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Sample records for american democracies rethinking

  1. Delusions of Liberty: Rethinking Democracy Promotion in American Grand Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    scenarios in which cooperating with autocratic regimes serve American 2 The White House, (2015...individual leaders for removal but leave the underlying political institutions of a regime intact, democratization is unlikely to occur, even if conditions...within autocratic regimes located in the Middle East (where America has already experimented with democracy promotion within a formerly autocratic

  2. Civic Innovation & American Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirianni, Carmen; Friedland, Lewis

    1997-01-01

    Argues that American democracy is at a critical stage of development, with declining trust in government, citizens feeling displaced by a professional political class, derailed public interest, and policy that limits citizen deliberation and responsibility. Some instances of civic innovation, community organization, civic journalism, and efforts…

  3. Teaching about American Federal Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Stephen L., Ed.

    Ten essays discuss federal democracy, the form of government of the United States. The first essay discusses the origins of American federalism. The second examines why we have a federal system, the functions federalism serves, and the consequences of federalism for the American political system. Federalism in the Constitution and constitutional…

  4. RETHINKING LIBERAL DEMOCRACY: PRELUDE TO TOTALITARIANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel David

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the long course of human evolution and political experimentation, liberal democracy, especially after the events of 1989, has come to be seen as the best political system. In fact, we seemed to have reached the only system compatible with liberty, after the dreadful experiences of Communist and Nazi totalitarianism, and its twin in the economic realm - capitalism. But is liberalism really conducive to freedom? I argue that evil – or totalitarianism – arises from the combination of both the Platonic and Augustinian views: ignorance of values and the pursuit of one’s egotistic desires. Evil has an essentially private nature. In this sense, totalitarianism may arise from a utilitarian culture that sees people – or some forms of knowledge – as worthless and disposable objects.

  5. Rethinking Democracy: an Interview with Zygmunt Bauman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Ordóñez Roig

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 0 0 1 91 503 UNIVERSIDAD JAUME I 4 1 593 14.0 Normal 0 21 false false false ES-TRAD JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Zygmunt Bauman, professor of Sociology at the University of Leeds and, since 1990, emeritus professor, has developed key concepts for the understanding of fundamental issues of today’s world, such as liquid modernity, time, space and disorder, individualism versus community, globalization and consumer’s culture, love and identity, etc. His analyses of the links between modernity, Holocaust, democracy and social politics were the principal subject of the following interview, which was conducted by Vicente Ordóñez and Vicent Sanz on the occasion of Zygmunt Bauman’s recent visit to Spain. 

  6. Rethinking democracy and representation: a proposal to extend the democratic canon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Monsiváis Carrillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rethinking political representation is necessary to understand many contemporary democratic challenges. However, a widely accepted view states that democracy and representation are two irreconcilable principles, thus hindering the theoretical assessment of political representation's democratic relevance. According to this view, what democracy needs is more popular participation; instead, representation involves elitism and political detachment. In this paper I will argue that such a view is inaccurate. Through the reconstruction of the democratic ideal, and the discussion of the concept of political representation, I intend to show that processes of political authorization, accountability and public justification are both elements of political representation and expression of democratic politics.

  7. Redeeming American democracy in Sayonara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Seguro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Affection is perceived as something natural, pre-existing Culture and, therefore, free form discursive constructions. However, insofar as reality is mediated, if not given existence by language, human relationships are inevitably fashioned by narratives. Romance fictions and in particular heterosexual, interracial love stories have been used in U.S. popular culture as a means of promoting American democratic values of racial harmony at home and abroad. This will be exemplified by analyzing James A. Michener’s 1953 novel Sayonara together with Joshua Logan’s 1957 film adaptation.

  8. Rethinking immigration policy theory beyond 'Western liberal democracies'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natter, Katharina

    2018-01-01

    How do political systems shape immigration policy-making? Explicitly or implicitly, comparative politics and migration policy theories suggest a 'regime effect' that links specific dynamics of immigration policy to liberal democracy. The literature's dominant focus on so-called 'Western liberal democracies', however, has left the 'regime effect' largely untested and research on variations and similarities in immigration policymaking across political systems strikingly undertheorized. This paper challenges the theoretical usefulness of essentialist, dichotomous categories such as Western/non-Western or democratic/autocratic and calls for a more nuanced theorizing of immigration policy-making. It proposes a two-dimensional classification of immigration policy theories, distinguishing between 'issue-specific' theories that capture immigration policy processes regardless of the political system in place and 'regime-specific' theories whose insights are tied to the characteristics of a political system. The paper also advances the 'illiberal paradox' hypothesis to explain why illiberal, autocratic states may enact liberal immigration policies. This theoretical expansion beyond the 'Western' and 'liberal' bubble is illustrated by an analysis of immigration policy-making in 21st century Morocco and Tunisia. Showing how domestic and international institutions, interests, and ideas shape immigration policy-making in Morocco's monarchy and Tunisia's democratic transition, the paper investigates the broader role of political systems in immigration politics and herewith seeks to contribute to a more general and global theorization of immigration policies.

  9. The American Dream, Democracy, and Participatory Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, George H.

    1983-01-01

    America has moved from participatory democracy to protective democracy, with political elites making the decisions. The result has been a culturally disenfranchised people abandoning the political system which does not want them. Calls for a return to participatory democracy and citizenship education programs which foster it. (CS)

  10. Democracy, Support for Democracy and Corruption. A Longitudinal Study of Latin American Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Grassi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although often unable to satisfactorily solve the problem, democracy (especially enduring democracy is commonly believed to reduce corruption. Yet, both Transparency International and the World Bank continue to attach a high risk of corruption to Latin American countries: corruption and impunity remain prevalent in the area, despite consolidating democratic regimes and recent anticorruption reforms. Using level of democracy and its endurance, as well as information on the perceptions of democratic performance and corruption obtained from the Latinobarometro, we analyzed a panel data covering the period 2005-2010 in 14 Latin American countries. Our main results show that levels of democracy and citizens' assessment of government fairness have a positive impact on corruption. However, satisfaction towards democracy has the opposite effect: when citizens believed democratic governments and public administrations to be efficient, they also perceived that gains against corruption had significantly decreased.

  11. Latin American Security, Drugs and Democracy (LASDD) Fellowship ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Latin American Security, Drugs and Democracy (LASDD) Fellowship Program ... with drug trafficking and the growth of transnational organized crime in LAC. ... Call for proposals: Innovations for the economic inclusion of marginalized youth.

  12. Academic and Career Development: Rethinking Advising for Asian American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Corinne M.; Huynh, Jill

    2017-01-01

    Academic and career development for Asian American students is complicated by cultural influences, interdependence with family, and racial stereotyping. This chapter highlights research, theory, and practice to help educators rethink traditional advising approaches to more appropriately work with Asian American students as they navigate their…

  13. Latin American intra-party democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Adrián Martínez Hernández

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Research proposes to determine the level of internal democracy of political parties in Latin America from perception of its members, allowing the creation of an index that has parameters for the measurement and comparison of the parties according to its democratic features. At the same time, research supports designing a profile of the parties by subjecting to analysis the relationship between ideology and internal democracy, stressing that despite the differences between left and right, parties in Latin America do not have dichotomous democratic features, while maintaining low levels despite their ideological location.

  14. South American Youth : Regional Democracy-Building Dialogue ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will undertake a comparative analysis of South American youth in the Mercosur countries (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay) and their perception of rights, democracy and regional integration. Researchers will examine the meaning that young people, adults and mediators of youth demands attribute to ...

  15. Saving American democracy: the lessons of Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    The author's experience of serving with a presidential commission investigating the Three Mile Island nuclear accident leads to an observation that the only way to save American democracy is to change the fundamental decision-making process, at the Federal level, so that it can come to grips with the enormous and complex issues that face this nation

  16. Re-Thinking Normative Democracy and the Political Economy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    Normative thinking around democracy often emphasizes the supremacy of electoral politics, underplaying the salience of education as a defining feature to produce a more meaningful, engaged, inclusive form of democracy. Critical pedagogy can be an extremely useful, illuminating and transformative means and process of deconstructing how democracy is…

  17. Re-Thinking Dewey's Democracy: Shifting from a Process of Participation to an Institution of Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Lynda

    2016-01-01

    Dewey's definition of democracy from "Democracy and Education" (1916) is analysed and rethought through a path exploring a shift from a conception of participation as a process to one of association as an institution. Contributions to this pathway among others come from political philosophy and educational philosophy. The rationale for…

  18. RETHINKING DEMOCRACY (reflections on John Dunn’s “Breaking democracy’s spell”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Kanevskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes a book “Breaking democracy’s spell”, the last work by John Dunn, world famous political scientist from Cambridge. Current discourse on democracy and tendencies of its development is seen through the lens of this book and John Dunn’s political thought. It is hard to question the fact that democracy is still one of the mightiest political symbols, although its core meaning still poses a lot of questions. Democracy is an unstable variable, which changes through time being influenced by multiple factors. This is why, before trying to understand where democracy’s mimicries are leading us, Dunn proposes to look closer at how it became a category which is so essential for legitimizing contemporary regimes. Is our understanding of democracy the same as it was 100, 50 or even 20 years ago? What determines the dynamics of democracy as a symbol of public power? Does democracy help nations in their quest for well being and effective government? Dunn’s work is not just an original analyses of democracy in political, sociological and historical perspectives, it is also a challenge to provoke a discussion on democracies failures both in developed and developing world. Dunn’s work divided scientific community on those who saw warning signs to democracy and those who considered author to be unjustified pessimist. In reality, Dunn’s work doesn’t give simple explanations because in relatively small text he managed to put complex set of questions, which can’t answered unequivocally. Author himself recognizes that he had to use absolutely new style to convey his thoughts. This article is an attempt to interpret Dunn’s ideas and react to his call to start a discussion on contents and perceptions of democracy which he sent to a political science community. This discourse is particularly important today for Russia where democracy not only encounters institutional difficulties and misunderstood by majority of the citizens

  19. 78 FR 18455 - Greek Independence Day: A National Day of Celebration of Greek and American Democracy, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... celebrates Greek Independence Day to strengthen the bonds between the birthplace of democracy and the world's... National Day of Celebration of Greek and American Democracy. I call upon the people of the United States to...

  20. Rethinking Populism: Peak democracy, liquid identity and the performance of sovereignty

    OpenAIRE

    Blühdorn, Ingolfur; Butzlaff, Felix

    2018-01-01

    Despite the burgeoning literature on right-wing populism, there is still considerable uncertainty about its causes, its impact on liberal democracies and about promising counter-strategies. Inspired by recent suggestions that (1) the emancipatory left has made a significant contribution to the proliferation of the populist right; and (2) populist movements, rather than challenging the established socio-political order, in fact stabilize and further entrench its logic, this article argues that...

  1. Nihilism and the Roots of Crisis in American Democracy: A Diagnosis of Cornel West

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    Julian Jeliński

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cornel West’s diagnosis of the crisis of the American democracy is the subject matter of this article. Analyzing the condition of the American democracy of the end of XX and the beginning of XXI centuries, C. West focused on the individual, existential character of the crisis. The diagnosed state had according to him much affect not only on political issues, but first and foremost on the spread of nihilism among American citizens. Nihilism – is understood in the C. West as senselessness of life and low self-esteem is the subject matter of this article.

  2. The Democratic Gap. Transcultural Confrontations of German Immigrants and the Promise of American Democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehring, F.

    2014-01-01

    Why has the promise of American democracy been so persuasive to immigrants despite prejudice regarding cultural inferiority, a history of slavery and genocide, violations of human rights, media manipulations, and imperial self-righteousness? How can we analyze, understand, and evaluate the response

  3. Democracy's College: The American Community College in the 21st Century--Framing the Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topper, Amelia M.; Powers, Jeanne M.

    2013-01-01

    In this manuscript, the guest editors of the EPAA Special Issue on "Democracy's College: The American Community College in the 21st Century": a) introduce the background, history, and context of community colleges in the larger higher education landscape; b) summarize the three research papers and two video commentaries that were…

  4. Contested visions of American democracy: citizenship, public housing, and the international arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argersinger, Jo Ann E

    2010-01-01

    This essay reexamines the history of public housing and the controversy it generated from the Great Depression to the Cold War. By recasting that history in the global arena, it demonstrates that the debate over public housing versus homeownership was also a debate over the meaning of American citizenship and democracy, pointing up starkly divergent notions about what was and was not American. Through an examination of national conflicts and neglected local struggles, this article further shows that the fight over public housing was far more meaningful and volatile than traditionally assumed. Both critics and advocates of public housing drew from international experiences and imagery in positioning the home as a constitutive feature of citizenship in American democracy. Fears of Bolshevism, fascism, and communism served to internationalize issues of race, space, and housing and together shaped the decision of whether a decent home was an American right or privilege.

  5. Frances Kellor, Americanization, and the Quest for Participatory Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, John

    2010-01-01

    Frances Alice Kellor (1873 - 1952) is most famous for leading the Americanization movement that greeted immigrants from 1906 to 1921. The movement has been damned as coercive in the name of conformity in the historical literature. This dissertation argues that Kellor's Americanization movement promoted immigrants and immigration, Americanized…

  6. African Americans, democracy, and biomedical and behavioral research: contradictions or consensus in community-based participatory research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigner, C

    Individualism, in both its political and attitudinal senses, reinforces societal and institutional racism in the United States. Because of individualism's dominant focus on self-interest and self-reliance, any application of "participatory democracy" in community-based biomedical and behavioral research is fraught with dilemmas similar to those that Gunnar Myrdal observed between American racism and democracy. The research establishment is overwhelmed by well-meaning non-minorities who recognize racism and its consequences in health, but only greater representation of people-of-color in the health establishment can ameliorate the inherent contradictions of "participatory democracy" which is so fundamental to the process of community-based participatory research.

  7. Atomic-powered democracy: Policy against politics in the quest for American nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the relationship of American nuclear energy to democracy. It examines whether the nuclear policy processes have furthered the legitimacy-government accountability and citizen participation-which the democratic institutes are based. Nuclear policy and its institutions have placed severe limitations on democratic practices. Contravened democracy is seen most clearly in the decoupling of policy from politics. Decoupling refers to the weakening of institutional linkages between citizens and government, and to the erosion of the norms that ground liberal democracy. Decoupling is manifested in policy centralization, procedural biases, technical rationality, and the spatial displacement of conflict. Decoupling has normative implications: While federal accountability was limited and citizen participation was shackled, other major groups enjoyed privileged access to policy making. The decoupling of nuclear policy from politics arose within the context of US liberal-democratic capitalism. The federal government pursued its own goals of defense and world leadership. Yet, it was not structurally autonomous from the hegemony of the political-economic context. Economically, the Atomic Energy Act did not permit federal agencies to directly invest in power plant construction, and did not authorize them to commercially generate electricity. Private industry was structurally placed to domesticate the atom. Politically, the liberal-democratic system hampered an unquestioning pursuit of atomic energy. Federal institutions have been forced to heed some of the anti-nuclear concerns. The pervasive influence of the US political economy on nuclear policy has come to transgress democracy. Nuclear power's growth faltered during the 1970s. The political and economic constraints on federal actions have limited the means available to revive a becalmed nuclear industry; this has exerted strong pressure on federal institutions to decouple policy from participation

  8. 77 FR 18897 - Greek Independence Day: A National Day of Celebration of Greek and American Democracy, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... our Union. Through two World Wars and a long Cold War, America and Greece stood as allies in the... United States of America A Proclamation Two hundred and thirty-six years ago, a new American Nation was... ancient Hellas, where Greeks brought forth the world's first democracy and kindled a philosophical...

  9. Japanese-American confinement and scientific democracy: Colonialism, social engineering, and government administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemblatt, Karin Alejandra; Benmergui, Leandro Daniel

    2018-03-01

    During World War II, the U.S. Indian Service conducted social science experiments regarding governance among Japanese Americans imprisoned at the Poston, Arizona, camp. Researchers used an array of techniques culled from anthropological culture and personality studies, psychiatry, psychology, medicine, and public opinion research to probe how the personality traits of the confined Japanese-Americans and camp leaders affected the social interactions within each group and between them. The research drew on prior studies of Indian personality in the US Southwest, Mexico's Native policies, and indirect colonial rule. Researchers asked how democracy functioned in contexts marked by hierarchy and difference. Their goal was to guide future policies toward US "minorities" and foreign races in post-war occupied territories. We show how researchers deployed ideas about race, cultural, and difference across a variety of cases to create a universal, predictive social science, which they combined with a prewar romanticism and cultural relativism. These researchers made ethnic, racial, and cultural difference compatible with predictive laws of science based on notions of fundamental human similarities. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Homegrown Democracy, Homegrown Democrats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman K. Denzin

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Written on the eve of the 2004 American presidential election, this political narrative offers a critical reading of two models of democracy: Instant-Mix imperial democracy (bring to a boil, add oil, then bomb, criticized by Arundhati Roy, and Garrison Keillor’s Homegrown Democrat. Keillor’s pastoral view of democracy is anchored in LakeWobegon, his imaginary utopian community. His homegrown democracy is narrow, provincial, and White. The author concludes that he must look elsewhere for his alternative view of democracy.

  11. Secrecy and Democracy: The Conflict between American Ideals and American Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    secrecy begins1 — Hannah Arendt , The Burden of our Time) INTRODUCTION The United States was born in secrecy. In 1787, the Constitutional Convention...Application Programming Interfaces.” American Behavioral Scientist 57, no. 5 (December 2012): 623-642. DOI:10.1177/000276421269363. Arendt , Hannah . The...secrecy and transparency, privacy and publicity, that undermines 1Hannah Arendt , The Burden of our Time (London: Secker and Warburg, 1951), 386

  12. American Policy in the Persian Gulf Region: Peace, Security, and the Spread of Democracy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fox, Darin J

    2008-01-01

    To achieve lasting security in the Arabian Gulf region, U.S. policy, though currently focused on Iraq, must engage Saudi Arabia and Iran with all of its instruments of national power to encourage the spread of democracy within the region...

  13. The Reconstruction of Community College Vocational Education: A Vision for Renewing American Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbour, Clifford P.; Wolgemuth, Jennifer R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to explain how central points developed in Dewey's 1916 "Democracy and Education" provide the rationale needed to adopt institutional and policy recommendations made by Grubb and Lazerson in their 2004 book, "The Education Gospel: The Economic Power of Schooling". Method: The central…

  14. Bolivia: A Gasified Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Assies

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In October 2003 a wave of popular protest  brought down the Sánchez de Lozada government  in Bolivia. The intention to export natural gas to  the United States and Mexico triggered the protests, but actually stood for widespread discontent  with the Sánchez de Lozada government, the  preceding governments and the economic policies  pursued since 1985. The events belie the opinion  of various students of the Latin American democratic transitions who held that Bolivian democracy  was on its way towards consolidation and suggest that the recent inquiries into the quality of Latin  American democracies may point a way ahead in  rethinking democracy in the region. Taking such  assessments as a reference, this article reviews the  ‘gas war’ and looks at the Bolivian political regime as it has functioned over the past decades. It  will be argued that the ‘pacted democracy’, that  until now sustained institutionality, and the economic model adopted in 1985 have excluded an  important part of the population, both in political terms and where poverty alleviation and equity is  concerned. Increasing popular protest has been  met with increasing repression, which gradually  turned Bolivia into a ‘democradura’, or a ‘gasified  democracy’ that relies on teargas and bullets to  uphold itself. At present the country finds itself at  a crossroads. It either may reinvent democracy or  become an institutionalized ‘democradura’. Resumen: Bolivia: una democracia gasificadaEn octubre de 2003 una ola de protesta popular  llevó a la caída del gobierno de Sánchez de Lozada en Bolivia. La intención de exportar gas natural a los Estados Unidos y México gatilló dichas  protestas, aunque en realidad reflejaron un descontento general con el gobierno Sánchez de  Lozada, los gobiernos anteriores y las políticas  económicas implementadas desde 1985. Los  sucesos desmienten la opinión de varios analistas  de las

  15. Mitigated Democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doomen, J.

    2016-01-01

    Militant democracy is an attempt to defend democracy against totalitarian parties that would use democratic procedures to rise to power. This article is focused on the consistency of the concept of 'militant democracy'. I argue that what militant democracy defends is not the democratic procedure

  16. Deliberative Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper Møller

    Deliberative democracy is the current Buzz-word in contemporary democratic thinking. However deliberative democracy is deeply rooted in the republican tradition of democracy.  Nevertheless these democratic roots are often forgotten when researchers "jump on the bandwagon". This paper will shows how...... deliberation appear within the writing of five important political thinkers within the republican tradition of democracy. Secondly it will investigate the rise of deliberative democracy and explain why the deliberative turn suddenly occurred. However, first a brief general account of deliberative democracy...... is presented in order to outline the focus of deliberative democracy....

  17. U.S. Democracy Promotion and Al Jazeera: A View into Arab Reactions and Opposing Movements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Marie E

    2005-01-01

    .... Will overt American promotion of democracy cause these states to democratize? Using aspects of social movement theory, this thesis examines Arab reactions to public American promotion of democracy...

  18. American Dreaming: Critical Perspectives on a Media Training Program for Emerging Democracies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miglena Mantcheva Sternadori

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the Cold War, the International Media Training Center has brought dozens of Eastern European journalists to study in non-degree programs at U.S. universities. This study is a cultural critique of one such program. The analysis is based on in-depth interviews, participant observation, and articles from university newsletters. The trainees reveal that support from mentors is often insufficient, and some participants face significant hostility after returning to their native countries. The fast-paced media environments in those countries have not forgiven their yearlong absence: organizational power has been redistributed, connections have been weakened, and new colleagues have aggressively taken over one's old turf. The findings suggest that training a few journalists from disparate media outlets is unlikely to have much effect on media professionalism in emerging democracies, unless the trainees are guaranteed an opportunity to become trainers. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs100376

  19. An American Dilemma. The Negro problem and Modern Democracy. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrdal, Gunnar

    This study, originally commissioned by the Carnegie Corporation in 1938, makes it clear that the root of the "Negro problem" is the conflict between American moral valuations preserved in the American ideal and the valuations existing on specific planes of individual and group living. There is a jarring discrepancy between the professed…

  20. Muslim American University Students' Perceptions of Islam and Democracy: Deconstructing the Dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Sarah; Collet, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The aftermath of 9/11 and the current surge of revolutions in North Africa and the Middle East have caused Muslim Americans to be either demonized or forgotten altogether, despite the significance of their everyday navigation of both Islamic and democratic values and unique efforts toward identity construction. The neglect of the Muslim American…

  1. Direct Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beramendi, Virginia; Ellis, Andrew; Kaufman, Bruno

    While many books on direct democracy have a regional or national approach, or simply focus on one of the many mechanisms associated with direct democracy, this Handbook delves into a global comparison of direct democracy mechanisms, including referendums, citizens' initiatives, agenda initiatives...... learned. In addition, the uniquely comprehensive world survey outlines direct democracy provisions in 214 countries and territories and indicates which, if any, of these provisions are used by each country or territory at both the national and sub-national levels. Furthermore, the world survey includes...

  2. Rethinking the acculturation gap-distress theory among asian americans: Testing bidirectional indirect relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, P Priscilla

    2018-02-19

    The acculturation gap-distress theory postulates that parent-offspring acculturation mismatch precipitates greater intergenerational conflict in immigrant families, which in turn increases the risk for psychological problems among offspring. Whereas cross-sectional studies have shown support for these theory-informed relations, comparatively little is known about whether acculturation mismatch negatively affects psychological functioning, or whether offspring's psychological problems precipitate greater perceived acculturation mismatch via intergenerational cultural conflict. Furthermore, more research is needed to investigate how acculturation and family conflict affect Asian Americans transitioning into college and emerging adulthood. Across two measurement occasions, two cohorts of Asian American first-year college students (N = 555, Mage = 17.99, 56.0% women) completed survey questionnaires assessing their perception of parent-offspring acculturation discrepancies, acculturation-related intergenerational conflict, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. For both sets of psychological functioning, gender invariant structural equation models testing the bidirectional relations demonstrated adequate fit for the data. In the case of externalizing symptoms, acculturation mismatch marginally significantly predicted subsequent intergenerational conflict, but acculturation mismatch did not predict externalizing symptoms via intergenerational cultural conflict. By contrast, offspring's internalizing and externalizing symptoms respectively predicted greater self-reported intergenerational cultural conflict, which in turn predicted perceived parent-offspring acculturation mismatch over time. These indirect relations suggested that both internalizing and externalizing symptoms indirectly contributed to greater acculturation mismatch through the presence of intergenerational cultural conflict, but data did not support the acculturation gap-distress theory. Theoretical

  3. Fear and Loathing on the Campaign Trail: What the Election Means for U.S. Health Care, and the Health of American Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Robert B

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes four trends that are affecting the 2016 election: changing US demographics and the reaction to them, a growing distrust of government, increased polarization and government gridlock, and the rise of populism. It compares the views of candidates Hillary Rodham Clinton and Donald S. Trump on the Affordable Care Act, climate change, prescription drug pricing, prevention of injuries and deaths from firearms, and the opioids epidemic; and offers perspectives on the potential impact of the election not only on U.S. health care policy, but on the health of American democracy itself.

  4. Party Ideology, Electoral Competition and the Election of Women in Five Latin American Democracies: Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Peru and Uruguay, 1980-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago ALLES

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Women have made enormous progress in their political incorporation. However, the pace of that incorporation has differed across countries. The present article analyzes the effects of party ideology and of the characteristics of electoral competition on the election of women in legislative seats in five Latin American democracies over three decades. The empirical results provide evidence of the effects of party (ideology and institutional factors (type of ballot; and at the same time, call into question the effect of factors previously asserted in the literature, such as district magnitude y party magnitude.

  5. Towards a Critique of Political Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tronti

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the idea that democracy always binds together a practice of domination and a project of liberation, Tronti formulates the conditions for a critique of democracy that would permit a rebirth of political thought in the current conjuncture. Bringing the heterodox Marxist traditions of ‘workerism’ and the ‘autonomy of the political’ together with the feminist thinking of difference, Tronti underscores the identitarian tendencies of democracy and the difficulties of combining democracy with a genuine notion of freedom. For Tronti, democracy is increasingly synonymous with the pervasiveness of capitalism understood as ‘bourgeois society’, and the victory of ‘real democracy’ (as one might speak of ‘real socialism’ is the sociological victory of the bourgeoisie. The homo oeconomicus and the homo democraticus are fused into the dominant figure of democracy, the ‘mass bourgeois’. Against the depoliticizing consequences of ‘democratic Empire’, Tronti proposes a profound rethinking of our notion of politics, one which should not shy from reconsidering the elitist critiques of democracy.

  6. 76 FR 17329 - Greek Independence Day: A National Day of Celebration of Greek and American Democracy, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... this milestone in the birthplace of democracy, we also celebrate our warm friendship with Greece and... strengthened by the profound influence of Greek culture on our national life. From the architecture of our... also look forward to our shared future and recommit to continuing our work as friends and allies. NOW...

  7. Understanding Democracy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Gilberto

    1998-01-01

    .... Nevertheless, democracy is spreading, and today many countries are called democratic. This paper describes several countries, which are very different because of their history, culture, religion, people, education, and wealth...

  8. Democracy Squared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Sæbø, Øystein

    2005-01-01

    On-line political communities, such as the Norwegian site Demokratitorget (Democracy Square), are often designed according to a set of un-reflected assumptions about the political interests of their potential members. In political science, democracy is not taken as given in this way, but can...... be represented by different models which characterize different relationships between politicians and the citizens they represent. This paper uses quantitative and qualitative content analysis to analyze the communication mediated by the Democracy Square discussion forum in the first ten months of its life......-Republican model. In the qualitative analysis the discourse is analysed as repeating genres – patterns in the communication form which also reflect the conflict of interest between citizens and politicians. Though the analysis gives insight into the nature of the discourse the site supports, little is known about...

  9. Democracy and the Moral Imperative to Philosophize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphrey, J. F.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available An important part of Cornelius Castoriadis’ exploration into the adventure of modernity involves his reflections on democracy. Indeed, in no less than three works [Figures of the Thinkable, Rising Tide of Insignificancy (The Big Sleep, and World in Fragments], Castoriadis devotes a part, entitled Polis, in which he discusses democracy and its relation to modernity by beginning with the Greeks. In World in Fragments, the section, "The Greek and the Modern Political Imaginary" clearly indicates the relation existing between the ancient Greeks and democracy in his mind. In my paper, I have considered Castoriadis’ reflections on democracy and the way in which he employs the Greeks in his attempt to rethink modern democracies. I shall argue that if we are to follow Castoriadis in embracing an authentic emancipation promised by but not delivered by modernity, we will have to look to his understanding of democracy as providing the way beyond both the cynicism of post-modernism and false hopes of neo-modernism.

  10. Rethinking Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996

    These three papers were presented at a symposium on rethinking diversity in human resource development (HRD) moderated by Neal Chalofsky at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Diversity: A Double-Edged Sword" (Sally F. Angus) presents the notion of work force diversity through two differing perspectives in order to…

  11. Debugging Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Likhotal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Democracy was the most successful political idea of the 20th century. However since the beginning of the new century democracy has been clearly suffering from serious structural problems, rather than a few isolated ailments. Why has it run into trouble, can it be revived? In the consumption driven world people have started to be driven by the belief in economic prosperity as the guarantee of human freedom. As a result, human development and personal status have become hostages of economic performance, deforming basic civilisation’s ethical matrix. However in 10-15 years, the world may be completely different. We are looking at communications and technology revolutions occurring in very abbreviated time frames. Soon, billions of people will interact via a fast data-transferring Metaweb, and it will change social standards as well as human behaviour patterns. Integrated global economies functioning as holistic entities will spur a deep reframing of global governance, shaping a new configuration of political, economic and military power. One can hardly expect that these changes will leave democratic mechanisms intact. It’s a pivotal moment for all of us because we are facing paradigm changes in our way of life. We clearly need a new political vision that is deliverable quickly. Democracy can be reset if it can provide a platform for collective judgement and individual development—in a value-driven process, when values manifest themselves in concrete and socially meaningful issues, and are not reduced to the economic optimization and politics of the wallet. In other words, the only remedy to resolve the crisis of democracy is more democracy.

  12. Power, Democracy--and Democracy in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses questions of workplace democracy, particularly in relation to school education. Following Luciano Canfora in treating democracy as "the rule of the many", it traces the post-1945 rise of workplace democracy, and its post-1979 decline. Analysing the constitution of contemporary schooling in England, the article…

  13. The contradictions of democracy globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramović Zoran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The author deals with the problem of European (global democratization and not with its goals. The author defines the first group of problems as internal contradictions of modern democratic states. In addition to the existing historical-political criticisms of democratic rule, the author refers to critical analysis of democracy in John Keane’s works. According to Keane, modern democratic state gets involved in several ways in the field of free circulation of public opinion. Based on this and other analyses (Bobio, Dahl, the author concludes that in contemporary European democratic societies there also exist profound contradictions that are transferred to globalization of democracy, too. The author identifies the second problem concerning European democratization in its anthropological assumptions. With reference to Tocqueville’s book Democracy in America, the author states that American democracy man develops personality characteristics oriented to the acquisition of material goods (enrichment. The expansion of Euro-American picture of man to other democracies creates the tension between universal institutions and national cultural anthropology. The third problem concerning democracy is defined from the viewpoint of political relativism. The history of the world is the history of cultural differences. The short-term experience in European democratization proves that political relativism is not respected and that tendency to imposing Euro-American model is gaining in strength. This process endangers political identity of a nation, which becomes the source of confrontation and conflicts inside and between the states. In summary, the author suggests the solution of the problem in the spirit of political liberalism. States (or groups of states do not have the right to prescribe for other states how to define their public good, except in case they endanger other states (or in case they conduct massive killing of their own citizens.

  14. The Phenomenology of Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Human beings originate votes, and democracy constitutes decisions. This is the essence of democracy. A phenomenological analysis of the vote and of the decision reveals for us the inherent strength of democracy and its deficiencies. Alexis de Tocqueville pioneered this form of enquiry into democracy and produced positive results from it.…

  15. Prescribing Democracy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela; Casals Bertoa, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    When democracies ban political parties, one of the central issues to usually emerge in both public and academic debate concerns the effects of proscription. Some argue that proscription may lead to radicalisation, a growth of militancy and readiness to use violence. Some also argue that, in the l......When democracies ban political parties, one of the central issues to usually emerge in both public and academic debate concerns the effects of proscription. Some argue that proscription may lead to radicalisation, a growth of militancy and readiness to use violence. Some also argue that...... of party bans on party system development has remained mostly under-researched. Trying to address this lacuna, and employing a new dataset of banned parties in Europe between 1945 and 2015, we compare the effects of party ban regulation on party system stability in three different arenas: electoral......, parliamentary and governmental. In particular, we examine the impact of party proscription on electoral volatility, fragmentation and closure in three different countries: Turkey, Germany and Spain. Using examples both at national and regional (e.g. Basque Country, Navarre, Saxony) level, and making use...

  16. Rethinking schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insel, Thomas R

    2010-11-11

    How will we view schizophrenia in 2030? Schizophrenia today is a chronic, frequently disabling mental disorder that affects about one per cent of the world's population. After a century of studying schizophrenia, the cause of the disorder remains unknown. Treatments, especially pharmacological treatments, have been in wide use for nearly half a century, yet there is little evidence that these treatments have substantially improved outcomes for most people with schizophrenia. These current unsatisfactory outcomes may change as we approach schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental disorder with psychosis as a late, potentially preventable stage of the illness. This 'rethinking' of schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental disorder, which is profoundly different from the way we have seen this illness for the past century, yields new hope for prevention and cure over the next two decades.

  17. Rethinking Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Despite more than half a century of psychological research on creativity we are still far from a clear understanding of the creative process, its antecedents and consequences and, most of all, the ways in which we can effectively support creativity. This is primarily due to a narrow focus...... on creative individuals isolated from culture and society. Rethinking Creativity proposes a fundamental review of this position and argues that creativity is not only a psychological but a sociocultural phenomenon. This edited volume aims to relocate creativity from inside individual minds to the material......, symbolic and social world of culture. It brings together eminent social and cultural psychologists who study dynamic, transformative and emergent phenomena, and invites them to conceptualise creativity in ways that depart from mainstream definitions and theoretical models existing in past and present...

  18. Translating democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Linguistic barriers may pose problems for politicians trying to communicate delicate decisions to a European-wide public, as well as for citizens wishing to protest at the European level. In this article I present a counter-intuitive position on the language question, one that explores how...... Forum (ESF). I compare deliberative practices in the multilingual ESF preparatory meetings with those in monolingual national Social Forum meetings in three Western European countries. My comparison shows that multilingualism does not reduce the inclusivity of democratic deliberation as compared...... in institutionalized habits and norms of deliberation. Addressing democratic theorists, my findings suggest that translation could be a way to think about difference not as a hindrance but as a resource for democracy in linguistically heterogeneous societies and public spaces, without presupposing a shared language...

  19. Protecting Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galster, Kjeld

    2007-01-01

    of a democratic state as defence per se is to its government. Democratic governance rests on the mutual dependence and influence of leadership and led, and the practical function subsumes professional bureaucracies. Thus, defence debate is the exchange of views on matters important to national security amongst...... the democratically elected leadership, the public, and the defence bureaucracy’s professional experts. Defence debate is a decisive contributor to defence policy and it normally includes quantitative issues like the size of military forces and the proportion of the state’s resources devoted to the armed forces......ABSTRACT Galster, Kjeld Hald. Doctoral Student (History). Saxo Institute. May 2007. Protecting Democracy: Danish Defence Debate in Times of Change. Supervisor: Professor, Dr. Gunner Lind. Democratic debate on defence and democratic organisation of the forces are as central to the life...

  20. Rethinking "Turner v. Keefe": The Parallel Mobilization of African-American and White Teachers in Tampa, Florida, 1936-1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shircliffe, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    In 1941, members of the local unit of the Florida State Teachers Association (FSTA) met in Tampa to plan a lawsuit against Hillsborough County's school board for paying African-American teachers less than white teachers. Hilda Turner, who taught history and economics at Tampa's historically black high school, agreed to serve as plaintiff; she was…

  1. Rethinking "the" History of Education for Asian-American Children in California in the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahng, Kyung Eun

    2013-01-01

    This article brings to light discourses that constituted the education of Asian-American children in California in the second half of the nineteenth century. Guided by Foucaultian ideas and critical race theory, I analyze California public school laws, speeches of a governor-elect and a superintendent, and a report of the board of supervisors,…

  2. Contemporary theories of democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is two-fold: first, to analyze several contemporary theories of democracy, and secondly, to propose a theoretical framework for further investigations based on analyzed theories. The following four theories will be analyzed: pluralism, social choice theory, deliberative democracy and participatory democracy.

  3. Democracy in Crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Brenda

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the state of Canadian democracy. Although calling Canadian democracy as something to be in a crisis is still debatable, the author expresses worry over the declining turnout levels in recent elections. Canada--along with a number of other liberal democracies--has experienced a significant and consistent decline in election…

  4. Democracy and Historical Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, we try to clarify the relationship between democracy and historical writing. The strategy is first exploring the general relationship between democracy and historical awareness, and then, studying the relationship between democracy and historical writing itself to find out whether

  5. Schooling for Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Nel

    2011-01-01

    There is a widespread movement today to prepare all students for college, and it is promoted in the name of democracy. I argue here that such a move actually puts our democracy at risk by forcing students into programs that do not interest them and depriving them of courses at which they might succeed. We risk losing the vision of democracy that…

  6. Cosmopolitan Democracy: A Restatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibugi, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    Can democracy be expanded beyond borders? For many years, it was taken for granted that the norms and values of democracy could be applied within the boundaries of a state only. But over the last 20 years, it has been increasingly argued that democracy can also inform international organizations and global politics. This article recapitulates the…

  7. Rethinking the memorial in a Black Belt landscape: Planning, memory and identity of African-Americans in Alabama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Giliberti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although many old sites are well preserved, many sites of historical and cultural value in the United States are disappearing due to their abandonment. In some cases, the condition of these sites makes restorers’ work very difficult. In other cases, in order to recover blighted local economies, administrations and cultural institutions are adopting strategic spatial plans to attract tourists or accommodate historical theme parks. However, recent scholarly interest in the interaction of history and collective memory has highlighted these sites. Even if the memory of some historical sites is fading quickly, this memory is receiving greater attention than in the past in order to enhance local identity and strengthen the sense of community. This article examines a number of plans and strategies adopted to give shape to the memorial landscape in Alabama, thereby documenting and exploring some key relations between city planning and the commemoration of African-American history.

  8. Democracy and Sense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent Erik

    Democracy and sense questions practically all that happens in society today. Its aim is to raise a debate on the most urgent problems of economy, democracy, sustainable conduct and the framework for industry and business. A number of untraditional solutions are suggested, but without support...... to either rightwing or leftwing politics. In fact, one of the key points is that political parties have reduced democracy to one day of voting followed by four years of oligarchy. To regain a functioning democracy we must strengthen direct democracy and make the distance between population and government...

  9. Designing For Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knutz, Eva; Markussen, Thomas; Mårbjerg Thomsen, Signe

    2014-01-01

    there are already a number of approaches available which in one way or the other address the relationship between design, democracy and power. We provide an account of participatory design, adversarial design and design activism thereby pointing towards design?s potential for re-distributing power and authority......n this paper we focus on ?patient-democracy? and ?shared decision-making? seen from the perspective of design practice and design research. In the research on democracy in healthcare it is rarely questioned what forms of democracy underlies these concepts. We have examined three different theories...... of democracy and the democratic practices that belong to each of these. For designers working to increase patient democracy it is of vital importance to be able to distinguish different structures underlying democratic practices and to work out methods for prototyping democracy. In design research...

  10. "The red man and the white plague": rethinking race, tuberculosis, and American Indians, ca. 1890-1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Christian W

    2008-01-01

    From the time it emerged as an epidemic in the last decades of the nineteenth century until it had become their number-one health problem in the 1950s, multiple explanations for the etiology of tuberculosis (TB) among American Indians competed for prominence. None was more debated than racial susceptibility-and none held on with such tenacity. Various race-based explanations -Indians' inherent racial susceptibility, virgin soil theory, and degree of Indian blood-had great explanatory power. These explanations faded from view by the 1950s as a result of epidemiological research begun in the 1930s-research that for the first time filled in many of the pieces of the Indian TB puzzle and allowed TB specialists to know the unknown: who and where the disease struck and why. Combining case finding, X rays, sputum tests-all the modern methods of tracking a TB epidemic-the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) was finally able to understand the Indian TB epidemic. But they also wanted to control it. To this end, the BIA and the Phipps Institute, under the direction of Esmond Long and Joseph Aronson, joined together to begin the first controlled trial of the BCG vaccine.

  11. Philosophy of democracy and Principles of Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Chovancová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As the title of suggests the article deals with the problems of democracy, its philosophy and also dominant principles. The author reflects interpretation of democracy on the society with their different understand.             Democracy represents a form of government, a way of political life where these principles are put into practice.             Democracy and its separate principles are expressed in the ultimate legal rules in the democratic countries. Principle of participation as a democratic principle rests with the fact that citizens have right to participate in state administration either directly or via their elected representatives. This principle also ensures that citizens participating in state administration enjoy equal basic rights and liberties and also guarantees that no person can be excluded from participation in state administration or from access to elected or other posts.             Methodology: In the article I using method of analyze - I analyzing dominant problems of democracy-its principles in democratic countries. Another method is comparation- understanding democracy from historical aspect. And the end I also using method of synthesis-explanation democracy understand today.

  12. Democracy, Resistance, and the Practice of Literature: Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arka Chattopadhyay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent world politics has witnessed the rise of a certain style of authoritarianism. It can be roughly characterized with a cult of masculine leadership, a popular rhetoric of foreign investment and development, and a phobia of the illegal immigrant made into an ethical obligation. These contradictory forms of politics – the paean to multinational corporations, free trade, and the ‘bloc’-ing of power and the simultaneous mobilization of hyper-nationalism in the form of censoring books and throttling subversive aesthetic practices – characterize the conception and practice of what may be called “authoritarian democracy.” Considering the democratically elected basis of this authoritarianism, it becomes all the more important to ask if democracy paves the way for it. In that case, where do we locate democracy today? Is it right to say that the real democratic space unfolds itself in people’s movements and not in the electoral process? If this is the case, a radical conception of democracy would have to account for a shift of emphasis from the locus of governance to that of resistance and co-option. Historically speaking, democracy may not always be the means but it has been one of the ends for the various acts of resistance such as the working class, anti-colonial, nationalist, feminist, LGBT, or constitutional multiculturalism. In our sour and hungry times, when state aggression is overpowering the geographical marking (Russia’s in Ukraine or Israel’s in Palestine, or strangling the voice of internal resistance (North Eastern regions in India, not to mention religious fundamentalism, we need to rethink the old questions of democracy and resistance. With the ISIS, Boko Haram or the Taliban practice, we have seen how resistance itself can produce a dangerous authoritarianism which further complicates the relations between democracy, authoritarianism, and resistance. How do we historicize and ethically theorize resistance in

  13. Rethinking image indexing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hans Dam

    2017-01-01

    Hans Dam Christensen, ”Rethinking image indexing?”, in: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, vol. 68, no. 7, 2017, 1782-1785......Hans Dam Christensen, ”Rethinking image indexing?”, in: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, vol. 68, no. 7, 2017, 1782-1785...

  14. Mapping Deviant Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A number of countries have emerged as stable (though minimalist) democracies despite low levels of modernization, lack of democratic neighbouring countries and other factors consistently related to democratic stability in the literature. The study of these deviant democracies is a promising new...... research field but it is afflicted by a notable problem, viz. the lack of a consensus as to which countries are actually instances of deviant democracy. The present article attempts to solve this problem by carrying out a comprehensive mapping of deviant democracies. First, I review the existing literature...... to provide an overview of the cases most often identified as deviant democracies. Second, I use a large-N analysis to systematically map deviant democracies. The analysis includes 159 countries covering the time period 1993–2008. The analysis points to 12 cases that merits further attention, viz...

  15. Rethinking Relativism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, George J.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses Allan Bloom's "The Closing of the American Mind," examining his critique of relativism, particularly cultural relativism. The paper states that the existence of cultural relativism is a cause and sign of significant fragmentation and separateness in modern society and the university. (SM)

  16. Democracy and identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milović Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It might be that the crisis of democracy is crisis of thinking. Modern metaphysics affirms the monologue of the subject with respect to the problem of rationality, as well as in the social realm. It thus affirms liberal egoism. Such metaphysics structures modernity as a monologue. Thus the question arises: how to think the democracy within this monologue? Democracy appears to be a modern project impossible to achieve.

  17. Globalization and democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEEPAK NAYYAR

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe gathering momentum of globalization in the world economy has coincided with the spread of political democracy across countries. Economies have become global. But politics remains national. This essay explores the relationship between globalization and democracy, which is neither linear nor characterized by structural rigidities. It seeks to analyze how globalization might constrain degrees of freedom for nation states and space for democratic politics, and how political democracy within countries might exercise some checks and balances on markets and globalization. The essential argument is that the relationship between globalization and democracy is dialectical and does not conform to ideological caricatures.

  18. The Happy Gardener: on populism, democracy and specters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián A. Melo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present text aims to retake several aspects and debates concerning the relation between populism and democracy. We will expound the main ideas by authors such as Margaret Canovan, Benjamín Arditi and Sebastián Barros in order to rethink the bonds between both terms. We will try not to take populism and democracy as antithetical poles in communitary political associations, since we are interested in pointing out how the ideas of shadow and specter have been crucial in the thought of these authors. Along with this reflection we seek to revisit several discursive keys of the experience of first Peronism in twentieth-century Argentina, just to investigate the ways in which the logic of Peronist populism rethought democracy and set it as a central element of the identity that it claimed to embody. Thus, we think that may be interesting not just to think populism as a specter of democracy but also to think democracy as a specter of populism.

  19. Rethinking Counterinsurgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    in national and local governments, in the evolution of the English language, in the arts, in the media, and even in British cuisine . However...by Russian, U.S., British, French , Portuguese, Spanish, Indian, and Israeli soldiers. For several reasons, there is a stronger sense of continuity...insurgencies encountered by the British, French , Spanish, Portuguese, Americans, and Indians, each element represented in this equation was based in and

  20. Rethinking headache chronification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dana P; Smitherman, Todd A; Penzien, Donald B; Lipton, Richard B; Houle, Timothy T

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this series is to examine several threats to the interpretation of headache chronification studies that arise from methodological issues. The study of headache chronification has extensively used longitudinal designs with 2 or more measurement occasions. Unfortunately, application of these designs, when combined with the common practice of extreme score selection as well as the extant challenges in measuring headache frequency rates (eg, unreliability, regression to the mean), induces substantive threats to accurate interpretation of findings. Partitioning the amount of observed variance in rates of chronification and remission attributable to regression artifacts is a critical yet previously overlooked step to learning more about headache as a potentially progressive disease. In this series on rethinking headache chronification, we provide an overview of methodological issues in this area (this paper), highlight the influence of rounding error on estimates of headache frequency (second paper), examine the influence of random error and regression artifacts on estimates of chronification and remission (third paper), and consider future directions for this line of research (fourth paper). © 2013 American Headache Society.

  1. Dewey's Participatory Educational Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Višnovský, Emil; Zolcer, Štefan

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, Emil Višnovský and Štefan Zolcer outline John Dewey's contribution to democratic theory as presented in his 1916 classic "Democracy and Education." The authors begin with a review of the general context of Dewey's conception of democracy, and then focus on particular democratic ideas and concepts as presented in…

  2. Democracy, education, and economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emami, Z.; Davis, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the connections between democracy and education, particularly as it concerns economics. We adopt a pluralist proceduralist view of democracy, and argue that this requires a view of individuals as active decision-makers able to deliberate and reflect on their different ideas and

  3. Law, Democracy & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evolution and implementation of democracy, good governance practices, human rights and socio-economic development are critical issues facing South Africa and Africa as a whole. Law interacts with this process in ways that may promote or inhibit it. Law, Democracy & Development addresses this interaction. Our aim ...

  4. DEMOCRACY AND POLITICAL PARTICIPATION IN NIGERIA: THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FBL

    The study revealed that many people within the voting age did not vote and were ... known American political scientist, as quoted in Cayne (1993:777) as “an implicit bargain ..... Functional democracy requires strong/effective political institutions and basic rights ... Experience” African Journal of Social Science and Humanity.

  5. Reconstruction of the democratic experience: democracy as a pedagogical belief in Dewey’s philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Tonieto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims at reconstructing and analyzing the reasons that led the American educator John Dewey to elect democracy as the pedagogical belief of his educational philosophy. In order to do so, fi rstly our work will briefl y retrace the origins of democracy at the Greek paideia, in order to analyze the reasons that led Deweyto choose democracy as the main reference of his pedagogical belief. Finally, we will discuss the democratic concept of education on Dewey’s work Democracy and Education and the reasons why the author uses science, philosophy, and education as instruments of reconstruction of the democracy.

  6. Nuclear waste vs. democracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treichel, J.

    1999-01-01

    In the United States the storage and disposal of high-level nuclear waste is a highly contentious issue because under current plans the public is subjected to unaccepted, involuntary risks. The proposed federal policy includes the forced siting of a repository and interim storage facilities in Nevada, and the transport of waste across the entire nation through large cities and within 2 mile of over 50 million people. At its destination in Nevada, the residents would face coexistence with a facility housing highly radioactive wastes that remain dangerous for many thousands of years. Scientific predictions about the performance and safety of these facilities is highly uncertain and the people foresee possibly catastrophic threats to their health, safety and economic well-being for generations to come. The public sees this currently proposed plan as one that seeks to maximise the profits of the commercial nuclear industry through imposing risk and sacrifice to communities who reap no benefit. And there is no evidence that this plan is actually a solution to the problem. The American public has never had the opportunity to participate in the nuclear waste debate and government plans are presented to people as being necessary and inevitable. To allow democracy into the decisions could be costly to the nuclear industry and it might thwart the government program, but that is the nature of democracy. If the utilities are established to provide a public service, and the government is founded on the principle of public representation, then the nuclear waste debate must conform to those requirements. What we see in this case is a continuing change of rule and law to accommodate a corporate power and the subrogation of national principle. The result of this situation has been that the public exercises its only option - which is obstructing the federal plan. Because the odds are so heavily stacked in favour of government and industry and average citizens have so little access

  7. Corruption, democracy and bureaucracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviral Kumar TIWARI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship of corruption with democracy and bureaucracy in the 82 countries in a panel framework. For the analysis we use rule of law, regulatory quality, control over corruption and secondary school enrollment ratio as control variables. We find that democracy, rule of law and control over corruption decreases the level of corruption. When we allowed for interaction effect among independent variables we find the evidence of strong interaction effect between all of the explanatory variables. We also find that, surprisingly, higher democracy and rule of law are positively associated with the level of corruption while higher bureaucracy negatively.

  8. Inclusive or managed democracy?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    remains fragile, and faces the reality that political stability has not been accompanied ... 'managed democracy'2 cognizant of the manipulation of political, economic ...... pushing societies under extractive institutions toward political instability.

  9. LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    the routine of daily business”.21 In the Court's view, this is so because, in a ..... tendency to be disruptive of deliberative processes and to rely on slogans and ... of a deliberative model of democracy for understandings of fundamental rights.

  10. Democracy against the odds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Michael

    Why have a number of poor countries sustained electoral democracy against the odds? The extant literature on democracy and democratization consistently points to the importance of socioeconomic development and democratic neighboring countries, in particular, as important prerequisites for a stable...... demonstrates the enormous potential of political parties and civil society in processes of democratization. ------------------------------------------------------------------- Hvorfor opretholder en række fattige lande en demokratisk styreform imod alle odds? Demokratiforskere forventer, at et land må have et...

  11. Is Democracy A Prerequisite

    OpenAIRE

    Abdiweli M. Ali

    2011-01-01

    The current literature is silent on whether democracies are more fragile or less susceptible to economic and political breakdowns. Using a host of political instability and policy instability variables, this paper explores empirically, whether political freedom (a proxy for democracy) has any effect on the stability of the political order. Furthermore, it also explores the possibility that political freedom explains differences in the stability of economic policies.

  12. Taiwan’s Democracy: Towards a Liberal Democracy or Authoritarianism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafydd J. Fell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how Taiwan moved from being viewed as a model Asian democracy to one allegedly suffering from democratic reversal. The reasons for the declining domestic and international reputation of Taiwan’s democracy are discussed. Lastly, some key political challenges facing Taiwan’s democracy are outlined.

  13. Multilingualism and Education for Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biseth, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    This essay attempts to show the importance of linguistic issues in education for democracy and the close relationship between democracy and multilingualism. Increasingly nation-states are having to adapt to linguistic diversity within their borders and to recognize that democracy requires the participation of all citizens, including those belonging to linguistic minorities. Democracy also requires that all linguistic groups share a sense of community. The author argues the need for educational policies that address these challenges.

  14. Multilingualism and Education for Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biseth, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    This essay attempts to show the importance of linguistic issues in education for democracy and the close relationship between democracy and multilingualism. Increasingly nation-states are having to adapt to linguistic diversity within their borders and to recognize that democracy requires the participation of all citizens, including those…

  15. Rethinking Education and Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, William G., Ed.

    2015-01-01

    In "Rethinking Education and Poverty," William G. Tierney brings together scholars from around the world to examine the complex relationship between poverty and education in the twenty first century. International in scope, this book assembles the best contemporary thinking about how education can mediate class and improve the lives of…

  16. Carbon Democracy: Political Power in the Age of Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Timothy; Jaquet, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    How oil undermines democracy, and our ability to address the environmental crisis. This book is a French translation of 'Carbon Democracy: Political Power in the Age of Oil' originally published by Verso Edition (New York, US, ISBN 978-1781681169). Oil is a curse, it is often said, that condemns the countries producing it to an existence defined by war, corruption and enormous inequality. Carbon Democracy tells a more complex story, arguing that no nation escapes the political consequences of our collective dependence on oil. It shapes the body politic both in regions such as the Middle East, which rely upon revenues from oil production, and in the places that have the greatest demand for energy. Timothy Mitchell begins with the history of coal power to tell a radical new story about the rise of democracy. Coal was a source of energy so open to disruption that oligarchies in the West became vulnerable for the first time to mass demands for democracy. In the mid-twentieth century, however, the development of cheap and abundant energy from oil, most notably from the Middle East, offered a means to reduce this vulnerability to democratic pressures. The abundance of oil made it possible for the first time in history to reorganize political life around the management of something now called 'the economy' and the promise of its infinite growth. The politics of the West became dependent on an undemocratic Middle East. In the twenty-first century, the oil-based forms of modern democratic politics have become unsustainable. Foreign intervention and military rule are faltering in the Middle East, while governments everywhere appear incapable of addressing the crises that threaten to end the age of carbon democracy-the disappearance of cheap energy and the carbon-fuelled collapse of the ecological order. In making the production of energy the central force shaping the democratic age, Carbon Democracy rethinks the history of energy, the politics of nature, the theory of

  17. Islam and Democracy: Conflicts and Congruence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Nazrul Islam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Is authoritarianism intrinsic to Islam? Is Islam incompatible with democracy? These questions are frequently debated in the context of the study of the relationship between the Western and Islamic civilization. The debate has gained momentum since the last decade of the twentieth century, especially after the collapse of the former Soviet Union and the subsequent transition of socialist states in Eastern Europe and other authoritarian states in Asia and Latin America to democracy. The publication of The Clash of Civilizations by American scholar Samuel Huntington, in which he presented a controversial argument about a cultural divide and clash between the Islamic world and the West, pushed the debate even further. Apart from Muslim intellectuals, Western academics have spent a significant amount of time on these questions, with a multitude of articles and volumes examining the compatibility of Islam and democracy. In this paper, we will examine Islam’s relationship with democracy from normative and philosophical viewpoints, examining how the established values and principles of Islam as reflected in the Qur’anic and prophetic traditions correspond to Western democratic norms and practices. In order to obtain a profound understanding of this subject, we have delved into, through content analysis, the thoughts of several early modernist Islamic scholars who have had tremendous impact on contemporary Islamic revivalist movements throughout the world, and interviewed a number of contemporary Islamic thinkers in Bangladesh.

  18. Schooling for Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Nel

    2008-01-01

    The author of this article contends that current efforts at school reform--ostensibly designed to increase equality of outcomes--may actually be undermining democracy by undervaluing the wide range of talents required in 21st-century America. Many policy makers today argue that all students should have a standard curriculum that will prepare them…

  19. Talking about European Democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, L.; Reestman, J.H.

    This editorial comment asserts that, instead of merely conceiving of the challenges to the foundational values common to the Union and member states in terms of the Rule of Law, it is necessary to address democracy as the political founding quality of Union and member states. In doing so, we must

  20. More democracy through plebiscite?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evers, T.

    1986-01-01

    The author has the opinion, a plebiscite means only a limited enlargement of democracy. The plebiscite should be formed out as a right of veto, which prohibits concrete political measures of the government or legal projects (Kalkar, Wackersdorf). The winning of time to continue the discussion is an advantage. Finally a general change of consciousness is possible. (CW) [de

  1. Philosophy for Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Rob; Onstenk, Jeroen; Veugelers, Wiel

    2016-01-01

    Philosophy for Democracy is a research project that aims to examine whether and how Philosophy with Children contributes to the development of democratic skills and attitudes. In the Netherlands, as in almost all Western countries, Philosophy with Children is linked with the movement for citizenship education. This article reports the research on…

  2. Reconstruction of the democratic experience: democracy as a pedagogical belief in Dewey’s philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Carina Tonieto; Altair Alberto Fávero

    2012-01-01

    The present article aims at reconstructing and analyzing the reasons that led the American educator John Dewey to elect democracy as the pedagogical belief of his educational philosophy. In order to do so, fi rstly our work will briefl y retrace the origins of democracy at the Greek paideia, in order to analyze the reasons that led Deweyto choose democracy as the main reference of his pedagogical belief. Finally, we will discuss the democratic concept of education on Dewey’s work Democracy an...

  3. Evangelical Religion and Evangelical Democracy: Lincoln’s Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Goldfield

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Evangelical religion and evangelical democracy reinforced each other in nineteenth-century America. The spread of evangelical Christianity and democracy across a continent justified the wars against Native Americans and Mexico, and provided the moral framework for the fight against slavery which many Americans came to see as incompatible with Protestant Christianity and democratic government. The problem with mixing religion and politics in this manner was that political issues became moral issues and, therefore, more difficult to deal with in the political process.

  4. From David Walker to President Obama: Tropes of the Founding Fathers in African American Discourses of Democracy, or The Legacy of Ishmael

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. West

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available More than a century after the Emancipation Proclamation, in a society that still others blackness, we continue to hold to the mythical humanizing power of literacy. In our own time this has been poignantly evinced in the public reception of the current President of the United States, Barack Obama. He has been internationally hailed for his written and oral eloquence, and many Americans expected that Obama’s evident intellectual prowess would reverse prevailing stereotypes of black inferiority. Obama’s rhetorical success is rooted in the longstanding literary practice of invoking the mythical founding fathers to validate text and subject. In this regard, David Walker’s Appeal (1829 represents the emergence of a long tradition of black voices invoking America’s most sacred patriarchs and their rhetoric of Americanness.

  5. Democracy Aid and Electoral Accountability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrich, Tobias; Loftis, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    for this by analyzing incumbent turnover in elections following poor economic performance – the economic vote – as a measure of voting to achieve performance accountability. In our analysis of over 1,100 elections in 114 developing countries between 1975 and 2010, we find distinct evidence that increasing receipt......Although foreign policies often fail to successfully promote democracy, over a decade of empirical research indicates that foreign aid specifically for democracy promotion is remarkably successful at improving the survival and institutional strength of fragile democracies. However, these measures...... cannot tell us how well democracy aid supports the central promise of democracy: accountable government. Since institutions can be subverted in various ways that undermine accountability, it is vital to know whether democracy aid supports accountability to assess its overall success. We provide evidence...

  6. Local Democracy in Myanmar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyed, Helene Maria; Harrisson, Annika Pohl; McCarthy, Gerard

    Myanmar is undergoing a comprehensive political transition. In April this year the first democratically elected government in six decades came into power under the leadership of NLD, the pro-democracy party headed by Aung San Suu Kyi. The largest peace conference in the country’s history was held...... in early September, and Myanmar again made the international headlines a week later when Kofi Annan visited the country to head a commission for addressing communal violence. These national events are crucial to the democratization process in Myanmar and for ending the almost seven decades of civil war....... However, often overlooked in this larger picture of transition is the state of local democracy, including village level governance and everyday state-citizen engagements. Political changes at this level are equally crucial for the wider democratization process. This roundtable summary discusses the 2016...

  7. Science, expertise, and democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Justin; Elliott, Kevin C

    2012-06-01

    The combination of government's significant involvement in science, science's significant effects on the public, and public ignorance (of both politics and science) raise important challenges for reconciling scientific expertise with democratic governance. Nevertheless, there have recently been a variety of encouraging efforts to make scientific activity more responsive to social values and to develop citizens' capacity to engage in more effective democratic governance of science. This essay introduces a special issue of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, "Science, Expertise, and Democracy," consisting of five papers that developed from the inaugural Three Rivers Philosophy conference held at the University of South Carolina in April 2011. The pieces range from a general analysis of the in-principle compatibility of scientific expertise and democracy to much more concrete studies of the intersection between scientific practices and democratic values in areas such as weight-of-evidence analysis, climate science, and studies of locally undesirable land uses.

  8. Democracy and Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Jalil

    2009-01-01

    New research on broader determinants of health has culminated into the new paradigm of social determinants of health. The fundamental view that underlies this new paradigm is that socioeconomic and political contexts in which people live have significant bearing upon their health and well-being. Unlike a wealth of research on socioeconomic determinants, few studies have focused on the role of political factors. Some of these studies examine the role of political determinants on health through their mediation with the labour environments and systems of welfare state. A few others study the relationship between polity regimes and population health more directly. However, none of them has a focus on women's health. This study explores the interactions, both direct and indirect, between democracy and women's health. In doing so, it identifies some of the main health vulnerabilities for women and explains, through a conceptual model, how democracy and respect for human rights interacts with women's health. PMID:21836777

  9. Democracy and development in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolu Lawal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Democracy and development are global phenomena. Every country in the world aspires and claims to be democratic. This is because of the role of the latter in developmental process. This paper examined the linkage between democracy and development in Nigeria, using ethics as the yardstick for democratic adherence. The paper adopted content analysis approach to source its data and concluded that democracy is an ingredient of development. It must therefore be sustained to evolve and ensure sustainable development.

  10. Duality and 'particle' democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, Elena

    2017-08-01

    Weak/strong duality is usually accompanied by what seems a puzzling ontological feature: the fact that under this kind of duality what is viewed as 'elementary' in one description gets mapped to what is viewed as 'composite' in the dual description. This paper investigates the meaning of this apparent 'particle democracy', as it has been called, by adopting an historical approach. The aim is to clarify the nature of the correspondence between 'dual particles' in the light of a historical analysis of the developments of the idea of weak/strong duality, starting with Dirac's electric-magnetic duality and its successive generalizations in the context of (Abelian and non-Abelian) field theory, to arrive at its first extension to string theory. This analysis is then used as evidential basis for discussing the 'elementary/composite' divide and, after taking another historical detour by analyzing an instructive analogy case (DHS duality and related nuclear democracy), drawing some conclusions on the particle-democracy issue.

  11. Democracy from Islamic law perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubarak Abdulkadir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is frequently argued that because many Muslim states are monarchies or dictatorships or because of certain events that have taken place within their borders, Islamic law is not compatible with democracy and democracy is even neglected in the provisions of the holy Qur'an. Islamic law, according to what can be traced in its primary sources, not only supports democracy and people's participation in the state affairs but even possesses provisions in the Qur'an verses which encourage counselling and consultation and some scholars deem that to be democratic representation. Islamic Law, according to the provisions of some verses from the holy Qur'an encourages democracy but not liberal democracy like that of the western world. The religious democracy that can go with our modern time and solve many contemporary problems of the Muslim world is the model which was introduced by late Ayatollah Imam Khomeini after the 1979 Islamic revolution in Iran. The author in this research work concludes by showing that the ideal democracy enshrined in the holy Qur'an, as the primary source of Islamic law, is not liberal democracy of the western world, but rather a religious democracy.

  12. Democracy and shareholder's participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Vuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Democracy and participation of shareholders or the demand for their active participation in the meetings of the Assemblyhas increasingly gained in importance in modern conditions. This is because, negative trends of passivation, the limitations of democratic potential of shareholders and shareholders' rights abuse by the management body, especially in the work control and compensation policy of shareholders, have been observed in a detailed analysis of the application and results of the Shareholder Rights Directive. The passivity of shareholders, as one of the most striking features of their position in the joint stock company today, is the biggest problem and threat to democratic processes within the company. If we bear in mind that the most common definition of shareholder democracy is 'ability of shareholders to influence the management of the company', we can notice a clear picture of the seriousness and importance of the lack of shareholder participation. This is the reason why the author of this paper gradually examines the causes and consequences of the passivity of shareholders, the proposed changes in this context in the Law of the European Union and the practical implications of such solutions in practice. In addition, the author examines contemporary forms and conditions for shareholder democracy and the legal framework in the European Union and the Republic of Serbia. In this way, we analyze the situation in this area and point out shortcomings of certain solutions, as well as the implications they cause in practice. The main thesis from which starts the scientific work and which will be gradually proven through theoretical and practical analysis is that the wider social processes directly reflect on the state of the joint-stock companies, or the state of corporate governance. This means that the negative trends of modern democracy (in the constitutional sense are almost mirrored in economic capital (EC and our attempt in this paper

  13. U.S. Democracy Promotion and Al Jazeera: A View into Arab Reactions and Opposing Movements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Marie E

    2005-01-01

    The promotion of democracy in the Arab world, an area to date resistant to effective political liberalization, has become a central pillar in American Middle East foreign policy as well as an integral...

  14. Participation, Democracy and Citizenship of Indigenous Peoples in the International Context Through the European systems and Inter-American Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Luiz Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the global democratization for the protection of minorities through the global promotion of European systems and Inter-American Human Rights. At the level of international human rights law, these ideas are the basis of so-called “speci- fication process rights of individuals”, according to which, in addition to general universal rights extended to all, there is need to recognize specific rights to certain groups vulne- rable in society. With the goal of achieving real equality, or at least reduce the existing factual inequalities. Thus, consolidation of protection of minorities reflects the situation of need access to fair legal system to ensure the effectiveness of fundamental rights and the full consolidation of access to justice through the international courts of justice, aimed at protection of human rights the international context.

  15. Rethinking e-learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jørgen; Dalsgaard, Christian

    2006-01-01

    “Technology alone does not deliver educational success. It only becomes valuable in education if learners and teachers can do something useful with it” (E-Learning: The Partnership Challenge, 2001, p. 24). This quotation could be used as a bon mot for this chapter. Our main goal is to rethink e-learning...... by shifting the focus of attention from learning resources (learning objects) to learning activities, which also implies a refocusing of the pedagogical discussion of the learning process.Firstly, we try to identify why e-learning has not been able to deliver the educational results as expected five years ago...

  16. Democracy as a legitimizing ideology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henry, P.J.; Wetherell, G.A.; Brandt, M.

    2015-01-01

    Democracy as an abstract belief system bestows rights to individuals and serves egalitarian principles. However, the language of democracy may be used to justify harmful treatment of others in the world. Data from 3 representative samples of adults are presented demonstrating that satisfaction with

  17. Democracy Barometer. Methodology. Version 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merkel, Wolfgang; Bochsler, Daniel;; Bousbah, Karima;

    2014-01-01

    Based on our theoretical concept of democracy, it is feasible to measure a country’s quality of democracy for a given point in time. Nevertheless, the quality of the whole endeavor is not only the result of an adequate theoretical concept but equally depends on the quality of the measurement itse...

  18. Democracy in the Arab World

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Given that liberalism contains principles that 'have been profoundly hostile to democracy', ..... The challenge posed for Arab democracy by Islamist thought and practice is probably the ..... (2nd edn), London: Malaysian Think Tank London. ...... Thus, the Jordanian treasury was not very dependent on internal taxes, certainly ...

  19. Community, Democracy, and Neighborhood News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindman, Elizabeth Blanks

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on democracy, community, and journalism by examining the interplay between communication, democracy, and community at an inner-city neighborhood newspaper. Concludes that, through its focus on neighborhood culture, acknowledgment of conflict, and attempts to provide a forum for the neighborhood's self-definition, the…

  20. Local democracy in large municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Annette Aagaard

    2017-01-01

    Municipal amalgamations in Denmark in 2007 led to concern for local rural democracy, as the number of politicians from rural areas dropped after the reform. To preserve rural democracy, local councils at the village level were established in some municipalities, and they have begun to prepare local...

  1. Mathematics Education and Democracy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetin, Ömer Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Democracy is a most accepted form of government system and has a great importance for citizens by allowing them equal and active participation in common life. As its development and characteristics are important for all citizens of a country, each democratic country puts much emphasis on democracy education in its educational curricula. In recent…

  2. Elementary Students' Metaphors for Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundar, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to reveal elementary 8th grade students' opinions concerning democracy with the aid of metaphors. The students were asked to produce metaphors about the concept of democracy. 140 students from 3 public schools in Ankara (Turkey) participated in the research. 55% of the students were females and 45% were males. The…

  3. The Mirage of Global Democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wilde, J.H.

    The literature about global democracy deals with two different types of democratization: Type 1 is about spreading democracy across sovereign states as the basis for good governance. It focuses on the quality of the state/society-nexus: the balance between coercion, reward and identity. Type 2 is

  4. Ethnic Conflict and Democracy in Nigeria: The Marginalisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethnic conflicts in whatever form need to be resolved in order to allow for democracy to thrive. This paper examines ways in which ethnic problems in Nigeria may be resolved through the creation of a realistic and workable federalism modelled largely on the American model. Journal of Social Development in Africa Vol 15 ...

  5. Internet's Potential to Affect Social Studies and Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Adam M.

    2006-01-01

    Technology, and the Internet in particular, is bringing constant change to American society, including the potential to enhance democracy by fostering participation in the electoral process. Because of the wealth of information available on candidates, issues, and policies, the Internet may foster citizens' ability to cast a more informed vote. As…

  6. Making Democracy an Active Force in Students' Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jonette; Neville, Eryca

    2006-01-01

    The fifth grade social studies curriculum includes a study democracy within the context of United Sates history. The traditional approach to teaching the material focuses on stories of the white, male heroes of American History and calls on students to be passive recipients of information. History is presented as a series of events that "just…

  7. Power and democracy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Goul; Jørgensen, Torben Beck; Valgårda, Signild

    the numerous projects under the Power Study, and this book is a short presentation of these conclusions.The main focus of the book is the state of democracy in Denmark at the dawn of the 21st century. How has democracy fared, has the development made things better or worse, and to which extent does......In 1997, the Danish Parliament decided to launch a power study, officially An Analysis of Democracy and Power in Denmark. A steering committee consisting of five independent researchers was assigned responsibility for the project. The Steering Committee has gathered the overall conclusions from...... contemporary democracy live up to our democratic ideals? The answer is that in many ways democracy is doing better than we might have expected, considering the intense pressure on the nation state and the democratic institutions in the postwar period. The Danish population is still full of democratic life...

  8. Rethinking Project Management in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per

    2012-01-01

    . The chapter argues for a rethinking process due to pervasiveness and complexity in the contemporary project environment where rethinking is needed in order to stay competitive. The suggested approach for the rethinking project management is a framing process where body of ideas is established......Projects are everywhere across different sectors, industries and countries. Project management is no longer a sub-discipline of engineering and other rather technical disciplines but is also used for many other purposes. Even though practice has changed dramatically over the years, the models...... and methodologies for project management has been fairly static and has therefore received substantial criticism for a lack of relevance to practice. Several scholars have therefore started to think more widely about projects and project management conceptualized as rethinking project management. However this theme...

  9. The atom and democracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remond, Rene.

    1977-01-01

    Analyzing the relations established between public opinion and nuclear energy, it is considered that it will be impossible to develop the use of this type of energy without the approval of the citizens. This approval, which assumes that the definition of the energetic choices is not seized by 'technicians' whatever their authority, is a basic condition for democracy. It involves a huge informational and public education effort so that everyone is able to have an objective opinion on a type of energy which now rises more passioned than reasoned reactions [fr

  10. On Education and the Taste for Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Paulo

    1991-01-01

    Argues that it is impossible to teach democracy without living democracy. Shows the need to create the taste for democracy, and the appetite for learning, taking risks, and for appreciating differences. Asserts that teachers are not actually champions of civil rights, freedom and democracy but will be called on to fight for these ideals. (PRA)

  11. Global Times once Again: Representative Democracy and Countervailing Trends in Iberoamerica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Roniger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the late 1990s and early 2000s democratic expectations were replaced by the discredit of democracy. Analyzing this trend, this study looks at the interplay of politics and the economic realm. It discusses the fragility and persistence of democracy and identifies the effect of recent macro-economic policies, the weakening of public goods, processes of dualization in forms of participation in the public domain. It also analyzes contrasting political trends, which involve some innovative projects institutionalizing democratic controls, but also new forms of populism and clientelism buttressed by poverty, unemployment and violence which reinforce the logic of exclusion. Finally, it suggests rethinking the public realm as a focus for the re-creation of sociability and a shared sense of future by improving public performance and efficacy, safeguarding public goods and thus promoting democratic sustainability in Iberoamerica.

  12. Political economy. On the endogeneity of political preferences: evidence from individual experience with democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs-Schündeln, Nicola; Schündeln, Matthias

    2015-03-06

    Democracies depend on the support of the general population, but little is known about the determinants of this support. We investigated whether support for democracy increases with the length of time spent under the system and whether preferences are thus affected by the political system. Relying on 380,000 individual-level observations from 104 countries over the years 1994 to 2013, and exploiting individual-level variation within a country and a given year in the length of time spent under democracy, we find evidence that political preferences are endogenous. For new democracies, our findings imply that popular support needs time to develop. For example, the effect of around 8.5 more years of democratic experience corresponds to the difference in support for democracy between primary and secondary education. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Romanian Democracy, Theory and Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romulus Brâncoveanu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This is a comment on the type of democracy in Romania, as illiberal democracy. Given the Romanian democratization process, we can hope that, in the future, all populisms and politicization will cease, and a true liberal and constitutional democracy will be installed, which will not be a „Romanian democracy” as Paul Wolfowitz suggested to be exported in Iraq. The question is whether it is good or not to „export” such a political model. „Romanian democracy” could be an exporting model only as an alternative to dictatorship and under the assumption that it will be adjusted in time, under the external pressure.

  14. Rethinking the mathematics curriculum

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyles, Celia; Woodhouse, Geoffrey

    1998-01-01

    At a time when political interest in mathematics education is at its highest, this book demonstrates that the issues are far from straightforward. A wide range of international contributors address such questions as: What is mathematics, and what is it for? What skills does mathematics education need to provide as technology advances? What are the implications for teacher education? What can we learn from past attempts to change the mathematics curriculum? Rethinking the Mathematics Curriculum offers stimulating discussions, showing much is to be learnt from the differences in culture, national expectations, and political restraints revealed in the book. This accessible book will be of particular interest to policy makers, curriculum developers, educators, researchers and employers as well as the general reader.

  15. Rethinking the Enlightenment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehuda Elkana

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this introductory statement, given at the beginning of the Aboagora symposium in Turku in August 2011, Yehuda Elkana highlights the need, in accordance with the title of the conference, to rethink rather than unthink the Enlightenment. Indeed, the Enlightenment remained an unfinished project, but one should never forget that this era formed the basis for the greatest and most important creation of knowledge in all areas for 300 years. Over the last 100 or more years, however, cracks have started to appear in this edifice, Elkana argues: researchers have started to realise that one cannot really distinguish the rational from the irrational and that being contextual does not necessarily mean being relativist.

  16. Rethinking Sexual Citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Diane

    2017-04-01

    Over the last two decades sexuality has emerged as a key theme in debates about citizenship, leading to the development of the concept of sexual citizenship. This article reviews this literature and identifies four main areas of critical framing: work that contests the significance of sexuality to citizenship; critiques that focus on the possibilities and limitations of mobilising the language of citizenship in sexual politics; analyses of sexual citizenship in relation to nationalisms and border making; and literature that critically examines western constructions of sexuality and sexual politics underpinning understandings of sexual citizenship. In order to progress the field theoretically, the article seeks to extend critiques of sexual citizenship focusing on two key aspects of its construction: the sexual citizen-subject and spaces of sexual citizenship. It argues for a critical rethink that encompasses a de-centring of a 'western-centric' focus in order to advance understandings of how sexual citizenship operates both in the Global North and South.

  17. The Dialectics of Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Roman-Lagerspetz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ”Thinking publicly otherwise” is one of the foundations of democracy. The task of the opposition in a democratic system is to express distrust, to criticize the actions of the government and to provide an alternative. The opposition institutionalizes distrust, and, paradoxically, the presence of this institutionalized distrust is, for the citizens, one important reason to trust the democratic system. The claim defended here is that the relationship between the government and the opposition can be understood in terms of Hegel’s dialectics. Although Hegel’s political theory as formulated in his Philosophy of Right emphasizes the unifying role of the State, his earlier philosophy contains more democratic potential.

  18. RIGHTS, RULES, AND DEMOCRACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S. Kay, University of Connecticut-School of Law, Estados Unidos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Democracy require protection of certain fundamental rights, but can we expect courts to follow rules? There seems little escape from the proposition that substantive constitutional review by an unelected judiciary is a presumptive abridgement of democratic decision-making. Once we have accepted the proposition that there exist human rights that ought to be protected, this should hardly surprise us. No one thinks courts are perfect translators of the rules invoked before them on every occasion. But it is equally clear that rules sometimes do decide cases. In modern legal systems the relative roles of courts and legislators with respect to the rules of the system is a commonplace. Legislatures make rules. Courts apply them in particular disputes. When we are talking about human rights, however, that assumption must be clarified in at least one way. The defense of the practice of constitutional review in this article assumes courts can and do enforce rules. This article also makes clear what is the meaning of “following rules”. Preference for judicial over legislative interpretation of rights, therefore, seems to hang on the question of whether or not judges are capable of subordinating their own judgment to that incorporated in the rules by their makers. This article maintains that, in general, entrenched constitutional rules (and not just constitutional courts can and do constrain public conduct and protect human rights. The article concludes that the value judgments will depend on our estimate of the benefits we derive from the process of representative self-government. Against those benefits we will have to measure the importance we place on being able to live our lives with the security created by a regime of human rights protected by the rule of law. Keywords: Democracy. Human Rights. Rules. Judicial Review.

  19. The Myth of Bourgeois Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Andreas Christian Møller; Stahl, Rune Møller

    representative democracy - not abolish it. Third, we highlight how Leninists and liberals have unknowingly colluded to sustain the myth that parliamentary democracy is essentially liberal. Finally, turning our attention to the current neoliberal conjuncture, we argue that Badiou’s and Žižek’s notion......This paper argues that the Left should move beyond the commonplace understanding – upheld by Alain Badiou and Slavoj Žižek - that parliamentary democracy is essentially of a bourgeois nature. We show first how the introduction of parliamentary democracy – defined as constitutionalization of state...... power under a legislative body, with regular elections and universal suffrage – was everywhere a result of the pressure of social movements from below against the aspirations of both conservatives and liberals. Second, we reread Marx on the Paris Commune to discover how Marx wanted to radicalize...

  20. an a Fledgling Democracy take

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    process and the country's prospects for consolidating a democracy in the future. ... Mark Anstey is a Professor in Labour Relations, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan ... potentials for hydro-electric power it is shockingly underdeveloped, boasting.

  1. Public Participation Guide: Electronic Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electronic democracy describes a wide range of interactive tools that embrace existing and emergent media sources as a forum for allowing members of the public to express opinions and seek to influence decision-making.

  2. Democracy is a historical urgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synek, Miroslav

    2015-03-01

    Survival of humanity, on this planet, may depend, heavily, on coping with advancing technology of nuclear missiles. Let us consider critical alternatives of powerful governments: democracy, as an alternative to dictatorship. Democracy is based on free elections, as a government of the people, by the people and for the people. Democracy is a historical urgency, in the age of inter-continental nuclear missiles, computerized on a push-button, conceivably controllable by a very powerful, miscalculating and/or insane, dictator, capable of producing global nuclear holocaust, on our entire planet. Diplomacy, together with supporting activities, should be utilized, to help, in important steps, at this time, for achieving democracy in critical areas.

  3. Are coups good for democracy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Derpanopoulos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of recent studies argue that coups can help usher in democracy. We examine this relationship empirically by looking at the political regimes that follow coups in autocracies, as well as the level of repression against citizens. We find that, though democracies are occasionally established in the wake of coups, more often new authoritarian regimes emerge, along with higher levels of state-sanctioned violence.

  4. Conceptual Foundations Of Deliberative Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елизавета Васильевна Золотарева

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the analysis of theoretical foundations of deliberative model of democracy that is formed on the basis of synthesis of traditionally opposing approaches to research of democracy — liberal political philosophy (J. Rawls and critical social theory (J. Habermas. Special attention is paid to the problems of testing of normative requirements to the public discourse as the basis of deliberative process.

  5. Inventions and developments of democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe

    2010-01-01

    In traditional approaches to the history of political ideas, the history of democracy is uniformly studied concerning the point of departure, selection of canonical texts, etc. The paper introduces the Koselleckian conceptual history approach (Begriffsgeschichte) and the principle of a broader...... selection of texts than in the traditional history of ideas to provide a fuller account of usages of the concept, thereby opening up for alternative conceptions of the inventions and development of democracy....

  6. Just Democracy. A Radical Assessment.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquemain, Marc

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a tentative assessment of the Rawls-Machiavelli program by Philippe Van Paris, who proposes that justice is the main goal of political action (in a Rawlsian perspective) and democracy is only instrumental (the Machiavellian part of the program). The paper adresses three questions to the proposal of Philippe Van Paris : 1) Can democracy be properly defined without a condition of public debate ? 2) Don't "realistic politics" underestimate the margin of possibility we have to chang...

  7. Music and Education in Our American Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mones, Leon

    2013-01-01

    In this article Leon Mones expresses his deep interest in the functional role of music in Western culture and particularly in the system of public education that has been designed to assure the survival and advancement of Western culture and the people who will live within it. In other words, he is interested in music as a dynamic experience in…

  8. Deweyan Democracy: The Epistemic Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jón Olafsson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available John Dewey famously argued that we should think of democracy as a “way of life”. What this consists in he described as participating according to capacity in public decisions and participating according to need or desire in forming values. He also characterized democracy as “a mode of associated living, of conjoint communicated experience” (Dewey 1966 p. 87; 1954 p. 147; 1957 p. 209. Such and other passages in Dewey’s works show that his conception of democracy is complex. He did not think of it simply as a way of decision-making, nor is democratic procedure of particular importance to him. Concepts such as “associated living” or “communicated experience” point to the social dimensions Dewey was particularly interested in. Dewey also repeatedly claims that democracy demands “social return” from every individual and that democracy enables everyone to develop “distinct capacities” (Dewey 1966, p. 122. A related claim emphasizes how, in a democracy, “all share in useful service and enjoy a worthy leisure” (Dewey 1966, p. 256.

  9. Quality of democracy in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. LEVINE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Discussions of democracy in contemporary Venezuela lack a settled definition of the subject, how to study it, or indeed of what counts as «democracy» in the first place. The regime has been described as everything from participatory democracy, hybrid, mixed, and personalist to populist, illiberal, or no longer democratic but rather competitive authoritarian. The goal of this article is to measure the quality of democracy in Venezuela, within the terms of a procedural concept of democracy as detailed in our earlier work. Empirical measurement of the quality of democracy on five dimensions (electoral choice, participation, responsiveness, accountability, sovereignty reveals a low level overall and deep institutional weakness under a personalist leadership, with little change from 2005 to 2010. Future scenarios, after the 2012 presidential election result, include reinforcement of authoritarian trends, open militarization, liberalization and institutional strengthening, or long term volatility and polarized conflict. All scenarios are contingent on the health of President Chávez, who is a central unifying factor for his movement and regime

  10. Rethinking macroeconomic policies for development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Nayyar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The global economic crisis has created an opportunity to rethink macroeconomics for development. Such rethinking is both necessary and desirable. It is essential to redefine macroeconomic objectives so that the emphasis is on fostering employment creation and supporting economic growth instead of the focus on price stability alone. It is just as important to rethink macroeconomic policies which cannot simply be used for the management of inflation and the elimination of macroeconomic imbalances, since fiscal and monetary policies are powerful and versatile instruments in the pursuit of development objectives. In doing so, it is essential to the overcome the constraints embedded in orthodox economic thinking and recognize the constraints implicit in the politics of ideology and interests.

  11. Rethinking Journalism Again

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . But does rehashing such familiar rationales bring journalism studies forward? Does it contribute to ongoing discussions surrounding journalism’s viability going forth? For all their seeming self-evidence, this book considers what bearing these old platitudes have in the new digital era. It asks whether......It’s easy to make a rhetorical case for the value of journalism. Because, it is a necessary precondition for democracy; it speaks to the people and for the people; it informs citizens and enables them to make rational decisions; it functions as their watchdog on government and other powers that be...... such hopeful talk really reflects the concrete roles journalism now performs for people in their everyday lives. In essence, it poses questions that strike at the core of the idea of journalism itself. Is there a singular journalism that has one well-defined role in society? Is its public mandate as strong...

  12. Re-thinking residential mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ham, Maarten; Findlay, Allan M.

    2015-01-01

    While researchers are increasingly re-conceptualizing international migration, far less attention has been devoted to re-thinking short-distance residential mobility and immobility. In this paper we harness the life course approach to propose a new conceptual framework for residential mobility research. We contend that residential mobility and immobility should be re-conceptualized as relational practices that link lives through time and space while connecting people to structural conditions. Re-thinking and re-assessing residential mobility by exploiting new developments in longitudinal analysis will allow geographers to understand, critique and address pressing societal challenges. PMID:27330243

  13. Problem of Democracy Promotion in the of Postcolonial Feminism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav A. Muzalevskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of democratization as a neocolonial practice. The author argues that the spread of democracy is similar in many respects to colonialism and civilizing mission as universal and even messianic phenomena. He notes that both of these phenomena, despite the similarity of their origin, have different "gender basis" (colonialism has characteristics of masculinity and civilizing mission - of femininity. The author reviewed the history of transforming the concepts of "colonialism" and "civilizing mission". Results parallels between the two phenomena are analyzed as a specific intellectual and public discourse in a particular era influenced the formation of both phenomena. Examples of national civilizing projects, their intellectual potential and influence on contemporary world politics are also considered. The echoes of colonialism and civilizing mission are visible in US and the EU doctrines of democracy promotion. Examining the evolution of approaches to democratization, the author finds the differences in strategic culture of the United States and the European Union: if the American establishment have a propensity to masculine practice of democracy promotion ("democratic enlargement", the project "Greater Middle East", etc., and European leadership prefers feminine practices. In terms of the post-colonial feminism, this approach does not give these actors any special benefits, as it offers the ineffective governing strategy of the local population, not taking into account, and often denying the specific cultural environment of democracy promotion, paying more attention to institutional characteristics (lack of certain civil rights and freedoms, lack of transparency in the work of public authorities, etc.. The author notes that the current strategy of democracy promotion, though being more complex, creates the effect of "double discrimination", when both the local people and local women (imposing image of "a free and

  14. Discussing the Prospects of European Democracy with Alexis de Tocqueville

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Eidukienė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the concept of democracy proposed by Alexis de Tocqueville, a famous French historian and sociologist. Special attention is paid to the definition of democracy, the dialectics of freedom and equality as well as the issues of relationship between democracy and centralization of power, democracy and individualism, and democracy and the tyranny of the majority. Tocqueville‘s liberal theory is an excellent example of the political project of the early modern period; it was in step with or, in many cases, ahead of France‘s political evolution, thereby contributing to the formation of the intellectual climate of the later 20th century. More than that, Tocqueville‘s political thought remains relevant even today. He is valued as an innovator, who, as Zbigniew Brzezinski put it, „understood earlier and interpreted better than anyone the uniqueness of the American experiment... His judgements are to this day remarkably prescient and incisive“ (Brzezinski 2011. Consequently, Tocqueville‘s book Democracy in America is a text that is worth being reread. In each political period the readers of this text rediscover anew the meaning of the messages communicated by the author. This depends on the political consciousness, political culture and the „quality“ of the recipients, i.e. on their ability to process and adapt the received information to their times, their state, their specific situation or a specific subject. Tocqueville invites his readers to engage in communicative reading (i.e. dialogue and discussions, which is an important part of modern political communication and political practice. It is also one of the most important attributes of politics and a reliable instrument that makes it easier to form modern political theories and solve political problems. 

  15. Rethink Your Drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartigan, Phyllis; Patton-Ku, Dana; Fidler, Cheri; Boutelle, Kerri N

    2017-03-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are linked to obesity; hospitals are a priority setting to reduce intake. This article describes the development, implementation, and results of a focused intervention to reduce SSB sales within a hospital setting. After a formative research process, Rethink Your Drink was launched at a children's hospital in San Diego. The initiative consisted of an educational intervention using the stoplight system to categorize beverages as red, yellow, or green based on sugar content. Beverage sales data were collected for 3 months prior, during the 12-month intervention, and for 4 months after the intervention ended. Monthly red beverage sales decreased from an average of 56% during baseline to 32% at the end of the data collection period (p sales increased from an average of 12.2% during baseline to 38% at the end of the data collection period (p Sales revenue for all drinks remained constant. The intervention resulted in a decrease in SSB sales and an increase in sales of healthier beverage choices. Such interventions can play an important role in obesity prevention and may be more feasible for smaller hospitals with limited resources.

  16. Rethinking language in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterponi, Laura; de Kirby, Kenton; Shankey, Jennifer

    2015-07-01

    In this article, we invite a rethinking of traditional perspectives of language in autism. We advocate a theoretical reappraisal that offers a corrective to the dominant and largely tacitly held view that language, in its essence, is a referential system and a reflection of the individual's cognition. Drawing on scholarship in Conversation Analysis and linguistic anthropology, we present a multidimensional view of language, showing how it also functions as interactional accomplishment, social action, and mode of experience. From such a multidimensional perspective, we revisit data presented by other researchers that include instances of prototypical features of autistic speech, giving them a somewhat different-at times complementary, at times alternative-interpretation. In doing so, we demonstrate that there is much at stake in the view of language that we as researchers bring to our analysis of autistic speech. Ultimately, we argue that adopting a multidimensional view of language has wide ranging implications, deepening our understanding of autism's core features and developmental trajectory. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Rethinking Sexual Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Over the last two decades sexuality has emerged as a key theme in debates about citizenship, leading to the development of the concept of sexual citizenship. This article reviews this literature and identifies four main areas of critical framing: work that contests the significance of sexuality to citizenship; critiques that focus on the possibilities and limitations of mobilising the language of citizenship in sexual politics; analyses of sexual citizenship in relation to nationalisms and border making; and literature that critically examines western constructions of sexuality and sexual politics underpinning understandings of sexual citizenship. In order to progress the field theoretically, the article seeks to extend critiques of sexual citizenship focusing on two key aspects of its construction: the sexual citizen-subject and spaces of sexual citizenship. It argues for a critical rethink that encompasses a de-centring of a ‘western-centric’ focus in order to advance understandings of how sexual citizenship operates both in the Global North and South. PMID:28490816

  18. Corporate media versus democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. McChesney

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Nota introdutória de Dênis de Moraes:

    Em 13 de janeiro de 1999, Robert W. McChesney gentilmente me autorizou a publicar, na nossa revista eletrônica Ciberlegenda, o importante artigo a seguir, baseado em questões abordadas em seu livro Corporate media and the threat to democracy (Seven Stories Press, 1997. PhD e professor da School of Journalism and Mass Communication da University of Wisconsin-Madison, nos Estados Unidos, é um dos mais categorizados pesquisadores sobre as mídias globais. Insere-se na tradição intelectual de Noam Chomsky e de Herbert I. Schiller — pensadores que, vivendo no centro hegemônico do world system, se distinguem como críticos das formas de dominação ideológica norte-americanas, particularmente as disseminadas por seus colossais impérios de informação e entretenimento.

  19. Gender, globalisation, and democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walby, S

    2000-03-01

    This article discusses the link between gender, globalization and democracy in relation to women¿s empowerment. Analyzing gender relations within the processes of development planning involves five approaches: 1) welfare, 2) equity, 3) anti-poverty, 4) efficiency, and 5) empowerment. In addition, a new approach, which combines efficiency and empowerment, must be added to highlight the problematic nature of the direction of causality assumed by traditional theory of development. The rise on women's representation in national parliament can be attributed to the increase of women's economic power and women's political struggles. However, promotion of globalization produces new opportunities for feminist politics, as well as difficulties, which include: the emergent position of productive engagement in which an efficient economy and democratic society are seen as interdependent; and increase in parliamentary representation correlates with increased paid employment for women. In conclusion, the author underscores that globalization is a gendered process which is restructuring social relations on a large scale and the challenges it bring provide opportunities for women in development.

  20. Does the digital age require new models of democracy? : lasswell's policy scientist of democracy vs. Liquid democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelena Gregorius

    2015-01-01

    This essay provides a debate about Lasswell’s policy scientist of democracy (PSOD, 1948) in comparison to the model of liquid democracy (21st century) based on the question if the digital age requires new models of democracy. The PSOD of Lasswell, a disciplinary persona, is in favour of an elitist

  1. Addams, Day, and Dewey: The Emergence of Community Service in American Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Keith; Saltmarsh, John

    1997-01-01

    Chronicles the emergence of community service in the United States, beginning with the turn-of-the-century collision of capitalism and democracy which generated a crisis of community and profound rethinking of the meaning and practice of charity. Three service "paths" are identified: nonprofit human services organizations; active…

  2. Conceptions of "Nordic Democracy" and European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe

    Reluctance towards European integration in the Nordic countries is doubtlessly more connected to ideas on democracy than elsewhere. This goes not only for the (empirical) practicability of democracy but also for the (normative) desirability of democracy in the EU. After the Second World War, when...... and reborn after the Second World War as genuine democracy. However, a third narrative developed in which democracy was seen as having its roots in the Nordic countries dating back to the Viking Age or earlier. In the period from the 1940s to the 1980s, a number of Nordic anthologies contained articles...... the process of contemporary European integration was approaching, and the concept of democracy at the same time was heavily contested in public debates and among academics, two conceptions of democracy were struggling: On one hand, democracy was recognized as a European value developing in the form...

  3. Essay on legitimacy and democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Kaplanova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The aim of the paper is to deeply analyze a concept of legitimacy. Based on the classical works of Lipset and Habermas, the paper discusses conditions, efficiency, and presumptions on which a modern democratic political system stands. Method: The paper analyzes a relationship between positivist and normative understanding of legitimacy questioning a democratic political order. By a content analysis of two main theories of legitimacy, the paper examines a sense of democratic legitimacy in modern societies. Results: A legitimacy is a pillar of any democracy. From the structuralist point of view, in societies there are three main types of crises (economic, social, political, which are present constantly and interconnected by nature and implications. Each crisis creates a specific deficit and challenge for democracy. By overcoming, a stability of democracy is strengthened which makes a (crisis of legitimacy inevitable. Society: In a time of post-truth politics and crisis of democracy, there is a lack of research dealing with a legitimacy of the democratic regime. By pointing out classical approaches to a stability of democracy, there should be elaborated a new construct of democratic legitimacy reflecting structural conditions of modern societies. This paper is trying to offer an insight into a normative understanding of this construction. Limitations / further research: A theoretical approach could be verified by an empirical research.

  4. The Re-Think Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gear, Jim

    1993-01-01

    The Re-Think Tree is a simple framework to help individuals assess and improve their behaviors related to environmental issues. The branches of the tree in order of priority are refuse, reduce, re-use, and recycle. Roots of the tree include such things as public opinion, education, and watchdog groups. (KS)

  5. Rethinking Popular Culture and Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Elizabeth, Ed.; Sensoy, Ozlem, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Rethinking Popular Culture and Media" is a provocative collection of articles that begins with the idea that the "popular" in classrooms and in the everyday lives of teachers and students is fundamentally political. This anthology includes outstanding articles by elementary and secondary public school teachers, scholars, and activists who…

  6. Democracy and Teacher Education: Setting Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jesse H.

    2009-01-01

    As John Dewey noted in his last book, each generation, in its turn, must assume responsibility as caretaker of democracy. He noted that one should never take democracy for granted. Everyone lives in an imperfect democracy, and teacher educators should play their part in protecting, nurturing, and advancing democratic ideals, rituals, values, and…

  7. Deliberative Democracy and Adult Civic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcasson, Martin; Sprain, Leah

    2012-01-01

    Adult education programs should turn to the deliberative democracy movement in order to help their communities better address the "wicked problems" they face. The authors contend that due to the "wicked" nature of problems in the diverse democracies, communities must develop and sustain their capacity for deliberative democracy and collaborative…

  8. Practicing Democracy in the NCLB Elementary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Margaret H.

    2010-01-01

    The practice of teaching democracy in school is diminishing. The implementation of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) has forced teachers to teach to the test, and has required some to follow scripted curriculum, leaving little time or incentive for teaching democracy. This study examines the importance of practicing democracy and identifies ways in…

  9. Democracy and development: the Nigerian experience | Ebohon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conventional notions on the relationship between democracy and development are that democracy accelerates development. Based on the Nigeria experience, this paper argues that both democracy and authoritarianism are social system based political ideologies that derives their character from the wider society, ...

  10. Exportação de democracia na política externa norte-americana no pós-Guerra-Fria: doutrinas e o uso da força Exporting of democracy in American foreign policy in the post-Cold War period: the doctrine and the use of force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena de Castro Santos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa os pilares da política externa americana no pós-guerra fria, mirando o lugar que ai ocupa democracia e sua relação com segurança. Busca-se mais especificamente as bases da doutrina da política externa que justificam a exportação de democracia pelo uso da força. Utilizou-se a análise de conteúdo quantitativa e qualitativa de 415 discursos dos Presidentes e Secretários de Estado entre 1989 e 2008.The article analyses the pillars of the American foreign policy in the post-cold war period, focusing on the importance democracy vis-à-vis security plays in it as well as their relationship. More specifically the work aims to define the bases of the doctrine of the foreign policy that justify exporting democracy by the use of force. It was used quantitative and qualitative content analysis of 414 speeches of the Presidents and Secretaries of States in the period 1989-2008.

  11. Power and democracy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Goul; Jørgensen, Torben Beck; Valgårda, Signild

    In 1997, the Danish Parliament decided to launch a power study, officially An Analysis of Democracy and Power in Denmark. A steering committee consisting of five independent researchers was assigned responsibility for the project. The Steering Committee has gathered the overall conclusions from...... the numerous projects under the Power Study, and this book is a short presentation of these conclusions.The main focus of the book is the state of democracy in Denmark at the dawn of the 21st century. How has democracy fared, has the development made things better or worse, and to which extent does......, and the political institutions show considerable democratic robustness. However, not everything has gone or is going well. There are still pronounced social divisions in Danish society, although their nature has changed somewhat. The ideal of an informed public debate does not always enjoy the best conditions...

  12. A New Index of Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M. de Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyses and revises the latest Democracy Index published by the Economist Intelligence Unit in the United Kingdom. We analyze the changes produced in the index from 2006 to 2011, as well as in the five basic factors that constitute the index: electoral process and pluralism; civil liberties; the functioning of government; political participation; and political culture. The analysis of these factors ?measured by sixty variables? has made it possible to develop a new index, based on the data from 167 countries, and calculate a revised ranking. Countries have been classified into four types: democracies, flawed democracies, mixed systems, and authoritarian/totalitarian regimes. The new index permits a better understanding of the impact of the crisis through variables such as economic growth, human development, quality of life, corruption, and violence.

  13. DEMOCRACY AND EDUCATION ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulfa Masamah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Education is one of the media that is Able to help develop the potential of all human beings. Over time the implementation of many educational experience problems when the role of education has a significant influence on improving the quality of human life. Islamic education as an agent of social change should be Able to hit the problem that move dynamically and proactively to the advancement and improvement of Muslims. Das sollen, the purpose of education in Islam as the process of formation of human beings to conform with the nature of existence. Therefore, we need an alternative thinking in an effort to minimize the various educational failure. Democratization of education Considered as a solution capable of Islamic education in creating a humanist. Education that does not justify the existence of intimidation, repression and restrictions on the creativity of teachers and students can be Realized with the Efforts to create a democracy marked by education teaching-learning process that is open and full of healthy and responsible dialogue between teacher and pupil. Humanist atmosphere in education will deliver the achievement of educational goals of Islam. Islamic education is basically the Democratization of space, the which is where the education is directed at a dialogical space. Moreover, the ultimate goal of Islamic education directs its final destination on the behavior and attitude changes, the quality and variety of aspects that promote humanism space. Islamic education should be oriented to instill democratic values in the learning process, such as openness, mutual respect, sympathy, empathy, solidarity, and their understanding of pluralism in a pluralistic life.

  14. Rethinking Educational Evaluation for Quality Educational Outcomes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rethinking Educational Evaluation for Quality Educational Outcomes. ... Educational Evaluation (EE) provides information for action by offering invaluable knowledge in terms of theoretical and practical ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  15. Jurisdiction Size and Local Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, David Dreyer; Serritslew, Søren

    2011-01-01

    and problems of endogeneity. We focus on internal political efficacy, a psychological condition that many see as necessary for high-quality participatory democracy. We identify a quasiexperiment, a large-scale municipal reform in Denmark, which allows us to estimate a causal effect of jurisdiction size......Optimal jurisdiction size is a cornerstone of government design. A strong tradition in political thought argues that democracy thrives in smaller jurisdictions, but existing studies of the effects of jurisdiction size, mostly cross-sectional in nature, yield ambiguous results due to sorting effects...

  16. Democracy Dies in Dualisms. A Response to "Dewey and Democracy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarofian-Butin, Dan

    2017-01-01

    This essay reviews Atkinson's article "Dewey and Democracy" and argues that while Dewey and the social foundations classroom may indeed be important for teacher preparation, it is not in the way Atkinson suggests. Namely, I argue that Atkinson's essay has three distinct (yet interrelated) issues: his problematic oversimplifications, what…

  17. Democracy, political representation, leadership and the institutional question. Debates on the theory and practice of politics in contemporary democracies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Fair

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the problem of political representation in contemporary democracies, its links with the role of political leadership and the institutional issue. In the first part, it examines the debates on political representation from the predominant perspectives of Latin American political science and critiques from alternative views of the discipline. The second part focuses on representative democracies today, examining the links and tensions between Laclau´s post-foundational theory of populism and neo-institutionalist political science. The last part critiques laclausian theory of populism, distinguishing conceptually between the institutional, administrative and pluralistic elements and the liberal tradition, which appears juxtaposed in the laclausian approach, and between the populist (post-foundational and ideological (foundational forms, on the basis of the analytical differences between authoritarianism, dictatorship and totalitarism. After that, some resources of the classical tradition of democracy and republicanism are incorporated, which are sub-theorized in Laclau’s approach. Finally, these tools are used to conceptualize and analyze two dimensions, defined as participatory-horizontal-popular and representative-pluralist, which tend to construct a post-foundational theory of radical democracy for the twenty-first century.

  18. Semiotic, Rhetoric and Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Mackey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper unites Deely’s call for a better understanding of semiotics with Jaeger’s insight into the sophists and the cultural history of the Ancient Greeks. The two bodies of knowledge are brought together to try to better understand the importance of rhetorical processes to political forms such as democracy. Jaeger explains how cultural expression, particularly poetry, changed through the archaic and classical eras to deliver, or at least to be commensurate with contemporary politics and ideologies. He explains how Plato (429-347 BCE struggled against certain poetry and prose manifestations in his ambition to create a ‘perfect man’ – a humanity which would think in a way which would enable the ideal Republic to flourish. Deely’s approach based on Poinsot and Peirce presents a theoretical framework by means of which we can think of the struggle to influence individual and communal conceptualisation as a struggle within semiotics. This is a struggle over the ways reality is signified by signs. Signs are physical and mental indications which, in the semiotic tradition, are taken to produce human subjectivity – human ‘being’. Deely’s extensive body of work is about how these signs are the building blocks of realist constructions of understanding. This paper is concerned with the deliberate use of oral and written signs in rhetorical activity which have been deliberately crafted to change subjectivity. We discuss: (1 what thought and culture is in terms of semiotics and (2 Jaeger’s depiction of Ancient Greece as an illustration of the conjunction between culture and subjectivity. These two fields are brought together in order to make the argument that rhetoric can be theorised as the deliberate harnessing of semiotic effects. The implication is that the same semiotic, subjectivity-changing potency holds for 21st century rhetoric. However fourth century BCE Athens is the best setting for a preliminary discussion of rhetoric as

  19. Popular democracy and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallis, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    The US has moved from representative democracy to popular democracy and public scrutiny is unrelenting. Any hope of success on their part in resolving the nuclear waste question hinges on their ability to condition themselves to operate in a popular democracy environment. Those opposed to the siting of high- and low-level waste repositories have already developed a set of recurring themes: (1) the siting criteria are fatally flawed; (2) the criteria are not adequate; (3) the process is driven by politics not science; (4) unrealistic deadlines lead to dangerous shortcuts; (5) transportation experience is lacking; (6) the scientific community does not really know how to dispose of the wastes. They must continue to tell the public that if science has brought us problems, then the answer can be only more knowledge - not less. Failure by their profession to recognize that popular democracy is a fact and that nuclear issues need to be addressed in humanistic terms raises the question of whether America is philosophically suited for the expanded use of nuclear power in the future - or for that matter for leadership in the world of tomorrow

  20. Critical Viewing and Participatory Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jodi R.

    1994-01-01

    Illustrates ways that the work of some communication scholars with resistant, oppositional, and critical audiences does not, however, endorse active public life. Attempts to realign the language of critical viewing with the goals of participatory democracy by suggesting qualities of critical viewing that are conducive to achieving and maintaining…

  1. Do the Media Undermine Democracy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, William A.

    This paper considers political reasoning within a democracy and how mass media may affect that process, as well as how the perspective and method of critical thinking may be brought to bear on the subject of media and politics. Specifically, the paper (1) discusses some ways in which the mass media may affect political reasoning; (2) offers a…

  2. COMMUNITY POWER AND GRASSROOTS DEMOCRACY

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    8, Political Decentralization and Popular Alternatives: A View from the South ... Power and Grassroots Democracy, the result of a multi-country research project and .... Its roots also lie in the progressive decomposition of the two prevalent .... inequalities — inequalities based on sex, age, color, sexual orientation, and so forth.

  3. Flavor Democracy in Particle Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultansoy, Saleh

    2007-01-01

    The flavor democracy hypothesis (or, in other words, democratic mass matrix approach) was introduced in seventies taking in mind three Standard Model (SM) families. Later, this idea was disfavored by the large value of the t-quark mass. In nineties the hypothesis was revisited assuming that extra SM families exist. According to flavor democracy the fourth SM family should exist and there are serious arguments disfavoring the fifth SM family. The fourth SM family quarks lead to essential enhancement of the Higgs boson production cross-section at hadron colliders and the Tevatron can discover the Higgs boson before the LHC, if it mass is between 140 and 200 GeV. Then, one can handle 'massless' Dirac neutrinos without see-saw mechanism. Concerning BSM physics, flavor democracy leads to several consequences: tanβ ≅ mt/mb ≅ 40 if there are three MSSM families; super-partner of the right-handed neutrino can be the LSP; relatively light E(6)-inspired isosinglet quark etc. Finally, flavor democracy may give opportunity to handle ''massless'' composite objects within preonic models

  4. Democracy, globalization and ethnic violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, D.J.; Jong-A-Pin, R.

    Bezemer, Dirk, and Jong-A-Pin, Richard Democracy, globalization and ethnic violence Do democratization and globalization processes combine to increase the incidence of violence in developing and emerging economies? The present paper examines this hypothesis by a study of internal violence in

  5. Designing the Future of Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pichlmair, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Creating a simulation of Democracy and its future challenges is a fruitful exercise in design. This short paper describes a different use of a simulation that the traditional training via playing. Instead of playing, the creation of the simulation is at the center of attention....

  6. E-democracy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Jens Villiam

    Already in the 1970's and -80's high hopes for democracy were connected with the rise of technologies like cableTV and digital telephones. This outburst of 'utopian energy' was greatly accelerated with the breakthrough of the Internet in the beginning/middle of the 1990's, and both politicians...

  7. The Western Way? Democracy and the Media Assistance Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daire Higgins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available International media assistance took off during a time where the ideological extremes of USA vs. USSR were set to disappear. Following the Cold War, international relations focused on democracy building, and nurturing independent media was embraced as a key part of this strategy. Fukayama called it the ‘End of History’, the fact that all other ideologies had fallen and Western style democracy was set to become the one common ideology. The US and UK led the way in media assistance, with their liberal ideas of a free press, bolstered by free market capitalism. America was the superpower, and forged the way around the globe with its beacon of democracy. Under that guiding light they would bring truth, accuracy, freedom of expression and independent reporting to the countries which had so long lived under the shadow of communism, or authoritarian media systems. This is what propelled and justified American foreign policy, and their media assistance, for many years. Much work was thus carried out in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet satellites, but many now question the impact and legacy of these projects. When the US and UK spoke of media assistance they seemed to mean ‘free market’. These days, the ‘democracy promoters’ focus has turned more to Africa and the Middle East. The ideology is apparently the same: to help establish and support democracy with a stronger and more independent media. But with Western economies, and their media systems, in crisis, the relevance of this media assistance model is questioned. This essay looks at the history of media assistance and the ongoing debate on the impact of media assistance over the long term, its motives and the new balance of power appearing in international media development.

  8. Rethinking the Space for Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What happens to people’s sense of belonging when globalization meets with proclaimed regional identities resting heavily on conceptions of religion and ethnicity? Who are the actors stressing cultural heritage and authenticity as tools for self-understanding? In Rethinking the Space for Religion...... as a political and cultural argument. The approach makes a nuanced and fresh survey for researchers and other initiated readers to engage in....

  9. Towards rethinking Project portfolio management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kristian; Svejvig, Per

    the last five years. Utilizing the theoretical lens proposed by Svejvig and Andersen (2015), we apply two complementary analytical perspectives to classify and analyze the stocks. One perspective, denoted as classical project management (CPM), highlights key characteristics of conventional research....... A second perspective, denoted as rethinking project management (RPM), highlights characteristics of progressive research. Not surprisingly, characteristics from CPM are very dominant in the stock of most cited publications of all years — instrumentality and controllability in particular. In the newest...

  10. Rethinking Canada's Higher Education Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polster, Claire

    2002-01-01

    Rather than a public good that is freely shared, Canadian university research is increasingly privatized and commercialized and thus rendered accessible only to those who can pay for it. The effects include erosion of collegiality, institutional democracy, curiosity-driven basic research, objectivity, and consideration of disadvantaged groups. All…

  11. "Views of democracy and peace” inequality, minorities and radical democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TizianoTelleschi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Democracy is a moral and practical system conveying living proximity, including definition of love-AGAPE, conflict, inequality, power. First we highlight “what it is” love and “what it is” power. Then, in order to overcome inequality weapply the love theory to an acknowledgment theory to figure out the mediator figure, that is able to build a social space where love-AGAPE may thrive and power may be restored to its relational nature, that is negotiable. From this point we go on analyzing the distributed power (horizontal. At last, thank to A. Gramsci’s hegemony notion, we point out the ideal of radical democracy as the most fertile along the others, to which a common action from different types of qualified mediators should tend.

  12. On the Educational Thoughts in Dewey's Democracy and Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zong-xia

    2016-01-01

    Dewey is a famous American educator,and his Democracy and Education is a complete and systematic theoretical sys-tem of education,so it is know as the classics education, progressive education theory of the general program.There are many de-fects and deficiencies in the education of junior middle school in our country,the pragmatism education thought in the book has a great influence on the education of junior middle school in our country,so analysis of the educational thoughts of Dewey's De-mocracy and Education,such as"child centered theory","school is society", education is"life","learn from doing"and so on,this is to improve the history education of junior high school in our country and further promote the education reform of our country has a great positive significance.

  13. ¿Más participación igual a mejor democracia? Acerca de la crítica a la democracia participativa // More participation equal than better democracy? On critic to participatory democracy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ramírez Nárdiz

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, and in countries as Spain, the critic to the representative democracy as it is conceived in the present seems to go beyond the usual thought about the representation crisis to reach amendment to the whole levels where it is not any more asked to reform specific aspects of the representative model, but to rethink the whole model. It is not proposed a different political model than democratic one, but it is proposed a different democracy that, specially and together with the reform of the more characteristic representative institutions and elements (being the political parties the axis of these reforms, looks for a bigger participation of the citizens in public life in general and in the political decision making in particular finding in participatory democracy one of the pillars of the new proposed democratic model. The question arises when posing if this bigger citizens´ participation is compatible with the representative model and can contribute to change it improving it or if, conversely, a bigger citizens´ political participation can lead to pernicious effects, both involuntary and caused by material limitations of participatory tools, both voluntary wished by rulers and political operators than, in the name of a political improvement materialized through a bigger participation, don´t look for another thing but to reach, to keep and to increase their power even at the cost of a democratic weakening materialized in a worsening of the quality of the representative institutions of the State. It is, therefore, relevant to pose if a bigger participatory democracy necessarily leads to a better democracy, or if contrary happens. On this paper, starting from the role of participatory democracy as possible complement that helps to the improving of representative democracy, the critics to the participatory democracy are exposed and it is tried to give a proposal of answer to the question if a bigger participation is compatible with a better democracy

  14. Rethinking Defensive Information Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    French, Geoffrey S

    2004-01-01

    .... This paper examines defensive tactics and strategies from the German defense in depth that emerged from World War I to the American Active Defense that developed in the Cold War and proposes a new mindset for DIW that draws on these operational concepts from military history.

  15. Democracy and non-profit housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Vorre; Langergaard, Luise Li

    2017-01-01

    Resident democracy as a special form of participatory democratic set-up is fundamental in the understanding, and self-understanding, of the non-profit housing sector in Denmark. Through a case study, the paper explores how resident democracy is perceived and narrated between residents and employees....... The tensions are related to representative versus participatory democracy; collectivity versus individuality; and service versus welfare. The tensions elucidate how resident democracy is squeezed between different logics, which result in an ambiguous setting for practising democracy. Based on the results...... at a housing association. The study indicates that the meta-story of democracy is disconnected from practice and the lived lives of residents. Three analytical tensions structure the analysis, which relate to the conditions for realizing the democratic ideal embedded in the structure of the sector...

  16. Democracy and Representation in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Rocío Duarte-Recalde

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the electoral accountability dimension as a constitutive mechanism of Paraguayan democracy since 1989, analyzing the factors that limit the representation contained in the administration of the Paraguayan government as a result of the electoral process. We provide an analytic contrast between the democratic principles that guide the Paraguayan electoral institutions and the way their designs are enforced, identifying the gap between formal and informal rules as determinants of political representation. We also describe the barriers that prevent effective access of the population to political participation and competition, the advantages possessed by traditional political parties and interest groups, as well as their implications for democracy. We also review the degree to which elected officials are representative of historically excluded social groups as a result, emphasizing the way women, indigenous and peasant communities have potentially limited power to exercise political influence due to limitations to participation by structural and institutional factors.

  17. AMBIGUOUS JANUS OF MODERN DEMOCRACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr V. Khmil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the research is to analyze ambiguous concept of  democracy as a phenomenon of political and social formation based on political and instrumental approach. As a result, some deep fundamentals of  human social existence and values as social life basis are blurred. Task. The task of  this investigation is to reveal the concept of democracy in its invariative philosophical  meaning and find the consequences of global social transformations towards social entropy. Methods of investigation. To implement the task an activity approach has been used with further possibility to single out two approaches - politological and philosophical. The focus on democracy from philosophic point of view makes possible to anticipate negative entropic processes that lead  to future ambiguity. Subject matter. Chaotic social processes can result in  ruined family, spiritual, legal and moral formations. Regulatory and legal paradigms are becoming less effective and entail disintegration of spiritual and value constituents of worldview causing necessary conditions for social entropy. Originality and Findings. Possible threats for human freedom that hinder the way to targeted  prospects of mankind have been considered in the paper. Thus, taking into account all positive aspects of democracy, it is simultaneously becoming the tool of continuous differentiation of society into tiny autonomous communities similar to nomadic atomization of society. The concept based on moral substantial existence basis as in “axis time” by K. Jaspers that can prevent social entropy resulting in world anthropologic catastrophes has been grounded in the present research.

  18. Evolution of democracy in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberoi, Mukesh K.

    The emphasis of this thesis is to build an intuitive and robust GIS (Geographic Information systems) Tool which will give a survey on the evolution of democracy in European countries. The user can know about the evolution of the democratic histories of these countries by just clicking on them on the map. The information is provided in separate HTML pages which will give information about start of revolution, transition to democracy, current legislature, women's status in the country etc. There are two separate web pages for each country- one shows the detailed explanation on how democracy evolved in diff. countries and another page contains a timeline which holds key events of the evolution. The tool has been developed in JAVA. For the European map MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) is used. MOJO is developed by ESRI. The major features shown on the European map were designed using MOJO. MOJO made it easy to incorporate the statistical data with these features. The user interface, as well as the language was intentionally kept simple and easy to use, to broaden the potential audience. To keep the user engaged, key aspects are explained using HTML pages. The idea is that users can view the timeline to get a quick overview and can go through the other html page to learn about things in more detail.

  19. A Tragedy of Democracy: Japanese Confinement in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Robinson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The confinement of some 120,000 Japanese Americans during World War II, often called the Japanese American internment, has been described as the worst official civil rights violation of modern U. S. history. Greg Robinson not only offers a bold new understanding of these events but also studies them within a larger time frame and from a transnational perspective. Drawing on newly discovered material, Robinson provides a backstory of confinement that reveals for the first time the extent of the American government's surveillance of Japanese communities in the years leading up to war and the construction of what officials termed "concentration camps" for enemy aliens. He also considers the aftermath of confinement, including the place of Japanese Americans in postwar civil rights struggles, the long movement by former camp inmates for redress, and the continuing role of the camps as touchstones for nationwide commemoration and debate. Most remarkably, A Tragedy of Democracy is the first book to analyze official policy toward West Coast Japanese Americans within a North American context. Robinson studies confinement on the mainland alongside events in wartime Hawaii, where fears of Japanese Americans justified Army dictatorship, suspension of the Constitution, and the imposition of military tribunals. He similarly reads the treatment of Japanese Americans against Canada's confinement of 22,000 citizens and residents of Japanese ancestry from British Columbia. A Tragedy of Democracy recounts the expulsion of almost 5,000 Japanese from Mexico's Pacific Coast and the poignant story of the Japanese Latin Americans who were kidnapped from their homes and interned in the United States. Approaching Japanese confinement as a continental and international phenomenon, Robinson offers a truly kaleidoscopic understanding of its genesis and outcomes.

  20. A Tragedy of Democracy: Japanese Confinement in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Robinson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The confinement of some 120,000 Japanese Americans during World War II, often called the Japanese American internment, has been described as the worst official civil rights violation of modern U. S. history. Greg Robinson not only offers a bold new understanding of these events but also studies them within a larger time frame and from a transnational perspective. Drawing on newly discovered material, Robinson provides a backstory of confinement that reveals for the first time the extent of the American government's surveillance of Japanese communities in the years leading up to war and the construction of what officials termed "concentration camps" for enemy aliens. He also considers the aftermath of confinement, including the place of Japanese Americans in postwar civil rights struggles, the long movement by former camp inmates for redress, and the continuing role of the camps as touchstones for nationwide commemoration and debate. Most remarkably, A Tragedy of Democracy is the first book to analyze official policy toward West Coast Japanese Americans within a North American context. Robinson studies confinement on the mainland alongside events in wartime Hawaii, where fears of Japanese Americans justified Army dictatorship, suspension of the Constitution, and the imposition of military tribunals. He similarly reads the treatment of Japanese Americans against Canada's confinement of 22,000 citizens and residents of Japanese ancestry from British Columbia. A Tragedy of Democracy recounts the expulsion of almost 5,000 Japanese from Mexico's Pacific Coast and the poignant story of the Japanese Latin Americans who were kidnapped from their homes and interned in the United States. Approaching Japanese confinement as a continental and international phenomenon, Robinson offers a truly kaleidoscopic understanding of its genesis and outcomes.

  1. Does Democracy Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bor, Alexander; Csonka, Anna

    to assess an expert-initiated austerity measure as more fair. These results provide important evidence for the substantial but heterogenious effects of decision-making procedure and demonstrate the benefits of studying political attitudes in behavioural games rather than in hypothetical scenarios. We...... by technocratic governments received surprisingly little attention so far. We conducted two original experiments in the EU and the US to measure if people react differently to identical austerity measures if one is framed as a democratic choice and the other as a decision of an independent expert. Our findings...... show that despite the fact that technocratic leaders are €˜imposed™ on people, their presence may make austerity measures more tolerable under some circumstances. Our Hungarian participants, and Americans scoring high on an elitism scale or highly relying on cognitive heuristics were more likely...

  2. Brane-antibrane democracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallosh, R.; Rajaraman, A.

    1996-01-01

    We suggest a duality-invariant formula for the entropy and temperature of nonextreme black holes in supersymmetric string theory. The entropy is given in terms of the duality-invariant parameter of the deviation from extremality and 56 SU(8) covariant central charges. It interpolates between the entropies of Schwarzschild solution and extremal solutions with various amount of unbroken supersymmetries, and therefore, serves for classification of black holes in supersymmetric string theories. We introduce the second auxiliary 56 via an E(7) symmetric constraint. The symmetric and antisymmetric combinations of these two multiplets are related via moduli to the corresponding two fundamental representations of E(7): brane and antibrane open-quote open-quote numbers.close-quote close-quote Using the CPT as well as C symmetry of the entropy formula and duality one can explain the mysterious simplicity of the nonextreme black hole area formula in terms of branes and antibranes. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  3. Conceptualizing and Measuring the Quality of Democracy: The Citizens’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Fuchs

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several measurements of the quality of democracy have been developed (e.g. Democracy Barometer, Varieties of Democracy Project. These objective measurements focus on institutional and procedural characteristics of democracy. This article starts from the premise that in order to fully understand the quality of democracy such objective measurements have to be complemented by subjective measurements based on the perspective of citizens. The aim of the article is to conceptualize and measure the subjective quality of democracy. First, a conceptualization of the subjective quality of democracy is developed consisting of citizens’ support for three normative models of democracy (electoral, liberal, and direct democracy. Second, based on the World Values Survey 2005–2007, an instrument measuring these different dimensions of the subjective quality of democracy is suggested. Third, distributions for different models of democracy are presented for some European and non-European liberal democracies. They reveal significant differences regarding the subjective quality of democracies. Fourth, the subjective quality of democracy of these countries is compared with the objective quality of democracy based on three indices (electoral democracy, liberal democracy and direct popular vote developed by the Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem Project. Finally, further research questions are discussed.

  4. The Danish Agenda for Rethinking Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Grex, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the similarities and differences between the Danish Re-thinking Project Management initiative named Project Half Double (PHD) and the rethinking project man-agement (RPM) research stream. The paper furthermore discusses how PHD and RPM can inspire...... ideas and local implementations. Findings – RPM and PHD share a focus on value creation, social processes, learning and complexity while PHD also focuses on lean thinking, agile thinking, front-end loading and leadership, which are largely topics beyond the RPM research stream. Originality...... a foundation for further development of both rethinking project management and Project Half Double....

  5. The Danish Agenda for Rethinking Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Grex, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the similarities and differences between the Danish Re-thinking Project Management initiative named Project Half Double (PHD) and the rethinking project man-agement (RPM) research stream. The paper furthermore discusses how PHD and RPM can inspire...... a foundation for further development of both rethinking project management and Project Half Double....... each other in research and practice. Design/methodology/approach – This is an empirical paper based on collaborative research between in-dustry and researchers. PHD has developed principles and practices driven by industry consisting of 10 leading stars and the impact, leadership and flow (ILF) method...

  6. Rethinking Interaction in Creative Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Peter

    The use of digital tools has become central in many creative practices. However, research into the design and use of such tools has thus far fallen in between the disciplinary cracks between HCI and Creativity Research. In this position paper, I offer a brief overview of our work on exploring...... and developing digital tools for collaborative creative work that integrates approaches and insights from these two disciplines. On this basis, I offer two theoretical perspectives for discussion at the the Rethinking Interactions workshop: shearing layers, building on studies of architecure in use [Brand 1994...

  7. Redefining Democracy for the Modern State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahe, Paul A.

    1992-01-01

    Draws distinctions between classical and modern concepts of democracy. Contrasts Pythagoras' dislike of factions with Madison's support for economic differentiation and religious toleration. Discusses Aristotle's and Noah Webster's ideas on addressing class tensions. Examines early U.S. theorists' suspicions of direct democracy and support for…

  8. Devouring the Other: Democracy in Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    In this essay, the author builds on Val Plumwood's (1993, p. 192) notion of "devouring the other" to address fundamental problems of social justice and difference in liberal democracies and music education. The problem with liberal democracies is that they assimilate (devour) difference; consensual treatment of its citizens is predicated on the…

  9. Dewey versus "Dewey" on Democracy and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Piet

    2016-01-01

    In the literature on citizenship education, frequent references are made to Dewey. However, educationalists do not always interpret him correctly. To provide some counterbalance, I explain Dewey's views on education and democracy. I base this, not only on "Democracy and Education", but also on 17 articles that Dewey wrote after…

  10. Mapping Anomalous Democracies During the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    During the Cold War, a number of countries established stable democracies despite low levels of modernization and a relative lack of democratic neighbour countries—factors otherwise consistently related to the endurance of democracy. Meanwhile, the Cold War superpowers often supported autocracies...... are identified, including Bolivia, Botswana, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Honduras, India, Jamaica, Mauritius, Trinidad and Tobago, and Turkey....

  11. Malawi's Traditional Leadership and Democracy Consolidation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is that the tendency to brand traditional leadership as undemocratic masks debate on its great potential for the promotion of democracy. The article contends that efforts towards democracy consolidation require foregoing harmonious power relations and linkages between traditional leaders and elected local governments; ...

  12. Reaching beyond Democracy in Educational Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Leigh

    2016-01-01

    Educational policy analyses have tended toward either the impact of policies on student achievement or the furthering of progressive ideals, regularly theorized through concepts of democracy. In this theoretical essay, I suggest that democracy has become a vehicle for cauterized projects of individualized and contingent state status rather than…

  13. DEMOCRACY AND GOOD GOVERNANCE: INGREDIENTS FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    status on democracy, good governance and socio-economic development. Democracy is being embraced across the globe by most civilized and ... amenities and infrastructure, employment, health, security and constant power ... based on life expectancy, literacy, school enrolment and gross domestic ..... In some Asian.

  14. Ray Stannard Baker and the Spirit of Democracy, 1900-1910.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Tom; List, Karen K.

    The early years of the twentieth century, years when the forces of capitalism tested the nation's will to keep the promises of democracy for all citizens, represent a time of national moral and intellectual lethargy. The muckraking movement sought to instill in the American mind a sense of outrage by exposing the evils of the new social order. If…

  15. Solving Local Violence by Cosmopolitan Democracy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Luthfil Hakim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of democracy intensified since the fall of the new order era has some failures. One of the factors is violence phenomena still continue in the region. This study aims to discuss the violence in the region by presenting cosmopolitan democracy as a new design of more humane democracy. In addition, this research method uses library research, because library research can understand the problem in-depth to find the pattern and recommendation from the violence problems which happens in Indonesia. This study uses Hannah Arendt observations on the phenomenon of violence. In addition, the concept of cosmopolitan democracy is referred from Daniele Archibugi, David Held, and Ulrich Beck is presented as a draft of new democracy direction which is more inclusive and humane. The result of this study discloses that the occurrence of incidence is triggered by failed implementation of the democratic system in Indonesia.

  16. Liberty Challenge or Dangers of Liberal Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Eidukienė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses dialectics of a modern democracy and liberalism through the new (from the quality point of view subsistence of liberty, the priority element of democracy, in liberal democracies. The significance of such discourse is determined by the existing social inequality and its conversion into political domain. Particular attention is paid to the social issue, which was treated by Max Weber already as the reason of death of the old, fanatic German “national liberalism”, since it has not managed to belong to the German environment. Even today, it still lies in the principles of life and reality of “young” democratic post­soviet states. Conversion of a social issue into political domain disorganises the society, and it is hardly capable to socialise its norms and values in order to be obligated with regard to civic goals. In other words, the social issue significantly adjusts the pace and direction of transformation of the society. Therefore, an immature “young” liberal democracy may become “less liberal” or no longer conform to the “strict” definition of liberal democracy. Referring to the above, we conclude that social composition should become the medium of political reconstruction for “young” democracies. This does not mean, however, the change of the genetic code of liberalism. This is a striving to vest it, as an ideology, additional powers for rationalisation of democracy by delivering to it the content and the meaning, which would answer the challenges and problems of the time. Liberalism should create a new, from the quality point of view, hierarchy of values and become a new context for both political thinking and democracy. This would render new impulses to economic and public politics, meanwhile developing new premises for a new, from the quality point of view, democracy that would help to consolidate the society for the becoming of liberal democracy.  

  17. Establishing a Democratic Religion: Metaphysics and Democracy in the Debates over the President's Commission on Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrum, Ethan

    2007-01-01

    World War II stands as a defining moment for American higher education. During the crisis of international relations that existed by the late 1930s, American thinkers of various stripes felt compelled to mobilize the country's intellectual and educational resources in defense of democracy, thus creating "a great ideological revival of democracy…

  18. Indigenous Education for Critical Democracy: Teacher Approaches and Learning Outcomes in a K-5 Indian Education for All Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Phyllis B.; Koehn, Peter H.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on how three dimensions of critical democracy preparation (place-based geographical knowledge, social and political awareness of American Indian history and culture, and orientations conducive to the development of personal connections with American Indians) were impacted by different instructional approaches introduced when…

  19. Rethinking historical trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Gone, Joseph P; Moses, Joshua

    2014-06-01

    Recent years have seen the rise of historical trauma as a construct to describe the impact of colonization, cultural suppression, and historical oppression of Indigenous peoples in North America (e.g., Native Americans in the United States, Aboriginal peoples in Canada). The discourses of psychiatry and psychology contribute to the conflation of disparate forms of violence by emphasizing presumptively universal aspects of trauma response. Many proponents of this construct have made explicit analogies to the Holocaust as a way to understand the transgenerational effects of genocide. However, the social, cultural, and psychological contexts of the Holocaust and of post-colonial Indigenous "survivance" differ in many striking ways. Indeed, the comparison suggests that the persistent suffering of Indigenous peoples in the Americas reflects not so much past trauma as ongoing structural violence. The comparative study of genocide and other forms of massive, organized violence can do much to illuminate both common mechanisms and distinctive features, and trace the looping effects from political processes to individual experience and back again. The ethics and pragmatics of individual and collective healing, restitution, resilience, and recovery can be understood in terms of the self-vindicating loops between politics, structural violence, public discourse, and embodied experience. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  20. Participatory and Dialogue Democracy in U.S. Mathematics Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Shiuli

    2009-01-01

    Teaching math to reflect values of democracy has to begin with some consideration of how democracy is conceptualized. A review of various theories of democracy conducted by Hagen (1992) provides everyone with a good starting point as it identifies three primary forms of democracy: competitive, participatory, and dialogue. In this essay, the author…

  1. Climate science, truth, and democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Evelyn Fox

    2017-08-01

    This essay was written almost ten years ago when the urgency of America's failure as a nation to respond to the threats of climate change first came to preoccupy me. Although the essay was never published in full, I circulated it informally in an attempt to provoke a more public engagement among my colleagues in the history, philosophy, and sociology of science. In particular, it was written in almost direct response to Philip Kitcher's own book, Science, Truth and Democracy (2001), in an attempt to clarify what was special about Climate Science in its relation to truth and democracy. Kitcher's response was immensely encouraging, and it led to an extended dialogue that resulted, first, in a course we co-taught at Columbia University, and later, to the book The Seasons Alter: How to Save Our Planet in Six Acts (W. W. Norton) published this spring. The book was finished just after the Paris Climate Accord, and it reflects the relative optimism of that moment. Unfortunately events since have begun to evoke, once again, the darker mood of this essay. I am grateful to Greg Radick for suggesting its publication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. «The political» sphere in Miguel Abensour as a possibility for a «salvage democracy»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Castro-Serrano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the Critical political philosophy by Abensour and his continuous reading of the modern political classics —specifically of the young Marx—, it is intended to build a position of the «political» conceptual space which extends the current political and philosophical space. Readings of «political» as the first element highlights the idea that politics are a condition of irreducibility. It aims at speculating a political philosophy of things themselves, which imposes a need for humanity in the political dimension, which makes it impossible to reduce politics to other matters. And if politics is irreducible and it's tied to a condition of humanity, Is the State the best figure to create this new configuration? As a second element, Abensour suggests rethinking the State matrix and enhancing the place of politics as excessive (irreducible which rediscovers the specificity of democracy under the rubric of a «wild democracy».

  3. [Rethink the panic disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amami, O; Aloulou, J; Siala, M; Aribi, L

    2010-04-01

    We propose some reflexions on the validity of the conceptualization of panic disorder, its nosographical place, and its clinical homogeneity, through the study of the frequency of some of its psychiatric comorbidities. To define a panic attack, DSM IV requires a number of symptoms which vary from four to 13. However, some patients suffer from panic attacks with less than four symptoms (paucisymptomatic attacks) and which fill the other criteria of panic disorder. These patients would have a biological vulnerability, familial antecedents, and a treatment response which are similar to those that fill the criteria of the panic attack according to the DSM. Some authors differentiate the panic disorder in several sub-groups, such as the panic disorder with cardiorespiratory symptoms, or vestibular symptoms, or cognitive symptoms. This division of the panic disorder in several sub-groups would have an interest in the knowledge of the etiopathogeny, the attacks' frequency, the disorder severity and the treatment response. Panic disorder with prevalent somatic expression includes crises without cognitive symptoms. This sub-type can be common in the medical context, especially in cardiology, but it is often ignored, at the price of loss of socio-professional adaptability, and a medical overconsumption. The relationship between panic disorder and agoraphobia appears to be the subject of controversies. According to the behavioral theory, phobic disorder is the primum movens of the sequence of appearance of the disorders. American psychiatry considers agoraphobia as a secondary response to the panic disorder, and pleads for a central role of panic attacks as an etiopathogenic factor in the development of agoraphobia. The distinction between panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder can be difficult. This is due to the existence of paucisymptomatic panic attacks. Their paroxystic nature is difficult to distinguish from the fluctuations of the generalized anxiety disorder

  4. Rethinking mobilities: is tourism dying?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Korstanje

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present essay-review explores the conceptual limitations of mobility as an all encompassing theory, which explains why thousand of citizens are unable to make tourism worldwide. Imagining tourism as a massindustry not only rests on a great fallacy but also ignores the effects of last financial crisis in global economies. Only less 1% of total population in the world has the necessary resources to vacation abroad. We need to rethink  mobilities in terms of the great asymmetries caused by capitalism, where behaviour of few  ones is ideologically presented as the guiding values to follow. Like chivalry in Middle Age, mobility and tourism are privileges for global mobile elite alone.

  5. Direct Democracy in Local Politics in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Palle

    2007-01-01

    Elements of  direct democracy at the local level does exist in Denmark, but it is little known, because no formal rules regulate this aspect of political life, because results from popular initiatives and referendums are not recorded in official statistics, and because few systematic analyses have...... been published. This paper, accordingly, has an explorative nature and asks two basic questions: What is the current state of direct democracy at the local level in Denmark, and what are the prospects for a further development of direct democracy at the local level in Denmark? The paper is based...

  6. The Non-Instrumental Value of Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2015-01-01

    rejected in this debate. But in order to understand the intrinsic value of democracy, we cannot ignore the relationship between freedom and democracy. Moreover, the freedom argument can better respond to the epistemic challenge to intrinsic accounts than can the equality argument. However, the freedom......A current debate in democratic theory concerns whether we can explain democratic legitimacy purely with reference to the intrinsic value of the public affirmation of equality, or whether we must invoke extra-democratic epistemic standards to do so. The freedom side of democracy is ignored or even...

  7. Policy evaluation and democracy: Do they fit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Fritz

    2017-08-05

    The papers assembled in this special issue shed light on the question of the interrelation between democracy and policy evaluation by discussing research on the use of evaluations in democratic processes. The collection makes a case for a stronger presence of evaluation in democracy beyond expert utilization. Parliamentarians prove to be more aquainted with evaluations than expected and the inclusion of evaluations in policy arguments increases the deliberative quality of democratic campaigns. In sum, evaluation and democracy turn out to be well compatible after all. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    2013-01-01

    ongoing citizen engagement (frequent topics of digital democratic discourse) than by basic civil liberties, relatively free and fair periodic elections, and the separation of powers. The lack of focus on democratic practice in favor of potentials reflects the unhappy coincidence that many contemporary...

  9. democracies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell A. Cameron

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hay poca evidencia de una crisis de la democracia electoral en América Latina, sin embargo muchos regímenes democráticos de la región son inestables. Recientemente, las democracias latinoamericanas han sido amenazadas más por las acciones inconstitucionales e ilegales de líderes elegidos democráticamente que por intentos de golpe de Estado o fraude sistemático electoral. La separación de poderes es a veces violada en forma sutil sin que interrumpa necesariamente la democracia electoral. Tales amenazas han sido inadecuadamente teorizadas en la literatura. Un esfuerzo por teorizar la separación de poderes podría ayudar a la comunidad internacional a vigilar el progreso o la erosión de la democracia en el hemisferio occidental. La agenda propuesta para la evaluación de la democracia está alineada con el argumento de que las instituciones electorales de la democracia requieren un Estado de derecho capaz de respaldar los derechos y las libertades fundamentales de todos los ciudadanos, sin lo cual las democracias latinoamericanas enfrentarían un déficit de ciudadanía insuperable.

  10. Universal Democracy Instead of Anarchy

    CERN Document Server

    Branco, G C; Silva-Marcos, J I

    2013-01-01

    We propose for the flavour structure of both the quark and lepton sectors, the principle of Universal Democracy (UD), which reflects the presence of a $Z_3$ symmetry. In the quark sector, we emphasize the importance of UD for obtaining small mixing and flavour alignment, while in the lepton sector, large mixing, including the recently measured value of $U_{e3}$, is obtained in the UD framework through the seesaw mechanism. An interesting correlation between the values of $U_{e3}$ and $\\sin^2(\\theta_{23})$ is pointed out, with the prediction of $\\sin^2(\\theta_{23})\\approx 0.42$ in the region where $U_{e3}$ is in agreement with the DAYA-BAY experiment.

  11. Failure of market and democracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koslowski, P.

    1983-01-01

    The author looks into the socio-economic question how economy and politics should be delimited against one another and which kinds of decisions should follow the logic of the decision systems ''economy'' respectively ''politics''. The paper examines decision procedures as to their efficacy, and the criticism of these methods leads to a determination of the relationship between market and democracy. The question whether economic control of environmental protection and political control of nuclear energy are appropriate is then investigated on the basis of the preceding insights. Our present practice of nuclear energy production being controlled by the government and environmental protection being left to the market is demonstrated to be inappropriate. Instead it would make sense to leave the supply of energy to the market and place environmental protection into the responsibility of the government. (orig./HSCH) [de

  12. The Future of Afghan Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Seward Smith

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The 2014 Afghan presidential and provincial council elections will have a critical effect on the future of Afghan democracy. At a minimum, they must be sufficiently credible to prevent severe division among elite political actors and ensure the survival of the current constitutional order. Yet there are growing expectations that the election might not merely be an elite pact between powerful figures from Afghanistan’s recent past, but more fully represent popular aspirations, particularly those of the growing urban and youth population. In order for this to happen, they must also be held in accordance with the legal rules that guide them, rather than be characterized by manipulation of these rules and government interference. Despite the problems of fraud in the 2009 election, where government figures and the electoral institutions themselves were partly responsible for the significant fraud that took place, there are a number of reasons to expect that the 2014 election will be an improvement on 2009, both in terms of participation and organization. If the elections held in Afghanistan since 2001 have diminished hopes for Afghan democracy, it is partly because an electoral formalism was introduced in Afghanistan before other elements crucial to a functioning democracy—the rule of law, political parties, institutionalized governance—really existed. The 2014 elections may reveal the boundaries of an emerging democratic space in which these features are beginning to emerge and, more importantly, where their value is increasingly recognized by Afghans. If, in every political transition, the future grapples with the past, the 2014 elections in Afghanistan may be a decisive arena of that struggle.

  13. Is There Muslim Exceptionalism in Democracy Research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner

    to and between the 16th and 18th centuries are relatively less democratic today. The negative effect of early statehood on current levels of democracy is mediated by European colonization and settlement: Europeans were less likely to colonize and settle in territories with more developed state institutions......, also, to alternative theories of the causes and correlates of democracy. This paper presents evidence against the notion of Muslim exceptionalism in democracy research. Thus, outside the European continent, territories that were governed earlier and more consistently by state organizations up...... and were therefore less likely to bring nascent legalistic and representative institutions to these territories. When we remove the autocratic legacy of early statehood and the influence of European settlement, there is nothing signicantly negative about the degree of democracy in Muslim-majority countries....

  14. Science in democracy: expertise, institutions, and representation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Mark B

    2009-01-01

    ...? In Science in Democracy, Mark Brown draws on science and technology studies, democratic theory, and the history of political thought to show why an adequate response to politicized science depends...

  15. Castoriadis’ Concept of Institution and Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahl Rendtorff, Jacob

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I discuss the relation between institution and democracy in Castoriadis’ philosophy. The paper proposes an outline of the development of Castoriadis’ political philosophy with focus on institutionalization, imagination and self-limitation of democratic institutions as central elements in Castoridis’ thought. We begin with a short introduction to the concept of institution and institutionalization. Then we discuss the elements of Castoridis’ critique of bureaucracy as a way to distinguish between totalitarian society and democracy. This is the basis for understanding the relation between the imaginary, freedom and autonomy as basic elements of democracy. Finally the paper discusses Castoridis’ new notion of democracy as a kind of self-limitation and creation of collective meaning as the basis for social legitimacy.

  16. DEMOCRACY, LEADERSHIP AND NATION BUILDING IN NIGERIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mycl

    modern philosophy, theories of democracy were manifest in the ... Lockean social contract thesis with its stipulations of the prevalent ... Your title makes you a manager; your people will decide if ... a learning opportunity, and strive to be a better.

  17. Democracy as a social technology on schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    " democracy. The democratic influence in schools thus spans from "big" parliamentary democracy to small participatoruy democracy - a dichotomy schooll leadership must maneuvre within using democratic procedures and leadership as social technologies. This article argues that a positive coinnectiion exists...... between strong leadership and having wello-functioning democratic processes in schools and the introduction of tests, quality reports and these approaches does not weaken democratic processes in schools. This connection is nonetheless changing the logics of the state, market, and the civil society vectors.......On a formal level, the influence og "big" parlamentary democracy is enhanced because parliamentary control in individual schools has become stronger; and the formal democratic influence of parents has been strengthned by their membership on school boards, the latter being an example of "small...

  18. Democracy Project: Building Citizenship through Schools | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Citizenship education in schools is a powerful tool to build people's ability to demand recognition of their ... and foster debate on strengthening democracy and citizenship through school education. ... Inclusive growth: Buzzword or innovation?

  19. Security and Democracy in Southern Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Liberal democracy has the following principal institutional features: .... The expectation, held by many donors, international financial institutions (IFIs), and ...... The Public Accounts Committee is led by an opposition member, and has become ...

  20. Community Power and Grassroots Democracy: The Transformation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1997-01-01

    Jan 1, 1997 ... Book cover Community Power and Grassroots Democracy ... But there are obstacles: the power of central bureaucracies, the lack of local skills and organizational experience, social divisions, and the impact of ... Knowledge.

  1. Fighting Islamic Terrorists With Democracy: A Critique

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stebbins, Jr, William E

    2007-01-01

    .... One key pillar of U.S. strategic response has been the active promotion of Western representative democracy in those regions of the Islamic world identified as jihadist centers of incubation (namely...

  2. Democracy in a Post-Castro Cuba?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henry, Drew

    2004-01-01

    .... The theories of leading democracy and economic theorists are applied to the post-Castro conflict scenario as relevant issues to be addressed by a new Cuban government and the United States in a Cuban...

  3. Democracy, Development and Insurgency: The Nigerian Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    democratisation would propel rapid socio-economic development in a country, ... in increasing spate of the phenomenon of unemployment and poverty in the ..... relationship between the failure of democracy to empower the people and.

  4. Democracy, Citizen Sovereignty and Constitutional Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Vanberg, Viktor J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is an exercise in conceptual clarification. Its purpose is to explore the contribution that constitutional economics can make to the theory of democracy. Constitutional economics as the economics of rules is concerned with the study of how the choice of rules in the social, economic and political realm affects the nature of the processes of human interaction that evolve within these rules. The theory of democracy is concerned with institutionalorganizational problems of self-govern...

  5. Science is a gateway for democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaoua, Mohamed

    2014-06-01

    The Arab Spring of 2011 has highlighted an unprecedent fact in the region: it was the young and educated population who established the spearheading of change, and led their countries to democracy. In this paper, we try to analyze how science has been a key factor in these moves, in Tunisia as well as in Egypt, and how it can help to anchor democracy in these countries.

  6. Democracy, property rights, income equality, and corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Bin; Torgler, Benno

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents theoretical and empirical evidence on the nexus between corruption and democracy. We establish a political economy model where the effect of democracy on corruption is conditional on income distribution and property rights protection. Our empirical analysis with cross-national panel data provides evidence that is consistent with the theoretical prediction. Moreover, the effect of democratization on corruption depends on the protection of property rights and income equality...

  7. Constitutionalism and Democracy in Contemporary International Community

    OpenAIRE

    Padjen, Ivan

    1992-01-01

    Starting from the insight that jurisprudence of legal theory should be concerned primarily with,on the one hand, international law, and, on the other, constitutional developments, the paper; analyzes some prominent conceptions of constitutionalism and democracy in international community and municipal legal orders; formulates a new set of criteria for the analysis of constitutionalism and democracy in international law; and argues that Laswell and McDougal's policy oriented jurisprudence offe...

  8. Deliberative Democracy V. Politics of Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OSCAR PÉREZ DE LA FUENTE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The defenders of deliberative democracy insist in the idea that for searching political truths is necessary to use values as universality, rationality and fairness. The defenders of the politics of identity distrust from this deliberative approach because, the interests of the powerful groups of the society are often behind those values. The common approach of deliberative democracy misunderstands the proper role, language, expression and actual interests of the members of the minorities. Deliberative democracy isn't really compromised with pluralism –social, cultural, ethnic, racial…– because it is more compromised with formal and substantial rules of decision that finally determine the result of the deliberation. Minorities claim for a new understanding of the democracy from the difference, from the identity. Thus, democracy is the result of a dialogue, not from abstractions, but from the particularity. In this sense, it is important the notion of ethics of alterity as a moral effort to understand the Other. This exercise excludes all kind of alterophobia (misogyny, xenophobia, racism, homophobia... and it is against relativist approach. An identity is legitimate in the way it includes the alterity. The minorities claim to think, other time, topics as democracy from the dynamics between identity/alterity, inclusion/exclusion, equal dignity/differentiated identity.

  9. Recognition of Laborers as Citizens: First Worker Democracy versus Liberal Capitalist Democracy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brabec, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 15, 1/2 (2016), s. 157-165 ISSN 1569-1500 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-19416S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Athenian democracy * capitalism * citizenships * demos * exploitation * liberal democracy * peasants Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  10. 'Democracy is coming to the RSA': On democracy, theology, and futural historicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert R. Vosloo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article brings the concept of democracy � as an open-ended tradition � in conversation with notions dealing with historicity and the future, such as �democracy to come�, �promise�, and �a democratic vision�. It is argued that although these notions are rightfully associated with the future, they also imply that democracy should not be disconnected from an emphasis on an inheritance from the past. With this emphasis in mind, the first part of the article attends to the French philosopher Jacques Derrida�s intriguing term, �democracy to come�, whereas the second part of the article takes a closer look at some aspects of the work of the South African theologian John de Gruchy on democracy, with special reference to his distinction between a democratic system and a democratic vision. The third, and final, part of the article brings some of the insights taken from the engagement with Derrida and De Gruchy into conversation with the continuing challenges facing theological discourse on democracy in South Africa today.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: A constructive proposal is made that emphasises the futural openness of democracy in a way that challenges a vague utopianism.Keywords: Democracy; Derrida; De Gruchy; future; historicity

  11. Avenues of Rethinking CSR in development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azizi, Sameer Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    ’. The developmental implication is based on the governance structures triggering CSR in each context. We need to differentiate between strong and weak states and understand the ways that (lack of) states can influence CSR in developing countries. "Responsible business practices" are explored as useful among......The chapter addresses flaws of the CSR literature and seeks to rethink the concept in relation to developing countries. Two avenues for rethinking CSR in developing countries are outlined; a) a governance approach, and b) an application of the term ‘responsible business practices...

  12. Democracy, the Party, and Self-Emancipation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raekstad, P.

    2017-01-01

    The Party is once again the subject of sustained discussion among academics and popular movements. Jodi Dean’s most recent book, Crowds and Party, is an attempt to re-think the party form for contemporary politics after the experiences and lessons of Occupy. Crowds and Party is engaging and

  13. Media Education and the Practice of Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Ferguson

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available They do say that all ideas have their time, and in media education it seems that it is the time for democracy. Books and papers begin to appear and there are conferences with democracy in their titles to replace a focus on the postmodern, or identity. There seems to be a general consensus that democracy is a ‹good thing›. But, as with most other significant terms which hold centre stage for a while, they need to be interrogated with some care. For some more critical educators democracy takes its place alongside Gandhi’s comment when asked about Western Civilisation – he said it would be a good idea. The ‹practice› of democracy takes on a poignant, ironic, desperate or cynical cloak in the light of recent world events and the rise of terrorism as a political weapon. It depends where you stand. Democracy is not something that thrills the hearts and minds of the vast majority of citizens who live in nations who declare themselves to be democratic. Apathy and cynicism work together against democratic growth. But so do governments whose declared democratic aims pay scant attention to the people they are supposed to represent. And then there are the ‹democratic› exercises which supposedly involve the people in a conversation (‹we are listening› they say which results in the status quo being implemented by politicians with morally superior physiognomies. After all, they say, we did ask your opinions. We did ask you to participate. And so democracy staggers from crisis to disaster...

  14. Beyond the Spectrum: Rethinking Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The "spectrum" has become the dominant metaphor for conceptualizing autism, with fundamental consequences for notions of disability, diversity, and normality. In this article, we draw on ethnographic research with autistic communities to explore how the notion of the autism spectrum has become a focus of explicit identification, reflection, and contestation. To further this inquiry, we place these debates into conversation with earlier debates regarding another spectrum—the Kinsey Scale, a "spectrum" for conceptualizing sexual orientation that first appeared in 1948 but has been critiqued since the 1970s. How might responses to the Kinsey Scale (like the Klein Grid contribute to rethinking the autism spectrum? This is a question about the cultural and political implications of metaphors and conceptual models. It is of broad importance because the spectrum metaphor is being extended to a range of conditions beyond autism itself. Our goal is thus to build on insights from sexuality studies as well as the insights of autistic persons, advocates, and researchers who wish to forestall the naturalization of "the spectrum." In doing so, we seek to contribute to a discussion of what alternative frameworks might bring to questions of social justice, ability, and human flourishing.

  15. Towards a More Inclusive Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Emerson

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available For reasons both historical and psychological, many have come to believe that ‘democracy is based upon a decision taken by the majority’. This basic principle has been subject to considerable abuse, as many politicians have interpreted it to turn what should have been pluralist debates into simple dichotomies: in 1804 France, for example, any sane and sober adult could have been a candidate for the post of Emperor, but the question was only ‘Napoleon, yes or no?’. Some of the other methodologies by which “the will of the people” can be determined are regarded by many social choice scientists as being more accurate, especially those multi-option preferential procedures in which all preferences cast by all voters are taken into account. After a brief historical note, this article offers a critique of majoritarianism before outlining that which could be the three-pronged basis of a more consensual polity, namely: multi-option preference voting in decision-making; multi-candidate preference voting in elections; and, as the basic system of inclusive governance, an elected all-party coalition government.

  16. Rethinking reproductive "tourism" as reproductive "exile".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Patrizio, Pasquale

    2009-09-01

    Whereas reproductive "tourism" implies leisure travel, reproductive "exile" bespeaks the numerous difficulties and constraints faced by infertile patients who are "forced" to travel globally for assisted reproduction. Given this reality, it is time to rethink the language of "reproductive tourism," replacing it with more accurate and patient-centered terms.

  17. RETHINKING AN AFRICAN ETHICAL SYSTEM: BETWEEN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... paper, to rethink an aspect of African Philosophy Morality (ethics), ancient and modern, among the Tiv of the lower Benue valley in Nigeria. This shall be done in the light of what has changed and what has remained unchanged, and the effects of the change on Tiv social system. (Humanities Review: 2002 2(1): 134-147) ...

  18. South American Youth and Integration : Typical Situations and Youth ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South American Youth and Integration : Typical Situations and Youth ... IDRC partner the World Economic Forum is building a hub for inclusive growth ... Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay) and their perception of rights, democracy and regional.

  19. Education for Deliberative Democracy: A Typology of Classroom Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The theory of deliberative democracy places public deliberations at the heart of democracy. In order to participate in democratic deliberations, citizens need certain skills, attitudes, and values. Within the field of education for deliberative democracy, it is assumed that these are learned through participation in democratic deliberation. Thus,…

  20. Metaphors of Social Studies Teacher Candidates on Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tural, Aysegül

    2018-01-01

    Democracy is a form of government in which principle of equality is based, human rights and freedoms are protected. In this research, it is aimed to reveal democracy perceptions of social science teacher candidates through metaphors. Towards this aim, 105 social science teacher candidates are consulted about their democracy opinions. Study is a…

  1. Democracy and Development: The Nigerian Experience (1999-2010 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Democracy and Development: The Nigerian Experience (1999-2010). Jebbin Maclean Felix. Abstract. This article is a contribution to the debate on democracy and development. It examines the relationship between democracy and development, using a contextual analysis of the Nigerian democratic experience. The key ...

  2. The Internet and Democracy: Global Catalyst or Democratic Dud?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Michael L.; Wade, Keegan W.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we explore the global effect of the Internet on democracy over the period of 1992 to 2002 by observing the relationships between measures related to democracy and Internet prevalence. Our findings suggest that while Internet usage was not a very powerful predictor of democracy when examining full panel data from 1992 to 2002, it was…

  3. (PostMaterialism, Satisfaction with Democracy and Support for Democracy in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović, Zoran

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The materialist-postmaterialist value dimension, understood as assigning priority to self-expression and quality of life as opposed to physical and economic security, has been one of the most important heuristic tools in the analysis of the changes of predominant values in cross-cultural and comparative studies in past decades. In recent elaboration of self-expression and emancipative values (in both cases, with postmaterialism as the most important component, postmaterialist values have been viewed as an essence of democratic political culture and a cultural precondition of effective democracy. This study was aimed at analysing the relation between postmaterialist values (understood as a political/thick culture variable, satisfaction with country’s democracy (institutional/thin culture variable and support for democracy. The data from the European Values Survey (EVS, conducted on the nationally representative samples in twenty East European countries on the total of twenty countries and 30,393 respondents, were used. It is shown that postmaterialism is an important aspect of democratic political culture in Eastern Europe; in general, the most supportive of democracy are postmaterialists. On the other hand, there is a mixed pattern between the postmaterialist values and satisfaction with democracy – in some countries, citizens satisfied with democracy are more prone to choose postmaterialist items compared to the dissatisfied ones, while in some other countries the reverse is true. Both are, however, important predictors of the support for democracy as well as the country’s level of democracy development (measured by the EIU Democracy index. The relevance of postmaterialist values for the promotion of democratic political culture in Eastern Europe, possible alternative mechanisms of value change as well as the materialist-postmaterialist conception are discussed.

  4. How is an absolute democracy possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Bednarek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last part of the Empire trilogy, Commonwealth, Negri and Hardt ask about the possibility of the self-governance of the multitude. When answering, they argue that absolute democracy, understood as the political articulation of the multitude that does not entail its unification (construction of the people is possible. As Negri states, this way of thinking about political articulation is rooted in the tradition of democratic materialism and constitutes the alternative to the dominant current of modern political philosophy that identifies political power with sovereignty. The multitude organizes itself politically by means of the constitutive power, identical with the ontological creativity or productivity of the multitude. To state the problem of political organization means to state the problem of class composition: political democracy is at the same time economic democracy.

  5. Power and Democracy in Denmark. Conclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Goul; Christiansen, Peter Munk; Beck Jørgensen, Torben

    In 1997, the Danish Parliament decided to launch a power study, officially An Analysis of Democracy and Power in Denmark. A steering committee consisting of five independent researchers was assigned responsibility for the project. The Steering Committee has gathered the overall conclusions from...... the numerous projects under the Power Study, and this book is a short presentation of these conclusions.The main focus of the book is the state of democracy in Denmark at the dawn of the 21st century. How has democracy fared, has the development made things better or worse, and to which extent does......, and the political institutions show considerable democratic robustness. However, not everything has gone or is going well. There are still pronounced social divisions in Danish society, although their nature has changed somewhat. The ideal of an informed public debate does not always enjoy the best conditions...

  6. Open Government: A Tool for Democracy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana De Blasio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing disconnection between citizens and decision-makers is pushing politics towards a re-shaping of institutional design. New spaces of political participation are sustained and even reinforced by communication, especially by digital communication. Governments and public administrations can find and use different models to facilitate citizens’ participation; e-government, open government and a specific design of digital democracy. In this respect, open government can constitute a way to re-connect citizens and political institutions, but at the same time, it can also be an “appealing” tool to institutionalize bottom-up participation and so anesthetizing it. The aim of this article is to present the first findings of an international research project about open government and participatory platforms in four European countries (France, Italy, Spain, the UK. The study tries to understand if participatory platforms can improve the quality of democracy, and if open government can contribute to democratizing democracy.

  7. Technologies of democracy: experiments and demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Brice

    2011-12-01

    Technologies of democracy are instruments based on material apparatus, social practices and expert knowledge that organize the participation of various publics in the definition and treatment of public problems. Using three examples related to the engagement of publics in nanotechnology in France (a citizen conference, a series of public meetings, and an industrial design process), the paper argues that Science and Technology Studies provide useful tools and methods for the analysis of technologies of democracy. Operations of experiments and public demonstrations can be described, as well as controversies about technologies of democracy giving rise to counter-experiments and counter-demonstrations. The political value of the analysis of public engagement lies in the description of processes of stabilization of democratic orders and in the display of potential alternative political arrangements.

  8. Philosophical Foundations for Democracy: A Ukrainian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Myelkov

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The article intends to conduct a philosophical analysis of democracy as it is presented by democratization processes in societies under globalization. Turbulent political life or contemporary Ukraine with its recent ‘revolution’ provides an excellent example of such a process. The authors demonstrate that the processes in question could be denoted as rather manipulation and political technologies than democratic transition. They argue that democracy can only be understood correctly as the self-organization of society composed of free and conscious human personalities. They show that personality as the subject of democracy, opposed to crowds led by contemporary demagogues, is the only possibility to achieve real changes for a better society.

  9. American Studies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Luca

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available American Studies at the University of BucharestThe idea of teaching American Studies and founding a program in American Studies was first voiced in the long meetings of faculty and students held at the University of Bucharest soon after the collapse of the communist regime. The proposal was one of many that reflected the spirit of reform and hope for radical changes at the outset of Romania’s transition to democracy. The absence of institutional structures other than English departments and t...

  10. Democracy at the end of the History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Sanfélix Vidarte

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2013v12n2p289 This article analyzes the loss of legitimacy that the economic crisis brought upon representative democracy and the consequences that can be drawn for the thesis of the end of History. The thesis we defend here is that the deterioration of the welfare state, as a result, under very specific conditions, of the capitalism in certain parts of the world, runs parallel with the delegative degradation of democracy.

  11. Enhancing policy innovation by redesigning representative democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Policy innovation is a key aspect of public innovation, which has been largely overlooked. Political leadership, competition and collaboration are key drivers of policy innovation. It is a barrier in traditional models of representative democracy that they provide weak conditions for collaboration....... Two Danish case studies indicate that collaboration between politicians and relevant and affected stakeholders can promote policy innovation, but also that a redesign of representative democracy is needed in order to establish a productive combination of political leadership, competition...... and collaboration in political life....

  12. High-stakes educational testing and democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the relation between high-stakes educational testing and democracy drawn from the experiences of 20th-century high-stakes educational testing practices in the Danish history of education. The article presents various concepts of democracy using leading propositions within...... the field of education. Then a sample of relevant historic case studies are examined in light of these definitions. Among other things, the article concludes that a combination of different evaluation technologies – some formative and some summative – might be the safest way to go from a democratic...

  13. Freedom and the Non-Instrumental Value of Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    This paper is an intervention in two debates, one concerning the instrumental vs noninstrumental value of democracy, the other concerning the relationship between freedom and democracy. I reject the purely instrumental justification of democracy and defend the idea that democracy has noninstrumen......This paper is an intervention in two debates, one concerning the instrumental vs noninstrumental value of democracy, the other concerning the relationship between freedom and democracy. I reject the purely instrumental justification of democracy and defend the idea that democracy has...... noninstrumental value. I see the noninstrumental value of democracy in terms of freedom rather than the now more common reference to equality or fairness. The freedom argument can better show the noninstrumenal value of democracy and can better respond to some core objections to democratic noninstrumentalism than...... the equality argument. A main aim of this paper is to show that freedom and democracy are not merely instrumentally linked but, rather, intrinsically related. I argue this mainly via a critical engagement with Philip Pettit’s conception of freedom as nondomination. My defense of the noninstrumental value...

  14. Örgütsel Demokrasi( Organizational Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar ERKAL COŞAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of democracy that is shaped by contemporary economic, political, social and cultural developments makes us re-consider organizational life. The number of studies on organizational democracy rises exponentially whereby contributions to and complexities for the organization are discussed. In this context, this study begins with a conceptualization of organizational democracy from modern business management perspective, which is followed by respectively; a discussion of previous research on organizational democracy, the causes behind the new departure towards organizational democracy, the contributions to organizations, the complexities and problems faced during practical implementation, and finally a literature review on the ways and means of ensuring organizational democracy. With this study, the following questions will be raised to scholarly discussion; is organizational democracy just an ideal emphasizing the human element and employee satisfaction, or is it a strategy that needs managerial attention for attainment of organizational goals in 21 st century?

  15. Community Power and Grassroots Democracy : The Transformation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1997-01-01

    . Couverture du livre Community Power and Grassroots Democracy. Editor(s):. M. Kaufman et H. Dilla Alfonso. Publisher(s):. Zed, CRDI. January 1, 1997. ISBN: Épuisé. 300 pages. e-ISBN: 155250137X. Download PDF · Read the e-book.

  16. A Legitimacy Crisis of Representative Democracy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomassen, Jacques J.A.; van Ham, Carolien; van Ham, Carolien; Thomassen, Jacques; Aarts, Kees; Andeweg, Rudy

    2017-01-01

    This chapter presents the research questions and outline of the book, providing a brief review of the state of the art of legitimacy research in established democracies, and discusses the recurring theme of crisis throughout this literature since the 1960s. It includes a discussion of the

  17. Nietzsche, Democracy and Transcendence | von Tongeren | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socialism, utilitarianism and democracy are, according to Nietzsche, secularised versions of Christianity. They have continued the monomaniac onesidedness of the Christian idea of what a human being is and should be, and they have even strengthened this monomania through its 'immanentisation'. The article shows that ...

  18. Democracy in Kazakhstan: Historical Fiction or Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adilzhanov, Nurlykhan B.; Kozhirova, Svetlana B.; Azizian, Rouben

    2016-01-01

    An important issue in the development of transitional societies at the present stage of historical development is the impact of "global democracy" system of government. Trends of such influence in the post-Soviet space, in particular, are becoming more tangible in the context of globalization and especially after the so-called…

  19. Designing for democracy : Bulk data and authoritarianism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robbins, S.A.; Henschke, A.H.

    2017-01-01

    Transparency is important for liberal democracies; however, the value of transparency is difficult to articulate. In this article we articulate transparency as an instrumental value for providing what we call ensurance and assurance to liberal democratic citizens. Ensurance refers to the property of

  20. Teaching for Toleration in Pluralist Liberal Democracies

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Waarden, Betto

    2017-01-01

    This article determines which education enables the perpetuation of diverse ways of life and the liberal democracy that accommodates this diversity. Liberals like John Rawls, Stephen Macedo, and William Galston have disagreed about the scope of civic education. Based on an analysis of toleration--the primary means for maintaining a pluralist…

  1. Improving school governance through participative democracy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    educational and political theory) perspective, with particular reference to undemocratic trends apparent in ... research democracy at the meso level of public school education. .... in decision-making processes within institutions, organisations, societal and government struc- tures. ..... of employment equity into consideration.

  2. Industrial democracy in South Africa's transition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In comparison with traditional work practices, thus, increased flexibility in production .... the quality of working life but also the product, and productivity, of labour. The ways in which ... of change. There are other advantages also; for example, drawing on em- ...... INDUSTRIAL DEMOCRACY: A BALANCE SHEET. The most ...

  3. Laboratory for a New Form of Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heelan, Cynthia; Redwine, Judith A.; Black, Antonia

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates how community colleges create a laboratory for the metamorphosis of democracy into synocracy, which is associated with participative leadership and a capacity to form and sustain synergistic partnership. The community college, through its leadership, student and service learning, and by involving its communities in dialogues of…

  4. Democracy, Education and the Need for Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straume, Ingerid S.

    2016-01-01

    Even though the interrelationship between education and democratic politics is as old as democracy itself, it is seldom explicitly formulated in the literature. Most of the time, the political system is taken as a given, and education conceptualized as an instrument for stability and social integration. Many contemporary discussions about…

  5. Reinvigorating the role of science in democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Andrew A; Halpern, Michael; Shulman, Seth; Wexler, Celia; Phartiyal, Pallavi

    2013-01-01

    Private and political interests routinely conspire to sideline and misrepresent science and evidence in the public policy process. The Center for Science and Democracy, a new initiative at the Union of Concerned Scientists, endeavors to change this dynamic to strengthen the role of science in decision making.

  6. The Peculiar Status of "Democracy and Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boostrom, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The centennial of "Democracy and Education" invites those who study education and curriculum to reconsider this major work and its place in today's world. One of the most cited works in educational scholarship (and the most cited of Dewey's many works), the perspective it provides is not evident in US policy-making or in school practice.…

  7. Breaking Male Dominance in Old Democracies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahlerup, D.; Leyenaar, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Has male dominance in political life been broken? Will gender balance in elected assemblies soon be reached? This book analyses the longitudinal development of women’s political representation in eight old democracies, in which women were enfranchised before and around World War I: Denmark, Iceland,

  8. From Democracy to Socialism: Then and Now

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raekstad, P.; Panitch, L.; Albo, G.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, we’ve seen more and more calls for ‘democracy’ – not only among familiar reformist and liberal groups, but from far more radical ones as well. Radical calls for democracy are seen in movements and organizations from the Arab Spring, Occupy, and the Movement of the Squares to the

  9. Knowledge for democracy in Myanmar | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Knowledge for Democracy Myanmar is an IDRC and Global Affairs Canada partnership that seeks to support democratic transition in Myanmar through policy ... As Myanmar transitions to a democratic government, it is crucial to nurture meaningful dialogue about the process and to promote economic growth that benefits ...

  10. Democracy and the Symbolic Constitution of Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindahl, H.K.

    1998-01-01

    Abstract. Building on Cassirer's philosophy of symbolic forms, this paper argues that the continuities and discontinuities characterizing the passage from medieval politics to modern democracy can best be understood by reference to political power's symbolic structure. For the one, political power,

  11. Democracy and Education in Postsecular Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Shlomo; Hotam, Yotam; Wexler, Philip

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors attempt to show what it means to think about democracy and education "within" society, culture, and religion. They use the term religion to discuss both "religion" as a social phenomena and "religiosity" as a spiritual, aesthetic individual commitment to the transcendent, eternal, and…

  12. Inventing Democracy: Future Alternatives for Social Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deethardt, John F.

    1983-01-01

    Considers the rational basis for participatory democracy and six ideas designed to embody that conceptual basis. Contends that the mission of speech communication scholars to the civic culture should be an activation of civic competencies and an invention of new places to practice free speech skills. (PD)

  13. Free Press in a Constitutional Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucianek, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a lesson in which students will examine several views expressed by the founders to understand the context for including freedom of the press in the First Amendment. Students will be asked to think about the role that the news media and the need to be an informed citizen continue to play in our democracy. Students will…

  14. Community Power and Grassroots Democracy: The Transformation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    But there are obstacles: the power of central bureaucracies, the lack of local skills and organizational experience, social divisions, and the impact of national and transnational structures. Community Power and Grassroots Democracy is a groundbreaking and insighful book that examines a collection of community initiatives ...

  15. Libraries and Democracy: Information for All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Betsy

    1991-01-01

    Discusses libraries and democracy, one of three major themes for the 1991 White House Conference on Library and Information Services. The roles of newspapers and journalists are considered and the censorship of textbooks, library materials, art, and movies is discussed. (LRW)

  16. Forms and terminology of Direct Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Palle

    It is apparent that some confusion exits both among researchers and political actors about the various forms of direct democracy. Various institutions such as IRI and IDEA, various countries such as Switzerland and California, and various authors such as Pier Vincenzo Uleri and David Altman present...

  17. Why Deliberative Democracy is (Still) Untenable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    2012-01-01

    A common objection to deliberative democracy is that available evidence on public ignorance makes it unlikely that social deliberation among the public is a process likely to yield accurate outputs. The present paper considers—and ultimately rejects—two responses to this objection. The first...

  18. Peace and Democracy Go Hand in Hand

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    elaferriere

    No Blueprint for Democracy. The need for strong and legitimate institutions is most keenly felt in post-conflict settings, where institutions are often absent or at least severely damaged. In fact, peace proc- esses are a time of hope and opportunity, not just to end the violence, but also to create a more democratic and just soci-.

  19. From Promoting Political Polyarchy to Defeating Participatory Democracy: U.S. Foreign Policy towards the Far Left in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M Gill

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available During the 1980s, the United States initiated an explicit policy of democracy promotion throughout the world. William Robinson (1996 more accurately described this initiative as “promoting polyarchy,” whereby the United States supported moderate elite actors that promoted neoliberal economic policies to displace both right-wing and communist despots, such as General Augusto Pinochet in Chile and Soviet rulers in Eastern Europe. While much of Latin America remained characterized by polyarchies throughout the late 20th Century, Latin American citizens began to reject these political arrangements and to elect anti-neoliberal candidates that promoted participatory democracy by the turn of the 21st Century, particularly in Bolivia, Ecuador, Nicaragua, and Venezuela. How has the United States changed its democracy promotion strategies to respond to these new dynamics? The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how the U.S. government, through agencies such as the National Endowment for Democracy (NED and USAID, has altered the main thrust of its foreign policy in Latin America, from promoting polyarchy and displacing despotic leaders, to supporting opposition actors to unseat democratically-elected far leftist leaders that promote participatory democracy. This paper deploys a case study method involving recent U.S. foreign policy in Bolivia, Nicaragua, and Venezuela, and it utilizes both U.S. diplomatic cables and interviews with U.S. state elites to illustrate this shift.

  20. Rethink! prototyping transdisciplinary concepts of prototyping

    CERN Document Server

    Nagy, Emilia; Stark, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    In this book, the authors describe the findings derived from interaction and cooperation between scientific actors employing diverse practices. They reflect on distinct prototyping concepts and examine the transformation of development culture in their fusion to hybrid approaches and solutions. The products of tomorrow are going to be multifunctional, interactive systems – and already are to some degree today. Collaboration across multiple disciplines is the only way to grasp their complexity in design concepts. This underscores the importance of reconsidering the prototyping process for the development of these systems, particularly in transdisciplinary research teams. “Rethinking Prototyping – new hybrid concepts for prototyping” was a transdisciplinary project that took up this challenge. The aim of this programmatic rethinking was to come up with a general concept of prototyping by combining innovative prototyping concepts, which had been researched and developed in three sub-projects: “Hybrid P...

  1. Rethinking Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Munive

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the special issue on DDR and ‘Armed Non-Statutory Actors’ (ANSAs which we prefer to the less precise label of Armed Non-State Actors. The understanding that disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR programs are essential in helping to prevent the recurrence of war in post-conflict situations is at the heart of current peacebuilding practice and the academic literature on peacekeeping and stabilization. But the changing strategic context of DDR programs and in particular the proliferation of ANSAs presents new challenges, the responses to which have been characterized as ‘second generation’ DDR. The changing context poses new questions and forces us to rethink assumptions and templates of DDR as the concept is blurred and expanded. The question is if it makes sense to hold on to the concept or whether the assumptions associated with it will get in the way of rethinking templates for violence reduction in the future.

  2. Rethinking Information Systems in the Public Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medaglia, Rony

    2014-01-01

    This section of Information Polity consists of papers presented during the workshop “Rethinking Information Systems in the Public Sector: Bridging Academia and Public Service”. The workshop was held on 8 June 2014 in Tel Aviv, Israel, in conjunction with the European Conference on Information...... Systems (ECIS 2014), and it is part of the activities of the Special Interest Group for eGovernment (SIGeGov) of the Association for Information Systems (AIS)....

  3. Gap analysis: rethinking the conceptual foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Langford, Gary O.; Franck, Raymond; Huynh, Tom; Lewis, Ira A.

    2007-01-01

    Acquisition research (Graduate School of Business & Public Policy) Gap Analysis is widely regarded as a useful tool to facilitate commercial and defense system acquisitions. This paper is a rethinking of the theoretical foundations and systematics of Gap Analysis with practical extensions to illustrate its utility and limitations. It also provides a new perspective on those theoretical foundations from the perspectives of systems and value engineering. The growing sophistication and comple...

  4. Paul Downes. Democracy, Revolution and Monarchism in Early American Literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Martin

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available L’auteur, Associate Professor, Department of English, University of Toronto, part implicitement d’une évidence : pour l’ensemble hétérogène des colonies américaines rebelles, le lien à la Couronne est le seul commun dénominateur, et le trajet le plus court de Charleston à Boston passe par Londres…D’où, pour un tiers environ de la population — les Loyalistes— une fidèlité à la monarchie poussée parfois jusqu’à l’exil volontaire ; mais pour les Indépendantistes, nolentes volentes, des référence...

  5. Latin American Security, Drugs and Democracy (LASDD) Fellowship ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    17 janv. 2012 ... Les projets qui comprennent à la fois des interventions en santé et en ... des collaborations de plus en plus fréquentes entre des professionnels issus de. ... Subventions pour la coopération en recherche entre le Canada, ...

  6. From Deliberative Democracy to Communicative Democracy in the Classroom. A Response to "Education for Deliberative Democracy: A Typology of Classroom Discussions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weasel, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    This response to Samuelsson's typology for assessing deliberative democracy in classroom discussions views his analysis through an equity lens. It offers Young's model of communicative democracy as a resource and argues that incorporating that model's emphasis on greeting, rhetoric, and storytelling into the typology can help to promote more…

  7. Democracy, Corruption and the Politics of Spirits in Contemporary Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubandt, Nils Ole

    Indonesia has been an electoral democracy for more than a decade, and yet the political landscape of the world’s third-largest democracy is as complex and enigmatic as ever. Indonesia is simultaneous a country that has achieved a successful transition to democracy and a flawed, illiberal......, and predatory democracy. This book provides a portrait of Indonesia’s contradictory democracy through a series of biographical accounts of political entrepreneurs, from the political ‘periphery’ of North Maluku and the ‘political centre’ of East Java respectively. Each biographical account is focused on one...... contentious area of democracy in Indonesia – elections, corruption, decentralization, and regional representation. The chapters explore the intimate ways in which the political world and the spirit world are entangled. The core argument of the book is that Indonesia’s seemingly peculiar problems...

  8. Bioethics and deliberative democracy: five warnings from Hobbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Griffin

    2006-06-01

    Thomas Hobbes is one of the most ardent and thoroughgoing opponents of participatory democracy among Western political philosophers. Though Hobbes's alternative to participatory democracy-assent by subjects to rule by an absolute sovereign-no longer constitutes a viable political alternative for Westerners, his critique of participatory democracy is a potentially valuable source of insight about its liabilities. This essay elaborates five theses from Hobbes that stand as cogent warnings to those who embrace participatory democracy, especially those (such as most bioethicists) advocating for deliberative democracy based on a rational consensus model. In light of these warnings, the author suggests an alternative, modus vivendi approach to deliberative democracy that would radically alter the current practice of bioethics.

  9. Middle Class and Democracy in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Fierro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The consolidation of the middle class has been interpreted by modernization and postmodernization theories as a key factor for the functioning and stability of the democratic system. However, in Latin America the middle class has tended to be associated with two contradictory positions. On the one hand, it is emphasized that it plays a stabilizing and democratic role while, on the other hand, it is linked to supporting military coups. With the purpose of elucidate such a dilemma, the relationship that can be established between the socioeconomic status and the degree of support for democracy will be examined. In order to do this, an empirical analysis from Latinbarometer surveys databases will be conducted, covering seventeen countries in the region for the period from 1996 to 2011. It will be concluded that the middle class in Latin America does not have particularly more favorable attitudes toward democracy than other social segments.

  10. The Crypto-democracy and the Trustworthy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gambs, Sébastien; Ranellucci, Samuel; Tapp, Alain

    , our main objective is to show that cryptographic primitives, including in particular secure multiparty computation, offer a practical solution to protect privacy while minimizing the trust assumptions. In the crypto-democracy envisioned, individuals do not have to trust a single physical entity......, individuals have no choice but to blindly trust that these entities will respect their privacy and protect their personal data. In this position paper, we address this issue by proposing an utopian crypto-democracy model based on existing scientific achievements from the field of cryptography. More precisely...... with their personal data but rather their data is distributed among several institutions. Together these institutions form a virtual entity called the Trustworthy that is responsible for the storage of this data but which can also compute on it (provided first that all the institutions agree on this). Finally, we...

  11. Intelligence, democracy, and international environmental commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obydenkova, Anastassia; Salahodjaev, Raufhon

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of nations' commitment to environmental protection at the international level by focusing on the role of national intelligence and the level of democracy. The national intelligence is measured by nation's IQ scores. The findings based on a sample of 152 nations provide strong evidence that intelligence has statistically significant impact on ratification of international environmental agreements, and the countries with IQ 10-points above global average are 23% more likely to sign multilateral environmental agreements than others. The findings also demonstrate that it is the combination of high-level of intelligence of nations and democracy, that likely result in international environmental commitments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Beating Social Democracy on Its Own Turf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    -right parties to flourish in contexts where welfare issues have a natural salience as in the case of universal welfare states. In contrast, Scandinavian universal welfare states ought to benefit social democracy when it comes to issue voting on welfare issues. It is argued in this article that centre......-right parties can beat social democrats by credibly converging to its social democratic opponent on issues of universal welfare. Issue ownership voting to the benefit of centre-right parties will then be strongest among voters perceiving the centre-right to have converged to social democracy and perceiving...... the centre-right as issue-owner. Using Danish National Election Studies, 1998–2007, the article shows that the Danish Liberal Party outperformed the Social Democrats on traditional welfare issues among those voters perceiving the Liberals to be ideologically close to the social democrats. The findings help...

  13. Cidadania e democracia Citizenship and democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Victoria de Mesquita Benevides

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Discute-se a importância da implementação dos mecanismos de democracia direta previstos na Constituição de 1988. O referendo, o plebiscito e a iniciativa popular, como formas de participação política que complementem os mecanismos de democracia representativa, podem contribuir significativamente para a educação política dos cidadãos.The significance of putting into effect the procedures of direct democracy recognized by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 is discussed. An important contribution to the political education of the citizens can be given by devices like the referendum, the plebiscite and the legislative initiative, provided they are seen as complements for representative democracy.

  14. Latin America; Recent History; Democracy; Historical Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo MIRA DELLI-ZOTTI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies the restoration of the democracy and its persistence as one of the most remarkable facts of the recent history of Latin America. Nevertheless, in the experience of the subcontinent, democracy does not appear like synonymous of democratization. Starting off with the transitions, this article is led toward a periodic analysis of the so-called democratic crossing of Latin America. At the same time, it studies the unequal incidence that the impact of the «historical memory» has had in the public sphere of countries like Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, El Salvador and Guatemala, contrasting with the case of Brazil.

  15. Populisms and liberal democracy – business as usual?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Grahame Frederick

    2017-01-01

    Populism is often thought to mark a sharp break with liberal democracy. But to what extent is this the case? In this contribution the connections between populism and liberal democracy are sketched in the context of several areas where discussions about populisms have stressed their discontinuity...... in these relationships. The contribution ends with a discussion of how it might be possible to defend liberal democracy from a non-liberal position in the face of the critique from populisms....

  16. The Secret Driving Force Behind Mongolia’s Successful Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    the nation’s democracy movement its earliest stages. Courtesy of the Democratic Union of Mongolia PRISM 6, no. 1 FROM THE FIELD | 141 The Secret Driving...assistance and trade. Our state budget PRISM 6, no. 1 FROM THE FIELD | 143 THE SECRET DRIVING FORCE BEHIND MONGOLIA’S SUCCESSFUL DEMOCRACY collapsed; we...O yungerel Tsedevdam ba (2006) PRISM 6, no. 1 FROM THE FIELD | 145 THE SECRET DRIVING FORCE BEHIND MONGOLIA’S SUCCESSFUL DEMOCRACY significantly as

  17. Flavour democracy calls for the fourth generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, A.

    1992-07-01

    It is argued with the help of an illustrative mode, that the inter species hierarchy among the fermion masses and the quark mixing angles can be accommodated naturally in the standard model with (approximate) flavour democracy provided there are four families of sequential quark-leptons with all members of the fourth family having roughly equal masses. The special problem of light neutrino masses (if any) and possible solutions are also discussed. (author). 15 refs

  18. From democracy fatigue to populist backlash

    OpenAIRE

    Rupnik, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    The populist backlash in Central and Eastern Europe reveals the absence in the new democracies of checks and balances and of truly independent media to serve as a counterweight to creeping authoritarianism. It also shows the return of dormant strands in the region's political culture and thus its potential vulnerability to the authoritarian temptation. These developments are contributing to widespread estrangement from the postenlargement EU in the older member states. If current trends conti...

  19. Science and Religion in Liberal Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønch-Clausen, Karin

    The dissertation explores the role of scientific rationality and religious reasoning in democratic law and policymaking. How does legitimate law and policymaking proceed in light of disagreements on science and religion? This question is addressed within the framework of public reason. Roughly pu...... concerning the role science and religion in political deliberation challenge the public reason framework as viable vehicle for pursuing democratic legitimacy? The dissertation discusses these and other questions related to the special role of science and religion in liberal democracy....

  20. The Media and Democracy in Russia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deppe, Kendra M

    2005-01-01

    ... freedoms. These include laws that restrict coverage of elections, terror events and the Chechen region. The lack of freedom has resulted in the inability for the media to serve their purpose in civil society. This has contributed to civil society's lack of ability to ensure that Russia's government remains democratic. If present trends continue the future does not look good for Russian democracy or the freedom of Russia's media.

  1. Between Assimilation And Multiculturalism Rethinking The American Mainstream

    OpenAIRE

    Şan, Mustafa; Haşlak, İrfan

    2014-01-01

    Today pluralism has almost become the natural structure of all societies. As a result of globalization, the democratization process of plural identities have increased all over the world. Especially after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989, the condition of separation of the world in two parts ended. Since that date we have been living in a small village, as mentioned by Marshal McLuhan, a famous Canadian communications scientist. We can find huge diversity in some countries. In Europe ...

  2. Mathematics education, democracy and development: Exploring connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka Vithal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics education and its links to democracy and development are explored in this article, with specific reference to the case of South Africa. This is done by engaging four key questions. Firstly, the question of whether mathematics education can be a preparation for democracy and include a concern for development, is discussed by drawing on conceptual tools of critical mathematics education and allied areas in a development context. Secondly, the question of how mathematics education is distributed in society and participates in shaping educational possibilities in addressing its development needs and goals is used to examine the issues emerging from mathematics performance in international studies and the national Grade 12 examination; the latter is explored specifically in respect of the South African mathematics curriculum reforms and teacher education challenges. Thirdly, the question of whether a mathematics classroom can be a space for democratic living and learning that equally recognises the importance of issues of development in contexts like South Africa, as a post-conflict society still healing from its apartheid wounds, continuing inequality and poverty, is explored through pedagogies of conflict, dialogue and forgiveness. Finally the question of whether democracy and development can have anything to do with mathematics content matters, is discussed by appropriating, as a metaphor, South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s framework of multiple ‘truths’, to seek links within and across the various forms and movements in mathematics and mathematics education that have emerged in the past few decades.

  3. Transitional Democracy, Legitimacy and the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Kaplánová

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the ongoing global crisis has triggered an issue how to set up a theoretical framework of global governance. The integration to a supranational level of governance has been a contemporary process of democratization in recent decades. To analyze the institutionalization of global governance means to recognize a normative idea of democracy. The theory of international relations demonstrates that there are four normative models of democracy at the supranational level of governance. In my opinion, a crucial difference of the institutionalization is a concept of legitimacy of global democratic regime. Because of a divided understanding of legitimacy at the transnational level of governance is difficult to find a consensus in which way should be a transnational democracy framed. A dual legitimacy in a supranational organization like the European Union also triggers a specific democratic deficit. My point of view corresponds with the division of transnational orders in normative way and its correspondence to legitimacy. Cla rifying the duality of legitimacy can help us not only to solve all globalizing problems but of course to decide in which way we want to make the supranational organizations work.

  4. Cognitive aspect of education for democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurišić-Bojanović Mirosava

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Education for democracy is of particular importance for a society undergoing democratization. The paper investigates a cognitive aspect of education for democracy, and identifies psychological predispositions for the acceptance of plurality of ideas as a central indicator of democratic thinking. The acceptance of plurality is defined as the ability of an individual to consider different arguments in controversial topics, to accept the existence of different ideas in a discussion as well as different explanations. This psychological phenomenon integrates certain cognitive affective and conative characteristics. The acceptance of plurality of ideas is a fundamental prerequisite for democratic communication, therefore a prerequisite for the creation of democratic climate in a society. The concept of cognitive style has been examined from the perspective of different research traditions in an attempt to identify a psychological profile of cognitive style, provisionally named pluralist profile, which would help an individual behave democratically. The paper also studies the connection between the manner of thinking, personality characteristics and cognitive style. It is the author’s conclusion that it is reasonable to assume that there are ways to encourage the development of pluralistic cognitive style by practicing the acceptance of different ideas through teaching process which would significantly improve the effectiveness of education for democracy.

  5. Envisioning Democracy: Participatory Filmmaking with Homeless Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennelly, Jacqueline

    2018-05-01

    This paper explores the democratic potential for participatory filmmaking with homeless youth, as well as the constraints and dilemmas associated with this visual method. Theorizing democracy through the work of Hannah Arendt and Pierre Bourdieu, the paper approaches democracy not as an end, but rather as a process that seeks to lessen social injustice. Bourdieu's work helps us appreciate, however, that this process is constrained by structures of inequality that shape access to the political dispositions that enable such engagement. Consistent with other research on low-income and marginalized young people, this study found that homeless youth engage with democracy through forms of community participation and mutual support, and are disinclined to orient toward liberal democratic structures such as voting and political parties, which they see as harmful or problematic. With a focus on one particular dilemma faced by the research team-namely, the question of how to make sense of and represent the issue of legalizing marijuana, which had been signaled by the youth participants as of primary political importance to them-the paper uses Arendt and Bourdieu to discuss how participatory filmmaking can help to expand the space of appearances available to homeless youth in Canadian society, and create a space at a shared table of understanding with middle class power brokers. © 2018 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  6. Liberalism and democracy Liberalismo e democracia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    (Autor Claude Lefort

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, the historical connections between liberalism and democracy are analyzed, based mostly on three important authors of the French liberal thought of the first half of the 19th century: Benjamin Constant (1767-1830, François Guizot (1787-1874 e Alexis de Tocqueville (1805-1859. Although, the Author doesn’t forget to highlight the contemporary issues which demand confronting and elucidating the chances of democracy. Keywords: French Liberalism. Democracy. Political Philosophy. Tolerance. São aqui examinadas as relações históricas entre liberalismo e democracia, com base principalmente em três importantes autores do pensamento liberal francês da primeira metade do século XIX: Benjamin Constant (1767-1830, François Guizot (1787-1874 e Alexis de Tocqueville (1805-1859. Contudo, o Autor não deixa de lançar luz sobre as questões contemporâneas que exigem enfrentar e elucidar as chances da democracia. Palavras-chave: Liberalismo francês. Democracia. Filosofia política. Tolerância.

  7. Membership ballots and the value of intra-party democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolkenstein, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    On the face of it, membership ballots present a clear case in which intra- party democracy comes into collision with core principles of representative democracy: they weaken the autonomy of representatives, and undermine the authority of the voters. In this article, I investigate whether this is ......On the face of it, membership ballots present a clear case in which intra- party democracy comes into collision with core principles of representative democracy: they weaken the autonomy of representatives, and undermine the authority of the voters. In this article, I investigate whether...

  8. Mexico – A New Narco-Democracy in Latin America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Kos-Stanišić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author analyses the democratic transition and the first decade of the Mexican democracy. She points out that the democratic transition took place parallel with a huge expansion of the drug business, which caused the creation of extraconstitutional actors – drug cartels. The situation is particularly pressing in six Mexican federal states where the drug cartels cause deficiencies in the functioning of the majority of partial regimes of constitutional democracy. The conclusion raises fears that the collapse of democracy might extend to other federal states and that Mexico could turn into a narco-democracy in its entire national territory.

  9. Rethinking Research for Genetically Modified (GM) Food

    OpenAIRE

    Yin-Ling; Lin

    2012-01-01

    This paper suggests a rethinking of the existing research about Genetically Modified (GM) food. Since the first batch of GM food was commercialised in the UK market, GM food rapidly received and lost media attention in the UK. Disagreement on GM food policy between the US and the EU has also drawn scholarly attention to this issue. Much research has been carried out intending to understand people-s views about GM food and the shaping of these views. This paper was based o...

  10. Rethinking the economics of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damian, Michel

    2012-05-01

    The paper makes a case for rethinking the economics of climate change. It questions the way the problem was conventionally framed and solved through top-down international cooperation and carbon emission permits, taxes and pricing. The paper argues that the on-going industrial and energy transition reflects a paradigmatic shift as compared to neoclassical environmental economics that has framed climate policy since the Rio conference in 1992. On a normative basis, the paper maintains that a carbon tax should not follow a Pigovian rationale. To be feasible such a tax should be of a Marshallian nature, i.e. earmarked, and rather modest at the beginning. (author)

  11. Understanding of Democracy among Young People in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vujčić

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The task of this paper was to explore how young people understand the values of democracy, how much they believe in democracy as a political system, how much they are satisfi ed with the way democracy works (“constitution at work”, and how much they trust government institutions. It is important to analyse the understanding of democracy, for democracy is dependent on the citizens’ opinions and the level of their political culture rather than on its normative constitution and formal value system. Thus, this analysis joins in the debate between foundationalists and antifoundationalists on democracy and its functioning. The present model of research has provided insights into the relationship between so-called diff use and specifi c support of democracy (D. Easton and an explanation of that which R. Dahl defi nes as the “democratic paradox” in contemporary democracies. This scrutiny shows that young people in Croatia understand democracy within the framework of liberal values, but also that they largely tend towards so-called consensual democracy and a socialist syndrome involving a prevalent aspiration to social equality and an economically interventionist state. Moreover, the analysis shows that young people in Croatia have a low level of democratic legitimation and an even lower level of trust in government institutions. This is not a good basis for the development of stable and well-functioning democracy in Croatian society. It all warns against serious shortcomings in the political education of young people in Croatia and in the development of democratic political culture and democratic citizenship.

  12. Is It Culture or Democracy? The Impact of Democracy and Culture on Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, David; Fischer, Justina A. V.; Kirchgassner, Gebhard; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the relation between democracy and perceived subjective well-being while controlling for other relevant determinants such as culture measured by languages. We conduct a cross-national analysis covering 28 countries using data from the 1998 International Social Survey Programme. Contrasting existing empirical evidence, we observe a…

  13. Youth of Today and the Democracy of Tomorrow. Polish Students' Attitudes toward Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzecki, Radoslaw; Stach, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    From the perspective of over 20 years into the transformation process in post-communist countries, it seems important to be able to pose questions about the future of democracy, and, in particular, its social foundations. These questions become all the more significant, when we come to realize that it is the attitudes of 'the young of today' that…

  14. Rethinking resistance : revolt and violence in African history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, G.J.; Bruijn, de M.E.; Walraven, van K.

    2003-01-01

    This collective volume reinterprets the genre of resistance studies, introduces recent conceptual perspectives and considers examples of African (civil) wars and insurgent movements. Contributions: Rethinking resistance in African history, an introduction, by Klaas van Walraven and Jon Abbink. Part

  15. Rethinking Game Based Learning: applying pedagogical standards to educational games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Birgit; Kelle, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Schmitz, B., & Kelle, S. (2010, 1-6 February). Rethinking Game Based Learning: applying pedagogical standards to educational games. Presentation at JTEL Winter School 2010 on Advanced Learning Technologies, Innsbruck, Austria.

  16. Re-thinking instructional strategies for enhancing gender equity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Re-thinking instructional strategies for enhancing gender equity in learning ... instructional mode on the cognitive achievement of boys and girls in primary science. ... Results revealed no statistically significant difference in the achievement of ...

  17. Book Review: J. Kelly. Rethinking Industrial Relations: Mobilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Review: J. Kelly. Rethinking Industrial Relations: Mobilization, Collectivism and Long Waves. K. Moody. Workers in a Lean World: Unions in the International Economy. B. Nissen. Which Direction for Organized Labour? Essays on Organizing, Outreach and Internal Transformation.

  18. Rethinking Volks V Robinson: The Implications of Applying a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rethinking Volks V Robinson: The Implications of Applying a "Contextaulised Choice Model" to Prospective South African Domestic Partnerships Legislation. ... is enacted. Keywords: Life partnership; domestic partnership; Domestic Partnerships Bill; choice argument; contextualised choice model; reciprocal duty of support.

  19. Ethnic diversity and knowledge synergies: Rethinking the interrelations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    desire to see ethnical diversity as productive. Theoretical reviews and empirical research have indicated that the link between diversity and knowledge synergy cannot be taken for granted. This article argues that some theoretical rethinking of managerial strategies toward cultural diversity...

  20. Rethinking I-94: Minnesota DOT: A TPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    This report highlights key recommendations and noteworthy practices identified at Rethinking I-94: MnDOT Peer Exchange held on August 15-16, 2017 in St. Paul, Minnesota. This event was sponsored by the Transportation Planning Capacity Building ...

  1. Democracy, leadership and nation building in Nigeria | Nweke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dissatisfied with a long-term period of military rule, Nigerians clamored for democratic rule and the nation has since 1999 witnessed civilian transitions of power within democracy. For Nigerians, the beauty of their hard earned democracy lies in its proclivity towards integral and sustainable national development. The thrust ...

  2. An Appraisal of Mass Media Role in Consolidating Democracy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study therefore critically assessed the performance of Nigerian mass media in consolidating democracy. The study is of the view that the mass contributed immensely to the return of democracy in Nigeria. This the media did through their critical criticism of the military juntas, mobilization of the citizens to participate in ...

  3. Banzhuren and Classrooming: Democracy in the Chinese Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiacheng; Chen, Jing

    2013-01-01

    The issue of education and democracy has become more and more important in China. This paper firstly explains the theory of democracy in Chinese classrooms, and then focuses on the Chinese banzhuren who is responsible for classrooming, an important educational area equal to instruction. We illustrate how Chinese students achieve development…

  4. Examining Citizen Participation: Local Participatory Policy Making and Democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, A.M.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11124501X; de Graaf, L.J.

    2010-01-01

    Citizen participation is usually seen as a vital aspect of democracy. Many theorists claim that citizen participation has positive effects on the quality of democracy. This article examines the probability of these claims for local participatory policymaking projects in two municipalities in the

  5. Bombing beyond Democracy. Remembering the Ruins of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birthe

    2013-01-01

    World War II is often seen as a victory for democracy, but at the same time represents the final bankruptcy of those humanistic ideas that seemed so deeply rooted in European tradition. This affected not only the self-perception of the Germans, as obvious, but also that of the winning democracies...

  6. How do South Africans understand Democracy and Christianity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The average South African is often seen as Christian and as supporting democracy, but research suggests many of the fundamentals of democracy and Christianity are clearly not accepted unconditionally. Africa Insight Vol.34(2/3) 2004: 16-22 ...

  7. Identity and democracy: linking individual and social reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, J.B.; Marin, S.R.

    2009-01-01

    Following Amartya Sen's approach, John Davis and Solange Regina Marin look at individual and social reasoning when examining the complex relationship between identity and democracy. They characterize democracy as a process of social or public reasoning that combines the individual reasoning of all

  8. On Democracy and Leadership: From Rhetoric to Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiorgi, Yiasemina

    2011-01-01

    This paper resembles a personal narrative on leadership and democracy and outlines how an educational leader can conceptualize democratic leadership and take some steps towards transforming theory into practice. The concepts of democracy and democratic schools within the discourse of educational theory and research are briefly discussed. Based on…

  9. Corruption: Threat to democracy and market economy in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the research on 'Corruption: Threat to Democracy and Market Economy', the researchers critically explore the issue of corruption and how it threatens the democracy and market economy in Nigeria. Relevant literature was revised, which formed the secondary data. The theoretical framework of the study is political ...

  10. Dewey's Ethical Justification for Public Deliberation Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, John

    2013-01-01

    Interpretations of John Dewey's political theory grasp his respect for public deliberation, but typically overlook his ethical justification for democracy. Dewey gave two primary reasons why democracy is superior to other forms of government. First, a public educated in the tools of social intelligence can be more effective at managing their…

  11. Dewey versus ‘Dewey’ on democracy and education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, Piet

    In the literature on citizenship education, frequent references are made to Dewey. However, educationalists do not always interpret him correctly. To provide some counterbalance, I explain Dewey’s views on education and democracy. I base this, not only on ‘Democracy and Education’, but also on 17

  12. Why Choice Matters: Revisiting and Comparing Measures of Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Giebler

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Measures of democracy are in high demand. Scientific and public audiences use them to describe political realities and to substantiate causal claims about those realities. This introduction to the thematic issue reviews the history of democracy measurement since the 1950s. It identifies four development phases of the field, which are characterized by three recurrent topics of debate: (1 what is democracy, (2 what is a good measure of democracy, and (3 do our measurements of democracy register real-world developments? As the answers to those questions have been changing over time, the field of democracy measurement has adapted and reached higher levels of theoretical and methodological sophistication. In effect, the challenges facing contemporary social scientists are not only limited to the challenge of constructing a sound index of democracy. Today, they also need a profound understanding of the differences between various measures of democracy and their implications for empirical applications. The introduction outlines how the contributions to this thematic issue help scholars cope with the recurrent issues of conceptualization, measurement, and application, and concludes by identifying avenues for future research.

  13. Globalization, democracy, and child health in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welander, Anna; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus; Nilsson, Therese

    2015-07-01

    Good health is crucial for human and economic development. In particular poor health in childhood is of utmost concern since it causes irreversible damage and has implications later in life. Recent research suggests globalization is a strong force affecting adult and child health outcomes. Yet, there is much unexplained variation with respect to the globalization effect on child health, in particular in low- and middle-income countries. One factor that could explain such variation across countries is the quality of democracy. Using panel data for 70 developing countries between 1970 and 2009 this paper disentangles the relationship between globalization, democracy, and child health. Specifically the paper examines how globalization and a country's democratic status and historical experience with democracy, respectively, affect infant mortality. In line with previous research, results suggest that globalization reduces infant mortality and that the level of democracy in a country generally improves child health outcomes. Additionally, democracy matters for the size of the globalization effect on child health. If for example Côte d'Ivoire had been a democracy in the 2000-2009 period, this effect would translate into 1200 fewer infant deaths in an average year compared to the situation without democracy. We also find that nutrition is the most important mediator in the relationship. To conclude, globalization and democracy together associate with better child health in developing countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Globalization, Democracy, and Social Movements: The Educational Potential of Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytten, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, I explore the contemporary value of John Dewey's conception of democracy to addressing the challenges of neoliberal globalization. I begin by describing his vision of democracy as a way of life that requires habits of experimentalism, pluralism, and hope. I then suggest that contemporary forms of mobilization, resistance, and…

  15. 21st-century liberal democracy and its contradictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bellini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This brief paper intends to highlight the contradictions in which liberal democracy struggles within the process of globalisation, influenced as it is by the new connecting technologies. In particular, the difficult relationship between liberalism and democracy is analysed in light of the latest communitarist theories and new trends that interpret them socially. 

  16. The concept and institutions of education for democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramović Zoran M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper comprises three sections: (a the concepts and institutions of democracy, (b the concept of education for democracy, and (c the role of school in democratic education. The concept of 'open society' is critical to the strategy of education for democracy. In addition to general conditions for establishing and functioning of democracy, the author points to some of its basic institutions: structured social groups, political parties, leader elections. The concept of 'education' is considered from the standpoint of goals - social, national and individual. It is pointed to tolerance as a key concept of the theory of education for democracy. School, being the most prominent institution in the process of education for democracy, places student and development of his/he; democratic characteristics and capacities in the focus of its strategy. All elements of teaching: curriculum, methods teacher, student, textbook are in the function of the basic idea of democratic education - tolerance and crisscrossed influences (practicing of getting used to differences. Apart from the development and acquisition of thinking in concepts about democracy, education for democracy should encompass knowledge for life at state and social institutions, for private and public life, acquisition of national values, rational decision-making discussion. The framework of strategy in question is certainly exercising of tolerance and getting used to crisscrossed influences.

  17. Design for the values of democracy and justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pols, A.J.K.; Spahn, A.; Hoven, van den J.; Vermaas, P.; Poel, van de I.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we provide an overview of literature on the relation between technology and design and the values of democracy and justice. We first explore how philosophy has traditionally conceptualized democracy and justice. We then examine general philosophical theories and arguments about this

  18. "Democracy and Education": Reconstruction of and through Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James

    2016-01-01

    While focusing on "Democracy and Education," James Campbell attempts in this essay to offer a synthesis of the full range of John Dewey's educational thought. Campbell explores in particular Dewey's understanding of the relationship between democracy and education by considering both his ideas on the reconstruction of education and on…

  19. Flavour democracy and the lepton-quark hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsch, H.; Muenchen Univ.; Plankl, J.

    1990-01-01

    The mass hierarchy of the leptons and quarks is interpreted as a consequence of a coherent state phenomenon ('flavour democracy'). It is emphasized that particular forms of the mass matrices can arise from the coherent state basis. The violations of the 'flavour democracy' turn out to be relatively large. Numerical examples are presented. (orig.)

  20. Patron-Client Politics, Democracy and Governance in Nigeria, 1999 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Its evidence abounds in older democracies, emerging democracies and even authoritarian regimes. In Nigeria, its evidence abounds in the pre-colonial political system through the colonial era to the previous civil administrations in the country since independence. The paper revealed that pecuniary motivation and the ...

  1. Democracy and development in the age of globalisation | Mubangizi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalisation is one of the leading characteristics of the world today – a world that is striving for development, democracy and the protection of human rights. There is no doubt that the relationship between globalisation and democracy is quite complex. So too is the relationship between globalisation and development.

  2. Education and support for representative, direct and stealth democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, Hilde; Michels, Ank

    2014-01-01

    Using data collected within the scope of a Dutch internet panel survey (LISS) in 2011, this study tracks public support for direct, stealth and representative democracy according to educational level. Our findings indicate that, in terms of overall support for each specific type of democracy, lower

  3. The Populist Conception of Democracy beyond Popular Sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pepijn Corduwener

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With populist parties making electoral progress across the European continent, the question of what their electoral success means for contemporary democratic systems has gained increasing significance. This article investigates how two populist radical right parties, the Austrian FPÖ and the Dutch PVV, conceptualise democracy, based on a wide range of party documents released over recent decades. It builds upon recent academic consensus that the relationship between populism and democracy is best understood from a ‘minimalist’ perspective, seeing populism not as antagonistic to democracy, but as an ideology that conceptualises democracy primarily in terms of popular sovereignty. The article adds to the existing literature by demonstrating that we can extend this understanding of the populist conception of democracy in three aspects: the populist emphasis on state neutrality; a two-fold notion of equality; and the extension of the political sphere in society. Based upon these three issues, the article concludes by exploring how the populist conception of democracy relates to the most dominant form of democracy practised nowadays, liberal democracy, and to what extent it reflects changes in our democratic political culture.

  4. Post-militarism: provenance of praetorian democracy in nigerian, 1999

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of 'command democracy' took root during this period. On the basis of the empirical evidence adduced, the paper argued that the phenomenon of 'praetorian democracy' which became visible from 1999 to 2007 undermined the constitution and due democratic process. Executive contempt for the rule of law ...

  5. Creating an International Network of Democracy Builders | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Creating an International Network of Democracy Builders. The Centre for the Study of Democracy (CSD) at Queen's University will conduct three case studies on democratic transition in Liberia, Costa Rica and Palestine, partnering with the Sua Foundation, the Arias Foundation and the Arab Thought Forum, respectively.

  6. "A Liberation of Powers": Agency and Education for Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyte, Harry C.; Finders, Margaret J.

    2016-01-01

    In this essay Harry Boyte and Margaret Finders argue that addressing the "shrinkage" of education and democracy requires acting politically to reclaim and augment Deweyan agency-focused concepts of democracy and education. Looking at agency from the vantage of civic studies, which advances a politics of agency--a citizen politics that is…

  7. Democracy-based consensus in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Massimiliano; Zangrillo, Alberto; Mucchetti, Marta; Nobile, Leda; Landoni, Paolo; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Landoni, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    High-quality evidence and derived guidelines, as typically published in major academic journals, are a major process that shapes physician decision-making worldwide. However, for many aspects of medical practice, there is a lack of High-quality evidence or an overload of somewhat contradictory low-quality information, which makes decision-making a difficult, uncertain, and unpredictable process. When the issues in question are important and evidence limited or controversial, the medical community seeks to establish common ground for "best practice" through consensus conferences and consensus statements or guidelines. Such consensus statements are seen as a useful tool to establish expert agreement, define the boundaries of acceptable practice, provide priorities for the research agenda, and obtain opinions from different countries and healthcare systems. This standard approach, however, can be criticized for being elitist, noninclusive, and poorly representative of the community of clinicians who will have to make decisions about the implementation of such recommendations. Accordingly, the authors propose a new model based on a combination of a local core meeting (detailed review and expert input) followed by a worldwide web-based network assessment (democracy-based consensus). The authors already have applied this approach to develop consensus on all nonsurgical interventions that increase or reduce perioperative mortality in critically ill patients and in those with acute kidney injury. The methodology was based on 5 sequential local and web-based steps. Both a panel of experts and a large number of professionals from all over the world were involved, giving birth to a new type of "democracy-based consensus." This new type of "democracy-based consensus" has the potential to increase grass-root clinician involvement, expand the reach to less-developed countries, provide a more global perspective on proposed interventions, and perhaps more importantly, increase

  8. Kant, Freedom as Independence, and Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2016-01-01

    While the influence of Kant’s practical philosophy on contemporary political theory has been profound, it has its source in Kant’s autonomy-based moral philosophy rather than in his freedom-based philosophy of Right. Kant scholars have increasingly turned their attention to Kant’s Rechtslehre......, but they have largely ignored its potential contribution to discussions of democracy. However, Kant’s approach to political philosophy can supply unique insights to the latter. His notion that freedom and the public legal order are co-constitutive can be developed into a freedom argument for constitutional...

  9. Representative Democracy in Australian Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Hearfield

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In an assessment of representative democracy in Australian local government, this paper considers long-run changes in forms of political representation, methods of vote counting, franchise arrangements, numbers of local government bodies and elected representatives, as well as the thorny question of constitutional recognition. This discussion is set against the background of ongoing tensions between the drive for economic efficiency and the maintenance of political legitimacy, along with more deep-seated divisions emerging from the legal relationship between local and state governments and the resultant problems inherent in local government autonomy versus state intervention.

  10. Information, polarization and term length in democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers term lengths in a representative democracy where the political issue divides the population on the left-right scale. Parties are ideologically different and better informed about the consequences of policies than voters are. A short term length makes the government more...... accountable, but the re-election incentive leads to policy-distortion as the government seeks to manipulate swing voters' beliefs to make its ideology more popular. This creates a trade-off: A short term length improves accountability but gives distortions. A short term length is best for swing voters when...

  11. Democracy always comes first’ : Adolescents’ views on decision-making in everyday life and political democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwelink, H.; Dekker, P.; Geijsel, F.; ten Dam, G.

    2016-01-01

    Research shows adolescents to be positively oriented towards democracy, but little is known about what it actually means to them and what their views are on decision-making in both everyday situations and political democracy. To gain insight into these aspects of adolescents’ democratic views, we

  12. Internet and Democracy: Is the Internet an Important Predictor for Physical Education Teacher Candidates' Attitudes towards Democracy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünlü, Hüseyin

    2017-01-01

    Today, in the digital age, the Internet usage is common among university students. The Internet is also an important platform for actively participating in democracy. This study explores physical education (PE) candidate teachers' attitudes toward the Internet and democracy. It also explores whether the Internet is an important predictor for…

  13. Participatory Democracy in Local School Districts: Fact or Fiction, Boon or Bane?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatley, Richard V.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the viability of participatory democracy and representative democracy for educational decision-making and argues that pure representative democracy would be preferable to the combination of participatory and representative democracy that now predominates. (Available from the Kansas Association of School Boards, 825 Western, Topeka, KS…

  14. Third World Libraries; Is There an American Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Donald J.

    1994-01-01

    Presents viewpoints of four library professionals on the role of American libraries in the development of third world libraries. Topics discussed include the role of libraries in democracies; financial and human resource needs; the role of library associations; and staff exchange programs, including the American Library Association's Library…

  15. From Liberal Democracy to the Cosmopolitan Canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Van Til

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Liberalism is that ideology, that worldview, which values, in an ever-evolving set of intelligently intermingled thoughts:  democracy, freedom (liberty, equality (justice, fraternity (solidarity, the pursuit of happiness, pluralism (diversity, and human rights--and explores the ever-open ever-possible futures of their rediscovery and advance. The study of ways in which social movements relate to Third sector/nonprofit or voluntary organizations can be structured, if we choose, as a liberal endeavor.  That is the message I receive from Antonin Wagner’s (2012 telling of the emergence of a field that focuses its study and developmental energies on place of intermediate associational life in modern society, from Adalbert Evers’ efforts to sustain the welfare state in an era of untrammeled capitalism (2013, and from Roger Lohmann’s (1992 comprehensive vision of a social commons capable of assuring the values of liberal society. This paper sets the theory of liberal democracy in a contemporary cosmopolitan context, drawing on case material from Hungary, Northern Ireland,  and the United States.

  16. Preference for Democracy in the Arab World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Al-Ississ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We take a new look at the question of the Arab democratic exception by looking at the preference for democracy among individuals in the Arab world in a comparative context. We use the new sixth wave of the World Value Survey, which was collected between 2012 and 2013, and which included for the first time 12 Arab countries (up from only four in wave 5 and 68 non-Arab countries. We innovate empirically by measuring the preference for democracy over strong rule in a way that, we argue, is more adapted to an understanding of the Arab world than other measures used in past studies. Our statistical analysis reveals a democratic gap in the Arab region compared to global experience, which is especially marked among the more educated individuals, and to a lesser extent among the youth and the middle class. We conclude by discussing the reasons that may explain the Arab exceptionalism, and argue that it is unlikely to be related to culture alone.

  17. Egalitarian Democracy between Elitism and Populism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Cerovac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In his influential book Disagreement: Politics and Philosophy Jacques Ranciere builds a substantial critique of liberal regimes present in most Western countries. He finds them defective because: (1 they allow wealth and economic power of groups and individuals to influence public decision-making, making those with economic power an elite group; (2 they allow knowledge and expertise of groups and individuals to influence public decision-making, making those with epistemic power an elite group; (3 they allow and encourage social and economic conditions that make people inappropriate for decision-making on important issues, making those with certain characteristics thus acquired an inferior group. We focus on the Ranciere’s second objection by relying on Estlund’s epistemic proceduralis approach and claim that one does not have to embrace postmodernist idea of reducing reason to relations of power in order to present a substantial critique of our contemporary society. Furthermore, we argue that one does not have to base egalitarian democracy on postmodernist ideas that reject the truth-tracking potential of democratic procedures – egalitarian democracy is perfectly compatible with the idea of truth in politics. Key words: , , , , ,

  18. Interculturality and Intercultural Education: A Challenge for Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikman, Sheila

    1997-09-01

    The paper examines the debate taking place in Peru, and also more generally in South and Central American countries with large indigenous populations, on the nature of interculturality and intercultural education. It investigates concepts fundamental to interculturality such as democracy and equality and asks what they mean in the context of the Peruvian state, civil society and the indigenous movement. It questions whether an interculturality based in apolitical calls for dialogue and respect for cultural and linguistic plurality can meet the needs of indigenous peoples and their daily confrontations with oppressive and unequal intercultural relations. Taking Peru as an example, it investigates the possibilities for the development of an interculturality that is characterised by equality and participation and which enables indigenous peoples to have greater control over their lives. It then briefly examines the nature of the intercultural lives of the Harakmbut of SE Peruvian Amazon and a new indigenous intercultural education programme which the Harakmbut hope will help them address the inequalities and exploitation which they face.

  19. FEMINIST MOVEMENTS: OLD AND NEW PENDING. REFLECTIONS FROM DEMOCRACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Dolores Centeno Orozco

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Feminist struggles have gone through various processes and historical moments to achieve real equality between men and women. Since women exercised their right to vote it is believed that other social, economic and political rights would be resolved through state action. Citizenship in a democratic context was the key factor. Today, indicators show that women are at a disadvantage, institutions that shape Democracy not respond to the claims of old, women move between the daily survival and the struggle for full citizenship. Reflections on social movements in general and feminist movements in particular through the prism of democratic values are scarce in the Latin American context, so this article brings to this unfinished debate. It is based on a review of secondary sources which have been developed in the past decade, because just because the feminist debate has taken other axes of inequality in addition to gender, as it is obvious multiple discrimination of persons in the political and current socio-cultural system.

  20. How Terrorism Affects Attitudes toward Democracy: Tunisia in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Robert; Brym, Robert

    2017-11-01

    Tunisia is the only country that emerged from the Arab Spring as a democracy. However, Tunisian democracy is threatened by political divisions, economic problems, and the threat of terrorist attacks. We shed light on Tunisia's democratic prospects by examining (1) the degree to which major terrorist attacks in 2015 influenced Tunisian public opinion on democracy and (2) the extent to which preference for a democratic system affected opinions on the prospects for democracy in Tunisia. We use data from three waves of a nationwide survey conducted just before and just after Tunisia's first major terrorist attack, and just after the country's second major terrorist attack. We demonstrate that after the attacks the Tunisian public became less favourable toward democracy and less optimistic that Tunisia would soon be ready for it. Such scepticism was widespread, affecting people who preferred democracy as much as those who did not. We conclude that the prospects for Tunisian democracy are more precarious than is sometimes assumed. © 2017 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  1. Performing Transnational Arab American Womanhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koegeler-Abdi, Martina

    2016-01-01

    The first Miss Lebanon-America, Rosemary Hakim, landed at Beirut Airport in July 1955 to start a public diplomacy tour. As an American beauty queen from Detroit visiting Lebanon, her parents' homeland, she was greeted enthusiastically by the local press and closely monitored by US government...... a transnational sense of Arab Americanness to negotiate her own gender and ethnic identity. This is significant because we currently lack a broader historical understanding of Arab American women’s public agency, particularly during the mid-twentieth century. Hakim’s memoir requires us to rethink the history...... of Arab American women’s strategies of self-representation in ways that acknowledge but are not confined within the terms of conventional orientalist discourses....

  2. Rethinking Value in the Bio-economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Current debates in science and technology studies emphasize that the bio-economy—or, the articulation of capitalism and biotechnology—is built on notions of commodity production, commodification, and materiality, emphasizing that it is possible to derive value from body parts, molecular and cellular tissues, biological processes, and so on. What is missing from these perspectives, however, is consideration of the political-economic actors, knowledges, and practices involved in the creation and management of value. As part of a rethinking of value in the bio-economy, this article analyzes three key political-economic processes: financialization, capitalization, and assetization. In doing so, it argues that value is managed as part of a series of valuation practices, it is not inherent in biological materialities. PMID:28458406

  3. Equality, Human Dignity and Minorities: A Social Democracy in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacson Gross

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with equality, human dignity and the need to build a social democracy. Bringing equality concepts in a broad sense as foundation work, is set to develop writing by making some remarks on the dignity of the individual and minorities, often not heard, even within democratic scenarios since democracy is the voice the most by hiding voices and demands of sectors or groups excluded from the agenda. Minorities such as LGBT, black, residents of peripheral areas of large cities, among others, do not have their demands heard from this idea, we seek a concept of social democracy, which is wider than just the voice of the majority.

  4. Landscape democracy, three sets of values, and the connoisseur method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arler, Finn; Mellqvist, Helena

    2015-01-01

    for argument. It examines various methods that have been used to try to make landscape decisions more democratic. In the last part of the paper the connoisseur method is introduced. This method emphasises stakeholder participation in deliberative processes with a particular focus on place-based knowledge......The European Landscape Convention has brought up the question of democracy in relation to landscape transformation, but without a clear definition of democracy. This paper conceptualises democracy in relation to three main sets of values related to self-determination, co-determination and respect...

  5. SWELA, Ethnicity, and Democracy in Cameroon’s Patrimonial State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orock, Rogers Tabe Egbe

    2014-01-01

    empowerment and accountability. This article draws from a recent anthropological theoretical position on democracy as a work of cultural construction as well as on ethnographic material on an ethno-regional elite organization in Southwestern Cameroon called SWELA to provide an alternative reading...... of the ethnicity-elite-democracy nexus in postcolonial Africa. I suggest that while ethnicity is a major idiom through which the politics of democracy is practiced in Africa where most states are very patrimonially organized, this need not be seen as unproductive to the democratic ideals or expectations...

  6. The Problem of Citizens: E-Democracy for Actually Existing Democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Kreiss

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that many contemporary e-democracy projects, particularly in the United States, have at their heart a model of atomistic, independent, rational, and general-interest citizens. As such, these projects, variously grouped under the labels of e-governance, online deliberation, open government, and civic technology, often assume a broad shared consensus about collective definitions of “public problems” that both does not exist and sidesteps debates over what these problems are ...

  7. The influence of ICT on modern democracy. Selected dilemmas of electronic democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Musiał-Karg, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Due to rapid development of Information and Communication Technologies in all areas of public life, the influence of ICT on democracy has been becoming over the last years an increasingly popular research subject. Application of modern technologies influences work, education, trade, services and social relations on the professional, public and private space. ICTs are also applied to facilitate (and adapt technologically) processes that occur between political institutions, politic...

  8. The Problem of Citizens: E-Democracy for Actually Existing Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kreiss

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that many contemporary e-democracy projects, particularly in the United States, have at their heart a model of atomistic, independent, rational, and general-interest citizens. As such, these projects, variously grouped under the labels of e-governance, online deliberation, open government, and civic technology, often assume a broad shared consensus about collective definitions of “public problems” that both does not exist and sidesteps debates over what these problems are and what potential solutions can and should be. Drawing on recent theories of political parties, social identity, and cultural cognition, this article argues that e-democracy efforts need to account for the fact that the citizens practitioners appeal to see themselves by default as members of social groups, and that this has implications for politics and what Jasanoff calls “civic epistemology.” Presenting the case of attempting to change Republican opinions about climate change, I argue that e-democracy initiatives should seek to foster collaboration and deliberation within , not between, parties and among partisans. To do so, e-democratic reformers need to explicitly structure the collaborative and deliberative environment so there is a range of intra-party opinions and beliefs as part of the consultative and policy-making process.

  9. World Peace Through Law: Rethinking an Old Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Ranney

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The author sets about re-thinking the old concept of “World Peace Through Law” (WPTL, meaning replacing the use of international force with the global rule of law. He traces the history of the WPTL concept back to the British legal philosopher Jeremy Bentham, whose 1789 ‘Plan for an Universal and Perpetual Peace’ proposed “a plan of general and permanent pacification for all Europe,” with troop reductions(especially in naval forces and “a Common Court of Judicature” to resolve differences between nations. The author’s 21st century version of WPTL bears an uncanny resemblance to Bentham’s original proposal, calling for: 1 arms reductions (including abolition of nuclear weapons; 2 a four-stage comprehensive system of compulsory alternative dispute resolution(compulsory negotiation, mediation, arbitration, and adjudication; and 3 various enforcement mechanisms, including an international peace force.The author argues that now is the time for adoption of what is a mainstream middle-of-the-road proposition (previously adopted by four past American presidents, including Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, Dwight David Eisenhower, and John F. Kennedy that is neither “too little” (our current strategy of “collective insecurity” nor “too much” (world government or world federalism. Instead, WPTL calls for only 1 arms reductions, not general and complete disarmament; 2 compulsory international alternative dispute resolution systems, not a global legislature; and 3 means of effective enforcement (including an international police force, not pacifism.The whole concept of WPTL has been sadly neglected over the past half century. It is time to take a new look at the concept in this, the nuclear age.

  10. Technology for Democracy in Smart City Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo De Pascali

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent history the relationship between technology and urban planning has been variously taken into account (and possibly also undervalued, but lately it has come into focus with the maturation ofthe concept of the Smart City. Building on an analysis of documents dealing with the issue andcurrent experiences, this paper tries to determine which opportunity factors the new technologies are offering for the improvement of urban planning. In particular it considers how these technologies arebeing integrated into the processes of participatory planning thus supporting the development of direct democracy. The resulting complex framework suggests four main fields of application where the new technologies can contribute to addressing contents and governance of the plan for an urban organisation that enhances virtuous behaviours and steers the town’s residents towardsadopting them.

  11. Urban sprawl, smart growth, and deliberative democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2010-10-01

    Urban sprawl is an increasingly common feature of the built environment in the United States and other industrialized nations. Although there is considerable evidence that urban sprawl has adverse affects on public health and the environment, policy frameworks designed to combat sprawl-such as smart growth-have proven to be controversial, making implementation difficult. Smart growth has generated considerable controversy because stakeholders affected by urban planning policies have conflicting interests and divergent moral and political viewpoints. In some of these situations, deliberative democracy-an approach to resolving controversial public-policy questions that emphasizes open, deliberative debate among the affected parties as an alternative to voting-would be a fair and effective way to resolve urban-planning issues.

  12. Cosmopolitan democracy: conceptual deficits and political errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Costa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the appeal to some universal ethics and the evocation of a global civil society constitute the core of the "cosmopolitan democracies" theories, presented as either reality data or political desideratum. The paper aims at showing that in the terms formulated by the cosmopolitan democrats both ideas rely on evolutionist presuppositions. Institutions, values, and cultural ways of life effective on societies situated in the northern hemisphere end up being regarded as both per se superior and models for general application. Against such reorganization of the world, the paper indicatively cites necessary precautions in order to have both the international cooperation of social actors and the globalisation of human rights contribute towards overcoming particularisms in the several regions, taking into consideration, at the same time, the cultural particularities of the different regional contexts.

  13. Education, democracy and development in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Candido

    1993-11-01

    The education first brought to America by Europeans was hardly more than ornamental culture, literacy was generally unimportant, and African slaves were not educated at all. Only in this century did industrialization cause some governments to provide economic and technological support through training and education. In the last decade, the debt crisis curtailed spending, while numbers of students and teachers continued to rise. A comparison between Latin America and South Korea illustrates the former's relative decline in investment. The advent of populist and corporatist democracies did not alleviate the situation, although there is now some evidence of concern for basic education for poorer children. With economic adjustment programmes, little else has been done for those who have suffered the heaviest burdens, and no obvious solutions to poverty and technological obsolescence are in prospect. A major reform of State institutions is called for, including a commitment to education, a change in the economic model, and a recognition of global interdependence.

  14. Ghana: an emerging oil-rich democracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellerin, Mathieu

    2011-12-01

    After an indication of the main economic and social indicators of Ghana, and an overview of the historical evolution of Ghana towards democracy since its independence in 1960, a discussion of its advances and limitations in this respect as this country is starting oil production (support of investors, obstacles and difficulties related to institutional limits, decentralisation process, land tenure regime and tradition), the author discusses the possible consequences of this oil wind fall on the democratic dynamics, notably regarding the legal framework (issues of fragility of the institutional and legal systems). In a third part, the author discusses the capacity of the Ghanaian system to face the oil challenge while exorcising the generally occurring curse associated with oil resources

  15. Nuclear legacy. Democracy in a plutonium economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnaby, F.

    1997-01-01

    There have already been a few hundred known incidents of nuclear smuggling, mostly of small quantities not close to weapons grade material - but one gram of plutonium is more than sufficient to cause significant harm and to pose a substantial threat. The potential for further thefts is growing as the world produces ever more quantities of plutonium, not only from the dismantling of nuclear weapons but also from the separation out of plutonium from spent uranium nuclear reactor fuel elements. Trying to prevent the theft of gram quantities of plutonium would require levels of protection and surveillance unacceptably high in a democratic society. It is unlikely, therefore, that democracy could survive in a plutonium economy

  16. Deliberative Democracy between Social Liberalism and Neoliberalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loftager, Jørn

    During the same decades as neoliberalism has expanded at the expense of social liberalism, democratic theory has witnessed a profound deliberative turn. The paper explores links be-tween these developments and presents a double argument. First, it argues for a critical oppo-sition between a current...... agenda with problems calling for effective public reasoning and the predominance of neoliberal politics and ideas of citizenship. Whereas a social liberal notion of citizenship based on equal rights is conducive to deliberative democracy, recent years’ ne-oliberalism tends to define citizenship in terms...... in neoliberal ontology (Hayek). Here there is a remarkable parallel to French solidarism and especially the social liberal think-ing of Durkheim. Danish politics will serve as an illustrative empirical, least likely, case in point....

  17. Romanian Democracy, Two Facets of the Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Pleșca

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study tries, although we are aware of its limits, to offer two methods through which Romanian democracy could overcome its state of „non-development”. Beyond the objective and the subjective causes of the democratic backwardness of Romania, causes that have been discussed both in the academic community and in the public space, we think that it might be more relevant to identify the possibilities of an evolution. Although omnipresent in the Romanian public debate, the two ways to follow are approached from a special perspective, following a certain liberal model, stressing the importance of protecting the individual interests and rights of the citizens against the inherent abuses of the institutions of the political power..

  18. Sentimento de democracia Sentiment of democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubem Barboza Filho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo explora o papel que os valores, e um certo modo de vivê-los, pode ter para a consolidação da democracia no Brasil. Na primeira parte, mostra, com o auxílio de Charles Taylor, como a proposta de democracia deliberativa e procedimental de Habermas contempla as idéias de razão e interesse bem compreendidos, mas soterra a importância do ''sentimento bem compreendido'' - dos valores que a originaram historicamente. Na segunda parte, o artigo examina as grandes configurações expressivistas e não racionalistas de valores que conformaram a identidade brasileira - o barroco, o romantismo e o modernismo - e como esta tradição, e os valores que nela habitam, podem ser mobilizados para a nossa plena democratização e para a permanência dos próprios procedimentos democráticos.This article explores the role that values, and a way of experiencing them, may have to consolidate democracy in Brazil. The first part shows, with the assistance of Charles Taylor, how Habermas's procedural and deliberative democracy accounts for the ideas of reason and self-interest rightly understood, but not for the ''sentiment rightly understood'' - the values which have made it historically possible. The second part examines the great expressivist and non-rationalist configurations which have made up the Brazilian identity - Baroque, Romanticism and Modernism - and how this tradition, and the values which inhabit it, may be worked out for our full democratization and the keeping of the democratic proceduralism itself.

  19. "Democracy Will Not Fall from the Sky." A Comparative Study of Teacher Education Students' Perceptions of Democracy in Two Neo-Liberal Societies: Argentina and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyngier, David; Traverso, María Delia; Murriello, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares and contrasts pre-service teachers' (PSTs) beliefs about democracy in Argentina and Australia. While there are many important studies of how school students understand democracy and democratic participation, few have studied what teachers, and especially pre-service teachers, think about democracy. This paper uses a mixed…

  20. Impact of ICTs on Local Democracy : Transparency and Citizen ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Impact of ICTs on Local Democracy : Transparency and Citizen Participation in the ... is characterized by great socioeconomic diversity and strong social networks ... of the population has access to computers, 25.9% of which use the Internet.

  1. The value of political parties to representative democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kölln, Ann-Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Political parties play a major role in democratic processes around the world. Recent empirical research suggests that parties are increasingly less important to citizens. Simultaneously, classic and contemporary theories of representative democracy specifically still minimally incorporate accounts

  2. The Case for Democracy as a Long Term National Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walsh, John E

    2007-01-01

    ... with the ultimate goal of ending tyranny in the world. Throughout his presidency, President Bush has religiously argued that there is an inextricable link between freedom and peace, and between democracy and security...

  3. Visual graphics for human rights, social justice, democracy and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: art, democracy, human rights, social justice, the public good, visual ..... (Figure 1), the symbolism is two-fold; firstly, the upper composition depicts the ... in industry and global communications pay scant regard to their effect on the ...

  4. Globalisation, democracy and the New Partnership for Africa\\'s ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , through the Structural Adjustment Programme, and referred to as globalization, is given supremacy or value only through liberal democracy. This is explicitly acknowledged in the NEPAD document without taking cognizance of the ...

  5. Technocracy and Democracy: The Challenges to Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reginald M. J. Oduor

    from the vantage point of appropriate knowledge and experience. They seek ... Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held by the .... This analysis to some, rightly or otherwise, implies that technocrats are anti- ...

  6. Security and Democracy in Southern Africa | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-11-15

    operation initiatives, seeking to roll out the principles of the United Nations at regional levels. This book examines the triangular relationship between democratisation, the character of democracy and its deficits, and national ...

  7. Democratic Chaos: How Taiwanese Democracy Destabilized Cross-Strait Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Newberry, David A

    2005-01-01

    Since 1988, democracy in Taiwan has evolved and developed a great deal. Experts argue whether this growth constitutes "democratic consolidation" but there is no contention of the idea that the ROC is more democratic now versus pre-1988...

  8. Democracy in the Middle East: A Goal or an Impossibility?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carignan, Jennie

    2007-01-01

    Since September 11, democracy has come to dominate the discourse as authoritarian Middle East regimes, even if they are friendly to Western interests, are perceived to be at the root of the existing...

  9. Islam, Context, Pluralism and Democracy : Classical and Modern Interpretations,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellethy, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Islam, Context, Pluralism and Democracy aspires to clarify the tensions and congruences between the revelational and the rational, the text and the context, the limits and the horizons of contextualization in Islam, as these emanate from the Islamic interpretative tradition.

  10. Democracy and Development – A Disputed Pair1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... rising incomes. (based on economic growth), but also longer lives, higher levels of literacy .... the integrated human development measure (HDI) as a valid or meaningful ... Just like the minimalist, the substantialist definition holds democracy.

  11. How Democratic is Latvia? Audit of Democracy 2005–2014

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Audit of Democracy 2014 prepared within the scope of National Research Programme “National Identity”. Audit preparation and publication supported by the Friedrich Ebert Foundation and the United States Embassy in Latvia.

  12. The LRA and the common law | Wallis | Law, Democracy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Law, Democracy & Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 2 (2005) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. E-democracy a group decision and negotiation perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Rios Insua, David

    2010-01-01

    E-Democracy presents the ways in which the Internet could transform both politics and government. Topics include foundations, basic methodologies, potential implementation and applications, in addition to a thorough discussion of the underlying challenges involved.

  14. Democracy, Citizenship and Youth: Towards Social and Political ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-10-12

    Oct 12, 2009 ... Democracy, Citizenship and Youth: Towards Social and Political ... the successful media-relations strategy, and the rewarding partnerships ... Birth registration is the basis for advancing gender equality and children's rights.

  15. Visual graphics for human rights, social justice, democracy and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: art, democracy, human rights, social justice, the public good, visual graphics. Introduction ..... in industry and global communications pay scant regard to their effect on the environment. The ..... Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Merril.

  16. Democracy, ethics and social justice: Implications for secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... were interviewed to explore their perspectives on democratic school leadership and establish the ... Inclusion of democratic school leadership principles in teacher training ... Keywords: democracy; ethics; leadership practices; social justice ...

  17. Dressing Uncivil Neighbor(hoods. Walt Whitman's Adhesive Democracy in “Calamus” and “Drum-Taps”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura López Peña

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes 19th-century US poet Walt Whitman’s vindication of “adhesiveness” as imperative to the formation of a social democracy which might heal the neighborly hatreds of a divided United States and bind the nation together at a time of violent fragmentation and Civil War. The article examines Whitman’s location of the possibility of politics and democracy at the interpersonal level, and connects the poet’s political project in his 1860 “Calamus” with that in the 1865 “Drum-Taps”, studying how Whitman’s belief in the uniting capacity of love between men remained constant even as he was witnessing the tragic consequences of a four-year Civil War which would widen even more the irreconcilable gulfs between different Americans.

  18. Democracy, Freedom, and Justice after September 11th: Rethinking the Role of Educators and the Politics of Schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Henry A.

    2002-01-01

    Illustrates how life in post-September 11 America is both a rupture from certain anti-government politics that dominated before that day and a continuation of the pre-September 11 promotion of global capitalism and the abandonment of efforts to create greater equality. The paper attempts to help educators contemplate the role of public schools in…

  19. Democracy predicts sport and recreation membership: Insights from 52 countries

    OpenAIRE

    Balish, Shea M.

    2017-01-01

    Although evidence suggests sport and recreation are powerful contributors to worldwide public health, sizable gender differences persist. It is unknown whether country characteristics moderate gender differences across countries. The primary purpose of this study was to examine if countries’ levels of democracy and/or gender inequality moderate gender differences in sport and recreation membership across countries. The secondary purpose was to examine if democracy and/or gender inequality pre...

  20. Culture´Contribution to Democracy: Culture, nationalisme and Populism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Developments on culture, populism and democracy in Europe. Reasons to populism?   Is populism a new phenomenon? Populism as catch-all label? Common indicators of populism How to deal with populists? Proposal to a comparative COE study on populism......Developments on culture, populism and democracy in Europe. Reasons to populism?   Is populism a new phenomenon? Populism as catch-all label? Common indicators of populism How to deal with populists? Proposal to a comparative COE study on populism...

  1. The Populist Conception of Democracy Beyond Popular Sovereignty

    OpenAIRE

    Corduwener, Pepijn

    2014-01-01

    With populist parties making electoral progress across the European continent, the question of what their electoral success means for contemporary democratic systems has gained increasing significance. This article investigates how two populist radical right parties, the Austrian FPÖ and the Dutch PVV, conceptualise democracy, based on a wide range of party documents released over recent decades. It builds upon recent academic consensus that the relationship between populism and democracy is ...

  2. E-democracy and public administrators: the Malaysian case

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Bakar, Abdul Gapar

    2017-01-01

    The thesis investigates public administrators’ use of interactive Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) in the Malaysian Federal Public Service (MFPS). It describes qualitative research which identifies the nature of e-democracy practices in policy development in the MFPS. In-depth interviews and scholarly as well as government documents provide empirical evidence. Through a survey of literature, contextual features such as absence of policy in the MFPS for e-democracy, constitut...

  3. Thomas Docherty. Culture and a New Experience of Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik S. RORABACK

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Docherty’s freshly printed volume from Stanford University Press, Aesthetic Democracy, is requisite reading for all those thinking beings out there interested in the question of the inter-relation and even inter-articulation between culture and experience for a possible new encounter with the political that would inch toward a truer form of democracy for our current postmodern social spheres and spaces. Professor of English and Comparative Literature in the University of Warwick, long ...

  4. Democracy, justice and state of exception: past present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tásso Araújo Brito

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Violence against portions of society, disbelief in democratic institutions and agents of the state who inflict torture against those who are in their custody are elements that corrode the Brazilian democracy. Between the past of the military-civilian dictatorship and the current moment we realize how practices that have been considered exceptions have become rules that affect the life of many Brazilian citizens. The present paper investigates these political experiences to ask which democracy have we been living in.

  5. National Insecurity and Human Rights: Democracies Debate Counterterrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Brysk, Alison; Shafir, Gershon

    2007-01-01

    Human rights is all too often the first casualty of national insecurity. How can democracies cope with the threat of terror while protecting human rights? This timely volume compares the lessons of the United States and Israel with the "best-case scenarios" of the United Kingdom, Canada, Spain, and Germany. It demonstrates that threatened democracies have important options, and democratic governance, the rule of law, and international cooperation are crucial foundations for counterterror policy.

  6. Improving school governance through participative democracy and the law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius H Smit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an inextricable link between democracy, education and the law. After 15 yearsofconstitutional democracy, the alarming percentage of dysfunctional schools raises questions about the efficacy of the system of local school governance. We report on the findings of quantitative and qualitative research on the democratisation of schools and the education system in North-West Province. Several undemocratic features are attributable to systemic weaknesses of traditional models of democracy as well as the misapplication of democratic and legal principles. The findings of the qualitative study confirmed that parents often misconceive participatory democracy for political democracy and misunderstand the role of the school governing body to be a political forum. Despite the shortcomings, the majority of the respondents agreed that parental participation improves school effectiveness and that the decentralised model of local school governance should continue. Recommendations to effect the inculcation of substantive democratic knowledge, values and attitudes into school governance are based on theory of deliberative democracy and principles of responsiveness, accountability and justification of decisions through rational discourse.

  7. Democracy, political participation and good governance in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dare E. Arowolo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The practice of democracy in Nigeria over a decade ago has not yielded much needed good governance. This is because democracy is practiced in such a way that responsible and competent people are scared away. Scholars and keen observers have attempted at unraveling the factors militating against translating democracy into good governance. The paper revealed that democratisation in Nigeria is pervaded by electoral violence, manipulation of election results and political participation constraints. These identified challenges have made it impossible to attain consolidated democracy that can, in turn, facilitate good governance. Democracy is a catalyst for accountability, transparency and responsive government which brings about good governance. The paper insisted that governance collapse in Nigeria is reflexive of the perfunctory role of the political actors and it adopted elite theory to reinforce this argument. The paper adopted content analysis as a means of data gathering. It dwelt extensively on the synergy between democracy, political participation and good governance but queried the artificial gulf between them in Nigeria. It concluded by putting forth viable and pragmatic way forward.

  8. Democracy predicts sport and recreation membership: Insights from 52 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balish, Shea M

    2017-03-01

    Although evidence suggests sport and recreation are powerful contributors to worldwide public health, sizable gender differences persist. It is unknown whether country characteristics moderate gender differences across countries. The primary purpose of this study was to examine if countries' levels of democracy and/or gender inequality moderate gender differences in sport and recreation membership across countries. The secondary purpose was to examine if democracy and/or gender inequality predicts overall rates of sport and recreation membership for both males and females. This study involved a nested cross-sectional design and employed the sixth wave (2013) of the world value survey (n Ss =71,901, n countries =52). Multiple hierarchal nonlinear Bernoulli models tested: (1) if countries' levels of democracy moderate gender differences in sport and recreation membership; and (2) if democracy is associated with increased sport and recreation membership for both males and females. Countries' level of democracy fully moderated gender differences in sport and recreation membership across countries. Moreover, democracy was positively associated with both male and female membership, even when controlling for individual and country-level covariates. Democratic political regimes may confer health benefits via increased levels of sport and recreation membership, especially for females. Future research should test mediating mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rethinking Participation and Re-enacting Its Dilemmas?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Birgit; Stephensen, Jan Løhmann

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 the Danish city of Aarhus was appointed European Capital of Culture for 2017. The appointment was based on an ambitious programme that – under the headline Rethink – tried to set an agenda of societal transformation, mainly by seeking to increase the impact of art and culture, and to enha......In 2012 the Danish city of Aarhus was appointed European Capital of Culture for 2017. The appointment was based on an ambitious programme that – under the headline Rethink – tried to set an agenda of societal transformation, mainly by seeking to increase the impact of art and culture...... Rethink project. Informed by theoretical distinctions between different forms of participation, and the diverse interests invested in participatory processes, we investigate how the young cultural entrepreneurs and the artistic administrators of Aarhus 2017 separately, in conjunction, and sometimes even...

  10. Informal business and poverty in South Africa: Rethinking the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Law, Democracy & Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 14 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. American Nations, Latin States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Nelson Ahumada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The nation, as artifact of modernity, assumes particularities in America such as the colonization and genocide of original peoples which still weighs as a never ending comeback. Nevertheless, capital, with its overwhelming force, destroyed peoples, cultures, traditions and landscapes. Latin America faces the challenge of uniting beyond the necessities of capital, and beyond two languages, spanish and portuguese. All of which has full validity at present with the blocks UNASUR and ALBA. Ethnocentricity is postulated as the exclusive condition of all possible humanity and, as programme, racism without races; Latin American miscegenation, as the potential for unity and the strength of emancipation as a project. Our intellectuals, who constructed a unique and superlative literature, are the lighthouses in the development of a nationalism without races. Anthropology in debate with psychoanalysis can become a compass in rethinking our America.

  12. The Absence of Structural Americanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    2013-01-01

    . Theoretically, economic and technological forces were expected to drive convergence. The article suggests that the reason these forces have not driven convergence in recent years may be that the interplay between them have changed as part of a broader shift from the mass media, mass production, and mass markets......Several comparative media researchers have hypothesized that the media systems of affluent Western democracies are becoming more and more structurally homogeneous—that they are becoming “Americanized.” This article uses data on newspaper industry revenues, commercial television revenues, Internet...... characteristic of twentieth-century Western societies and toward the fragmented media landscapes, tailored production, and niche marketing increasingly characteristic of early-twenty-first century affluent democracies....

  13. 5G: rethink mobile communications for 2020+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chih-Lin, I; Han, Shuangfeng; Xu, Zhikun; Sun, Qi; Pan, Zhengang

    2016-03-06

    The 5G network is anticipated to meet the challenging requirements of mobile traffic in the 2020s, which are characterized by super high data rate, low latency, high mobility, high energy efficiency and high traffic density. This paper provides an overview of China Mobile's 5G vision and potential solutions. Three key characteristics of 5G are analysed, i.e. super fast, soft and green. The main 5G R&D themes are further elaborated, which include five fundamental rethinkings of the traditional design methodologies. The 5G network design considerations are also discussed, with cloud radio access network, ultra-dense network, software defined network and network function virtualization examined as key potential solutions towards a green and soft 5G network. The paradigm shift to user-centric network operation from the traditional cell-centric operation is also investigated, where the decoupled downlink and uplink, control and data, and adaptive multiple connections provide sufficient means to achieve a user-centric 5G network with 'no more cells'. The software defined air interface is investigated under a uniform framework and can adaptively adapt the parameters to well satisfy various requirements in different 5G scenarios. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Basic Concepts for rethinking environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Ladron de Guevara, Francisco Jose; Valencia Cuellar, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a review of the fundamental concepts from which environmental problems have been explained and solved during the last decades. Environment is understood as an encounter between nature and culture that is a social construct that reflects the interaction between human beings and the biophysical space in which they live. On the other hand, development is conceived as the ability that societies have to develop their potentialities, being a notion of a totalizing and ethical political nature, which incorporates the biophysical and social heritage of a certain society. Regarding the concept of culture, it must be said that it is built upon the basis that this is an adaptive strategy of the human species. Finally, the relationships between the concepts of culture, environment and development are studied in order to formulate a new perspective for rethinking the environmental issue, so that, in turn, it could be used to redirect survival strategies that human beings currently apply in their interaction with the environment.

  15. Rethinking tourism: Bali’s failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamdevi, M.; Bott, H.

    2018-03-01

    Bali is famous as the tourist destination in the world. Ironically, most of the people of Bali thought that tourism in Bali is a failure. The negative impact showed on modernization in South Bali, including Denpasar, Kuta, and Ubud. Cultural imperialism has shifted local culture in many aspects, especially the traditional houses and buildings. The climax of this problem is the development of Benoa Bay Reclamation, where the sacred location for the traditional ceremony will be built for new tourism development that offers pleasure and leisure. This raised hard protest from the people of Bali. They are also afraid that the Balinese cultural and natural environment will vanish. On the other hand, some movement of sustainable tourism in North Bali, that ran by the local community has also arisen. What is tourism? Is it only for pleasure and leisure only? This research will discuss the rethinking of tourism definition with Bali as a reflection case. The purpose of this paper is to find its right definition with qualitative methodology. A more sustainable tourism that more on local context would be a research result.

  16. Deliberative democracy in health care: current challenges and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Jalil

    2015-01-01

    There is a vast body of literature on deliberative, participative, or engaged democracy. In the area of health care there is a rapidly expanding literature on deliberative democracy as embodied in various notions of public engagement, shared decision-making (SDM), patient-centered care, and patient/care provider autonomy over the past few decades. It is useful to review such literature to get a sense of the challenges and prospects of introducing deliberative democracy in health care. This paper reviews the key literature on deliberative democracy and SDM in health care settings with a focus on identifying the main challenges of promoting this approach in health care, and recognizing its progress so far for mapping out its future prospects in the context of advanced countries. Several databases were searched to identify the literature pertinent to the subject of this study. A total of 56 key studies in English were identified and reviewed carefully for indications and evidence of challenges and/or promising avenues of promoting deliberative democracy in health care. Time pressure, lack of financial motivation, entrenched professional interests, informational imbalance, practical feasibility, cost, diversity of decisions, and contextual factors are noted as the main challenges. As for the prospects, greater clarity on conception of public engagement and policy objectives, real commitment of the authorities to public input, documenting evidence of the effectiveness of public involvement, development of patient decision supports, training of health professionals in SDM, and use of multiple and flexible methods of engagement leadership suited to specific contexts are the main findings in the reviewed literature. Seeking deliberative democracy in health care is both challenging and rewarding. The challenges have been more or less identified. However, its prospects are potentially significant. Such prospects are more likely to materialize if deliberative democracy is

  17. Contentious Politics and Participatory Democracy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Wampler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7984.2014v13n28p199 Contentious politics helps individuals and groups with limited political voice to place their ideas and interests on the political agenda. Contentious politics were long thought to occur when politically marginalized group had no other means to advance their political agenda. The June 2013 social mobilization in Brazil caught most political observers by surprise, especially given the creation of a large, wide-spread participatory architecture (national conferences, councils, participatory budgeting. The innovative institutions emerging in Brazil created a policy environment in which millions of citizens have regular access to state policymaking bodies. How does the institutionalization of a broader network of participatory institutions make it easier for citizens to engage in contentious politics? In what ways does this institutionalization make it more difficult for some citizens to engage in contentious politics? In what ways has the vast network of participatory institutions been largely irrelevant to how citizens use contentious politics? This article explore how the institutionalization of an extensive participatory democracy system in Brazil alters the incentive structures that encourage citizens to engage in contentious collective action.

  18. Science, democracy, and the right to research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark B; Guston, David H

    2009-09-01

    Debates over the politicization of science have led some to claim that scientists have or should have a "right to research." This article examines the political meaning and implications of the right to research with respect to different historical conceptions of rights. The more common "liberal" view sees rights as protections against social and political interference. The "republican" view, in contrast, conceives rights as claims to civic membership. Building on the republican view of rights, this article conceives the right to research as embedding science more firmly and explicitly within society, rather than sheltering science from society. From this perspective, all citizens should enjoy a general right to free inquiry, but this right to inquiry does not necessarily encompass all scientific research. Because rights are most reliably protected when embedded within democratic culture and institutions, claims for a right to research should be considered in light of how the research in question contributes to democracy. By putting both research and rights in a social context, this article shows that the claim for a right to research is best understood, not as a guarantee for public support of science, but as a way to initiate public deliberation and debate about which sorts of inquiry deserve public support.

  19. The Right, the Liberty and Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Alexandru

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available I have asked myself many times, next to other colleague professors from the law or administrative sciences faculties if it is sufficient for students, in the profession they have chosen, to know only the matters of practical immediate use as some officials vested with the destiny of the high education allege. The answer I am trying to argue in this intervention is NO. It is not enough. For example the legal bone structure of the conception regarding the modern democracy finds its fundament in the social contract which is the meta-juridical principle. So to speak, philosophical. Apart from this permanent appeal to philosophy in general, I personally had a permanent concern studying the administrative phenomenon to underline the intrinsic link between juridical and political. I am trying also through this summary intervention to provoke the preferment of a critical spirit, much absent from our academic environment, which could question the too neat roads of the science of the current law and the creation of an intellectual emulation so necessary for the ones who research the legal phenomenon as well as the administrative one. Without philosophy, any research of law or of the administrative phenomenon is lacked of grounds. Or, without fundaments any intellectual attempt is destined to superficiality and, finally, to failure.

  20. Political Corruption, Democratic Theory, and Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doron Navot

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available According to recent conceptual proposals, institutional corruption should be understood within the boundaries of the institution and its purpose. Political corruption in democracies, prominent scholars suggest, is characterized by the violation of institutional ideals or behaviors that tend to harm democratic processes and institutions. This paper rejects the idea that compromises, preferences, political agreements, or consent can be the baseline of conceptualization of political corruption. In order to improve the identification of abuse of power, the concept of political corruption should not be related directly to democratic institutions and processes; rather, it should be related to ideals whose content is independent of citizens’ preferences, institutions and processes. More specifically, I articulate the relations between political corruption and the notion of subjection, and include powerful citizens in the category of political corruption. Yet, I also suggest redefining under what conditions agents are culpable for their motivations in promoting private gain. By doing this, we better realize how democratic institutions can be the source of corruption and not just its victims. Such a redefinition, I propose finally, is the basis for the distinction between individual and institutional corruption.

  1. Synaptic Democracy and Vesicular Transport in Axons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Levien, Ethan

    2015-04-01

    Synaptic democracy concerns the general problem of how regions of an axon or dendrite far from the cell body (soma) of a neuron can play an effective role in neuronal function. For example, stimulated synapses far from the soma are unlikely to influence the firing of a neuron unless some sort of active dendritic processing occurs. Analogously, the motor-driven transport of newly synthesized proteins from the soma to presynaptic targets along the axon tends to favor the delivery of resources to proximal synapses. Both of these phenomena reflect fundamental limitations of transport processes based on a localized source. In this Letter, we show that a more democratic distribution of proteins along an axon can be achieved by making the transport process less efficient. This involves two components: bidirectional or "stop-and-go" motor transport (which can be modeled in terms of advection-diffusion), and reversible interactions between motor-cargo complexes and synaptic targets. Both of these features have recently been observed experimentally. Our model suggests that, just as in human societies, there needs to be a balance between "efficiency" and "equality".

  2. Nuclear energy and democracy in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zangger, C.

    1974-01-01

    Since nuclear energy is a question of international moment, critical citizens are today orienting the attention of the Swiss public more and more towards the international problems presented by the fuel cycle: problems about which a small country like Switzerland can do nothing without international co-operation and information. The most important concerns from the standpoint of the information which Swiss citizens ought to receive and about which I should like to make a few proposals. These are the problem of ultimate disposal of the high-level radioactive waste produced in irradiated fuel reprocessing plants; and the problem of diversion of plutonium by criminals. In conclusion, the last points I have made show quite clearly that the problems raised by the relationship between nuclear energy and democracy in Switzerland are going to be, more and more, problems connected with security and international solidarity. Member States should put International Atomic Energy Agency in a position where it can discharge effectively its tasks of standardization and information related to all sensitive stages of the nuclear fuel cycle

  3. 76 FR 34639 - Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office of Food for Peace...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office of Food for Peace, Announcement of Request for..., Policy and Technical Division, Office of Food for Peace, Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian...

  4. 75 FR 74678 - Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office of Food for Peace Announcement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office of Food for Peace Announcement of Request for... Majernik, Grants Manager, Policy and Technical Division, Office of Food for Peace, Bureau for Democracy...

  5. Direct democracy and minority rights: same-sex marriage bans in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Daniel C

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. A common critique of direct democracy posits that minority rights are endangered by citizen legislative institutions. By allowing citizens to directly create public policy, these institutions avoid the filtering mechanisms of representative democracy that provide a check on the power of the majority. Empirical research, however, has produced conflicting results that leave the question of direct democracy's effect on minority rights open to debate. This article seeks to empirically test this critique using a comparative, dynamic approach.Methods. I examine the diffusion of same-sex marriage bans in the United States using event-history analysis, comparing direct-democracy states to non-direct-democracy states.Results. The results show that direct-democracy states are significantly more likely than other states to adopt same-sex marriage bans.Conclusion. The findings support the majoritarian critique of direct democracy, suggesting that the rights of minority groups are at relatively higher risk under systems with direct democracy.

  6. Theoretical Models of Deliberative Democracy: A Critical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutui Viorel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: My paper focuses on presenting and analyzing some of the most important theoretical models of deliberative democracy and to emphasize their limits. Firstly, I will mention James Fishkin‟s account of deliberative democracy and its relations with other democratic models. He differentiates between four democratic theories: competitive democracy, elite deliberation, participatory democracy and deliberative democracy. Each of these theories makes an explicit commitment to two of the following four “principles”: political equality, participation, deliberation, nontyranny. Deliberative democracy is committed to political equality and deliberation. Secondly, I will present Philip Pettit‟s view concerning the main constraints of deliberative democracy: the inclusion constraint, the judgmental constraint and the dialogical constraint. Thirdly, I will refer to Amy Gutmann and Dennis Thompson‟s conception regarding the “requirements” or characteristics of deliberative democracy: the reason-giving requirement, the accessibility of reasons, the binding character of the decisions and the dynamic nature of the deliberative process. Finally, I will discuss Joshua Cohen‟s “ideal deliberative procedure” which has the following features: it is free, reasoned, the parties are substantively equal and the procedure aims to arrive at rationally motivated consensus. After presenting these models I will provide a critical analysis of each one of them with the purpose of revealing their virtues and limits. I will make some suggestions in order to combine the virtues of these models, to transcend their limitations and to offer a more systematical account of deliberative democracy. In the next four sections I will take into consideration four main strategies for combining political and epistemic values (“optimistic”, “deliberative”, “democratic” and “pragmatic” and the main objections they have to face. In the concluding section

  7. Living on Borrowed Time: Rethinking Temporality, Self, Nihilism, and Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappleye, Jeremy; Komatsu, Hikaru

    2016-01-01

    Seeking to contribute to recent attempts to rethink the deepest foundations of the field, this paper offers news ways of contemplating time, specifically its relations to self, nihilism, and schooling. We briefly review how some leading Western thinkers have contemplated time before detailing Japanese scholars who have offered divergent, original,…

  8. Re-thinking clinical research training in residency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer O'Brien

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: We conclude that medical educators should critically re-think our programs to develop resident researchers. If it is worthwhile to require original research projects during residency, then we must consider the priorities of local settings to best serve the public interest.

  9. The African Mind and Globalization: Rethinking the Causes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Mind and Globalization: Rethinking the Causes of Africa's ... which has become “the new bride” in building socio-economic, socio-cultural and ... Africa, the once touted “cradle of civilisation”, and indeed, the forerunner of science ...

  10. Intimate Distance: Rethinking the Unthought God in Christianity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kate, L. ten

    2008-01-01

    The work of the French philosopher Jean-Luc Nancy shares with the thinkers of the ‘theological turn in phenomenology’ the programmatic desire to place the ‘theological’, in the broad sense of rethinking the religious traditions in our secular time, back on the agenda of critical thought. Like those

  11. Objectivity and Subjectivity: an Argument for Rethinking the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectivity and Subjectivity: an Argument for Rethinking the Philosophy Syllabus. ... South African Journal of Philosophy ... The aftermath of the rise of modern physics has been a picture of reality as alienated from our commonly experienced sense of purposes, aims, and intentions as defining our everyday lives, what we ...

  12. University and Transitions to Democracy in Mediterranean Europe and Latin America (1970-1980. Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara González Gómez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Universities and periods of transition to democracy form the tandem analyzed in the monograph the journal Espacio, Tiempo y Educación presented in this issue. A total of eight studies –from Spain, Greece, Portugal, Brazil and Chile– makes up a volume approaching different question (student mobilization, models of university, claims of teachers, regulatory framework... and exploring changes, evolution or inertia experienced in some European and Latin American universities during what Huntington (1990 called the «third wave» of transition to democracy. This outline of studies aims at expanding the information available on the binomial formed by University and democratic transition, a topic rather limited investigated at present, and, above all, encouraging to develop new lines of research focused on a suggestive and critical issue to understand the history of our universities. How to reference this article González Gómez, S. (2015. Universidad y Transiciones a la Democracia en la Europa mediterránea e Iberoamérica (1970-1980. Presentación. Espacio, Tiempo y Educación, 2(2, 25-32. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/ete.2015.002.002.002

  13. Democracy and Human Rights: Concepts, Measures, and Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Landman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The empirical literature on democracy and human rights has made great strides over the last 30 years in explaining (1 the variation in the transition to, consolidation of, and quality of democracy; (2 the proliferation and effectiveness of human rights law; and (3 the causes and consequences of human rights across many of their categories and dimensions. This work has in many ways overcome the ‘essentially contested’ nature of the concepts of democracy and human rights conceptually, established different measures of both empirically, and developed increasingly sophisticated statistical and other analytical techniques to provide stronger inferences for the academic and policy community. This article argues that despite these many achievements, there remain tensions between conceptualisations of democracy and human rights over the degree to which one includes the other, the temporal and spatial empirical relationships between them, and the measures that have been developed to operationalize them. These tensions, in turn, affect the kinds of analyses that are carried out, including model specification, methods of estimation, and findings. Drawing on extant theories and measures of both, the article argues that there must be greater specificity in the conceptualisation and operationalization of democracy and human rights, greater care in the development and use of measures, and greater attention to the kinds of inferences that are made possible by them.

  14. Is Polis the Answer? Hannah Arendt on Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bokiniec

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reconsider Hannah Arendt’s most influential works from the point of view of her attitude towards democracy and analysis of the way it may contribute to the contemporary understanding and redefinition of the very notion of what democracy is.The paper begins with the reconstruction of Arendt’s anthropology in order to ground her political reflections. The next part discusses the basic characteristics of counsel democracy in forms of spontaneous, local organizations and associations in which every citizen could freely and equally participate, as they show through her analysis of revolutions. The last part deals with different and contradictory interpretations of Arendt’s attitude towards democracy and the question whether her proposition is a practical, revolutionary proposition or an idealist utopia. The interpretation of Arendt’s project emphasizing her democratic and reformative approach is defended. The conclusion states Hannah Arendt’s important contribution to the contemporary reflection on democracy in view of her recognition of the power of grassroots collective actions and their role in contemporary political sphere and the necessity of such formed at grass­roots and spontaneous level actions and associations as a unique safety valve for the society, as well as a counterbalance for mass society.  

  15. The New Criticism and the Crisis of American Liberalism: The Poetics of the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walhout, Mark

    1987-01-01

    Contends that arguments against New Criticism should place the movement in historical context. Suggests that historians of American criticism rethink the institutionalization of New Criticism as the work of both liberal intellectuals and pragmatic neoconservatives for whom both traditional liberalism and right-wing ideology were part of the…

  16. Mass Media and Ideology Dissemination against Democracy in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songyot Buaphuean

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study on “Mass Media and Ideology Dissemination against Democracy in Thailand” is qualitative study with the method of documentary research from text books, books, newspapers and online newspapers to find the definition of democracy which was the system of forming the elected government with the principle of sovereignty, majority, equality, freedom and laws. However, some mass media had false consciousness of democracy which included: election brought bad quality politicians; recruitment of persons to form the government was better than election; promotion of superstition; one man one vote was not for Thai society; capitalism deteriorated the nation; The Armed Forces worked for the people. Another concept was the idea that believed Thai society was praising the elite groups. The ideology said the society should obey the senior citizen who had morals, and the Armed Forces forced people to obey.

  17. Delegated democracy. Siting selection for the Swedish nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Hanna Sofia

    2008-11-01

    The present study concerns the siting of the Swedish nuclear waste repository. Four cases are examined: the feasibility studies in Nykoeping and Tierp (cases 1 and 2), as well as three public consultation meetings with conservationist and environmental organisations, and two study visits to nuclear facilities in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar, which were held during what is called the site-investigation phase (cases 3 and 4). The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) began the search for a nuclear waste site in the 1970s. Since 1992 SKB has conducted feasibility studies in eight municipalities, including in the four municipalities mentioned above. At the present time more comprehensive site investigations are underway in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar, two municipalities that already host nuclear power plants as well as storages for nuclear waste. In addition to SKB and the municipalities involved in the site-selection process, politicians, opinion groups, concerned members of the public, and oversight bodies are important actors. The analysis of the cases employs the concepts of 'sub-politics', 'boundary work', and 'expertise', together with the four models of democracy 'representative democracy', participatory democracy', 'deliberative democracy', and 'technocracy'. The aim of the study is to describe the characteristics of Swedish democracy in relation to the disposal of Swedish nuclear waste. The main questions of the study are: Which democratic ideals can be found within SKB's siting process during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process during the site investigations? and Which democratic ideals were influential during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process? The study is based on qualitative methods, and the source materials consist of documents, interviews, and participant observations. In summary, the form of democracy that emerges in the four case studies can be described as delegated democracy. This means that a large

  18. Delegated Democracy. The Siting of Swedish Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Hanna Sofia (Stockholm Univ., SCORE, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-12-15

    This paper aims to characterise Swedish democracy in connection with the disposal of Swedish nuclear waste. To this end, an analysis is performed to discern which democratic ideals that can be found within the nuclear waste issue. The study analyses various actors' views on democracy and expertise as well as their definitions of the nuclear waste issue, and discusses this from the perspective of democracy theory. Which definitions that become influential has democratic implications. In addition, various actors' possible attempts to help or hinder other actors from gaining influence over the nuclear waste issue in the four municipalities are studied. In connection with the case studies the aim of the paper can be narrowed to comprise the following questions: Which democratic ideals can be found within SKB's siting process during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process during the site investigations? Which democratic ideals were influential during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process?

  19. Politics and population health: Testing the impact of electoral democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Andrew C; Veenstra, Gerry

    2016-07-01

    This study addresses questions of whether and why electoral democracies have better health than other nations. After devising a replicable approach to missing data, we compare political, economic, and health-related data for 168 nations collected annually from 1960 through 2010. Regression models estimate that electoral democracies have 11 years of longer life expectancy on average and 62.5% lower rates of infant mortality. The association with life expectancy reduces markedly after controlling for GDP, while a combination of factors may explain the democratic advantage in infant health. Results suggest that income inequality associates independently with both health outcomes but does not mediate their associations with democracy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Technical democracy as a challenge to urban studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farías, Ignacio; Blok, Anders

    2016-01-01

    What is technical democracy? And why does it matter for urban studies? As an introduction to this special feature, we address these questions by reflecting on To Our Friends, the 2014 manifesto of the Invisible Committee. We engage in particular its provocative diagnosis of the current situation......: power no longer resides in the modern institutions of representative democracy and the market economy; instead, power has become a matter of logistics, infrastructures and expertise. This diagnosis, we suggest, brings into view the challenge of technical democracy, that is, the democratization of techno......-scientific expertise and the instauration of forms of lasting collaboration among experts and laypeople. Urban politics, we claim, increasingly turns around socio-technical controversies and it is in terms of the politics of expertise that we should analyse and engage it. Building on Science and Technology Studies...

  1. Crossing Linguistic Borders : Translating Democracy in the 2012 Egyptian Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Quaranta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The transfer of political concepts into different places and cultures happens first and foremost through translation. Far from being a simple transposition of meaning into a different language to facilitate border crossing, it also entails a process of adjustment to a different cultural context and a change in what is perceived to be the original meaning of the concept. Translation should also include the analysis of the social contexts that cause a political concept to be modified. Through Baker's social narrative theory, all these aspects can be integrated to analyse how the concept of democracy moves from place to place and from language to language leading to more complex understandings of it. I will examine the meaning of the concept of democracy in the 2012 Egyptian Constitution to outline the main features of an intercultural translational process of the concept of democracy.

  2. Delegated Democracy. The Siting of Swedish Nuclear Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Hanna Sofia

    2009-12-01

    This paper aims to characterise Swedish democracy in connection with the disposal of Swedish nuclear waste. To this end, an analysis is performed to discern which democratic ideals that can be found within the nuclear waste issue. The study analyses various actors' views on democracy and expertise as well as their definitions of the nuclear waste issue, and discusses this from the perspective of democracy theory. Which definitions that become influential has democratic implications. In addition, various actors' possible attempts to help or hinder other actors from gaining influence over the nuclear waste issue in the four municipalities are studied. In connection with the case studies the aim of the paper can be narrowed to comprise the following questions: Which democratic ideals can be found within SKB's siting process during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process during the site investigations? Which democratic ideals were influential during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process?

  3. Democracy in understanding of the Orthodox church.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorios M. Liantas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of this paper is the notion of “democracy” in understanding and practice of the Ortho-dox Church. Beginning with genesis of the term and its application in ancient Greece author of the paper presents similarities and differences between concepts of “democracy” and “conciliarity”. “Democracy” is a form of government in which people are the source of political authority which is executed by elected representatives and rules on behalf of a nation. However, organization of the Orthodox Church is not “democratic” in common understanding of the term. Every member of the Church has the same duties and carries on the same mission, but everything is based on equality of the Apostles to whom Christ has entrusted spreading of the Gospel and establishment of the Church. “Democracy” in life of the Orthodox Church bears a name of “conciliarity” (greek „συνοδικότης” and it is lived in an unceasing community of all the Church members among themselves and their Divine Head mainly in the Mystery of Eucharist, the core of unity of the Church in Christ. Institution of conciliarity is not just a matter of Church administration or canon law but constitutes fundamental principle of ecclesiology. The fact of presence of the Holy Spirit and the Holy Trinity at each Council provides conciliarity with charismatic character. Organization of the Orthodox Church as ob-served in monastic community of Mount Athos, the world most ancient existing democracy, is set as an example for all social-political systems aiming to improve organization of society.

  4. Reclaiming the American Dream. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Community and technical colleges are known as "Democracy's colleges." They are grounded in the core American value that all people deserve the opportunity to move up in the world, regardless of where they are from, what obstacles they face and where they need to start. At a time when college education is the ticket to a middle-class…

  5. Direct and Representative Democracy - Supplementing, not Excluding Each Other

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Palle

    2007-01-01

    : and (4) more transparency and enlightened understanding versus less confidentiality. The arguments are discussed in relation to general political goals of good government such as legitimacy, efficiency and stability. The basic thesis of the paper is that direct and representative forms of democracy...... are not exclusive. Much of the disagreement among those in favour of and in opposition to the introduction of more elements of direct democracy is caused by arguments that could be tested empirically and on more or less implicit assumptions about an either-or rather than a more-or-less of these forms of government...

  6. [Sociology of health, social ecology and media democracy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Máté

    2012-05-27

    The correlation of the sociology of health, social ecology and media democracy is demonstrated in the study. In societies of today, the role of the media is unquestionable in disseminating information relating to health and the environment. According to Paragraph (1) of Article XXI of the Hungarian Constitution of 2011, everyone has the right to a healthy environment. An environmentalist media democracy may forward environmental justice, environmental education, and environmentalist economy, etc. All these are required in order to establish a society where the healthy environment is an objective value.

  7. A radical proposal for direct democracy in large societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOHN ASIMAKOPOULOS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT It is argued direct democracy is attainable but only in ways that connect to the experiences of daily life. By modifying existing institutions of governance it is pragmatically possible to achieve a society resembling distant utopias. One proposal is based on the argument that all electoral systems are inherently fraudulent under any regime. Rather, direct democracy alone can provide substantive equality. Therefore it is suggested legislative and judicial branches be filled by lottery while leaving the demos as the executive through internet voting modeled on the principle of state propositions.

  8. The Global Crisis and the Assault on Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juego, Bonn; Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper argues that the current global capitalist crisis entails an assault on democracy. Since crisis connotes danger and opportunity, the recent crisis appears to be a danger to democracy but an opportunity to its antithetical ideals. At the international level, multilateral institutions have...... seized the moment to reaffirm the perpetuation of the discursive and structural hegemony of neoliberalism. In East and Southeast Asia, states and regional organisations have revived arguments for the institutional justification of authoritarian liberalism in the region. And in the US and Europe, attempts...

  9. Aggregate Democracyand Deliberative Democracy: An Inevitable Practical Circle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Marey

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper sets forth programmatically a series of conditions necessary for a deliberative theory of democracy to be able to account for the normative value of the two fundamental principles of democracy: human rights and popular sovereignty. The starting point is the question of whether aggregate conceptions are capable ofdesigning collective decision-making procedures in which those two principles are mutually entailed. The article emphasizes the importance for democratic procedures to include a reciprocal justification requirement that cannot be fully satisfied by aggregate or agonistic conceptions.

  10. Strong Presidents, Robust Democracies? Separation of Powers and Rule of Law in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Melo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The received wisdom on Latin America in the 1980s and 1990s was that countries where presidents enjoyed strong constitutional powers and where multiparty coalitions prevailed would be doomed to instability and institutional crises, while countries boasting weak presidents and strong parties were expected to consolidate democratic rule. After almost two decades, it is now widely acknowledged that this prediction failed. Recent re-conceptualizations of presidentalism have partly corrected the flaws in the established diagnosis but left unexplained the role of checks and balances and of the rule of law in containing presidential abuse and guaranteeing governability. The paper argues that the key to solving the paradox of strong presidents and robust democracies is that democratic stability in Latin American countries is a function of an extended system of checks and balances. These are ultimately generated by power fragmentation at the time of the constitutional choices over their institutional design and political competition sustaining their effective functioning.

  11. Democracy as a meaning. Regional participatory forums of public consultation in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Humberto Guzmán

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study of part of the dispute process around the Audiovisual Communication Services law in the argentine public space during the year 2009. Specifically, it shows how the signification of democracy was configured in the Regional Participatory Forums of Public Consultation (FPCP organized by the Federal Broadcasting Committee (COMFER which were held during 2009 as a previous stage to the presentation of the Audiovisual Communication Services Bill. Thus, from the analysis of the interventions in the FPCP, the paper presents the emergence of democracy as democratic gradualness configured in three analytical dimensions: what democracy is not, democracy as plurality, and democracy as participation.

  12. The Reporter's Privilege under Fire: Is the American Press Still Free?

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    The First Amendment's guarantee of an independent press that may freely collect and disseminate news is often considered the bedrock of American democracy. Yet more than a century and a half after the "New York Herald's" John Nugent became the first American reporter jailed for refusing to identify a confidential source, reporters…

  13. "Oh, Say Can You See?" Visualizing American Symbols in the Fifth Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugar, Kristy A.; Dickman, Andrew H.

    2013-01-01

    Symbols have always had an important role in shaping our identity as a nation. The American flag, the Statue of Liberty, the White House, and the bald eagle all help to convey American values such as liberty, freedom, democracy, and independence. But how do elementary students understand these symbols and the values behind them? In this article,…

  14. The Ideology of the American Dream: Two Competing Philosophies in Education, 1776-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    This article puts forth 2 competing notions of the American Dream, 1 radical and 1 conservative (both put forth by Thomas Jefferson), as the basis for 2 competing public philosophies of American democracy and education. This article traces out the ecology of inequality that has determined the context of these 2 competing public philosophies,…

  15. Taxation and the American Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Passant

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the interrelationship between revolution and tax in the context of the American Revolution. It examines the role of ordinary people in demanding, among other things, as part of wider demands for democracy and equality, no taxation without representation. The article aims to reintroduce the neglected notions of class and class struggle into current discussions and debates about tax and history, putting the people back into academic narratives about the history of taxation and to their place as political actors on history’s stage.

  16. eBay's Business Format: An example of Participatory Democracy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eBay's Business Format: An example of Participatory Democracy? ... on it 'not being the traditional auctioneer' hold in light of its business model and the ... from the larger cloud of crimes which can be perpetrated by such a business model.

  17. Higher Education and Habits of the Heart: Restoring Democracy's Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Parker J.

    2011-01-01

    In 1831, a young French intellectual named Alexis de Tocqueville visited the United States. Less than a year later, he returned home to begin writing "Democracy in America," a two-volume book that is arguably the best ever written on its subject. It is quite remarkable that Tocqueville's book has proven to be so prophetic and enduring:…

  18. Millennial Democracy and Spectral Reality in Post-colonial Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One could not pertinently speak about the recent experience of multi-partyism in Africa without acknowledging the 'teleological meta-narratives' of democracy. That is, a system of knowledge and a series of discourses, theories and ideologies that were constructed around the very idea of political liberalization, and that ...

  19. Law, Democracy & Development - Vol 12, No 2 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Constitutional state in the developing world in the age of globalisation: from limited government to minimum democracy · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. NL Mahao, 1-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ldd.v12i2.52890 ...

  20. E-democracy a group decision and negotiation perspective

    CERN Document Server

    French, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Web-based interactions to support participation and deliberative democracy, called e-participation and e-democracy, are coming and coming fast. In some instances, the Internet is already permeating politics. However, it is far from clear if the processes involved in these interactions are meaningful and valid, and most of the research in the field has focused largely on the technologies to facilitate or automate the standard democratic instruments involved, such as e-voting or e-debating. This book, though, uses the point of view of the Group Decision and Negotiation approach to thoroughly discuss how web-based decision support tools can be used for public policy decision making. e-Democracy is structured into five main parts. The first part places democracy in context and reviews participatory instruments already in use in the physical world. The second part reviews methodologies that may be used to support groups in public policy decision making with a view on discussing how they may be used in the virtual ...

  1. Ethnic Federalism, Fiscal reform, Development and Democracy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethnic Federalism, Fiscal reform, Development and Democracy in Ethiopia. Edmond J. Keller. Abstract. (Af. J. Political Science: 2001 7(1): 21-50). Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajps.v7i1.27323 · AJOL African Journals Online.

  2. Classifying and explaining democracy in the Muslim world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohaizan Baharuddin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to classify and explain democracies in the 47 Muslim countries between the years 1998 and 2008 by using liberties and elections as independent variables. Specifically focusing on the context of the Muslim world, this study examines the performance of civil liberties and elections, variation of democracy practised the most, the elections, civil liberties and democratic transitions and patterns that followed. Based on the quantitative data primarily collected from Freedom House, this study demonstrates the following aggregate findings: first, the “not free not fair” elections, the “limited” civil liberties and the “Illiberal Partial Democracy” were the dominant feature of elections, civil liberties and democracy practised in the Muslim world; second, a total of 413 Muslim regimes out of 470 (47 regimes x 10 years remained the same as their democratic origin points, without any transitions to a better or worse level of democracy, throughout these 10 years; and third, a slow, yet steady positive transition of both elections and civil liberties occurred in the Muslim world with changes in the nature of elections becoming much more progressive compared to the civil liberties’ transitions.

  3. Collaborative Learning: Preparation for the Workplace and Democracy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Mary

    1990-01-01

    Although collaborative learning has many advantages for today's students, it is not a panacea. The profession needs to examine its collaborative classrooms, teaching methods, and evaluation for unspoken rules and hidden control. Collaboration prepares students in the latest techniques of capitalism, not democracy. (MSE)

  4. Critical Thinking: Foundational for Digital Literacies and Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainer, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    This column addresses the importance of developing critical thinking to meet the demands of 21st-century literacies and participatory democracy. The author argues for a critical approach to digital literacies that explores the sociological nature of literacy practices. Students examine examples of new literacies and analyze how ideologies are…

  5. Examining citizen participation: local participatory policymaking and democracy revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, A.M.B.; de Graaf, Laurens

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses developments in citizen participation and its contribution to democracy since the publication of the original article. It evaluates the continued relevance of the use of a normative framework to assess different forms of citizen participation, nuances some of the conclusions

  6. Participatory Publics - Examples from Higher Education in Fragile Democracies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zander, Pär-Ola

    This paper presents two cases of local communities, defined by being constituted by students in higher education in polities that have a relatively short tradition of democracy. The first case is a college in Bhutan. The second example is a Madrasa in Bangladesh, a privately run institution...

  7. Examining Citizen Participation : Local participatory Policymaking and Democracy revisted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ank Michels; Laurens de Graaf

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses developments in citizen participation and its contribution to democracy since the publication of the original article. It evaluates the continued relevance of the use of a normative framework to assess different forms of citizen participation, nuances some of the conclusions

  8. Citizen participation in local policy making: design and democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, A.M.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11124501X

    2012-01-01

    Embedding democratic innovations that increase and deepen citizen participation in decision making has become a common policy of local governments in many countries. This article focuses on the role of the design of these innovations and seeks to establish the effects of their design on democracy.

  9. Education for Participatory Democracy: A Grade R Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linington, Vivien; Excell, Lorayne; Murris, Karin

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a form of Grade R pedagogy in South African schools that addresses both the diverse realities of South Africa's children and the principles underpinning a participatory democracy. The community of enquiry pedagogy we propose is based on a socio-cultural historical theoretical perspective and focuses on the nurturing of a…

  10. Nonviolent Action as a Necessary Component in Educating for Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    Educating for democracy, seen within a liberal democratic framework, requires that students develop the requisite knowledge and skills to recognize injustice and work effectively to oppose it. Stitzlein's notion of dissent is examined in conjunction with Kahne and Westheimer's argument for teaching democratic capacities by actively…

  11. Social Justice in Music Education: The Problematic of Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    While social justice concerns of feminist research in music education have been mostly ignored or rejected by the profession, democracy based on paternalist Enlightenment concepts of humanism and liberalism is generally understood and accepted with little or no consideration of its social and economic implications. More nuanced accounts refer to…

  12. "Socializing Democracy": The Community Literacy Pedagogy of Jane Addams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, Rachael

    2014-01-01

    This article reclaims Jane Addams as a community literacy pedagogue and explicates her pedagogical theory through an analysis of her social thought. Addams' goal of "socializing democracy" through education led her to both encourage immigrant students to associate across difference and to assimilate into dominant literacies--tensions…

  13. A Failed Initiative: Democracy Has Spoken--Or Has It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Carolyn M.

    2007-01-01

    This case is developed for use in classes in which key ideas related to democracy, accountability, inclusion, finances, and social justice are introduced. It could be useful in a course on school reform or on democratic leadership. Although the case is fictional, it is a composite in which all events and information provided are "real." The intent…

  14. Leaders, Leadership and Democracy--Are They Compatible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schostak, John

    2016-01-01

    This article is taken from a talk given by John Schostak at the Co-Operative Head Office, Manchester on 25 September 2015. Question addressed in this paper include: (1) To what extent is leadership needed for a democratic life?; (2) What form of democratic organisation, if any, is compatible with leadership?; and (3) Is democracy undermined by…

  15. Evaluation Responsibility and Leadership in the Face of Failing Democracies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKegg, Kate

    2013-01-01

    In a world faced with unprecedented rising levels of inequality and injustice, is there a responsibility for our evaluation organizations to take on a leadership role in promoting inclusive, evaluative dialog and deliberation about the state of our democracies in relation to key democratic principles and ideals? In this forum, I question whether…

  16. 392 Domesticating Representative Democracy: Re-Inventing the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-07-21

    Jul 21, 2011 ... It is also important for us to note that the democracy in question, as it reflects in the ... interest groups in order to try to influence the actions of parties ... office, politicians act like entrepreneurs and brokers, .... The communitarians, for instance, believe that a social conception of human .... unity and identity.

  17. John Dewey's Democracy and Education: A British Tribute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Steve, Ed.; Coffield, Frank, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    In 1916 John Dewey published "Democracy and Education: An introduction to the philosophy of education". In this book some of today's foremost historians, philosophers, psychologists, and sociologists of education mark the anniversary of Dewey's work by reviewing and reflecting, from a British perspective, on Dewey's contribution to our…

  18. Dewey, "Democracy and Education," and the School Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Neil

    2018-01-01

    This paper will investigate Dewey's "Democracy and Education" in relation to the curriculum. There are two overarching themes to the paper: the concept of the democratic curriculum and the academic/vocational divide. Dewey is seen as a pivotal thinker in relation to collaborative learning and the child as a vital voice in any learning…

  19. Preparing the Next Generation of Educators for Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embry-Jenlink, Karen

    2018-01-01

    In the keynote address of the 42nd annual meeting of the Southeastern Regional Educators Association (SRATE), ATE President Karen Embry-Jenlink examines the critical role of teacher educators in preparing the next generation of citizens and leaders to sustain democracy. Drawing from historic and current events and personal experience,…

  20. Supersurveillance, Democracy, and Co-Operation--The Challenge for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schostak, John

    2014-01-01

    The paper explores pedagogies of surveillance and counter pedagogies of radical democracy and co-operative practice and their implications for continuing professional development (CPD). Teachers have had to respond to an increasing naturalisation of surveillance in schools. However, this naturalisation can be countered by drawing upon the emergent…