Lefkowitz
Full Text Available Pityriasis rotunda is an uncommon dermatosis with an unusual geographic and racial distribution. The skin disorder is characterized by sharply defined, perfectly circular, scaly patches with no inflammatory changes. Notably, it may be associated with underlying malignancy or chronic infection. We report an uncommon familial case in an American-born female.
Wu, Echo H.
This paper explores the influence of parenting beliefs and practices on children's talent development through a specific perspective of several Chinese American families with gifted children. In-depth interviews were employed to collect data from the parents, and research questions focused on the daily practice of parenting and parents' beliefs…
Vela, Javier C.; Sparrow, Gregory Scott; Ikonomopoulos, James; Gonzalez, Stacey L.; Rodriguez, Basilio
We examined how character strengths and family importance influenced Mexican American college students' life satisfaction. Using multiple regression analysis, findings indicated that optimism, grit, and gratitude were significant predictors of life satisfaction. We provide a discussion regarding the importance of these findings as well as…
Washington, Tyreasa; Rose, Theda; Colombo, Gia; Hong, Jun Sung; Coard, Stephanie Irby
Background: Considerable prior research targeting African American children has focused on the pervasiveness of problematic behavior and negative risk factors associated with their development, however the influence of family on better behavioral health outcomes has largely been ignored. Objective: The purpose of this review is to examine…
Jennifer L. Koch; David W. Carey; Mary E. Mason; C. Dana Nelson
A beech bark disease infested American beech tree (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) and two uninfested trees were selected in a mature natural stand in Michigan, USA, and mated to form two full-sib families for evaluating the inheritance of resistance to beech scale (Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind.), the insect element of beech bark disease....
Chung, Grace H.; Flook, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.
The authors employed a daily diary method to assess daily frequencies of interparental and parent-adolescent conflict over a 2-week period and their implications for emotional distress across the high school years in a longitudinal sample of 415 adolescents from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds. Although family conflict remained…
Miller, Matthew J.; Lee, Richard M.
The factorial invariance of the Asian American Family Conflicts Scale-Likelihood (FCS-L) was examined in a sample of 1,012 participants. Results support the use of the FCS-L in future research with diverse Asian subgroups. Limitations and future directions for research are discussed. (Contains 7 tables and 1 note.)
Jenkins, J H
Among Mexican-American families, the concept of nervios (nerves) serves as a culturally meaningful illness category for a wide range of conditions, including schizophrenic disorders diagnosed according to psychiatric criteria. This article examines the nature and the meaning of nervios as a notion used by Mexican-American families to understand the schizophrenic illness of a relative. Family descriptions of the condition are presented and the emotional and symbolic meanings of the concept are discussed. The complex and somewhat ambiguous nature of folk conceptions is evidenced not only by variations in the description of nervios but also by the finding that nervios is but one way to view schizophrenic illness. It is suggested that a cultural preference for the term nervios is linked to the efforts of family members to reduce the stigma associated with a mental illness while also reinforcing the strength of family bonds and solidarity by fostering tolerant inclusion of the family member within the home. It is argued that the concept of nervios, and the family emotions that surround this folk label, may mediate the course and outcome of schizophrenic disorder.
Choi, Yoonsun; Kim, Tae Yeun; Pekelnicky, Dina Drankus; Kim, Kihyun; Kim, You Seung
Objectives This study examined how cultural orientations influence youth perception of family processes in Korean American families, and how these family processes in turn predict depressive symptoms and antisocial behaviors among youth. Family processes were examined separately for maternal and paternal variables. Methods This study used survey data from Korean American families living in the Midwest (256 youth and their parents) across two time periods, spanned over a year. At the time of the first interview, the average age of youth was 13 (SD=1.00). Using Structural Equation Modeling, this study tested the hypothesized associations concurrently, longitudinally, and accounting for earlier outcomes. Results and Conclusion Results show that identity and behavioral enculturation in one’s heritage culture are predictors of bonding with parents, which is notably protective for youth. The results highlight the critical effect of enculturation in enhancing youth perception of the parent-child relationship. Behavioral acculturation to mainstream culture, in contrast, predicts youth problems, although the effect may not necessarily always be via family processes. Similarly, Korean and English language proficiencies predict fewer youth problems, but not always by way of family processes. A few differences emerged across maternal and paternal variables, although there was much commonality in the hypothesized relationships. PMID:27429061
Choi, Yoonsun; Kim, Tae Yeun; Pekelnicky, Dina Drankus; Kim, Kihyun; Kim, You Seung
This study examined how cultural orientations influence youth perception of family processes in Korean American families and how these family processes, in turn, predict depressive symptoms and antisocial behaviors among youth. Family processes were examined separately for maternal and paternal variables. This study used survey data from Korean American families living in the Midwest (256 youth and their parents) across 2 time periods, spanned over a year. At the time of the first interview, the average age of youth was 13 (SD = 1.00). Using structural equation modeling, this study tested the hypothesized associations concurrently, longitudinally, and accounting for earlier outcomes. Results show that identity and behavioral enculturation in one's heritage culture are predictors of bonding with parents, which is notably protective for youth. The results highlight the critical effect of enculturation in enhancing youth perception of the parent-child relationship. Behavioral acculturation to mainstream culture, in contrast, predicts youth problems, although the effect may not necessarily always be via family processes. Similarly, Korean and English language proficiencies predict fewer youth problems, but not always by way of family processes. A few differences emerged across maternal and paternal variables, although there was much commonality in the hypothesized relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Liu, Freda F; Goto, Sharon G
The interactive effects between interdependent and independent self-construal on family cohesion and mental distress were examined. Survey responses from 153 Asian American high school students supported the hypothesized moderation of interdependence by independence on family cohesion, which was found to further mediate the relationship between self-construal and mental distress. Specifically, interdependence was positively associated with family cohesion when independence was high and negatively associated with family cohesion when independence was low. Accounting for the mediator effects of family cohesion, mental distress was positively associated with interdependence and more so for those low on independence than those high on independence. The benefits of biculturalism and research implications for the bidimensional conceptualization of self-construal for ethnic minority populations are discussed. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.
Wilson, Dawn K; Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather; Resnicow, Ken; Van Horn, M Lee; St George, Sara M; Siceloff, E Rebekah; Alia, Kassandra A; McDaniel, Tyler; Heatley, VaShawn; Huffman, Lauren; Coulon, Sandra; Prinz, Ron
The Families Improving Together (FIT) randomized controlled trial tests the efficacy of integrating cultural tailoring, positive parenting, and motivational strategies into a comprehensive curriculum for weight loss in African American adolescents. The overall goal of the FIT trial is to test the effects of an integrated intervention curriculum and the added effects of a tailored web-based intervention on reducing z-BMI in overweight African American adolescents. The FIT trial is a randomized group cohort design the will involve 520 African American families with an overweight adolescent between the ages of 11-16 years. The trial tests the efficacy of an 8-week face-to-face group randomized program comparing M + FWL (Motivational Plus Family Weight Loss) to a comprehensive health education program (CHE) and re-randomizes participants to either an 8-week on-line tailored intervention or control on-line program resulting in a 2 (M + FWL vs. CHE group) × 2 (on-line intervention vs. control on-line program) factorial design to test the effects of the intervention on reducing z-BMI at post-treatment and at 6-month follow-up. The interventions for this trial are based on a theoretical framework that is novel and integrates elements from cultural tailoring, Family Systems Theory, Self-Determination Theory and Social Cognitive Theory. The intervention targets positive parenting skills (parenting style, monitoring, communication); cultural values; teaching parents to increase youth motivation by encouraging youth to have input and choice (autonomy-support); and provides a framework for building skills and self-efficacy through developing weight loss action plans that target goal setting, monitoring, and positive feedback. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Lee, Shiuyu Katie C; Knobf, M Tish
To describe family involvement in decision making for primary treatment in Chinese-American women with early-stage breast cancer. Qualitative data were collected in 2003 from semi-structured questions in interviews with a sample of Chinese-American (ChA) women with breast cancer, who were recruited from the metropolitan New York area. Responses to the questions were written in Chinese immediately during the interview and read back to the subject for accuracy and validation. Content analysis was used to inductively code and analyze the data to generate themes. The participants consisted of 123 ChA women with early stage breast cancer with a mean age of 48.7 years (±9.3) and who had lived in the United States a median of 13.6 years. Support and Caring was the major theme that described family involvement in the breast cancer decision-making process. Gathering Information, Being There, Navigating the Health Care System, Maintaining Family Life and Making the Decision described the aspects of family support in the process. The majority of women described the treatment decision making as a collaborative supportive process with the family, but limited English fluency, strong opinions, lack of a shared perspective, distant living proximity and competing work responsibilities of family members were stressful for the women and perceived as non-supportive. Family involvement in health care decision making is culturally embedded in Asian populations. Culturally sensitive patient and family consultation strategies are needed to assist informed treatment decision making in Chinese-American women diagnosed with breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
McHale, Susan M; Whiteman, Shawn D; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Crouter, Ann C
The authors studied sibling relationships of African American youths and family and youth characteristics linked to sibling dynamics. Participants were fathers, mothers, and 2 siblings (M = 14.04 and M = 10.34 years of age) from 172 working-middle class 2-parent families. Cluster analyses of data collected in home interviews revealed 3 sibling relationship types: positive, negative, and distant. Parent education was lower, parent religiosity higher, and parent-child relationships more positive in the positive group; maternal discrimination experiences were higher in the negative group; youth ethnic identity was stronger in the positive group; and youth depression and risky behavior were higher in the negative group. The findings target sociocultural factors to consider in interventions for African American families.
The concept of the nurse as the patient's advocate is one that has become popular in the last fifteen years or so in both North America and the United Kingdom, having its basis in nursing theory. The UKCC first embraced the concept, stating in the Code of Professional Conduct that nurses must; 'act always in such a manner so as to promote and safeguard the interests and well being of patients and clients'. This is a laudable principle and one that nurses cannot dispute as there are many members of our society who are weak and vulnerable and may be unable to speak up for themselves. But are nurses always in a position to be an advocate for their patients? As the nature of nursing is so diverse then the nature of advocacy will be different in the multifarious settings in which nurses practise. Can theatre nurses ever be in a position to act as an advocate for a patient who is often anaesthetised? What precisely is advocacy and is the Concise Oxford Dictionary definition of 'one who pleads for another' appropriate in the nursing context? Then there is the position of nurses in the healthcare organisation in which they practise. In advocating for their patients, nurses may find they are pleading a case for a patient, or a group of patients, that could bring the nurse into conflict with their medical colleagues or with the management of the organisation by whom they are employed. Additionally, they may not posses the skills and knowledge to advocate effectively under such circumstances. Nursing is littered with the casualties of such conflicts over the years, the most publicised of whom, in the UK, was probably Graham Pink who lost his job as a charge nurse after drawing public attention to what he considered to be an unacceptable standard of care in the hospital in which he worked.
Casado, Banghwa; Sacco, Paul
Despite the rapid growth of older ethnic minority populations, knowledge is limited about informal caregiving among these groups. Our aim was to identify correlates of caregiver burden among family caregivers of older Korean Americans (KAs). A cross-sectional survey collected data from 146 KA caregivers. Using a modified stress-appraisal model, we examined background and context characteristics (caregiver sex, relationship to care recipient, college education, English proficiency, time in caregiving role, family support network, friend support network), a primary stressor (care recipient functional dependency), a primary appraisal (caregiving hours), and resources (family agreement, care management self-efficacy, service use self-efficacy) as potential correlates of caregiver burden. Interactions between the primary stressor, primary appraisal, and resources were also tested. Being female and the care recipient's spouse were associated with higher burden. Conversely, a larger family support network, greater family agreement, and greater care management self-efficacy were associated with lower burden. A significant interaction was detected between functional dependency and family agreement; higher levels of family agreement moderated the association between care recipient functional dependency and caregiver burden. Interventions to reduce caregiver burden in KA caregivers may be more effective if they include approaches specifically designed to build family support, improve family agreement, and increase caregivers' self-efficacy.
Full Text Available R Jeanne Ruiz,1 Rita H Pickler,2 C Nathan Marti,3 Nancy Jallo41College of Nursing, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; 2Department of Patient Services, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA; 3Abacist Analytics, Austin, TX, USA; 4School of Nursing, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USAObjective: To examine the potential moderating effects of family cohesion and acculturation on the physiological stress response (cortisol as a predictor of preterm birth (PTB in pregnant Mexican-American women.Methods: The sample included 470 participants; 33 had preterm births. All participants were self-identified as Mexican-American. In this cross-sectional study, family cohesion was measured by a self-report questionnaire. Acculturation was measured by self-report questionnaire as well as by years in the United States and country of birth. Stress was measured by serum cortisol. All measures were obtained at 22—24 weeks gestation. Additional data including history of PTB were obtained from the health record. Data analysis was primarily conducted using logistic regression.Results: The relationship between stress and PTB was predicted by family cohesion (estimate/standard error [E/SE] = —2.46, P = 0.014 and acculturation (E/SE = 2.56, P = 0.011. In addition, there was an interaction between family cohesion and history of previous PTB (E/SE = —2.12, P = 0.035.Conclusion: Results indicate that the impact of cortisol on PTB is predicted by acculturation and family cohesion such that higher levels of cortisol in conjunction with higher levels of acculturation and lower levels of family cohesion are associated with increased risk of PTB. In addition, low family cohesion in combination with a history of PTB was associated with higher levels of PTB. Assessment of family cohesion, including problem solving, adherence to family decisions, family shared space, and activity, should be included as part of prenatal
Bahrassa, Nazneen F; Syed, Moin; Su, Jenny; Lee, Richard M
This three-study investigation examined risk and protective factors for poor academic performance among Asian American first-year undergraduates. Students were surveyed prior to starting college and their GPA was collected after their first semester in college. Family conflict as a significant risk factor for poor academic performance was examined in all three studies. The results indicate that higher family conflict prior to college was related to lower first-semester college GPA, after controlling for standardized test scores and high school rank (Studies 1-3). Even though psychological distress was related to both family conflict and GPA, it did not mediate the relationship between family conflict and GPA (Studies 2 and 3). In terms of protective factors, the results indicate that life satisfaction buffered the negative effects of family conflict on first-semester college GPA (Study 3). Together, these findings support the need to take into account family variables and psychological well-being in the academic performance of Asian American students as they transition from high school to college.
Huang, Keng-Yen; Calzada, Esther; Cheng, Sabrina; Barajas-Gonzalez, R Gabriela; Brotman, Laurie Miller
Contrary to the "model minority" myth, Asian American children, especially those from low-income immigrant families, are at risk for both behavioral and emotional problems early in life. Little is known, however, about the underlying developmental mechanisms placing Asian American children at risk, including the role of cultural adaptation and parenting. This study examined cultural adaptation, parenting practices and culture related parenting values and child mental health in a sample of 157 English speaking Asian American immigrant families of children enrolled in early childhood education programs in low-income, urban neighborhoods. Overall, cultural adaptation and parenting cultural values and behaviors were related to aspects of child mental health in meaningful ways. Parents' cultural value of independence appears to be especially salient (e.g., negatively related to behavior problems and positively related to adaptive behavior) and significantly mediates the link between cultural adaptation and adaptive behavior. Study findings have implications for supporting Asian American immigrant families to promote their young children's mental health.
Gardner, Keeba G.
This study will examine the relationship between career success outcomes of African American women and early familial factors, as well as personality traits. Using a cross-sectional case-control design. the study will use participants who self-identified as African American with two African American parents. They will be randomly selected from a…
Emily J. Tomayko
Full Text Available Abstract Background High food insecurity has been demonstrated in rural American Indian households, but little is known about American Indian families in urban settings or the association of food insecurity with diet for these families. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of food insecurity in American Indian households by urban-rural status, correlates of food insecurity in these households, and the relationship between food insecurity and diet in these households. Methods Dyads consisting of an adult caregiver and a child (2–5 years old from the same household in five urban and rural American Indian communities were included. Demographic information was collected, and food insecurity was assessed using two validated items from the USDA Household Food Security Survey. Factors associated with food insecurity were examined using logistic regression. Child and adult diets were assessed using food screeners. Coping strategies were assessed through focus group discussions. These cross-sectional baseline data were collected from 2/2013 through 4/2015 for the Healthy Children, Strong Families 2 randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyles intervention for American Indian families. Results A high prevalence of food insecurity was determined (61% and was associated with American Indian ethnicity, lower educational level, single adult households, WIC participation, and urban settings (p = 0.05. Food insecure adults had significantly lower intake of vegetables (p < 0.05 and higher intakes of fruit juice (<0.001, other sugar-sweetened beverages (p < 0.05, and fried potatoes (p < 0.001 than food secure adults. Food insecure children had significantly higher intakes of fried potatoes (p < 0.05, soda (p = 0.01, and sports drinks (p < 0.05. Focus group participants indicated different strategies were used by urban and rural households to address food insecurity. Conclusions The prevalence of food insecurity in
Roosa, Mark W.; O’Donnell, Megan; Cham, Heining; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Zeiders, Katherine H.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana
Mexican American youth are at greater risk of school failure than their peers. To identify factors that may contribute to academic success in this population, this study examined the prospective relationships from 5th grade to 7th grade of family (i.e., human capital [a parent with at least a high school education], residential stability, academically and occupationally positive family role models, and family structure) and individual characteristics (i.e., externalizing symptoms, bilingualism, gender, and immigrant status) to the academic performance of 749 Mexican American early adolescents (average age = 10.4 years and 48.7% were girls in 5th grade) from economically and culturally diverse families as these youth made the transition to junior high school. Results indicated that while controlling for prior academic performance, human capital and positive family role models assessed when adolescents were in in 5th grade positively related to academic performance in 7th grade. Further, being a girl also was related to greater 7th grade academic success, whereas externalizing symptoms were negatively related to 7th grade academic performance. No other variables in the model were significantly and prospectively related to 7th grade academic performance. Implications for future research and interventions are discussed. PMID:21863379
Roosa, Mark W; O'Donnell, Megan; Cham, Heining; Gonzales, Nancy A; Zeiders, Katherine H; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana
Mexican American youth are at greater risk of school failure than their peers. To identify factors that may contribute to academic success in this population, this study examined the prospective relationships from 5th grade to 7th grade of family (i.e., human capital [a parent with at least a high school education], residential stability, academically and occupationally positive family role models, and family structure) and individual characteristics (i.e., externalizing symptoms, bilingualism, gender, and immigrant status) to the academic performance of 749 Mexican American early adolescents (average age = 10.4 years and 48.7% were girls in 5th grade) from economically and culturally diverse families as these youth made the transition to junior high school. Results indicated that while controlling for prior academic performance, human capital and positive family role models assessed when adolescents were in 5th grade positively related to academic performance in 7th grade. Further, being a girl also was related to greater 7th grade academic success, whereas externalizing symptoms were negatively related to 7th grade academic performance. No other variables in the model were significantly and prospectively related to 7th grade academic performance. Implications for future research and interventions are discussed.
Klinnert, Mary D.; Holsey, Chanda Nicole; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.
Objective To examine the reliability and validity of the Family Asthma Management System Scale for low-income African-American children with poor asthma control and caregivers under stress. The FAMSS assesses eight aspects of asthma management from a family systems perspective. Methods Forty-three children, ages 8–13, and caregivers were interviewed with the FAMSS; caregivers completed measures of primary care quality, family functioning, parenting stress, and psychological distress. Children rated their relatedness with the caregiver, and demonstrated inhaler technique. Medical records were reviewed for dates of outpatient visits for asthma. Results The FAMSS demonstrated good internal consistency. Higher scores were associated with adequate inhaler technique, recent outpatient care, less parenting stress and better family functioning. Higher scores on the Collaborative Relationship with Provider subscale were associated with greater perceived primary care quality. Conclusions The FAMSS demonstrated relevant associations with asthma management criteria and family functioning for a low-income, African-American sample. PMID:19776230
Snow, A K; Tuohy, T M F; Sargent, N R; Smith, L J; Burt, R W; Neklason, D W
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a colorectal cancer predisposition syndrome caused by mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. Clinical genetic testing fails to identify disease causing mutations in up to 20% of clinically apparent FAP cases. Following the inclusion of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) probes specific for APC promoter 1B, seven probands were identified with a deletion of promoter 1B. Using haplotype analysis spanning the APC locus, the seven families appear to be identical by descent from a common founder. The clinical phenotype of 19 mutation carriers is classical FAP with colectomy at an average age of 24. The majority of cases had a large number of duodenal and gastric polyps. Measurements of allele-specific expression of APC mRNA using TaqMan assay confirmed that relative expression in the allele containing the promoter 1B deletion was reduced 42-98%, depending on tissue type. This study confirms the importance of APC promoter deletions as a cause of FAP and identifies a founder mutation in FAP patients from the United States. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Thomas J. Straka
Full Text Available One of the fundamental issues in American forest policy has been the small forest ownership problem. Early in the twentieth century, it was called the farm forestry problem, later, the nonindustrial private forest problem, and today, the family forest problem. Family forest owners are thought to manage their lands in a suboptimal manner resulting in low forest productivity relative to other ownership groups. This can lead to future timber supply problems. The exact nature of the problem, especially its social and economic basis, was a common subject of early forestry research studies. This article includes many of the major nonindustrial private forest or family forest studies, from early to current, and classifies them both by themes used by other authors and categories that relate to major research areas in the current literature. A major focus of this literature deals with promoting management on family forest holdings and possible land management incentives and disincentives. Natural trends in family forest ownership, like parcelization, also impact upon forest management opportunities. By developing a taxonomy that classifies these studies by research objective, methodology, owner motivation, and problem definition, this article serves to organize the family forest literature in a manner that provides a temporal framework for better understanding the historical motivation for and development of family forest research in the United States.
Horton, E. Gail; Gil, Andres
This study examined the longitudinal effects of five family factors (familism, parent derogation, parent-child communication, family alcohol problems, and family drug problems) on intensity of alcohol use among a sample of 451 African American and White non-Hispanic males from early to mid-adolescence (sixth through eighth grades). Results…
Lee, Bora; Padilla, Jenny; McHale, Susan M
A strong work ethic generally has positive implications for achievements in work and school settings, but we know little about how it develops. This study aimed to describe the intra-familial transmission of work ethic and the associations between work ethic and adjustment in African American youth. Mothers, fathers, and two adolescent siblings (M age = 14.1 years) in 158 families were interviewed on two occasions. Path models revealed that fathers' work ethic was positively linked with older siblings' work ethic, which in turn was linked with more positive youth adjustment in the domains of school functioning and externalizing and internalizing problems. Moreover, the results indicated that the work ethics of older siblings, but not parents, was linked to those of younger siblings. The discussion focuses on the importance of African American fathers and siblings in youth adjustment and how work ethic may promote positive development.
Alexander, Leslie B; Hollingsworth, Leslie Doty; Dore, Martha Morrison; Hoopes, Janet W
Dramatic increases in same-race adoptions of African American children have stimulated interest in the experiences of these families, including those related to disclosure. Data from interviews with 27 African American adoptive parents (7 mothers and fathers interviewed conjointly, 13 mothers interviewed alone) from 20 different families revealed the following themes: (a) efforts to prevent trauma to the child; (b) respect for the child's differentness and birth history; (c) developmental decisions in disclosure; (d) children's questions as motivations for disclosure; and (e) parents' feelings about disclosure. Findings confirm the importance of psychoeducation regarding methods and timing of disclosure and provide support for comparative research on contemporary disclosure, including racial differences in process and content. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved).
O'Donnell, Christine; Cunningham, B.; Hehn, J. G.
Education is strongly affected by federal and local policies, such as testing requirements and program funding, and many scientists and science teachers are increasingly interested in becoming more engaged with the policy process. To address this need, I worked with the American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT) --- a professional membership society of scientists and science teachers that is dedicated to enhancing the understanding and appreciation of physics through teaching --- to create advocacy tools for its members to use, including one-page leave-behinds, guides for meeting with policymakers, and strategies for framing issues. In addition, I developed a general tutorial to aid AAPT members in developing effective advocacy strategies to support better education policies. This work was done through the Society for Physics Students (SPS) Internship program, which provides a range of opportunities for undergraduates, including research, education and public outreach, and public policy. In this presentation, I summarize these new advocacy tools and their application to astronomy education issues.
... see if you should get screened. Learn more EDUCATION ADVOCACY RESEARCH Our vision is a world free of lung disease The American Lung Association is ... by lung disease. Help us continue to deliver education, advocacy and research to those who need it. $250 $100 $50 Your best gift Donate now Learn More ... nonprofit software
Wei, Meifen; Yeh, Christine Jean; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Carrera, Stephanie; Su, Jenny C
This study was conducted to examine under what situation (i.e., when individuals used more or less family support) and for whom (i.e., those with high or low self-esteem) perceived racial discrimination would or would not have a significant positive association with psychological distress. A total of 95 Asian American male college students completed an online survey. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated a significant 3-way interaction of family support, self-esteem, and perceived racial discrimination in predicting psychological distress after controlling for perceived general stress. A simple effect analysis was used to explore the nature of the interaction. When Asian American male college students used more family support to cope with racial discrimination, the association between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress was not significant for those with high or low self-esteem. The result from the simple interaction indicated that, when more family support was used, the 2 slopes for high and low self-esteem were not significantly different from each other. Conversely, when they used less family support, the association between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress was not significant for those with high self-esteem, but was significantly positive for those with low self-esteem. The result from the simple interaction indicated that, when less family support was used, the slopes for high and low self-esteem were significantly different. The result suggested that low use of family support may put these male students with low self-esteem at risk for psychological distress. Limitations, future research directions, and clinical implications were discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Jacob, Jeena; Gray, Barbara; Johnson, Ann
The Asian American community has grown significantly in the United States during recent decades. The culture of their countries of origin as well as the society in which they currently live plays a pivotal role in their reaction to mental health and illness. Mental health issues are increasingly evident in Asian American communities. The need for the delivery of culturally competent health care and mental health services is paramount. A culturally competent framework that includes the use of a cultural competence model for practice can guide the health care provider in the recognition of problems, particularly in the children of Asian American families. Copyright © 2013 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Erica H; Zhou, Qing; Ly, Jennifer; Main, Alexandra; Tao, Annie; Chen, Stephen H
Using data from a socioeconomically diverse sample of Chinese American children (n = 258, aged 6-9 years) in immigrant families, we examined the concurrent relations among neighborhood economic disadvantage and concentration of Asian residents, parenting styles, and Chinese American children's externalizing and internalizing problems. Neighborhood characteristics were measured with 2000 U.S. Census tract-level data, parents (mostly mothers) rated their own parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated children's behavioral problems. Path analysis was conducted to test two hypotheses: (a) parenting styles mediate the relations between neighborhood characteristics and children's behavioral problems, and (b) children's behavioral problems mediate the relations between neighborhood and parenting styles. We found that neighborhood Asian concentration was positively associated with authoritarian parenting, which in turn was associated with Chinese American children's higher externalizing and internalizing problems (by parents' reports). In addition, neighborhood economic disadvantage was positively related to children's externalizing problems (by parents' reports), which in turn predicted lower authoritative parenting. The current results suggest the need to consider multiple pathways in the relations among neighborhood, family, and child adjustment, and they have implications for the prevention and intervention of behavioral problems in Chinese American children.
Mondia, Stephen; Hichenberg, Shira; Kerr, Erica; Eisenberg, Megan; Kissane, David W
Clinicians meet people from different ethnic backgrounds, yet need to respond in culturally sensitive ways. This article focuses on Asian American families. Within a randomized controlled trial of family therapy commenced during palliative care and continued into bereavement, 3 families of Asian American background were examined qualitatively from a cultural perspective by listening to recordings of 26 therapy sessions and reviewing detailed supervision notes compiled by each therapist. A synopsis of each family's therapy narrative is presented. Prominent themes include family closeness, respect for hierarchy within the family, gender-determined roles, intergenerational tensions, preoccupation with shame and limited emotional expressiveness. Family therapists working with culturally diverse families need to pay thoughtful attention to ethnic issues as they strive to support them during palliative care and bereavement.
This article proposes explanations for the transformation of American families over the past two centuries. I describe the impact on families of the rise of male wage labor beginning in the nineteenth century and the rise of female wage labor in the twentieth century. I then examine the effects of decline in wage labor opportunities for young men and women during the past four decades. I present new estimates of a precipitous decline in the relative income of young men and assess its implications for the decline for marriage. Finally, I discuss explanations for the deterioration of economic opportunity and speculate on the impact of technological change on the future of work and families.
Silva, Jaqueline da; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena; Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa; Loyola, Cristina Maria Douat; Albarracín, Daniel Gonzalo Eslava; Diaz, Jorge; Funes, Gladys Magdalena Rodríguez; Hernández, Mabell Granados; Torres, Ruth Magdalena Gallegos; Rodriguez, Ruth Jakeline Oviedo
This cross-sectional multi-centre study explored how family members and friends of illicit drug users perceived protective and risk factors, treatment facilities and policies and laws regarding illicit drug use. Family members and friends of illicit drug users were recruited in 10 urban health care outpatient units in 7 Latin American countries (Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico) to complete a questionnaire. The majority of the respondents chose psycho-social factors over genetic or biological explanations as causes of drug problems. Respondents felt that families and governments were responsible for preventing drug problems. Church/religious institutions were most often mentioned in the context of accessible treatment. When asked about access to treatment facilities, the majority said that there were not enough. Shame about drug use, cost, and limited treatment options were most often cited as barriers to treatment.
This article proposes explanations for the transformation of American families over the past two centuries. I describe the impact on families of the rise of male wage labor beginning in the nineteenth century and the rise of female wage labor in the twentieth century. I then examine the effects of decline in wage labor opportunities for young men and women during the past four decades. I present new estimates of a precipitous decline in the relative income of young men and assess its implications for the decline for marriage. Finally, I discuss explanations for the deterioration of economic opportunity and speculate on the impact of technological change on the future of work and families. PMID:26511502
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.
This document is the text of a Congressional hearing called to examine prevention of alcohol abuse in American families. In her opening statement, Representative Lindy Boggs states that alcohol abuse is related to many problems confronting families including divorce, violence, and behavioral emotional problems and that the purpose of this hearing…
The purpose of this review is to explore cultural influences on the experiences of Korean, Korean American, and Caucasian American family caregivers caring for frail older adults in terms of the selection of a primary caregiver, caregiving motivation, support/help-seeking, and negative emotional responses(depression and burden). Seven electronic databases were searched to retrieve studies from 1966 to 2005. Thirty-two studies were identified. This review supported cultural influences on the selection of primary caregiver, caregiving motivation, and support/help-seeking among the three caregiver groups. In Korean caregivers, the major primary caregivers were daughters-in-law while among Korean American and Caucasian American caregivers, the major primary caregivers were daughters or spouses. As a major caregiving motivation, Caucasian American caregivers reported filial affection while Korean caregivers and Korean American caregivers reported filial obligation. Korean caregivers reported higher extended family support, while Caucasian American caregivers reported higher utilization of formal support. Korean caregivers showed the highest levels of depression followed by Korean American caregivers and Caucasian American caregivers. In order to develop culturally appropriate interventions and policies, more research is needed to further explain these differences among the three groups, especially regarding support/help-seeking and negative emotional responses.
McCabe, Kristen; Yeh, May; Lau, Anna; Argote, Carolina Bertely; Liang, June
This study compared low-income Mexican American parents of young children referred for behavior problems to their nonreferred counterparts on an observational measure of parent-child interactions. Referred Mexican American parents demonstrated more negative behaviors than their nonreferred counterparts in both nondirective and highly directive situations. However, no differences were found at moderate levels of directiveness. The most and least directive situations in the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System best differentiated referred from nonreferred Mexican American families, and families differed more in their negative behaviors than positive behaviors. Many of the parenting behaviors that have been found to differ between referred and nonreferred Caucasian families were also observed to differ between their Mexican American counterparts. PMID:20171330
Full Text Available This article draws on research with a gay Hmong young man to illustrate the ways in which coming out discourses fail to take into account the central importance of family and kinship forgay Hmong Americans. It draws on the narratives of a gay Hmong man that emphasizes the importance of family reputation and family bonds to offer an alternative discourse to coming out narratives. It advances understandings of gay identity and experiences by explicating the ways in which family and community are important for a gay Hmong American man. This research significantly contributes to the dearth of research on Asian American LGBT experiences ingeneral and those of LGBT Hmong Americans in particular.
Chen, Stephen H; Hua, Michelle; Zhou, Qing; Tao, Annie; Lee, Erica H; Ly, Jennifer; Main, Alexandra
Direct and indirect/mediated relations of (a) children's and parents' cultural orientations and (b) parent-child gaps in cultural orientations to children's psychological adjustment were examined in a socioeconomically diverse sample of 258 Chinese American children (age = 6-9 years) from immigrant families. Parents reported on children's and their own Chinese and American orientations in language proficiency, media use, and social relationships. Parents and teachers rated children's externalizing and internalizing problems and social competence. Using structural equation modeling, we found evidence for both the effects of children's and parents' cultural orientations and the effects of parent-child gaps. Specifically, children's American orientations across domains were associated with their better adjustment (especially social competence). These associations were partly mediated by authoritative parenting. Parents' English and Chinese media use were both associated with higher authoritative parenting, which in turn was associated with children's better adjustment. Furthermore, greater gaps in parent-child Chinese proficiency were associated with children's poorer adjustment, and these relations were partly mediated by authoritative parenting. Together, the findings underscore the complex relations between immigrant families' dual orientations to the host and heritage cultures and children's psychological adjustment. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Chen, E; Miller, G E; Yu, T; Brody, G H
Family relationships have been linked to obesity and related disorders in youth, but few studies have provided causal evidence of this association. This study tested the impact of a family psychosocial intervention on components of metabolic syndrome-a condition driven largely by abdominal obesity-in African American youth. In particular, the study tested whether effects were strongest among those who started at highest risk, that is, with high levels of unsupportive parenting at baseline. Randomized clinical trial of a community sample of 391 African American youth (mean age=11.2 years) conducted in 2001-2002, with follow-up metabolic syndrome assessment in 2014-2015. Participants were assigned either to receive a weekly family intervention or to a control group. The primary study outcome was the number of components of metabolic syndrome that were clinically elevated at age 25, including central adiposity, blood pressure, triglycerides, glucose and low high-density lipoproteins. Unsupportive parenting was measured by questionnaires at baseline. Significant interaction effects were found between group assignment and baseline unsupportive parenting on counts of metabolic syndrome components in youth (beta=-0.17, P=0.03). Among those who started with higher levels of unsupportive parenting at age 11, participation in the family intervention reduced the number of clinically elevated components of the metabolic syndrome at age 25 relative to the control group. No such effect was seen among those who started with good parenting. Mediation analyses suggested that changes in the psychosocial targets of the parenting intervention partially accounted for the effects amongst those high in unsupportive parenting at baseline (effect size=-0.350, s.e.=0.178). These findings suggest that efforts to improve family relationships may be able to ameliorate the detrimental effects that harsh and unsupportive parenting have on obesity-related outcomes such as metabolic syndrome in
Hodgson, Eric J.; Collier, Charlene; Hayes, Laura; Curry, Leslie; Fraenkel, Liana
Background Significant racial disparities exist in the US unplanned pregnancy rate. We conducted a qualitative study using the theory of planned behavior as a framework to describe how low-income, African-American women approach family planning. Study Design Structured focus groups were held with adult, low-income, non-pregnant, African-American women in Connecticut. Data were collected using a standardized discussion guide, and audio-taped and transcribed. Four, independent researchers coded the transcripts using the constant comparative method. Codes were organized into over-arching themes. Results Contraceptive knowledge was limited with formal education often occurring after sexual debut. Attitudes about contraception were overtly negative with method effectiveness being judged by the experience of side effects. Family and friends strongly influence contraceptive decisions while male partners are primarily seen as a barrier. Contraceptive pills are perceived as readily accessible although compliance is considered a barrier. Conclusions Contraception education should occur before sexual debut, should involve trusted family and community members, and should positively frame issues in terms of achieving life goals. PMID:23177266
North, Kari E; Howard, Barbara V; Welty, Thomas K; Best, Lyle G; Lee, Elisa T; Yeh, J L; Fabsitz, Richard R; Roman, Mary J; MacCluer, Jean W
The aims of the Strong Heart Family Study are to clarify the genetic determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in American Indians and to map and identify genes for CVD susceptibility. The authors describe the design of the Strong Heart Family Study (conducted between 1998 and 1999) and evaluate the heritabilities of CVD risk factors in American Indians from this study. In the first phase of the study, approximately 950 individuals, aged 18 years or more, in 32 extended families, were examined. The examination consisted of a personal interview, physical examination, laboratory tests, and an ultrasound examination of the carotid arteries. The phenotypes measured during the physical examination included anthropometry, lipoproteins, blood pressure, glycemic status, and clotting factors. Heritabilities for CVD risk factor phenotypes were estimated using a variance component approach and the program SOLAR. After accounting for the effects of covariates, the authors detected significant heritabilities for many CVD risk factor phenotypes (e.g., high density lipoprotein cholesterol (heritability = 0.50) and diastolic blood pressure (heritability = 0.34)). These results suggest that heredity explains a substantial proportion of the variability of CVD risk factors and that these heritabilities are large enough to warrant a search for major risk factor genes.
Full Text Available Competition advocacy is considered, together with enforcement, the core business of an antitrust authority. Broadly speaking there are at least three main tasks regularly performed by most, if not all, antitrust agencies that are amenable to the advocacy function: addressing laws and regulations in order to remove unnecessary impediments to competition; engaging in sector enquiries to understand markets behavior and identify critical issues; explaining the benefits of open competitive markets to the public opinion. This article examines these three main tasks and outlines the challenges for competition agencies, with references to the experience of the Italian Competition Authority (ICA and the initiatives undertaken at international level.
Jewell, Shannon L; Luecken, Linda J; Gress-Smith, Jenna; Crnic, Keith A; Gonzales, Nancy A
Low-income Mexican American women experience significant health disparities during the postpartum period. Contextual stressors, such as economic stress, are theorized to affect health via dysregulated cortisol output. However, cultural protective factors including strong family support may buffer the impact of stress. In a sample of 322 low-income Mexican American women (mother age 18-42; 82% Spanish-speaking; modal family income $10,000-$15,000), we examined the interactive influence of economic stress and family support at 6 weeks postpartum on maternal cortisol output (AUCg) during a mildly challenging mother-infant interaction task at 12 weeks postpartum, controlling for 6-week maternal cortisol and depressive symptoms. The interaction significantly predicted cortisol output such that higher economic stress predicted higher cortisol only among women reporting low family support. These results suggest that family support is an important protective resource for postpartum Mexican American women experiencing elevated economic stress.
Paranjape, Anuradha; Tucker, Alyce; Mckenzie-Mack, LaTasha; Thompson, Nancy; Kaslow, Nadine
Objective Little is known about how older African American women define family violence (FV) and what FV survivors might expect from their healthcare providers. The purpose of this study was to understand how these women define FV, where they seek help for FV, and what barriers they face in these efforts. Methods We conducted 6 focus groups with 30 African American women over the age of 50, including some FV survivors, at a large, inner-city public hospital. Results Participants defined FV broadly, citing examples of abuse (physical, sexual, emotional and financial) and neglect. Spiritual sources were cited over physicians as being available to help FV survivors. Barriers to receiving assistance included negative encounters with physicians, lack of trust in the system and dearth of age-appropriate resources. Conclusions For older African American women, FV takes many forms of which many may not be obvious during the clinical encounter. Like younger FV survivors, they expect physicians to serve as a resource for FV. Practice implications Physicians caring for older African American women need to remember to ask them about FV, and when making referrals for abuse and neglect, consider offering referrals to pastoral care if appropriate. PMID:17644300
Taylor, R D; Roberts, D
This study tested a conceptual model developed to explain the link between kinship support and the psychological well-being of economically disadvantaged African-American adolescents. The relation of kinship support with maternal and adolescent well-being and mothers' child-rearing practices was assessed in 51 African-American families whose incomes placed them at or below the poverty threshold. Findings revealed that kinship social support to mothers/female guardians was positively associated with adolescent psychological well-being, maternal well-being, and more adequate maternal parenting practices (acceptance, firm control and monitoring of behavior, autonomy granting). Maternal well-being and more adequate maternal parenting practices were positively related to adolescent well-being. Evidence of the mediational role of maternal well-being and parenting practices was revealed. When the effects of maternal well-being and maternal parenting practices were controlled, significant relations between kinship support and adolescent well-being were no longer apparent.
Hoehn, Jessica L.; Riekert, Kristin A.; Borrelli, Belinda; Rand, Cynthia S.; Eakin, Michelle N.
Objective: To identify barriers and motivators for reducing secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) for families of African-American, low-income, urban children. Method: Audiotaped intervention sessions of 52 African-American caregivers of Head Start children who reported being a smoker and/or had at least one smoker in the home were randomly sampled…
This article reviews and clarifies many inconsistencies and misconceptions in the research literature on the effects of family functioning on African American male academic achievement. It was concluded that when parents use an African American version of authoritative parenting, teach children about their cultural heritage and personal power to…
School library advocacy is increasingly important due to decreases in funding and staff. National organizations attempt to engage school librarians in advocacy and have developed resources and tools to assist with this task. However, there is little research examining how practicing school librarians engage in advocacy and how their advocacy…
Cornelius, Judith B; Whitaker-Brown, Charlene D
Guided by the relational cultural theory, we conducted a qualitative study to examine the relationship experiences of African American transgender women living in North Carolina. A convenience sample of 15 transgender women participated in the study. Semi-structured interviews, guided by an investigator-developed interview guide, were used to explore the personal experiences of transgender women on individual, family, and organizational levels. The findings provide a scheme for understanding the process through which transgender women's relationships hinder or enhance their ability to connect with individuals, family, and organizations. Nurses can use these findings to better understand the connectedness that occurs or does not occur in transgender women's relationships and provide culturally competent care to empower them to become resilient.
Lam, Brian Trung
This prospective study examined whether interdependent self-construal (collectivism), independent self-construal (individualism), family cohesion, and social support would predict levels of self-esteem among Vietnamese American adolescents. Standardized self-report measures of family cohesion, social support, and self-esteem, as well as a measure…
Barr-Anderson, D J; Adams-Wynn, A W; DiSantis, K I; Kumanyika, S
Obesity interventions that involve family members may be effective with racial/ethnic minority youth. This review assessed the nature and effectiveness of family involvement in obesity interventions among African-American girls aged 5-18 years, a population group with high rates of obesity. Twenty-six databases were searched between January 2011 and March 2012, yielding 27 obesity pilot or full-length prevention or treatment studies with some degree of family involvement and data specific to African-American girls. Interventions varied in type and level of family involvement, cultural adaptation, delivery format and behaviour change intervention strategies; most targeted parent-child dyads. Some similarities in approach based on family involvement were identified. The use of theoretical perspectives specific to African-American family dynamics was absent. Across all studies, effects on weight-related behaviours were generally promising but often non-significant. Similar conclusions were drawn for weight-related outcomes among the full-length randomized controlled trials. Many strategies appeared promising on face value, but available data did not permit inferences about whether or how best to involve family members in obesity prevention and treatment interventions with African-American girls. Study designs that directly compare different types and levels of family involvement and incorporate relevant theoretical elements may be an important next step. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Cooper, Catherine R.; And Others
Total of 393 American college students of Chinese, Filipino, European, Mexican, and Vietnamese descent rated their families' familistic values and their relationship with their families. Mexican, Vietnamese, and Filipino descent students endorsed most strongly values regarding mutual support among siblings, whereas all groups reported more formal…
Choe, Daniel Ewon; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.
Family conflict is a salient risk factor for African American adolescents' mental health problems. No study we are aware of has estimated trajectories of their family conflict and whether groups differ in internalizing and externalizing problems during the transition to young adulthood, a critical antecedent in adult mental health and…
Kiang, Lisa; Andrews, Kandace; Stein, Gabriela L; Supple, Andrew J; Gonzalez, Laura M
Socioeconomic stress has long been found to place youth at risk, with low family income conferring disadvantages in adolescents' school achievement and success. This study investigates the role of socioeconomic stress on academic adjustment, and pinpoints family obligation as a possible buffer of negative associations. We examined direct and interactive effects at two time points in the same sample of Asian American adolescents-early high school (N = 180 9th-10th graders; 60 % female) and 2 years later in late high school (N = 156 11th-12th graders; 87% of original sample). Results suggest that socioeconomic stress is indeed associated with poor academic adjustment, measured broadly through self-reported GPA, importance of academic success, and educational aspirations and expectations. Family obligation was positively related to adjustment, and also was found to buffer the negative effects of socioeconomic stress, but only during adolescents' later high school years. Adolescents reporting more family obligation experienced less of the negative effects of financial stress on academic outcomes than those reporting lower obligation. Cultural and developmental implications are discussed in light of these direct and moderating effects.
Unerman, J.; O'Dwyer, B.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop a staged theoretical argument regarding whether non-governmental organisations (NGOs) can be considered responsible and accountable for the direct and indirect consequences, on a wide range of stakeholders, flowing from their advocacy activities.
Full Text Available Objective: Cancer can evoke long-held cultural beliefs which either facilitate or impede efforts to expand the health literacy of families. Among these beliefs is fatalism which holds that controlling ones′ outcome is not possible, and that ones′ outcome is predestined. Some fatalistic beliefs are broadly held within the Asian American (AA community and may be challenged or reinforced by the experience of having a family member diagnosed with cancer. This study evaluated the relationship between having a family member diagnosed with cancer and selected demographics in AAs on fatalistic beliefs. Methods: Data from 519 AA subjects from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Health Information Trends Survey were used to complete a secondary analysis. Descriptive statistics characterize fatalistic beliefs. Four models using four questions assessed fatalistic beliefs as dependent variables and independent variables of having or not having a family member diagnosed with cancer, completing college or not, sex, and age were assessed using ordinal regression. Results: All of the fatalistic beliefs examined were endorsed by large portions of the subjects. When considering the role of being exposed to having a family member with cancer, it was associated with an increase in the likelihood in a belief that one is likely to get cancer, and everything can cause cancer. Being exposed to a family member diagnosed with cancer was not significantly associated with believing, there was little one could do to control their cancer risk. This belief was broadly rejected. While the belief that there are so many different recommendations about preventing cancer, it is hard to know what to do, was broadly endorsed and not associated with having a family member diagnosed with cancer. Conclusions: The major practice implications within oncology nursing suggest the importance in assessing cancer health literacy and providing corrective knowledge in families
This tutorial is aimed at those who are new to the area of repositories and who want to learn more about key advocacy and policy issues. The tutorial will include information and advice on putting together an institutional advocacy campaign and developing policies for your repository. There will be opportunities for participants to share experiences and to ask questions. The tutorial will include a practical exercise in developing an advocacy presentation. Participants with experience of advocacy are welcome to attend the session to share their experiences, but should bear in mind that it is aimed primarily at those looking for help and advice in advocacy matters.
Hagelskamp, Carolin; Hughes, Diane L
Informed by Kohn and Schooler's (1969) occupational socialization framework, this study examined linkages between racial/ethnic minority mothers' perceptions of racial/ethnic discrimination in the workplace and adolescents' accounts of racial/ethnic socialization in the home. Data were collected from 100 mother-early adolescent dyads who participated in a longitudinal study of urban adolescents' development in the Northeastern United States, including African American, Latino, and Chinese families. Mothers and adolescents completed surveys separately. We found that when mothers reported more frequent institutional discrimination at work, adolescents reported more frequent preparation for bias messages at home, across racial/ethnic groups. Mothers' experiences of interpersonal prejudice at work were associated with more frequent cultural socialization messages among African American and Latino families. Chinese youth reported fewer cultural socialization messages when mothers perceived more frequent interpersonal prejudice at work. Findings are discussed in the context of minority groups' distinct social histories and economic status in the United States. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Yoo, Grace J; Kim, Barbara W
Korean immigration peaked in the mid-1980s, so that large cohorts of post-1965 immigrants are now approaching or entering retirement. As the baby boomer generation ages, few studies have examined how the lack of retirement savings and eldercare plans combined with cultural expectations such as filial piety may pose challenges for aging Korean immigrants and their adult children. This exploratory study examines attitudes and beliefs among 1.5 and 2nd generation Korean American adults regarding filial expectations and support for aging immigrant parents. In-depth interviews conducted with 124 adult children of immigrants show that their attitudes and beliefs around filial care were primarily motivated by feelings of gratitude and a strong sense of responsibility toward their parents. In addition, because Korean immigrant parents often face language and financial barriers, adult children were preparing themselves for future support of their parents' finances, health care and long-term care needs. Although both adult sons and daughters expressed a desire to care for their parents, adult daughters often discussed in detail their concerns and worries about future care of their parents. The findings of this paper illustrate how the intersections of gender, culture, and class inform attitudes and beliefs regarding aging and family support among Korean American families.
Brody, Gene H; Chen, Yi-Fu; Kogan, Steven M; Murry, Velma McBride; Brown, Anita C
This report extends earlier accounts by addressing the effects of the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program across 65 months. Two hypotheses were tested: (a) Rural African American youths randomly assigned to participate in SAAF would demonstrate lower rates of alcohol use than would control youths more than 5 years later, and (b) SAAF's effects on deterring the onset of alcohol use in early adolescence would carry forward to mediate the program's long-term effects. African American youths in rural Georgia (mean age at pretest = 10.8 years) were assigned randomly to the SAAF group (n = 369) or to a control group (n = 298). Past-month alcohol use was assessed at pretest and at 9, 18, 29, 53, and 65 months after pretest. SAAF participants increased their alcohol use at a slower rate than did adolescents in the control condition across the follow-up assessments. At the 65-month assessment, SAAF participants reported having drunk alcohol half as often as did youths in the control group. Consistent with the second hypothesis, SAAF's effects on deterring initiation carried forward to account for its effects on alcohol use across time. Training in protective parenting processes and self-regulatory skills during preadolescence may contribute to a self-sustaining trajectory of disinterest in and avoidance of alcohol use during adolescence when peers begin to model and sanction it. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved
Whiteman, Shawn D; Solmeyer, Anna R; McHale, Susan M
Sibling relationships have been described as love-hate relationships by virtue of their emotional intensity, but we know little about how sibling positivity and negativity operate together to affect youth adjustment. Accordingly, this study charted the course of sibling positivity and negativity from age 10 to 18 in African American sibling dyads and tested whether changes in relationship qualities were linked to changes in adolescents' internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Participants were consecutively-born siblings [at Time 1, older siblings averaged 14.03 (SD = 1.80) years of age, 48 % female; younger siblings averaged 10.39 (SD = 1.07) years of age, 52 % female] and two parents from 189 African American families. Data were collected via annual home interviews for 3 years. A series of multi-level models revealed that sibling positivity and sibling negativity declined across adolescence, with no significant differences by sibling dyad gender constellation. Controlling for age-related changes as well as time-varying parent-adolescent relationship qualities, changes in sibling negativity, but not positivity, were positively related to changes in adolescents' depressive symptoms and risky behaviors. Like parent-adolescent relationships, sibling relationships displayed some distancing across adolescence. Nevertheless, sibling negativity remained a uniquely important relational experience for African American adolescents' adjustment.
Lee, Jung-Ah; Nguyen, Hannah; Park, Joan; Tran, Linh; Nguyen, Trang; Huynh, Yen
Families of ethnic minority persons with dementia often seek help at later stages of the disease. Little is known about the effectiveness of various methods in supporting ethnic minority dementia patients' caregivers. The objective of the study was to identify smartphone and computer usage among family caregivers of dementia patients (i.e., Korean and Vietnamese Americans) to develop dementia-care education programs for them. Participants were asked various questions related to their computer or smartphone usage in conjunction with needs-assessment interviews. Flyers were distributed at two ethnic minority community centers in Southern California. Snowball recruitment was also utilized to reach out to the families of dementia patients dwelling in the community. Thirty-five family caregivers, including 20 Vietnamese and 15 Korean individuals, participated in this survey. Thirty participants (30 of 35, 85.7%) were computer users. Among those, 76.7% (23 of 30) reported daily usage and 53% (16 of 30) claimed to use social media. A majority of the participants (31 of 35, 88.6%) reported that they owned smartphones. More than half of smartphone users (18 of 29, 62%) claimed to use social media applications. Many participants claimed that they could not attend in-class education due to caregiving and/or transportation issues. Most family caregivers of dementia patients use smartphones more often than computers, and more than half of those caregivers communicate with others through social media apps. A smartphone-app-based caregiver intervention may serve as a more effective approach compared to the conventional in-class method. Multiple modalities for the development of caregiver interventions should be considered.
Background Although obesity rates are high among Latino children, relatively few studies of parental feeding practices have examined Latino families as a separate group. Culturally-based approaches to measurement development can begin to identify parental feeding practices in specific cultural groups. This study used qualitative and quantitative methods to develop and test the Parental Feeding Practices (PFP) Questionnaire for use with Mexican American parents. Items reflected both parent’s use of control over child eating and child-centered feeding practices. Methods In the qualitative phase of the research, 35 Latino parents participated in focus groups. Items for the PFP were developed from focus group discussions, as well as adapted from existing parent feeding practice measures. Cognitive interviews were conducted with 37 adults to evaluate items. In the quantitative phase, mothers and fathers of 174 Mexican American children ages 8–10 completed the PFP and provided demographic information. Anthropometric measures were obtained on family members. Results Confirmatory factor analyses identified four parental feeding practice dimensions: positive involvement in child eating, pressure to eat, use of food to control behavior, and restriction of amount of food. Factorial invariance modeling suggested equivalent factor meaning and item response scaling across mothers and fathers. Mothers and fathers differed somewhat in their use of feeding practices. All four feeding practices were related to child body mass index (BMI) percentiles, for one or both parents. Mothers reporting more positive involvement had children with lower BMI percentiles. Parents using more pressure to eat had children with lower BMI percentiles, while parents using more restriction had children with higher BMI percentiles. Fathers using food to control behavior had children with lower BMI percentiles. Conclusions Results indicate good initial validity and reliability for the PFP. It can be
Tschann Jeanne M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although obesity rates are high among Latino children, relatively few studies of parental feeding practices have examined Latino families as a separate group. Culturally-based approaches to measurement development can begin to identify parental feeding practices in specific cultural groups. This study used qualitative and quantitative methods to develop and test the Parental Feeding Practices (PFP Questionnaire for use with Mexican American parents. Items reflected both parent’s use of control over child eating and child-centered feeding practices. Methods In the qualitative phase of the research, 35 Latino parents participated in focus groups. Items for the PFP were developed from focus group discussions, as well as adapted from existing parent feeding practice measures. Cognitive interviews were conducted with 37 adults to evaluate items. In the quantitative phase, mothers and fathers of 174 Mexican American children ages 8–10 completed the PFP and provided demographic information. Anthropometric measures were obtained on family members. Results Confirmatory factor analyses identified four parental feeding practice dimensions: positive involvement in child eating, pressure to eat, use of food to control behavior, and restriction of amount of food. Factorial invariance modeling suggested equivalent factor meaning and item response scaling across mothers and fathers. Mothers and fathers differed somewhat in their use of feeding practices. All four feeding practices were related to child body mass index (BMI percentiles, for one or both parents. Mothers reporting more positive involvement had children with lower BMI percentiles. Parents using more pressure to eat had children with lower BMI percentiles, while parents using more restriction had children with higher BMI percentiles. Fathers using food to control behavior had children with lower BMI percentiles. Conclusions Results indicate good initial validity and
Jarrett, Robin L; Hamilton, Megan-Brette; Coba-Rodriguez, Sarai
The development of emergent literacy skills are important for the development of later literacy competencies and affect school readiness. Quantitative researchers document race- and social class-based disparities in emergent literacy competence between low-income African American and middle-income White children. Some researchers suggest that deficits in parenting practices account for limited literacy skills among low-income African American children. A small body of qualitative research on low-income African American families finds that despite economic challenges, some African American families were actively engaged in promoting child literacy development. Using qualitative interviews that emphasize family strengths, we add to this small body of research to highlight positive family practices obscured in many quantitative analyses that concentrate on family shortcomings. Specifically, we examine in-home literacy practices and child literacy development with a sample of low-income African American mothers (families) of preschoolers. Key findings include identification of various literacy activities promoting child literacy development and inclusion of multiple family members assisting in literacy activities. These findings add to substantive discussions of emergent literacy and resilience. Insights from the qualitative interviews also provide culturally-sensitive recommendations to childhood educators and speech-language pathologists (SLP) who work with low-income African American families and children. Reader should recognize that (1) there is not a 'right' phenotype and therefore not a right form of environmental input and (2) that context matters (at both the level of the cell and the individual organism). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Poulin, John; Deng, Rong; Ingersoll, Travis Sky; Witt, Heather; Swain, Melanie
This study examines two sources of informal support-perceived family and friend support-and the psychological well-being-self-esteem, depression and loneliness-of 150 Chinese and 145 American elders. There were no significant differences between the elderly American and Chinese persons' mean scores on family and friend support. The multiple linear regression analyses with interaction terms (country x family support and country x friend support), however, indicated that the relationship between family support and depression and family support and loneliness was stronger for the Chinese elderly than the US elderly. Conversely, the relationship between friend support and depression and friend support and loneliness is stronger for US elderly than Chinese elderly. The implications of these findings for social work practice in both countries is discussed.
Gonzalez, Michelle; Jones, Deborah J.; Parent, Justin
African American youth from single mother homes continue to be overrepresented in statistics on risk behavior and delinquency, a trend that many be attributed to father-absence, socioeconomic disadvantage, and compromises in parenting more typical of single than two-parent families. Yet, this risk-focused perspective ignores a long-standing strength of the African American community, the involvement and potential protective impact of extended family members in childrearing. This study describes the experiences of 95 African American single mothers and their non-marital coparents who participated in a study of African American single mother families with an 11 to 16 year old child. Specifically, the study examines: 1) the extent to which nonmarital coparents are involved in childrearing; 2) the relative levels of risk (i.e., depression, mother-coparent conflict) and protective (i.e., parenting) associated with maternal and coparent involvement; and 3) how similarly and/or differently coparent and mother variables operate with regard to youth externalizing problems. Findings reveal that a range of family members and other adults actively participate in childrearing in African American single mother families, coparents do not differ from mothers on certain study variables (i.e., depression and mother-coparent conflict) but do for others (parenting), and coparent involvement is associated with youth adjustment in ways that are similar to our more established understanding of maternal involvement. The potential clinical implications of the findings are discussed and future research directions are highlighted. PMID:24479612
Hui, Kayi; Lent, Robert W
Although family and cultural factors have been assumed to play important roles in the career development of Asian Americans, theory-driven research on this topic remains limited. We examined culturally relevant factors that may contribute to Asian Americans' consideration of fields in which they are overrepresented (e.g., science, technology, engineering) and underrepresented (e.g., education, social science). Drawing from social cognitive career theory, a culture-specific, social cognitive model of career interests and choice was tested in Holland's (1997) Investigative (I) and Social (S) themes. A sample of 802 Asian American undergraduates completed measures of family support, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, interest, and career choice consideration in relation to both Holland themes. Two indicators of acculturation/enculturation (adherence to Asian values and generation status in the United States) were also obtained. The model accounted for a substantial amount of variance in Asian American college students' career consideration in both themes. Family support and acculturation played varying roles, depending on the Holland theme. For example, family support was linked to career choice consideration both directly (in the S theme) and indirectly, via other predictors (in both themes). Contrary to expectations, the acculturation variables did not moderate the relation of family support or interest to career consideration in either theme. We discuss the implications of these findings for efforts to understand and facilitate the career development of Asian American college students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
O'Bryan, Charles R.
The positive impact of school libraries on student achievement is documented in a robust body of literature. Despite this evidence, the number of certified school librarians is declining nationally, and concerted advocacy efforts on the part of the American Library Association, the American Association of School Libraries and individual teacher…
Hoehn, Jessica L; Riekert, Kristin A; Borrelli, Belinda; Rand, Cynthia S; Eakin, Michelle N
To identify barriers and motivators for reducing secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) for families of African-American, low-income, urban children. Audiotaped intervention sessions of 52 African-American caregivers of Head Start children who reported being a smoker and/or had at least one smoker in the home were randomly sampled from a larger trial examining the effectiveness of a motivational-interviewing intervention in reducing child's SHSe. Counseling sessions were qualitatively coded to identify barriers and motivators to implementing a home smoking ban or quitting smoking. African-American families identified several themes that were either or both barriers and motivators for SHSe reduction, including: asking others not to smoke, other family living in the home, neighborhood safety, absence of childcare, cost/availability of cessation tools, physician support and prevention of health problems. Urban, low-income African-American families face numerous barriers to reducing SHSe. Families were able to identify many motivators for reducing SHSe, suggesting an awareness of the importance for SHSe reduction but uncertainty in their confidence to change behaviors. Counseling should include tailoring to be most effective in supporting health behavior change. Greater emphasis on motivators is needed, such as low-cost/free cessation tools, engagement from physicians and greater involvement of extended family members. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Davis, Delilah A.
The purpose of this study was to explore the tenacities, practices, and discourse of family-based literacy practices and their connection in African American families. It scrutinized the influence of the practices of African American families on the multiple contexts of literacy practices in their passageway across the school-community periphery.…
Wisconsin's Radioactive Waste Review Board is required by law to advocate for and educate the public on the high-level nuclear waste issue. The goal of its education program is to empower people by giving them information and skills. Environmental advocacy and public activism are part of the State's Progressive political tradition. The Board seeks and uses public input while developing education programs, and helps local areas organize committees to develop their own programs
This chapter examines how alternative models of journalism are emerging to counter the news values associated with the so-called mainstream media - news values, which are increasingly criticised for serving only the interests of the political and economic elite. In particular, this chapter looks at advocacy journalism, which focuses on a shift away from objectivity towards the arguably more ethical practice of attachment. The neutral and detached reporter, who remains outside of events and re...
Full Text Available AbstractAdversarial litigation is not the only means of resolving disputes and settling of claims. There are various options. Alternative means of dispute resolution can save money and time, and can help to anchor and resolve the dispute while exploring valuable good offices, amicable approaches and facilitation. Mediation, as used in law, is a process of managing negotiation by a neutral third party in the form of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR, as a convenient way of resolving disputes between two or more parties with speediation processes. On the sidelines typically, a neutral third party, the mediator assists the parties to negotiate a settlement. The term “mediation” broadly refers to any instance in which a neutral third party helps others to reach an amicable and mutually acceptable agreement. More specifically, mediation has a structure, timetable and dynamic approaches that “ordinary” negotiations usually lack. The process helps the parties to flourish the healthy ideas which are different and distinct from the legal rights in a Court of law. It is well known in International Law also and disputants can submit their disputes to mediation in a variety of matters such as commercial, legal, diplomatic, workplace, community and family matters, which assumes a great significance and it is bricolaged within the framework of this article.Keywords: Adversarial, Litigation, Mediation, Negotiation and Amicable.
Jane Lilly Lopez
Full Text Available With passage of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (IIRIRA, the goal of discouraging illegal immigration and the legal immigration of the poor triumphed over the longstanding goal of family unity in US immigration policy. This shift resulted in policy changes that prevent some mixed-citizenship families from accessing family reunification benefits for the immigrant relatives of US citizens. Two specific elements of IIRIRA — (1 the three- and 10-year bars to reentry, and (2 the minimum income thresholds for citizen sponsors of immigrants — have created a hierarchy of mixed-citizenship families, enabling some to access all the citizenship benefits of family preservation and reunification, while excluding other, similar families from those same benefits. This article details these two key policy changes imposed by IIRIRA and describes their impact on mixed-citizenship couples seeking family reunification benefits in the United States. Mixed-citizenship couples seeking family reunification benefits do not bear the negative impacts of these two policies evenly. Rather, these policies disproportionately limit specific subgroups of immigrants and citizens from accessing family reunification. Low-income, non-White (particularly Latino, and less-educated American families bear the overwhelming brunt of IIRIRA’s narrowing of family reunification benefits. As a result, these policy changes have altered the composition of American society and modified broader notions of American national identity and who truly “belongs.” Most of the disparate impact between mixed-citizenship couples created by the IIRIRA would be corrected by enacting minor policy changes to (1 allow the undocumented spouses of US citizens to adjust their legal status from within the United States, and (2 include the noncitizen spouse’s income earning potential toward satisfying minimum income requirements.
Lau, Anna S
Research on ethnic minority parenting has examined heritage cultural influences and contextual stressors on parenting processes. However, rarely are adaptive cultural processes considered, whereby ethnic minority parents bring their cultural values to bear in adapting to contextual demands in the host society. A survey of 107 Chinese American immigrant parents examined whether use of physical discipline can be predicted by cultural values, contextual stressors, and their interactions. Results indicated that distinct domains of cultural values were related to physical discipline in disparate ways, with some values decreasing risk and others indirectly increasing risk. There was some evidence that cultural values interacted with contextual stress to predict physical discipline. Parent-child acculturation conflicts were only related to physical discipline when parents held strong values about the importance of firm parental control. The findings illustrate how heritage cultural influences and current ecological demands may converge to shape parenting in immigrant families.
Shen, Yishan; Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie
This longitudinal study examined the influence of parents’ educational attitudes on adolescents’ educational attitudes and identified antecedents (i.e., parent education, family income, and parent acculturation), consequences (i.e., academic achievement and engagement), and a potential moderator (i.e., adolescent acculturation) of the transmission process. The sample was 444 Chinese American mothers, fathers, and adolescents (12–15 at W1). Using path analysis, this study found significant two-way interactions among parent education, income, and acculturation in predicting parents’ concurrent positive educational attitudes, which, in turn, predicted adolescents’ attitudes at W2. The latter link was further moderated by W1 and W2 adolescent acculturation for mother-adolescent and father-adolescent dyads. Adolescents’ positive educational attitudes at W2, in turn, were positively associated with their concurrent academic achievement and engagement. PMID:27138812
Full Text Available Obesity is a typical metabolic disorder resulting from the imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. American Indians suffer disproportionately high rates of obesity and diabetes. The goal of this study is to identify metabolic profiles of obesity in 431 normoglycemic American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Family Study. Using an untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we detected 1,364 distinct m/z features matched to known compounds in the current metabolomics databases. We conducted multivariate analysis to identify metabolic profiles for obesity, adjusting for standard obesity indicators. After adjusting for covariates and multiple testing, five metabolites were associated with body mass index and seven were associated with waist circumference. Of them, three were associated with both. Majority of the obesity-related metabolites belongs to lipids, e.g., fatty amides, sphingolipids, prenol lipids, and steroid derivatives. Other identified metabolites are amino acids or peptides. Of the nine identified metabolites, five metabolites (oleoylethanolamide, mannosyl-diinositol-phosphorylceramide, pristanic acid, glutamate, and kynurenine have been previously implicated in obesity or its related pathways. Future studies are warranted to replicate these findings in larger populations or other ethnic groups.
Zhao, Qi; Zhu, Yun; Best, Lyle G; Umans, Jason G; Uppal, Karan; Tran, ViLinh T; Jones, Dean P; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Zhao, Jinying
Obesity is a typical metabolic disorder resulting from the imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. American Indians suffer disproportionately high rates of obesity and diabetes. The goal of this study is to identify metabolic profiles of obesity in 431 normoglycemic American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Family Study. Using an untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we detected 1,364 distinct m/z features matched to known compounds in the current metabolomics databases. We conducted multivariate analysis to identify metabolic profiles for obesity, adjusting for standard obesity indicators. After adjusting for covariates and multiple testing, five metabolites were associated with body mass index and seven were associated with waist circumference. Of them, three were associated with both. Majority of the obesity-related metabolites belongs to lipids, e.g., fatty amides, sphingolipids, prenol lipids, and steroid derivatives. Other identified metabolites are amino acids or peptides. Of the nine identified metabolites, five metabolites (oleoylethanolamide, mannosyl-diinositol-phosphorylceramide, pristanic acid, glutamate, and kynurenine) have been previously implicated in obesity or its related pathways. Future studies are warranted to replicate these findings in larger populations or other ethnic groups.
Stephen M. Modell
Full Text Available Description: Among the two leading causes of death in the United States, each responsible for one in every four deaths, heart disease costs Americans $300 billion, while cancer costs Americans $216 billion per year. They also rank among the top three causes of death in Europe and Asia. In 2012 the University of Michigan Center for Public Health and Community Genomics and Genetic Alliance, with the support of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Office of Public Health Genomics, hosted a conference in Atlanta, Georgia to consider related action strategies based on public health genomics. The aim of the conference was consensus building on recommendations to implement genetic screening for three major heritable contributors to these mortality and cost figures: hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC, familial hypercholesterolemia (FH, and Lynch syndrome (LS. Genetic applications for these three conditions are labeled with a “Tier 1” designation by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention because they have been fully validated and clinical practice guidelines based on systematic review support them. Methodology: The conference followed a deliberative sequence starting with nationally recognized clinical and public health presenters for each condition, followed by a Patient and Community Perspectives Panel, working group sessions for each of the conditions, and a final plenary session. The 74 conference participants represented disease research and advocacy, public health, medicine and nursing, genetics, governmental health agencies, and industry. Participants drew on a public health framework interconnecting policy, clinical intervention, surveillance, and educational functions for their deliberations. Results: Participants emphasized the importance of collaboration between clinical, public health, and advocacy groups in implementing Tier 1 genetic screening. Advocacy groups could help with individual and institutional
Gonzales, N A; Cauce, A M; Friedman, R J; Mason, C A
Using a 1-year prospective design, this study examined the influence of family status variables (family income, parental education, family structure), parenting variables (maternal support and restrictive control), peer support, and neighborhood risk on the school performance of 120 African American junior high school students. In addition to main effects of these variables, neighborhood risk was examined as a moderator of the effects of parenting and peer support. Family status variables were not predictive of adolescent school performance as indexed by self-reported grade point average. Maternal support at Time 1 was prospectively related to adolescent grades at Time 2. Neighborhood risk was related to lower grades, while peer support predicted better grades in the prospective analyses. Neighborhood risk also moderated the effects of maternal restrictive control and peer support on adolescent grades in prospective analyses. These findings highlight the importance of an ecological approach to the problem of academic underachievement within the African American Community.
Koblinsky, Sally A; Kuvalanka, Katherine A; Randolph, Suzanne M
This study examined the role of parenting, family routines, family conflict, and maternal depression in predicting the social skills and behavior problems of low-income African American preschoolers. A sample of 184 African American mothers of Head Start children completed participant and child measures in a structured interview. Results of regression analyses revealed that mothers who utilized more positive parenting practices and engaged in more family routines had children who displayed higher levels of total prosocial skills. Positive parenting and lower levels of maternal depressive symptoms were predictive of fewer externalizing and internalizing child behavior problems. Lower family conflict was linked with fewer externalizing problems. Implications of the study for future research and intervention are discussed. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved
Okoro, O N; Rutherford, C A; Witherspoon, S F
Incidence rate of prostate cancer among African American (AA) men is 1.6 times that in White men. Prevention efforts in this population have typically been through faith-based organizations and barber shops, with a few including significant others. Culturally, women are known to have a strong influence in the AA family. The current study assessed prostate cancer knowledge and explored perceptions on the roles of women in prostate cancer prevention. To assess prostate cancer knowledge, a 25-item questionnaire was administered to convenience samples of AA women (n = 297) and men (n = 199). Four focus groups were conducted to explore perceptions on the role of women in prostate cancer prevention. Men had a higher mean score (13.2; max of 25) than women (11.4) for knowledge of prostate cancer. For the men, higher knowledge scores were associated with having a family member diagnosed with prostate cancer and likelihood to engage healthcare providers about prostate cancer (p men to seek regular primary care. This affords men opportunities for dialog with healthcare providers about prostate cancer and informed decision making regarding screening.
Falcone, John L; Middleton, Donald B
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) sets residency performance standards for the American Board of Family Medicine Certification Examination. This study aims are to describe the compliance of residency programs with ACGME standards and to determine whether residency pass rates depend on program size and location. In this retrospective cohort study, residency performance from 2007 to 2011 was compared with the ACGME performance standards. Simple linear regression was performed to see whether program pass rates were dependent on program size. Regional differences in performance were compared with χ(2) tests, using an α level of 0.05. Of 429 total residency programs, there were 205 (47.8%) that violate ACGME performance standards. Linear regression showed that program pass rates were positively correlated and dependent on program size (P family medicine training programs do not meet the ACGME examination performance standards. Pass rates are associated with residency program size, and regional variation occurs. These findings have the potential to affect ACGME policy and residency program application patterns.
Fang, Lin; Barnes-Ceeney, Kevin; Schinke, Steven P.
Confronting developmental tasks and challenges associated with bridging two different cultures, Asian American adolescent girls face increasing risks for substance use. Identifying risk and protective factors in this population is essential, particularly when those factors can inform preventive programs. Guided by family interaction theory, the present cross-sectional study explored the associations of psychological and familial factors with use of alcohol, prescription drugs, and other drugs...
Carnochan, Sarah; Austin, Michael J
Coleman Advocates for Youth and Children is a pioneering 30-year-old child advocacy organization founded by several affluent community members and children's service professionals to stop housing abused and neglected children in juvenile hall. Today, low-income youth and parents in families of color are now assuming leadership in developing a unique hybrid approach that integrates community organizing with more traditional child advocacy strategies and focuses on increasing affordable housing and improving the city's educational system. The strategies employed by Coleman have also evolved, shifting from insider advocacy with administrative officials to public campaigns targeting the city budget process, to local initiative campaigns, and most recently to electoral politics. This organizational history features the issues mission and structure, leadership, managing issues, advocacy strategies and community relations, and funding.
Goodluck, Charlotte Tsoi
This training manual demonstrates the utilization of two family assessment tools with American Indian rehabilitation clients. The manual begins with an overview of general systems theory, family systems theory, and family assessment theory. The genogram is then defined as a type of family tree covering at least three generations, offering a map of…
Guindalini, Rodrigo Santa Cruz; Win, Aung Ko; Gulden, Cassandra; Lindor, Noralane M; Newcomb, Polly A; Haile, Robert W; Raymond, Victoria; Stoffel, Elena; Hall, Michael; Llor, Xavier; Ukaegbu, Chinedu I; Solomon, Ilana; Weitzel, Jeffrey; Kalady, Matthew; Blanco, Amie; Terdiman, Jonathan; Shuttlesworth, Gladis A; Lynch, Patrick M; Hampel, Heather; Lynch, Henry T; Jenkins, Mark A; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Kupfer, Sonia S
African Americans (AAs) have the highest incidence of and mortality resulting from colorectal cancer (CRC) in the United States. Few data are available on genetic and nongenetic risk factors for CRC among AAs. Little is known about cancer risks and mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes in AAs with the most common inherited CRC condition, Lynch syndrome. We aimed to characterize phenotype, mutation spectrum, and risk of CRC in AAs with Lynch syndrome. We performed a retrospective study of AAs with mutations in MMR genes (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2) using databases from 13 US referral centers. We analyzed data on personal and family histories of cancer. Modified segregation analysis conditioned on ascertainment criteria was used to estimate age- and sex-specific CRC cumulative risk, studying members of the mutation-carrying families. We identified 51 AA families with deleterious mutations that disrupt function of the MMR gene product: 31 in MLH1 (61%), 11 in MSH2 (21%), 3 in MSH6 (6%), and 6 in PMS2 (12%); 8 mutations were detected in more than 1 individual, and 11 have not been previously reported. In the 920 members of the 51 families with deleterious mutations, the cumulative risks of CRC at 80 years of age were estimated to be 36.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.5%-83.9%) for men and 29.7% (95% CI, 8.31%-76.1%) for women. CRC risk was significantly higher among individuals with mutations in MLH1 or MSH2 (hazard ratio, 13.9; 95% CI, 3.44-56.5). We estimate the cumulative risk for CRC in AAs with MMR gene mutations to be similar to that of individuals of European descent with Lynch syndrome. Two-thirds of mutations were found in MLH1, some of which were found in multiple individuals and some that have not been previously reported. Differences in mutation spectrum are likely to reflect the genetic diversity of this population. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available ... Tos Ferina AAP CME ask your doctor brochure family stories faq meet dr. gary freed meet keri ... media video/audio pneumonia tb overview links & resources families advocacy about civil rights kids' rights sample school ...
Full Text Available ... Tos Ferina AAP CME ask your doctor brochure family stories faq meet dr. gary freed meet keri ... media video/audio pneumonia tb overview links & resources families advocacy about civil rights kids' rights sample school ...
Tomayko, Emily J; Prince, Ronald J; Cronin, Kate A; Parker, Tassy; Kim, Kyungmann; Grant, Vernon M; Sheche, Judith N; Adams, Alexandra K
Background/Aims Few obesity prevention trials have focused on young children and their families in the home environment, particularly in underserved communities. Healthy Children, Strong Families 2 is a randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyle intervention for American Indian children and their families, a group at very high risk of obesity. The study design resulted from our long-standing engagement with American Indian communities, and few collaborations of this type resulting in the development and implementation of a randomized clinical trial have been described. Methods Healthy Children, Strong Families 2 is a lifestyle intervention targeting increased fruit and vegetable intake, decreased sugar intake, increased physical activity, decreased TV/screen time, and two less-studied risk factors: stress and sleep. Families with young children from five American Indian communities nationwide were randomly assigned to a healthy lifestyle intervention ( Wellness Journey) augmented with social support (Facebook and text messaging) or a child safety control group ( Safety Journey) for 1 year. After Year 1, families in the Safety Journey receive the Wellness Journey, and families in the Wellness Journey start the Safety Journey with continued wellness-focused social support based on communities' request that all families receive the intervention. Primary (adult body mass index and child body mass index z-score) and secondary (health behaviors) outcomes are assessed after Year 1 with additional analyses planned after Year 2. Results To date, 450 adult/child dyads have been enrolled (100% target enrollment). Statistical analyses await trial completion in 2017. Lessons learned Conducting a community-partnered randomized controlled trial requires significant formative work, relationship building, and ongoing flexibility. At the communities' request, the study involved minimal exclusion criteria, focused on wellness rather than obesity, and included an active
Coats, Linda T.; Xu, Jianzhong
This qualitative study examines the perspectives of eight exemplary African-American science teachers toward No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act and their outreach to families and communities in the context of the USA. Data revealed that whereas these exemplary teachers applauded the general intent of NCLB, they were concerned with its overemphasis on…
Fernandez, Melanie A.; Butler, Ashley M.; Eyberg, Sheila M.
The course and efficacy of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) were examined in 18 socioeconomically disadvantaged African American families of preschoolers with disruptive behavior disorders. Mothers reported significant improvements in child disruptive behavior but not in maternal depressive symptoms or parenting stress. Attrition was 56%,…
Murry, Velma McBride; Berkel, Cady; Liu, Na
Although family-focused, evidence-based programs (EBPs) have the potential to reduce disparities in health and behavioral outcomes for youth, access to such programs is severely limited in the most affected areas, including African American communities in the rural South. As expanding the reach of EBPs is the primary goal of translational research, interest is growing in the potential of technology as a viable platform to disseminate services to areas with limited resources. To test whether African American families in the rural South would be willing to engage in a technology-based family-focused EBP to prevent adolescent risk behavior, we examined attendance using data from two arms of a three-arm community-based trial of the Pathways for African American Success (PAAS) program. In the overall study, sixth graders (N = 412) and their primary caregivers were randomly assigned to the following conditions: (a) in-person, small group sessions led by facilitators; (b) self-directed, technology-based sessions; or (c) a literature control with home-mailed educational materials. Results indicated that attendance was higher in the technology condition than in the small group condition. Parental age, education, and socioeconomic status did not limit attendance in the technology condition. We conclude from these results that the use of technology can be an acceptable strategy for disseminating parenting EBPs to African American families in the rural South.
International Planned Parenthood Federation, New York, NY.
Research dealing with population and family planning in specific Latin American countries is summarized in this collection of demographic studies. Countries for which information is provided include Argentina, Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Peru. Each country…
Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Raman, Aarthi; Sharma, Sushma; Fitch, Mark D.; Fleming, Sharon E.
Objective: To identify family and child nutrition and dietary attributes related to children's dietary intakes. Design: African American children (ages 8-11 years, n = 156), body mass index greater than 85th percentile, from urban, low-income neighborhoods. Baseline, cross-sectional data collected as part of an ongoing diabetes prevention…
Castillo, Linda G.; Conoley, Collie W.; Brossart, Daniel F.
This study examined the influence of psychosociocultural variables of acculturation, White attitudinal marginalization, family support, and income on perceived distress in 247 Mexican American female college students. Participants were bicultural and attended primarily White universities in the West and Southwest. Results showed that comfort with…
Lindsey, Eric W.; Caldera, Yvonne M.; Rivera, Mitzie
The present investigation explored the association of mother--child and father--child emotional expressiveness during toddlerhood to children's prosocial and aggressive behaviour with peers. Data were collected from 62 Mexican-American families with toddlers (29 females, 33 males) during a home visit. Children's peer interactions were also…
Blackstock, Oni J.; Mba-Jonas, Adamma; Sacajiu, Galit M.
Disparities in the rates of unintended pregnancy have increased for low-income African American women as compared to other groups due, in part, to declining contraception use. Women obtain family planning information from diverse sources, which may ultimately influence contraceptive decision making. For this qualitative study, we conducted…
Coolahan, Kathleen; McWayne, Christine; Fantuzzo, John; Grim, Suzanne
Examined the construct and concurrent validity of the Parenting Behavior Questionnaire-Head Start (PBQ-HS) with low-income African-American families with preschoolers, and whether parenting styles differed by caregiver characteristics. Derived Active-Responsive, Active-Restrictive, and Passive-Permissive parenting dimensions; the last differed…
Fang, Lin; Barnes-Ceeney, Kevin; Schinke, Steven P
Confronting developmental tasks and challenges associated with bridging two different cultures, Asian American adolescent girls face increasing risks for substance use. Identifying risk and protective factors in this population is essential, particularly when those factors can inform preventive programs. Guided by family interaction theory, the present cross-sectional study explored the associations of psychological and familial factors with use of alcohol, prescription drugs, and other drugs among early-adolescent Asian American girls. Between August 2007 and March 2008, 135 pairs of Asian American girls (mean age 13.21 years, SD=0.90) and their mothers (mean age 39.86 years, SD=6.99) were recruited from 19 states that had significant Asian populations. Girls and mothers each completed an online survey. Relative to girls who did not use substances, girls who did had higher levels of depressive symptoms, perceived peer substance use, and maternal substance use. Multiple logistic regression modeling revealed that they also had significantly lower levels of body satisfaction, problem-solving ability, parental monitoring, mother-daughter communication, family involvement, and family rules about substance use. Household composition, acculturation, and academic achievement were not associated with girls' substance use. These findings point to directions for substance abuse prevention programming among Asian American girls.
Puneet Dwivedi; Arundhati Jagadish; John Schelhas
This study examines perceptions of three stakeholder groups (African American Family Forest Landowner,Â Government Agency, and Nonprofit) regarding federal landowner assistance programs in the southern UnitedÂ States by combining a SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity, and threat) analysis with the AHP (analyticalÂ hierarchy process). Factors with the highest priority...
Trompeta, Joyce A; Cooper, Bruce A; Ascher, Nancy L; Kools, Susan M; Kennedy, Christine M; Chen, Jyu-Lin
Despite the growing need for organ donation among Asian Americans, studies suggest that they are reluctant to donate. To examine the association of attitudes and knowledge about organ donation and transplantation with willingness to donate and willingness to engage in family discussion about organ donation among Asian American adolescents. A cross-sectional study. The Big Island of Hawaii. Self-identified Asian American adolescents (Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Korean), ages 16 to 17 years old, and each adolescent's parent or guardian. Asian American adolescents provided demographic information and completed the Modified Organ Donation Attitude Survey, the Organ Donation and Transplantation Knowledge Survey, and the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale. A parent or guardian also provided demographic information. Linear regression analyses were used to examine the associations with willingness to donate and to engage in family discussion about organ discussion. Willingness to donate was associated with positive knowledge related to general aspects about organ donation and cultural limitations in receiving an organ transplant, a high level of acculturation, and a low level of negative attitudes (R2 = 0.402, F = 18.86, P = .005). Asian American adolescents with approving or positive attitudes were likely to engage in family discussion about organ donation (R2 = 0.195, F = 27.93, P = .005). To reinforce and maintain high levels of knowledge and positive attitudes, organ donation education is most likely needed in high schools.
Full Text Available In order for the field of psychology in the United States to maintain its relevance and validity, it must become more inclusive in its theory and research of Latinos, who are now the largest "minority" group in the nation. In particular, due to immigration and birth rates, Mexican Americans are the largest and fastest growing segment of the Latino population. This paper addresses some of the most significant historical and socio-cultural factors contributing to the psychological nature and wellbeing of Mexican Americans. These factors should be understood and used to guide research and theory in order to make the discipline of psychology relevant for Mexican Americans. The concept of mestizaje is used to explain the biological and cultural mixing constituting the diverse origins of the Mexican people. Immigration to the U.S. is described in terms of selective socio-cultural variables giving rise to a diverse Mexican American culture that is resistant to complete assimilation. Within a U.S. context, the constructs of generational status, acculturation, and biculturalism are used to explain the socio-cultural adaptation of Mexican Americans. The special role of children in immigrant families as language and cultural brokers are also discussed, and used to explain the adjustment of Mexican American families.
Jillapalli, Ravi K.; Wilcox, James B.
The trend among students to advocate their professors online continues to generate interest within marketing academia. Brand advocacy in products and services has played a vital role in marketing. However, no known research to date has embraced the idea of brand advocacy in marketing education. This research builds on the recent human brand…
Dyall, Lorna; Marama, Maria
Access to, and delivery of, safe and culturally appropriate health services is increasingly important in New Zealand. This paper will focus on counting the costs of health advocacy through the experience of a small non government charitable organisation, the Health Advocates Trust, (HAT) which aimed to provide advocacy services for a wide range of…
The economic challenges facing public schools and music education are immense. In this context, music teachers and supporters will need to engage in persuasive advocacy to protect resource allocations to music programs. It is worthwhile to consider the model of music education advocacy that allowed music to be adopted into the Boston Public…
Munn-Chernoff, Melissa A; Grant, Julia D; Agrawal, Arpana; Koren, Rachel; Glowinski, Anne L; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C; Duncan, Alexis E
Although prior studies have demonstrated that depression is associated with an overeating-binge eating dimension (OE-BE) phenotypically, little research has investigated whether familial factors contribute to the co-occurrence of these phenotypes, especially in community samples with multiple racial/ethnic groups. We examined the extent to which familial (i.e., genetic and shared environmental) influences overlapped between Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and OE-BE in a population-based sample and whether these influences were similar across racial/ethnic groups. Participants included 3,226 European American (EA) and 550 African American (AA) young adult women from the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study. An adaptation of the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA) was administered to assess lifetime DSM-IV MDD and OE-BE. Quantitative genetic modeling was used to estimate familial influences between both phenotypes; all models controlled for age. The best-fitting model, which combined racial/ethnic groups, found that additive genetic influences accounted for 44% (95% CI: 34%, 53%) of the MDD variance and 40% (25%, 54%) for OE-BE, with the remaining variances due to non-shared environmental influences. Genetic overlap was substantial (rg = .61 [.39, .85]); non-shared environmental influences on MDD and OE-BE overlapped weakly (re = .26 [.09, .42]). Results suggest that common familial influences underlie MDD and OE-BE, and the magnitude of familial influences contributing to the comorbidity between MDD and OE-BE is similar between EA and AA women. If racial/ethnic differences truly exist, then larger sample sizes may be needed to fully elucidate familial risk for comorbid MDD and OE-BE across these groups. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bisbee, Yolanda J. Guzman
This Indigenous Framed Research will utilize counter-storytelling through shared collaborator stories provided by Nez Perce Native American Graduates. The methodology is shaped by an Indigenous Framework as this form of research promotes and develops a culturally resonant environment for constructing, analyzing and sharing information. The…
This thesis examines the disintegration of the American family as depicted in selected plays by Eugene O’Neill, Arthur Miller, and Sam Shepard. Four plays are central: Long Day’s Journey into Night (1956), Death of a Salesman (1949), Buried Child (1978), and True West (1980). (Journey and Salesman constitute my major focus and serve to generate my thesis statement, while Buried Child and True West illuminate the thematic concerns of Journey and Salesman from quite a different perspective, and...
American anti-abortion politics is blocking family planning (FP) funding around the world. US Representative Chris Smith, a Republican of New Jersey, attempted to amend a proposal that would require health-care providers of federal workers who cover prescription drugs to also pay for prescribed contraceptives. Smith's amendment would have exempted any contraceptive that inhibits implantation. This action was defeated but clearly revealed that this anti-abortion politician's agenda is also anti-FP. The right-wing has hampered Clinton administration efforts to support reproductive rights. There is a link between FP and the survival of the planet from an environmentalist point of view that recognizes the extreme danger of the resource depletion attendant upon overpopulation. The Vatican's opposition to reproductive rights has resulted in serious restrictions on the delivery of reproductive health care in cases where public hospitals have merged with Roman Catholic health corporations. The population problem is "fixable" but efforts to do so remain deadlocked by a vocal minority of conservatives.
Chen, Shufeng; Yeh, Fawn; Lin, Jue; Matsuguchi, Tet; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Zhao, Jinying
Shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL) has been associated with a wide range of age-related disorders including cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. Obesity is an important risk factor for CVD and diabetes. The association of LTL with obesity is not well understood. This study for the first time examines the association of LTL with obesity indices including body mass index, waist circumference, percent body fat, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio in 3,256 American Indians (14-93 years old, 60% women) participating in the Strong Heart Family Study. Association of LTL with each adiposity index was examined using multivariate generalized linear mixed model, adjusting for chronological age, sex, study center, education, lifestyle (smoking, alcohol consumption, and total energy intake), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, hypertension and diabetes. Results show that obese participants had significantly shorter LTL than non-obese individuals (age-adjusted P=0.0002). Multivariate analyses demonstrate that LTL was significantly and inversely associated with all of the studied obesity parameters. Our results may shed light on the potential role of biological aging in pathogenesis of obesity and its comorbidities.
Contro, Nancy; Davies, Betty; Larson, Judith; Sourkes, Barbara
In this study, the authors describe the experiences of Mexican American family members who immigrated to the United States and then experienced the death of a child. Participants described difficulties they encountered crossing the border, leaving the culture of their homeland, and then caring for a seriously ill child. Key themes that characterized their experience of being far from home included a backdrop of poverty, absence of traditional social support, and challenges caring for healthy siblings. Participants made comparisons between health care in Mexico and the United States and assessed the trade-off they made to come to the United States, discussing access to medical care and how they were able to relate to health care providers. Further, participants conveyed how rituals from their home country were important in maintaining connections with the child who died. Based on these themes, clinical implications and strategies that focus on understanding participants' experiences with past traumas, communication and literacy needs, and the challenges of living in poverty--especially with a critically ill child--are needed.
Wang, Meme; Kviz, Frederick J; Miller, Arlene M
The purpose of this paper is to describe unique culturally-based factors that may increase the vulnerability of Asian American adolescents to engage in alcohol use and abuse and the role of parent-child bonding as a protective factor. In particular, this paper addresses the interactions among acculturation, alcohol use, and parent-child bonding and the challenges Asian American families face in strengthening parent-child bonds. We begin by examining likely causes for alienation that occur as a result of immigration to the United States. We then present the cultural context of Asian American families that can also serve to create distance between parent and child, including the contrasting cultural orientations of individualism and collectivism, Asian traditional values, differences in Eastern and Western parenting styles, and intergenerational cultural dissonance. Next, we present a review of the research that has examined acculturation as a risk factor for alcohol use and abuse among Asian American adolescents, with special attention to the mediating role of parent-child bonding. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future research on the risk and protective factors for adolescent substance abuse, as well as other risky health behaviors among the growing population of Asian Americans in the United States.
Kiang, Lisa; Glatz, Terese; Buchanan, Christy M
Parents from immigrant backgrounds must deal with normative parenting demands as well as unique challenges associated with acculturation processes. The current study examines the independent and interactive influences of acculturation conflict and cultural parenting self-efficacy (PSE; e.g., parents' confidence in instilling heritage, American, and bicultural values in their children) on perceptions of general parenting competence. Using data from 58 Asian American and 153 Latin American parents of children in grades 6-12, ethnic differences were also explored. Results suggest that lower acculturation conflict is associated with higher perceptions of general parenting competence for both Asian and Latin American parents. Higher cultural PSE is associated with higher perceived general parenting competence for Latino/a parents only. One significant interaction was found, and only for Asian Americans, whereby the negative association between acculturation conflict and perceptions of parenting competence was weaker for those who felt efficacious in transmitting heritage messages. Results are discussed in light of clinical implications and the need for further recognition and study of culturally relevant factors and frameworks among families from immigrant backgrounds. © 2016 Family Process Institute.
Kuhaneck, Heather Miller; Watling, Renee
Occupational therapy has much to offer to families of people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, people outside the profession may be unaware of occupational therapy's breadth and scope. It is our responsibility and our duty to express the full range of occupational therapy services through research, clinical practice, advocacy, and consumer education. This special issue of the American Journal of Occupational Therapy, with its focus on autism, embarks on this endeavor by highlighting research and theoretical articles that address the various aspects of occupational therapy practice that can help to fully meet the needs of people with ASD and their families. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Zhu, Yun; Yang, Jingyun; Yeh, Fawn; Cole, Shelley A; Haack, Karin; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Zhao, Jinying
Cigarette smoke is a strong risk factor for obesity and cardiovascular disease. The effect of genetic variants involved in nicotine metabolism on obesity or body composition has not been well studied. Though many genetic variants have previously been associated with adiposity or body fat distribution, a single variant usually confers a minimal individual risk. The goal of this study is to evaluate the joint association of multiple variants involved in cigarette smoke or nicotine dependence with obesity-related phenotypes in American Indians. To achieve this goal, we genotyped 61 tagSNPs in seven genes encoding nicotine acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in 3,665 American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Family Study. Single SNP association with obesity-related traits was tested using family-based association, adjusting for traditional risk factors including smoking. Joint association of all SNPs in the seven nAChRs genes were examined by gene-family analysis based on weighted truncated product method (TPM). Multiple testing was controlled by false discovery rate (FDR). Results demonstrate that multiple SNPs showed weak individual association with one or more measures of obesity, but none survived correction for multiple testing. However, gene-family analysis revealed significant associations with waist circumference (p = 0.0001) and waist-to-hip ratio (p = 0.0001), but not body mass index (p = 0.20) and percent body fat (p = 0.29), indicating that genetic variants are jointly associated with abdominal, but not general, obesity among American Indians. The observed combined genetic effect is independent of cigarette smoking per se. In conclusion, multiple variants in the nAChR gene family are jointly associated with abdominal obesity in American Indians, independent of general obesity and cigarette smoking per se.
Masood, Nausheen; Okazaki, Sumie; Takeuchi, David T.
Nationally representative data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (Alegría et al., 2004) was used to examine both disorder prevalence rates and correlates of distress for the South Asian American subgroup (n = 164). South Asian Americans generally appeared to have lower or comparable rates of lifetime and 12-month mood and anxiety disorders when compared with the overall Asian American sample. A multiple-regression model fitted to predict recent psychological distress, with 12-...
Cecil, Heather; Matson, Steven C
We examined levels of sexual victimization among a sample of 249 14- to 19-year-old African American adolescent women. Victimization was common: 32.1% reported having been raped, 33.7% had experienced sexual coercion, and 10.8% reported an attempted rape. Only 23.4% had never been victimized. We investigated whether levels of psychological health and family dysfunction varied as a function of the type of sexual victimization. Girls who had been raped had lower levels of self-esteem and mastery and higher levels of depression compared to girls who reported no sexual victimization. Significantly higher levels of family cohesion and significantly lower levels of family support were reported by girls who had been raped versus girls who reported no sexual victimization. These findings are a starting point for future studies by providing evidence that levels of mental health and family dysfunction vary by the type of sexual victimization experienced.
Harden, Brenda Jones; Sandstrom, Heather; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel
Persistent disparities exist between African American children and their European American counterparts across developmental domains. Early childhood intervention may serve to promote more positive outcomes among African American children. The current study examined whether and how the Early Head Start (EHS) program benefited African American…
Kim, Su Yeong; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Stroh, Kunise; Wang, Jenny Jiun-Ling
The current study findings refute the recent claim that marginality theory lacks construct validity. Cultural marginalization is significantly related to depressive symptoms in Korean American, Chinese American, and Japanese American parents and adolescents living in the United States. Correlational analyses indicate that adolescents' depressive…
Allen, Timothy Craig
Pathologists' advocacy plays a central role in the establishment of continuously improving patient care quality and patient safety, and in the maintenance and progress of pathology as a profession. Pathology advocacy's primary goal is the betterment of patient safety and quality medical care; however, payment is a necessary and appropriate component to both, and has a central role in advocacy. Now is the time to become involved in pathology advocacy; the Medicare Access and Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) Reauthorization Act of 2015 (MACRA) and the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014 (PAMA) are 2 of the most consequential pieces of legislation impacting the pathology and laboratory industry in the last 20 years. Another current issue of far-reaching impact for pathologists is balance billing, and yet many pathologists have little or no understanding of balance billing. Pathologists at all stages of their careers, and in every professional setting, need to participate. Academic pathologists have a special obligation to, if not become directly involved in advocacy, at least have a broad and current understanding of those issues, as well as the need and responsibility of pathologists to actively engage in advocacy efforts to address them, in order to teach residents the place of advocacy, and its value, as an inseparable and indispensable component of their professional responsibilities.
Mullany, Britta; Barlow, Allison; Neault, Nicole; Billy, Trudy; Jones, Tanya; Tortice, Iralene; Lorenzo, Sherilynn; Powers, Julia; Lake, Kristin; Reid, Raymond; Walkup, John
The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale, design, methods and baseline results of the Family Spirit trial. The goal of the trial is to evaluate the impact of the paraprofessional-delivered "Family Spirit" home-visiting intervention to reduce health and behavioral risks for American Indian teen mothers and their children. A community based participatory research (CBPR) process shaped the design of the current randomized controlled trial of the Family Spirit intervention. Between 2006 and 2008, 322 pregnant teens were randomized to receive the Family Spirit intervention plus Optimized Standard Care, or Optimized Standard Care alone. The Family Spirit intervention is a 43-session home-visiting curriculum administered by American Indian paraprofessionals to teen mothers from 28 weeks gestation until the baby's third birthday. A mixed methods assessment administered at nine intervals measures intervention impact on parental competence, mother's and children's social, emotional and behavioral risks for drug use, and maladaptive functioning. Participants are young (mean age = 18.1 years), predominantly primiparous, unmarried, and challenged by poverty, residential instability and low educational attainment. Lifetime and pregnancy drug use were ~2-4 times higher and ~5-6 times higher, respectively, than US All Races. Baseline characteristics were evenly distributed between groups, except for higher lifetime cigarette use and depressive symptoms among intervention mothers. If study aims are achieved, the public health field will have new evidence supporting multi-generational prevention of behavioral health disparities affecting young American Indian families and the utility of indigenous paraprofessional interventionists in under-resourced communities.
MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol; Lindsey, Eric W; Frabutt, James M; Chambers, Jessica Campbell
The present study examined mothers' use of corporal punishment and adolescents' aggression as predictors of mother-youth conflict during early adolescence. Particular attention was given to the potential mediating role that adolescents' hostile attributions of intent (HAI) regarding mothers' behavior might play in connections between corporal punishment, youth aggression, and mother-adolescent conflict for European American (EA) and African American (AA) youth. Data were collected from 268 12- to 14-year-olds (154 European American; 114 African American; 133 girls; 135 boys) and their mothers over a period of 2 years. Questionnaires completed by both mothers and adolescents were used to assess maternal corporal punishment and adolescent aggression, and interviews concerning hypothetical situations were used to assess adolescent HAI in year one. In both year one and year two mother-adolescent conflict was observed in a laboratory interaction session. Data revealed that adolescent HAI mediated the link between maternal corporal punishment and mother-adolescent conflict for EA, but not AA youth. Adolescents' HAI mediated the link between adolescent aggression and mother-adolescent conflict for both EA and AA families. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Penilla, Carlos; Tschann, Jeanne M; Deardorff, Julianna; Flores, Elena; Pasch, Lauri A; Butte, Nancy F; Gregorich, Steven E; Greenspan, Louise C; Martinez, Suzanna M; Ozer, Emily
Mothers' feeding practices are associated with their children's weight status, but little is known about the associations between fathers' feeding practices and children's weight status. Moreover, there is a dearth of research on Latino fathers' feeding practices and children's weight status, even though Latino children suffer some of the highest obesity rates in the U.S. We examined the associations between fathers' feeding practices and child weight status, conditional on mothers' feeding practices, within 174 Mexican American families with children aged 8-10 years. Parents completed the Parental Feeding Practices Questionnaire, which consists of four subscales: positive involvement in child eating, pressure to eat, use of food to control behavior, and restriction of amount of food. To assess child weight status, body mass index (BMI) was calculated and converted to age- and gender-specific percentile scores (BMI z-score). We fit four sets of regression models, one set for each of the four parental feeding practices subscales, with child BMI z-score as the outcome variable. Fathers' pressure to eat (b = -0.20, p = 0.04; 95% CI: -0.39, -0.01) and use of food to control behavior (b = -0.36, p = 0.02; 95% CI: -0.65, -0.07) were associated with lower child BMI z-score, and restriction of amount of food (b = 0.56, p Fathers' positive involvement in child eating was not associated with child BMI z-score. These findings provide empirical evidence that fathers' feeding practices are independently associated with children's weight status, even when mothers' feeding practices are taken into account, and suggest that fathers' feeding practices also matter in regard to children's weight status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kachgal, Tara M.
This article scrutinizes the efforts of a media advocacy group to redress the stigma of youth homosexuality among United States youth: a report published in 2003 by the Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation called, "How Youth Media Can Help Combat Homophobia Among American Teenagers." The report, authored by Rodger Streitmatter, concluded…
Visiting Alaska State Employees State of Alaska Department of Administration Division of Office of Public Advocacy Alaska Department of Administration, Office of Public Advocacy Home Programs Sections Forms Vendor Support Search Office of Public Advocacy State of Alaska Administration > Office of Public Advocacy
Andrews, D J
The International Planned Parenthood Federation's Vision 2000 Strategic Plan has emphasized advocacy and the training of family planning associations (FPAs) in the Western Hemisphere region. During the summer of 1995 training programs in advocacy leadership management were sponsored for six FPAs in the Bahamas, Suriname, Belize, Colombia, Honduras, and Brazil. At the Western Hemisphere Regional Council Meeting in September 1995 awards were presented to FPAs for media outstanding projects. These FPAs used outreach to the community to promote the goals of Vision 2000. The Bahamas FPA won the Rosa Cisneros Award for articles published in a magazine that is distributed in primary and secondary schools and deals with the activities, achievements, and opinions of students. Issues include: love, relationships, responsibility, and teen pregnancy. A weekly television talk show also addresses the issues facing youth including education, music, community work, sexuality, pregnancy, and the relationship between teenagers and adults. The Family Planning Association of Honduras was also nominated for the award for a radio show on the health of mothers and children, the problems of adolescents, and FP. The newspaper Tiempo received the award for feature articles on social issues and FP. In 1994 the Association distributed thousands of booklets on contraceptives as well as fliers on vasectomy, female sterilization, oral contraceptives, IUDs, condoms, responsible parenthood, high-risk pregnancy, vaginal cytology, and cervical cancer. Similar posters were placed in hospitals and health centers, in 1997 FP posts, and 400 commercial outlets. The Family Planning Association of Suriname also carried out an impressive advocacy program during the period of 1968-93 with the goals of establishing a balance between population growth and the available resources to achieve well-being with regard to education, health care, nutrition, and housing.
When advising families about discipline strategies, pediatricians should use a comprehensive approach that includes consideration of the parent-child relationship, reinforcement of desired behaviors, and consequences for negative behaviors. Corporal punishment is of limited effectiveness and has potentially deleterious side effects. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that parents be encouraged and assisted in the development of methods other than spanking for managing undesired behavior.
Smith, K.J.; Coonce, L.S.; South, S.F.; Troup, G.M.
A 22-year-old Spanish-American woman with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis developed anti-Cra after transfusion during colectomy. No Cra negative family members were found among 13 relatives, including four siblings and both parents. Chromium-labeled red cell survival studies showed a T1/2 of 14 days with Cra positive cells. Two units of Cra positive blood were transfused uneventfully for bleeding after ileorectal anastomosis
Fang, Lin; Schinke, Steven P
Asian Americans have been largely ignored in the prevention outcome literature. In this study, we tested a parent-child program with a sample of Asian American adolescent girls and their mothers, and evaluated the program's efficacy on decreasing girls' substance use and modifying risk and protective factors at individual, family, and peer levels. A total of 108 Asian American mother-daughter dyads recruited through online advertisements and from community service agencies were randomly assigned to an intervention arm (n = 56) or to a test-only control arm (n = 52). The intervention consisted of a nine-session substance abuse prevention program, delivered entirely online. Guided by family interaction theory, the prevention program aimed to strengthen the quality of girls' relationships with their mothers while increasing girls' resilience to resist substance use. Intent-to-treat analyses showed that at 2-year follow-up, intervention-arm dyads had significantly higher levels of mother-daughter closeness, mother-daughter communication, maternal monitoring, and family rules against substance use compared with the control-arm dyads. Intervention-arm girls also showed sustained improvement in self-efficacy and refusal skills and had lower intentions to use substances in the future. Most important, intervention-arm girls reported fewer instances of alcohol and marijuana use and prescription drug misuse relative to the control-arm girls. The study suggests that a culturally generic, family-based prevention program was efficacious in enhancing parent-child relationships, improving girls' resiliency, and preventing substance use behaviors among Asian American girls. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Crawford-Jakubiak, James E
Pediatricians are advocates for children. It is one of the central elements of the job description. In the course of their work, pediatricians have many opportunities to advocate for abused and neglected children. The most effective form of advocacy that most pediatricians will engage in with regard to child abuse and neglect is by being highly skilled doctors who provide excellent clinical care to children and families, knowing how to recognize child abuse and what to do when they encounter it, and being familiar with the resources of their communities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pinderhughes, Ellen E.; Zhang, Xian; Agerbak, Susanne
Drawing on a model of ethnic-racial socialization (E-RS; Pinderhughes, 2013), this study examined hypothesized relations among parents' role variables (family ethnic identity and acknowledgment of cultural and racial differences), cultural socialization (CS) behaviors, and children's self-perceptions (ethnic self-label and feelings about…
Zill, Nicholas; Nord, Christine Winquist
The reasons given for the apparent decline in family well-being include weakened family values, poor parenting, detrimental behavior of parents and young people, and social and economic forces in the larger society that make it difficult for families to perform their functions well. So great is the concern that some observers are convinced that…
Coley, Rebekah Levine; Kull, Melissa A.; Carrano, Jennifer
This study assessed prospective, bidirectional associations between maternal endorsement of spanking and children’s internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in low-income urban African American and Hispanic (N = 592) families drawn from the Three City Study. Children in sample families were followed from early childhood through middle childhood with three sets of interviews and assessments at ages 3, 4, and 9 years. Cross-lagged path analyses tested longitudinal bidirectional associations between parental endorsement of spanking and children’s internalizing and externalizing problems, with multi-group comparisons employed to test group differences between race/ethnic groups. African American and Hispanic mothers showed similar endorsements of spanking. Results suggest that associations between spanking endorsement and child functioning were due primarily to parenting effects, with spanking predicting changes in children’s behaviors, rather than child evocative effects, with limited evidence of child behaviors predicting changes in parental spanking. Maternal spanking endorsement predicted short-term decreases in children’s internalizing problems in early childhood, but over the longer term spanking was associated with increased internalizing and externalizing problems for both African American and Hispanic children in middle childhood among economically disadvantaged families. PMID:24364363
Abstract Background Family violence (FV), spirituality, and social support are salient psychosocial determinants of health. FV is associated with poor health among older African American women. The effect of spirituality and social support levels on the health of older African American women is unknown. Methods To assess the role of spirituality and social support as culturally relevant determinants of health status for older African American women independent of FV levels, we used a cross-sectional observational study. Two hundred twelve African American women, aged ≥50, were interviewed in two urban primary care practices. The measures used were (1) Family Violence Against Older Women (FVOW) scale, (2) Physical and Mental Composite Scores of the Short-Form 8® scale, (3) Medical Outcomes of Social Support survey (MOSS), and (4) Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS). Spearman correlation coefficients estimated to test associations among lifetime FV exposure, spirituality, social support, and health status outcomes and multivariate regression models were used to examine the independent effect of spirituality and social support on physical and mental health status, controlling for FV and significant demographic variables. Results Mean participant age was 63.9 years. Higher spirituality levels were significantly associated with better physical health status after adjusting for FV levels and demographic factors (F = 6.17, p = 0.0001). Similarly, higher levels of spirituality and social support both significantly correlated with better mental health status in the multivariate model (F = 13.45, p < 0.0001) that controlled for lifetime FV levels and demographic factors. Conclusions Spirituality and social support are two potentially modifiable determinants of health for older African American women. Culturally appropriate mechanisms to enhance social support and spirituality levels need to be explored as potential inteventions to improve the health of those
Shillam, Casey R; MacLean, Lola
As the largest segment of the health care workforce, nurses have the greatest potential for advancing systems and services to improve health care delivery in the United States. This article presents a framework for nurse administrators to use in developing direct care nurses in their leadership influence competency as a means of increasing their advocacy potential. A systematic review resulted in establishing a nurse leadership influence framework based on the Kouzes and Posner leadership model. The framework includes leadership competencies by nursing professional organizations and was validated by 2 national nurse leader focus groups. Nurse administrators have the opportunity to adopt an evidence-based leadership influence framework to ensure development of advocacy competency in direct care nurses. The impact of nurse administrators systematically adopting a standardized leadership influence framework will result in setting a strong foundation for nurse advocacy. Successful long-term impacts will result in nurses skillfully integrating leadership influence and advocacy into all aspects of daily practice.
Western media have a history of defining news worldwide, presenting news from a Western perspective which distorts and denies the truth as perceived from developing countries. Western news coverage of developing countries seems to emphasize countries' fragility, instability, and corruption, leading people to believe that the economic problems of developing countries are due to internal failures. That view is then transferred back to indigenous peoples and communities through major Western news agencies and mass media. Participatory communication is based upon the notion that people have the right to decide how they want themselves and their situations to be portrayed, to decide what information is useful to them and their community, and to be integral players in the communication process. With regard to media imperialism, the author discusses implications for advocacy activities, participatory communication approaches, participatory advocacy, participatory advocacy in South Asia, girl child drama in Nepal, drug abuse television drama in Nepal, and the advocacy challenge.
Rojas, Patria; Dillon, Frank R.; Duan, Rui; De La Rosa, Mario
This paper focuses on the importance of family member closeness as a protective factor against domestic abuse. We explore the link between long-lasting relations within the family and intra-familial violence perpetrated against women in Latino households in South Florida. We use data from an Inter-generational Transmission of Drug Use between Latina Mothers and Daughters (ITDMD) study. The study includes data on family relations and domestic abuse. We estimate a series of multivariate regressions to obtain the probability of abuse against women, the types of abuse inflicted and the relationship with the abusers. Our results indicate that among abused women, the effects of long-lasting relations within the family differ depending on the type of relationship between the abuser and the victim and the degree of closeness the victim feels towards other family members. Given these findings, there is a need to further study family relations and abuse in Latino households. PMID:29033494
Hann, Katrina; Pearson, Heather; Campbell, Doris; Sesay, Daniel; Eaton, Julian
Background Mental health advocacy groups are an effective way of pushing the mental health agenda and putting pressure on national governments to observe the right to health; however, there is limited research that highlights best practices for such groups in low-resource settings. In an effort to improve the scaling up of mental health in Sierra Leone, stakeholders came together to form the country's first mental health advocacy group: the Mental Health Coalition – Sierra Leone. Since its inception, the group has worked towards raising the profile of mental health in Sierra Leone and developing as an advocacy organisation. Design The study's aim was to investigate views on enabling factors and barriers associated with mental health advocacy in a low-income country using a community-based participatory approach and qualitative methodology. Focus groups (N=9) were held with mental health stakeholders, and key informant interviews (N=15) were conducted with advocacy targets. Investigators analysed the data collaboratively using coding techniques informed by grounded theory. Results Investigators reveal viewpoints on key factors in networking, interacting with government actors, and awareness raising that enabled mental health advocacy aims of supporting policy, service delivery, service user rights, training for service delivery, and awareness raising. The investigators outline viewpoints on barriers for advocacy aims in framing the issue of mental health, networking, interacting with government actors, resource mobilization, and awareness raising. Conclusions The findings outline enabling factors, such as networking with key stakeholders, and barriers, such as lack of political will, for achieving mental health advocacy aims within a low-resource setting, Sierra Leone. Stakeholder coalitions can further key policy development aims that are essential to strengthen mental health systems in low-resource settings. PMID:26689456
Hann, Katrina; Pearson, Heather; Campbell, Doris; Sesay, Daniel; Eaton, Julian
Mental health advocacy groups are an effective way of pushing the mental health agenda and putting pressure on national governments to observe the right to health; however, there is limited research that highlights best practices for such groups in low-resource settings. In an effort to improve the scaling up of mental health in Sierra Leone, stakeholders came together to form the country's first mental health advocacy group: the Mental Health Coalition - Sierra Leone. Since its inception, the group has worked towards raising the profile of mental health in Sierra Leone and developing as an advocacy organisation. The study's aim was to investigate views on enabling factors and barriers associated with mental health advocacy in a low-income country using a community-based participatory approach and qualitative methodology. Focus groups (N=9) were held with mental health stakeholders, and key informant interviews (N=15) were conducted with advocacy targets. Investigators analysed the data collaboratively using coding techniques informed by grounded theory. Investigators reveal viewpoints on key factors in networking, interacting with government actors, and awareness raising that enabled mental health advocacy aims of supporting policy, service delivery, service user rights, training for service delivery, and awareness raising. The investigators outline viewpoints on barriers for advocacy aims in framing the issue of mental health, networking, interacting with government actors, resource mobilization, and awareness raising. The findings outline enabling factors, such as networking with key stakeholders, and barriers, such as lack of political will, for achieving mental health advocacy aims within a low-resource setting, Sierra Leone. Stakeholder coalitions can further key policy development aims that are essential to strengthen mental health systems in low-resource settings.
Manning, Wendy D; Fettro, Marshal Neal; Lamidi, Esther
Recent legal cases before the Supreme Court of the United States were challenging federal definitions of marriage created by the Defense of Marriage Act and California's voter approved Proposition 8 which limited marriage to different-sex couples only. Social science literature regarding child well-being was being used within these cases, and the American Sociological Association sought to provide a concise evaluation of the literature through an amicus curiae brief. The authors were tasked in the assistance of this legal brief by reviewing literature regarding the well-being of children raised within same-sex parent families. This article includes our assessment of the literature, focusing on those studies, reviews and books published within the past decade. We conclude that there is a clear consensus in the social science literature indicating that American children living within same-sex parent households fare just, as well as those children residing within different-sex parent households over a wide array of well-being measures: academic performance, cognitive development, social development, psychological health, early sexual activity, and substance abuse. Our assessment of the literature is based on credible and methodologically sound studies that compare well-being outcomes of children residing within same-sex and different-sex parent families. Differences that exist in child well-being are largely due to socioeconomic circumstances and family stability. We discuss challenges and opportunities for new research on the well-being of children in same-sex parent families.
Renan Borro Celestrino
Full Text Available The general objective of this work was to evaluate the response of the American Lettuce to its development, using different types of organic fertilizers. Specifically, the objective was to outline the potential market for this type of food with agroecological production, with emphasis on small producers of family agriculture and to seek alternatives for legal marketing of organic products through family farming, based on Law 10.831/2003. Data collection on lettuce response to fertilization was completely randomized, with five treatments and four repetitions. It is a descriptive, exploratory research. Through a bibliographical survey, it was concluded that the insertion in the system of agroecological-organic production is opportune to establish competitiveness in family farming, in the primary productive sector of the production chain of olericulture, where the American Lettuce is among the main cultivated varieties. It was observed that the fertilization with manure of hardened chicken showed a higher development of lettuce in relation to other treatments. The consumer market confirms a demand for healthy food with the focus on vegetables. For legal marketing, organic food needs to get a special seal. Brazilian legislation establishes three guarantee instruments: third-party certification, participatory guarantee systems and social control for direct sale without certification. This last recommended for family farmers.
Pratt, Keeley J; McRitchie, Susan; Collier, David N; Lutes, Lesley D; Sumner, Susan
RTI International is acknowledged for supporting the time of Susan McRitchie, Keeley Pratt and Susan Sumner to participate in the design, execution, or analysis of this study. East Carolina University would like to acknowledge Brittney France for being a triangulated investigator for the qualitative analysis and to the Pitt Memorial Hospital Foundation for financial support of the healthy lifestyles camp. Our purpose was to evaluate the views of obese African-American (AA) female adolescents concerning parent and family factors relating to obesity and a healthy lifestyle. Obese AA female adolescents enrolled in a residential healthy lifestyle program completed inventories measuring family functioning and perceptions of parenting styles, and participated in focus groups to identify themes regarding parent and family involvement in healthy lifestyle change. The majority of participants' mothers were scored as "inductive/authoritative" and fathers were "indulgent". Mothers reportedly were seen as more likely to encourage dieting to control weight than fathers. Common themes of the focus groups included a desire for family involvement, identification of family behaviors that were supportive as well as those which were perceived as unhelpful. Though generalizability of these results is limited by a homogenous small sample size, our results suggest that obese adolescents seeking weight loss treatment desire significant family involvement in their efforts. © 2015 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rozen, Rima; Schwartz, Robert H.; Hilman, Bettina C.; Stanislovitis, Pat; Horn, Glenn T.; Klinger, Katherine; Daigneault, Jocelyne; De Braekeleer, Marc; Kerem, Bat-sheva; Tsui, Lap-Chee; Fujiwara, T. Mary; Morgan, Kenneth
A 3-bp deletion (ΔF508) in the cystic fibrosis (CF) gene is the mutation on the majority of CF chromosomes. We studied 112 CF families from North American populations of French ancestry: French-Canadian families referred from hospitals in three cities in Quebec and from the Saguenay-Lac St. Jean region of northeastern Quebec and Acadian families living in Louisiana. ΔF508 was present on 71%, 55%, and 70% of the CF chromosomes from the major-urban Quebec, Saguenay-Lac St. Jean, and Louisiana Acadian families, respectively. A weighted estimate of the proportion of ΔF508 in the French-Canadian patient population of Quebec was 70%. We found that 95% of the CF chromosomes with ΔF508 had D7S23 haplotype B, the most frequent haplotype on CF chromosomes. In the Saguenay-Lac St. Jean families, 86% of the CF chromosomes without ΔF508 had the B haplotype, compared with 31% for the major-urban Quebec and Louisiana Acadian families. The incidence of CF in the Saguenay-Lac St. Jean population was 1/895 live-born infants. PMID:2220803
Parikh, Sejal B.; Ceballos, Peggy; Post, Phyllis
The authors used a correlational research design to examine how belief in a just world, political ideology, socioeconomic status of family of origin, and percentage of racial minority clients were related to social justice advocacy attitudes among play therapists. A multiple regression was used to analyze the data. Results indicated that belief in…
Selanders, Louise C; Crane, Patrick C
Modern nursing is complex, ever changing, and multi focused. Since the time of Florence Nightingale, however, the goal of nursing has remained unchanged, namely to provide a safe and caring environment that promotes patient health and well being. Effective use of an interpersonal tool, such as advocacy, enhances the care-giving environment. Nightingale used advocacy early and often in the development of modern nursing. By reading her many letters and publications that have survived, it is possible to identify her professional goals and techniques. Specifically, Nightingale valued egalitarian human rights and developed leadership principles and practices that provide useful advocacy techniques for nurses practicing in the 21st century. In this article we will review the accomplishments of Florence Nightingale, discuss advocacy in nursing and show how Nightingale used advocacy through promoting both egalitarian human rights and leadership activities. We will conclude by exploring how Nightingale's advocacy is as relevant for the 21st century as it was for the 19th century.
Corona, Marissa; McCarty, Carolyn; Cauce, Ana Mari; Robins, Richard W.; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Rand D.
In an effort to better understand possible pathways that lead to a relatively high incidence of depressive symptoms among Mexican American youth, an interpersonal stress model of depression was tested using a community sample of 674 Mexican American mothers and their 5th grade children. Structural equation analyses revealed that maternal…
Toyokawa, Teru; McLoyd, Vonnie C.
This study examined African American mothers' work socialization messages in relation to adolescents' work-related values. Moderation effects of mother-adolescent relation quality on the linkage between maternal socialization messages and adolescents' outcomes were also examined. Participants were 245 single African American mothers and their…
Abstract One thousand people die every day in India as a result of TB, a preventable and treatable disease, even though the Constitution of India, government schemes, and international law guarantee available, accessible, acceptable, quality health care. Failure to address the spread of TB and to provide quality treatment to all affected populations constitutes a public health and human rights emergency that demands action and accountability. As part of a broader strategy, health activists in India employ Public Interest Litigation (PIL) to hold the state accountable for rights violations and to demand new legislation, standards for patient care, accountability for under-spending, improvements in services at individual facilities, and access to government entitlements in marginalized communities. Taking inspiration from right to health PIL cases (PILs), lawyers in a New Delhi-based rights organization used desk research, fact-findings, and the Right To Information Act to build a TB PIL for the Delhi High Court, Sanjai Sharma v. NCT of Delhi and Others (2015). The case argues that inadequate implementation of government TB schemes violates the Constitutional rights to life, health, food, and equality. Although PILs face substantial challenges, this paper concludes that litigation can be a crucial advocacy and accountability tool for people living with TB and their allies. PMID:27781000
María Inez Padula Anderson
Full Text Available In the XXI century, much of humanity does not have access to comprehensive health care, or even basic equitable health care. If studies show that countries with organized health systems based on a qualified and inclusive model of Primary Health Care (PHC and family physicians as permanent staff are achieving unquestionable results, why a large part of the countries with lower socio-economic development have not committed strongly to implement an efficient reform of their health systems based on PHC and family medicine (FM? These issues are at the core of the Latin American Confederation of Family Medicine’s concerns, an international non-profit organization composed of national associations of countries of FM from Latin America, Spain and Portugal. Its primary mission is to drive the implementation of a proper PHC system in all countries of the region and to ensure that family medicine, as a specialty, is considered critical to health systems, thereby transforming it into a public policy.
Williams, Robert C; Elston, Robert C; Kumar, Pankaj; Knowler, William C; Abboud, Hanna E; Adler, Sharon; Bowden, Donald W; Divers, Jasmin; Freedman, Barry I; Igo, Robert P; Ipp, Eli; Iyengar, Sudha K; Kimmel, Paul L; Klag, Michael J; Kohn, Orly; Langefeld, Carl D; Leehey, David J; Nelson, Robert G; Nicholas, Susanne B; Pahl, Madeleine V; Parekh, Rulan S; Rotter, Jerome I; Schelling, Jeffrey R; Sedor, John R; Shah, Vallabh O; Smith, Michael W; Taylor, Kent D; Thameem, Farook; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Winkler, Cheryl A; Guo, Xiuqing; Zager, Phillip; Hanson, Robert L
The presence of population structure in a sample may confound the search for important genetic loci associated with disease. Our four samples in the Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND), European Americans, Mexican Americans, African Americans, and American Indians are part of a genome- wide association study in which population structure might be particularly important. We therefore decided to study in detail one component of this, individual genetic ancestry (IGA). From SNPs present on the Affymetrix 6.0 Human SNP array, we identified 3 sets of ancestry informative markers (AIMs), each maximized for the information in one the three contrasts among ancestral populations: Europeans (HAPMAP, CEU), Africans (HAPMAP, YRI and LWK), and Native Americans (full heritage Pima Indians). We estimate IGA and present an algorithm for their standard errors, compare IGA to principal components, emphasize the importance of balancing information in the ancestry informative markers (AIMs), and test the association of IGA with diabetic nephropathy in the combined sample. A fixed parental allele maximum likelihood algorithm was applied to the FIND to estimate IGA in four samples: 869 American Indians; 1385 African Americans; 1451 Mexican Americans; and 826 European Americans. When the information in the AIMs is unbalanced, the estimates are incorrect with large error. Individual genetic admixture is highly correlated with principle components for capturing population structure. It takes ~700 SNPs to reduce the average standard error of individual admixture below 0.01. When the samples are combined, the resulting population structure creates associations between IGA and diabetic nephropathy. The identified set of AIMs, which include American Indian parental allele frequencies, may be particularly useful for estimating genetic admixture in populations from the Americas. Failure to balance information in maximum likelihood, poly-ancestry models creates biased
Haboush, Karen L.
Individuals of Arab descent residing within the United States currently number between 1.2 million and 3.9 million. These families are characterized by considerable diversity depending upon their nationality, religion, and extent of acculturation to both Western and Arab cultures. More recently, Arab families have immigrated to the United States…
Bowman, Shanthy A.
Examined data from Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (USDA) concerning breakfast consumption in families and the kinds of food chosen. Found that 85% of families reported having breakfast; most of those reporting no breakfast came from lowest income group. Consumption of cereals, fruits and juices increased with income; consumption…
This case study considers pedagogical techniques used in family childcare to promote children's learning experiences. Data extracted from an earlier study were used to inform this examination of four family childcare providers' pedagogy. In the current study, I use socio-cultural theory and the Reggio Emilia approach to address the following…
Kiang, Lisa; Andrews, Kandace; Stein, Gabriela L.; Supple, Andrew J.; Gonzalez, Laura M.
Socioeconomic stress has long been found to place youth at risk, with low family income conferring disadvantages in adolescents' school achievement and success. This study investigates the role of socioeconomic stress on academic adjustment, and pinpoints family obligation as a possible buffer of negative associations. We examined direct and…
Manning, Terri M.
The evolution of the family concerns health educators because family environment has been consistently linked to development of various addictions and negative behaviors, such as drug and alcohol abuse, eating disorders, workaholism, excessive exercise, sexual promiscuity, vandalism, youth crime, and violence and abuse. It is recognized that a…
Full Text Available ... Tos Ferina AAP CME ask your doctor brochure family stories faq meet dr. gary freed meet keri ... media video/audio pneumonia tb overview links & resources families advocacy about civil rights kids' rights sample school ...
Di Pietro, Nina C; Whiteley, Louise Emma; Illes, Judy
The Internet has quickly gained popularity as a major source of health-related information, but its impact is unclear. Here, we investigate the extent to which advocacy websites for three neurodevelopmental disorders—cerebral palsy (CP), autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and fetal alcohol spectrum...... disorder (FASD)—inform stakeholders about treatment options, and discuss the ethical challenges inherent in providing such information online. We identified major advocacy websites for each disorder and assessed website accountability, the number, attributes, and accessibility of treatments described......, and the valence of treatment information. With the exception of FASD websites, we found that advocacy websites provide a plethora of information about a wide variety of readily available products and services. Treatment information is primarily targeted at families and is overwhelmingly encouraging, regardless...
Professional advocacy organizations are often challenged by the question of their authentic community representation and their ability to balance short-term pragmatism with strategic plans for long-term, systemic change. Coleman Advocates, one of the nation's most effective child advocacy organizations, has taken up this challenge under the leadership of a next-generation leader of color who followed a dynamic director of the baby boom generation. In this piece, Coleman's thirty years of social change strategies are analyzed from the perspective of this new executive director, who has facilitated the latest organizational shift that deepens its commitment to building bottom-up grassroots leadership and community power while keeping the best of the professional, staff-led advocacy model. Issues of race, accountability, power, and movement building are addressed through the lens of one organization's evolution, with the goal of building a long-term movement that will achieve racial and economic equity for all children and families.
Tomayko, Emily J; Prince, Ronald J; Cronin, Kate A; Adams, Alexandra K
American Indian children of pre-school age have disproportionally high obesity rates and consequent risk for related diseases. Healthy Children, Strong Families was a family-based randomized trial assessing the efficacy of an obesity prevention toolkit delivered by a mentor v. mailed delivery that was designed and administered using community-based participatory research approaches. During Year 1, twelve healthy behaviour toolkit lessons were delivered by either a community-based home mentor or monthly mailings. Primary outcomes were child BMI percentile, child BMI Z-score and adult BMI. Secondary outcomes included fruit/vegetable consumption, sugar consumption, television watching, physical activity, adult health-related self-efficacy and perceived health status. During a maintenance year, home-mentored families had access to monthly support groups and all families received monthly newsletters. Family homes in four tribal communities, Wisconsin, USA. Adult and child (2-5-year-olds) dyads (n 150). No significant effect of the mentored v. mailed intervention delivery was found; however, significant improvements were noted in both groups exposed to the toolkit. Obese child participants showed a reduction in BMI percentile at Year 1 that continued through Year 2 (PChild fruit/vegetable consumption increased (P=0·006) and mean television watching decreased for children (P=0·05) and adults (P=0·002). Reported adult self-efficacy for health-related behaviour changes (P=0·006) and quality of life increased (P=0·02). Although no effect of delivery method was demonstrated, toolkit exposure positively affected adult and child health. The intervention was well received by community partners; a more comprehensive intervention is currently underway based on these findings.
Kulis, Stephen S.; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Harthun, Mary L.; Jager, Justin
Parenting in 2 Worlds (P2W) is a culturally grounded parenting intervention that addresses the distinctive social and cultural worlds of urban American Indian (AI) families. P2W was culturally adapted through community-based participatory research in three urban AI communities with diverse tribal backgrounds. This paper reports the immediate outcomes of P2W in a randomized controlled trial, utilizing data from 575 parents of AI children (ages 10–17). Parents were assigned to P2W or to the comparison group, an informational family health curriculum, Healthy Families in 2 Worlds (HF2W). Both the P2W and HF2W curricula consisted of 10 workshops delivered weekly by AI community facilitators. Pretests were administered at the first workshop and a post-test at the last workshop. Tests of the efficacy of P2W versus HF2W on parenting skills and family functioning were analyzed with pairwise t-tests, within intervention type, and by baseline adjusted path models using FIML estimation in Mplus. Intervention effect sizes were estimated with Cohen’s d. Participants in P2W reported significant improvements in parental agency, parenting practices, supervision and family cohesion, and decreases in discipline problems and parent-child conflict. Compared to HF2W, P2W participants reported significantly larger increases in parental self-agency and positive parenting practices, and fewer child discipline problems. Most of these desired program effects for P2W approached medium size. Culturally adapted parenting interventions like P2W can effectively strengthen parenting practices and family functioning among urban AI families and help address their widespread need for targeted, culturally grounded programs. PMID:27129476
Full Text Available ... tb overview links & resources families advocacy about civil rights kids' rights sample school policies school letter someone you know ... organizations wishing to create their own end slates. Right-click any link to download to your computer. ...
Full Text Available ... tb overview links & resources families advocacy about civil rights kids' rights sample school policies school letter someone you know ... organizations wishing to create their own end slates. Right-click any link to download to your computer. ...
Full Text Available ... cmv hepatitis overview current news glossary injection tips kids infect kids labs links & resources milk thistle pediatric hepatitis report ... overview links & resources families advocacy about civil rights kids' rights sample school policies school letter someone you ...
Full Text Available ... cmv hepatitis overview current news glossary injection tips kids infect kids labs links & resources milk thistle pediatric hepatitis report ... overview links & resources families advocacy about civil rights kids' rights sample school policies school letter someone you ...
Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X; Brody, Gene H; Murry, Velma McBride; Cleveland, Michael J; Wills, Thomas A
This study examined mediators of the Strong African American Families Program, a randomized, dual-focus prevention trial intended to delay the onset of alcohol use and reduce alcohol consumption among rural African American youths. More specifically, it demonstrated that changes in consumption 2 yrs after the intervention were mediated through 2 different paths, a social reaction path and a reasoned/intention path. The social reaction path provided evidence that relative to the control condition, the intervention decreased children's willingness to drink by making their images of drinkers less favorable. The reasoned/intention path provided evidence that the intervention influenced the children's intentions to drink by increasing targeted parenting behaviors related to alcohol. Furthermore, the data demonstrate that these changes in willingness and intentions were independently associated with alcohol consumption at the follow-up, and they suggest that a dual-process model approach that targets both intentions and willingness can be more successful than either approach alone.
Yasui, Miwa; Dishion, Thomas J; Stormshak, Elizabeth; Ball, Alison
The current study examines the interrelations between observed parental cultural socialization and socialization of coping with discrimination, and youth outcomes among a sample of 92 American Indian adolescents and their parents in a rural reservation. Path analysis is used to examine the relationships among observed parental socialization (cultural socialization and socialization of coping with discrimination), and youth-reported perceived discrimination, ethnic identity and depression. Findings reveal that higher levels of observed parental cultural socialization and socialization of coping with discrimination predict lower levels of depression as reported by youth 1 year later. Path analyses also show that observed parental cultural socialization and socialization of coping with discrimination are positively associated with youth ethnic identity. These findings point to the importance of integrating familial socialization of culture and coping with discrimination in fostering resilience among American Indian youth.
Pope, Robert C; Wallhagen, Margaret; Davis, Harvey
Grounded theory methodology was used to explore the social processes involved in the use of illicit drugs in older African Americans as an underpinning to the development of approaches to nursing care and treatment. Interviews were conducted with six older African American substance users who were currently in drug treatment programs. Responses to the questions were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using constant comparative methods. Three core themes emerged: (a) family, (b) media images, and (c) environment. The core issues of substance abuse, such as the environment and larger societal forces, cannot be addressed by one discipline and mandate that clinicians move to an interdisciplinary approach to achieve a plan of care for this growing population.
Grant, Julia D; Agrawal, Arpana; Werner, Kimberly B; McCutcheon, Vivia V; Nelson, Elliot C; Madden, Pamela A F; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Heath, Andrew C; Sartor, Carolyn E
Childhood maltreatment is a known risk factor for cannabis initiation and problem use, but the extent to which this association is attributable to shared familial influences is unknown. We estimate the magnitude of associations between childhood maltreatment, timing of cannabis initiation, and cannabis-related problems, in European-American (EA) and African-American (AA) women, and parse the relative influence of additive genetic (A), shared environmental (C), and individual-specific environmental (E) factors on these constructs and their covariation. Data were from diagnostic telephone interviews conducted with 3786 participants (14.6% AA) in a population-based study of female twins. Logistic regression analyses and twin modeling were used to test for associations, and estimate the relative contributions of genetic and environmental influences to childhood maltreatment and cannabis outcomes and their covariation. Maltreatment was significantly associated with increased likelihood of cannabis initiation before age 15 among EAs (OR=6.33) and AAs (OR=3.93), but with increased likelihood of later initiation among EAs only (OR=1.68). Maltreatment was associated with cannabis problems among both groups (EA OR=2.32; AA OR=2.03). Among EA women, the covariation between maltreatment and cannabis outcomes was primarily attributable to familial environment (rC=0.67-0.70); among AAs, only individual-specific environment contributed (rE=0.37-0.40). Childhood maltreatment is a major contributor to early initiation of cannabis as well as progression to cannabis problems in both AA and EA women. Distinctions by race/ethnicity are not in the relative contribution of genetic factors, but rather in the type of environmental influences that contribute to stages of cannabis involvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Sarah J Flynn,1,2 Jessica M Ameling,1,2 Felicia Hill-Briggs,1–3 Jennifer L Wolff,4,5 Lee R Bone,1,3 David M Levine,1,4 Debra L Roter,3 LaPricia Lewis-Boyer,1,2 Annette R Fisher,6 Leon Purnell,6 Patti L Ephraim,2,7 Jeffrey Barbers,1,2 Stephanie L Fitzpatrick,1,2 Michael C Albert,1,8 Lisa A Cooper,1,2 Peter J Fagan,9,10 Destiny Martin,1 Hema C Ramamurthi,1,2 L Ebony Boulware1,2,7 1Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Department of Health, Behavior, and Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; 4Department of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; 5Division of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 6Community and Provider Advisory Board, Johns Hopkins Center to Eliminate Cardiovascular Health Disparities, Baltimore, MD, USA; 7Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; 8Johns Hopkins Community Physicians, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA; 9Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 10Johns Hopkins HealthCare LLC, Glen Burnie, MD, USA Introduction: We aimed to inform the design of behavioral interventions by identifying patients’ and their family members’ perceived facilitators and barriers to hypertension self-management. Materials and methods: We conducted focus groups of African American patients with hypertension and their family members to elicit their views about factors influencing patients’ hypertension self-management. We recruited African American patients with hypertension (n = 18 and their family members (n = 12 from an urban, community-based clinical
Juan Carlos, Campaña; J. Ignacio, Giménez-Nadal; Jose Alberto, Molina
In this paper, we analyze how self-employed and employed mothers in several Latin American countries allocate their time throughout the day in order to balance their family and work responsibilities. Using data from time-use surveys for Mexico (2009), Peru (2010), Panama (2011), Ecuador (2012) and Colombia (2012), we find that self-employed mothers devote less time to paid work and more time to unpaid work and child care, compared to employed mothers, in the five countries. Our results are co...
Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather E; Wilson, Dawn K; Lyerly, Jordan E
This study obtained qualitative data from African American (AA) youth and caregiver dyads to inform the Families Improving Together (FIT) for Weight Loss Trial. Focus groups were conducted with 55 AA parent and caregiver dyads to gather perspectives on facilitators and barriers, motivators, and program preferences for health and weight loss using a socio-ecological framework. Four main themes emerged: using a positive health promotion framework for weight loss programs, social support and the role of parents in providing positive support, using a socio-ecological approach to examine factors that contribute to weight, and creating programs that are convenient, fun, and reduce barriers to participation. The findings from this study were used to develop the FIT intervention and indicate important individual, interpersonal, and environmental factors to consider when developing weight management and healthy lifestyle programs for AA families.
Becker, Amy B; Todd, Maureen E
Using Bronfenbrenner's (1979) ecological systems theory as an organizing framework, the research closely examines the text of the Amazon Studios hit show Transparent and, by extension, the evolution of public opinion toward transgender individuals. By examining the Pfefferman family in detail and their related microsystem and macrosystem, we are able to closely unpack the transition of Jeffrey Tambor's character from Mort to Maura and the show's connections with broader developments in the Los Angeles LGBT community and the Jewish diaspora in postwar and contemporary Los Angeles. In addition, by focusing on the influence of the chronosystem, we are able to examine how both opinions toward Maura and public opinion toward transgender issues more generally have evolved within the family system and the larger American community over time.
Clara CORTINA TRILLA
Full Text Available During the last decade, international immigration flows have undergone a dramatic growth in Spain. In this particular context, the purpose of this article is to analyze whether Latin American female migrants residing in Spain largely maintain nuptial and reproductive patterns from their countries of origin. To analyze the prevalence of consensual unions we use three different databases: the Spanish Immigration Survey, the Spanish Labour Force Survey and birth records, all of them corresponding to 2007 and collected by the Spanish Statistical Institute. The study documents the high prevalence of consensual unions among Latin American migrants. Regarding the socio-demographic factors influencing cohabitation, our results show important similarities between Spanish and Latin American women, except for educational attainment.
Goodluck, Charlotte T.
The purpose of this research project was to investigate the utility of the genogram and eco-map as family assessment tools for working with American Indian vocational rehabilitation (VR) clients who are referred for rehabilitation services, and to describe changes in the family system after VR services have been delivered by evaluating information…
Foster, Sarah E.; Zalot, Alecia A.; Jones, Deborah J.
The current study examined the main and interactive effects of three family context variables, maternal smoking, positive parenting behavior, and the quality of the mother's relationship with another adult or family member who assists with parenting (i.e., coparent), and adolescent smoking among African American youth from single mother homes. The…
Shin, Min Young
Problem: The first problem of this study was to determine the relationship between the clergy family stress scores as measured by the Clergy Family Inventory (CFLI) and the specified predictor variables of social support among Korean-American Baptist pastors. The specified predictor variables included tangible support, appraisal support,…
Jones, Clara B.; Palmer, Julie K.
This paper addresses ways ways in which African-American families can influence their children's development, usually with guidance from school or other community agents. We discuss the importance of "discipline styles" for effective parenting and emphasize an approach to family involvement in child development utilizing a child's strengths. We…
Miller, B.; Sinclair, J. [Elon University, Elon, NC (United States). School Community
Focus group research was used to examine how community stakeholders, a group with local industry experience, responded to coal industry advocacy messages. The stakeholders expressed beliefs about both the advertiser and the coal industry, and while their knowledge led to critical consideration of the industry campaign, they also expressed a desire to identify with positive messages about their community. Applying a postpositivist research perspective, a new model is introduced to integrate these beliefs in terms of advertiser trust and industry accountability under the existing theoretical framework of persuasion knowledge. Agent and topic knowledge are combined in this model based on responses to the industry advocacy campaign. In doing so, this study integrates a priori theory within a new context, extending the current theoretical framework to include an understanding of how community stakeholders - a common target for marketplace advocacy - interpret industry messages.
Watson, Chanel L; O'Connor, Tom
The role of nurses as patient advocates is one which is well recognised, supported and the subject of a broad body of literature. One of the key impediments to the role of the nurse as patient advocate is the lack of support and legislative frameworks. Within a broad range of activities constituting advocacy, whistleblowing is currently the subject of much discussion in the light of the Mid Staffordshire inquiry in the United Kingdom (UK) and other instances of patient mistreatment. As a result steps to amend existing whistleblowing legislation where it exists or introduce it where it does not are underway. This paper traces the development of legislation for advocacy. The authors argue that while any legislation supporting advocacy is welcome, legislation on its own will not encourage or enable nurses to whistleblow.
Taylor, Melissa R S
The purpose of this study is to elicit insight from the public policy leaders of 2 regional professional nursing organizations on key qualities of their current advocacy initiatives that motivate nurses to sustain momentum in public policy advocacy beyond a single episode. The goal is to inform quality improvement in the development of future advocacy initiatives to increase sustained engagement of nurses. Social cognitive theory was used as the rationale for this qualitative, descriptive study. A purposive convenience sample of executive leadership and board committee members from 2 regional professional nursing organizations were recruited to complete an initial Web-based electronic survey, followed by separate semistructured interview focus groups. One organization was composed primarily of advanced practice registered nurses, and the other group composed of diverse, multispecialty nursing members with varied educational levels. Nine themes emerged, categorized as facilitators or challenges to the positive impact of advocacy initiatives on nurses' motivation. Highlighting and marketing facilitators to the positive impact of advocacy initiatives on nurses' motivation to sustain momentum in public policy advocacy, while designing and testing new initiatives that address the challenges, may increase the number of nurses who sustain engagement in the policy advocacy process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Taylor, Ronald D
Association of demanding kin relations and family routine with adolescents' psychological distress and school achievement was assessed among 200 low-income, African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations were significantly associated with adolescents' psychological distress. Family routine was significantly related to adolescents' school achievement. Demanding kin relations were negatively associated with school achievement for adolescents from families low in routine, but unrelated to achievement for adolescents in families high in routine. Additional research is needed on poor families and their social networks. © 2015 The Author. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2015 Society for Research on Adolescence.
Chung, Paul J; Borneo, Hena; Kilpatrick, Shelley D; Lopez, Donna M; Travis, Raphael; Lui, Camillia; Khandwala, Shefali; Schuster, Mark A
Pregnancy rates among Filipino American adolescents exceed those of other Asian and Pacific Islander adolescents. Strong parent-adolescent communication may promote healthy sexual development and protect against adolescent sexual risk behaviors. We explored communication barriers between Filipino American parents and adolescents. Using community-based participatory research (CBPR), we collaborated with Filipino American community leaders, parents, and adolescents to design a focus-group study. Trained bilingual moderators conducted focus groups with 85 Filipino Americans (41 parents and grandparents and 44 adolescents aged 14-18 years) from various neighborhoods in Los Angeles. Sessions were recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed for themes. Focus-group participants appeared to divide sex information into 3 categories, which we termed facts, feelings, and values. Adolescents emphasized facts and feelings. Parents and grandparents emphasized facts and values. In general, facts were obtained through school, feelings through friends, and values through parents. The focus groups identified large barriers to value transmission, stemming from adolescent acculturation to the United States. Parents and grandparents felt that values were transmitted best through traditional Filipino respect for parents who often eschewed open discussion. Adolescents believed that open discussion was necessary for value transmission to occur. The result was bilateral withdrawal from family communication about sex. Our focus groups found that parent-child communication about sex, especially regarding values, was limited. Potential causes included conflicts between Filipino and US beliefs regarding respect for parents and open discussion. Our results raise important questions about the effect of acculturation on sex education for Filipino American adolescents and demonstrate potential advantages of CBPR.
Chung, Paul J; Travis, Raphael; Kilpatrick, Shelley D; Elliott, Marc N; Lui, Camillia; Khandwala, Shefali B; Dancel, Theresa M; Vollandt, Lori; Schuster, Mark A
To examine whether acculturation is associated with parent-adolescent communication about sex in Filipino-American families. Filipino-Americans, the United States' second-largest Asian and Pacific Islander (API) group, have more adolescent pregnancy and HIV infection than other APIs. High-quality parent-adolescent communication about sex has been associated with healthy sexual development, and acculturation has been associated with various increased health risks. Whether acculturation affects parent-adolescent communication is unknown. We surveyed 120 pairs of Filipino-American parents and adolescents at a single large high school. We asked adolescents about their frequency of parent-adolescent communication about sex and measured adolescent acculturation in two ways: disagreement with traditional Asian values and preferential use of English. In bivariate and multivariate regressions, we examined whether adolescent acculturation was associated with adolescent reports of parent-adolescent communication. Few adolescents (22%) reported regularly discussing sex with parents. Although most adolescents (72%) agreed with traditional Asian values, most (63%) preferred using English. In bivariate regressions, less parent-adolescent communication about sex was associated with less adolescent agreement with traditional Asian values (p = .002) and more adolescent English use (p = .009). In multivariate regressions, these associations were largely explained by adolescent perceptions of parent knowledge about their whereabouts and activities. Acculturation may influence Filipino-American parent-adolescent communication about sex and, consequently, Filipino-American adolescent sexual health. Health care and public health providers may need to tailor adolescent sexual health programs based on acculturation or other immigration-related factors.
Goforth, Anisa N.
There are an estimated three million Arab Americans in the United States, with 25% of the population under the age of 18. Given this significant population, it is likely that some school psychologists come across children from Arab backgrounds during their career. Many school psychologists, however, may not be aware of the unique cultural…
Varner, Fatima; Mandara, Jelani
Discrimination concerns and parental expectations were examined as mediators of the relations between gender and parenting practices among 796 African American mothers of 11- to 14-year-olds from the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study. Mothers of sons had more concerns about racial discrimination impacting their adolescents' future,…
Qi, Cathy H.; Kaiser, Ann P.; Marley, Scott C.; Milan, Stephanie
The purposes of the study were to determine (a) the ability of two spontaneous language measures, mean length of utterance in morphemes (MLU-m) and number of different words (NDW), to identify African American preschool children at low and high levels of language ability; (b) whether child chronological age was related to the performance of either…
Pancsofar, Nadya; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Odom, Erika C.
Fathers' vocabulary to infants has been linked in the literature to early child language development, however, little is known about the variability in fathers' language behavior. This study considered associations between fathers' work characteristics and fathers' vocabulary among a sample of employed African American fathers of 6-month-old…
Steven N. Jeffers; Inga M. Meadows; Joseph B. James; Paul H. Sisco
American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) once was a primary hardwood species in forests of the eastern United States. Sometime during the late 18th century, it is speculated that Phytophthora cinnamomi, which causes Phytophthora root rot (PRR) on many woody plant species, was introduced to the southeast region of...
Pham, Andy V.
Studies addressing assessment and treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have primarily been focused on Caucasian populations, although a growing number of studies have included ethnic minority populations, particularly Hispanic and African American children. Findings regarding the relationship between ADHD diagnosis and race…
Modecki, Kathryn L.; Wilson, Melvin N.
We investigated the reported parenting practices of fifty incarcerated African American fathers. Fathers were interviewed using hypothetical vignettes adapted from the Parenting Dimensions Inventory (PDI) and received scores on two parenting practices: responsive and restrictive. Father's individual level (education and length of time spent…
Paik, Susan J.; Rahman, Zaynah; Kula, Stacy M.; Saito, L. Erika; Witenstein, Matthew A.
Based on 11 diverse Asian American (AA) communities, this article discusses the similarities and differences across East, South, and Southeast Asians. Of two parts in this journal issue, Part 1 presents a review of literature and census data to understand the cultural and structural factors of different types of coethnic communities (strong, weak,…
Crosbie, Eric; Sebrié, Ernesto M; Glantz, Stanton A
To describe the approval process and implementation of the 100% smokefree law in Mexico City and a competing federal law between 2007 and 2010. Reviewed smokefree legislation, published newspaper articles and interviewed key informants. Strong efforts by tobacco control advocacy groups and key policymakers in Mexico City in 2008 prompted the approval of a 100% smokefree law following the WHO FCTC. As elsewhere, the tobacco industry utilised the hospitality sector to block smokefree legislation, challenged the City law before the Supreme Court and promoted the passage of a federal law that required designated smoking areas. These tactics disrupted implementation of the City law by causing confusion over which law applied in Mexico City. Despite interference, the City law increased public support for 100% smokefree policies and decreased the social acceptability of smoking. In September 2009, the Supreme Court ruled in favour of the City law, giving it the authority to go beyond the federal law to protect the fundamental right of health for all citizens. Early education and enforcement efforts by tobacco control advocates promoted the City law in 2008 but advocates should still anticipate continuing opposition from the tobacco industry, which will require continued pressure on the government. Advocates should utilise the Supreme Court's ruling to promote 100% smokefree policies outside Mexico City. Strong advocacy for the City law could be used as a model of success throughout Mexico and other Latin American countries.
Mohammed Sabbar Abdulbaqi
Full Text Available Saul Bellow (1915 –2005 is an American novelist and the winner of Nobel and Pulitzer Prizes for literature (1976. He is known for his critique of Post-II World War American society. The research discusses Saul Bellow's Seize the Day (1956 in regard of materialism and its impact on the familial ties not only in terms of monetary considerations but also the maltreatment of family members among themselves. It reviews the materialistic relationship between the father and son on the one hand and the husband and wife on the other hand. The study aims to recognize to what extent materialism represents a dispersed element for the family unit.
Full Text Available SLC30A8 encodes zinc transporter 8 which is involved in packaging and release of insulin. Evidence for the association of SLC30A8 variants with type 2 diabetes (T2D is inconclusive. We interrogated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs around SLC30A8 for association with T2D in high-risk, pedigreed individuals from extended Mexican American families. This study of 118 SNPs within 50 kb of the SLC30A8 locus tested the association with eight T2D-related traits at four levels: (i each SNP using measured genotype approach (MGA; (ii interaction of SNPs with age and sex; (iii combinations of SNPs using Bayesian Quantitative Trait Nucleotide (BQTN analyses; and (iv entire gene locus using the gene burden test. Only one SNP (rs7817754 was significantly associated with incident T2D but a summary statistic based on all T2D-related traits identified 11 novel SNPs. Three SNPs and one SNP were weakly but interactively associated with age and sex, respectively. BQTN analyses could not demonstrate any informative combination of SNPs over MGA. Lastly, gene burden test results showed that at best the SLC30A8 locus could account for only 1-2% of the variability in T2D-related traits. Our results indicate a lack of association of the SLC30A8 SNPs with T2D in Mexican American families.
Miyawaki, Christina E
This study is a cross-sectional investigation of caregiving practice patterns among Asian, Hispanic and non-Hispanic White American family caregivers of older adults across three immigrant generations. The 2009 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) dataset was used, and 591 Asian, 989 Hispanic and 6537 non-Hispanic White American caregivers of older adults were selected. First, descriptive analyses of caregivers' characteristics, caregiving situations and practice patterns were examined by racial/ethnic groups and immigrant generations. Practice patterns measured were respite care use, hours and length of caregiving. Three hypotheses on caregiving patterns based on assimilation theory were tested and analyzed using logistic regression and generalized linear models by racial/ethnic groups and generations. Caregiving patterns of non-Hispanic White caregivers supported all three hypotheses regarding respite care use, caregiving hours and caregiving duration, showing less caregiving involvement in later generations. However, Asian and Hispanic counterparts showed mixed results. Third generation Asian and Hispanic caregivers used respite care the least and spent the most caregiving hours per week and had the longest caregiving duration compared to earlier generations. These caregiving patterns revealed underlying cultural values related to filial responsibility, even among later generations of caregivers of color. Findings suggest the importance of considering the cultural values of each racial/ethnic group regardless of generation when working with racially and ethnically diverse populations of family caregivers of older adults.
Millstein, Rachel A.; Woodruff, Susan I.; Linton, Leslie S.; Edwards, Christine C.; Sallis, James F.
Background Youth advocacy has been successfully used in substance use prevention but is a novel strategy in obesity prevention. As a precondition for building an evidence base for youth advocacy for obesity prevention, the present study aimed to develop and evaluate measures of youth advocacy mediator, process, and outcome variables. Methods The Youth Engagement and Action for Health (YEAH!) program (San Diego County, CA) engaged youth and adult group leaders in advocacy for school and neighb...
Shen, Yishan; Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie
This longitudinal study examined the influence of parents' educational attitudes on adolescents' educational attitudes and identified antecedents (i.e., parent education, family income, and parent acculturation), consequences (i.e., academic achievement and engagement), and a potential moderator (i.e., adolescent acculturation) of the transmission…
Moreno, Gerardo; Wong-Lo, Mickie
Preparing educators to work with students from culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) background is increasingly valued as the demographics of today?s classrooms continue to evolve. Embracing cultural differences and recognizing the distinctive factors associated within the composition of CLD families are critical elements as educators become…
Yeh, Christine J.; Borrero, Noah E.; Tito, Patsy
This study investigated family intergenerational conflict and collective self-esteem as predictors of depression in a sample of 128 Samoan middle and high school students. Simultaneous regression analyses revealed that each independent variable significantly contributed to an overall model that accounted for 13% of the variance in depression.…
Whitaker, Damiya; Graham, Camelia; Severtson, Stevan Geoffrey; Furr-Holden, C. Debra; Latimer, William
Motivational theorists in psychology have moved away from individual-based approaches to socio-cognitive and socio-ecological models to explain student engagement and motivation for learning. Such approaches consider, for example, the influence of family and neighborhood environments as important constructs in youth behavior. In this study, links…
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Washington, DC.
Nine fact sheets relevant to children's emotional well-being are presented in this document. The first fact sheet, "Teenagers with Eating Disorders" focuses on anorexia nervosa and bulimia. The second fact sheet, "Children and Grief" describes age-related responses to death, and ways of coping with a death in a family that…
Chen, Stephen H; Zhou, Qing; Main, Alexandra; Lee, Erica H
The present study examined 2 measures of Chinese American immigrant parents' emotional expression in the family context: self-reported emotional expressivity and observed emotional expression during a parent-child interaction task. Path analyses were conducted to examine the concurrent associations between measures of emotional expression and (a) parents' American and Chinese cultural orientations in language proficiency, media use, and social affiliation domains, and (b) parents' and teachers' ratings of children's emotion-related regulation. Results suggested that cultural orientations were primarily associated with parents' self-reported expressivity (rather than observed emotional expression), such that higher American orientations were generally associated with higher expressivity. Although parents' self-reported expressivity was only related to their own reports of children's regulation, parents' observed emotional expression was related to both parents' and teachers' reports of children's regulation. These results suggest that self-reported expressivity and observed emotional expression reflect different constructs and have differential relations to parents' cultural orientations and children's regulation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Kremer-Sadlik, Tamar; Morgenstern, Aliyah; Peters, Chloe; Beaupoil, Pauline; Caët, Stéphanie; Debras, Camille; le Mené, Marine
The French eat more fruits and vegetables than Americans and have lower rates of childhood obesity. This ethnographic study compares various aspects of meal environment in sixteen households in LA, California and Paris, France, and offers insights on the relationship between local practices and preferences and children's consumption of fruits and vegetables. Our analysis of video-recorded naturalist data reveals that the consumption of fruits and vegetables is linked to the cultural organization of dinner--what, when and how food is served--and to local beliefs about children's eating practices. We also found that the French model for dinnertime prioritizes the eating of fruits and vegetables more than the American model does. We propose that local eating models should be taken into account in research on childhood obesity and in prevention programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Post, Robert E; Jamena, Gemma P; Gamble, James D
Precept-Assist® (PA) is a computer-based program developed by the Virtua Family Medicine Residency where residents receive a score on a Likert-type scale from an attending for each precept based on their knowledge base. The purpose of this study was to attempt to validate this program for precepting family medicine residents. This was a validation study. PA and American Board of Family Medicine (ABFM) In-Training Exam (ITE) scores for all residents from a community-based family medicine residency between the years 2002 and 2011 were included (n=216). Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between PA scores for the second quarter of the academic year (October 1 to December 31) and scores on the ITE. An ROC curve was also created to determine sensitivity and specificity for various PA scores in predicting residents scoring 500 or above on the ITE. The PA mean (SD) score was 5.18 (0.84) and the ITE mean (SD) score was 425.1 (87.6). The Pearson correlation coefficient between PA and ITE scores was 0.55, which is a moderately positive correlation. The AUC of the ROC curve was 0.783 (95% CI 0.704-0.859). A PA score of 5.5 (between the level of a PGY-2 and PGY-3) was 72% sensitive and 77% specific for scoring 500 or above on the ITE with a positive LR of 3.12. There is a significant correlation between PA scores and ABFM In-Training Exam scores. PA is a valid screening tool that can be used as a predictor for future performance in Family Medicine In-Training exams.
Barton, Allen W; Beach, Steven R H; Bryant, Chalandra M; Lavner, Justin A; Brody, Gene H
This study investigated (a) the stress spillover pathways linking contextual stressors, changes in couple relationship functioning and depressive symptoms, and changes in individuals' physical health, and (b) the stress-buffering effect of participation in an efficacious, family centered prevention program designed to protect couples from the deleterious effects of stressors. The sample consisted of 346 rural African American couples (63% married) who participated in a randomized controlled trial of the Protecting Strong African American Families (ProSAAF) program. Participants were assessed at three time points across 17 months. Results examining stress spillover within the control group indicated that elevated current, but not prior, financial hardship was associated with decreased effective communication, relationship satisfaction, and relationship confidence as well as increased depressive symptoms; current levels of racial discrimination also predicted greater depressive symptoms. Relationship confidence and relationship satisfaction, but not communication or depressive symptoms, in turn predicted declines in self-reported physical health. Results examining stress-buffering effects suggested that participation in ProSAAF protected individuals' relationship confidence from declines associated with elevated financial hardship. In addition, the indirect effect linking financial hardship to declines in physical health through relationship confidence that emerged among participants in the control group was no longer evident for ProSAAF couples. Results highlight the effect of contextual stressors on African Americans' couple and individual well-being and the potential for the ProSAAF program to provide a constructed resilience resource, protecting couple's confidence in their relationship from the negative effects of financial hardship and, consequently, promoting physical health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Clara CORTINA TRILLA; Xiana BUENO GARCÍA; Teresa CASTRO MARTÍN
During the last decade, international immigration flows have undergone a dramatic growth in Spain. In this particular context, the purpose of this article is to analyze whether Latin American female migrants residing in Spain largely maintain nuptial and reproductive patterns from their countries of origin. To analyze the prevalence of consensual unions we use three different databases: the Spanish Immigration Survey, the Spanish Labour Force Survey and birth records, all of them correspondin...
Whiteman, Shawn D.; Solmeyer, Anna R.; McHale, Susan M.
Sibling relationships have been described as love-hate relationships by virtue of their emotional intensity, but we know little about how sibling positivity and negativity operate together to affect youth adjustment. Accordingly, this study charted the course of sibling positivity and negativity from age 10 to 18 in African American sibling dyads and tested whether changes in relationship qualities were linked to changes in adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Participants ...
Nilsson, Johanna E.; Marszalek, Jacob M.; Linnemeyer, Rachel M.; Bahner, Angela D.; Misialek, Leah Hanson
This article describes the development and the initial psychometric evaluation of the Social Issues Advocacy Scale in two studies. In the first study, an exploratory factor analysis (n = 278) revealed a four-factor scale, accounting for 71.4% of the variance, measuring different aspects of social issue advocacy: Political and Social Advocacy,…
Teacher advocacy has been examined as a practice of activism external to the school and as a practice of educational leadership. However, researchers have not merged these ideas by framing advocacy as a practice of leadership that takes place within the classroom and across the school. This article illustrates how, through advocacy on behalf of…
Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of schizophrenia is thought to be higher in population isolates that have recently been exposed to major and accelerated cultural change, accompanied by ensuing socio-environmental stressors/triggers, than in dominant, mainstream societies. We investigated the prevalence and phenomenology of schizophrenia in 329 females and 253 males of a Southwestern American Indian tribe, and in 194 females and 137 males of a Plains American Indian tribe. These tribal groups were evaluated as part of a broader program of gene-environment investigations of alcoholism and other psychiatric disorders. Methods Semi-structured psychiatric interviews were conducted to allow diagnoses utilizing standardized psychiatric diagnostic criteria, and to limit cultural biases. Study participants were recruited from the community on the basis of membership in pedigrees, and not by convenience. After independent raters evaluated the interviews blindly, DSM-III-R diagnoses were assigned by a consensus of experts well-versed in the local cultures. Results Five of the 582 Southwestern American Indian respondents (prevalence = 8.6 per 1000, and one of the 331 interviewed Plains American Indians (prevalence = 3.02 per 1000 had a lifetime diagnosis of schizophrenia. The lifetime prevalence rates of schizophrenia within these two distinct American Indian tribal groups is consistent with lifetime expectancy rates reported for the general United States population and most isolate and homogeneous populations for which prevalence rates of schizophrenia are available. While we were unable to factor in the potential modifying effect that mortality rates of schizophrenia-suffering tribal members may have had on the overall tribal rates, the incidence of schizophrenia among the living was well within the normative range. Conclusion The occurrence of schizophrenia among members of these two tribal population groups is consistent with prevalence rates reported for
Iyadurai, Stanley; Arnold, W David; Kissel, John T; Ruhno, Corey; Mcgovern, Vicki L; Snyder, Pamela J; Prior, Thomas W; Roggenbuck, Jennifer; Burghes, Arthur H; Kolb, Stephen J
Distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN) causes distal-predominant weakness without prominent sensory loss. Myosin heavy chain disorders most commonly result in distal myopathy and cardiomyopathy with or without hearing loss, but a complex phenotype with dHMN, myopathy, hoarseness, and hearing loss was reported in a Korean family with a c.2822G>T mutation in MYH14. In this study we report phenotypic features in a North American family with the c.2822G>T in MYH14. Clinical and molecular characterization was performed in a large, 6-generation, Caucasian family with MYH14 dHMN. A total of 11 affected and 7 unaffected individuals were evaluated and showed varying age of onset and severity of weakness. Genotypic concordance was confirmed with molecular analysis. Electrophysiological studies demonstrated distal motor axonal degeneration without myopathy in all affected subjects tested. Mutation of MYH14 can result in a range of neuromuscular phenotypes that includes a dHMN and hearing loss phenotype with variable age of onset. Muscle Nerve 56: 341-345, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Turner, Barbara J; Navuluri, Neelima; Winkler, Paula; Vale, Shruthi; Finley, Erin
This study qualitatively examines contrasting parental decision-making styles about family food choices and physical activities as well as willingness to change behaviors among Mexican-American and Mexican immigrant mothers and fathers of school-aged children. Twelve sex-specific focus groups were held in English or Spanish in 2012. Qualitative analysis informed by grounded theory examined parenting styles (ie, authoritative, authoritarian, or permissive), barriers to healthy lifestyle, and parents' stage of change about healthy lifestyles. One third of the 33 participating couples were born in Mexico. The majority of mothers and fathers described being permissive and allowing unhealthy food choices, and a minority of mothers reported more authoritarian approaches to promoting a healthier diet for their children. Mothers were more permissive than fathers about family physical activities and less engaged in these activities. Most mothers and fathers described only contemplating a healthier diet and more physical activity, while wanting their children to have a healthier lifestyle. These data suggest that clinicians need to assess and address differential parental roles when promoting a healthy lifestyle for children. Clinicians should also adopt culturally competent approaches to overcome barriers to parental engagement in diverse aspects of a healthy family lifestyle. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
West, Chad; Clauhs, Matthew
This article examines ways in which music education advocacy efforts have become disconnected from the unified visions and declarations of music educators espoused in the Tanglewood and Housewright declarations and are thus reifying the disconnect between what we value and what we say we value. We first analyze the policies posited by the recently…
Hoyle, Amy Gratch
This article includes a description and analysis of a graduate teacher education course designed to engage teachers in taking action for social justice. In the course, students participate in a community of learners in which they examine their cultural identities and engage in social justice advocacy work. Students developed content knowledge and…
Malin, Joel R.; Lubienski, Christopher
The efforts of many advocacy organizations to advance their preferred policies despite conflicting evidence of the effectiveness of these policies raise questions about factors that shape successful policy promotion. While many may like to think that expertise on an issue in question is an essential prerequisite for influence in public policy…
In recent years, employee advocacy has become a growing trend all over the world, especially now that social media offers new dimensions. The employee advocacy phenomenon is finally starting to gain attention in Finland as well, but businesses have yet to harness the full potential. The research focused on the managerial perspective of the phenomenon. The aim was to gain a deeper understanding of the phenomenon in the Finnish context, focusing on social media. The objective was to create ...
Although there is significant evidence of a cancer epidemic in Africa, there is limited awareness about cancer in most African countries. By partnering with international organizations and institutions such as the University of Florida and the Prostate Net, the African Organisation for Research and Training in Cancer (AORTIC) is committed to improving cancer advocacy in Africa. This paper presents some of the recent efforts on cancer advocacy in Africa, including the results of a SWOT analysis conducted for the cancer advocacy workshop and the guidelines developed by cancer advocates on best practices for cancer advocacy in Africa. One of the outcomes of these efforts is the African Cancer Advocates Consortium (ACAC) founded by cancer advocates in Africa to, “Make Cancer a Top Priority in Africa”. While we have started the work to strengthen cancer advocacy in Africa, we still have a long way to go. Our goal of making cancer a priority in Africa can mainly be achieved by: (1) increasing the manpower for cancer advocacy through education and training; and (2) strengthening the network of cancer advocates across the continent. PMID:23902674
Kennedy, Angie C; Bybee, Deborah; Kulkarni, Shanti J; Archer, Gretchen
Guided by an intersectional feminist perspective, we examined sexual victimization, witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) in the family, and familial physical abuse among a sample of 180 urban African American adolescent women. We used cluster analysis to better understand the profiles of cumulative victimization, and the relationships between profiles and IPV victimization and personal exposure to the sex trade. Just under one third of the sample reported sexual victimization, with cooccurrence with both forms of family violence common. The cluster profile with high levels of severe family violence was associated with the highest rate of IPV victimization and sex trade exposure.
Weill, James D.
This essay provides an overview of the goals and activities of the Children's Defense Fund (CDF), an advocacy group headquartered in Washington, D.C. that works to improve the well-being of American children through systemic change and whose goal is to make it unacceptable for any child in the United States to grow up homeless, hungry, sick,…
On-line depictions of the maternal and birthing body in the familial and communal context aims to destigmatize the “natural” (i.e., the non-intervened) body by putting birth – and representations of birth – back into women’s hands and homes. The many rich and diverse representations of amateur homebirth home movies on the Internet are part of an on-going visual effort to make and exhibit visual documents of and about the maternal, birthing body that upholds the (w)holistic model of childbirth...
Miyawaki, Christina E
Challenges of filial caregiving practices by 1st-generation immigrants due to differences in caregiving values between their home and host countries are well documented. This study explored the filial responsibility of later generation Japanese American caregivers of older adults. Acculturation and filial responsibility were measured using the Suinn-Lew Asian Self Identity Acculturation scale and Filial Values Index, respectively. A qualitative interview guide was developed using Gordon's assimilation theory, and 21 caregivers ( M age = 68 years, 86% female, seven in each generation) were interviewed. Despite the 3rd-generation caregivers' high acculturation level, their filial responsibility scores remained high. Qualitative interviews also revealed later generation caregivers' strong filial responsibility and continued caregiving involvement. Unexpectedly, caregivers' own future expectancy of care included placement in mainstream residential facilities rather than ethnic-specific settings. Findings point to the need to develop caregiver services that consider later generation caregivers' culture and level of assimilation.
Jordan, Lorien S; Seponski, Desiree M
A crucial and overlooked facet of social justice in family therapy is political and policy advocacy. Family therapists have unique insight into how social policies and political discourse shapes clients' lives and the life of our profession. Such knowledge can inform policymakers and political debate, yet few family therapists are trained to engage in political action. In this randomized, national survey of licensed family therapists' (N = 174), we explore beliefs about and barriers to engagement in political and policy processes. The findings suggest that there are significant barriers and uncertainties surrounding family therapists' engagement, including time, feelings of efficacy, and interest. Given these barriers we discuss practical suggestions for clinicians and family therapy training programs. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.
Riana E. Anderson
Full Text Available Black American youth are vulnerable to the consequences of repeated exposure to racial discrimination, particularly through hampered coping abilities and greater internalizing and externalizing problems. One way in which Black American parents have protected their children from these deleterious consequences is through racial socialization, or communication regarding aspects of racialized experiences and contexts. Less is known, however, about the potential therapeutic benefits of racial socialization via clinical intervention. The five-week Engaging, Managing, and Bonding through Race (EMBRace racial socialization intervention was developed to enhance coping strategies for parents and adolescents and reduce adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. The purpose of this study is to describe a case study of one family through a mixed methods approach. Variables of interest included racial discrimination, racial socialization, coping, and psychological well-being. Quantitative and qualitative assessments were performed two weeks prior to and one week after the implementation of EMBRace, with qualitative data collected throughout the intervention. Results indicate a developing sense of coping for the adolescent and parent and reduced adolescent psychosocial problems despite increased racialized stress. Results will be used to further investigate the hypotheses proposed in the pilot with a powered sample, and future studies will explore how sociodemographic and biopsychosocial variables relate to policy recommendations, program implementation, and psychosocial outcomes.
Howard Barbara V
Full Text Available Abstract Background Body fat mass distribution and deposition are determined by multiple environmental and genetic factors. Obesity is associated with insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and type 2 diabetes. We previously identified evidence for genotype-by-diabetes interaction on obesity traits in Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS participants. To localize these genetic effects, we conducted genome-wide linkage scans of obesity traits in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes, and in the combined sample while modeling interaction with diabetes using maximum likelihood methods (SOLAR 2.1.4. Methods SHFS recruited American Indians from Arizona, North and South Dakota, and Oklahoma. Anthropometric measures and diabetes status were obtained during a clinic visit. Marker allele frequencies were derived using maximum likelihood methods estimated from all individuals and multipoint identity by descent sharing was estimated using Loki. We used variance component linkage analysis to localize quantitative trait loci (QTLs influencing obesity traits. We tested for evidence of additive and QTL-specific genotype-by-diabetes interactions using the regions identified in the diabetes-stratified analyses. Results Among 245 diabetic and 704 non-diabetic American Indian individuals, we detected significant additive gene-by-diabetes interaction for weight and BMI (P P Conclusion These results suggest distinct genetic effects on body mass in individuals with diabetes compared to those without diabetes, and a possible role for one or more genes on chromosome 1 in the pathogenesis of obesity.
Mohammed Sabbar Abdulbaqi
Saul Bellow (1915 –2005) is an American novelist and the winner of Nobel and Pulitzer Prizes for literature (1976). He is known for his critique of Post-II World War American society. The research discusses Saul Bellow's Seize the Day (1956) in regard of materialism and its impact on the familial ties not only in terms of monetary considerations but also the maltreatment of family members among themselves. It reviews the materialistic relationship between the father and son on the one hand an...
Kim, Sun S; Kim, Seong-Ho; Fang, Hua; Kwon, Simona; Shelley, Donna; Ziedonis, Douglas
Korean men and women have the highest current smoking rates across all Asian ethnic subgroups in the United States. This is a 2-arm randomized controlled study of a culturally adapted smoking cessation intervention. The experimental condition received eight weekly 40-min individualized counseling sessions that incorporated Korean-specific cultural elements, whereas the control condition received eight weekly 10-min individualized counseling sessions that were not culturally adapted. All participants also received nicotine patches for 8 weeks. One-hundred nine Korean immigrants (91 men and 18 women) participated in the study. The rate of biochemically verified 12-month prolonged abstinence was significantly higher for the experimental condition than the control condition (38.2 vs. 11.1 %, χ (2) = 10.7, p family norm significantly mediated the effect of cessation intervention on abstinence. Smoking cessation intervention for Korean Americans should be culturally adapted and involve family members to produce a long-term treatment effect.
Austin, Melissa A
Recent completion of the draft sequence of the human genome has been greeted with both excitement and skepticism, and the potential of this accomplishment for advancing public health has been tempered by ethical concerns about the protection of human subjects. This commentary explores ethical issues arising in human genome epidemiology by using a case study approach based on the ongoing Japanese American Family Study at the University of Washington in Seattle (1994-2003). Ethical issues encountered in designing the study, collecting the data, and reporting the study results are considered. When developing studies, investigators must consider whether to restrict the study to specific racial or ethnic groups and whether community involvement is appropriate. Once the study design is in place, further ethical issues emerge, including obtaining informed consent for DNA banking and protecting the privacy and confidentiality of family members. Finally, investigators must carefully consider whether to report genotype results to study participants and whether pedigrees illustrating the results of the study will be published. Overall, the promise of genomics for improving public health must be pursued based on the fundamental ethical principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice.
Livas-Dlott, Alejandra; Fuller, Bruce; Stein, Gabriela L; Bridges, Margaret; Mangual Figueroa, Ariana; Mireles, Laurie
Early research on the socialization of Latino children has posited that mothers exercise authoritarian practices, compared with lateral reasoning (authoritative) strategies emphasized by Anglo mothers. This work aimed to categorize fixed types of parenting practices tied to the mother's personality rather than to culturally bounded contexts; it often ignored the emotional warmth or harshness present in compliance attempts and relied on interview questions rather than naturalistic observation. We built from ecocultural theory to observe daily home activities in which Mexican American mothers attempted to correct their young child's behavior or encourage completion of a task (compliance attempt). We observed 24 first- or second-generation mothers and their 4-year-old children and analyzed the activity contexts and multiple forms of 1,477 compliance attempts. Mothers typically led with direct verbal commands in their attempt to achieve compliance. Many blended commands with other compliance strategies, rather than repeating simple behaviors. Drawing on Crockenberg and Litman's (1990) differentiation of variable compliance strategies, we find that most mothers relied on low power-assertive methods, including verbal commands, rather than inductive strategies that involved reasoning. Few compliance episodes prompted high power-assertive or harsh strategies. The degree of reliance on verbal commands and the complexity of mothers' repertoires appear to be related to their education and acculturation levels. 2010 APA, all rights reserved
School nurses throughout the nation, individually and collectively, work to bring about change for the school nursing profession and to safeguard the health of children and the public. School nurses practice amidst education reform, health care reform, changes in society, and medical and technological advancements. School nurses must be active in decisions that affect their daily practice by involvement in the local, state, and federal political process. School nurses must craft the art and develop the science of political advocacy.
Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chae, David H.; Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.
This study explores relationships between lifetime and 12 month DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD), depressive symptoms and involvement with family and friends within a national sample of African American and Black Caribbean adults (n=5,191). MDD was assessed using the DSM-IV World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI) and depressive symptoms were assessed using the CES-D and the K6. Findings indicated that among both populations close supportive ties with family members and friends are associated with lower rates of depression and major depressive disorder. For African Americans, closeness to family members was important for both 12 month and lifetime MDD; and both family and friend closeness were important for depressive symptoms. For Caribbean Blacks, family closeness had more limited associations with outcomes and was directly associated with psychological distress only. Negative interactions with family (conflict, criticisms), however, were associated with higher MDD and depressive symptoms among both African Americans and Black Caribbeans. PMID:25594791
Dussel, Veronica; Bona, Kira; Heath, John A; Hilden, Joanne M; Weeks, Jane C; Wolfe, Joanne
Financial concerns represent a major stressor for families of children with cancer but remain poorly understood among those with terminally ill children. We describe the financial hardship, work disruptions, income loss, and coping strategies of families who lost children to cancer. Retrospective cross-sectional survey of 141 American and 89 Australian bereaved parents whose children died between 1990 and 1999 and 1996 to 2004, respectively, at three tertiary-care pediatric hospitals (two American, one Australian). Response rate: 63%. Thirty-four (24%) of 141 families from US centers and 34 (39%) of 88 families from the Australian center reported a great deal of financial hardship resulting from their children's illness. Work disruptions were substantial (84% in the United States, 88% in Australia). Australian families were more likely to report quitting a job (49% in Australia v 35% in the United States; P = .037). Sixty percent of families lost more than 10% of their annual income as a result of work disruptions. Australians were more likely to lose more than 40% of their income (34% in Australia v 19% in the United States; P = .035). Poor families experienced the greatest income loss. After accounting for income loss, 16% of American and 22% of Australian families dropped below the poverty line. Financial hardship was associated with poverty and income loss in all centers. Fundraising was the most common financial coping strategy (52% in the United States v 33% in Australia), followed by reduced spending. In these US and Australian centers, significant household-level financial effects of a child's death as a result of cancer were observed, especially for poor families. Interventions aimed at reducing the effects of income loss may ease financial distress.
González-Hormazábal, Patricio; Jara, Lilian; Bravo, Teresa; Blanco, Rafael; Valenzuela, Carlos Y; Gómez, Fernando; Waugh, Enrique; Peralta, Octavio; Ortuzar, Waldo; Reyes, Jose M
The ATM gene has been frequently involved in hereditary breast cancer as a low-penetrance susceptibility gene but evidence regarding the role of ATM as a breast cancer susceptibility gene has been contradictory. In this study, a full mutation analysis of the ATM gene was carried out in patients from 137 Chilean breast cancer families, of which 126 were BRCA1/2 negatives and 11 BRCA1/2 positives. We further perform a case-control study between the subgroup of 126 cases BRCA1/2 negatives and 200 controls for the 5557G>A missense variant and the IVS38-8T>C and the IVS24-9delT polymorphisms. In the full mutation analysis we detected two missense variants and eight intronic polymorphisms. Carriers of the variant IVS24-9delT, or IVS38-8T>C, or 5557G>A showed an increase in breast cancer risk. The higher significance was observed in the carriers of IVS38-8T>C (OR = 3.09 [95%CI 1.11–8.59], p = 0.024). The IVS24-9 T/(-T), IVS38-8 T/C, 5557 G/A composite genotype confered a 3.19 fold increase in breast cancer risk (OR = 3.19 [95%CI 1.16–8.89], p = 0.021). The haplotype estimation suggested a strong linkage disequilibrium between the three markers (D' = 1). We detected only three haplotypes in the cases and control samples, some of these may be founder haplotypes in the Chilean population. The IVS24-9 T/(-T), IVS38-8 T/C, 5557 G/A composite genotype alone or in combination with certain genetic background and/or environmental factors, could modify the cancer risk by increasing genetic inestability or by altering the effect of the normal DNA damage response
... inflammatory response. Monarch-1 is involved in the inhibition of the inflammatory response. Mutations in the NLRP12 ... cold autoinflammatory syndrome Orphanet: Familial cold urticaria Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (3 links) Autoinflammatory Alliance National ...
Full Text Available ... tb overview links & resources families advocacy about civil rights kids' rights sample school policies school letter someone you know ... organizations wishing to create their own end slates. Right-click any link to download to your computer. ...
Full Text Available ... cmv hepatitis overview current news glossary injection tips kids infect kids labs links & resources milk thistle pediatric hepatitis report ... overview links & resources families advocacy about civil rights kids' rights sample school policies school letter someone you ...
Mitchell, Enzley, IV
The purpose of this study was to identify specific external factors including family composition, pre-college environment, and college preparation that contribute to why some African American males playing basketball at the NCAA Division I level graduate and persist while others do not. Despite an aggressive advertising campaign from the NCAA…
Sheely-Moore, Angela I.; Ceballos, Peggy L.
With the tendency of low-income African American and Latino children identified at-risk for school readiness and school success compared to their early-childhood counterparts, Head Start personnel are challenged to examine the role of family strengths in the promotion of academic success for these populations. This article provides a rationale for…
Many Japanese families come to the US because the fathers are dispatched to work at Japanese companies in the US, and they return to Japan after a 3-4 year stay. Many children attend an American local school as well as a supplementary Saturday school, hoshuko, in order to keep up academically after they return to Japan. However, balancing an…
A study analyzed family decision-making style, peer group affiliation, and academic achievement in 10th grade as predictors of academic achievement of African American students in 12th grade. Findings indicated that though peer groups were known to influence academic performance, affiliation with learning oriented peers in 10th grade did not…
Drawing on the concept of language socialization, this study investigates ways in which parents and grandparents of three-generational Korean-American households socialize children into certain cultural values through the use of a particular linguistic feature in Korean: the verb suffix "-ta". All six participating families had at least one child…
Motamed-Jahromi, Mohadeseh; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Borhani, Fariba; Zaher, Homa
Patient advocacy is an inherent component of professional nursing ethics; in other words, nurses' enough knowledge would be essential to gain a positive attitude towards nursing advocacy. Using a descriptive-analytic design, this study aimed to assess the correlation between nurses' perception and attitudes towards patient advocacy, amongst 385 nurses in Kerman, Iran; hence, a three-part questionnaire was applied: part I, a demographic data sheet, part II, attitude measuring instrument, and part III, perception measuring instrument in nursing advocacy. The results implied that fairly positive attitudes and perception were found amongst the participants, and nurses' attitudes, in general, were positively correlated to their perception toward nursing advocacy. This means that with an improvement in perception, the attitude would also improve. In addition to our findings, it seems that these nurses needed more advocacy educational programs and support from responsible employers.
Full Text Available Influencing public policy in favor of interest groups can be achieved through advocacy associations legally constituted whose mission is to: promovate professional excellence in the application of advanced practices of advocacy, strengthen civil society participation in development of public policies and continuously develop policies to private firms.. Through advocacy associations can uphold and enforce the values of entrepreneurship and free enterprise. Any resource used in advocacy efforts associations should generate added value and impact, contribute to the progress, development and improved quality of life. Advocacy associations must primarily promotes technical and professional skills of advocacy for any civil society interested group with honesty, dignity, mutual respect, transparency and social responsibility in order to strengthen the system of participatory democracy to which they are signatories.
Necheles, Jonathan W.; Chung, Emily Q.; Hawes-Dawson, Jennifer; Ryan, Gery W.; Williams, La’Shield B.; Holmes, Heidi N.; Wells, Kenneth B.; Vaiana, Mary E.; Schuster, Mark A.
Background Clinicians, public health practitioners, and policymakers would like to understand how youth perceive health issues and how they can become advocates for health promotion in their communities. 1,2 Traditional research methods can be used to capture these perceptions, but are limited in their ability to activate (excite and engage) youth to participate in health promotion activities. Objectives To pilot the use of an adapted version of photovoice as a starting point to engage youth in identifying influences on their health behaviors in a process that encourages the development of health advocacy projects. Methods Application of qualitative and quantitative methods to a participatory research project that teaches youth the photovoice method to identify and address health promotion issues relevant to their lives. Participants included 13 students serving on a Youth Advisory Board (YAB) of the UCLA/RAND Center for Adolescent Health Promotion working in four small groups of two to five participants. Students were from the Los Angeles, California, metropolitan area. Results Results were derived from photograph sorting activities, analysis of photograph narratives, and development of advocacy projects. Youth frequently discussed a variety of topics reflected in their pictures that included unhealthy food choices, inducers of stress, friends, emotions, environment, health, and positive aspects of family. The advocacy projects used social marketing strategies, focusing on unhealthy dietary practices and inducers of stress. The youths’ focus on obesity-related issues have contributed to the center’s success in partnering with the Los Angeles Unified School District on a new community-based participatory research (CBPR) project. Conclusion Youth can engage in a process of identifying community-level health influences, leading to health promotion through advocacy. Participants focused their advocacy work on selected issues addressing the types of unhealthy food
Hayes, Victoria; Bing-You, Robert; Varaklis, Kalli; Trowbridge, Robert; Kemp, Heather; McKelvy, Dina
In 2016, we performed a scoping review as a means of mapping what is known in the literature about feedback to medical learners. In this descriptive analysis, we explore a subset of the results to assess the contributions of predominantly North American family medicine educators to the feedback literature. Nineteen articles extracted from our original scoping review plus six articles identified from an additional search of the journal Family Medicine are described in-depth. The proportion of articles involving family medicine educators identified in our scoping review is small (n=19/650, 3%) and the total remains low (25) after including additional articles (n=6) from a Family Medicine search. They encompass a broad range of feedback methods and content areas. They primarily originated in the United States (n=19) and Canada (n=3) within Family Medicine Departments (n=20) and encompass a variety of scientific and educational research methodologies. The contributions of predominantly North American Family Medicine educators to the literature on feedback to learners are sparse in number and employ a variety of focus areas and methodological approaches. More studies are needed to assess for areas of education research where family physicians could make valuable contributions.
Shetty, Priya B; Tang, Hua; Feng, Tao; Tayo, Bamidele; Morrison, Alanna C; Kardia, Sharon L R; Hanis, Craig L; Arnett, Donna K; Hunt, Steven C; Boerwinkle, Eric; Rao, Dabeeru C; Cooper, Richard S; Risch, Neil; Zhu, Xiaofeng
Admixture mapping of lipids was followed-up by family-based association analysis to identify variants for cardiovascular disease in African Americans. The present study conducted admixture mapping analysis for total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. The analysis was performed in 1905 unrelated African American subjects from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute's Family Blood Pressure Program (FBPP). Regions showing admixture evidence were followed-up with family-based association analysis in 3556 African American subjects from the FBPP. The admixture mapping and family-based association analyses were adjusted for age, age(2), sex, body mass index, and genome-wide mean ancestry to minimize the confounding caused by population stratification. Regions that were suggestive of local ancestry association evidence were found on chromosomes 7 (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), 8 (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), 14 (triglycerides), and 19 (total cholesterol and triglycerides). In the fine-mapping analysis, 52 939 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested and 11 SNPs (8 independent SNPs) showed nominal significant association with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (2 SNPs), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (4 SNPs), and triglycerides (5 SNPs). The family data were used in the fine-mapping to identify SNPs that showed novel associations with lipids and regions, including genes with known associations for cardiovascular disease. This study identified regions on chromosomes 7, 8, 14, and 19 and 11 SNPs from the fine-mapping analysis that were associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides for further studies of cardiovascular disease in African Americans. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
Sharon Fontaine Terry
Full Text Available Disease advocacy organizations have long played an important role in the continuum from basic science to therapy development in rare disease research. PXE International has sometimes led the field in innovative ways, venturing into specific activities that have traditionally been conducted by scientists. As lay founders, we have engaged in gene discovery, gene patenting, diagnostic development, epidemiological studies, clinical trials and therapy research and development. This article will describe the steps that we took, and the ways in which we have scaled these efforts for the larger community.
Gazarian, Priscilla K; Fernberg, Lauren M; Sheehan, Kelly D
The literature and research on nursing ethics and advocacy has shown that generally very few nurses and other clinicians will speak up about an issue they have witnessed regarding a patient advocacy concern and that often advocacy in nursing is not learned until after students have graduated and begun working. To evaluate the effectiveness of narrative pedagogy on the development of advocacy in student nurses, as measured by the Protective Nursing Advocacy Scale. We tested the hypothesis that use of a narrative pedagogy assignment related to ethics would improve student nurse's perception of their advocacy role as measured by the Protective Nursing Advocacy Scale using a quasi-experimental nonrandomized study using a pre-test, intervention, post-test design. Data collection occurred during class time from October 2012 to December 2012. The Protective Nursing Advocacy Scale tool was administered to students in class to assess their baseline and was administered again at the completion of the educational intervention to assess whether narrative pedagogy was effective in developing the nursing student's perception of their role as a patient advocate. Students were informed that their participation was voluntary and that the data collected would be anonymous and confidential. The survey was not a graded assignment, and students did not receive any incentive to participate. The institutional review board of the college determined the study to be exempt from review. School of Nursing at a small liberal arts college in the Northeastern United States. A consecutive, nonprobability sample of 44 senior-level nursing students enrolled in their final nursing semester was utilized. Results indicated significant differences in student nurse's perception of their advocacy role related to environment and educational influences following an education intervention using an ethics digital story. Using the Protective Nursing Advocacy Scale, we were able to measure the effectiveness of
Shetty, Priya B.; Tang, Hua; Feng, Tao; Tayo, Bamidele; Morrison, Alanna C.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Hanis, Craig L.; Arnett, Donna K.; Hunt, Steven C.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Rao, D.C.; Cooper, R.S.; Risch, Neil; Zhu, Xiaofeng
Background Admixture mapping of lipids was followed-up by family-based association analysis to identify variants for cardiovascular disease in African-Americans. Methods and Results The present study conducted admixture mapping analysis for total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides. The analysis was performed in 1,905 unrelated African-American subjects from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute’s Family Blood Pressure Program. Regions showing admixture evidence were followed-up with family-based association analysis in 3,556 African-American subjects from the FBPP. The admixture mapping and family-based association analyses were adjusted for age, age2, sex, body-mass-index, and genome-wide mean ancestry to minimize the confounding due to population stratification. Regions that were suggestive of local ancestry association evidence were found on chromosomes 7 (LDL-C), 8 (HDL-C), 14 (triglycerides) and 19 (total cholesterol and triglycerides). In the fine-mapping analysis, 52,939 SNPs were tested and 11 SNPs (8 independent SNPs) showed nominal significant association with HDL-C (2 SNPs), LDL-C (4 SNPs) and triglycerides (5 SNPs). The family data was used in the fine-mapping to identify SNPs that showed novel associations with lipids and regions including genes with known associations for cardiovascular disease. Conclusions This study identified regions on chromosomes 7, 8, 14 and 19 and 11 SNPs from the fine-mapping analysis that were associated with HDL-C, LDL-C and triglycerides for further studies of cardiovascular disease in African-Americans. PMID:25552592
Full Text Available Obesity is growing epidemic affecting 35% of adults in the United States. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified numerous loci associated with obesity. However, the majority of studies have been completed in Caucasians focusing on total body measures of adiposity. Here we report the results from genome-wide and exome chip association studies focusing on total body measures of adiposity including body mass index (BMI, percent body fat (PBF and measures of fat deposition including waist circumference (WAIST, waist-hip ratio (WHR, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT in Hispanic Americans (nmax = 1263 from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS. Five SNPs from two novel loci attained genome-wide significance (P<5.00x10-8 in IRASFS. A missense SNP in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1 was associated with WAIST (rs34218846, MAF = 6.8%, PDOM = 1.62x10-8. This protein is postulated to play an important role in fat and cholesterol biosynthesis as demonstrated in cell and knock-out animal models. Four correlated intronic SNPs in the Zinc finger, GRF-type containing 1 gene (ZGRF1; SNP rs1471880, MAF = 48.1%, PDOM = 1.00x10-8 were strongly associated with WHR. The exact biological function of ZGRF1 and the connection with adiposity remains unclear. SNPs with p-values less than 5.00x10-6 from IRASFS were selected for replication. Meta-analysis was computed across seven independent Hispanic-American cohorts (nmax = 4156 and the strongest signal was rs1471880 (PDOM = 8.38x10-6 in ZGRF1 with WAIST. In conclusion, a genome-wide and exome chip association study was conducted that identified two novel loci (IDH1 and ZGRF1 associated with adiposity. While replication efforts were inconclusive, when taken together with the known biology, IDH1 and ZGRF1 warrant further evaluation.
... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Recruitment Notice for the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice of Open Season for Recruitment of IRS Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (TAP) Members. DATES: March 19, 2012 through April 27...
... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Recruitment Notice for the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice of Open Season for Recruitment of IRS Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (TAP) Members. DATES: March 14, 2011 through April 29...
... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Recruitment Notice for the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice of Open Season for Recruitment of IRS Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (TAP) Members. DATES: March 15, 2010 through April 30...
Munnukka, Juha; Uusitalo, Outi; Jokinen, Elisa
Brand owners use virtual communities to strengthen brand loyalty by engaging consumers in active content creation activities. Personal and reciprocal communication and consumers’ participation in virtual brand communities are the main sources through which communities contribute to brand loyalty formation. This research examines the antecedents and consequences of advocacy participation in virtual brand communities. The results show that the VBC members’ advocacy participation ...
Asante, Molefi Kete
Examines the extensive system of advocacy (based on the idea of group consensus) among the Yoruba in Nigeria. Gives a detailed account of communicative forms and functions of advocacy in legal proceedings and their relationship to Yoruba culture. Explores how Yoruba people argue their cases and find harmony out of a context of disputations. (SR)
Di Pietro, Nina C.; Whiteley, Louise; Mizgalewicz, Ania; Illes, Judy
The Internet is a major source of health-related information for parents of sick children despite concerns surrounding quality. For neurodevelopmental disorders, the websites of advocacy groups are a largely unexamined source of information. We evaluated treatment information posted on nine highly-trafficked advocacy websites for autism, cerebral…
Linnemeyer, Rachel McQuown
Although social justice advocacy has increasingly been acknowledged as important in the field of psychology (e.g., Goodman et al., 2004; Toporek et al., 2006a, Vera & Speight, 2003), there is a dearth of empirical research examining social justice advocacy across graduate psychology students. This mixed-methods study examined demographic and…
Mullen, Carol A.
Child wellness needs to be understood holistically so that children and youth from high-poverty environments can succeed in schooling and life. Teachers who foster advocacy in themselves are well equipped to teach students to take ownership of their own well-being. Such advocacy can enrich the classroom curriculum and mitigate the negative effects…
Full Text Available Ya-Huei Li,1 Paula Cuccaro,2 Hua Chen,1 Susan Abughosh,1 Paras D Mehta,3 Ekere J Essien1,2 1Department of Pharmaceutical Health Outcomes and Policy, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, Texas Medical Center, Houston, TX, USA; 2Department of Health Promotion and Behavioral Sciences, University of Texas School of Public Health, Houston, TX, USA; 3Department of Industrial Organizational Psychology, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the association between the dynamics of family structure and sexual behaviors of African-American adolescents using the ecodevelopmental theory. Methods: This study stratified data from 1,617 African-American adolescents of the Add Health Wave I respondents with an identified family composition. It examined the associations between family structure, parenting function, and adolescents’ sexual decision-making: age of first sexual intercourse, sexual initiation before age 16, and using a condom during the first and last sexual intercourse.Results: Emotional connection between parents and children (feeling more love from the father: β=0.17, P=0.0312; feeling more love from the mother: β=0.3314, P=0.0420 and mothers’ less permissive attitude toward adolescents’ sexual experience in their teens (β=0.33, P=0.0466 are positively associated with late age of sexual initiation of adolescents living in two-parent households. School-level factors (β=0.07, P=0.0008 and the adolescents’ characteristics (being older: 0.42, P=0.0002; heterosexuality: β=2.28, P=0.0091 are the factors most positively related to the age of sexual initiation for those living with a single parent. Immediate social determinants, other than family factors (such as land use of immediate area [rural]: β=9.84, P<0.0001; the condition of living unit: β=1.55, P=0.0011; and safety of neighborhood: β=4.46, P=0.004, are related to late age of sexual initiation among those living with other
Dolins, J C; Christoffel, K K
A basic framework for developing an advocacy plan must systematically break down the large task of policy development implementation into manageable components. The basic framework described in detail in this paper includes three steps: Setting policy objectives by narrowing the scope of policy, by reviewing policy options, and by examining options against selected criteria. Developing strategies for educating the public and for approaching legislative/regulatory bodies. Evaluating the effectiveness of the advocacy action plan as a process and as an agent for change. To illustrate the variety of ways in which pediatricians can be involved in the policy process to reduce violent injuries among children and adolescents, we apply this systematic approach to three priority areas. Prohibiting the use of corporal punishment in schools is intended to curb the institutionalized legitimacy of violence that has been associated with future use of violence. Efforts to remove handguns from the environments of children and adolescents are aimed at reducing the numbers of firearm injuries inflicted upon and by minors. Comprehensive treatment of adolescent victims of assault is intended to decrease the reoccurrence of violent injuries.
Horton, Cristi C.; Peterson, Tarla Rai; Banerjee, Paulami
Abstract Conservation policy sits at the nexus of natural science and politics. On the one hand, conservation scientists strive to maintain scientific credibility by emphasizing that their research findings are the result of disinterested observations of reality. On the other hand, conservation scientists are committed to conservation even if they do not advocate a particular policy. The professional conservation literature offers guidance on negotiating the relationship between scientific objectivity and political advocacy without damaging conservation science's credibility. The value of this guidance, however, may be restricted by limited recognition of credibility's multidimensionality and emergent nature: it emerges through perceptions of expertise, goodwill, and trustworthiness. We used content analysis of the literature to determine how credibility is framed in conservation science as it relates to apparent contradictions between science and advocacy. Credibility typically was framed as a static entity lacking dimensionality. Authors identified expertise or trustworthiness as important, but rarely mentioned goodwill. They usually did not identify expertise, goodwill, or trustworthiness as dimensions of credibility or recognize interactions among these 3 dimensions of credibility. This oversimplification may limit the ability of conservation scientists to contribute to biodiversity conservation. Accounting for the emergent quality and multidimensionality of credibility should enable conservation scientists to advance biodiversity conservation more effectively. PMID:26041036
Venters, Homer D; Foote, Mary; Keller, Allen S
Detention of immigrants by Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) is a rapidly growing form of incarceration in the U.S. with almost 400,000 people detained in 2008 (Schriro in Immigration and Customs Enforcement, 2009, http://www.ice.gov/doclib/091005_ice_detention_report-final.pdf ). ICE detainees are predominantly from Mexico and Latin America and only a small minority of detainees are asylum seekers. Immigrant detainees lack a legal guarantee of medical care (unlike criminal arrestees and prisoners) and face challenges in receiving medical care, particularly those with chronic medical conditions (Venters and Keller in J Health Care Poor Underserved 20:951-957, 2009). Although we and others have long been involved in advocating for detained asylum seekers, few resources are dedicated to medical advocacy for the broader population of ICE detainees. At the NYU Center for Health and Human Rights (CHHR), a program of medical advocacy was initiated in 2007 on behalf of ICE detainees focused on improvement of care in detention and medical parole. Our preliminary efforts reveal a pressing need for more involvement by physicians and other health advocates in this area.
Parent, Justin; Jones, Deborah J; Forehand, Rex; Cuellar, Jessica; Shoulberg, Erin K
The majority (67%) of African American youth live in single-parent households, a shift in the family structure that has been linked to increased risk for both internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors. Although the majority of single mothers endorse the assistance of another adult or family member in child rearing, relatively little is known about who is engaged in this nonmarital coparenting role (i.e., grandmother, father/social father, aunt, and female family friend) and how it relates to coparenting quality, maternal parenting, and youth psychosocial outcomes (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problems). This question, which is critical to the advancement of family focused programming for youth in these families, is addressed in this study. The participants examined in the current study were 159 African American single-mother child dyads. Adolescents' maternal grandmothers constituted the largest proportion of coparents in the sample (37.2%), followed by the mothers' female family friends (22.5%), adolescents' maternal aunts (12.7%), and adolescents' fathers/social fathers (11%). Differences emerged among groups of coparents in support and conflict with the mother. Specifically, grandmothers, aunts, and female family friends provided significantly more instrumental support than fathers. Furthermore, grandmothers and fathers had more conflict with the mother, both generally and specifically in front of the child, than aunts or female family friends. In turn, these differences were associated directly and indirectly through maternal parenting with internalizing and externalizing problems. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Katz, Aviva; Mallory, Baird; Gilbert, James C; Bethel, Colin; Hayes-Jordan, Andrea A; Saito, Jacqueline M; Tomita, Sandra S; Walsh, Danielle S; Shin, Cathy E; Wesley, John R; Farmer, Diana
There has been increasing interest and concern raised in the surgical literature regarding changes in the culture of surgical training and practice, and the impact these changes may have on surgeon stress and the appeal of a career in surgery. We surveyed pediatric surgeons and their partners to collect information on career satisfaction and work-family balance. The American Pediatric Surgical Association Task Force on Family Issues developed separate survey instruments for both pediatric surgeons and their partners that requested demographic data and information regarding the impact of surgical training and practice on the surgeon's opportunity to be involved with his/her family. We found that 96% of pediatric surgeons were satisfied with their career choice. Of concern was the lack of balance, with little time available for family, noted by both pediatric surgeons and their partners. The issues of work-family balance and its impact on surgeon stress and burnout should be addressed in both pediatric surgery training and practice. The American Pediatric Surgical Association is positioned to play a leading role in this effort. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wolraich, M L; Aceves, J; Feldman, H M; Hagan, J F; Howard, B J; Navarro, A; Richtsmeier, A J; Tolmas, H C
Natural and human-caused disasters, violence with weapons, and terrorist acts have touched directly the lives of thousands of families with children in the United States.1 Media coverage of disasters has brought images of floods, hurricanes, and airplane crashes into the living rooms of most American families, with limited censorship for vulnerable young children. Therefore, children may be exposed to disastrous events in ways that previous generations never or rarely experienced. Pediatricians should serve as important resources to the community in preparing for disasters, as well as acting in its behalf during and after such events.
Grant, Roy; Nozyce, Molly
The American Psychiatric Association has revised the diagnostic criteria for their DSM-5 manual. Important changes have been made to the diagnosis of the current (DSM-IV) category of Pervasive Developmental Disorders. This category includes Autistic Disorder (autism), Asperger's Disorder, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). The DSM-5 deletes Asperger's Disorder and PDD-NOS as diagnostic entities. This change may have unintended consequences, including the possibility that the new diagnostic framework will adversely affect access to developmental interventions under Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) programs, Early Intervention (for birth to 2 years olds) and preschool special education (for 3 and 4 years olds). Changing the current diagnosis of PDD-NOS to a "Social Communication Disorder" focused on language pragmatics in the DSM-5 may restrict eligibility for IDEA programs and limit the scope of services for affected children. Young children who meet current criteria for PDD-NOS require more intensive and multi-disciplinary services than would be available with a communication domain diagnosis and possible service authorization limited to speech-language therapy. Intensive behavioral interventions, inclusive group setting placements, and family support services are typically more available for children with an autism spectrum disorder than with diagnoses reflecting speech-language delay. The diagnostic distinction reflective of the higher language and social functioning between Asperger's Disorder and autism is also undermined by eliminating the former as a categorical diagnosis and subsuming it under autism. This change may adversely affect treatment planning and misinform parents about prognosis for children who meet current criteria for Asperger's Disorder.
Millstein, Rachel A; Woodruff, Susan I; Linton, Leslie S; Edwards, Christine C; Sallis, James F
Youth advocacy has been successfully used in substance use prevention but is a novel strategy in obesity prevention. As a precondition for building an evidence base for youth advocacy for obesity prevention, the present study aimed to develop and evaluate measures of youth advocacy mediator, process, and outcome variables. The Youth Engagement and Action for Health (YEAH!) program (San Diego County, CA) engaged youth and adult group leaders in advocacy for school and neighborhood improvements to nutrition and physical activity environments. Based on a model of youth advocacy, scales were developed to assess mediators, intervention processes, and proximal outcomes of youth advocacy for obesity prevention. Youth (baseline n = 136) and adult group leaders (baseline n = 47) completed surveys before and after advocacy projects. With baseline data, we created youth advocacy and adult leadership subscales using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and described their psychometric properties. Youth came from 21 groups, were ages 9-22, and most were female. Most youth were non-White, and the largest ethnic group was Hispanic/Latino (35.6%). The proposed factor structure held for most (14/20 youth and 1/2 adult) subscales. Modifications were necessary for 6 of the originally proposed 20 youth and 1 of the 2 adult multi-item subscales, which involved splitting larger subscales into two components and dropping low-performing items. Internally consistent scales to assess mediators, intervention processes, and proximal outcomes of youth advocacy for obesity prevention were developed. The resulting scales can be used in future studies to evaluate youth advocacy programs.
Watkins, Daphne C; Wharton, Tracy; Mitchell, Jamie A; Matusko, Niki; Kales, Helen
The purpose of this study was to explore the role of non-spousal family support on mental health among older, church-going African American men. The mixed methods objective was to employ a design that used existing qualitative and quantitative data to explore the interpretive context within which social and cultural experiences occur. Qualitative data (n=21) were used to build a conceptual model that was tested using quantitative data (n= 401). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated an inverse association between non-spousal family support and distress. The comparative fit index, Tucker-Lewis fit index, and root mean square error of approximation indicated good model fit. This study offers unique methodological approaches to using existing, complementary data sources to understand the health of African American men.
Fish, Caitlin A; Brown, Jonisha R; Quandt, Sara A
Minority families often reside in neighborhoods with few supermarkets or alternative healthy food options (e.g., farmers markets, community gardens), making fresh produce difficult to obtain. This qualitative study identified factors influencing fruit and vegetable shopping and use of alternative healthy food options. Forty-eight minority women with children completed interviews regarding food shopping habits and use of and attitudes toward alternative healthy food options. Interviews were subjected to thematic analysis. Produce shopping was motivated by costs and family preferences. For African American women, poor cooking skills restricted the variety of fruits and vegetables purchased. Latinas were receptive to alternative healthy food options, but did not use them because these sources were inconvenient. African American women were not receptive to them. Improving cooking skills and perceptions of acceptable foods may be as important as increased access to promote greater consumption of fruits and vegetables.
Nicassio, P M
A study was conducted to determine the way in which stereotypes of machismo and femininity are associated with family size and perceptions of family planning. A total of 144 adults, male and female, from a lower class and an upper middle class urban area in Colombia were asked to respond to photographs of Colombian families varying in size and state of completeness. The study illustrated the critical role of sex-role identity and sex-role organization as variables having an effect on fertility. The lower-class respondents described parents in the photographs as significantly more macho or feminine because of their children than the upper-middle-class subjects did. Future research should attempt to measure when this drive to sex-role identity is strongest, i.e., when men and women are most driven to reproduce in order to "prove" themselves. Both lower- and upper-middle-class male groups considered male dominance in marriage to be directly linked with family size. Perceptions of the use of family planning decreased linearly with family size for both social groups, although the lower-class females attributed more family planning to spouses of large families than upper-middle-class females. It is suggested that further research deal with the ways in which constructs of machismo and male dominance vary between the sexes and among socioeconomic groups and the ways in which they impact on fertility.
...) than women without familial breast cancer risk. The proposed study will examine the impact of an expressive writing intervention on emotional biological, and cognitive processes among women at familial breast cancer risk...
Valdimarsdottir, Heiddie; Bovbjerg, Dana
...) than women without familial breast cancer risk. To date, little research has been done on women of African descent with family histories of breast cancer, despite the fact that they may be at particularly high risk for chronic distress due...
Hughes, Sheryl O; Hayes, Jenna T; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine; VanBrackle, Angela
Objective To provide preliminary descriptive data on caregiver and child weight status, parenting styles, feeding styles, and feeding practices of a small American Indian sample. Methods Participants included a subsample of American Indian caregivers (n = 23) identified from a larger study that was conducted in five states. Using previously validated instruments, means, standard deviations, and ranges for general parenting styles, feeding styles, and feeding practices were explored. Results In general, most caregivers reported healthy feeding practices. Most caregivers scored higher on responsive compared to restrictive or permissive in general parenting. Of the sample, 12 caregivers (52.2 %) were classified in the indulgent feeding style category, 5 caregivers (21.7 %) were classified as authoritative, 5 (21.7 %) uninvolved, and 1 (4.3 %) authoritarian. Conclusions More investigations are needed to explore questions raised by this study about using common tools that measure childhood obesity with American Indian families.
Rudd, Timothy; Rodriguez, Jonathan; Greenberg, David
Family Rewards was an innovative approach to poverty reduction in the United States that was modelled on the conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs common in lower- and middle-income countries. The program offered cash assistance to poor families to reduce immediate hardship, provided they met certain criteria related to family health care,…
Miller, Cynthia; Miller, Rhiannon; Verma, Nandita; Dechausay, Nadine; Yang, Edith; Rudd, Timothy; Rodriguez, Jonathan; Honig, Sylvie
Family Rewards was an innovative approach to poverty reduction in the United States that was modeled on the conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs common in lower- and middle-income countries. The program offered cash assistance to low-income families, provided that they met certain conditions related to family health care, children's education,…
Dumka, Larry E.; Roosa, Mark W.; Jackson, Kristina M.
Reports on a test of a risk-stress process model. Examines the influence of mothers' supportive parenting and inconsistent discipline practices on risk factors and family conflict as these affect children's conduct disorder and depression. Tests on 121 families indicate that mothers' supportive patenting partially mediated family conflict effects…
Fuligni, Andrew; Masten, Carrie L.
In contrast to the abundant research on family relationships during adolescence, the nature of family interactions during young adulthood remains comparatively unexamined. The current study explored ethnic differences in young adults' interactions with parents and siblings, the role of other activities in young adults' family interactions, and the…
Huber Adam M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with complex medical issues experience barriers to the transition of care from pediatric to adult providers. We sought to identify these barriers by elucidating the experiences of patients with idiopathic inflammatory muscle disorders. Methods We collected anonymous survey data using an online website. Patients and their families were solicited from the US and Canada through established clinics for children with idiopathic inflammatory muscle diseases as well as with the aid of a nonprofit organization for the benefit of such individuals. The parents of 45 older children/young adults suffering from idiopathic inflammatory muscle diseases were surveyed. As a basis of comparison, we similarly collected data from the parents of 207 younger children with inflammatory muscle diseases. The survey assessed transition of care issues confronting families of children and young adults with chronic juvenile myositis. Results Regardless of age of the patient, respondents were unlikely to have a designated health care provider assigned to aid in transition of care and were unlikely to be aware of a posted policy concerning transition of care at their pediatrician's office. Additionally, regardless of age, patients and their families were unlikely to have a written plan for moving to adult care. Conclusions We identified deficiencies in the health care experiences of families as pertain to knowledge, self-advocacy, policy, and vocational readiness. Moreover, as children with complex medical issues grow up, parents attribute less self-advocacy to their children's level of independence.
Tang, Jennifer; Kim, Simon; Haviland, Don
Cambodian American college students are often overlooked in academe because of the model minority myth. The stereotype overshadows the challenges and heterogeneity in the Asian American and Pacific Islander population. This exploratory study examined the experiences of 13 first-generation Cambodian American college students at a large, public institution in California. Findings revealed that, despite obstacles of being first-generation with limited cultural capital, students were transformed ...
Li, Yushi; Buechel, Annie
The evaluations on institutionalized care facilities from family members, after their loved ones moved into such services, are very different from culture to culture, family to family and person to person. According to a recent survey in the United States and China, it is found that different cultures and the different health conditions of the residents strongly influence family member's viewpoints on institutionalized care services. It is also found that the availability of the institutionalized care facilities plays a significant role, which strongly affects family members' evaluations on nursing home services.
Schmidt, Gavin A.
Last year, I asked a crowd of a few hundred geoscientists from around the world what positions related to climate science and policy they would be comfortable publicly advocating. I presented a list of recommendations that included increased research funding, greater resources for education, and specific emission reduction technologies. In almost every case, a majority of the audience felt comfortable arguing for them. The only clear exceptions were related to geo-engineering research and nuclear power. I had queried the researchers because the relationship between science and advocacy is marked by many assumptions and little clarity. This despite the fact that the basic question of how scientists can be responsible advocates on issues related to their expertise has been discussed for decades most notably in the case of climate change by the late Stephen Schneider.
McKibben, J. Malvyn; Wood, Susan
In 1991, a small group of citizens from communities near the Savannah River Site (SRS) formed a pro-nuclear education and advocacy group, Citizens for Nuclear Technology Awareness (CNTA). Their purpose was to: (1) counter nuclear misinformation that dominated the nation's news outlets, (2) provide education on nuclear subjects to area citizens, students, elected officials, and (3) provide informed citizen support for potential new missions for SRS when needed. To effectively accomplish these objectives it is also essential to establish and maintain good relations with community leaders and reporters that cover energy and nuclear subjects. The organization has grown considerably since its inception and has expanded its sphere of influence. We believe that our experiences over these fifteen years are a good model for effectively communicating nuclear subjects with the public. This paper describes the structure, operation and some of the results of CNTA. (authors)
A quarter-century after the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA, 1990 ), workplace accommodation is still a struggle for deaf employees and their managers. Many challenges are the result of communication barriers that can be overcome through much needed-although often absent-advocacy and training. This article highlights the literature on the employment of deaf individuals in the United States service industries of food service, retail, and hospitality conducted from 2000 to 2016. Exploring dimensions of both hiring and active workplace accommodation, suggestions are made for how social work advocates can harness information and strengthen their approaches for educating managers and supporting workers.
Spengler, John O; Frost, Natasha R; Bryant, Katherine K
The purpose of this article was to describe the process by which research findings informed the successful passage of legislation designed to increase opportunities for physical activity in Mississippi, and discuss implications and lessons learned from this process. The article is descriptive and conceptual, and addresses the collaborative process by which research, legal technical assistance, and advocacy informed and shaped shared use legislation in Mississippi. Collaborators informing this article were an Active Living Research grantee, a staff attorney with the Public Health Law Center, the American Heart Association Mississippi Government Relations Director, and community partners. The American Heart Association and Public Health Law Center developed policy guidance in the form of sample language for legislation as a starting point for states in determining policy needed to eliminate or reduce barriers to the shared use of school recreational facilities. The policy guidance was informed by evidence from Active Living Research-funded research studies. The American Heart Association, supporting a bill shaped by the policy guidance, led the effort to advocate for successful shared use legislation in Mississippi. Research should be policy relevant and properly translated and disseminated. Legal technical assistance should involve collaboration with both researchers and advocates so that policymakers have the information to make evidence-based decisions. Government relations directors should collaborate with legal technical staff to obtain and understand policy guidance relevant to their advocacy efforts. Effective collaborations, with an evidence-based approach, can lead to informed, successful policy change.
Smith, K E; Stewart, E A
The role of 'advocacy' within public health attracts considerable debate but is rarely the subject of empirical research. This paper reviews the available literature and presents data from qualitative research (interviews and focus groups conducted in the UK in 2011-2013) involving 147 professionals (working in academia, the public sector, the third sector and policy settings) concerned with public health in the UK. It seeks to address the following questions: (i) What is public health advocacy and how does it relate to research?; (ii) What role (if any) do professionals concerned with public health feel researchers ought to play in advocacy?; and (iii) For those researchers who do engage in advocacy, what are the risks and challenges and to what extent can these be managed/mitigated? In answering these questions, we argue that two deeply contrasting conceptualisations of 'advocacy' exist within public health, the most dominant of which ('representational') centres on strategies for 'selling' public health goals to decision-makers and the wider public. This contrasts with an alternative (less widely employed) conceptualisation of advocacy as 'facilitational'. This approach focuses on working with communities whose voices are often unheard/ignored in policy to enable their views to contribute to debates. We argue that these divergent ways of thinking about advocacy speak to a more fundamental challenge regarding the role of the public in research, policy and practice and the activities that connect these various strands of public health research. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Lalwani, Tanya; Rajaratnam, Julie Knoll; McOwen, Jordan; Gordis, Deborah J; Bowen, Lisa A; Bernson, Jeff
To improve maternal and child health, the White Ribbon Alliance for Safe Motherhood (WRA) implemented an innovative policy advocacy project in India, Uganda and Yemen from 2009 to 2011. PATH assisted WRA in designing an approach to measure the short- and long-term results of WRA's advocacy efforts.Expert rating instruments have been widely used since 1970s to track country-level program efforts focusing on family planning, maternal and neonatal health, and HIV/AIDS. This article assesses and establishes the strength and applicability of an expert rating tool, the Maternal Health Policy Score (MHPS), in measuring and guiding a non-profit's advocacy efforts.The tool was assessed using five criteria: validity of results, reproducibility of results, acceptability to respondents, internal consistency and cost. The tool proved effective for measuring improvements in the policy environment at both the national and subnational levels that the non-profit intended to effect and useful for identifying strong and weak policy domains. The results are reproducible, though ensuring fidelity in implementation during different rounds of data collection may be difficult. The acceptability of the tool was high among respondents, and also among users of the information.MHPS provides a quick, low-cost method to measure overall changes in the policy environment, giving advocacy organizations and grant makers timely information to gauge the influence of their work and take corrective action. WRA demonstrated the use of MHPS at multiple points in the project: at the onset of a project to identify and strategize around policy domains that need attention, during and at the end of the project to monitor progress made and redirect efforts. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Madeline Espinosa Morales
Full Text Available Se analiza la aparición de la violencia intrafamiliar hacia la mujer latinoamericana como fenómeno que trasciende las barreras culturales, religiosas y sociales, que exige una transformación y pronto accionar por los sistemas nacionales de salud, pues ocupa en la actualidad un lugar importante dentro de los problemas de la salud pública; para solucionarlo es indispensable conocerlo y realizar acciones en su prevención y control. Se muestra cómo está adquiriendo auge en las diferentes sociedades. Se reconocen sus diferentes clasificaciones según contexto, y se evalúan los diferentes modelos teóricos que tratan de explicar esta realidad sociocultural, con el objetivo profundizar sobre el tema y contribuir, de esta forma, a ampliar el conocimiento de todo el personal de las ciencias médicas en esa arista del saber. Tratar el gran problema de la violencia intrafamiliar condujo a indagar sobre su origen y tratar de resolver las interrogantes de cómo enfrentarla, prevenirla y erradicarla, y llegar a ser agentes de cambio que fomenten la salud estilos de vida saludables.The intra-family violence to Latin-American woman is analyzed like a phenomenon going beyond the cultural, religious and social barriers, demanding a transformation and a fast action by part of the national health systems, since it has nowadays an important place within the public health problems and for its solution it is necessary to know it and to carried out actions for prevention and control. It is demonstrated how this problem is increasing in the different societies. The different classifications of this problem are recognized according to the context and we assessed the different theoretical models trying to explain this sociocultural reality to deepen on the subject and to contribute in this way, to develop the knowledge of all the medical sciences staff in this area. Approaching of this serious problem of intrafamily violence leads to investigate on its origin and
Granberg, Ellen M.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.
Social psychologists have amassed a large body of work demonstrating that overweight African American adolescent girls have generally positive self-images, particularly when compared with overweight females from other racial and ethnic groups. Some scholars have proposed that elements of African American social experience may contribute to the…
Kogan, Steven M.; Lei, Man-Kit; Grange, Christina R.; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Chen, Yi-fu
Accumulating evidence suggests that African American men and women experience unique challenges in developing and maintaining stable, satisfying romantic relationships. Extant studies have linked relationship quality among African American couples to contemporaneous risk factors such as economic hardship and racial discrimination. Little research,…
Li, Ya-Huei; Cuccaro, Paula; Chen, Hua; Abughosh, Susan; Mehta, Paras D; Essien, Ekere J
The purpose of this study was to explore the association between the dynamics of family structure and sexual behaviors of African-American adolescents using the ecodevelopmental theory. This study stratified data from 1,617 African-American adolescents of the Add Health Wave I respondents with an identified family composition. It examined the associations between family structure, parenting function, and adolescents' sexual decision-making: age of first sexual intercourse, sexual initiation before age 16, and using a condom during the first and last sexual intercourse. Emotional connection between parents and children (feeling more love from the father: β=0.17, P =0.0312; feeling more love from the mother: β=0.3314, P =0.0420) and mothers' less permissive attitude toward adolescents' sexual experience in their teens (β=0.33, P =0.0466) are positively associated with late age of sexual initiation of adolescents living in two-parent households. School-level factors (β=0.07, P =0.0008) and the adolescents' characteristics (being older: 0.42, P =0.0002; heterosexuality: β=2.28, P =0.0091) are the factors most positively related to the age of sexual initiation for those living with a single parent. Immediate social determinants, other than family factors (such as land use of immediate area [rural]: β=9.84, P <0.0001; the condition of living unit: β=1.55, P =0.0011; and safety of neighborhood: β=4.46, P =0.004), are related to late age of sexual initiation among those living with other relatives/alone. A higher tendency of condom use consistency was present in adolescents living with two parents compared to those living in other family structures. Less parent/child connection and parent/family influence were found in African-American adolescents living with other relatives or alone, suggesting that living with two residential parents plays an essential role in their late sexual initiation and could account for an important element to combat high HIV incidence of
Work Ethic: Materialism and the American Family. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Aging, Family and Human Services of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session on Examination on the Impact of Stress on the Family Caused by the Workplace, Focusing on Dual Wage-Earning Parents and the Effects on Family Relationships, and the Nonworking Recipient of Public Assistance.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.
This congressional hearing contains testimony pertinent to the impact of stress on the American family caused by the workplace. Focus of the hearing is on dual wage-earning parents and the effects on family relationships as well as on non-working recipients of public assistance. The following agencies and organizations were among those represented…
Greenfield, Patricia M.; Quiroz, Blanca
We documented cross-cultural similarities and differences in values concerning personal achievement between Latino immigrant parents, a group of multiethnic teachers, and European American parents. We also explored intergenerational similarities and differences between parents and their fifth-grade children. The theoretical premise was that…
Full Text Available Cambodian American college students are often overlooked in academe because of the model minority myth. The stereotype overshadows the challenges and heterogeneity in the Asian American and Pacific Islander population. This exploratory study examined the experiences of 13 first-generation Cambodian American college students at a large, public institution in California. Findings revealed that, despite obstacles of being first-generation with limited cultural capital, students were transformed into successful leaners when they received validation from their parents and peers and felt a sense of belonging to the college community through their involvement in an ethnic-based student organization.
Panitz, Daniel R.; And Others
Discusses alcohol abuse among Hispanic males of Mexican and Puerto Rican origin and the cultural and familial factors which both enable alocholism and serve as tools in overcoming it. The positive ideals of machismo may be enlisted in family therapy through supportive rather than reconstructive therapies. (Author/JAC)
This report is a final assessment of the Community Advocacy & Service Engagement (CASE) project, a LYNX-FTA research project designed : to study transit education and public engagement methods in Central Florida. In the Orlando area, as in other part...
Know Violence in Childhood (KVIC) is a global learning and advocacy initiative to ... Among the activities are mapping and gap analysis of existing state-level ... in India, including heat stress, water management, and climate-related migration.
Smith, J. David
The issue of pediatric euthanasia for handicapped newborns is examined and contrasting viewpoints emphasizing the quality and the sanctity of life are considered. The author asserts that advocacy for handicapped children involves decisions regarding the euthanasia question. (CL)
by the Federal Ministry of Health for the prevention and control ... Diabetes in Nigeria; the advocacy; policy and ... local healthcare policies and plan of .... considering its strategic role and importance ... strategic approach of the Government of.
de Castro, A B; Levesque, Salem
The need and expectation for advocacy is central to public health nursing practice. Advocacy efforts that effectively call attention to population health threats and promote the well-being of communities rely on strategies that deliver influential messaging. The digital story is a lay method to capture meaningful, impactful stories that can be used to advocate for public health concerns. Readily available, user-friendly digital technologies allow engagement in digital media production to create digital stories. This paper describes how digital story making can be utilized as an academic assignment to teach public health advocacy within an undergraduate nursing curriculum. Providing nursing students this artistic outlet can facilitate meeting academic learning goals, while also equipping them with creative skills that can be applied in future professional practice. Nursing educators can take advantage of institutional resources and campus culture to support the use of novel digital media assignments that facilitate application of advocacy concepts. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hines, Ayelet; Jernigan, David H
There is a substantial gap in public health school curricula regarding advocacy. Development of such a curriculum faces three challenges: faculty lack advocacy skills and experience; the public health literature on effective advocacy is limited; and yet a successful curriculum must be scalable to meet the needs of approximately 9,000 public health students graduating each year. To meet these challenges, we propose a 100-hour interactive online curriculum in five sections: campaigning and organizing, policy making and lobbying, campaign communications, new media, and fund-raising. We outline the content for individual modules in each of these sections, describe how the curriculum would build on existing interactive learning and social media technologies, and provide readers the opportunity to "test-drive" excerpts of a module on "grasstops" organizing. Developing advocacy skills and expertise is critical to meeting the challenges of public health today, and we provide a blueprint for how such training might be brought to scale in the field.
Condit, Celeste Michelle
Examines the journalistic analysis of the 1988 Presidential Debates from a feminist perspective in order to identify the revisions needed in the debate process. Provides historical background of feminized power and adversarial advocacy. (MM)
Dec 8, 2016 ... ... to reform discriminatory family laws in 11 countries (Brazil, Egypt, India, Iran, ... These laws determine a woman's right to marry, travel, hold a job, ... by WLP through advocacy, trainings, and public awareness campaigns.
Cogan, Alison M
More than 2 million U.S. military servicemembers have deployed to Afghanistan or Iraq since September 11, 2001. Unlike during prior conflicts, many servicemembers leave spouses and children behind. Long, multiple deployments cause strain on family at home, with new challenges arising when servicemembers return from combat and reintegrate into family and civilian life. In World Wars I and II, occupational therapy practitioners played a significant role in supporting servicemember reintegration. However, their presence in program delivery in this practice area is limited. Occupational therapy researchers and practitioners can make a valuable contribution by helping families tailor daily activities and routines to address challenges and optimize health and wellness. However, barriers such as reimbursement for services, workforce availability, and access to military families have limited the profession's full engagement. Advocacy is needed to help establish occupational therapy as a key component of the mental and preventive health care teams serving military servicemembers. Copyright © 2014 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Aoyagi, Keiko; Santos, Carlos E; Updegraff, Kimberly A
Gender identity felt pressure is negatively associated with adjustment indices, including self-esteem, among children and early adolescents, and both gender and ethnic-racial identity felt pressure are negatively associated with self-esteem among young adults. This study explored the longitudinal associations between gender identity and ethnic-racial identity felt pressure from family and peers to behave in either gender or race/ethnic-accordant ways, and self-esteem among a sample of 750 (49.2% female) African American (n = 194) and Latino/a youth (n = 556) (M = 12.10 years, SD = .97 years). For African Americans, the results revealed significant negative longitudinal associations between (a) ethnic-racial identity felt pressure from family at Time 1 and self-esteem at Time 2 and (b) ethnic-racial identity felt pressure from peers at Time 1 and self-esteem at Time 2, controlling for self-esteem at Time 1. These associations were not found among Latinos/as, nor were associations found between gender identity felt pressure from peers or family and self-esteem. The findings are discussed by drawing on the gender identity and ethnic-racial identity literatures.
Pinelli, Nicole R; Brown, Morton B; Herman, William H; Jaber, Linda A
We have recently shown the feasibility of a community-based, culturally-specific, Diabetes Prevention Program-adapted, goal-oriented group lifestyle intervention targeting weight loss in Arab Americans. The objective of this study was to examine factors associated with weight-loss goal attainment at 24-weeks of the lifestyle intervention. We assessed the relationship among demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral measures and the attainment of > or =7% decrease of initial body weight among 71 lifestyle intervention participants. Weight loss goal of > or = 7% of body weight was achieved by 44% of study participants. Demographic and psychosocial factors were not associated with weight loss. Individuals attaining the weight loss goal were more likely to have family support during the core curriculum sessions (70% vs 30%; P=.0023). Decrease in body weight was positively correlated with attendance at sessions (r=.46; P=.0016) and physical activity minutes (r=.66; Pwomen; these trends were similar but not significant in men. Family support was an important predictor of attainment of the weight loss goal. Family-centered lifestyle interventions are likely to succeed in curtailing the rising epidemic of diabetes in the Arab-American Community.
Current Population Reports, 1990
The two papers in this report focus on some of the social, demographic, and economic consequences of the increasing entry of women into the workforce. Arthur Norton and Louisa Miller in "The Family Life Cycle: 1985" show trends in the frequency and timing of marriage, divorce, remarriage, and fertility across several generations of…
Haagsma, EB; Hawkins, PN; Benson, MD; Lachmann, HJ; Bybee, A; Hazenberg, BPC
Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with more than 80 different transthyretin (TTR) mutations. The clinical features of FAP are broad and variable, but knowledge of the pattern and natural history of disease associated with particular mutations
Parke, Sara; Illes, Judy
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a major focus for stem cell therapy (SCT). However, the science of SCT has not been well matched with an understanding of perspectives of persons with SCI. The online advocacy community is a key source of health information for primary stakeholders and their caregivers. In this study, we sought to characterize the content of SCI advocacy websites with respect to their discussion of SCT and stem cell tourism. We performed a comprehensive analysis of SCI advocacy websites identified through a web search and verified by expert opinion. Two independent researchers coded the information for major themes (e.g., scientific & clinical facts, research & funding, policy, ethics) and valence (positive, negative, balanced, neutral). Of the 40 SCI advocacy websites that met inclusion criteria, 50% (N=20) contained information about SCT. Less than 18% (N=7) contained information on stem cell tourism. There were more than ten times as many statements about SCT with a positive valence (N=67) as with a negative valence (N=6). Ethics-related SCT information comprised 20% (N=37) of the total content; the largest proportion of ethics-related content was devoted to stem cell tourism (80%, N=30 statements). Of those, the majority focused on the risks of stem cell tourism (N=16). Given the still-developing science behind SCT, the presence of cautionary information about stem cell tourism at advocacy sites is ethically appropriate. The absence of stem cell tourism information at the majority of advocacy sites represents a lost educational opportunity.
Full Text Available While the role of type 2 diabetes (T2D in inducing endothelial dysfunction is fairly well-established the etiological role of endothelial dysfunction in the onset of T2D is still a matter of debate. In the light of conflicting evidence in this regard, we conducted a prospective study to determine the association of circulating levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1 and soluble vessel cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1 with incident T2D.Data from this study came from 1,269 Mexican Americans of whom 821 initially T2D-free individuals were longitudinally followed up in the San Antonio Family Heart Study. These individuals were followed for 9752.95 person-years for development of T2D. Prospective association of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 with incident T2D was studied using Kaplan-Meier survival plots and mixed effects Cox proportional hazards modeling to account for relatedness among study participants. Incremental value of adhesion molecule biomarkers was studied using integrated discrimination improvement (IDI and net reclassification improvement (NRI indexes.Decreasing median values for serum concentrations of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were observed in the following groups in this order: individuals with T2D at baseline, individuals who developed T2D during follow-up, individuals with prediabetes at baseline and normal glucose tolerant (NGT individuals who remained T2D-free during follow-up. Top quartiles for sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were strongly and significantly associated with homeostatic model of assessment--insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. Mixed effects Cox proportional hazards modeling revealed that after correcting for important clinical confounders, high sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 concentrations were associated with 2.52 and 1.99 times faster progression to T2D as compared to low concentrations, respectively. Individuals with high concentrations for both sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 progressed to T2D 3.42 times faster than those with low values for both
Thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and depression among asian americans: A longitudinal study of interpersonal shame as a mediator and perfectionistic family discrepancy as a moderator.
Carrera, Stephanie G; Wei, Meifen
This short-term longitudinal study applied Joiner's (2005) Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide to Asian Americans' experiences with depression. Interpersonal shame (i.e., the experience of inadequacy arising from interpersonal concerns) was hypothesized to mediate the effects of (a) thwarted belongingness and (b) perceived burdensomeness on future depression. Furthermore, the positive associations between (a) thwarted belongingness and (b) perceived burdensomeness on future depression were hypothesized to vary depending on students' experiences with perfectionistic family discrepancy (PFD; their perceived gap between their actual performance and what their parents expect of them). A total of 605 Asian Americans attending predominantly White, Midwestern universities completed 3 online surveys. Conditional process modeling via Hayes's (2013) PROCESS was used to analyze the data. Results demonstrated that (a) thwarted belongingness and (b) perceived burdensomeness contributed to higher interpersonal shame, which influenced students' future depression. Furthermore, the effect of thwarted belongingness on future depression was significantly positive for those with PFD levels greater than the 12th percentile, after taking into account students' initial level of depression. The effect of perceived burdensomeness on future depression was not significant for those with PFD levels greater than the 3.5th percentile. This study identified that students with perfectionistic family discrepancy may be at higher risk for depression while experiencing thwarted belongingness. Overall, findings supported using Joiner's (2005) theory to understand Asian American students' risk for future depression. Future studies may gather data across Asian American students' years in college. Counselors can apply these findings to increase students' awareness about possible risk factors for depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Kogan, Steven M; Lei, Man-Kit; Grange, Christina R; Simons, Ronald L; Brody, Gene H; Gibbons, Frederick X; Chen, Yi-Fu
Accumulating evidence suggests that African American men and women experience unique challenges in developing and maintaining stable, satisfying romantic relationships. Extant studies have linked relationship quality among African American couples to contemporaneous risk factors such as economic hardship and racial discrimination. Little research, however, has examined the contextual and intrapersonal processes in late childhood and adolescence that influence romantic relationship health among African American adults. We investigated competence-promoting parenting practices and exposure to community-related stressors in late childhood, and negative relational schemas in adolescence, as predictors of young adult romantic relationship health. Participants were 318 African American young adults (59.4% female) who had provided data at four time points from ages 10-22 years. Structural equation modeling indicated that exposure to community-related stressors and low levels of competence-promoting parenting contributed to negative relational schemas, which were proximal predictors of young adult relationship health. Relational schemas mediated the associations of competence-promoting parenting practices and exposure to community stressors in late childhood with romantic relationship health during young adulthood. Results suggest that enhancing caregiving practices, limiting youths' exposure to community stressors, and modifying relational schemas are important processes to be targeted for interventions designed to enhance African American adults' romantic relationships.
Kogan, Steven M.; Lei, Man-Kit; Grange, Christina R.; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Chen, Yifu
Accumulating evidence suggests that African American men and women experience unique challenges in developing and maintaining stable, satisfying romantic relationships. Extant studies have linked relationship quality among African American couples to contemporaneous risk factors such as economic hardship and racial discrimination. Little research, however, has examined the contextual and intrapersonal processes in late childhood and adolescence that influence romantic relationship health among African American adults. We investigated competence-promoting parenting practices and exposure to community-related stressors in late childhood, and negative relational schemas in adolescence, as predictors of young adult romantic relationship health. Participants were 318 African American young adults (59.4% female) who had provided data at four time points from ages 10–22 years. Structural equation modeling indicated that exposure to community-related stressors and low levels of competence-promoting parenting contributed to negative relational schemas, which were proximal predictors of young adult relationship health. Relational schemas mediated the associations of competence-promoting parenting practices and exposure to community stressors in late childhood with romantic relationship health during young adulthood. Results suggest that enhancing caregiving practices, limiting youths’ exposure to community stressors, and modifying relational schemas are important processes to be targeted for interventions designed to enhance African American adults’ romantic relationships. PMID:23494451
Valdimarsdottir, Heiddie; Bovbjerg, Dana
... to their fatalistic attitudes towards the disease. The proposed study will examine the impact of an expressive writing intervention on emotional, biological, and cognitive processes among women of African descent at familial breast cancer risk...
Valdimarsdottir, Heiddie; Bovbjerg, Dana
Women at familial breast cancer risk have highly inflated perceptions of their risk of developing the disease, high levels of cancer specific distress, and lower levels of natural killer cell activity (NKCA...
Women at familial breast cancer risk have highly inflated perceptions of their risk of developing the disease high levels of cancer-specific distress and lower levels of natural killer cell activity (NKCA...
Nieri, Tanya; Grindal, Matthew; Adams, Michele A.; Cookston, Jeffrey T.; Fabricius, William V.; Parke, Ross D.; Saenz, Delia S.
Using a sample of 193 Mexican American adolescents (M age at Wave 1 = 14) and three waves of data over two years, this study longitudinally examined the effects of parent-youth acculturation differences, relative to no differences, on parent-adolescent relationship quality and youth problem behavior. We examined parent-youth differences in overall acculturation, Mexican acculturation, and American acculturation. We differentiated between cases in which the adolescent was more acculturated than the parent and cases in which the parent was more acculturated than the adolescent. Adolescents were more commonly similar to their parents than different. Where differences existed, adolescents were not uniformly more American than their parents, no type of difference was associated with parent-adolescent relationship quality, and no type of difference in overall acculturation was associated with youth problem behavior. One type of difference by dimension (adolescent had less Mexican acculturation than mother) was associated with less risk of problem behavior. PMID:27695153
Tsoh, Janice Y; Burke, Nancy J; Gildengorin, Ginny; Wong, Ching; Le, Khanh; Nguyen, Anthony; Chan, Joanne L; Sun, Angela; McPhee, Stephen J; Nguyen, Tung T
Smoking prevalence is high among limited English-proficient Chinese and Vietnamese American men, who are frequently unmotivated to quit and who underutilize smoking cessation resources. This study applied lay health worker outreach to leverage peer and family networks to promote smoking cessation among these men. We integrated qualitative formative research findings and Social Network Theory to develop a social-network family-focused intervention. In a pilot single-group trial, 15 lay health workers recruited 96 dyads (N = 192, 75% Vietnamese) of Chinese or Vietnamese male daily smokers and their family members and delivered the intervention consisting of two small group education sessions and two individual telephone calls over 2 months. At baseline, 42% of smokers were at precontemplation. At 3 months following the initiation of the intervention, 7-day and 30-day point prevalence smoking abstinence rates as reported by smokers and independently corroborated by family members were 30% and 24%, respectively. Utilization of smoking cessation resources (medication, quitline, physician's advice) increased from 2% to 60% (P Vietnamese smokers appears to be acceptable, feasible, and potentially efficacious. Findings warrant evaluation of long-term efficacy of the intervention in a larger scale randomized controlled trial. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available ... families advocacy about civil rights kids' rights sample school policies school letter someone you know has hbv/hcv ask the advice nurse ask the experts back-to-school health clinical trials disclosing to kids estate planning ...
Full Text Available ... families advocacy about civil rights kids' rights sample school policies school letter someone you know has hbv/hcv ask the advice nurse ask the experts back-to-school health clinical trials disclosing to kids estate planning ...
Gail Wells; Keith Aubry
The red fox is one of the most widespread and adaptable mammals on Earth. In the American West, however, there are populations of native red foxes that occur only in alpine and subalpine habitats, which may be at risk from human-caused and natural pressures. One potential threat is global climate change, which is likely to reduce both the amount and connectivity of...
Walker, Joan M. T.
Grounded in Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler's parent involvement process model, the Realizing the American Dream (RAD) parent education program targets Latino parents' involvement beliefs and knowledge to enhance their involvement behaviors. Comparison of more than 2,000 parents' self-reported beliefs, knowledge, and behavior before and after RAD…
Lopez, Edward M.
A survey of 100 Mexican American undergraduate students assessed their perceptions of five challenges (and associated resources) to completing college: financial problems, domestic responsibilities, academic discouragement, and racial and gender discrimination. There were no differences between upper- and lower-division students. Males were more…
Wood, Dana; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Okeke-Adeyanju, Ndidi
The role of African American mothers' academic gender stereotype endorsement in shaping achievement-related expectations for and perceptions of their own children was examined. Mothers (N = 334) of 7th and 8th graders completed measures of expectations for their children's future educational attainment, perceptions of their children's academic…
Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Briggs, Rahil D.; McClowry, Sandra G.; Snow, David L.
This study examined relationships between mother-child interactions and children's behaviors in 119 urban African American mothers and their 6-7 year old children. Interactions during a cooking task and a follow-up child clean-up task were videotaped. Principal components analyses of behaviors during the cooking task yielded two factors in mothers…
Rendall, Michael; Aracil, Encarnacion; Bagavos, Christos; Couet, Christine; DeRose, Alessandra; DiGiulio, Paola; Lappegard, Trude; Robert-Bobée, Isabelle; Rønsen, Marit; Smallwood, Steve; Verropoulou, Georgia
Family-policy regimes unfavourable to combining employment with motherhood have been claimed to increase socio-economic differentials in fertility as combining employment and motherhood has become more normative. This claim has to date been explored mainly in reference to ‘liberal’ Anglo-American regimes. Comparing education differentials in age at first birth among native-born women of 1950s and 1960s birth cohorts in seven countries representing three regime types, we find persistence in early first births among low-educated women not only in Britain and the United States but also in Greece, Italy, and Spain. Shifts towards later first births, however, were more extreme in Southern Europe and involved to some extent women at all education levels. The educationally-heterogeneous changes in age patterns of first births seen in the Southern European and Anglo-American family-policy regimes contrast with educationally-homogeneous changes across birth cohorts seen in the study’s two ‘universalistic’ countries, Norway and France. PMID:20954097
Saint Onge, Jarron M; Cepeda, Alice; Lee King, Patricia A; Valdez, Avelardo
We used an intersectional minority stress perspective to examine the association between family/cultural stress and mental health among substance-using Mexican-Americans. Employing a unique longitudinal sample of 239 socioeconomically disadvantaged, non-injecting heroin-using Mexican-Americans from San Antonio, Texas, we examined how culturally relevant stressors are related to depression and suicidal ideation. First, we identified depression and suicidal ideation prevalence rates for this disadvantaged sample. Second, we determined how cultural stress is experienced over time using stress trajectories. Third, we evaluated how family/cultural stressors and stress trajectories are related to depression and suicidal ideation outcomes. Results showed high rates of baseline depression (24 %) and suicidal ideation (30 %). We used latent class growth analysis to identify three primary stress trajectories (stable, high but decreasing, and increasing) over three time points during 1 year. We found that the increasing stressors trajectory was associated with higher rates of depression and suicidal ideation, and that stress trajectories had unique relationships with mental illness. We also showed that baseline stressors, sum stressors, and high but decreasing stressors maintained positive associations with mental illness after controlling for baseline depression. Our results highlight the importance of focusing on within-group, culturally specific stressors and addressing both operant and cumulative stressors in the study of mental health for marginalized populations and suggest the importance of early intervention in minimizing stressors.
Gurbuz, F; Desai, S; Diao, F; Turkkahraman, D; Wranitz, F; Wood-Trageser, M; Shin, Y-H; Kotan, L D; Jiang, H; Witchel, S; Gurtunca, N; Yatsenko, S; Mysliwec, D; Topaloglu, K; Rajkovic, A
Loss-of-function DCAF17 variants cause hypogonadism, partial alopecia, diabetes mellitus, mental retardation, and deafness with variable clinical presentation. DCAF17 pathogenic variants have been largely reported in the Middle Eastern populations, but the incidence in American families is rare and animal models are lacking. Exome sequencing in 5 women with syndromic hypergonadotropic hypogonadism from 2 unrelated families revealed novel pathogenic variants in the DCAF17 gene. DCAF17 exon 2 (c.127-1G > C) novel homozygous variants were discovered in 4 Turkish siblings, while 1 American was compound heterozygous for 1-stop gain variant in exon 5 (c.C535T; p.Gln179*) and previously described stop gain variant in exon 9 (c.G906A; p.Trp302*). A mouse model mimicking loss of function in exon 2 of Dcaf17 was generated using CRISPR/Cas9 and showed female subfertility and male infertility. Our results identify 2 novel variants, and show that Dcaf17 plays a significant role in mammalian gonadal development and infertility. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.
The developmental science literature is riven with respect to (a) parental similar versus different treatment of siblings and (b) sibling similarities and differences. Most methodologies in the field are flawed or confounded. To address these issues, this study employed a within-family longitudinal design to examine developmental processes of…
Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Sexton, Holly R.; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Sameroff, Arnold J.
This study examined whether the longitudinal links between mothers' use of spanking and children's externalizing behaviors are moderated by family race/ethnicity, as would be predicted by cultural normativeness theory, once mean differences in frequency of use are controlled. A nationally representative sample of White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian…
Linsk, Nathan; Mason, Sally; Fendrich, Michael; Bass, Michael; Prubhughate, Priti; Brown, Allene
Grandparents and other relatives increasingly assume the role of primary caregiver to minor children. This study interviewed family members caring for children whose parents were not available due to parental incarceration, other involvement in the criminal justice system, and substance abuse-related issues. Interviews with 25 African American…
... and Families Association (NAFFA) in Mesa, AZ to conduct a national outreach campaign focused on promoting the importance of fatherhood in Native communities. Included in the national outreach campaign... Strategies. DATES: The award will be issued for the time period of September 30, 2012 to September 29, 2013...
Phillips, Linda R; Crist, Janice
Sometimes, clinicians assume caregivers in cultural groups believed to have large social networks and strong social support need little intervention from health professionals. This longitudinal study tests five hypotheses about the social relationships of Mexican American compared to non-Hispanic White caregivers and whether negative changes in social support affect perceived health. The sample includes 66 Mexican American and 92 non-Hispanic White caregivers. Findings show that social networks and social support are similar at baseline and similarly stable for 1 year. Negative changes in social support are correlated with poorer health perceptions. Findings underscore the importance of designing interventions that are culturally competent based on what the caregiver is experiencing rather than cultural stereotypes.
Wood, Dana; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Okeke-Adeyanju, Ndidi; Rowley, Stephanie J.
The role of African American mothers’ academic gender stereotype endorsement in shaping achievement-related expectations for and perceptions of their own children was examined. Mothers (N = 334) of 7th and 8th graders completed measures of expectations for their children’s future educational attainment, perceptions of their children’s academic competence, and academic gender stereotypes. Consistent with hypotheses, mothers held less favorable expectations for sons and perceived sons to be less academically competent than daughters. In addition, mothers reported stereotypes favoring girls over boys in academic domains; stereotype endorsement, in turn, was related to mothers’ educational expectations for and beliefs about the academic competence of their own children, even with youths’ actual achievement controlled. Negative stereotypes about the academic abilities of African American boys may create a negative feedback loop, thereby contributing to the maintenance of the gender gap in African Americans’ educational outcomes. PMID:20648228
Huffman, Lauren E; Wilson, Dawn K; Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather; Lyerly, Jordan E; Gause, Haylee M; Resnicow, Ken
Culturally relevant recruitment strategies may be an important approach for recruiting ethnic minorities for interventions. Previous research has examined associations between recruitment strategies and enrollment of African Americans (AA), but has not explored more deeply the role of incorporating sociocultural values into recruitment strategies. Our current study explores whether sociocultural recruitment mediums were associated with demographics, interest and enrollment in a weight-loss intervention. Sociocultural mediums included community partnerships, culturally relevant ads, sociocultural events, or word-of-mouth. Non-sociocultural mediums included community/school events that did not specifically target AAs. Analyses examined whether demographics of enrolled families differed by recruitment strategy and if recruitment strategy predicted scheduling a baseline visit, enrolling in a run-in phase, and enrolling in the intervention program. Families recruited from culturally relevant ads, sociocultural events, or word-of-mouth were 1.96 times more likely to schedule a baseline visit (OR=1.96, 95% CI=1.05, 3.68) than families recruited from non-sociocultural mediums. No differences were found for sociocultural mediums on enrolling in the run-in phase or the intervention. However, among enrolled families, those recruited from sociocultural mediums were less likely to be employed (X(2) [1, N=142] =5.53, P<.05) and more likely to have lower income (X(2) [1, N=142] =13.57, P<.05). Sociocultural mediums were associated with scheduling a baseline visit, but not enrollment. They were, however, effective in recruiting a more generalizable sample among enrolled participants based on demographic characteristics. Integrating sociocultural values into recruitment methods may be a valuable strategy for increasing interest in participation among underrepresented AA families.
Pinder, Patrice J.
Ogbu and Simons (1998) defined voluntary immigrants as individuals who chose to migrate to the United States (U.S.). Involuntary immigrants are defined as individuals whose ancestors were brought to the U.S. by force (Obgu & Simons, 1998). There have been recent reports indicating that voluntary immigrants are outperforming involuntary immigrants (Fisher, 2005; Williams, Fleming, Jones, & Griffin, 2007). There seems to be a trend in voluntary immigrants exhibiting a higher academic achievement pattern than involuntary immigrants (Fisher, 2005; Rong & Preissle, 1998; Williams et al., 2007). However, the reason for the groups' differences in achievement has not been extensively explored. The primary objective of this research study was to explore the impact of family background on the academic achievement patterns of Afro-Caribbean and African American students in the United States. The study utilized two research designs; a causal-comparative and a correlational design. A questionnaire was distributed to a sample of eighty-seven high school students. Eighteen of the participants were Afro-Caribbean students, and sixty-seven were African American students. Chemistry test scores for the students were also provided. The results of the study indicated that Afro-Caribbean students outperformed African American students on the test of science achievement. The difference was statistically significant (t= 2.43, pstudents' family backgrounds. Moreover, the findings of this study suggest that the positive impact of arrival status on the first-generation of Afro-Caribbean immigrants may be influencing their children's academic success in science. The present study holds a few implications for parents and teachers of immigrant minority students. Additionally, the current researcher has offered several implications for future research on ethnicity, immigration pattern, parenting, and achievement.
Nair, Rajni L; White, Rebecca M B; Roosa, Mark W; Zeiders, Katharine H
Studies of stress consistently have linked individuals' experiences of stress to maladjustment, but limited attention has been given to cultural stressors commonly experienced by minority individuals. To address this, the current study examined the links between cultural stressors and prospective changes in mental health symptoms in a sample of 710 (49 % female) Mexican American youth. In addition, the moderating role of both family and neighborhood cohesion was examined. In-home interviews were completed with youth, mothers (required) and fathers (optional) to collect data on youth's experiences of cultural stressors (discrimination and language hassles) and internalizing/externalizing behavior, and mothers' report of family cohesion and mothers' and fathers' report of neighborhood cohesion. Analyses revealed that youth's experiences of discrimination and language hassles at 5th grade were related positively to increases in internalizing symptoms at 7th grade. Additionally, youths who reported higher levels of language hassles in 5th grade experienced increases in externalizing symptoms across the 2-year span. Both family and neighborhood cohesion emerged as significant moderating factors but their impact was conditional on youth's gender and nativity. Limitations and future implications are discussed.
Carvalho, Ana; Van Roy, Rebecca; Andrus, Jon
Dengue vaccine introduction will likely occur soon. However, little has been published on international dengue vaccine communication and advocacy. More effort at the international level is required to review, unify and strategically disseminate dengue vaccine knowledge to endemic countries' decision makers and potential donors. Waiting to plan for the introduction of new vaccines until licensure may delay access in developing countries. Concerted efforts to communicate and advocate for vaccines prior to licensure are likely challenged by unknowns of the use of dengue vaccines and the disease, including uncertainties of vaccine impact, vaccine access and dengue's complex pathogenesis and epidemiology. Nevertheless, the international community has the opportunity to apply previous best practices for vaccine communication and advocacy. The following key strategies will strengthen international dengue vaccine communication and advocacy: consolidating existing coalitions under one strategic umbrella, urgently convening stakeholders to formulate the roadmap for integrated dengue prevention and control, and improving the dissemination of dengue scientific knowledge.
Best, Rachel Kahn
In the past fifty years, disease advocacy organizations have multiplied and gained political influence, but they have often been reluctant to ask the government to intervene in health care provision. This article asks why. Using original quantitative and qualitative data on the goals and political claims of over one thousand organizations from 1960 through 2014, I find that many early disease advocacy organizations prioritized health care access. But unfavorable political climates discouraged new organizations from focusing on access to treatment. When health care became particularly controversial, even organizations with health care-related missions refrained from pursuing this goal politically. Eventually, politically active organizations began to drop treatment provision from their missions. Over the decades, the troubled politics of health care reshaped the field of disease advocacy, diminishing its focus on medical treatment. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.
Nurses have historically played a key role in advocacy and service for all members of the community, including those who are traditionally underserved by other providers or the health system. Nurses from a local Atlanta community health system, both clinical and administrative, have continued this tradition by developing an advocacy and service program for the downtown homeless of Atlanta. From its beginnings as a highly informal volunteer program to its current structure as a strongly integrated community health center for the underserved and homeless of Atlanta, local nurses have demonstrated their strong value of service advocacy. Their leadership, insight, discipline, and strategic development have facilitated the growth of a focused, viable health service network for marginalized people of the city of Atlanta.
Advocacy organisations have traditionally played a prominent role in shaping corporate social responsibility (CSR) management and reporting practices through organisational-level and institutional-level engagement. Recent years have seen advocacy organisations expand the nature and content of their